Sample records for oxygen trim control

  1. Flow Metering and Oxygen Trim Control Reduce Dairy Steam Plant Fuel Costs

    E-print Network

    Foster, E. L.; Nelson, R. L.

    milk. Actual reductions in fuel costs of $1,000 to $1,500 per week were achieved by the addition of flue gas oxygen trim control and by altering the plant production schedule so that process steam demands were met by the largest boiler operating near...

  2. 14 CFR 29.161 - Trim control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...161 Trim control. The trim control— (a) Must trim any steady...longitudinal, lateral, and collective control forces to zero in level flight at any...undesirable discontinuities in control force gradients. [Doc. No....

  3. 14 CFR 27.161 - Trim control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...161 Trim control. The trim control— (a) Must trim any steady...longitudinal, lateral, and collective control forces to zero in level flight at any...undesirable discontinuities in control force gradients. [Doc. No....

  4. 14 CFR 29.161 - Trim control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...161 Trim control. The trim control— (a) Must trim any steady...longitudinal, lateral, and collective control forces to zero in level flight at any...undesirable discontinuities in control force gradients. [Doc. No....

  5. 14 CFR 27.161 - Trim control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...161 Trim control. The trim control— (a) Must trim any steady...longitudinal, lateral, and collective control forces to zero in level flight at any...undesirable discontinuities in control force gradients. [Doc. No....

  6. 14 CFR 27.161 - Trim control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...161 Trim control. The trim control— (a) Must trim any steady...longitudinal, lateral, and collective control forces to zero in level flight at any...undesirable discontinuities in control force gradients. [Doc. No....

  7. 14 CFR 29.161 - Trim control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...161 Trim control. The trim control— (a) Must trim any steady...longitudinal, lateral, and collective control forces to zero in level flight at any...undesirable discontinuities in control force gradients. [Doc. No....

  8. 14 CFR 27.161 - Trim control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...161 Trim control. The trim control— (a) Must trim any steady...longitudinal, lateral, and collective control forces to zero in level flight at any...undesirable discontinuities in control force gradients. [Doc. No....

  9. 14 CFR 29.161 - Trim control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...161 Trim control. The trim control— (a) Must trim any steady...longitudinal, lateral, and collective control forces to zero in level flight at any...undesirable discontinuities in control force gradients. [Doc. No....

  10. 14 CFR 29.161 - Trim control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...161 Trim control. The trim control— (a) Must trim any steady...longitudinal, lateral, and collective control forces to zero in level flight at any...undesirable discontinuities in control force gradients. [Doc. No....

  11. 14 CFR 27.161 - Trim control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...161 Trim control. The trim control— (a) Must trim any steady...longitudinal, lateral, and collective control forces to zero in level flight at any...undesirable discontinuities in control force gradients. [Doc. No....

  12. Moving mass trim control system design

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, R.H.; Robinett, R.D.; Sturgis, B.R.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes the design of a moving mass trim control system for maneuvering axisymmetric reentry vehicles. The moving mass trim controller is composed of three equal masses that are independently positioned in order to deliver a desired center of mass position. For a slowly spinning reentry vehicle, the mass offset creates a trim angle-of-attack to generate modest flight path corrections. The control system must maintain the desired position of each mass in the face of large disturbances. A novel algorithm for determining the desired mass positions is developed in conjunction with a preliminary controller design. The controller design is based on classical frequency domain techniques where a bound on the disturbance magnitude is used to formulate the disturbance rejection problem. Simulation results for the controller are presented for a typical reentry vehicle.

  13. A closed-form trim solution yielding minimum trim drag for airplanes with multiple longitudinal-control effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Sliwa, Steven M.; Lallman, Frederick J.

    1989-01-01

    Airplane designs are currently being proposed with a multitude of lifting and control devices. Because of the redundancy in ways to generate moments and forces, there are a variety of strategies for trimming each airplane. A linear optimum trim solution (LOTS) is derived using a Lagrange formulation. LOTS enables the rapid calculation of the longitudinal load distribution resulting in the minimum trim drag in level, steady-state flight for airplanes with a mixture of three or more aerodynamic surfaces and propulsive control effectors. Comparisons of the trim drags obtained using LOTS, a direct constrained optimization method, and several ad hoc methods are presented for vortex-lattice representations of a three-surface airplane and two-surface airplane with thrust vectoring. These comparisons show that LOTS accurately predicts the results obtained from the nonlinear optimization and that the optimum methods result in trim drag reductions of up to 80 percent compared to the ad hoc methods.

  14. Airplane automatic control force trimming device for asymmetric engine failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric C. (inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The difference in dynamic pressure in the propeller slipstreams as measured by sensors is divided by the freestream dynamic pressure generating a quantity proportional to the differential thrust coefficient. This quantity is used to command an electric trim motor to change the position of trim tab thereby retrimming the airplane to the new asymmetric power condition. The change in position of the trim tab produced by the electric trim motor is summed with the pilot's input to produce the actual trim tab position.

  15. The E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 regulates myoblast proliferation by controlling turnover of NDRG2.

    PubMed

    Mokhonova, Ekaterina I; Avliyakulov, Nuraly K; Kramerova, Irina; Kudryashova, Elena; Haykinson, Michael J; Spencer, Melissa J

    2015-05-15

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2H is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the E3 ubiquitin ligase, TRIM32. Previously, we generated and characterized a Trim32 knockout mouse (T32KO) that displays both neurogenic and myopathic features. The myopathy in these mice is attributable to impaired muscle growth, associated with satellite cell senescence and premature sarcopenia. This satellite cell senescence is due to accumulation of the SUMO ligase PIASy, a substrate of TRIM32. The goal of this investigation was to identify additional substrates of TRIM32 using 2D fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) in order to further explore its role in skeletal muscle. Because TRIM32 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase, we reasoned that TRIM32's substrates would accumulate in its absence. 2D-DIGE identified 19 proteins that accumulate in muscles from the T32KO mouse. We focused on two of these proteins, NDRG2 and TRIM72, due to their putative roles in myoblast proliferation and myogenesis. Follow-up analysis confirmed that both proteins were ubiquitinated by TRIM32 in vitro; however, only NDRG2 accumulated in skeletal muscle and myoblasts in the absence of TRIM32. NDRG2 overexpression in myoblasts led to reduced cell proliferation and delayed cell cycle withdrawal during differentiation. Thus, we identified NDRG2 as a novel target for TRIM32; these findings further corroborate the hypothesis that TRIM32 is involved in control of myogenic cells proliferation and differentiation. PMID:25701873

  16. Linear optimum trim solution for aircraft with three longitudinal control effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Sliwa, Steven M.

    1987-01-01

    A simple and fast linear optimum method for trimming aircraft with a combination of three longitudinal aerodynamic or propulsive control effectors is developed, with application to preliminary design or in-flight scheduling. A Lagrangian formulation is used to determine the longitudinal load distribution which minimizes trim drag. Trim drag results obtained with the linear optimum method are similar to those obtained with a nonlinear optimum method, and significant trim drag reductions are found using either optimum method, in comparison with results obtained using various ad hoc methods.

  17. TRIM5? Modulates Immunodeficiency Virus Control in Rhesus Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Lim, So-Yon; Rogers, Thomas; Chan, Tiffany; Whitney, James B.; Kim, Jonghwa; Sodroski, Joseph; Letvin, Norman L.

    2010-01-01

    The cytoplasmic TRIM5? proteins of certain mammalian lineages efficiently recognize the incoming capsids of particular retroviruses and potently restrict infection in a species-specific manner. Successful retroviruses have evolved capsids that are less efficiently recognized by the TRIM5? proteins of the natural hosts. To address whether TRIM5? contributes to the outcome of retroviral infection in a susceptible host species, we investigated the impact of TRIM5 polymorphisms in rhesus monkeys on the course of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. Full-length TRIM5? cDNAs were derived from each of 79 outbred monkeys and sequenced. Associations were explored between the expression of particular TRIM5 alleles and both the permissiveness of cells to SIV infection in vitro and clinical sequelae of SIV infection in vivo. Natural variation in the TRIM5? B30.2(SPRY) domain influenced the efficiency of SIVmac capsid binding and the in vitro susceptibility of cells from the monkeys to SIVmac infection. We also show the importance in vivo of the interaction of SIVmac with different allelic forms of TRIM5, demonstrating that particular alleles are associated with as much as 1.3 median log difference in set-point viral loads in SIVmac-infected rhesus monkeys. Moreover, these allelic forms of TRIM5 were associated with the extent of loss of central memory (CM) CD4+ T cells and the rate of progression to AIDS in the infected monkeys. These findings demonstrate a central role for TRIM5? in limiting the replication of an immunodeficiency virus infection in a primate host. PMID:20107597

  18. Oxygen control with microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Martin D; Rexius-Hall, Megan L; Elgass, Laura Jane; Eddington, David T

    2014-11-21

    Cellular function and behavior are affected by the partial pressure of O2, or oxygen tension, in the microenvironment. The level of oxygenation is important, as it is a balance of oxygen availability and oxygen consumption that is necessary to maintain normoxia. Changes in oxygen tension, from above physiological oxygen tension (hyperoxia) to below physiological levels (hypoxia) or even complete absence of oxygen (anoxia), trigger potent biological responses. For instance, hypoxia has been shown to support the maintenance and promote proliferation of regenerative stem and progenitor cells. Paradoxically, hypoxia also contributes to the development of pathological conditions including systemic inflammatory response, tumorigenesis, and cardiovascular disease, such as ischemic heart disease and pulmonary hypertension. Current methods to study cellular behavior in low levels of oxygen tension include hypoxia workstations and hypoxia chambers. These culture systems do not provide oxygen gradients that are found in vivo or precise control at the microscale. Microfluidic platforms have been developed to overcome the inherent limits of these current methods, including lack of spatial control, slow equilibration, and unachievable or difficult coupling to live-cell microscopy. The various applications made possible by microfluidic systems are the topic of this review. In order to understand how the microscale can be leveraged for oxygen control of cells and tissues within microfluidic systems, some background understanding of diffusion, solubility, and transport at the microscale will be presented in addition to a discussion on the methods for measuring the oxygen tension in microfluidic channels. Finally the various methods for oxygen control within microfluidic platforms will be discussed including devices that rely on diffusion from liquid or gas, utilizing on-or-off-chip mixers, leveraging cellular oxygen uptake to deplete the oxygen, relying on chemical reactions in channels to generate oxygen gradients in a device, and electrolytic reactions to produce oxygen directly on chip. PMID:25251498

  19. Automatic channel trimming for control systems: A concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandervoort, R. J.; Sykes, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    Set of bias signals added to channel inputs automatically normalize differences between channels. Algorithm and second feedback loop compute trim biases. Concept could be applied to regulators and multichannel servosystems for remote manipulators in undersea mining.

  20. Interplay of TRIM28 and DNA methylation in controlling human endogenous retroelements

    PubMed Central

    Turelli, Priscilla; Castro-Diaz, Nathaly; Marzetta, Flavia; Kapopoulou, Adamandia; Raclot, Charlène; Duc, Julien; Tieng, Vannary; Quenneville, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Reverse transcription-derived sequences account for at least half of the human genome. Although these retroelements are formidable motors of evolution, they can occasionally cause disease, and accordingly are inactivated during early embryogenesis through epigenetic mechanisms. In the mouse, at least for endogenous retroviruses, important mediators of this process are the tetrapod-specific KRAB-containing zinc finger proteins (KRAB-ZFPs) and their cofactor TRIM28. The present study demonstrates that KRAB/TRIM28-mediated regulation is responsible for controlling a very broad range of human-specific endogenous retroelements (EREs) in human embryonic stem (ES) cells and that it exerts, as a consequence, a marked effect on the transcriptional dynamics of these cells. It further reveals reciprocal dependence between TRIM28 recruitment at specific families of EREs and DNA methylation. It finally points to the importance of persistent TRIM28-mediated control of ERE transcriptional impact beyond their presumed inactivation by DNA methylation. PMID:24879559

  1. Flight Investigation of the Effectiveness of an Automatic Aileron Trim Control Device for Personal Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, William H; Kuehnel, Helmut A; Whitten, James B

    1957-01-01

    A flight investigation to determine the effectiveness of an automatic aileron trim control device installed in a personal airplane to augment the apparent spiral stability has been conducted. The device utilizes a rate-gyro sensing element in order to switch an on-off type of control that operates the ailerons at a fixed rate through control centering springs. An analytical study using phase-plane and analog-computer methods has been carried out to determine a desirable method of operation for the automatic trim control.

  2. Neural dynamic programming based online controller with a novel trim approach

    E-print Network

    Simões, Marcelo Godoy

    .G. Simoes Abstract: Neural dynamic programming (NDP) is a generic online learning control system basedNeural dynamic programming based online controller with a novel trim approach S. Chakraborty and M) neural network structures have evolved from a combination of reinforcement learning, dynamic programming

  3. 14 CFR 25.677 - Trim systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 25.677 Trim...for takeoff. (c) Trim control systems must be designed to prevent creeping in flight. Trim tab controls must be irreversible...

  4. Application of a Broadband Active Vibration Control System to a Helicopter Trim Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, Randolph H.; Schiller, Noah H.; Simon, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses testing of a broadband active vibration control concept on an interior trim panel in a helicopter cabin mockup located at ONERA's Centre de Toulouse. The control system consisted of twelve diamond-shaped piezoelectric actuators distributed around a 1.2m x 1.2m trim panel. Accelerometers were mounted at the four vertices of each diamond. The aspect ratio of the diamond was based on the dielectric constants of the piezoelectric material in order to create an actuator-sensor pair that was collocated over a broad frequency range. This allowed robust control to be implemented using simple, low power analog electronics. Initial testing on a thick acrylic window demonstrated the capability of the controller, but actuator performance was less satisfactory when mounted on a composite sandwich trim panel. This may have been due to the orthotropic nature of the trim panel, or due to its much higher stiffness relative to the acrylic window. Insights gained from a finite element study of the actuator-sensor-structural system are discussed.

  5. 14 CFR 23.677 - Trim systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...position approved for takeoff. (b) Trimming devices must be designed so that, when...single-engine airplanes, the longitudinal trimming devices; or (2) For multiengine airplanes, the longitudinal and directional trimming devices. (c) Tab controls...

  6. On-line determination and control of fat content in batches of beef trimmings by NIR imaging spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wold, J P; O'Farrell, M; Høy, M; Tschudi, J

    2011-11-01

    An NIR imaging scanner was calibrated for on-line determination of the fat content of beef trimmings. A good calibration model was obtained for fat in intact beef (R=0.98, RMSECV=3.0%). The developed model could be used on single pixels to get an image of the fat distribution, or on the average spectrum from each trimming/portion of trimmings passing under the scanner. The fat model gave a rather high prediction error (RMSEP=8.7%) and a correlation of 0.84 when applied to 45 single trimmings with average fat content ranging from 1.6 to 49.3% fat. Test measurements on streams of trimmings making up batches varying from 10 to 24 kg gave a much lower prediction error (RMSEP=1.33%). Simulations based on true measurements indicate that the RMSEP decreases with increasing batch size and, for the present case, reached about 0.6% for 100 kg batches. The NIR scanner was tested on six batches of intact trimmings varying from 145 to 210 kg and gave similar fat estimates as an established microwave system obtained on the ground batches. The proven concept should be applicable to on-line estimation of fat in trimmings in order to determine the batch fat content and also to control the production of batches to different target fat levels. A possible requirement for the concept to work properly is that the trimming or layer of trimmings on the belt is not too thick. In this study maximum thickness was about 8 cm. Thicker trimmings might be measured, but careful hardware adjustments are then required. PMID:21636219

  7. Application of Oxygen Trim Control to Small Packaged Boilers

    E-print Network

    Nelson, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    industrial boilers have. That situation is changing as energy deregulation brings gas prices into parity with oil. This paper describes a recent development brought on by these rising fuel costs and the technological break through of low cost microprocessor...

  8. Helicopter trimming and tracking control using direct neural dynamic programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell Enns; Jennie Si

    2003-01-01

    This paper advances a neural-network-based approximate dynamic programming control mechanism that can be applied to complex control problems such as helicopter flight control design. Based on direct neural dynamic programming (DNDP), an approximate dynamic programming methodology, the control system is tailored to learn to maneuver a helicopter. The paper consists of a comprehensive treatise of this DNDP-based tracking control framework

  9. EXPERIMENTAL TREE TRIMMING TO CONTROL AN URBAN WINTER BLACKBIRD ROOST

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heidi B. Good; Dan M. Johnson

    1976-01-01

    Every fall millions of blackbirds come down the Mississippi Flyway to return to their winter roosts in Arkansas, Louisiana, and East Texas. When these roosts are located in urban areas, public pressure makes the more common chemical means of control impractical. A less destructive and more permanent method of control was sought. At Rice University, in Houston, Texas, there has

  10. The TRIM-NHL Protein LIN-41 Controls the Onset of Developmental Plasticity in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Tocchini, Cristina; Finger, Susanne; Gut, Heinz; Stadler, Michael B.; Ciosk, Rafal

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms controlling cell fate determination and reprogramming are fundamental for development. A profound reprogramming, allowing the production of pluripotent cells in early embryos, takes place during the oocyte-to-embryo transition. To understand how the oocyte reprogramming potential is controlled, we sought Caenorhabditis elegans mutants in which embryonic transcription is initiated precociously in germ cells. This screen identified LIN-41, a TRIM-NHL protein and a component of the somatic heterochronic pathway, as a temporal regulator of pluripotency in the germline. We found that LIN-41 is expressed in the cytoplasm of developing oocytes, which, in lin-41 mutants, acquire pluripotent characteristics of embryonic cells and form teratomas. To understand LIN-41 function in the germline, we conducted structure-function studies. In contrast to other TRIM-NHL proteins, we found that LIN-41 is unlikely to function as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Similar to other TRIM-NHL proteins, the somatic function of LIN-41 is thought to involve mRNA regulation. Surprisingly, we found that mutations predicted to disrupt the association of LIN-41 with mRNA, which otherwise compromise LIN-41 function in the heterochronic pathway in the soma, have only minor effects in the germline. Similarly, LIN-41-mediated repression of a key somatic mRNA target is dispensable for the germline function. Thus, LIN-41 appears to function in the germline and the soma via different molecular mechanisms. These studies provide the first insight into the mechanism inhibiting the onset of embryonic differentiation in developing oocytes, which is required to ensure a successful transition between generations. PMID:25167051

  11. 14 CFR 25.407 - Trim tab effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.407 Trim tab...The effects of trim tabs on the control surface design conditions...deflections are— (a) For elevator trim tabs, those...

  12. 14 CFR 25.407 - Trim tab effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.407 Trim tab...The effects of trim tabs on the control surface design conditions...deflections are— (a) For elevator trim tabs, those...

  13. 14 CFR 25.407 - Trim tab effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.407 Trim tab...The effects of trim tabs on the control surface design conditions...deflections are— (a) For elevator trim tabs, those...

  14. 14 CFR 25.407 - Trim tab effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.407 Trim tab...The effects of trim tabs on the control surface design conditions...deflections are— (a) For elevator trim tabs, those...

  15. 14 CFR 25.407 - Trim tab effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.407 Trim tab...The effects of trim tabs on the control surface design conditions...deflections are— (a) For elevator trim tabs, those...

  16. Application of the concept of dynamic trim control to automatic landing of carrier aircraft. [utilizing digital feedforeward control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. A.; Meyer, G.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a simulation study of an alternative design concept for an automatic landing control system are presented. The alternative design concept for an automatic landing control system is described. The design concept is the total aircraft flight control system (TAFCOS). TAFCOS is an open loop, feed forward system that commands the proper instantaneous thrust, angle of attack, and roll angle to achieve the forces required to follow the desired trajector. These dynamic trim conditions are determined by an inversion of the aircraft nonlinear force characteristics. The concept was applied to an A-7E aircraft approaching an aircraft carrier. The implementation details with an airborne digital computer are discussed. The automatic carrier landing situation is described. The simulation results are presented for a carrier approach with atmospheric disturbances, an approach with no disturbances, and for tailwind and headwind gusts.

  17. Predictions of Control Inputs, Periodic Responses and Damping Levels of an Isolated Experimental Rotor in Trimmed Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaonkar, G. H.; Subramanian, S.

    1996-01-01

    Since the early 1990s the Aeroflightdynamics Directorate at the Ames Research Center has been conducting tests on isolated hingeless rotors in hover and forward flight. The primary objective is to generate a database on aeroelastic stability in trimmed flight for torsionally soft rotors at realistic tip speeds. The rotor test model has four soft inplane blades of NACA 0012 airfoil section with low torsional stiffness. The collective pitch and shaft tilt are set prior to each test run, and then the rotor is trimmed in the following sense: the longitudinal and lateral cyclic pitch controls are adjusted through a swashplate to minimize the 1/rev flapping moment at the 12 percent radial station. In hover, the database comprises lag regressive-mode damping with pitch variations. In forward flight the database comprises cyclic pitch controls, root flap moment and lag regressive-mode damping with advance ratio, shaft angle and pitch variations. This report presents the predictions and their correlation with the database. A modal analysis is used, in which nonrotating modes in flap bending, lag bending and torsion are computed from the measured blade mass and stiffness distributions. The airfoil aerodynamics is represented by the ONERA dynamic stall models of lift, drag and pitching moment, and the wake dynamics is represented by a state-space wake model. The trim analysis of finding, the cyclic controls and the corresponding, periodic responses is based on periodic shooting with damped Newton iteration; the Floquet transition matrix (FTM) comes out as a byproduct. The stabillty analysis of finding the frequencies and damping levels is based on the eigenvalue-eigenvector analysis of the FTM. All the structural and aerodynamic states are included from modeling to trim analysis. A major finding is that dynamic wake dramatically improves the correlation for the lateral cyclic pitch control. Overall, the correlation is fairly good.

  18. Control of cavity lifetime of 1.5 µm wafer-fused VCSELs by digital mirror trimming.

    PubMed

    Ellafi, Dalila; Iakovlev, Valdimir; Sirbu, Alexei; Suruceanu, Grigore; Mickovic, Zlatco; Caliman, Andrei; Mereuta, Alexandru; Kapon, Elyahou

    2014-12-29

    Digital chemical etching is used to trim the output mirror thickness of wafer-fused VCSELs emitting at a wavelength near 1.5µm. The fine control of the photon cavity lifetime thus achieved is employed to extract important device parameters and optimize the combination of the threshold current, output power, and direct current modulation characteristics. The fabrication process is compatible with industrial production and should help in improving device yield and in reducing manufacturing costs. PMID:25607182

  19. Influence of control parameters in VOCs evolution during MSW trimming residues composting.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Rodríguez, Margarita; Ruiz-Montoya, Mercedes; Giraldez, Inmaculada; López, Rafael; Madejón, Engracia; Díaz, Manuel Jesús

    2011-12-28

    The influence of control parameters (aeration, moisture, and C/N ratio) during composting of a municipal solid waste (MSW)-legume-trimming residue (LTR) mixture was studied at a pilot plant scale. Factors measured included the composition of the main volatile organic carbons (VOCs) emitted including limonene, ?-pinene, 2-butanone, undecane, phenol, toluene, and dimethyl disulfide. Polynomial models were found to reproduce the experimental results with errors at less than 10%. The relative influence of the independent variables on temperature and selected VOCs followed the order: aeration > moisture > C/N. A high aeration rate results in higher (strong negative effect) values on selected VOCs emissions (41-71% on emitted VOCs variation). Moisture had a positive and negative effect depending on the selected VOCs. A high C/N ratio caused lower production of VOCs except for undecane and 2-butanone. Providing an aerobic environment (0.05 Lair kg(-1) min(-1)), high C/N ratios (>50), and medium moisture (55%) minimize emitted VOCs during MSW composting, ultimately resulting in less odors in the surrounding environment. PMID:22060272

  20. Oxygen pressure control for electrolysis cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Duty cycle of switched, constant current circuit controlled by pressure sensor provides oxygen at a constant pressure from a cell which electrolyzes water, eliminating possibility of cell damage by excessive oxygen demand.

  1. Jefferson Lab's Trim Card II

    SciTech Connect

    Trent Allison; Sarin Philip; C. Higgins; Edward Martin; William Merz

    2005-05-01

    Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) uses Trim Card I power supplies to drive approximately 1900 correction magnets. These trim cards have had a long and illustrious service record. However, some of the employed technology is now obsolete, making it difficult to maintain the system and retain adequate spares. The Trim Card II is being developed to act as a transparent replacement for its aging predecessor. A modular approach has been taken in its development to facilitate the substitution of sections for future improvements and maintenance. The resulting design has been divided into a motherboard and 7 daughter cards which has also allowed for parallel development. The Trim Card II utilizes modern technologies such as a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and a microprocessor to embed trim card controls and diagnostics. These reprogrammable devices also provide the versatility to incorporate future requirements.

  2. May 30, 2012 9:56 WSPC -Proceedings Trim Size: 9in x 6in CLAWAR-2012-Full SWING LEG CONTROL FOR ACTUATED

    E-print Network

    Hurst, Jonathan

    May 30, 2012 9:56 WSPC - Proceedings Trim Size: 9in x 6in CLAWAR-2012-Full 536 SWING LEG CONTROL State University, Corvallis, Oregon, USA E-mail: hrvn@engr.orst.edu In this paper we present a control of this simple model in running5 explains how animals can run robustly and effi- ciently in real world. Schmitt

  3. Trim Trajectories Characterization for an Unmanned Autonomous Airship

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Salim Hima; Yasmina Bestaoui

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we propose an algorithm allowing the calculation of the trim trajectories for the airship. These trajectories are suitable for control, by linearizing the dynamic equations around the trim conditions, and hence simplifying significantly the controller synthesis. Another advantage related to trim trajectories consists in the simplification of the development of the aerodynamic parameters estimation algorithms. To ensure

  4. June 1, 2011 20:5 WSPC -Proceedings Trim Size: 9in x 6in paper CONTROLLING HUMAN-LIKE LOCOMOTION OF A

    E-print Network

    Berns, Karsten

    and the restrictions are still clearly existing.1 On the other hand, the control of human motions has been evolved://rrlab.cs.uni-kl.de Controlling biped robots in a human-like way is still in the air in robotics. Due to the existingJune 1, 2011 20:5 WSPC - Proceedings Trim Size: 9in x 6in paper 1 CONTROLLING HUMAN-LIKE LOCOMOTION

  5. 14 CFR 23.677 - Trim systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...indicate to the pilot the direction of trim control movement relative to airplane motion. In addition, there must be means...and must be located and designed to prevent confusion. The pitch trim indicator must be clearly marked with a position...

  6. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2004-04-01

    Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

  7. Pillar-Trimming System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Trimming and reinforcing of coal pillars allows more coal recovery. Conceptual coal-pillar trimming machine use two counterrotating cutting drums to take corners off roof support pillars in coal mines.

  8. Efficacy of trimming chilled beef during fabrication to control Escherichia coli O157:H7 surrogates on subsequent subprimals.

    PubMed

    Laster, B A; Harris, K B; Lucia, L M; Castillo, A; Savell, J W

    2012-02-01

    Effectiveness of trimming external carcass surfaces from subprimals during fabrication to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 surrogates was evaluated. Carcass sides (n = 10 sides) were inoculated along the hide pattern opening before entering the blast chill cooler with a gelatin slurry containing a bacterial cocktail of three rifampicin-resistant, nonpathogenic E. coli biotype I strains. Following a 48 h chill, sides were fabricated to produce eight subprimals. Microbiological samples were taken from the original carcass fat surface area, initial lean surface area, trimmed fat surface area (where applicable), and trimmed lean surface area (where applicable). Newly exposed lean surfaces had lower (P < 0.05) counts of rifampicin-resistant E. coli than did the external fat surfaces. However, fat and lean surfaces that were not inoculated became contaminated during the fabrication process. Trimming external surfaces reduced levels of pathogens, but under normal fabrication processes, pathogens were still spread to newly exposed surfaces. PMID:21955981

  9. Factors Controlling Oxygen Depletion in the Hypolimnion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    George Charles Rocoski

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine the factors controlling oxygen depletion in the water column (more specifically, the hypolimnion).\\u000aFive factors were hypothesized to be important:\\u000a1. Soluble organic carbon concentration\\u000a2. Temperature\\u000a3. Nutrient concentration\\u000a4. Initial oxygen concentration\\u000a5. Algal respiration\\u000aThese factors were related by a two-level Factorial Experimental Design. Two separate but related Designs

  10. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen; David R. Thompson

    2000-07-01

    Increased environmental regulations will require utility boilers to reduce NO{sub x} emissions to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu in the near term. Conventional technologies such as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) are unable to achieve these lowered emission levels without substantially higher costs and major operating problems. Oxygen enhanced combustion is a novel technology that allows utilities to meet the NO{sub x} emission requirements without the operational problems that occur with SCR and SNCR. Furthermore, oxygen enhanced combustion can achieve these NO{sub x} limits at costs lower than conventional technologies. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the use of oxygen enhanced combustion as a technical and economical method of meeting the EPA State Implementation Plan for NO{sub x} reduction to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu for a wide range of boilers and coal. The oxygen enhanced coal combustion program (Task 1) focused this quarter on the specific objective of exploration of the impact of oxygen enrichment on NO{sub x} formation utilizing small-scale combustors for parametric testing. Research efforts toward understanding any limitations to the applicability of the technology to different burners and fuels such as different types of coal are underway. The objective of the oxygen transport membrane (OTM) materials development program (Task 2.1) is to ascertain a suitable material composition that can be fabricated into dense tubes capable of producing the target oxygen flux under the operating conditions. This requires that the material have sufficient oxygen permeation resulting from high oxygen ion conductivity, high electronic conductivity and high oxygen surface exchange rate. The OTM element development program (Task 2.2) objective is to develop, fabricate and characterize OTM elements for laboratory and pilot reactors utilizing quality control parameters to ensure reproducibility and superior performance. A specific goal is to achieve a material that will sinter to desired density without compromising other variables such as reaction to binder systems or phase purity. Oxygen-enhanced combustion requires a facility which is capable of supplying high purity oxygen (>99.5%) at low costs. This goal can be achieved through the thermal integration of high temperature air separation with ceramic OTM. The objective of the OTM process development program (Task 2.3) is to demonstrate successfully the program objectives on a lab-scale single OTM tube reactor under process conditions comparable to those of an optimum large-scale oxygen facility. This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the first quarter April--June 2000 in the following task areas: Task 1 Oxygen Enhanced Coal Combustion; Task 2 Oxygen Transport Membranes; and Task 4 Program Management.

  11. Hedge Trimming and the Resurrection of the Controlled Vocabulary in Online Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sievert, MaryEllen; Boyce, Bert R.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the changing role of controlled vocabulary in the postcoordinate online search, particularly its current role in the formulation of online search strategies. Effects of controlled vocabulary searching on precision and recall and examples of concept "hedges" from the "Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors" are discussed. Nine references are…

  12. Thermal trim for luminaire

    DOEpatents

    Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Jeswani, Anil

    2013-11-19

    A luminaire with a thermal pathway to reduce the junction temperature of the luminaire's light source, and methods for so doing, are disclosed. The luminaire includes a can, a light engine, and a trim, that define a substantially continuous thermal pathway from the light engine to a surrounding environment. The can defines a can cavity and includes a can end region. The light engine is within the can cavity and includes a light source and a heat sink, including a heat sink end region, coupled thereto. The trim is at least partially disposed within the can cavity and includes a first trim end region coupled to the heat sink end region and a second trim end region coupled to the can end region. Thermal interface material may be located between: the heat sink and the trim, the trim and the can, and/or the heat sink and the light source.

  13. Control of mitochondrial and cellular respiration by oxygen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erich Gnaiger; Rosmarie Steinlechner-Maran; Gabriela Méndez; Thomas Eberl; Raimund Margreiter

    1995-01-01

    Control and regulation of mitochondrial and cellular respiration by oxygen is discussed with three aims: (1) A review of intracellular oxygen levels and gradients, particularly in heart, emphasizes the dominance of extracellular oxygen gradients. Intracellular oxygen pressure,\\u000a

  14. TRIM5? and Species Tropism of HIV/SIV

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Emi E.; Shioda, Tatsuo

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infects humans and chimpanzees but not old world monkeys (OWMs) such as the rhesus monkey (Rh) and cynomolgus monkey (CM). HIV-1 efficiently enters cells of OWMs but encounters a block before reverse transcription. This narrow host range is attributed to a barrier in the host cell. In 2004, the screening of a Rh cDNA library identified tripartite motif 5? (TRIM5?) as a cellular antiviral factor. TRIM5? is one of splicing variants produced by TRIM5 gene and TRIM5 proteins are members of the TRIM family containing RING, B-box 2, and coiled-coil domains. The RING domain is frequently found in E3 ubiquitin ligase and TRIM5? is degraded via the ubiquitin–proteasome-dependent pathway. Among TRIM5 splicing variants, TRIM5? alone has an additional C-terminal PRYSPRY (B30.2) domain. Previous studies have shown that sequence variation in variable regions of the PRYSPRY domain among different monkey species affects species-specific retrovirus infection, while amino acid sequence differences in the viral capsid protein determine viral sensitivity to restriction. TRIM5? recognizes the multimerized capsid proteins (viral core) of an incoming virus by its PRYSPRY domain and is thus believed to control retroviral infection. There are significant intraspecies variations in the Rh-TRIM5 gene. It has also been reported that some Rh and CM individuals have retrotransposed cyclophilin A open reading frame in the TRIM5 gene, which produces TRIM5–cyclophilin A fusion protein (TRIMCyp). TRIMCyp, which was originally identified as an anti-HIV-1 factor of New World owl monkeys, is an interesting example of the gain of a new function by retrotransposition. As different TRIM5 genotypes of Rh showed different levels of simian immunodeficiency virus replication in vivo, the TRIM5 genotyping is thought to be important in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome monkey models. PMID:22291694

  15. 114. WEST SIDE OF LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROL ROOM (205). LIQUID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    114. WEST SIDE OF LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROL ROOM (205). LIQUID NITROGEN (LN2) SUBCOOLER ON LEFT; SKID 8, LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROLLER FOR SWITCHING BETWEEN RAPID-LOAD AND TOPPING ON RIGHT. LIQUID OXYGEN LINE FROM SKID 9A AT RIGHT EDGE OF PHOTO. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. Evaluation of peroxyacetic acid as a potential pre-grinding treatment for control of enteric pathogens on fresh beef trim

    E-print Network

    Ellebracht, John Wayne

    2005-11-01

    his supervision will benefit me for many years to come. I extend a special appreciation to Dr. Gary Acuff, Dr. Alejandro Castillo, Lisa Lucia, Andy King, Bridget Baird, and Kyle Pfeiffer for their personal assistance with this research... the effectiveness of both hot water and lactic acid on beef carcasses surfaces. Additionally, Ellebracht, Castillo, Lucia, Miller and Acuff (1999) studied the use of lactic acid on fresh beef trim to reduce pathogens. However...

  17. Circuit-lead trimming template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ofarrell, K.; Winn, E.

    1979-01-01

    Template for use in trimming leads on production wiring boards is low-cost means for eliminating rejections for short leads and improving lead-strength uniformity. Template is simply unclad piece of printed-circuit board material that is drilled using same drill control tape used in making original production board. Revisions in component layout of board can therefore be made simultaneously in template.

  18. NCSX Trim Coil Design

    SciTech Connect

    M. Kalish, A. Brooks, J. Rushinski, R. Upcavage

    2009-05-29

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) was being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory before work was stopped in 2008. The objective of this experiment was to develop the stellarator concept and evaluate it's potential as a model for future fusion power plants. Stellarator design requires very precisely positioned Modular Coils of complex shape to form 3D plasmas. In the design of NCSX, Trim Coils were required to compensate for both the positioning of the coils during assembly and the fabrication tolerances of the Modular Coils. Use of the Trim Coils allowed for larger tolerances increasing ease of assembly and decreasing overall cost. A set of Trim coils was developed to suppress the toroidal flux in island regions due to misalignment, magnetic materials, and eddy currents. The requirement imposed upon the design forced the toroidal flux in island regions below 10% of the total toroidal flux in the plasma. An analysis was first performed to evaluate candidate Trim Coil configurations iterating both the size, number, and position of the coils. The design was optimized considering both performance and cost while staying within the tight restraints presented by the space limited geometry. The final design of the Trim Coils incorporated a 48 Coil top bottom symmetric set. Fabrication costs were minimized by having only two coil types and using a planar conventional design with off the shelf commercial conductor. The Trim Coil design incorporated supports made from simple structural shapes assembled together in a way which allowed for adjustment as well as accommodation for the tolerance build up on the mating surfaces. This paper will summarize the analysis that led to the optimization of the Trim Coils set, the trim coil mechanical design, thermal and stress analysis, and the design of the supporting Trim Coil structure.

  19. Oxygen-depleted zones inside reproductive structures of Brassicaceae: implications for oxygen control of seed development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porterfield, D. M.; Kuang, A.; Smith, P. J.; Crispi, M. L.; Musgrave, M. E.

    1999-01-01

    Growth of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. in decreasing oxygen partial pressures revealed a linear decrease in seed production below 15 kPa, with a complete absence of seed production at 2.5 kPa oxygen. This control of plant reproduction by oxygen had previously been attributed to an oxygen effect on the partitioning between vegetative and reproductive growth. However, plants grown in a series of decreasing oxygen concentrations produced progressively smaller embryos that had stopped developing at progressively younger stages, suggesting instead that their growth is limited by oxygen. Internal oxygen concentrations of buds, pistils, and developing siliques of Brassica rapa L. and siliques of Arabidopsis were measured using a small-diameter glass electrode that was moved into the structures using a micromanipulator. Oxygen partial pressures were found to be lowest in the developing perianth (11.1 kPa) and pistils (15.2 kPa) of the unopened buds. Pollination reduced oxygen concentration inside the pistils by 3 kPa after just 24 h. Inside Brassica silique locules, partial pressures of oxygen averaged 12.2 kPa in darkness, and increased linearly with increasing light levels to 16.2 kPa. Measurements inside Arabidopsis siliques averaged 6.1 kPa in the dark and rose to 12.2 kPa with light. Hypoxia in these microenvironments is postulated to be the point of control of plant reproduction by oxygen.

  20. Oxygen-depleted zones inside reproductive structures of Brassicaceae: implications for oxygen control of seed development.

    PubMed

    Porterfield, D M; Kuang, A; Smith, P J; Crispi, M L; Musgrave, M E

    1999-10-01

    Growth of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. in decreasing oxygen partial pressures revealed a linear decrease in seed production below 15 kPa, with a complete absence of seed production at 2.5 kPa oxygen. This control of plant reproduction by oxygen had previously been attributed to an oxygen effect on the partitioning between vegetative and reproductive growth. However, plants grown in a series of decreasing oxygen concentrations produced progressively smaller embryos that had stopped developing at progressively younger stages, suggesting instead that their growth is limited by oxygen. Internal oxygen concentrations of buds, pistils, and developing siliques of Brassica rapa L. and siliques of Arabidopsis were measured using a small-diameter glass electrode that was moved into the structures using a micromanipulator. Oxygen partial pressures were found to be lowest in the developing perianth (11.1 kPa) and pistils (15.2 kPa) of the unopened buds. Pollination reduced oxygen concentration inside the pistils by 3 kPa after just 24 h. Inside Brassica silique locules, partial pressures of oxygen averaged 12.2 kPa in darkness, and increased linearly with increasing light levels to 16.2 kPa. Measurements inside Arabidopsis siliques averaged 6.1 kPa in the dark and rose to 12.2 kPa with light. Hypoxia in these microenvironments is postulated to be the point of control of plant reproduction by oxygen. PMID:11542918

  1. Trimming Your Baby's Nails

    MedlinePLUS

    ... as once or twice a week. Some newborns need their nails to be trimmed even more often than that during the first few weeks of ... ON THIS TOPIC Sleep and Newborns Learning, Play, and Your Newborn Bonding ...

  2. Trimming a rabbit's nails.

    PubMed

    Cotter, Mary E

    2008-03-01

    This column presents a step-by-step procedure for trimming a rabbit's nails. The technique requires only one person, who uses the rabbit's feedback to determine where to cut the nail, minimizing stress in the animal. PMID:18292772

  3. 14 CFR 25.161 - Trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...and directional trim. The airplane must maintain lateral...Longitudinal trim. The airplane must maintain longitudinal trim...landing gear extended, the wing flaps (i) retracted and...and lateral trim. The airplane must maintain...

  4. 14 CFR 25.161 - Trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...and directional trim. The airplane must maintain lateral...Longitudinal trim. The airplane must maintain longitudinal trim...landing gear extended, the wing flaps (i) retracted and...and lateral trim. The airplane must maintain...

  5. 14 CFR 25.161 - Trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...and directional trim. The airplane must maintain lateral...Longitudinal trim. The airplane must maintain longitudinal trim...landing gear extended, the wing flaps (i) retracted and...and lateral trim. The airplane must maintain...

  6. 14 CFR 25.161 - Trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...and directional trim. The airplane must maintain lateral...Longitudinal trim. The airplane must maintain longitudinal trim...landing gear extended, the wing flaps (i) retracted and...and lateral trim. The airplane must maintain...

  7. 14 CFR 25.161 - Trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...and directional trim. The airplane must maintain lateral...Longitudinal trim. The airplane must maintain longitudinal trim...landing gear extended, the wing flaps (i) retracted and...and lateral trim. The airplane must maintain...

  8. Cycle time control of an onboard oxygen generation system.

    PubMed

    Beaman, J J; Wang, S Y; Masada, G Y

    1987-12-01

    The outlet oxygen concentration of an onboard oxygen generation system (OBOGS) is controlled in this study by varying the cycle time of a pressure swing adsorption process. The control of the oxygen concentration is highly desirable since both high and low concentrations of oxygen can cause physiological problems. This cycle time control method can be easily implemented using a DC motor and a simple electronic controller. The physiological requirements recommended for high-performance tactical aircraft can be met by this method with either an open-loop or closed-loop configuration. The open-loop configuration requires the measurement of crew breathing flowrate and cabin pressure. The closed-loop configuration requires an additional measurement of oxygen concentration, but it has the advantage of being more adaptive to system variability during setup and operation. The method in either configuration requires very little adjustment and setup time in order to meet the specifications. PMID:3426498

  9. Identification of anisoelasticity for electrostatic " trimming " of rate integrating gyroscopes

    E-print Network

    Tang, William C

    Identification of anisoelasticity for electrostatic " trimming " of rate integrating gyroscopes of anisoelasticities in rate integrating gyroscopes as part of a self- calibrative control architecture. In contrast imperfections is discussed. Keywords: Anisoelasticity, Rate Integrating Gyroscopes, Feedforward Control, Smart

  10. Compensation of the AKT signaling by ERK signaling in transgenic mice hearts overexpressing TRIM72

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, Young-Mi, E-mail: youngmi_ham@hms.harvard.edu [College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Mahoney, Sarah Jane [Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2013-06-10

    The AKT and ERK signaling pathways are known to be involved in cell hypertrophy, proliferation, survival and differentiation. Although there is evidence for crosstalk between these two signaling pathways in cellulo, there is less evidence for cross talk in vivo. Here, we show that crosstalk between AKT and ERK signaling in the hearts of TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice (TRIM72-Tg) with alpha-MHC promoter regulates and maintains their heart size. TRIM72, a heart- and skeletal muscle-specific protein, downregulates AKT-mTOR signaling via IRS-1 degradation and reduces the size of rat cardiomyocytes and the size of postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts. TRIM72 expression was upregulated by hypertrophic inducers in cardiomyocytes, while IRS-1 was downregulated by IGF-1. TRIM72 specifically regulated IGF-1-dependent AKT-mTOR signaling, resulting in a reduction of the size of cardiomyocytes. Postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts were smaller than control-treated hearts with inhibition of AKT-mTOR signaling. However, adult TRIM72-Tg hearts were larger than of control despite the suppression of AKT-mTOR signaling. Activation of ERK, PKC-?, and JNK were observed to be elevated in adult TRIM72-Tg, and these signals were mediated by ET-1 via the ET receptors A and B. Altogether, these results suggest that AKT signaling regulates cardiac hypertrophy in physiological conditions, and ERK signaling compensates for the absence of AKT signaling during TRIM72 overexpression, leading to pathological hypertrophy. -- Highlights: • TRIM72 inhibits AKT signaling through ubiquitination of IRS-1 in cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates the size of cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates size of postnatal TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts. • Adult TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts showed cardiac dysfunction. • Adult TRIM72 transgenic mice hearts showed higher expression of endothelin receptors.

  11. Trim58 degrades Dynein and regulates terminal erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Thom, Christopher S; Traxler, Elizabeth A; Khandros, Eugene; Nickas, Jenna M; Zhou, Olivia Y; Lazarus, Jacob E; Silva, Ana P G; Prabhu, Dolly; Yao, Yu; Aribeana, Chiaka; Fuchs, Serge Y; Mackay, Joel P; Holzbaur, Erika L F; Weiss, Mitchell J

    2014-09-29

    TRIM58 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase superfamily member implicated by genome-wide association studies to regulate human erythrocyte traits. Here, we show that Trim58 expression is induced during late erythropoiesis and that its depletion by small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) inhibits the maturation of late-stage nucleated erythroblasts to anucleate reticulocytes. Imaging flow cytometry studies demonstrate that Trim58 regulates polarization and/or extrusion of erythroblast nuclei. In vitro, Trim58 directly binds and ubiquitinates the intermediate chain of the microtubule motor dynein. In cells, Trim58 stimulates proteasome-dependent degradation of the dynein holoprotein complex. During erythropoiesis, Trim58 expression, dynein loss, and enucleation occur concomitantly, and all are inhibited by Trim58 shRNAs. Dynein regulates nuclear positioning and microtubule organization, both of which undergo dramatic changes during erythroblast enucleation. Thus, we propose that Trim58 promotes this process by eliminating dynein. Our findings identify an erythroid-specific regulator of enucleation and elucidate a previously unrecognized mechanism for controlling dynein activity. PMID:25241935

  12. Restriction of foamy viruses by primate Trim5alpha.

    PubMed

    Yap, Melvyn W; Lindemann, Dirk; Stanke, Nicole; Reh, Juliane; Westphal, Dana; Hanenberg, Helmut; Ohkura, Sadayuki; Stoye, Jonathan P

    2008-06-01

    Foamy viruses (FVs) are unconventional retroviruses with a replication strategy that is significantly different from orthoretroviruses and bears some homology to that of hepadnaviruses. Although some cellular proteins, such as APOBEC3, have been reported to block FVs, no restriction by Trim5alpha has been described to date. The sensitivity of three FV isolates of human-chimpanzee or prototypic (PFV), macaque (SFVmac), and feline (FFV) origin to a variety of primate Trim5alphas was therefore tested. PFV and SFVmac were restricted by Trim5alphas from most New World monkeys, but not from other primates, whereas FFV-based vectors were restricted by Trim5alphas from the great apes gorilla and orangutan. Trim5alphas from Old World monkeys did not restrict any FV isolate tested. Capuchin Trim5alpha was unique, as it restricted SFVmac and FFV but not PFV. Trim5alpha specificity for FVs was determined by the B30.2 domain, interestingly involving, in some instances, the same residues of the variable regions previously implicated as major determinants for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 restriction. FVs with chimeric Gags were made to map the viral determinants of sensitivity to restriction. The N-terminal half of the Gag molecule was found to contain the regions that control susceptibility. This region most likely corresponds to the capsid of conventional retroviruses. Due to their unique replication strategy, FVs should provide a valuable new system to examine the mechanism of retroviral restriction by Trim5alpha. PMID:18367529

  13. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen; David R. Thompson

    2000-01-01

    Increased environmental regulations will require utility boilers to reduce NOâ emissions to less than 0.15lb\\/MMBtu in the near term. Conventional technologies such as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) are unable to achieve these lowered emission levels without substantially higher costs and major operating problems. Oxygen enhanced combustion is a novel technology that allows utilities to meet

  14. JWBS121-c02 JWBS121-Razeghifard Printer: Yet to Come July 30, 2013 8:16 Trim: 6.125in 9.25in Oxygenic Photosynthesis

    E-print Network

    Govindjee

    CHAPTER 2 Oxygenic Photosynthesis DMITRIY SHEVELA, LARS OLOF BJ ¨ORN, and GOVINDJEE 2.1 INTRODUCTION 2.1.1 Importance of Photosynthesis: Why Study Photosynthesis? In a general sense the term photosynthesis energy to chemical forms of energy. Most photosynthesis is coupled to assimilation of carbon in the form

  15. Fault Tolerant Oxygen Control of a Diesel Engine Air System

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Fault Tolerant Oxygen Control of a Diesel Engine Air System Rainer Nitsche Matthias Bitzer control problem of a Diesel engine air system having a jammed Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve of the air system. Keywords: Fault tolerant control, Diesel engine, Air system, Model-based trajectory

  16. TRIM proteins and cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigetsugu Hatakeyama

    2011-01-01

    Emerging clinical evidence shows that the deregulation of ubiquitin-mediated degradation of oncogene products or tumour suppressors is likely to be involved in the aetiology of carcinomas and leukaemias. Recent studies have indicated that some members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins (one of the subfamilies of the RING type E3 ubiquitin ligases) function as important regulators for carcinogenesis. This Review

  17. Role of Human TRIM5? in Intrinsic Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Emi E.; Shioda, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has a very narrow host range. HIV type 1 (HIV-1) does not infect Old World monkeys, such as the rhesus monkey (Rh). Rh TRIM5? was identified as a factor that confers resistance, intrinsic immunity, to HIV-1 infection. Unfortunately, human TRIM5? is almost powerless to restrict HIV-1. However, human TRIM5? potently restricts N-tropic murine leukemia viruses (MLV) but not B-tropic MLV, indicating that human TRIM5? represents the restriction factor previously designated as Ref1. African green monkey TRIM5? represents another restriction factor previously designated as Lv1, which restricts both HIV-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from macaque (SIVmac) infection. TRIM5 is a member of the tripartite motif family containing RING, B-box2, and coiled-coil domains. The RING domain is frequently found in E3 ubiquitin ligase, and TRIM5? is thought to degrade viral core via ubiquitin–proteasome-dependent and -independent pathways. The alpha isoform of TRIM5 has an additional C-terminal PRYSPRY domain, which is a determinant of species-specific retrovirus restriction by TRIM5?. On the other hand, the target regions of viral capsid protein (CA) are scattered on the surface of core. A single amino acid difference in the surface-exposed loop between ?-helices 6 and 7 (L6/7) of HIV type 2 (HIV-2) CA affects viral sensitivity to human TRIM5? and was also shown to be associated with viral load in West African HIV-2 patients, indicating that human TRIM5? is a critical modulator of HIV-2 replication in vivo. Interestingly, L6/7 of CA corresponds to the MLV determinant of sensitivity to mouse factor Fv1, which potently restricts N-tropic MLV. In addition, human genetic polymorphisms also affect antiviral activity of human TRIM5?. Recently, human TRIM5? was shown to activate signaling pathways that lead to activation of NF-?B and AP-1 by interacting with TAK1 complex. TRIM5? is thus involved in control of viral infection in multiple ways. PMID:22435067

  18. Trim or Replace Impellers on Oversized Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-09-01

    One in a series of tip sheets to help manufacturers optimize their industrial pumping systems. As a result of conservative engineering practices, pumps are often substantially larger than they need to be for an industrial plant's process requirements. Centrifugal pumps can often be oversized because of ''rounding up'', trying to accommodate gradual increases in pipe surface roughness and flow resistance over time, or anticipating future plant capacity expansions. In addition, the plant's pumping requirements might not have been clearly defined during the design phase. Because of this conservative approach, pumps can have operating points completely different from their design points. The pump head is often less than expected, while the flow rate is greater. This can cause cavitation and waste energy as the flow rate typically must be regulated with bypass or throttle control. Oversized and throttled pumps that produce excess pressure are excellent candidates for impeller replacement or ''trimming'', to save energy and reduce costs. Trimming involves machining the impeller to reduce its diameter. Trimming should be limited to about 75% of a pump's maximum impeller diameter, because excessive trimming can result in a mismatched impeller and casing. As the impeller diameter decreases, added clearance between the impeller and the fixed pump casing increases internal flow recirculation, causes head loss, and lowers pumping efficiency. For manufacturing standardization purposes, pump casings and shafts are designed to accommodate impellers in a range of sizes. Many pump manufacturers provide pump performance curves that indicate how various models will perform with different impeller diameters or trims. The impeller should not be trimmed any smaller than the minimum diameter shown on the curve. Net positive suction head requirements (NPSHR) usually decrease at lower flow rates and can increase at the higher end of the pump head curve. The NPSHR at a given flow rate will normally be greater with a smaller impeller, but engineers should consult with the pump manufacturer to determine variations in NPSHR before trimming the impeller. Manufacturers can often provide trim correction charts based on historical test data.

  19. 142. STANDBY PRESSURE CONTROL UNIT FOR FUEL AND LIQUID OXYGEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    142. STANDBY PRESSURE CONTROL UNIT FOR FUEL AND LIQUID OXYGEN IN SOUTHWEST PORTION OF CONTROL ROOM (214), LSB (BLDG. 751), FACING WEST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  20. TRIM proteins as trim tabs for the homoeostasis.

    PubMed

    Horie-Inoue, Kuniko

    2013-10-01

    The tripartite motif (TRIM) or RBCC proteins are characterized by the TRIM composed of a RING finger, B-box and coiled-coil domains. TRIM proteins often play roles in the post-translational protein modification, including ubiquitylation and other ubiquitin-like modifications. Evidence has accumulated in regard to the contribution of TRIM proteins to diverse cellular processes, including such as cell cycle progression, apoptosis, immunity and transcriptional regulation. In particular, some of the TRIM proteins have been characterized to exert oncogenic or tumour suppressor-like functions depending on the context. A recent report by Inoue and his colleagues has revealed that Terf/TRIM17 stimulates the degradation of a kinetochore protein ZWINT and regulates the proliferation of breast cancer cells. Terf has also been paid attention as a factor promoting neuronal apoptosis, by degrading a Bcl2-like anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1. Like aircraft trim tabs, TRIM proteins trim the balance of homoeostasis by modulating various biological pathways through protein-protein interactions. PMID:23969027

  1. Thermal trim for a luminaire

    DOEpatents

    Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Jeswani, Anil

    2013-02-19

    A luminaire with a thermal pathway to reduce the junction temperature of the luminaire's light source, and methods for so doing, are disclosed. The luminaire includes a can, a light engine, and a trim, that define a substantially continuous thermal pathway from the light engine to a surrounding environment. The can defines a can cavity and includes a can end region. The light engine is within the can cavity and includes a light source and a heat sink, including a heat sink end region, coupled thereto. The trim is at least partially disposed within the can cavity and includes a first trim end region coupled to the heat sink end region and a second trim end region coupled to the can end region. Thermal interface material may be located between: the heat sink and the trim, the trim and the can, and/or the heat sink and the light source.

  2. Atmospheric oxygen concentration controls the size history of foraminifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, J.; Jost, A. B.; Ouyang, X.; Skotheim, J. M.; Wang, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    Body size correlates with numerous physiological traits and thus influences organism fitness. However, long-term controls on size evolution remain poorly understood because few datasets spans sufficiently long intervals. One proposed controlling factor is variation in atmospheric oxygen, which is widely argued to have influenced size evolution in numerous taxa, notably gigantism in arthropods during the late Paleozoic. In this study, we compiled a comprehensive genus- and species-level size database of foraminifers (marine protists) to enable an extensive analysis of factors influencing size evolution. Foraminifers are an ideal study group because they are present in all Phanerozoic periods and have been diverse and abundant in shallow-marine habitats since Devonian time. We observe significant correlation between foraminiferan size and atmospheric oxygen concentration in foraminifers as a whole and in half of the major subclades. Larger size is associated with higher oxygen concentrations, as predicted by simple physiological models based on changes in the ratio of surface area to volume. Because the oxygen content ocean waters is controlled in part by atmospheric pO2, we interpret the association between foraminiferan size and pO2 to result from a direct physiological effect of oxygen availability. Atmospheric oxygen concentration predicts foraminiferan size better than six other Phanerozoic time series (pCO2, sea level, number of named geological formations, ?18O, ?13C, 87Sr/86Sr), further suggesting the correlation between oxygen and size does not occur simply through some common geological cause that influences many aspects of Earth system history. These findings support the hypothesis that widespread Permo-Carboniferous gigantism was enabled by high pO2 and suggest that oxygen availability has been among the most important influences on size evolution through Phanerozoic time.

  3. Control of oxygenation in lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Claus; Pratt, Derek A.; Porter, Ned A.; Brash, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOX) and cyclooxygenases (COX) react an achiral polyunsaturated fatty acid with oxygen to form a chiral peroxide product of high regio- and stereochemical purity. Both enzymes employ free radical chemistry reminiscent of hydrocarbon autoxidation but execute efficient control during catalysis to form a specific product over the multitude of isomers found in the non-enzymatic reaction. Exactly how both dioxygenases achieve this positional and stereo control is far from clear. We present four mechanistic models, not mutually exclusive, that could account for the specific reactions of molecular oxygen with a fatty acid in the LOX or COX active site. PMID:17524979

  4. The TRIM-NHL Protein LIN-41 and the OMA RNA-Binding Proteins Antagonistically Control the Prophase-to-Metaphase Transition and Growth of Caenorhabditis elegans Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Spike, Caroline A.; Coetzee, Donna; Eichten, Carly; Wang, Xin; Hansen, Dave; Greenstein, David

    2014-01-01

    In many animals, oocytes enter meiosis early in their development but arrest in meiotic prophase I. Oocyte growth, which occurs during this arrest period, enables the acquisition of meiotic competence and the capacity to produce healthy progeny. Meiotic resumption, or meiotic maturation, involves the transition to metaphase I (M phase) and is regulated by intercellular signaling and cyclin-dependent kinase activation. Premature meiotic maturation would be predicted to diminish fertility as the timing of this event, which normally occurs after oocyte growth is complete, is crucial. In the accompanying article in this issue, we identify the highly conserved TRIM-NHL protein LIN-41 as a translational repressor that copurifies with OMA-1 and OMA-2, RNA-binding proteins redundantly required for normal oocyte growth and meiotic maturation. In this article, we show that LIN-41 enables the production of high-quality oocytes and plays an essential role in controlling and coordinating oocyte growth and meiotic maturation. lin-41 null mutants display a striking defect that is specific to oogenesis: pachytene-stage cells cellularize prematurely and fail to progress to diplotene. Instead, these cells activate CDK-1, enter M phase, assemble spindles, and attempt to segregate chromosomes. Translational derepression of the CDK-1 activator CDC-25.3 appears to contribute to premature M-phase entry in lin-41 mutant oocytes. Genetic and phenotypic analyses indicate that LIN-41 and OMA-1/2 exhibit an antagonistic relationship, and we suggest that translational regulation by these proteins could be important for controlling and coordinating oocyte growth and meiotic maturation. PMID:25261698

  5. Molecular Controls of the Oxygenation and Redox Reactions of Hemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Henkens, Robert; Alayash, Abdu I.; Banerjee, Sambuddha; Crumbliss, Alvin L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The broad classes of O2-binding proteins known as hemoglobins (Hbs) carry out oxygenation and redox functions that allow organisms with significantly different physiological demands to exist in a wide range of environments. This is aided by allosteric controls that modulate the protein's redox reactions as well as its O2-binding functions. Recent Advances: The controls of Hb's redox reactions can differ appreciably from the molecular controls for Hb oxygenation and come into play in elegant mechanisms for dealing with nitrosative stress, in the malarial resistance conferred by sickle cell Hb, and in the as-yet unsuccessful designs for safe and effective blood substitutes. Critical Issues: An important basic principle in consideration of Hb's redox reactions is the distinction between kinetic and thermodynamic reaction control. Clarification of these modes of control is critical to gaining an increased understanding of Hb-mediated oxidative processes and oxidative toxicity in vivo. Future Directions: This review addresses emerging concepts and some unresolved questions regarding the interplay between the oxygenation and oxidation reactions of structurally diverse Hbs, both within red blood cells and under acellular conditions. Developing methods that control Hb-mediated oxidative toxicity will be critical to the future development of Hb-based blood substitutes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 2298–2313. PMID:23198874

  6. Control of seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana by atmospheric oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, A.; Crispi, M.; Musgrave, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    Seed development is known to be inhibited completely when plants are grown in oxygen concentrations below 5.1 kPa, but apart from reports of decreased seed weight little is known about embryogenesis at subambient oxygen concentrations above this critical level. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants were grown full term under continuous light in premixed atmospheres with oxygen partial pressures of 2.5, 5.1, 10.1, 16.2 and 21.3 kPa O2, 0.035 kPa CO2 and the balance nitrogen. Seeds were harvested for germination tests and microscopy when siliques had yellowed. Seed germination was depressed in O2 treatments below 16.2 kPa, and seeds from plants grown in 2.5 kPa O2 did not germinate at all. Fewer than 25% of the seeds from plants grown in 5.1 kPa oxygen germinated and most of the seedlings appeared abnormal. Light and scanning electron microscopic observation of non-germinated seeds showed that these embryos had stopped growing at different developmental stages depending upon the prevailing oxygen level. Embryos stopped growing at the heart-shaped to linear cotyledon stage in 5.1 kPa O2, at around the curled cotyledon stage in 10.1 kPa O2, and at the premature stage in 16.2 kPa O2. Globular and heart-shaped embryos were observed in sectioned seeds from plants grown in 2.5 kPa O2. Tissue degeneration caused by cell autolysis and changes in cell structure were observed in cotyledons and radicles. Transmission electron microscopy of mature seeds showed that storage substances, such as protein bodies, were reduced in subambient oxygen treatments. The results demonstrate control of embryo development by oxygen in Arabidopsis.

  7. Environmental Control and Life Support System, Oxygen Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This is a close-up view of ECLSS Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack. The ECLSS Group at the MSFC oversees the development of the OGS, which produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen lost due to experiment use, airlock depressurization, module leakage, and carbon dioxide venting. The OGS consists primarily of the Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA), provided by the prime contractor, the Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems, International (HSSSI) in Windsor Locks, Cornecticut and a Power Supply Module (PSM), supplied by the MSFC. The OGA is comprised of a cell stack that electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the Water Recovery System and the separators that remove the gases from water after electrolysis. The PSM provides the high power to the OGA needed to electrolyze the water.

  8. Use of mild irradiation doses to control pathogenic bacteria on meat trimmings for production of patties aiming at provoking minimal changes in quality attributes.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Ma de la Paz; Dauber, Cecilia; Mussio, Paula; Delgado, Enrique; Maquieira, Ana; Soria, Alejandra; Curuchet, Ana; Márquez, Rosa; Méndez, Carlos; López, Tomás

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of the present work were to assess the use of moderate doses of gamma irradiation (2 to 5 kGy) and to reduce the risk of pathogen presence without altering the quality attributes of bovine trimmings and of patties made of irradiated trimmings. Microbiological indicators (coliforms, Pseudomonas spp and mesophilic aerobic counts), physicochemical indicators (pH, color and tiobarbituric acid) and sensory changes were evaluated during storage. 5 kGy irradiation doses slightly increased off flavors in patties. Two pathogenic markers (Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7) were inoculated at high or low loads to trimming samples which were subsequently irradiated and lethality curves were obtained. Provided that using irradiation doses ?2.5 kGy are used, reductions of 2 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes and 5 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 are expected. It seems reasonable to suppose that irradiation can be successfully employed to improve the safety of frozen trimmings when initial pathogenic bacteria burdens are not extremely high. PMID:25042241

  9. Early postmortem carcass trim effects on the tenderness of broiler breast fillets.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, M P; Hirschler, E M; Sams, A R

    2005-06-01

    Broiler carcasses are often trimmed during evisceration to remove damaged areas of the carcass. Because deboning before rigor mortis development can toughen meat, trimming during evisceration may toughen the meat. This study evaluated the effects of trimming on the tenderness of broiler breast meat. To evaluate the effect of wing removal on tenderness, breast halves from 2 flocks were collected after chilling at a commercial plant. One-third were untrimmed controls, one-third had small amounts of breast meat removed with wing (WMin), and one-third had large amounts of breast meat removed with wing (Wmax). Salvage fillets from the 2 flocks were also collected from the salvage table of the plant. Carcasses were also processed to evaluate the effect of breast blister trimming that removed a superficial amount of muscle tissue, half of which had breast blister trims, and half did not. All front halves or carcasses were aged until 24 h postmortem and deboned. Salvage fillets were held refrigerated until 24 h postmortem. Fillets were cooked and then sheared in 2 locations on the fillet, upper and lower, to determine if tenderness was more affected at areas close to the trim. Carcasses with wing trims had significantly higher shear values compared with the control, and shear values from the upper portion of the fillets from the WMax and WMin (nearer the trim) were significantly greater than for the lower portion. Location, however, did not affect shear values in the control carcasses. This finding indicated that tenderness of the areas nearest the trim might be affected more by the trim process. Salvage table deboning significantly increased shear values throughout the fillet. There was no significant difference in shear value due to breast blister trimming. The results of this study suggest that trimming carcasses by wing or breast fillet removal results in decreased meat tenderness. PMID:15971536

  10. Abiotic Reduction of Selenite and Antimonate Under Controlled Oxygen Conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Belzile; H. T. Truong; R. Polack; Y. Chen

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory and field studies have reported the oxidation of elemental Se to selenite or selenate or that of antimonite to antimonate but the reduction studies of the two elements, especially in absence of bacteria are more scarce. We have performed experiments on the abiotic reduction of Se(IV) and Sb(V) under controlled oxygen conditions in presence of naturally-encountered reducing agents such

  11. Controlling the bond scission sequence of oxygenates for energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stottlemyer, Alan L.

    The so called "Holy Grail" of heterogeneous catalysis is a fundamental understanding of catalyzed chemical transformations which span multidimensional scales of both length and time, enabling rational catalyst design. Such an undertaking is realizable only with an atomic level understanding of bond formation and destruction with respect to intrinsic properties of the metal catalyst. In this study, we investigate the bond scission sequence of small oxygenates (methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol) on bimetallic transition metal catalysts and transition metal carbide catalysts. Oxygenates are of interest both as hydrogen carriers for reforming to H2 and CO and as fuels in direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFC). To address the so-called "materials gap" and "pressure gap" this work adopted three parallel research approaches: (1) ultra high vacuum (UHV) studies including temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) on polycrystalline surfaces; (2) DFT studies including thermodynamic and kinetic calculations; (3) electrochemical studies including cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA). Recent studies have suggested that tungsten monocarbide (WC) may behave similarly to Pt for the electrooxidation of oxygenates. TPD was used to quantify the activity and selectivity of oxygenate decomposition for WC and Pt-modifiedWC (Pt/WC) as compared to Pt. While decomposition activity was generally higher on WC than on Pt, scission of the C-O bond resulted in alkane/alkene formation on WC, an undesired product for DAFC. When Pt was added to WC by physical vapor deposition C-O bond scission was limited, suggesting that Pt synergistically modifies WC to improve the selectivity toward C-H bond scission to produce H2 and CO. Additionally, TPD confirmed WC and Pt/WC to be more CO tolerant than Pt. HREELS results verified that surface intermediates were different on Pt/WC as compared to Pt or WC and evidence of aldehyde intermediates was observed on the Pt and Pt/WC surfaces. For CH3OH decomposition, DFT calculations suggested that the bond scission sequence could be controlled using monolayer coverage of Pt on WC. The Ni/Pt bimetallic system was studied as an example for using oxygenates as a hydrogen source. There are two well characterized surface structures for the Ni/Pt system: the surface configuration, in which the Ni atoms reside primarily on the surface of the Pt bulk, and the subsurface configuration, in which the second atomic layer is enriched in Ni atoms and the surface is enriched in Pt atoms. These configurations are denoted NiPtPt and PtNiPt, respectively. DFT results revealed that trends established for the Ni/Pt(111) system extend to the Ni/Pt(100) analogue. TPD studies revealed that the NiPtPt surface was more active for oxygenate reforming than the Pt or PtNiPt surfaces. HREELS confirmed the presence of strongly bound reaction intermediates, including aldehyde-like species, and suggested that the first decomposition step was likely O-H bond scission. Thus, the binding energies of the deprotonated reaction intermediates are important parameters in controlling the decomposition pathways of oxygenates. These studies have demonstrated that the bond scission sequence of oxygenate decomposition can be controlled using bimetallic and transition metal carbide catalysts. While this study has focused on oxygenate decomposition for energy applications, the principles and methodology applied herein are universally applicable to the development of novel and marketable value-added products. The value in such a methodology is in the combination of both calculations to predict catalytic and chemical properties, and experiments to fine-tune theoretical predictions.

  12. COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF INFRARED AND HOT-BLADE TRIMMING ON FEEDING BEHAVIOR AND PRODUCTIVITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this research was to examine the impact of a relatively new method of beak trimming on poultry welfare. Seventy-two layer chicks were assigned to hot-blade trimming (HB), infrared treatment (IR) or a control (C) group at 1d of age. Chicks were pair housed by treatment and body weight ...

  13. INFRARED BEAK TREATMENT: PART III, COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF INFRARED AND 1/2 HOT-BLADE TRIMMING ON BEAK TOPOGRAPHY AND GROWTH.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of infrared beak trimming (IR) and hot-blade beak trimming (HB) on beak length and production were examined in chickens beak trimmed at 1 day of age. Seventy-two chicks were randomly assigned to HB (1/2 beak), IR at 60 watt (1/3-1/2 reduction in length), or a control (C) group at 1 d old...

  14. Control and monitoring of oxygen fugacity in piston cylinder experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matjuschkin, Vladimir; Brooker, Richard A.; Tattitch, Brian; Blundy, Jon D.; Stamper, Charlotte C.

    2015-01-01

    We present a newly developed capsule design that resolves some common problems associated with the monitoring and control of oxygen fugacity ( fO2) in high-pressure piston cylinder experiments. The new fO2 control assembly consists of an AuPd outer capsule enclosing two inner capsules: one of AuPd capsule containing the experimental charge (including some water), and the other of Pt containing a solid oxygen buffer plus water. The inner capsules are separated by crushable alumina. The outer capsule is surrounded by a Pyrex sleeve to simultaneously minimise hydrogen loss from the cell and carbon infiltration from the graphite furnace. Controlled fO2 experiments using this cell design were carried out at 1.0 GPa and 1,000 °C. We used NiPd, CoPd and (Ni, Mg)O fO2 sensors, whose pressure sensitivity is well calibrated, to monitor the redox states achieved in experiments buffered by Re-ReO2, Ni-NiO and Co-CoO, respectively. Results for the fO2 sensors are in good agreement with the intended fO2 established by the buffer, demonstrating excellent control for durations of 24-48 h, with uncertainties less than ± 0.3 log bar units of fO2.

  15. Noise Reduction in an Aircraft Fuselage Model Using Active Trim Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silcox, Richard J.; Lyle, Karen H.

    1996-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the use of force actuators on a model aircraft interior trim panel as the control element for active control of interior noise. The trim panel, designed specifically for this study, was constructed in three large identical sections and hard mounted to the ring frames of the primary structure. Piezoceramic actuators were bonded to the outer surface of the trim panels. Studies of the interior pressure response due to both the primary source alone and control sources alone were conducted as well as the control cases. A single acoustic loudspeaker, centered at the axial midpoint, generated the acoustic field to be controlled.

  16. ULTRALOW OXYGEN TREATMENT FOR POSTHARVEST CONTROL OF WESTERN FLOWER THRIPS, FRANKLINIELLA OCCIDENTALIS, ON BROCCOLI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory study was conducted to develop ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment for control of western flower thrips on broccoli at a low temperature of 1'C. Total mortality of the insect was achieved in 5 days at 0.003 percent oxygen. Oxygen level affected efficacy of ULO treatment. At a higher oxygen le...

  17. Polyubiquitin chain-dependent protein degradation in TRIM30 cytoplasmic bodies

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Un Yung; Choi, Won Young; Hur, Ji Yeon; Kim, Young-Joon

    2015-01-01

    Viral infection induces numerous tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins to control antiviral immune signaling and viral replication. Particularly, SPRY-containing TRIM proteins are found only in vertebrates and they control target protein degradation by their RING-finger and SPRY domains, and proper cytoplasmic localization. To understand TRIM30 function, we analyzed its localization pattern and putative roles of its RING-finger and SPRY domains. We found that TRIM30 is located in actin-mediated cytoplasmic bodies and produces colocalized ubiquitin chains in SPRY domain- and RING-finger domain-dependent ways that are degraded by autophagy and the proteasome. These results suggest a TRIM protein-dependent degradation mechanism by cytoplasmic body formation with actin networks.

  18. The Antiviral Spectra of TRIM5? Orthologues and Human TRIM Family Proteins against Lentiviral Production

    PubMed Central

    Ohmine, Seiga; Sakuma, Ryuta; Sakuma, Toshie; Thatava, Tayaramma; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-01

    Background Rhesus monkey TRIM5? (TRIM5?rh) recognizes the incoming HIV-1 core through its C-terminal B30.2(PRYSPRY) domain and promotes its premature disassembly or degradation before reverse transcription. Previously, we have shown that TRIM5?rh blocks HIV-1 production through the N-terminal RBCC domain by the recognition of Gag polyproteins. Although all TRIM family proteins have RBCC domains, it remains elusive whether they possess similar late-restriction activities. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined the antiviral spectra of TRIM5? orthologues and human TRIM family members which have a genetic locus proximal to human TRIM5? (TRIM5?hu), against primate lentiviral production. When HIV-1 virus-like particles (VLPs) were generated in the presence of TRIM5? proteins, rhesus, African green and cynomolgus monkey TRIM5? (TRIM5?ag and TRIM5?cy), but not TRIM5?hu, were efficiently incorporated into VLPs, suggesting an interaction between HIV-1 Gag and TRIM5? proteins. TRIM5?rh potently restricted the viral production of HIV-1 groups M and O and HIV-2, but not simian lentiviruses including SIVMAC1A11, SIVAGMTan-1 or SIVAGMSAB-1. TRIM5?hu did not show notable late restriction activities against these lentiviruses. TRIM5?ag and TRIM5?cy showed intermediate restriction phenotypes against HIV-1 and HIV-2, but showed no restriction activity against SIV production. A series of chimeric TRIM5? constructs indicated that the N-terminal region of TRIM5?ag and TRIM5?cy are essential for the late restriction activity, while the C-terminal region of TRIM5?cy negatively regulates the late restriction activity against HIV-1. When select human TRIM family proteins were examined, TRIM21 and 22 were efficiently incorporated into HIV-1 VLPs, while only TRIM22 reduced HIV-1 titers up to 5-fold. The antiviral activities and encapsidation efficiencies did not correlate with their relative expression levels in the producer cells. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrated the variations in the late restriction activities among closely related TRIM5? orthologues and a subset of human TRIM family proteins, providing further insights into the late restriction activities of TRIM proteins. PMID:21264255

  19. Supersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of Blunt Body Trim Tab Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korzun, Ashley M.; Murphy, Kelly J.; Edquist, Karl T.

    2013-01-01

    Trim tabs are aerodynamic control surfaces that can allow an entry vehicle to meet aerodynamic performance requirements while reducing or eliminating the use of ballast mass and providing a capability to modulate the lift-to-drag ratio during entry. Force and moment data were obtained on 38 unique, blunt body trim tab configurations in the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The data were used to parametrically assess the supersonic aerodynamic performance of trim tabs and to understand the influence of tab area, cant angle, and aspect ratio. Across the range of conditions tested (Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5; angles of attack from -4deg to +20deg; angles of sideslip from 0deg to +8deg), the effects of varying tab area and tab cant angle were found to be much more significant than effects from varying tab aspect ratio. Aerodynamic characteristics exhibited variation with Mach number and forebody geometry over the range of conditions tested. Overall, the results demonstrate that trim tabs are a viable approach to satisfy aerodynamic performance requirements of blunt body entry vehicles with minimal ballast mass. For a 70deg sphere-cone, a tab with 3% area of the forebody and canted approximately 35deg with no ballast mass was found to give the same trim aerodynamics as a baseline model with ballast mass that was 5% of the total entry mass.

  20. Oxygen Generation System Laptop Bus Controller Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, Chad; Panter, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The Oxygen Generation System Laptop Bus Controller Flight Software was developed to allow the International Space Station (ISS) program to activate specific components of the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) to perform a checkout of key hardware operation in a microgravity environment, as well as to perform preventative maintenance operations of system valves during a long period of what would otherwise be hardware dormancy. The software provides direct connectivity to the OGS Firmware Controller with pre-programmed tasks operated by on-orbit astronauts to exercise OGS valves and motors. The software is used to manipulate the pump, separator, and valves to alleviate the concerns of hardware problems due to long-term inactivity and to allow for operational verification of microgravity-sensitive components early enough so that, if problems are found, they can be addressed before the hardware is required for operation on-orbit. The decision was made to use existing on-orbit IBM ThinkPad A31p laptops and MIL-STD-1553B interface cards as the hardware configuration. The software at the time of this reporting was developed and tested for use under the Windows 2000 Professional operating system to ensure compatibility with the existing on-orbit computer systems.

  1. NCI-Frederick PHL - Trimming and Embedding

    Cancer.gov

    Trimming consists of cutting 3-4 mm thick representative sections of requested tissues following specialized trim protocols with detailed orientation instructions of each tissue. The trimmed tissues are then placed in uniquely identified cassettes for processing into paraffin blocks. An average of 3 different tissues or sections of one tissue are embedded per block.

  2. Tinning/Trimming Robot System

    SciTech Connect

    Fureigh, M.L.

    1993-02-01

    In a new surface mount assembly area at AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD), a tinning/trimming robot system tins and trims the gold-plated leads of surface mount technology (SMT) transistors. The KCD-designed system uses a Unimation PUMA 260 robot, a General Production Devices SP-2000 solder pot; water-soluble Blackstone No. 2508 flux; and a Virtual Industries high-temperature, ESD-conductive, miniature suction cup. After the manual cleaning operation, the processed SMT transistors go to the QUADSTAR Automated Component Placement System for a Radar Logic Assembly. The benefits are reductions in the cost of nonconformance, worker fatigue, and standard hours.

  3. Whisker trimming by mother cats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Ehrenlechner; J. Unshelm

    1997-01-01

    This paper reports five cases of whisker trimming in cats. This extraordinary behaviour was observed in an Abyssinian, a Burmese, a Siam, a Persian-Siam mongrel, and one Domestic short hair queen. Besides the unusual distribution of breeds, it is remarkable that all cases occurred in cats raising their first litter. In two of the five cases, difficulties during birth were

  4. Recent advances in development of ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest pest control on perishable commodities.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several controlled atmosphere treatments with ultralow oxygen (ULO treatments) have been developed for postharvest pest control on different types of perishable products. Complete control of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia sp.), twopotted spider mite (Tetranychus u...

  5. Measurement and Control of Oxygen Partial Pressure in an Electrostatic Levitator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.

    2014-01-01

    Recently the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center electrostatic levitation (ESL) laboratory has been upgraded to include an oxygen control system. This system allows the oxygen partial pressure within the vacuum chamber to be measured and controlled, at elevated temperatures, theoretically in the range from 10(exp -36) to 10(exp 0) bar. The role of active surface agents in liquid metals is fairly well known; however, published surface tension data typically has large scatter, which has been hypothesized to be caused by the presence of oxygen. The surface tension of metals is affected by even a small amount of adsorption of oxygen. It has even been shown that oxygen partial pressures may need to be as low as 10(exp -24) bar to avoid oxidation. While electrostatic levitation is done under high vacuum, oxide films or dissolved oxygen may have significant effects on materials properties, such as surface tension and viscosity. Therefore, the ability to measure and control the oxygen partial pressure within the chamber is highly desirable. The oxygen control system installed at MSFC contains a potentiometric sensor, which measures the oxygen partial pressure, and an oxygen ion pump. In the pump, a pulse-width modulated electric current is applied to yttrium-stabilized zirconia, resulting in oxygen transfer into or out of the system. Also part of the system is a control unit, which consists of temperature controllers for the sensor and pump, PID-based current loop for the ion pump, and a control algorithm. This system can be used to study the effects of oxygen on the thermophysical properties of metals, ceramics, glasses, and alloys. It can also be used to provide more accurate measurements by processing the samples at very low oxygen partial pressures. The oxygen control system will be explained in more detail and an overview of its use and limitations in an electrostatic levitator will be described. Some preliminary measurements have been made, and the results to date will be provided.

  6. Oxygen as a control on seafloor biological communities and their roles in sedimentary carbon cycling

    E-print Network

    Oxygen as a control on seafloor biological communities and their roles in sedimentary carbon experiments were conducted at sites spanning the steep oxygen, organic matter, and biological community gradients across the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone, in order to quantify the role that fauna play

  7. ROLES OF OXYGEN AND CARBON DIOXIDE IN THE CONTROL OF SPIRACULAR FUNCTION IN CECROPIA PUPAE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BARBARA N. BURKETT; HOWARD A. SCHNEIDERMAN

    In most insects spiracular valve movements are controlled by oxygen and carbon dioxide (Beckel and Schneiderman, 1957 ; Schneiderman, 1960 ; Levy and Schneiderman, 1966a, 1966b) . When the intratracheal concentration of carbon dioxide is high or that of oxygen is low, the spiracular valves open ; when the intratracheal concentration of oxygen is high, they close. However, the sites

  8. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on grape benchgrafts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlled atmosphere with ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments for control of vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus Signoret (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), on grape rootstocks were developed successfully. Two ULO treatments with 30 ppm oxygen, 3 days at 25'C and 4 days at 15'C, achieved complete control of a...

  9. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on grape rootstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlled atmosphere with ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments for control of vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus Signoret (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), on grape rootstocks were developed successfully. Two ULO treatments with 30 ppm oxygen, 3 days at 25'C and 4 days at 15'C, achieved complete control of a...

  10. 30 CFR 56.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 56.9314 Section 56.9314 Mineral Resources... § 56.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. Stockpile and muckpile faces shall be trimmed to prevent hazards to...

  11. 30 CFR 57.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 57.9314 Section 57.9314 Mineral Resources... § 57.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. Stockpile and muckpile faces shall be trimmed to prevent hazards to...

  12. 30 CFR 56.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 56.9314 Section 56.9314 Mineral Resources... § 56.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. Stockpile and muckpile faces shall be trimmed to prevent hazards to...

  13. 30 CFR 56.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 56.9314 Section 56.9314 Mineral Resources... § 56.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. Stockpile and muckpile faces shall be trimmed to prevent hazards to...

  14. 30 CFR 57.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 57.9314 Section 57.9314 Mineral Resources... § 57.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. Stockpile and muckpile faces shall be trimmed to prevent hazards to...

  15. 30 CFR 57.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 57.9314 Section 57.9314 Mineral Resources... § 57.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. Stockpile and muckpile faces shall be trimmed to prevent hazards to...

  16. 30 CFR 56.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 56.9314 Section 56.9314 Mineral Resources... § 56.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. Stockpile and muckpile faces shall be trimmed to prevent hazards to...

  17. 30 CFR 57.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 57.9314 Section 57.9314 Mineral Resources... § 57.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. Stockpile and muckpile faces shall be trimmed to prevent hazards to...

  18. Application of the concept of dynamic trim control and nonlinear system inverses to automatic control of a vertical attitude takeoff and landing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. A.; Meyer, G.

    1981-01-01

    A full envelope automatic flight control system based on nonlinear inverse systems concepts has been applied to a vertical attitude takeoff and landing (VATOL) fighter aircraft. A new method for using an airborne digital aircraft model to perform the inversion of a nonlinear aircraft model is presented together with the results of a simulation study of the nonlinear inverse system concept for the vertical-attitude hover mode. The system response to maneuver commands in the vertical attitude was found to be excellent; and recovery from large initial offsets and large disturbances was found to be very satisfactory.

  19. TRIM: TR independent multislice imaging.

    PubMed

    Fautz, Hans-Peter; Paul, Dominik; Scheffler, Klaus; Hennig, Jürgen

    2004-06-01

    This article introduces a novel concept to overcome the dependence of image contrast on spatial positioning parameters such as the number of slices and slice separation in multislice measurements: TR-independent multislice (TRIM) acquisition allows the number of slices in a single measurement to remain independent of the repetition time TR. Ramped TRIM (rTRIM) allows the distance between the sections excited in each repetition to remain independent of the distance between the reconstructed slices. Even images from overlapping slices can be acquired without crosstalk between the images of adjacent slices due to spatially overlapping excitation profiles. This concept is based on a special reordering scheme: Within a single TR acquisition, steps are only taken from a fraction of all slices. This necessitates attribution of different phase-encoding steps to different slices within each repetition cycle. The reordering scheme can be derived by the use of a design matrix. The imaging properties of the technique are discussed theoretically and illustrated by a point spread function analysis based on simulations and phantom measurements. Potential sources of artifacts are identified and methods for their prevention are developed. Optimized implementations with different T(1)-weighted sequences such as spin echo (SE), turbo spin echo (TSE), and spoiled gradient echo acquisitions are shown on normal volunteers with imaging parameters used in routine diagnosis. PMID:15170845

  20. Catalytic Synthesis of Oxygenates: Mechanisms, Catalysts and Controlling Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman

    2005-11-30

    This research focused on catalytic synthesis of unsymmetrical ethers as a part of a larger program involving oxygenated products in general, including alcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids and their derivatives that link together environmentally compliant fuels, monomers, and high-value chemicals. The catalysts studied here were solid acids possessing strong Br�������¸nsted acid functionalities. The design of these catalysts involved anchoring the acid groups onto inorganic oxides, e.g. surface-grafted acid groups on zirconia, and a new class of mesoporous solid acids, i.e. propylsulfonic acid-derivatized SBA-15. The former catalysts consisted of a high surface concentration of sulfate groups on stable zirconia catalysts. The latter catalyst consists of high surface area, large pore propylsulfonic acid-derivatized silicas, specifically SBA-15. In both cases, the catalyst design and synthesis yielded high concentrations of acid sites in close proximity to one another. These materials have been well-characterization in terms of physical and chemical properties, as well as in regard to surface and bulk characteristics. Both types of catalysts were shown to exhibit high catalytic performance with respect to both activity and selectivity for the bifunctional coupling of alcohols to form ethers, which proceeds via an efficient SN2 reaction mechanism on the proximal acid sites. This commonality of the dual-site SN2 reaction mechanism over acid catalysts provides for maximum reaction rates and control of selectivity by reaction conditions, i.e. pressure, temperature, and reactant concentrations. This research provides the scientific groundwork for synthesis of ethers for energy applications. The synthesized environmentally acceptable ethers, in part derived from natural gas via alcohol intermediates, exhibit high cetane properties, e.g. methylisobutylether with cetane No. of 53 and dimethylether with cetane No. of 55-60, or high octane properties, e.g. diisopropylether with blending octane No. of 105, and can replace aromatics in liquid fuels.

  1. Conversion of trimmed NURBS surfaces to Catmull–Clark subdivision surfaces

    E-print Network

    Shen, Jingjing; Kosinka, Ji?í; Sabin, Malcolm; Dodgson, Neil

    2014-06-27

    length vector (red rows in Fig. 3) and three other directions by 90 degree rotations of this vector. Due to the 90 degree freedom, smoothing cross field involves specifying which direction to follow for each cross. Recently, Zhang et al. (2006), Ray et... to manipulate the trimmed surface, a fine control mesh whose limit surface approximates the input trimmed surface with high accuracy. Second, as an advan- ge of subdivision representation, we can provide gap-free models after conversion. The converted Catmull...

  2. Controls on soil oxygen variation across aquatic-terrestrial interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loecke, T.; Burgin, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Soil oxygen (O2) is a fundamental control on terrestrial biogeochemical cycles including processes producing and consuming greenhouse gases (GHG), yet it is rarely measured. Instead, soil O2 is assumed to be proportional to soil moisture and physical soil properties. For example, soil O2 is often inferred from a 25-year old steady-state diffusion model; however, few data exist to test this model in stochastic systems. The variability of soil O2 may be particularly important to GHG emissions from aquatic-terrestrial interface zones because of the convergence of variable hydrology and rapid biogeochemical processing. Our objective is to gain a better understanding of soil O2 variation and its role in controlling GHG emissions across aquatic-terrestrial interface zones. Specifically, we hypothesize that in aquatic-terrestrial interface ecosystems, soil moisture predicts O2 concentration under stable conditions where diffusion dominates, but fails under dynamic conditions (e.g., water table fluctuations or precipitation) due to advective flux during soil drainage and lags in biological O2 consumption. Furthermore, we hypothesize that GHG emissions will correspond to variation in soil O2. Twenty-four near-continuous (hourly readings) soil O2 and moisture sensors were installed across an aquatic-terrestrial interface zone of a constructed wetland in April 2012. Drought conditions (2012) resulted in minimal soil O2 variation. Despite dry conditions a diurnal pattern of lower soil O2 during the day was observed. When precipitation increased in September (due to the remnants of Hurricane Isaac), soil O2 variation increased substantially with 20 of the 24 sensors recording soil O2 concentrations below 5%. The relationship between soil moisture and soil O2 was non-linear during periods of soil drainage and precipitation. A rapid (change of 10% over <24 hours) increase in soil O2 occurs at ~ 40% water filled soil volume during soil drainage. This rapid increase appears related to drainage of soil macropores ahead of changes in bulk soil moisture. As soil moisture increased due to precipitation, soil O2 decreased slower than predicted by simple diffusion models. A lag in O2 consumption is hypothesized to explain this divergence from the diffusion model. Weekly methane and nitrous oxide emissions corresponded to variation in soil O2. Future research will explore the importance of temporal soil O2 and moisture variation in driving GHG emissions.

  3. Trimming an aircraft model for flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, Richard E.

    1987-01-01

    Real-time piloted aircraft simulations with digital computers have been performed at Ames Research Center (ARC) for over two decades. For the simulation of conventional aircraft models, the establishment of initial vehicle and control orientations at various operational flight regimes has been adequately handled by either analog techniques or simple inversion processes. However, exotic helicopter configurations have been introduced recently that require more sophisticated techniques because of their expanded degrees of freedom and environmental vibration levels. At ARC, these techniques are used for the backward solutions to real-time simulation models as required for the generation of trim points. These techniques are presented in this paper with examples from a blade-element helicopter simulation model.

  4. Piloted simulation study of the effects of an automated trim system on flight characteristics of a light twin-engine airplane with one engine inoperative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, E. C.; Brown, P. W.; Yenni, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted to investigate the piloting problems associated with failure of an engine on a generic light twin-engine airplane. A primary piloting problem for a light twin-engine airplane after an engine failure is maintaining precise control of the airplane in the presence of large steady control forces. To address this problem, a simulated automatic trim system which drives the trim tabs as an open-loop function of propeller slipstream measurements was developed. The simulated automatic trim system was found to greatly increase the controllability in asymmetric powered flight without having to resort to complex control laws or an irreversible control system. However, the trim-tab control rates needed to produce the dramatic increase in controllability may require special design consideration for automatic trim system failures. Limited measurements obtained in full-scale flight tests confirmed the fundamental validity of the proposed control law.

  5. Multiresolution Rendering By Sewing Trimmed NURBS Surfaces

    E-print Network

    Behnke, Sven

    , sewing 1. INTRODUCTION Industrial machine parts are usually designed utilizing CAD (Computer Aided DesignMultiresolution Rendering By Sewing Trimmed NURBS Surfaces Ferenc Kahlesz fecu@cs.uni-bonn.de Ákos- ed. To create such models without artifacts at the trimming curves, one needs to sew parts together

  6. 14 CFR 23.161 - Trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...directional trim. The airplane must maintain lateral...the landing gear and wing flaps retracted as follows...and acrobatic category airplanes, at a speed of 0.9...Longitudinal trim. The airplane must maintain longitudinal...landing gear retracted, wing flaps in the...

  7. 14 CFR 23.161 - Trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...directional trim. The airplane must maintain lateral...the landing gear and wing flaps retracted as follows...and acrobatic category airplanes, at a speed of 0.9...Longitudinal trim. The airplane must maintain longitudinal...landing gear retracted, wing flaps in the...

  8. 14 CFR 23.161 - Trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...directional trim. The airplane must maintain lateral...the landing gear and wing flaps retracted as follows...and acrobatic category airplanes, at a speed of 0.9...Longitudinal trim. The airplane must maintain longitudinal...landing gear retracted, wing flaps in the...

  9. Ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest control of western flower thrips on broccoli.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Biao

    2007-06-01

    Laboratory studies were conducted to develop ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment for controlling western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on broccoli at a low temperature of 1 degree C. Complete control was achieved in 5 d at 0.003% oxygen. Oxygen level affected efficacy of ULO treatment. At a higher oxygen level of 0.03%, 6-d treatment killed -85% of thrips, and 10-d treatment killed all thrips. The 5-d ULO treatment with 0.003% oxygen was successfully tested on iced commercial broccoli of several cultivars without any noticeable negative effects on shelf-life and postharvest quality. The ULO treatment provided a safe and effective alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for postharvest control of western flower thrips on exported broccoli for industrial development. PMID:17598530

  10. Disparate Oxygen Responsiveness of Two Regulatory Cascades That Control Expression of Symbiotic Genes in Bradyrhizobium japonicum

    PubMed Central

    Sciotti, Michel-Angelo; Chanfon, Astrid; Hennecke, Hauke; Fischer, Hans-Martin

    2003-01-01

    Two oxygen-responsive regulatory systems controlling numerous symbiotic genes in Bradyrhizobium japonicum were assayed in free-living cultures for their capacity to activate target genes under different oxygen conditions. NifA- and FixLJ-controlled target genes showed disparate relative expression patterns. Induction of NifA-dependent genes was observed only at oxygen concentrations below 2% in the gas phase, whereas that of FixLJ-controlled targets progressively increased when the oxygen concentration was lowered from 21 to 5, 2, or 0.5%. We propose that this reflects a response to a gradient of increasing oxygen deprivation as bacteria invade their host during root nodule development. PMID:12949117

  11. Disparate oxygen responsiveness of two regulatory cascades that control expression of symbiotic genes in Bradyrhizobium japonicum.

    PubMed

    Sciotti, Michel-Angelo; Chanfon, Astrid; Hennecke, Hauke; Fischer, Hans-Martin

    2003-09-01

    Two oxygen-responsive regulatory systems controlling numerous symbiotic genes in Bradyrhizobium japonicum were assayed in free-living cultures for their capacity to activate target genes under different oxygen conditions. NifA- and FixLJ-controlled target genes showed disparate relative expression patterns. Induction of NifA-dependent genes was observed only at oxygen concentrations below 2% in the gas phase, whereas that of FixLJ-controlled targets progressively increased when the oxygen concentration was lowered from 21 to 5, 2, or 0.5%. We propose that this reflects a response to a gradient of increasing oxygen deprivation as bacteria invade their host during root nodule development. PMID:12949117

  12. Controlled oxygen doping of GaN using plasma assisted molecular-beam epitaxy

    E-print Network

    Myers, Tom

    plasma-assisted MBE using procedures described in prior studies.3 Ultrahigh purity oxy- gen gas 99-beam epitaxy MBE growth of GaN. In this letter, we present the results of a controlled study of oxygen incorporation in GaN using MBE. The oxygen doped GaN layers were grown at West Vir- ginia University WVU by rf

  13. Device for the control of oxygen concentration in multiwell cell culture plates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shawn C. Oppegard; David T. Eddington

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen is a key modulator of many cellular pathways but current devices permitting in vitro oxygen modulation fail to meet the needs of many researchers. In this study, a microfabricated insert for multiwell formats has been developed to control the gas concentration of each well independent of the global incubator's condition. The platform consists of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) insert that

  14. The cellular level of TRIM31, an RBCC protein overexpressed in gastric cancer, is regulated by multiple mechanisms including the ubiquitin-proteasome system.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Takeyuki

    2011-07-01

    TRIM (tripartite motif) family proteins, comprising RING finger, B-box and coiled-coil domains, are involved in various cellular processes including tumour development and antiviral response. One of the family proteins, TRIM31, was originally identified as a gene induced by growth-suppressive retinoid. Our previous study showed that TRIM31 is up-regulated in stomach cancer and that TRIM31 protein possesses the common features of the TRIM protein family, for example, ubiquitin ligase activity and homo-oligomerization tendency. Interestingly, TRIM31 negatively regulates growth of certain cell types despite its overexpression in gastric cancer tissues. We herein demonstrated that upon exogenous expression in 293 cells, TRIM31 is polyubiquitylated, which promotes its degradation in the proteasome pathway. The proteasome-mediated degradation of endogenous TRIM31 was further confirmed in AsPC-1 pancreatic cancer cells. Thus, this posttranslational modification governs the intracellular abundance of TRIM31, which is also dependent on inducible transcription as well as alternative splicing. The complicated control of the intracellular TRIM31 protein level may relate to its seemingly contradictory behaviours in the cancer pathology or the urgent response to viral infection. PMID:21231912

  15. TRIM24 Is a p53-Induced E3-Ubiquitin Ligase That Undergoes ATM-Mediated Phosphorylation and Autodegradation during DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Abhinav K.; Allton, Kendra; Duncan, Aundrietta D.

    2014-01-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 protects cells from genomic insults and is a target of mutation in more than 50% of human cancers. Stress-mediated modification and increased stability of p53 promote p53 interaction with chromatin, which results in transcription of target genes that are critical for the maintenance of genomic integrity. We recently discovered that TRIM24, an E3-ubiquitin ligase, ubiquitinates and promotes proteasome-mediated degradation of p53. Here, we show that TRIM24 is destabilized by ATM-mediated phosphorylation of TRIM24S768 in response to DNA damage, which disrupts TRIM24-p53 interactions and promotes the degradation of TRIM24. Transcription of TRIM24 is directly induced by damage-activated p53, which binds p53 response elements and activates expression of TRIM24. Newly synthesized TRIM24 interacts with phosphorylated p53 to target it for degradation and termination of the DNA damage response. These studies indicate that TRIM24, like MDM2, controls p53 levels in an autoregulatory feedback loop. However, unlike MDM2, TRIM24 also targets activated p53 to terminate p53-regulated response to DNA damage. PMID:24820418

  16. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Trim7 mediates c-Jun/AP-1 activation by Ras signalling.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Atanu; Diefenbacher, Markus E; Mylona, Anastasia; Kassel, Olivier; Behrens, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The c-Jun/AP-1 transcription factor controls key cellular behaviours, including proliferation and apoptosis, in response to JNK and Ras/MAPK signalling. While the JNK pathway has been well characterized, the mechanism of activation by Ras was elusive. Here we identify the uncharacterized ubiquitin ligase Trim7 as a critical component of AP-1 activation via Ras. We found that MSK1 directly phosphorylates Trim7 in response to direct activation by the Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK pathway, and this modification stimulates Trim7 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Trim7 mediates Lys63-linked ubiquitination of the AP-1 co-activator RACO-1, leading to RACO-1 protein stabilization. Consequently, Trim7 depletion reduces RACO-1 levels and AP-1-dependent gene expression. Moreover, transgenic overexpression of Trim7 increases lung tumour burden in a Ras-driven cancer model, and knockdown of Trim7 in established xenografts reduces tumour growth. Thus, phosphorylation-ubiquitination crosstalk between MSK1, Trim7 and RACO-1 completes the long sought-after mechanism linking growth factor signalling and AP-1 activation. PMID:25851810

  17. CATION CONTROLLED SINGLET OXYGEN MEDIATED OXIDATION OF OLEFINS WITHIN ZEOLITES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidation of trialkyl olefins has been performed within zeolites employing thionin as the singlet oxygen sensitizer. Unusual selectivity in favor of secondary hydroperoxides is observed within zeolites. In light of the fact that in solution such a selectivity is never observed the selectivity report...

  18. Controlling factors of the oxygen balance in the Arabian Sea's OMZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resplandy, L.; Lévy, M.; Bopp, L.; Echevin, V.; Pous, S.; Sarma, V. V. S. S.; Kumar, D.

    2012-12-01

    The expansion of OMZs (oxygen minimum zones) due to climate change and their possible evolution and impacts on the ecosystems and the atmosphere are still debated, mostly because of the unability of global climate models to adequatly reproduce the processes governing OMZs. In this study, we examine the factors controlling the oxygen budget, i.e. the equilibrium between oxygen sources and sinks in the northern Arabian Sea OMZ using an eddy-resolving biophysical model. Our model confirms that the biological consumption of oxygen is most intense below the region of highest productivity in the western Arabian Sea. The oxygen drawdown in this region is counterbalanced by the large supply of oxygenated waters originated from the south and advected horizontally by the western boundary current. Although the biological sink and the dynamical sources of oxygen compensate on annual average, we find that the seasonality of the dynamical transport of oxygen is 3 to 5 times larger than the seasonality of the biological sink. In agreement with previous findings, the resulting seasonality of oxygen concentration in the OMZ is relatively weak, with a variability of the order of 15% of the annual mean oxygen concentration in the oxycline and 5% elsewhere. This seasonality primarily arises from the vertical displacement of the OMZ forced by the monsoonal reversal of Ekman pumping across the basin. In coastal areas, the oxygen concentration is also modulated seasonally by lateral advection. Along the western coast of the Arabian Sea, the Somali Current transports oxygen-rich waters originated from the south during summer and oxygen-poor waters from the northeast during winter. Along the eastern coast of the Arabian Sea, we find that the main contributor to lateral advection in the OMZ is the Indian coastal undercurrent that advects southern oxygenated waters during summer and northern low-oxygen waters during winter. In this region, our model indicates that oxygen concentrations are modulated seasonally by coastal Kelvin waves and westward-propagating Rossby waves. Whereas on seasonal time scales the sources and sinks of oxygen are dominated by the mean vertical and lateral advection (Ekman pumping and monsoonal currents), on annual time scales we find that the biological sink is counterbalanced by the supply of oxygen sustained by mesoscale structures (eddies and filaments). Eddy-driven advection hence promotes the vertical supply of oxygen along the western coast of the Arabian Sea and the lateral transport of ventilated waters offshore the coast of Oman and southwest India.

  19. Graph based query trimming of conjunctive queries in semantic caching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Muhammad Azeem Abbas; Muhammad Abdul Qadir; Munir Ahmad; Tariq Ali; Naseer Ahmed Sajid

    2011-01-01

    In semantic cache query processing, an important step is query trimming. Trimming a query can potentially reduce the answer size that is required to retrieve from a remote server. Existing query trimming technique is based on Boolean logic, which inhibits several shortcomings such as after trimming it expands number of predicate terms and induces disjunction even if conjunctive queries are

  20. TRIM family proteins: retroviral restriction and antiviral defence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan P. Stoye; Ali Saïb; Sébastien Nisole

    2005-01-01

    Members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family are involved in various cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, development, oncogenesis and apoptosis. Some TRIM proteins display antiviral properties, targeting retroviruses in particular. The potential activity of TRIM19, better known as promyelocytic leukaemia protein, against several viruses has been well documented and, recently, TRIM5? has been identified as the factor responsible

  1. Method of controlled reduction of nitroaromatics by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes

    DOEpatents

    Shah, Manish M. (Richland, WA); Campbell, James A. (Pasco, WA)

    1998-01-01

    A method for the controlled reduction of nitroaromatic compounds such as nitrobenzene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes, such as ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase.

  2. Oxygen deficiency hazards associated with liquefied gas systems development of a program of controls

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.M.; Mazur, P.O.

    1983-01-01

    The use of liquefied gases in industry and research has become commonplace. Release into the atmosphere of these gases, whether intentional or not, will result in a displacement of air and a reduction in the oxygen concentration. Exposure to reduced levels of oxygen levels may cause reduced abilities, unconsciousness, or death. This paper describes the derivation of a novel program of controls for oxygen deficiency hazards. The key to this approach is a quantitative assessment of risk for each planned operation and the application of control measures to reduce that risk to an acceptable level. Five risk levels evolve which are based on the probability of fatality. Controls such as training, oxygen monitoring equipment, self-rescue respirators, and medical surveillance are required when the probability of fatality exceeds 10/sup -7/ per hour. The quantitative nature of this program ensures an appropriate level of control without undue burden or expense. 11 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  3. Method of controlled reduction of nitroaromatics by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes

    DOEpatents

    Shah, M.M.; Campbell, J.A.

    1998-07-07

    A method is described for the controlled reduction of nitroaromatic compounds such as nitrobenzene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes, such as ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase. 6 figs.

  4. Device for the control of oxygen concentration in multiwell cell culture plates.

    PubMed

    Oppegard, Shawn C; Eddington, David T

    2009-01-01

    Oxygen is a key modulator of many cellular pathways but current devices permitting in vitro oxygen modulation fail to meet the needs of many researchers. In this study, a microfabricated insert for multiwell formats has been developed to control the gas concentration of each well independent of the global incubator's condition. The platform consists of a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) insert that nests into a standard multiwell plate and serves as a passive network with a gas permeable membrane aimed to deliver gas to adherent cell cultures. Preliminary data demonstrate that the insert is effective in controlling the oxygen concentration at the cell surface inside a well with equilibration times in minutes rather than hours for conventional technologies. A wide variety of oxygen profiles can be attained based on the device design, such as the cyclic profile achieved in this study, and even gradients in local oxygen concentration to mimic those found in vivo for more biomimetic cellular models. PMID:19963531

  5. Regulation of Respiration and Fermentation to Control the Plant Internal Oxygen Concentration1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Zabalza, Ana; van Dongen, Joost T.; Froehlich, Anja; Oliver, Sandra N.; Faix, Benjamin; Gupta, Kapuganti Jagadis; Schmälzlin, Elmar; Igal, Maria; Orcaray, Luis; Royuela, Mercedes; Geigenberger, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Plant internal oxygen concentrations can drop well below ambient even when the plant grows under optimal conditions. Using pea (Pisum sativum) roots, we show how amenable respiration adapts to hypoxia to save oxygen when the oxygen availability decreases. The data cannot simply be explained by oxygen being limiting as substrate but indicate the existence of a regulatory mechanism, because the oxygen concentration at which the adaptive response is initiated is independent of the actual respiratory rate. Two phases can be discerned during the adaptive reaction: an initial linear decline of respiration is followed by a nonlinear inhibition in which the respiratory rate decreased progressively faster upon decreasing oxygen availability. In contrast to the cytochrome c pathway, the inhibition of the alternative oxidase pathway shows only the linear component of the adaptive response. Feeding pyruvate to the roots led to an increase of the oxygen consumption rate, which ultimately led to anoxia. The importance of balancing the in vivo pyruvate availability in the tissue was further investigated. Using various alcohol dehydrogenase knockout lines of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), it was shown that even under aerobic conditions, alcohol fermentation plays an important role in the control of the level of pyruvate in the tissue. Interestingly, alcohol fermentation appeared to be primarily induced by a drop in the energy status of the tissue rather than by a low oxygen concentration, indicating that sensing the energy status is an important component of optimizing plant metabolism to changes in the oxygen availability. PMID:19098094

  6. p300, but not PCAF, collaborates with IRF-1 in stimulating TRIM22 expression independently of its histone acetyltransferase activity.

    PubMed

    Gao, Bo; Xu, Wei; Zhong, Linmao; Zhang, Qilin; Su, Ya; Xiong, Sidong

    2013-08-01

    Tripartite motif (TRIM) 22 plays an important role in IFN-mediated antiviral activity. We previously demonstrated that IFN regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) was crucial for constitutive and IFN-induced TRIM22 expression via binding to a special cis-element named 5' extended IFN-stimulating response element. Here, we further investigate the molecular mechanisms of TRIM22 with a focus on the co-activators of IRF-1. Using an in vitro DNA affinity binding assay and an in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we found that IFN-? stimulation significantly enhanced the binding of p300 and p300/CBP-associated factor, but not other co-activators such as general control nondepressible 5, steroid receptor co-activator-1, and activator of thyroid and retinoic, to the 5' extended IFN-stimulating response element containing TRIM22 promoter region together with IRF-1. Overexpression and knockdown analysis demonstrated that it was p300, but not p300/CBP-associated factor, that functioned as a transcriptional co-activator of IRF-1 in IFN-? induction of TRIM22. We further show that p300 contributed to both IFN-?- and IRF-1-mediated TRIM22 transcription independent of its histone acetyltransferase activity, however, it was required for the recruitment of RNA polymerase II to TRIM22 promoter region. These data indicate that p300 plays a critical role in IFN-?-induced TRIM22 expression via recruiting RNA polymerase II to the TRIM22 promoter, and might serve as a bridge between IRF-1 and the basal transcriptional apparatus in TRIM22 induction. PMID:23670564

  7. Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2007-03-31

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic (i.e., man-made) CO{sub 2} emissions. In 2001, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) began a two-phase program to investigate the feasibility of various carbon capture technologies. This program was sponsored under a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE). The first phase entailed a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen cases, representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated. Seven cases represented coal combustion in CFB type equipment. Four cases represented Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Two cases represented advanced Chemical Looping Combined Cycle systems. Marion, et al. reported the details of this work in 2003. One of the thirteen cases studied utilized an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. In this concept, the fuel is fired with a mixture of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (mainly CO{sub 2}). This combustion process yields a flue gas containing over 80 percent (by volume) CO{sub 2}. This flue gas can be processed relatively easily to enrich the CO{sub 2} content to over 96 percent for use in enhanced oil or gas recovery (EOR or EGR) or simply dried for sequestration. The Phase I study identified the O{sub 2}-fired CFB as having a near term development potential, because it uses conventional commercial CFB technology and commercially available CO{sub 2} capture enabling technologies such as cryogenic air separation and simple rectification or distillation gas processing systems. In the long term, air separation technology advancements offer significant reductions in power requirements, which would improve plant efficiency and economics for the oxygen-fired technology. The second phase consisted of pilot-scale testing followed by a refined performance and economic evaluation of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. As a part of this workscope, ALSTOM modified its 3 MW{sub th} (9.9 MMBtu/hr) Multiuse Test Facility (MTF) pilot plant to operate with O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures of up to 70 percent O{sub 2} by volume. Tests were conducted with coal and petroleum coke. The test objectives were to determine the impacts of oxygen firing on heat transfer, bed dynamics, potential agglomeration, and gaseous and particulate emissions. The test data results were used to refine the design, performance, costs, and economic models developed in Phase-I for the O{sub 2}-fired CFB with CO{sub 2} capture. Nsakala, Liljedahl, and Turek reported results from this study in 2004. ALSTOM identified several items needing further investigation in preparation for large scale demonstration of the oxygen-fired CFB concept, namely: (1) Operation and performance of the moving bed heat exchanger (MBHE) to avoid recarbonation and also for cost savings compared to the standard bubbling fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHE); (2) Performance of the back-end flash dryer absorber (FDA) for sulfur capture under high CO{sub 2}/high moisture flue gas environment using calcined limestone in the fly ash and using fresh commercial lime directly in the FDA; (3) Determination of the effect of recarbonation on fouling in the convective pass; (4) Assessment of the impact of oxygen firing on the mercury, other trace elements, and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions; and (5) Develop a proposal-level oxygen-fired retrofit design for a relatively small existing CFB steam power plant in preparation for a large-scale demonstration of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. Hence, ALSTOM responded to a DOE Solicitation to address all these issues with further O{sub 2} fired MTF pilot testing and a subsequent retrofit design study of oxygen firing and CO{s

  8. Pharmacological control of local oxygen regulation mechanisms in brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Bicher, H I; Marvin, P

    1976-01-01

    The effect of several agents active on autonomic nervous system functions was tested on brain oxygen autoregulation parameters. It was found that atropine, propranolol and isoproterenol had no influence in abolishing the measured parameters. Phenoxybenzamine, tolazoline and dibenamine all suppress autoregulation. In an additional experimental series, a phenoxybenzamine infusion was given during O2 breathing. The infusion induced, in most cases, an additional rise in TpO2 (tissue pressure of oxygen, which refers to the partial pressure [in mm Hg] of this gas at the measuring tip of the electrode). It is concluded that an alpha-adrenergic mechanism is part of the autoregulation process. Also, the increase in brain TpO2 induced by 59% O2-5% Co2 breathing seems to be blocked or reversed by alpha-adrenolytic drugs, thus supporting the thinking that the effect of CO2 on cerebral blood flow is at least in part mediated through an alpha-adrenergic response. PMID:960168

  9. Development of decontamination procedures for beef trimmings

    E-print Network

    Ebeling, Christine Suzanne

    2001-01-01

    evaluation. 2-thiobarbituric acid test. . . . . Fat and moisture pH. Color 22 25 26 27 28 . . . . . 28 . . 29 30 30 Sensory evaluation. . Statistical analysis. 3l 32 CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Page 34 Preliminary results... Least squares means of the interaction between trimming type and storage day of color measurements for ground beef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 2 Least squares means of the interaction between trimming type...

  10. Anoxygenic photosynthesis controls oxygenic photosynthesis in a cyanobacterium from a sulfidic spring.

    PubMed

    Klatt, Judith M; Al-Najjar, Mohammad A A; Yilmaz, Pelin; Lavik, Gaute; de Beer, Dirk; Polerecky, Lubos

    2015-03-15

    Before the Earth's complete oxygenation (0.58 to 0.55 billion years [Ga] ago), the photic zone of the Proterozoic oceans was probably redox stratified, with a slightly aerobic, nutrient-limited upper layer above a light-limited layer that tended toward euxinia. In such oceans, cyanobacteria capable of both oxygenic and sulfide-driven anoxygenic photosynthesis played a fundamental role in the global carbon, oxygen, and sulfur cycle. We have isolated a cyanobacterium, Pseudanabaena strain FS39, in which this versatility is still conserved, and we show that the transition between the two photosynthetic modes follows a surprisingly simple kinetic regulation controlled by this organism's affinity for H2S. Specifically, oxygenic photosynthesis is performed in addition to anoxygenic photosynthesis only when H2S becomes limiting and its concentration decreases below a threshold that increases predictably with the available ambient light. The carbon-based growth rates during oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis were similar. However, Pseudanabaena FS39 additionally assimilated NO3 (-) during anoxygenic photosynthesis. Thus, the transition between anoxygenic and oxygenic photosynthesis was accompanied by a shift of the C/N ratio of the total bulk biomass. These mechanisms offer new insights into the way in which, despite nutrient limitation in the oxic photic zone in the mid-Proterozoic oceans, versatile cyanobacteria might have promoted oxygenic photosynthesis and total primary productivity, a key step that enabled the complete oxygenation of our planet and the subsequent diversification of life. PMID:25576611

  11. Infrared Beak Treatment: Part I, Comparative Effects of Infrared and 1/3 Hot-blade Trimming on Beak Topography, Focal Behavior and Growth.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examines the effects of beak trimming on production and well-being. Seventy-two layer chicks were assigned to hot-blade trimming (HB), infrared treatment (IR), or a control(C) untrimmed treatment at one-day-old. Chicks were pair housed by treatment and beak images, behavior and production...

  12. TRIM59, a novel multiple cancer biomarker for immunohistochemical detection of tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Khatamianfar, Vida; Valiyeva, Fatma; Rennie, Paul S; Lu, Wei-yang; Yang, Burton B; Bauman, Glenn S; Moussa, Madeleine; Xuan, Jim W

    2012-01-01

    Objectives and design We identified a novel TRIM59 gene, as an early signal transducer in two (SV40Tag and Ras) oncogene pathways in murine prostate cancer (CaP) models. We explore its clinical applications as a multitumour marker detecting early tumorigenesis by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Setting and participants 88 CaP patients were from a tissue microarray (TMA) of radical prostatectomy specimen, 42 patients from a 35 multiple tumour TMA, 75 patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and 92 patients from eight different tumour groups (breast, lung, parotid, gastrointestinal, female genital tract, bladder, kidney and prostate cancer). Results TRIM59 upregulation specifically in tumour area was determined by IHC in 291 cases of 37 tumour types. To demonstrate that TRIM59 upregulation is ‘tumour-specific’, we characterised a significant correlation of TRIM59 IHC signals with tumorigenesis and progression, while in control and normal area, TRIM59 IHC signal was all negative or significantly low. TRIM59 protein upregulation in prostate and kidney cancers was detectable in both intensity and extent in early tumorigenesis of prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (p<0.05) and grade 1 of RCC (p<0.05), and stopped until high grades cancer. The results of the correlation in these two large cohorts of tumour types confirmed and repeated murine CaP model studies. Enhanced TRIM59 expression was identified in most of the 37 different tumours, while the highest intensities were in lung, breast, liver, skin, tongue and mouth (squamous cell cancer) and endometrial cancers. Multiple tumour upregulation was further confirmed by comparing relative scores of TRIM59 IHC signals in eight tumours with a larger patient population; and by a mouse whole-mount embryo (14.5 days post conception) test on the origin of TRIM59 upregulation in epithelial cells. Conclusions TRIM59 may be used a novel multiple tumour marker for immunohistochemical detecting early tumorigenesis and could direct a novel strategy for molecular-targeted diagnosis and therapy of cancer. PMID:23048060

  13. DESIGN PROCEDURES FOR DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONTROL OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents design procedures and guidelines for the selection of aeration equipment and dissolved (DO) control systems for activated sludge treatment plants. Aeration methods, equipment and application techniques are examined and selection procedures offered. Various DO...

  14. The Flammability Aspects of Decorative Trimmings: Part 1Flammability of Trimmings Used on Upholstered Furniture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. DSilva; N. Sorensen

    1996-01-01

    Fundamental studies have been carried out on the flammability aspects of decorative trimmings used on upholstered furniture. In addition to the trimmings being tested in isolation, tests were also carried out to assess their flammability in conjunction with flammable upholstery foam as well as with a variety of fabric\\/foam composites. The flammability has been assessed by ignition to a smouldering

  15. 14 CFR 23.153 - Control during landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...and Maneuverability § 23.153 Control during landings. It must be...without exceeding the one-hand control force limits specified in § 23.143...in trim and without the trimming control being moved throughout the...

  16. 14 CFR 23.153 - Control during landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...and Maneuverability § 23.153 Control during landings. It must be...without exceeding the one-hand control force limits specified in § 23.143...in trim and without the trimming control being moved throughout the...

  17. 14 CFR 23.153 - Control during landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...and Maneuverability § 23.153 Control during landings. It must be...without exceeding the one-hand control force limits specified in § 23.143...in trim and without the trimming control being moved throughout the...

  18. 14 CFR 23.153 - Control during landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...and Maneuverability § 23.153 Control during landings. It must be...without exceeding the one-hand control force limits specified in § 23.143...in trim and without the trimming control being moved throughout the...

  19. 14 CFR 23.153 - Control during landings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...and Maneuverability § 23.153 Control during landings. It must be...without exceeding the one-hand control force limits specified in § 23.143...in trim and without the trimming control being moved throughout the...

  20. Methodology for determining elevon deflections to trim and maneuver the DAST vehicle with negative static margin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, B., III

    1982-01-01

    The relationships between elevon deflection and static margin using elements from static and dynamic stability and control and from classical control theory are emphasized. Expressions are derived and presented for calculating elevon deflections required to trim the vehicle in lg straight-and-level flight and to perform specified longitudinal and lateral maneuvers. Applications of this methodology are made at several flight conditions for the ARW-2 wing. On the basis of these applications, it appears possible to trim and maneuver the vehicle with the existing elevons at -15% static margin.

  1. Modeling, simulation, and high-autonomy control of a Martian oxygen production plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schooley, L. C.; Cellier, F. E.; Wang, F.-Y.; Zeigler, B. P.

    1992-01-01

    Progress on a project for the development of a high-autonomy intelligent command and control architecture for process plants used to produce oxygen from local planetary resources is reported. A distributed command and control architecture is being developed and implemented so that an oxygen production plant, or other equipment, can be reliably commanded and controlled over an extended time period in a high-autonomy mode with high-level task-oriented teleoperation from one or several remote locations. During the reporting period, progress was made at all levels of the architecture. At the remote site, several remote observers can now participate in monitoring the plant. At the local site, a command and control center was introduced for increased flexibility, reliability, and robustness. The local control architecture was enhanced to control multiple tubes in parallel, and was refined for increased robustness. The simulation model was enhanced to full dynamics descriptions.

  2. Numerical analysis of the primary processes controlling oxygen dynamics on the Louisiana Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, L.; Fennel, K.; Laurent, A.; Murrell, M. C.; Lehrter, J. C.

    2014-10-01

    The Louisiana shelf in the northern Gulf of Mexico receives large amounts of freshwater and nutrients from the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River system. These river inputs contribute to widespread bottom-water hypoxia every summer. In this study, we use a physical-biogeochemical model that explicitly simulates oxygen sources and sinks on the Louisiana shelf to identify the key mechanisms controlling hypoxia development. First, we validate the model simulation against observed dissolved oxygen concentrations, primary production, water column respiration, and sediment oxygen consumption. In the model simulation, heterotrophy is prevalent in shelf waters throughout the year except near the mouths of the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers where primary production exceeds respiratory oxygen consumption during June and July. During this time, efflux of oxygen to the atmosphere, driven by photosynthesis and surface warming, becomes a significant oxygen sink while the well-developed pycnocline isolates autotrophic surface waters from the heterotrophic and hypoxic waters below. A substantial fraction of primary production occurs below the pycnocline in summer. We investigate whether this primary production below the pycnocline is mitigating the development of hypoxic conditions with the help of a sensitivity experiment where we disable biological processes in the water column (i.e. primary production and water column respiration). In this experiment below-pycnocline primary production reduces the spatial extent of hypoxic bottom waters only slightly. Our results suggest that the combination of physical processes and sediment oxygen consumption largely determine the spatial extent and dynamics of hypoxia on the Louisiana shelf.

  3. May 14, 2009 15:31 WSPC -Proceedings Trim Size: 9in x 6in paper FORCE AND TRACTION CONTROLLED PROPULSION OF

    E-print Network

    Berns, Karsten

    PROPULSION OF THE OMNIDIRECTIONAL WHEELED CLIMBING ROBOT CROMSCI C. MARX, D. SCHMIDT, C. HILLENBRAND and K presents the force- and traction control system of the climbing robot Cromsci which uses a negative and experimental results which demonstrate its functionality. Keywords: Climbing Robot, Wheeled Propulsion

  4. Microfluidic chemostat and turbidostat with flow rate, oxygen, and temperature control for dynamic continuous culture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kevin S; Boccazzi, Paolo; Sinskey, Anthony J; Ram, Rajeev J

    2011-05-21

    This work reports on an instrument capable of supporting automated microscale continuous culture experiments. The instrument consists of a plastic-PDMS device capable of continuous flow without volume drift or evaporation. We apply direct computer controlled machining and chemical bonding fabrication for production of fluidic devices with a 1 mL working volume, high oxygen transfer rate (k(L)a?0.025 s(-1)), fast mixing (2 s), accurate flow control (±18 nL), and closed loop control over temperature, cell density, dissolved oxygen, and pH. Integrated peristaltic pumps and valves provide control over input concentrations and allow the system to perform different types of cell culture on a single device, such as batch, chemostat, and turbidostat continuous cultures. Continuous cultures are demonstrated without contamination for 3 weeks in a single device and both steady state and dynamically controlled conditions are possible. PMID:21445442

  5. March 24, 2014 21:19 WSPC -Proceedings Trim Size: 9in x 6in paper Friction Optimized Adhesion Control of a Wheel-Driven

    E-print Network

    Berns, Karsten

    Control of a Wheel-Driven Wall-Climbing Robot Kai Kopietz, Daniel Schmidt, Steffen Sch¨utz and Karsten,schuetz,berns}@cs.uni-kl.de Friction of sealings is a general problem for sliding wall-climbing robots using negative pressure adhesion are the experiences which have been gained with the wall-climbing robot Cromsci and are now transferred to the new

  6. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...false Trimmings of household textile articles...UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles...surface area of the household textile article: Provided...to fiber content of products subject to this...

  7. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...false Trimmings of household textile articles...UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles...surface area of the household textile article: Provided...to fiber content of products subject to this...

  8. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...false Trimmings of household textile articles...UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles...surface area of the household textile article: Provided...to fiber content of products subject to this...

  9. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...false Trimmings of household textile articles...UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles...surface area of the household textile article: Provided...to fiber content of products subject to this...

  10. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles...garment in minor proportion for holding, reinforcing or similar structural purposes; (2) decorative trim, whether applied by...

  11. Active control of oxygen in molten lead–bismuth eutectic systems to prevent steel corrosion and coolant contamination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ning Li

    2002-01-01

    The thermodynamic basis for controlling oxygen level in lead–bismuth to prevent steel corrosion and coolant contamination is examined. The operational conditions, including the thermodynamic activity of oxygen, cover gas oxygen partial pressure, mixtures of H2 and H2O (steam) to obtain such low oxygen partial pressure (<10?24 atm or around 10?6 wt% in lead–bismuth), and the voltage signals of one type

  12. Ship trim optimization: assessment of influence of trim on resistance of MOERI container ship.

    PubMed

    Sherbaz, Salma; Duan, Wenyang

    2014-01-01

    Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy efficiency in all sectors. Shipping industry is a stakeholder in environmental issues. Shipping industry is responsible for approximately 3% of global CO? emissions, 14-15% of global NO(X) emissions, and 16% of global SO(X) emissions. Ship trim optimization has gained enormous momentum in recent years being an effective operational measure for better energy efficiency to reduce emissions. Ship trim optimization analysis has traditionally been done through tow-tank testing for a specific hullform. Computational techniques are increasingly popular in ship hydrodynamics applications. The purpose of this study is to present MOERI container ship (KCS) hull trim optimization by employing computational methods. KCS hull total resistances and trim and sinkage computed values, in even keel condition, are compared with experimental values and found in reasonable agreement. The agreement validates that mesh, boundary conditions, and solution techniques are correct. The same mesh, boundary conditions, and solution techniques are used to obtain resistance values in different trim conditions at Fn = 0.2274. Based on attained results, optimum trim is suggested. This research serves as foundation for employing computational techniques for ship trim optimization. PMID:24578649

  13. Ship Trim Optimization: Assessment of Influence of Trim on Resistance of MOERI Container Ship

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Wenyang

    2014-01-01

    Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy efficiency in all sectors. Shipping industry is a stakeholder in environmental issues. Shipping industry is responsible for approximately 3% of global CO2 emissions, 14-15% of global NOX emissions, and 16% of global SOX emissions. Ship trim optimization has gained enormous momentum in recent years being an effective operational measure for better energy efficiency to reduce emissions. Ship trim optimization analysis has traditionally been done through tow-tank testing for a specific hullform. Computational techniques are increasingly popular in ship hydrodynamics applications. The purpose of this study is to present MOERI container ship (KCS) hull trim optimization by employing computational methods. KCS hull total resistances and trim and sinkage computed values, in even keel condition, are compared with experimental values and found in reasonable agreement. The agreement validates that mesh, boundary conditions, and solution techniques are correct. The same mesh, boundary conditions, and solution techniques are used to obtain resistance values in different trim conditions at Fn = 0.2274. Based on attained results, optimum trim is suggested. This research serves as foundation for employing computational techniques for ship trim optimization. PMID:24578649

  14. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on grape benchgrafts.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Biao; Bettiga, Larry J; Daane, Kent M

    2010-04-01

    Controlled atmosphere treatments with ultralow oxygen (ULO treatments) were developed successfully for control of vine mealybug, Planococcusflcus Signoret (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on dormant grape (Vitis spp.) benchgrafts. At 30 ppm oxygen, 3-d ULO treatment at 25 degrees C and 4-d ULO treatment at 150C achieved complete control of all life stages of P. ficus. At a much lower oxygen level (<1 ppm), the two ULO treatments with the same exposure periods of 3 d at 25 degrees C and 4 d at 15 degrees C were tested on six table and wine grape cultivars grafted on rootstocks along with P. ficus. The benchgrafts were then potted in a greenhouse, together with untreated controls, to determine treatment effects on rootstock viability. Both ULO treatments achieved complete control of P. ficus and did not have any negative effects on vine growth, compared with the control. Results indicate that ULO treatments can be used to control P. ficus on dormant grape benchgrafts. The advantages of the ULO treatments are also discussed with respect to hot water treatments. PMID:20429438

  15. TRIM family proteins and their emerging roles in innate immunity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dong-Mi Shin; Keiko Ozato; Tsung-Hsien Chang; Herbert C. Morse

    2008-01-01

    The superfamily of tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) proteins is conserved throughout the metazoan kingdom and has expanded rapidly during vertebrate evolution; there are now more than 60 TRIM proteins known in humans and mice. Many TRIM proteins are induced by type I and type II interferons, which are crucial for many aspects of resistance to pathogens, and several are known to

  16. Transfusion immunomodulation or TRIM: What does it mean clinically?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Blajchman

    2005-01-01

    Evidence from a variety of sources indicate that allogeneic blood transfusions can induce clinically significant immunosuppression, as well as other effects, in recipients. This clinical syndrome is generally referred to in the Transfusion Medicine literature as transfusion-associated immunomodulation, or TRIM. TRIM has been linked to an improved clinical outcome in the setting of renal allograft transplantation. Possible deleterious TRIM-associated effects

  17. EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF OXYGEN AND AIR ACTIVATED SLUDGE NITRIFICATION SYSTEMS WITH AND WITHOUT PH CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nitrification capabilities of two oxygen activated sludge systems receiving District of Columbia secondary effluent at a steady state flow of 190 cu m/day (50,000 gpd) were evaluated. The pH of one system was controlled to maintain a pH of 7.0 in the last reactor pass of the ...

  18. ULTRA-LOW OXYGEN TREATMENT FOR POSTHARVEST CONTROL OF NASONOVIA RIBISNIGRI (HOMOPTERA: APHIDIDAE) ON ICEBERG LETTUCE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lettuce aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri, is a common pest of lettuce in the United States. Because it is quarantined in Japan, it hinders export of U.S. lettuce to the overseas market. Ultra-low oxygen treatments were studied for control of the insect on iceberg lettuce. Small-scale ultra-low oxy...

  19. CONTROL OF TRANSIENT INCINERATOR EMISSIONS WITH AN OXYGEN BASED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The subject of this paper is the experience with a novel and field-proven method for the enhanced control of transient emissions from rotary kiln incinerators using oxygen enrichment. hen high-BTU content wastes are fed into rotary kiln incinerators in an intermittent mode (typic...

  20. Basic oxygen furnace based steelmaking processes and cleanliness control at Baosteel

    E-print Network

    Thomas, Brian G.

    at Baosteel. The effects on steel cleanliness of specific operational improvements during steel refining to the amount. Furthermore, sulphur, phosphorus, hydrogen, nitrogen and even carbon1,2 should also be controlled requires sulphur, phosphorus and total oxygen (TO) all to be ,30 ppm, low hydrogen, low nitrogen

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTROLLING BOP (BASIC OXYGEN PROCESS) CHARGING EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of the basic oxygen process (BOP) hot metal charging emission control technology, conducted with a 900 kg pilot vessel designed for the experiments. Complete instrumentation was provided to measure the emissions, the effectiveness of the variou...

  2. Oxygen fugacity control in piston-cylinder experiments: a re-evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, Sigurdur; Blundy, Jon; Moore, Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Jakobsson (Contrib Miner Petrol 164(3):397-407, 2012) investigated a double capsule assembly for use in piston-cylinder experiments that would allow hydrous, high-temperature, and high-pressure experiments to be conducted under controlled oxygen fugacity conditions. Using a platinum outer capsule containing a metal oxide oxygen buffer (Ni-NiO or Co-CoO) and H2O, with an inner gold-palladium capsule containing hydrous melt, this study was able to compare the oxygen fugacity imposed by the outer capsule oxygen buffer with an oxygen fugacity estimated by the AuPdFe ternary system calibrated by Barr and Grove (Contrib Miner Petrol 160(5):631-643, 2010). H2O loss or gain, as well as iron loss to the capsule walls and carbon contamination, is often observed in piston-cylinder experiments and often go unexplained. Only a few have attempted to actually quantify various aspects of these changes (Brooker et al. in Am Miner 83(9-10):985-994, 1998; Truckenbrodt and Johannes in Am Miner 84:1333-1335, 1999). It was one of the goals of Jakobsson (Contrib Miner Petrol 164(3):397-407, 2012) to address these issues by using and testing the AuPdFe solution model of Barr and Grove (Contrib Miner Petrol 160(5):631-643, 2010), as well as to constrain the oxygen fugacity of the inner capsule. The oxygen fugacities of the analyzed melts were assumed to be equal to those of the solid Ni-NiO and Co-CoO buffers, which is incorrect since the melts are all undersaturated in H2O and the oxygen fugacities should therefore be lower than that of the buffer by 2 log.

  3. How to minimize power in dissolved oxygen control... DSM in action

    SciTech Connect

    Skrentner, R.G.; Lutman, C.G.

    1994-12-31

    As part of the EPRI Municipal Water and Sewage Project, Demand-Side Energy Management, EPRI retained EMA to evaluate the life cycle cost of three alternatives for controlling low-pressure centrifugal compressors to reduce power costs. The alternatives included: inlet guide vanes, inlet butterfly valves, and adjustable speed drives. This paper contains the findings and identifies actions that could benefit wastewater treatment facilities. Many wastewater treatment plants use an activated sludge process to remove organic pollutants. In this process, a large mass of microbes consumes the organic matter in the wastewater. The microbes require diffused oxygen to metabolize the organic material. The diffused air mixes with the contents of the aeration basin and provides oxygen to the microbes. The basic activated sludge process has the following features: (1) An aeration basin with provisions for oxygenation and mixing of the mixed liquor, (2) A settling tank or clarifier to separate mixed liquor solids and liquid, (3) A sludge recycling system to return settled activated sludge to the aeration basin, and (4) A sludge wasting system to remove solids at the rate that it grows, thus maintaining the desired mass of solids in the process. The operator has three main control variables: (1) Aeration rate to control the dissolved oxygen concentration in the aeration basin. The operator sets the aeration rate to maintain dissolved oxygen at 1-2 mg/l. (2) Sludge recycle rate to control the concentration of the return sludge and the mass of solids in the clarifier. The operator sets the return rate to maintain the sludge blanket level at some predetermined depth. (3) Sludge wasting rate to control the solids retention time and mass of solids in the process. The operator sets the waste rate usually once per day to remove a pre-determined mass.

  4. Insulating ferromagnetic oxide films: the controlling role of oxygen vacancy ordering

    SciTech Connect

    Salafranca Laforga, Juan I [ORNL] [ORNL; Salafranca, Juan [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain] [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain; Biskup, Nevenko [ORNL] [ORNL; Mehta, Virat [University of California, Berkeley] [University of California, Berkeley; Oxley, Mark P [ORNL] [ORNL; Suzuki, Yuri [Stanford University] [Stanford University; Pennycook, Stephen J [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Pantelides, Sokrates T. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville] [Vanderbilt University, Nashville; Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The origin of ferromagnetism in strained epitaxial LaCoO3 films has been a long-standing mystery. Here, we combine atomically resolved Z-contrast imaging, electron-energy-loss spectroscopy, and density-functional calculations to demonstrate that, in epitaxial LaCoO3 films, oxygen-vacancy superstructures release strain, control the film s electronic properties, and produce the observed ferromagnetism via the excess electrons in the Co d states. Although oxygen vacancies typically dope a material n-type, we find that ordered vacancies induce Peierls-like minigaps which, combined with strain relaxation, trigger a nonlinear rupture of the energy bands, resulting in insulating behavior.

  5. Effects of Supplemental Oxygen on Maternal and Neonatal Oxygenation in Elective Cesarean Section under Spinal Anesthesia: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Siriussawakul, Arunotai; Triyasunant, Namtip; Nimmannit, Akarin; Ngerncham, Sopapan; Hirunkanokpan, Promphon; Luang-Aram, Sasiwalai; Pechpaisit, Nusaroch; Wangdee, Aungsumat; Ruangvutilert, Pornpimol

    2014-01-01

    The use of supplemental oxygen in uncomplicated cesarean deliveries under spinal anesthesia has been thoroughly investigated during recent decades. The aim of this study was to determine the benefits for both mother and infant of administering supplemental, low-dose oxygen via a nasal cannula versus having no supplement (i.e., room air only). Healthy parturients at term undergoing elective cesarean section under spinal anesthesia were randomly allocated into two groups: an oxygen group (n = 170), who received 3 LPM oxygen via a nasal cannula; and a room-air group (n = 170), who were assigned to breathe room air. Maternal oxygen saturation was measured continuously by using pulse oximeter. The desaturation was determined by oxygen saturation <94% over 30 seconds. Umbilical cord gases and Apgar scores were collected followed delivery of the infant. All maternal desaturation events occurred in 12 parturients assigned to the room-air group. Most events were concurrent with hypotension. The umbilical venous partial pressure of oxygen was significantly higher in the oxygen group. The other blood gas measurements and Apgar scores were not significantly different between the two groups. Based on our findings, the use of supplemental oxygen could prevent maternal desaturation resulting from receiving sedation and intraoperative hypotension. PMID:24696860

  6. Oxygen-induced diffusion-controlled intergranular cracking of structural alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaendtner, Jeffrey A.

    The high-temperature cracking behavior of a nickel-base superalloy IN718, known to suffer time-dependent fatigue-crack growth in the presence of oxygen, and a precipitation-hardening copper-beryllium-cobalt alloy, as a potential model material for dynamic embrittlement, were explored in the presence of oxygen. Single-edge-notch specimens of the nickel-base alloy were loaded in pure bending to a fixed displacement, cracking was observed to occur by smooth intergranular decohesion at rates approaching 3×10sp{-5} m/sec, as computed via a compliance calibration, at 650sp°C and 1 atmosphere oxygen, with an apparent activation enthalpy of 69 kcal/mol. The rate of cracking in this alloy was also a strong function of the oxygen pressure with a several-orders-of-magnitude difference in cracking rate between 1 atmosphere and 10sp{-5} torr. At the low pressures, there appeared to be a transition in the cracking mechanism from one controlled by oxygen diffusion ahead of the crack to one of oxygen-supply control at the crack tip. This is based on fractographic observations of changes in grain boundary appearance from smooth facets to one showing prominent striations with periodic spacing. In this alloy the mechanism of crack advance is suggested to be one involving a highly localized crack-tip diffusion process zone thought to be on the order of nanometers. A crack growing in 1 atmosphere of oxygen was arrested by evacuating the test chamber to below {˜}10sp{-3} torr, the time of which took less than 30 seconds. When tested at 175sp°C in oxygen, the high-strength copper-beryllium-cobalt alloy failed by smooth intergranular cracking at rates several orders of magnitude lower than the nickel-base alloy at 650sp°C. Those grain boundaries containing weakly-bonded second-phase particles appeared to be especially prone to decohesion. As with the nickel alloy, crack growth rates in this alloy depended strongly on the ambient oxygen pressure. This material, however, exhibited low toughness in the presence of the sharp cracks produced by dynamic embrittlement. The observed high-temperature cracking began by intergranular decohesion at low stress intensities with a transition to transgranular ductile tearing at higher stress intensities.

  7. Two-level multivariable control system of dissolved oxygen tracking and aeration system for activated sludge processes.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The problem of tracking dissolved oxygen is one of the most complex and fundamental issues related to biological processes. The dissolved oxygen level in aerobic tanks has a significant influence on the behavior and activity of microorganisms. Aerated tanks are supplied with air from an aeration system (blowers, pipes, throttling valves, and diffusers). It is a complex, dynamic system governed by nonlinear hybrid dynamics. Control of the aeration system is also difficult in terms of control of the dissolved oxygen. In this article, a two-level multivariable control system for tracking dissolved oxygen and controlling an aeration system is designed. A nonlinear model predictive control algorithm was applied to design controllers for each level. This overall hierarchical control system was validated by simulation based on real data records provided by a water resource recovery facility located in Kartuzy, Northern Poland. The effect of control system parameters and disturbances was also investigated. PMID:25630122

  8. Prediction and innovative control strategies for oxygen and hazardous gases from diesel emission in underground mines.

    PubMed

    Kurnia, Jundika C; Sasmito, Agus P; Wong, Wai Yap; Mujumdar, Arun S

    2014-05-15

    Diesel engine is widely used in underground mining machines due to its efficiency, ease of maintenance, reliability and durability. However, it possesses significant danger to the miners and mining operations as it releases hazardous gases (CO, NO, CO2) and fine particles which can be easily inhaled by the miners. Moreover, the diesel engine consumes significant amount of oxygen which can lead to insufficient oxygen supply for miners. It is therefore critical to maintain sufficient oxygen supply while keeping hazardous gas concentrations from diesel emission below the maximum allowable level. The objective of this study is to propose and to examine various innovative ventilation strategies to control oxygen and hazardous gas concentrations in underground mine to ensure safety, productivity and cost related to energy consumption. Airflow distribution, oxygen and hazardous gas dispersion as well as ambient temperature within the mining area are evaluated by utilizing the well-established computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. The results suggest that our newly proposed ventilation design performs better as compared to the conventional design to handle hazardous gases from diesel emission. PMID:24607396

  9. Physical and biological controls on oxygen saturation variability in the upper Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eveleth, Rachel; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Cassar, Nicolas

    2014-11-01

    Employing continuous in situ measurements of dissolved O2/Ar and O2 in the Arctic Ocean, we investigate the mechanisms controlling the physical (abiotic) and biological oxygen saturation state variability in the surface ocean beneath sea ice. O2/Ar measurements were made underway using Equilibrator Inlet Mass Spectrometry (EIMS) during an icebreaker survey transiting the upper Arctic Ocean across the North Pole in late summer 2011. Using concurrently collected measurements of total oxygen, we devolve biological oxygen saturation and physical oxygen (Ar) saturation signals at unprecedented horizontal resolution in the surface ocean. In the Nansen Basin, Ar is undersaturated up to -7% while biological oxygen supersaturation peaks at 18.4%. We attribute this to ice melt, Atlantic Water influence and/or cooling. In the Canadian Basin, Ar is supersaturated up to 3%, likely because of Ar injection from freezing processes and long residence times of gas under ice cover. The overall Canadian Basin to Eurasian Basin gradient of Ar supersaturation to undersaturation may reflect net freezing in the Canadian Basin and net melting in the Eurasian Basin over several seasons, either by Pacific to Atlantic sector ice transport or local changes over time. Ar saturation could thereby provide large-scale high-resolution estimates of current and future changes in these processes. O2/Ar supersaturation averages 4.9% with peaks up to 9.8% where first year ice and abundant melt ponds likely allow sufficient light for blooms in ice-covered regions.

  10. Building Trades. Block VIII. Interior Trim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This curriculum for interior trim provides instructional materials for 18 informational and manipulative lessons. A list of 11 references precedes the course materials. The instructor's plan for each informational lesson begins by providing this information: subject, aim, required teaching aids, required materials, references, and prerequisite…

  11. Effects of Beak Trimming on Pecking Force

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beak trimming in the production laying hen has come under great scrutiny by welfare and consumer advocacy groups as a potential source of acute and chronic pain as well as having the potential to inhibit the freedom to express normal behaviors such as feeding behaviors. Although several studies have...

  12. Trimming high lift for STOL fighters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paulson, J. W., Jr.; Quinto, P. F.; Banks, D. W.; Gatlin, G. M.

    1983-01-01

    The results of investigations of three different approaches to obtaining longitudinal trim for advanced fighter configurations with STOL performance are presented. The first, a differential thrust vectoring/reverser nozzle on an F-15 model, was very effective with an increment in pitching moment generated by the 90 deg/50 deg nozzle at military power equal to that which would be produced by a change in horizontal tail deflection of 20 deg. This trim pitching moment was accompanied by a modest loss in lift. The second method involved a nose jet on a supersonic cruise fighter configuration which, when combined with some canard deflection and longitudinal instability, provided trim capability for the configuration with military power setting and main nozzles deflected 43 degrees. Finally, a blown-high-lift canard on an advanced fighter configuration indicated that trim could be obtained across the complete angle-of-attack range tested with thrust set at military power and the main nozzles deflected 40 degrees. There was no loss in configuration lift and a slight increase in longitudinal stability.

  13. Poster Header 40" x 5" TRIM

    E-print Network

    Frachtenberg, Eitan

    -bound job and SWEEP3D, an application kernCOLORS: Print CMYK QUANTITY: 1 SPECS: Poster Header 40" x 5" TRIM 3 mil lam 1/8" black sintra of processes to processors · Global distribution of executable and data files · Job launching · Coordinated

  14. Plant cysteine oxidases control the oxygen-dependent branch of the N-end-rule pathway

    PubMed Central

    Weits, Daan A.; Giuntoli, Beatrice; Kosmacz, Monika; Parlanti, Sandro; Hubberten, Hans-Michael; Riegler, Heike; Hoefgen, Rainer; Perata, Pierdomenico; van Dongen, Joost T.; Licausi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    In plant and animal cells, amino-terminal cysteine oxidation controls selective proteolysis via an oxygen-dependent branch of the N-end rule pathway. It remains unknown how the N-terminal cysteine is specifically oxidized. Here we identify plant cysteine oxidase (PCO) enzymes that oxidize the penultimate cysteine of ERF-VII transcription factors by using oxygen as a co-substrate, thereby controlling the lifetime of these proteins. Consequently, ERF-VII proteins are stabilized under hypoxia and activate the molecular response to low oxygen while the expression of anaerobic genes is repressed in air. Members of the PCO family are themselves targets of ERF-VII transcription factors, generating a feedback loop that adapts the stress response according to the extent of the hypoxic condition. Our results reveal that PCOs act as sensor proteins for oxygen in plants and provide an example of how proactive regulation of the N-end rule pathway balances stress response to optimal growth and development in plants. PMID:24599061

  15. Dissolved oxygen regulation by logarithmic/antilogarithmic control to improve a wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Flores, Victor R; Sanchez, Edgar N; Béteau, Jean-François; Hernandez, Salvador Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the automation of a real activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, which is located at San Antonio Ajijic in Jalisco, Mexico. The main objective is to create an on-line automatic supervision system, and to regulate the dissolved oxygen concentration in order to improve the performances of the process treating municipal wastewater. An approximate mathematical model is determined in order to evaluate via simulations different control strategies: proportional integral (PI), fuzzy PI and PI Logarithm/Antilogarithm (PI L/A). The controlled variable is dissolved oxygen and the control input is the injected oxygen. Based on this evaluation, the PI L/A controller is selected to be implemented in the real process. After that, the implementation, testing and fully operation of the plant automation are described. With this system, the considered wastewater treatment plant save energy and improves the effluent quality; also, the process monitoring is done online and it is easily operated by the plant users. PMID:24617069

  16. Data acquisition and control system with a programmable logic controller (PLC) for a pulsed chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haijun; Li, Guofu; Duo, Liping; Jin, Yuqi; Wang, Jian; Sang, Fengting; Kang, Yuanfu; Li, Liucheng; Wang, Yuanhu; Tang, Shukai; Yu, Hongliang

    2015-02-01

    A user-friendly data acquisition and control system (DACS) for a pulsed chemical oxygen -iodine laser (PCOIL) has been developed. It is implemented by an industrial control computer?a PLC, and a distributed input/output (I/O) module, as well as the valve and transmitter. The system is capable of handling 200 analogue/digital channels for performing various operations such as on-line acquisition, display, safety measures and control of various valves. These operations are controlled either by control switches configured on a PC while not running or by a pre-determined sequence or timings during the run. The system is capable of real-time acquisition and on-line estimation of important diagnostic parameters for optimization of a PCOIL. The DACS system has been programmed using software programmable logic controller (PLC). Using this DACS, more than 200 runs were given performed successfully.

  17. Ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on iceberg lettuce. II. Pre-treatment on lettuce tolerance and sequential controlled atmosphere

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-stored iceberg lettuce under normal atmosphere and controlled atmosphere (CA) with about 3% oxygen at low temperature for one week was compared with fresh lettuce for their response to 2-day ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment at 10 degrees C for control of western flower thrips. For both atmospheri...

  18. Oxygen stoichiometry control of nanometric oxide compounds: The case of titanium ferrites

    SciTech Connect

    Millot, N., E-mail: nmillot@u-bourgogne.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, U.M.R. 5209 C.N.R.S./Universite de Bourgogne, BP 47 870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Perriat, P. [Materiaux, Ingenierie et Sciences, CNRS UMR 5510, INSA de Lyon, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2011-10-15

    Three techniques have been coupled with an original device, based on H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O equilibrium, controlling oxygen partial pressure: XRD, TGA and DC conductivity in order to characterize very reactive compounds such as nanometric powders. From XRD, both the structure and the oxygen stoichiometry (thanks to their lattice parameter) were investigated in situ. From TGA, it was the oxygen stoichiometry (thanks to mass gain or loss) which was determined. From DC conductivity, it was both the structure and the oxygen stoichiometry (thanks to the activation energy) which were obtained. The advantages were to determine very rapidly and with a small amount of powder the equilibrium conditions (T, pO{sub 2}) necessary to obtain the desired phase and stoichiometry. These methods have been evaluated for nanometric titanium ferrites. Two phenomena have been observed during the reducing process: the precipitation of a rhombohedral phase and a significant grain growth linked together. - Graphical abstract: XRD patterns of Fe{sub 3(1-{delta})}O{sub 4} nanometric powders obtained in situ during a reducing treatment. The stoichiometric compound was obtained by a thermal annealing at 460 deg. C under pO{sub 2}=3x10{sup -26} Pa ({Phi}{sub DRX}=100 nm). In inset, data of the experimental lattice parameter compared to the theoretical one. {alpha} represents the rhomboedrical phase which precipitates during this thermal treatment, then disappeared. Highlights: > The control of the deviation from oxygen stoichiometry is rarely consider in literature. > At the nanometric scale, it is necessary to develop synthesis routes under appropriate atmosphere. > These synthesis must be coupled with in situ characterization tools. > It opens the door to fast and precise studies concerning the evolution of nanometric materials.

  19. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoek, Pim; Aristidou, Aristos; Rush, Brian

    2014-09-09

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  20. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    DOEpatents

    Van Hoek, Pim (Minnetonka, MN); Aristidou, Aristos (Maple Grove, MN); Rush, Brian (Minneapolis, MN)

    2011-05-10

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  1. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    DOEpatents

    Van Hoek; Pim (Minnetonka, MN), Aristidou; Aristos (Maple Grove, MN), Rush; Brian (Minneapolis, MN)

    2007-06-19

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  2. Control of nitrogenase recovery from oxygen inactivation by ammonia in the cyanobacterium anabaena sp. strain CA (ATCC 33047)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.L.; Van Baalen, C. (Univ. of Texas Marine Science Institute, Port Aransas (USA)); Tabita, F.R. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA) Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The control of nitrogenase recovery from inactivation by oxygen was studied in Anabaena sp. strain CA (ATCC 33047). Nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction) in cultures grown in 1% CO{sub 2} in air was inhibited by exposure to 1% CO{sub 2}-99% O{sub 2} and allowed to recover in the presence of high oxygen tensions. Cultures exposed to hyperbaric levels of oxygen in the presence of 10 mM NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} were incapable of regaining nitrogenase activity, whereas control cultures returned to 65 to 80% of their original activity within about 3 h after exposure to high oxygen tension. In contrast to the regulation of heterocyst differentiation and nitrogenase synthesis, recovery from oxygen inactivation in this organism was shown to be under the control of NH{sub 4}{sup +} rather than NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}.

  3. 14 CFR 25.145 - Longitudinal control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Controllability...is prompt with (1) The airplane trimmed at the trim speed prescribed...gear extended; (3) The wing flaps (i) retracted and...flaps retracted, and the airplane trimmed at 1.3 VSR1...

  4. 14 CFR 25.145 - Longitudinal control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Controllability...is prompt with (1) The airplane trimmed at the trim speed prescribed...gear extended; (3) The wing flaps (i) retracted and...flaps retracted, and the airplane trimmed at 1.3 VSR1...

  5. 14 CFR 25.145 - Longitudinal control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Controllability...is prompt with (1) The airplane trimmed at the trim speed prescribed...gear extended; (3) The wing flaps (i) retracted and...flaps retracted, and the airplane trimmed at 1.3 VSR1...

  6. 14 CFR 25.145 - Longitudinal control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Controllability...is prompt with (1) The airplane trimmed at the trim speed prescribed...gear extended; (3) The wing flaps (i) retracted and...flaps retracted, and the airplane trimmed at 1.3 VSR1...

  7. 14 CFR 25.145 - Longitudinal control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight Controllability...is prompt with (1) The airplane trimmed at the trim speed prescribed...gear extended; (3) The wing flaps (i) retracted and...flaps retracted, and the airplane trimmed at 1.3 VSR1...

  8. Semi-commercial ultralow oxygen treatment for control of western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (thysanoptera: thripidae), on harvested iceberg lettuce.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pallet scale two day ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment with 30 ppm oxygen at 10°C ambient temperature was conducted on seven cultivars of vacuum cooled iceberg lettuce which had been stored for 1, 3, 4, and 6 days to develop a safe and effective treatment for control of western flower thrips, Franklin...

  9. Dietary and Physiological Controls on the Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Hair from Mid-20th Century

    E-print Network

    Ehleringer, Jim

    Dietary and Physiological Controls on the Hydrogen and Oxygen Isotope Ratios of Hair from Mid-20th toward the application of organic hydrogen (d2 H) and oxygen (d18 O) isotopes has been limited. Early and Dabrowski, 1980), but the interpreta- tion of hydrogen isotope data from complex organic tis- sues quickly

  10. Simulation of router action on a lathe to test the cutting tool performance in edge-trimming of graphite/epoxy composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramulu, M.; Rogers, E.

    1994-04-01

    The predominant machining application with graphite/epoxy composite materials in aerospace industry is peripheral trimming. The computer numerically controlled (CNC) high speed routers required to do edge trimming work are generally scheduled for production work in industry and are not available for extensive cutter testing. Therefore, an experimental method of simulating the conditions of periphery trim using a lathe is developed in this paper. The validity of the test technique will be demonstrated by conducting carbide tool wear tests under dry cutting conditions. The experimental results will be analyzed to characterize the wear behavior of carbide cutting tools in machining the composite materials.

  11. Advancements in oxygen generation and humidity control by water vapor electrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Sudar, M.; Lee, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Regenerative processes for the revitalization of manned spacecraft atmospheres or other manned habitats are essential for realization of long-term space missions. These processes include oxygen generation through water electrolysis. One promising technique of water electrolysis is the direct conversion of the water vapor contained in the cabin air to oxygen. This technique is the subject of the present program on water vapor electrolysis development. The objectives were to incorporate technology improvements developed under other similar electrochemical programs and add new ones; design and fabricate a mutli-cell electrochemical module and a testing facility; and demonstrate through testing the improvements. Each aspect of the water vapor electrolysis cell was reviewed. The materials of construction and sizing of each element were investigated analytically and sometime experimentally. In addition, operational considerations such as temperature control in response to inlet conditions were investigated. Three specific quantitative goals were established.

  12. 16 CFR 300.23 - Linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings and facings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...false Linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings and facings. 300.23 Section 300...23 Linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings and facings. (a) In labeling...any linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings or facings of such garments or...

  13. The oxygen sensor MgFnr controls magnetite biomineralization by regulation of denitrification in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Magnetotactic bacteria are capable of synthesizing magnetosomes only under oxygen-limited conditions. However, the mechanism of the aerobic repression on magnetite biomineralization has remained unknown. In Escherichia coli and other bacteria, Fnr (fumarate and nitrate reduction regulator) proteins are known to be involved in controlling the switch between microaerobic and aerobic metabolism. Here, we report on an Fnr-like protein (MgFnr) and its role in growth metabolism and magnetite biomineralization in the alphaproteobacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. Results Deletion of Mgfnr not only resulted in decreased N2 production due to reduced N2O reductase activity, but also impaired magnetite biomineralization under microaerobic conditions in the presence of nitrate. Overexpression of MgFnr in the WT also caused the synthesis of smaller magnetite particles under anaerobic and microaerobic conditions in the presence of nitrate. These data suggest that proper expression of MgFnr is required for WT-like magnetosome synthesis, which is regulated by oxygen. Analyses of transcriptional gusA reporter fusions revealed that besides showing similar properties to Fnr proteins reported in other bacteria, MgFnr is involved in the repression of the expression of denitrification genes nor and nosZ under aerobic conditions, possibly owing to several unique amino acid residues specific to MTB-Fnr. Conclusions We have identified and thoroughly characterized the first regulatory protein mediating denitrification growth and magnetite biomineralization in response to different oxygen conditions in a magnetotactic bacterium. Our findings reveal that the global oxygen regulator MgFnr is a genuine O2 sensor. It is involved in controlling expression of denitrification genes and thereby plays an indirect role in maintaining proper redox conditions required for magnetite biomineralization. PMID:24915802

  14. Computational aspects of helicopter trim analysis and damping levels from Floquet theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaonkar, Gopal H.; Achar, N. S.

    1992-01-01

    Helicopter trim settings of periodic initial state and control inputs are investigated for convergence of Newton iteration in computing the settings sequentially and in parallel. The trim analysis uses a shooting method and a weak version of two temporal finite element methods with displacement formulation and with mixed formulation of displacements and momenta. These three methods broadly represent two main approaches of trim analysis: adaptation of initial-value and finite element boundary-value codes to periodic boundary conditions, particularly for unstable and marginally stable systems. In each method, both the sequential and in-parallel schemes are used and the resulting nonlinear algebraic equations are solved by damped Newton iteration with an optimally selected damping parameter. The impact of damped Newton iteration, including earlier-observed divergence problems in trim analysis, is demonstrated by the maximum condition number of the Jacobian matrices of the iterative scheme and by virtual elimination of divergence. The advantages of the in-parallel scheme over the conventional sequential scheme are also demonstrated.

  15. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs on lettuce.

    PubMed

    Liu, Samuel S; Liu, Yong-Biao; Simmons, Gregory S

    2014-08-01

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), is a quarantined pest in most countries. Its establishment in California and potential spread to other parts of the state and beyond make it urgent to develop effective postharvest treatments to control the pest on fresh commodities. Fumigation with cylindered phosphine at low temperature has emerged to be a practical methyl bromide alternative treatment for postharvest pest control on fresh commodities. However, its use to control E. postvittana eggs on sensitive commodities such as lettuce is problematic. E. postvittana eggs are tolerant of phosphine and long phosphine treatment also injures lettuce. In the current study, E. postvittana eggs were subjected to oxygenated phosphine fumigations to develop an effective treatment at a low storage temperature of 2 degrees C. In addition, soda lime as a CO2 absorbent was tested to determine its effects in reducing and preventing injuries to lettuce associated with phosphine fumigations. Three-day fumigation with 1,000 ppm phosphine under 60% O2 achieved 100% mortality of E. postvittana eggs in small-scale laboratory tests. In the presence of the CO2 absorbent, a 3-d large-scale fumigation of lettuce with 1,700 ppm phosphine under 60% O2 resulted in a relative egg mortality of 99.96% without any negative effect on lettuce quality. The 3-d fumigation treatment without the CO2 absorbent, however, resulted in significant injuries to lettuce and consequential quality reductions. The study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation has the potential to control E. postvittana eggs and the CO2 absorbent has the potential to prevent injuries and quality reductions of lettuce associated with long-term oxygenated phosphine fumigation. PMID:25195424

  16. (?)-Epicatechin administration and exercising skeletal muscle vascular control and microvascular oxygenation in healthy rats

    PubMed Central

    Copp, Steven W.; Inagaki, Tadakatsu; White, Michael J.; Hirai, Daniel M.; Ferguson, Scott K.; Holdsworth, Clark T.; Sims, Gabrielle E.; Poole, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of the dietary flavanol (?)-epicatechin (EPI) is associated with enhanced endothelial function and augmented skeletal muscle capillarity and mitochondrial volume density. The potential for EPI to improve peripheral vascular function and muscle oxygenation during exercise is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that EPI administration in healthy rats would improve treadmill exercise performance secondary to elevated skeletal muscle blood flow and vascular conductance [VC, blood flow/mean arterial pressure (MAP)] and improved skeletal muscle microvascular oxygenation. Rats received water (control, n = 12) or 4 mg/kg EPI (n = 12) via oral gavage daily for 24 days. Exercise endurance capacity and peak O2 uptake (V?o2 peak) were measured via treadmill runs to exhaustion. MAP (arterial catheter) and blood flow (radiolabeled microspheres) were measured and VC was calculated during submaximal treadmill exercise (25 m/min, 5% grade). Spinotrapezius muscle microvascular O2 pressure (Po2mv) was measured (phosphorescence quenching) during electrically induced twitch (1 Hz) contractions. In conscious rats, EPI administration resulted in lower (??5%) resting (P = 0.03) and exercising (P = 0.04) MAP. There were no differences in exercise endurance capacity, V?o2 peak, total exercising hindlimb blood flow (control, 154 ± 13; and EPI, 159 ± 8 ml·min?1·100 g?1, P = 0.68), or VC (control, 1.13 ± 0.10; and EPI, 1.24 ± 0.08 ml·min?1·100 g?1·mmHg?1, P = 0.21) between groups. Following anesthesia, EPI resulted in lower MAP (??16%) but did not impact resting Po2mv or any kinetics parameters (P > 0.05 for all) during muscle contractions compared with control. EPI administration (4 mg·kg?1·day?1) improved modestly cardiovascular function (i.e., ?MAP) with no impact on exercise performance, total exercising skeletal muscle blood flow and VC, or contracting muscle microvascular oxygenation in healthy rats. PMID:23144313

  17. CONTROLLED FIELD STUDY ON THE USE OF NITRATE AND OXYGEN FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF A GASOLINE SOURCE ZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Controlled releases of unleaded gasoline were used to evaluate the biotransformation of the soluble aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene isomers, trimethylbenzene isomers, and naphthalene) within a source zone using nitrate and oxygen as electron accepto...

  18. Oxygen analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Benner, William H. (Danville, CA)

    1986-01-01

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  19. HDAC6 mediates the acetylation of TRIM50.

    PubMed

    Fusco, Carmela; Micale, Lucia; Augello, Bartolomeo; Mandriani, Barbara; Pellico, Maria Teresa; De Nittis, Pasquelena; Calcagnì, Alessia; Monti, Maria; Cozzolino, Flora; Pucci, Piero; Merla, Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    The E3 Ubiquitin ligase TRIM50 promotes the formation and clearance of aggresome-associated polyubiquitinated proteins through HDAC6 interaction, a tubulin specific deacetylase that regulates microtubule-dependent aggresome formation. In this report we showed that TRIM50 is a target of HDAC6 with Lys-372 as a critical residue for acetylation. We identified p300 and PCAF as two TRIM50 acetyltransferases and we further showed that a balance between ubiquitination and acetylation regulates TRIM50 degradation. PMID:24308962

  20. TRIM family proteins and their emerging roles in innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Ozato, Keiko; Shin, Dong-Mi; Chang, Tsung-Hsien; Morse, Herbert C.

    2012-01-01

    The superfamily of tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) proteins is conserved throughout the metazoan kingdom and has expanded rapidly during vertebrate evolution; there are now more than 60 TRIM proteins known in humans and mice. Many TRIM proteins are induced by type I and type II interferons, which are crucial for many aspects of resistance to pathogens, and several are known to be required for the restriction of infection by lentiviruses. In this Review, we describe recent data that reveal broader antiviral and antimicrobial activities of TRIM proteins and discuss their involvement in the regulation of pathogen-recognition and transcriptional pathways in host defence. PMID:18836477

  1. A randomised controlled trial of an automated oxygen delivery algorithm for preterm neonates receiving supplemental oxygen without mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Zapata, James; Gómez, John Jairo; Araque Campo, Robinson; Matiz Rubio, Alejandro; Sola, Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Aim Providing consistent levels of oxygen saturation (SpO2) for infants in neonatal intensive care units is not easy. This study explored how effectively the Auto-Mixer® algorithm automatically adjusted fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) levels to maintain SpO2 within an intended range in extremely low birth weight infants receiving supplemental oxygen without mechanical ventilation. Methods Twenty extremely low birth weight infants were randomly assigned to the Auto-Mixer® group or the manual intervention group and studied for 12 h. The SpO2 target was 85–93%, and the outcomes were the percentage of time SpO2 was within target, SpO2 variability, SpO2 >95%, oxygen received and manual interventions. Results The percentage of time within intended SpO2 was 58 ± 4% in the Auto-Mixer® group and 33.7 ± 4.7% in the manual group, SpO2 >95% was 26.5% vs 54.8%, average SpO2 and FiO2 were 89.8% vs 92.2% and 37% vs 44.1%, and manual interventions were 0 vs 80 (p < 0.05). Brief periods of SpO2 < 85% occurred more frequently in the Auto-Mixer® group. Conclusion The Auto-Mixer® effectively increased the percentage of time that SpO2 was within the intended target range and decreased the time with high SpO2 in spontaneously breathing extremely low birth weight infants receiving supplemental oxygen. PMID:24813808

  2. Changes in the microflora on commercial beef trimmings during their collection, distribution and preparation for retail sale as ground beef.

    PubMed

    Gill, C O; McGinnis, C

    1993-06-01

    A commercial process for ground meat production, from the collection of meat plant trimmings to the retailing of consumer packs of ground beef, was examined. The selected process compiled with current concepts of Good Manufacturing Practice. During storage for up to 18 days before grinding, most trimming developed a flora of lactobacilli, of up to 10(7) CFU/g. Numbers of coliforms and of Escherichia coli on stored trimmings increased little and not at all, respectively. Increased total counts, and numbers of both coliforms and E. coli in displayed product indicated loss of control of the temperature of the displayed packaged product. It appears that the need to store a product, taking into account the unpredictable fluctuations in supply and demand, will inevitably result in much ground beef carrying large numbers of spoilage bacteria. Furthermore, currently accepted Good Practice in the retail handling of ground beef does not adequately control either spoilage or the growth of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:8347430

  3. Salicylic acid and reactive oxygen species interplay in the transcriptional control of defense genes expression

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Vásquez, Ariel; Salinas, Paula; Holuigue, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical role in the transcriptional reprograming that occurs during the plant defense response against biotic and abiotic stress. In the course of the defense response, the transcription of different sets of defense genes is controlled in a spatio-temporal manner via SA-mediated mechanisms. Interestingly, different lines of evidence indicate that SA interplays with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) in stressed plants. In this review we focus on the evidence that links SA, ROS, and GSH signals to the transcriptional control of defense genes. We discuss how redox modifications of regulators and co-regulators involved in SA-mediated transcriptional responses control the temporal patterns of gene expression in response to stress. Finally, we examine how these redox sensors are coordinated with the dynamics of cellular redox changes occurring in the defense response to biotic and abiotic stress. PMID:25852720

  4. Hydrodynamic controls on oxygen dynamics in a riverine salt wedge estuary, the Yarra River estuary, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, L. C.; Cook, P. L. M.; Teakle, I.; Hipsey, M. R.

    2014-04-01

    Oxygen depletion in coastal and estuarine waters has been increasing rapidly around the globe over the past several decades, leading to decline in water quality and ecological health. In this study we apply a numerical model to understand how salt wedge dynamics, changes in river flow and temperature together control oxygen depletion in a micro-tidal riverine estuary, the Yarra River estuary, Australia. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models have been previously applied to study how hydrodynamics impact upon seasonal hypoxia; however, their application to relatively shallow, narrow riverine estuaries with highly transient patterns of river inputs and sporadic periods of oxygen depletion has remained challenging, largely due to difficulty in accurately simulating salt wedge dynamics in morphologically complex areas. In this study we overcome this issue through application of a flexible mesh 3-D hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model in order to predict the extent of salt wedge intrusion and consequent patterns of oxygen depletion. The extent of the salt wedge responded quickly to the sporadic riverine flows, with the strength of stratification and vertical density gradients heavily influenced by morphological features corresponding to shallow points in regions of tight curvature ("horseshoe" bends). The spatiotemporal patterns of stratification led to the emergence of two "hot spots" of anoxia, the first downstream of a shallow region of tight curvature and the second downstream of a sill. Whilst these areas corresponded to regions of intense stratification, it was found that antecedent conditions related to the placement of the salt wedge played a major role in the recovery of anoxic regions following episodic high flow events. Furthermore, whilst a threshold salt wedge intrusion was a requirement for oxygen depletion, analysis of the results allowed us to quantify the effect of temperature in determining the overall severity and extent of hypoxia and anoxia. Climate warming scenarios highlighted that oxygen depletion is likely to be exacerbated through changes in flow regimes and warming temperatures; however, the increasing risk of hypoxia and anoxia can be mitigated through management of minimum flow allocations and targeted reductions in organic matter loading. A simple statistical model (R2 > 0.65) is suggested to relate riverine flow and temperature to the extent of estuary-wide anoxia.

  5. Composition-controlled PtCo alloy nanocubes with tuned electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sang-Il; Lee, Su-Un; Kim, Woo Youn; Choi, Ran; Hong, Kwangwoo; Nam, Ki Min; Han, Sang Woo; Park, Joon T

    2012-11-01

    Modification of the electronic structure and lattice contraction of Pt alloy nanocatalysts through control over their morphology and composition has been a crucial issue for improving their electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity. In the present work, we synthesized PtCo alloy nanocubes with controlled compositions (Pt(x)Co NCs, x = 2, 3, 5, 7, and 9) by regulating the ratio of surfactants and the amount of Co precursor to elucidate the effect of the composition of nanocatalysts on their ORR activity. Pt(x)Co NCs had a Pt-skin structure after electrochemical treatment. The electrocatalysis experiments revealed a strong correlation between ORR activity and Co composition. Pt?Co NCs exhibited the best ORR performance among the various Pt(x)Co NCs. From density functional theory calculations, a typical volcano-type relationship was established between ORR activity and oxygen binding energy (E(OB)) on NC surfaces, which showed that Pt?Co NCs had the optimal E(OB) to achieve the maximum ORR activity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements demonstrated that the electronic structure and lattice contraction of the Pt(x)Co NCs could be tuned by controlling the composition of NCs, which are highly correlated with the trends of E(OB) change. PMID:23106417

  6. Control of the redox potential by oxygen limitation improves bacterial leaching of chalcopyrite.

    PubMed

    Third, K A; Cord-Ruwisch, R; Watling, H R

    2002-05-20

    Shake flask and stirred tank bioleaching experiments showed that the dissolution of chalcopyrite is inhibited by ferric ion concentrations as low as 200 mg L(-1) and redox potentials >420 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl). Chemical leaching of chalcopyrite (4% suspension, surface area 2.3 m2 g(-1)) was enhanced fourfold in the presence of 0.1 M ferrous sulphate compared with 0.1 M ferric sulphate. A computer-controlled reactor was designed to function as a "potentiostat"-bioreactor by arresting the air supply to the reactor when the redox potential in solution was greater than a designated setpoint. Leaching at a low, constant redox potential (380 mV vs. Ag/AgCl) achieved final copper recoveries of 52%-61%, which was twice that achieved with a continuous supply of oxygen (<30% extraction). The bacterial populations were observed to continue growing under oxygen limitation but in a controlled manner that was found to improve chalcopyrite dissolution. As the control mechanism is easily established and is likely to decrease production cost, the use of this technology may find application in industry. PMID:11948450

  7. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for control of intractable cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis.

    PubMed

    Shameem, I A; Shimabukuro, T; Shirataki, S; Yamamoto, N; Maekawa, T; Naito, K

    1992-01-01

    We report a case of intractable hemorrhagic cystitis due to cyclophosphamide therapy for Wegener's granulomatosis. Conservative treatment, including bladder irrigation with physiological saline and instillation of prostaglandin F2 alpha, failed to totally control hemorrhage. We then used hyperbaric oxygen at an absolute pressure of 2 atm, 5 days a week for 8 consecutive weeks. The bleeding ceased completely by the end of treatment and the patient remained free of hematuria thereafter. No side effect was noted during the course of therapy. In future, this form of therapy can offer a safe alternative in the treatment of cyclophosphamide-induced hemorrhagic cystitis. PMID:1468485

  8. Erosion, cavitation, and abrasion resistance of choke trim materials

    SciTech Connect

    Seger, F.O.; Maroofian, I.

    1984-05-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to determine the relative erosion, abrasion and cavitation resistance characteristics of selected materials. Testing was conducted under controlled laboratory conditions to simulate service conditions encountered in production and injection chokes. The testing effort is ongoing. The data accumulated allow informed material selection of conventional and novel trim for all chokes, valves, flow metering orifices, fixed beans and other devices used during drilling, completion and production of offshore and onshore oil and gas wells. Sintered silicon carbide, and tungsten carbide with minimum binder content were the most erosion and abrasion resistant of the materials tested. Cobalt base alloys bar and nickelchrome alloy 625 bar proved to be most cavitation resistant.

  9. Antioxidant-photosensitizer dual-loaded polymeric micelles with controllable production of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Cho, Hana; Yoon, Kwon Hyeok; Kang, Han Chang; Huh, Kang Moo

    2014-08-25

    Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(caprolactone) (PEG-b-PCL) micelles dually loaded with both pheophorbide a (PhA) as a photosensitizer and ?-carotene (CAR) as a singlet oxygen ((1)O2) scavenger were designed to control photodynamic therapy (PDT) activity in cancer treatment. The CAR in the PhA/CAR micelles significantly diminished PhA-generated (1)O2 through direct (1)O2 scavenging, whereas the CAR molecules lost their (1)O2 scavenging activity when the PhA and CAR were spatially isolated by the disintegration of the PEG-b-PCL micelles. In cell-culture systems, light irradiation at a post-treatment time that corresponded to the presence of the micelles in the blood environment induced negligible phototoxicity, whereas light irradiation at a post-treatment time that corresponded to the presence of the micelles in the intracellular environment induced remarkable phototoxicity. In addition, a longer post-treatment time induced greater internalization of PhA/CAR micelles, which resulted in higher phototoxicity, suggesting an increase in photo killing activity against the tumor cells of interest. Thus, the co-loading of a (1)O2 generator and a (1)O2 scavenger into a single micelle is a potential strategy that may be useful in facilitating more accurate and reliable PDT with site-specific controllable production of singlet oxygen species for cancer treatment. PMID:24939615

  10. Oxygen analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Benner, W.H.

    1984-05-08

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N/sub 2/), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135/sup 0/C, or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135/sup 0/C as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N/sub 2/, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  11. View of Mission Control Center during the Apollo 13 oxygen cell failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Several persons important to the Apollo 13 mission, at consoles in the Mission Operations Control Room of the Mission Control Center (MCC). Seated at consoles, from left to right, are Astronaut Donald K. Slayton, Director of Flight Crew Operations; Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Shift 3 spacecraft communicator; and Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 13 back-up crew. Standing, left to right, are Astronaut Tom K. Mattingly, who was replaced as Apollo 13 command module pilot after it was learned he may come down with measles, and Astronaut Vance D. Brand, Shift 2 spacecraft communicator. Several hours earlier crew members of the Apollo 13 mission reported to MCC that trouble had developed with an oxygen cell in their spacecraft.

  12. Room temperature alcohol sensing by oxygen vacancy controlled TiO2 nanotube array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, A.; Dutta, K.; Bhowmik, B.; Chattopadhyay, P. P.; Bhattacharyya, P.

    2014-08-01

    Oxygen vacancy (OV) controlled TiO2 nanotubes, having diameters of 50-70 nm and lengths of 200-250 nm, were synthesized by electrochemical anodization in the mixed electrolyte comprising NH4F and ethylene glycol with selective H2O content. The structural evolution of TiO2 nanoforms has been studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Variation in the formation of OVs with the variation of the structure of TiO2 nanoforms has been evaluated by photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sensor characteristics were correlated to the variation of the amount of induced OVs in the nanotubes. The efficient room temperature sensing achieved by the control of OVs of TiO2 nanotube array has paved the way for developing fast responding alcohol sensor with corresponding response magnitude of 60.2%, 45.3%, and 36.5% towards methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, respectively.

  13. HAPTIC RENDERING OF TRIMMED NURBS MODELS WITHIN AN

    E-print Network

    Utah, University of

    Margaret and Naomi. Your faith and love got me here. #12;CONTENTS ABSTRACTHAPTIC RENDERING OF TRIMMED NURBS MODELS WITHIN AN ACTIVE PROTOTYPING ENVIRONMENT by Thomas V the difficulty of haptically rendering them. However, for many reasons, trimmed NURBS are a highly popular CAD

  14. Grid generation on trimmed Bezier and NURBS quilted surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woan, Chung-Jin; Clever, Willard C.; Tam, Clement K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents some recently added capabilities to RAGGS, Rockwell Automated Grid Generation System. Included are the trimmed surface handling and display capability and structures and unstructured grid generation on trimmed Bezier and NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces) quilted surfaces. Samples are given to demonstrate the new capabilities.

  15. TRIM29 suppresses TWIST1 and invasive breast cancer behavior.

    PubMed

    Ai, Lingbao; Kim, Wan-Ju; Alpay, Merve; Tang, Ming; Pardo, Carolina E; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu; May, W Stratford; Kladde, Michael P; Heldermon, Coy D; Siegel, Erin M; Brown, Kevin D

    2014-09-01

    TRIM29 (ATDC) exhibits a contextual function in cancer, but seems to exert a tumor-suppressor role in breast cancer. Here, we show that TRIM29 is often silenced in primary breast tumors and cultured tumor cells as a result of aberrant gene hypermethylation. RNAi-mediated silencing of TRIM29 in breast tumor cells increased their motility, invasiveness, and proliferation in a manner associated with increased expression of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin and vimentin), decreased expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin and EpCAM), and increased expression and activity of the oncogenic transcription factor TWIST1, an important driver of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Functional investigations revealed an inverse relationship in the expression of TRIM29 and TWIST1, suggesting the existence of a negative regulatory feedback loop. In support of this relationship, we found that TWIST1 inhibited TRIM29 promoter activity through direct binding to a region containing a cluster of consensus E-box elements, arguing that TWIST1 transcriptionally represses TRIM29 expression. Analysis of a public breast cancer gene-expression database indicated that reduced TRIM29 expression was associated with reduced relapse-free survival, increased tumor size, grade, and metastatic characteristics. Taken together, our results suggest that TRIM29 acts as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer through its ability to inhibit TWIST1 and suppress EMT. PMID:24950909

  16. 7 CFR 58.725 - Trimming and cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trimming and cleaning. 58.725 Section 58.725 Agriculture...Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.725 Trimming and cleaning. The natural cheese shall be cleaned free...

  17. 30 CFR 56.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 56.9314 Section 56.9314...Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites § 56.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. Stockpile and muckpile...

  18. Pain in Chickens and Effects of Beak Trimming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beak trimming may cause pain (acute, chronic or both) in trimmed chickens due to tissue damage and nerve injury. The complexity and plasticity of the nervous system and the animal’s inability to communicate verbally make pain difficult to measure directly. However, pain in animals can be recognized...

  19. Trim range limited by noise in bandgap voltage references

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dalton M. Colombo; Gilson I. Wirth; Sergio Bampi

    2007-01-01

    To mitigate the impact of fabrication process in the performance of Bandgap Voltage References (BGR) usually a trim circuit is included. This technique results in more die area and longer test times. Reducing the trim range reduces the area overhead and test time. Other factor that can also limit the performance of BGR circuits is the output noise, generated by

  20. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon photonic device trimming by UV-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lipka, Timo; Kiepsch, Melanie; Trieu, Hoc Khiem; Müller, Jörg

    2014-05-19

    A method to compensate for fabrication tolerances and to fine-tune individual photonic circuit components is inevitable for wafer-scale photonic systems even with most-advanced CMOS-fabrication tools. We report a cost-effective and highly accurate method for the permanent trimming of hydrogenated amorphous silicon photonic devices by UV-irradiation. Microring resonators and Mach-Zehnder-interferometers were utilized as photonic test devices. The MZIs were tuned forth and back over their complete free spectral range of 5.5 nm by locally trimming the two MZI-arms. The trimming range exceeds 8 nm for compact ring resonators with trimming accuracies of 20 pm. Trimming speeds of ? 10 GHz/s were achieved. The components did not show any substantial device degradation. PMID:24921332

  1. A Note About HARP's State Trimming Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Johnson, Sally C.

    1998-01-01

    This short note provides some additional insight into how the HARP program works. In some cases, it is possible for HARP to tdm away too many states and obtain an optimistic result. The HARP Version 7.0 manual warns the user that 'Unlike the ALL model, the SAME model can automatically drop failure modes for certain system models. The user is cautioned to insure that no important failure modes are dropped; otherwise, a non-conservative result can be given.' This note provides an example of where this occurs and a pointer to further documentation that gives a means of bounding the error associated with trimming these states.

  2. Oxygen persufflation as adjunct in liver preservation (OPAL): Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Early graft dysfunction due to preservation/reperfusion injury represents a dramatic event after liver transplantation. Enhancement of donor organ criteria, in order to cope with the ever increasing donor shortage, further increases graft susceptibility to ischemic alterations. Major parts of post-preservation injury, however, occur at the time of warm reperfusion but not during ischemic storage; successful reperfusion of ischemic tissue in turn depends on an adequate redox and intracellular signal homeostasis. The latter has been shown experimentally to be favorably influenced by oxygen persufflation within short time spans. Thus viability of marginally preserved liver grafts could still be augmented by transient hypothermic reconditioning even after normal procurement and static cold storage. The present study is aimed to confirm the conceptual expectations, that hypothermic reconditioning by gaseous oxygen persufflation is a useful method to suppress injurious cellular activation cascades and to improve post-ischemic recovery of marginally preserved liver grafts. Methods/Design OPAL is a prospective single center randomized proof of concept study, including two parallel groups in a total of 116 liver transplant patients. The effect of an in hospital treatment of the isolated liver graft by 2 hours of oxygen persufflation immediately prior to transplantation will be assesses as compared to standard procedure (cold storage without further intervention). The primary endpoint is the peak transaminase serum level (AST) during the first three days after transplantation as a surrogate readout for parenchymal liver injury. Other outcomes comprise patient and graft survival, time of intensive care requirement, hepatic tissue perfusion 1h after revascularisation, early onset of graft dysfunction based on coagulation parameters, as well as the use of a refined scoring-system for initial graft function based on a multi-parameter (AST, ALT, Quick and bilirubin) score. Furthermore, the effect of OPAL on molecular pathways of autophagy and inflammatory cell activation will be evaluated. Final analysis will be based on all participants as randomized (intention to treat). Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN00167887 PMID:22035223

  3. Identification of key parameters controlling dissolved oxygen migration and attenuation in fractured crystalline rocks.

    PubMed

    Spiessl, S M; MacQuarrie, K T B; Mayer, K U

    2008-01-28

    In the crystalline rocks of the Canadian Shield, geochemical conditions are currently reducing at depths of 500-1000 m. However, during future glacial periods, altered hydrologic conditions could potentially result in enhanced recharge of glacial melt water containing a relatively high concentration of dissolved oxygen (O2). It is therefore of interest to investigate the physical and geochemical processes, including naturally-occurring redox reactions, that may control O2 ingress. In this study, the reactive transport code MIN3P is used in combination with 2k factorial analyses to identify the most important parameters controlling oxygen migration and attenuation in fractured crystalline rocks. Scenarios considered are based on simplified conceptual models that include a single vertical fracture, or a fracture zone, contained within a rock matrix that extends from the ground surface to a depth of 500 m. Consistent with field observations, Fe(II)-bearing minerals are present in the fractures (i.e. chlorite) and the rock matrix (biotite and small quantities of pyrite). For the parameter ranges investigated, results indicate that for the single fracture case, the most influential factors controlling dissolved O2 ingress are flow velocity in the fracture, fracture aperture, and the biotite reaction rate in the rock matrix. The most important parameters for the fracture zone simulations are flow velocity in the individual fractures, pO2 in the recharge water, biotite reaction rate, and to a lesser degree the abundance and reactivity of chlorite in the fracture zone, and the fracture zone width. These parameters should therefore receive increased consideration during site characterization, and in the formulation of site-specific models intended to predict O2 behavior in crystalline rocks. PMID:17935829

  4. Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Flight-test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Nelson Andrew; Schaefer, Jacob Robert

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control algorithm for real-time trim optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control algorithm is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are used for optimization of fuel flow. Results from six research flights are presented herein. The optimization algorithm found a trim configuration that required approximately 3 percent less fuel flow than the baseline trim at the same flight condition. The algorithm consistently rediscovered the solution from several initial conditions. These results show that the algorithm has good performance in a relevant environment.

  5. Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Flight-Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Nelson Andrew; Schaefer, Jacob Robert

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control algorithm for real-time trim optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control algorithm is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are used for optimization of fuel flow. Results from six research flights are presented herein. The optimization algorithm found a trim configuration that required approximately 3 percent less fuel flow than the baseline trim at the same flight condition. The algorithm consistently rediscovered the solution from several initial conditions. These results show that the algorithm has good performance in a relevant environment.

  6. THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT BILL-TRIMMING METHODS ON THE WELL-BEING OF PEKIN DUCKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pekin ducks are often bill-trimmed to prevent feather pecking and cannibalism, but this practice has been criticized because of the resulting potential for acute and chronic pain. The goal of this experiment was to compare two different bill-trimming methods, hot blade trimming with cautery (TRIM) a...

  7. Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, Donald C. (Annapolis)

    1985-06-04

    A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power.

  8. Different effects of infrared and one-half hot-blade beak trimming on beak topography and growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effects of infrared beak treatment (IR) and hot blade beak trimming (HB) on beak length and production in laying hens. Seventy-two day-old layer chicks were randomly assigned to HB, IR or a control (C) group. Chicks were pair housed by treatment, and beak images and productio...

  9. Endothelial GRK2 regulates vascular homeostasis through the control of free radical oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Ciccarelli, Michele; Sorriento, Daniela; Franco, Antonietta; Fusco, Anna; Giudice, Carmine Del; Annunziata, Roberto; Cipolletta, Ersilia; Monti, Maria Gaia; Dorn, Gerald W; Trimarco, Bruno; Iaccarino, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Objective The role of endothelial GRK2 was investigated in mice with selective deletion of the kinase in the endothelium (Tie2-CRE/GRK2fl/fl). Approach and Results Aortas from Tie2-CRE/GRK2fl/fl presented functional and structural alterations as compared to control GRK2fl/fl mice. In particular, vasoconstriction was blunted to different agonists, and collagen and elastic rearrangement and macrophage infiltration were observed. In primary cultured endothelial cells deficient for GRK2, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased, leading to expression of cytokines. Chronic treatment with a ROS scavenger in mice corrected the vascular phenotype by recovering vasoconstriction, structural abnormalities and reducing macrophage infiltration. Conclusions These results demonstrate that GRK2 removal compromises vascular phenotype and integrity by increasing endothelial ROS production. PMID:23950144

  10. PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CONTROLS ON DISSOLVED OXYGEN DYNAMICS IN PENSACOLA BAY, FL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient enrichment of estuaries and coastal waters can contribute to hypoxia (low dissolved oxygen) by increasing primary production and biological oxygen demand. Other factors, however, contribute to hypoxia and affect the susceptibility of coastal waters to hypoxia. Hypoxia fo...

  11. Streptococcus mutans NADH Oxidase Lies at the Intersection of Overlapping Regulons Controlled by Oxygen and NAD+ Levels

    PubMed Central

    Baker, J. L.; Derr, A. M.; Karuppaiah, K.; MacGilvray, M. E.; Kajfasz, J. K.; Faustoferri, R. C.; Rivera-Ramos, I.; Bitoun, J. P.; Lemos, J. A.; Wen, Z. T.

    2014-01-01

    NADH oxidase (Nox, encoded by nox) is a flavin-containing enzyme used by the oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans to reduce diatomic oxygen to water while oxidizing NADH to NAD+. The critical nature of Nox is 2-fold: it serves to regenerate NAD+, a carbon cycle metabolite, and to reduce intracellular oxygen, preventing formation of destructive reactive oxygen species (ROS). As oxygen and NAD+ have been shown to modulate the activity of the global transcription factors Spx and Rex, respectively, Nox is potentially poised at a critical junction of two stress regulons. In this study, microarray data showed that either addition of oxygen or loss of nox resulted in altered expression of genes involved in energy metabolism and transport and the upregulation of genes encoding ROS-metabolizing enzymes. Loss of nox also resulted in upregulation of several genes encoding transcription factors and signaling molecules, including the redox-sensing regulator gene rex. Characterization of the nox promoter revealed that nox was regulated by oxygen, through SpxA, and by Rex. These data suggest a regulatory loop in which the roles of nox in reduction of oxygen and regeneration of NAD+ affect the activity levels of Spx and Rex, respectively, and their regulons, which control several genes, including nox, crucial to growth of S. mutans under conditions of oxidative stress. PMID:24682329

  12. The influence of different beak trimming age on performance, H-L ratio and antibody production to SRBC in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Onba?ilar, E Ebru; Demirta?, Sahnur E; Kahraman, Züleyha; Karademir, Ender; Demir, Sunay

    2009-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of beak trimming age on performance criteria, H-L ratio, antibody production, the percentage of spleen and liver and external appearance. The chicks (Barred Rock) were randomly divided into 4 beak-trimming groups (non-trimmed (control), a trim at 1 d (1D), at 10 d (10D) and at 10 wk (10W)), each of 132 chicks. There were 6 replicate cages at beak trimming groups at rearing period. At 18 wk of age a total of 144 pullets were transferred to the layer house, and the pullets were housed at 323 and 646 cm(2)/hen with 8 and 4 birds per cage in three-deck layer cages. There were a total of 24 replications with 12 replications equally divided between the high and low density cages, and the beak trimmed treatments were randomly and equally divided within each density. As a result of this experiment differences among groups in body weight in rearing phase were disappear in the laying phase. Low feather condition was found in untrimmed hens. H-L ratio in both pullet and laying phase was higher in hens of untrimmed groups. Cage area affected all examined parameters except that body weight, mortality rate, cracked, broken and unshell egg rates, shell breaking, shape index, shell thickness, meat-blood spot rates, spleen and liver percentages, throat injures and antibody production to SRBC. PMID:18484189

  13. Autophagy proteins control goblet cell function by potentiating reactive oxygen species production

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Khushbu K; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Beatty, Wandy L; Head, Richard D; Malvin, Nicole P; Cadwell, Ken; Guan, Jun-Lin; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Akira, Shizuo; Seglen, Per O; Dinauer, Mary C; Virgin, Herbert W; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S

    2013-01-01

    Delivery of granule contents to epithelial surfaces by secretory cells is a critical physiologic process. In the intestine, goblet cells secrete mucus that is required for homeostasis. Autophagy proteins are required for secretion in some cases, though the mechanism and cell biological basis for this requirement remain unknown. We found that in colonic goblet cells, proteins involved in initiation and elongation of autophagosomes were required for efficient mucus secretion. The autophagy protein LC3 localized to intracellular multi-vesicular vacuoles that were consistent with a fusion of autophagosomes and endosomes. Using cultured intestinal epithelial cells, we found that NADPH oxidases localized to and enhanced the formation of these LC3-positive vacuoles. Both autophagy proteins and endosome formation were required for maximal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from NADPH oxidases. Importantly, generation of ROS was critical to control mucin granule accumulation in colonic goblet cells. Thus, autophagy proteins can control secretory function through ROS, which is in part generated by LC3-positive vacuole-associated NADPH oxidases. These findings provide a novel mechanism by which autophagy proteins can control secretion. PMID:24185898

  14. HYPERBARIC-OXYGEN TREATMENT OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BOGUSLAV H. FISCHER; MORTON MARKS; THEOBALD REICH

    Several uncontrolled studies have suggested a beneficial effect of hyperbaric oxygen on multiple sclero- sis. We studied 40 patients with advanced chronic multiple sclerosis who were randomly divided into two matching groups. The experimental group received pure oxygen, and the placebo group received a mixture of 10 per cent oxygen and 90 per cent nitrogen; both groups were treated at

  15. Oxygen Profile. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooley, John F.

    The oxygen profile procedure is a means of measuring the oxygen concentration at various locations in a basin. By dividing the surface of a basin into sections and then establishing sample points on the surface, at mid-depth, and near the bottom, a waste water treatment plant operator can measure and plot dissolved oxygen data which can be plotted…

  16. Controlled experimental aquarium system for multi-stressor investigation: carbonate chemistry, oxygen saturation, and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockmon, E. E.; Frieder, C. A.; Navarro, M. O.; White-Kershek, L. A.; Dickson, A. G.

    2013-02-01

    As the field of ocean acidification has grown, researchers have increasingly turned to laboratory experiments to understand the impacts of increased CO2 on marine organisms. However, other changes such as ocean warming and deoxygenation are occurring concurrently with the increasing CO2 concentrations, complicating the anthropogenic impact on organisms. This experimental aquarium design allows for independent regulation of CO2 concentration, O2 levels, and temperature in a controlled environment to study the impacts of multiple stressors. The system has the flexibility for a wide range of treatment chemistry, seawater volumes, and study organisms. Control of the seawater chemistry is achieved by equilibration of a chosen gas mixture with seawater using a Liqui-Cel® membrane contactor. Included as examples, two experiments performed using the system have shown control of CO2 between approximately 500-1400 ?atm and O2 from 80-240 ?mol kg-1. Temperature has been maintained to 0.5 °C or better in the range of 10-17 °C. On a weeklong timescale, control results in variability in pH of less than 0.007 pH units and in oxygen concentration less than 3.5 ?mol kg-1. Longer experiments, over a month, have been completed with reasonable but lessened control, still better than 0.08 pH units and 13 ?mol kg-1 O2. The ability to study the impacts of multiple stressors in the laboratory simultaneously, as well as independently, will be an important part of understanding the response of marine organisms to a high-CO2 world.

  17. In situ control of oxygen vacancies in TiO? by atomic layer deposition for resistive switching devices.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Joon; Lee, Jeong-Pyo; Jang, Jong Shik; Rhu, Hyun; Yu, Hyunung; You, Byung Youn; Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Kyung Joong; Cho, Yong Jai; Baik, Sunggi; Lee, Woo

    2013-07-26

    Oxygen vacancies (V(O)) have profound effects on the physical and chemical performance of devices based on oxide materials. This is particularly true in the case of oxide-based resistive random access memories, in which memory switching operation under an external electrical stimulus is closely associated with the migration and ordering of the oxygen vacancies in the oxide material. In this paper, we report on a reliable approach to in situ control of the oxygen vacancies in TiOx films. Our strategy for tight control of the oxygen vacancy is based on the utilization of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of titanium oxide under precisely regulated decomposition of the precursor molecules (titanium (IV) tetraisopropoxide, Ti[OCH(CH?)?]?) by plasma-activated reactant mixture (N?+O?). From the various spectroscopic and microstructural analyses by using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, confocal Raman spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry, we found that the precursor decomposition power (R(F)) of plasma-activated reactant mixture determines not only the oxygen vacancy concentration but also the crystallinity of the resulting TiO(x) film: nanocrystalline anatase TiO(x) with fewer oxygen vacancies under high R(F), while amorphous TiOx with more oxygen vacancies under low RF. Enabled by our controlling capability over the oxygen vacancy concentration, we were able to thoroughly elucidate the effect of oxygen vacancies on the resistive switching behavior of TiO(x)-based memory capacitors (Pt/TiO(x)/Pt). The electrical conduction behavior at the high resistance state could be explained within the framework of the trap-controlled space-charge-limited conduction with two characteristic transition voltages. One is the voltage (V(SCL)) for the transition from Ohmic conduction to space-charge-limited conduction, and the other is the voltage (V(TFL)) for transition from space-charge-limited conduction to trap-filled-limited conduction. In this work, we have disclosed for the first time the dependence of these two characteristic transition voltages (i.e., V(SCL) and V(TFL)) on the oxygen vacancy concentration. PMID:23799660

  18. Room temperature alcohol sensing by oxygen vacancy controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotube array

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, A.; Dutta, K.; Bhowmik, B.; Bhattacharyya, P., E-mail: pb-etc-besu@yahoo.com [Nano-Thin Films and Solid State Gas Sensor Devices Laboratory, Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology (IIEST), Shibpur, Howrah (India); Chattopadhyay, P. P. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology (IIEST), Shibpur, Howrah (India)

    2014-08-25

    Oxygen vacancy (OV) controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, having diameters of 50–70?nm and lengths of 200–250?nm, were synthesized by electrochemical anodization in the mixed electrolyte comprising NH{sub 4}F and ethylene glycol with selective H{sub 2}O content. The structural evolution of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Variation in the formation of OVs with the variation of the structure of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been evaluated by photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sensor characteristics were correlated to the variation of the amount of induced OVs in the nanotubes. The efficient room temperature sensing achieved by the control of OVs of TiO{sub 2} nanotube array has paved the way for developing fast responding alcohol sensor with corresponding response magnitude of 60.2%, 45.3%, and 36.5% towards methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, respectively.

  19. Raising and controlling study of dissolved oxygen concentration in closed-type aeration tank.

    PubMed

    Chen, C K; Lo, S L

    2005-07-01

    This study investigated the promotion and control of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of the closed-type aeration tank via practical experiments in the wastewater treatment system of a 5-star hotel in Taipei. As with limited and treasured space in Taiwan, before the completion of the sewer system construction in cities, to utilize the mat foundation under large buildings as the space of sewage treatment plant still has been one of the alternatives of those sewage treatments. However, aeration tanks constructed in the mat foundation of buildings have smaller effective water depth, which will cause a lower total transfer amount of DO. Controlling the total exhaust gas flow rate can increase the pressure on such closed-type aeration tanks. The DO concentration thus may increase according to Henry's Law. Furthermore, it may enable operators to adjust the DO concentration of the aeration tank more precisely and thus sustain optimal operating conditions in these treatment facilities. Practical experiments indicated that the DO concentration of aeration tank maintains an average of 3.8 mg l(-1), obtaining the optimum operating conditions. The efficiency of the biological treatment facilities in the mat foundation could be markedly improved. PMID:16080335

  20. Controllable generation of reactive oxygen species by femtosecond-laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Wei; He, Hao, E-mail: haohe@tju.edu.cn; Wang, Yintao; Wang, Yisen; Hu, Minglie; Wang, Chingyue [Ultrafast Laser Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Information Technology (Ministry of Education), College of Precision Instrument and Optoelectronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China)

    2014-02-24

    Femtosecond lasers have been advancing Biophotonics research in the past two decades with multiphoton microscopy, microsurgery, and photodynamic therapy. Nevertheless, laser irradiation is identified to bring photodamage to cells via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation with unclear mechanism. Meanwhile, currently in biological researches, there is no effective method to provide controllable ROS production precisely, which originally is leaked from mitochondria during respiration and plays a key role in a lot of important cellular processes and cellular signaling pathways. In this study, we show the process of how the tightly focused femtosecond-laser induces ROS generation solely in mitochondria at the very beginning and then release to cytosol if the stimulus is intense enough. At certain weak power levels, the laser pulses induce merely moderate Ca{sup 2+} release but this is necessary for the laser to generate ROS in mitochondria. Cellular original ROS are also involved with a small contribution. When the power is above a threshold, ROS are then released to cytosol, indicating photodamage overwhelming cellular repair ability. The mechanisms in those two cases are quite different. Those results clarify parts of the mechanism in laser-induced ROS generation. Hence, it is possible to further this optical scheme to provide controllable ROS generation for ROS-related biological researches including mitochondrial diseases and aging.

  1. Controllable generation of reactive oxygen species by femtosecond-laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wei; He, Hao; Wang, Yintao; Wang, Yisen; Hu, Minglie; Wang, Chingyue

    2014-02-01

    Femtosecond lasers have been advancing Biophotonics research in the past two decades with multiphoton microscopy, microsurgery, and photodynamic therapy. Nevertheless, laser irradiation is identified to bring photodamage to cells via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation with unclear mechanism. Meanwhile, currently in biological researches, there is no effective method to provide controllable ROS production precisely, which originally is leaked from mitochondria during respiration and plays a key role in a lot of important cellular processes and cellular signaling pathways. In this study, we show the process of how the tightly focused femtosecond-laser induces ROS generation solely in mitochondria at the very beginning and then release to cytosol if the stimulus is intense enough. At certain weak power levels, the laser pulses induce merely moderate Ca2+ release but this is necessary for the laser to generate ROS in mitochondria. Cellular original ROS are also involved with a small contribution. When the power is above a threshold, ROS are then released to cytosol, indicating photodamage overwhelming cellular repair ability. The mechanisms in those two cases are quite different. Those results clarify parts of the mechanism in laser-induced ROS generation. Hence, it is possible to further this optical scheme to provide controllable ROS generation for ROS-related biological researches including mitochondrial diseases and aging.

  2. Does oxygen exposure time control the extent of organic matter decomposition in peatlands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philben, Michael; Kaiser, Karl; Benner, Ronald

    2014-05-01

    The extent of peat decomposition was investigated in four cores collected along a latitudinal gradient from 56°N to 66°N in the West Siberian Lowland. The acid:aldehyde ratios of lignin phenols were significantly higher in the two northern cores compared with the two southern cores, indicating peats at the northern sites were more highly decomposed. Yields of hydroxyproline, an amino acid found in plant structural glycoproteins, were also significantly higher in northern cores compared with southern cores. Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins are not synthesized by microbes and are generally less reactive than bulk plant carbon, so elevated yields indicated that northern cores were more extensively decomposed than the southern cores. The southern cores experienced warmer temperatures, but were less decomposed, indicating that temperature was not the primary control of peat decomposition. The plant community oscillated between Sphagnum and vascular plant dominance in the southern cores, but vegetation type did not appear to affect the extent of decomposition. Oxygen exposure time appeared to be the strongest control of the extent of peat decomposition. The northern cores had lower accumulation rates and drier conditions, so these peats were exposed to oxic conditions for a longer time before burial in the catotelm, where anoxic conditions prevail and rates of decomposition are generally lower by an order of magnitude.

  3. Polyelectrolyte assisted synthesis and enhanced oxygen reduction activity of Pt nanocrystals with controllable shape and size.

    PubMed

    Du, Lei; Zhang, Sheng; Chen, Guangyu; Yin, Geping; Du, Chunyu; Tan, Qiang; Sun, Yongrong; Qu, Yunteng; Gao, Yunzhi

    2014-08-27

    The shape control of platinum nanocrystals is significant to the enhancement of their catalytic performance in terms of activity and selectivity. However, it still remains a major challenge to prepare Pt nanocrystals with tunable shape and clean surface in an eco-friendly way. This article develops a facile and green strategy to prepare well tuned platinum nanocrystals employing poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) as the capping agent, reductant, and stabilizer simultaneously in a facile hydrothermal process. It is identified that the variation of PDDA concentration is crucial to control the growth of crystalline facets, leading to the formation of cubic, truncated cubic, and octahedral Pt nanocrystals with sizes tunable from ca. 17 nm to ca. 50 nm. The resultant Pt nanocrystals exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity and stability toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in acidic media compared with those of commercial Pt black and the state-of-the-art Pt/C catalyst. It is proposed that the preferential Pt surface and the decoration of PDDA, which modulates the electronic structures and electrooxidation of Pt nanocrystals, synergistically contribute to the enhanced catalytic performance. PMID:25058739

  4. December 16, 2008 13:59 WSPC -Proceedings Trim Size: 9in x 6in paper INITIATING NORMAL WALKING OF A DYNAMIC BIPED

    E-print Network

    Berns, Karsten

    -based Control, Passive Dynamics 1. Introduction When controlling the locomotion of two-legged robots, twoDecember 16, 2008 13:59 WSPC - Proceedings Trim Size: 9in x 6in paper 1 INITIATING NORMAL WALKING OF A DYNAMIC BIPED WITH A BIOLOGICALLY MOTIVATED CONTROL T. LUKSCH and K. BERNS Robotics Research Lab

  5. 155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal after excavation by steam shovel. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 701). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  6. TRIM proteins as RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligases.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Satoshi

    2012-01-01

    The tripartite motif(TRIM) proteins harboring the RING finger, B-box and coiled-coil (RBCC) domain motifs form a large protein family. The members of this family are involved in various biological processes, including growth, differentiation, apoptosis and transcription and also in diseases and oncogenesis. Recent studies have revealed that TRIM proteins play key roles in innate antiviral immunity. An accumulating body of evidence has demonstrated that some TRIM proteins function as E3 ubiquitin ligases in specific ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation pathways; however, the precise mechanisms underlying this function have not been fully elucidated. In this chapter, we focus on the TRIM family of proteins specially with regard to E3 ligase. PMID:23630998

  7. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30 Section 401.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  8. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30 Section 401.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  9. Using Embedded Resistor Emulation and Trimming to Demonstrate Measurement

    E-print Network

    Sandborn, Peter

    , uncertainty analysis, and associated engineering model development. Keywords: embedded resistors; embedded systems [1]. Figure 1 shows a comparison of surface mount and embedded resistors. Multilayer printedUsing Embedded Resistor Emulation and Trimming to Demonstrate Measurement Methods and Associated

  10. 30 CFR 57.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety Devices, Provisions, and Procedures for Roadways, Railroads, and Loading and Dumping Sites § 57.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces....

  11. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30 Section 401.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30 Section 401.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30 Section 401.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. 1. GENERAL VIEW. TRIM, ROOF AND STABLE DOORS ALL ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW. TRIM, ROOF AND STABLE DOORS ALL ARE PAINTED RED. HEX SIGNS ARE PAINTED OCHRE, BLACK, RED, WHITE AND BLUE. NOTE PAINTED FLAGS ON SHED - Decorated White Barn, (Maiden Creek Township), Maiden Creek, Berks County, PA

  15. Unilateral whisker trimming in newborn rats alters neuronal coincident discharge among mature barrel cortex neurons.

    PubMed

    Ghoshal, Ayan; Lustig, Brian; Popescu, Maria; Ebner, Ford; Pouget, Pierre

    2014-10-15

    It is known that sensory deprivation, including postnatal whisker trimming, can lead to severe deficits in the firing rate properties of cortical neurons. Recent results indicate that development of synchronous discharge among cortical neurons is also activity influenced, and that correlated discharge is significantly impaired following loss of bilateral sensory input in rats. Here we investigate whether unilateral whisker trimming (unilateral deprivation or UD) after birth interferes in the same way with the development of synchronous discharge in cortex. We measured the coincidence of spikes among pairs of neurons recorded under urethane anesthesia in one whisker barrel field deprived by trimming all contralateral whiskers for 60 days after birth (UD), and in untrimmed controls (CON). In the septal columns around barrels, UD significantly increased the coincident discharge among cortical neurons compared with CON, most notably in layers II/III. In contrast, synchronous discharge was normal between layer IV UD barrel neurons: i.e., not different from CON. Thus, while bilateral whisker deprivation (BD) produced a global deficit in the development of synchrony in layer IV, UD did not block the development of synchrony between neurons in layer IV barrels and increased synchrony within septal circuits. We conclude that changes in synchronous discharge after UD are unexpectedly different from those recorded after BD, and we speculate that this effect may be due to the driven activity from active commissural inputs arising from the contralateral hemisphere that received normal activity levels during postnatal development. PMID:25057142

  16. Effect of intra-operative pressure support vs pressure controlled ventilation on oxygenation and lung function in moderately obese adults.

    PubMed

    Zoremba, M; Kalmus, G; Dette, F; Kuhn, C; Wulf, H

    2010-02-01

    Obesity impairs peri-operative lung function. To evaluate the impact of pressure support ventilation vs pressure controlled ventilation in moderately obese adults upon early postoperative lung function, we randomly assigned 68 moderately obese patients (body mass index 25-35 kg x m(-2)) undergoing minor surgery to receive intra-operative ventilation either with pressure support or pressure controlled ventilation. We performed intra-operative blood gas analysis and measured pulse oximetry saturation, spirometry values at pre-operative assessment (baseline) and at 10 min, 30 min, 2 h and 24 h after extubation. The intra-operative oxygenation index (arterial partial pressure of oxygen/fraction of inspired oxygen) in the pressure support ventilation group was significantly improved over time (p < 0.0001). Postoperatively, the pressure support ventilation group also had better lung function and oxygenation values than did the pressure controlled ventilation group (p < 0.005). We conclude that pressure support ventilation better maintains lung function than pressure controlled ventilation in moderately overweight patients scheduled for minor surgery. PMID:19958342

  17. Carcinoma of the larynx treated with hypofractionated radiation and hyperbaric oxygen: long-term tumor control and complications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bruce G Haffty; Ronald A Hurley; Lester G Peters

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the long-term outcome with respect to local control, survival, and complications in a cohort of patients with locally advanced laryngeal carcinoma treated with hypofractionated radiation and hyperbaric oxygen at 4 atmosphers of pressure (HBO-4).Methods and Materials: Between January 1970 and August 1982, 45 patients with locally advanced carcinoma of the larynx were treated with primary radiation using

  18. Effects of Contamination, UV Radiation, and Atomic Oxygen on ISS Thermal Control Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visentine, Jim; Finckenor, Miria; Zwiener, Jim; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Thermal control surfaces on the International Space Station (ISS) have been tailored for optimum optical properties. The space environment, particularly contamination, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and atomic oxygen (AO) may have a detrimental effect on these optical properties. These effects must be quantified for modeling and planning. Also of interest was the effect of porosity on the reaction to simulated space environment. Five materials were chosen for this study based on their use on ISS. The thermal control materials were Z-93 white coating, silverized Teflon, chromic acid anodized aluminum, sulfuric acid anodized aluminum, and 7075-T6 aluminum. Some of the samples were exposed to RTV 560 silicone; others were exposed to Tefzel offgassing products. Two samples of Z-93 were not exposed to contamination as clean "controls". VUV radiation was used to photo-fix the contaminant to the material surface, then the samples were exposed to AO. All samples were exposed to 1000 equivalent sun-hours (ESH) of vacuum ultraviolet radiation (VUV) at the AZ Technology facility and a minimum of 1.5 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm of AO at Marshall Space Flight Center. Half of the samples were exposed to an additional 2000 ESH of VUV at Huntington Beach prior to sent to AZ Technology. Darkening of the Z-93 white coating was noted after VUV exposure. AO exposure did bleach the Z-93 but not back to its original brightness. Solar absorptance curves show the degradation due to contamination and VUV and the recovery with AO exposure. More bleaching was noted on the Tefzel-contaminated samples than with the RTV-contaminated samples.

  19. Identification of TRIM22 as a RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase

    SciTech Connect

    Duan Zhijian; Gao Bo; Xu Wei [Institute for Immunobiology, Department of Immunology, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Xiong Sidong [Institute for Immunobiology, Department of Immunology, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai 200032 (China) and Immunology Division, E-Institutes of Shanghai Universities (China)], E-mail: sdxiongfd@126.com

    2008-09-26

    TRIM22, a member of the TRIM family proteins which contain RING finger, B-box, and coiled-coil domains, has been reported as a transcriptional regulator and involved in various cellular processes. In this study, the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, a novel property of TRIM22, was demonstrated. It was found that TRIM22 underwent self-ubiquitylation in vitro in combination with the E2 enzyme UbcH5B and the ubiquitylation was dependent on its RING finger domain. Further evidences showed that TRIM22 could also be self-ubiquitylated in vivo. Importantly, TRIM22 was conjugated with poly-ubiquitin chains and stabilized by the proteasome inhibitor in 293T cells, suggesting that TRIM22 targeted itself for proteasomal degradation through the poly-ubiquitylation. We also found that TRIM22 was located in the nucleus, indicating that TRIM22 might function as a nuclear E3 ubiquitin ligase.

  20. What controls the variability of oxygen in the subpolar North Pacific?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Yohei

    Dissolved oxygen is a widely observed chemical quantity in the oceans along with temperature and salinity. Changes in the dissolved oxygen have been observed over the world oceans. Observed oxygen in the Ocean Station Papa (OSP, 50°N, 145°W) in the Gulf of Alaska exhibits strong variability over interannual and decadal timescales, however, the mechanisms driving the observed variability are not yet fully understood. Furthermore, irregular sampling frequency and relatively short record length make it difficult to detect a low-frequency variability. Motivated by these observations, we investigate the mechanisms driving the low-frequency variability of oxygen in the subpolar North Pacific. The specific purposes of this study are (1) to evaluate the robustness of the observed low-frequency variability of dissolved oxygen and (2) to determine the mechanisms driving the observed variability using statistical data analysis and numerical simulations. To evaluate the robustness of the low-frequency variability, we conducted spectral analyses on the observed oxygen at OSP. To address the irregular sampling frequency we randomly sub-sampled the raw data to form 500 ensemble members with a regular time interval, and then performed spectral analyses. The resulting power spectrum of oxygen exhibits a robust low-frequency variability and a statistically significant spectral peak is identified at a timescale of 15--20 years. The wintertime oceanic barotropic streamfunction is significantly correlated with the observed oxygen anomaly at OSP with a north-south dipole structure over the North Pacific. We hypothesize that the observed low-frequency variability is primarily driven by the variability of large-scale ocean circulation in the North Pacific. To test this hypothesis, we simulate the three-dimensional distribution of oxygen anomaly between 1952 to 2001 using data-constrained circulation fields. The simulated oxygen anomaly shows an outstanding variability in the Gulf of Alaska, showing that this region is a hotspot of oxygen fluctuation. Anomalous advection acting on the climatological mean oxygen gradient is the source of oxygen variability in this simulation. Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analyses of the simulated oxygen show that the two dominant modes of the oxygen anomaly explains more than 50% of oxygen variance over the North Pacific, that are closely related to the dominant modes of climate variability in the North Pacific (Pacific Decadal Oscillation and North Pacific Oscillation). Our results imply the important link between large-scale climate fluctuations, ocean circulation and biogeochemical tracers in the North Pacific.

  1. Novel trimming technique for tunable HTS microstrip filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiya, N.; Nakagawa, Y.; Saito, A.; Ohshima, S.

    2008-09-01

    We have developed a method using additional electric pads for trimming tunable high-temperature superconducting (HTS) microstrip filters. These filters are generally tuned by adjusting the gap between a dielectric floating plate above the filter. When the floating plate approached the filter, the center frequency was shifted to a lower frequency. However, the insertion loss increases due to variation in the external quality factors varying from the design parameter. The external quality factors are usually controlled by adjusting the length of the input/output (I/O) coupled-line elements and the gap between the elements and the resonator. In our method, additional electric pads are distributed at the open-end of the I/O coupled-line elements of a 3-pole hairpin bandpass filter to enable adjustment of the external quality factors so as to reduce insertion loss. The electric pads consist of line-and-space patterns. They are eclectically connected to the coupled-line elements to adjust the line length and gap width and thereby control the external quality factors. An electromagnetic simulator was used for the design and analysis. The simulation results showed that the additional electric pads are effective in improving the insertion loss of the HTS bandpass filter after tuning.

  2. Simple and controlled method to avoid hyperperfusion of the right arm following axillary artery cannulation for extracorporeal membrane oxygenator support.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, Nestoras; Ahmad, Ali El-Sayed; Marinos, Spiros; Moritz, Anton; Zierer, Andreas

    2013-10-01

    The right axillary artery has become the cannulation site of choice for establishment of extracorporeal membrane oxygenator support in many centers. Dissection and cannulation of this vessel are simple and safe in the majority of patients. Typically, a side graft is used to avoid malperfusion of the right arm. Although this protocol offers many advantages, a common complication is the critical hyperperfusion of the right arm. Subsequent compartment syndrome and decline of antegrade inflow of oxygenated blood, especially into the brain and coronary arteries, can be life threatening in such critical patients. We describe herein a simple yet effective and controlled technique to avoid this particular problem. PMID:23169105

  3. Magnetically remote-controlled optical sensor spheres for monitoring oxygen or pH.

    PubMed

    Mistlberger, Günter; Koren, Klaus; Borisov, Sergey M; Klimant, Ingo

    2010-03-01

    Magnetic sensor macrospheres (MagSeMacs), i.e., stainless steel spheres coated with optical chemical sensors, are presented as an alternative to existing optical sensor patches and fiber-optical dip-probes. Such spheres can either be reversibly attached to the tip of an optical fiber (dip-probe) or trapped inside a vessel for read-out through the side wall. Moving the magnetic separator at the exterior enables measurements at varying positions with a single sensor. Moreover, the sensor's replacement is rapid and contactless. We measured dissolved oxygen or pH in stirred liquids, rotating flasks, and 24-well plates with a SensorDish-reader device for parallel cell culture monitoring. In these applications, MagSeMacs proved to be advantageous over conventional sensor patches and magnetic optical sensor particles because of their magnetism, spherical shape, reflectance, and size. These properties resulted in strong but reversible fixation, magnetic remote-controllability, short response times, high signal intensities, and simplified handling. PMID:20121206

  4. Controllable shrinking of inverted-pyramid silicon nanopore arrays by dry-oxygen oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Tao; Chen, Jian; Li, Mengwei; Wang, Yifan; Zhao, Chenxu; Zhang, Zhonghui; Liu, Zewen

    2013-12-01

    A novel and simple technique for the controllable shrinkage of inverted-pyramid silicon (Si) nanopore arrays is reported. The Si nanopore arrays with sizes from 60 to 150 nm, made using a combination of dry and wet etching, were shrunk to sub 10 nm, or even closed, using direct dry-oxygen oxidation at 900?° C. The shrinkage process of the pyramidal nanopore induced by oxidation was carefully modeled and simulated. The simulation was found to be in good agreement with the experimental data within most of the oxidation time range. Using this method, square nanopore arrays with an average size of 30 nm, and rectangular nanopores and nanoslits with feature sizes as small as 8 nm, have been obtained. Furthermore, focused ion beam cutting experiments revealed that the inner structure of the nanopore after the shrinkage kept its typical inverted-pyramid shape, which is of importance in many fields such as biomolecular sensors and ionic analogs of electronic devices, as well as nanostencils for surface nano-patterning.

  5. In Situ CO, Oxygen, and Opacity Measurement for Optimizing Combustion Control System Performance

    E-print Network

    Molloy, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    can cause exponential errors in oxygen readings. In that CO is a product of cumbustion, air infiltration leakage does not have a significant effect on CO readings even when operating at low oxygen levels. With multi-burner systems, problems arise...

  6. The dual function of the lung in chelonian sea turtles: buoyancy control and oxygen storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Hochscheid; Flegra Bentivegna; John R. Speakman

    Chelonian sea turtles use their lung as a buoyancy organ and as the major oxygen store when diving, and hence, buoyancy regulation and oxygen consumption can be expected to interact. The buoyancy of seven juvenile loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, was determined by measuring directly their underwater weight (Muw) while they were resting on a freely suspended weighing platform at a

  7. The dual function of the lung in chelonian sea turtles: buoyancy control and oxygen storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra Hochscheid; Flegra Bentivegna; John R. Speakman

    2003-01-01

    Chelonian sea turtles use their lung as a buoyancy organ and as the major oxygen store when diving, and hence, buoyancy regulation and oxygen consumption can be expected to interact. The buoyancy of seven juvenile loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, was determined by measuring directly their underwater weight (Muw) while they were resting on a freely suspended weighing platform at a

  8. Oxygen Uptake. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooley, John F.

    Biological waste treatment in the activated sludge process is based on the ability of microorganisms to use dissolved oxygen in breaking down soluble organic substances. The oxygen uptake test is a means of measuring the respiration rate of microorganisms in this process. Designed for individuals who have completed National Pollutant Discharge…

  9. Oxygen regulated gene expression in Escherichia coli: control of anaerobic respiration by the FNR protein.

    PubMed

    Unden, G; Trageser, M

    1991-02-01

    Molecular oxygen is an important regulatory signal in facultative anaerobic bacteria and controls the expression of a great variety of genes positively or negatively. The expression of anaerobic respiration and of related functions of E. coli is controlled by the positive gene regulator FNR, which activates transcription in the absence of O2. The regulated genes carry a FNR consensus sequence upstream of the promoter. Under the same conditions FNR represses some of the genes of aerobic respiration. The binding to the DNA occurs by an alpha-helix-turn-alpha-helix DNA-binding domain. FNR contains 5 cysteine residues, four of which are arranged in a cluster close to the N-terminal end. For the function of FNR as a O2-dependent regulator three of the cysteine residues in the cluster and the residue outside the cluster are essential. FNR binds iron as a cofactor which most likely is involved in the O2-sensing by the protein. The experiments indicate that the cysteine residues are responsible for the binding of the iron. From the protein in vivo two functional states can be differentiated, an aerobic or metal-depleted form and an anaerobic form. Only the anaerobic form acts as a gene activator or repressor. Sensing of O2 or of positive redox potentials by the iron ion is thought to cause the conversion of the two functional states. The FNR protein in addition contains a potential nucleotide binding domain. The significance and function of this site is not clear. PMID:1854188

  10. Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Architecture and Performance Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Jacob; Brown, Nelson A.

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control approach for real-time trim configuration optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control approach is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are controlled for optimization of fuel flow. This paper presents the design and integration of this peak-seeking controller on a modified NASA F/A-18 airplane with research flight control computers. A research flight was performed to collect data to build a realistic model of the performance function and characterize measurement noise. This model was then implemented into a nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom F/A-18 simulation along with the peak-seeking control algorithm. With the goal of eventual flight tests, the algorithm was first evaluated in the improved simulation environment. Results from the simulation predict good convergence on minimum fuel flow with a 2.5-percent reduction in fuel flow relative to the baseline trim of the aircraft.

  11. Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Architecture and Performance Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Jacob; Brown, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control approach for real-time trim configuration optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control approach is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an FA-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are controlled for optimization of fuel flow. This presentation presents the design and integration of this peak-seeking controller on a modified NASA FA-18 airplane with research flight control computers. A research flight was performed to collect data to build a realistic model of the performance function and characterize measurement noise. This model was then implemented into a nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom FA-18 simulation along with the peak-seeking control algorithm. With the goal of eventual flight tests, the algorithm was first evaluated in the improved simulation environment. Results from the simulation predict good convergence on minimum fuel flow with a 2.5-percent reduction in fuel flow relative to the baseline trim of the aircraft.

  12. Proposed fast-response oxygen monitoring and control system for the Langley 8-foot high-temperature tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Puster, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    A fast-response oxygen monitoring and control system, based on a Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 sensor, was developed and tested in the laboratory. The system is capable of maintaining oxygen concentration in the CH4-O2-air combustion product gases at 20.9 + or - 1.0 percent. If the oxygen concentration in the exhaust stream differs from that in normal air by 25 percent or more, an alarm signal is provided for automatic tunnel shutdown. The overall prototype system response time was reduced from about 1 sec in the original configuration to about 0.2 sec. The basis of operation and the results of laboratory tests of the system are described.

  13. Fnr Is Involved in Oxygen Control of Herbaspirillum seropedicae N-Truncated NifA Protein Activity in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Rose A.; de Souza, Emanuel M.; Yates, M. Geoffrey; Pedrosa, Fabio O.; Chubatsu, Leda S.

    2003-01-01

    Herbaspirillum seropedicae is an endophytic diazotroph belonging to the ?-subclass of the class Proteobacteria, which colonizes many members of the Gramineae. The activity of the NifA protein, a transcriptional activator of nif genes in H. seropedicae, is controlled by ammonium ions through its N-terminal domain and by oxygen through mechanisms that are not well understood. Here we report that the NifA protein of H. seropedicae is inactive and more susceptible to degradation in an fnr Escherichia coli background. Both effects correlate with oxygen exposure and iron deprivation. Our results suggest that the oxygen sensitivity and iron requirement for H. seropedicae NifA activity involve the Fnr protein. PMID:12620839

  14. Enhancement of the efficiency and control of emission parameters of an unstable-resonator chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    SciTech Connect

    Boreisho, A S; Lobachev, V V; Savin, A V; Strakhov, S Yu; Trilis, A V [Institute of Laser Instruments and Technologies, D F Ustinov 'VOENMEKh' Baltic State Technical University, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-31

    The outlook is considered for the development of a high-power supersonic flowing chemical oxygen-iodine laser operating as an amplifier and controlled by radiation from a master oscillator by using an unstable resonator with a hole-coupled mirror. The influence of the seed radiation intensity, the coupling-hole diameter, the active-medium length, and the magnification factor on the parameters of laser radiation is analysed. It is shown that the use of such resonators is most advisable in medium-power oxygen-iodine lasers for which classical unstable resonators are inefficient because of their low magnification factors. The use of unstable resonators with a hole-coupled mirror and injection provides the control of radiation parameters and a considerable increase in the output power and brightness of laser radiation. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  15. Control of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production through histidine kinases in Aspergillus nidulans under different growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Saki; Yoshioka, Megumi; Matsui, Tetsuji; Kojima, Kensuke; Kato, Masashi; Kanamaru, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Sensor histidine kinases (HKs) are important factors that control cellular growth in response to environmental conditions. The expression of 15 HKs from Aspergillus nidulans was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR under vegetative, asexual, and sexual growth conditions. Most HKs were highly expressed during asexual growth. All HK gene-disrupted strains produced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Three HKs are involved in the control of ROS: HysA was the most abundant under the restricted oxygen condition, NikA is involved in fungicide sensing, and FphA inhibits sexual development in response to red light. Phosphotransfer signal transduction via HysA is essential for ROS production control. PMID:24490133

  16. Control of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production through histidine kinases in Aspergillus nidulans under different growth conditions?

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Saki; Yoshioka, Megumi; Matsui, Tetsuji; Kojima, Kensuke; Kato, Masashi; Kanamaru, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Sensor histidine kinases (HKs) are important factors that control cellular growth in response to environmental conditions. The expression of 15 HKs from Aspergillus nidulans was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR under vegetative, asexual, and sexual growth conditions. Most HKs were highly expressed during asexual growth. All HK gene-disrupted strains produced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Three HKs are involved in the control of ROS: HysA was the most abundant under the restricted oxygen condition, NikA is involved in fungicide sensing, and FphA inhibits sexual development in response to red light. Phosphotransfer signal transduction via HysA is essential for ROS production control. PMID:24490133

  17. Nifedipine improves blood flow and oxygen supply, but not steady-state oxygenation of tumours in perfusion pressure-controlled isolated limb perfusion.

    PubMed

    Thews, O; Hummel, M; Kelleher, D K; Lecher, B; Vaupel, P

    2002-12-01

    Isolated limb perfusion allows the direct application of therapeutic agents to a tumour-bearing extremity. The present study investigated whether the dihydropyridine-type Ca(2+)-channel blocker nifedipine could improve blood flow and oxygenation status of experimental tumours during isolated limb perfusion. Perfusion was performed by cannulation of the femoral artery and vein in rats bearing DS-sarcoma on the hind foot dorsum. Perfusion rate was adjusted to maintain a perfusion pressure of 100-140 mmHg throughout the experiment. Following equilibration, nifedipine was continuously infused for 30 min (8.3 microg min(-1) kg(-1) BW). During constant-pressure isolated limb perfusion, nifedipine can significantly increase perfusion rate (+100%) and RBC flux (+60%) through experimental leg tumours. "Steal phenomena" in favour of the surrounding normal tissue and oedema formation were not observed. Despite the increased oxygen availability (+63%) seen upon application of this calcium channel blocker, nifedipine does not result in a substantial reduction of tumour hypoxia, most probably due to an increase in O(2) uptake with rising O(2) supply to the tumour-bearing hind limb. Nifedipine application during isolated limb perfusion can enhance tumour microcirculation and may therefore promote the delivery (pharmacokinetics) of anti-cancer drugs to the tumour and by this improve the efficacy of pressure-controlled isolated limb perfusion. PMID:12454778

  18. Ancient and recent adaptive evolution in the antiviral TRIM22 gene: identification of a single-nucleotide polymorphism that impacts TRIM22 function.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jenna N; Woods, Matthew W; Xhiku, Sintia; Barr, Stephen D

    2014-09-01

    Tripartite motif protein 22 (TRIM22) is a novel interferon-induced protein that potently inhibits the replication of evolutionarily diverse viruses, including HIV-1. Altered TRIM22 expression is also associated with diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, cancer, and autoimmunity. The factors that influence TRIM22 expression and antiviral activity are largely unknown. In this study, we adopted an evolution-guided functional approach to identify potential genetic determinants of TRIM22 function. Evolutionary analysis of TRIM22 from mammals spanning >100 million years demonstrated that TRIM22 evolution has been shaped by ancient and variable positive selection. We showed that positive selection is operating on multiple TRIM22 residues that cluster in putative functional regions and that some are predicted to be functionally damaging. Interestingly, the second most prevalent TRIM22 SNP in humans (rs1063303) is located at one of these positively selected sites. We showed that the frequency of rs1063303:G>C varies up to 10-fold between ethnicities and that in some ethnicities SNP rs1063303:G>C is being actively maintained in the population. The SNP rs1063303:G>C variant also had an inverse functional impact where it increased TRIM22 expression and decreased the antiviral activity of TRIM22. Taken together, our data characterize the extensive genetic variation in TRIM22 and identify rs1063303:G>C as a highly prevalent SNP that influences its function. PMID:24863734

  19. April 10, 2012 18:1 WSPC -Proceedings Trim Size: 9in x 6in capbioctrl Integrating Capture Point into Biologically Motivated

    E-print Network

    Berns, Karsten

    will be integrated into the motor patterns of biologically motivated control to enhance the capability of the bipedApril 10, 2012 18:1 WSPC - Proceedings Trim Size: 9in x 6in capbioctrl 1 Integrating Capture Point for a biped has been researched by.3,4 The integrated behavior-based control framework5 has been as well

  20. An Evolutionary Screen Highlights Canonical and Noncanonical Candidate Antiviral Genes within the Primate TRIM Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Malfavon-Borja, Ray; Sawyer, Sara L.; Wu, Lily I.; Emerman, Michael; Malik, Harmit S.

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent viral pressure has acted on host-encoded antiviral genes during primate and mammalian evolution. This selective pressure has resulted in dramatic episodes of adaptation in host antiviral genes, often detected via positive selection. These evolutionary signatures of adaptation have the potential to highlight previously unrecognized antiviral genes (also called restriction factors). Although the TRIM multigene family is recognized for encoding several bona fide restriction factors (e.g., TRIM5alpha), most members of this expansive gene family remain uncharacterized. Here, we investigated the TRIM multigene family for signatures of positive selection to identify novel candidate antiviral genes. Our analysis reveals previously undocumented signatures of positive selection in 17 TRIM genes, 10 of which represent novel candidate restriction factors. These include the unusual TRIM52 gene, which has evolved under strong positive selection despite its encoded protein lacking a putative viral recognition (B30.2) domain. We show that TRIM52 arose via gene duplication from the TRIM41 gene. Both TRIM52 and TRIM41 have dramatically expanded RING domains compared with the rest of the TRIM multigene family, yet this domain has evolved under positive selection only in primate TRIM52, suggesting that it represents a novel host–virus interaction interface. Our evolutionary-based screen not only documents positive selection in known TRIM restriction factors but also highlights candidate novel restriction factors, providing insight into the interfaces of host–pathogen interactions mediated by the TRIM multigene family. PMID:24158625

  1. A procedure to determine the water-binding capacity of meat trimmings for cooked sausage formulation.

    PubMed

    Pouttu, Petri; Puolanne, Eero

    2004-02-01

    An attempt was made to determine the water-binding capacity of each individual trimming in a multicomponent system. Three types of experimental cooked sausages (finely chopped luncheon sausage, coarsely chopped sausage and ring sausage with potato starch) were made of five different meat trimmings: two pork trimmings and two beef trimmings, and one beef trimming used as a replacer. The water-binding was determined by the Tuominen-Honkavaara method by stepwise addition of water (basic formulation and four water additions) to the formulations and determining the firmness by a consistometer. The water-binding of each trimming was obtained by replacing the trimming by an additonal trimming. A total of 3 sausage types×5 meat trimmings×5 water levels giving 75 experimental batches of 5 kg each were made. The average water-binding values of the same meat trimming combination in each sausage type were practically the same, and therefore the total averages for the same meat trimming combinations of each of the three sausage types were used for the subsequent calculations. The determination of the water-binding values of the meat trimmings were solved by forming five equations with four unknowns each, and then solving the unknowns using Microsoft Excel's 'Solver' function. By this procedure it was possible to determine the water-binding of individual meat trimmings in sausage systems. This procedure can be used for the determination of the technological properties of meats for linear programming. PMID:22064135

  2. Trimming the UCERF2 hazard logic tree

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, Keith A.; Field, Edward H.; Milner, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast 2 (UCERF2) is a fully time?dependent earthquake rupture forecast developed with sponsorship of the California Earthquake Authority (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities [WGCEP], 2007; Field et al., 2009). UCERF2 contains 480 logic?tree branches reflecting choices among nine modeling uncertainties in the earthquake rate model shown in Figure 1. For seismic hazard analysis, it is also necessary to choose a ground?motion?prediction equation (GMPE) and set its parameters. Choosing among four next?generation attenuation (NGA) relationships results in a total of 1920 hazard calculations per site. The present work is motivated by a desire to reduce the computational effort involved in a hazard analysis without understating uncertainty. We set out to assess which branching points of the UCERF2 logic tree contribute most to overall uncertainty, and which might be safely ignored (set to only one branch) without significantly biasing results or affecting some useful measure of uncertainty. The trimmed logic tree will have all of the original choices from the branching points that contribute significantly to uncertainty, but only one arbitrarily selected choice from the branching points that do not.

  3. Mixed-control kinetics of oxygen leaching of chalcopyrite and pyrite from porous primary ore fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H. K.; Sohn, H. Y.

    1987-09-01

    The leaching of individual copper ore fragments was investigated under oxygen pressure of 690 to 3100 kPa. After 500 hours of leaching at 90°C under 3100 kPa oxygen pressure, 50 pct of copper was extracted from an ore particle of 0.57 cm size, while 1300 hours were needed to extract 90 pct of copper under the same experimental conditions. A mathematical model incorporating the intrinsic leaching kinetics of chalcopyrite and pyrite grains and the pore diffusion of dissolved oxygen within the ore fragment was formulated to interpret the experimental results. Both chemical reaction and diffusion were found to be important to the overall leaching rate in the particle size range tested. The model can also be used to predict the leaching behavior of particles of different sizes at different temperatures and oxygen partial pressures.

  4. The possibilities of directed action on oxygen-containing groups of coal to control pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Butuzova, L.F.; Isaeva, L.N.; Krashton, A.; Kovalev, K.E.; Saranchuk, V.I. [Rossiiskaya Akademiya, Nauk (Russian Federation)

    1994-12-31

    This study was performed to investigate the transformations of various forms of oxygen in the pyrolysis of lignite in an inert medium. The molecular structure of the products were also studied. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. The control of reactive oxygen species influences porcine oocyte in vitro maturation.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, G M; Morado, S A; Soto, M P; Dalvit, G C; Cetica, P D

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of varying intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels during oocyte in vitro maturation with enzymatic ROS production systems (xanthine + xanthine oxidase or xanthine + xanthine oxidase + catalase), scavenger systems (catalase or superoxide dismutase + catalase) or cysteine on porcine oocyte maturation. Oocyte ROS levels showed an increase when H2 O2 or O2 ?(-) production systems were added to the culture medium (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the presence of ROS scavengers in the maturation medium did not modify oocyte ROS levels compared with the control after 48 h of maturation, but the addition of cysteine induced a decrease in oocyte ROS levels (p < 0.05). The ROS production systems used in this work did not modified the percentage of oocyte nuclear maturation, but increased the decondensation of sperm head (p < 0.05) and decreased the pronuclear formation (p < 0.05). In turn, the addition of O2 ?(-) and H2 O2 scavenging systems during in vitro maturation did not modify the percentage of oocytes reaching metaphase II nor the oocytes with decondensed sperm head or pronuclei after fertilization. However, both parameters increased in the presence of cysteine (p < 0.05). The exogenous generation of O2 ?(-) and H2 O2 during oocyte in vitro maturation would not affect nuclear maturation or later sperm penetration, but most of the spermatozoa cannot progress to form the pronuclei after fusion with the oocyte. The decrease in endogenous ROS levels by the addition of cysteine would improve pronuclear formation after sperm penetration. PMID:25522082

  6. A Novel Solid Electrolyte Oxygen Sensor System for In-Situ Measurement and Process Control

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, Frank Uwe [Institut fuer Raumfahrtsysteme, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); ESCUBE GmbH and Co. KG, Nobelstrasse 15, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Messerschmid, Ernst; Rogg, Markus [Institut fuer Raumfahrtsysteme, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-10-13

    In 1993 the oxygen partial pressure was firstly measured inside a plasma wind tunnel using conventional {lambda}-probes. Since then, a considerable amount of knowledge has been gained in using these sensors in ground test facilities and space. However, these commercially available sensors were too large in scale and weight. Consequently, a new development of solid electrolyte sensors called FIPEX more feasible for space was initiated. Due to space driven benefits, interest arose to use FIPEX technique in terrestrial applications e.g. to monitor sputter plants for float glass coating. Therefore, the VacuSen registered sensor was developed. The characterization of VacuSen registered at nominal sensor temperature T{sub S} = 680 deg. C resulted in a sensor current according to I{sub S} = b{center_dot}p{sub O2}{sup 0{center_dot}8{+-}0{center_dot}05} I[{mu}A] in the operation range between p{sub tot} = 1{center_dot}10{sup -3} to 5 Pa. From pulse width modulation (PWM) temperature control, additional information allows to measure ptot according to p{sub tot} = a{center_dot}RPWM{sup 0{center_dot}107{+-}0{center_dot}005} thus enlarging the operation range to p{sub tot} = 1{center_dot}10{sup -3} to 1{center_dot}10{sup 5} Pa. A one point calibration routine with air, ideally at p{sub tot} = 5 Pa in order to determine both calibration parameters a and b simultaneously, is proposed.

  7. Hypothalamic Apelin/Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling Controls Hepatic Glucose Metabolism in the Onset of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Drougard, Anne; Duparc, Thibaut; Brenachot, Xavier; Carneiro, Lionel; Gouazé, Alexandra; Fournel, Audren; Geurts, Lucie; Cadoudal, Thomas; Prats, Anne-Catherine; Pénicaud, Luc; Vieau, Didier; Lesage, Jean; Leloup, Corinne; Benani, Alexandre; Cani, Patrice D.; Valet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: We have previously demonstrated that central apelin is implicated in the control of peripheral glycemia, and its action depends on nutritional (fast versus fed) and physiological (normal versus diabetic) states. An intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of a high dose of apelin, similar to that observed in obese/diabetic mice, increase fasted glycemia, suggesting (i) that apelin contributes to the establishment of a diabetic state, and (ii) the existence of a hypothalamic to liver axis. Using pharmacological, genetic, and nutritional approaches, we aim at unraveling this system of regulation by identifying the hypothalamic molecular actors that trigger the apelin effect on liver glucose metabolism and glycemia. Results: We show that icv apelin injection stimulates liver glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis via an over-activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), leading to fasted hyperglycemia. The effect of central apelin on liver function is dependent of an increased production of hypothalamic reactive oxygen species (ROS). These data are strengthened by experiments using lentiviral vector-mediated over-expression of apelin in hypothalamus of mice that present over-activation of SNS associated to an increase in hepatic glucose production. Finally, we report that mice fed a high-fat diet present major alterations of hypothalamic apelin/ROS signaling, leading to activation of glycogenolysis. Innovation/Conclusion: These data bring compelling evidence that hypothalamic apelin is one master switch that participates in the onset of diabetes by directly acting on liver function. Our data support the idea that hypothalamic apelin is a new potential therapeutic target to treat diabetes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 557–573. PMID:23879244

  8. Peroxone mineralization of chemical oxygen demand for direct potable water reuse: Kinetics and process control.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tingting; Englehardt, James D

    2015-04-15

    Mineralization of organics in secondary effluent by the peroxone process was studied at a direct potable water reuse research treatment system serving an occupied four-bedroom, four bath university residence hall apartment. Organic concentrations were measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD) and kinetic runs were monitored at varying O3/H2O2 dosages and ratios. COD degradation could be accurately described as the parallel pseudo-1st order decay of rapidly and slowly-oxidizable fractions, and effluent COD was reduced to below the detection limit (<0.7 mg/L). At dosages ?4.6 mg L(-1) h(-1), an O3/H2O2 mass ratio of 3.4-3.8, and initial COD <20 mg/L, a simple first order decay was indicated for both single-passed treated wastewater and recycled mineral water, and a relationship is proposed and demonstrated to estimate the pseudo-first order rate constant for design purposes. At this O3/H2O2 mass ratio, ORP and dissolved ozone were found to be useful process control indicators for monitoring COD mineralization in secondary effluent. Moreover, an average second order rate constant for OH oxidation of secondary effluent organics (measured as MCOD) was found to be 1.24 × 10(7) ± 0.64 × 10(7) M(-1) S(-1). The electric energy demand of the peroxone process is estimated at 1.73-2.49 kW h electric energy for removal of one log COD in 1 m(3) secondary effluent, comparable to the energy required for desalination of medium strength seawater. Advantages/disadvantages of the two processes for municipal wastewater reuse are discussed. PMID:25704155

  9. ?-Lactam pharmacokinetics during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Donadello, Katia; Antonucci, Elio; Cristallini, Stefano; Roberts, Jason A; Beumier, Marjorie; Scolletta, Sabino; Jacobs, Frédérique; Rondelet, Benoit; de Backer, Daniel; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Taccone, Fabio Silvio

    2015-03-01

    Most adult patients receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) require antibiotic therapy, however the pharmacokinetics of ?-lactams have not been well studied in these conditions. In this study, data from all patients receiving ECMO support and meropenem (MEM) or piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP) were reviewed. Drug concentrations were measured 2h after the start of a 30-min infusion and just before the subsequent dose. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) results in ECMO patients were matched with those in non-ECMO patients for (i) drug regimen, (ii) renal function, (iii) total body weight, (iv) severity of organ dysfunction and (v) age. Drug concentrations were considered adequate if they remained 4-8× the clinical MIC breakpoint for Pseudomonas aeruginosa for 50% (TZP) or 40% (MEM) of the dosing interval. A total of 41 TDM results (27 MEM; 14 TZP) were obtained in 26 ECMO patients, with 41 matched controls. There were no significant differences in serum concentrations or pharmacokinetic parameters between ECMO and non-ECMO patients, including Vd [0.38 (0.27-0.68) vs. 0.46 (0.33-0.79)L/kg; P=0.37], half-life [2.6 (1.8-4.4) vs. 2.9 (1.7-3.7)h; P=0.96] and clearance [132 (66-200) vs. 141 (93-197)mL/min; P=0.52]. The proportion of insufficient (13/41 vs. 12/41), adequate (15/41 vs. 19/41) and excessive (13/41 vs. 10/41) drug concentrations was similar in ECMO and non-ECMO patients. Achievement of target concentrations of these ?-lactams was poor in ECMO and non-ECMO patients. The influence of ECMO on MEM and TZP pharmacokinetics does not appear to be significant. PMID:25542059

  10. Oxygen Isotope in Phosphate an Indicator of Phosphorous Cycling in the Ocean - Controls, and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paytan, A.; Roberts, K.; Defforey, D.; McLaughlin, K.; Lomas, M. W.; Church, M. J.; Mackey, K. R.

    2012-12-01

    In order to better constrain the parameters affecting oxygen isotope exchange between water and phosphate via biochemical reactions a set of culture experiments were conducted. Different species of phytoplankton were grown in seawater at various temperatures, light levels, and phosphate concentrations. The oxygen isotopic composition in the phosphate source, algal cells, and the isotopic composition oxygen in the dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) were measured. Results showing the effect of species, temperature, light and P availability on intracellular oxygen isotope exchange between phosphorus compounds and water will be presented. The effect of these parameters on the utility of the oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate as a tracer of phosphate utilization rate in the ocean will be discussed. This information is fundamental to any application of isotopic composition of oxygen of dissolved inorganic or organic phosphate to quantify the dynamics of phosphorus cycling in aquatic systems. The data will be utilized to investigate seasonal changes in phosphate sources and cycling in the open ocean and how these relate to phytoplankton abundance, hydrography, and nutrient concentrations.

  11. Improving the Flavor of Ground Beef by Selecting Trimmings from Specific Locations

    E-print Network

    Harbison, Amanda 1989-

    2012-08-17

    (>95% lean) to contain 80% lean trim and 20% fat trim. Patties (100 g) were evaluated for color, lipid oxidation, fatty acid composition and consumer evaluation. Flavor was analyzed using a Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC...

  12. The genetic control of avascular area in mouse oxygen-induced retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    O’Bryhim, Bliss E.; Radel, Jeff; Macdonald, Stuart J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The C57BL/6ByJ and BALB/cByJ inbred strains of mice are, respectively, susceptible and resistant to oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). The purpose of this work was to investigate the genetic control of the retinal avascular area in mouse OIR using a mapping cross. Methods The central retinal avascular area was measured on postnatal day 16 (P16) in C57BL/6ByJ, BALB/cByJ, 101 (C57BL/6ByJ x BALB/cByJ)F2, and 116 (BALB/cByJ x C57BL/6ByJ)F2 mice that had been subjected to the OIR protocol. A genome-wide scan was performed of selected albino and non-albino mice to determine quantitative trait loci associated with weight and avascular area. Results C57BL/6ByJ mice had significantly larger avascular areas than BALB/cByJ ones. Albino mice of the F2 generation had smaller avascular areas than the non-albino mice. Genotyping was performed at 856 informative single nucleotide polymorphisms approximately evenly distributed across the genome from each of 85 selected F2 mice. Weight, sex, and the paternal grandmother were found to act as additive covariates associated with the avascular area on P16; mapping analyses that used a model incorporating these covariates found a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 7 related to avascular area. Mapping analyses that used a model that did not incorporate covariates found a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 9 related to avascular area. A quantitative trait locus for bodyweight on P16 was mapped to chromosome 5. Conclusions The retinal avascular area in the mouse OIR model is under genetic control. Revascularization in OIR is related to the weight, strain of paternal grandmother, sex, and albinism. Our data support the existence of a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 5 that influences weight after exposure to hyperoxia, as well as quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 7 and 9 that modify susceptibility to OIR. PMID:22355249

  13. TRIM5? Cytoplasmic Bodies Are Highly Dynamic Structures

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Edward M.; Dodding, Mark P.; Yap, Melvyn W.; Wu, Xiaolu; Gallois-Montbrun, Sarah; Malim, Michael H.; Stoye, Jonathan P.

    2007-01-01

    Tripartite motif (TRIM)5? has recently been identified as a host restriction factor that has the ability to block infection by certain retroviruses in a species-dependent manner. One interesting feature of this protein is that it is localized in distinct cytoplasmic clusters designated as cytoplasmic bodies. The potential role of these cytoplasmic bodies in TRIM5? function remains to be defined. By using fluorescent fusion proteins and live cell microscopy, we studied the localization and dynamics of TRIM5? cytoplasmic bodies. This analysis reveals that cytoplasmic bodies are highly mobile, exhibiting both short saltatory movements and unidirectional long-distance movements along the microtubule network. The morphology of the cytoplasmic bodies is also dynamic. Finally, photobleaching and photoactivation analysis reveals that the TRIM5? protein present in the cytoplasmic bodies is very dynamic, rapidly exchanging between cytoplasmic bodies and a more diffuse cytoplasmic population. Therefore, TRIM5? cytoplasmic bodies are dynamic structures more consistent with a role in function or regulation rather than protein aggregates or inclusion bodies that represent dead-end static structures. PMID:17392513

  14. Comparison of Trimming Techniques for Sub-Lithographic Silicon Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreeskornfeld, L.; Graham, A. P.; Hartwich, J.; Kretz, J.; Landgraf, E.; Lutz, T.; Rösner, W.; Specht, M.; Risch, L.

    2006-06-01

    The trimming of electron beam features is investigated to explore the limits of this scaling technique for the fabrication of nano-scale devices. The semiconductor industry, in particular, needs features below 50 nm, e.g., for extremely small gates for future technology nodes. In addition, sub-lithographic structures are required for other device concepts, such as the fin-type field effect transistor (FinFET). The trimming of very thin layers of calixarene, an organic resist material, as well as an oxide-like resist (hydrogen-silesquioxane) were investigated and extremely small feature sizes, well below 10 nm, were achieved. Resist structures down to 4 nm in width and silicon features of about 8 nm have been successfully fabricated. Different trimming procedures utilizing plasma resist trimming, etching of Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) hard-masks in hydrofluoric acid (HF) and sacrificial oxidation were compared and, for the first time, a comprehensive study of these techniques applied to sub-10 nm-structuring is presented. In summary, results prove the potential of the trimming procedures investigated here, each of which has specific applications.

  15. Trim and Structural Optimization of Subsonic Transport Wings Using Nonconventional Aeroelastic Tailoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Bret K.; Jutte, Christine V.

    2014-01-01

    Several minimum-mass aeroelastic optimization problems are solved to evaluate the effectiveness of a variety of novel tailoring schemes for subsonic transport wings. Aeroelastic strength and panel buckling constraints are imposed across a variety of trimmed maneuver loads. Tailoring with metallic thickness variations, functionally graded materials, composite laminates, tow steering, and distributed trailing edge control effectors are all found to provide reductions in structural wing mass with varying degrees of success. The question as to whether this wing mass reduction will offset the increased manufacturing cost is left unresolved for each case.

  16. Molecular characterization, tissue distribution and expression analysis of TRIM25 in Gallus gallus domesticus.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ze-Qing; Cheng, Yang; Yang, Hui-Ling; Zhu, Qing; Yu, Dandan; Liu, Yi-Ping

    2015-04-25

    TRIM25, a member of the tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) family of proteins, plays an important role in cell proliferation, protein modification, and the RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling pathway. However, relatively few studies have investigated the molecular characterization, tissue distribution, and potential function of TRIM25 in chickens. In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNA of chicken TRIM25 that is composed of 2706bp. Sequence analyses revealed that TRIM25 contains a 1902-bp open-reading frame that probably encodes a 633-amino acid protein. Multiple comparisons with deduced amino acid sequences revealed that the RING finger and B30.2 domains of chicken TRIM25 share a high sequence similarity with human and murine TRIM25, indicating that these domains are critical for the function of chicken TRIM25. qPCR assays revealed that TRIM25 is highly expressed in the spleen, thymus and lungs in chickens. Furthermore, we observed that TRIM25 expression was significantly upregulated both in vitro and in vivo following infection with Newcastle disease virus. TRIM25 expression was also significantly upregulated in chicken embryo fibroblasts upon stimulation with poly(I:C) or poly(dA:dT). Taken together, these findings suggest that TRIM25 plays an important role in antiviral signaling pathways in chickens. PMID:25682934

  17. Effects of bill-trimming Muscovy ducks on behavior, body weight gain, and bill morphopathology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In commercial production facilities, ducks are often bill-trimmed to prevent feather pecking and cannibalism. Beak-trimming of chickens and turkeys has been criticized because of its potential to cause acute and chronic pain, but little is known about the effects of bill-trimming on the welfare of d...

  18. The Interferon Response Inhibits HIV Particle Production by Induction of TRIM22

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Stephen D.; Smiley, James R.; Bushman, Frederic D.

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of human cells with Type 1 interferons restricts HIV replication. Here we report that the tripartite motif protein TRIM22 is a key mediator. We used transcriptional profiling to identify cellular genes that were induced by interferon treatment and identified TRIM22 as one of the most strongly up-regulated genes. We confirmed, as in previous studies, that TRIM22 over-expression inhibited HIV replication. To assess the role of TRIM22 expressed under natural inducing conditions, we compared the effects of interferon in cells depleted for TRIM22 using RNAi and found that HIV particle release was significantly increased in the knockdown, implying that TRIM22 acts as a natural antiviral effector. Further studies showed that TRIM22 inhibited budding of virus-like particles containing Gag only, indicating that Gag was the target of TRIM22. TRIM22 did not block the release of MLV or EIAV Gag particles. Inhibition was associated with diffuse cytoplasmic staining of HIV Gag rather than accumulation at the plasma membrane, suggesting TRIM22 disrupts proper trafficking. Mutational analyses of TRIM22 showed that the catalytic amino acids Cys15 and Cys18 of the RING domain are required for TRIM22 antiviral activity. These data disclose a pathway by which Type 1 interferons obstruct HIV replication. PMID:18389079

  19. The microbiological effects of trimming sticking wounds in pasteurized pig carcasses.

    PubMed

    Gill, C O; Badoni, M

    2001-04-01

    Neither pasteurizing of uneviscerated carcasses nor trimming reduced the numbers of total aerobic bacteria recovered from sticking wounds in pig carcasses. However, trimming after pasteurizing increased the numbers of coliforms and Escherichia coli recovered from sticking wounds, whereas pasteurizing without trimming reduced these counts. PMID:11326635

  20. Oxygen control of atomic structure and physical properties of SrRuO3 surfaces.

    PubMed

    Tselev, Alexander; Ganesh, P; Qiao, Liang; Siemons, Wolter; Gai, Zheng; Biegalski, Michael D; Baddorf, Arthur P; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2013-05-28

    Complex oxide thin films and heterostructures have become one of the foci for condensed matter physics research due to a broad variety of properties they exhibit. Similar to the bulk, properties of oxide surfaces can be expected to be strongly affected by oxygen stoichiometry. Here we explore the coupling between atomic structure and physical properties of SrRuO3 (SRO), one of the most well-studied oxide materials. We perform a detailed in situ and ex situ experimental investigation of the surfaces of SRO thin films using a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, SQUID magnetometry, and magnetotransport measurements, as well as ab initio modeling. A number of remarkable linear surface reconstructions were observed by STM and interpreted as oxygen adatoms, favorably adsorbed in a regular rectangular or zigzag patterns. The degree of oxygen coverage and different surface patterns change the work function of the thin films, and modify local electronic and magnetic properties of the topmost atomic layer. The ab initio modeling reveals that oxygen adatoms possess frustrated local spin moments with possible spin-glass behavior of the surface covered by adsorbed oxygen. Additionally, the modeling indicates presence of a pseudo gap on the topmost SrO layer on pristine SrO-terminated surface, suggesting possibility for realization of a surface half-metallic film. PMID:23570268

  1. Triangulation of trimmed surfaces based on constructing triangles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jin; Wang, Qifu; Zheng, Xianglin; Zhou, Ji

    1996-03-01

    A new approach for triangulating trimmed surfaces is presented in this paper. The main idea is based on constructing triangles net. The algorithm consists of: (1) reconstruction boundaries of the trimmed surfaces; (2) constructing triangles net; (3) triangulation in narrow polygon zone; (4) accuracy checking and triangle subdivision. In this paper, topological consistency of triangles net is checked in parametric domain. Property of a triangle is appraised in 3D space. Excellent triangles net without cracks can finally be received. The algorithm has been successfully used in surface modeling system SCAD 1.0.

  2. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Enhancement of the efficiency and control of emission parameters of an unstable-resonator chemical oxygen—iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boreisho, A. S.; Lobachev, V. V.; Savin, A. V.; Strakhov, S. Yu; Trilis, A. V.

    2007-07-01

    The outlook is considered for the development of a high-power supersonic flowing chemical oxygen—iodine laser operating as an amplifier and controlled by radiation from a master oscillator by using an unstable resonator with a hole-coupled mirror. The influence of the seed radiation intensity, the coupling-hole diameter, the active-medium length, and the magnification factor on the parameters of laser radiation is analysed. It is shown that the use of such resonators is most advisable in medium-power oxygen—iodine lasers for which classical unstable resonators are inefficient because of their low magnification factors. The use of unstable resonators with a hole-coupled mirror and injection provides the control of radiation parameters and a considerable increase in the output power and brightness of laser radiation.

  3. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for postharvest control of light brown apple moth on lettuce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postharvest treatment for light brown apple moth (LBAM), Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), is needed to safe guard domestic distribution and export of U.S. fresh fruits and vegetables including lettuce as the pest becomes established in California with risk of potential spread. Oxygenated phosphine fu...

  4. Hyperbaric oxygen as an adjunct in zygomycosis: randomized controlled trial in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Barratt, D M; Van Meter, K; Asmar, P; Nolan, T; Trahan, C; Garcia-Covarrubias, L; Metzinger, S E

    2001-12-01

    Zygomycosis was induced by injecting CD-1 mice with 5 mg of intraperitoneal deferoxamine and then 10(6) CFU of intravenous and intrasinus Rhizopus arrhizus. The addition of hyperbaric oxygen (2.0 atm absolute twice daily) to amphotericin B did not improve survival over that achieved with amphotericin B and placebo air treatments. PMID:11709348

  5. Controls of sub-surface dissolved oxygen in Massachusetts Bay USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Hyde; D. C. Vandemark; J. Salisbury

    2009-01-01

    Variations in oceanic dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations are tightly coupled to coastal ecosystem dynamics, and as global climate change occurs, this linkage is expected to change as well. Although DO depends primarily upon temperature and salinity, other factors, especially in coastal regions like Massachusetts Bay, often affect this thermodynamic DO relationship. Linear correlations were examined between the monthly averages of

  6. Quality Control of Reactive Oxygen Species Measurement by Luminol-Dependent Chemiluminescence Assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HIROSHI KOBAYASHI; ENRIQUE GIL-GUZMAN; AYMAN M. MAHRAN; RAKESH K. SHARMA; DAVID R. NELSON; ANTHONY J. THOMAS JR; ASHOK AGARWAL

    A total of 28 donor semen samples were used to eval- uate the characteristics of laboratory variability in measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS). The objectives of this study were to assess the interassay (same sample observed on different days by the same observers) variability; interdonor, intraobserver (replications of the same sample on the same day) variability; and interobserver (multiple observers

  7. A furnace design for XANES spectroscopy of silicate melts under controlled oxygen fugacities and temperatures to 1773 K.

    PubMed

    Berry, Andrew J; Shelley, J Michael G; Foran, Garry J; O'Neill, Hugh St C; Scott, Dean R

    2003-07-01

    A controlled-atmosphere furnace has been constructed for X-ray absorption spectroscopy experiments under imposed oxygen fugacities at temperatures up to 1773 K. The use of the furnace is demonstrated in a study of the oxidation state of Cr in a basaltic silicate melt (mid-ocean ridge basalt) by K-edge XANES spectroscopy. This is the first time the Cr(2+)/Cr(3+) ratio has been identified directly in an Fe-bearing melt. At typical terrestrial oxygen fugacities around half the Cr is present as Cr(2+), even though this oxidation state has never been identified in a terrestrial material and only Cr(3+) is observed after quenching to a glass. Cr(2+) oxidizes to Cr(3+) on cooling in the presence of Fe(3+) according to the electron exchange reaction Cr(2+) + Fe(3+) --> Cr(3+) + Fe(2+). This illustrates the importance of the in situ determination of metal oxidation states in melts. PMID:12824934

  8. Controlled evaluation of the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on the behavior of 16 children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Jepson, Bryan; Granpeesheh, Doreen; Tarbox, Jonathan; Olive, Melissa L; Stott, Carol; Braud, Scott; Yoo, J Helen; Wakefield, Andrew; Allen, Michael S

    2011-05-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been used to treat individuals with autism. However, few studies of its effectiveness have been completed. The current study examined the effects of 40 HBOT sessions at 24% oxygen at 1.3 ATA on 11 topographies of directly observed behavior. Five replications of multiple baselines were completed across a total of 16 participants with autism spectrum disorders. No consistent effects were observed across any group or within any individual participant, demonstrating that HBOT was not an effective treatment for the participants in this study. This study represents the first relatively large-scale controlled study evaluating the effects of HBOT at the level of the individual participant, on a wide array of behaviors. PMID:20680427

  9. AISI\\/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 1 of 6: Optical Sensors and Controls for Improved Basic Oxygen Furnace Operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Allendorf; David Ottesen; Donald Hardesty

    2002-01-01

    The development of an optical sensor for basic oxygen furnace (BOF) off-gas composition and temperature in this Advanced Process Control project has been a laboratory spectroscopic method evolve into a pre-commercialization prototype sensor system. The sensor simultaneously detects an infrared tunable diode laser ITDL beam transmitted through the process off-gas directly above the furnace mouth, and the infrared greybody emission

  10. Enhancing dissolved oxygen control using an on-line hybrid fuzzy-neural soft-sensing model-based control system in an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingzhi; Wan, Jinquan; Hu, Kang; Ma, Yongwen; Wang, Yan

    2013-12-01

    An on-line hybrid fuzzy-neural soft-sensing model-based control system was developed to optimize dissolved oxygen concentration in a bench-scale anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A(2)/O) process. In order to improve the performance of the control system, a self-adapted fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm and adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) models were employed. The proposed control system permits the on-line implementation of every operating strategy of the experimental system. A set of experiments involving variable hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent pH (pH), dissolved oxygen in the aerobic reactor (DO), and mixed-liquid return ratio (r) was carried out. Using the proposed system, the amount of COD in the effluent stabilized at the set-point and below. The improvement was achieved with optimum dissolved oxygen concentration because the performance of the treatment process was optimized using operating rules implemented in real time. The system allows various expert operational approaches to be deployed with the goal of minimizing organic substances in the outlet while using the minimum amount of energy. PMID:24052227

  11. Enterovirus 71 induces degradation of TRIM38, a potential E3 ubiquitin ligase

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins are a family of more than 70 members in human. However, only a few of them have been well studied. The TRIM proteins contain the conserved RING, B-box, coiled-coil, and SPRY domains, most of which are involved in protein ubiquitination. TRIM38 is a member of the TRIM protein family, which we studied in more detail here as its functions are largely unknown. Results Our study shows that, similar to other TRIM family members, TRIM38 is localized in the cytoplasm. TRIM38 increases ubiquitination of other cellular proteins and catalyzes self-ubiquitination. TRIM38 also promotes K63- and K48-linked ubiquitination of cellular proteins. An intact RING domain is important for the functions of TRIM38. In addition, enterovirus 71 infection induces TRIM38 degradation. Conclusions Our observations demonstrate that TRIM38 has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and can be degraded during virus infection. These findings may provide insight into innate immune signaling pathways. PMID:21306652

  12. TRIM27 Negatively Regulates NOD2 by Ubiquitination and Proteasomal Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Zurek, Birte; Schoultz, Ida; Neerincx, Andreas; Napolitano, Luisa M.; Birkner, Katharina; Bennek, Eveline; Sellge, Gernot; Lerm, Maria; Meroni, Germana; Söderholm, Johan D.; Kufer, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    NOD2, the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing gene family (NLR) member 2 is involved in mediating antimicrobial responses. Dysfunctional NOD2 activity can lead to severe inflammatory disorders, but the regulation of NOD2 is still poorly understood. Recently, proteins of the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family have emerged as regulators of innate immune responses by acting as E3 ubiquitin ligases. We identified TRIM27 as a new specific binding partner for NOD2. We show that NOD2 physically interacts with TRIM27 via the nucleotide-binding domain, and that NOD2 activation enhances this interaction. Dependent on functional TRIM27, ectopically expressed NOD2 is ubiquitinated with K48-linked ubiquitin chains followed by proteasomal degradation. Accordingly, TRIM27 affects NOD2-mediated pro-inflammatory responses. NOD2 mutations are linked to susceptibility to Crohn's disease. We found that TRIM27 expression is increased in Crohn's disease patients, underscoring a physiological role of TRIM27 in regulating NOD2 signaling. In HeLa cells, TRIM27 is partially localized in the nucleus. We revealed that ectopically expressed NOD2 can shuttle to the nucleus in a Walker A dependent manner, suggesting that NOD2 and TRIM27 might functionally cooperate in the nucleus. We conclude that TRIM27 negatively regulates NOD2-mediated signaling by degradation of NOD2 and suggest that TRIM27 could be a new target for therapeutic intervention in NOD2-associated diseases. PMID:22829933

  13. TRIM56 Is an Essential Component of the TLR3 Antiviral Signaling Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yang; Li, Nan L.; Wang, Jie; Liu, Baoming; Lester, Sandra; Li, Kui

    2012-01-01

    Members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins are being recognized as important regulators of host innate immunity. However, specific TRIMs that contribute to TLR3-mediated antiviral defense have not been identified. We show here that TRIM56 is a positive regulator of TLR3 signaling. Overexpression of TRIM56 substantially potentiated extracellular dsRNA-induced expression of interferon (IFN)-? and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), while knockdown of TRIM56 greatly impaired activation of IRF3, induction of IFN-? and ISGs, and establishment of an antiviral state by TLR3 ligand and severely compromised TLR3-mediated chemokine induction following infection by hepatitis C virus. The ability to promote TLR3 signaling was independent of the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of TRIM56. Rather, it correlated with a physical interaction between TRIM56 and TRIF. Deletion of the C-terminal portion of TRIM56 abrogated the TRIM56-TRIF interaction as well as the augmentation of TLR3-mediated IFN response. Together, our data demonstrate TRIM56 is an essential component of the TLR3 antiviral signaling pathway and reveal a novel role for TRIM56 in innate antiviral immunity. PMID:22948160

  14. TRIM5{alpha} association with cytoplasmic bodies is not required for antiretroviral activity

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Byeongwoon [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Diaz-Griffero, Felipe [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Park, Do Hyun [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Rogers, Thomas [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Stremlau, Matthew [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Sodroski, Joseph [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States) and Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)]. E-mail: joseph_sodroski@dfci.harvard.edu

    2005-12-20

    The tripartite motif (TRIM) protein, TRIM5{alpha}, restricts infection by particular retroviruses. Many TRIM proteins form cytoplasmic bodies of unknown function. We investigated the relationship between cytoplasmic body formation and the structure and antiretroviral activity of TRIM5{alpha}. In addition to diffuse cytoplasmic staining, the TRIM5{alpha} proteins from several primate species were located in cytoplasmic bodies of different sizes; by contrast, TRIM5{alpha} from spider monkeys did not form cytoplasmic bodies. Despite these differences, all of the TRIM5{alpha} proteins exhibited the ability to restrict infection by particular retroviruses. Treatment of cells with geldanamycin, an Hsp90 inhibitor, resulted in disappearance or reduction of the TRIM5{alpha}-associated cytoplasmic bodies, yet exerted little effect on the restriction of retroviral infection. Studies of green fluorescent protein-TRIM5{alpha} fusion proteins indicated that no TRIM5{alpha} domain is specifically required for association with cytoplasmic bodies. Apparently, the formation of cytoplasmic bodies is not required for the antiretroviral activity of TRIM5{alpha}.

  15. Trim36/Haprin plays a critical role in the arrangement of somites during Xenopus embryogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yoshigai, Emi; Kawamura, Shinobu; Kuhara, Satoru; Tashiro, Kosuke

    2009-01-16

    The TRIM family members contain a tripartite motif (TRIM), which includes RING, B-box, and coiled-coil domains, or collectively RBCC. They have been implicated in a variety of biological processes, such as the regulation of differentiation and development, and oncogenesis. In this study, we discovered a novel function of the TRIM family in early development. We report the expression of Trim36/Haprin during Xenopus laevis early embryogenesis and its involvement in somite formation. Temporal expression analysis indicated that Trim36/Haprin was present throughout embryogenesis. Spatial expression analysis showed that its expression was mainly confined to the nervous system and a portion of the posterior somite. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of Trim36/Haprin markedly and specifically inhibited the somite formation. We conclude that Trim36/Haprin plays an important role in the arrangement of somites during their formation. PMID:19032936

  16. TRIMmunity: The roles of the TRIM E3-ubiquitin ligase family in innate antiviral immunity

    PubMed Central

    Rajsbaum, Ricardo; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Versteeg, Gijs A.

    2014-01-01

    Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins have been implicated in multiple cellular functions, including antiviral activity. Research efforts so far indicate that the antiviral activity of TRIMs relies, for the most part, on their function as E3-ubiquitin ligases. A substantial number of the TRIM-family members have been demonstrated to mediate innate immune cell signal transduction and subsequent cytokine induction. In addition, a subset of TRIMs has been shown to restrict viral replication by directly targeting viral proteins. Although the body of work on the cellular roles of TRIM E3 ubiquitin ligases has rapidly grown over the last years, many aspects of their molecular workings and multi-functionality remain unclear. The antiviral function of many TRIMs seems to be conferred by specific isoforms, sub-cellular localization, and in cell-type specific contexts. Here we review recent findings on TRIM antiviral functions, current limitations and an outlook for future research. PMID:24333484

  17. Oxygen requirement in pullulan fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denis Rho; Ashok Mulchandani; John H. T. Luong; Anh LeDuy

    1988-01-01

    Oxygen was essential for the biosynthesis of pullulan by Aureobasidium pullulans. In a growth medium, pullulan yield and synthesis rate were proportional to the oxygen availability. However, under controlled oxygen environment in a non-growth medium, the synthesis rate and the yield of pullulan were inversely proportional to the oxygen tension. A relationship between melanin production and oxygen transfer conditions was

  18. Astronaut Owen Garriott trims hair of Astronaut Alan Bean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, trims the hair of Astronaut Alan L. Bean, commander, in this on-board photograph from the Skylab Orbital Workshop (OWS). Bean holds a vacuum hose to gather in loose hair.

  19. Evaluation of a sea wave energy converter with variable trim

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Martellucci

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, the working principles of an innovative sea-wave energy converter are described together with an analysis of the effectiveness of a generic site installation. The system presented is the evolution of a project born in 1994 with the aim of designing a sea wave energy device with variable trim, able to adjust its behaviour to the sea conditions.

  20. Compact trimming design of a high-precision reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guodong, Ren; Shifang, Zhao; Zhongshen, Pu; Zhiqiang, Wei

    2014-04-01

    To design a high-precision reference, the various error sources have been analyzed and compensated with a compact 111 mV resistor-trim scheme and the upper and lower extremes of the reference precision are also temperature-compensated. At room temperature, the yield of ±0.5% precision is 96% and ±0.2% is 78%.

  1. Determination of resistance and trimming moment of planing water craft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroder, P

    1931-01-01

    This report presents a new theory which makes it possible to interpret the resistance and the trimming moment for any loading of a planing aircraft when these values are given for one load. This application of the new theory forms the basis of the present paper. Derivations of various conversion formulas are given as well as numerous examples.

  2. Propositional Theorem Proving by Semantic Tree Trimming for Hardware Verification

    E-print Network

    North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

    Propositional Theorem Proving by Semantic Tree Trimming for Hardware Verification by William John Stotts, Reader #12; Copyright c fl 1999 William John Yakowenko All rights reserved ii #12; WILLIAM JOHN that resulted. Jonathan Marshall, Jan Prins, Janet Jones, and Brian White each rescued me at one time or another

  3. Interactive Display of Large Scale Trimmed NURBS Models \\Lambda

    E-print Network

    North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

    Interactive Display of Large Scale Trimmed NURBS Models \\Lambda Subodh Kumar Department of Computer and triangular patches. Large scale models consisting of thousands of such surfaces are commonly used technologies. Main Result: We present an algorithm for interactive display of large scale NURBS models

  4. COMPARATIVE HISTOLOGY OF DUCK BILLS FOLLOWING DIFFERENT BILL TRIMMING PRACTICES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Various histological staining methods have been developed to examine trauma-induced pathological changes. Each method is chosen in a tissue-dependent manner. The aims of this study were to investigate trimming-induced bill morphological changes and to test suitable staining methods for detecting tra...

  5. A polynomial procedure for trimming visibly pushdown automata

    E-print Network

    A polynomial procedure for trimming visibly pushdown automata Mathieu Caralp, Pierre-Alain Reynier Introduction Visibly pushdown automata (VPA) are a particular class of pushdown automata working over problems in the graph repre- senting the automaton. However, the problem is more difficult for VPA

  6. MORPHOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES AND PAIN IN BEAK TRIMMED LAYING HENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beak trimming is routinely practiced in the poultry industry to reduce the incidence of feather pecking, aggression, and cannibalism in egg layers. Feather pecking is painful to birds and potentially induces cannibalism. Cannibalism happens in all current housing environments, cage- and free-product...

  7. Infrared beak treatment: an alternative to conventional beak trimming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infrared lasers have been widely used in human medicine and its results are reliable, predictable and reproducible. Infrared lasers have recently been designed with the expressed purpose of providing a less painful, more precise beak treatment compared with conventional beak trimming. This study was...

  8. Haemodynamic optimisation improves tissue microvascular flow and oxygenation after major surgery: a randomised controlled trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shaman Jhanji; Amanda Vivian-Smith; Susana Lucena-Amaro; David Watson; Charles J Hinds; Rupert M Pearse

    2010-01-01

    Introduction  Post-operative outcomes may be improved by the use of flow related end-points for intra-venous fluid and\\/or low dose inotropic\\u000a therapy. The mechanisms underlying this benefit remain uncertain. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of\\u000a stroke volume guided intra-venous fluid and low dose dopexamine on tissue microvascular flow and oxygenation and inflammatory\\u000a markers in patients undergoing major

  9. Improvement of the analysis of the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of Mediterranean seawater by seeding control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Xavier Simon; Ywann Penru; Andrea R. Guastalli; Joan Llorens; Sylvie Baig

    2011-01-01

    Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is a useful parameter for assessing the biodegradability of dissolved organic matter in water. At the same time, this parameter is used to evaluate the efficiency with which certain processes remove biodegradable natural organic matter (NOM). However, the values of BOD in seawater are very low (around 2mgO2L?1) and the methods used for its analysis are

  10. Controlling the oxygen potential to improve the densification and the solid solution formation of uranium-plutonium mixed oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzati, Ségolène; Vaudez, Stéphane; Belin, Renaud C.; Léchelle, Jacques; Marc, Yves; Richaud, Jean-Christophe; Heintz, Jean-Marc

    2014-04-01

    Diffusion mechanisms occurring during the sintering of oxide ceramics are affected by the oxygen content of the atmosphere, as it imposes the nature and the concentration of structural defects in the material. Thus, the oxygen partial pressure, p(O2), of the sintering gas has to be precisely controlled, otherwise a large dispersion in various parameters, critical for the manufacturing of ceramics such as nuclear oxides fuels, is likely to occur. In the present work, the densification behaviour and the solid solution formation of a mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) were investigated. The initial mixture, composed of 70% UO2 + 30% PuO2, was studied at p(O2) ranging from 10-15 to 10-4 atm up to 1873 K both with dilatometry and in situ high temperature X-ray diffraction. This study has shown that the initial oxides UO2+x and PuO2-x first densify during heating and then the solid solution formation starts at about 200 K higher. The densification and the formation of the solid solution both occur at a lower temperature when p(O2) increases. Based on this result, it is possible to better define the sintering atmosphere, eventually leading to optimized parameters such as density, oxygen stoichiometry and cations homogenization of nuclear ceramics and of a wide range of industrial ceramic materials.

  11. Evaluation of Thermal Control Coatings and Polymeric Materials Exposed to Ground Simulated Atomic Oxygen and Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamenetzky, R. R.; Vaughn, J. A.; Finckenor, M. M.; Linton, R. C.

    1995-01-01

    Numerous thermal control and polymeric samples with potential International Space Station applications were evaluated for atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet radiation effects in the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory 5 eV Neutral Atomic Oxygen Facility and in the MSFC Atomic Oxygen Drift Tube System. Included in this study were samples of various anodized aluminum samples, ceramic paints, polymeric materials, and beta cloth, a Teflon-impregnated fiberglass cloth. Aluminum anodizations tested were black duranodic, chromic acid anodize, and sulfuric acid anodize. Paint samples consisted of an inorganic glassy black paint and Z-93 white paint made with the original PS7 binder and the new K2130 binder. Polymeric samples evaluated included bulk Halar, bulk PEEK, and silverized FEP Teflon. Aluminized and nonaluminized Chemfab 250 beta cloth were also exposed. Samples were evaluated for changes in mass, thickness, solar absorptance, and infrared emittance. In addition to material effects, an investigation was made comparing diffuse reflectance/solar absorptance measurements made using a Beckman DK2 spectroreflectometer and like measurements made using an AZ Technology-developed laboratory portable spectroreflectometer.

  12. A bench-scale assessment for phosphorus release control of sediment by an oxygen-releasing compound (ORC).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Lin, Feng K; Yang, Lei; Hua, Dan Y

    2015-01-01

    The effects of oxygen-releasing compound (ORC) on the control of phosphorus (P) release as well as the spatial and temporal distribution of P fractions in sediment were studied through a bench-scale test. An ORC with an extended oxygen-releasing capacity was prepared. The results of the oxygen-releasing test showed that the ORC provided a prolonged period of oxygen release with a highly effective oxygen content of 60.6% when compared with powdery CaO2. In the bench-scale test, an ORC dose of 180 g·m(-2) provided a higher inhibition efficiency for P release within 50 days. With the application of the ORC, the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and redox potential (ORP) of the overlying water were notably improved, and the dissolved total phosphorus (DTP) was maintained below 0.689 mg·L(-1) compared to 2.906 mg·L(-1) without the ORC treatment. According to the P fractions distribution, the summation of all detectable P fractions in each sediment layer exhibited an enhanced accumulation tendency with the application of ORC. Higher phosphorus retention efficiencies were observed in the second and third layers of sediment from days 10 to 20 with the ORC. Phosphorus was trapped mainly in the form of iron bound P (Fe-P) and organically bound P (O-P) in sediment with the ORC, whereas the effects of the ORC on exchangeable P (EX-P), apatite-associated P (A-P) and detrital P (De-P) in the sediment sample were not significant. The microbial activities of the sediment samples demonstrated that both the dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) in the upper sediment layer increased with the ORC treatment, which indicated that the mineralization of P was accelerated and the microbial biomass was increased. As the accumulation of P suppressed the release of P, the sediment exhibited an increased P retention efficiency with the application of the ORC. PMID:25438131

  13. The TRIM-FLMN protein TRIM45 directly interacts with RACK1 and negatively regulates PKC-mediated signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Sato, T; Takahashi, H; Hatakeyama, S; Iguchi, A; Ariga, T

    2015-03-01

    The receptor for activated C-kinase (RACK1), a scaffolding protein that participates in the protein kinase C (PKC) signaling pathway, has an important role in shuttling active PKCs to its substrate. Indeed, recent studies have revealed that RACK1 has an important role in tumorigenesis and that enhancement of the feed-forward mechanism of the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-Jun pathway via RACK1 is associated with constitutive activation of MEK (MAPK-ERK kinase)-ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) signaling in human melanoma cells. Taken together, RACK1 additionally has a very important role in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Here, we show that one of the tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) family ubiquitin ligases, TRIM45, is a novel RACK1-interacting protein and downregulates MAPK signal transduction. Importantly, the expression of TRIM45 is induced when growth-promoting extracellular stimuli activate the MAPK signaling pathway, resulting in attenuation of activation of the MAPK pathway. These findings suggest that TRIM45 functions as a member of the negative feedback loop of the MAPK pathway. PMID:24681954

  14. Attenuation of wall disturbances in an electron cyclotron resonance oxygen–argon plasma using real time control

    SciTech Connect

    Keville, Bernard, E-mail: bernard.keville@dcu.ie; Gaman, Cezar; Turner, Miles M. [National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology (NCPST), Research and Engineering Building, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Ireland and School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Zhang, Yang; Daniels, Stephen [National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology (NCPST), Research and Engineering Building, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Ireland and School of Electronic Engineering, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Holohan, Anthony M. [School of Electronic Engineering, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2014-07-01

    Present practice in plasma-assisted semiconductor manufacturing specifies recipes in terms of inputs such as gas flow rates, power and pressure. However, ostensibly identical chambers running identical recipes may produce very different results. Extensive chamber matching, i.e., initial iterative, empirical tuning of the process recipe, which entails time-consuming, ex situ statistical analysis of process metrics such as etch depth, uniformity, anisotropy and selectivity, is required to ensure acceptable results. Once matched, chambers are run open loop and are thus sensitive to disturbances such as actuator drift, wall seasoning and substrate loading, which may impact negatively on process reproducibility. An alternative approach, which may obviate the need for chamber matching and reduce the sensitivity of process metrics to exogenous disturbances, would be to specify a recipe in terms of quantities such as active species densities, and to regulate these in real time by adjusting the inputs with a suitable control algorithm. In this work, real time control of an electron cyclotron resonance O{sub 2}/Ar plasma used for photoresist ashing has been implemented. The design of elementary, model-based algorithms for the control of the argon 750 and oxygen 844 line intensities measured by optical emission spectroscopy is described. Fluorination of the chamber walls by means of an SF{sub 6} plasma prior to ashing inhibits wall recombination of oxygen radicals resulting in an approximately 20% increase in ash rate in the open loop case. However, closed loop control almost completely attenuates the effect of fluorination, thus demonstrating the efficacy of the control algorithms in ensuring a reproducible ash rate in the face of a wall disturbance.

  15. Control of Oxygen Delamination in Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cells via Modifying Operational Regime

    SciTech Connect

    Sergey N. Rashkeev; Michael V. Glazoff

    2011-10-01

    Possible modifications of operational regimes for solid oxide fuel cell (SOEC) devices for hydrogen production are discussed. It is shown that applying alternating current (AC) voltage pulses at a certain frequency range to SOECs could reduce oxygen delamination degradation in these devices and significantly increase their lifetime. This operational scheme provides wide possibilities to increase longevity of SOEC devices required for their use in commercial hydrogen production processes, without any significant modification of used materials and/or cell design. Developed simulation method possesses a broad generality and be employed in a number of other industrial processes.

  16. Doped LaFeO 3 as SOFC catalysts: Control of oxygen mobility and oxidation activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nandita Lakshminarayanan; John N. Kuhn; Sergey A. Rykov; Jean-Marc M. Millet; Umit S. Ozkan

    2010-01-01

    The bulk structure and surface properties of Fe-based perovskite-type oxides with the formula La0.6Sr0.4CoyFe1?yO3?? for y=0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 have been investigated. The properties were found to strongly depend upon Co content, temperature, and environment. The materials were selected due to their potential use as solid oxide fuel cell cathodes. The intermediate Co loading formed oxygen vacancies most easily and

  17. Autonomic control of cardiac function and myocardial oxygen consumption during hypoxic hypoxia.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, H. H.; Stone, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation in 19 conscious dogs of the importance of the sympathetic nervous system in the coronary and cardiac response to altitude (hypoxic) hypoxia. Beta-adrenergic blockade was used to minimize the cardiac effect associated with sympathetic receptors. It is shown that the autonomic nervous system, and particularly the sympathetic nervous system, is responsible for the increase in ventricular function and myocardial oxygen consumption that occurs during hypoxia. Minimizing this response through appropriate conditioning and training may improve the operating efficiency of the heart and reduce the hazard of hypoxia and other environmental stresses, such as acceleration, which are encountered in advanced aircraft systems.

  18. Research on Experimental Control System for Rich or Pure-Oxygen Roller Kilns

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Chen; Junjie Xiao; Huaibin Zhu

    2010-01-01

    Combination of Industrial Personal Computer (IPC) and PLC is used on the experimental control system. Upper computer is an IPC with WinCC of SIMATIC Configuration Software. It is connected to S7-300PLC by RS485 interface and can realize dynamic display process of kilns production. The controller can control its subordinate equipments by control commands of upper computer. Firstly, this paper introduces

  19. TRIM50 Protein Regulates Vesicular Trafficking for Acid Secretion in Gastric Parietal Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, Miyuki; Aoyama, Fumiyo; Kisa, Fumihiko; Zhu, Hua; Sun, Mingzhai; Lin, Peihui; Ohta, Hiroya; Van, Bo; Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Kakizawa, Sho; Sakai, Hideki; Ma, Jianjie; Sawaguchi, Akira; Takeshima, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Of the TRIM/RBCC family proteins taking part in a variety of cellular processes, TRIM50 is a stomach-specific member with no defined biological function. Our biochemical data demonstrated that TRIM50 is specifically expressed in gastric parietal cells and is predominantly localized in the tubulovesicular and canalicular membranes. In cultured cells ectopically expressing GFP-TRIM50, confocal microscopic imaging revealed dynamic movement of TRIM50-associated vesicles in a phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent manner. A protein overlay assay detected preferential binding of the PRY-SPRY domain from the TRIM50 C-terminal region to phosphatidylinositol species, suggesting that TRIM50 is involved in vesicular dynamics by sensing the phosphorylated state of phosphoinositol lipids. Trim50 knock-out mice retained normal histology in the gastric mucosa but exhibited impaired secretion of gastric acid. In response to histamine, Trim50 knock-out parietal cells generated deranged canaliculi, swollen microvilli lacking actin filaments, and excess multilamellar membrane complexes. Therefore, TRIM50 seems to play an essential role in tubulovesicular dynamics, promoting the formation of sophisticated canaliculi and microvilli during acid secretion in parietal cells. PMID:22872646

  20. TRIM50 protein regulates vesicular trafficking for acid secretion in gastric parietal cells.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Miyuki; Aoyama, Fumiyo; Kisa, Fumihiko; Zhu, Hua; Sun, Mingzhai; Lin, Peihui; Ohta, Hiroya; Van, Bo; Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Kakizawa, Sho; Sakai, Hideki; Ma, Jianjie; Sawaguchi, Akira; Takeshima, Hiroshi

    2012-09-28

    Of the TRIM/RBCC family proteins taking part in a variety of cellular processes, TRIM50 is a stomach-specific member with no defined biological function. Our biochemical data demonstrated that TRIM50 is specifically expressed in gastric parietal cells and is predominantly localized in the tubulovesicular and canalicular membranes. In cultured cells ectopically expressing GFP-TRIM50, confocal microscopic imaging revealed dynamic movement of TRIM50-associated vesicles in a phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent manner. A protein overlay assay detected preferential binding of the PRY-SPRY domain from the TRIM50 C-terminal region to phosphatidylinositol species, suggesting that TRIM50 is involved in vesicular dynamics by sensing the phosphorylated state of phosphoinositol lipids. Trim50 knock-out mice retained normal histology in the gastric mucosa but exhibited impaired secretion of gastric acid. In response to histamine, Trim50 knock-out parietal cells generated deranged canaliculi, swollen microvilli lacking actin filaments, and excess multilamellar membrane complexes. Therefore, TRIM50 seems to play an essential role in tubulovesicular dynamics, promoting the formation of sophisticated canaliculi and microvilli during acid secretion in parietal cells. PMID:22872646

  1. Emissions of parent, nitrated, and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from indoor corn straw burning in normal and controlled combustion conditions

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guofeng; Xue, Miao; Wei, Siye; Chen, Yuanchen; Wang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Lv, Yan; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yanyan; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Wei, Wen; Zhao, Qiuyue; Li, Bin; Wu, Haisuo; Tao, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Emission factors (EFs) of parent polycyclic aromatic (pPAHs), nitrated PAHs (nPAHs), and oxygenated PAHs (oPAHs) were measured for indoor corn straw burned in a cooking brick stove in both normal and controlled burning conditions. EFs of total 28 pPAHs, 6 nPAHs and 4 oPAHs were 7.9±3.4, 6.5±1.6×10-3, and 6.1±1.4×10-1 mg/kg, respectively. By controlling the burning conditions, it was found that the influence of fuel charge size on EFs of the pPAHs and derivatives was insignificant. Measured EFs increased significantly in a fast burning mainly because of the oxygen deficient atmosphere formed in the stove chamber with a small volume. In both restricted and enhance air supply conditions, EFs of pPAHs, nPAHs and oPAHs were significantly higher than those measured in normal burning conditions. Though EFs varied in different burning conditions, the composition profiles and calculated isomer ratios were similar without significant differences. The results from the stepwise regression model showed that fuel burning rate, air supply amount, and modified combustion efficiency were three most significant influencing factors, explaining 72-85% of the total variations. PMID:24494494

  2. Trauma hemostasis and oxygenation research position paper on remote damage control resuscitation: definitions, current practice, and knowledge gaps.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Donald H; Rappold, Joseph F; Badloe, John F; Berséus, Olle; Blackbourne, Lorne; Brohi, Karim H; Butler, Frank K; Cap, Andrew P; Cohen, Mitchell Jay; Davenport, Ross; DePasquale, Marc; Doughty, Heidi; Glassberg, Elon; Hervig, Tor; Hooper, Timothy J; Kozar, Rosemary; Maegele, Marc; Moore, Ernest E; Murdock, Alan; Ness, Paul M; Pati, Shibani; Rasmussen, Todd; Sailliol, Anne; Schreiber, Martin A; Sunde, Geir Arne; van de Watering, Leo M G; Ward, Kevin R; Weiskopf, Richard B; White, Nathan J; Strandenes, Geir; Spinella, Philip C

    2014-05-01

    The Trauma Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research Network held its third annual Remote Damage Control Resuscitation Symposium in June 2013 in Bergen, Norway. The Trauma Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research Network is a multidisciplinary group of investigators with a common interest in improving outcomes and safety in patients with severe traumatic injury. The network's mission is to reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality from traumatic hemorrhagic shock, in the prehospital phase of resuscitation through research, education, and training. The concept of remote damage control resuscitation is in its infancy, and there is a significant amount of work that needs to be done to improve outcomes for patients with life-threatening bleeding secondary to injury. The prehospital phase of resuscitation is critical in these patients. If shock and coagulopathy can be rapidly identified and minimized before hospital admission, this will very likely reduce morbidity and mortality. This position statement begins to standardize the terms used, provides an acceptable range of therapeutic options, and identifies the major knowledge gaps in the field. PMID:24430539

  3. TRIM37 defective in mulibrey nanism is a novel RING finger ubiquitin E3 ligase

    SciTech Connect

    Kallijaervi, Jukka [Folkhaelsan Institute of Genetics, Department of Medical Genetics and Neuroscience Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Lahtinen, Ulla [Folkhaelsan Institute of Genetics, Department of Medical Genetics and Neuroscience Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Haemaelaeinen, Riikka [Folkhaelsan Institute of Genetics, Department of Medical Genetics and Neuroscience Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Lipsanen-Nyman, Marita [The Hospital for Children and Adolescents and Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland); Palvimo, Jorma J. [Institute of Biomedicine, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Kuopio, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina [Folkhaelsan Institute of Genetics, Department of Medical Genetics and Neuroscience Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: anna-elina.lehesjoki@helsinki.fi

    2005-08-01

    Mulibrey nanism is an autosomal recessive prenatal-onset growth disorder characterized by dysmorphic features, cardiomyopathy, and hepatomegaly. Mutations in TRIM37 encoding a tripartite motif (TRIM, RING-B-box-coiled-coil)-family protein underlie mulibrey nanism. We investigated the ubiquitin ligase activity predicted for the RING domain of TRIM37 by analyzing its autoubiquitination. Full-length TRIM37 and its TRIM domain were highly polyubiquitinated when co-expressed with ubiquitin. Polyubiquitination was decreased in a mutant protein with disrupted RING domain (Cys35Ser;Cys36Ser) and in the Leu76Pro mutant protein, a disease-associated missense mutation affecting the TRIM domain of TRIM37. Bacterially produced GST-TRIM domain fusion protein, but not its Cys35Ser;Cys36Ser or Leu76Pro mutants, were polyubiquitinated in cell-free conditions, implying RING-dependent modification. Ubiquitin was also identified as an interaction partner for TRIM37 in a yeast two-hybrid screen. Ectopically expressed TRIM37 rapidly formed aggregates that were ubiquitin-, proteasome subunit-, and chaperone-positive in immunofluorescence analysis, defining them as aggresomes. The Cys35Ser;Cys36Ser mutant and the Leu76Pro and Gly322Val patient mutant proteins were markedly less prone to aggregation, implying that aggresomal targeting reflects a physiological function of TRIM37. These findings suggest that TRIM37 acts as a TRIM domain-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase and imply defective ubiquitin-dependent degradation of an as-yet-unidentified target protein in the pathogenesis of mulibrey nanism.

  4. Trimming of glucosylated N-glycans by human ER ?1,2-mannosidase I.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Jun-Ichi; Takeda, Yoichi; Matsuo, Ichiro; Ito, Yukishige

    2014-06-01

    In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), folding of proteins modified by asparagine-linked (N-linked) glycosylation is precisely monitored by quality control machinery. Upon exit from the calnexin/calreticulin cycle, glycoproteins are digested by ?-mannosidases in the ER, especially ?1,2-mannosidase I (ERManI). ERManI removes the ?1,2-linked mannose of the B-chain from properly folded ER glycoproteins, whereas two or more ?1,2-linked mannose residues are sequentially trimmed from improperly folded glycoproteins so they are recognized by a complex that mediates ER-associated degradation (ERAD). We have shown that the efficiency of Man9GlcNAc2 de-mannosylation in model glycoproteins by recombinant human ERManI (hERManI) is dependent on folding status (Aikawa et al. (In vitro mannose trimming property of human ER ?-1,2 mannosidase I. Glycoconj. J 2012;29: 35-45.)). In this study, we revealed that this enzyme also accepts N-linked sugar chains with glucose moieties as substrates with nearly identical reactivity. The ability of hERManI to remove mannose residues from GlcMan9GlcNAc2 in model glycoproteins, such as Aspergillus oryzae ?-galactosidase and chicken immunoglobulin Y (IgY), was markedly augmented when glycoproteins were denatured. The properties of hERManI enable rapid selection of ERAD substrates in the ER and may help maintain homeostasis of sugar metabolism in living organisms. PMID:24519966

  5. [Comparison of host water wash and trimming of pork carcasses for reducing the level of bacterial contamination].

    PubMed

    Rheault, N; Quessy, S

    1999-11-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the microbial contamination on pork carcasses after they had fallen on the floor in the cooler and also to evaluate the effectiveness of trimming and hot, high-pressure water washing (55 degrees C). A bacteriological analysis was done on 2 groups of 40 carcasses before and after trimming or washing, along with a group of 10 control carcasses. Results showed that the bacterial total count was higher (P = 0.01) on carcasses after they had fallen, but, in this study, no significant difference (P = 0.76) was found for total coliform contamination. Also, no significant difference was observed between total count for aerobic bacteria, total coliforms, and Escherichia coli before and after decontamination, no matter which technique was used. Neither trimming nor washing carcasses showed, in this study, a significant difference (P = 0.37) in the reduction of the total aerobic bacterial count on the pork carcasses analyzed (P = 0.65). PMID:10563238

  6. Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a gas that your body needs to function. Normally, your lungs absorb oxygen from the air you breathe. But some conditions ...

  7. Resistance to simian immunodeficiency virus low dose rectal challenge is associated with higher constitutive TRIM5? expression in PBMC

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background At least six host-encoded restriction factors (RFs), APOBEC3G, TRIM5?, tetherin, SAMHD1, schlafen 11, and Mx2 have now been shown to inhibit HIV and/or SIV replication in vitro. To determine their role in vivo in the resistance of macaques to mucosally-acquired SIV, we quantified both pre-exposure (basal) and post-exposure mRNA levels of these RFs, Mx1, and IFN? in PBMC, lymph nodes, and duodenum of rhesus macaques undergoing weekly low dose rectal exposures to the primary isolate, SIV/DeltaB670. Results Repetitive challenge divided the monkeys into two groups with respect to their susceptibility to infection: highly susceptible (2–3 challenges, 5 monkeys) and poorly susceptible (?6 challenges, 3 monkeys). Basal RF and Mx1 expression varied among the three tissues examined, with the lowest expression generally detected in duodenal tissues, and the highest observed in PBMC. The one exception was A3G whose basal expression was greatest in lymph nodes. Importantly, significantly higher basal expression of TRIM5? and Mx1 was observed in PBMC of animals more resistant to mucosal infection. Moreover, individual TRIM5? levels were stable throughout a year prior to infection. Post-exposure induction of these genes was also observed after virus appearance in plasma, with elevated levels in PBMC and duodenum transiently occurring 7–10 days post infection. They did not appear to have an effect on control of viremia. Interestingly, minimal to no induction was observed in the resistant animal that became an elite controller. Conclusions These results suggest that constitutively expressed TRIM5? appears to play a greater role in restricting mucosal transmission of SIV than that associated with type I interferon induction following virus entry. Surprisingly, this association was not observed with the other RFs. The higher basal expression of TRIM5? observed in PBMC than in duodenal tissues emphasizes the understated role of the second barrier to systemic infection involving the transport of virus from the mucosal compartment to the blood. Together, these observations provide a strong incentive for a more comprehensive examination of the intrinsic, variable control of constitutive expression of these genes in the sexual transmission of HIV. PMID:24884551

  8. Control of Herbaspirillum seropedicae NifA Activity by Ammonium Ions and Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Souza, E. M.; Pedrosa, F. O.; Drummond, M.; Rigo, L. U.; Yates, M. G.

    1999-01-01

    The activity of a truncated form of Herbaspirillum seropedicae NifA in different genetic backgrounds showed that its regulatory domain is involved in nitrogen control but not in O2 sensitivity or Fe dependence. The model for nitrogen control involving PII could thus apply to the proteobacteria at large. NifA may have a role in controlling ADP-ribosylation of nitrogenase in Azospirillum brasilense. PMID:9882688

  9. Autonomic and pharmacological control of oxygen autoregulation mechanisms in brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Bicher, H I; Marvin, P; Hunt, D; Bruley, D F

    1976-01-01

    The effect of several agents active on autonomic nervous system functions was tested on brain oxygen autoregulation parameters. It was found that atropine, propranolol and isproterenol had no influence on the measured parameters. Phenoxybenzamine, tolazoline and dibenamine all suppress autoregulation. In an additional experimental series, a phenoxybenzamine infusion was given during O2 breathing. The infusion induced a marked rise in TpO2. It is concluded that an alpha-adrenergic mechanism is part of the autoregulation process, and its pharmacological blockade could be used to raise TpO2 levels in brain with O2 breathing at normal atmospheric pressure. Also, the increase in brain TpO2 induced by 95% O2 - 5% CO2 breathing seems to be blocked by alpha-adrenolytic drugs. PMID:1015419

  10. Mult-Pollutant Control Through Novel Approaches to Oxygen Enhanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Axelbaum; Pratim Biswas

    2009-02-28

    Growing concerns about global climate change have focused effortss on identifying approaches to stabilizing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. One approach utilizes oxy-fuel combustion to produce a concentrated flue gas that will enable economical CO{sub 2} capture by direct methods. Oxy-fuel combustion rewuires an Air Separation Unit (ASU) to provide a high-purity stream of oxygen as well as a Compression and Purification Unit (CPU) to clean and compress the CO{sub 2} for long term storage. Overall plant efficiency will suffer from the parasitic load of both the ASU and CPU and researchers are investigating techniques to enhance other aspects of the combustion and gas cleanup proceses to improve the benefit-to-cost ratio. This work examines the influence of oxy-fuel combustion and non-carbon based sorbents on the formation and fate of multiple combustion pollutants both numerically and experimentally.

  11. Pilot study to visualise and measure skin tissue oxygenation, erythema, total haemoglobin and melanin content using index maps in healthy controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poxon, Ian; Wilkinson, Jack; Herrick, Ariane; Dickinson, Mark; Murray, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    We report on a method for analysing multispectral images of skin in vivo for the measurement and visualisation of skin characteristics. Four different indices were used to characterise skin tissue oxygenation, erythema, total haemoglobin and melanin content. Index values were calculated pixel-wise and combined to create index maps to visualise skin properties. Quantitative measurement of tissue oxygenation saturation was possible by calibrating the oxygenation index using a commercial, calibrated oximeter. Index maps were tested by arterial occlusion of the index finger with multispectral images taken before, during and after occlusion in a pilot study with 10 healthy controls.

  12. Kinetically-controlled growth of cubic and octahedral Rh-Pd alloy oxygen reduction electrocatalysts with high activity and durability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yucong; Zhan, Fangwei; Du, Jingshan; Jiang, Yingying; Jin, Chuanhong; Fu, Maoshen; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren

    2014-11-01

    Rh is a promising candidate as an indispensible component in bimetallic catalysts due to its unique capability to resist against the aggressive corrosion from the reaction medium. However, Rh has a very strong oxygen binding ability and is generally not suitable for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Here, we have demonstrated shape-controlled synthesis of Rh-Pd alloy nanocrystals with high activity and durability for ORR by retarding the reaction kinetics at an ultra-slow injection rate of metal salts using a syringe pump. Under precise control of sluggish reaction kinetics, Pd followed a preferential overgrowth along the <100> direction, whereas the growth behavior of Rh was dominant along the <111> direction. These different kinetically-controlled growth behaviors associated with Rh and Pd were essential for achieving the shape transition between the cube and the octahedron of their alloys. The Rh8Pd92 alloy octahedra exhibited the highest mass activity with a value of 0.18 mA ?g-1 in terms of the equivalent Pt cost, and were two-fold higher than that of commercial Pt/C. Significantly, all Rh-Pd alloy nanocrystals were highly stable with only less than 25% loss in mass activity after 30 000 CV cycles in O2 saturated acid solution compared to ~56% loss of the commercial Pt/C (E-TEK). Indeed, the mass activity of Rh8Pd92 was 3.3 times higher than that of commercial Pt/C after the accelerated stability test (ADT). This improvement in activity and durability may arise possibly from synergistic effects between the facet and the surface composition.Rh is a promising candidate as an indispensible component in bimetallic catalysts due to its unique capability to resist against the aggressive corrosion from the reaction medium. However, Rh has a very strong oxygen binding ability and is generally not suitable for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Here, we have demonstrated shape-controlled synthesis of Rh-Pd alloy nanocrystals with high activity and durability for ORR by retarding the reaction kinetics at an ultra-slow injection rate of metal salts using a syringe pump. Under precise control of sluggish reaction kinetics, Pd followed a preferential overgrowth along the <100> direction, whereas the growth behavior of Rh was dominant along the <111> direction. These different kinetically-controlled growth behaviors associated with Rh and Pd were essential for achieving the shape transition between the cube and the octahedron of their alloys. The Rh8Pd92 alloy octahedra exhibited the highest mass activity with a value of 0.18 mA ?g-1 in terms of the equivalent Pt cost, and were two-fold higher than that of commercial Pt/C. Significantly, all Rh-Pd alloy nanocrystals were highly stable with only less than 25% loss in mass activity after 30 000 CV cycles in O2 saturated acid solution compared to ~56% loss of the commercial Pt/C (E-TEK). Indeed, the mass activity of Rh8Pd92 was 3.3 times higher than that of commercial Pt/C after the accelerated stability test (ADT). This improvement in activity and durability may arise possibly from synergistic effects between the facet and the surface composition. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04942j

  13. TRIM3, a tumor suppressor linked to regulation of p21Waf1/Cip1

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuhui; Raheja, Radhika; Yeh, Nancy; Ciznadija, Daniel; Pedraza, Alicia M.; Ozawa, Tatsuya; Hukkelhoven, Ellen; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Gauthier, Nicholas Paul; Brennan, Cameron; Holland, Eric C.; Koff, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The TRIM family of genes is largely studied because of their roles in development, differentiation and host cell anti-viral defenses; however, roles in cancer biology are emerging. Loss of heterozygosity of the TRIM3 locus in approximately 20% of human glioblastomas raised the possibility that this NHL containing member of the TRIM gene family might be a mammalian tumor suppressor. Consistent with this, reducing TRIM3 expression increased the incidence of and accelerated the development of PDGF-induced glioma in mice. Furthermore, TRIM3 can bind to the cdk inhibitor p21WAF1/CIP1. Thus, we conclude that TRIM3 is a tumor suppressor mapping to chromosome 11p15.5 and that it can block tumor growth by sequestering p21 and preventing it from facilitating the accumulation of cyclin D1-cdk4. PMID:23318451

  14. TRIM32-dependent transcription in adult neural progenitor cells regulates neuronal differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Hillje, A-L; Pavlou, M A S; Beckmann, E; Worlitzer, M M A; Bahnassawy, L; Lewejohann, L; Palm, T; Schwamborn, J C

    2013-01-01

    In the adult mammalian brain, neural stem cells in the subventricular zone continuously generate new neurons for the olfactory bulb. Cell fate commitment in these adult neural stem cells is regulated by cell fate-determining proteins. Here, we show that the cell fate-determinant TRIM32 is upregulated during differentiation of adult neural stem cells into olfactory bulb neurons. We further demonstrate that TRIM32 is necessary for the correct induction of neuronal differentiation in these cells. In the absence of TRIM32, neuroblasts differentiate slower and show gene expression profiles that are characteristic of immature cells. Interestingly, TRIM32 deficiency induces more neural progenitor cell proliferation and less cell death. Both effects accumulate in an overproduction of adult-generated olfactory bulb neurons of TRIM32 knockout mice. These results highlight the function of the cell fate-determinant TRIM32 for a balanced activity of the adult neurogenesis process. PMID:24357807

  15. Adhesive Fiber Stratification in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Biofilms Unveils Oxygen-Mediated Control of Type 1 Pili.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Kyle A; Moore, Jessica L; Eberly, Allison R; Good, James A D; Shaffer, Carrie L; Zaver, Himesh; Almqvist, Fredrik; Skaar, Eric P; Caprioli, Richard M; Hadjifrangiskou, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial biofilms account for a significant number of hospital-acquired infections and complicate treatment options, because bacteria within biofilms are generally more tolerant to antibiotic treatment. This resilience is attributed to transient bacterial subpopulations that arise in response to variations in the microenvironment surrounding the biofilm. Here, we probed the spatial proteome of surface-associated single-species biofilms formed by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the major causative agent of community-acquired and catheter-associated urinary tract infections. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) to analyze the spatial proteome of intact biofilms in situ. MALDI-TOF IMS revealed protein species exhibiting distinct localizations within surface-associated UPEC biofilms, including two adhesive fibers critical for UPEC biofilm formation and virulence: type 1 pili (Fim) localized exclusively to the air-exposed region, while curli amyloid fibers localized to the air-liquid interface. Comparison of cells grown aerobically, fermentatively, or utilizing an alternative terminal electron acceptor showed that the phase-variable fim promoter switched to the "OFF" orientation under oxygen-deplete conditions, leading to marked reduction of type 1 pili on the bacterial cell surface. Conversely, S pili whose expression is inversely related to fim expression were up-regulated under anoxic conditions. Tethering the fim promoter in the "ON" orientation in anaerobically grown cells only restored type 1 pili production in the presence of an alternative terminal electron acceptor beyond oxygen. Together these data support the presence of at least two regulatory mechanisms controlling fim expression in response to oxygen availability and may contribute to the stratification of extracellular matrix components within the biofilm. MALDI IMS facilitated the discovery of these mechanisms, and we have demonstrated that this technology can be used to interrogate subpopulations within bacterial biofilms. PMID:25738819

  16. Adhesive Fiber Stratification in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Biofilms Unveils Oxygen-Mediated Control of Type 1 Pili

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Kyle A.; Moore, Jessica L.; Eberly, Allison R.; Good, James A. D.; Shaffer, Carrie L.; Zaver, Himesh; Almqvist, Fredrik; Skaar, Eric P.; Caprioli, Richard M.; Hadjifrangiskou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms account for a significant number of hospital-acquired infections and complicate treatment options, because bacteria within biofilms are generally more tolerant to antibiotic treatment. This resilience is attributed to transient bacterial subpopulations that arise in response to variations in the microenvironment surrounding the biofilm. Here, we probed the spatial proteome of surface-associated single-species biofilms formed by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the major causative agent of community-acquired and catheter-associated urinary tract infections. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) to analyze the spatial proteome of intact biofilms in situ. MALDI-TOF IMS revealed protein species exhibiting distinct localizations within surface-associated UPEC biofilms, including two adhesive fibers critical for UPEC biofilm formation and virulence: type 1 pili (Fim) localized exclusively to the air-exposed region, while curli amyloid fibers localized to the air-liquid interface. Comparison of cells grown aerobically, fermentatively, or utilizing an alternative terminal electron acceptor showed that the phase-variable fim promoter switched to the “OFF” orientation under oxygen-deplete conditions, leading to marked reduction of type 1 pili on the bacterial cell surface. Conversely, S pili whose expression is inversely related to fim expression were up-regulated under anoxic conditions. Tethering the fim promoter in the “ON” orientation in anaerobically grown cells only restored type 1 pili production in the presence of an alternative terminal electron acceptor beyond oxygen. Together these data support the presence of at least two regulatory mechanisms controlling fim expression in response to oxygen availability and may contribute to the stratification of extracellular matrix components within the biofilm. MALDI IMS facilitated the discovery of these mechanisms, and we have demonstrated that this technology can be used to interrogate subpopulations within bacterial biofilms. PMID:25738819

  17. Kinetically-controlled growth of cubic and octahedral Rh-Pd alloy oxygen reduction electrocatalysts with high activity and durability.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yucong; Zhan, Fangwei; Du, Jingshan; Jiang, Yingying; Jin, Chuanhong; Fu, Maoshen; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren

    2015-01-01

    Rh is a promising candidate as an indispensible component in bimetallic catalysts due to its unique capability to resist against the aggressive corrosion from the reaction medium. However, Rh has a very strong oxygen binding ability and is generally not suitable for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Here, we have demonstrated shape-controlled synthesis of Rh-Pd alloy nanocrystals with high activity and durability for ORR by retarding the reaction kinetics at an ultra-slow injection rate of metal salts using a syringe pump. Under precise control of sluggish reaction kinetics, Pd followed a preferential overgrowth along the <100> direction, whereas the growth behavior of Rh was dominant along the <111> direction. These different kinetically-controlled growth behaviors associated with Rh and Pd were essential for achieving the shape transition between the cube and the octahedron of their alloys. The Rh8Pd92 alloy octahedra exhibited the highest mass activity with a value of 0.18 mA ?g(-1) in terms of the equivalent Pt cost, and were two-fold higher than that of commercial Pt/C. Significantly, all Rh-Pd alloy nanocrystals were highly stable with only less than 25% loss in mass activity after 30,000 CV cycles in O2 saturated acid solution compared to ? 56% loss of the commercial Pt/C (E-TEK). Indeed, the mass activity of Rh8Pd92 was 3.3 times higher than that of commercial Pt/C after the accelerated stability test (ADT). This improvement in activity and durability may arise possibly from synergistic effects between the facet and the surface composition. PMID:25408242

  18. Spectral semi-blind deconvolution with least trimmed squares regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Lizhen; Zhu, Hu

    2014-11-01

    A spectral semi-blind deconvolution with least trimmed squares regularization (SBD-LTS) is proposed to improve spectral resolution. Firstly, the regularization term about the spectrum data is modeled as the form of least trimmed squares, which can help to preserve the peak details better. Then the regularization term about the PSF is modeled as L1-norm to enhance the stability of kernel estimation. The cost function of SBD-LTS is formulated and the numerical solution processes are deduced for deconvolving the spectra and estimating the PSF. The deconvolution results of simulated infrared spectra demonstrate that the proposed SBD-LTS can recover the spectrum effectively and estimate the PSF accurately, as well as has a merit on preserving the details, especially in the case of noise. The deconvolution result of experimental Raman spectrum indicates that SBD-LTS can resolve the spectrum and improve the resolution effectively.

  19. ERAP1-ERAP2 dimerization increases peptide-trimming efficiency.

    PubMed

    Evnouchidou, Irini; Weimershaus, Mirjana; Saveanu, Loredana; van Endert, Peter

    2014-07-15

    The endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidases (ERAP)1 and ERAP2 play a critical role in the production of final epitopes presented by MHC class I molecules. Formation of heterodimers by ERAP1 and ERAP2 has been proposed to facilitate trimming of epitope precursor peptides, but the effects of dimerization on ERAP function remain unknown. In this study, we produced stabilized ERAP1-ERAP2 heterodimers and found that they produced several mature epitopes more efficiently than a mix of the two enzymes unable to dimerize. Physical interaction with ERAP2 changes basic enzymatic parameters of ERAP1 and improves its substrate-binding affinity. Thus, by bringing the two enzymes in proximity and by producing allosteric effects on ERAP1, dimerization of ERAP1/2 creates complexes with superior peptide-trimming efficacy. Such complexes are likely to enhance Ag presentation by cells displaying coordinated expression of the two enzymes. PMID:24928998

  20. Photo-induced trimming of chalcogenide-assisted silicon waveguides.

    PubMed

    Canciamilla, Antonio; Morichetti, Francesco; Grillanda, Stefano; Velha, Philippe; Sorel, Marc; Singh, Vivek; Agarwal, Anu; Kimerling, Lionel C; Melloni, Andrea

    2012-07-01

    A chalcogenide-assisted silicon waveguide is realized by depositing a thin layer of A(2)S(3) glass onto a conventional silicon on insulator optical waveguide. The photosensitivity of the chalcogenide is exploited to locally change the optical properties of the waveguide through exposure to visible light radiation. Waveguide trimming is experimentally demonstrated by permanently shifting the resonant wavelength of a microring resonator by 6.7 nm, corresponding to an effective index increase of 1.6·10(-2). Saturation effects, trimming range, velocity and temporal stability of the process are discussed in details. Results demonstrate that photo-induced treatments can be exploited for a post-fabrication compensation of fabrication tolerances, as well as to set and reconfigure the circuit response. PMID:22772270

  1. Supplemental Oxygen (Oxygen Therapy)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gas and is non-flammable, however, it supports combustion. Materials burn more readily in an oxygen-enriched ... avoid using lotions or creams containing petroleum. The combustion of flammable products containing petroleum can also be ...

  2. Flip-chip STW filters and frequency trimming method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Yatsuda; H. Iijima; K. Yabe; H. Tsukuda; S. Shinohara

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes 2.4 GHz and 3.5 GHz flip-chip narrow-band filters using surface transverse waves (STWs) on quartz for oscillator applications. A Q of about 1300 and insertion losses of 3 dB and 5 dB are achieved for 2.4 GHz and 3.5 GHz flip-chip STW filters, respectively. Also, oscillator characteristics using the flip-chip STW filters are presented. In addition, trimming

  3. Measurement of axial injection displacement with trim coil current unbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covo, Michel Kireeff

    2014-08-01

    The Dee probe used for measuring internal radial beam intensity shows large losses inside the radius of 20 cm of the 88 in. cyclotron. The current of the top and bottom innermost trim coil 1 is unbalanced to study effects of the axial injection displacement. A beam profile monitor images the ion beam bunches, turn by turn. The experimental bunch center of mass position is compared with calculations of the magnetic mirror effect displacement and shows good agreement.

  4. Sequential estimation in regression models using analogues of trimmed means

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adam T. Martinsek

    1989-01-01

    A sequential procedure is proposed for constructing a fixed-size confidence region for the parameters of a linear regression model. The procedure is based on certain regression analogues of trimmed means, as formulated by Welsh (1987,Ann. Statist.,15, 20–36), rather than least squares estimates. For error distributions with continuous, symmetric density and some moment higher than fourth finite, if the design points

  5. Microprocessor Based Combustion Monitoring and Control Systems Utilizing in Situ Opacity, Oxygen and CO Measurement

    E-print Network

    Molloy, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Systems will soon be available starting at less than 6,000 dollars. By utilizing a high performance low-cost microprocessor, both measurement and control functions can now be performed simultaneously. The new systems will feature automatic calibration...

  6. View of Mission Control Center during the Apollo 13 oxygen cell failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    A group of eight astronauts and flight controllers monitor the console activity in the Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) of the Mission Control Center (MCC) during the Apollo 13 lunar landing mission. Seated, left to right, are MOCR Guidance Officer Raymond F. Teague; Astronaut Edgar D. Michell, and Astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr., Standing, left to right, are Scientist-Astronaut Anthony W. England; Astronaut Joe H. Engle; Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan; Astronaut Ronald E. Evans; and M.P. Frank, a flight controller. When this picture was made, the Apollo 13 moon landing had already been cancelled, and the Apollo 13 crewmen were in transearth trajectory attempting to bring their crippled spacecraft back home.

  7. TRIM5 is an innate immune sensor for the retrovirus capsid lattice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Pertel; Stéphane Hausmann; Damien Morger; Sara Züger; Jessica Guerra; Josefina Lascano; Christian Reinhard; Federico A. Santoni; Pradeep D. Uchil; Laurence Chatel; Aurélie Bisiaux; Matthew L. Albert; Caterina Strambio-de-Castillia; Walther Mothes; Massimo Pizzato; Markus G. Grütter; Jeremy Luban

    2011-01-01

    TRIM5 is a RING domain-E3 ubiquitin ligase that restricts infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and other retroviruses immediately following virus invasion of the target cell cytoplasm. Antiviral potency correlates with TRIM5 avidity for the retrovirion capsid lattice and several reports indicate that TRIM5 has a role in signal transduction, but the precise mechanism of restriction is unknown. Here we

  8. Evolution of a TRIM5-CypA Splice Isoform in Old World Monkeys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ruchi M. Newman; Laura Hall; Andrea Kirmaier; Lu-Ann Pozzi; Erez Pery; Michael Farzan; Shawn P. ONeil; Welkin Johnson

    2008-01-01

    The TRIM family proteins share a conserved arrangement of three adjacent domains, an N-terminal RING domain, followed by one or two B-boxes and a coiled-coil, which constitutes the tripartite-motif for which the family is named. However, the C-termini of TRIM proteins vary, and include at least nine evolutionarily distinct, unrelated protein domains. Antiviral restriction factor TRIM5? has a C-terminal B30.2\\/SPRY

  9. Effects of TRIM on tension, intracellular calcium and nitrergic transmission in the rat anococcygeus muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Che; Simon Potocnik; Anthie Ellis; Chun Guang Li

    2007-01-01

    The effects of the putatively selective inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) 1-(2-trifluoromethylphenyl) imidazole (TRIM) were investigated on contractility, intracellular calcium and nitrergic relaxations in the rat anococcygeus muscle. TRIM (100–1000?M) reduced the tension of rat anococcygeus muscles when contracted with guanethidine (10?M) and clonidine (0.1?M). Relaxations to TRIM persisted in the presence of the non-selective NOS inhibitor l-NAME

  10. Net-Shape Forging of Aerofoil Blade based on Flash Trimming and Compensation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, B. [Department of Plasticity Forming Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200030 (China); Ou, H. [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Armstrong, C. G. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, BT9 5AH (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-04

    In this research, an automatic blade forging die shape optimisation system was developed by using direct compensation and flash trimming algorithms and integrating with the DEFORM 3D software package. To validate the developed system, a 3D blade forging case problem was simulated and optimised with and without the consideration of trimming simulation. The results were compared with actual measurement data of the forged aerofoil blade with excellent results obtained with the fast trimming simulation procedure used.

  11. Controlled field study on the use of nitrate and oxygen for bioremediation of a gasoline source zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbaro, J.R.; Barker, J.F.

    2000-01-01

    Controlled releases of unleaded gasoline were utilized to evaluate the biotransformation of the soluble aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene isomers, trimethylbenzene isomers, and naphthalene) within a source zone using nitrate and oxygen as electron acceptors. Experiments were conducted within two 2 m ?? 2 m ?? 3.5 m deep sheet-piling cells. In each treatment cell, a gasoline-contaminated zone was created below the water table. Groundwater amended with electron acceptors was then flushed continuously through the cells for 174 day. Electron-acceptor utilization and hydrocarbon-metabolite formation were noted in both cells, indicating that some microbial activity had been induced in response to flushing. Relative to the cell residence time, nitrate utilization was slow and aromatic-hydrocarbon mass losses in response to microaerophilic dissolved oxygen addition were not obvious under these in situ conditions. There was relatively little biotransformation of the aromatic hydrocarbons over the 2-m flow path monitored in this experiment. A large denitrifying population capable of aromatic hydrocarbon biotransformation failed to develop within the gasoline source zone over a 14-mo period of nitrate exposure.

  12. Trimmed strategy for affine registration of point sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yaxin; Ying, Shihui; Qin, Jing; Zeng, Tieyong

    2013-01-01

    We propose a trimmed strategy for affine registration of point sets using the Lie group parameterization. All affine transformations form an affine Lie group, thus finding an optimal transformation in registration is reduced to finding an optimal element in the affine group. Given two point sets (with outliers) and an initial element in the transformation group, we seek the optimal group element iteratively by minimizing an energy functional. This is conducted by sequentially finding the closest correspondence of two point sets, estimating the overlap rate of two sets, and finding the optimal affine transformation via the exponential map of the affine group. This method improves the trimmed iterative closest point algorithm (TrICP) in two aspects: (1) We use the Lie group parameterization to implement TrICP. (2) We also extend TrICP to the case of affine transformations. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by using the LiDAR data acquired in the Mount St. Helens area. Both visual inspections and evaluation index (root mean trimmed squared distance) indicate that our algorithm performs consistently better than TrICP and other related algorithms, especially in the presence of outliers and missing points.

  13. Electrocatalysis on shape-controlled titanium nitride nanocrystals for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Dong, Youzhen; Wu, Yongmin; Liu, Mengjia; Li, Jinghong

    2013-10-01

    The high price of platinum (Pt)-based cathode catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) have slowed down the practical application of fuel cells. Thanks to their low cost, and outstanding, stable catalytic properties, titanium nitrides (TiN) are among the most promising non-precious metal electrocatalysts for replacing Pt. However, the shape-activity relationships of TiN electrocatalysts have not been well-studied or understood up to now. In this work, by simply adjusting the shape of TiO2 precursor, we are able to tailor the morphology of the TiN catalysts from nanoparticles to nanotubes. We have synthetized uniform carbon-coated titanium nitride nanotubes (carbon-coated TiN NTs) through a nitridation reaction in NH3 flow using a TiO2 nanotubes/melamine mixture as precursor. The carbon-coated TiN NTs hybrids exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity for the ORR, coupled with superior methanol tolerance and long-term stability in comparison to commercial Pt/C, through an efficient four-electron-dominant ORR process. Compared with nanoparticles, the one-dimensional and hollow structure of the nanotubes result in greater diffusion of electrolyte and superior electrical conductivity, and contribute to the greatly improved electrocatalytic performance of the carbon-coated TiN NTs nanocomposites. PMID:24039153

  14. Apogossypolone induces reactive oxygen species accumulation and controls cell cycle progression in Raji Burkkit's lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhe-Yu; Xu, Fei; Sun, Rui; Chen, Yan-Feng; Zhang, Dong-Sheng; Fan, Yu-Hua; Sun, Jian

    2015-07-01

    Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is a highly aggressive type of non?Hodgkin's lymphoma, with marked rates of proliferation and metabolism. The expression levels of the translocated cellular Myc (c?Myc) oncogene and Epstein?Barr virus infection have an oncogenic role in facilitating tumor progression and maintaining a malignant phenotype in BL Raji cells. The present study identified that more reactive oxygen species (ROS) were produced in Raji cells compared with other types of malignant B cells. Cells exhibiting higher ROS levels suggested facilitation of the induction of cell death by ROS?induction compounds. In the present study, apogossypolone (ApoG2) was observed to induce marked accumulation in the levels of ROS in the Raji cells, which damaged the cells and suppressed cell proliferation. Within 12 h following ApoG2 treatment, the Raji cells were prominently arrested in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Immunoblotting analysis indicated that the chromodomain?helicase?DNA?binding protein 1, checkpoint kinase 1 and c?Myc proteins were significantly downregulated at 3, 6 and 12 h, respectively, following treatment. Following treatment with ApoG2 for 48 h, ApoG2 induced significant apoptosis in the Raji cells. This findings, together with our previous studies, which demonstrated ApoG2 as a potent inhibitor of anti?apoptotic B cell lymphoma 2 proteins, indicated that the ROS stimulatory effect of ApoG2 increased the antitumor activity of ApoG2. PMID:25738577

  15. The Transcription Factor MEF2C Negatively Controls Angiogenic Sprouting of Endothelial Cells Depending on Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Sturtzel, Caterina; Testori, Julia; Schweighofer, Bernhard; Bilban, Martin; Hofer, Erhard

    2014-01-01

    The MADS box transcription factor MEF2C has been detected by us to be upregulated by the angiogenic factors VEGF-A and bFGF in endothelial cells. We have here investigated its potential role for angiogenesis. MEF2C was surprisingly found to strongly inhibit angiogenic sprouting, whereas a dominant negative mutant rather induced sprouting. The factor mainly affected migratory processes of endothelial cells, but not proliferation. In gene profiling experiments we delineated the alpha-2-macroglobulin gene to be highly upregulated by MEF2C. Further data confirmed that MEF2C in endothelial cells indeed induces alpha-2-macroglobulin mRNA as well as the secretion of alpha-2-macroglobulin and that conditioned supernatants of cells overexpressing MEF2C inhibit sprouting. Alpha-2-macroglobulin mediates, at least to a large extent, the inhibitory effects of MEF2C as is shown by knockdown of alpha-2-macroglobulin mRNA by lentiviral shRNA expression which reduces the inhibitory effect. However, under hypoxic conditions the VEGF-A/bFGF-mediated upregulation of MEF2C is reduced and the production of alpha-2-macroglobulin largely abolished. Taken together, this suggests that the MEF2C/alpha-2-macroglobulin axis functions in endothelial cells as a negative feed-back mechanism that adapts sprouting activity to the oxygen concentration thus diminishing inappropriate and excess angiogenesis. PMID:24988463

  16. Controls of sub-surface dissolved oxygen in Massachusetts Bay USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, A.; Vandemark, D. C.; Salisbury, J.

    2009-12-01

    Variations in oceanic dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations are tightly coupled to coastal ecosystem dynamics, and as global climate change occurs, this linkage is expected to change as well. Although DO depends primarily upon temperature and salinity, other factors, especially in coastal regions like Massachusetts Bay, often affect this thermodynamic DO relationship. Linear correlations were examined between the monthly averages of temperature, river discharge (Merrimack River), and wind speed to the monthly averages of percent saturation of DO for data measured at 50 m bi-daily from Gulf of Maine Ocean Observation System (GOMOOS), Buoy A (2001-2008). A related dataset over a longer time period (1992-2008) was also examined, as provided by the Massachusetts Water Resource Authority (MWRA) shipboard monitoring program, where linear correlations were established for the monthly average percent saturation of DO to the monthly average temperature, river discharge (Merrimack River), turbidity, and chlorophyll at depths between 40 and 50 m. Initial analysis indicate that river discharge is a dominant factor driving observed DO anomalies with second order impacts being attributed to biological factors.

  17. Carbon-oxygen bond strength as a control of reaction kinetics: Phenol on Mo(110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafin, J. G.; Friend, C. M.

    The reaction of phenol on Mo(110) has been studied using temperature programmed reaction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. After desorption of multilayers and a weakly bound molecular species, decomposition produces the only reaction products observed: gaseous dihydrogen, surface carbon and surface oxygen. The O?H bond cleaves first at temperatures below 360 K to form surface phenoxide (C 6H 5O-), followed by C?H bond activation commencing at 370 K. C?O bonds are cleaved in the temperature range of 370 to 450 K. After annealing to 300 K, multiple species are detected on the surface by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The cleavage of C?H bonds in the same temperature regime as C?O bonds is thought to lead to selective decomposition of phenol on Mo(110). The reaction of phenol is contrasted to that of a sulfur-containing analogue, benzenethiol, on the Mo(110) surface. The stability of the phenoxide intermediate with respect to carbon-heteroatom bond cleavage is greater than that of the corresponding phenyl thiolate formed from benzenethiol. Comparison of the reaction of phenol and benzenethiol demonstrates the importance of C? X ( X = O, S) bond strength in determining the reactivity and selectivity of these molecules.

  18. Carbon-oxygen bond strength as a control of reaction kinetics: Phenol on Mo(110)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafin, J. G.; Friend, C. M.

    1989-03-01

    The reaction of phenol on Mo(110) has been studied using temperature programmed reaction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies. After desorption of multilayers and a weakly bound molecular species, decomposition produces the only reaction products observed: gaseous dihydrogen, surface carbon and surface oxygen. The O-H bond cleaves first at temperatures below 360 K to form surface phenoxide (C 6H 5O-), followed by C-H bond activation commencing at 370 K. C-O bonds are cleaved in the temperature range of 370 to 450 K. After annealing to 300 K, multiple species are detected on the surface by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The cleavage of C-H bonds in the same temperature regime as C-O bonds is thought to lead to selective decomposition of phenol on Mo(110). The reaction of phenol is contrasted to that of a sulfur-containing analogue, benzenethiol, on the Mo(110) surface. The stability of the phenoxide intermediate with respect to carbon-heteroatom bond cleavage is greater than that of the corresponding phenyl thiolate formed from benzenethiol. Comparison of the reaction of phenol and benzenethiol demonstrates the importance of C- X ( X = O, S) bond strength in determining the reactivity and selectivity of these molecules.

  19. Development of a Self-calibrating Dissolved Oxygen Microsensor Array for the Monitoring and Control of Plant Growth in a Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Chang-Soo; Brown, Christopher S.; Nagle, H. Troy

    2004-01-01

    Plant experiments in space will require active nutrient delivery concepts in which water and nutrients are replenished on a continuous basis for long-term growth. The goal of this study is to develop a novel microsensor array to provide information on the dissolved oxygen environment in the plant root zone for the optimum control of plant cultivation systems in the space environment. Control of water and oxygen is limited by the current state-of-the-art in sensor technology. Two capabilities of the new microsensor array were tested. First, a novel in situ self-diagnosis/self-calibration capability for the microsensor was explored by dynamically controlling the oxygen microenvironment in close proximity to an amperometric dissolved oxygen microsensors. A pair of integrated electrochemical actuator electrodes provided the microenvironments based on water electrolysis. Miniaturized thin film dissolved oxygen microsensors on a flexible polyimide (Kapton(Registered Trademark)? substrate were fabricated and their performances were tested. Secondly, measurements of dissolved oxygen in two representative plant growth systems were made, which had not been performed previously due to lack of proper sensing technology. The responses of the oxygen microsensor array on a flexible polymer substrate properly reflected the oxygen contents on the surface of a porous tube nutrient delivery system and within a particulate substrate system. Additionally, we demonstrated the feasibility of using a 4-point thin film microprobe for water contents measurements for both plant growth systems. mechanical flexibility, and self-diagnosis. The proposed technology is anticipated to provide a reliable sensor feedback plant growth nutrient delivery systems in both terrestrial environment and the microgravity environment during long term space missions. The unique features of the sensor include small size and volume, multiple-point sensing,

  20. TRIM5 is an innate immune sensor for the retrovirus capsid lattice

    PubMed Central

    Pertel, Thomas; Hausmann, Stéphane; Morger, Damien; Züger, Sara; Guerra, Jessica; Lascano, Josefina; Reinhard, Christian; Santoni, Federico; Uchil, Pradeep D.; Chatel, Laurence; Bisiaux, Aurelie; Albert, Matthew; Strambio-De-Castillia, Caterina; Mothes, Walther; Pizzato, Massimo; Grütter, Markus; Luban, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    TRIM5 is a RING domain-E3 ubiquitin ligase that restricts infection by HIV-1 and other retroviruses immediately following virus invasion of the target cell cytoplasm1,2. Antiviral potency correlates with TRIM5 avidity for the retrovirion capsid lattice3,4 and several reports indicate that TRIM5 plays a role in signal transduction5–7, but the precise mechanism of restriction is unknown8. Here we demonstrate that TRIM5 promotes innate immune signaling and that this activity is amplified by retroviral infection and interaction with the capsid lattice. Acting with the heterodimeric, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBC13/UEV1A, TRIM5 catalyzes the synthesis of unattached K63-linked ubiquitin chains that activate the TAK1 (MAP3K7) kinase complex and stimulate AP-1 and NF?B signaling. Interaction with the HIV-1 capsid lattice greatly enhances the UBC13/UEV1A-dependent E3 activity of TRIM5 and challenge with retroviruses induces the transcription of AP-1 and NF?B-dependent factors with a magnitude that tracks with TRIM5 avidity for the invading capsid. Finally, TAK1 and UBC13/UEV1A contribute to capsid-specific restriction by TRIM5. Thus, the retroviral restriction factor TRIM5 has two additional activities that are linked to restriction: it constitutively promotes innate immune signaling and it acts as a pattern recognition receptor specific for the retrovirus capsid lattice. PMID:21512573

  1. TRIM45 negatively regulates NF-{kappa}B-mediated transcription and suppresses cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, Mio [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Sato, Tomonobu [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan) [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Nukiwa, Ryota [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Ariga, Tadashi [Department of Pediatrics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan)] [Department of Pediatrics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu, E-mail: hatas@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan)

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NF-{kappa}B plays an important role in cell survival and carcinogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM45 negatively regulates TNF{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B-mediated transcription. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM45 overexpression suppresses cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM45 acts as a repressor for the NF-{kappa}B signal and regulates cell growth. -- Abstract: The NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway plays an important role in cell survival, immunity, inflammation, carcinogenesis, and organogenesis. Activation of NF-{kappa}B is regulated by several posttranslational modifications including phosphorylation, neddylation and ubiquitination. The NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway is activated by two distinct signaling mechanisms and is strictly modulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. It has been reported that overexpression of TRIM45, one of the TRIM family ubiquitin ligases, suppresses transcriptional activities of Elk-1 and AP-1, which are targets of the MAPK signaling pathway. In this study, we showed that TRIM45 also negatively regulates TNF{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B-mediated transcription by a luciferase reporter assay and that TRIM45 lacking a RING domain also has an activity to inhibit the NF-{kappa}B signal. Moreover, we found that TRIM45 overexpression suppresses cell growth. These findings suggest that TRIM45 acts as a repressor for the NF-{kappa}B signal and regulates cell growth.

  2. Internal voltage control of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells: Feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokopius, P. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to assess the feasibility of internal voltage regulation of fuel cell systems. Two methods were tested. In one, reactant partial pressure was used as the voltage control parameter and in the other reactant total pressure was used for control. Both techniques were breadboarded and tested on a single alkaline-electrolyte fuel cell. Both methods were found to be possible forms of regulation, however, of the two the total pressure technique would be more efficient, simpler to apply and would provide better transient characteristics.

  3. Mathematical model of the Space Shuttle Main Engine gaseous oxygen control valve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langer, Susan L.; Tygielski, Philip

    1992-07-01

    A computer program for modeling transient flow behavior of the GOX control valve (GCV) has been developed which makes it possible to model a variety of operating conditions and changes of physical hardware. The SSME GCV controls the flow of GOX that pressurizes the Pogo accumulator. The model simulates the transient flow behavior of the original, tight stacked, and redesigned valve configurations during start and shutdown. The model reads a user-prepared input file that defines the valve configurations and thus provides maximum flexibility.

  4. cis-acting regulatory elements involved in oxygen and light control of puc operon transcription in Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, J K; Kaplan, S

    1992-01-01

    Transcriptional expression of the puc operon in Rhodobacter sphaeroides is highly regulated by both oxygen and light. The approximately 600 bp of DNA upstream of the 5' ends of the two puc-specific transcripts encompasses two functionally separable cis-acting domains. The upstream regulatory region (URS) (-629 to -150) is responsible for enhanced transcriptional regulation of puc operon expression by oxygen and light. The more proximal upstream region (downstream regulatory region [DRS]), containing putative promoter(s), operator(s), and factor binding sites (-150 to -1), is involved in unenhanced transcriptional expression of the puc operon under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Thus, the DRS shows normal derepression of puc operon expression when cells are shifted from aerobic to photosynthetic growth conditions in terms of percent change but does not show the potential range of expression that is only observed when elements of the URS are present. Because of these observations, we have made a distinction between anaerobic control (describing the shift) and oxygen control (describing the magnitude of derepression). Promoter(s) and/or activator function(s) of the puc operon is associated with a 35-bp DNA region between -92 and -57. Homologous sequences at -10 to -27 and -35 to -52 appear to involve additional regulatory elements: mutations at -12 (A to C) and -26 (G to A) result in partial derepression of puc operon expression under conditions of high aeration. Both point mutations require the upstream regulatory region (-629 to -150) to be present in cis for partial derepression of puc operon transcription under aerobic conditions. Immediately upstream of the promoter and/or activator region are overlapping consensus sequences for IHF (integratin host factor) and FNR (fumarate nitrate reductase) (-105 to -129). This region appears to be essential for enhanced expression of the puc operon. Thus, these two regulatory domains (URS and DRS) appear to involve approximately seven unique regulatory elements. In addition, the data reveal a direct interaction between the URS (-629 to -150) and the DRS (-150 to -1). Images PMID:1735709

  5. Scoparone attenuates RANKL-induced osteoclastic differentiation through controlling reactive oxygen species production and scavenging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Jang, Hae-Dong

    2015-02-15

    Scoparone, one of the bioactive components of Artemisia capillaris Thunb, has various biological properties including immunosuppressive, hepatoprotective, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. This study aims at evaluating the anti-osteoporotic effect of scoparone and its underlying mechanism in vitro. Scoparone demonstrated potent cellular antioxidant capacity. It was also found that scoparone inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and suppressed cathepsin K and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) expression via c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/p38-mediated c-Fos-nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) signaling pathway. During osteoclast differentiation, the production of general reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide anions was dose-dependently attenuated by scoparone. In addition, scoparone diminished NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase 1 (Nox1) expression and activation via the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6)-cSrc-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3k) signaling pathway and prevented the disruption of mitochondrial electron transport chain system. Furthermore, scoparone augmented the expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and catalase (CAT). The overall results indicate that the inhibitory effect of scoparone on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation is attributed to the suppressive effect on ROS and superoxide anion production by inhibiting Nox1 expression and activation and protecting the mitochondrial electron transport chain system and the scavenging effect of ROS resulting from elevated SOD1 and CAT expression. PMID:25576385

  6. Technical Update: Johnson Space Center system using a solid electrolytic cell in a remote location to measure oxygen fugacities in CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurewicz, A. J. G.; Williams, R. J.; Le, L.; Wagstaff, J.; Lofgren, G.; Lanier, A.; Carter, W.; Roshko, A.

    1993-01-01

    Details are given for the design and application of a (one atmosphere) redox-control system. This system differs from that given in NASA Technical Memorandum 58234 in that it uses a single solid-electrolytic cell in a remote location to measure the oxygen fugacities of multiple CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces. This remote measurement extends the range of sample-furnace conditions that can be measured using a solid-electrolytic cell, and cuts costs by extending the life of the sensors and by minimizing the number of sensors in use. The system consists of a reference furnace and an exhaust-gas manifold. The reference furnace is designed according to the redox control system of NASA Technical Memorandum 58234, and any number of CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces can be attached to the exhaust-gas manifold. Using the manifold, the exhaust gas from individual CO/CO2 controlled atmosphere furnaces can be diverted through the reference furnace, where a solid-electrolyte cell is used to read the ambient oxygen fugacity. The oxygen fugacity measured in the reference furnace can then be used to calculate the oxygen fugacity in the individual CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnace. A BASIC computer program was developed to expedite this calculation.

  7. Technical Update: Johnson Space Center system using a solid electrolytic cell in a remote location to measure oxygen fugacities in CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jurewicz, A. J. G.; Williams, R. J.; Le, L.; Wagstaff, J.; Lofgren, G.; Lanier, A.; Carter, W.; Roshko, A.

    1993-09-01

    Details are given for the design and application of a (one atmosphere) redox-control system. This system differs from that given in NASA Technical Memorandum 58234 in that it uses a single solid-electrolytic cell in a remote location to measure the oxygen fugacities of multiple CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces. This remote measurement extends the range of sample-furnace conditions that can be measured using a solid-electrolytic cell, and cuts costs by extending the life of the sensors and by minimizing the number of sensors in use. The system consists of a reference furnace and an exhaust-gas manifold. The reference furnace is designed according to the redox control system of NASA Technical Memorandum 58234, and any number of CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces can be attached to the exhaust-gas manifold. Using the manifold, the exhaust gas from individual CO/CO2 controlled atmosphere furnaces can be diverted through the reference furnace, where a solid-electrolyte cell is used to read the ambient oxygen fugacity. The oxygen fugacity measured in the reference furnace can then be used to calculate the oxygen fugacity in the individual CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnace. A BASIC computer program was developed to expedite this calculation.

  8. The conserved sumoylation consensus site in TRIM5? modulates its immune activation functions.

    PubMed

    Nepveu-Traversy, Marie-Édith; Berthoux, Lionel

    2014-05-12

    TRIM5? is a type I interferon-stimulated anti-retroviral restriction factor expressed in most primates and homologous proteins are expressed in other mammals. Through its C-terminal PRYSPRY (B30.2) domain, TRIM5? binds to incoming and intact post-fusion retroviral cores in the cytoplasm. Following this direct interaction, the retroviral capsid core is destabilized and progression of the virus life cycle is interrupted. Specific recognition of its viral target by TRIM5? also triggers the induction of an antiviral state involving the activation of transcription factors NF-?B- and AP-1. In addition to PRYSPRY, several other TRIM5? domains are important for anti-retroviral function, including a RING zinc-binding motif. This domain has "E3" ubiquitin ligase activity and is involved in both the direct inhibition of incoming retroviruses and innate immune activation. A highly conserved sumoylation consensus site is present between the RING motif and the N-terminal extremity of TRIM5?. No clear role in restriction has been mapped to this sumoylation site, and no sumoylated forms of TRIM5? have been observed. Here we confirm that mutating the putatively sumoylated lysine (K10) of the Rhesus macaque TRIM5? (TRIM5?Rh) to an arginine has only a small effect on restriction. However, we show that the mutation significantly decreases the TRIM5?-induced generation of free K63-linked ubiquitin chains, an intermediate in the activation of innate immunity pathways. Accordingly, K10R decreases TRIM5?-mediated activation of both NF-?B and AP-1. Concomitantly, we find that K10R causes a large increase in the levels of ubiquitylated TRIM5?. Finally, treatment with the nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B shows that K10R enhances the nuclear localization of TRIM5?Rh, while at the same time reducing its level of association with nuclear SUMO bodies. In conclusion, the TRIM5? sumoylation site appears to modulate the E3 ubiquitin ligase activities of the adjacent RING domain, promoting K63-linked ubiquitin chains at the expense of auto-ubiquitylation which is probably K48-linked. Consistently, we find this sumoylation site to be important for innate immune activation by TRIM5?. In addition, lysine 10 regulates TRIM5? nuclear shuttling and nuclear localization, which may also be related to its role in innate immunity activation. PMID:24583231

  9. Effect of hot-fat trimming on factors associated with the subprimal yield of beef carcasses.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, P O; Miller, M F; Shackelford, S D; Johnson, L P; Williams, S E; McCann, M A; Reagan, J O

    1992-02-01

    Thirty-two crossbred cattle (steers = 17; heifers = 15) exhibiting an ultrasound fat thickness at the 12 to 13th rib region of at least 10 mm were selected from a slaughter shift at a commercial packing plant. After splitting, alternating sides of each carcass were trimmed of 1) subcutaneous fat in excess of 6.4 mm; 2) all kidney, pelvic, and heart fat; and 3) all cod or udder fat and fat in the flank region. Both sides of each carcass were fabricated into subprimals (final trim level of 6.4 mm) according to normal industry procedures. Effect of hot-fat trimming, yield grade (3, 4, and 5), and gender on hot-fat trim, fabrication fat trim, major subprimal, and total subprimal yield of untrimmed and trimmed carcasses were determined. Higher numerical yield grade (YG) corresponded with higher (P less than .05) percentages of hot-fat trim. Hot-fat trimming increased (P less than .05) the difference in fabrication fat trim between steers and heifers and between YG 3 and YG 5. Steers and heifers differed (P less than .05) in percentage of major subprimals and total subprimals when processed conventionally, whereas hot-fat trimming eliminated this difference (P less than .05). Untrimmed YG 3 carcasses had 3.1 and 5.0% higher major subprimal yield (P less than .05) than untrimmed YG 4 and YG 5 carcasses, respectively, whereas hot-fat trimming reduced this difference to 2.5% for YG 4 and to 3.7% for YG 5.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1548206

  10. Rotor Flapping Response to Active Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Khanh; Johnson, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    Rotor active control using higher harmonic blade pitch has been proposed as a means to reduce both rotor radiated noise and airframe vibration and to enhance rotor performance. The higher harmonic input, however, can affect rotor thrust and cyclic flapping - the basic trim characteristics of the rotor. Some of the trim changes can negate the active control benefits. For example, wind tunnel test results of a full scale BO-105 rotor with individual-blade control indicate some rotor performance improvements, accompanied with changes in rotor trim, using two-per-rev blade pitch input. The observed performance benefits could therefore be a simple manifestation of the trim change rather than an efficient redistribution of the rotor airloads. More recently, the flight test of the BO-105 helicopter equip,ped with individual-blade-control actuators also reported trim changes whenever the two-per-rev blade pitch for noise reduction was activated. The pilot had to adjust the trim control to maintain the aircraft under a constant flight path. These two cases highlight the, importance of trim considerations in the application of active control to rotorcraft.

  11. Quasi-Linear Parameter Varying Representation of General Aircraft Dynamics Over Non-Trim Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jong-Yeob

    2007-01-01

    For applying linear parameter varying (LPV) control synthesis and analysis to a nonlinear system, it is required that a nonlinear system be represented in the form of an LPV model. In this paper, a new representation method is developed to construct an LPV model from a nonlinear mathematical model without the restriction that an operating point must be in the neighborhood of equilibrium points. An LPV model constructed by the new method preserves local stabilities of the original nonlinear system at "frozen" scheduling parameters and also represents the original nonlinear dynamics of a system over a non-trim region. An LPV model of the motion of FASER (Free-flying Aircraft for Subscale Experimental Research) is constructed by the new method.

  12. A power investigation of Alexander Govern test with adaptive trimmed mean as a central tendency measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Suhaida; Syed Yahaya, Sharipah Soaad; Othman, Abdul Rahman

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated on power of the test for Alexander Govern method using adaptive trimmed mean as a central measurement (AH). The power of the test is controlled by three parametric specification namely significance level (?), sample size (n) and effect size (EF). Previous studies on Type I error rates found that this method is robust and perform very well even under extreme conditions. To check on the strength and weakness of the method with regards to power of test, variables such as the shape of the distribution of data, variance ratio, sample sizes and the pair between sample sizes and unequal variance were manipulated to create various conditions. Results from this study show that the power of the AH test can be considered high in all of the normal distribution. High power test is also consistent under nonnormal data for the case of unbalanced sample sizes and equal variance of positive pairing.

  13. Effects of supplemental oxygen on cardiac rhythm during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: a randomised controlled double blind trial.

    PubMed Central

    Bowling, T E; Hadjiminas, C L; Polson, R J; Baron, J H; Foale, R A

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the effects of supplemental oxygen on cardiac rhythm during gastroscopy, 103 patients aged over 60 were randomised to receive either supplemental oxygen or air at 2 litres/minute during the procedure. Pulse rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and a Holter cardiac trace were monitored before, during, and for one hour after the gastroscopy. A wide range of electrocardiographic abnormalities were recorded in both oxygen and air groups, of which ventricular and supraventricular ectopic beats were the most common. There were no significant differences in the rate of occurrence of any clinically important cardiac abnormality either between the oxygen and air groups or between the three monitored periods before, during, and after gastroscopy. There were significantly fewer patients, however, with supraventricular extra systoles when oxygen was given during gastroscopy (p < 0.05). Although supplemental oxygen during gastroscopy significantly improved oxygen saturation (p < 0.001; 95% confidence intervals for the difference between the means: 2.9 to 4.7), there was no correlation between oxygen saturation and any electrocardiographic changes. It is concluded that electrocardiographic abnormalities are common in patients over 60, but this study found no evidence that they are induced by gastroscopy. Supplemental oxygen increases oxygen saturation but does not reduce the incidence of clinically important cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:8244130

  14. Efficacy of oxygen-supplying capacity of Azolla in a controlled life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Min; Deng, Sufang; Yang, Youquan; Huang, Yibing; Liu, Chongchu

    2012-02-01

    Azolla shows high growth and propagation rates, strong photosynthetic O2-releasing ability and high nutritional value. It is suitable as a salad vegetable and can be cultured on a multi-layered wet bed. Hence, it possesses potential as a fresh vegetable, and to release O2 and absorb CO2 in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System in space. In this study, we investigated the O2-providing characteristics of Azolla in a closed chamber under manned, controlled conditions to lay a foundation for use of Azolla as a biological component in ground simulation experiments for space applications. A closed test chamber, representing a Controlled Ecological Life Support System including an Azolla wet-culture device, was built to measure the changes in atmospheric O2 and CO2 concentrations inside the chamber in the presence of coexisting Azolla, fish and men. The amount of O2 consumed by fish was 0.0805-0.0831 L kg-1 h-1 and the level of CO2 emission was 0.0705-0.0736 L kg-1 h-1; O2 consumption by the two trial volunteers was 19.71 L h-1 and the volume of respiration-released CO2 was 18.90 L h-1. Under 7000-8000 Lx artificial light and Azolla wet-culture conditions, human and fish respiration and Azolla photosynthesis were complementary, thus the atmospheric O2 and CO2 concentrations inside chamber were maintained in equilibrium. The increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration in the closed chamber enhanced the net photosynthesis efficiency of the Azolla colony. This study showed that Azolla has strong photosynthetic O2-releasing ability, which equilibrates the O2 and CO2 concentrations inside the chamber in favor of human survival and verifies the potential of Azolla for space applications.

  15. Technical Note: Controlled experimental aquarium system for multi-stressor investigation of carbonate chemistry, oxygen saturation, and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockmon, E. E.; Frieder, C. A.; Navarro, M. O.; White-Kershek, L. A.; Dickson, A. G.

    2013-09-01

    As the field of ocean acidification has grown, researchers have increasingly turned to laboratory experiments to understand the impacts of increased CO2 on marine organisms. However, other changes such as ocean warming and deoxygenation are occurring concurrently with the increasing CO2 concentrations, complicating the understanding of the impacts of anthropogenic changes on organisms. This experimental aquarium design allows for independent regulation of CO2 concentration, O2 levels, and temperature in a controlled environment to study the impacts of multiple stressors. The system has the flexibility for a wide range of treatment chemistry, seawater volumes, and study organisms. Control of the seawater chemistry is achieved by equilibration of a chosen gas mixture with seawater using a Liqui-Cel® membrane contactor. Included as examples, two experiments performed using the system have shown control of CO2 at values between approximately 500 and 1400 ?atm and O2 at values from 80 to 240 ?mol kg-1. Temperature has been maintained to 0.5 °C or better in the range of 10-17 °C. On a weeklong timescale, the system has achieved variability in pH of less than 0.007 pH units and in oxygen concentration of less than 3.5 ?mol kg-1. Longer experiments, over a month in duration, have been completed with control to better than 0.08 pH units and 13 ?mol kg-1 O2. The ability to study the impacts of multiple stressors in the laboratory simultaneously, as well as independently, will be an important part of understanding the response of marine organisms to a high-CO2 world.

  16. Testing of a Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Reaction Control Thruster in a New Altitude Rocket Engine Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Michael L.; Arrington, Lynn A.; Kleinhenz, Julie E.; Marshall, William M.

    2012-01-01

    A relocated rocket engine test facility, the Altitude Combustion Stand (ACS), was activated in 2009 at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This facility has the capability to test with a variety of propellants and up to a thrust level of 2000 lbf (8.9 kN) with precise measurement of propellant conditions, propellant flow rates, thrust and altitude conditions. These measurements enable accurate determination of a thruster and/or nozzle s altitude performance for both technology development and flight qualification purposes. In addition the facility was designed to enable efficient test operations to control costs for technology and advanced development projects. A liquid oxygen-liquid methane technology development test program was conducted in the ACS from the fall of 2009 to the fall of 2010. Three test phases were conducted investigating different operational modes and in addition, the project required the complexity of controlling propellant inlet temperatures over an extremely wide range. Despite the challenges of a unique propellant (liquid methane) and wide operating conditions, the facility performed well and delivered up to 24 hot fire tests in a single test day. The resulting data validated the feasibility of utilizing this propellant combination for future deep space applications.

  17. Application of linear multiple model predictive control (MMPC) framework towards dynamic maximazation of oxygen yield in an elevated-pressure air separation unit

    SciTech Connect

    Mahapatra, P.; Zitney, S.; Bequette, B. Wayne

    2012-01-01

    In a typical air separation unit (ASU) utilizing either a simple gaseous oxygen (GOX) cycle or a pumped liquid oxygen (PLOX) cycle, the flowrate of liquid nitrogen (LN2) stream connecting high-pressure and low-pressure ASU columns plays an important role in the total oxygen yield. It has been observed that this yield reaches a maximum at a certain optimal flowrate of LN2 stream. At nominal full-load operation, the flowrate of LN2 stream is maintained near this optimum value, whereas at part-load conditions this flowrate is typically modified in proportion with the load-change (oxygen demand) through a ratio/feed-forward controller. Due to nonlinearity in the entire ASU process, the ratio-modified LN2 flowrate does not guarantee an optimal oxygen yield at part-load conditions. This is further exacerbated when process disturbances in form of “cold-box” heat-leaks enter the system. To address this problem of dynamically maximizing the oxygen yield while the ASU undergoes a load-change and/or a process disturbance, a multiple model predictive control (MMPC) algorithm is proposed. This approach has been used in previous studies to handle large ramp-rates of oxygen demand posed by the gasifier in an IGCC plant. In this study, the proposed algorithm uses linear step-response “blackbox” models surrounding the operating points corresponding to maximum oxygen yield points at different loads. It has been shown that at any operating point of the ASU, the MMPC algorithm, through model-weight calculation based on plant measurements, naturally and continuously selects the dominant model(s) corresponding to the current plant state, while making control-move decisions that approach the maximum oxygen yield point. This dynamically facilitates less energy consumption in form of compressed feed-air compared to a simple ratio control during load-swings. In addition, since a linear optimization problem is solved at each time step, the approach involves much less computational cost compared to a firstprinciple based nonlinear MPC. Introduction

  18. Precision frequency trimming of SAW and STW resonators using Xe+ heavy ion bombardment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir Shakirovich Aliev; I. D. Avramov

    1994-01-01

    A method for precision frequency trimming of surface acoustic wave (SAW) and surface transverse wave (STW) based resonant devices using a Xe+ heavy ion bombardment technique is described. The devices are downtrimmed in frequency in an in-situ monitoring process by means of a Kaufmann type ion source that allows first a rough and then a fine frequency trimming with an

  19. Trim17-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of Mcl-1 initiate apoptosis in neurons.

    PubMed

    Magiera, M M; Mora, S; Mojsa, B; Robbins, I; Lassot, I; Desagher, S

    2013-02-01

    Short-term proteasome inhibition has been shown to prevent neuronal apoptosis. However, the key pro-survival proteins that must be degraded for triggering neuronal death are mostly unknown. Here, we show that Mcl-1, an anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member, is degraded by the proteasome during neuronal apoptosis. Using primary cultures of cerebellar granule neurons deprived of serum and KCl, we found that ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of Mcl-1 depended on its prior phosphorylation by GSK3, providing the first insight into post-translational regulation of Mcl-1 in neurons. In a previous study, we have reported that the E3 ubiquitin-ligase Trim17 is both necessary and sufficient for neuronal apoptosis. Here, we identified Trim17 as a novel E3 ubiquitin-ligase for Mcl-1. Indeed, Trim17 co-immunoprecipitated with Mcl-1. Trim17 ubiquitinated Mcl-1 in vitro. Overexpression of Trim17 decreased the protein level of Mcl-1 in a phosphorylation- and proteasome-dependent manner. Finally, knock down of Trim17 expression reduced both ubiquitination and degradation of Mcl-1 in neurons. Moreover, impairment of Mcl-1 phosphorylation, by kinase inhibition or point mutations, not only decreased ubiquitination and degradation of Mcl-1, but also blocked the physical interaction between Trim17 and Mcl-1. As this stabilization of Mcl-1 increased its neuroprotective effect, our data strongly suggest that Trim17-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of Mcl-1 is necessary for initiating neuronal death. PMID:22976837

  20. Virus-specific effects of TRIM5?(rh) RING domain functions on restriction of retroviruses.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing; Kim, Jonghwa; Song, Byeongwoon; Finzi, Andrés; Pacheco, Beatriz; Sodroski, Joseph

    2013-07-01

    The tripartite motif protein TRIM5? restricts particular retrovirus infections by binding to the incoming capsid and inhibiting the early stage of virus infection. The TRIM5? RING domain exhibits E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and assists the higher-order association of TRIM5? dimers, which promotes capsid binding. We characterized a panel of RING domain mutants of the rhesus monkey TRIM5? (TRIM5?(rh)) protein. The RING domain function that significantly contributed to retroviral restriction depended upon the restricted virus. The E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of the RING domain contributes to the potency of HIV-1 restriction. Nonetheless, TRIM5?(rh) mutants without detectable E3 ubiquitin ligase activity still blocked reverse transcription and inhibited HIV-1 infection at a moderate level. When TRIM5?(rh) capsid binding was weakened by substitution with a less efficient B30.2/SPRY domain, the promotion of higher-order association by the RING domain was more important to HIV-1 restriction than its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. For the restriction of N-tropic murine leukemia virus (N-MLV) and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infection, promotion of higher-order association represented the major contribution of the RING domain. Thus, both identity of the target virus and the B30.2/SPRY domain-mediated affinity for the viral capsid determine the relative contribution of the two known RING domain functions to TRIM5? restriction of retrovirus infection. PMID:23637418

  1. Comparison of the trimming procedure of six different farriers by quantitative evaluation of hoof radiographs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Kummer; Diego Gygax; Christoph Lischer; Jörg Auer

    2009-01-01

    Hoof preparation and shoe fit are integral to the long term soundness and athletic ability of horses. The farrier influences the balance of the hoof by both the trimming and the shoeing procedure. The goal of this study was to investigate and quantify the influence of the farrier on hoof parameters by trimming. Forty Warmblood horses ranging in age from

  2. Object Trimming: When Masking Dots Alter Rather than Replace Target Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahan, Todd A.; Enns, James T.

    2010-01-01

    Five experiments demonstrate that when dots appear beside a briefly presented target object, and persist on view longer than the target, the flanked object is perceptually altered by the dots. Three methods are used to explore this "object trimming effect". Experiments 1-3 assess participants' conscious reports of trimmed digits, Experiment 4 uses…

  3. Process Biochemistry 37 (2002) 10571065 Dynamics of yard trimmings composting as determined by

    E-print Network

    Tiquia-Arashiro, Sonia M.

    2002-01-01

    Process Biochemistry 37 (2002) 1057­1065 Dynamics of yard trimmings composting as determined of the composting process. In the present study, four different biochemical parameters (dehydrogenase activity, ATP of yard trimmings composting; and (2) to relate these parameters to changes in microbial numbers, physico

  4. Flight Dynamics of High Aspect-Ratio Flying Wings: Effect of Large Trim Deformation

    E-print Network

    Patil, Mayuresh

    Flight Dynamics of High Aspect-Ratio Flying Wings: Effect of Large Trim Deformation Brijesh Flight Mechanics Conference and Exhibit Hilton Head, SC, August 2007 (Virginia Tech) HALE Flight Dynamics: Effect of Large Trim Deformation AFM 07 1 / 1 #12;Outline (Virginia Tech) HALE Flight Dynamics: Effect

  5. Relationship between Body Weight and Beak Characteristics in One-Day-Old White Leghorn Chicks: its implications for beak trimming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beak trimming is a routine practice used in laying hens to prevent feather pecking and cannibalism. The effects of beak trimming on bird well-being depend on multiple factors, including the length of beak that is trimmed and the quality of the procedure. The aim of this work was to determine if a ...

  6. A Comparison of the Long Term Effects of Infrared Beak Treatment and Hot Blade Beak Trimming in Laying Hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The poultry industry is under intense pressure from the public and animal welfare advocates to eliminate the practice of beak trimming due to the potential for acute and chronic pain in the trimmed birds. However, elimination of beak trimming may have severe implications for animal welfare, as peck...

  7. Generating controlled reducing environments in aerobic recombinant Escherichia coli fermentations: Effects on cell growth, oxygen uptake, heat shock protein expression, and in vivo CAT activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryan T. Gill; Hyung Joon Cha; Alok Jain; Govind Rao; William E. Bentley

    1998-01-01

    The independent control of culture redox po- tential (CRP) by the regulated addition of a reducing agent, dithiothreitol (DTT) was demonstrated in aerated recombinant Escherichia coli fermentations. Moderate levels of DTT addition resulted in minimal changes to specific oxygen uptake, growth rate, and dissolved oxy- gen. Excessive levels of DTT addition were toxic to the cells resulting in cessation of

  8. Reactive nitrogen and oxygen species, and iron sequestration contribute to macrophage-mediated control of Encephalitozoon cuniculi (Phylum Microsporidia) infection in vitro and in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth S. Didier; Lisa C. Bowers; Aaron D. Martin; Marcelo J. Kuroda; Imtiaz A. Khan; Peter J. Didier

    2010-01-01

    Encephalitozoon cuniculi (Phylum Microsporidia) infects a wide range of mammals, and replicates within resting macrophages. Activated macrophages, conversely, inhibit replication and destroy intracellular organisms. These studies were performed to assess mechanisms of innate immune responses expressed by macrophages to control E. cuniculi infection. Addition of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species inhibitors to activated murine peritoneal macrophages statistically significantly, rescued E.

  9. Edge Fracture Prediction ofTraditional and Advanced Trimming Processes for AA6111-T4 Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Xiaohua; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Sun, Xin; Golovashchenko, Segey F.

    2014-02-15

    This work examines the traditional and advanced trimming of AA6111-T4 aluminum sheets with finite element simulations. The Rice-Tracy damage model is used for the simulation with damage parameters estimated from experimental observation of grain aspect ratio near the fracture surface of trimmed parts. Fine meshes at the shearing zone, adaptive meshing, and adaptive contact techniques are used to accurately capture the contact interactions between the sharp corner of the trimming tools and the blank to be trimmed. To the knowledge of the authors, these are the first trimming simulations that can predict the effects of shearing clearance on burr heights with quantitative accuracy for AA6111-T4 aluminum sheets. In addition, the models have also accurately reproduced the crack initiation site as well as burr and sliver formation mechanisms observed experimentally.

  10. Plasticity of microvascular oxygenation control in rat fast-twitch muscle: Effects of experimental creatine depletion

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, Paul; Padilla, Danielle J.; Kano, Yutaka; Musch, Timothy I.; Poole, David C.; Behnke, Brad J.

    2012-01-01

    Aging, heart failure and diabetes each compromise the matching of O2 delivery (QO2)-to-metabolic requirements (O2 uptake, VO2) in skeletal muscle such that the O2 pressure driving blood-myocyte O2 flux (microvascular PO2, PmvO2) is reduced and contractile function impaired. In contrast, ?-guanidinopropionic acid (?-GPA) treatment improves muscle contractile function, primarily in fast-twitch muscle (Moerland and Kushmerick, 1994). We tested the hypothesis that ?-GPA (2% wt/BW in rat chow, 8 wk; n=14) would improve QO2-to-VO2 matching (elevated PmvO2) during contractions (4.5 V @ 1 Hz) in mixed (MG) and white (WG) portions of the gastrocnemius, both predominantly fast-twitch). Compared with control (CON), during contractions PmvO2fell less following ?-GPA (MG -54%, WG -26%, p<0.05), elevating steady-state PmvO2 (CON, MG: 10±2, WG: 9±1; ?-GPA, MG 16±2, WG 18±2 mmHg, P<0.05). This reflected an increased QO2/VO2 ratio due primarily to a reduced VO2 in ?-GPA muscles. It is likely that this adaptation helps facilitate the ?-GPA-induced enhancement of contractile function in fast-twitch muscles. PMID:22285799

  11. Influence of oxygen on DNA binding, positive control, and stability of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum NifA regulatory protein.

    PubMed Central

    Morett, E; Fischer, H M; Hennecke, H

    1991-01-01

    Central to the genetic regulatory circuit that controls Bradyrhizobium japonicum nif and fix gene expression is the NifA protein. NifA activates transcription of several nif and fix genes and autoregulates its expression during symbiosis in soybean root nodules or in free-living microaerobic conditions. High O2 tensions result in the lack of nif expression, possibly by inactivation of NifA through oxidation of an essential metal cofactor. Several B. japonicum nif and fix promoters have upstream activator sequences (UAS) required for optimal activation. The UAS are located more than 100 bp from the -24/-12 promoter and have been proposed to be binding sites for NifA. We investigated the interaction of NifA with the nifD promoter region by using in vivo dimethyl sulfate footprinting. NifA-dependent protection from methylation of the two UAS of this promoter was detected. Footprinting experiments in the presence of rifampin showed that UAS-bound NifA led to the formation of an open nifD promoter-RNA polymerase sigma 54 complex. Shift to aerobic growth resulted in a rapid loss of protection of both the UAS and the promoter, indicating that the DNA-binding and the activation functions of NifA were controlled by the O2 status of the cell. After an almost complete inactivation by oxygen, the NifA protein began to degrade. Furthermore, metal deprivation also caused degradation of NifA. In this case, however, the rates of NifA inactivation and NifA degradation were not clearly distinguishable. The results are discussed in the light of a previously proposed model, according to which the oxidation state of a NifA-metal complex influences the conformation of NifA for both DNA-binding and positive control functions. Images PMID:2045367

  12. Isolated resonator gyroscope with isolation trimming using a secondary element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention discloses a resonator gyroscope including an isolated resonator. One or more flexures support the isolated resonator and a baseplate is affixed to the resonator by the flexures. Drive and sense elements are affixed to the baseplate and used to excite the resonator and sense movement of the gyroscope. In addition, at least one secondary element (e.g., another electrode) is affixed to the baseplate and used for trimming isolation of the resonator. The resonator operates such that it transfers substantially no net momentum to the baseplate when the resonator is excited. Typically, the isolated resonator comprises a proof mass and a counterbalancing plate.

  13. An Experimental Investigation to Determine the Effect of Speed-Brake Position on the Longitudinal Stability and Trim of a Swept-Wing Fighter Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Robert T.

    1959-01-01

    A 0.10-scale model of a swept-wing fighter airplane was tested in the Langley high-speed 7- by 10-foot tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 0.92 to determine the effects of adding underfuselage speed brakes. The results of brief spoiler-aileron lateral control tests also are included. The tests show acceptable trim and drag increments when the speed brakes are installed at the 32-71-inch fuselage station.

  14. In Silico Analysis of Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Human TRIM22 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Jenna N.; Barr, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Tripartite motif protein 22 (TRIM22) is an evolutionarily ancient protein that plays an integral role in the host innate immune response to viruses. The antiviral TRIM22 protein has been shown to inhibit the replication of a number of viruses, including HIV-1, hepatitis B, and influenza A. TRIM22 expression has also been associated with multiple sclerosis, cancer, and autoimmune disease. In this study, multiple in silico computational methods were used to identify non-synonymous or amino acid-changing SNPs (nsSNP) that are deleterious to TRIM22 structure and/or function. A sequence homology-based approach was adopted for screening nsSNPs in TRIM22, including six different in silico prediction algorithms and evolutionary conservation data from the ConSurf web server. In total, 14 high-risk nsSNPs were identified in TRIM22, most of which are located in a protein interaction module called the B30.2 domain. Additionally, 9 of the top high-risk nsSNPs altered the putative structure of TRIM22's B30.2 domain, particularly in the surface-exposed v2 and v3 regions. These same regions are critical for retroviral restriction by the closely-related TRIM5? protein. A number of putative structural and functional residues, including several sites that undergo post-translational modification, were also identified in TRIM22. This study is the first extensive in silico analysis of the highly polymorphic TRIM22 gene and will be a valuable resource for future targeted mechanistic and population-based studies. PMID:24983760

  15. Bacterial Inactivation by a Singlet Oxygen Bubbler: Identifying Factors Controlling the Toxicity of 1O2 Bubbles

    PubMed Central

    Bartusik, Dorota; Aebisher, David; Lyons, Alan

    2013-01-01

    A microphotoreactor device was developed to generate bubbles (sized: 1.4 mm diameter, 90 ?L) containing singlet oxygen at levels toxic to bacteria and fungus. As singlet oxygen decays rapidly to triplet oxygen, the bubbles leave behind no waste or by-products other than O2. From a comparative study in deaerated, air saturated, and oxygenated solutions, it was reasoned that the singlet oxygen bubbles inactivate Escherichia coli and Aspergillus fumigatus, mainly by an oxygen gradient inside and outside of the bubble such that singlet oxygen is solvated and diffuses through the aqueous solution until it reacts with the target organism. Thus, singlet oxygen bubble toxicity was inversely proportional to the amount of dissolved oxygen in solution. In a second mechanism, singlet oxygen interacts directly with E. coli that accumulate at the gas-liquid interface although this mechanism operates at a rate approximately 10 times slower. Due to encapsulation in the gaseous core of the bubble and a 0.98 ms lifetime, the bubbles can traverse relatively long 0.39 mm distances carrying 1O2 far into the solution; by comparison the diffusion distance of 1O2 fully solvated in H2O is much shorter (~150 nm). Bubbles that reached the outer air/water interface contained no 1O2. The mechanism by which 1O2 deactivated organisms was explored through the addition of detergent molecules and Ca2+ ions. Results indicate that the preferential accumulation of E. coli at the air-water interface of the bubble leads to enhanced toxicity of bubbles containing 1O2. The singlet oxygen device offers intriguing possibilities for creating new types of disinfection strategies based on photodynamic (1O2) bubble carriers. PMID:23075418

  16. Sensitivity of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, multidrug-resistant Salmonella, and antibiotic-susceptible Salmonella to lactic acid on inoculated beef trimmings.

    PubMed

    Fouladkhah, Aliyar; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Yang, Hua; Belk, Keith E; Nightingale, Kendra K; Woerner, Dale R; Smith, Gary C; Sofos, John N

    2012-10-01

    Studies were performed to determine whether lactic acid treatments used to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 on beef trimmings are also effective in controlling non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (nSTEC), and multidrug-resistant and antibiotic-susceptible Salmonella. Beef trimming pieces (10 by 5 by 1 cm) were inoculated (3 log CFU/cm(2)) separately with four-strain mixtures of rifampin-resistant E. coli O157:H7, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145. Similarly, in a second study, trimmings were separately inoculated with rifampin-resistant E. coli O157:H7, and antibiotic-susceptible or multidrug-resistant (MDR and/or MDR-AmpC) Salmonella Newport and Salmonella Typhimurium. Inoculated trimmings were left untreated (control) or were immersed for 30 s in 5% lactic acid solutions (25 or 55°C). No differences (P ? 0.05) were obtained among surviving counts of E. coli O157:H7 and those of the tested nSTEC serogroups on lactic acid-treated (25 or 55°C) samples. Counts (3.1 to 3.3 log CFU/cm(2)) of E. coli O157:H7 and nSTEC were reduced (P < 0.05) by 0.5 to 0.9 (25°C lactic acid) and 1.0 to 1.4 (55°C lactic acid) log CFU/cm(2). Surviving counts of Salmonella on treated trimmings were not influenced by serotype or antibiotic resistance phenotype and were similar (P ? 0.05) or lower (P < 0.05) than surviving counts of E. coli O157:H7. Counts (3.0 to 3.3 log CFU/cm(2)) were reduced (P < 0.05) by 0.5 to 0.8 (E. coli O157:H7) and 1.3 to 1.5 (Salmonella) log CFU/cm(2) after treatment of samples with 25°C lactic acid. Corresponding reductions following treatment with lactic acid at 55°C were 1.2 to 1.5 (E. coli O157:H7) and 1.6 to 1.9 (Salmonella) log CFU/cm(2). Overall, the results indicated that lactic acid treatments used against E. coli O157:H7 on beef trimmings should be similarly or more effective against the six nSTEC serogroups and against multidrug-resistant and antibiotic-susceptible Salmonella Newport and Salmonella Typhimurium. PMID:23043822

  17. Controllable formation of graphene and graphene oxide sheets using photo-catalytic reduction and oxygen plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostovari, Fatemeh; Abdi, Yaser; Ghasemi, Foad

    2012-12-01

    Au/SiO2/Si interdigital electrodes with thickness of 1 ?m were created on silicon substrate. Graphene oxide (GO) sheets hanging from these electrodes were obtained by spin coating of chemically synthesized GO dispersed in water. We used UV-light-induced photo-catalytic activity of titanium oxide nanoparticles to reduce the GO layer. Effects of the photo-induced chemical reduction on the conductivity of the GO were investigated. Also, low power DC plasma was used for oxidation of the sheets. Oxygen bombardment leads to sheets with low electrical conductivity. Measurements show that graphene and GO sheets with the controlled electrical conductivity were obtained by these processes. Scanning electron and atomic force microscopy were used to study the morphology of the TiO2/GO and graphene structures. X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering analysis were used to verify the structural characteristics of the prepared sheets. Analysis showed a gradual increase in the number of C-O bonds on the surface of the graphene layer as a result of increasing the time of plasma bombardment. Based on the Raman spectroscopy, the photo-catalytic activity of TiO2 nanoparticles resulted in a decrease in the number of C-O bonds.

  18. Controllable synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanospheres and Fe-N/carbon nanospheres as efficient oxygen reduction electrocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jing; Liang, Yan; Zhang, Xinyi; Simon, George P; Zhao, Dongyuan; Zhang, Jin; Jiang, Sanping; Wang, Huanting

    2015-03-26

    The synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanospheres (MCNs), especially with diameters below 200 nm remains a great challenge due to weak interactions between the carbon precursors and soft templates, as well as the uncontrollable cross-linking rate of carbon precursors. Herein, we demonstrate a simple acid-assisted, hydrothermal synthesis approach to synthesizing such uniform MCNs with well controlled diameters ranging from 20 to 150 nm under highly acidic conditions (2 M HCl). Both the carbon precursor and the template are partly protonated under such conditions and show additional Coulombic interactions with chloride ions (acts as mediators). This kind of enhanced interaction is similar to that of the "I(+)X(-)S(+)" mechanism in the synthesis of mesoporous metal oxide, which can effectively retard the cross-linking rate of resol molecules and avoid macroscopic phase separation during the hydrothermal synthesis. Due to their uniform spherical morphology, small diameter, and high surface areas, MCNs can be modified with Fe and N species via impregnation of cheap precursors (ferric nitrate and dicyandiamide), which are further converted into nonprecious electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions. The resulting Fe-N/MCNs exhibit high catalytic activities, long-term stability and improved methanol tolerance under alkaline conditions, which can be potentially used in direct methanol fuel cells and metal-air batteries. PMID:25779978

  19. Controlled Evaluation of the Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy on the Behavior of 16 Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jepson, Bryan; Granpeesheh, Doreen; Tarbox, Jonathan; Olive, Melissa L.; Stott, Carol; Braud, Scott; Yoo, J. Helen; Wakefield, Andrew; Allen, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been used to treat individuals with autism. However, few studies of its effectiveness have been completed. The current study examined the effects of 40 HBOT sessions at 24% oxygen at 1.3 ATA on 11 topographies of directly observed behavior. Five replications of multiple baselines were completed across a total…

  20. Online biochemical oxygen demand monitoring for wastewater process control--full-scale studies at Los Angeles Glendale wastewater plant, California.

    PubMed

    Iranpour, Reza; Zermeno, Miguel

    2008-04-01

    The main objective of this investigation is to determine whether or not it would be feasible to use the measured values of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of wastewater obtained by an online instrument at the Los Angeles/Glendale Water Reclamation Plant (California) for controlling its activated sludge process. This investigation is part of a project to develop online BOD monitoring for process control in the City of Los Angeles wastewater treatment plants. Tests studied the Siepmann und Teutscher GmbH (ISCO-STIP Inc., Lincoln, Nebraska) BIOX-1010, which uses a bioreactor containing a culture of microbes from the wastewater to measure soluble BOD in 2 minutes. This rapid approximation to the operation of secondary treatment allows anticipation of system response. Calibration measurements allow the operators to find a conversion factor for the instrument's microprocessor to compute values of BOD that agree well with the standard 5-day BOD (BOD5) measurement, despite the differences in the details of the two testing methods. This instrument has recently been used at other wastewater treatment plants, at a number of airports in Europe and the United States to monitor runway runoff, and is also being used on waste streams at an increasing number of food processing plants. A comparison was made between the plant influent BOD values obtained by the BIOX-1010 online monitor from the end of August, 2000, to late January, 2001, and the individual and average values obtained for the same period using the standard BOD5, 20 degrees C test, to determine the effectiveness of the Biox-1010 to identify shock loads and their duration. Individual BOD estimates and averages over periods of overly high biological loads (shock loads) were compared, and the instrument readings were evaluated for their effectiveness in detecting shock loads. The results were highly satisfactory, so the instrument was used to trigger a shock-load warning alarm since late September, 2000. This allowed flow diversion and temporary storage to prevent process upsets. PMID:18536480

  1. Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1 Counteracts Rhesus Macaque TRIM5?-Induced Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Production

    PubMed Central

    Sukegawa, Sayaka; Sakuma, Ryuta; Ohmine, Seiga; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Yamaoka, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    Old world monkey TRIM5? is a host factor that restricts human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. Previously, we reported that rhesus macaque TRIM5? (RhTRIM5?) restricts HIV-1 production by inducing degradation of precursor Gag. Since suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) is known to enhance HIV-1 production by rescuing Gag from lysosomal degradation, we examined if SOCS1 is involved in RhTRIM5?-mediated late restriction. Over-expression of SOCS1 restored HIV-1 production in the presence of RhTRIM5? to a level comparable to that in the absence of RhTRIM5? in terms of titer and viral protein expression. Co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed that SOCS1 physically interacted with RhTRIM5?. Over-expression of SOCS1 affected RhTRIM5? expression in a dose-dependent manner, which was not reversed by proteasome inhibitors. In addition, SOCS1 and RhTRIM5? were detected in virus-like particles. These results suggest that SOCS1 alleviates RhTRIM5?-mediated regulation in the late phase of HIV-1 life cycle probably due to the destabilization of RhTRIM5?. PMID:25310711

  2. TRIM56 Is a Virus- and Interferon-Inducible E3 Ubiquitin Ligase That Restricts Pestivirus Infection ? †

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Liu, Baoming; Wang, Nan; Lee, Young-Min; Liu, Chunming; Li, Kui

    2011-01-01

    The tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family comprises more than 60 members that have diverse functions in various biological processes. Although a small number of TRIM proteins have been shown to regulate innate immunity, much remains to be learned about the functions of the majority of the TRIM proteins. Here we identify TRIM56 as a cellular protein associated with the N-terminal protease (Npro) of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a pestiviral interferon antagonist which degrades interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) through the proteasome. We found that TRIM56 was constitutively expressed in most tissues, and its abundance was further upregulated moderately by interferon or virus. The manipulation of TRIM56 abundance did not affect the protein turnover of Npro and IRF3. Rather, ectopic expression of TRIM56 substantially impaired, while knockdown of TRIM56 expression greatly enhanced, BVDV replication in cell culture. The antiviral activity of TRIM56 depended on its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity as well as the integrity of its C-terminal region but was not attributed to a general augmentation of the interferon antiviral response. Overexpression of TRIM56 did not inhibit the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus or hepatitis C virus, a virus closely related to BVDV. Together, our data demonstrate that TRIM56 is a novel antiviral host factor that restricts pestivirus infection. PMID:21289118

  3. Autoantigen TRIM21/Ro52 as a Possible Target for Treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Yoshimi, Ryusuke; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki; Ozato, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, systemic, and autoimmune disease, whose etiology is still unknown. Although there has been progress in the treatment of SLE through the use of glucocorticoid and immunosuppressive drugs, these drugs have limited efficacy and pose significant risks of toxicity. Moreover, prognosis of patients with SLE has remained difficult to assess. TRIM21/Ro52/SS-A1, a 52-kDa protein, is an autoantigen recognized by antibodies in sera of patients with SLE and Sjögren's syndrome (SS), another systemic autoimmune disease, and anti-TRIM21 antibodies have been used as a diagnostic marker for decades. TRIM21 belongs to the tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) super family, which has been found to play important roles in innate and acquired immunity. Recently, TRIM21 has been shown to be involved in both physiological immune responses and pathological autoimmune processes. For example, TRIM21 ubiquitylates proteins of the interferon-regulatory factor (IRF) family and regulates type I interferon and proinflammatory cytokines. In this paper, we summarize molecular features of TRIM21 revealed so far and discuss its potential as an attractive therapeutic target for SLE. PMID:22701487

  4. Trim27-deficient mice are susceptible to streptozotocin-induced diabetes?

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Mohammad Mahabub-Uz; Shinagawa, Toshie; Ishii, Shunsuke

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) plays an important role in cell proliferation and apoptosis, and defects in TNF-?-induced apoptosis are associated with various diseases. TRIM27 is a tripartite motif (TRIM) protein containing RING finger, B-box, and coiled-coil domains. We recently reported that TRIM27 positively regulates TNF-?-induced apoptosis through deubiquitination of receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1). Multiple studies have suggested a link between TNF-? pathway and various diseases, such as diabetes and colitis. Here, we report that Trim27-deficient mice were susceptible to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes, a mouse model of diabetes. Infiltration of T cells and cleaved caspase-3 signals were enhanced, and ?-cell mass was decreased in Trim27-deficient islets compared to wild-type islets. On the other hand, Trim27-mutation did not affect the dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis. These data support the idea that the TRIM27 mutation is responsible for the development of certain types of diseases. PMID:24392305

  5. Co-expression of PKM2 and TRIM35 predicts survival and recurrence in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiao; Lu, Xinyuan; Wang, Zhichao; Jin, Guangzhi; Wang, Qifeng; Chen, Di; Chen, Taoyang; Li, Jinjun; Fan, Jia; Cong, Wenming; Gao, Qiang; He, Xianghuo

    2015-02-10

    The identification of prognostic markers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is needed for clinical practice. Tripartite motif-containing 35 (TRIM35) is a tumor suppressor of HCC. TRIM35 inhibits phosphorylation of pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (PKM2), which is involved in aerobic glycolysis of cancer cells. We found that expression of PKM2 was significantly increased in HCC tissues. This overexpression of PKM2 was correlated with a high TNM stage and level of vascular invasion. Patients with HCC who were positive for PKM2 expression and negative for TRIM35 expression had shorter overall survival and time to recurrence than patients who were negative for PKM2 and positive for TRIM35. Furthermore, PKM2/TRIM35 combination was an independent and significant risk factor for recurrence and survival. In conclusion, PKM2 (+) and TRIM35 (-) contribute to the aggressiveness and poor prognosis of HCC. PKM2/TRIM35 expression could be a biomarker for the prognosis of HCC and target for cancer therapy. PMID:25576919

  6. A novel role for Gtb1p in glucose trimming of N-linked glycans

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, Robert P; Mahoney, Sarah J; Wilkinson, Barrie M; Thornton, David J; Stirling, Colin J

    2009-01-01

    Glucosidase II (GluII) is a glycan-trimming enzyme active on nascent glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). It trims the middle and innermost glucose residues (Glc2 and Glc1) from N-linked glycans. The monoglucosylated glycan produced by the first GluII trimming reaction is recognized by calnexin/calreticulin and serves as the signal for entry into this folding pathway. GluII is a heterodimer of ? and ? subunits corresponding to yeast Gls2p and Gtb1p, respectively. While Gls2p contains the glucosyl hydrolase active site, the Gtb1p subunit has previously been shown to be essential for the Glc1 trimming event. Here we demonstrate that Gtb1p also determines the rate of Glc2 trimming. In order to further dissect these activities we mutagenized a number of conserved residues across the protein. Our data demonstrate that both the MRH and G2B domains of Gtb1p contribute to the Glc2 trimming event but that the MRH domain is essential for Glc1 trimming. PMID:19542522

  7. Co-expression of PKM2 and TRIM35 predicts survival and recurrence in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhichao; Jin, Guangzhi; Wang, Qifeng; Chen, Di; Chen, Taoyang; Li, Jinjun; Fan, Jia; Cong, Wenming; Gao, Qiang; He, Xianghuo

    2015-01-01

    The identification of prognostic markers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is needed for clinical practice. Tripartite motif-containing 35 (TRIM35) is a tumor suppressor of HCC. TRIM35 inhibits phosphorylation of pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (PKM2), which is involved in aerobic glycolysis of cancer cells. We found that expression of PKM2 was significantly increased in HCC tissues. This overexpression of PKM2 was correlated with a high TNM stage and level of vascular invasion. Patients with HCC who were positive for PKM2 expression and negative for TRIM35 expression had shorter overall survival and time to recurrence than patients who were negative for PKM2 and positive for TRIM35. Furthermore, PKM2/TRIM35 combination was an independent and significant risk factor for recurrence and survival. In conclusion, PKM2 (+) and TRIM35 (?) contribute to the aggressiveness and poor prognosis of HCC. PKM2/TRIM35 expression could be a biomarker for the prognosis of HCC and target for cancer therapy.

  8. TRIM8 anti-proliferative action against chemo-resistant renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gigante, Margherita; Aiello, Italia; Mastropasqua, Francesca; Marzano, Flaviana; Ditonno, Pasquale; Carrieri, Giuseppe; Simonnet, Hélène; D'Erchia, Anna Maria; Ranieri, Elena; Pesole, Graziano; Sbisà, Elisabetta; Tullo, Apollonia

    2014-01-01

    In some tumours, despite a wild-type p53 gene, the p53 pathway is inactivated by alterations in its regulators or by unknown mechanisms, leading to resistance to cytotoxic therapies. Understanding the mechanisms of functional inactivation of wild-type p53 in these tumours may help to define prospective targets for treating cancer by restoring p53 activity. Recently, we identified TRIM8 as a new p53 modulator, which stabilizes p53 impairing its association with MDM2 and inducing the reduction of cell proliferation. In this paper we demonstrated that TRIM8 deficit dramatically impairs p53-mediated cellular responses to chemotherapeutic drugs and that TRIM8 is down regulated in patients affected by clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC), an aggressive drug-resistant cancer showing wild-type p53. These results suggest that down regulation of TRIM8 might be an alternative way to suppress p53 activity in RCC. Interestingly, we show that TRIM8 expression recovery in RCC cell lines renders these cells sensitive to chemotherapeutic treatments following p53 pathway re-activation. These findings provide the first mechanistic link between TRIM8 and the drug resistance of ccRCC and suggest more generally that TRIM8 could be used as enhancer of the chemotherapy efficacy in cancers where p53 is wild-type and its pathway is defective. PMID:25277184

  9. P-method post hoc test for adaptive trimmed mean, HQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Low, Joon Khim; Yahaya, Sharipah Soaad Syed; Abdullah, Suhaida; Yusof, Zahayu Md; Othman, Abdul Rahman

    2014-12-01

    Adaptive trimmed mean, HQ, which is one of the latest additions in robust estimators, had been proven to be good in controlling Type I error in omnibus test. However, post hoc (pairwise multiple comparison) procedure for HQ was yet to be developed then. Thus, we have taken the initiative to develop post hoc procedure for HQ. Percentile bootstrap method or P-Method was proposed as it was proven to be effective in controlling Type I error rate even when the sample size was small. This paper deliberates on the effectiveness of P-Method on HQ, denoted as P-HQ. The strength and weakness of the proposed method were put to test on various conditions created by manipulating several variables such as shape of distributions, number of groups, sample sizes, degree of variance heterogeneity and pairing of sample sizes and group variances. For such, a simulation study on 2000 datasets was conducted using SAS/IML Version 9.2. The performance of the method on various conditions was based on its ability in controlling Type I error which was benchmarked using Bradley's criterion of robustness. The finding revealed that P-HQ could effectively control Type I error for almost all the conditions investigated.

  10. A theoretical study of the application of jet flap circulation control for reduction of rotor vibratory forces, addendum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renka, A. R.

    1975-01-01

    The theoretical potential of a jet flap control system for reducing the vertical and horizontal non-cancelling helicopter rotor blade root shears was investigated. It was determined that the dominant contributor to the rotor power requirements is the requirement to maintain moment trim as well as force trim. It was also found that the requirement to maintain moment trim does not entail a power penalty.

  11. Susceptibility to Repeated, Low-Dose, Rectal SHIVSF162P3 Challenge Is Independent of TRIM5 Genotype in Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Katherine; Morgan, Jennifer S.; Hanson, Debra L.; Adams, Debra; Garcia-Lerma, J. Gerardo; Heneine, Walid; Ellenberger, Dennis; Hendry, R. Michael; McNicholl, Janet; Johnson, Welkin E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Infections following repeated, low-dose (RLD), mucal S(H)IV exposures of macaques are used to model sexual HIV exposures for biomedical prevention testing. Different susceptibilities among animals can complicate study designs. In rhesus macaques, TRIM5 alleles Q, CypA, and TFP are resistance factors for infection with some S(H)IV strains, but not for SIVmac239 due to its capsid properties. SIVmac239-derived SHIVSF162P3 has been demonstrated to reproducibly infect mucosally in vaginal and rectal RLD models. To further test the suitability of SHIVSF162P3 for RLD models, we studied the influence of the TRIM5 genotype on susceptibility to rectal RLD infection and on plasma viremia by analyzing 43 male Indian rhesus macaques from control arms of completed studies. The median number of exposures required for infection was three (Q/Q, n=4) (TRIM5 alleles, number of macaques, respectively), four (Q/CypA, n=7), three (TFP/Q, n=15), three (TFP/TFP, n=15), and two (TFP/CypA, n=2); TRIM5CypA/CypA was not represented in our study. Median peak viremia (log10 viral copies/ml) in infected animals was 7.4 (Q/Q, n=4), 7.2 (Q/CypA, n=6), 7.3 (TFP/Q, n=13), 7.1 (TFP/TFP, n=15), and 6.5 (TFP/CypA; n=2). Neither susceptibility nor peak viremia was significantly different (log rank test, Kruskal–Wallis test, respectively). Rhesus macaques' susceptibility to RLD SHIVSF162P3 is independent of the TRIM5 TFP, CypA, and Q alleles, with the limitation that the power to detect any impact of CypA/CypA and TFP/CypA genotypes was nonexistent or low, due to absence or infrequency, respectively. The finding that TRIM5 alleles do not restrict mucosal infection or ensuing replication rates suggests that SHIVSF162P3 is indeed suitable for RLD experimentation. PMID:23461569

  12. TRIM5 is an innate immune sensor for the retrovirus capsid lattice.

    PubMed

    Pertel, Thomas; Hausmann, Stéphane; Morger, Damien; Züger, Sara; Guerra, Jessica; Lascano, Josefina; Reinhard, Christian; Santoni, Federico A; Uchil, Pradeep D; Chatel, Laurence; Bisiaux, Aurélie; Albert, Matthew L; Strambio-De-Castillia, Caterina; Mothes, Walther; Pizzato, Massimo; Grütter, Markus G; Luban, Jeremy

    2011-04-21

    TRIM5 is a RING domain-E3 ubiquitin ligase that restricts infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and other retroviruses immediately following virus invasion of the target cell cytoplasm. Antiviral potency correlates with TRIM5 avidity for the retrovirion capsid lattice and several reports indicate that TRIM5 has a role in signal transduction, but the precise mechanism of restriction is unknown. Here we demonstrate that TRIM5 promotes innate immune signalling and that this activity is amplified by retroviral infection and interaction with the capsid lattice. Acting with the heterodimeric, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBC13-UEV1A (also known as UBE2N-UBE2V1), TRIM5 catalyses the synthesis of unattached K63-linked ubiquitin chains that activate the TAK1 (also known as MAP3K7) kinase complex and stimulate AP-1 and NF?B signalling. Interaction with the HIV-1 capsid lattice greatly enhances the UBC13-UEV1A-dependent E3 activity of TRIM5 and challenge with retroviruses induces the transcription of AP-1 and NF-?B-dependent factors with a magnitude that tracks with TRIM5 avidity for the invading capsid. Finally, TAK1 and UBC13-UEV1A contribute to capsid-specific restriction by TRIM5. Thus, the retroviral restriction factor TRIM5 has two additional activities that are linked to restriction: it constitutively promotes innate immune signalling and it acts as a pattern recognition receptor specific for the retrovirus capsid lattice. PMID:21512573

  13. The Effect of Trim5 Polymorphisms on the Clinical Course of HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    van Manen, Daniëlle; Rits, Maarten A. N; Beugeling, Corrine; van Dort, Karel; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Kootstra, Neeltje A

    2008-01-01

    The antiviral factor tripartite interaction motif 5? (Trim5?) restricts a broad range of retroviruses in a species-specific manner. Although human Trim5? is unable to block HIV-1 infection in human cells, a modest inhibition of HIV-1 replication has been reported. Recently two polymorphisms in the Trim5 gene (H43Y and R136Q) were shown to affect the antiviral activity of Trim5? in vitro. In this study, participants of the Amsterdam Cohort studies were screened for polymorphisms at amino acid residue 43 and 136 of the Trim5 gene, and the potential effects of these polymorphisms on the clinical course of HIV-1 infection were analyzed. In agreement with the reported decreased antiviral activity of Trim5? that contains a Y at amino acid residue 43 in vitro, an accelerated disease progression was observed for individuals who were homozygous for the 43Y genotype as compared to individuals who were heterozygous or homozygous for the 43H genotype. A protective effect of the 136Q genotype was observed but only after the emergence of CXCR4-using (X4) HIV-1 variants and when a viral load of 104.5 copies per ml plasma was used as an endpoint in survival analysis. Interestingly, naive CD4 T cells, which are selectively targeted by X4 HIV-1, revealed a significantly higher expression of Trim5? than memory CD4 T cells. In addition, we observed that the 136Q allele in combination with the ?2GG genotype in the 5?UTR was associated with an accelerated disease progression. Thus, polymorphisms in the Trim5 gene may influence the clinical course of HIV-1 infection also underscoring the antiviral effect of Trim5? on HIV-1 in vivo. PMID:18248091

  14. Effects of TRIM on tension, intracellular calcium and nitrergic transmission in the rat anococcygeus muscle.

    PubMed

    Che, Yan; Potocnik, Simon; Ellis, Anthie; Li, Chun Guang

    2007-02-01

    The effects of the putatively selective inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) 1-(2-trifluoromethylphenyl) imidazole (TRIM) were investigated on contractility, intracellular calcium and nitrergic relaxations in the rat anococcygeus muscle. TRIM (100-1000 microM) reduced the tension of rat anococcygeus muscles when contracted with guanethidine (10 microM) and clonidine (0.1 microM). Relaxations to TRIM persisted in the presence of the non-selective NOS inhibitor L-NAME (100 microM) and the inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase ODQ (1 microM). TRIM also reduced tension when muscles were contracted with phenylephrine (3 microM), noradrenaline (3 microM) or high K physiological salt solution (high KPSS; 60mM). Influx of calcium ([Ca(2+)](i)) in response to high KPSS was significantly reduced in the presence of TRIM (1mM). TRIM also inhibited the influx of (45)Ca(2+) induced by KPSS, but had no effect on the influx induced by phenylephrine (10 microM). TRIM (300 microM) had a modest, but significant, inhibitory effect on nitrergic relaxations that were evoked by electrical field stimulation (1-10 Hz, 15 V, 10s trains) in muscles contracted with guanethidine and clonidine. In contrast, L-NAME (1-100 microM) inhibited these nitrergic responses with an IC(50) of 9.31+/-0.87 microM (n=4). The results suggest that the smooth muscle relaxant effect of TRIM in the rat anococcygeus muscle may affect the entry of Ca(2+) possibly through voltage-operated calcium channels. Furthermore, the relatively modest effect of TRIM on nitrergic responses indicates that it is not a particularly reliable inhibitor of nNOS. PMID:16769230

  15. Performance of R and D sextupole trim coils for SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) dipoles

    SciTech Connect

    Wanderer, P.; Herrera, J.; Thompson, P.; Willen, E.

    1987-01-01

    For the proposed Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), trim coils placed inside the main coils of the dipoles are needed to correct for field nonuniformities due to superconducting magnetization, iron saturation, and systematic construction errors. Four 4.5 m superconducting sextupole trim coils have been made using methods adapted from printed circuit technology and suitable for mass production. This paper presents measurements of the multipoles and quench currents and compares them with SSC requirements. Based on these results, this type of trim coil (''Multiwire'') looks quite promising for use in the SSC.

  16. TRIM13 Is a Negative Regulator of MDA5-Mediated Type I Interferon Production

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Kavitha; Waggoner, Lisa; Pham, Serena T.; Hendricks, Gabriel L.; Waggoner, Stephen N.; Conlon, Joseph; Wang, Jennifer P.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) are essential intracellular detectors of viral RNA. They contribute to the type I interferon (IFN) response that is crucial for host defense against viral infections. Given the potent antiviral and proinflammatory activities elicited by the type I IFNs, induction of the type I IFN response is tightly regulated. Members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family of proteins have recently emerged as key regulators of antiviral immunity. We show that TRIM13, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is expressed in immune cells and is upregulated in bone marrow-derived macrophages upon stimulation with inducers of type I IFN. TRIM13 interacts with MDA5 and negatively regulates MDA5-mediated type I IFN production in vitro, acting upstream of IFN regulatory factor 3. We generated Trim13?/? mice and show that upon lethal challenge with encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), which is sensed by MDA5, Trim13?/? mice produce increased amounts of type I IFNs and survive longer than wild-type mice. Trim13?/? murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) challenged with EMCV or poly(I·C) also show a significant increase in beta IFN (IFN-?) levels, but, in contrast, IFN-? responses to the RIG-I-detected Sendai virus were diminished, suggesting that TRIM13 may play a role in positively regulating RIG-I function. Together, these results demonstrate that TRIM13 regulates the type I IFN response through inhibition of MDA5 activity and that it functions nonredundantly to modulate MDA5 during EMCV infection. IMPORTANCE The type I interferon (IFN) response is crucial for host defense against viral infections, and proper regulation of this pathway contributes to maintaining immune homeostasis. Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) are intracellular detectors of viral RNA that induce the type I IFN response. In this study, we show that expression of the gene tripartite motif 13 (Trim13) is upregulated in response to inducers of type I IFN and that TRIM13 interacts with both MDA5 and RIG-I in vitro. Through the use of multiple in vitro and in vivo model systems, we show that TRIM13 is a negative regulator of MDA5-mediated type I IFN production and may also impact RIG-I-mediated type I IFN production by enhancing RIG-I activity. This places TRIM13 at a key junction within the viral response pathway and identifies it as one of the few known modulators of MDA5 activity. PMID:25008915

  17. Atmospheric Oxygen

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-09-26

    In this feature, adapted from Interactive NOVA: Earth, students explore the relationship between oxygen concentration and the well-being of various organisms by simulating a change in oxygen levels and observing what happens.

  18. Design, fabrication, and testing of a multichannel microfluidic device to dynamically control oxygen concentration conditions in-vitro

    E-print Network

    Rodriguez, Rosa H

    2008-01-01

    Multilayer microfluidic devices were designed and fabricated such that an array of different oxygen concentrations could be applied to a testing area in any desired sequence and with unconstraint application times. The ...

  19. Component-controlled synthesis and assembly of cu-pd nanocrystals on graphene for oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yulin; Zhao, Shulin; Liu, Suli; Yin, Huanhuan; Chen, Yu-Yun; Bao, Jianchun; Han, Min; Dai, Zhihui

    2015-03-11

    Exploring low-cost, high-activity, and long-durability hybrid electrocatalysts for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is vital to advance fuel cells technologies. In this paper, a series of graphene (G)-CuxPdy (Cu4Pd, Cu3Pd, CuPd, CuPd3, CuPd4) nanocomposites (G-CuxPdy NCPs) is obtained by assembly of CuxPdy alloy nanocrystals (NCs) with controlled component ratios on G nanosheets using the "dispersing-mixing-vaporizing solvent" strategy and used as electrocatalysts for ORR. Compared with pure CuxPdy NCs, greatly enhanced interfacial electron transfer dynamics are observed in G-CuxPdy NCPs, which show a strong correlation with the alloy compositions of the NCPs. The electrocatalytic experiments in alkaline solution reveal that the ORR activities of those G-CuxPdy NCPs are also strongly dependent on alloy components and exhibit a double-volcano feature with variations of alloy components. Among them, G-Cu3Pd NCPs possess the highest electrocatalytic activity, which is much better than some reported electrocatalysts and commercial Pd/C catalyst and close to Pt/C catalyst. By correlating the Pd 3d binding energies and the sizes of CuxPdy NCs with the mass-specific activities of G-CuxPdy NCPs and considering the interfacial electron transfer dynamics, the best catalytic activity of G-Cu3Pd NCPs may result from the unique electronic structure and the smallest size of Cu3Pd NCs as well as the strong synergistic effect between G and Cu3Pd NCs. Moreover, the durability of G-Cu3Pd NCPs is superior to that of Pt/C catalyst, indicating that they are promising cathodic electrocatalysts for using in alkaline fuel cells. PMID:25695756

  20. Controlled Evaluation of the Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy on the Behavior of 16 Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bryan Jepson; Doreen Granpeesheh; Jonathan Tarbox; Melissa L. Olive; Carol Stott; Scott Braud; J. Helen Yoo; Andrew Wakefield; Michael S. Allen

    2011-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been used to treat individuals with autism. However, few studies of its effectiveness\\u000a have been completed. The current study examined the effects of 40 HBOT sessions at 24% oxygen at 1.3 ATA on 11 topographies\\u000a of directly observed behavior. Five replications of multiple baselines were completed across a total of 16 participants with\\u000a autism spectrum

  1. Effect of palliative oxygen versus medical (room) air in relieving breathlessness in patients with refractory dyspnea: a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Abernethy, Amy P.; McDonald, Christine F.; Frith, Peter A.; Clark, Katherine; Herndon, James E.; Marcello, Jennifer; Young, Iven H.; Bull, Janet; Wilcock, Andrew; Booth, Sara; Wheeler, Jane L.; Tulsky, James A.; Crockett, Alan J.; Currow, David C.

    2010-01-01

    Background Palliative oxygen therapy is widely used for dyspnea in individuals with life-limiting illness ineligible for long-term oxygen therapy. Methods This international double-blind randomized controlled trial evaluatedeffectiveness of oxygen vs. medical (room) air for relieving breathlessness in patients with life-limiting illness, refractory dyspnea, and PaO2>55 mm Hg. Participants were recruited from outpatient clinics at 9 sites (Australia, United States, England). Participants received oxygen or medical air via concentrator through nasal cannulae at 2 liters/minute for 7 days. The primary outcome measure was breathlessness (0-10 numerical rating scale [NRS]), measured twice daily. Findings Participants (N=239) were: mean age, 73 (standard deviation [SD] 10); 62% male; mean PaO2, 77 mm Hg (SD 12); mean morning dyspnea, 4.5 on NRS (SD 2.2); chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, 64%; cancer, 16%. Oxygen was not significantly superior to medical air for relief of breathlessness. Over the 7-day period, after provision of medical gas, mean morning and evening dyspnea decreased by -0.8 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.1, -0.5) and -0.4 (CI: -0.7, 0.1), respectively (p<0.001), regardless of intervention. Baseline dyspnea predicted improvement with medical gas; participants with moderate (4-6 NRS) and severe (7-10 NRS) baseline dyspnea had average decreases in morning dyspnea of -0.7 (CI: -1.1, -0.4) and -2.4 (CI: -3.0, -1.8), respectively. Interpretation There is no additional symptomatic benefit of oxygen over room air delivered by nasal cannulae for relieving refractory dyspnea related to life-limiting illness in patients with PaO2>55 mm Hg. Dyspnea intensity decreased in both study arms, temporally related to provision of medical gas. PMID:20816546

  2. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 1 of 6: Optical Sensors and Controls for Improved Basic Oxygen Furnace Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sarah Allendorf; David Ottesen; Donald Hardesty

    2002-01-31

    The development of an optical sensor for basic oxygen furnace (BOF) off-gas composition and temperature in this Advanced Process Control project has been a laboratory spectroscopic method evolve into a pre-commercialization prototype sensor system. The sensor simultaneously detects an infrared tunable diode laser ITDL beam transmitted through the process off-gas directly above the furnace mouth, and the infrared greybody emission from the particulate-laden off-gas stream. Following developmental laboratory and field-testing, the sensor prototype was successfully tested in four long-term field trials at Bethlehem Steel's Sparrows Point plant in Baltimore, MD> The resulting optical data were analyzed and reveal correlations with four important process variables: (1) bath turndown temperature; (2) carbon monoxide post-combustion control; (2) bath carbon concentration; and (4) furnace slopping behavior. The optical sensor measurement of the off-gas temperature is modestly correlated with bath turndown temperature. A detailed regression analysis of over 200 heats suggests that a dynamic control level of +25 Degree F can be attained with a stand-alone laser-based optical sensor. The ability to track off-gas temperatures to control post-combustion lance practice is also demonstrated, and may be of great use in optimizing post-combustion efficiency in electric furnace steelmaking operations. In addition to the laser-based absorption spectroscopy data collected by this sensor, a concurrent signal generated by greybody emission from the particle-laden off-gas was collected and analyzed. A detailed regression analysis shows an excellent correlation of a single variable with final bath turndown carbon concentration. Extended field trials in 1998 and early 1999 show a response range from below 0.03% to a least 0.15% carbon concentration with a precision of +0.0007%. Finally, a strong correlation between prolonged drops in the off-gas emission signal and furnace slopping events was observed. A simple computer algorithm was written that successfully predicts furnace slopping for 90% of the heats observed; over 80% are predicted with at least a 30-second warning prior to the initial slopping events,

  3. Control of Oxygen Deficiency in Superconducting Y1Ba2Cu3O7-y Films Using a Solid-State Electrolyte

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroo Yugami; Tsuyoshi Watanabe; Tohru Suemoto; Shik Shin; Shigenobu Sobajima; Mareo Ishigame

    1989-01-01

    Y1Ba2Cu3O7-y (YBCO) films deposited on YSZ are coated with MgO films in order to isolate the YBCO film from the atmosphere. An electrochemical technique using a solid-state electrolyte is applied to this airtight structure to control the density of the oxygen deficiency y in the YBCO film. The resistivity of the YBCO film at 500°C is found to be reversibly

  4. Fluorescent Image Analysis of HIV-1 and HIV-2 Uncoating Kinetics in the Presence of Old World Monkey TRIM5?

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Eri; Kono, Ken; Hulme, Amy E.; Hope, Thomas J.; Nakayama, Emi E.; Shioda, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Uncoating of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) and type 2 (HIV-2) conical cores is an important early step for establishment of infection. In Old World Monkey (OWM) cells, the TRIM5? cellular factor potently suppresses an early step of infection by HIV-1. Previously, biochemical studies using whole cell lysates of infected cells revealed that OWM TRIM5? accelerates the uncoating of HIV-1, leading to premature reverse transcription. In the present study, we re-evaluated uncoating kinetics of HIV-1 in the presence of OWM TRIM5? by using an in situ uncoating assay, which allowed us to differentiate productive HIV-1 entry from simple (non-productive) endocytosis. Results showed that the uncoating kinetics of HIV-1 was indeed accelerated in the presence of OWM TRIM5?. Furthermore, we adapted an in situ uncoating assay to HIV-2, which showed wide variations in TRIM5? sensitivity among different isolates. HIV-2 isolate GH123, whose infectivity was suppressed by cynomolgus monkey (CM) TRIM5?, showed accelerated uncoating in the presence of CM TRIM5?. In contrast, mutant HIV-2 ASA, whose infectivity was unaltered by CM TRIM5?, showed no change in uncoating kinetics in the presence of CM TRIM5?. These results confirmed and further extended the previous notion that accelerated uncoating is associated with restriction activity of TRIM5? against lentiviruses. PMID:25803716

  5. Processing Raw Data with Sequencher 1. Trim sequences using the "barcode parameters"

    E-print Network

    Mathis, Wayne N.

    sequencher project with the primers used to sequence. Contig these with the bigProcessing Raw Data with Sequencher 1. Trim sequences using the "barcode everything else into one big one ­ usually I use 60% similarity here, and 30

  6. Periodic trim solutions with hp-version finite elements in time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, David A.; Hou, Lin-Jun

    1990-01-01

    Finite elements in time as an alternative strategy for rotorcraft trim problems are studied. The research treats linear flap and linearized flap-lag response both for quasi-trim and trim cases. The connection between Fourier series analysis and hp-finite elements for periodic a problem is also examined. It is proved that Fourier series is a special case of space-time finite elements in which one element is used with a strong displacement formulation. Comparisons are made with respect to accuracy among Fourier analysis, displacement methods, and mixed methods over a variety parameters. The hp trade-off is studied for the periodic trim problem to provide an optimum step size and order of polynomial for a given error criteria. It is found that finite elements in time can outperform Fourier analysis for periodic problems, and for some given error criteria. The mixed method provides better results than does the displacement method.

  7. Microbial, instrumental color and sensory color and odor characteristics of ground beef produced from beef trimmings treated with ozone or chlorine dioxide.

    PubMed

    Stivarius, M R; Pohlman, F W; McElyea, K S; Apple, J K

    2002-03-01

    The effects of beef trimming decontamination with ozone and chlorine dioxide on ground beef microbial, color and odor characteristics were studied. Beef trimmings were inoculated with Escherichia coli (EC) and Salmonella Typhimurium (ST), then treated with either 1% ozonated water for 7 min (7O) or 15 min (15O), or with 200 ppm chlorine dioxide (CLO) and compared with a control (C). Trimmings were ground, packaged and sampled at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 7 days of display for EC, ST, coliforms (CO), aerobic plate counts (APC), instrumental color, as well as sensory color and odor characteristics. The 15O and CLO treatments reduced (P<0.05) all bacterial types evaluated, whereas the 7O treatment reduced (P<0.05) APC and ST. All treatments caused ground beef to become lighter (L*) in color (P<0.05); however, the 15O treatment was similar (P>0.05) in redness (a*), percentage discoloration, beef odor and off odor intensities when compared to C. PMID:22063402

  8. High level of susceptibility to human TRIM5? conferred by HIV-2 capsid sequences

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV-2, which was transmitted to humans from a distant primate species (sooty mangabey), differs remarkably from HIV-1 in its infectivity, transmissibility and pathogenicity. We have tested the possibility that a greater susceptibility of HIV-2 capsid (CA) to the human restriction factor TRIM5? (hTRIM5?) could contribute to these differences. Results We constructed recombinant clones expressing CA from a variety of HIV-2 viruses in the context of HIV-1 NL4-3-luciferase. CA sequences were amplified from the plasma of HIV-2 infected patients, including 8 subtype A and 7 subtype B viruses. CA from 6 non-epidemic HIV-2 subtypes, 3 HIV-2 CRF01_AB recombinants and 4 SIVsmm viruses were also tested. Susceptibility to hTRIM5? was measured by comparing single-cycle infectivity in human target cells expressing hTRIM5? to that measured in cells in which hTRIM5? activity was inhibited by overexpression of hTRIM5?. The insertion of HIV-2 CA sequences in the context of HIV-1 did not affect expression and maturation of the HIV-2 CA protein. The level of susceptibility hTRIM5? expressed by viruses carrying HIV-2 CA sequences was up to 9-fold higher than that of HIV-1 NL4-3 and markedly higher than a panel of primary HIV-1 CA sequences. This phenotype was found both for viruses carrying CA from primary HIV-2 sequences and viruses carrying CA from laboratory-adapted HIV-2 clones. High hTRIM5? susceptibility was found in all HIV-2 subtypes. In this series of viruses, susceptibility to hTRIM5? was not significantly affected by the presence of a proline at position 119 or by the number of prolines at positions 119, 159 or 178 in HIV-2 CA. No significant correlation was found between HIV-2 viremia and sensitivity to hTRIM5?. Conclusions HIV-2 capsid sequences expressed high levels of susceptibility to hTRIM5?. This property, common to all HIV-2 sequences tested, may contribute in part to the lower replication and pathogenicity of this virus in humans. PMID:23647667

  9. Microbioreactor arrays with integrated mixers and fluid injectors for high-throughput experimentation with pH and dissolved oxygen control.

    PubMed

    Lee, Harry L T; Boccazzi, Paolo; Ram, Rajeev J; Sinskey, Anthony J

    2006-09-01

    We have developed an integrated array of microbioreactors, with 100 microL working volume, comprising a peristaltic oxygenating mixer and microfluidic injectors. These integrated devices were fabricated in a single chip and can provide a high oxygen transfer rate (k(L)a approximately 0.1 s(-1)) without introducing bubbles, and closed loop control over dissolved oxygen and pH (+/-0.1). The system was capable of supporting eight simultaneous Escherichia coli fermentations to cell densities greater than 13 g-dcw L(-1) (1 cm OD(650 nm) > 40). This cell density was comparable to that achieved in a 4 litre reference fermentation, conducted with the same strain, in a bench scale stirred tank bioreactor and is more than four times higher than cell densities previously achieved in microbioreactors. Bubble free oxygenation permitted near real time optical density measurements which could be used to observe subtle changes in the growth rate and infer changes in the state of microbial genetic networks. Our system provides a platform for the study of the interaction of microbial populations with different environmental conditions, which has applications in basic science and industrial bioprocess development. We leverage the advantages of microfluidic integration to deliver a disposable, parallel bioreactor in a single chip, rather than robotically multiplexing independent bioreactors, which opens a new avenue for scaling small scale bioreactor arrays with the capabilities of bench scale stirred tank reactors. PMID:16929403

  10. Flight investigation of the effect of control centering springs on the apparent spiral stability of a personal-owner airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, John P; Hunter, Paul A; Hewes, Donald E; Whitten, James B

    1952-01-01

    Report presents the results of a flight investigation conducted on a typical high-wing personal-owner airplane to determine the effect of control centering springs on apparent spiral stability. Apparent spiral stability is the term used to describe the spiraling tendencies of an airplane in uncontrolled flight as affected both by the true spiral stability of the perfectly trimmed airplane and by out-of-trim control settings. Centering springs were used in both the aileron and rudder control systems to provide both a positive centering action and a means of trimming the airplane. The springs were preloaded so that when they were moved through neutral they produced a nonlinear force gradient sufficient to overcome the friction in the control surface at the proper setting for trim. The ailerons and rudder control surfaces did not have trim tabs that could be adjusted in flight.

  11. Balancing selection and the evolution of functional polymorphism in Old World monkey TRIM5

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Newman; Laura Hall; Michelle Connole; G.-L. Chen; Shuji Sato; Eloisa Yuste; William Diehl; Eric Hunter; Amitinder Kaur; G. M. Miller; W. E. Johnson

    2006-01-01

    Retroviral restriction factor TRIM5? exhibits a high degree of sequence variation among primate species. It has been proposed that this diversity is the cumulative result of ancient, lineagespecific episodes of positive selection. Here, we describe the contribution of within-species variation to the evolution of TRIM5a. Sampling within two geographically distinct Old World monkey species revealed extensive polymorphism, including individual polymorphisms

  12. Timing-dependent effects of whisker trimming in thalamocortical slices including the mouse barrel cortex.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kenji; Kamatani, Daiki; Hishida, Ryuichi; Shibuki, Katsuei

    2011-04-18

    Whisker trimming produces depression of cortical responses in the barrel cortex. However, it is unclear how the developmental timing modifies the effects of whisker trimming. We investigated cortical responses in thalamocortical slices that included the mouse barrel cortex using flavoprotein fluorescence imaging. A topological relationship was observed between the thalamic stimulated sites and cortical areas showing fluorescence changes. By adjusting the position of the thalamic stimulated sites and the cortical windows in which amplitudes of the fluorescence changes were measured, we succeeded to reduce the variability of cortical responses between slices. We then investigated the effects of whisker trimming in the thalamocortical slices. Whisker trimming from 4 weeks to 8 weeks (at 4-8 weeks) of age significantly reduced cortical responses at 8 weeks. However, whisker trimming started before 4 weeks produced only slight depression or no significant effect on the thalamocortical responses. As sensory deprivation during a critical developmental period is known to prevent elimination of synapses, the presence of aberrant synapses may compensate the cortical depression induced by whisker trimming started before 4 weeks. To test this possibility, whisker trimming performed at 0-6 or 0-7 weeks of age was followed by regrowth of whiskers for 1-2 weeks. Clear and significant potentiation of cortical responses was observed in these mice at 8 weeks when compared with those of naive mice of the same age. Overall, these data suggest that whisker trimming, producing depression of thalamocortical responses, prevents elimination of aberrant synapses during a critical developmental period before 4 weeks in the mouse barrel cortex. PMID:21333638

  13. A least trimmed square method for clutter removal in infrared small target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Kun; Wang, Yuehuan

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, a new procedure based on least trimmed square for clutter background estimation is proposed. Least trimmed square method identifies multiple outliers in the image, such as noise and target region. Then the clutter background is estimated without these outliers. The performance of this method is compared with the algorithms based on least mean square method, the results show that our method gets higher signal clutter ratio (SCR) gain in target region than other methods which use LMS filter.

  14. Integrated circuit mask generation using a raster scanned laser trimming system

    E-print Network

    Gourley, Kevin Dwayne

    1982-01-01

    INTEGRATED CIRCUIT MASK GENERATION USING A RASTER SCANNED LASER TRIMMING SYSTEM A Thesis by KEVIN DWAYNE GOURLEY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AA M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1982 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering INTEGRATED CIRCUIT MASK GENERATION USING A RASTER SCANNED LASER TRIMMING SYSTEM A Thesis by KEVIN DWAYNE GOURLEY Approved as to style and content by: hair ma ommittee Dr . Dou as M. Green 4...

  15. Blue shift in the optical bandgap of tin oxide thin films by controlling oxygen-to-argon gas flow ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meenakshi; Gautam, Sanjeev; Chae, Keun Hwa; Lee, Ik-Jae; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Thakur, Anup

    2015-10-01

    Tin oxide (SnO2) thin films were deposited by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering on silicon and glass substrates at different oxygen-to-argon gas-flow ratio (O2-to-Ar = 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 50%). All films were deposited at room temperature and fixed working pressures, 10 mTorr. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement suggests that all films were crystalline in nature except film deposited only in argon environment. The transparency of all of the films was more than 85% in the visible range except the film deposited only in the argon environment. Atomic force microscopy results showed that the surface of all the films were highly flat and smooth. The optical bandgap, estimated by Tauc plot was increased with oxygen environment. Blue shift was observed in the absorption edge and was accounted to decrease in the oxygen vacancies and dangling bonds.

  16. Stability scheme of ZnO-thin film resistive switching memory: influence of defects by controllable oxygen pressure ratio

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report a stability scheme of resistive switching devices based on ZnO films deposited by radio frequency (RF) sputtering process at different oxygen pressure ratios. I-V measurements and statistical results indicate that the operating stability of ZnO resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices is highly dependent on oxygen conditions. Data indicates that the ZnO film ReRAM device fabricated at 10% O2 pressure ratio exhibits the best performance. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) of ZnO at different O2 pressure ratios were investigated to reflect influence of structure to the stable switching behaviors. In addition, PL and XPS results were measured to investigate the different charge states triggered in ZnO by oxygen vacancies, which affect the stability of the switching behavior. PMID:24237683

  17. Modelling of feather pecking behavior in beak-trimmed and non-beak-trimmed crossbred laying hens: variance component and trait-based approach.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Ellen, E D; van der Poel, J J; Parmentier, H K; Bijma, P

    2014-04-01

    Because of a ban on the use of beak trimming in some European countries, feather pecking is becoming a substantial problem in the layer industry, both from animal welfare and economic points of view. The feather condition score (FCS) as a measure of feather damage has been shown to be closely related to feather pecking behavior in laying hens housed in groups. To obtain a better understanding of genetic and other biological mechanisms underlying feather pecking behavior, data on FCS of a population of 2,724 female offspring from crossing 50 male W1 and 907 female WB purebred lines were used. The offspring of 25 sires were beak-trimmed, and the offspring of another 25 sires were non-beak-trimmed. Titers of plasma natural antibody (NAb) isotypes IgM and IgG binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin at 24 wk of age were measured. Feather condition was scored at 53 wk of age. In the first part of the present study, we estimated genetic parameters for FCS with 2 variance components models: a traditional linear animal model and a model combining direct and associative genetic effects. In the second part of the present study, a trait-based analysis for FCS was conducted to investigate whether NAb isotype titers can explain variation in FCS among individuals, by fitting a linear mixed model. Though the estimated associative genetic variance was substantial, associative effects for FCS were not statistically significant in both populations (P = 0.09 in beak-trimmed birds, and P = 0.08 in non-beak-trimmed birds). This suggests an insufficient number of records on FCS. Individual's NAb isotypes titers did not show direct effect for FCS of itself, but individual's IgG titers showed a suggestive effect on the FCS of cage mates (associative effect) in beak-trimmed laying hens, which need further confirmation. PMID:24706953

  18. Deficiency of the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM2 in early-onset axonal neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Ylikallio, Emil; Pöyhönen, Rosanna; Zimon, Magdalena; De Vriendt, Els; Hilander, Taru; Paetau, Anders; Jordanova, Albena; Lönnqvist, Tuula; Tyynismaa, Henna

    2013-08-01

    Inherited peripheral neuropathies are a heterogeneous group of disorders that can affect patients of all ages. Children with inherited neuropathy often develop severe disability, but the genetic causes of recessive early-onset axonal neuropathies are not fully known. We have taken a whole-exome sequencing approach to identify causative disease mutations in single patients with early-onset axonal neuropathy. Here, we report compound heterozygous mutations in the tripartite motif containing 2 (TRIM2) gene in a patient with childhood-onset axonal neuropathy, low weight and small muscle mass. We show that the patient fibroblasts are practically devoid of TRIM2, through mRNA and protein instability caused by the mutations. TRIM2 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates neurofilament light chain, a component of the intermediate filament in axons. Resembling the findings in our patient's sural nerve biopsy, Trim2-gene trap mice showed axonopathy with accumulations of neurofilaments inside axons. Our results suggest that loss-of-function mutations in TRIM2 are a cause of axonal neuropathy, which we propose to develop as a consequence of axonal accumulation of neurofilaments, secondary to lack of its ubiquitination by TRIM2. PMID:23562820

  19. Characterization of TRIM31, upregulated in gastric adenocarcinoma, as a novel RBCC protein.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Takeyuki; Miyamoto, Kentaro

    2008-11-01

    To explore the molecules associated with gastric adenocarcinoma, we used the gene expression profile database of various human tissues and identified TRIM31 upregulated in both patients with chronic gastritis and stomach cancer. TRIM31 is a new member of RBCC proteins composed of RING finger, B-box and coiled-coil domains. We characterized TRIM31 biochemically and found it possess properties in common with other RBCC proteins, such as occurrence of alternative splicing transcripts, in vitro autoubiquitylating activity and a tendency to homo-oligomerize. The primary localization site of TRIM31 is the cytoplasm but some fraction is potentially associated with the mitochondria. TRIM31 overexpression suppresses colony formation of HCT116 cells while knockdown of its expression with short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) consistently tends to enhance growth of AsPC-1 cells slightly. Thus, TRIM31 is a characteristic RBCC protein with the ability to regulate cell proliferation negatively and may be a potential biomarker of gastric cancer as it is overexpressed from the early stage of gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:18773414

  20. Polyubiquitylation of AMF requires cooperation between the gp78 and TRIM25 ubiquitin ligases

    PubMed Central

    Kho, Dhong-Hyo; Raz, Avraham; Xie, Youming

    2014-01-01

    gp78 is a ubiquitin ligase that plays a vital role in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD). Here we report that autocrine motility factor (AMF), also known as phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), is a novel substrate of gp78. We show that polyubiquitylation of AMF requires cooperative interaction between gp78 and the ubiquitin ligase TRIM25 (tripartite motif-containing protein 25). While TRIM25 mediates the initial round of ubiquitylation, gp78 catalyzes polyubiquitylation of AMF. The E4-like activity of gp78 was illustrated by an in vitro polyubiquitylation assay using Ub-DHFR as a model substrate. We further demonstrate that TRIM25 ubiquitylates gp78 and that overexpression of TRIM25 accelerates the degradation of gp78. Our data suggest that TRIM25 not only cooperates with gp78 in polyubiquitylation of AMF but also gauges the steady-state level of gp78. This study uncovers a previously unknown functional link between gp78 and TRIM25 and provides mechanistic insight into gp78-mediated protein ubiquitylation. PMID:24810856

  1. Comparison of the trimming procedure of six different farriers by quantitative evaluation of hoof radiographs.

    PubMed

    Kummer, Martin; Gygax, Diego; Lischer, Christoph; Auer, Jörg

    2009-03-01

    Hoof preparation and shoe fit are integral to the long term soundness and athletic ability of horses. The farrier influences the balance of the hoof by both the trimming and the shoeing procedure. The goal of this study was to investigate and quantify the influence of the farrier on hoof parameters by trimming. Forty Warmblood horses ranging in age from 6-12 years and withers height 162-172cm were included. They were divided into six groups consisting of six or seven horses each, shod by one of six different farriers. The hoofs of the horses were radiographed twice using a standardised method before and after trimming. Measurements were taken from digitalised radiographs using a software program. Significant differences were identified between farriers for almost all parameters on the lateromedial radiographic views after two consecutive trimming procedures. Comparing the results of both trimming procedures, significant differences for several farriers were found in the lateromedial and dorsopalmar views. There were significant differences for most of the measured hoof parameters between the six farriers and between consecutive trimmings of the same farrier. The results underline the individual influence of the farrier on hoof shape and balance. PMID:18314359

  2. Presence of digital dermatitis treponemes on cattle and sheep hoof trimming equipment.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, L E; Blowey, R W; Carter, S D; Duncan, J S; Grove-White, D H; Page, P; Iveson, T; Angell, J W; Evans, N J

    2014-08-30

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious foot disease causing severe lameness in dairy cattle (worldwide) and sheep (UK). This study investigated whether DD Treponema phylogroups can be present on equipment used to trim ruminant hooves and, therefore, consider this trimming equipment as a possible vector for the transmission of DD. Equipment was tested after being used to trim DD symptomatic and asymptomatic cattle and sheep hooves, and subsequently after disinfection of equipment. After trimming, 'Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like', 'Treponema phagedenis-like' and 'Treponema denticola/T putidum-like' DD spirochaetes, were shown to be present on 23/37 (62%), 21/37 (57%) and 20/37 (54%) of knives, respectively. After disinfection, detection rates for the DD treponemes were 9/37 (24%), 6/37 (16%) and 3/37 (8%), respectively. Following culture of a swab, an isolate belonging to the T phagedenis-like spirochaetes was identified from a knife sample after trimming a DD positive cow. No isolates were obtained from knife samples after disinfection. This new data has, for the first time, identified treponemes in the farm environment, and highlighted disinfection of hoof trimming equipment between animals and between farms, as a logical precaution to limit the spread of DD. PMID:24821857

  3. On the optimal trimming of high-throughput mRNA sequence data

    PubMed Central

    MacManes, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    The widespread and rapid adoption of high-throughput sequencing technologies has afforded researchers the opportunity to gain a deep understanding of genome level processes that underlie evolutionary change, and perhaps more importantly, the links between genotype and phenotype. In particular, researchers interested in functional biology and adaptation have used these technologies to sequence mRNA transcriptomes of specific tissues, which in turn are often compared to other tissues, or other individuals with different phenotypes. While these techniques are extremely powerful, careful attention to data quality is required. In particular, because high-throughput sequencing is more error-prone than traditional Sanger sequencing, quality trimming of sequence reads should be an important step in all data processing pipelines. While several software packages for quality trimming exist, no general guidelines for the specifics of trimming have been developed. Here, using empirically derived sequence data, I provide general recommendations regarding the optimal strength of trimming, specifically in mRNA-Seq studies. Although very aggressive quality trimming is common, this study suggests that a more gentle trimming, specifically of those nucleotides whose Phred score <2 or <5, is optimal for most studies across a wide variety of metrics. PMID:24567737

  4. Functional Evidence for the Involvement of Microtubules and Dynein Motor Complexes in TRIM5?-Mediated Restriction of Retroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Pawlica, Paulina; Le Sage, Valerie; Poccardi, Nolwenn; Tremblay, Michel J.; Mouland, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The tripartite motif (TRIM) family of proteins includes the TRIM5? antiretroviral restriction factor. TRIM5? from many Old World and some New World monkeys can restrict the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), while human TRIM5? restricts N-tropic murine leukemia virus (N-MLV). TRIM5? forms highly dynamic cytoplasmic bodies (CBs) that associate with and translocate on microtubules. However, the functional involvement of microtubules or other cytoskeleton-associated factors in the viral restriction process had not been shown. Here, we demonstrate the dependency of TRIM5?-mediated restriction on microtubule-mediated transport. Pharmacological disruption of the microtubule network using nocodazole or disabling it using paclitaxel (originally named taxol) decreased the restriction of N-MLV and HIV-1 by human or simian alleles of TRIM5?, respectively. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of dynein motor complexes using erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine (EHNA) and small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of the dynein heavy chain (DHC) similarly decreased TRIM5?-mediated restriction. The loss in restriction resulting from either the disassembly of microtubules or the disruption of dynein motor activity was seen for both endogenous and overexpressed TRIM5? and was not due to differences in protein stability or cell viability. Both nocodazole treatment and DHC depletion interfered with the dynamics of TRIM5? CBs, increasing their size and altering their intracellular localization. In addition, nocodazole, paclitaxel, and DHC depletion were all found to increase the stability of HIV-1 cores in infected cells, providing an alternative explanation for the decreased restriction. In conclusion, association with microtubules and the translocation activity of dynein motor complexes are required to achieve efficient restriction by TRIM5?. IMPORTANCE The primate innate cellular defenses against infection by retroviruses include a protein named TRIM5?, belonging to the family of restriction factors. TRIM5? is present in the cytoplasm, where it can intercept incoming retroviruses shortly after their entry. How TRIM5? manages to be present at the appropriate subcytoplasmic location to interact with its target is unknown. We hypothesized that TRIM5?, either as a soluble protein or a high-molecular-weight complex (the cytoplasmic body), is transported within the cytoplasm by a molecular motor called the dynein complex, which is known to interact with and move along microtubules. Our results show that destructuring microtubules or crippling their function decreased the capacity of human or simian TRIM5? to restrict their retroviral targets. Inhibiting dynein motor activity, or reducing the expression of a key component of this complex, similarly affected TRIM5?-mediated restriction. Thus, we have identified specific cytoskeleton structures involved in innate antiretroviral defenses. PMID:24600008

  5. Oxygen pressure measurement using singlet oxygen emission

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, Gamal E.; Chang, Alvin; Gouterman, Martin; Callis, James B.; Dalton, Larry R.; Turro, Nicholas J.; Jockusch, Steffen [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2005-05-15

    Pressure sensitive paint (PSP) provides a visualization of two-dimensional pressure distributions on airfoil and model automobile surfaces. One type of PSP utilizes platinum tetra(pentafluorophenyl)porphine (PtTFPP) dissolved in a fluoro-polymer film. Since the intense 650 nm triplet emission of PtTFPP is quenched by ground state oxygen, it is possible to measure two-dimensional oxygen concentration from the 650 nm emission intensity using a Stern-Volmer-type relationship. This article reports an alternative luminescence method to measure oxygen concentration based on the porphyrin-sensitized 1270 nm singlet oxygen emission, which can be imaged with an InGaAs near infrared camera. This direct measurement of oxygen emission complements and further validates the oxygen measurement based on PtTFPP phosphorescence quenching. Initial success at obtaining a negative correlation between the 650 nm PtTFPP emission and the 1270 nm O{sub 2} emission in solution led us to additional two-dimensional film studies using surfaces coated with PtTFPP, MgTFPP, and H{sub 2}TFPP in polymers in a pressure and temperature controlled chamber.

  6. Influenza A virus NS1 targets the ubiquitin ligase TRIM25 to evade recognition by RIG-I

    PubMed Central

    Gack, Michaela Ulrike; Albrecht, Randy Allen; Urano, Tomohiko; Inn, Kyung-Soo; Huang, I-Chueh; Carnero, Elena; Farzan, Michael; Inoue, Satoshi; Jung, Jae Ung; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY TRIM25 mediates Lys 63-linked ubiquitination of the N-terminal CARDs of the viral RNA sensor RIG-I, leading to type I interferon (IFN) production. Here, we report that the influenza A virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) specifically inhibits TRIM25-mediated RIG-I CARD ubiquitination, thereby suppressing RIG-I signal transduction. A novel domain in NS1 comprising E96/E97 residues mediates its interaction with the coiled-coil domain of TRIM25, thus blocking TRIM25 multimerization and RIG-I CARD ubiquitination. Furthermore, a recombinant influenza A virus expressing an E96A/E97A NS1 mutant is defective in blocking TRIM25-mediated anti-viral IFN response and loses virulence in mice. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism of influenza virus to inhibit host IFN response and also emphasize the vital role of TRIM25 in modulating viral infections. PMID:19454348

  7. Ubiquitination-Deubiquitination by the TRIM27-USP7 Complex Regulates Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Mohammad Mahabub-Uz; Nomura, Teruaki; Takagi, Tsuyoshi; Okamura, Tomoo; Jin, Wanzhu; Shinagawa, Toshie; Tanaka, Yasunori

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) plays a role in apoptosis and proliferation in multiple types of cells, and defects in TNF-?-induced apoptosis are associated with various autoimmune diseases. Here, we show that TRIM27, a tripartite motif (TRIM) protein containing RING finger, B-box, and coiled-coil domains, positively regulates TNF-?-induced apoptosis. Trim27-deficient mice are resistant to TNF-?–d-galactosamine-induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Trim27-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are also resistant to TNF-?–cycloheximide-induced apoptosis. TRIM27 forms a complex with and ubiquitinates the ubiquitin-specific protease USP7, which deubiquitinates receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1), resulting in the positive regulation of TNF-?-induced apoptosis. Our findings indicate that the ubiquitination-deubiquitination cascade mediated by the TRIM27-USP7 complex plays an important role in TNF-?-induced apoptosis. PMID:24144979

  8. Effects of beak trimming at different ages on the body weight and feed conversion of guinea fowl (Numida meleagris).

    PubMed

    Oguntona, T; Musa, R; Zubair, A K

    1988-01-01

    The effect of beak trimming at different ages on feed consumption and growth of meat-type guineas (Numida meleagris) up to 12 wk of age was investigated. In the first experiment, beaks of birds were trimmed at 7, 28, 49, and 70 days, respectively. In the second experiment, beak trimming was done at 42, 49, 56, and 63 days, respectively. Body weight, feed consumption, and mortality were measured first at 4 wk and weekly thereafter in both experiments. Beak trimming of keets at 7 days, significantly (P less than .05) reduced body weights at 4, 8, and 12 wk whereas beak trimming at 70 days significantly (P less than .05) reduced body weights at 12 wk. Beak trimming at other ages did not produce significant differences in body weights or feed conversions. Mortality was low (2 to 4%) throughout. PMID:3375169

  9. Short term non-invasive ventilation post-surgery improves arterial blood-gases in obese subjects compared to supplemental oxygen delivery - a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the immediate postoperative period, obese patients are more likely to exhibit hypoxaemia due to atelectasis and impaired respiratory mechanics, changes which can be attenuated by non-invasive ventilation (NIV). The aim of the study was to evaluate the duration of any effects of early initiation of short term pressure support NIV vs. traditional oxygen delivery via venturi mask in obese patients during their stay in the PACU. Methods After ethics committee approval and informed consent, we prospectively studied 60 obese patients (BMI 30-45) undergoing minor peripheral surgery. Half were randomly assigned to receive short term NIV during their PACU stay, while the others received routine treatment (supplemental oxygen via venturi mask). Premedication, general anaesthesia and respiratory settings were standardized. We measured arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry and blood gas analysis on air breathing. Inspiratory and expiratory lung function was measured preoperatively (baseline) and at 10 min, 1 h, 2 h, 6 h and 24 h after extubation, with the patient supine, in a 30 degrees head-up position. The two groups were compared using repeated-measure analysis of variance (ANOVA) and t-test analysis. Statistical significance was considered to be P < 0.05. Results There were no differences at the first assessment. During the PACU stay, pulmonary function in the NIV group was significantly better than in the controls (p < 0.0001). Blood gases and the alveolar to arterial oxygen partial pressure difference were also better (p < 0.03), but with the addition that overall improvements are of questionable clinical relevance. These effects persisted for at least 24 hours after surgery (p < 0.05). Conclusion Early initiation of short term NIV during in the PACU promotes more rapid recovery of postoperative lung function and oxygenation in the obese. The effect lasted 24 hours after discontinuation of NIV. Patient selection is necessary in order to establish clinically relevant improvements. Trial Registration# DRKS00000751; http://www.germanctr.de PMID:21605450

  10. How the structure of the large subunit controls function in an oxygen-tolerant [NiFe]-hydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Lisa; Flanagan, Lindsey; Fyfe, Paul K.; Parkin, Alison; Hunter, William N.; Sargent, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is an opportunistic pathogen that produces a [NiFe]-hydrogenase under aerobic conditions. In the present study, genetic engineering approaches were used to facilitate isolation of this enzyme, termed Hyd-5. The crystal structure was determined to a resolution of 3.2 Å and the hydro-genase was observed to comprise associated large and small subunits. The structure indicated that His229 from the large subunit was close to the proximal [4Fe–3S] cluster in the small subunit. In addition, His229 was observed to lie close to a buried glutamic acid (Glu73), which is conserved in oxygen-tolerant hydrogenases. His229 and Glu73 of the Hyd-5 large subunit were found to be important in both hydrogen oxidation activity and the oxygen-tolerance mechanism. Substitution of His229 or Glu73 with alanine led to a loss in the ability of Hyd-5 to oxidize hydrogen in air. Furthermore, the H229A variant was found to have lost the overpotential requirement for activity that is always observed with oxygen-tolerant [NiFe]-hydrogenases. It is possible that His229 has a role in stabilizing the super-oxidized form of the proximal cluster in the presence of oxygen, and it is proposed that Glu73could play a supporting role in fine-tuning the chemistry of His229 to enable this function. PMID:24428762

  11. Upper control limit of reactive oxygen species in follicular fluid beyond which viable embryo formation is not favorable

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saikat K. Jana; Narendra Babu K; Ratna Chattopadhyay; Baidyanath Chakravarty; Koel Chaudhury

    2010-01-01

    Though the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in female infertility has been a subject of rigorous research worldwide, there is inadequate information on the cut-off value of ROS in the oocyte microenvironment beyond which ART outcome may be adversely affected. An upper ROS level in follicular fluid (FF) samples of women undergoing IVF beyond which good quality embryo formation

  12. Supplemental oxygen controls cellular proliferation and anastomotic intimal hyperplasia at a vascular graft-to-artery anastomosis in the rabbit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eugene S. Lee; Michael P. Caldwell; Alexander S. Tretinyak; Steven M. Santilli

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the administration of 40% supplemental oxygen (O2 ) will decrease cellular proliferation and intimal hyperplasia (IH) at a prosthetic vascular graft (PVG)–to-artery anastomosis. Methods: Twenty New Zealand white rabbits underwent placement of a 3-mm polytetrafluoroethylene graft in their infrarenal aorta. Four groups of five rabbits were placed either in a

  13. The common missense mutation D489N in TRIM32 causing limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2H leads to loss of the mutated protein in knock-in mice resulting in a Trim32-null phenotype.

    PubMed

    Kudryashova, Elena; Struyk, Arie; Mokhonova, Ekaterina; Cannon, Stephen C; Spencer, Melissa J

    2011-10-15

    Mutations in tripartite motif protein 32 (TRIM32) are responsible for several hereditary disorders that include limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H (LGMD2H), sarcotubular myopathy (STM) and Bardet Biedl syndrome. Most LGMD2H mutations in TRIM32 are clustered in the NHL ?-propeller domain at the C-terminus and are predicted to interfere with homodimerization. To get insight into TRIM32's role in the pathogenesis of LGMD2H and to create an accurate model of disease, we have generated a knock-in mouse (T32KI) carrying the c.1465G > A (p.D489N) mutation in murine Trim32 corresponding to the human LGMD2H/STM pathogenic mutation c.1459G > A (p.D487N). Our data indicate that T32KI mice have both a myopathic and a neurogenic phenotype, very similar to the one described in the Trim32-null mice that we created previously. Analysis of Trim32 gene expression in T32KI mice revealed normal mRNA levels, but a severe reduction in mutant TRIM32 (D489N) at the protein level. Our results suggest that the D489N pathogenic mutation destabilizes the protein, leading to its degradation, and results in the same mild myopathic and neurogenic phenotype as that found in Trim32-null mice. Thus, one potential mechanism of LGMD2H might be destabilization of mutated TRIM32 protein leading to a null phenotype. PMID:21775502

  14. Apneic Oxygenation during simulated prolonged difficult laryngoscopy: Comparison of nasal prongs versus nasopharyngeal catheter: A prospective randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Achar, Shreepathi Krishna; Pai, Archana Jagdish; Shenoy, U. Kailasnath

    2014-01-01

    Background: Apneic oxygenation by insufflating O2 through nasal prongs (NP) and nasopharyngeal catheter (NC) has been proven to be effective. We conducted this study to compare the relative efficacy of these two techniques in a simulated difficult airway situation. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of two techniques of apneic oxygenation (NP vs. NC) on the duration of oxygen saturation ?95% during simulated prolonged difficult laryngoscopy. Methods: A randomized non-blinded study was conducted in 56 adult patients, 28 in each group belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class I and II scheduled for elective surgical procedures under general endotracheal anesthesia randomized to either NC or NP group. After pre-oxygenating for an end tidal oxygen concentration of 90% and induction, ability to mask ventilate was checked and paralyzed with rocuronium. Apneic oxygenation using 5 L/min of O2 was established either by NP or NC. After laryngoscopy the laryngoscope was withdrawn to simulate a Grade 4 laryngoscopy and held in this position for an apnea time (T1) of 10 min with SpO2 maintained at ?95% or until SpO2 dropped to < 95%, whichever is earlier. An arterial blood gas analysis was performed at the end of T1. Desaturation to < 95% were compared between the groups using Chi-square test (P < 0.05 as significant). Arterial blood gas analysis among those who sustained T1 for 10 min between the groups were compared using independent sample t-test (P < 0.05 was considered as significant). None of patients were excluded from the study. Results: In NP group nine patients desaturated as against none in the NC group (P = 0.001). Arterial blood gas analysis among non-desaturated patients was comparable with respect to PO2, PCO2 and pH. Conclusion: Nasopharyngeal catheter is a better device than nasal prongs in maintaining safe oxygenation during apnea in a simulated prolonged difficult laryngoscopy.

  15. Evaluation and use of a diffusion-controlled sampler for determining chemical and dissolved oxygen gradients at the sediment-water interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, N.S.; Kennedy, M.M.; Massoni, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    Field and laboratory evaluations were made of a simple, inexpensive diffusion-controlled sampler with ports on two sides at each interval which incorporates 0.2-??m polycarbonate membrane to filter samples in situ. Monovalent and divalent ions reached 90% of equilibrium between sampler contents and the external solution within 3 and 6 hours, respectively. Sediment interstitial water chemical gradients to depths of tens of centimeters were obtained within several days after placement. Gradients were consistent with those determined from interstitial water obtained by centrifugation of adjacent sediment. Ten milliliter sample volumes were collected at 1-cm intervals to determine chemical gradients and dissolved oxygen profiles at depth and at the interface between the sediment and water column. The flux of dissolved species, including oxygen, across the sediment-water interface can be assessed more accurately using this sampler than by using data collected from benthic cores. ?? 1985 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  16. TRIM24 promotes glioma progression and enhances chemoresistance through activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L-H; Yin, A-A; Cheng, J-X; Huang, H-Y; Li, X-M; Zhang, Y-Q; Han, N; Zhang, X

    2015-01-29

    The tripartite motif protein TRIM24 (tripartite motif-containing 24) has been found to play distinct roles in tumor development and progression, according to different tumor contexts. However, it remains elusive whether TRIM24 plays a role in malignant gliomas that are the most common and deadly primary brain tumors in adults. We report here that TRIM24 expression is positively correlated with glioma malignancy and is negatively associated with prognosis of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma, which is the most malignant form of gliomas but displays highly heterogeneous clinical outcome. The multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrates the independent predictive value of TRIM24 expression level for overall and progression-free survival. Knockdown of TRIM24 suppresses cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, clone formation and in vivo tumor development, whereas overexpression of TRIM24 promotes cell growth. Chromatin immunoprecipitation, real-time reverse transcription-PCR and mutation analyses demonstrate that TRIM24 binds to the PIK3CA promoter via its PHD-Bromo domain to activate the transcription of PIK3CA gene, thus enhancing phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling. The pan-PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and small interfering RNA targeting PIK3CA both abrogate the growth-promoting effect of TRIM24. Moreover, TRIM24 regulates the expression of DNA repair enzyme O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) through PI3K/Akt/nuclear factor-?B signaling transduction and enhances resistance to temozolomide, the standard chemotherapeutic agent for glioblastoma. Finally, glioblastoma patients with low TRIM24 expression benefit from chemotherapy, whereas those with high TRIM24 expression do not have such benefit. Our results suggest that TRIM24 might serve as a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target for the management of malignant gliomas. PMID:24469053

  17. Appreciating Oxygen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Hilton M.

    2008-01-01

    Photosynthetic flora and microfauna utilize light from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and oxygen. While these carbohydrates and their derivative hydrocarbons are generally considered to be fuels, it is the thermodynamically energetic oxygen molecule that traps, stores, and provides almost all of the energy that…

  18. Measuring of Geometrical Precision of Some parts Obtained by Asymmetric Incremental Forming Process After Trimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrogio, G.; Filice, L.; Fratini, L.; Ingarao, G.; Manco, L.

    2007-05-01

    Asymmetric Incremental Forming exalts the advantages of Incremental Forming process since no dies are strictly necessary. In this way complex geometries may be manufactured with a very simple clamping equipment. On the other hand, this characteristic determines some intrinsic drawbacks which penalise its industrial suitability; first of all, the dimensional control of the manufactured part is a still open point for researchers all over the world. Several approaches have been already proposed in the last years to solve the problem, resulting only in partial solutions. At the same time, up to now, the numerical simulation did not supply significant aid to the designers, due to the problem complexity and the very long simulation time when an elasto-plastic analysis has to be carried out. For this reason an experimental trial and error approach is often preferred. An innovative approach is represented by the application of numerical analysis based on a coupled explicit-implicit formulation. In this paper, some results of a wide research on the application of explicit-implicit code for the dimensional accuracy analysis are proposed. Both the problems related to the dimensional accuracy and springback phenomenon after the manufacturing step and the trimming operation are analysed from an experimental and a numerical point of view. In this way, some relevant issues, as well as the FEM capability, have been derived by the comparisons with the experiments. All the details are widely discussed in the paper.

  19. Determinants of Cyclophilin A-dependent TRIM5? restriction against HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tsai-Yu; Emerman, Michael

    2008-01-01

    TRIM5? is a host protein that can bind to incoming retroviral capsid (CA) and inhibit retroviruses in a species-specific manner. The CA protein of HIV-1 also interacts with high affinity to the host protein cyclophilin A (CypA). This binding has been shown to positively affect some early stage of the viral life-cycle in human cells. However, the CypA/CA interaction also renders HIV-1 more susceptible to rhesus TRIM5? (rhTRIM5?) restriction. We find that the ability of old world monkey TRIM5? genes to restrict HIV-1 in a CypA-dependent manner is widespread. On the other hand, we find that simian immunodeficiency viruses from tantalus monkeys (SIVagmTAN), is unlike HIV-1 in that CypA does not enhance the rhTRIM5? restriction against the virus even though the CA of this virus, like HIV-1, does bind CypA. Mapping of the determinants for this phenotype by swapping regions on CA between SIVagmTAN and HIV-1 showed that when SIVagmTAN contains loops between helices 4/5 (4–5 loop) and 6/7 (6–7 loop) from HIV-1 CA, it becomes susceptible to the CypA-enhanced rhTRIM5? restriction. Surprisingly, when SIVagmTAN contains either loop from HIV-1 CA, it gains sensitivity to TRIM5? from species which originally have no effect on the wild-type virus. Moreover, we find that CypA/CA interaction occurs early after viral entry but the CypA-enhanced restriction mostly acts on the stage after reverse transcription. PMID:18678385

  20. Trimming and washing poultry carcass to reduce microbial contamination: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Stefani, Lenita Moura; Backes, Rodrigo Guilherme; Faria, Glaucia Amorim; Biffi, Claudia Pies; de Almeida, Juliana Maria; da Silva, Helen Krystine; das Neves, Gabriella Bassi; Langaro, Anaiara

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of washing and trimming broiler carcasses to reduce bacterial contamination. At the postevisceration site, 100 broiler carcasses were collected during 4 visits to a slaughterhouse in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Birds were from the same flock, age, and approximately 2.4 kg of weight. Groups were as follows: group 1, with fecal contamination; group 2, without fecal contamination; group 3, with fecal contamination and trimmed; group 4, with fecal contamination and washed; group 5, with fecal contamination, and washed and trimmed. Carcass washings were performed with at least 1.5 L/bird of potable water (0.5 to 1 mg/kg of residual chlorine) at room temperature (20-25°C) using spray cabinets with 44 spray nozzles distributed into 2 chambers (pressure of 2 kgf/cm(2) and 4 kgf/cm(2)). Washed carcasses (trimmed or not) showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower counts of aerobic mesophiles (plate count agar) on the third evaluation, and even lower (P < 0.01) counts for total coliforms (CT) and fecal coliforms (Escherichia coli). Trimmed carcasses showed significantly lower counts (P < 0.05) for plate count agar; however, we observed higher counts for E. coli (P < 0.05). The association of both treatments (washing and trimming) showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) counts for coliforms (CT and E. coli). We can conclude that the washing method is overall more efficient than the trimming method to decontaminate chicken carcasses at the postevisceration site. Hopefully, our findings can help poultry companies to minimize production costs by applying the washing method for carcass decontamination. PMID:25306453