Science.gov

Sample records for oxygen trim control

  1. Moving mass trim control system design

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, R.H.; Robinett, R.D.; Sturgis, B.R.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes the design of a moving mass trim control system for maneuvering axisymmetric reentry vehicles. The moving mass trim controller is composed of three equal masses that are independently positioned in order to deliver a desired center of mass position. For a slowly spinning reentry vehicle, the mass offset creates a trim angle-of-attack to generate modest flight path corrections. The control system must maintain the desired position of each mass in the face of large disturbances. A novel algorithm for determining the desired mass positions is developed in conjunction with a preliminary controller design. The controller design is based on classical frequency domain techniques where a bound on the disturbance magnitude is used to formulate the disturbance rejection problem. Simulation results for the controller are presented for a typical reentry vehicle.

  2. Advanced control concepts. [trim solution for space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutton, M. F.; Friedland, B.

    1973-01-01

    The selection of a trim solution that provides the space shuttle with the highest level of performance and dynamic control in the presense of wind disturbances and bias torques due to misalignment of rocket engines is described. It was determined that engine gimballing is insufficient to provide control to trim the vehicle for headwind and sidewind disturbances, and that it is necessary to use aerodynamic surfaces in conjunction with engine gimballing to achieve trim. The algebraic equations for computing the trim solution were derived from the differential equations describing the motion of the vehicle by substituting the desired trim conditions. The general problem of showing how the trim equations are derived from the equations of motion and the mathematical forms of the performance criterion is discussed in detail, along with the general equations for studying the dynamic response of the trim solution.

  3. Control with trim tabs and history-dependent aerodynamic forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iosilevskii, G.

    2007-04-01

    This analytical study addresses three different, but closely related problems: time-history dependence of aerodynamic forces acting on a moving control surface, control by means of trim tabs, and control surface reaction upon abrupt actuator failure. Closed-form solutions are proposed to each of these problems. Perhaps the most conspicuous result is our conclusion that history-dependent aerodynamic effects have no significant influence on the transfer function between the trim tab and the surface it drives, provided that the chord of the surface is sufficiently small compared to the total chord.

  4. A closed-form trim solution yielding minimum trim drag for airplanes with multiple longitudinal-control effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Sliwa, Steven M.; Lallman, Frederick J.

    1989-01-01

    Airplane designs are currently being proposed with a multitude of lifting and control devices. Because of the redundancy in ways to generate moments and forces, there are a variety of strategies for trimming each airplane. A linear optimum trim solution (LOTS) is derived using a Lagrange formulation. LOTS enables the rapid calculation of the longitudinal load distribution resulting in the minimum trim drag in level, steady-state flight for airplanes with a mixture of three or more aerodynamic surfaces and propulsive control effectors. Comparisons of the trim drags obtained using LOTS, a direct constrained optimization method, and several ad hoc methods are presented for vortex-lattice representations of a three-surface airplane and two-surface airplane with thrust vectoring. These comparisons show that LOTS accurately predicts the results obtained from the nonlinear optimization and that the optimum methods result in trim drag reductions of up to 80 percent compared to the ad hoc methods.

  5. Matlab Stability and Control Toolbox: Trim and Static Stability Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the technical background of the Trim and Static module of the Matlab Stability and Control Toolbox. This module performs a low-fidelity stability and control assessment of an aircraft model for a set of flight critical conditions. This is attained by determining if the control authority available for trim is sufficient and if the static stability characteristics are adequate. These conditions can be selected from a prescribed set or can be specified to meet particular requirements. The prescribed set of conditions includes horizontal flight, take-off rotation, landing flare, steady roll, steady turn and pull-up/ push-over flight, for which several operating conditions can be specified. A mathematical model was developed allowing for six-dimensional trim, adjustable inertial properties, asymmetric vehicle layouts, arbitrary number of engines, multi-axial thrust vectoring, engine(s)-out conditions, crosswind and gyroscopic effects.

  6. Depth-trim mapping control of underwater vehicle with fins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ye; Pang, Yong-Jie; Huang, Shu-Ling; Wan, Lei

    2011-12-01

    Underwater vehicle plays an important role in ocean engineering. Depth control by fin is one of the difficulties for underwater vehicle in motion control. Depth control is indirect due to the freedom coupling between trim and axial motion. It includes the method of dynamic analysis and lift-resistance-coefficient experiment and theory algorithm. By considering the current speed and depth deviation, comprehensive interpretation is used in object-planning instruction. Expected depth is transformed into expected trim. Dynamic output fluctuation can be avoided, which is caused by linear mapping of deviation. It is steady and accurate for the motion of controlled underwater vehicles. The feasibility and efficiency of the control method are testified in the pool and natural area for experiments.

  7. Airplane automatic control force trimming device for asymmetric engine failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The difference in dynamic pressure in the propeller slipstreams as measured by sensors is divided by the freestream dynamic pressure generating a quantity proportional to the differential thrust coefficient. This quantity is used to command an electric trim motor to change the position of trim tab thereby retrimming the airplane to the new asymmetric power condition. The change in position of the trim tab produced by the electric trim motor is summed with the pilot's input to produce the actual trim tab position.

  8. Performance analysis of the GOES trim tab solar pressure torque angular momentum control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvie, Edwin, III; Rowe, John; Tsui, Yo-Kung J.

    1996-10-01

    The GOES I/M series of geostationary weather satellites are 3-axis stabilized and incorporate an optical trim surface, or 'trim tab', to balance solar radiation pressure torque between the south moment arm, formed by a single solar array, and the north moment arm, formed by a solar sail on an extended boom. This design minimizes the need for active roll/yaw momentum management from thrusters or magnetic dipoles and provides margin for uncertainties and changes such as center of mass shift and degradation of surface optical properties. The trim tab has one rotational degree of freedom and is actuated vie open loop ground command to a motor on the rotation axis. Normal operational procedure is to command a small incremental trim tab slew daily to track the change in north/south solar radiation pressure torque with Sun declination. Proper management of the trim tab is critical to spacecraft roll/yaw pointing performance and the open loop design of the system requires sophisticated ground based algorithms to determine trim tab position error and developed a daily commanding profile. Flight experience with the GOES-8 and GOES-9 spacecraft has proven the feasibility of the trim tab design and has led to refinement of the ground based trim tab analysis algorithm. THis paper summarizes the performance of the trim tab roll/yaw momentum control system and describes analysis methods developed by the GOES mission operations team to support trim tab operations.

  9. Development and Operation of an Automatic Rotor Trim Control System for the UH-60 Individual Blade Control Wind Tunnel Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodore, Colin R.; Tischler, Mark B.

    2010-01-01

    An automatic rotor trim control system was developed and successfully used during a wind tunnel test of a full-scale UH-60 rotor system with Individual Blade Control (IBC) actuators. The trim control system allowed rotor trim to be set more quickly, precisely and repeatably than in previous wind tunnel tests. This control system also allowed the rotor trim state to be maintained during transients and drift in wind tunnel flow, and through changes in IBC actuation. The ability to maintain a consistent rotor trim state was key to quickly and accurately evaluating the effect of IBC on rotor performance, vibration, noise and loads. This paper presents details of the design and implementation of the trim control system including the rotor system hardware, trim control requirements, and trim control hardware and software implementation. Results are presented showing the effect of IBC on rotor trim and dynamic response, a validation of the rotor dynamic simulation used to calculate the initial control gains and tuning of the control system, and the overall performance of the trim control system during the wind tunnel test.

  10. MATLAB Stability and Control Toolbox Trim and Static Stability Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Sean P.; Crespo, Luis

    2012-01-01

    MATLAB Stability and Control Toolbox (MASCOT) utilizes geometric, aerodynamic, and inertial inputs to calculate air vehicle stability in a variety of critical flight conditions. The code is based on fundamental, non-linear equations of motion and is able to translate results into a qualitative, graphical scale useful to the non-expert. MASCOT was created to provide the conceptual aircraft designer accurate predictions of air vehicle stability and control characteristics. The code takes as input mass property data in the form of an inertia tensor, aerodynamic loading data, and propulsion (i.e. thrust) loading data. Using fundamental nonlinear equations of motion, MASCOT then calculates vehicle trim and static stability data for the desired flight condition(s). Available flight conditions include six horizontal and six landing rotation conditions with varying options for engine out, crosswind, and sideslip, plus three take-off rotation conditions. Results are displayed through a unique graphical interface developed to provide the non-stability and control expert conceptual design engineer a qualitative scale indicating whether the vehicle has acceptable, marginal, or unacceptable static stability characteristics. If desired, the user can also examine the detailed, quantitative results.

  11. Ubiquitin ligase TRIM3 controls hippocampal plasticity and learning by regulating synaptic γ-actin levels

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Joerg; Végh, Marlene J.; Dawitz, Julia; Kroon, Tim; Loos, Maarten; Labonté, Dorthe; Li, Ka Wan; Van Nierop, Pim; Van Diepen, Michiel T.; De Zeeuw, Chris I.; Kneussel, Matthias; Meredith, Rhiannon M.; Smit, August B.

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity requires remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. Although two actin isoforms, β- and γ-actin, are expressed in dendritic spines, the specific contribution of γ-actin in the expression of synaptic plasticity is unknown. We show that synaptic γ-actin levels are regulated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM3. TRIM3 protein and Actg1 transcript are colocalized in messenger ribonucleoprotein granules responsible for the dendritic targeting of messenger RNAs. TRIM3 polyubiquitylates γ-actin, most likely cotranslationally at synaptic sites. Trim3−/− mice consequently have increased levels of γ-actin at hippocampal synapses, resulting in higher spine densities, increased long-term potentiation, and enhanced short-term contextual fear memory consolidation. Interestingly, hippocampal deletion of Actg1 caused an increase in long-term fear memory. Collectively, our findings suggest that temporal control of γ-actin levels by TRIM3 is required to regulate the timing of hippocampal plasticity. We propose a model in which TRIM3 regulates synaptic γ-actin turnover and actin filament stability and thus forms a transient inhibitory constraint on the expression of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. PMID:26527743

  12. Flight Investigation of the Effectiveness of an Automatic Aileron Trim Control Device for Personal Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, William H; Kuehnel, Helmut A; Whitten, James B

    1957-01-01

    A flight investigation to determine the effectiveness of an automatic aileron trim control device installed in a personal airplane to augment the apparent spiral stability has been conducted. The device utilizes a rate-gyro sensing element in order to switch an on-off type of control that operates the ailerons at a fixed rate through control centering springs. An analytical study using phase-plane and analog-computer methods has been carried out to determine a desirable method of operation for the automatic trim control.

  13. Application of a Broadband Active Vibration Control System to a Helicopter Trim Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, Randolph H.; Schiller, Noah H.; Simon, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses testing of a broadband active vibration control concept on an interior trim panel in a helicopter cabin mockup located at ONERA's Centre de Toulouse. The control system consisted of twelve diamond-shaped piezoelectric actuators distributed around a 1.2m x 1.2m trim panel. Accelerometers were mounted at the four vertices of each diamond. The aspect ratio of the diamond was based on the dielectric constants of the piezoelectric material in order to create an actuator-sensor pair that was collocated over a broad frequency range. This allowed robust control to be implemented using simple, low power analog electronics. Initial testing on a thick acrylic window demonstrated the capability of the controller, but actuator performance was less satisfactory when mounted on a composite sandwich trim panel. This may have been due to the orthotropic nature of the trim panel, or due to its much higher stiffness relative to the acrylic window. Insights gained from a finite element study of the actuator-sensor-structural system are discussed.

  14. Development and Operation of an Automatic Rotor Trim Control System for use During the UH-60 Individual Blade Control Wind Tunnel Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodore, Colin R.

    2010-01-01

    A full-scale wind tunnel test to evaluate the effects of Individual Blade Control (IBC) on the performance, vibration, noise and loads of a UH-60A rotor was recently completed in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel [1]. A key component of this wind tunnel test was an automatic rotor trim control system that allowed the rotor trim state to be set more precisely, quickly and repeatably than was possible with the rotor operator setting the trim condition manually. The trim control system was also able to maintain the desired trim condition through changes in IBC actuation both in open- and closed-loop IBC modes, and through long-period transients in wind tunnel flow. This ability of the trim control system to automatically set and maintain a steady rotor trim enabled the effects of different IBC inputs to be compared at common trim conditions and to perform these tests quickly without requiring the rotor operator to re-trim the rotor. The trim control system described in this paper was developed specifically for use during the IBC wind tunnel test

  15. Effect of early lactation foot trimming in lame and non-lame dairy heifers: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, O J R; Hudson, C D; Huxley, J N

    2015-07-25

    Foot trimming is a common management intervention in prevention of lameness in dairy cattle. Despite this, there is surprisingly limited experimental evidence on its efficacy, especially in regard to primiparous heifers. A randomised, negatively controlled trial was conducted to investigate the association between an early lactation foot trim on primiparous animals and production outcomes. 282 heifers were enrolled from eight farms in the UK, and randomly assigned to treatment or control groups. Milk yield (305-day-adjusted whole-milk yield) was not significantly different between groups (trimmed 7727?litres, untrimmed 7646?litres). However, multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that this relationship was confounded by lameness state. Animals that were lame at the time of trimming gave significantly more milk (734?litres, P=0.02) than those that were non-lame and untrimmed. The present results suggest that, based on milk production alone, it would not have been cost beneficial to trim all heifers; however, a targeted intervention aimed at lame animals would have delivered a substantial return on investment. As a very minimum, the authors recommend heifers should be regularly assessed in early lactation, and treated as soon as they are identifiably lame. The high prevalence of lesions identified suggests routine trimming for all heifers may be justifiable on welfare grounds even if the milk-yield benefits are marginal. PMID:26116268

  16. Surface trimming of silicon photonics devices using controlled reactive ion etching chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, S.; Das, B. K.

    2015-06-01

    Surface trimming of rib waveguides fabricated in 5-μm SOI substrate has been carried out successfully without any significant increase of propagation losses. A reactive ion etching chemistry has been optimized for trimming and an empirical model has been developed to obtain the resulting waveguide geometries. This technique has been used to demonstrate smaller footprint devices like multimode interference based power splitters and ring resonators after defining them photolithographically with relatively large cross-section rib waveguides. We have been also successful to fabricate 2D tapered spot-size converter useful for monolithic integration of waveguides with varying heights and widths. The taper length is again precisely controlled by photolithographic definition. Minimum insertion loss of such a spot-size converter integrated between waveguides with 3-μm height difference has been recorded to be ∼2 dB. It has been also shown that the overall fiber-to-chip coupling loss can be reduced by >3 dB by using such spot-size converters at the input/output side of the waveguides.

  17. Cassini Orbit Trim Maneuvers at Saturn - Overview of Attitude Control Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burk, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft has been in orbit around Saturn since July 1, 2004. To remain on the planned trajectory which maximizes science data return, Cassini must perform orbit trim maneuvers using either its main engine or its reaction control system thrusters. Over 200 maneuvers have been executed on the spacecraft since arrival at Saturn. To improve performance and maintain spacecraft health, changes have been made in maneuver design command placement, in accelerometer scale factor, and in the pre-aim vector used to align the engine gimbal actuator prior to main engine burn ignition. These and other changes have improved maneuver performance execution errors significantly since 2004. A strategy has been developed to decide whether a main engine maneuver should be performed, or whether the maneuver can be executed using the reaction control system.

  18. Simulation study of an automatic trim system for reducing the control forces on a light twin after an engine failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, E. C.; Brown, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    An automatic trim system for reducing the control forces after an engine failure on a light twin has been investigated on the Langley General Aviation Simulator. The system schedules open-loop trim tab deflections as a function of differential propeller slipstream dynamic pressure and freestream dynamic pressure. The system is described and the airplane-system static and dynamic characteristics are documented. Three NASA research pilots evaluated the effectiveness of the system for takeoff and landing maneuvers. A variety of off-nominal system characteristics were studied. The system was judged to be generally beneficial, providing a 2 to 3 point improvement in pilot rating for the tasks used in the evaluations.

  19. Reducing Pointing Errors During Cassini Reaction Control System Orbit Trim Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizvi, Farheen

    2013-01-01

    The effect of altering a gain parameter in the Cassini reaction control system (RCS) delta-V controller on the maneuver execution errors during orbit trim maneuvers (OTMs) is explored. Cassini consists of two reaction control thruster branches (A & B) each with eight thrusters. Currently, the B-branch is operational while the A-branch serves as a back-up. The four Z-thrusters control the X and Y-axes, while the four Y-thrusters control the Z-axis. During an OTM, the Z-thrusters fire to maintain the X and Y-axes pointing within an attitude control dead-zone (-10 to 10 milliradians). The errors do not remain at zero due to pointing error sources such as spacecraft center of mass offset from the geometric center of the Z-facing thrusters, and variability in the thruster forces due to the thruster hardware differences. The delta-V reaction control system (RCS) controller ensures that the attitude error remains within this dead-zone. Gain parameters within the RCS delta-V controller affect the maneuver execution errors. Different parameter values are used to explore effect on these errors. It is found that pointing error decreases and magnitude error increases rapidly for gain parameters 10 times greater than the current parameter values used in the flight software.

  20. Body-induced vortical flows: a common mechanism for self-corrective trimming control in boxfishes.

    PubMed

    Bartol, Ian K; Gharib, Morteza; Webb, Paul W; Weihs, Daniel; Gordon, Malcolm S

    2005-01-01

    Boxfishes (Teleostei: Ostraciidae) are marine fishes having rigid carapaces that vary significantly among taxa in their shapes and structural ornamentation. We showed previously that the keels of the carapace of one species of tropical boxfish, the smooth trunkfish, produce leading edge vortices (LEVs) capable of generating self-correcting trimming forces during swimming. In this paper we show that other tropical boxfishes with different carapace shapes have similar capabilities. We conducted a quantitative study of flows around the carapaces of three morphologically distinct boxfishes (spotted boxfish, scrawled cowfish and buffalo trunkfish) using stereolithographic models and three separate but interrelated analytical approaches: digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV), pressure distribution measurements, and force balance measurements. The ventral keels of all three forms produced LEVs that grew in circulation along the bodies, resembling the LEVs produced around delta-winged aircraft. These spiral vortices formed above the keels and increased in circulation as pitch angle became more positive, and formed below the keels and increased in circulation as pitch angle became more negative. Vortices also formed along the eye ridges of all boxfishes. In the spotted boxfish, which is largely trapezoidal in cross section, consistent dorsal vortex growth posterior to the eye ridge was also present. When all three boxfishes were positioned at various yaw angles, regions of strongest concentrated vorticity formed in far-field locations of the carapace compared with near-field areas, and vortex circulation was greatest posterior to the center of mass. In general, regions of localized low pressure correlated well with regions of attached, concentrated vorticity, especially around the ventral keels. Although other features of the carapace also affect flow patterns and pressure distributions in different ways, the integrated effects of the flows were consistent for all forms: they produce trimming self-correcting forces, which we measured directly using the force balance. These data together with previous work on smooth trunkfish indicate that body-induced vortical flows are a common mechanism that is probably significant for trim control in all species of tropical boxfishes. PMID:15634852

  1. 14 CFR 25.677 - Trim systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 25.677 Trim systems. (a) Trim controls must be designed to prevent inadvertent or abrupt operation and to operate in the...

  2. Synthesis of a PID-controller of a trim robust control system of an autonomous underwater vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khozhaev, I. V.; Gayvoronskiy, S. A.

    2016-04-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles are often used for performing scientific, emergency or other types of missions under harsh conditions and environments, which can have non-stable, variable parameters. So, the problem of developing autonomous underwater vehicle motion control systems, capable of operating properly in random environments, is highly relevant. The paper is dedicated to the synthesis of a PID-controller of a trim robust control system, capable of keeping an underwater vehicle stable during a translation at different angles of attack. In order to synthesize the PID-controller, two problems were solved: a new method of synthesizing a robust controller was developed and a mathematical model of an underwater vehicle motion process was derived. The newly developed mathematical model structure is simpler than others due to acceptance of some of the system parameters as interval ones. The synthesis method is based on a system poles allocation approach and allows providing the necessary transient process quality in a considered system.

  3. Nucleotide biosynthetic enzyme GMP synthase is a TRIM21-controlled relay of p53 stabilization.

    PubMed

    Reddy, B Ashok; van der Knaap, Jan A; Bot, Alice G M; Mohd-Sarip, Adone; Dekkers, Dick H W; Timmermans, Mieke A; Martens, John W M; Demmers, Jeroen A A; Verrijzer, C Peter

    2014-02-01

    Nucleotide biosynthesis is fundamental to normal cell proliferation as well as to oncogenesis. Tumor suppressor p53, which prevents aberrant cell proliferation, is destabilized through ubiquitylation by MDM2. Ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7) plays a dualistic role in p53 regulation and has been proposed to deubiquitylate either p53 or MDM2. Here, we show that guanosine 5'-monophosphate synthase (GMPS) is required for USP7-mediated stabilization of p53. Normally, most GMPS is sequestered in the cytoplasm, separated from nuclear USP7 and p53. In response to genotoxic stress or nucleotide deprivation, GMPS becomes nuclear and facilitates p53 stabilization by promoting its transfer from MDM2 to a GMPS-USP7 deubiquitylation complex. Intriguingly, cytoplasmic sequestration of GMPS requires ubiquitylation by TRIM21, a ubiquitin ligase associated with autoimmune disease. These results implicate a classic nucleotide biosynthetic enzyme and a ubiquitin ligase, better known for its role in autoimmune disease, in p53 control. PMID:24462112

  4. Application of the concept of dynamic trim control to automatic landing of carrier aircraft. [utilizing digital feedforeward control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. A.; Meyer, G.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a simulation study of an alternative design concept for an automatic landing control system are presented. The alternative design concept for an automatic landing control system is described. The design concept is the total aircraft flight control system (TAFCOS). TAFCOS is an open loop, feed forward system that commands the proper instantaneous thrust, angle of attack, and roll angle to achieve the forces required to follow the desired trajector. These dynamic trim conditions are determined by an inversion of the aircraft nonlinear force characteristics. The concept was applied to an A-7E aircraft approaching an aircraft carrier. The implementation details with an airborne digital computer are discussed. The automatic carrier landing situation is described. The simulation results are presented for a carrier approach with atmospheric disturbances, an approach with no disturbances, and for tailwind and headwind gusts.

  5. Control of cavity lifetime of 1.5 µm wafer-fused VCSELs by digital mirror trimming.

    PubMed

    Ellafi, Dalila; Iakovlev, Valdimir; Sirbu, Alexei; Suruceanu, Grigore; Mickovic, Zlatco; Caliman, Andrei; Mereuta, Alexandru; Kapon, Elyahou

    2014-12-29

    Digital chemical etching is used to trim the output mirror thickness of wafer-fused VCSELs emitting at a wavelength near 1.5µm. The fine control of the photon cavity lifetime thus achieved is employed to extract important device parameters and optimize the combination of the threshold current, output power, and direct current modulation characteristics. The fabrication process is compatible with industrial production and should help in improving device yield and in reducing manufacturing costs. PMID:25607182

  6. Predictions of Control Inputs, Periodic Responses and Damping Levels of an Isolated Experimental Rotor in Trimmed Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaonkar, G. H.; Subramanian, S.

    1996-01-01

    Since the early 1990s the Aeroflightdynamics Directorate at the Ames Research Center has been conducting tests on isolated hingeless rotors in hover and forward flight. The primary objective is to generate a database on aeroelastic stability in trimmed flight for torsionally soft rotors at realistic tip speeds. The rotor test model has four soft inplane blades of NACA 0012 airfoil section with low torsional stiffness. The collective pitch and shaft tilt are set prior to each test run, and then the rotor is trimmed in the following sense: the longitudinal and lateral cyclic pitch controls are adjusted through a swashplate to minimize the 1/rev flapping moment at the 12 percent radial station. In hover, the database comprises lag regressive-mode damping with pitch variations. In forward flight the database comprises cyclic pitch controls, root flap moment and lag regressive-mode damping with advance ratio, shaft angle and pitch variations. This report presents the predictions and their correlation with the database. A modal analysis is used, in which nonrotating modes in flap bending, lag bending and torsion are computed from the measured blade mass and stiffness distributions. The airfoil aerodynamics is represented by the ONERA dynamic stall models of lift, drag and pitching moment, and the wake dynamics is represented by a state-space wake model. The trim analysis of finding, the cyclic controls and the corresponding, periodic responses is based on periodic shooting with damped Newton iteration; the Floquet transition matrix (FTM) comes out as a byproduct. The stabillty analysis of finding the frequencies and damping levels is based on the eigenvalue-eigenvector analysis of the FTM. All the structural and aerodynamic states are included from modeling to trim analysis. A major finding is that dynamic wake dramatically improves the correlation for the lateral cyclic pitch control. Overall, the correlation is fairly good.

  7. 14 CFR 25.677 - Trim systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Trim systems. 25.677 Section 25.677 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 25.677 Trim systems. (a) Trim controls must be designed to...

  8. 14 CFR 25.677 - Trim systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Trim systems. 25.677 Section 25.677... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 25.677 Trim systems. (a... is safe for all center of gravity positions approved for takeoff. (c) Trim control systems must...

  9. Jefferson Lab's Trim Card II

    SciTech Connect

    Trent Allison; Sarin Philip; C. Higgins; Edward Martin; William Merz

    2005-05-01

    Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) uses Trim Card I power supplies to drive approximately 1900 correction magnets. These trim cards have had a long and illustrious service record. However, some of the employed technology is now obsolete, making it difficult to maintain the system and retain adequate spares. The Trim Card II is being developed to act as a transparent replacement for its aging predecessor. A modular approach has been taken in its development to facilitate the substitution of sections for future improvements and maintenance. The resulting design has been divided into a motherboard and 7 daughter cards which has also allowed for parallel development. The Trim Card II utilizes modern technologies such as a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and a microprocessor to embed trim card controls and diagnostics. These reprogrammable devices also provide the versatility to incorporate future requirements.

  10. 14 CFR 23.677 - Trim systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control... gravity positions and each flap position approved for takeoff. (b) Trimming devices must be designed...

  11. 14 CFR 23.677 - Trim systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control... gravity positions and each flap position approved for takeoff. (b) Trimming devices must be designed...

  12. 14 CFR 23.677 - Trim systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control... gravity positions and each flap position approved for takeoff. (b) Trimming devices must be designed...

  13. 14 CFR 23.677 - Trim systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control... gravity positions and each flap position approved for takeoff. (b) Trimming devices must be designed...

  14. High pressure spray with water shows similar efficiency to trimming in controlling microorganisms on poultry carcasses.

    PubMed

    Giombelli, Audecir; Hammerschmitt, Dandara; Cerutti, Marisete F; Chiarini, Eb; Landgraf, Mariza; Franco, Bernardete D G M; Destro, Maria T

    2015-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate a high pressure spray (HPS) with water as an alternative to trimming to remove gastrointestinal contamination on poultry carcasses and improve microbiological quality. The study was conducted under commercial conditions in 5 slaughter plants with one plant presenting approximately 5% of carcasses with visible gastrointestinal contamination (VGC), and the others showing approximately 12% of VGC. In all 5 plants, carcasses were sampled from the slaughter line and separated into 6 groups corresponding to 3 different treatments: A) carcasses with VGC before and after trimming; B) carcasses with VGC before and after HPS; and C) carcasses with no VGC before and after HPS. At the end of Trial A and prior to Trials B and C, an HPS equipment was installed before the end of the slaughter line. The HPS equipment was operated with 10 kgf/cm² of pressure and 1.5 L of potable water per carcass. Carcasses were analyzed using a rinsing procedure, and the following microbiological parameters were evaluated: the prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter, the abundance of Escherichia coli (EC), Enterobacteriaceae (EB), and the Total Viable Count (TVC). Salmonella was found in all plants at a prevalence ranging from 0.8% (plant 1) to 17.3% (plant 5), and the difference between plants was significant (P < 0.05%). The prevalence of Campylobacter ranged from 2.1 (plant 1) to 18.6% (plant 4) (P < 0.05%). The prevalence of Campylobacter was similar in plants 2, 3, and 5, and a significant difference (P < 0.05%) was observed compared to plants 1 and 4. In all plants, the EC, EB, and TVC counts did not show a significant difference (P > 0.05%) in any treatments. These results demonstrate that HPS with water is an alternative method for removing VGC and improving or maintaining the microbiological quality and safety of broiler carcasses. PMID:26286999

  15. 14 CFR 25.677 - Trim systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 25.677 Trim systems. (a... is safe for all center of gravity positions approved for takeoff. (c) Trim control systems must be... appropriately balanced and shown to be free from flutter. (d) If an irreversible tab control system is used,...

  16. 14 CFR 25.677 - Trim systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., and with the sense of motion, of the airplane. (b) There must be means adjacent to the trim control to indicate the direction of the control movement relative to the airplane motion. In addition, there must be clearly visible means to indicate the position of the trim device with respect to the range of...

  17. 14 CFR 23.677 - Trim systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Trim systems. 23.677 Section 23.677 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 23.677 Trim systems. (a)...

  18. 14 CFR 25.407 - Trim tab effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Trim tab effects. 25.407 Section 25.407 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.407 Trim tab effects. The effects of trim tabs on...

  19. 14 CFR 25.407 - Trim tab effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trim tab effects. 25.407 Section 25.407 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.407 Trim tab effects. The effects of trim tabs on...

  20. 14 CFR 23.407 - Trim tab effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Trim tab effects. 23.407 Section 23.407 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Loads § 23.407 Trim tab effects. The effects of trim tabs on the control surface design conditions...

  1. Thermal trim for luminaire

    DOEpatents

    Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Jeswani, Anil

    2013-11-19

    A luminaire with a thermal pathway to reduce the junction temperature of the luminaire's light source, and methods for so doing, are disclosed. The luminaire includes a can, a light engine, and a trim, that define a substantially continuous thermal pathway from the light engine to a surrounding environment. The can defines a can cavity and includes a can end region. The light engine is within the can cavity and includes a light source and a heat sink, including a heat sink end region, coupled thereto. The trim is at least partially disposed within the can cavity and includes a first trim end region coupled to the heat sink end region and a second trim end region coupled to the can end region. Thermal interface material may be located between: the heat sink and the trim, the trim and the can, and/or the heat sink and the light source.

  2. Hedge Trimming and the Resurrection of the Controlled Vocabulary in Online Searching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sievert, MaryEllen; Boyce, Bert R.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the changing role of controlled vocabulary in the postcoordinate online search, particularly its current role in the formulation of online search strategies. Effects of controlled vocabulary searching on precision and recall and examples of concept "hedges" from the "Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors" are discussed. Nine references are…

  3. Control of FoxO4 Activity and Cell Survival by TRIM22 Directs TLR3-Stimulated Cells Toward IFN Type I Gene Induction or Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Oteiza, Alexandra; Mechti, Nadir

    2015-11-01

    Activation of innate immune response, induced after the recognition of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), formed during replication of most viruses, results in intracellular signaling cascades ultimately culminating in the expression of type I interferon (IFN). In this study, we provide the first evidence that FoxO4 triggers the activation of the innate immune signaling pathway in coupling stimulation of TLR3 and RIG-like receptors by the synthetic dsRNA analog, poly(I:C), to IFN-β and IFN-induced gene induction, whereas knockdown of FoxO4 had opposite effects. Similar effects of FoxO4 were observed during paramyxovirus-mediated IFN-β transcriptional induction. We further found that knockdown of FoxO4 did not affect IRF3 and NF-κB activation by poly(I:C), suggesting that FoxO4 would act downstream in the signaling pathway. In addition, we show that the IFN-induced TRIM22 ubiquitin ligase targets FoxO4 and antagonizes its activity through an unrelated ubiquitin/autophagosomic-lysosomal pathway. Unexpectedly, TRIM22 knockdown strongly sensitizes cells to dsRNA-induced caspase-dependent apoptosis, as early as 2 h after poly(I:C) stimulation, concomitantly to the inhibition of the expression of the antiapoptotic protein, Bcl-2, indicating that TRIM22 might be a key factor for controlling the cell survival after TLR3 stimulation. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the regulation of FoxO4 protein expression and cell survival by TRIM22 controls TLR3-mediated IFN type I gene induction, preventing excessive antiviral response through dsRNA-induced apoptosis. PMID:26237181

  4. NCSX Trim Coil Design

    SciTech Connect

    M. Kalish, A. Brooks, J. Rushinski, R. Upcavage

    2009-05-29

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) was being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory before work was stopped in 2008. The objective of this experiment was to develop the stellarator concept and evaluate it's potential as a model for future fusion power plants. Stellarator design requires very precisely positioned Modular Coils of complex shape to form 3D plasmas. In the design of NCSX, Trim Coils were required to compensate for both the positioning of the coils during assembly and the fabrication tolerances of the Modular Coils. Use of the Trim Coils allowed for larger tolerances increasing ease of assembly and decreasing overall cost. A set of Trim coils was developed to suppress the toroidal flux in island regions due to misalignment, magnetic materials, and eddy currents. The requirement imposed upon the design forced the toroidal flux in island regions below 10% of the total toroidal flux in the plasma. An analysis was first performed to evaluate candidate Trim Coil configurations iterating both the size, number, and position of the coils. The design was optimized considering both performance and cost while staying within the tight restraints presented by the space limited geometry. The final design of the Trim Coils incorporated a 48 Coil top bottom symmetric set. Fabrication costs were minimized by having only two coil types and using a planar conventional design with off the shelf commercial conductor. The Trim Coil design incorporated supports made from simple structural shapes assembled together in a way which allowed for adjustment as well as accommodation for the tolerance build up on the mating surfaces. This paper will summarize the analysis that led to the optimization of the Trim Coils set, the trim coil mechanical design, thermal and stress analysis, and the design of the supporting Trim Coil structure.

  5. DEVICE FOR CONTROL OF OXYGEN PARTIAL PRESSURE

    DOEpatents

    Bradner, H.; Gordon, H.S.

    1957-12-24

    A device is described that can sense changes in oxygen partial pressure and cause a corresponding mechanical displacement sufficient to actuate meters, valves and similar devices. A piston and cylinder arrangement contains a charge of crystalline metal chelate pellets which have the peculiar property of responding to variations in the oxygen content of the ambient atmosphere by undergoing a change in dimension. A lever system amplifies the relative displacement of the piston in the cylinder, and actuates the controlled valving device. This partial pressure oxygen sensing device is useful in controlled chemical reactions or in respiratory devices such as the oxygen demand meters for high altitude aircraft.

  6. Control of Si nanowire growth by oxygen.

    PubMed

    Kodambaka, Suneel; Hannon, James B; Tromp, Rudolf M; Ross, Frances M

    2006-06-01

    Semiconductor nanowires formed using the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism are routinely grown in many laboratories, but a comprehensive understanding of the key factors affecting wire growth is still lacking. In this paper we show that, under conditions of low disilane pressure and higher temperature, long, untapered Si wires cannot be grown, using Au catalyst, without the presence of oxygen. Exposure to oxygen, even at low levels, reduces the diffusion of Au away from the catalyst droplets. This allows the droplet volumes to remain constant for longer times and therefore permits the growth of untapered wires. This effect is observed for both gas-phase and surface-bound oxygen, so the source of oxygen is unimportant. The control of oxygen exposure during growth provides a new tool for the fabrication of long, uniform-diameter structures, as required for many applications of nanowires. PMID:16771597

  7. 14 CFR 23.161 - Trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and directional trim, and the lateral control force must not exceed 5 pounds at the speed used in... if applicable, its propeller in the minimum drag position; (2) The remaining engines at maximum... lateral control forces to 10 pounds and 5 pounds, respectively, and the directional control force must...

  8. 14 CFR 23.161 - Trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... and directional trim, and the lateral control force must not exceed 5 pounds at the speed used in... if applicable, its propeller in the minimum drag position; (2) The remaining engines at maximum... lateral control forces to 10 pounds and 5 pounds, respectively, and the directional control force must...

  9. 14 CFR 23.161 - Trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and directional trim, and the lateral control force must not exceed 5 pounds at the speed used in... if applicable, its propeller in the minimum drag position; (2) The remaining engines at maximum... lateral control forces to 10 pounds and 5 pounds, respectively, and the directional control force must...

  10. 14 CFR 23.161 - Trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and directional trim, and the lateral control force must not exceed 5 pounds at the speed used in... if applicable, its propeller in the minimum drag position; (2) The remaining engines at maximum... lateral control forces to 10 pounds and 5 pounds, respectively, and the directional control force must...

  11. 14 CFR 23.161 - Trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and directional trim, and the lateral control force must not exceed 5 pounds at the speed used in... if applicable, its propeller in the minimum drag position; (2) The remaining engines at maximum... lateral control forces to 10 pounds and 5 pounds, respectively, and the directional control force must...

  12. Trimming Your Baby's Nails

    MedlinePlus

    ... task with a partner: one person holding the baby to keep the little one from squirming and the other trimming the ... nails down without the risk of giving your little one any nicks. If you ... with fussy, fidgeting babies), don't worry. Using a sterile gauze pad, ...

  13. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2004-04-01

    Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

  14. 14 CFR 23.407 - Trim tab effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trim tab effects. 23.407 Section 23.407 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 23.407 Trim tab effects....

  15. 14 CFR 23.407 - Trim tab effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Trim tab effects. 23.407 Section 23.407 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 23.407 Trim tab effects....

  16. TRIM72 modulates caveolar endocytosis in repair of lung cells.

    PubMed

    Nagre, Nagaraja; Wang, Shaohua; Kellett, Thomas; Kanagasabai, Ragu; Deng, Jing; Nishi, Miyuki; Shilo, Konstantin; Oeckler, Richard A; Yalowich, Jack C; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Christman, John; Hubmayr, Rolf D; Zhao, Xiaoli

    2016-03-01

    Alveolar epithelial and endothelial cell injury is a major feature of the acute respiratory distress syndrome, in particular when in conjunction with ventilation therapies. Previously we showed [Kim SC, Kellett T, Wang S, Nishi M, Nagre N, Zhou B, Flodby P, Shilo K, Ghadiali SN, Takeshima H, Hubmayr RD, Zhao X. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 307: L449-L459, 2014.] that tripartite motif protein 72 (TRIM72) is essential for amending alveolar epithelial cell injury. Here, we posit that TRIM72 improves cellular integrity through its interaction with caveolin 1 (Cav1). Our data show that, in primary type I alveolar epithelial cells, lack of TRIM72 led to significant reduction of Cav1 at the plasma membrane, accompanied by marked attenuation of caveolar endocytosis. Meanwhile, lentivirus-mediated overexpression of TRIM72 selectively increases caveolar endocytosis in rat lung epithelial cells, suggesting a functional association between these two. Further coimmunoprecipitation assays show that deletion of either functional domain of TRIM72, i.e., RING, B-box, coiled-coil, or PRY-SPRY, abolishes the physical interaction between TRIM72 and Cav1, suggesting that all theoretical domains of TRIM72 are required to forge a strong interaction between these two molecules. Moreover, in vivo studies showed that injurious ventilation-induced lung cell death was significantly increased in knockout (KO) TRIM72(KO) and Cav1(KO) lungs compared with wild-type controls and was particularly pronounced in double KO mutants. Apoptosis was accompanied by accentuation of gross lung injury manifestations in the TRIM72(KO) and Cav1(KO) mice. Our data show that TRIM72 directly and indirectly modulates caveolar endocytosis, an essential process involved in repair of lung epithelial cells through removal of plasma membrane wounds. Given TRIM72's role in endomembrane trafficking and cell repair, we consider this molecule an attractive therapeutic target for patients with injured lungs. PMID:26637632

  17. Thermal trim for a luminaire

    DOEpatents

    Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Jeswani, Anil

    2013-02-19

    A luminaire with a thermal pathway to reduce the junction temperature of the luminaire's light source, and methods for so doing, are disclosed. The luminaire includes a can, a light engine, and a trim, that define a substantially continuous thermal pathway from the light engine to a surrounding environment. The can defines a can cavity and includes a can end region. The light engine is within the can cavity and includes a light source and a heat sink, including a heat sink end region, coupled thereto. The trim is at least partially disposed within the can cavity and includes a first trim end region coupled to the heat sink end region and a second trim end region coupled to the can end region. Thermal interface material may be located between: the heat sink and the trim, the trim and the can, and/or the heat sink and the light source.

  18. Trim or Replace Impellers on Oversized Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-09-01

    One in a series of tip sheets to help manufacturers optimize their industrial pumping systems. As a result of conservative engineering practices, pumps are often substantially larger than they need to be for an industrial plant's process requirements. Centrifugal pumps can often be oversized because of ''rounding up'', trying to accommodate gradual increases in pipe surface roughness and flow resistance over time, or anticipating future plant capacity expansions. In addition, the plant's pumping requirements might not have been clearly defined during the design phase. Because of this conservative approach, pumps can have operating points completely different from their design points. The pump head is often less than expected, while the flow rate is greater. This can cause cavitation and waste energy as the flow rate typically must be regulated with bypass or throttle control. Oversized and throttled pumps that produce excess pressure are excellent candidates for impeller replacement or ''trimming'', to save energy and reduce costs. Trimming involves machining the impeller to reduce its diameter. Trimming should be limited to about 75% of a pump's maximum impeller diameter, because excessive trimming can result in a mismatched impeller and casing. As the impeller diameter decreases, added clearance between the impeller and the fixed pump casing increases internal flow recirculation, causes head loss, and lowers pumping efficiency. For manufacturing standardization purposes, pump casings and shafts are designed to accommodate impellers in a range of sizes. Many pump manufacturers provide pump performance curves that indicate how various models will perform with different impeller diameters or trims. The impeller should not be trimmed any smaller than the minimum diameter shown on the curve. Net positive suction head requirements (NPSHR) usually decrease at lower flow rates and can increase at the higher end of the pump head curve. The NPSHR at a given flow rate will normally be greater with a smaller impeller, but engineers should consult with the pump manufacturer to determine variations in NPSHR before trimming the impeller. Manufacturers can often provide trim correction charts based on historical test data.

  19. Compensation of the AKT signaling by ERK signaling in transgenic mice hearts overexpressing TRIM72

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, Young-Mi; Mahoney, Sarah Jane

    2013-06-10

    The AKT and ERK signaling pathways are known to be involved in cell hypertrophy, proliferation, survival and differentiation. Although there is evidence for crosstalk between these two signaling pathways in cellulo, there is less evidence for cross talk in vivo. Here, we show that crosstalk between AKT and ERK signaling in the hearts of TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice (TRIM72-Tg) with alpha-MHC promoter regulates and maintains their heart size. TRIM72, a heart- and skeletal muscle-specific protein, downregulates AKT-mTOR signaling via IRS-1 degradation and reduces the size of rat cardiomyocytes and the size of postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts. TRIM72 expression was upregulated by hypertrophic inducers in cardiomyocytes, while IRS-1 was downregulated by IGF-1. TRIM72 specifically regulated IGF-1-dependent AKT-mTOR signaling, resulting in a reduction of the size of cardiomyocytes. Postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts were smaller than control-treated hearts with inhibition of AKT-mTOR signaling. However, adult TRIM72-Tg hearts were larger than of control despite the suppression of AKT-mTOR signaling. Activation of ERK, PKC-α, and JNK were observed to be elevated in adult TRIM72-Tg, and these signals were mediated by ET-1 via the ET receptors A and B. Altogether, these results suggest that AKT signaling regulates cardiac hypertrophy in physiological conditions, and ERK signaling compensates for the absence of AKT signaling during TRIM72 overexpression, leading to pathological hypertrophy. -- Highlights: • TRIM72 inhibits AKT signaling through ubiquitination of IRS-1 in cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates the size of cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates size of postnatal TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts. • Adult TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts showed cardiac dysfunction. • Adult TRIM72 transgenic mice hearts showed higher expression of endothelin receptors.

  20. 114. WEST SIDE OF LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROL ROOM (205). LIQUID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    114. WEST SIDE OF LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROL ROOM (205). LIQUID NITROGEN (LN2) SUBCOOLER ON LEFT; SKID 8, LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROLLER FOR SWITCHING BETWEEN RAPID-LOAD AND TOPPING ON RIGHT. LIQUID OXYGEN LINE FROM SKID 9A AT RIGHT EDGE OF PHOTO. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  1. Structural basis for two-step glucose trimming by glucosidase II involved in ER glycoprotein quality control

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Tadashi; Toshimori, Takayasu; Yan, Gengwei; Yamaguchi, Takumi; Kato, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has a sophisticated protein quality control system for the efficient folding of newly synthesized proteins. In this system, a variety of N-linked oligosaccharides displayed on proteins serve as signals recognized by series of intracellular lectins. Glucosidase II catalyzes two-step hydrolysis at α1,3-linked glucose–glucose and glucose–mannose residues of high-mannose-type glycans to generate a quality control protein tag that is transiently expressed on glycoproteins and recognized by ER chaperones. Here we determined the crystal structures of the catalytic α subunit of glucosidase II (GIIα) complexed with two different glucosyl ligands containing the scissile bonds of first- and second-step reactions. Our structural data revealed that the nonreducing terminal disaccharide moieties of the two kinds of substrates can be accommodated in a gourd-shaped bilocular pocket, thereby providing a structural basis for substrate-binding specificity in the two-step deglucosylation catalyzed by this enzyme. PMID:26847925

  2. Structural basis for two-step glucose trimming by glucosidase II involved in ER glycoprotein quality control.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Tadashi; Toshimori, Takayasu; Yan, Gengwei; Yamaguchi, Takumi; Kato, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has a sophisticated protein quality control system for the efficient folding of newly synthesized proteins. In this system, a variety of N-linked oligosaccharides displayed on proteins serve as signals recognized by series of intracellular lectins. Glucosidase II catalyzes two-step hydrolysis at α1,3-linked glucose-glucose and glucose-mannose residues of high-mannose-type glycans to generate a quality control protein tag that is transiently expressed on glycoproteins and recognized by ER chaperones. Here we determined the crystal structures of the catalytic α subunit of glucosidase II (GIIα) complexed with two different glucosyl ligands containing the scissile bonds of first- and second-step reactions. Our structural data revealed that the nonreducing terminal disaccharide moieties of the two kinds of substrates can be accommodated in a gourd-shaped bilocular pocket, thereby providing a structural basis for substrate-binding specificity in the two-step deglucosylation catalyzed by this enzyme. PMID:26847925

  3. Evaluation of peroxyacetic acid as a potential pre-grinding treatment for control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium on beef trimmings.

    PubMed

    Ellebracht, J W; King, D A; Castillo, A; Lucia, L M; Acuff, G R; Harris, K B; Savell, J W

    2005-05-01

    Peroxyacetic acid was evaluated in four separate trials for ability to reduce populations of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella serotype Typhimurium on fresh beef trim. Trial 1 examined the effectiveness of peroxyacetic acid on individual pieces of fresh beef trim. Trial 2 evaluated the efficacy of peroxyacetic acid at low levels of contamination on batches of fresh beef trim. Trial 3 studied a washing effect of water. Lastly, Trial 4 compared the effectiveness of peroxyacetic acid to lactic acid. At various inoculation levels, peroxyacetic acid reduced populations of both pathogens by approximately 1.0log(10)CFU/cm(2) on fresh beef trim. Trial 3 showed that approximately half of the reductions found in Trials 1 and 2 were due to a washing effect of the water dip. In addition, as shown in Trial 1, increases in concentrations (>200ppm) did not significantly increase log(10) reductions of both pathogens. Following a water dip in Trial 4, peroxyacetic acid caused a reduction of 0.7log(10)CFU/cm(2) in E. coli O157:H7 and 1.0log(10)CFU/cm(2) in Salmonella Typhimurium, whereas lactic acid caused a reduction of 1.3log(10)CFU/cm(2) in E. coli O157:H7 and 2.1log(10)CFU/cm(2) in S. Typhimurium following the water dip. These results show that peroxyacetic acid was not more effective than 2% l-lactic acid in reducing pathogens on fresh beef trim. PMID:22063297

  4. Functional Laser Trimming Of Thin Film Resistors On Silicon ICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Michael J.; Mickanin, Wes

    1986-07-01

    Modern Laser Wafer Trimming (LWT) technology achieves exceptional analog circuit performance and precision while maintain-ing the advantages of high production throughput and yield. Microprocessor-driven instrumentation has both emphasized the role of data conversion circuits and demanded sophisticated signal conditioning functions. Advanced analog semiconductor circuits with bandwidths over 1 GHz, and high precision, trimmable, thin-film resistors meet many of todays emerging circuit requirements. Critical to meeting these requirements are optimum choices of laser characteristics, proper materials, trimming process control, accurate modeling of trimmed resistor performance, and appropriate circuit design. Once limited exclusively to hand-crafted, custom integrated circuits, designs are now available in semi-custom circuit configurations. These are similar to those provided for digital designs and supported by computer-aided design (CAD) tools. Integrated with fully automated measurement and trimming systems, these quality circuits can now be produced in quantity to meet the requirements of communications, instrumentation, and signal processing markets.

  5. Oxygen-depleted zones inside reproductive structures of Brassicaceae: implications for oxygen control of seed development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porterfield, D. M.; Kuang, A.; Smith, P. J.; Crispi, M. L.; Musgrave, M. E.

    1999-01-01

    Growth of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. in decreasing oxygen partial pressures revealed a linear decrease in seed production below 15 kPa, with a complete absence of seed production at 2.5 kPa oxygen. This control of plant reproduction by oxygen had previously been attributed to an oxygen effect on the partitioning between vegetative and reproductive growth. However, plants grown in a series of decreasing oxygen concentrations produced progressively smaller embryos that had stopped developing at progressively younger stages, suggesting instead that their growth is limited by oxygen. Internal oxygen concentrations of buds, pistils, and developing siliques of Brassica rapa L. and siliques of Arabidopsis were measured using a small-diameter glass electrode that was moved into the structures using a micromanipulator. Oxygen partial pressures were found to be lowest in the developing perianth (11.1 kPa) and pistils (15.2 kPa) of the unopened buds. Pollination reduced oxygen concentration inside the pistils by 3 kPa after just 24 h. Inside Brassica silique locules, partial pressures of oxygen averaged 12.2 kPa in darkness, and increased linearly with increasing light levels to 16.2 kPa. Measurements inside Arabidopsis siliques averaged 6.1 kPa in the dark and rose to 12.2 kPa with light. Hypoxia in these microenvironments is postulated to be the point of control of plant reproduction by oxygen.

  6. Estimating and controlling the atomic oxygen content in an argon-oxygen plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keville, Bernard; Monahan, Derek D.; Turner, Miles M.

    2008-10-01

    Oxygen rich plasmas have been applied in many plasma processing applications for decades. In most such applications, process yield could be improved significantly by applying closed loop control of atomic oxygen radical concentration. The design of effective, real time, closed loop control algorithms is facilitated by simple dynamical models of the relationship between inputs, or actuators in control terminology, and the process quantities to be controlled. In the case of an oxygen rich plasma process, one requires the relationship between the inputs - flow-rate set points, forward power from the RF supply and residence time, for example - and the oxygen radical density. With the aid of an argon-oxygen plasma simulation, this presentation describes how, with the aid of simplified dynamical models of the process, one would design model-based control algorithms for the real-time, closed loop control of oxygen radical density. A sine qua non of real time, closed loop control is an accurate estimate of the process quantities to be controlled. Although actinometry provides a non-invasive method for estimating species densities, atomic oxygen actinometry is complicated by the fact that photon emission can occur through dissociative as well as direct excitation, leading to potential ambiguity between the emission intensity and the actual radical concentration in the plasma. Optimal estimation of process states given indirect measurements corrupted by process and measurement noise is a classical topic in control theory and has yielded some spectacular results, notably the ubiquitous Kalman filter.

  7. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2002-01-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program in the seventh quarter October-December 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3 - Economic Evaluation and Task 4 - Program Management. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) modeling of oxygen injection strategies was performed during the quarter resulting in data that suggest the oxygen injection reduces NOx emissions while reducing LOI. Pilot-scale testing activities concluded at the University of Utah this quarter. Testing demonstrated that some experimental conditions can lead to NOx emissions well below the 0.15 lb/MMBtu limit. Evaluation of alternative OTM materials with improved mechanical properties continued this quarter. Powder procedure optimization continued and sintering trial began on an element with a new design. Several OTM elements were tested in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility under various conditions. A modified PSO1d element demonstrated stable oxygen product purity of >98% and oxygen flux of 68% of target. Updated test results and projected economic performance have been reviewed with the Utility Industrial Advisors. The economic comparison remains very favorable for O{sub 2} enhanced combustion. Discussions regarding possible Beta sites have been held with three other utilities in addition to the industrial advisors. Proposals will be prepared after the completion of full scale burner testing. Beta test cost estimating work has been initiated.

  8. 7 CFR 51.3063 - Well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well trimmed. 51.3063 Section 51.3063 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Florida Avocados Definitions § 51.3063 Well trimmed. Well trimmed means that the stem,...

  9. 7 CFR 51.607 - Well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well trimmed. 51.607 Section 51.607 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.607 Well trimmed. Well trimmed means that the...

  10. 7 CFR 51.571 - Well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well trimmed. 51.571 Section 51.571 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.571 Well trimmed. Well trimmed means that not more than 2...

  11. Aeroelastic tailoring for oblique wing lateral trim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohlmann, Jonathan D.; Weisshaar, Terrence A.; Eckstrom, Clinton V.

    1988-01-01

    Composite material aeroelastic tailoring is presently explored as a means for the correction of the roll trim imbalance of oblique-wing aircraft configurations. The concept is demonstrated through the analysis of a realistic oblique wing by a static aeroelastic computational procedure encompassing the full potential transonic aerodynamic code FLO22 and a Ritz structural plate program that models the stiffness due to symmetrical-but-unbalanced composite wing skins. Results indicate that asymetric composite tailoring reduces the aileron deflection needed for roll equilibrium, and reduces control surface hinge moment and drag. Wing skin stresses are, however, very high.

  12. Polydopamine gradients by oxygen diffusion controlled autoxidation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hao-Cheng; Wu, Qing-Yun; Wan, Ling-Shu; Xu, Zhi-Kang

    2013-11-18

    We report a simple and facile protocol to fabricate mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA) gradients on different surfaces. An oxygen diffusion phenomenon was used for dopamine autoxidation to form thickness gradients of PDA on different substrates. These PDA gradients showed gradual changes in thickness, roughness, wettability and light transmittance. PMID:24088788

  13. Trim drag reduction concepts for horizontal takeoff single-stage-to-Orbit vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaughnessy, John D.; Gregory, Irene M.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a study to investigate concepts for minimizing trim drag of horizontal takeoff single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicles are presented. A generic hypersonic airbreathing conical configuration was used as the subject aircraft. The investigation indicates that extreme forward migration of the aerodynamic center as the vehicle accelerates to orbital velocities causes severe aerodynamic instability and trim moments that must be counteracted. Adequate stability can be provided by active control of elevons and rudder, but use of elevons to produce trim moments results in excessive trim drag and fuel consumption. To alleviate this problem, two solution concepts are examined. Active control of the center of gravity (COG) location to track the aerodynamic center decreases trim moment requirements, reduces elevon deflections, and leads to significant fuel savings. Active control of the direction of the thrust vector produces required trim moments, reduces elevon deflections, and also results in significant fuel savings. It is concluded that the combination of active flight control to provide stabilization, (COG) position control to minimize trim moment requirements, and thrust vectoring to generate required trim moments has the potential to significantly reduce fuel consumption during ascent to orbit of horizontal takeoff SSTO vehicles.

  14. TRIM-mediated precision autophagy targets cytoplasmic regulators of innate immunity

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Tomonori; Jain, Ashish; Choi, Seong Won; Mandell, Michael A.; Schroder, Kate; Johansen, Terje

    2015-01-01

    The present paradigms of selective autophagy in mammalian cells cannot fully explain the specificity and selectivity of autophagic degradation. In this paper, we report that a subset of tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins act as specialized receptors for highly specific autophagy (precision autophagy) of key components of the inflammasome and type I interferon response systems. TRIM20 targets the inflammasome components, including NLRP3, NLRP1, and pro–caspase 1, for autophagic degradation, whereas TRIM21 targets IRF3. TRIM20 and TRIM21 directly bind their respective cargo and recruit autophagic machinery to execute degradation. The autophagic function of TRIM20 is affected by mutations associated with familial Mediterranean fever. These findings broaden the concept of TRIMs acting as autophagic receptor regulators executing precision autophagy of specific cytoplasmic targets. In the case of TRIM20 and TRIM21, precision autophagy controls the hub signaling machineries and key factors, inflammasome and type I interferon, directing cardinal innate immunity response systems in humans. PMID:26347139

  15. Interferon alpha (IFNα)-induced TRIM22 interrupts HCV replication by ubiquitinating NS5A

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chen; Zhao, Xinhao; Sun, Dakang; Yang, Leilei; Chong, Chang; Pan, Yu; Chi, Xiumei; Gao, Yanhang; Wang, Moli; Shi, Xiaodong; Sun, Haibo; Lv, Juan; Gao, Yuanda; Zhong, Jin; Niu, Junqi; Sun, Bing

    2016-01-01

    TRIM22, a tripartite-motif (TRIM) protein, is upregulated upon interferon alpha (IFNα) administration to hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. However, the physiological role of TRIM22 upregulation remains unclear. Here, we describe a potential antiviral function of TRIM22's targeting of the HCV NS5A protein. NS5A is important for HCV replication and for resistance to IFNα therapy. During the first 24 h following the initiation of IFNα treatment, upregulation of TRIM22 in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HCV patients correlated with a decrease in viral titer. This phenomenon was confirmed in the hepatocyte-derived cell line Huh-7, which is highly permissive for HCV infection. TRIM22 over-expression inhibited HCV replication, and Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of TRIM22 diminished IFNα-induced anti-HCV function. Furthermore, we determined that TRIM22 ubiquitinates NS5A in a concentration-dependent manner. In summary, our results suggest that TRIM22 upregulation is associated with HCV decline during IFNα treatment and plays an important role in controlling HCV replication in vitro. PMID:25683609

  16. COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF INFRARED AND HOT-BLADE TRIMMING ON FEEDING BEHAVIOR AND PRODUCTIVITY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this research was to examine the impact of a relatively new method of beak trimming on poultry welfare. Seventy-two layer chicks were assigned to hot-blade trimming (HB), infrared treatment (IR) or a control (C) group at 1d of age. Chicks were pair housed by treatment and body weight ...

  17. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2002-08-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the ninth quarter April-June 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Full-scale testing using the Industrial Boiler Simulation Facility (ISBF) at Alstom Power was completed. The pilot scale experiments to evaluate the effect of air preheat and transport air stoichiometric ratio (SR) on NOx emissions were conducted at the University of Utah. Combustion modeling activities continued with full-scale combustion test furnace simulations. An OTM element was tested in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility and two thermal cycles were completed. PSO1d elements of new dimension were tested resulting in a lower flux than previous PSO1d elements of different dimensions, however, no element deformation was observed. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Two potential host beta sites have been identified and proposals submitted.

  18. Supersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of Blunt Body Trim Tab Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korzun, Ashley M.; Murphy, Kelly J.; Edquist, Karl T.

    2013-01-01

    Trim tabs are aerodynamic control surfaces that can allow an entry vehicle to meet aerodynamic performance requirements while reducing or eliminating the use of ballast mass and providing a capability to modulate the lift-to-drag ratio during entry. Force and moment data were obtained on 38 unique, blunt body trim tab configurations in the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The data were used to parametrically assess the supersonic aerodynamic performance of trim tabs and to understand the influence of tab area, cant angle, and aspect ratio. Across the range of conditions tested (Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5; angles of attack from -4deg to +20deg; angles of sideslip from 0deg to +8deg), the effects of varying tab area and tab cant angle were found to be much more significant than effects from varying tab aspect ratio. Aerodynamic characteristics exhibited variation with Mach number and forebody geometry over the range of conditions tested. Overall, the results demonstrate that trim tabs are a viable approach to satisfy aerodynamic performance requirements of blunt body entry vehicles with minimal ballast mass. For a 70deg sphere-cone, a tab with 3% area of the forebody and canted approximately 35deg with no ballast mass was found to give the same trim aerodynamics as a baseline model with ballast mass that was 5% of the total entry mass.

  19. Factors affecting laser-trim stability of thick film resistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cote, R. E.; Headley, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Various factors affecting precision of trim and resistor stability were considered. The influence of machine operating parameters on resistor performance was examined and quantified through statistically designed experiments for a Q switched YAG laser system. Laser kerf quality was studied by scanning electron microscopy and related to kerf isolation resistance measurements. A relatively simple production oriented, quality control test is proposed for rapid determination of kerf electrical stability. In addition, the effect of cut design and extent of trim on precision and stability were discussed.

  20. Strain control of oxygen vacancies in epitaxial strontium cobaltite films

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jeen, Hyoung Jeen; Choi, Woo Seok; Reboredo, Fernando A.; Freeland, John W.; Eres, Gyula; Lee, Ho Nyung; Petrie, Jonathan R.; Mitra, Chandrima; Meyer, Tricia L.

    2016-01-25

    In this study, the ability to manipulate oxygen anion defects rather than metal cations in complex oxides can facilitate creating new functionalities critical for emerging energy and device technologies. However, the difficulty in activating oxygen at reduced temperatures hinders the deliberate control of important defects, oxygen vacancies. Here, strontium cobaltite (SrCoOx) is used to demonstrate that epitaxial strain is a powerful tool for manipulating the oxygen vacancy concentration even under highly oxidizing environments and at annealing temperatures as low as 300 °C. By applying a small biaxial tensile strain (2%), the oxygen activation energy barrier decreases by ≈30%, resulting inmore » a tunable oxygen deficient steady-state under conditions that would normally fully oxidize unstrained cobaltite. These strain-induced changes in oxygen stoichiometry drive the cobaltite from a ferromagnetic metal towards an antiferromagnetic insulator. The ability to decouple the oxygen vacancy concentration from its typical dependence on the operational environment is useful for effectively designing oxides materials with a specific oxygen stoichiometry.« less

  1. Amplification of TRIM44: Pairing a Prognostic Target With Potential Therapeutic Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Chin-Ann Johnny; Shannon, Nicholas B.; Ross-Innes, Caryn S.; ODonovan, Maria; Rueda, Oscar M.; Hu, De-en; Kettunen, Mikko I.; Walker, Christina Elaine; Noorani, Ayesha; Hardwick, Richard H.; Caldas, Carlos; Brindle, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Background Many prognostic biomarkers have been proposed recently. However, there is a lack of therapeutic strategies exploiting novel prognostic biomarkers. We aimed to propose therapeutic options in patients with overexpression of TRIM44, a recently identified prognostic gene. Methods Genomic and transcriptomic data of epithelial cancers (n = 1932), breast cancers (BCs; n = 1980) and esophago-gastric cancers (EGCs; n = 163) were used to identify genomic aberrations driving TRIM44 overexpression. The driver gene status of TRIM44 was determined using a small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen of the 11p13 amplicon. Integrative analysis was applied across multiple datasets to identify pathway activation and potential therapeutic strategies. Validation of the in silico findings were performed using in vitro assays, xenografts, and patient samples (n = 160). Results TRIM44 overexpression results from genomic amplification in 16.1% of epithelial cancers, including 8.1% of EGCs and 6.1% of BCs. This was confirmed using fluorescent in situ hybridization. The siRNA screen confirmed TRIM44 to be a driver of the amplicon. In silico analysis revealed an association between TRIM44 and mTOR signalling, supported by a decrease in mTOR signalling after siRNA knockdown of TRIM44 in cell lines and colocalization of TRIM44 and p-mTOR in patient samples. In vitro inhibition studies using an mTOR inhibitor (everolimus) decreased cell viability in two TRIM44-amplified cells lines by 88% and 70% compared with 35% in the control cell line. These findings were recapitulated in xenograft models. Conclusions Genomic amplification drives TRIM44 overexpression in EGCs and BCs. Targeting the mTOR pathway provides a potential therapeutic option for TRIM44-amplified tumors. PMID:24777112

  2. INFRARED BEAK TREATMENT: PART III, COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF INFRARED AND 1/2 HOT-BLADE TRIMMING ON BEAK TOPOGRAPHY AND GROWTH.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of infrared beak trimming (IR) and hot-blade beak trimming (HB) on beak length and production were examined in chickens beak trimmed at 1 day of age. Seventy-two chicks were randomly assigned to HB (1/2 beak), IR at 60 watt (1/3-1/2 reduction in length), or a control (C) group at 1 d old...

  3. Automation and control of off-planet oxygen production processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marner, W. J.; Suitor, J. W.; Schooley, L. S.; Cellier, F. E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses several aspects of the automation and control of off-planet production processes. First, a general approach to process automation and control is discussed from the viewpoint of translating human process control procedures into automated procedures. Second, the control issues for the automation and control of off-planet oxygen processes are discussed. Sensors, instruments, and components are defined and discussed in the context of off-planet applications, and the need for 'smart' components is clearly established.

  4. TRIM25 has a dual function in the p53/Mdm2 circuit.

    PubMed

    Zhang, P; Elabd, S; Hammer, S; Solozobova, V; Yan, H; Bartel, F; Inoue, S; Henrich, T; Wittbrodt, J; Loosli, F; Davidson, G; Blattner, C

    2015-11-12

    P53 is an important tumor suppressor that, upon activation, induces growth arrest and cell death. Control of p53 is thus of prime importance for proliferating cells, but also for cancer therapy, where p53 activity contributes to the eradication of tumors. Mdm2 functionally inhibits p53 and targets the tumor suppressor protein for degradation. In a genetic screen, we identified TRIM25 as a novel regulator of p53 and Mdm2. TRIM25 increased p53 and Mdm2 abundance by inhibiting their ubiquitination and degradation in 26 S proteasomes. TRIM25 co-precipitated with p53 and Mdm2 and interfered with the association of p300 and Mdm2, a critical step for p53 polyubiquitination. Despite the increase in p53 levels, p53 activity was inhibited in the presence of TRIM25. Downregulation of TRIM25 resulted in an increased acetylation of p53 and p53-dependent cell death in HCT116 cells. Upon genotoxic insults, TRIM25 dampened the p53-dependent DNA damage response. The downregulation of TRIM25 furthermore resulted in massive apoptosis during early embryogenesis of medaka, which was rescued by the concomitant downregulation of p53, demonstrating the functional relevance of the regulation of p53 by TRIM25 in an organismal context. PMID:25728675

  5. Application of the concept of dynamic trim control and nonlinear system inverses to automatic control of a vertical attitude takeoff and landing aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. A.; Meyer, G.

    1981-01-01

    A full envelope automatic flight control system based on nonlinear inverse systems concepts has been applied to a vertical attitude takeoff and landing (VATOL) fighter aircraft. A new method for using an airborne digital aircraft model to perform the inversion of a nonlinear aircraft model is presented together with the results of a simulation study of the nonlinear inverse system concept for the vertical-attitude hover mode. The system response to maneuver commands in the vertical attitude was found to be excellent; and recovery from large initial offsets and large disturbances was found to be very satisfactory.

  6. 142. STANDBY PRESSURE CONTROL UNIT FOR FUEL AND LIQUID OXYGEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    142. STANDBY PRESSURE CONTROL UNIT FOR FUEL AND LIQUID OXYGEN IN SOUTHWEST PORTION OF CONTROL ROOM (214), LSB (BLDG. 751), FACING WEST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. Atmospheric oxygen concentration controls the size history of foraminifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, J.; Jost, A. B.; Ouyang, X.; Skotheim, J. M.; Wang, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    Body size correlates with numerous physiological traits and thus influences organism fitness. However, long-term controls on size evolution remain poorly understood because few datasets spans sufficiently long intervals. One proposed controlling factor is variation in atmospheric oxygen, which is widely argued to have influenced size evolution in numerous taxa, notably gigantism in arthropods during the late Paleozoic. In this study, we compiled a comprehensive genus- and species-level size database of foraminifers (marine protists) to enable an extensive analysis of factors influencing size evolution. Foraminifers are an ideal study group because they are present in all Phanerozoic periods and have been diverse and abundant in shallow-marine habitats since Devonian time. We observe significant correlation between foraminiferan size and atmospheric oxygen concentration in foraminifers as a whole and in half of the major subclades. Larger size is associated with higher oxygen concentrations, as predicted by simple physiological models based on changes in the ratio of surface area to volume. Because the oxygen content ocean waters is controlled in part by atmospheric pO2, we interpret the association between foraminiferan size and pO2 to result from a direct physiological effect of oxygen availability. Atmospheric oxygen concentration predicts foraminiferan size better than six other Phanerozoic time series (pCO2, sea level, number of named geological formations, δ18O, δ13C, 87Sr/86Sr), further suggesting the correlation between oxygen and size does not occur simply through some common geological cause that influences many aspects of Earth system history. These findings support the hypothesis that widespread Permo-Carboniferous gigantism was enabled by high pO2 and suggest that oxygen availability has been among the most important influences on size evolution through Phanerozoic time.

  8. Microbial degradation and humification of the lawn care pesticide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid during the composting of yard trimmings.

    PubMed Central

    Michel, F C; Reddy, C A; Forney, L J

    1995-01-01

    The fate of the widely used lawn care herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) during the composting of yard trimmings consisting of primarily leaves and grass is an important unexplored question. In this study, we determined the extent of 2,4-D mineralization, incorporation into humic matter, volatilization, and sorption during the composting of yard trimmings. Yard trimmings (2:1 [wt/wt] leaves-grass) were amended with 14C-ring-labeled 2,4-D (17 mg/kg of dry weight) and composted in a temperature-controlled laboratory scale compost system. During composting, thermophilic microbes were numerically dominant, reaching a maximum of 2 x 10(11)/g. At the end of composting, 46% of the organic matter (OM) present in the yard trimmings was lost and the compost was stable, with an oxygen uptake rate of 0.09 mg of O2 per g of OM per h, and was well humified (humification index, 0.39). Mineralization of the OM temporally paralleled mineralization of 2,4-D. In the final compost, 47% of the added 2,4-D carbon was mineralized, about 23% was complexed with high-molecular-weight humic acids, and about 20% was not extractable (humin fraction). Less than 1% of the added 14C was present in water expressed from the finished compost, suggesting a low potential for leaching of 2,4-D. Very little volatilization of 2,4-D occurred during composting. It is of interest that our results indicate active mineralization of 2,4-D at composting temperatures of 60 degrees C because microbial 2,4-D degradation at thermophilic temperatures has not been previously documented. PMID:7618868

  9. Identification of a Genomic Reservoir for New TRIM Genes in Primate Genomes

    PubMed Central

    Sawyer, Sara L.

    2011-01-01

    Tripartite Motif (TRIM) ubiquitin ligases act in the innate immune response against viruses. One of the best characterized members of this family, TRIM5α, serves as a potent retroviral restriction factor with activity against HIV. Here, we characterize what are likely to be the youngest TRIM genes in the human genome. For instance, we have identified 11 TRIM genes that are specific to humans and African apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas) and another 7 that are human-specific. Many of these young genes have never been described, and their identification brings the total number of known human TRIM genes to approximately 100. These genes were acquired through segmental duplications, most of which originated from a single locus on chromosome 11. Another polymorphic duplication of this locus has resulted in these genes being copy number variable within the human population, with a Han Chinese woman identified as having 12 additional copies of these TRIM genes compared to other individuals screened in this study. Recently, this locus was annotated as one of 34 “hotspot” regions that are also copy number variable in the genomes of chimpanzees and rhesus macaques. Most of the young TRIM genes originating from this locus are expressed, spliced, and contain signatures of positive natural selection in regions known to determine virus recognition in TRIM5α. However, we find that they do not restrict the same retroviruses as TRIM5α, consistent with the high degree of divergence observed in the regions that control target specificity. We propose that this recombinationally volatile locus serves as a reservoir from which new TRIM genes arise through segmental duplication, allowing primates to continually acquire new antiviral genes that can be selected to target new and evolving pathogens. PMID:22144910

  10. Identification of a genomic reservoir for new TRIM genes in primate genomes.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyudong; Lou, Dianne I; Sawyer, Sara L

    2011-12-01

    Tripartite Motif (TRIM) ubiquitin ligases act in the innate immune response against viruses. One of the best characterized members of this family, TRIM5?, serves as a potent retroviral restriction factor with activity against HIV. Here, we characterize what are likely to be the youngest TRIM genes in the human genome. For instance, we have identified 11 TRIM genes that are specific to humans and African apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas) and another 7 that are human-specific. Many of these young genes have never been described, and their identification brings the total number of known human TRIM genes to approximately 100. These genes were acquired through segmental duplications, most of which originated from a single locus on chromosome 11. Another polymorphic duplication of this locus has resulted in these genes being copy number variable within the human population, with a Han Chinese woman identified as having 12 additional copies of these TRIM genes compared to other individuals screened in this study. Recently, this locus was annotated as one of 34 "hotspot" regions that are also copy number variable in the genomes of chimpanzees and rhesus macaques. Most of the young TRIM genes originating from this locus are expressed, spliced, and contain signatures of positive natural selection in regions known to determine virus recognition in TRIM5?. However, we find that they do not restrict the same retroviruses as TRIM5?, consistent with the high degree of divergence observed in the regions that control target specificity. We propose that this recombinationally volatile locus serves as a reservoir from which new TRIM genes arise through segmental duplication, allowing primates to continually acquire new antiviral genes that can be selected to target new and evolving pathogens. PMID:22144910

  11. Control of oxygenation in lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Claus; Pratt, Derek A.; Porter, Ned A.; Brash, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOX) and cyclooxygenases (COX) react an achiral polyunsaturated fatty acid with oxygen to form a chiral peroxide product of high regio- and stereochemical purity. Both enzymes employ free radical chemistry reminiscent of hydrocarbon autoxidation but execute efficient control during catalysis to form a specific product over the multitude of isomers found in the non-enzymatic reaction. Exactly how both dioxygenases achieve this positional and stereo control is far from clear. We present four mechanistic models, not mutually exclusive, that could account for the specific reactions of molecular oxygen with a fatty acid in the LOX or COX active site. PMID:17524979

  12. An Interview with John Trim at 80

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saville, Nick

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Dr. John Trim, which was recorded at his home in Cambridge on January 21, 2005, not long after his 80th birthday in October 2004. Although he would not consider himself a language tester, Dr. Trim has followed the trends in language assessment since the 1960s and his own work, particularly as a coauthor of…

  13. Biochemical and Biophysical Characterization of a Chimeric TRIM21-TRIM5α Protein▿

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Alak Kanti; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Li, Yuan; Li, Xing; Sodroski, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    The tripartite motif (TRIM) protein, TRIM5α, is an endogenous factor in primates that recognizes the capsids of certain retroviruses after virus entry into the host cell. TRIM5α promotes premature uncoating of the capsid, thus blocking virus infection. Low levels of expression and tendencies to aggregate have hindered the biochemical, biophysical, and structural characterization of TRIM proteins. Here, a chimeric TRIM5α protein (TRIM5Rh-21R) with a RING domain derived from TRIM21 was expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells and purified. Although a fraction of the TRIM5Rh-21R protein formed large aggregates, soluble fractions of the protein formed oligomers (mainly dimers), exhibited a protease-resistant core, and contained a high percentage of helical secondary structure. Cross-linking followed by negative staining and electron microscopy suggested a globular structure. The purified TRIM5Rh-21R protein displayed E3-ligase activity in vitro and also self-ubiquitylated in the presence of ubiquitin-activating and -conjugating enzymes. The purified TRIM5Rh-21R protein specifically associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid-like complexes; a deletion within the V1 variable region of the B30.2(SPRY) domain decreased capsid binding. Thus, the TRIM5Rh-21R restriction factor can directly recognize retroviral capsid-like complexes in the absence of other mammalian proteins. PMID:18799572

  14. Impact of TRIM5α in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Emi E.; Shioda, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    HIV type 1 (HIV-1) has a very narrow host range that is limited to humans and chimpanzees. HIV-1 cannot replicate well in Old World monkey cells such as rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys. Tripartite motif (TRIM)5α is a key molecule that confers potent resistance against HIV-1 infection and is composed of really interesting new gene, B-box2, coiled-coil and PRYSPRY domains. Interaction between TRIM5α PRYSPRY domains and HIV-1 capsid core triggers the anti-HIV-1 activity of TRIM5α. Analysis of natural HIV variants and extensive mutational experiments has revealed the presence of critical amino acid residues in both the PRYSPRY domain and HIV capsid for potent HIV suppression by TRIM5α. Genetic manipulation of the human TRIM5 gene could establish human cells totally resistant to HIV-1, which may lead to a cure for HIV-1 infection in the future. PMID:26372380

  15. Origin and Diversification of TRIM Ubiquitin Ligases

    PubMed Central

    Marín, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Most proteins of the TRIM family (also known as RBCC family) are ubiquitin ligases that share a peculiar protein structure, characterized by including an N-terminal RING finger domain closely followed by one or two B-boxes. Additional protein domains found at their C termini have been used to classify TRIM proteins into classes. TRIMs are involved in multiple cellular processes and many of them are essential components of the innate immunity system of animal species. In humans, it has been shown that mutations in several TRIM-encoding genes lead to diverse genetic diseases and contribute to several types of cancer. They had been hitherto detected only in animals. In this work, by comprehensively analyzing the available diversity of TRIM and TRIM-like protein sequences and evaluating their evolutionary patterns, an improved classification of the TRIM family is obtained. Members of one of the TRIM subfamilies defined, called Subfamily A, turn to be present not only in animals, but also in many other eukaryotes, such as fungi, apusozoans, alveolates, excavates and plants. The rest of subfamilies are animal-specific and several of them originated only recently. Subfamily A proteins are characterized by containing a MATH domain, suggesting a potential evolutionary connection between TRIM proteins and a different type of ubiquitin ligases, known as TRAFs, which contain quite similar MATH domains. These results indicate that the TRIM family emerged much earlier than so far thought and contribute to our understanding of its origin and diversification. The structural and evolutionary links with the TRAF family of ubiquitin ligases can be experimentally explored to determine whether functional connections also exist. PMID:23185523

  16. Oxygen controlled bipolar switching in NiO memristor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhong; Zhao, Yonggang; Zhao, Diyang; Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China Team

    2015-03-01

    As Leon Chua demonstrated, both unipolar and bipolar resistance switching devices are memristors. Over the past decade, metal/oxide/metal structure with NiO as a ReRAM functional layer has been investigated widely and in depth, due to its intrinsic unipolar resistance switching, which is attributed to the connection and rupture of nickel filament in NiO. Recently, several papers studying NiO nanowires or NiO films with C-AFM infer that bipolar switching mechanism may govern the NiO memristors on the nanoscale. However, a systematic research on the mechanism of bipolar switching in NiO memristor on the nanoscale is still lacking. Especially, the role of oxygen in a NiO memristor has never been explored. Here we carry out a comprehensive study of the mechanism of bipolar switching in NiO memristor, and uncover the dominant role of oxygen. NiO/Pt structures were measured by C-AFM equipped with 20 nm conductive tips. By controlling the inherent oxygen concentration of NiO film, film thickness, and chamber oxygen pressure, we demonstrate that it is the inner oxygen distribution, related to electric field-induced ion drift and oxygen exchange between NiO film and ambient, that acts as the state variable, whose response to applied bias results in the bipolar switching in NiO memristor.

  17. Control of seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana by atmospheric oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, A.; Crispi, M.; Musgrave, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    Seed development is known to be inhibited completely when plants are grown in oxygen concentrations below 5.1 kPa, but apart from reports of decreased seed weight little is known about embryogenesis at subambient oxygen concentrations above this critical level. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants were grown full term under continuous light in premixed atmospheres with oxygen partial pressures of 2.5, 5.1, 10.1, 16.2 and 21.3 kPa O2, 0.035 kPa CO2 and the balance nitrogen. Seeds were harvested for germination tests and microscopy when siliques had yellowed. Seed germination was depressed in O2 treatments below 16.2 kPa, and seeds from plants grown in 2.5 kPa O2 did not germinate at all. Fewer than 25% of the seeds from plants grown in 5.1 kPa oxygen germinated and most of the seedlings appeared abnormal. Light and scanning electron microscopic observation of non-germinated seeds showed that these embryos had stopped growing at different developmental stages depending upon the prevailing oxygen level. Embryos stopped growing at the heart-shaped to linear cotyledon stage in 5.1 kPa O2, at around the curled cotyledon stage in 10.1 kPa O2, and at the premature stage in 16.2 kPa O2. Globular and heart-shaped embryos were observed in sectioned seeds from plants grown in 2.5 kPa O2. Tissue degeneration caused by cell autolysis and changes in cell structure were observed in cotyledons and radicles. Transmission electron microscopy of mature seeds showed that storage substances, such as protein bodies, were reduced in subambient oxygen treatments. The results demonstrate control of embryo development by oxygen in Arabidopsis.

  18. Surface control of epitaxial manganite films via oxygen pressure

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tselev, Alexander; Vasudevan, Rama K.; Gianfrancesco, Anthony G.; Qiao, Liang; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Meyer, Tricia L.; Lee, Ho Nyung; Biegalski, Michael D.; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Kalinin, Sergei

    2015-03-11

    The trend to reduce device dimensions demands increasing attention to atomic-scale details of structure of thin films as well as to pathways to control it. We found that this is of special importance in the systems with multiple competing interactions. We have used in situ scanning tunneling microscopy to image surfaces of La5/8Ca3/8MnO3 films grown by pulsed laser deposition. The atomically resolved imaging was combined with in situ angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We find a strong effect of the background oxygen pressure during deposition on structural and chemical features of the film surface. Deposition at 50 mTorr of O2 leadsmore » to mixed-terminated film surfaces, with B-site (MnO2) termination being structurally imperfect at the atomic scale. Moreover, a relatively small reduction of the oxygen pressure to 20 mTorr results in a dramatic change of the surface structure leading to a nearly perfectly ordered B-site terminated surface with only a small fraction of A-site (La,Ca)O termination. This is accompanied, however, by surface roughening at a mesoscopic length scale. The results suggest that oxygen has a strong link to the adatom mobility during growth. The effect of the oxygen pressure on dopant surface segregation is also pronounced: Ca surface segregation is decreased with oxygen pressure reduction.« less

  19. Oxygen-controlled Biosurfactant Production in a Bench Scale Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Kronemberger, Frederico Araujo; Anna, Lidia Maria Melo Santa; Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; de Menezes, Reginaldo Ramos; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

    Rhamnolipids have been pointed out as promising biosurfactants. The most studied microorganisms for the aerobic production of these molecules are the bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. The aim of this work was to produce a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant in a bench-scale bioreactor by one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil environments. To study the microorganism growth and production dependency on oxygen, a nondispersive oxygenation device was developed, and a programmable logic controller (PLC) was used to set the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Using the data stored in a computer and the predetermined characteristics of the oxygenation device, it was possible to evaluate the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and the specific OUR (SOUR) of this microorganism. These rates, obtained for some different DO concentrations, were then compared to the bacterial growth, to the carbon source consumption, and to the rhamnolipid and other virulence factors production. The SOUR presented an initial value of about 60.0 mg02/gdw h. Then, when the exponential growth phase begins, there is a rise in this rate. After that, the SOUR reduces to about 20.0 mg02/gdw h. The carbon source consumption is linear during the whole process.

  20. Surface control of epitaxial manganite films via oxygen pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Tselev, Alexander; Vasudevan, Rama K.; Gianfrancesco, Anthony G.; Qiao, Liang; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Meyer, Tricia L.; Lee, Ho Nyung; Biegalski, Michael D.; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Kalinin, Sergei

    2015-03-11

    The trend to reduce device dimensions demands increasing attention to atomic-scale details of structure of thin films as well as to pathways to control it. We found that this is of special importance in the systems with multiple competing interactions. We have used in situ scanning tunneling microscopy to image surfaces of La5/8Ca3/8MnO3 films grown by pulsed laser deposition. The atomically resolved imaging was combined with in situ angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We find a strong effect of the background oxygen pressure during deposition on structural and chemical features of the film surface. Deposition at 50 mTorr of O2 leads to mixed-terminated film surfaces, with B-site (MnO2) termination being structurally imperfect at the atomic scale. Moreover, a relatively small reduction of the oxygen pressure to 20 mTorr results in a dramatic change of the surface structure leading to a nearly perfectly ordered B-site terminated surface with only a small fraction of A-site (La,Ca)O termination. This is accompanied, however, by surface roughening at a mesoscopic length scale. The results suggest that oxygen has a strong link to the adatom mobility during growth. The effect of the oxygen pressure on dopant surface segregation is also pronounced: Ca surface segregation is decreased with oxygen pressure reduction.

  1. Adaptive control of dissolved oxygen concentration in a bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Lee, S C; Hwang, Y B; Chang, H N; Chang, Y K

    1991-03-25

    A new adaptive DO (dissolved oxygen) concentration control algorithm considering DO electrode dynamics with response time delay has been developed. A system model with two time-varying parameters was used to relate the DO concentration with two control variables: air flow rate and agitation speed. Parameters of this model were estimated on-line using a regularized constant trace recursive least-squares method. An extended Kalman filter was used to remove the effect of noises from the DO concentration measurements and thus to improve control performance. A discrete one-step ahead control scheme was adopted to determine control actions based on the parameter estimation results. Experimental results showed that the new adaptive DO concentration control algorithm performed better than other algorithms tested, a PID controller and adaptive algorithms without the DO electrode dynamics. PMID:18600651

  2. Compartment A1, trim tanks viewed aft to forward from watertight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-1, trim tanks viewed aft to forward from watertight bulkhead no. 6. Using remotely controlled valves, the tanks could be flooded with water or pumped clear to compensate for variations in the ship's displacement and maintain the water line at the desired point. The trim tanks could also be used to counteract the effect of variations in sea water density. (02) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. Quality Control and Application of Oxygen Data from Profiling Floats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeshita, Y.; Martz, T. R.; Johnson, K. S.; Plant, J.; Riser, S.; Gilbert, D.

    2010-12-01

    Profiling floats provide a near-ideal platform for monitoring the seasonal evolution of both physical and chemical processes at the regional, basin, and global scale. Although temperature, salinity, and pressure data must pass well-defined Quality Control protocols at Global Data Assembly Centers, no such protocol exists for chemical data (oxygen and nitrate) now being measured on 348 “Argo Equivalents” (of which ~150 are still active) within the ~3200 float array. With the number of chemical measurements returned from the Argo array rapidly growing, it is important to develop and evaluate new QC procedures for these data in order to use the chemical Argo dataset for quantitative descriptions of oceanic biogeochemical processes. We initiated a preliminary assessment of quality control protocols for profiling float data, with the ultimate goal of using the QC'd dataset for biogeochemical studies, including use of float oxygen data to constrain a model that calculates rates of Net Community Production. Profiling float oxygen data prior to June 2010 were compared to the World Ocean Atlas 2009 monthly climatology. Large deviations from the climatology were observed for many floats, indicating the need for a QC protocol for float oxygen data, and possibly also indicating real processes not accounted for in the climatology. Approximately 100 floats were selected to calculate net community production in the euphotic zone. Here we discuss different QC methods that we have explored, and evaluate how each method affects the calculated NCP rates. Depending on which QC method is used, the sign of the NCP rates can change, thus further highlighting the importance of establishing a proper QC protocol for float oxygen data.

  4. A trimming technique for capacitive SAR ADC as sensor interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Liu; Zhankun, Du; Li, Shao; Xiao, Ma

    2015-12-01

    This work presented a trimming technique and algorithm applied in a capacitive successive approximation register (SAR) analog to digital converter (ADC) for a sensor interface, which can be integrated with the preceding sensor and the following controlling circuit. Without spending a special calibration phase or adding complicated functions, this circuit keeps a 12-bit resolution by trimming the capacitor array. Its merits of low power and small area make it suitable to be embedded in a power and cost sensitive system such as a battery-supplied sensor network node. The prototype 12-bit ADC is implemented by 0.5 μm 2P3M CMOS technology, with the wide supply range of 2-5 V, its power consumption is only 300 μA at a sampling speed of 200 kHz. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61204034).

  5. Controlling the bond scission sequence of oxygenates for energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stottlemyer, Alan L.

    The so called "Holy Grail" of heterogeneous catalysis is a fundamental understanding of catalyzed chemical transformations which span multidimensional scales of both length and time, enabling rational catalyst design. Such an undertaking is realizable only with an atomic level understanding of bond formation and destruction with respect to intrinsic properties of the metal catalyst. In this study, we investigate the bond scission sequence of small oxygenates (methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol) on bimetallic transition metal catalysts and transition metal carbide catalysts. Oxygenates are of interest both as hydrogen carriers for reforming to H2 and CO and as fuels in direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFC). To address the so-called "materials gap" and "pressure gap" this work adopted three parallel research approaches: (1) ultra high vacuum (UHV) studies including temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) on polycrystalline surfaces; (2) DFT studies including thermodynamic and kinetic calculations; (3) electrochemical studies including cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA). Recent studies have suggested that tungsten monocarbide (WC) may behave similarly to Pt for the electrooxidation of oxygenates. TPD was used to quantify the activity and selectivity of oxygenate decomposition for WC and Pt-modifiedWC (Pt/WC) as compared to Pt. While decomposition activity was generally higher on WC than on Pt, scission of the C-O bond resulted in alkane/alkene formation on WC, an undesired product for DAFC. When Pt was added to WC by physical vapor deposition C-O bond scission was limited, suggesting that Pt synergistically modifies WC to improve the selectivity toward C-H bond scission to produce H2 and CO. Additionally, TPD confirmed WC and Pt/WC to be more CO tolerant than Pt. HREELS results verified that surface intermediates were different on Pt/WC as compared to Pt or WC and evidence of aldehyde intermediates was observed on the Pt and Pt/WC surfaces. For CH3OH decomposition, DFT calculations suggested that the bond scission sequence could be controlled using monolayer coverage of Pt on WC. The Ni/Pt bimetallic system was studied as an example for using oxygenates as a hydrogen source. There are two well characterized surface structures for the Ni/Pt system: the surface configuration, in which the Ni atoms reside primarily on the surface of the Pt bulk, and the subsurface configuration, in which the second atomic layer is enriched in Ni atoms and the surface is enriched in Pt atoms. These configurations are denoted NiPtPt and PtNiPt, respectively. DFT results revealed that trends established for the Ni/Pt(111) system extend to the Ni/Pt(100) analogue. TPD studies revealed that the NiPtPt surface was more active for oxygenate reforming than the Pt or PtNiPt surfaces. HREELS confirmed the presence of strongly bound reaction intermediates, including aldehyde-like species, and suggested that the first decomposition step was likely O-H bond scission. Thus, the binding energies of the deprotonated reaction intermediates are important parameters in controlling the decomposition pathways of oxygenates. These studies have demonstrated that the bond scission sequence of oxygenate decomposition can be controlled using bimetallic and transition metal carbide catalysts. While this study has focused on oxygenate decomposition for energy applications, the principles and methodology applied herein are universally applicable to the development of novel and marketable value-added products. The value in such a methodology is in the combination of both calculations to predict catalytic and chemical properties, and experiments to fine-tune theoretical predictions.

  6. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Trim7 mediates c-Jun/AP-1 activation by Ras signalling

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Atanu; Diefenbacher, Markus E.; Mylona, Anastasia; Kassel, Olivier; Behrens, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The c-Jun/AP-1 transcription factor controls key cellular behaviours, including proliferation and apoptosis, in response to JNK and Ras/MAPK signalling. While the JNK pathway has been well characterised, the mechanism of activation by Ras was elusive. Here we identify the uncharacterised ubiquitin ligase Trim7 as a critical component of AP-1 activation via Ras. We found that MSK1 directly phosphorylates Trim7 in response to direct activation by the Ras–Raf–MEK–ERK pathway, and this modification stimulates Trim7 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Trim7 mediates Lys63-linked ubiquitination of the AP-1 coactivator RACO-1, leading to RACO-1 protein stabilisation. Consequently, Trim7 depletion reduces RACO-1 levels and AP-1-dependent gene expression. Moreover, transgenic overexpression of Trim7 increases lung tumour burden in a Ras-driven cancer model, and knockdown of Trim7 in established xenografts reduces tumour growth. Thus, phosphorylation-ubiquitination crosstalk between MSK1, Trim7 and RACO-1 completes the long sought-after mechanism linking growth factor signalling and AP-1 activation. PMID:25851810

  7. Characterization of bending CD errors induced by resist trimming in 65 nm node and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yiming; Friedmann, James B.; Ukraintsev, Vladimir; Zhang, Gary; Wolf, Thomas; Lii, Tom; Jackson, Ricky

    2007-03-01

    Resist trimming is a technique that is often used to close the gap between line widths which can be repeatedly printed with currently available lithography tools and the desired transistor gate length. For the 65-nm node, the resist line width delivered at pattern is between 60 to 70 nm while the final transistor gate length is usually targeted between 35 to 45 nm. The 15 to 35 nm critical dimension (CD) difference can be bridged by resist trimming. Due to the stringent gate CD budget, a resist trimming process should ideally have the following characteristics: i) no degradation in CD uniformity; ii) no damage in pattern fidelity; iii) controllable CD trim rate with good linearity; and iv) no degradation in line edge roughness (LER) or line width roughness (LWR). Unfortunately, a realistic resist trimming process is never perfect. In particular, resist consumption and the resultant internal stress build-up during resist trimming can lead to resist line bending. The effect of bent resist lines is a higher post-etch CD and significantly degraded local CD uniformity (LCDU). In order to reduce resist bending CD errors (defined as the difference between the post-etch CD and the design CD due to resist bending after trimming) several useful procedures either in layout or in processes are presented. These procedures include: i) symmetrically aligning gates to contact pads and field connecting poly in the circuit layout; ii) enlarging the distance between contact pad (or field connecting poly) to active area within the limits of the design rules (DR) and silicon real estate; iii) adding assist features to the layout within the DR limits; iv) minimizing resist thickness; and v) applying special plasma cure before resist trim.

  8. Restriction of Foamy Viruses by Primate Trim5α▿

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Melvyn W.; Lindemann, Dirk; Stanke, Nicole; Reh, Juliane; Westphal, Dana; Hanenberg, Helmut; Ohkura, Sadayuki; Stoye, Jonathan P.

    2008-01-01

    Foamy viruses (FVs) are unconventional retroviruses with a replication strategy that is significantly different from orthoretroviruses and bears some homology to that of hepadnaviruses. Although some cellular proteins, such as APOBEC3, have been reported to block FVs, no restriction by Trim5α has been described to date. The sensitivity of three FV isolates of human-chimpanzee or prototypic (PFV), macaque (SFVmac), and feline (FFV) origin to a variety of primate Trim5αs was therefore tested. PFV and SFVmac were restricted by Trim5αs from most New World monkeys, but not from other primates, whereas FFV-based vectors were restricted by Trim5αs from the great apes gorilla and orangutan. Trim5αs from Old World monkeys did not restrict any FV isolate tested. Capuchin Trim5α was unique, as it restricted SFVmac and FFV but not PFV. Trim5α specificity for FVs was determined by the B30.2 domain, interestingly involving, in some instances, the same residues of the variable regions previously implicated as major determinants for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 restriction. FVs with chimeric Gags were made to map the viral determinants of sensitivity to restriction. The N-terminal half of the Gag molecule was found to contain the regions that control susceptibility. This region most likely corresponds to the capsid of conventional retroviruses. Due to their unique replication strategy, FVs should provide a valuable new system to examine the mechanism of retroviral restriction by Trim5α. PMID:18367529

  9. Controllable positive exchange bias via redox-driven oxygen migration

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Dustin A.; Olamit, Justin; Dumas, Randy K.; Kirby, B. J.; Grutter, Alexander J.; Maranville, Brian B.; Arenholz, Elke; Borchers, Julie A.; Liu, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Ionic transport in metal/oxide heterostructures offers a highly effective means to tailor material properties via modification of the interfacial characteristics. However, direct observation of ionic motion under buried interfaces and demonstration of its correlation with physical properties has been challenging. Using the strong oxygen affinity of gadolinium, we design a model system of GdxFe1−x/NiCoO bilayer films, where the oxygen migration is observed and manifested in a controlled positive exchange bias over a relatively small cooling field range. The exchange bias characteristics are shown to be the result of an interfacial layer of elemental nickel and cobalt, a few nanometres in thickness, whose moments are larger than expected from uncompensated NiCoO moments. This interface layer is attributed to a redox-driven oxygen migration from NiCoO to the gadolinium, during growth or soon after. These results demonstrate an effective path to tailoring the interfacial characteristics and interlayer exchange coupling in metal/oxide heterostructures. PMID:26996674

  10. Controllable positive exchange bias via redox-driven oxygen migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Dustin A.; Olamit, Justin; Dumas, Randy K.; Kirby, B. J.; Grutter, Alexander J.; Maranville, Brian B.; Arenholz, Elke; Borchers, Julie A.; Liu, Kai

    2016-03-01

    Ionic transport in metal/oxide heterostructures offers a highly effective means to tailor material properties via modification of the interfacial characteristics. However, direct observation of ionic motion under buried interfaces and demonstration of its correlation with physical properties has been challenging. Using the strong oxygen affinity of gadolinium, we design a model system of GdxFe1-x/NiCoO bilayer films, where the oxygen migration is observed and manifested in a controlled positive exchange bias over a relatively small cooling field range. The exchange bias characteristics are shown to be the result of an interfacial layer of elemental nickel and cobalt, a few nanometres in thickness, whose moments are larger than expected from uncompensated NiCoO moments. This interface layer is attributed to a redox-driven oxygen migration from NiCoO to the gadolinium, during growth or soon after. These results demonstrate an effective path to tailoring the interfacial characteristics and interlayer exchange coupling in metal/oxide heterostructures.

  11. Controllable positive exchange bias via redox-driven oxygen migration

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gilbert, Dustin A.; Olamit, Justin; Dumas, Randy K.; Kirby, B. J.; Grutter, Alexander J.; Maranville, Brian B.; Arenholz, Elke; Borchers, Julie A.; Liu, Kai

    2016-03-21

    We report that ionic transport in metal/oxide heterostructures offers a highly effective means to tailor material properties via modification of the interfacial characteristics. However, direct observation of ionic motion under buried interfaces and demonstration of its correlation with physical properties has been challenging. Using the strong oxygen affinity of gadolinium, we design a model system of GdxFe1-x/NiCoO bilayer films, where the oxygen migration is observed and manifested in a controlled positive exchange bias over a relatively small cooling field range. The exchange bias characteristics are shown to be the result of an interfacial layer of elemental nickel and cobalt, amore » few nanometres in thickness, whose moments are larger than expected from uncompensated NiCoO moments. This interface layer is attributed to a redox-driven oxygen migration from NiCoO to the gadolinium, during growth or soon after. Ultimately, these results demonstrate an effective path to tailoring the interfacial characteristics and interlayer exchange coupling in metal/oxide heterostructures.« less

  12. Modeling, simulation, and control of an extraterrestrial oxygen production plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schooley, L.; Cellier, F.; Zeigler, B.; Doser, A.; Farrenkopf, G.

    1991-01-01

    The immediate objective is the development of a new methodology for simulation of process plants used to produce oxygen and/or other useful materials from local planetary resources. Computer communication, artificial intelligence, smart sensors, and distributed control algorithms are being developed and implemented so that the simulation or an actual plant can be controlled from a remote location. The ultimate result of this research will provide the capability for teleoperation of such process plants which may be located on Mars, Luna, an asteroid, or other objects in space. A very useful near-term result will be the creation of an interactive design tool, which can be used to create and optimize the process/plant design and the control strategy. This will also provide a vivid, graphic demonstration mechanism to convey the results of other researchers to the sponsor.

  13. Piloted simulation study of the effects of an automated trim system on flight characteristics of a light twin-engine airplane with one engine inoperative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, E. C.; Brown, P. W.; Yenni, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted to investigate the piloting problems associated with failure of an engine on a generic light twin-engine airplane. A primary piloting problem for a light twin-engine airplane after an engine failure is maintaining precise control of the airplane in the presence of large steady control forces. To address this problem, a simulated automatic trim system which drives the trim tabs as an open-loop function of propeller slipstream measurements was developed. The simulated automatic trim system was found to greatly increase the controllability in asymmetric powered flight without having to resort to complex control laws or an irreversible control system. However, the trim-tab control rates needed to produce the dramatic increase in controllability may require special design consideration for automatic trim system failures. Limited measurements obtained in full-scale flight tests confirmed the fundamental validity of the proposed control law.

  14. ULTRALOW OXYGEN TREATMENT FOR POSTHARVEST CONTROL OF WESTERN FLOWER THRIPS, FRANKLINIELLA OCCIDENTALIS, ON BROCCOLI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory study was conducted to develop ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment for control of western flower thrips on broccoli at a low temperature of 1'C. Total mortality of the insect was achieved in 5 days at 0.003 percent oxygen. Oxygen level affected efficacy of ULO treatment. At a higher oxygen le...

  15. Oxygen Generation System Laptop Bus Controller Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, Chad; Panter, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The Oxygen Generation System Laptop Bus Controller Flight Software was developed to allow the International Space Station (ISS) program to activate specific components of the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) to perform a checkout of key hardware operation in a microgravity environment, as well as to perform preventative maintenance operations of system valves during a long period of what would otherwise be hardware dormancy. The software provides direct connectivity to the OGS Firmware Controller with pre-programmed tasks operated by on-orbit astronauts to exercise OGS valves and motors. The software is used to manipulate the pump, separator, and valves to alleviate the concerns of hardware problems due to long-term inactivity and to allow for operational verification of microgravity-sensitive components early enough so that, if problems are found, they can be addressed before the hardware is required for operation on-orbit. The decision was made to use existing on-orbit IBM ThinkPad A31p laptops and MIL-STD-1553B interface cards as the hardware configuration. The software at the time of this reporting was developed and tested for use under the Windows 2000 Professional operating system to ensure compatibility with the existing on-orbit computer systems.

  16. TRIM65 negatively regulates p53 through ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Ma, Chengyuan; Zhou, Tong; Liu, Ying; Sun, Luyao; Yu, Zhenxiang

    2016-04-22

    Tripartite-motif protein family member 65 (TRIM65) is an important protein involved in white matter lesion. However, the role of TRIM65 in human cancer remains less understood. Through the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) gene alteration database, we found that TRIM65 is upregulated in a significant portion of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients. Our cell growth assay revealed that TRIM65 overexpression promotes cell proliferation, while knockdown of TRIM65 displays opposite effect. Mechanistically, TRIM65 binds to p53, one of the most critical tumor suppressors, and serves as an E3 ligase toward p53. Consequently, TRIM65 inactivates p53 through facilitating p53 poly-ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation. Notably, chemotherapeutic reagent cisplatin induction of p53 is markedly attenuated in response to ectopic expression of TRIM65. Cell growth inhibition by TRIM65 knockdown is more significant in p53 positive H460 than p53 negative H1299 cells, and knockdown of p53 in H460 cells also shows compromised cell growth inhibition by TRIM65 knockdown, indicating that p53 is required, at least in part, for TRIM65 function. Our findings demonstrate TRIM65 as a potential oncogenic protein, highly likely through p53 inactivation, and provide insight into development of novel approaches targeting TRIM65 for NSCLC treatment, and also overcoming chemotherapy resistance. PMID:27012201

  17. trimAl: a tool for automated alignment trimming in large-scale phylogenetic analyses

    PubMed Central

    Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Silla-Martínez, José M.; Gabaldón, Toni

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Multiple sequence alignments are central to many areas of bioinformatics. It has been shown that the removal of poorly aligned regions from an alignment increases the quality of subsequent analyses. Such an alignment trimming phase is complicated in large-scale phylogenetic analyses that deal with thousands of alignments. Here, we present trimAl, a tool for automated alignment trimming, which is especially suited for large-scale phylogenetic analyses. trimAl can consider several parameters, alone or in multiple combinations, for selecting the most reliable positions in the alignment. These include the proportion of sequences with a gap, the level of amino acid similarity and, if several alignments for the same set of sequences are provided, the level of consistency across different alignments. Moreover, trimAl can automatically select the parameters to be used in each specific alignment so that the signal-to-noise ratio is optimized. Availability: trimAl has been written in C++, it is portable to all platforms. trimAl is freely available for download (http://trimal.cgenomics.org) and can be used online through the Phylemon web server (http://phylemon2.bioinfo.cipf.es/). Supplementary Material is available at http://trimal.cgenomics.org/publications. Contact: tgabaldon@crg.es PMID:19505945

  18. Ship trim optimization: assessment of influence of trim on resistance of MOERI container ship.

    PubMed

    Sherbaz, Salma; Duan, Wenyang

    2014-01-01

    Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy efficiency in all sectors. Shipping industry is a stakeholder in environmental issues. Shipping industry is responsible for approximately 3% of global CO₂ emissions, 14-15% of global NO(X) emissions, and 16% of global SO(X) emissions. Ship trim optimization has gained enormous momentum in recent years being an effective operational measure for better energy efficiency to reduce emissions. Ship trim optimization analysis has traditionally been done through tow-tank testing for a specific hullform. Computational techniques are increasingly popular in ship hydrodynamics applications. The purpose of this study is to present MOERI container ship (KCS) hull trim optimization by employing computational methods. KCS hull total resistances and trim and sinkage computed values, in even keel condition, are compared with experimental values and found in reasonable agreement. The agreement validates that mesh, boundary conditions, and solution techniques are correct. The same mesh, boundary conditions, and solution techniques are used to obtain resistance values in different trim conditions at Fn = 0.2274. Based on attained results, optimum trim is suggested. This research serves as foundation for employing computational techniques for ship trim optimization. PMID:24578649

  19. Ship Trim Optimization: Assessment of Influence of Trim on Resistance of MOERI Container Ship

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Wenyang

    2014-01-01

    Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy efficiency in all sectors. Shipping industry is a stakeholder in environmental issues. Shipping industry is responsible for approximately 3% of global CO2 emissions, 14-15% of global NOX emissions, and 16% of global SOX emissions. Ship trim optimization has gained enormous momentum in recent years being an effective operational measure for better energy efficiency to reduce emissions. Ship trim optimization analysis has traditionally been done through tow-tank testing for a specific hullform. Computational techniques are increasingly popular in ship hydrodynamics applications. The purpose of this study is to present MOERI container ship (KCS) hull trim optimization by employing computational methods. KCS hull total resistances and trim and sinkage computed values, in even keel condition, are compared with experimental values and found in reasonable agreement. The agreement validates that mesh, boundary conditions, and solution techniques are correct. The same mesh, boundary conditions, and solution techniques are used to obtain resistance values in different trim conditions at Fn = 0.2274. Based on attained results, optimum trim is suggested. This research serves as foundation for employing computational techniques for ship trim optimization. PMID:24578649

  20. Development and wind tunnel evaluation of a shape memory alloy based trim tab actuator for a civil aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, P.; Jayasankar, S.; Satisha; Sateesh, V. L.; Kamaleshaiah, M. S.; Dayananda, G. N.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents the development and wind tunnel evaluation of a shape memory alloy (SMA) based smart trim tab for a typical two seater civil aircraft. The SMA actuator was housed in the port side of the elevator for the purpose of actuating the trim tab. Wind tunnel tests were conducted on a full scale horizontal tail model with elevator and trim tab at free stream speeds of 25, 35 and 45 m s-1, and also for a number of deflections of the elevator (30° up, 0° neutral and 25° down) and trim tab (11° and 21° up and 15° and 31° down). To measure the hinge moment experienced by the trim tab under various test conditions, two miniaturized balances were designed and fabricated. A gain scheduled proportional integral (GSPI) controller was developed to control the SMA actuated smart trim tab. It was confirmed during the tests that the trim tab could be controlled at the desired position against the aerodynamic loads acting on it for the various test conditions.

  1. The effects of different beak trimming techniques on plasma corticosterone and performance criteria in Single Comb White Leghorn hens.

    PubMed

    Davis, G S; Anderson, K E; Jones, D R

    2004-10-01

    DeKalb XL chicks were given a beak trim at 6 d of age (6DP) with a 2.8-mm gauge and a beak trim at 11 wk (11WB) with a block cut approximately 2 mm anterior to the nasal openings. Corticosterone (CS) levels of the 6DP treatment were (P < or = 0.01) elevated above nontrimmed CS levels at 2 h posttrim; and BW and feed consumption (FC) of the 6DP were depressed until 8 wk of age. At 11 wk of age, CS of the 11WB treatment was (P < or = 0.02) elevated above controls at 1, 2, 8, and 5 wk posttrim. The 11WB treatment resulted in a decrease in FC and a reduction in BW at 12, 14, and 16 wk of age, whereas there were no differences among treatments in livability during the pullet phase. At 72 wk of age, FC of the nontrimmed controls was greater than both beak trimmed treatments, and both beak trimmed treatments had greater hen housed eggs, percentage hen day egg production, and percentage livability. Both beak trimmed treatments resulted in better egg income, feed cost per hen, and net income (NI). The 6DP and 11WB beak trim treatments resulted in an improvement of NI per hen of 1.48 dollars and 1.86 dollars, respectively. In addition, both beak trimmed treatments exhibited better feather score and Hansen's test (fearfulness). It was concluded that pullets and hens could adapt to the physiological stress of beak trimming and out perform, during a lay phase, controls whose beaks were not trimmed. PMID:15510544

  2. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles. (a) Trimmings incorporated in articles of wearing apparel and other...

  3. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles. (a) Trimmings incorporated in articles of wearing apparel and other...

  4. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles. (a) Trimmings incorporated in articles of wearing apparel and other...

  5. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles. (a) Trimmings incorporated in articles of wearing apparel and other...

  6. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles. (a) Trimmings incorporated in articles of wearing apparel and other...

  7. 7 CFR 51.585 - Fairly well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly well trimmed. 51.585 Section 51.585 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.585 Fairly well trimmed. Fairly well trimmed means that the main...

  8. Controlling Oxygen Vacancy Creation In Ionic Liquid Gated Vanadate Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilcoyne, Colin; Singh, Sujay; Horrocks, Gregory; Marley, Peter; Banerjee, Sarbajit; Sambandamurthy, G.

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is a correlated material with a transition from a monoclinic insulator to a rutile metal at ~ 340 K. Through ionic liquid gating, oxygen vacancies can be electrochemically induced in VO2 and it is found that the vacancies formation is greatly facilitated in the rutile phase, leading to the suppression of the metal-insulator transition. The reversibility, the rate and kinetics of the electrochemical reaction can be readily controlled with the gate voltage sweeps suggesting a potential defect engineering route to tune the electrical and structural properties of VO2. Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) is a related system with diverse structural and electronic phases that can be obtained by intercalation of various cations. The electrochemical role of ionic liquid gating in creating new phases and modulating conductance in exfoliated thin flakes of V2O5 will also be presented. This work is supported by NSF DMR 0847324.

  9. Effects of Beak Trimming on Pecking Force

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beak trimming in the production laying hen has come under great scrutiny by welfare and consumer advocacy groups as a potential source of acute and chronic pain as well as having the potential to inhibit the freedom to express normal behaviors such as feeding behaviors. Although several studies have...

  10. Building Trades. Block VIII. Interior Trim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This curriculum for interior trim provides instructional materials for 18 informational and manipulative lessons. A list of 11 references precedes the course materials. The instructor's plan for each informational lesson begins by providing this information: subject, aim, required teaching aids, required materials, references, and prerequisite…

  11. Oxygen diffusion: an enzyme-controlled variable parameter.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Wilhelm; Kunke, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Previous oxygen microelectrode studies have shown that the oxygen diffusion coefficient (DO₂) increases during extracellular PO₂ decreases, while intracellular PO₂ remained unchanged and thus cell function (spike activity of neurons). Oxygen dependency of complex multicellular organisms requires a stable and adequate oxygen supply to the cells, while toxic concentrations have to be avoided. Oxygen brought to the tissue by convection diffuses through the intercellular and cell membranes, which are potential barriers to diffusion. In gerbil brain cortex, PO₂ and DO₂ were measured by membrane-covered and by bare gold microelectrodes, as were also spike potentials. Moderate respiratory hypoxia was followed by a primary sharp drop of tissue PO₂ that recovered to higher values concomitant with an increase of DO₂. A drop in intracellular PO₂ recovered immediately. Studies on the abdominal ganglion of aplysia californica showed similar results.Heterogeneity is a feature of both normal oxygen supply to tissue and supply due to a wide range of disturbances in oxygen supply. Oxygen diffusion through membranes is variable thereby ensuring adequate intracellular PO₂. Cell-derived glucosamine oxidase seems to regulate the polymerization/depolymerisation ratio of membrane mucopolysaccharides and thus oxygen diffusion.Variability of oxygen diffusion is a decisive parameter for regulating the supply/demand ratio of oxygen supply to the cell; this occurs in highly developed animals as well as in species of a less sophisticated nature. Autoregulation of oxygen diffusion is as important as the distribution/perfusion ratio of the capillary meshwork and as the oxygen extraction ratio in relation to oxygen consumption of the cell. Oxygen diffusion resistance is the cellular protection against luxury oxygen supply (which can result in toxic oxidative species leading to mutagenesis). PMID:24729212

  12. Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2007-03-31

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic (i.e., man-made) CO{sub 2} emissions. In 2001, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) began a two-phase program to investigate the feasibility of various carbon capture technologies. This program was sponsored under a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE). The first phase entailed a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen cases, representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated. Seven cases represented coal combustion in CFB type equipment. Four cases represented Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Two cases represented advanced Chemical Looping Combined Cycle systems. Marion, et al. reported the details of this work in 2003. One of the thirteen cases studied utilized an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. In this concept, the fuel is fired with a mixture of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (mainly CO{sub 2}). This combustion process yields a flue gas containing over 80 percent (by volume) CO{sub 2}. This flue gas can be processed relatively easily to enrich the CO{sub 2} content to over 96 percent for use in enhanced oil or gas recovery (EOR or EGR) or simply dried for sequestration. The Phase I study identified the O{sub 2}-fired CFB as having a near term development potential, because it uses conventional commercial CFB technology and commercially available CO{sub 2} capture enabling technologies such as cryogenic air separation and simple rectification or distillation gas processing systems. In the long term, air separation technology advancements offer significant reductions in power requirements, which would improve plant efficiency and economics for the oxygen-fired technology. The second phase consisted of pilot-scale testing followed by a refined performance and economic evaluation of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. As a part of this workscope, ALSTOM modified its 3 MW{sub th} (9.9 MMBtu/hr) Multiuse Test Facility (MTF) pilot plant to operate with O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures of up to 70 percent O{sub 2} by volume. Tests were conducted with coal and petroleum coke. The test objectives were to determine the impacts of oxygen firing on heat transfer, bed dynamics, potential agglomeration, and gaseous and particulate emissions. The test data results were used to refine the design, performance, costs, and economic models developed in Phase-I for the O{sub 2}-fired CFB with CO{sub 2} capture. Nsakala, Liljedahl, and Turek reported results from this study in 2004. ALSTOM identified several items needing further investigation in preparation for large scale demonstration of the oxygen-fired CFB concept, namely: (1) Operation and performance of the moving bed heat exchanger (MBHE) to avoid recarbonation and also for cost savings compared to the standard bubbling fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHE); (2) Performance of the back-end flash dryer absorber (FDA) for sulfur capture under high CO{sub 2}/high moisture flue gas environment using calcined limestone in the fly ash and using fresh commercial lime directly in the FDA; (3) Determination of the effect of recarbonation on fouling in the convective pass; (4) Assessment of the impact of oxygen firing on the mercury, other trace elements, and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions; and (5) Develop a proposal-level oxygen-fired retrofit design for a relatively small existing CFB steam power plant in preparation for a large-scale demonstration of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. Hence, ALSTOM responded to a DOE Solicitation to address all these issues with further O{sub 2} fired MTF pilot testing and a subsequent retrofit design study of oxygen firing and CO{sub 2} capture on an existing air-fired CFB plant. ALSTOM received a contract award from the DOE to conduct a project entitled 'Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control', under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42205 that is the subject of this topical report.

  13. Effect of dissolved oxygen control on growth and antibiotic production in Streptomyces clavuligerus fermentations.

    PubMed

    Yegneswaran, P K; Gray, M R; Thompson, B G

    1991-01-01

    A proportional-integral control system was used to control dissolved oxygen in a fermentor at constant shear and mass transfer conditions. Growth and antibiotic production in Streptomyces clavuligerus were studied at different dissolved oxygen levels during the fermentation. Three protocols were employed: no-oxygen control to provide a base case, oxygen controlled to a preset saturation level throughout the fermentation, and oxygen controlled at a high level only during the growth phase. The last protocol was aimed at optimizing the consumption of oxygen. Lower specific growth rates and cephamycin C yields were obtained when dissolved oxygen was controlled at 50% throughout the fermentation, compared to the base case. A 2.4-fold increase in the final cephamycin yield was observed when dissolved oxygen was controlled at saturation levels during the growth phase, compared to the experiments without dissolved oxygen control. This enhancement in yield was independent of the dissolved oxygen (DO) level after exponential growth, in the range of 50-100% saturation. The most effective control strategy, therefore, was to control DO only during active growth when the biosynthetic enzymes were probably synthesized. PMID:1367597

  14. TRIM33 switches off Ifnb1 gene transcription during the late phase of macrophage activation

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Federica; Parcelier, Aude; Petit, Vanessa; Gallouet, Anne-Sophie; Lewandowski, Daniel; Dalloz, Marion; van den Heuvel, Anita; Kolovos, Petros; Soler, Eric; Squadrito, Mario Leonardo; De Palma, Michele; Davidson, Irwin; Rousselet, Germain; Romeo, Paul-Henri

    2015-01-01

    Despite its importance during viral or bacterial infections, transcriptional regulation of the interferon-β gene (Ifnb1) in activated macrophages is only partially understood. Here we report that TRIM33 deficiency results in high, sustained expression of Ifnb1 at late stages of toll-like receptor-mediated activation in macrophages but not in fibroblasts. In macrophages, TRIM33 is recruited by PU.1 to a conserved region, the Ifnb1 Control Element (ICE), located 15 kb upstream of the Ifnb1 transcription start site. ICE constitutively interacts with Ifnb1 through a TRIM33-independent chromatin loop. At late phases of lipopolysaccharide activation of macrophages, TRIM33 is bound to ICE, regulates Ifnb1 enhanceosome loading, controls Ifnb1 chromatin structure and represses Ifnb1 gene transcription by preventing recruitment of CBP/p300. These results characterize a previously unknown mechanism of macrophage-specific regulation of Ifnb1 transcription whereby TRIM33 is critical for Ifnb1 gene transcription shutdown. PMID:26592194

  15. Methodology for determining elevon deflections to trim and maneuver the DAST vehicle with negative static margin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, B., III

    1982-01-01

    The relationships between elevon deflection and static margin using elements from static and dynamic stability and control and from classical control theory are emphasized. Expressions are derived and presented for calculating elevon deflections required to trim the vehicle in lg straight-and-level flight and to perform specified longitudinal and lateral maneuvers. Applications of this methodology are made at several flight conditions for the ARW-2 wing. On the basis of these applications, it appears possible to trim and maneuver the vehicle with the existing elevons at -15% static margin.

  16. Ovine TRIM5α Can Restrict Visna/Maedi Virus

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui, P.; Crespo, H.; Glaria, I.; Luján, L.; Contreras, A.; Rosati, S.; de Andrés, D.; Amorena, B.; Towers, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    The restrictive properties of tripartite motif-containing 5 alpha (TRIM5α) from small ruminant species have not been explored. Here, we identify highly similar TRIM5α sequences in sheep and goats. Cells transduced with ovine TRIM5α effectively restricted the lentivirus visna/maedi virus DNA synthesis. Proteasome inhibition in cells transduced with ovine TRIM5α restored restricted viral DNA synthesis, suggesting a conserved mechanism of restriction. Identification of TRIM5α active molecular species may open new prophylactic strategies against lentiviral infections. PMID:22696640

  17. Fuzzy logic assisted control of inspired oxygen in ventilated newborn infants.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Y.; Kohane, I.; Stark, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The control of oxygen delivery to mechanically ventilated newborn infants is a time intensive process that must balance adequate tissue oxygenation against possible toxic effects of oxygen exposure. Investigation in computer assisted control of mechanical ventilation is increasing, although very few studies involve newborn infants. We have implemented a fuzzy controller for the adjustment of inspired oxygen concentration (FIO2) in ventilated newborns. The controller utilizes rules produced by neonatologists, and operates in real-time. A clinical trial of this controller is currently taking place in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Children's Hospital, Boston, MA. PMID:7950026

  18. Optimization of 2,3-butanediol production by Klebsiella oxytoca through oxygen transfer rate control

    SciTech Connect

    Beronio, P.B. Jr. . Amoco Research Center); Tsao, G.T. . Lab. of Renewable Resources Engineering)

    1993-12-01

    Production of 2,3-butanediol by Klebsiella oxytoca is influenced by the degree of oxygen limitation. During batch culture studies, two phases of growth are observed: energy-coupled growth, during which cell growth and oxygen supply are coupled; and, energy-uncoupled growth, which arises when the degree of oxygen limitation reaches a critical value. Optimal 2,3-butanediol productivity occurs during the energy-coupled growth phase. In this article, a control system which maintains the batch culture at a constant level of oxygen limitation in the energy-coupled growth regime has been designed. Control, which involves feedback control on the oxygen transfer coefficient, is achieved by continually increasing the partial pressure of oxygen in the feed gas, which in turn continually increases the oxygen transfer rate. Control has resulted in a balanced state of growth, a repression of ethanol formation, and an increase in 2,3-butanediol productivity of 18%.

  19. A 3D-Printed Oxygen Control Insert for a 24-Well Plate

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Martin D.; Rexius-Hall, Megan L.; Eddington, David T.

    2015-01-01

    3D printing has emerged as a method for directly printing complete microfluidic devices, although printing materials have been limited to oxygen-impermeable materials. We demonstrate the addition of gas permeable PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) membranes to 3D-printed microfluidic devices as a means to enable oxygen control cell culture studies. The incorporation of a 3D-printed device and gas-permeable membranes was demonstrated on a 24-well oxygen control device for standard multiwell plates. The direct printing allows integrated distribution channels and device geometries not possible with traditional planar lithography. With this device, four different oxygen conditions were able to be controlled, and six wells were maintained under each oxygen condition. We demonstrate enhanced transcription of the gene VEGFA (vascular endothelial growth factor A) with decreasing oxygen levels in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. This is the first 3D-printed device incorporating gas permeable membranes to facilitate oxygen control in cell culture. PMID:26360882

  20. Trim69 regulates zebrafish brain development by ap-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Han, Ruiqin; Wang, Renxian; Zhao, Qing; Han, Yongqing; Zong, Shudong; Miao, Shiying; Song, Wei; Wang, Linfang

    2016-01-01

    Proteins belonging to the TRIM family have been implicated in a variety of cellular processes such as apoptosis, differentiation, neurogenesis, muscular physiology and innate immune responses. Trim69, previously identified as a novel gene cloned from a human testis cDNA library, has a homologous gene in zebrafish and this study focused on investigating the function of trim69 in zebrafish neurogenesis. Trim69 was found to be expressed in zebrafish embryo brain at the early stages. Knockdown of trim69 led to deformed brain development, obvious signs of apoptosis present in the head, and decreased expression of neuronal differentiation and stem cell markers. This phenotype was rescued upon co-injection of human mRNA together along with the trim69 knockdown. Results of this study also showed an interaction between TRIM69 and c-Jun in human cells, and upon TRIM69 knock down c-Jun expression subsequently increased, whereas the over-expression of TRIM69 led to the down-regulation of c-Jun. Additionally, knockdown both c-Jun and trim69 can rescue the deformed brain, evident cellular apoptosis in the head and decreased expression of neuronal differentiation and stem cell markers. Overall, our results support a role for trim69 in the development of the zebrafish brain through ap-1 pathway. PMID:27050765

  1. Trim69 regulates zebrafish brain development by ap-1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ruiqin; Wang, Renxian; Zhao, Qing; Han, Yongqing; Zong, Shudong; Miao, Shiying; Song, Wei; Wang, Linfang

    2016-01-01

    Proteins belonging to the TRIM family have been implicated in a variety of cellular processes such as apoptosis, differentiation, neurogenesis, muscular physiology and innate immune responses. Trim69, previously identified as a novel gene cloned from a human testis cDNA library, has a homologous gene in zebrafish and this study focused on investigating the function of trim69 in zebrafish neurogenesis. Trim69 was found to be expressed in zebrafish embryo brain at the early stages. Knockdown of trim69 led to deformed brain development, obvious signs of apoptosis present in the head, and decreased expression of neuronal differentiation and stem cell markers. This phenotype was rescued upon co-injection of human mRNA together along with the trim69 knockdown. Results of this study also showed an interaction between TRIM69 and c-Jun in human cells, and upon TRIM69 knock down c-Jun expression subsequently increased, whereas the over-expression of TRIM69 led to the down-regulation of c-Jun. Additionally, knockdown both c-Jun and trim69 can rescue the deformed brain, evident cellular apoptosis in the head and decreased expression of neuronal differentiation and stem cell markers. Overall, our results support a role for trim69 in the development of the zebrafish brain through ap-1 pathway. PMID:27050765

  2. Predicting Tensile Stretchability of Trimmed AA6111-T4 Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Xiaohua; Sun, Xin; Golovashchenko, Sergey F.

    2014-02-15

    An integrated manufacturing process simulation framework has been developed to predict the trimmed edge tensile stretchability of AA6111-T4 sheets by incorporating the burr geometry, damage, and plastic strain from trimming simulations into subsequent tensile stretchability simulations. The influence of the trimming die clearances on the predicted tensile stretching ductility (stretchability) is studied and quantitatively compared with experimental measurements. Stretchability is found to decrease with increasing cutting clearances, and simulation results have successfully captured experimentally observed edge crack initiation and failure mode variations for different trimming clearances. Subsequent computational sensitivity studies reveal that while deburring of previously trimmed edges has little influence on tensile stretchability, removal of trimmed edge initial plastic strain may significantly enhance the subsequent trimmed edge stretchability.

  3. Antibody- and TRIM21-dependent intracellular restriction of Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Rakebrandt, Nikolas; Lentes, Sabine; Neumann, Heinz; James, Leo C; Neumann-Staubitz, Petra

    2014-11-01

    TRIM21 ('tripartite motif-containing protein 21', Ro52) is a ubiquitously expressed cytosolic Fc receptor, which has a potent role in protective immunity against nonenveloped viruses. TRIM21 mediates intracellular neutralisation of antibody-coated viruses, a process called ADIN (antibody-dependent intracellular neutralisation). Our results reveal a similar mechanism to fight bacterial infections. TRIM21 is recruited to the intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica in epithelial cells early in infection. TRIM21 does not bind directly to S. enterica, but to antibodies opsonising it. Most importantly, bacterial restriction is dependent on TRIM21 as well as on the opsonisation state of the bacteria. Finally, Salmonella and TRIM21 colocalise with the autophagosomal marker LC3, and intracellular defence is enhanced in starved cells suggesting an involvement of the autophagocytic pathway. Our data extend the protective role of TRIM21 from viruses to bacteria and thereby strengthening the general role of ADIN in cellular immunity. PMID:24920099

  4. Infrared Beak Treatment: Part I, Comparative Effects of Infrared and 1/3 Hot-blade Trimming on Beak Topography, Focal Behavior and Growth.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examines the effects of beak trimming on production and well-being. Seventy-two layer chicks were assigned to hot-blade trimming (HB), infrared treatment (IR), or a control(C) untrimmed treatment at one-day-old. Chicks were pair housed by treatment and beak images, behavior and production...

  5. Measurement and Control of Oxygen Partial Pressure in an Electrostatic Levitator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.

    2014-01-01

    Recently the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center electrostatic levitation (ESL) laboratory has been upgraded to include an oxygen control system. This system allows the oxygen partial pressure within the vacuum chamber to be measured and controlled, at elevated temperatures, theoretically in the range from 10(exp -36) to 10(exp 0) bar. The role of active surface agents in liquid metals is fairly well known; however, published surface tension data typically has large scatter, which has been hypothesized to be caused by the presence of oxygen. The surface tension of metals is affected by even a small amount of adsorption of oxygen. It has even been shown that oxygen partial pressures may need to be as low as 10(exp -24) bar to avoid oxidation. While electrostatic levitation is done under high vacuum, oxide films or dissolved oxygen may have significant effects on materials properties, such as surface tension and viscosity. Therefore, the ability to measure and control the oxygen partial pressure within the chamber is highly desirable. The oxygen control system installed at MSFC contains a potentiometric sensor, which measures the oxygen partial pressure, and an oxygen ion pump. In the pump, a pulse-width modulated electric current is applied to yttrium-stabilized zirconia, resulting in oxygen transfer into or out of the system. Also part of the system is a control unit, which consists of temperature controllers for the sensor and pump, PID-based current loop for the ion pump, and a control algorithm. This system can be used to study the effects of oxygen on the thermophysical properties of metals, ceramics, glasses, and alloys. It can also be used to provide more accurate measurements by processing the samples at very low oxygen partial pressures. The oxygen control system will be explained in more detail and an overview of its use and limitations in an electrostatic levitator will be described. Some preliminary measurements have been made, and the results to date will be provided.

  6. An evaluation of a micro programmable logic controller for oxygen monitoring and control in tanks of a recirculating aquaculture system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of dissolved gases, especially oxygen is an essential component of recirculating aquaculture systems. The use of pure oxygen in a recirculating aquaculture system creates supersaturated concentrations of dissolved oxygen and can reduce fish production costs by supporting greater fish and fee...

  7. Recent advances in development of ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest pest control on perishable commodities.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several controlled atmosphere treatments with ultralow oxygen (ULO treatments) have been developed for postharvest pest control on different types of perishable products. Complete control of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia sp.), twopotted spider mite (Tetranychus u...

  8. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on grape rootstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlled atmosphere with ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments for control of vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus Signoret (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), on grape rootstocks were developed successfully. Two ULO treatments with 30 ppm oxygen, 3 days at 25'C and 4 days at 15'C, achieved complete control of a...

  9. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on grape benchgrafts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlled atmosphere with ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments for control of vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus Signoret (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), on grape rootstocks were developed successfully. Two ULO treatments with 30 ppm oxygen, 3 days at 25'C and 4 days at 15'C, achieved complete control of a...

  10. Superconducting sextupoles and trim quadrupoles for RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.; Anerella, M.; Ganetis, G.

    1995-05-01

    RHIC requires 288 sextupole and 72 trim quadrupole magnets. These iron poletip superconducting magnets have been constructed by Everson Electric Co. Room temperature field measurements have been completed for 75% of these magnets with acceptable results. Approximately 15% of them have been tested at 4.6 K for maximum (quench) current. The quench performance for the early magnets was good and improved to excellent during the production run. These magnets have more than 100% margin at quench.

  11. Solution found to chronic trim damage

    SciTech Connect

    Smirl, P.A.; Edwards, T.W.

    1997-09-01

    For some time, 2-inch single-stage gas-pressure letdown valve trim at a large Mideast oil and gas production facility suffered severe erosion damage, and experienced noise/vibration problems both within the valves themselves and the downstream piping. It was determined that the trim erosion which caused the problem was due to high oxide corrosion products from the upstream piping passing at high velocity (1,020 ft/sec) through the single-stage, drilled-hole-cage valve trim. This was also the source of the noise/vibration problems. Since it takes into account fluid density, it has been established that velocity head (V2/2) is a better criterion than just pure fluid velocity in judging design adequacy in pressure-reducing valves. It is very useful in eliminating the destructive effects of high fluid velocity and noise/vibration problems. In this case, the actual velocity head equaled 360 psi. For these reasons, it was decided to replace these single-stage pressure-reduction valves with multi-stage pressure-reduction valves capable of limiting this high velocity. These valves are described.

  12. TRIM28 repression of retrotransposon-based enhancers is necessary to preserve transcriptional dynamics in embryonic stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Helen M.; Kapopoulou, Adamandia; Corsinotti, Andrea; Fasching, Liana; Macfarlan, Todd S.; Tarabay, Yara; Viville, Stéphane; Jakobsson, Johan; Pfaff, Samuel L.; Trono, Didier

    2013-01-01

    TRIM28 is critical for the silencing of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Here, we reveal that an essential impact of this process is the protection of cellular gene expression in early embryos from perturbation by cis-acting activators contained within these retroelements. In TRIM28-depleted ES cells, repressive chromatin marks at ERVs are replaced by histone modifications typical of active enhancers, stimulating transcription of nearby cellular genes, notably those harboring bivalent promoters. Correspondingly, ERV-derived sequences can repress or enhance expression from an adjacent promoter in transgenic embryos depending on their TRIM28 sensitivity in ES cells. TRIM28-mediated control of ERVs is therefore crucial not just to prevent retrotransposition, but more broadly to safeguard the transcriptional dynamics of early embryos. PMID:23233547

  13. Fast-Response Oxygen-Monitoring and Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Puster, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    Oxygen sensor is Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 ceramic disk maintained at 843 degrees C. Overall system response time reduced to about 0.2 second, equal to or less than 1 percent of tunnel run time. When test gas oxygen concentration differs from normal air concentration by 25 percent or more, alarm sounds, and emergency tunnel shutdown signal operates. New ZrO2 sensors intended for hypersonic-vehicle testing.

  14. Catalytic Synthesis of Oxygenates: Mechanisms, Catalysts and Controlling Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Klier, Kamil; Herman, Richard G

    2005-11-30

    This research focused on catalytic synthesis of unsymmetrical ethers as a part of a larger program involving oxygenated products in general, including alcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids and their derivatives that link together environmentally compliant fuels, monomers, and high-value chemicals. The catalysts studied here were solid acids possessing strong Brnsted acid functionalities. The design of these catalysts involved anchoring the acid groups onto inorganic oxides, e.g. surface-grafted acid groups on zirconia, and a new class of mesoporous solid acids, i.e. propylsulfonic acid-derivatized SBA-15. The former catalysts consisted of a high surface concentration of sulfate groups on stable zirconia catalysts. The latter catalyst consists of high surface area, large pore propylsulfonic acid-derivatized silicas, specifically SBA-15. In both cases, the catalyst design and synthesis yielded high concentrations of acid sites in close proximity to one another. These materials have been well-characterization in terms of physical and chemical properties, as well as in regard to surface and bulk characteristics. Both types of catalysts were shown to exhibit high catalytic performance with respect to both activity and selectivity for the bifunctional coupling of alcohols to form ethers, which proceeds via an efficient SN2 reaction mechanism on the proximal acid sites. This commonality of the dual-site SN2 reaction mechanism over acid catalysts provides for maximum reaction rates and control of selectivity by reaction conditions, i.e. pressure, temperature, and reactant concentrations. This research provides the scientific groundwork for synthesis of ethers for energy applications. The synthesized environmentally acceptable ethers, in part derived from natural gas via alcohol intermediates, exhibit high cetane properties, e.g. methylisobutylether with cetane No. of 53 and dimethylether with cetane No. of 55-60, or high octane properties, e.g. diisopropylether with blending octane No. of 105, and can replace aromatics in liquid fuels.

  15. Foodservice industry market profile study: in-plant beef fat trim level survey and cutting yields.

    PubMed

    Neel, S W; Williams, S E; Johnson, L P; Gwartney, B L; Reagan, J O

    1993-07-01

    Fifty foodservice purveying companies were sampled in 12 U.S. cities evenly distributed across six geographical regions. Beef whole muscle cuts (WMC) and portion control items (PCI) from the primal rib and loin were evaluated for surface fat levels. Fat thicknesses were measured on WMC before and after fabrication, whereas additional PCI were measured for fat trim levels before distribution. The average initial fat thickness was 11.9 mm (174 Short Loin and 180A Strip Loin) and 15.6 mm (184 Top Sirloin Butt); maximum fat thicknesses ranged from 16.2 mm (strip loin) to 22.2 mm (top sirloin butt). After fabrication, average fat thicknesses were 6.2, 5.1, and 4.0 mm for resulting products from the short loin, strip loin, and top sirloin butt, respectively. The average initial fat thickness for the strip loin was greater (P < .05) in Southeast and Northeast regions than in Mountain/Desert, Midwest, and Southwest regions. In contrast, average trimmed fat thicknesses for products from the strip loin and top sirloin butt were lower (P < .05) in the Southeast and Northeast than in all other regions. Average fat trim levels for PCI were 3.0 (1112A Ribeye Roll steak, Lip-On), 5.3 (1173B/1174B T-Bone/Porterhouse steak), 5.0 (1180A Strip Loin steak), and 4.0 mm (1184B Top Sirloin steak). Maximum fat trim levels were 4.4 (IMPS 1112A), 7.4 (IMPS 1173B/1174B), 6.9 (IMPS 1180A), and 5.5 mm (IMPS 1184B). The PCI had average and maximum fat trim levels in compliance with USDA (1988) recommendations for fat trim specifications.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8349507

  16. Processes controlling mid-water column oxygen minima over the Texas-Louisiana shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenxia; Hetland, Robert D.; DiMarco, Steven F.; Fennel, Katja

    2015-04-01

    We investigate distributions of dissolved oxygen over the Texas-Louisiana shelf using spatially highly resolved observations in combination with a regional circulation model with simple oxygen dynamics. The observations were collected using a towed, undulating CTD during the Mechanisms Controlling Hypoxia (MCH) program. Mid-water oxygen minimum layers (dissolved oxygen lower than 3.2 mL L-1) were detected in many transects. These oxygen minimum layers are connected with the bottom boundary layer and follow the pycnocline seaward as a tongue of low oxygen into the mid-water column. T-S diagrams highlighting the low oxygen minima in both observations and simulations imply direct connections between low-oxygen bottom water and the oxygen minimum layer. The dynamics of these oxygen minimum layers in the mid-water column are examined using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). Convergence within the bottom boundary layer relative to density surfaces is calculated, results show that there is a convergence in the bottom boundary layer at the location where the pycnocline intersects the bottom. Buoyancy advection forced by bottom Ekman transport creates this convergent flow, and the corresponding low-oxygen intrusion. Similar intrusions of near-bottom water into the pycnocline are observed in other regions. The presence of hypoxia within the bottom boundary layer in the northern Gulf of Mexico creates a unique situation in which these intrusions are also associated with low dissolved oxygen.

  17. Growth control of Saccharomyces cerevisiae through dose of oxygen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ohta, Takayuki; Hori, Masaru; Ito, Masafumi

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the dose-dependent effects of neutral oxygen radicals on the proliferation as well as the inactivation of microorganisms, we treated suspensions of budding yeast cells with oxygen radicals using an atmospheric-pressure oxygen radical source, varying the fluxes of O(3Pj) from 1.3 × 1016 to 2.3 × 1017 cm-2 s-1. Proliferation was promoted at doses of O(3Pj) ranging from 6 × 1016 to 2 × 1017 cm-3, and suppressed at doses ranging from 3 × 1017 to 1 × 1018 cm-3; cells were inactivated by O(3Pj) doses exceeding 1 × 1018 cm-3, even when the flux was varied over the above flux range. These results showed that the growth of cells was regulated primarily in response to the total dose of O(3Pj).

  18. Controlling Spin State of Magnetic Molecules by Oxygen Binding Studied Using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Soon-Hyeong; Chang, Yun Hee; Kim, Howon; Kim, Kyung Min; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Kahng, Se-Jong

    Binding and unbinding between molecular oxygen and metallo-porphyrin is a key process for oxygen delivery in respiration. It can be also used to control spin state of magnetic metallo-porphyrin molecules. Controlling and sensing spin states of magnetic molecules in such reactions at the single molecule level is essential for spintronic molecular device applications. Here, we demonstrate that spin states of metallo-porphyrin on surfaces can be controlled over by binding and unbinding of oxygen molecule, and be sensed using scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. Kondo localized state of metallo-porhyrin showed significant modification by the binding of oxygen molecule, implying that the spin state was changed. Our density functional theory calculation results explain the observations with the hybridization of unpaired spins in d and π* orbitals of metallo-porphyrin and oxygen, respectively. Our study opens up ways to control molecular spin state and Kondo effect by means of molecular binding and unbinding reactions on surfaces.

  19. Internal trim coils for CBA superconducting magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.A.; Aronson, S.; Cottingham, J.G.; Garber, M.; Hahn, H.; Sampson, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    In order to correct iron saturation effects and shape the beam working line, superconducting trim coils have been constructed, which operate inside the main coils. Detailed studies of mechanical properties, quench behavior, fields produced, and hysteresis have lead to the production of accelerator-quality coils generating the required-strength harmonics up to cos (7theta). These are routinely installed in CBA main magnets and operate at 80% of short sample with negligible training in an ambient field of more than 5.3T.

  20. A Note About HARP's State Trimming Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Johnson, Sally C.

    1998-01-01

    This short note provides some additional insight into how the HARP program works. In some cases, it is possible for HARP to tdm away too many states and obtain an optimistic result. The HARP Version 7.0 manual warns the user that 'Unlike the ALL model, the SAME model can automatically drop failure modes for certain system models. The user is cautioned to insure that no important failure modes are dropped; otherwise, a non-conservative result can be given.' This note provides an example of where this occurs and a pointer to further documentation that gives a means of bounding the error associated with trimming these states.

  1. Origin and evolution of TRIM proteins: new insights from the complete TRIM repertoire of zebrafish and pufferfish.

    PubMed

    Boudinot, Pierre; van der Aa, Lieke M; Jouneau, Luc; Du Pasquier, Louis; Pontarotti, Pierre; Briolat, Valérie; Benmansour, Abdenour; Levraud, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Tripartite motif proteins (TRIM) constitute a large family of proteins containing a RING-Bbox-Coiled Coil motif followed by different C-terminal domains. Involved in ubiquitination, TRIM proteins participate in many cellular processes including antiviral immunity. The TRIM family is ancient and has been greatly diversified in vertebrates and especially in fish. We analyzed the complete sets of trim genes of the large zebrafish genome and of the compact pufferfish genome. Both contain three large multigene subsets--adding the hsl5/trim35-like genes (hltr) to the ftr and the btr that we previously described--all containing a B30.2 domain that evolved under positive selection. These subsets are conserved among teleosts. By contrast, most human trim genes of the other classes have only one or two orthologues in fish. Loss or gain of C-terminal exons generated proteins with different domain organizations; either by the deletion of the ancestral domain or, remarkably, by the acquisition of a new C-terminal domain. Our survey of fish trim genes in fish identifies subsets with different evolutionary dynamics. trims encoding RBCC-B30.2 proteins show the same evolutionary trends in fish and tetrapods: they evolve fast, often under positive selection, and they duplicate to create multigenic families. We could identify new combinations of domains, which epitomize how new trim classes appear by domain insertion or exon shuffling. Notably, we found that a cyclophilin-A domain replaces the B30.2 domain of a zebrafish fintrim gene, as reported in the macaque and owl monkey antiretroviral TRIM5α. Finally, trim genes encoding RBCC-B30.2 proteins are preferentially located in the vicinity of MHC or MHC gene paralogues, which suggests that such trim genes may have been part of the ancestral MHC. PMID:21789205

  2. Origin and Evolution of TRIM Proteins: New Insights from the Complete TRIM Repertoire of Zebrafish and Pufferfish

    PubMed Central

    Boudinot, Pierre; van der Aa, Lieke M.; Jouneau, Luc; Du Pasquier, Louis; Pontarotti, Pierre; Briolat, Valérie; Benmansour, Abdenour; Levraud, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Tripartite motif proteins (TRIM) constitute a large family of proteins containing a RING-Bbox-Coiled Coil motif followed by different C-terminal domains. Involved in ubiquitination, TRIM proteins participate in many cellular processes including antiviral immunity. The TRIM family is ancient and has been greatly diversified in vertebrates and especially in fish. We analyzed the complete sets of trim genes of the large zebrafish genome and of the compact pufferfish genome. Both contain three large multigene subsets - adding the hsl5/trim35-like genes (hltr) to the ftr and the btr that we previously described - all containing a B30.2 domain that evolved under positive selection. These subsets are conserved among teleosts. By contrast, most human trim genes of the other classes have only one or two orthologues in fish. Loss or gain of C-terminal exons generated proteins with different domain organizations; either by the deletion of the ancestral domain or, remarkably, by the acquisition of a new C-terminal domain. Our survey of fish trim genes in fish identifies subsets with different evolutionary dynamics. trims encoding RBCC-B30.2 proteins show the same evolutionary trends in fish and tetrapods: they evolve fast, often under positive selection, and they duplicate to create multigenic families. We could identify new combinations of domains, which epitomize how new trim classes appear by domain insertion or exon shuffling. Notably, we found that a cyclophilin-A domain replaces the B30.2 domain of a zebrafish fintrim gene, as reported in the macaque and owl monkey antiretroviral TRIM5α. Finally, trim genes encoding RBCC-B30.2 proteins are preferentially located in the vicinity of MHC or MHC gene paralogues, which suggests that such trim genes may have been part of the ancestral MHC. PMID:21789205

  3. CATION CONTROLLED SINGLET OXYGEN MEDIATED OXIDATION OF OLEFINS WITHIN ZEOLITES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidation of trialkyl olefins has been performed within zeolites employing thionin as the singlet oxygen sensitizer. Unusual selectivity in favor of secondary hydroperoxides is observed within zeolites. In light of the fact that in solution such a selectivity is never observed the selectivity report...

  4. The control of ventilatory and cardiac responses to changes in ambient oxygen tension and oxygen demand in octopus

    PubMed

    Wells; Wells

    1995-01-01

    Octopus vulgaris can regulate its oxygen uptake down to a PO2 of around 6.7 kPa. As the tension falls from 18.6 to 6.7 kPa (140 to 50 mmHg), Pv (the pressure pulse driving the ventilatory flow, measured inside the mantle cavity) can more than double while fv (the ventilation frequency) increases by a few per cent at most. Both changes are reversed when the ambient oxygen tension is returned to normal. Cutting the visceral nerves linking the hearts and gills to the brain prevents these adaptive changes in Pv and fv, as does section of the branchial nerves linking the cardiac ganglia to the gills. Responses to changes in ambient oxygen tension are very fast, beginning within two or three ventilation cycles. It is concluded that changes to Pv and fv depend upon receptors in the gills and on the integrity of a nervous pathway to the brain. Changes in oxygen tension also affect the hearts, where aortic pulse amplitude (Pa) and, to a lesser extent, heartbeat frequency (fh) fall and rise with the ambient PO2. In this case, section of the visceral or branchial nerves has no effect. Responses are again very rapid. It is concluded that the observed fall and return to normoxic values of Pa and fh are local responses to a fall and rise in the oxygen tension of blood coming from the gills into the systemic heart. Changes to ventilation and heartbeat can also occur in normoxic water when oxygen demand rises after feeding. These responses are not prevented by section of the visceral or branchial nerves. Possible control of ventilation and heartbeat through the neurosecretory system in the anterior vena cava is discussed. PMID:9319626

  5. Evaluation of oxygen injection as a means of controlling sulfide production in a sewer system.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez, Oriol; Mohanakrishnan, Janani; Sharma, Keshab Raj; Meyer, Rikke Louise; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2008-11-01

    Oxygen injection is often used to control biogenic production of hydrogen sulfide in sewers. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory system mimicking a rising main to investigate the impact of oxygen injection on anaerobic sewer biofilm activities. Oxygen injection (15-25mg O(2)/L per pump event) to the inlet of the system decreased the overall sulfide discharge levels by 65%. Oxygen was an effective chemical and biological oxidant of sulfide but did not cause a cessation in sulfide production, which continued in the deeper layers of the biofilm irrespective of the oxygen concentration in the bulk. Sulfide accumulation resumed instantaneously on depletion of the oxygen. Oxygen did not exhibit any toxic effect on sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in the biofilm. It further stimulated SRB growth and increased SRB activity in downstream biofilms due to increased availability of sulfate at these locations as the result of oxic conditions upstream. The oxygen uptake rate of the system increased with repeated exposure to oxygen, with concomitant consumption of organic carbon in the wastewater. These results suggest that optimization of oxygen injection is necessary for maximum effectiveness in controlling sulfide concentrations in sewers. PMID:18760816

  6. Stress measurements on beak-trimmed and untrimmed pullets.

    PubMed

    Struwe, F J; Gleaves, E W; Douglas, J H

    1992-07-01

    Stress in poultry is difficult to define and measure. There is general agreement that some modern poultry production practices may exert a certain amount of stress on birds. Three experiments were conducted to explore possible measures of stress associated with beak trimming and rearing schemes. Experiments 1 and 2 examined different degrees of beak trimming and rearing schemes of wire floor versus litter floor in pullet production. Experiment 3 examined the effect of beak trimming on feed consumption for 14 days after trimming. Adrenal glands of untrimmed birds were heavier (P less than .05) than those of trimmed birds at the end of the pullet growing period in Experiments 1 and 2, evidence that beak trimming reduced overall chronic stress levels. Hearts of untrimmed birds were heavier (P less than .05) than those of trimmed birds in Experiment 1. Hearts and spleens were not affected in Experiment 2. In comparisons of rearing schemes (litter versus wire), birds grown on litter floors had heavier adrenal glands and a greater incidence of cannibalism in the later weeks of Experiments 1 and 2. This indicated that a stressful interaction among penmates had occurred. Birds grown on litter floors consumed more feed than those grown on wire, and the untrimmed birds from both floor types consumed more total feed than trimmed birds. By the end of the growing period, body weights were not different in either study, indicating compensation for any early beak trimming stress. Beak trimming produced a decrease in feed intake in Experiment 3, consumption was reduced (P less than .05) in 5 of the first 8 days after trimming. PMID:1641379

  7. Growth control of budding yeast cells by oxygen-radical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Takayuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ito, Masafumi; Takeda, Keigo; Hori, Masaru

    2013-09-01

    Microorganisms respond to stimuli or stresses such as chemicals, nutrition, pressure, heat and so on. Those stimuli lead to cell activation, inactivation or cell death, such as apoptosis and necrosis. Reactive oxygen species possibly affect cell growth as well as inactivation depending on stimuli. In this study, we investigated effects of oxygen-radical treatment on not only inactivation but also promoted/repressed cell growth of budding yeast by varying dose of atomic oxygen produced from an atmospheric-pressure oxygen radical source. Dose of atomic oxygen was estimated based on treatment time and oxygen flux. Cell growth was promoted with atomic oxygen between 0 and 2.1 ×1019 cm-2 dose of atomic oxygen. The treated cells were grown about 10 percent more proliferously than the control cells. Moreover, 64 percent of the treated cells to the control ones were inactivated at more than 4.2 ×1020 cm-2. These results, therefore, suggested that atomic-oxygen dose had a potential to control mitotic promotion and repression, and inactivation of yeast cell growth.

  8. Pain in Chickens and Effects of Beak Trimming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beak trimming may cause pain (acute, chronic or both) in trimmed chickens due to tissue damage and nerve injury. The complexity and plasticity of the nervous system and the animal’s inability to communicate verbally make pain difficult to measure directly. However, pain in animals can be recognized...

  9. Dengue Non-coding RNA: TRIMmed for Transmission.

    PubMed

    Göertz, Giel P; Pijlman, Gorben P

    2015-08-12

    Dengue virus RNA is trimmed by the 5'→3' exoribonuclease XRN1 to produce an abundant, non-coding subgenomic flavivirus RNA (sfRNA) in infected cells. In a recent paper in Science, Manokaran et al. (2015) report that sfRNA binds TRIM25 to evade innate immune sensing of viral RNA by RIG-I. PMID:26269946

  10. 30 CFR 57.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 57.9314 Section 57.9314 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 57.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. Stockpile and muckpile faces shall...

  11. 30 CFR 56.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 56.9314 Section 56.9314 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 56.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. Stockpile and muckpile faces shall...

  12. 30 CFR 56.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 56.9314 Section 56.9314 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 56.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. Stockpile and muckpile faces shall...

  13. 30 CFR 56.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 56.9314 Section 56.9314 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 56.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. Stockpile and muckpile faces shall...

  14. 30 CFR 57.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 57.9314 Section 57.9314 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 57.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. Stockpile and muckpile faces shall...

  15. 30 CFR 57.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 57.9314 Section 57.9314 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 57.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. Stockpile and muckpile faces shall...

  16. 30 CFR 57.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 57.9314 Section 57.9314 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 57.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. Stockpile and muckpile faces shall...

  17. 30 CFR 56.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 56.9314 Section 56.9314 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 56.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. Stockpile and muckpile faces shall...

  18. 30 CFR 57.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 57.9314 Section 57.9314 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 57.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. Stockpile and muckpile faces shall...

  19. 30 CFR 56.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 56.9314 Section 56.9314 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 56.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. Stockpile and muckpile faces shall...

  20. Grid generation on trimmed Bezier and NURBS quilted surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woan, Chung-Jin; Clever, Willard C.; Tam, Clement K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents some recently added capabilities to RAGGS, Rockwell Automated Grid Generation System. Included are the trimmed surface handling and display capability and structures and unstructured grid generation on trimmed Bezier and NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces) quilted surfaces. Samples are given to demonstrate the new capabilities.

  1. 14 CFR 25.407 - Trim tab effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Trim tab effects. 25.407 Section 25.407 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... in the direction that would assist the pilot, and the deflections are— (a) For elevator trim...

  2. 14 CFR 25.407 - Trim tab effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Trim tab effects. 25.407 Section 25.407 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... in the direction that would assist the pilot, and the deflections are— (a) For elevator trim...

  3. 14 CFR 25.407 - Trim tab effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Trim tab effects. 25.407 Section 25.407 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... in the direction that would assist the pilot, and the deflections are— (a) For elevator trim...

  4. Computational aspects of helicopter trim analysis and damping levels from Floquet theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaonkar, Gopal H.; Achar, N. S.

    1992-01-01

    Helicopter trim settings of periodic initial state and control inputs are investigated for convergence of Newton iteration in computing the settings sequentially and in parallel. The trim analysis uses a shooting method and a weak version of two temporal finite element methods with displacement formulation and with mixed formulation of displacements and momenta. These three methods broadly represent two main approaches of trim analysis: adaptation of initial-value and finite element boundary-value codes to periodic boundary conditions, particularly for unstable and marginally stable systems. In each method, both the sequential and in-parallel schemes are used and the resulting nonlinear algebraic equations are solved by damped Newton iteration with an optimally selected damping parameter. The impact of damped Newton iteration, including earlier-observed divergence problems in trim analysis, is demonstrated by the maximum condition number of the Jacobian matrices of the iterative scheme and by virtual elimination of divergence. The advantages of the in-parallel scheme over the conventional sequential scheme are also demonstrated.

  5. Helicopter trim analysis by shooting and finite element methods with optimally damped Newton iterations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achar, N. S.; Gaonkar, G. H.

    1993-01-01

    Helicopter trim settings of periodic initial state and control inputs are investigated for convergence of Newton iteration in computing the settings sequentially and in parallel. The trim analysis uses a shooting method and a weak version of two temporal finite element methods with displacement formulation and with mixed formulation of displacements and momenta. These three methods broadly represent two main approaches of trim analysis: adaptation of initial-value and finite element boundary-value codes to periodic boundary conditions, particularly for unstable and marginally stable systems. In each method, both the sequential and in-parallel schemes are used, and the resulting nonlinear algebraic equations are solved by damped Newton iteration with an optimally selected damping parameter. The impact of damped Newton iteration, including earlier-observed divergence problems in trim analysis, is demonstrated by the maximum condition number of the Jacobian matrices of the iterative scheme and by virtual elimination of divergence. The advantages of the in-parallel scheme over the conventional sequential scheme are also demonstrated.

  6. Method of controlled reduction of nitroaromatics by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes

    DOEpatents

    Shah, M.M.; Campbell, J.A.

    1998-07-07

    A method is described for the controlled reduction of nitroaromatic compounds such as nitrobenzene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes, such as ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase. 6 figs.

  7. Method of controlled reduction of nitroaromatics by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes

    DOEpatents

    Shah, Manish M.; Campbell, James A.

    1998-01-01

    A method for the controlled reduction of nitroaromatic compounds such as nitrobenzene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes, such as ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase.

  8. Oxygen deficiency hazards associated with liquefied gas systems development of a program of controls

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.M.; Mazur, P.O.

    1983-01-01

    The use of liquefied gases in industry and research has become commonplace. Release into the atmosphere of these gases, whether intentional or not, will result in a displacement of air and a reduction in the oxygen concentration. Exposure to reduced levels of oxygen levels may cause reduced abilities, unconsciousness, or death. This paper describes the derivation of a novel program of controls for oxygen deficiency hazards. The key to this approach is a quantitative assessment of risk for each planned operation and the application of control measures to reduce that risk to an acceptable level. Five risk levels evolve which are based on the probability of fatality. Controls such as training, oxygen monitoring equipment, self-rescue respirators, and medical surveillance are required when the probability of fatality exceeds 10/sup -7/ per hour. The quantitative nature of this program ensures an appropriate level of control without undue burden or expense. 11 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  9. 76 FR 72978 - Premier Trim, LLC, Spectrum Trim, LLC and Grant Products International, Inc. D/B/A Spectrum Grant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Premier Trim, LLC, Spectrum Trim, LLC and Grant Products International, Inc. D/B/A Spectrum Grant De Mexico Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are Paid Through Grant Products International,...

  10. Trimming and procrastination as inversion techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backus, George E.

    1996-12-01

    By examining the processes of truncating and approximating the model space (trimming it), and by committing to neither the objectivist nor the subjectivist interpretation of probability (procrastinating), we construct a formal scheme for solving linear and non-linear geophysical inverse problems. The necessary prior information about the correct model xE can be either a collection of inequalities or a probability measure describing where xE was likely to be in the model space X before the data vector y0 was measured. The results of the inversion are (1) a vector z0 that estimates some numerical properties zE of xE; (2) an estimate of the error ?z = z0 - zE. As y0 is finite dimensional, so is z0, and hence in principle inversion cannot describe all of xE. The error ?z is studied under successively more specialized assumptions about the inverse problem, culminating in a complete analysis of the linear inverse problem with a prior quadratic bound on xE. Our formalism appears to encompass and provide error estimates for many of the inversion schemes current in geomagnetism, and would be equally applicable in geodesy and seismology if adequate prior information were available there. As an idealized example we study the magnetic field at the core-mantle boundary, using satellite measurements of field elements at sites assumed to be almost uniformly distributed on a single spherical surface. Magnetospheric currents are neglected and the crustal field is idealized as a random process with rotationally invariant statistics. We find that an appropriate data compression diagonalizes the variance matrix of the crustal signal and permits an analytic trimming of the idealized problem.

  11. Regulation of Respiration and Fermentation to Control the Plant Internal Oxygen Concentration1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Zabalza, Ana; van Dongen, Joost T.; Froehlich, Anja; Oliver, Sandra N.; Faix, Benjamin; Gupta, Kapuganti Jagadis; Schmälzlin, Elmar; Igal, Maria; Orcaray, Luis; Royuela, Mercedes; Geigenberger, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Plant internal oxygen concentrations can drop well below ambient even when the plant grows under optimal conditions. Using pea (Pisum sativum) roots, we show how amenable respiration adapts to hypoxia to save oxygen when the oxygen availability decreases. The data cannot simply be explained by oxygen being limiting as substrate but indicate the existence of a regulatory mechanism, because the oxygen concentration at which the adaptive response is initiated is independent of the actual respiratory rate. Two phases can be discerned during the adaptive reaction: an initial linear decline of respiration is followed by a nonlinear inhibition in which the respiratory rate decreased progressively faster upon decreasing oxygen availability. In contrast to the cytochrome c pathway, the inhibition of the alternative oxidase pathway shows only the linear component of the adaptive response. Feeding pyruvate to the roots led to an increase of the oxygen consumption rate, which ultimately led to anoxia. The importance of balancing the in vivo pyruvate availability in the tissue was further investigated. Using various alcohol dehydrogenase knockout lines of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), it was shown that even under aerobic conditions, alcohol fermentation plays an important role in the control of the level of pyruvate in the tissue. Interestingly, alcohol fermentation appeared to be primarily induced by a drop in the energy status of the tissue rather than by a low oxygen concentration, indicating that sensing the energy status is an important component of optimizing plant metabolism to changes in the oxygen availability. PMID:19098094

  12. TRIMe7-CypA, an alternative splicing isoform of TRIMCyp in rhesus macaque, negatively modulates TRIM5α activity

    SciTech Connect

    Na, Lei; Tang, Yan-Dong; Liu, Jian-Dong; Yu, Chang-Qing; Sun, Liu-Ke; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Wang, Xue-Feng; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • TRIMe7-CypA expresses in rhesus and pig-tailed, but not long-tailed macaques. • TRIMe7-CypA does not show the restriction to a HIV-GFP report virus in vitro. • It acts as a negative modulator to TRIM5α likely by competitive inhibition. - Abstract: The existence of innate, host-specific restriction factors is a major obstacle to the development of nonhuman primate models for AIDS studies, and TRIM5α is one of the most important of these restriction factors. In recent years, a TRIM5 chimeric gene that was retrotransposed by a cyclophilin A (CypA) cDNA was identified in certain macaque species. The TRIM5α-CypA fusion protein, TRIMCyp, which was expressed in these monkeys, had lost its restriction ability toward HIV-1. We previously found that TRIMe7-CypA, an alternative splicing isoform of the TRIMCyp transcripts, was expressed in pig-tailed and rhesus macaques but absent in long-tailed macaques. In this study, the anti-HIV-1 activity of TRIMe7-CypA in the rhesus macaque (RhTRIMe7-CypA) was investigated. The over-expression of RhTRIMe7-CypA in CrFK, HeLa and HEK293T cells did not restrict the infection or replication of an HIV-1-GFP reporter virus in these cells. As a positive control, rhesus (rh)TRIM5α strongly inhibited the reporter virus. Intriguingly, the anti-HIV-1 activity of RhTRIM5α was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the co-repression of RhTRIMe7-CypA. Our data indicate that although the RhTRIMe7-CypA isoform does not appear to restrict HIV-1, it may act as a negative modulator of TRIM family proteins, presumably by competitive inhibition.

  13. Influence of age at final beak trimming on pullet and layer performance.

    PubMed

    Carey, J B

    1990-09-01

    Effects of final beak trimming on pullet and layer productivity were examined with three strains of commercial layers. All pullets were precision-trimmed at 7 days with final beak trimming at either 63, 84, or 105 days. Transient depressions of pullet body weight and feed consumption were noted in the periods immediately following beak trimming. Pullet mortality from 7 to 18 wk of age and 18-wk body weight were not significantly affected by beak trimming treatments. Strain effects were noted in rate of feed consumption following beak trimming. Age at 50% production was significantly later among birds trimmed at 63 days than among those trimmed at 84 or 105 days. Feed consumption, egg production, and mortality (140 to 441 days) were significantly lower among birds trimmed at 63 days than among those trimmed at 84 or 105 days. Egg quality and size were not influenced by beak trimming treatments. PMID:2247407

  14. Control of root growth and development by reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Tsukagoshi, Hironaka

    2016-02-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are relatively simple molecules that exist within cells growing in aerobic conditions. ROS were originally associated with oxidative stress and seen as highly reactive molecules that are injurious to many cell components. More recently, however, the function of ROS as signal molecules in many plant cellular processes has become more evident. One of the most important functions of ROS is their role as a plant growth regulator. For example, ROS are key molecules in regulating plant root development, and as such, are comparable to plant hormones. In this review, the molecular mechanisms of ROS that are mainly associated with plant root growth are discussed. The molecular links between root growth regulation by ROS and other signals will also be briefly discussed. PMID:26724502

  15. Changes in the microflora on commercial beef trimmings during their collection, distribution and preparation for retail sale as ground beef.

    PubMed

    Gill, C O; McGinnis, C

    1993-06-01

    A commercial process for ground meat production, from the collection of meat plant trimmings to the retailing of consumer packs of ground beef, was examined. The selected process compiled with current concepts of Good Manufacturing Practice. During storage for up to 18 days before grinding, most trimming developed a flora of lactobacilli, of up to 10(7) CFU/g. Numbers of coliforms and of Escherichia coli on stored trimmings increased little and not at all, respectively. Increased total counts, and numbers of both coliforms and E. coli in displayed product indicated loss of control of the temperature of the displayed packaged product. It appears that the need to store a product, taking into account the unpredictable fluctuations in supply and demand, will inevitably result in much ground beef carrying large numbers of spoilage bacteria. Furthermore, currently accepted Good Practice in the retail handling of ground beef does not adequately control either spoilage or the growth of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:8347430

  16. Identification of anisoelasticity for electrostatic trimming of rate-integrating gyroscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Painter, Chris C.; Shkel, Andrei M.

    2002-07-01

    This paper describes a technique for detection of anisoelasticities in rate integrating gyroscopes as part of a self-calibrative control architecture. In contrast to laser trimming typically done in post processing to compensate for structural imperfections, the on-chip control architecture uses feedforward voltage control to tune the non-linear negative spring effects inherent in parallel plate electrodes in order to electrostatically 'trim' the structural non-idealities. As the first steps toward the feedforward control realization, we present three different algorithms that can be implemented on-chip for identification of structural anisoelasticities. The first technique utilizes the results of measured static displacements, requiring precise knowledge of displacements and applied forces. The second technique involves solving for the non-ideal stiffness parameters using Principal Component Analysis and Fourier transforms of the dynamic system response. The last technique embellishes on the second by the addition of an energy compensation control to overcome damping effects in low Q systems. Finally, the implementation of this algorithm in the electrostatic trimming' of structural imperfections is discussed.

  17. What Controls the Temporal Variability of Oxygen in the Gulf of Alaska?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Y.; Ito, T.; Deutsch, C. A.

    2010-12-01

    Dissolved oxygen in the ocean is a widely observed chemical quantity along with temperature and salinity. Changes in the dissolved oxygen over the world ocean have been interpreted as the response of ocean circulation and biology to climate variability. Observed oxygen at Station P exhibits strong variability in interannual and decadal timescales. However, the mechanisms driving the observed variability are not yet fully understood, and the irregular sampling frequency and relatively short record length make it difficult to detect the low-frequency variability. The purpose of this study is to 1) evaluate the robustness of the observed low-frequency variability of dissolved oxygen and 2) investigate the mechanisms driving the observed variability using statistical data analysis and numerical simulations. To answer the first question, we conducted spectral analyses on the observed oxygen concentration at Station P. To address the irregular sampling frequency we randomly sampled the raw data to form 500 ensemble members with a regular time interval, and then performed spectral analysis. The resulting power spectrum of oxygen exhibits robust low-frequency variability and a statistically significant spectral peak at a timescale of 15-20 years. We hypothesize that the observed low-frequency variability is primarily driven by the variability of ocean circulation in the North Pacific. Three-dimensional distribution of oxygen anomaly is simulated using the data-constrained circulation fields from Estimating Climate and the Circulation of Oceans project. The simulated oxygen anomaly shows outstanding variability in the Gulf of Alaska, showing that this region is a hotspot of oxygen fluctuation. Anomalous advection acting on the climatological mean oxygen gradient is the source of oxygen variability in this simulation. Statistical analyses using atmospheric and oceanic variables indicate that the wintertime subtropical high and associated wind stress pattern is significantly correlated to the interannual variability of dissolved oxygen with a 5-10 year lag. This connection is explained by the fluctuation of the basin-scale, wind-driven circulation. The barotropic streamfunction is significantly correlated with the oxygen anomaly at station P with a 5-10 year lag, showing a north-south dipole structure over the North Pacific (positive anomaly around the Kuroshio extension region and negative anomaly in the south of that). The enhanced eastward transport of waters with high oxygen concentration from the western Pacific is a precursor of the enhanced oxygen concentrations in the Station P. Our result implies the important role of basin-scale ocean transport in controlling the observed oxygen variability in the Gulf of Alaska.

  18. DESIGN PROCEDURES FOR DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONTROL OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents design procedures and guidelines for the selection of aeration equipment and dissolved (DO) control systems for activated sludge treatment plants. Aeration methods, equipment and application techniques are examined and selection procedures offered. Various DO...

  19. Reactive oxygen species delay control of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

    PubMed Central

    Lang, P A; Xu, H C; Grusdat, M; McIlwain, D R; Pandyra, A A; Harris, I S; Shaabani, N; Honke, N; Kumar Maney, S; Lang, E; Pozdeev, V I; Recher, M; Odermatt, B; Brenner, D; Häussinger, D; Ohashi, P S; Hengartner, H; Zinkernagel, R M; Mak, T W; Lang, K S

    2013-01-01

    Cluster of differentiation (CD)8+ T cells are like a double edged sword during chronic viral infections because they not only promote virus elimination but also induce virus-mediated immunopathology. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been reported during virus infections. However, the role of ROS in T-cell-mediated immunopathology remains unclear. Here we used the murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus to explore the role of ROS during the processes of virus elimination and induction of immunopathology. We found that virus infection led to elevated levels of ROS producing granulocytes and macrophages in virus-infected liver and spleen tissues that were triggered by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. Lack of the regulatory subunit p47phox of the NADPH oxidase diminished ROS production in these cells. While CD8+ T cells exhibited ROS production that was independent of NADPH oxidase expression, survival and T-cell function was elevated in p47phox-deficient (Ncf1−/−) mice. In the absence of p47phox, enhanced T-cell immunity promoted virus elimination and blunted corresponding immunopathology. In conclusion, we find that NADPH-mediated production of ROS critically impairs the immune response, impacting elimination of virus and outcome of liver cell damage. PMID:23328631

  20. Oxygen-dependent, alternative promoter controls translation of tco1+ in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, Alfica; Hughes, Bridget T; Espenshade, Peter J

    2008-04-01

    Eukaryotic cells respond to changes in environmental oxygen supply by increasing transcription and subsequent translation of gene products required for adaptation to low oxygen. In fission yeast, the ortholog of mammalian sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP), called Sre1, activates low-oxygen gene expression and is essential for anaerobic growth. Previous studies in multiple organisms indicate that SREBP transcription factors function as positive regulators of gene expression by increasing transcription. Here, we describe a unique mechanism by which activation of Sre1-dependent transcription downregulates protein expression under low oxygen. Paradoxically, Sre1 inhibits expression of tco1(+) gene product by activating its transcription. Under low oxygen, Sre1 directs transcription of tco1(+) from an alternate, upstream promoter and inhibits expression of the normoxic tco1(+) transcript. The resulting low-oxygen transcript contains an additional 751 nt in the 5' untranslated region that is predicted to form a stable, complex secondary structure. Interestingly, polysome profile experiments revealed that this new longer transcript is translationally silent, leading to a decrease in Tco1 protein expression under low oxygen. Together, these results describe a new mechanism for oxygen-dependent control of gene expression and provide an example of negative regulation of protein expression by an SREBP homolog. PMID:18276645

  1. Anoxygenic Photosynthesis Controls Oxygenic Photosynthesis in a Cyanobacterium from a Sulfidic Spring

    PubMed Central

    Al-Najjar, Mohammad A. A.; Yilmaz, Pelin; Lavik, Gaute; de Beer, Dirk; Polerecky, Lubos

    2015-01-01

    Before the Earth's complete oxygenation (0.58 to 0.55 billion years [Ga] ago), the photic zone of the Proterozoic oceans was probably redox stratified, with a slightly aerobic, nutrient-limited upper layer above a light-limited layer that tended toward euxinia. In such oceans, cyanobacteria capable of both oxygenic and sulfide-driven anoxygenic photosynthesis played a fundamental role in the global carbon, oxygen, and sulfur cycle. We have isolated a cyanobacterium, Pseudanabaena strain FS39, in which this versatility is still conserved, and we show that the transition between the two photosynthetic modes follows a surprisingly simple kinetic regulation controlled by this organism's affinity for H2S. Specifically, oxygenic photosynthesis is performed in addition to anoxygenic photosynthesis only when H2S becomes limiting and its concentration decreases below a threshold that increases predictably with the available ambient light. The carbon-based growth rates during oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis were similar. However, Pseudanabaena FS39 additionally assimilated NO3− during anoxygenic photosynthesis. Thus, the transition between anoxygenic and oxygenic photosynthesis was accompanied by a shift of the C/N ratio of the total bulk biomass. These mechanisms offer new insights into the way in which, despite nutrient limitation in the oxic photic zone in the mid-Proterozoic oceans, versatile cyanobacteria might have promoted oxygenic photosynthesis and total primary productivity, a key step that enabled the complete oxygenation of our planet and the subsequent diversification of life. PMID:25576611

  2. Online oxygen control for sulfide oxidation in anaerobic treatment of high-sulfate wastewater.

    PubMed

    Khanal, Samir Kumar; Huang, Ju-Chang

    2006-04-01

    A new technique for sulfide control was investigated in an upflow-anaerobic filter (UAF) treating high-strength, sulfate-rich wastewater. The technique used periodic oxygen injection using oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) as a controlling parameter to regulate oxygen injection. The UAF was operated at a constant influent total-organic carbon of 6740 mg/L but with different influent sulfates of 1000, 3000, and 6000 mg/L. At 1000 and 3000 mg/L influent sulfates, the produced sulfide did not impose any inhibition to methane-producing bacteria (MPB). However, at 6000 mg/L influent sulfate, the produced dissolved sulfide of 804 mg S/L (free sulfide = 280 mg S/L) severely inhibited the methanogenesis, but not the sulfidogenesis. Upon oxygen injection at elevated ORP of -265 mV, sulfides were almost completely eliminated with a concomitant improvement in methane yield by 46%. If oxygenation was excessive because of an oversetting of ORP, the excess oxygen could be used rapidly by facultative heterotrophs, thereby protecting the MPB from oxygen stress. Regarding online sulfide oxidation, it was found that the biogas and injected oxygen needed to pass through an aqueous layer containing trace metals, which were found to have a significant catalytic effect on abiotic sulfide oxidation. PMID:16749308

  3. Precise Spatial and Temporal Control of Oxygen within In Vitro Brain Slices via Microfluidic Gas Channels

    PubMed Central

    Mauleon, Gerardo

    2012-01-01

    The acute brain slice preparation is an excellent model for studying the details of how neurons and neuronal tissue respond to a variety of different physiological conditions. But open slice chambers ideal for electrophysiological and imaging access have not allowed the precise spatiotemporal control of oxygen in a way that might realistically model stroke conditions. To address this problem, we have developed a microfluidic add-on to a commercially available perfusion chamber that diffuses oxygen throughout a thin membrane and directly to the brain slice. A microchannel enables rapid and efficient control of oxygen and can be modified to allow different regions of the slice to experience different oxygen conditions. Using this novel device, we show that we can obtain a stable and homogeneous oxygen environment throughout the brain slice and rapidly alter the oxygen tension in a hippocampal slice. We also show that we can impose different oxygen tensions on different regions of the slice preparation and measure two independent responses, which is not easily obtainable with current techniques. PMID:22905255

  4. THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT BILL-TRIMMING METHODS ON THE WELL-BEING OF PEKIN DUCKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pekin ducks are often bill-trimmed to prevent feather pecking and cannibalism, but this practice has been criticized because of the resulting potential for acute and chronic pain. The goal of this experiment was to compare two different bill-trimming methods, hot blade trimming with cautery (TRIM) a...

  5. Efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for control of Tribolium castaneum with reduced oxygen and increased carbon dioxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the effect of atmosphere modification, being a widely adopted means of insect control in stored products, on the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana against one of the most difficult to control pests, Tribolium castaneum. Oxygen reduction to 5% (± 1%) as opposed to CO2 elevation t...

  6. 7 CFR 58.725 - Trimming and cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Procedures § 58.725 Trimming and cleaning. The natural cheese shall be cleaned free of all non-edible portions. Paraffin and bandages as well as rind surface, mold or unclean areas or any other part which...

  7. 7 CFR 58.725 - Trimming and cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Procedures § 58.725 Trimming and cleaning. The natural cheese shall be cleaned free of all non-edible portions. Paraffin and bandages as well as rind surface, mold or unclean areas or any other part which...

  8. 7 CFR 58.725 - Trimming and cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Procedures § 58.725 Trimming and cleaning. The natural cheese shall be cleaned free of all non-edible portions. Paraffin and bandages as well as rind surface, mold or unclean areas or any other part which...

  9. 7 CFR 58.725 - Trimming and cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Procedures § 58.725 Trimming and cleaning. The natural cheese shall be cleaned free of all non-edible portions. Paraffin and bandages as well as rind surface, mold or unclean areas or any other part which...

  10. 155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal after excavation by steam shovel. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 701). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  11. 21. First floor, west wall, detail of molding trim ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. First floor, west wall, detail of molding trim - Veterans Administration Center, Officers Duplex Quarters, 5302 East Kellogg (Legal Address); 5500 East Kellogg (Common Address), Wichita, Sedgwick County, KS

  12. 14. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF TRIMMED FLASH; FLASH IS EXCESS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF TRIMMED FLASH; FLASH IS EXCESS METAL EXTRUDED BETWEEN THE DIES USED TO FORGE THE BLADE END OF THE POST HOLE DIGGER - Warwood Tool Company, Foot of Nineteenth Street, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  13. 32. TRIM SAWS IN BACKGROUND, VIEW FROM SOUTH WEST. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. TRIM SAWS IN BACKGROUND, VIEW FROM SOUTH WEST. NOTE WASTE CONVEYOR IN FOREGROUND, CANT ROLL CASE TO BEAM SAW, THEN ROLL CASE FROM EDGER IN MIDDLE GROUND. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  14. Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Flight-Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Nelson Andrew; Schaefer, Jacob Robert

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control algorithm for real-time trim optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control algorithm is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are used for optimization of fuel flow. Results from six research flights are presented herein. The optimization algorithm found a trim configuration that required approximately 3 percent less fuel flow than the baseline trim at the same flight condition. The algorithm consistently rediscovered the solution from several initial conditions. These results show that the algorithm has good performance in a relevant environment.

  15. Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Flight-test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Nelson Andrew; Schaefer, Jacob Robert

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control algorithm for real-time trim optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control algorithm is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are used for optimization of fuel flow. Results from six research flights are presented herein. The optimization algorithm found a trim configuration that required approximately 3 percent less fuel flow than the baseline trim at the same flight condition. The algorithm consistently rediscovered the solution from several initial conditions. These results show that the algorithm has good performance in a relevant environment.

  16. The effect of asymmetric attack on trim angle of attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruse, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    Ballistic range tests were conducted to determine the effect of an asymmetrically ablated heat shield on the trim angle of attack of an entry vehicle. The tests, which were in support of Project Galileo, were conducted in atmospheric air at Mach numbers from 0.7 to 2.0. For the results for the configuration that was tested, the deduced trim angle varied between 13 deg and 21 deg.

  17. Trimming the UCERF2 hazard logic tree

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, Keith A.; Field, Edward H.; Milner, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast 2 (UCERF2) is a fully time‐dependent earthquake rupture forecast developed with sponsorship of the California Earthquake Authority (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities [WGCEP], 2007; Field et al., 2009). UCERF2 contains 480 logic‐tree branches reflecting choices among nine modeling uncertainties in the earthquake rate model shown in Figure 1. For seismic hazard analysis, it is also necessary to choose a ground‐motion‐prediction equation (GMPE) and set its parameters. Choosing among four next‐generation attenuation (NGA) relationships results in a total of 1920 hazard calculations per site. The present work is motivated by a desire to reduce the computational effort involved in a hazard analysis without understating uncertainty. We set out to assess which branching points of the UCERF2 logic tree contribute most to overall uncertainty, and which might be safely ignored (set to only one branch) without significantly biasing results or affecting some useful measure of uncertainty. The trimmed logic tree will have all of the original choices from the branching points that contribute significantly to uncertainty, but only one arbitrarily selected choice from the branching points that do not.

  18. Data trimming, nuclear emissions, and climate change.

    PubMed

    Shrader-Frechette, Kristin Sharon

    2009-03-01

    Ethics requires good science. Many scientists, government leaders, and industry representatives support tripling of global-nuclear-energy capacity on the grounds that nuclear fission is "carbon free" and "releases no greenhouse gases." However, such claims are scientifically questionable (and thus likely to lead to ethically questionable energy choices) for at least 3 reasons. (i) They rely on trimming the data on nuclear greenhouse-gas emissions (GHGE), perhaps in part because flawed Kyoto Protocol conventions require no full nuclear-fuel-cycle assessment of carbon content. (ii) They underestimate nuclear-fuel-cycle releases by erroneously assuming that mostly high-grade uranium ore, with much lower emissions, is used. (iii) They inconsistently compare nuclear-related GHGE only to those from fossil fuels, rather than to those from the best GHG-avoiding energy technologies. Once scientists take account of (i)-(iii), it is possible to show that although the nuclear fuel cycle releases (per kWh) much fewer GHG than coal and oil, nevertheless it releases far more GHG than wind and solar-photovoltaic. Although there may be other, ethical, reasons to support nuclear tripling, reducing or avoiding GHG does not appear to be one of them. PMID:18937054

  19. Numerical analysis of the primary processes controlling oxygen dynamics on the Louisiana shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, L.; Fennel, K.; Laurent, A.; Murrell, M. C.; Lehrter, J. C.

    2015-04-01

    The Louisiana shelf, in the northern Gulf of Mexico, receives large amounts of freshwater and nutrients from the Mississippi-Atchafalaya river system. These river inputs contribute to widespread bottom-water hypoxia every summer. In this study, we use a physical-biogeochemical model that explicitly simulates oxygen sources and sinks on the Louisiana shelf to identify the key mechanisms controlling hypoxia development. First, we validate the model simulation against observed dissolved oxygen concentrations, primary production, water column respiration, and sediment oxygen consumption. In the model simulation, heterotrophy is prevalent in shelf waters throughout the year, except near the mouths of the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers, where primary production exceeds respiratory oxygen consumption during June and July. During this time, efflux of oxygen to the atmosphere, driven by photosynthesis and surface warming, becomes a significant oxygen sink. A substantial fraction of primary production occurs below the pycnocline in summer. We investigate whether this primary production below the pycnocline is mitigating the development of hypoxic conditions with the help of a sensitivity experiment where we disable biological processes in the water column (i.e., primary production and water column respiration). With this experiment we show that below-pycnocline primary production reduces the spatial extent of hypoxic bottom waters only slightly. Our results suggest that the combination of physical processes (advection and vertical diffusion) and sediment oxygen consumption largely determine the spatial extent and dynamics of hypoxia on the Louisiana shelf.

  20. Factors Controlling Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in the Hyporheic Zone Induced by Fish Egg Nests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, A.; Cardenas, M. B.; Kaufman, M.; Zheng, L.; Kessler, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    There is currently limited research on the effects of bed depressions, such as those associated with fish nests, on hyporheic flow and biogeochemistry. A series of flume experiments are in progress, with the aim of understanding the effects of bed depressions on the hyporheic flow of oxygenated water. This study focuses on fish nests, also called redds, which represent a typical depression or scour feature. Previous research has shown that redd topography induces hyporheic circulation, but experiments regarding the oxygen concentration in and around the redds have not been conducted. We are determining the ways in which redds affect dissolved oxygen distribution and how this is controlled by hyporheic flow. The oxygen concentration across the cross-sectional plane of a fish nest is measured using a planar optode and microsensors. Hydraulic measurements include pressure measurements along the sediment-water interface and dye visualization. The redd design is based on a salmonid redd, which consists of a scour feature and a tailspin. The salmonid eggs are found in the tailspin. We hypothesize that the oxygen concentration will be greatest in close proximity to the gravel base of the redd and concentration will decrease with increasing depth and distance from the redd. Higher oxygen concentrations in the tailspin supports the placement of fish eggs within that area as opposed to a less oxygenated area of the streambed. Thus, fish nests are likely bio-engineered to optimize hyporheic flow and biogeochemistry to improve egg viability.

  1. Designer Hydrogels for Precision Control of Oxygen Tension and Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Blatchley, Michael; Park, Kyung Min; Gerecht, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen levels and mechanical properties provide vital cues to regulate myriad cellular functions and stem cell fate decisions. Here, we present a hybrid hydrogel system in which we can control independently oxygen levels and mechanical properties. We designed, synthesized and analyzed a hybrid hydrogel system comprised of two polymer backbones, gelatin and dextran. Both polymers were crosslinked via a laccase-mediated, oxygen consuming reaction. By specifically controlling the concentration of phenolic molecules available to react in our hydrogel, we could precisely control the time in which the hydrogel remained hypoxic (TH). We were able to achieve a range of TH from the order of minutes to greater than 10 hours. Additionally, by incorporating a secondary crosslinker, transglutaminase, mechanical properties could be adjusted in a user-defined fashion, with dynamic elastic modulus (G′) values ranging from <20 Pa to >1 kPa. Importantly, oxygen levels and substrate mechanical properties could be individually tuned and decoupled in our hybrid hydrogels, while retaining the potential to study possible synergistic effects between the two parameters. By precisely controlling oxygen tension and mechanical properties, we expect that research utilizing the new hybrid hydrogels will enhance our understanding of the complex 3D cellular processes mediated by each parameter individually and may also hold clinical interest as acellular therapies. PMID:26693017

  2. Modeling, simulation, and high-autonomy control of a Martian oxygen production plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schooley, L. C.; Cellier, F. E.; Wang, F.-Y.; Zeigler, B. P.

    1992-01-01

    Progress on a project for the development of a high-autonomy intelligent command and control architecture for process plants used to produce oxygen from local planetary resources is reported. A distributed command and control architecture is being developed and implemented so that an oxygen production plant, or other equipment, can be reliably commanded and controlled over an extended time period in a high-autonomy mode with high-level task-oriented teleoperation from one or several remote locations. During the reporting period, progress was made at all levels of the architecture. At the remote site, several remote observers can now participate in monitoring the plant. At the local site, a command and control center was introduced for increased flexibility, reliability, and robustness. The local control architecture was enhanced to control multiple tubes in parallel, and was refined for increased robustness. The simulation model was enhanced to full dynamics descriptions.

  3. Elevated Rate of Fixation of Endogenous Retroviral Elements in Haplorhini TRIM5 and TRIM22 Genomic Sequences: Impact on Transcriptional Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, William E.; Johnson, Welkin E.; Hunter, Eric

    2013-01-01

    All genes in the TRIM6/TRIM34/TRIM5/TRIM22 locus are type I interferon inducible, with TRIM5 and TRIM22 possessing antiviral properties. Evolutionary studies involving the TRIM6/34/5/22 locus have predominantly focused on the coding sequence of the genes, finding that TRIM5 and TRIM22 have undergone high rates of both non-synonymous nucleotide replacements and in-frame insertions and deletions. We sought to understand if divergent evolutionary pressures on TRIM6/34/5/22 coding regions have selected for modifications in the non-coding regions of these genes and explore whether such non-coding changes may influence the biological function of these genes. The transcribed genomic regions, including the introns, of TRIM6, TRIM34, TRIM5, and TRIM22 from ten Haplorhini primates and one prosimian species were analyzed for transposable element content. In Haplorhini species, TRIM5 displayed an exaggerated interspecies variability, predominantly resulting from changes in the composition of transposable elements in the large first and fourth introns. Multiple lineage-specific endogenous retroviral long terminal repeats (LTRs) were identified in the first intron of TRIM5 and TRIM22. In the prosimian genome, we identified a duplication of TRIM5 with a concomitant loss of TRIM22. The transposable element content of the prosimian TRIM5 genes appears to largely represent the shared Haplorhini/prosimian ancestral state for this gene. Furthermore, we demonstrated that one such differentially fixed LTR provides for species-specific transcriptional regulation of TRIM22 in response to p53 activation. Our results identify a previously unrecognized source of species-specific variation in the antiviral TRIM genes, which can lead to alterations in their transcriptional regulation. These observations suggest that there has existed long-term pressure for exaptation of retroviral LTRs in the non-coding regions of these genes. This likely resulted from serial viral challenges and provided a mechanism for rapid alteration of transcriptional regulation. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of persistent evolutionary pressure for the capture of retroviral LTR insertions. PMID:23516500

  4. Novel trimming technique for tunable HTS microstrip filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiya, N.; Nakagawa, Y.; Saito, A.; Ohshima, S.

    2008-09-01

    We have developed a method using additional electric pads for trimming tunable high-temperature superconducting (HTS) microstrip filters. These filters are generally tuned by adjusting the gap between a dielectric floating plate above the filter. When the floating plate approached the filter, the center frequency was shifted to a lower frequency. However, the insertion loss increases due to variation in the external quality factors varying from the design parameter. The external quality factors are usually controlled by adjusting the length of the input/output (I/O) coupled-line elements and the gap between the elements and the resonator. In our method, additional electric pads are distributed at the open-end of the I/O coupled-line elements of a 3-pole hairpin bandpass filter to enable adjustment of the external quality factors so as to reduce insertion loss. The electric pads consist of line-and-space patterns. They are eclectically connected to the coupled-line elements to adjust the line length and gap width and thereby control the external quality factors. An electromagnetic simulator was used for the design and analysis. The simulation results showed that the additional electric pads are effective in improving the insertion loss of the HTS bandpass filter after tuning.

  5. Evaluation of the UnTRIM model for 3-D tidal circulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, R.T.; Casulli, V.

    2001-01-01

    A family of numerical models, known as the TRIM models, shares the same modeling philosophy for solving the shallow water equations. A characteristic analysis of the shallow water equations points out that the numerical instability is controlled by the gravity wave terms in the momentum equations and by the transport terms in the continuity equation. A semi-implicit finite-difference scheme has been formulated so that these terms and the vertical diffusion terms are treated implicitly and the remaining terms explicitly to control the numerical stability and the computations are carried out over a uniform finite-difference computational mesh without invoking horizontal or vertical coordinate transformations. An unstructured grid version of TRIM model is introduced, or UnTRIM (pronounces as "you trim"), which preserves these basic numerical properties and modeling philosophy, only the computations are carried out over an unstructured orthogonal grid. The unstructured grid offers the flexibilities in representing complex study areas so that fine grid resolution can be placed in regions of interest, and coarse grids are used to cover the remaining domain. Thus, the computational efforts are concentrated in areas of importance, and an overall computational saving can be achieved because the total number of grid-points is dramatically reduced. To use this modeling approach, an unstructured grid mesh must be generated to properly reflect the properties of the domain of the investigation. The new modeling flexibility in grid structure is accompanied by new challenges associated with issues of grid generation. To take full advantage of this new model flexibility, the model grid generation should be guided by insights into the physics of the problems; and the insights needed may require a higher degree of modeling skill.

  6. Different effects of infrared and one-half hot-blade beak trimming on beak topography and growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effects of infrared beak treatment (IR) and hot blade beak trimming (HB) on beak length and production in laying hens. Seventy-two day-old layer chicks were randomly assigned to HB, IR or a control (C) group. Chicks were pair housed by treatment, and beak images and productio...

  7. ISOLATION OF THE FIRST NON-PRIMATE TRIM5-ALPHA FROM CATTLE INDICATES THAT TRIM5-ALPHA MEDIATED INNATE IMMUNITY TO RETROVIRAL INFECTION MAY BE WIDESPREAD AMONG MAMMALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TRIM5-alpha has recently emerged as an important factor influencing species-specific permissivity to retroviral infection in a range of primates including humans. Old World monkey TRIM5-alpha blocks HIV-1 infectivity and human or New World TRIM5-alpha proteins are inactive against HIV-1 but active a...

  8. Oxygen control of breathing by an olfactory receptor activated by lactate

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Andy J.; Ortega, Fabian E.; Riegler, Johannes; Madison, Daniel V.; Krasnow, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Animals have evolved homeostatic responses to changes in oxygen availability that act on different time scales. Although the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcriptional pathway that controls long term responses to low oxygen (hypoxia) has been established1, the pathway that mediates acute responses to hypoxia in mammals is not well understood. Here we show that the olfactory receptor Olfr78 is highly and selectively expressed in oxygen-sensitive glomus cells of the carotid body, a chemosensory organ at the carotid artery bifurcation that monitors blood oxygen and stimulates breathing within seconds when oxygen declines2. Olfr78 mutants fail to increase ventilation in hypoxia but respond normally to hypercapnia. Glomus cells are present in normal numbers and appear structurally intact, but hypoxia-induced carotid body activity is diminished. Lactate, a metabolite that rapidly accumulates in hypoxia and induces hyperventilation3–6, activates Olfr78 in heterologous expression experiments, induces calcium transients in glomus cells, and stimulates carotid sinus nerve activity through Olfr78. We propose that in addition to its role in olfaction, Olfr78 acts as a hypoxia sensor in the breathing circuit by sensing lactate produced when oxygen levels decline. PMID:26560302

  9. Oxygen fugacity control in piston-cylinder experiments: a re-evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, Sigurdur; Blundy, Jon; Moore, Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Jakobsson (Contrib Miner Petrol 164(3):397-407, 2012) investigated a double capsule assembly for use in piston-cylinder experiments that would allow hydrous, high-temperature, and high-pressure experiments to be conducted under controlled oxygen fugacity conditions. Using a platinum outer capsule containing a metal oxide oxygen buffer (Ni-NiO or Co-CoO) and H2O, with an inner gold-palladium capsule containing hydrous melt, this study was able to compare the oxygen fugacity imposed by the outer capsule oxygen buffer with an oxygen fugacity estimated by the AuPdFe ternary system calibrated by Barr and Grove (Contrib Miner Petrol 160(5):631-643, 2010). H2O loss or gain, as well as iron loss to the capsule walls and carbon contamination, is often observed in piston-cylinder experiments and often go unexplained. Only a few have attempted to actually quantify various aspects of these changes (Brooker et al. in Am Miner 83(9-10):985-994, 1998; Truckenbrodt and Johannes in Am Miner 84:1333-1335, 1999). It was one of the goals of Jakobsson (Contrib Miner Petrol 164(3):397-407, 2012) to address these issues by using and testing the AuPdFe solution model of Barr and Grove (Contrib Miner Petrol 160(5):631-643, 2010), as well as to constrain the oxygen fugacity of the inner capsule. The oxygen fugacities of the analyzed melts were assumed to be equal to those of the solid Ni-NiO and Co-CoO buffers, which is incorrect since the melts are all undersaturated in H2O and the oxygen fugacities should therefore be lower than that of the buffer by 2 log.

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTROLLING BOP (BASIC OXYGEN PROCESS) CHARGING EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of the basic oxygen process (BOP) hot metal charging emission control technology, conducted with a 900 kg pilot vessel designed for the experiments. Complete instrumentation was provided to measure the emissions, the effectiveness of the variou...

  11. CONTROL OF TRANSIENT INCINERATOR EMISSIONS WITH AN OXYGEN BASED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The subject of this paper is the experience with a novel and field-proven method for the enhanced control of transient emissions from rotary kiln incinerators using oxygen enrichment. hen high-BTU content wastes are fed into rotary kiln incinerators in an intermittent mode (typic...

  12. Evaluation of secondary-system oxygen control in PWR power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Oliker, I.; Katsman, D.

    1982-06-01

    The study discusses measures that should be incorporated into the balance of plant equipment in PWR plants to minimize oxygen content. It first reviews technical information about typical fossil and nuclear power plants in the USSR from the viewpoint of oxygen control. Next it addresses water conditioning in the condensate-feedwater system, including hydrazine-ammonia, chelate, and neutral modes, and variations of these modes. Reduction of oxygen ingress is discussed from the viewpoint of the condenser, feedwater heaters, moisture separator-reheater, and condensate storage tank. Emphasis is placed on proper condenser design and ejector operation. The importance of installing deaerating devices in the condenser itself and the feedwater system is discussed. Materials used in balance of plant equipment are analyzed for susceptibility to corrosion in the PWR plant environment. Recommendations are developed for protecting the system from oxygen contamination in different operating modes, particularly at startup and low load, and during shutdown. Suggestions for continuous monitoring and control of oxygen content in the condensate-feedwater system are included.

  13. Systemic oxygen therapy versus oral enalapril for treatment of diabetic macular ischemia: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sharifipour, Farideh; Razzaghi, Mohammadreza; Ramezani, Alireza; Azarmina, Mohsen; Yaseri, Mehdi; Soheilian, Roham; Soheilian, Masoud

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the structural and functional effects of systemic oxygen therapy and enalapril in patients with diabetic macular ischemia (DMI). This randomized clinical trial consisted of 105 eyes with DMI divided into three groups. Group I received systemic oxygen by face mask at a flow rate of 10 L/min; Group II received 5 mg enalapril daily; and Group III received placebo tablets for 3 months. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT) measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT), extent of foveal avascular zone (FAZ) on fluorescein angiograms, and electroretinograms (ERG) were obtained at baseline and after 3 and 6 months. Overall, 102 patients completed the study. Baseline characteristics were not significantly different among groups. Significant improvement in BCVA and decrease in CMT and FAZ occurred at months 3 and 6 in oxygen group compared to deterioration in enalapril and control groups (All P values <0.001). ERG parameters were significantly better in oxygen group compared to enalapril group at months 3 and 6 and better than those in control group at month 3. Normobaric oxygen therapy for 3 months in DMI decreased CMT and FAZ and improved BCVA and ERG parameters. Enalapril did not show any favorable effect. PMID:26292645

  14. Enhanced expression of trim14 gene suppressed Sindbis virus reproduction and modulated the transcription of a large number of genes of innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Nenasheva, V V; Kovaleva, G V; Uryvaev, L V; Ionova, K S; Dedova, A V; Vorkunova, G K; Chernyshenko, S V; Khaidarova, N V; Tarantul, V Z

    2015-07-01

    In the present research, we have studied an influence of enhanced expression TRIM14 on alphavirus Sindbis (SINV, Togaviridae family) infection. In the HEK293 cells transfected with human trim14 gene (HEK-trim14), SINV yield after infection was decreased 1000-10,000 times (3-4 lg of TCD50/ml) at 24 h p.i. and considerably less (1-2 lg of TCD50/ml) at 48 h p.i. Analysis of the expression of 43 genes directly or indirectly involved in innate immune machine in HEK-trim14 non-infected cells comparing with the control (non-transfected) HEK293 cells revealed that stable trim14 transfection in HEK293 cells caused increased transcription of 18 genes (ifna, il6 (ifn?2), isg15, raf-1, NF-kB (nf-kb1, rela, nf-kb2, relb), grb2, grb3-3, traf3ip2, junB, c-myb, pu.1, akt1, tyk2, erk2, mek2) and lowered transcription of 3 genes (ifn?, gata1, il-17a). The similar patterns of genes expression observe in SINV-infected non-transfected HEK293 cells. However, SINV infection of HEK-trim14 cells caused inhibition of the most interferon cascade genes as well as subunits of transcription factor NF-?B. Thus, stable enhanced expression of trim14 gene in cells activates the transcription of many immunity genes and suppresses the SINV reproduction, but SINV infection of HEK-trim14 cells promotes inhibition of some genes involved in innate immune system. PMID:25948474

  15. Controls on ostracod valve geochemistry: Part 2. Carbon and oxygen isotope compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decrouy, Laurent; Vennemann, Torsten Walter; Ariztegui, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    The stable carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of fossil ostracods are powerful tools to estimate past environmental and climatic conditions. The basis for such interpretations is that the calcite of the valves reflects the isotopic composition of water and its temperature of formation. However, calcite of ostracods is known not to form in isotopic equilibrium with water and different species may have different offsets from inorganic precipitates of calcite formed under the same conditions. To estimate the fractionation during ostracod valve calcification, the oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of 15 species living in Lake Geneva were related to their autoecology and the environmental parameters measured during their growth. The results indicate that: (1) Oxygen isotope fractionation is similar for all species of Candoninae with an enrichment in 18O of more than 3‰ relative to equilibrium values for inorganic calcite. Oxygen isotope fractionation for Cytheroidea is less discriminative relative to the heavy oxygen, with enrichments in 18O for these species of 1.7 to 2.3‰. Oxygen isotope fractionations for Cyprididae are in-between those of Candoninae and Cytheroidea. The difference in oxygen isotope fractionation between ostracods and inorganic calcite has been interpreted as resulting from a vital effect. (2) Comparison with previous work suggests that oxygen isotope fractionation may depend on the total and relative ion content of water. (3) Carbon isotope compositions of ostracod valves are generally in equilibrium with DIC. The specimens' δ 13C values are mainly controlled by seasonal variations in δ 13C DIC of bottom water or variation thereof in sediment pore water. (4) Incomplete valve calcification has an effect on carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of ostracod valves. Preferential incorporation of CO32- at the beginning of valve calcification may explain this effect. (5) Results presented here as well as results from synthetic carbonate growth indicate that different growth rates or low pH within the calcification site cannot be the cause of oxygen isotope 'vital effects' in ostracods. Two mechanisms that might enrich the 18O of ostracod valves are deprotonation of HCO3- that may also contribute to valve calcification, and effects comparable to salt effects with high concentrations of Ca and/or Mg within the calcification site that may also cause a higher temperature dependency of oxygen isotope fractionation.

  16. The influence of different beak trimming age on performance, H-L ratio and antibody production to SRBC in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Onba?ilar, E Ebru; Demirta?, Sahnur E; Kahraman, Zleyha; Karademir, Ender; Demir, Sunay

    2009-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of beak trimming age on performance criteria, H-L ratio, antibody production, the percentage of spleen and liver and external appearance. The chicks (Barred Rock) were randomly divided into 4 beak-trimming groups (non-trimmed (control), a trim at 1 d (1D), at 10 d (10D) and at 10 wk (10W)), each of 132 chicks. There were 6 replicate cages at beak trimming groups at rearing period. At 18 wk of age a total of 144 pullets were transferred to the layer house, and the pullets were housed at 323 and 646 cm(2)/hen with 8 and 4 birds per cage in three-deck layer cages. There were a total of 24 replications with 12 replications equally divided between the high and low density cages, and the beak trimmed treatments were randomly and equally divided within each density. As a result of this experiment differences among groups in body weight in rearing phase were disappear in the laying phase. Low feather condition was found in untrimmed hens. H-L ratio in both pullet and laying phase was higher in hens of untrimmed groups. Cage area affected all examined parameters except that body weight, mortality rate, cracked, broken and unshell egg rates, shell breaking, shape index, shell thickness, meat-blood spot rates, spleen and liver percentages, throat injures and antibody production to SRBC. PMID:18484189

  17. Trimming the threshold dispersion below 10 e-rms in a large area readout IC working in a single photon counting mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmon, P.; Maj, P.; Gryboś, P.; Szczygieł, R.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new method of an in-pixel threshold dispersion correction implemented in a prototype readout integrated circuit (IC) operating in a single photon counting mode. The new threshold correction method was implemented in a readout IC of area 9.6× 14.9 mm2 containing 23552 square pixels with the pitch of 75 μm designed and fabricated in CMOS 130 nm technology. Each pixel of the IC consists of a charge sensitive amplifier, a shaper, two discriminators, two 14-bit counters and a low-area trim DACs for threshold correction. The user can either control the range of the trim DAC globally for all the pixels in the integrated circuit or modify the trim DACs characteristics locally in each pixel independently. Using a simulation tool based on the Monte-Carlo methods, we estimated how much we could improve the offset trimming by increasing the number of bits in the trim DACs or implementing additional bits in a pixel to modify the characteristics of the trim DACs. The measurements of our IC prototype show that it is possible to reduce the effective threshold dispersion in large-area single-photon counting chips below 10 electrons rms.

  18. How to minimize power in dissolved oxygen control... DSM in action

    SciTech Connect

    Skrentner, R.G.; Lutman, C.G.

    1994-12-31

    As part of the EPRI Municipal Water and Sewage Project, Demand-Side Energy Management, EPRI retained EMA to evaluate the life cycle cost of three alternatives for controlling low-pressure centrifugal compressors to reduce power costs. The alternatives included: inlet guide vanes, inlet butterfly valves, and adjustable speed drives. This paper contains the findings and identifies actions that could benefit wastewater treatment facilities. Many wastewater treatment plants use an activated sludge process to remove organic pollutants. In this process, a large mass of microbes consumes the organic matter in the wastewater. The microbes require diffused oxygen to metabolize the organic material. The diffused air mixes with the contents of the aeration basin and provides oxygen to the microbes. The basic activated sludge process has the following features: (1) An aeration basin with provisions for oxygenation and mixing of the mixed liquor, (2) A settling tank or clarifier to separate mixed liquor solids and liquid, (3) A sludge recycling system to return settled activated sludge to the aeration basin, and (4) A sludge wasting system to remove solids at the rate that it grows, thus maintaining the desired mass of solids in the process. The operator has three main control variables: (1) Aeration rate to control the dissolved oxygen concentration in the aeration basin. The operator sets the aeration rate to maintain dissolved oxygen at 1-2 mg/l. (2) Sludge recycle rate to control the concentration of the return sludge and the mass of solids in the clarifier. The operator sets the return rate to maintain the sludge blanket level at some predetermined depth. (3) Sludge wasting rate to control the solids retention time and mass of solids in the process. The operator sets the waste rate usually once per day to remove a pre-determined mass.

  19. Comparison of Trimming Techniques for Sub-Lithographic Silicon Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreeskornfeld, L.; Graham, A. P.; Hartwich, J.; Kretz, J.; Landgraf, E.; Lutz, T.; Rösner, W.; Specht, M.; Risch, L.

    2006-06-01

    The trimming of electron beam features is investigated to explore the limits of this scaling technique for the fabrication of nano-scale devices. The semiconductor industry, in particular, needs features below 50 nm, e.g., for extremely small gates for future technology nodes. In addition, sub-lithographic structures are required for other device concepts, such as the fin-type field effect transistor (FinFET). The trimming of very thin layers of calixarene, an organic resist material, as well as an oxide-like resist (hydrogen-silesquioxane) were investigated and extremely small feature sizes, well below 10 nm, were achieved. Resist structures down to 4 nm in width and silicon features of about 8 nm have been successfully fabricated. Different trimming procedures utilizing plasma resist trimming, etching of Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) hard-masks in hydrofluoric acid (HF) and sacrificial oxidation were compared and, for the first time, a comprehensive study of these techniques applied to sub-10 nm-structuring is presented. In summary, results prove the potential of the trimming procedures investigated here, each of which has specific applications.

  20. Insulating ferromagnetic oxide films: the controlling role of oxygen vacancy ordering

    SciTech Connect

    Salafranca Laforga, Juan I; Salafranca, Juan; Biskup, Nevenko; Mehta, Virat; Oxley, Mark P; Suzuki, Yuri; Pennycook, Stephen J; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Varela del Arco, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The origin of ferromagnetism in strained epitaxial LaCoO3 films has been a long-standing mystery. Here, we combine atomically resolved Z-contrast imaging, electron-energy-loss spectroscopy, and density-functional calculations to demonstrate that, in epitaxial LaCoO3 films, oxygen-vacancy superstructures release strain, control the film s electronic properties, and produce the observed ferromagnetism via the excess electrons in the Co d states. Although oxygen vacancies typically dope a material n-type, we find that ordered vacancies induce Peierls-like minigaps which, combined with strain relaxation, trigger a nonlinear rupture of the energy bands, resulting in insulating behavior.

  1. Oxygen consumption and development of volatile sulfur compounds during bottle aging of two Shiraz wines. Influence of pre- and postbottling controlled oxygen exposure.

    PubMed

    Ugliano, Maurizio; Dieval, Jean-Baptiste; Siebert, Tracey E; Kwiatkowski, Mariola; Aagaard, Olav; Vidal, Stéphane; Waters, Elizabeth J

    2012-09-01

    The evolution of different volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) during bottle maturation of two Shiraz wines submitted to controlled oxygen exposure prior to bottling (through micro-oxygenation, MOX) and postbottling (through the closure) was investigated. H(2)S, methyl mercaptan (MeSH), and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) were found to increase during aging. Lower postbottling oxygen exposure, as obtained by different degrees of oxygen ingress through the closure, resulted in increased H(2)S and methyl mercaptan. In one wine MOX increased the concentration of H(2)S and methyl mercaptan during maturation. Dimethyl disulfide and DMS were not affected by any form of oxygen exposure. Overall, postbottling oxygen had a stronger influence than MOX on the evolution of VSCs. Data suggest that dimethyl disulfide was not a precursor to methyl mercaptan during bottle maturation. For the two wines studied, a consumption of oxygen of 5 mg/L over 12 months was the most effective oxygen exposure regimen to decrease accumulation of MeSH and H(2)S during bottle aging. PMID:22900817

  2. Ancient and recent adaptive evolution in the antiviral TRIM22 gene: identification of a single-nucleotide polymorphism that impacts TRIM22 function.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jenna N; Woods, Matthew W; Xhiku, Sintia; Barr, Stephen D

    2014-09-01

    Tripartite motif protein 22 (TRIM22) is a novel interferon-induced protein that potently inhibits the replication of evolutionarily diverse viruses, including HIV-1. Altered TRIM22 expression is also associated with diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, cancer, and autoimmunity. The factors that influence TRIM22 expression and antiviral activity are largely unknown. In this study, we adopted an evolution-guided functional approach to identify potential genetic determinants of TRIM22 function. Evolutionary analysis of TRIM22 from mammals spanning >100 million years demonstrated that TRIM22 evolution has been shaped by ancient and variable positive selection. We showed that positive selection is operating on multiple TRIM22 residues that cluster in putative functional regions and that some are predicted to be functionally damaging. Interestingly, the second most prevalent TRIM22 SNP in humans (rs1063303) is located at one of these positively selected sites. We showed that the frequency of rs1063303:G>C varies up to 10-fold between ethnicities and that in some ethnicities SNP rs1063303:G>C is being actively maintained in the population. The SNP rs1063303:G>C variant also had an inverse functional impact where it increased TRIM22 expression and decreased the antiviral activity of TRIM22. Taken together, our data characterize the extensive genetic variation in TRIM22 and identify rs1063303:G>C as a highly prevalent SNP that influences its function. PMID:24863734

  3. Design of a system for the control of low dissolved oxygen concentrations: critical oxygen concentrations for Azotobacter vinelandii and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Tannahill, A L; Shuler, M L

    1985-02-01

    The physiological activity of microorganisms in environments with low dissolved oxygen concentrations often differs from the metabolic activity of the same cells growing under fully aerobic or anaerobic conditions. This article describes a laboratory-scale system for the control of dissolved oxygen at low levels while maintaining other parameters, such as agitator speed, gas flowrate, position of sparger outlet, and temperature at fixed values. Thus, it is possible to attribute in dilute nonviscous fermentations all physiologic changes solely to changes in dissolved oxygen. Experiments were conducted with Azotobacter vinelandii and Escherichia coli. Critical oxygen concentrations for growth (that value of oxygen allowing growth at 97% of mu max) were measured as 0.35 +/- 0.03 mg/L for A. vinelandii and 0.12 +/- 0.03 mg/L for E. coli. These values are significantly different from the commonly quoted values for critical oxygen concentrations based on respiration rates. Because of the superior dissolved oxygen control system and an improved experimental protocol preventing CO2 limitation, we believe that the values reported in this work more closely represent reality. PMID:11540938

  4. Scaling-Free Electrochemical Production of Caustic and Oxygen for Sulfide Control in Sewers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Wen; Rabaey, Korneel; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo; Pikaar, Ilje

    2015-10-01

    Caustic shock-loading and oxygen injection are commonly used by the water industry for biofilm and sulfide control in sewers. Caustic can be produced onsite from wastewater using a two-compartment electrochemical cell. This avoids the need for import and storage of caustic soda, which typically represents a cost and a hazard. An issue limiting the practical implementation of this approach is the occurrence of membrane scaling due to the almost universal presence of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in wastewater. It results in a rapid increase in the cell voltage, thereby increasing the energy consumption of the system. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate an innovative solution for this problem involving the inclusion of a middle compartment between the anode and cathode compartments. Caustic was efficiently produced from wastewater over a period of 12 weeks and had an average Coulombic efficiency (CE) of 84.1 ± 1.1% at practically relevant caustic strengths (∼3 wt %). Neither membrane scaling nor an increase in the cell voltage was observed throughout the experiments. In addition, dissolved oxygen was produced in the anode, resulting in continuously oxygenated wastewater leaving the three-compartment cell. This membrane-scaling control strategy represents a major step forward toward practical implementation of on-site simultaneous electrochemical caustic and oxygen generation for sulfide control in sewers and also has the potential to be applied to other (bio)electrochemical systems receiving wastewater as source for product recovery. PMID:26377687

  5. Spatial control of the energy metabolism of yeast cells through electrolytic generation of oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnke, Christian; Mair, Thomas; Witte, Hartmut; Reiher, Antje; Hauser, Marcus J. B.; Krost, Alois

    2009-12-01

    The metabolic dynamics of yeast cells is controlled by electric pulses delivered through a spatially extended yeast cell/Au electrode interface. Concomitant with voltage pulses, oxygen is generated electrolytically at the electrode surface and delivered to the cells. The generation of oxygen was investigated in dependence of the applied voltage, width of the voltage pulses and temperature of the electrolytic solution. The local oxygen pulses at the electrodes lead to a transient activation of the aerobic energy metabolism of the yeast cells causing a perturbation in their energy balance. The effect of these local perturbations on the temporal dynamics of glycolysis in yeast cells is quantified in dependence of the energy state of cells.

  6. Control of oxygen vacancies and their kinetic behaviours via reversible oxygen loss in BiFeO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Kangli; Huang, Fengzhen; Jin, Yaming; Lu, Xiaomei; Wu, Huarui; Zhu, Jinsong

    2015-11-01

    Oxygen vacancies and their kinetic behaviours were systematically investigated in quenched BiFeO3 ceramics. Complex relaxation processes were observed and discussed based on the migration of V\\text{o}+ , V\\text{o}2+ and the transition in between them, where V\\text{o}+ , V\\text{o}2+ represent the oxygen vacancies with single and two positive charges, respectively. It is found that an oxygen-deficient environment promotes the transformation from V\\text{o}+ to V\\text{o}2+ , while oxygen treatment can reverse such a transformation. This work provides a feasible alternative method to modulate oxygen vacancies and their migration in favour of the applications of BiFeO3.

  7. Role of the Cephalic Trim in Modern Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Nagarkar, Purushottam; Stark, Ran Y; Pezeshk, Ronnie A; Amirlak, Bardia; Rohrich, Rod J

    2016-01-01

    There have been a variety of techniques describing nasal tip refinement. The cephalic trim has long been accepted as a means for shaping the nasal tip, but it has been misinterpreted by many surgeons. The improper use of a cephalic trim poses potential long-term sequelae. During analysis of the nasal tip, several anatomic findings must be noted to ensure appropriate correction as well as to avoid pitfalls. These findings include the type of boxy tip or bulbous tip, cartilage strength, and the skin quality. The goal of this article is to describe five types of cephalic trim techniques to assist in refining the nasal tip and an algorithm for selection of the appropriate technique based on these anatomic findings. PMID:26710011

  8. Aeroelastic Analysis of a Trimmed Generic Hypersonic Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nydick, I.; Friedmann, P. P.

    1999-01-01

    The aeroelastic equations of motion governing a hypersonic vehicle in free flight are derived. The equations of motion for a translating and rotating flexible body using Lagrange's equations in terms of quasi-coordinates are presented. These equations are simplified for the case of a vehicle with pitch and plunge rigid body degrees of freedom and small elastic displacements. The displacements are approximated by a truncated series of the unrestrained mode shapes, which are obtained using equivalent plate theory. Subsequently, the nonlinear equations of motion are linearized about the trim state, which is obtained using a rigid body trim model and steady hypersonic aerodynamics. The appropriate flutter derivatives are calculated from piston theory. Results describing mode shapes, trim behavior, and aeroelastic stability of a generic hypersonic vehicle are presented.

  9. Prediction and innovative control strategies for oxygen and hazardous gases from diesel emission in underground mines.

    PubMed

    Kurnia, Jundika C; Sasmito, Agus P; Wong, Wai Yap; Mujumdar, Arun S

    2014-05-15

    Diesel engine is widely used in underground mining machines due to its efficiency, ease of maintenance, reliability and durability. However, it possesses significant danger to the miners and mining operations as it releases hazardous gases (CO, NO, CO2) and fine particles which can be easily inhaled by the miners. Moreover, the diesel engine consumes significant amount of oxygen which can lead to insufficient oxygen supply for miners. It is therefore critical to maintain sufficient oxygen supply while keeping hazardous gas concentrations from diesel emission below the maximum allowable level. The objective of this study is to propose and to examine various innovative ventilation strategies to control oxygen and hazardous gas concentrations in underground mine to ensure safety, productivity and cost related to energy consumption. Airflow distribution, oxygen and hazardous gas dispersion as well as ambient temperature within the mining area are evaluated by utilizing the well-established computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. The results suggest that our newly proposed ventilation design performs better as compared to the conventional design to handle hazardous gases from diesel emission. PMID:24607396

  10. Physical and biological controls on oxygen saturation variability in the upper Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eveleth, Rachel; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Cassar, Nicolas

    2014-11-01

    Employing continuous in situ measurements of dissolved O2/Ar and O2 in the Arctic Ocean, we investigate the mechanisms controlling the physical (abiotic) and biological oxygen saturation state variability in the surface ocean beneath sea ice. O2/Ar measurements were made underway using Equilibrator Inlet Mass Spectrometry (EIMS) during an icebreaker survey transiting the upper Arctic Ocean across the North Pole in late summer 2011. Using concurrently collected measurements of total oxygen, we devolve biological oxygen saturation and physical oxygen (Ar) saturation signals at unprecedented horizontal resolution in the surface ocean. In the Nansen Basin, Ar is undersaturated up to -7% while biological oxygen supersaturation peaks at 18.4%. We attribute this to ice melt, Atlantic Water influence and/or cooling. In the Canadian Basin, Ar is supersaturated up to 3%, likely because of Ar injection from freezing processes and long residence times of gas under ice cover. The overall Canadian Basin to Eurasian Basin gradient of Ar supersaturation to undersaturation may reflect net freezing in the Canadian Basin and net melting in the Eurasian Basin over several seasons, either by Pacific to Atlantic sector ice transport or local changes over time. Ar saturation could thereby provide large-scale high-resolution estimates of current and future changes in these processes. O2/Ar supersaturation averages 4.9% with peaks up to 9.8% where first year ice and abundant melt ponds likely allow sufficient light for blooms in ice-covered regions.

  11. An Evolutionary Screen Highlights Canonical and Noncanonical Candidate Antiviral Genes within the Primate TRIM Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Malfavon-Borja, Ray; Sawyer, Sara L.; Wu, Lily I.; Emerman, Michael; Malik, Harmit S.

    2013-01-01

    Recurrent viral pressure has acted on host-encoded antiviral genes during primate and mammalian evolution. This selective pressure has resulted in dramatic episodes of adaptation in host antiviral genes, often detected via positive selection. These evolutionary signatures of adaptation have the potential to highlight previously unrecognized antiviral genes (also called restriction factors). Although the TRIM multigene family is recognized for encoding several bona fide restriction factors (e.g., TRIM5alpha), most members of this expansive gene family remain uncharacterized. Here, we investigated the TRIM multigene family for signatures of positive selection to identify novel candidate antiviral genes. Our analysis reveals previously undocumented signatures of positive selection in 17 TRIM genes, 10 of which represent novel candidate restriction factors. These include the unusual TRIM52 gene, which has evolved under strong positive selection despite its encoded protein lacking a putative viral recognition (B30.2) domain. We show that TRIM52 arose via gene duplication from the TRIM41 gene. Both TRIM52 and TRIM41 have dramatically expanded RING domains compared with the rest of the TRIM multigene family, yet this domain has evolved under positive selection only in primate TRIM52, suggesting that it represents a novel host–virus interaction interface. Our evolutionary-based screen not only documents positive selection in known TRIM restriction factors but also highlights candidate novel restriction factors, providing insight into the interfaces of host–pathogen interactions mediated by the TRIM multigene family. PMID:24158625

  12. Influences of age at final beak trim on the productive performance of commercial layers.

    PubMed

    Carey, J B; Lassiter, B W

    1995-04-01

    Two commercial egg-type strains were beak-trimmed at 10, 10 and 63, or 10 and 84 d. There were no interactions between strain and beak trimming treatment. Pullet feed consumption was significantly reduced within the 14-d period following beak trimming at 63 or 84 d. Total pullet feed consumption (1 to 126 d) was significantly lower among birds trimmed twice than among those trimmed only at 10 d. At 126 d, body weight of pullets trimmed at 10 and 84 d or 10 and 63 d was significantly less than that of those trimmed only at 10 d. Pullet mortality was not significantly influenced by beak trimming treatments. No significant effects of beak trimming treatments on layer mortality, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed conversion, or egg quality were detected. Layer feed consumption was significantly greater among birds beak trimmed at 10 d than among those trimmed at 10 and 84 d. Most of the effects associated with beak trimming treatments can be attributed to the influence that beak trimming had on feed consumption. PMID:7792231

  13. Controlled lateral anisotropy in correlated manganite heterostructures by interface-engineered oxygen octahedral coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Z.; Huijben, M.; Zhong, Z.; Gauquelin, N.; Macke, S.; Green, R. J.; van Aert, S.; Verbeeck, J.; van Tendeloo, G.; Held, K.; Sawatzky, G. A.; Koster, G.; Rijnders, G.

    2016-04-01

    Controlled in-plane rotation of the magnetic easy axis in manganite heterostructures by tailoring the interface oxygen network could allow the development of correlated oxide-based magnetic tunnelling junctions with non-collinear magnetization, with possible practical applications as miniaturized high-switching-speed magnetic random access memory (MRAM) devices. Here, we demonstrate how to manipulate magnetic and electronic anisotropic properties in manganite heterostructures by engineering the oxygen network on the unit-cell level. The strong oxygen octahedral coupling is found to transfer the octahedral rotation, present in the NdGaO3 (NGO) substrate, to the La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LSMO) film in the interface region. This causes an unexpected realignment of the magnetic easy axis along the short axis of the LSMO unit cell as well as the presence of a giant anisotropic transport in these ultrathin LSMO films. As a result we possess control of the lateral magnetic and electronic anisotropies by atomic-scale design of the oxygen octahedral rotation.

  14. Controlled lateral anisotropy in correlated manganite heterostructures by interface-engineered oxygen octahedral coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huijben, Mark

    Ultimate miniaturization of magnetic random access memory (MRAM) devices is expected by the utilization of spin-transfer torques, because they present an efficient means to switch elements with a very high magnetic anisotropy. To overcome the low switching speed in current collinearly magnetized devices, new routes are being explored to realize magnetic tunnel junction stacks with non-collinear magnetization between two magnetic electrodes. Controlled in-plane rotation of the magnetic easy axis in manganite heterostructures by tailoring the interface oxygen network would provide a promising direction for non-collinear magnetization in correlated oxide magnetic tunneling junctions. Here, we demonstrate how to manipulate magnetic and electronic anisotropic properties in manganite heterostructures by engineering the oxygen network on the unit-cell level. The strong oxygen octahedral coupling is found to transfer the octahedral rotation, present in the NdGaO3 (NGO) substrate, to the La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LSMO) film in the interface region. This causes an unexpected realignment of the magnetic easy axis along the short axis of the LSMO unit cell as well as the presence of a giant anisotropic transport in these ultrathin LSMO films. As a result we possess control of the lateral magnetic and electronic anisotropies by atomic scale design of the oxygen octahedral rotation. Membership Pending.

  15. Controlled lateral anisotropy in correlated manganite heterostructures by interface-engineered oxygen octahedral coupling.

    PubMed

    Liao, Z; Huijben, M; Zhong, Z; Gauquelin, N; Macke, S; Green, R J; Van Aert, S; Verbeeck, J; Van Tendeloo, G; Held, K; Sawatzky, G A; Koster, G; Rijnders, G

    2016-04-01

    Controlled in-plane rotation of the magnetic easy axis in manganite heterostructures by tailoring the interface oxygen network could allow the development of correlated oxide-based magnetic tunnelling junctions with non-collinear magnetization, with possible practical applications as miniaturized high-switching-speed magnetic random access memory (MRAM) devices. Here, we demonstrate how to manipulate magnetic and electronic anisotropic properties in manganite heterostructures by engineering the oxygen network on the unit-cell level. The strong oxygen octahedral coupling is found to transfer the octahedral rotation, present in the NdGaO3 (NGO) substrate, to the La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LSMO) film in the interface region. This causes an unexpected realignment of the magnetic easy axis along the short axis of the LSMO unit cell as well as the presence of a giant anisotropic transport in these ultrathin LSMO films. As a result we possess control of the lateral magnetic and electronic anisotropies by atomic-scale design of the oxygen octahedral rotation. PMID:26950593

  16. Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Architecture and Performance Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Jacob; Brown, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control approach for real-time trim configuration optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control approach is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an FA-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are controlled for optimization of fuel flow. This presentation presents the design and integration of this peak-seeking controller on a modified NASA FA-18 airplane with research flight control computers. A research flight was performed to collect data to build a realistic model of the performance function and characterize measurement noise. This model was then implemented into a nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom FA-18 simulation along with the peak-seeking control algorithm. With the goal of eventual flight tests, the algorithm was first evaluated in the improved simulation environment. Results from the simulation predict good convergence on minimum fuel flow with a 2.5-percent reduction in fuel flow relative to the baseline trim of the aircraft.

  17. Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Architecture and Performance Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Jacob; Brown, Nelson A.

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control approach for real-time trim configuration optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control approach is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are controlled for optimization of fuel flow. This paper presents the design and integration of this peak-seeking controller on a modified NASA F/A-18 airplane with research flight control computers. A research flight was performed to collect data to build a realistic model of the performance function and characterize measurement noise. This model was then implemented into a nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom F/A-18 simulation along with the peak-seeking control algorithm. With the goal of eventual flight tests, the algorithm was first evaluated in the improved simulation environment. Results from the simulation predict good convergence on minimum fuel flow with a 2.5-percent reduction in fuel flow relative to the baseline trim of the aircraft.

  18. Two-level multivariable control system of dissolved oxygen tracking and aeration system for activated sludge processes.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The problem of tracking dissolved oxygen is one of the most complex and fundamental issues related to biological processes. The dissolved oxygen level in aerobic tanks has a significant influence on the behavior and activity of microorganisms. Aerated tanks are supplied with air from an aeration system (blowers, pipes, throttling valves, and diffusers). It is a complex, dynamic system governed by nonlinear hybrid dynamics. Control of the aeration system is also difficult in terms of control of the dissolved oxygen. In this article, a two-level multivariable control system for tracking dissolved oxygen and controlling an aeration system is designed. A nonlinear model predictive control algorithm was applied to design controllers for each level. This overall hierarchical control system was validated by simulation based on real data records provided by a water resource recovery facility located in Kartuzy, Northern Poland. The effect of control system parameters and disturbances was also investigated. PMID:25630122

  19. A prospective observational study of maternal oxygenation during remifentanil patient-controlled analgesia use in labour.

    PubMed

    Messmer, A A; Potts, J M; Orlikowski, C E

    2016-02-01

    Numerous studies of remifentanil patient-controlled analgesia during labour have shown high levels of maternal satisfaction, but concerns remain, especially over the side-effects of sedation and respiratory depression. We conducted a prospective observational study of maternal oxygen desaturation during remifentanil patient-controlled analgesia. Pulse oximetry values were recorded every eight s and later downloaded for analysis. A desaturation episode was defined as oxygen saturation < 90%. We collected 148 h of data in 61 women, during which we observed 176 desaturation episodes. These episodes occurred in 43 (70%) women. The median (IQR [range]) of the lowest saturation during each episode was 87 (85-89 [68-89])% with duration 16 (8-24 [8-104]) s. Supplementary oxygen reduced the time per hour spent with saturation < 90%, but not the depth or duration of individual episodes. Desaturation episodes were twice as common during the second stage of labour as compared with the first stage. Prior opioid administration, bolus size and use of nitrous oxide during patient-controlled analgesia use were not found to influence frequency, depth or duration of desaturation episodes. Although these findings suggest desaturation occurs more frequently during remifentanil patient-controlled analgesia than previously reported, the results are comparable with earlier oximetry studies of women who received nitrous oxide and pethidine during labour. PMID:26617275

  20. Dissolved oxygen regulation by logarithmic/antilogarithmic control to improve a wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Flores, Victor R; Sanchez, Edgar N; Bteau, Jean-Franois; Hernandez, Salvador Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the automation of a real activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, which is located at San Antonio Ajijic in Jalisco, Mexico. The main objective is to create an on-line automatic supervision system, and to regulate the dissolved oxygen concentration in order to improve the performances of the process treating municipal wastewater. An approximate mathematical model is determined in order to evaluate via simulations different control strategies: proportional integral (PI), fuzzy PI and PI Logarithm/Antilogarithm (PI L/A). The controlled variable is dissolved oxygen and the control input is the injected oxygen. Based on this evaluation, the PI L/A controller is selected to be implemented in the real process. After that, the implementation, testing and fully operation of the plant automation are described. With this system, the considered wastewater treatment plant save energy and improves the effluent quality; also, the process monitoring is done online and it is easily operated by the plant users. PMID:24617069

  1. Data acquisition and control system with a programmable logic controller (PLC) for a pulsed chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haijun; Li, Guofu; Duo, Liping; Jin, Yuqi; Wang, Jian; Sang, Fengting; Kang, Yuanfu; Li, Liucheng; Wang, Yuanhu; Tang, Shukai; Yu, Hongliang

    2015-02-01

    A user-friendly data acquisition and control system (DACS) for a pulsed chemical oxygen -iodine laser (PCOIL) has been developed. It is implemented by an industrial control computer,a PLC, and a distributed input/output (I/O) module, as well as the valve and transmitter. The system is capable of handling 200 analogue/digital channels for performing various operations such as on-line acquisition, display, safety measures and control of various valves. These operations are controlled either by control switches configured on a PC while not running or by a pre-determined sequence or timings during the run. The system is capable of real-time acquisition and on-line estimation of important diagnostic parameters for optimization of a PCOIL. The DACS system has been programmed using software programmable logic controller (PLC). Using this DACS, more than 200 runs were given performed successfully.

  2. TRIM5 Retroviral Restriction Activity Correlates with the Ability To Induce Innate Immune Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lascano, Josefina; Uchil, Pradeep D.; Mothes, Walther

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Host restriction factor TRIM5 inhibits retroviral transduction in a species-specific manner by binding to and destabilizing the retroviral capsid lattice before reverse transcription is completed. However, the restriction mechanism may not be that simple since TRIM5 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, the proteasome, autophagy, and TAK1-dependent AP-1 signaling have been suggested to contribute to restriction. Here, we show that, among a panel of seven primate and Carnivora TRIM5 orthologues, each of which has potential for potent retroviral restriction activity, all activated AP-1 signaling. In contrast, TRIM family paralogues most closely related to TRIM5 did not. While each primate species has a single TRIM5 gene, mice have at least seven TRIM5 homologues that cluster into two groups, Trim12a, -b, and -c and Trim30a, -b, -c, and -d. The three Trim12 proteins activated innate immune signaling, while the Trim30 proteins did not, though none of the murine Trim5 homologues restricted any of a panel of cloned retroviruses. To determine if any mouse TRIM5 homologues had potential for restriction activity, each was fused to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) CA binding protein cyclophilin A (CypA). The three Trim12-CypA fusions all activated AP-1 and restricted HIV-1 transduction, whereas the Trim30-CypA fusions did neither. AP-1 activation and HIV-1 restriction by the Trim12-CypA fusions were inhibited by disruption of TAK1. Overall then, these experiments demonstrate that there is a strong correlation between TRIM5 retroviral restriction activity and the ability to activate TAK1-dependent innate immune signaling. IMPORTANCE The importance of retroviruses for the evolution of susceptible host organisms cannot be overestimated. Eight percent of the human genome is retrovirus sequence, fixed in the germ line during past infection. Understanding how metazoa protect their genomes from mutagenic retrovirus infection is therefore of fundamental importance to biology. TRIM5 is a cellular protein that protects host genome integrity by disrupting the retroviral capsid as it transports viral nucleic acid to the host cell nucleus. Previous data suggest that innate immune signaling contributes to TRIM5-mediated restriction. Here, we show that activation of innate immune signaling is conserved among primate and carnivore TRIM5 orthologues and among 3 of the 7 mouse Trim5 homologues and that such activity is required for TRIM5-mediated restriction activity. PMID:26468522

  3. Human Molecular Genetic and Functional Studies Identify TRIM63, Encoding Muscle RING Finger Protein 1, as a Novel Gene for Human Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Suet Nee; Czernuszewicz, Grazyna; Tan, Yanli; Lombardi, Raffaella; Jin, Jianping; Willerson, James T.; Marian, AJ

    2012-01-01

    Rationale A delicate balance between protein synthesis and degradation maintains cardiac size and function. TRIM63 encoding Muscle RING Finger 1 (MuRF1) maintains muscle protein homeostasis by tagging the sarcomere proteins with ubiquitin for subsequent degradation by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS). Objectives To determine the pathogenic role of TRIM63 in human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Methods and Results Sequencing of TRIM63 gene in 302 HCM probands (250 Caucasians) and 339 controls (262 Caucasians) led to identification of two missense (p.A48V and p.I130M) and a deletion (p.Q247*) variants exclusively in the HCM probands. These three variants were absent in 751 additional controls screened by TaqMan assays. Likewise, rare variants were enriched in the Caucasian HCM population (11/250, 4.4% vs. 3/262, 1.1%, respectively, p=0.024). Expression of the mutant TRIM63 was associated with mislocalization of TRIM63 to sarcomere Z disks, impaired auto-ubiquitination, reduced ubiquitination and UPS-mediated degradation of myosin heavy chain 6, cardiac myosin binding protein C, calcineurin (PPP3CB), and p-MTOR in adult cardiac myocytes. Induced expression of the mutant TRIM63 in the mouse heart was associated with cardiac hypertrophy, activation of the MTOR-S6K and calcineurin pathways and expression of the hypertrophic markers, which were normalized upon turning off expression of the mutant protein. Conclusions TRIM63 mutations, identified in patients with HCM, impart loss-of-function effects on E3 ligase activity and are likely causal mutations in HCM. The findings implicate impaired protein degradation in the pathogenesis of HCM. PMID:22821932

  4. Spectroscopic Signatures of Novel Oxygen-Defect Complexes in Stoichiometrically Controlled CdSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Bhosale, J. S.; Miotkowski, I.; Ramdas, A. K.

    2008-11-01

    Growth of single crystals of CdSe with oxygen, introduced by stoichiometric control to suppress the formation of native Se and Cd vacancies, generates oxygen centers replacing Cd (OCd) rather than Se (OSe) as expected. This antisite substitution is unambiguously singled out by the host isotope fine structure of the nearest neighbor (NN) Se atoms in the localized vibrational modes (LVMs) of OCd. When the stoichiometry control favors the formation of Cd vacancies, three infrared signatures γ1, γ2 and γ3 appear ascribable to the LVMs of OSe in association with a Cd vacancy in the NN position as (OSe-VCd) centers. Polarization measurements establish the monoclinic Cs symmetry for these centers. As a function of temperature, they display a remarkable two-step symmetry transformation, Cs→C3v→Td, due to the dynamic switching of the OSe-VCd dangling bond.

  5. Thermal expansion measurement of (U,Pu)O2-x in oxygen partial pressure-controlled atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Masato; Ikusawa, Yoshihisa; Sunaoshi, Takeo; Nelson, Andrew T.; McClellan, Kenneth J.

    2016-02-01

    Thermal expansion of U0.7Pu0.3O2-x (x = 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03) and U0.52Pu0.48O2.00 was investigated by a unique dilatometry which measured in an oxygen partial pressure-controlled atmosphere. The oxygen partial pressure was controlled to hold a constant oxygen-to-metal ratio in the (U,Pu)O2-x during the measurement. Thermal expansion slightly increased with the decrease in oxygen-to-metal ratio. We proposed a relationship to describe thermal expansion as a function of temperature, O/M and Pu content.

  6. Oxygen stoichiometry control of nanometric oxide compounds: The case of titanium ferrites

    SciTech Connect

    Millot, N.

    2011-10-15

    Three techniques have been coupled with an original device, based on H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O equilibrium, controlling oxygen partial pressure: XRD, TGA and DC conductivity in order to characterize very reactive compounds such as nanometric powders. From XRD, both the structure and the oxygen stoichiometry (thanks to their lattice parameter) were investigated in situ. From TGA, it was the oxygen stoichiometry (thanks to mass gain or loss) which was determined. From DC conductivity, it was both the structure and the oxygen stoichiometry (thanks to the activation energy) which were obtained. The advantages were to determine very rapidly and with a small amount of powder the equilibrium conditions (T, pO{sub 2}) necessary to obtain the desired phase and stoichiometry. These methods have been evaluated for nanometric titanium ferrites. Two phenomena have been observed during the reducing process: the precipitation of a rhombohedral phase and a significant grain growth linked together. - Graphical abstract: XRD patterns of Fe{sub 3(1-{delta})}O{sub 4} nanometric powders obtained in situ during a reducing treatment. The stoichiometric compound was obtained by a thermal annealing at 460 deg. C under pO{sub 2}=3x10{sup -26} Pa ({Phi}{sub DRX}=100 nm). In inset, data of the experimental lattice parameter compared to the theoretical one. {alpha} represents the rhomboedrical phase which precipitates during this thermal treatment, then disappeared. Highlights: > The control of the deviation from oxygen stoichiometry is rarely consider in literature. > At the nanometric scale, it is necessary to develop synthesis routes under appropriate atmosphere. > These synthesis must be coupled with in situ characterization tools. > It opens the door to fast and precise studies concerning the evolution of nanometric materials.

  7. Oxygen and an Extracellular Phase Transition Independently Control Central Regulatory Genes and Conidiogenesis in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Myoung-Hwan; Craven, Kelly D.

    2013-01-01

    Conidiogenesis is the primary process for asexual reproduction in filamentous fungi. As the conidia resulting from the conidiogenesis process are primarily disseminated via air currents and/or water, an outstanding question has been how fungi recognize aerial environments suitable for conidial development. In this study, we documented the somewhat complex development of the conidia-bearing structures, termed conidiophores, from several Aspergillus species in a subsurface (gel-phase) layer of solid media. A subset of the isolates studied was able to develop conidiophores in a gel-phase environment, but exposure to the aeriform environment was required for the terminal developmental transition from phialide cells to conidia. The remaining Aspergilli could not initiate the conidiogenesis process until they were exposed to the aeriform environment. Our observations of conidiophore development in high or low oxygen conditions in both aeriform and gel-phase environments revealed that oxygen and the aeriform state are positive environmental factors for inducing conidiogenesis in most of the aspergilli tested in this study. Transcriptional analysis using A. fumigatus strain AF293 confined to either the aeriform or gel-phase environments revealed that expression of a key regulatory gene for conidiophore development (AfubrlA) is facilitated by oxygen while expression of another regulatory gene controlling conidia formation from phialides (AfuabaA) was repressed regardless of oxygen levels in the gel-embedded environment. Furthermore, by comparing the developmental behavior of conidiation-defective mutants lacking genes controlling various regulatory checkpoints throughout the conidiogenesis pathway, we propose that this aerial response by the fungus requires both oxygen and the phase transition (solid to aeriform), with these environmental signals integrating into the upstream regulatory pathway and central regulatory pathway of conidiogenesis, respectively. Our findings provide not only novel insight into how fungi respond to an aerial environment to trigger development for airborne conidia production but also the relationship between environmental factors and conidiogenesis regulation in aspergilli. PMID:24040343

  8. Coordinated control of carbon and oxygen for ultra-low-carbon interstitial-free steel in a smelting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min; Bao, Yan-ping; Yang, Quan; Zhao, Li-hua; Lin, Lu

    2015-12-01

    Low residual-free-oxygen before final de-oxidation was beneficial to improving the cleanness of ultra-low-carbon steel. For ultra-low-carbon steel production, the coordinated control of carbon and oxygen is a precondition for achieving low residual oxygen during the Ruhrstahl Heraeus (RH) decarburization process. In this work, we studied the coordinated control of carbon and oxygen for ultra-low-carbon steel during the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) endpoint and RH process using data statistics, multiple linear regressions, and thermodynamics computations. The results showed that the aluminum yield decreased linearly with increasing residual oxygen in liquid steel. When the mass ratio of free oxygen and carbon ([O]/[C]) in liquid steel before RH decarburization was maintained between 1.5 and 2.0 and the carbon range was from 0.030wt% to 0.040wt%, the residual oxygen after RH natural decarburization was low and easily controlled. To satisfy the requirement for RH decarburization, the carbon and free oxygen at the BOF endpoint should be controlled to be between 297 × 10-6 and 400 × 10-6 and between 574 × 10-6 and 775 × 10-6, respectively, with a temperature of 1695 to 1715°C and a furnace campaign of 1000 to 5000 heats.

  9. Molecular characterization, tissue distribution and expression analysis of TRIM25 in Gallus gallus domesticus.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ze-Qing; Cheng, Yang; Yang, Hui-Ling; Zhu, Qing; Yu, Dandan; Liu, Yi-Ping

    2015-04-25

    TRIM25, a member of the tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) family of proteins, plays an important role in cell proliferation, protein modification, and the RIG-I-mediated antiviral signaling pathway. However, relatively few studies have investigated the molecular characterization, tissue distribution, and potential function of TRIM25 in chickens. In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNA of chicken TRIM25 that is composed of 2706 bp. Sequence analyses revealed that TRIM25 contains a 1902-bp open-reading frame that probably encodes a 633-amino acid protein. Multiple comparisons with deduced amino acid sequences revealed that the RING finger and B30.2 domains of chicken TRIM25 share a high sequence similarity with human and murine TRIM25, indicating that these domains are critical for the function of chicken TRIM25. qPCR assays revealed that TRIM25 is highly expressed in the spleen, thymus and lungs in chickens. Furthermore, we observed that TRIM25 expression was significantly upregulated both in vitro and in vivo following infection with Newcastle disease virus. TRIM25 expression was also significantly upregulated in chicken embryo fibroblasts upon stimulation with poly(I:C) or poly(dA:dT). Taken together, these findings suggest that TRIM25 plays an important role in antiviral signaling pathways in chickens. PMID:25682934

  10. The study of neural network-based controller for controlling dissolved oxygen concentration in a sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Azwar; Hussain, M A; Ramachandran, K B

    2006-03-01

    The design and development of the neural network (NN)-based controller performance for the activated sludge process in sequencing batch reactor (SBR) is presented in this paper. Here we give a comparative study of various neural network (NN)-based controllers such as the direct inverse control, internal model control (IMC) and hybrid NN control strategies to maintain the dissolved oxygen (DO) level of an activated sludge system by manipulating the air flow rate. The NN inverse model-based controller with the model-based scheme represents the controller, which relies solely upon the simple NN inverse model. In the IMC, both the forward and inverse models are used directly as elements within the feedback loop. The hybrid NN control consists of a basic NN controller in parallel with a proportional integral (PI) controller. Various simulation tests involving multiple set-point changes, disturbances rejection and noise effects were performed to review the performances of these various controllers. From the results it can be seen that hybrid controller gives the best results in tracking set-point changes under disturbances and noise effects. PMID:16622910

  11. Oxygen control of ethylene biosynthesis during seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramonell, K. M.; McClure, G.; Musgrave, M. E.

    2002-01-01

    An unforeseen side-effect on plant growth in reduced oxygen is the loss of seed production at concentrations around 25% atmospheric (50 mmol mol-1 O2). In this study, the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. cv. 'Columbia' was used to investigate the effect of low oxygen on ethylene biosynthesis during seed development. Plants were grown in a range of oxygen concentrations (210 [equal to ambient], 160, 100, 50 and 25 mmol mol-1) with 0.35 mmol mol-1 CO2 in N2. Ethylene in full-sized siliques was sampled using gas chromatography, and viable seed production was determined at maturity. Molecular analysis of ethylene biosynthesis was accomplished using cDNAs encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase in ribonuclease protection assays and in situ hybridizations. No ethylene was detected in siliques from plants grown at 50 and 25 mmol mol-1 O2. At the same time, silique ACC oxidase mRNA increased three-fold comparing plants grown under the lowest oxygen with ambient controls, whereas ACC synthase mRNA was unaffected. As O2 decreased, tissue-specific patterning of ACC oxidase and ACC synthase gene expression shifted from the embryo to the silique wall. These data demonstrate how low O2 modulates the activity and expression of the ethylene biosynthetic pathway during seed development in Arabidopsis.

  12. 7 CFR 58.725 - Trimming and cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Trimming and cleaning. 58.725 Section 58.725 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946...

  13. Infrared beak treatment: an alternative to conventional beak trimming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infrared lasers have been widely used in human medicine and its results are reliable, predictable and reproducible. Infrared lasers have recently been designed with the expressed purpose of providing a less painful, more precise beak treatment compared with conventional beak trimming. This study was...

  14. Interior view of the trimming and packing tables, ginaca machines ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of the trimming and packing tables, ginaca machines deliver pineapples from the left to the tables, view facing east - Kahului Cannery, Plant No. 28, Cannery Building and Dryer House/Feed Storage Building, 120 Kane Street, Kahului, Maui County, HI

  15. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.30 Ballast water... exclusive economic zone must agree to comply with the “Code of Best Practices for Ballast Water...

  16. Astronaut Owen Garriott trims hair of Astronaut Alan Bean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, trims the hair of Astronaut Alan L. Bean, commander, in this on-board photograph from the Skylab Orbital Workshop (OWS). Bean holds a vacuum hose to gather in loose hair.

  17. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.30 Ballast water... exclusive economic zone must agree to comply with the “Code of Best Practices for Ballast Water...

  18. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.30 Ballast water... exclusive economic zone must agree to comply with the “Code of Best Practices for Ballast Water...

  19. Ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on iceberg lettuce. II. Pre-treatment on lettuce tolerance and sequential controlled atmosphere

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-stored iceberg lettuce under normal atmosphere and controlled atmosphere (CA) with about 3% oxygen at low temperature for one week was compared with fresh lettuce for their response to 2-day ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment at 10 degrees C for control of western flower thrips. For both atmospheri...

  20. High cell density induces spontaneous bifurcations of dissolved oxygen controllers during CHO cell fermentations.

    PubMed

    Chung, John D; Chang, Conway C; Groves, James Ashley

    2003-10-20

    High cell density cultures of CHO cells growing in a bioreactor under dissolved oxygen control were found to undergo spontaneous bifurcations and a subsequent loss of stability some time into the fermentation. This loss of stability was manifested by sustained and amplified oscillations in the bioreactor dissolved oxygen concentration and in the oxygen gas flow rate to the reactor. To identify potential biological and operational causes for the phenomenon, linear stability analysis was applied in a neighborhood of the experimentally observed bifurcation point. The analysis revealed that two steady state process gains, K(P1) and K(P2), regulated k(l)a and gas phase oxygen concentration inputs, respectively, and the magnitude of K(P1) was found to determine system stability about the bifurcation point. The magnitude of K(P1), and hence the corresponding open-loop steady state gain K(OL1), scaled linearly with the bioreactor cell density, increasing with increasing cell density. These results allowed the generation of a fermentation stability diagram, which partitioned K(C)-N operating space into stable and unstable regions separated by the loci of predicted critically stable controller constants, K(C,critical), as a function of bioreactor cell density. This consistency of this operating diagram with experimentally observed changes in system stability was demonstrated. We conclude that time-dependent increases in cell density are the cause of the observed instabilities and that cell density is the critical bifurcation parameter. The results of this study should be readily applicable to the design of a more robust controller. PMID:12966579

  1. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    DOEpatents

    Van Hoek; Pim , Aristidou; Aristos , Rush; Brian

    2007-06-19

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  2. The 6670-Newton attitude-control thruster using hydrogen-oxygen propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1977-01-01

    The development of a reusable, attitude-control propulsion system for the space transportation system is discussed. A flight weight, gaseous oxygen attitude control thruster assembly was tested to obtain data on cyclic life, thermal and hydraulic characteristics, pulse response, and performance. The basic thruster components were tested in excess of 51,000 pulses and 660 seconds, steady state, with no degradation of the 93 percent characteristic exhaust velocity efficiency level. Nominal operating conditions were a chamber pressure of 207 N sq cm (300 psia), a mixture ratio of 4.0, a pulse width of 100 ms, and a pulse frequency of 2 Hz.

  3. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    DOEpatents

    Van Hoek, Pim; Aristidou, Aristos; Rush, Brian

    2011-05-10

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  4. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    DOEpatents

    Van Hoek, Pim; Aristidou, Aristos; Rush, Brian

    2014-09-09

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  5. Trim and Structural Optimization of Subsonic Transport Wings Using Nonconventional Aeroelastic Tailoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Bret K.; Jutte, Christine V.

    2014-01-01

    Several minimum-mass aeroelastic optimization problems are solved to evaluate the effectiveness of a variety of novel tailoring schemes for subsonic transport wings. Aeroelastic strength and panel buckling constraints are imposed across a variety of trimmed maneuver loads. Tailoring with metallic thickness variations, functionally graded materials, composite laminates, tow steering, and distributed trailing edge control effectors are all found to provide reductions in structural wing mass with varying degrees of success. The question as to whether this wing mass reduction will offset the increased manufacturing cost is left unresolved for each case.

  6. Instrument for stable high temperature Seebeck coefficient and resistivity measurements under controlled oxygen partial pressure

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan James; Sharma, Peter Anand

    2015-04-28

    The transport properties of ceramic materials strongly depend on oxygen activity, which is tuned by changing the partial oxygen pressure (pO2) prior to and during measurement. Within, we describe an instrument for highly stable measurements of Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity at temperatures up to 1300 K with controlled oxygen partial pressure. An all platinum construction is used to avoid potential materials instabilities that can cause measurement drift. Two independent heaters are employed to establish a small temperature gradient for Seebeck measurements, while keeping the average temperature constant and avoiding errors associated with pO2-induced drifts in thermocouple readings. Oxygen equilibriummore » is monitored using both an O2 sensor and the transient behavior of the resistance as a proxy. A pO2 range of 10-25–100 atm can be established with appropriate gas mixtures. Seebeck measurements were calibrated against a high purity platinum wire, Pt/Pt–Rh thermocouple wire, and a Bi2Te3 Seebeck coefficient Standard Reference Material. To demonstrate the utility of this instrument for oxide materials we present measurements as a function of pO2 on a 1 % Nb-doped SrTiO3 single crystal, and show systematic changes in properties consistent with oxygen vacancy defect chemistry. Thus, an approximately 11% increase in power factor over a pO2 range of 10-19–10-8 atm at 973 K for the donor-doped single crystals is observed.« less

  7. Instrument for stable high temperature Seebeck coefficient and resistivity measurements under controlled oxygen partial pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan James; Sharma, Peter Anand

    2015-04-28

    The transport properties of ceramic materials strongly depend on oxygen activity, which is tuned by changing the partial oxygen pressure (pO2) prior to and during measurement. Within, we describe an instrument for highly stable measurements of Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity at temperatures up to 1300 K with controlled oxygen partial pressure. An all platinum construction is used to avoid potential materials instabilities that can cause measurement drift. Two independent heaters are employed to establish a small temperature gradient for Seebeck measurements, while keeping the average temperature constant and avoiding errors associated with pO2-induced drifts in thermocouple readings. Oxygen equilibrium is monitored using both an O2 sensor and the transient behavior of the resistance as a proxy. A pO2 range of 10-25100 atm can be established with appropriate gas mixtures. Seebeck measurements were calibrated against a high purity platinum wire, Pt/PtRh thermocouple wire, and a Bi2Te3 Seebeck coefficient Standard Reference Material. To demonstrate the utility of this instrument for oxide materials we present measurements as a function of pO2 on a 1 % Nb-doped SrTiO3 single crystal, and show systematic changes in properties consistent with oxygen vacancy defect chemistry. Thus, an approximately 11% increase in power factor over a pO2 range of 10-1910-8 atm at 973 K for the donor-doped single crystals is observed.

  8. Instrument for stable high temperature Seebeck coefficient and resistivity measurements under controlled oxygen partial pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan James; Sharma, Peter Anand

    2015-04-28

    The transport properties of ceramic materials strongly depend on oxygen activity, which is tuned by changing the partial oxygen pressure (pO2) prior to and during measurement. Within, we describe an instrument for highly stable measurements of Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity at temperatures up to 1300 K with controlled oxygen partial pressure. An all platinum construction is used to avoid potential materials instabilities that can cause measurement drift. Two independent heaters are employed to establish a small temperature gradient for Seebeck measurements, while keeping the average temperature constant and avoiding errors associated with pO2-induced drifts in thermocouple readings. Oxygen equilibrium is monitored using both an O2 sensor and the transient behavior of the resistance as a proxy. A pO2 range of 10-25–100 atm can be established with appropriate gas mixtures. Seebeck measurements were calibrated against a high purity platinum wire, Pt/Pt–Rh thermocouple wire, and a Bi2Te3 Seebeck coefficient Standard Reference Material. To demonstrate the utility of this instrument for oxide materials we present measurements as a function of pO2 on a 1 % Nb-doped SrTiO3 single crystal, and show systematic changes in properties consistent with oxygen vacancy defect chemistry. Thus, an approximately 11% increase in power factor over a pO2 range of 10-19–10-8 atm at 973 K for the donor-doped single crystals is observed.

  9. Fish TRIM39 regulates cell cycle progression and exerts its antiviral function against iridovirus and nodavirus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Huang, Youhua; Yu, Yepin; Yang, Ying; Xu, Meng; Chen, Xiuli; Ni, Songwei; Qin, Qiwei; Huang, Xiaohong

    2016-03-01

    The tripartite motif (TRIM)-containing proteins exert important immune regulatory roles through regulating different signaling pathways in response to different stimuli. TRIM39, a member of the TRIM family, is a RING domain-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase which could regulate cell cycle progression and apoptosis. However, the antiviral activity of TRIM39 is not explored. Here, a TRIM39 homolog from grouper, Epinephelus coioides (EcTRIM39) was cloned, and its effects on cell cycle progression and fish virus replication were investigated. The full-length EcTRIM39 cDNA was composed of 2535 bp and encoded a polypeptide of 543 amino acids with 70% identity with TRIM39 homologs from bicolor damselfish. Amino acid alignment analysis indicated that EcTRIM39 contained a RING finger, B-box and SPRY domain. Expression profile analysis revealed that EcTRIM39 was abundant in intestine, spleen and skin. Upon different stimuli in vivo, the EcTRIM39 transcript was obviously up-regulated after challenging with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV), and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). Using fluorescence microscopy, we found that EcTRIM39 localized in the cytoplasm and formed aggregates in grouper spleen (GS) cells. The ectopic expression of EcTRIM39 in vitro affected the cell cycle progression via mediating G1/S transition. Moreover, the RING domain was essential for its accurate localization and effect on cell cycle. In addition, overexpression of EcTRIM39 significantly inhibited viral gene transcription of SGIV and red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) in vitro, and the mutant of RING exerted the opposite effect. Together, our results demonstrated that fish TRIM39 not only regulated the cell cycle progression, but also acted as an important regulator of fish innate immune response against viruses. PMID:26784918

  10. Advancements in oxygen generation and humidity control by water vapor electrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Sudar, M.; Lee, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Regenerative processes for the revitalization of manned spacecraft atmospheres or other manned habitats are essential for realization of long-term space missions. These processes include oxygen generation through water electrolysis. One promising technique of water electrolysis is the direct conversion of the water vapor contained in the cabin air to oxygen. This technique is the subject of the present program on water vapor electrolysis development. The objectives were to incorporate technology improvements developed under other similar electrochemical programs and add new ones; design and fabricate a mutli-cell electrochemical module and a testing facility; and demonstrate through testing the improvements. Each aspect of the water vapor electrolysis cell was reviewed. The materials of construction and sizing of each element were investigated analytically and sometime experimentally. In addition, operational considerations such as temperature control in response to inlet conditions were investigated. Three specific quantitative goals were established.

  11. Semi-commercial ultralow oxygen treatment for control of western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (thysanoptera: thripidae), on harvested iceberg lettuce.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pallet scale two day ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment with 30 ppm oxygen at 10°C ambient temperature was conducted on seven cultivars of vacuum cooled iceberg lettuce which had been stored for 1, 3, 4, and 6 days to develop a safe and effective treatment for control of western flower thrips, Franklin...

  12. Temperature, oxygen, and vegetation controls on decomposition in a James Bay peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philben, Michael; Holmquist, James; MacDonald, Glen; Duan, Dandan; Kaiser, Karl; Benner, Ronald

    2015-06-01

    The biochemical composition of a peat core from James Bay Lowland, Canada, was used to assess the extent of peat decomposition and diagenetic alteration. Our goal was to identify environmental controls on peat decomposition, particularly its sensitivity to naturally occurring changes in temperature, oxygen exposure time, and vegetation. All three varied substantially during the last 7000 years, providing a natural experiment for evaluating their effects on decomposition. The bottom 50 cm of the core formed during the Holocene Climatic Optimum (~7000-4000 years B.P.), when mean annual air temperature was likely 1-2°C warmer than present. A reconstruction of the water table level using testate amoebae indicated oxygen exposure time was highest in the subsequent upper portion of the core between 150 and 225 cm depth (from ~2560 to 4210 years B.P.) and the plant community shifted from mostly Sphagnum to vascular plant dominance. Several independent biochemical indices indicated that decomposition was greatest in this interval. Hydrolysable amino acid yields, hydroxyproline yields, and acid:aldehyde ratios of syringyl lignin phenols were higher, while hydrolysable neutral sugar yields and carbon:nitrogen ratios were lower in this zone of both vascular plant vegetation and elevated oxygen exposure time. Thus, peat formed during the Holocene Climatic Optimum did not appear to be more extensively decomposed than peat formed during subsequent cooler periods. Comparison with a core from the West Siberian Lowland, Russia, indicates that oxygen exposure time and vegetation are both important controls on decomposition, while temperature appears to be of secondary importance. The low apparent sensitivity of decomposition to temperature is consistent with recent observations of a positive correlation between peat accumulation rates and mean annual temperature, suggesting that contemporary warming could enhance peatland carbon sequestration, although this could be offset by an increasing contribution of vascular plants to the vegetation.

  13. The oxygen sensor MgFnr controls magnetite biomineralization by regulation of denitrification in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Magnetotactic bacteria are capable of synthesizing magnetosomes only under oxygen-limited conditions. However, the mechanism of the aerobic repression on magnetite biomineralization has remained unknown. In Escherichia coli and other bacteria, Fnr (fumarate and nitrate reduction regulator) proteins are known to be involved in controlling the switch between microaerobic and aerobic metabolism. Here, we report on an Fnr-like protein (MgFnr) and its role in growth metabolism and magnetite biomineralization in the alphaproteobacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. Results Deletion of Mgfnr not only resulted in decreased N2 production due to reduced N2O reductase activity, but also impaired magnetite biomineralization under microaerobic conditions in the presence of nitrate. Overexpression of MgFnr in the WT also caused the synthesis of smaller magnetite particles under anaerobic and microaerobic conditions in the presence of nitrate. These data suggest that proper expression of MgFnr is required for WT-like magnetosome synthesis, which is regulated by oxygen. Analyses of transcriptional gusA reporter fusions revealed that besides showing similar properties to Fnr proteins reported in other bacteria, MgFnr is involved in the repression of the expression of denitrification genes nor and nosZ under aerobic conditions, possibly owing to several unique amino acid residues specific to MTB-Fnr. Conclusions We have identified and thoroughly characterized the first regulatory protein mediating denitrification growth and magnetite biomineralization in response to different oxygen conditions in a magnetotactic bacterium. Our findings reveal that the global oxygen regulator MgFnr is a genuine O2 sensor. It is involved in controlling expression of denitrification genes and thereby plays an indirect role in maintaining proper redox conditions required for magnetite biomineralization. PMID:24915802

  14. Reducing the risk of major elective surgery: randomised controlled trial of preoperative optimisation of oxygen delivery

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Jonathan; Woods, Ian; Fawcett, Jayne; Whall, Rebecca; Dibb, Wendy; Morris, Chris; McManus, Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether preoperative optimisation of oxygen delivery improves outcome after major elective surgery, and to determine whether the inotropes, adrenaline and dopexamine, used to enhance oxygen delivery influence outcome. Design Randomised controlled trial with double blinding between inotrope groups. Setting York District Hospital, England. Subjects 138 patients undergoing major elective surgery who were at risk of developing postoperative complications either because of the surgery or the presence of coexistent medical conditions. Interventions Patients were randomised into three groups. Two groups received invasive haemodynamic monitoring, fluid, and either adrenaline or dopexamine to increase oxygen delivery. Inotropic support was continued during surgery and for at least 12 hours afterwards. The third group (control) received routine perioperative care. Main outcome measures Hospital mortality and morbidity. Results Overall, 3/92 (3%) preoptimised patients died compared with 8/46 controls (17%) (P=0.007). There were no differences in mortality between the treatment groups, but 14/46 (30%) patients in the dopexamine group developed complications compared with 24/46 (52%) patients in the adrenaline group (difference 22%, 95% confidence interval 2% to 41%) and 28 patients (61%) in the control group (31%, 11% to 50%). The use of dopexamine was associated with a decreased length of stay in hospital. Conclusion Routine preoperative optimisation of patients undergoing major elective surgery would be a significant and cost effective improvement in perioperative care. Key messagesMajor elective surgery in UK general hospitals still carries significant mortality and morbidityPreoperative administration of fluid and inotropes, guided by invasive monitoring, can significantly reduce mortality, morbidity, and length of hospital stayThe choice of inotrope may influence the extent of improvements in outcomeRoutine preoperative optimisation would require initial investment in high dependency care facilities but is likely to be cost effective by reducing complications and length of hospital stay PMID:10213716

  15. TRIM5{alpha} association with cytoplasmic bodies is not required for antiretroviral activity

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Byeongwoon; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Park, Do Hyun; Rogers, Thomas; Stremlau, Matthew; Sodroski, Joseph . E-mail: joseph_sodroski@dfci.harvard.edu

    2005-12-20

    The tripartite motif (TRIM) protein, TRIM5{alpha}, restricts infection by particular retroviruses. Many TRIM proteins form cytoplasmic bodies of unknown function. We investigated the relationship between cytoplasmic body formation and the structure and antiretroviral activity of TRIM5{alpha}. In addition to diffuse cytoplasmic staining, the TRIM5{alpha} proteins from several primate species were located in cytoplasmic bodies of different sizes; by contrast, TRIM5{alpha} from spider monkeys did not form cytoplasmic bodies. Despite these differences, all of the TRIM5{alpha} proteins exhibited the ability to restrict infection by particular retroviruses. Treatment of cells with geldanamycin, an Hsp90 inhibitor, resulted in disappearance or reduction of the TRIM5{alpha}-associated cytoplasmic bodies, yet exerted little effect on the restriction of retroviral infection. Studies of green fluorescent protein-TRIM5{alpha} fusion proteins indicated that no TRIM5{alpha} domain is specifically required for association with cytoplasmic bodies. Apparently, the formation of cytoplasmic bodies is not required for the antiretroviral activity of TRIM5{alpha}.

  16. Oxygen concentration sensing device for an air-fuel ratio control system of an automotive internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Asakura, M.; Kawanabe, T.; Kushida, N.; Hasebe, H.

    1987-11-17

    An oxygen concentration sensing device for use in an air/fuel ratio control system for an internal combustion engine in which a target air/fuel ratio is determined in accordance with at least one of the operational parameters of the internal combustion engine and in which an air/fuel ratio of a supplied mixture is controlled toward the target air/fuel ratio in response to an oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas is described comprising: an oxygen concentration sensor unit disposed in an exhaust passage of the internal combustion engine. The oxygen concentration sensor unit includes an oxygen pump element and a sensor cell element which define a restricted region therebetween and each of which comprises a solid electrolyte member having oxygen ion permeability and has a pair of electrodes provided on both sides thereof; current supply means for supplying a pump current, which has a magnitude defined in accordance with the target air/fuel ratio, across the electrodes of the oxygen pump element thereby causing the sensor unit to generate a sensor voltage across the electrodes of the sensor cell element which is substantially in proportion to the oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas; and comparing means for comparing the sensor voltage with a predetermined reference voltage, and producing an output signal representing the result of the comparison as an oxygen concentration detection signal.

  17. TRIMmunity: The roles of the TRIM E3-ubiquitin ligase family in innate antiviral immunity

    PubMed Central

    Rajsbaum, Ricardo; Garca-Sastre, Adolfo; Versteeg, Gijs A.

    2014-01-01

    Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins have been implicated in multiple cellular functions, including antiviral activity. Research efforts so far indicate that the antiviral activity of TRIMs relies, for the most part, on their function as E3-ubiquitin ligases. A substantial number of the TRIM-family members have been demonstrated to mediate innate immune cell signal transduction and subsequent cytokine induction. In addition, a subset of TRIMs has been shown to restrict viral replication by directly targeting viral proteins. Although the body of work on the cellular roles of TRIM E3 ubiquitin ligases has rapidly grown over the last years, many aspects of their molecular workings and multi-functionality remain unclear. The antiviral function of many TRIMs seems to be conferred by specific isoforms, sub-cellular localization, and in cell-type specific contexts. Here we review recent findings on TRIM antiviral functions, current limitations and an outlook for future research. PMID:24333484

  18. Hydrodynamic controls on oxygen dynamics in a riverine salt wedge estuary, the Yarra River estuary, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, L. C.; Cook, P. L. M.; Teakle, I.; Hipsey, M. R.

    2014-04-01

    Oxygen depletion in coastal and estuarine waters has been increasing rapidly around the globe over the past several decades, leading to decline in water quality and ecological health. In this study we apply a numerical model to understand how salt wedge dynamics, changes in river flow and temperature together control oxygen depletion in a micro-tidal riverine estuary, the Yarra River estuary, Australia. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models have been previously applied to study how hydrodynamics impact upon seasonal hypoxia; however, their application to relatively shallow, narrow riverine estuaries with highly transient patterns of river inputs and sporadic periods of oxygen depletion has remained challenging, largely due to difficulty in accurately simulating salt wedge dynamics in morphologically complex areas. In this study we overcome this issue through application of a flexible mesh 3-D hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model in order to predict the extent of salt wedge intrusion and consequent patterns of oxygen depletion. The extent of the salt wedge responded quickly to the sporadic riverine flows, with the strength of stratification and vertical density gradients heavily influenced by morphological features corresponding to shallow points in regions of tight curvature ("horseshoe" bends). The spatiotemporal patterns of stratification led to the emergence of two "hot spots" of anoxia, the first downstream of a shallow region of tight curvature and the second downstream of a sill. Whilst these areas corresponded to regions of intense stratification, it was found that antecedent conditions related to the placement of the salt wedge played a major role in the recovery of anoxic regions following episodic high flow events. Furthermore, whilst a threshold salt wedge intrusion was a requirement for oxygen depletion, analysis of the results allowed us to quantify the effect of temperature in determining the overall severity and extent of hypoxia and anoxia. Climate warming scenarios highlighted that oxygen depletion is likely to be exacerbated through changes in flow regimes and warming temperatures; however, the increasing risk of hypoxia and anoxia can be mitigated through management of minimum flow allocations and targeted reductions in organic matter loading. A simple statistical model (R2 > 0.65) is suggested to relate riverine flow and temperature to the extent of estuary-wide anoxia.

  19. Crystalline structure of ceria particles controlled by the oxygen partial pressure and STI CMP performances.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ye-Hwan; Kim, Sang-Kyun; Kim, Namsoo; Park, Jea-Gun; Paik, Ungyu

    2008-09-01

    The effect of the crystalline structures of nano-sized ceria particles on shallow trench isolation (STI) chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) performance was investigated. The ceria particles were synthesized via a solid-state displacement reaction method, and their crystalline structure was controlled by regulating the oxygen partial pressure at the reaction site on the precursor. The crystalline structures of ceria particles were analyzed by the high-resolution TEM nano-beam diffraction pattern. In a calcination process with a high oxygen concentration, the synthesized ceria particles had a cubic fluorite structure (CeO(2)), because of the decarbonation of the cerium precursor. However, a low oxygen concentration results in a hexagonal phase cerium oxide (Ce(2)O(3)) rather than the cubic phase due to the insufficient oxidation of Ce(3+) to Ce(4+). In the STI CMP evaluation, the ceria slurry prepared with the cubic CeO(2) shows enhanced performances of the oxide-to-nitride removal selectivity. PMID:18562111

  20. Duck TRIM27-L enhances MAVS signaling and is absent in chickens and turkeys.

    PubMed

    Blaine, Alysson H; Miranzo-Navarro, Domingo; Campbell, Lee K; Aldridge, Jerry R; Webster, Robert G; Magor, Katharine E

    2015-10-01

    Wild waterfowl, including mallard ducks, are the natural reservoir of avian influenza A virus and they are resistant to strains that would cause fatal infection in chickens. Here we investigate potential involvement of TRIM proteins in the differential response of ducks and chickens to influenza. We examine a cluster of TRIM genes located on a single scaffold in the duck genome, which is a conserved synteny group with a TRIM cluster located in the extended MHC region in chickens and turkeys. We note a TRIM27-like gene is present in ducks, and absent in chickens and turkeys. Orthologous genes are predicted in many birds and reptiles, suggesting the gene has been lost in chickens and turkeys. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) we show that TRIM27-L, and the related TRIM27.1, are upregulated 5- and 9-fold at 1 day post-infection with highly pathogenic A/Vietnam/1203/2004. To assess whether TRIM27.1 or TRIM27-L are involved in modulation of antiviral gene expression, we overexpressed them in DF1 chicken cells, and neither show any direct effect on innate immune gene expression. However, when co-transfected with duck RIG-I-N (d2CARD) to constitutively activate the MAVS pathway, TRIM27.1 weakly decreases, while TRIM27-L strongly activates innate immune signaling leading to increased transcription of antiviral genes MX1 and IFN-β. Furthermore, when both are co-expressed, the activation of the MAVS signaling pathway by TRIM27-L over-rides the inhibition by TRIM27.1. Thus, ducks have an activating TRIM27-L to augment MAVS signaling following RIG-I detection, while chickens lack both TRIM27-L and RIG-I itself. PMID:26254985

  1. Trim37-deficient mice recapitulate several features of the multi-organ disorder Mulibrey nanism.

    PubMed

    Kettunen, Kaisa M; Karikoski, Riitta; Hämäläinen, Riikka H; Toivonen, Teija T; Antonenkov, Vasily D; Kulesskaya, Natalia; Voikar, Vootele; Hölttä-Vuori, Maarit; Ikonen, Elina; Sainio, Kirsi; Jalanko, Anu; Karlberg, Susann; Karlberg, Niklas; Lipsanen-Nyman, Marita; Toppari, Jorma; Jauhiainen, Matti; Hiltunen, J Kalervo; Jalanko, Hannu; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina

    2016-01-01

    Mulibrey nanism (MUL) is a rare autosomal recessive multi-organ disorder characterized by severe prenatal-onset growth failure, infertility, cardiopathy, risk for tumors, fatty liver, and type 2 diabetes. MUL is caused by loss-of-function mutations in TRIM37, which encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase belonging to the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family and having both peroxisomal and nuclear localization. We describe a congenic Trim37 knock-out mouse (Trim37(-/-)) model for MUL. Trim37(-/-) mice were viable and had normal weight development until approximately 12 months of age, after which they started to manifest increasing problems in wellbeing and weight loss. Assessment of skeletal parameters with computer tomography revealed significantly smaller skull size, but no difference in the lengths of long bones in Trim37(-/-) mice as compared with wild-type. Both male and female Trim37(-/-) mice were infertile, the gonads showing germ cell aplasia, hilus and Leydig cell hyperplasia and accumulation of lipids in and around Leydig cells. Male Trim37(-/-) mice had elevated levels of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones, but maintained normal levels of testosterone. Six-month-old Trim37(-/-) mice had elevated fasting blood glucose and low fasting serum insulin levels. At 1.5 years Trim37(-/-) mice showed non-compaction cardiomyopathy, hepatomegaly, fatty liver and various tumors. The amount and morphology of liver peroxisomes seemed normal in Trim37(-/-) mice. The most consistently seen phenotypes in Trim37(-/-) mice were infertility and the associated hormonal findings, whereas there was more variability in the other phenotypes observed. Trim37(-/-) mice recapitulate several features of the human MUL disease and thus provide a good model to study disease pathogenesis related to TRIM37 deficiency, including infertility, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiomyopathy and tumorigenesis. PMID:27044324

  2. TRIM24 suppresses development of spontaneous hepatic lipid accumulation and hepatocellular carcinoma in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shiming; Minter, Lindsey Cauthen; Stratton, Sabrina A.; Yang, Peirong; Abbas, Hussein A.; Akdemir, Zeynep Coban; Pant, Vinod; Post, Sean; Gagea, Mihai; Lee, Richard G.; Lozano, Guillermina; Barton, Michelle Craig

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Aberrantly high expression of TRIM24 occurs in human cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma. In contrast, TRIM24 in the mouse is reportedly a liver-specific tumor suppressor. To address this dichotomy and uncover direct regulatory functions of TRIM24 in vivo, we developed a new mouse model that lacks expression of all Trim24 isoforms, as the previous model expresses normal levels of Trim24 lacking only exon 4. Methods To produce germline-deleted Trim24dlE1 mice, deletion of the promoter and exon 1 of Trim24 was induced in Trim24LoxP mice by crossing with a zona pellucida 3-Cre line for global deletion. Liver-specific deletion (Trim24hep) was achieved by crossing with an Albumin-Cre line. Phenotypic analyses were complemented by protein, gene-specific and global RNA expression analyses and quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation. Results Global loss of Trim24 disrupted hepatic homeostasis in 100% of mice with highly significant, decreased expression of oxidation/reduction, steroid, fatty acid and lipid metabolism genes, as well as increased expression of genes in unfolded protein, endoplasmic reticulum stress and cell cycle pathways. Trim24dlE1/dlE1 mice have markedly depleted visceral fat and, like Trim24hep/hep mice, spontaneously develop hepatic lipid-filled lesions, steatosis, hepatic injury, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Conclusions TRIM24, an epigenetic co-regulator of transcription, directly and indirectly represses hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation, fibrosis and damage in the murine liver. Complete loss of Trim24 offers a model of human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, steatosis, fibrosis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma in the absence of high-fat diet or obesity. PMID:25281858

  3. CONTROLLED FIELD STUDY ON THE USE OF NITRATE AND OXYGEN FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF A GASOLINE SOURCE ZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Controlled releases of unleaded gasoline were used to evaluate the biotransformation of the soluble aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene isomers, trimethylbenzene isomers, and naphthalene) within a source zone using nitrate and oxygen as electron accepto...

  4. Salicylic acid and reactive oxygen species interplay in the transcriptional control of defense genes expression

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Vásquez, Ariel; Salinas, Paula; Holuigue, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical role in the transcriptional reprograming that occurs during the plant defense response against biotic and abiotic stress. In the course of the defense response, the transcription of different sets of defense genes is controlled in a spatio-temporal manner via SA-mediated mechanisms. Interestingly, different lines of evidence indicate that SA interplays with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) in stressed plants. In this review we focus on the evidence that links SA, ROS, and GSH signals to the transcriptional control of defense genes. We discuss how redox modifications of regulators and co-regulators involved in SA-mediated transcriptional responses control the temporal patterns of gene expression in response to stress. Finally, we examine how these redox sensors are coordinated with the dynamics of cellular redox changes occurring in the defense response to biotic and abiotic stress. PMID:25852720

  5. Salicylic acid and reactive oxygen species interplay in the transcriptional control of defense genes expression.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Vásquez, Ariel; Salinas, Paula; Holuigue, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical role in the transcriptional reprograming that occurs during the plant defense response against biotic and abiotic stress. In the course of the defense response, the transcription of different sets of defense genes is controlled in a spatio-temporal manner via SA-mediated mechanisms. Interestingly, different lines of evidence indicate that SA interplays with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) in stressed plants. In this review we focus on the evidence that links SA, ROS, and GSH signals to the transcriptional control of defense genes. We discuss how redox modifications of regulators and co-regulators involved in SA-mediated transcriptional responses control the temporal patterns of gene expression in response to stress. Finally, we examine how these redox sensors are coordinated with the dynamics of cellular redox changes occurring in the defense response to biotic and abiotic stress. PMID:25852720

  6. Laser controlled singlet oxygen generation in mitochondria to promote mitochondrial DNA replication in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xin; Wang, Yupei; Si, Jing; Zhou, Rong; Gan, Lu; Di, Cuixia; Xie, Yi; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Reports have shown that a certain level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can promote mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication. However, it is unclear whether it is the mitochondrial ROS that stimulate mtDNA replication and this requires further investigation. Here we employed a photodynamic system to achieve controlled mitochondrial singlet oxygen (1O2) generation. HeLa cells incubated with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) were exposed to laser irradiation to induce 1O2 generation within mitochondria. Increased mtDNA copy number was detected after low doses of 630 nm laser light in ALA-treated cells. The stimulated mtDNA replication was directly linked to mitochondrial 1O2 generation, as verified using specific ROS scavengers. The stimulated mtDNA replication was regulated by mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and mtDNA polymerase γ. MtDNA control region modifications were induced by 1O2 generation in mitochondria. A marked increase in 8-Oxoguanine (8-oxoG) level was detected in ALA-treated cells after irradiation. HeLa cell growth stimulation and G1-S cell cycle transition were also observed after laser irradiation in ALA-treated cells. These cellular responses could be due to a second wave of ROS generation detected in mitochondria. In summary, we describe a controllable method of inducing mtDNA replication in vitro. PMID:26577055

  7. Barley Seed Aging: Genetics behind the Dry Elevated Pressure of Oxygen Aging and Moist Controlled Deterioration.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Manuela; Kodde, Jan; Pistrick, Sibylle; Mascher, Martin; Börner, Andreas; Groot, Steven P C

    2016-01-01

    Experimental seed aging approaches intend to mimic seed deterioration processes to achieve a storage interval reduction. Common methods apply higher seed moisture levels and temperatures. In contrast, the "elevated partial pressure of oxygen" (EPPO) approach treats dry seed stored at ambient temperatures with high oxygen pressure. To analyse the genetic background of seed longevity and the effects of seed aging under dry conditions, the EPPO approach was applied to the progeny of the Oregon Wolfe Barley (OWB) mapping population. In comparison to a non-treated control and a control high-pressure nitrogen treatment, EPPO stored seeds showed typical symptoms of aging with a significant reduction of normal seedlings, slower germination, and less total germination. Thereby, the parent Dom ("OWB-D"), carrying dominant alleles, is more sensitive to aging in comparison to the population mean and in most cases to the parent Rec ("OWB-R"), carrying recessive alleles. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses using 2832 markers revealed 65 QTLs, including two major loci for seed vigor on 2H and 7H. QTLs for EPPO tolerance were detected on 3H, 4H, and 5H. An applied controlled deterioration (CD) treatment (aged at higher moisture level and temperature) revealed a tolerance QTL on 5H, indicating that the mechanism of seed deterioration differs in part between EPPO or CD conditions. PMID:27066038

  8. A System for Controlling the Oxygen Content of a Gas Produced by Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Puster, R. L. (inventors)

    1984-01-01

    A mixture of air, CH4 and OH(2) is burned in a combustion chamber to produce a product gas in the test section. The OH(2) content of the product gas is compared with the OH(2) content of reference air in an OH(2) sensor. If there is a difference an error signal is produced at the output of a control circuit which by the means of a solenoid valve, regulates the flow of OH(2) into the combustion chamber to make the error signal zero. The product gas in the test section has the same oxygen content as air.

  9. A simple and inexpensive method to control oxygen concentrations within physiological and neoplastic ranges.

    PubMed

    Penketh, P G; Shyam, K; Baumann, R P; Ratner, E S; Sartorelli, A C

    2015-12-15

    Traditional methods for regulating oxygen concentration ([O2]) ininvitro experiments over the range found in normal and tumor tissues require the use of expensive equipment to generate controlled gas atmospheres or the purchase of a range of gas cylinders with certified O2 percentages. Here we describe a simple and inexpensive enzymatic method for generating low, precise steady-state [O2] levels that are stable for several hours. This method is particularly applicable to the invitro study of some classes of hypoxia-targeted antitumor prodrugs and bioreductively activated agents. PMID:26361820

  10. Spectral semi-blind deconvolution with least trimmed squares regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Lizhen; Zhu, Hu

    2014-11-01

    A spectral semi-blind deconvolution with least trimmed squares regularization (SBD-LTS) is proposed to improve spectral resolution. Firstly, the regularization term about the spectrum data is modeled as the form of least trimmed squares, which can help to preserve the peak details better. Then the regularization term about the PSF is modeled as L1-norm to enhance the stability of kernel estimation. The cost function of SBD-LTS is formulated and the numerical solution processes are deduced for deconvolving the spectra and estimating the PSF. The deconvolution results of simulated infrared spectra demonstrate that the proposed SBD-LTS can recover the spectrum effectively and estimate the PSF accurately, as well as has a merit on preserving the details, especially in the case of noise. The deconvolution result of experimental Raman spectrum indicates that SBD-LTS can resolve the spectrum and improve the resolution effectively.

  11. Closed loop orbit trim using GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, B. W.; Axelrad, P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an onboard closed-loop navigation and control system capable of executing extremely precise orbit maneuvers. It uses information from the Global Positioning System (GPS) and an onboard controller to perform orbit adjustments. As a result, the system circumvents the need for extensive ground support. The particular application considered is an orbit injection system for NASA's Gravity Probe B (GP-B) spacecraft. Eccentricity adjustments of 0.0004 to 0.005, and inclination and node changes of 0.001 to 0.01 deg are demonstrated. The same technique can be adapted to other satellite missions.

  12. Oxygen analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Benner, William H.

    1986-01-01

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  13. Measurement of axial injection displacement with trim coil current unbalance

    SciTech Connect

    Covo, Michel Kireeff

    2014-08-15

    The Dee probe used for measuring internal radial beam intensity shows large losses inside the radius of 20 cm of the 88 in. cyclotron. The current of the top and bottom innermost trim coil 1 is unbalanced to study effects of the axial injection displacement. A beam profile monitor images the ion beam bunches, turn by turn. The experimental bunch center of mass position is compared with calculations of the magnetic mirror effect displacement and shows good agreement.

  14. Computing Trimmed, Mean-Camber Surfaces At Minimum Drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamar, John E.; Hodges, William T.

    1995-01-01

    VLMD computer program determines subsonic mean-camber surfaces of trimmed noncoplanar planforms with minimum vortex drag at specified lift coefficient. Up to two planforms designed together. Method used that of subsonic vortex lattice method of chord loading specification, ranging from rectangular to triangular, left specified by user. Program versatile and applied to isolated wings, wing/canard configurations, tandem wing, and wing/-winglet configuration. Written in FORTRAN.

  15. Astronaut Charles Conrad trims hair of Astronaut Paul Weitz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., Skylab 2 commander, trims the hair of Astronaut Paul J. Weitz, Skylab 2 pilot, during the 28-day Skylab 2 mission in Earth orbit. They are in the crew quarters wardroom of the Orbital Workshop of the Skylab 1 and 2 space station. Weitz is holding a vacuum hose in his right hand. This picture was taken by Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, Skylab 2 science pilot.

  16. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2003-05-15

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

  17. Trim28 Haploinsufficiency Triggers Bi-stable Epigenetic Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Dalgaard, Kevin; Landgraf, Kathrin; Heyne, Steffen; Lempradl, Adelheid; Longinotto, John; Gossens, Klaus; Ruf, Marius; Orthofer, Michael; Strogantsev, Ruslan; Selvaraj, Madhan; Lu, Tess Tsai-Hsiu; Casas, Eduard; Teperino, Raffaele; Surani, M. Azim; Zvetkova, Ilona; Rimmington, Debra; Tung, Y.C. Loraine; Lam, Brian; Larder, Rachel; Yeo, Giles S.H.; O’Rahilly, Stephen; Vavouri, Tanya; Whitelaw, Emma; Penninger, Josef M.; Jenuwein, Thomas; Cheung, Ching-Lung; Ferguson-Smith, Anne C.; Coll, Anthony P.; Körner, Antje; Pospisilik, J. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Summary More than one-half billion people are obese, and despite progress in genetic research, much of the heritability of obesity remains enigmatic. Here, we identify a Trim28-dependent network capable of triggering obesity in a non-Mendelian, “on/off” manner. Trim28+/D9 mutant mice exhibit a bi-modal body-weight distribution, with isogenic animals randomly emerging as either normal or obese and few intermediates. We find that the obese-“on” state is characterized by reduced expression of an imprinted gene network including Nnat, Peg3, Cdkn1c, and Plagl1 and that independent targeting of these alleles recapitulates the stochastic bi-stable disease phenotype. Adipose tissue transcriptome analyses in children indicate that humans too cluster into distinct sub-populations, stratifying according to Trim28 expression, transcriptome organization, and obesity-associated imprinted gene dysregulation. These data provide evidence of discrete polyphenism in mouse and man and thus carry important implications for complex trait genetics, evolution, and medicine. Video Abstract PMID:26824653

  18. Use of a micro programmable logic controller for oxygen monitoring and control in multiple tanks of a recirculating aquaculture system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In intensive recirculating aquaculture systems the use of supplemental oxygen, specifically pure liquid oxygen, increases the mass of fish that can be supported and eliminates oxygen as a major limiting factor to a system’s carrying capacity. The use of pure oxygen in a recirculating aquaculture sys...

  19. Method of controlling injection of oxygen into hydrogen-rich fuel cell feed stream

    DOEpatents

    Meltser, Mark Alexander; Gutowski, Stanley; Weisbrod, Kirk

    2001-01-01

    A method of operating a H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 fuel cell fueled by hydrogen-rich fuel stream containing CO. The CO content is reduced to acceptable levels by injecting oxygen into the fuel gas stream. The amount of oxygen injected is controlled in relation to the CO content of the fuel gas, by a control strategy that involves (a) determining the CO content of the fuel stream at a first injection rate, (b) increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate, (c) determining the CO content of the stream at the higher injection rate, (d) further increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is lower than the first measured CO content or reducing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is greater than the first measured CO content, and (e) repeating steps a-d as needed to optimize CO consumption and minimize H.sub.2 consumption.

  20. Mechanical control of magnetism in oxygen deficient perovskite SrTiO3.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yajun; Wang, Jie; Sahoo, M P K; Shimada, Takahiro; Kitamura, Takayuki

    2015-10-28

    Mechanical control of magnetism in perovskite oxides is an important and promising approach in spintronics. Based on the first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that a negative pressure leads to a great enhancement of magnetic moment in deficient SrTiO3 with oxygen vacancies, whereas a positive pressure results in the gradual disappearance of magnetism. Spin charge density, Bader charge analysis and electronic density of states successfully elucidate the origin and underlying physics of the enhancement and disappearance of magnetism. It is found that the split electronic states of dz(2), dyz and dzx in the 3d orbitals of Ti atoms remarkably contribute to the occupancy of majority spin states under negative pressure, which induces a large magnetic moment. Under positive pressure, however, the equal occupancy of both majority and minority t2g and eg states leads to the disappearance of magnetization. In addition, both negative and positive pressures can largely lower the vacancy formation enthalpy, suggesting that the oxygen vacancy is preferable with pressure. Our findings may provide a mechanism to achieve the pressure control of magnetization in nonmagnetic perovskite oxides. PMID:26415718

  1. Controlling Reactive Oxygen and Nitrogen Species (RONS) Production by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jets Using Gas Shields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberg, Seth; Schmidt-Bleker, Ansgar; Winter, Jorn; Reuter, Stephan; Johnsen, Eric; Kushner, Mark J.

    2013-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets are a source of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) for many applications, including plasma medicine. A current challenge is to deliver RONS to surfaces in a controllable manner. One such control strategy is using gas shields around the plasma jet to minimize the generation of less desired RONS by preventing ambient gases from interacting with the plasma jet effluent. In this paper, we report on results of a computational investigation of the production of RONS from plasma jets into ambient air consisting of helium seeded with either N2 or O2 surrounded by a flowing gas shield and the flux of those species to a treated surface. The model used in this study, nonPDPSIM, solves transport equations for charged and neutral species, Poisson's equation, the electron energy equation for the electron temperature, and Navier-Stokes equations for the neutral gas flow. The shield gas has significant effects on unwanted RONS in the effluent of the plasma jet. N2 shield gas will minimize hydroxide and other reactive oxygen species in the effluent and to the surface. Similarly, O2 shield gas can reduce the production of nitric oxide and prevent the formation of other nitrogen compounds on the surface. Comparisons will be made to experimental measurements of optical emission from plasma jets using gas shields. Work supported by DOE Fusion Energy Science, NSF, BMBF.

  2. TRIM59 Promotes the Proliferation and Migration of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells by Upregulating Cell Cycle Related Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Weihua; Han, Tianyu; Zhang, Chenfu; Xie, Caifeng; Gan, Mingxi; Deng, Keyu; Fu, Mingui; Wang, Jian-Bin

    2015-01-01

    TRIM protein family is an evolutionarily conserved gene family implicated in a number of critical processes including inflammation, immunity, antiviral and cancer. In an effort to profile the expression patterns of TRIM superfamily in several non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, we found that the expression of 10 TRIM genes including TRIM3, TRIM7, TRIM14, TRIM16, TRIM21, TRIM22, TRIM29, TRIM59, TRIM66 and TRIM70 was significantly upregulated in NSCLC cell lines compared with the normal human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cell line, whereas the expression of 7 other TRIM genes including TRIM4, TRIM9, TRIM36, TRIM46, TRIM54, TRIM67 and TRIM76 was significantly down-regulated in NSCLC cell lines compared with that in HBE cells. As TRIM59 has been reported to act as a proto-oncogene that affects both Ras and RB signal pathways in prostate cancer models, we here focused on the role of TRIM59 in the regulation of NSCLC cell proliferation and migration. We reported that TRIM59 protein was significantly increased in various NSCLC cell lines. SiRNA-induced knocking down of TRIM59 significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of NSCLC cell lines by arresting cell cycle in G2 phase. Moreover, TRIM59 knocking down affected the expression of a number of cell cycle proteins including CDC25C and CDK1. Finally, we knocked down TRIM59 and found that p53 protein expression levels did not upregulate, so we proposed that TRIM59 may promote NSCLC cell growth through other pathways but not the p53 signaling pathway. PMID:26599082

  3. TRIM50 Protein Regulates Vesicular Trafficking for Acid Secretion in Gastric Parietal Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Nishi, Miyuki; Aoyama, Fumiyo; Kisa, Fumihiko; Zhu, Hua; Sun, Mingzhai; Lin, Peihui; Ohta, Hiroya; Van, Bo; Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Kakizawa, Sho; Sakai, Hideki; Ma, Jianjie; Sawaguchi, Akira; Takeshima, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    Of the TRIM/RBCC family proteins taking part in a variety of cellular processes, TRIM50 is a stomach-specific member with no defined biological function. Our biochemical data demonstrated that TRIM50 is specifically expressed in gastric parietal cells and is predominantly localized in the tubulovesicular and canalicular membranes. In cultured cells ectopically expressing GFP-TRIM50, confocal microscopic imaging revealed dynamic movement of TRIM50-associated vesicles in a phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent manner. A protein overlay assay detected preferential binding of the PRY-SPRY domain from the TRIM50 C-terminal region to phosphatidylinositol species, suggesting that TRIM50 is involved in vesicular dynamics by sensing the phosphorylated state of phosphoinositol lipids. Trim50 knock-out mice retained normal histology in the gastric mucosa but exhibited impaired secretion of gastric acid. In response to histamine, Trim50 knock-out parietal cells generated deranged canaliculi, swollen microvilli lacking actin filaments, and excess multilamellar membrane complexes. Therefore, TRIM50 seems to play an essential role in tubulovesicular dynamics, promoting the formation of sophisticated canaliculi and microvilli during acid secretion in parietal cells. PMID:22872646

  4. Contribution of SUMO-interacting motifs and SUMOylation to the antiretroviral properties of TRIM

    PubMed Central

    Brandariz-Nuñez, Alberto; Roa, Amanda; Valle-Casuso, Jose Carlos; Biris, Nikolaos; Ivanov, Dmitri; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings suggested that the SUMO-interacting motifs (SIMs) present in the human TRIM5α (TRIM5αhu) protein play an important role in the ability of TRIM5αhu to restrict N-MLV. Here we explored the role of SIMs in the ability of rhesus TRIM5α (TRIM5αrh) to restrict HIV-1, and found that TRIM5αrh SIM mutants IL376KK (SIM1mut) and VI405KK (SIM2mut) completely lost their ability to block HIV-1 infection. Interestingly, these mutants also lost the recently described property of TRIM5αrh to shuttle into the nucleus. Analysis of these variants revealed that they are unable to interact with the HIV-1 core, which might explain the reason that these variants are not active against HIV-1. Furthermore, NMR titration experiments to assay the binding between the PRYSPRY domain of TRIM5αrh and the small ubiquitin-like modifier 1(SUMO-1) revealed no interaction. In addition, we examined the role of SUMOylation in restriction, and find out that inhibition of SUMOylation by the adenoviral protein Gam1 did not altered the retroviral restriction ability of TRIM5α. Overall, our results do not support a role for SIMs or SUMOylation in the antiviral properties of TRIM5α. PMID:23084420

  5. TRIM32 modulates pluripotency entry and exit by directly regulating Oct4 stability

    PubMed Central

    Bahnassawy, Lamia’a; Perumal, Thanneer M.; Gonzalez-Cano, Laura; Hillje, Anna-Lena; Taher, Leila; Makalowski, Wojciech; Suzuki, Yutaka; Fuellen, Georg; Sol, Antonio del; Schwamborn, Jens Christian

    2015-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have revolutionized the world of regenerative medicine; nevertheless, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying their generation and differentiation remain elusive. Here, we investigated the role of the cell fate determinant TRIM32 in modulating such processes. TRIM32 is essential for the induction of neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells by poly-ubiquitinating cMyc to target it for degradation resulting in inhibition of cell proliferation. To elucidate the role of TRIM32 in regulating somatic cell reprogramming we analysed the capacity of TRIM32-knock-out mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) in generating iPSC colonies. TRIM32 knock-out MEFs produced a higher number of iPSC colonies indicating a role for TRIM32 in inhibiting this cellular transition. Further characterization of the generated iPSCs indicated that the TRIM32 knock-out iPSCs show perturbed differentiation kinetics. Additionally, mathematical modelling of global gene expression data revealed that during differentiation an Oct4 centred network in the wild-type cells is replaced by an E2F1 centred network in the TRIM32 deficient cells. We show here that this might be caused by a TRIM32-dependent downregulation of Oct4. In summary, the data presented here reveal that TRIM32 directly regulates at least two of the four Yamanaka Factors (cMyc and Oct4), to modulate cell fate transitions. PMID:26307407

  6. Swine TRIM21 restricts FMDV infection via an intracellular neutralization mechanism.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenchun; Zhang, Dong; Qian, Ping; Qian, Suhong; Wu, Mengge; Chen, Huanchun; Li, Xiangmin

    2016-03-01

    The tripartite motif protein 21 (TRIM21) is a ubiquitously expressed E3 ubiquitin ligase and an intracellular antibody receptor. TRIM21 mediates antibody-dependent intracellular neutralization (ADIN) in cytosol and provides an intracellular immune response to protect host defense against pathogen infection. In this study, swine TRIM21 (sTRIM21) was cloned and its role in ADIN was investigated. The expression of sTRIM21 is induced by type I interferon in PK-15 cells. sTRIM21 restricts FMDV infection in the presence of FMDV specific antibodies. Furthermore, sTRIM21 interacts with Fc fragment of swine immunoglobulin G (sFc) fused VP1 of FMDV and thereby causing its degradation. Both the RING and SPRY domains are essential for sTRIM21 to degrade sFc-fused VP1. These results suggest that the intracellular neutralization features of FMDV contribute to the antiviral activity of sTRIM21. sTRIM21 provide another intracellular mechanism to inhibit FMDV infection in infected cells. PMID:26777733

  7. Free-Spinning, Longitudinal-Trim, and Tumbling Characteristics of a 1/20-Scale Model of the Consolidated Vultke MX-813 (Prototype of XP-92) Airplane as Determined in the Langley 20-Foot Free-Spinning Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Ralph W., Jr.; White, Richard P.

    1948-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel to evaluate the spin, longitudinal-trim, and tumbling characteristics of a 1/20-scale model of the Consolidated Vultee MX-813 airplane. The effects of control position were determined for the model ballasted to represent the airplane in its design gross weight loading. The model, in general, would not spin but demonstrated a tendency to trim at very high stalled angles of attack. Static tests substantiated the dynamic tests as regards the trim characteristics. Movement of the elevator, however, from up to slightly down was effective in pitching the model from stalled to normal trim attitudes. The model would not tumble.

  8. Dynamic controlled atmosphere and ultralow oxygen storage on 'Gala' mutants quality maintenance.

    PubMed

    Thewes, Fabio Rodrigo; Both, Vanderlei; Brackmann, Auri; Weber, Anderson; de Oliveira Anese, Rogerio

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present work was to compare the effect of ultralow oxygen (ULO) with dynamic controlled atmosphere (DCA) and controlled atmosphere (CA) on the post storage quality of 'Royal Gala' and 'Galaxy' apples after long-term storage. Two experiments were carried out with 'Royal Gala' and 'Galaxy' apples, in the years 2012 and 2013, respectively. A higher internal ethylene concentration was observed in fruits stored under CA; intermediate concentration in fruits under ULO; and the lowest by fruits stored under DCA-CF (DCA based on chlorophyll fluorescence). Flesh firmness was higher in fruits stored under DCA-CF and ULO differing from CA, in the year 2012, but in 2013 fruits stored under ULO showed the highest flesh firmness, differing from CA fruits. DCA-CF is efficient in quality maintenance of 'Royal Gala' and 'Galaxy' apples. Both 'Gala' mutants stored under ULO show a similar quality maintenance to those stored under DCA-CF. PMID:26041165

  9. View of Mission Control Center during the Apollo 13 oxygen cell failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Several persons important to the Apollo 13 mission, at consoles in the Mission Operations Control Room of the Mission Control Center (MCC). Seated at consoles, from left to right, are Astronaut Donald K. Slayton, Director of Flight Crew Operations; Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Shift 3 spacecraft communicator; and Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 13 back-up crew. Standing, left to right, are Astronaut Tom K. Mattingly, who was replaced as Apollo 13 command module pilot after it was learned he may come down with measles, and Astronaut Vance D. Brand, Shift 2 spacecraft communicator. Several hours earlier crew members of the Apollo 13 mission reported to MCC that trouble had developed with an oxygen cell in their spacecraft.

  10. TRIM37 defective in mulibrey nanism is a novel RING finger ubiquitin E3 ligase

    SciTech Connect

    Kallijaervi, Jukka; Lahtinen, Ulla; Haemaelaeinen, Riikka; Lipsanen-Nyman, Marita; Palvimo, Jorma J.; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina . E-mail: anna-elina.lehesjoki@helsinki.fi

    2005-08-01

    Mulibrey nanism is an autosomal recessive prenatal-onset growth disorder characterized by dysmorphic features, cardiomyopathy, and hepatomegaly. Mutations in TRIM37 encoding a tripartite motif (TRIM, RING-B-box-coiled-coil)-family protein underlie mulibrey nanism. We investigated the ubiquitin ligase activity predicted for the RING domain of TRIM37 by analyzing its autoubiquitination. Full-length TRIM37 and its TRIM domain were highly polyubiquitinated when co-expressed with ubiquitin. Polyubiquitination was decreased in a mutant protein with disrupted RING domain (Cys35Ser;Cys36Ser) and in the Leu76Pro mutant protein, a disease-associated missense mutation affecting the TRIM domain of TRIM37. Bacterially produced GST-TRIM domain fusion protein, but not its Cys35Ser;Cys36Ser or Leu76Pro mutants, were polyubiquitinated in cell-free conditions, implying RING-dependent modification. Ubiquitin was also identified as an interaction partner for TRIM37 in a yeast two-hybrid screen. Ectopically expressed TRIM37 rapidly formed aggregates that were ubiquitin-, proteasome subunit-, and chaperone-positive in immunofluorescence analysis, defining them as aggresomes. The Cys35Ser;Cys36Ser mutant and the Leu76Pro and Gly322Val patient mutant proteins were markedly less prone to aggregation, implying that aggresomal targeting reflects a physiological function of TRIM37. These findings suggest that TRIM37 acts as a TRIM domain-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase and imply defective ubiquitin-dependent degradation of an as-yet-unidentified target protein in the pathogenesis of mulibrey nanism.

  11. Controlling Solution-Mediated Reaction Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction Using Potential and Solvent for Aprotic Lithium-Oxygen Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kwabi, David G; Tułodziecki, Michał; Pour, Nir; Itkis, Daniil M; Thompson, Carl V; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2016-04-01

    Fundamental understanding of growth mechanisms of Li2O2 in Li-O2 cells is critical for implementing batteries with high gravimetric energies. Li2O2 growth can occur first by 1e(-) transfer to O2, forming Li(+)-O2(-) and then either chemical disproportionation of Li(+)-O2(-), or a second electron transfer to Li(+)-O2(-). We demonstrate that Li2O2 growth is governed primarily by disproportionation of Li(+)-O2(-) at low overpotential, and surface-mediated electron transfer at high overpotential. We obtain evidence supporting this trend using the rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) technique, which shows that the fraction of oxygen reduction reaction charge attributable to soluble Li(+)-O2(-)-based intermediates increases as the discharge overpotential reduces. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) measurements of oxygen reduction support this picture, and show that the dependence of the reaction mechanism on the applied potential explains the difference in Li2O2 morphologies observed at different discharge overpotentials: formation of large (∼250 nm-1 μm) toroids, and conformal coatings (<50 nm) at higher overpotentials. These results highlight that RRDE and EQCM can be used as complementary tools to gain new insights into the role of soluble and solid reaction intermediates in the growth of reaction products in metal-O2 batteries. PMID:26949979

  12. Control of plasma properties in capacitively coupled oxygen discharges via the electrical asymmetry effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schngel, E.; Zhang, Q.-Z.; Iwashita, S.; Schulze, J.; Hou, L.-J.; Wang, Y.-N.; Czarnetzki, U.

    2011-07-01

    Using a combined experimental, numerical and analytical approach, we investigate the control of plasma properties via the electrical asymmetry effect (EAE) in a capacitively coupled oxygen discharge. In particular, we present the first experimental investigation of the EAE in electronegative discharges. A dual-frequency voltage source of 13.56 MHz and 27.12 MHz is applied to the powered electrode and the discharge symmetry is controlled by adjusting the phase angle ? between the two harmonics. It is found that the bulk position and density profiles of positive ions, negative ions, and electrons have a clear dependence on ?, while the peak densities and the electronegativity stay rather constant, largely due to the fact that the time-averaged power absorption by electrons is almost independent of ?. This indicates that the ion flux towards the powered electrode remains almost constant. Meanwhile, the dc self-bias and, consequently, the sheath widths and potential profile can be effectively tuned by varying ?. This enables a flexible control of the ion bombarding energy at the electrode. Therefore, our work proves the effectiveness of the EAE to realize separate control of ion flux and ion energy in electronegative discharges. At low pressure, the strength of resonance oscillations, which are found in the current of asymmetric discharges, can be controlled with ?.

  13. How do changes in dissolved oxygen concentration influence microbially-controlled phosphorus cycling in stream biofilms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saia, S. M.; Locke, N. A.; Regan, J. M.; Carrick, H. J.; Buda, A. R.; Walter, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    Advances in molecular microbiology techniques (e.g. epi-fluorescent microscopy and PCR) are making it easier to study the influence of specific microorganisms on nutrient transport. Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) are commonly used in wastewater treatment plants to remove excess phosphorus (P) from effluent water. PAOs have also been identified in natural settings but their ecological function is not well known. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that PAOs in natural environments would release and accumulate P during anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. We placed stream biofilms in sealed, covered tubs and subjected them to alternating air (aerobic conditions) and N2 gas (anaerobic condition) bubbling for 12 hours each. Four treatments investigated the influence of changing dissolved oxygen on micribially-controlled P cycling: (1) biofilms bubbled continuously with air, (2) biofilms bubbled alternatively with air and N2, (3) biocide treated biofilms bubbled continuously with air, and (4) biocide treated biofilms bubbled alternatively with air and N2. Treatments 3 and 4 serve as abiotic controls to treatments 1 and 2. We analyzed samples every 12 hours for soluble reactive P (SRP), temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH. We also used fluorescent microscopy (i.e. DAPI staining) and PCR to verify the presence of PAOs in the stream biofilms. SRP results over the course of the experiment support our hypothesis that anaerobic and aerobic stream conditions may impact PAO mediated P release and uptake, respectively in natural environments. The results of these experiments draw attention to the importance of microbiological controls on P mobility in freshwater ecosystems.

  14. Identification of key parameters controlling dissolved oxygen migration and attenuation in fractured crystalline rocks.

    PubMed

    Spiessl, S M; MacQuarrie, K T B; Mayer, K U

    2008-01-28

    In the crystalline rocks of the Canadian Shield, geochemical conditions are currently reducing at depths of 500-1000 m. However, during future glacial periods, altered hydrologic conditions could potentially result in enhanced recharge of glacial melt water containing a relatively high concentration of dissolved oxygen (O2). It is therefore of interest to investigate the physical and geochemical processes, including naturally-occurring redox reactions, that may control O2 ingress. In this study, the reactive transport code MIN3P is used in combination with 2k factorial analyses to identify the most important parameters controlling oxygen migration and attenuation in fractured crystalline rocks. Scenarios considered are based on simplified conceptual models that include a single vertical fracture, or a fracture zone, contained within a rock matrix that extends from the ground surface to a depth of 500 m. Consistent with field observations, Fe(II)-bearing minerals are present in the fractures (i.e. chlorite) and the rock matrix (biotite and small quantities of pyrite). For the parameter ranges investigated, results indicate that for the single fracture case, the most influential factors controlling dissolved O2 ingress are flow velocity in the fracture, fracture aperture, and the biotite reaction rate in the rock matrix. The most important parameters for the fracture zone simulations are flow velocity in the individual fractures, pO2 in the recharge water, biotite reaction rate, and to a lesser degree the abundance and reactivity of chlorite in the fracture zone, and the fracture zone width. These parameters should therefore receive increased consideration during site characterization, and in the formulation of site-specific models intended to predict O2 behavior in crystalline rocks. PMID:17935829

  15. Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, Donald C.

    1985-06-04

    A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power.

  16. TRIM proteins regulate autophagy and can target autophagic substrates by direct recognition

    PubMed Central

    Mandell, Michael A.; Jain, Ashish; Arko-Mensah, John; Chauhan, Santosh; Kimura, Tomonori; Dinkins, Christina; Silvestri, Guido; Münch, Jan; Kirchhoff, Frank; Simonsen, Anne; Wei, Yongjie; Levine, Beth; Johansen, Terje; Deretic, Vojo

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Autophagy, a homeostatic process whereby eukaryotic cells target cytoplasmic cargo for degradation, plays a broad role in health and disease states. Here we screened the TRIM family for roles in autophagy and found that half of TRIMs modulated autophagy. In mechanistic studies we show that TRIMs associate with autophagy factors and act as platforms assembling ULK1 and Beclin 1 in their activated states. Furthermore, TRIM5α acts as a selective autophagy receptor. Based on direct sequence-specific recognition, TRIM5α delivered its cognate cytosolic target, a viral capsid protein, for autophagic degradation. Thus, our study establishes that TRIMs can function both as regulators of autophagy and as autophagic cargo receptors, and reveals a new basis for selective autophagy in mammalian cells. PMID:25127057

  17. Oxygen analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Benner, W.H.

    1984-05-08

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N/sub 2/), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135/sup 0/C, or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135/sup 0/C as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N/sub 2/, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  18. Combinatorial control of yeast FET4 gene expression by iron, zinc, and oxygen.

    PubMed

    Waters, Brian M; Eide, David J

    2002-09-13

    Acquisition of metals such as iron, copper, and zinc by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is tightly regulated. High affinity uptake systems are induced under metal-limiting conditions to maintain an adequate supply of these essential nutrients. Low affinity uptake systems function when their substrates are in greater supply. The FET4 gene encodes a low affinity iron and copper uptake transporter. FET4 expression is regulated by several environmental factors. In this report, we describe the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation. First, we found that FET4 expression is induced in iron-limited cells by the Aft1 iron-responsive transcriptional activator. Second, FET4 is regulated by zinc status via the Zap1 transcription factor. We present evidence that FET4 is a physiologically relevant zinc transporter and this provides a rationale for its regulation by Zap1. Finally, FET4 expression is regulated in response to oxygen by the Rox1 repressor. Rox1 attenuates activation by Aft1 and Zap1 in aerobic cells. Derepression of FET4 may allow the Fet4 transporter to play an even greater role in metal acquisition under anaerobic conditions. Thus, Fet4 is a multisubstrate metal ion transporter under combinatorial control by iron, zinc, and oxygen. PMID:12095998

  19. Closed-loop identification and control application for dissolved oxygen concentration in a full-scale coke wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Yoo, C K; Cho, J H; Kwak, H J; Choi, S K; Chun, H D; Lee, I

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to apply a closed-loop identification to actual dissolved oxygen control system in the coke wastewater treatment plant. It approximates the dissolved oxygen dynamics to a high order model using the integral transform method and reduces it to the first-order plus time delay (FOPTD) or second-order plus time delay (SOPTD) for the PID controller tuning. To experiment the process identification on the real plant, a simple set-point change of the speed of surface aerator under the closed-loop control without any mode change was used as an activation signal of the identification. The full-scale experimental results show a good identification performance and a good tracking ability for set-point change. As a result of improved control performance, the fluctuation of dissolved oxygen concentration variation has been decreased and the electric power saving has been accomplished. PMID:11385849

  20. Coordinated Neutralization and Immune Activation by the Cytosolic Antibody Receptor TRIM21.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Adam J; James, Leo C

    2016-05-15

    TRIM21 is a high-affinity antibody receptor uniquely expressed in the cytosol of mammalian cells. Here we summarize its role in extending antibody protection into the intracellular environment and allowing nonprofessional cells to benefit from adaptive immunity. We highlight recent work that has shed light on how TRIM21 acts as both an immune sensor and effector. We also review how TRIM21 synergizes with other innate immune receptors to promote an integrated antiviral response. PMID:26937031

  1. Net-Shape Forging of Aerofoil Blade based on Flash Trimming and Compensation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, B.; Ou, H.; Armstrong, C. G.

    2011-05-04

    In this research, an automatic blade forging die shape optimisation system was developed by using direct compensation and flash trimming algorithms and integrating with the DEFORM 3D software package. To validate the developed system, a 3D blade forging case problem was simulated and optimised with and without the consideration of trimming simulation. The results were compared with actual measurement data of the forged aerofoil blade with excellent results obtained with the fast trimming simulation procedure used.

  2. PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CONTROLS ON DISSOLVED OXYGEN DYNAMICS IN PENSACOLA BAY, FL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient enrichment of estuaries and coastal waters can contribute to hypoxia (low dissolved oxygen) by increasing primary production and biological oxygen demand. Other factors, however, contribute to hypoxia and affect the susceptibility of coastal waters to hypoxia. Hypoxia fo...

  3. The E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM23 regulates adipocyte differentiation via stabilization of the adipogenic activator PPARγ

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masashi; Takahashi, Hidehisa; Saeki, Yasushi; Ozaki, Takashi; Itoh, Shihori; Suzuki, Masanobu; Mizushima, Wataru; Tanaka, Keiji; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu

    2015-01-01

    Adipocyte differentiation is a strictly controlled process regulated by a series of transcriptional activators. Adipogenic signals activate early adipogenic activators and facilitate the transient formation of early enhanceosomes at target genes. These enhancer regions are subsequently inherited by late enhanceosomes. PPARγ is one of the late adipogenic activators and is known as a master regulator of adipogenesis. However, the factors that regulate PPARγ expression remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that a novel ubiquitin E3 ligase, tripartite motif protein 23 (TRIM23), stabilizes PPARγ protein and mediates atypical polyubiquitin conjugation. TRIM23 knockdown caused a marked decrease in PPARγ protein abundance during preadipocyte differentiation, resulting in a severe defect in late adipogenic differentiation, whereas it did not affect the formation of early enhanceosomes. Our results suggest that TRIM23 plays a critical role in the switching from early to late adipogenic enhanceosomes by stabilizing PPARγ protein possibly via atypical polyubiquitin conjugation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05615.001 PMID:25905670

  4. Orbital atomic oxygen effects on thermal control and optical materials - STS-8 results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F.; Little, S. A.; Harwell, R. J.; Griner, D. B.; Dehaye, R. F.; Fromhold, A. T., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of exposing 23 specimens of optical and thermal control materials to space at 120 km altitude for over 40 hrs during the STS-8 mission are discussed. Ten samples of paint targeted for the Space Telescope (ST) and the Tethered Satellite were exposed, and included polyurethane, oxide, silicone, and glossy black and white samples which were scanned for alterations in the optical properties after being retrieved. Nine mirror-type materials were also investigated, along with silver specimens typical of solar cell interconnects. The oxygen flow at the orbital altitude was 3.5 x 10 to the 20th atoms/cu cm. The exposures caused no degradation of the magnesium fluoride mirror coatings, while the Kapton coating for the ST solar cell panels showed evidence of losing thickness. The Ag solar cell contacts will require coatings to extend their lifetimes. Overcoatings were also proven necessary for inhibiting degradation of painted surfaces.

  5. Changes in controlling factors of dissolved oxygen in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific from the past to the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigemitsu, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Oka, A.; Yamanaka, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Variability of the volume of oceanic oxygen-deficient waters is critical for aerobic organisms. Several climate models consistently predict the decreasing oceanic oxygen inventory from the second half of the 20th to the 21st centuries. However, the projections about how the volume of oxygen-deficient waters in the future are not consistent with each other. In this study, we investigated the factors controlling the variability of volumes of oxygen-deficient waters in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) where the largest oxygen-deficient zone exists in the ocean. Hindcast (from years 1850 to 2005) and forecast (from years 2006 to 2100) experiments with an offline global ocean biogeochemical model were performed by using outputs of physical field by the Earth System Model, MIROC-ESM, under the RCP4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. The model results illustrated that the volume of oxygen-deficient waters in EEP remains relatively constant from years 1850 to 1950, rapidly increases from years 1950 to 2000, and gradually declines from years 2000 to 2100. Available observations are consistent with the change of oxygen concentration from years 1950 to 2000. The budget analysis in EEP shows the following: (1) During 1850 to 1950, the horizontal advection via the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) is the major source of dissolved oxygen to the oxygen-deficient waters in EEP and that is almost consumed by the regeneration of organic matter. (2) During 1950 to 2000, the horizontal advection decreases and the declilne is not compensated by the reduction of regeneration of organic matter, which results in the expanding volume of oxygen-deficient waters. (3) In the 21st century, the horizontal advection declines further but the decrease in the regeneration of organic matter and increase in vertical advective supply are in excess of the decrease, leading to the shrink of oxygen-deficient water volume. Our model suggests that the key mechanisms controlling the oxygen-deficient water volume in EEP in the future are the changes in EUC transport and primary production in EEP related to the change of EUC transport. Multi-model analysis focusing on these processes probably leads to estimating uncertainties of the oxygen-deficient water volume change to the future by the present climate models.

  6. TRIM32 Senses and Restricts Influenza A Virus by Ubiquitination of PB1 Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Bishi; Wang, Lingyan; Ding, Hao; Schwamborn, Jens C.; Li, Shitao; Dorf, Martin E.

    2015-01-01

    Polymerase basic protein 1 (PB1) is the catalytic core of the influenza A virus (IAV) RNA polymerase complex essential for viral transcription and replication. Understanding the intrinsic mechanisms which block PB1 function could stimulate development of new anti-influenza therapeutics. Affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (AP-MS) was used to identify host factors interacting with PB1. Among PB1 interactors, the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 interacts with PB1 proteins derived from multiple IAV strains. TRIM32 senses IAV infection by interacting with PB1 and translocates with PB1 to the nucleus following influenza infection. Ectopic TRIM32 expression attenuates IAV infection. Conversely, RNAi depletion and knockout of TRIM32 increase susceptibility of tracheal and lung epithelial cells to IAV infection. Reconstitution of trim32-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts with TRIM32, but not a catalytically inactive mutant, restores viral restriction. Furthermore, TRIM32 directly ubiquitinates PB1, leading to PB1 protein degradation and subsequent reduction of polymerase activity. Thus, TRIM32 is an intrinsic IAV restriction factor which senses and targets the PB1 polymerase for ubiquitination and protein degradation. TRIM32 represents a model of intrinsic immunity, in which a host protein directly senses and counters viral infection in a species specific fashion by directly limiting viral replication. PMID:26057645

  7. TRIM5 is an innate immune sensor for the retrovirus capsid lattice

    PubMed Central

    Pertel, Thomas; Hausmann, Stéphane; Morger, Damien; Züger, Sara; Guerra, Jessica; Lascano, Josefina; Reinhard, Christian; Santoni, Federico; Uchil, Pradeep D.; Chatel, Laurence; Bisiaux, Aurelie; Albert, Matthew; Strambio-De-Castillia, Caterina; Mothes, Walther; Pizzato, Massimo; Grütter, Markus; Luban, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    TRIM5 is a RING domain-E3 ubiquitin ligase that restricts infection by HIV-1 and other retroviruses immediately following virus invasion of the target cell cytoplasm1,2. Antiviral potency correlates with TRIM5 avidity for the retrovirion capsid lattice3,4 and several reports indicate that TRIM5 plays a role in signal transduction5–7, but the precise mechanism of restriction is unknown8. Here we demonstrate that TRIM5 promotes innate immune signaling and that this activity is amplified by retroviral infection and interaction with the capsid lattice. Acting with the heterodimeric, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBC13/UEV1A, TRIM5 catalyzes the synthesis of unattached K63-linked ubiquitin chains that activate the TAK1 (MAP3K7) kinase complex and stimulate AP-1 and NFκB signaling. Interaction with the HIV-1 capsid lattice greatly enhances the UBC13/UEV1A-dependent E3 activity of TRIM5 and challenge with retroviruses induces the transcription of AP-1 and NFκB-dependent factors with a magnitude that tracks with TRIM5 avidity for the invading capsid. Finally, TAK1 and UBC13/UEV1A contribute to capsid-specific restriction by TRIM5. Thus, the retroviral restriction factor TRIM5 has two additional activities that are linked to restriction: it constitutively promotes innate immune signaling and it acts as a pattern recognition receptor specific for the retrovirus capsid lattice. PMID:21512573

  8. TRIM24 links glucose metabolism with transformation of human mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pathiraja, T N; Thakkar, K N; Jiang, S; Stratton, S; Liu, Z; Gagea, M; Shi, X; Shah, P K; Phan, L; Lee, M-H; Andersen, J; Stampfer, M; Barton, M C

    2015-05-28

    Tripartite motif 24 protein (TRIM24) is a plant homeodomain/bromodomain histone reader, recently associated with poor overall survival of breast-cancer patients. At a molecular level, TRIM24 is a negative regulator of p53 levels and a co-activator of estrogen receptor. However, the role of TRIM24 in breast tumorigenesis remains largely unknown. We used an isogenic human mammary epithelial cell (HMEC) culture model, derived from reduction mammoplasty tissue, and found that ectopic expression of TRIM24 in immortalized HMECs (TRIM24 iHMECs) greatly increased cellular proliferation and induced malignant transformation. Subcutaneous injection of TRIM24 iHMECs in nude mice led to growth of intermediate to high-grade tumors in 60-70% of mice. Molecular analysis of TRIM24 iHMECs revealed a glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle gene signature, alongside increased glucose uptake and activated aerobic glycolysis. Collectively, these results identify a role for TRIM24 in breast tumorigenesis through reprogramming of glucose metabolism in HMECs, further supporting TRIM24 as a viable therapeutic target in breast cancer. PMID:25065590

  9. TRIM45 negatively regulates NF-{kappa}B-mediated transcription and suppresses cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, Mio; Sato, Tomonobu; Department of Pediatrics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 ; Nukiwa, Ryota; Ariga, Tadashi; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NF-{kappa}B plays an important role in cell survival and carcinogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM45 negatively regulates TNF{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B-mediated transcription. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM45 overexpression suppresses cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM45 acts as a repressor for the NF-{kappa}B signal and regulates cell growth. -- Abstract: The NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway plays an important role in cell survival, immunity, inflammation, carcinogenesis, and organogenesis. Activation of NF-{kappa}B is regulated by several posttranslational modifications including phosphorylation, neddylation and ubiquitination. The NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway is activated by two distinct signaling mechanisms and is strictly modulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. It has been reported that overexpression of TRIM45, one of the TRIM family ubiquitin ligases, suppresses transcriptional activities of Elk-1 and AP-1, which are targets of the MAPK signaling pathway. In this study, we showed that TRIM45 also negatively regulates TNF{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B-mediated transcription by a luciferase reporter assay and that TRIM45 lacking a RING domain also has an activity to inhibit the NF-{kappa}B signal. Moreover, we found that TRIM45 overexpression suppresses cell growth. These findings suggest that TRIM45 acts as a repressor for the NF-{kappa}B signal and regulates cell growth.

  10. Oxygen Profile. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooley, John F.

    The oxygen profile procedure is a means of measuring the oxygen concentration at various locations in a basin. By dividing the surface of a basin into sections and then establishing sample points on the surface, at mid-depth, and near the bottom, a waste water treatment plant operator can measure and plot dissolved oxygen data which can be plotted…

  11. Tyrosine Phosphorylation of the E3 Ubiquitin Ligase TRIM21 Positively Regulates Interaction with IRF3 and Hence TRIM21 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, Kevin B.; Breen, Eamon; Jefferies, Caroline A.

    2012-01-01

    Patients suffering from Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE) have elevated type I interferon (IFN) levels which correlate with disease activity and severity. TRIM21, an autoantigen associated with SLE, has been identified as an ubiquitin E3 ligase that targets the transcription factor IRF3 in order to turn off and limit type I IFN production following detection of viral and bacterial infection by Toll Like Receptors (TLRs). However, how the activity of TRIM21 is regulated downstream of TLRs is unknown. In this study we demonstrate that TRIM21 is tyrosine phosphorylated following TLR3 and TLR4 stimulation, suggesting that its activity is potentially regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation. Using Netphos, we have identified three key tyrosines that are strongly predicted to be phosphorylated, two of which are conserved between the human and murine forms of TRIM21, at residues 343, 388, and 393, all of which have been mutated from tyrosine to phenylalanine (Y343F, Y388F, and Y393F). We have observed that tyrosine phosphorylation of TRIM21 only occurs in the substrate binding PRY/SPRY domain, and that Y393, and to a lesser extent, Y388 are required for TRIM21 to function as a negative regulator of IFN-β promoter activity. Further studies revealed that mutating Y393 to phenylalanine inhibits the ability of TRIM21 to interact with its substrate, IRF3, thus providing a molecular explanation for the lack of activity of Y393 on the IFN-β promoter. Our data demonstrates a novel role for tyrosine phosphorylation in regulating the activity of TRIM21 downstream of TLR3 and TLR4. Given the pathogenic role of TRIM21 in systemic autoimmunity, these findings have important implications for the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:22479513

  12. Barley Seed Aging: Genetics behind the Dry Elevated Pressure of Oxygen Aging and Moist Controlled Deterioration

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Manuela; Kodde, Jan; Pistrick, Sibylle; Mascher, Martin; Börner, Andreas; Groot, Steven P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental seed aging approaches intend to mimic seed deterioration processes to achieve a storage interval reduction. Common methods apply higher seed moisture levels and temperatures. In contrast, the “elevated partial pressure of oxygen” (EPPO) approach treats dry seed stored at ambient temperatures with high oxygen pressure. To analyse the genetic background of seed longevity and the effects of seed aging under dry conditions, the EPPO approach was applied to the progeny of the Oregon Wolfe Barley (OWB) mapping population. In comparison to a non-treated control and a control high-pressure nitrogen treatment, EPPO stored seeds showed typical symptoms of aging with a significant reduction of normal seedlings, slower germination, and less total germination. Thereby, the parent Dom (“OWB-D”), carrying dominant alleles, is more sensitive to aging in comparison to the population mean and in most cases to the parent Rec (“OWB-R”), carrying recessive alleles. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses using 2832 markers revealed 65 QTLs, including two major loci for seed vigor on 2H and 7H. QTLs for EPPO tolerance were detected on 3H, 4H, and 5H. An applied controlled deterioration (CD) treatment (aged at higher moisture level and temperature) revealed a tolerance QTL on 5H, indicating that the mechanism of seed deterioration differs in part between EPPO or CD conditions. PMID:27066038

  13. Autophagy proteins control goblet cell function by potentiating reactive oxygen species production

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Khushbu K; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Beatty, Wandy L; Head, Richard D; Malvin, Nicole P; Cadwell, Ken; Guan, Jun-Lin; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Akira, Shizuo; Seglen, Per O; Dinauer, Mary C; Virgin, Herbert W; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S

    2013-01-01

    Delivery of granule contents to epithelial surfaces by secretory cells is a critical physiologic process. In the intestine, goblet cells secrete mucus that is required for homeostasis. Autophagy proteins are required for secretion in some cases, though the mechanism and cell biological basis for this requirement remain unknown. We found that in colonic goblet cells, proteins involved in initiation and elongation of autophagosomes were required for efficient mucus secretion. The autophagy protein LC3 localized to intracellular multi-vesicular vacuoles that were consistent with a fusion of autophagosomes and endosomes. Using cultured intestinal epithelial cells, we found that NADPH oxidases localized to and enhanced the formation of these LC3-positive vacuoles. Both autophagy proteins and endosome formation were required for maximal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from NADPH oxidases. Importantly, generation of ROS was critical to control mucin granule accumulation in colonic goblet cells. Thus, autophagy proteins can control secretory function through ROS, which is in part generated by LC3-positive vacuole-associated NADPH oxidases. These findings provide a novel mechanism by which autophagy proteins can control secretion. PMID:24185898

  14. Controlled intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species in human mesenchymal stem cells using porphyrin conjugated nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lavado, Andrea S; Chauhan, Veeren M; Zen, Amer Alhaj; Giuntini, Francesca; Jones, D Rhodri E; Boyle, Ross W; Beeby, Andrew; Chan, Weng C; Aylott, Jonathan W

    2015-09-14

    Nanoparticles capable of generating controlled amounts of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), that advance the study of oxidative stress and cellular communication, were synthesized by functionalizing polyacrylamide nanoparticles with zinc(II) porphyrin photosensitisers. Controlled ROS production was demonstrated in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) through (1) production of nanoparticles functionalized with varying percentages of Zn(II) porphyrin and (2) modulating the number of doses of excitation light to internalized nanoparticles. hMSCs challenged with nanoparticles functionalized with increasing percentages of Zn(II) porphyrin and high numbers of irradiations of excitation light were found to generate greater amounts of ROS. A novel dye, which is transformed into fluorescent 7-hydroxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, provided an indirect indicator for cumulative ROS production. The mitochondrial membrane potential was monitored to investigate the destructive effect of increased intracellular ROS production. Flow cytometric analysis of nanoparticle treated hMSCs suggested irradiation with excitation light signalled controlled apoptotic cell death, rather than uncontrolled necrotic cell death. Increased intracellular ROS production did not induce phenotypic changes in hMSC subcultures. PMID:26259822

  15. Isolated resonator gyroscope with isolation trimming using a secondary element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention discloses a resonator gyroscope including an isolated resonator. One or more flexures support the isolated resonator and a baseplate is affixed to the resonator by the flexures. Drive and sense elements are affixed to the baseplate and used to excite the resonator and sense movement of the gyroscope. In addition, at least one secondary element (e.g., another electrode) is affixed to the baseplate and used for trimming isolation of the resonator. The resonator operates such that it transfers substantially no net momentum to the baseplate when the resonator is excited. Typically, the isolated resonator comprises a proof mass and a counterbalancing plate.

  16. Controlled experimental aquarium system for multi-stressor investigation: carbonate chemistry, oxygen saturation, and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bockmon, E. E.; Frieder, C. A.; Navarro, M. O.; White-Kershek, L. A.; Dickson, A. G.

    2013-02-01

    As the field of ocean acidification has grown, researchers have increasingly turned to laboratory experiments to understand the impacts of increased CO2 on marine organisms. However, other changes such as ocean warming and deoxygenation are occurring concurrently with the increasing CO2 concentrations, complicating the anthropogenic impact on organisms. This experimental aquarium design allows for independent regulation of CO2 concentration, O2 levels, and temperature in a controlled environment to study the impacts of multiple stressors. The system has the flexibility for a wide range of treatment chemistry, seawater volumes, and study organisms. Control of the seawater chemistry is achieved by equilibration of a chosen gas mixture with seawater using a Liqui-Cel® membrane contactor. Included as examples, two experiments performed using the system have shown control of CO2 between approximately 500-1400 μatm and O2 from 80-240 μmol kg-1. Temperature has been maintained to 0.5 °C or better in the range of 10-17 °C. On a weeklong timescale, control results in variability in pH of less than 0.007 pH units and in oxygen concentration less than 3.5 μmol kg-1. Longer experiments, over a month, have been completed with reasonable but lessened control, still better than 0.08 pH units and 13 μmol kg-1 O2. The ability to study the impacts of multiple stressors in the laboratory simultaneously, as well as independently, will be an important part of understanding the response of marine organisms to a high-CO2 world.

  17. Streptococcus mutans NADH Oxidase Lies at the Intersection of Overlapping Regulons Controlled by Oxygen and NAD+ Levels

    PubMed Central

    Baker, J. L.; Derr, A. M.; Karuppaiah, K.; MacGilvray, M. E.; Kajfasz, J. K.; Faustoferri, R. C.; Rivera-Ramos, I.; Bitoun, J. P.; Lemos, J. A.; Wen, Z. T.

    2014-01-01

    NADH oxidase (Nox, encoded by nox) is a flavin-containing enzyme used by the oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans to reduce diatomic oxygen to water while oxidizing NADH to NAD+. The critical nature of Nox is 2-fold: it serves to regenerate NAD+, a carbon cycle metabolite, and to reduce intracellular oxygen, preventing formation of destructive reactive oxygen species (ROS). As oxygen and NAD+ have been shown to modulate the activity of the global transcription factors Spx and Rex, respectively, Nox is potentially poised at a critical junction of two stress regulons. In this study, microarray data showed that either addition of oxygen or loss of nox resulted in altered expression of genes involved in energy metabolism and transport and the upregulation of genes encoding ROS-metabolizing enzymes. Loss of nox also resulted in upregulation of several genes encoding transcription factors and signaling molecules, including the redox-sensing regulator gene rex. Characterization of the nox promoter revealed that nox was regulated by oxygen, through SpxA, and by Rex. These data suggest a regulatory loop in which the roles of nox in reduction of oxygen and regeneration of NAD+ affect the activity levels of Spx and Rex, respectively, and their regulons, which control several genes, including nox, crucial to growth of S. mutans under conditions of oxidative stress. PMID:24682329

  18. Brain oxygen tension controls the expansion of outer subventricular zone-like basal progenitors in the developing mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Wagenführ, Lisa; Meyer, Anne K; Braunschweig, Lena; Marrone, Lara; Storch, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    The mammalian neocortex shows a conserved six-layered structure that differs between species in the total number of cortical neurons produced owing to differences in the relative abundance of distinct progenitor populations. Recent studies have identified a new class of proliferative neurogenic cells in the outer subventricular zone (OSVZ) in gyrencephalic species such as primates and ferrets. Lissencephalic brains of mice possess fewer OSVZ-like progenitor cells and these do not constitute a distinct layer. Most in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that oxygen regulates the maintenance, proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells. Here we dissect the effects of fetal brain oxygen tension on neural progenitor cell activity using a novel mouse model that allows oxygen tension to be controlled within the hypoxic microenvironment in the neurogenic niche of the fetal brain in vivo. Indeed, maternal oxygen treatment of 10%, 21% and 75% atmospheric oxygen tension for 48 h translates into robust changes in fetal brain oxygenation. Increased oxygen tension in fetal mouse forebrain in vivo leads to a marked expansion of a distinct proliferative cell population, basal to the SVZ. These cells constitute a novel neurogenic cell layer, similar to the OSVZ, and contribute to corticogenesis by heading for deeper cortical layers as a part of the cortical plate. PMID:26329599

  19. Growth control of oxygen stoichiometry in homoepitaxial SrTiO3 films by pulsed laser epitaxy in high vacuum

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lee, Ho Nyung; Ambrose Seo, Sung S.; Choi, Woo Seok; Rouleau, Christopher M.

    2016-01-29

    In many transition metal oxides, oxygen stoichiometry is one of the most critical parameters that plays a key role in determining the structural, physical, optical, and electrochemical properties of the material. However, controlling the growth to obtain high quality single crystal films having the right oxygen stoichiometry, especially in a high vacuum environment, has been viewed as a challenge. In this work, we show that, through proper control of the plume kinetic energy, stoichiometric crystalline films can be synthesized without generating oxygen defects even in high vacuum. We use a model homoepitaxial system of SrTiO3 (STO) thin films on singlemore » crystal STO substrates. Physical property measurements indicate that oxygen vacancy generation in high vacuum is strongly influenced by the energetics of the laser plume, and it can be controlled by proper laser beam delivery. Thus, our finding not only provides essential insight into oxygen stoichiometry control in high vacuum for understanding the fundamental properties of STO-based thin films and heterostructures, but it expands the utility of pulsed laser epitaxy of other materials as well.₃« less

  20. Growth control of oxygen stoichiometry in homoepitaxial SrTiO3 films by pulsed laser epitaxy in high vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ho Nyung; Ambrose Seo, Sung S.; Choi, Woo Seok; Rouleau, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    In many transition metal oxides, oxygen stoichiometry is one of the most critical parameters that plays a key role in determining the structural, physical, optical, and electrochemical properties of the material. However, controlling the growth to obtain high quality single crystal films having the right oxygen stoichiometry, especially in a high vacuum environment, has been viewed as a challenge. In this work, we show that, through proper control of the plume kinetic energy, stoichiometric crystalline films can be synthesized without generating oxygen defects even in high vacuum. We use a model homoepitaxial system of SrTiO3 (STO) thin films on single crystal STO substrates. Physical property measurements indicate that oxygen vacancy generation in high vacuum is strongly influenced by the energetics of the laser plume, and it can be controlled by proper laser beam delivery. Therefore, our finding not only provides essential insight into oxygen stoichiometry control in high vacuum for understanding the fundamental properties of STO-based thin films and heterostructures, but expands the utility of pulsed laser epitaxy of other materials as well.

  1. Growth control of oxygen stoichiometry in homoepitaxial SrTiO3 films by pulsed laser epitaxy in high vacuum

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho Nyung; Ambrose Seo, Sung S.; Choi, Woo Seok; Rouleau, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    In many transition metal oxides, oxygen stoichiometry is one of the most critical parameters that plays a key role in determining the structural, physical, optical, and electrochemical properties of the material. However, controlling the growth to obtain high quality single crystal films having the right oxygen stoichiometry, especially in a high vacuum environment, has been viewed as a challenge. In this work, we show that, through proper control of the plume kinetic energy, stoichiometric crystalline films can be synthesized without generating oxygen defects even in high vacuum. We use a model homoepitaxial system of SrTiO3 (STO) thin films on single crystal STO substrates. Physical property measurements indicate that oxygen vacancy generation in high vacuum is strongly influenced by the energetics of the laser plume, and it can be controlled by proper laser beam delivery. Therefore, our finding not only provides essential insight into oxygen stoichiometry control in high vacuum for understanding the fundamental properties of STO-based thin films and heterostructures, but expands the utility of pulsed laser epitaxy of other materials as well. PMID:26823119

  2. Growth control of oxygen stoichiometry in homoepitaxial SrTiO3 films by pulsed laser epitaxy in high vacuum.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho Nyung; Ambrose Seo, Sung S; Choi, Woo Seok; Rouleau, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    In many transition metal oxides, oxygen stoichiometry is one of the most critical parameters that plays a key role in determining the structural, physical, optical, and electrochemical properties of the material. However, controlling the growth to obtain high quality single crystal films having the right oxygen stoichiometry, especially in a high vacuum environment, has been viewed as a challenge. In this work, we show that, through proper control of the plume kinetic energy, stoichiometric crystalline films can be synthesized without generating oxygen defects even in high vacuum. We use a model homoepitaxial system of SrTiO3 (STO) thin films on single crystal STO substrates. Physical property measurements indicate that oxygen vacancy generation in high vacuum is strongly influenced by the energetics of the laser plume, and it can be controlled by proper laser beam delivery. Therefore, our finding not only provides essential insight into oxygen stoichiometry control in high vacuum for understanding the fundamental properties of STO-based thin films and heterostructures, but expands the utility of pulsed laser epitaxy of other materials as well. PMID:26823119

  3. Controlled intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species in human mesenchymal stem cells using porphyrin conjugated nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavado, Andrea S.; Chauhan, Veeren M.; Alhaj Zen, Amer; Giuntini, Francesca; Jones, D. Rhodri E.; Boyle, Ross W.; Beeby, Andrew; Chan, Weng C.; Aylott, Jonathan W.

    2015-08-01

    Nanoparticles capable of generating controlled amounts of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), that advance the study of oxidative stress and cellular communication, were synthesized by functionalizing polyacrylamide nanoparticles with zinc(ii) porphyrin photosensitisers. Controlled ROS production was demonstrated in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) through (1) production of nanoparticles functionalized with varying percentages of Zn(ii) porphyrin and (2) modulating the number of doses of excitation light to internalized nanoparticles. hMSCs challenged with nanoparticles functionalized with increasing percentages of Zn(ii) porphyrin and high numbers of irradiations of excitation light were found to generate greater amounts of ROS. A novel dye, which is transformed into fluorescent 7-hydroxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, provided an indirect indicator for cumulative ROS production. The mitochondrial membrane potential was monitored to investigate the destructive effect of increased intracellular ROS production. Flow cytometric analysis of nanoparticle treated hMSCs suggested irradiation with excitation light signalled controlled apoptotic cell death, rather than uncontrolled necrotic cell death. Increased intracellular ROS production did not induce phenotypic changes in hMSC subcultures.Nanoparticles capable of generating controlled amounts of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), that advance the study of oxidative stress and cellular communication, were synthesized by functionalizing polyacrylamide nanoparticles with zinc(ii) porphyrin photosensitisers. Controlled ROS production was demonstrated in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) through (1) production of nanoparticles functionalized with varying percentages of Zn(ii) porphyrin and (2) modulating the number of doses of excitation light to internalized nanoparticles. hMSCs challenged with nanoparticles functionalized with increasing percentages of Zn(ii) porphyrin and high numbers of irradiations of excitation light were found to generate greater amounts of ROS. A novel dye, which is transformed into fluorescent 7-hydroxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, provided an indirect indicator for cumulative ROS production. The mitochondrial membrane potential was monitored to investigate the destructive effect of increased intracellular ROS production. Flow cytometric analysis of nanoparticle treated hMSCs suggested irradiation with excitation light signalled controlled apoptotic cell death, rather than uncontrolled necrotic cell death. Increased intracellular ROS production did not induce phenotypic changes in hMSC subcultures. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials and experimental methods for the synthesis of (1) positively charged alkyne functionalized nanoparticles (2) Zn(ii) and Cu(ii) centred porphyrin (3); conjugating porphyrins to alkyne-functionalized nanoparticles via click chemistry (4) nanoparticle characterisation (size charge and fluorescence), (5) synthesis of BPTFMC (6) hMSC collection, storage and preparation (7) delivery of porphyrin functionalized nanoparticles (8) staining mitochondria, cumulative ROS production and determination of nanoparticles subcellular localisation (9) fluorescence microscopy and controlled irradiation of hMSCs (10) flow cytometry and controlled irradiation using a custom built irradiator. In addition, results highlighting: (1) nanoparticles emission spectra, size and charge, (2) BPTFMC fluorescence response and (3) hMSCs following light irradiation using flow cytometry. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00795j

  4. In situ control of oxygen vacancies in TiO2 by atomic layer deposition for resistive switching devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang-Joon; Lee, Jeong-Pyo; Jang, Jong Shik; Rhu, Hyun; Yu, Hyunung; You, Byung Youn; Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Kyung Joong; Cho, Yong Jai; Baik, Sunggi; Lee, Woo

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen vacancies (VO) have profound effects on the physical and chemical performance of devices based on oxide materials. This is particularly true in the case of oxide-based resistive random access memories, in which memory switching operation under an external electrical stimulus is closely associated with the migration and ordering of the oxygen vacancies in the oxide material. In this paper, we report on a reliable approach to in situ control of the oxygen vacancies in TiOx films. Our strategy for tight control of the oxygen vacancy is based on the utilization of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of titanium oxide under precisely regulated decomposition of the precursor molecules (titanium (IV) tetraisopropoxide, Ti[OCH(CH3)2]4) by plasma-activated reactant mixture (N2+O2). From the various spectroscopic and microstructural analyses by using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, confocal Raman spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry, we found that the precursor decomposition power (RF) of plasma-activated reactant mixture determines not only the oxygen vacancy concentration but also the crystallinity of the resulting TiOx film: nanocrystalline anatase TiOx with fewer oxygen vacancies under high RF, while amorphous TiOx with more oxygen vacancies under low RF. Enabled by our controlling capability over the oxygen vacancy concentration, we were able to thoroughly elucidate the effect of oxygen vacancies on the resistive switching behavior of TiOx-based memory capacitors (Pt/TiOx/Pt). The electrical conduction behavior at the high resistance state could be explained within the framework of the trap-controlled space-charge-limited conduction with two characteristic transition voltages. One is the voltage (VSCL) for the transition from Ohmic conduction to space-charge-limited conduction, and the other is the voltage (VTFL) for transition from space-charge-limited conduction to trap-filled-limited conduction. In this work, we have disclosed for the first time the dependence of these two characteristic transition voltages (i.e., VSCL and VTFL) on the oxygen vacancy concentration.

  5. In situ control of oxygen vacancies in TiO₂ by atomic layer deposition for resistive switching devices.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Joon; Lee, Jeong-Pyo; Jang, Jong Shik; Rhu, Hyun; Yu, Hyunung; You, Byung Youn; Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Kyung Joong; Cho, Yong Jai; Baik, Sunggi; Lee, Woo

    2013-07-26

    Oxygen vacancies (V(O)) have profound effects on the physical and chemical performance of devices based on oxide materials. This is particularly true in the case of oxide-based resistive random access memories, in which memory switching operation under an external electrical stimulus is closely associated with the migration and ordering of the oxygen vacancies in the oxide material. In this paper, we report on a reliable approach to in situ control of the oxygen vacancies in TiOx films. Our strategy for tight control of the oxygen vacancy is based on the utilization of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of titanium oxide under precisely regulated decomposition of the precursor molecules (titanium (IV) tetraisopropoxide, Ti[OCH(CH₃)₂]₄) by plasma-activated reactant mixture (N₂+O₂). From the various spectroscopic and microstructural analyses by using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, confocal Raman spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry, we found that the precursor decomposition power (R(F)) of plasma-activated reactant mixture determines not only the oxygen vacancy concentration but also the crystallinity of the resulting TiO(x) film: nanocrystalline anatase TiO(x) with fewer oxygen vacancies under high R(F), while amorphous TiOx with more oxygen vacancies under low RF. Enabled by our controlling capability over the oxygen vacancy concentration, we were able to thoroughly elucidate the effect of oxygen vacancies on the resistive switching behavior of TiO(x)-based memory capacitors (Pt/TiO(x)/Pt). The electrical conduction behavior at the high resistance state could be explained within the framework of the trap-controlled space-charge-limited conduction with two characteristic transition voltages. One is the voltage (V(SCL)) for the transition from Ohmic conduction to space-charge-limited conduction, and the other is the voltage (V(TFL)) for transition from space-charge-limited conduction to trap-filled-limited conduction. In this work, we have disclosed for the first time the dependence of these two characteristic transition voltages (i.e., V(SCL) and V(TFL)) on the oxygen vacancy concentration. PMID:23799660

  6. TRIM37 is a new histone H2A ubiquitin ligase and breast cancer oncoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Sanchita; Gazin, Claude; Chamberlain, Lynn; Ou, Jianhong; Zhu, Xiaochun; Tushir, Jogender S.; Virbasius, Ching-Man; Lin, Ling; Zhu, Lihua J.; Wajapeyee, Narendra; Green, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    The TRIM37 (or MUL) gene is located in the 17q23 chromosomal region, which is amplified in up to ~40% of breast cancers1. TRIM37 contains a RING finger domain, a hallmark of E3 ubiquitin ligases2, but its protein substrate(s) is unknown. Here we report that TRIM37 mono-ubiquitinates histone H2A, a chromatin modification associated with transcriptional repression3. We find that in human breast cancer cell lines containing amplified 17q23, TRIM37 is upregulated and, reciprocally, the major H2A ubiquitin ligase RNF23,4 (also called RING1B) is downregulated. Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-chip experiments in 17q23-amplified breast cancer cells identified many genes, including multiple tumour suppressors, whose promoters were bound by TRIM37 and enriched for ubiquitinated H2A (H2A-ub). However, unlike RNF2, which is a subunit of Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1)3–5, we find that TRIM37 associates with Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). TRIM37, PRC2 and PRC1 are co-bound to specific target genes resulting in their transcriptional silencing. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of TRIM37 results in loss of H2A-ub, dissociation of PRC1 and PRC2 from target promoters, and transcriptional reactivation of silenced genes. Knockdown of TRIM37 in human breast cancer cells containing amplified 17q23 substantially decreases tumour growth in mouse xenografts. Conversely, ectopic expression of TRIM37 renders non-transformed cells tumorigenic. Collectively, our results reveal TRIM37 as an oncogenic H2A ubiquitin ligase that is overexpressed in a subset of breast cancers and promotes transformation by facilitating silencing of tumour suppressors and other genes. PMID:25470042

  7. TRIM37 is a new histone H2A ubiquitin ligase and breast cancer oncoprotein.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Sanchita; Gazin, Claude; Chamberlain, Lynn; Ou, Jianhong; Zhu, Xiaochun; Tushir, Jogender S; Virbasius, Ching-Man; Lin, Ling; Zhu, Lihua J; Wajapeyee, Narendra; Green, Michael R

    2014-12-01

    The TRIM37 (also known as MUL) gene is located in the 17q23 chromosomal region, which is amplified in up to ∼ 40% of breast cancers. TRIM37 contains a RING finger domain, a hallmark of E3 ubiquitin ligases, but its protein substrate(s) is unknown. Here we report that TRIM37 mono-ubiquitinates histone H2A, a chromatin modification associated with transcriptional repression. We find that in human breast cancer cell lines containing amplified 17q23, TRIM37 is upregulated and, reciprocally, the major H2A ubiquitin ligase RNF2 (also known as RING1B) is downregulated. Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-chip experiments in 17q23-amplified breast cancer cells identified many genes, including multiple tumour suppressors, whose promoters were bound by TRIM37 and enriched for ubiquitinated H2A. However, unlike RNF2, which is a subunit of polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1), we find that TRIM37 associates with polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). TRIM37, PRC2 and PRC1 are co-bound to specific target genes, resulting in their transcriptional silencing. RNA-interference-mediated knockdown of TRIM37 results in loss of ubiquitinated H2A, dissociation of PRC1 and PRC2 from target promoters, and transcriptional reactivation of silenced genes. Knockdown of TRIM37 in human breast cancer cells containing amplified 17q23 substantially decreases tumour growth in mouse xenografts. Conversely, ectopic expression of TRIM37 renders non-transformed cells tumorigenic. Collectively, our results reveal TRIM37 as an oncogenic H2A ubiquitin ligase that is overexpressed in a subset of breast cancers and promotes transformation by facilitating silencing of tumour suppressors and other genes. PMID:25470042

  8. Room temperature alcohol sensing by oxygen vacancy controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotube array

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, A.; Dutta, K.; Bhowmik, B.; Bhattacharyya, P.; Chattopadhyay, P. P.

    2014-08-25

    Oxygen vacancy (OV) controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, having diameters of 50–70 nm and lengths of 200–250 nm, were synthesized by electrochemical anodization in the mixed electrolyte comprising NH{sub 4}F and ethylene glycol with selective H{sub 2}O content. The structural evolution of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Variation in the formation of OVs with the variation of the structure of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been evaluated by photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sensor characteristics were correlated to the variation of the amount of induced OVs in the nanotubes. The efficient room temperature sensing achieved by the control of OVs of TiO{sub 2} nanotube array has paved the way for developing fast responding alcohol sensor with corresponding response magnitude of 60.2%, 45.3%, and 36.5% towards methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, respectively.

  9. Controllable generation of reactive oxygen species by femtosecond-laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Wei; He, Hao Wang, Yintao; Wang, Yisen; Hu, Minglie; Wang, Chingyue

    2014-02-24

    Femtosecond lasers have been advancing Biophotonics research in the past two decades with multiphoton microscopy, microsurgery, and photodynamic therapy. Nevertheless, laser irradiation is identified to bring photodamage to cells via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation with unclear mechanism. Meanwhile, currently in biological researches, there is no effective method to provide controllable ROS production precisely, which originally is leaked from mitochondria during respiration and plays a key role in a lot of important cellular processes and cellular signaling pathways. In this study, we show the process of how the tightly focused femtosecond-laser induces ROS generation solely in mitochondria at the very beginning and then release to cytosol if the stimulus is intense enough. At certain weak power levels, the laser pulses induce merely moderate Ca{sup 2+} release but this is necessary for the laser to generate ROS in mitochondria. Cellular original ROS are also involved with a small contribution. When the power is above a threshold, ROS are then released to cytosol, indicating photodamage overwhelming cellular repair ability. The mechanisms in those two cases are quite different. Those results clarify parts of the mechanism in laser-induced ROS generation. Hence, it is possible to further this optical scheme to provide controllable ROS generation for ROS-related biological researches including mitochondrial diseases and aging.

  10. Controllable generation of reactive oxygen species by femtosecond-laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wei; He, Hao; Wang, Yintao; Wang, Yisen; Hu, Minglie; Wang, Chingyue

    2014-02-01

    Femtosecond lasers have been advancing Biophotonics research in the past two decades with multiphoton microscopy, microsurgery, and photodynamic therapy. Nevertheless, laser irradiation is identified to bring photodamage to cells via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation with unclear mechanism. Meanwhile, currently in biological researches, there is no effective method to provide controllable ROS production precisely, which originally is leaked from mitochondria during respiration and plays a key role in a lot of important cellular processes and cellular signaling pathways. In this study, we show the process of how the tightly focused femtosecond-laser induces ROS generation solely in mitochondria at the very beginning and then release to cytosol if the stimulus is intense enough. At certain weak power levels, the laser pulses induce merely moderate Ca2+ release but this is necessary for the laser to generate ROS in mitochondria. Cellular original ROS are also involved with a small contribution. When the power is above a threshold, ROS are then released to cytosol, indicating photodamage overwhelming cellular repair ability. The mechanisms in those two cases are quite different. Those results clarify parts of the mechanism in laser-induced ROS generation. Hence, it is possible to further this optical scheme to provide controllable ROS generation for ROS-related biological researches including mitochondrial diseases and aging.

  11. Raising and controlling study of dissolved oxygen concentration in closed-type aeration tank.

    PubMed

    Chen, C K; Lo, S L

    2005-07-01

    This study investigated the promotion and control of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of the closed-type aeration tank via practical experiments in the wastewater treatment system of a 5-star hotel in Taipei. As with limited and treasured space in Taiwan, before the completion of the sewer system construction in cities, to utilize the mat foundation under large buildings as the space of sewage treatment plant still has been one of the alternatives of those sewage treatments. However, aeration tanks constructed in the mat foundation of buildings have smaller effective water depth, which will cause a lower total transfer amount of DO. Controlling the total exhaust gas flow rate can increase the pressure on such closed-type aeration tanks. The DO concentration thus may increase according to Henry's Law. Furthermore, it may enable operators to adjust the DO concentration of the aeration tank more precisely and thus sustain optimal operating conditions in these treatment facilities. Practical experiments indicated that the DO concentration of aeration tank maintains an average of 3.8 mg l(-1), obtaining the optimum operating conditions. The efficiency of the biological treatment facilities in the mat foundation could be markedly improved. PMID:16080335

  12. Oxygen-enabled control of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction in ultra-thin magnetic films

    PubMed Central

    Belabbes, Abderrezak; Bihlmayer, Gustav; Blügel, Stefan; Manchon, Aurélien

    2016-01-01

    The search for chiral magnetic textures in systems lacking spatial inversion symmetry has attracted a massive amount of interest in the recent years with the real space observation of novel exotic magnetic phases such as skyrmions lattices, but also domain walls and spin spirals with a defined chirality. The electrical control of these textures offers thrilling perspectives in terms of fast and robust ultrahigh density data manipulation. A powerful ingredient commonly used to stabilize chiral magnetic states is the so-called Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) arising from spin-orbit coupling in inversion asymmetric magnets. Such a large antisymmetric exchange has been obtained at interfaces between heavy metals and transition metal ferromagnets, resulting in spin spirals and nanoskyrmion lattices. Here, using relativistic first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that the magnitude and sign of DMI can be entirely controlled by tuning the oxygen coverage of the magnetic film, therefore enabling the smart design of chiral magnetism in ultra-thin films. We anticipate that these results extend to other electronegative ions and suggest the possibility of electrical tuning of exotic magnetic phases. PMID:27103448

  13. Oxygen-enabled control of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction in ultra-thin magnetic films.

    PubMed

    Belabbes, Abderrezak; Bihlmayer, Gustav; Blügel, Stefan; Manchon, Aurélien

    2016-01-01

    The search for chiral magnetic textures in systems lacking spatial inversion symmetry has attracted a massive amount of interest in the recent years with the real space observation of novel exotic magnetic phases such as skyrmions lattices, but also domain walls and spin spirals with a defined chirality. The electrical control of these textures offers thrilling perspectives in terms of fast and robust ultrahigh density data manipulation. A powerful ingredient commonly used to stabilize chiral magnetic states is the so-called Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) arising from spin-orbit coupling in inversion asymmetric magnets. Such a large antisymmetric exchange has been obtained at interfaces between heavy metals and transition metal ferromagnets, resulting in spin spirals and nanoskyrmion lattices. Here, using relativistic first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that the magnitude and sign of DMI can be entirely controlled by tuning the oxygen coverage of the magnetic film, therefore enabling the smart design of chiral magnetism in ultra-thin films. We anticipate that these results extend to other electronegative ions and suggest the possibility of electrical tuning of exotic magnetic phases. PMID:27103448

  14. Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, D.C.

    1985-06-04

    A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power. 1 fig.

  15. Quasi-Linear Parameter Varying Representation of General Aircraft Dynamics Over Non-Trim Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jong-Yeob

    2007-01-01

    For applying linear parameter varying (LPV) control synthesis and analysis to a nonlinear system, it is required that a nonlinear system be represented in the form of an LPV model. In this paper, a new representation method is developed to construct an LPV model from a nonlinear mathematical model without the restriction that an operating point must be in the neighborhood of equilibrium points. An LPV model constructed by the new method preserves local stabilities of the original nonlinear system at "frozen" scheduling parameters and also represents the original nonlinear dynamics of a system over a non-trim region. An LPV model of the motion of FASER (Free-flying Aircraft for Subscale Experimental Research) is constructed by the new method.

  16. N-glycan trimming by glucosidase II is essential for Arabidopsis development

    PubMed Central

    Soussillane, Pravina; Alessio, Cecilia D’; Paccalet, Thomas; Fitchette, Anne-Catherine; Parodi, Armando J.; Williamson, Richard; Plasson, Carole; Faye, Loïc; Gomord, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    Glucosidase II, one of the early N-glycan processing enzymes and a major player in the glycoprotein folding quality control, has been described as a soluble heterodimer composed of α and β subunits. Here we present the first characterization of a plant glucosidase II α subunit at the molecular level. Expression of the Arabidopsis α subunit restored N-glycan maturation capacity in Schizosaccharomyces pombe α— or αβ—deficient mutants, but with a lower efficiency in the last case. Inactivation of the α subunit in a temperature sensitive Arabidopsis mutant blocked N-glycan processing after a first trimming by glucosidase I and strongly affected seedling development. PMID:18972207

  17. What controls the variability of oxygen in the subpolar North Pacific?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Yohei

    Dissolved oxygen is a widely observed chemical quantity in the oceans along with temperature and salinity. Changes in the dissolved oxygen have been observed over the world oceans. Observed oxygen in the Ocean Station Papa (OSP, 50N, 145W) in the Gulf of Alaska exhibits strong variability over interannual and decadal timescales, however, the mechanisms driving the observed variability are not yet fully understood. Furthermore, irregular sampling frequency and relatively short record length make it difficult to detect a low-frequency variability. Motivated by these observations, we investigate the mechanisms driving the low-frequency variability of oxygen in the subpolar North Pacific. The specific purposes of this study are (1) to evaluate the robustness of the observed low-frequency variability of dissolved oxygen and (2) to determine the mechanisms driving the observed variability using statistical data analysis and numerical simulations. To evaluate the robustness of the low-frequency variability, we conducted spectral analyses on the observed oxygen at OSP. To address the irregular sampling frequency we randomly sub-sampled the raw data to form 500 ensemble members with a regular time interval, and then performed spectral analyses. The resulting power spectrum of oxygen exhibits a robust low-frequency variability and a statistically significant spectral peak is identified at a timescale of 15--20 years. The wintertime oceanic barotropic streamfunction is significantly correlated with the observed oxygen anomaly at OSP with a north-south dipole structure over the North Pacific. We hypothesize that the observed low-frequency variability is primarily driven by the variability of large-scale ocean circulation in the North Pacific. To test this hypothesis, we simulate the three-dimensional distribution of oxygen anomaly between 1952 to 2001 using data-constrained circulation fields. The simulated oxygen anomaly shows an outstanding variability in the Gulf of Alaska, showing that this region is a hotspot of oxygen fluctuation. Anomalous advection acting on the climatological mean oxygen gradient is the source of oxygen variability in this simulation. Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analyses of the simulated oxygen show that the two dominant modes of the oxygen anomaly explains more than 50% of oxygen variance over the North Pacific, that are closely related to the dominant modes of climate variability in the North Pacific (Pacific Decadal Oscillation and North Pacific Oscillation). Our results imply the important link between large-scale climate fluctuations, ocean circulation and biogeochemical tracers in the North Pacific.

  18. Effects of Contamination, UV Radiation, and Atomic Oxygen on ISS Thermal Control Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visentine, Jim; Finckenor, Miria; Zwiener, Jim; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Thermal control surfaces on the International Space Station (ISS) have been tailored for optimum optical properties. The space environment, particularly contamination, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and atomic oxygen (AO) may have a detrimental effect on these optical properties. These effects must be quantified for modeling and planning. Also of interest was the effect of porosity on the reaction to simulated space environment. Five materials were chosen for this study based on their use on ISS. The thermal control materials were Z-93 white coating, silverized Teflon, chromic acid anodized aluminum, sulfuric acid anodized aluminum, and 7075-T6 aluminum. Some of the samples were exposed to RTV 560 silicone; others were exposed to Tefzel offgassing products. Two samples of Z-93 were not exposed to contamination as clean "controls". VUV radiation was used to photo-fix the contaminant to the material surface, then the samples were exposed to AO. All samples were exposed to 1000 equivalent sun-hours (ESH) of vacuum ultraviolet radiation (VUV) at the AZ Technology facility and a minimum of 1.5 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm of AO at Marshall Space Flight Center. Half of the samples were exposed to an additional 2000 ESH of VUV at Huntington Beach prior to sent to AZ Technology. Darkening of the Z-93 white coating was noted after VUV exposure. AO exposure did bleach the Z-93 but not back to its original brightness. Solar absorptance curves show the degradation due to contamination and VUV and the recovery with AO exposure. More bleaching was noted on the Tefzel-contaminated samples than with the RTV-contaminated samples.

  19. Object Trimming: When Masking Dots Alter Rather than Replace Target Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahan, Todd A.; Enns, James T.

    2010-01-01

    Five experiments demonstrate that when dots appear beside a briefly presented target object, and persist on view longer than the target, the flanked object is perceptually altered by the dots. Three methods are used to explore this "object trimming effect". Experiments 1-3 assess participants' conscious reports of trimmed digits, Experiment 4 uses…

  20. HARD RED SPRING WHEAT / C-TRIM 20 BREAD: FORMULATION, PROCESSING AND TEXTURE ANALYSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    C-TRIM, a beta-glucan-rich fraction, was added to Hard Red Spring wheat (HRSW) flour in order to increase soluble fiber content of bread to a minimum of 0.75 g / bread serving, the minimum required for health claim as established by the FDA. Two blends FGT1 (flour, 25% gluten, and 17% C-TRIM) and F...

  1. 46 CFR 116.422 - Ceilings, linings, trim, interior finish and decorations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ceilings, linings, trim, interior finish and decorations... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.422 Ceilings, linings, trim, interior finish... Commandant. (b) Bulkheads, linings and ceilings may be covered by a combustible interior finish provided...

  2. TRIM9 short isoform preferentially promotes DNA and RNA virus-induced production of type I interferon by recruiting GSK3β to TBK1.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yunfei; Liu, Qingxiang; Tian, Shuo; Xie, Weihong; Cui, Jun; Wang, Rong-Fu

    2016-05-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) is an important component of antiviral innate immune signaling mediated by viral DNA and RNA recognition by the DNA sensor cGAS and RNA sensors RIG-I and MDA5. Activation of these DNA and RNA sensors leads to the recruitment of STING and MAVS, respectively, and converges on TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) signaling for subsequent phosphorylation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). However, the mechanisms that control TBK1 activation are still poorly defined. Here, we identify tripartite motif 9 short isoform (TRIM9s) as a positive regulator in type I IFN signaling. Upon viral infection, TRIM9s undergoes Lys-63-linked auto-polyubiquitination and serves as a platform to bridge GSK3β to TBK1, leading to the activation of IRF3 signaling. Interestingly, we found that TRIM9s selectively inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but enhances the expression of type I IFNs as well as IFN-stimulated genes, in response to viral infection. Our findings reveal novel dual functions of TRIM9s in antiviral immunity, which serve to balance pro-inflammatory response and production of type I IFNs. PMID:26915459

  3. Effect of supplemental oxygen 80 % on post-tonsillectomy nausea and vomiting: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Poopak; Delavar, Parvin; Yarmohammadi, Mohammad Ebrahim; Daneshmandan, Naimeh; Sadrameli, Maryam

    2016-05-01

    Nausea and vomiting are two of the most common complications of tonsillectomy in children. Administration of supplemental 80 % oxygen during surgery reduces the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. We aimed to test the efficacy of supplemental 80 % oxygen during tonsillectomy on postoperative nausea and vomiting. In a randomized controlled trial in Shahid Mostafa Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, 102 children scheduled for tonsillectomy (±adenoidectomy) under general anesthesia were divided randomly in two groups according to percent of administered oxygen (group 1:30 % oxygen, group 2:80 % oxygen). The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting were assessed and compared in 0-2, 2-6 and 6-24 h after surgery. Incidence of post-tonsillectomy nausea and vomiting after 2, 2-6, and 6-24 h was 13.72, 1.96 and 1.96 % for group 1 and 3.92, 0 and 1.96 % in group 2, respectively. We found no statistically significant difference between two groups (P = 0.08) but 80 % oxygen was beneficial for reducing postoperative nausea and vomiting in the first 2 h after surgery in group 2. PMID:26677853

  4. 46 CFR 72.05-15 - Ceilings, linings, trim, and decorations in accommodation spaces and safety areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... volume of combustible face trim, moldings, and decorations, including veneers, in any compartment shall... compartment. Such trim, molding, or decorations shall not perform any structural function, and shall not...

  5. 46 CFR 72.05-15 - Ceilings, linings, trim, and decorations in accommodation spaces and safety areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... volume of combustible face trim, moldings, and decorations, including veneers, in any compartment shall... compartment. Such trim, molding, or decorations shall not perform any structural function, and shall not...

  6. 46 CFR 72.05-15 - Ceilings, linings, trim, and decorations in accommodation spaces and safety areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... volume of combustible face trim, moldings, and decorations, including veneers, in any compartment shall... compartment. Such trim, molding, or decorations shall not perform any structural function, and shall not...

  7. Edge Fracture Prediction ofTraditional and Advanced Trimming Processes for AA6111-T4 Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Xiaohua; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Sun, Xin; Golovashchenko, Segey F.

    2014-02-15

    This work examines the traditional and advanced trimming of AA6111-T4 aluminum sheets with finite element simulations. The Rice-Tracy damage model is used for the simulation with damage parameters estimated from experimental observation of grain aspect ratio near the fracture surface of trimmed parts. Fine meshes at the shearing zone, adaptive meshing, and adaptive contact techniques are used to accurately capture the contact interactions between the sharp corner of the trimming tools and the blank to be trimmed. To the knowledge of the authors, these are the first trimming simulations that can predict the effects of shearing clearance on burr heights with quantitative accuracy for AA6111-T4 aluminum sheets. In addition, the models have also accurately reproduced the crack initiation site as well as burr and sliver formation mechanisms observed experimentally.

  8. Periodic trim solutions with HP-version finite elements in time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Finite Element in Time has been proven to be a powerful alternative solving strategy for the rotor craft trim problem. Additionally, Finite Element Method in Time has been developed in various versions like time-marching framework, Galerkin framework, Rayleigh-Ritz framework, and mixed formulation. Recently, this method was applied to the rotorcraft trim problem to obtain linearized solutions. The rotorcraft trim problem consists of trying to find a period solution for period-coefficient, differential equations subject to side constraints where certain force and momentum balance equations are forced to be equal to zero. There are free (or trim) parameters that are chosen to meet these side constraints. This project aims at expanding the application, in terms of the rotorcraft trim problem, from a linearized solution to nonlinear solution.

  9. Tripartite Motif (TRIM) 12c, a Mouse Homolog of TRIM5, Is a Ubiquitin Ligase That Stimulates Type I IFN and NF-κB Pathways along with TNFR-Associated Factor 6.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tsung-Hsien; Yoshimi, Ryusuke; Ozato, Keiko

    2015-12-01

    Tripartite motif (TRIM) protein TRIM5 of the primate species restricts replication of HIV and other retroviruses. Whereas primates have a single TRIM5 gene, the corresponding locus in the mouse has expanded during evolution, now containing more than eight related genes. Owing to the complexity of the genomic organization, a mouse homolog of TRIM5 has not been fully studied thus far. In the present study, we report that Trim12c (formerly Trim12-2) encodes a TRIM5-like protein with a ubiquitin ligase activity. Similar to the primate TRIM5, TRIM12c is expressed in the cytoplasm as a punctate structure and induced upon IFN and pathogen stimulation in macrophages and dendritic cells. We show that TRIM12c interacts with TRAF6, a key protein in the pathogen recognition receptor signaling, and reciprocally enhances their ubiquitination, leading to cooperative activation of IFN and NF-κB pathways. This study identifies TRIM12c as a mouse TRIM5 equivalent, critical for host innate immunity. PMID:26503954

  10. Ultralow Oxygen Treatment for Postharvest Control of Western Flower Thrips on Head Lettuce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), were subjected to ULO treatments with different combinations of oxygen level, temperature, and treatment duration in plastic jars. Oxygen levels used ranged from 0.0015% to 0.01%. Temperatures ranged from 1 to 10°C. Treatme...

  11. Oxygen Uptake. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooley, John F.

    Biological waste treatment in the activated sludge process is based on the ability of microorganisms to use dissolved oxygen in breaking down soluble organic substances. The oxygen uptake test is a means of measuring the respiration rate of microorganisms in this process. Designed for individuals who have completed National Pollutant Discharge…

  12. Two sites of oxygen control in induced synthesis of respiratory nitrate reductase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Kaprálek, F; Jechová, E; Otavová, M

    1982-01-01

    The time course of appearance of respiratory nitrate reductase in Escherichia coli after induction by nitrate was analyzed under different conditions, and the inhibitory effects of oxygen, chloramphenicol, and rifampin were compared. Oxygen appeared to inhibit the synthesis of nitrate reductase at the level of transcription. In addition, the translation or some later steps of enzyme formation were blocked. PMID:6174498

  13. Phase and composition controllable synthesis of cobalt manganese spinel nanoparticles towards efficient oxygen electrocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun; Han, Xiaopeng; Cheng, Fangyi; Hu, Yuxiang; Chen, Chengcheng; Chen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Spinel-type oxides are technologically important in many fields, including electronics, magnetism, catalysis and electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Typically, these materials are prepared by conventional ceramic routes that are energy consuming and offer limited control over shape and size. Moreover, for mixed-metal oxide spinels (for example, CoxMn3−xO4), the crystallographic phase sensitively correlates with the metal ratio, posing great challenges to synthesize active product with simultaneously tuned phase and composition. Here we report a general synthesis of ultrasmall cobalt manganese spinels with tailored structural symmetry and composition through facile solution-based oxidation–precipitation and insertion–crystallization process at modest condition. As an example application, the nanocrystalline spinels catalyse the oxygen reduction/evolution reactions, showing phase and composition co-dependent performance. Furthermore, the mild synthetic strategy allows the formation of homogeneous and strongly coupled spinel/carbon nanocomposites, which exhibit comparable activity but superior durability to Pt/C and serve as efficient catalysts to build rechargeable Zn–air and Li–air batteries. PMID:26040417

  14. Interplay between reactive oxygen species and hormones in the control of plant development and stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiao-Jian; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Shi, Kai; Zhou, Jie; Foyer, Christine H; Yu, Jing-Quan

    2015-05-01

    As a consequence of a sessile lifestyle, plants are continuously exposed to changing environmental conditions and often life-threatening stresses caused by exposure to excessive light, extremes of temperature, limiting nutrient or water availability, and pathogen/insect attack. The flexible coordination of plant growth and development is necessary to optimize vigour and fitness in a changing environment through rapid and appropriate responses to such stresses. The concept that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are versatile signalling molecules in plants that contribute to stress acclimation is well established. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge of how ROS production and signalling are integrated with the action of auxin, brassinosteroids, gibberellins, abscisic acid, ethylene, strigolactones, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid in the coordinate regulation of plant growth and stress tolerance. We consider the local and systemic crosstalk between ROS and hormonal signalling pathways and identify multiple points of reciprocal control, as well as providing insights into the integration nodes that involve Ca(2+)-dependent processes and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation cascades. PMID:25788732

  15. Phase and composition controllable synthesis of cobalt manganese spinel nanoparticles towards efficient oxygen electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun; Han, Xiaopeng; Cheng, Fangyi; Hu, Yuxiang; Chen, Chengcheng; Chen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Spinel-type oxides are technologically important in many fields, including electronics, magnetism, catalysis and electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Typically, these materials are prepared by conventional ceramic routes that are energy consuming and offer limited control over shape and size. Moreover, for mixed-metal oxide spinels (for example, Co(x)Mn(3-x)O4), the crystallographic phase sensitively correlates with the metal ratio, posing great challenges to synthesize active product with simultaneously tuned phase and composition. Here we report a general synthesis of ultrasmall cobalt manganese spinels with tailored structural symmetry and composition through facile solution-based oxidation-precipitation and insertion-crystallization process at modest condition. As an example application, the nanocrystalline spinels catalyse the oxygen reduction/evolution reactions, showing phase and composition co-dependent performance. Furthermore, the mild synthetic strategy allows the formation of homogeneous and strongly coupled spinel/carbon nanocomposites, which exhibit comparable activity but superior durability to Pt/C and serve as efficient catalysts to build rechargeable Zn-air and Li-air batteries. PMID:26040417

  16. A Novel Solid Electrolyte Oxygen Sensor System for In-Situ Measurement and Process Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Frank Uwe; Messerschmid, Ernst; Rogg, Markus

    2010-10-01

    In 1993 the oxygen partial pressure was firstly measured inside a plasma wind tunnel using conventional λ-probes. Since then, a considerable amount of knowledge has been gained in using these sensors in ground test facilities and space. However, these commercially available sensors were too large in scale and weight. Consequently, a new development of solid electrolyte sensors called FIPEX more feasible for space was initiated. Due to space driven benefits, interest arose to use FIPEX technique in terrestrial applications e.g. to monitor sputter plants for float glass coating. Therefore, the VacuSen® sensor was developed. The characterization of VacuSen® at nominal sensor temperature TS = 680° C resulted in a sensor current according to IS = bṡpO20ṡ8±0ṡ05 I[μA] in the operation range between ptot = 1ṡ10-3 to 5 Pa. From pulse width modulation (PWM) temperature control, additional information allows to measure ptot according to ptot = aṡRPWM0ṡ107±0ṡ005 thus enlarging the operation range to ptot = 1ṡ10-3 to 1ṡ105Pa. A one point calibration routine with air, ideally at ptot = 5 Pa in order to determine both calibration parameters a and b simultaneously, is proposed.

  17. Phase and composition controllable synthesis of cobalt manganese spinel nanoparticles towards efficient oxygen electrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun; Han, Xiaopeng; Cheng, Fangyi; Hu, Yuxiang; Chen, Chengcheng; Chen, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Spinel-type oxides are technologically important in many fields, including electronics, magnetism, catalysis and electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Typically, these materials are prepared by conventional ceramic routes that are energy consuming and offer limited control over shape and size. Moreover, for mixed-metal oxide spinels (for example, CoxMn3-xO4), the crystallographic phase sensitively correlates with the metal ratio, posing great challenges to synthesize active product with simultaneously tuned phase and composition. Here we report a general synthesis of ultrasmall cobalt manganese spinels with tailored structural symmetry and composition through facile solution-based oxidation-precipitation and insertion-crystallization process at modest condition. As an example application, the nanocrystalline spinels catalyse the oxygen reduction/evolution reactions, showing phase and composition co-dependent performance. Furthermore, the mild synthetic strategy allows the formation of homogeneous and strongly coupled spinel/carbon nanocomposites, which exhibit comparable activity but superior durability to Pt/C and serve as efficient catalysts to build rechargeable Zn-air and Li-air batteries.

  18. Inside-Out Signaling Pathways from Nuclear Reactive Oxygen Species Control Pulmonary Innate Immunity.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Sanjeev; Boldogh, Istvan; Brasier, Allan R

    2016-01-01

    The airway mucosa is responsible for mounting a robust innate immune response (IIR) upon encountering pathogen-associated molecular patterns. The IIR produces protective gene networks that stimulate neighboring epithelia and components of the immune system to trigger adaptive immunity. Little is currently known about how cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling is produced and cooperates in the IIR. We discuss recent discoveries about 2 nuclear ROS signaling pathways controlling innate immunity. Nuclear ROS oxidize guanine bases to produce mutagenic 8-oxoguanine, a lesion excised by 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase1/AP-lyase (OGG1). OGG1 forms a complex with the excised base, inducing its nuclear export. The cytoplasmic OGG1:8-oxoG complex functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor, triggering small GTPase signaling and activating phosphorylation of the nuclear factor (NF)x03BA;B/RelA transcription factor to induce immediate early gene expression. In parallel, nuclear ROS are detected by ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a PI3 kinase activated by ROS, triggering its nuclear export. ATM forms a scaffold with ribosomal S6 kinases, inducing RelA phosphorylation and resulting in transcription-coupled synthesis of type I and type III interferons and CC and CXC chemokines. We propose that ATM and OGG1 are endogenous nuclear ROS sensors that transmit nuclear signals that coordinate with outside-in pattern recognition receptor signaling, regulating the IIR. PMID:26756522

  19. A large new subset of TRIM genes highly diversified by duplication and positive selection in teleost fish

    PubMed Central

    van der Aa, Lieke M; Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Yahmi, Malika; Lauret, Emilie; Briolat, Valérie; Herbomel, Philippe; Benmansour, Abdenour; Boudinot, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Background In mammals, the members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family are involved in various cellular processes including innate immunity against viral infection. Viruses exert strong selective pressures on the defense system. Accordingly, antiviral TRIMs have diversified highly through gene expansion, positive selection and alternative splicing. Characterizing immune TRIMs in other vertebrates may enlighten their complex evolution. Results We describe here a large new subfamily of TRIMs in teleosts, called finTRIMs, identified in rainbow trout as virus-induced transcripts. FinTRIMs are formed of nearly identical RING/B-box regions and C-termini of variable length; the long variants include a B30.2 domain. The zebrafish genome harbors a striking diversity of finTRIMs, with 84 genes distributed in clusters on different chromosomes. A phylogenetic analysis revealed different subsets suggesting lineage-specific diversification events. Accordingly, the number of fintrim genes varies greatly among fish species. Conserved syntenies were observed only for the oldest fintrims. The closest mammalian relatives are trim16 and trim25, but they are not true orthologs. The B30.2 domain of zebrafish finTRIMs evolved under strong positive selection. The positions under positive selection are remarkably congruent in finTRIMs and in mammalian antiviral TRIM5α, concentrated within a viral recognition motif in mammals. The B30.2 domains most closely related to finTRIM are found among NOD-like receptors (NLR), indicating that the evolution of TRIMs and NLRs was intertwined by exon shuffling. Conclusion The diversity, evolution, and features of finTRIMs suggest an important role in fish innate immunity; this would make them the first TRIMs involved in immunity identified outside mammals. PMID:19196451

  20. Potential role of TRIM3 as a novel tumour suppressor in colorectal cancer (CRC) development.

    PubMed

    Piao, Mei-Yu; Cao, Hai-Long; He, Na-Na; Xu, Meng-Que; Dong, Wen-Xiao; Wang, Wei-Qiang; Wang, Bang-Mao; Zhou, Bing

    2016-05-01

    Objective Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States. Recent cancer genome-sequencing efforts and complementary functional studies have led to the identification of a collection of candidate 'driver' genes involved in CRC tumorigenesis. Tripartite motif (TRIM3) is recently identified as a tumour suppressor in glioblastoma but this tumour-suppressive function has not been investigated in CRC. Material and methods In this study, we investigated the potential role of TRIM3 as a tumour suppressor in CRC development by manipulating the expression of TRIM3 in two authentic CRC cell lines, HCT116 and DLD1, followed by various functional assays, including cell proliferation, colony formation, scratch wound healing, soft agar, and invasion assays. Xenograft experiment was performed to examine in vivo tumour-suppressive properties of TRIM3. Results Small-interfering RNA (siRNA) mediated knockdown of TRIM3 conferred growth advantage in CRC cells. In contrast, overexpression of TRIM3 affected cell survival, cell migration, anchorage independent growth and invasive potential in CRC cells. In addition, TRIM3 was found to be down-regulated in human colon cancer tissues compared with matched normal colon tissues. Overexpression of TRIM3 significantly inhibited tumour growth in vivo using xenograft mouse models. Mechanistic investigation revealed that TRIM3 can regulate p53 protein level through its stabilisation. Conclusions TRIM3 functions as a tumour suppressor in CRC progression. This tumour-suppressive function is exerted partially through regulation of p53 protein. Therefore, this protein may represent a novel therapeutic target for prevention or intervention of CRC. PMID:26691157

  1. Adaptive haemoglobin gene control in Daphnia pulex at different oxygen and temperature conditions.

    PubMed

    Gerke, Peter; Börding, Christina; Zeis, Bettina; Paul, Rüdiger J

    2011-05-01

    Hypoxia-induced haemoglobin (Hb) expression is a central regulatory mechanism in Daphnia in response to environmental hypoxia or warm temperatures. Changes in Hb concentration as well as Hb subunit composition, which modulate Hb oxygen affinity, guarantee the oxygen supply of tissues under these environmental conditions. Based on the sequenced D. pulex genome, Hb genes were related to the properties of haemolymph Hb, which included its concentration and oxygen affinity (both measured by spectrophotometry) as well as the Hb subunit composition (determined by 2-D gel electrophoresis and ESI-MS analysis). Permanent cultures of D. pulex acclimated to different oxygen conditions (normoxia and hypoxia) and temperatures (10°C, 20°C, and 24°C), showed characteristic changes in Hb concentration, subunit composition and oxygen affinity. Several subunits (Hb4, Hb7, Hb8, and Hb10) were obviously responsible for changes in oxygen affinity including those, which carry a number of hypoxia-responsive elements (HREs) upstream of the respective gene (hb4 and hb10). Analysing the effects of different oxygen- or temperature-acclimations on Hb subunit expression in D. pulex and D. magna on a common basis (Hb concentration or oxygen affinity) revealed a general pattern of oxygen and temperature effects on Hb, which implies that Hb quantity and quality are mostly influenced by the degree of tissue hypoxia. Differences between both species in the onset of hypoxia-induced differential Hb expression and Hb oxygen affinity, which are probably related to different HRE patterns and functionally important differences in the amino acid sequence of only a few subunits, cause a reduced ability of D. pulex to adjust Hb function to temperature changes in comparison to D. magna. PMID:21281731

  2. The control of reactive oxygen species production by SHP-1 in oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Ross C; LaRocca, Daria; Minchenberg, Scott B; Christophi, George P; Hudson, Chad A; Ray, Alex K; Shafit-Zagardo, Bridget; Massa, Paul T

    2015-10-01

    We have previously described reduced myelination and corresponding myelin basic protein (MBP) expression in the central nervous system of Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) deficient motheaten (me/me) mice compared with normal littermate controls. Deficiency in myelin and MBP expression in both brains and spinal cords of motheaten mice correlated with reduced MBP mRNA expression levels in vivo and in purified oligodendrocytes in vitro. Therefore, SHP-1 activity seems to be a critical regulator of oligodendrocyte gene expression and function. Consistent with this role, this study demonstrates that oligodendrocytes of motheaten mice and SHP-1-depleted N20.1 cells produce higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and exhibit corresponding markers of increased oxidative stress. In agreement with these findings, we demonstrate that increased production of ROS coincides with ROS-induced signaling pathways known to affect myelin gene expression in oligodendrocytes. Antioxidant treatment of SHP-1-deficient oligodendrocytes reversed the pathological changes in these cells, with increased myelin protein gene expression and decreased expression of nuclear factor (erythroid-2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) responsive gene, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Furthermore, we demonstrate that SHP-1 is expressed in human white matter oligodendrocytes, and there is a subset of multiple sclerosis subjects that demonstrate a deficiency of SHP-1 in normal-appearing white matter. These studies reveal critical pathways controlled by SHP-1 in oligodendrocytes that relate to susceptibility of SHP-1-deficient mice to both developmental defects in myelination and to inflammatory demyelinating diseases. PMID:25919645

  3. Accurate control of oxygen level in cells during culture on silicone rubber membranes with application to stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Powers, Daryl E; Millman, Jeffrey R; Bonner-Weir, Susan; Rappel, Michael J; Colton, Clark K

    2010-01-01

    Oxygen level in mammalian cell culture is often controlled by placing culture vessels in humidified incubators with a defined gas phase partial pressure of oxygen (pO(2gas)). Because the cells are consuming oxygen supplied by diffusion, a difference between pO(2gas) and that experienced by the cells (pO(2cell)) arises, which is maximal when cells are cultured in vessels with little or no oxygen permeability. Here, we demonstrate theoretically that highly oxygen-permeable silicone rubber membranes can be used to control pO(2cell) during culture of cells in monolayers and aggregates much more accurately and can achieve more rapid transient response following a disturbance than on polystyrene and fluorinated ethylene-propylene copolymer membranes. Cell attachment on silicone rubber was achieved by physical adsorption of fibronectin or Matrigel. We use these membranes for the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells to cardiomyocytes and compare the results with culture on polystyrene or on silicone rubber on top of polystyrene. The fraction of cells that are cardiomyocyte-like increases with decreasing pO(2) only when using oxygen-permeable silicone membrane-based dishs, which contract on silicone rubber but not polystyrene. The high permeability of silicone rubber results in pO(2cell) being equal to pO(2gas) at the tissue-membrane interface. This, together with geometric information from histological sections, facilitates development of a model from which the pO(2) distribution within the resulting aggregates is computed. Silicone rubber membranes have significant advantages over polystyrene in controlling pO(2cell), and these results suggest they are a valuable tool for investigating pO(2) effects in many applications, such as stem cell differentiation. PMID:20039374

  4. Control of functional responses via reversible oxygen loss in La₁-xSrxFeO₃-δ films.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yujun; Scafetta, Mark D; Sichel-Tissot, Rebecca J; Moon, Eun Ju; Devlin, Robert C; Wu, Hanqi; Krick, Alex L; May, Steven J

    2014-03-01

    La0.3 Sr0.7 FeO3-δ films undergo dramatic changes in electronic and optical properties due to reversible oxygen loss induced by low-temperature heating. This mechanism to control the functional properties may serve as a platform for new devices or sensors in which external stimuli are used to dynamically control the composition of complex oxide heterostructures. PMID:24734299

  5. A Comparison of the Long Term Effects of Infrared Beak Treatment and Hot Blade Beak Trimming in Laying Hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The poultry industry is under intense pressure from the public and animal welfare advocates to eliminate the practice of beak trimming due to the potential for acute and chronic pain in the trimmed birds. However, elimination of beak trimming may have severe implications for animal welfare, as peck...

  6. Relationship between Body Weight and Beak Characteristics in One-Day-Old White Leghorn Chicks: its implications for beak trimming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beak trimming is a routine practice used in laying hens to prevent feather pecking and cannibalism. The effects of beak trimming on bird well-being depend on multiple factors, including the length of beak that is trimmed and the quality of the procedure. The aim of this work was to determine if a ...

  7. Processes controlling dissolved oxygen and pH in the upper Willamette River basin, Oregon, 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pogue, Ted R., Jr.; Anderson, Chauncey W.

    1995-01-01

    In July and August of 1994, the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (ODEQ) collected data to document the spatial extent and diel variability of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations and pH levels in selected reaches of streams in the upper Willamette River Basin. These data were also collected to identify primary factors that control DO concentrations downstream from major point sources as well as to provide ODEQ with data to refine calibration of their steady-state DO and nutrient models for the upper Willamette River Basin. All of the reaches studied had diel variations in DO and pH. The magnitude of the diel variations in DO ranged from 0.2 to 3.9 milligrams per liter (7 to 50 percent-saturation units based on ambient water temperature and barometric pressure) and in pH from 0.3 to 1.4 units. However, of the reaches studied, only the Coast Fork Willamette River from river mile (RM) 21.7 to 12.5 and the Willamette River from RM 151 to 141.6 had field measured violations of State standards for DO and pH. DO concentration and pH in water depend on many factors. Data were collected to examine several major factors, including BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), carbonaceous BOD, nitrogenous BOD, and measures of photosynthetic activity. Of the four study reaches, only a short stretch of the Coast Fork Willamette River has potential for important levels of oxygen consumption from BOD or nitrification. Additionally, water-column primary-productivity measurements indicated that respiration and photosynthesis by free-floating algae did not explain the observed diel variations in DO in the study reaches. Results from a simple mathematical model incorporating measures of community respiration and net primary productivities indicated that periphyton are capable of producing a diel variation of the order of magnitude observed during the August study period. In the Willamette River near Peoria, the combined periphyton DO consumption and production estimate at RM 151 (2.4 mg/L) and RM 144.6 (1.7 mg/L) would account for 90 and 63 percent, respectively, of the observed diel fluctuation. The estimates for the Corvallis reach at RM 132.6 (0.4 mg/L) and RM 130.7 (2.9 mg/L) had a considerably larger range of 36 to 264 percent of DO saturation, respectively. Therefore, because BOD and phytoplankton do not appear to be important contributors to diel DO fluctuations, periphyton are likely the primary contributor to diel fluctuations in the upper Willamette River Basin during July and August.

  8. Trimming Surface Sugars Protects Histoplasma from Immune Attack.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gordon D

    2016-01-01

    Dectin-1 is an essential innate immune receptor that recognizes β-glucans in fungal cell walls. Its importance is underscored by the mechanisms that fungal pathogens have evolved to avoid detection by this receptor. One such pathogen is Histoplasma capsulatum, and in a recent article in mBio, Rappleye's group presented data showing that yeasts of this organism secrete a β-glucanase, Eng1, which acts to prune β-glucans that are exposed on the fungal cell surface [A. L. Garfoot et al., mBio 7(2):e01388-15, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01388-15]. The trimming of these sugars reduces immune recognition through Dectin-1 and subsequent inflammatory responses, enhancing the pathogenesis of H. capsulatum. PMID:27118584

  9. Trimming Surface Sugars Protects Histoplasma from Immune Attack

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dectin-1 is an essential innate immune receptor that recognizes β-glucans in fungal cell walls. Its importance is underscored by the mechanisms that fungal pathogens have evolved to avoid detection by this receptor. One such pathogen is Histoplasma capsulatum, and in a recent article in mBio, Rappleye’s group presented data showing that yeasts of this organism secrete a β-glucanase, Eng1, which acts to prune β-glucans that are exposed on the fungal cell surface [A. L. Garfoot et al., mBio 7(2):e01388-15, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01388-15]. The trimming of these sugars reduces immune recognition through Dectin-1 and subsequent inflammatory responses, enhancing the pathogenesis of H. capsulatum. PMID:27118584

  10. Proposed fast-response oxygen monitoring and control system for the Langley 8-foot high-temperature tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Puster, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    A fast-response oxygen monitoring and control system, based on a Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 sensor, was developed and tested in the laboratory. The system is capable of maintaining oxygen concentration in the CH4-O2-air combustion product gases at 20.9 + or - 1.0 percent. If the oxygen concentration in the exhaust stream differs from that in normal air by 25 percent or more, an alarm signal is provided for automatic tunnel shutdown. The overall prototype system response time was reduced from about 1 sec in the original configuration to about 0.2 sec. The basis of operation and the results of laboratory tests of the system are described.

  11. Proposed fast-response oxygen monitoring and control system for the Langley 8-foot high-temperature tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Puster, R. L.

    1983-11-01

    A fast-response oxygen monitoring and control system, based on a Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 sensor, was developed and tested in the laboratory. The system is capable of maintaining oxygen concentration in the CH4-O2-air combustion product gases at 20.9 + or - 1.0 percent. If the oxygen concentration in the exhaust stream differs from that in normal air by 25 percent or more, an alarm signal is provided for automatic tunnel shutdown. The overall prototype system response time was reduced from about 1 sec in the original configuration to about 0.2 sec. The basis of operation and the results of laboratory tests of the system are described.

  12. Maximizing biomass concentration in baker's yeast process by using a decoupled geometric controller for substrate and dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Chopda, Viki R; Rathore, Anurag S; Gomes, James

    2015-11-01

    Biomass production by baker's yeast in a fed-batch reactor depends on the metabolic regime determined by the concentration of glucose and dissolved oxygen in the reactor. Achieving high biomass concentration in turn is dependent on the dynamic interaction between the glucose and dissolved oxygen concentration. Taking this into account, we present in this paper the implementation of a decoupled input-output linearizing controller (DIOLC) for maximizing biomass in a fed-batch yeast process. The decoupling is based on the inversion of 2×2 input-output matrix resulting from global linearization. The DIOLC was implemented online using a platform created in LabVIEW employing a TCP/IP protocol via the reactor's built-in electronic system. An improvement in biomass yield by 23% was obtained compared to that using a PID controller. The results demonstrate superior capability of the DIOLC and that the cumulative effect of smoother control action contributes to biomass maximization. PMID:26233328

  13. Control of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production through histidine kinases in Aspergillus nidulans under different growth conditions☆

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Saki; Yoshioka, Megumi; Matsui, Tetsuji; Kojima, Kensuke; Kato, Masashi; Kanamaru, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Sensor histidine kinases (HKs) are important factors that control cellular growth in response to environmental conditions. The expression of 15 HKs from Aspergillus nidulans was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR under vegetative, asexual, and sexual growth conditions. Most HKs were highly expressed during asexual growth. All HK gene-disrupted strains produced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Three HKs are involved in the control of ROS: HysA was the most abundant under the restricted oxygen condition, NikA is involved in fungicide sensing, and FphA inhibits sexual development in response to red light. Phosphotransfer signal transduction via HysA is essential for ROS production control. PMID:24490133

  14. StreamingTrim 1.0: a Java software for dynamic trimming of 16S rRNA sequence data from metagenetic studies.

    PubMed

    Bacci, G; Bazzicalupo, M; Benedetti, A; Mengoni, A

    2014-03-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies are extensively used in the field of molecular microbial ecology to describe taxonomic composition and to infer functionality of microbial communities. In particular, the so-called barcode or metagenetic applications that are based on PCR amplicon library sequencing are very popular at present. One of the problems, related to the utilization of the data of these libraries, is the analysis of reads quality and removal (trimming) of low-quality segments, while retaining sufficient information for subsequent analyses (e.g. taxonomic assignment). Here, we present StreamingTrim, a DNA reads trimming software, written in Java, with which researchers are able to analyse the quality of DNA sequences in fastq files and to search for low-quality zones in a very conservative way. This software has been developed with the aim to provide a tool capable of trimming amplicon library data, retaining as much as taxonomic information as possible. This software is equipped with a graphical user interface for a user-friendly usage. Moreover, from a computational point of view, StreamingTrim reads and analyses sequences one by one from an input fastq file, without keeping anything in memory, permitting to run the computation on a normal desktop PC or even a laptop. Trimmed sequences are saved in an output file, and a statistics summary is displayed that contains the mean and standard deviation of the length and quality of the whole sequence file. Compiled software, a manual and example data sets are available under the BSD-2-Clause License at the GitHub repository at https://github.com/GiBacci/StreamingTrim/. PMID:24128146

  15. Biogeochemical Control on the Flux of Trace Elements from Estuarine Sediments: Water Column Oxygen Concentrations and Benthic Infauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, Gerhardt F.; Sanders, James G.; Osman, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    Trace element (arsenic, copper and manganese) fluxes between sediment and water were examined for approximately 2 months in replicated sediment/water microcosms. Treatments consisted of three oxygen levels in the water column (saturated, 10% saturation and anaerobic) and three different organism treatments (control, Macoma balthicaand Nereis succinea). Both arsenic and manganese were released from the sediment in the anoxic treatment, while copper was lost from the water. With the water column either saturated or at 10% oxygen saturation, both arsenic and manganese fluxes were negligible. In contrast, copper fluxes out of the sediment increased with increasing oxygen concentrations. The effect of organisms on the trace element fluxes were greatest immediately after their introduction to the microcosms, and declined substantially thereafter. Nereiscaused a substantial initial increase in manganese fluxes, but caused a negative flux (out of the water column) for arsenic. Macomahad a much smaller effect on flux than Nereis. Neither organism had a substantial effect on copper fluxes. Porewater profiles gave good predictions of arsenic and manganese fluxes in the anoxic treatment, but not in the 10% or saturated-oxygen treatments. Porewater profiles underestimated copper fluxes in the oxygenated treatments somewhat, and predicted copper flux in the opposite direction in the anoxic treatment. These results suggest that the annual cycle of anoxia in systems like Chesapeake Bay, and the resulting annual cycle of organism death and recruitment, can significantly alter the cycling of trace elements between the sediment and water column.

  16. TRIM26 functions as a novel tumor suppressor of hepatocellular carcinoma and its downregulation contributes to worse prognosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi; He, Du; Yang, Liang; Wen, Bo; Dai, Jinfen; Zhang, Qian; Kang, Jian; He, Weiyang; Ding, Qianshan; He, De

    2015-07-31

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the one of the most common malignancies worldwide and its prognosis is extremely poor. Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins play crucial roles in cancer cell biology but the function of tripartite motif 26 (TRIM26) has not been investigated. We demonstrated that low expression level of TRIM26 in tumor samples was significantly correlated with worse prognosis in HCC patients. We also demonstrated its expression level was associated with several clinicopathologic features such as AFP level and T stage of HCC patients. Furthermore, we validated that TRIM26 was significantly downregulated in HCC tissue compared with normal liver tissue. To further clarify the functional role of TRIM26 in HCC, We confirmed that TRIM26 silencing can promote cancer cell proliferation, colony forming, migration and invasion in vitro with HCC cell lines HepG2 and Bel-7402. Then we utilized bioinformatic tool to predict gene influenced by TRIM26, showing TRIM26 could modulate gene sets about cancer cell metabolism. In conclusion, we proved that TRIM26 is a novel tumor suppressor modulating multiple metabolism-related pathways in HCC. To our best knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the function of TRIM26 in cancer biology. Our findings provide useful insight into the mechanism of HCC origin and progression. Moreover, TRIM26 may represent a novel therapeutic target for HCC. - Highlights: • TRIM26 is down-regulated in liver cancer samples and functions as a novel tumor suppressor. • Down-regulation of TRIM26 is associated with worse prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). • Knockdown of TRIM26 promotes the proliferation and metastasis of HCC cells. • TRIM26 may function in abnormal metabolic progress of HCC.

  17. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of the Aspergillus fumigatus hypoxia response using an oxygen-controlled fermenter

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Aspergillus fumigatus is a mold responsible for the majority of cases of aspergillosis in humans. To survive in the human body, A. fumigatus must adapt to microenvironments that are often characterized by low nutrient and oxygen availability. Recent research suggests that the ability of A. fumigatus and other pathogenic fungi to adapt to hypoxia contributes to their virulence. However, molecular mechanisms of A. fumigatus hypoxia adaptation are poorly understood. Thus, to better understand how A. fumigatus adapts to hypoxic microenvironments found in vivo during human fungal pathogenesis, the dynamic changes of the fungal transcriptome and proteome in hypoxia were investigated over a period of 24 hours utilizing an oxygen-controlled fermenter system. Results Significant increases in transcripts associated with iron and sterol metabolism, the cell wall, the GABA shunt, and transcriptional regulators were observed in response to hypoxia. A concomitant reduction in transcripts was observed with ribosome and terpenoid backbone biosynthesis, TCA cycle, amino acid metabolism and RNA degradation. Analysis of changes in transcription factor mRNA abundance shows that hypoxia induces significant positive and negative changes that may be important for regulating the hypoxia response in this pathogenic mold. Growth in hypoxia resulted in changes in the protein levels of several glycolytic enzymes, but these changes were not always reflected by the corresponding transcriptional profiling data. However, a good correlation overall (R2 = 0.2, p < 0.05) existed between the transcriptomic and proteomics datasets for all time points. The lack of correlation between some transcript levels and their subsequent protein levels suggests another regulatory layer of the hypoxia response in A. fumigatus. Conclusions Taken together, our data suggest a robust cellular response that is likely regulated both at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level in response to hypoxia by the human pathogenic mold A. fumigatus. As with other pathogenic fungi, the induction of glycolysis and transcriptional down-regulation of the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation appear to major components of the hypoxia response in this pathogenic mold. In addition, a significant induction of the transcripts involved in ergosterol biosynthesis is consistent with previous observations in the pathogenic yeasts Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans indicating conservation of this response to hypoxia in pathogenic fungi. Because ergosterol biosynthesis enzymes also require iron as a co-factor, the increase in iron uptake transcripts is consistent with an increased need for iron under hypoxia. However, unlike C. albicans and C. neoformans, the GABA shunt appears to play an important role in reducing NADH levels in response to hypoxia in A. fumigatus and it will be intriguing to determine whether this is critical for fungal virulence. Overall, regulatory mechanisms of the A. fumigatus hypoxia response appear to involve both transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of transcript and protein levels and thus provide candidate genes for future analysis of their role in hypoxia adaptation and fungal virulence. PMID:22309491

  18. Size-controlled large-diameter and few-walled carbon nanotube catalysts for oxygen reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianliang; Li, Qing; Pan, Hengyu; Lin, Ye; Ke, Yujie; Sheng, Haiyang; Swihart, Mark T.; Wu, Gang

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate a new strategy for tuning the size of large-diameter and few-walled nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) from 50 to 150 nm by varying the transition metal (TM = Fe, Co, Ni or Mn) used to catalyze graphitization of dicyandiamide. Fe yielded the largest tubes, followed by Co and Ni, while Mn produced a clot-like carbon morphology. We show that morphology is correlated with electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). A clear trend of Fe > Co > Ni > Mn for the ORR catalytic activity was observed, in both alkaline media and more demanding acidic media. The Fe-derived N-CNTs exhibited the highest BET (~870 m2 g-1) and electrochemically accessible (~450 m2 g-1) surface areas and, more importantly, the highest concentration of nitrogen incorporated into the carbon planes. Thus, in addition to the intrinsic high activity of Fe-derived catalysts, the high surface area and nitrogen doping contribute to high ORR activity. This work, for the first time, demonstrates size-controlled synthesis of large-diameter N-doped carbon tube electrocatalysts by varying the metal used in N-CNT generation. Electrocatalytic activity of the Fe-derived catalyst is already the best among studied metals, due to the high intrinsic activity of possible Fe-N coordination. This work further provides a promising route to advanced Fe-N-C nonprecious metal catalysts by generating favorable morphology with more active sites and improved mass transfer.We demonstrate a new strategy for tuning the size of large-diameter and few-walled nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) from 50 to 150 nm by varying the transition metal (TM = Fe, Co, Ni or Mn) used to catalyze graphitization of dicyandiamide. Fe yielded the largest tubes, followed by Co and Ni, while Mn produced a clot-like carbon morphology. We show that morphology is correlated with electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). A clear trend of Fe > Co > Ni > Mn for the ORR catalytic activity was observed, in both alkaline media and more demanding acidic media. The Fe-derived N-CNTs exhibited the highest BET (~870 m2 g-1) and electrochemically accessible (~450 m2 g-1) surface areas and, more importantly, the highest concentration of nitrogen incorporated into the carbon planes. Thus, in addition to the intrinsic high activity of Fe-derived catalysts, the high surface area and nitrogen doping contribute to high ORR activity. This work, for the first time, demonstrates size-controlled synthesis of large-diameter N-doped carbon tube electrocatalysts by varying the metal used in N-CNT generation. Electrocatalytic activity of the Fe-derived catalyst is already the best among studied metals, due to the high intrinsic activity of possible Fe-N coordination. This work further provides a promising route to advanced Fe-N-C nonprecious metal catalysts by generating favorable morphology with more active sites and improved mass transfer. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr05864c

  19. Solid oxide fuel cell cathode infiltrate particle size control and oxygen surface exchange resistance determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burye, Theodore E.

    Over the past decade, nano-sized Mixed Ionic Electronic Conducting (MIEC) -- micro-sized Ionic Conducting (IC) composite cathodes produced by the infiltration method have received much attention in the literature due to their low polarization resistance (RP) at intermediate (500-700°C) operating temperatures. Small infiltrated MIEC oxide nano-particle size and low intrinsic MIEC oxygen surface exchange resistance (Rs) have been two critical factors allowing these Nano-Micro-Composite Cathodes (NMCCs) to achieve high performance and/or low temperature operation. Unfortunately, previous studies have not found a reliable method to control or reduce infiltrated nano-particle size. In addition, controversy exists on the best MIEC infiltrate composition because: 1) Rs measurements on infiltrated MIEC particles are presently unavailable in the literature, and 2) bulk and thin film Rs measurements on nominally identical MIEC compositions often vary by up to 3 orders of magnitude. Here, two processing techniques, precursor nitrate solution desiccation and ceria oxide pre-infiltration, were developed to systematically produce a reduction in the average La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe 0.2O3-delta (LSCF) infiltrated nano-particle size from 50 nm to 22 nm. This particle size reduction reduced the SOFC operating temperature, (defined as the temperature where RP=0.1 Ocm 2) from 650°C to 540°C. In addition, Rs values for infiltrated MIEC particles were determined for the first time through finite element modeling calculations on 3D Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscope (FIB-SEM) reconstructions of electrochemically characterized infiltrated electrodes.

  20. Monodisperse polyethylene glycol diacrylate hydrogel microsphere formation by oxygen-controlled photopolymerization in a microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Krutkramelis, K; Xia, B; Oakey, J

    2016-04-12

    PEG-based hydrogels have become widely used as drug delivery and tissue scaffolding materials. Common among PEG hydrogel-forming polymers are photopolymerizable acrylates such as polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA). Microfluidics and microfabrication technologies have recently enabled the miniaturization of PEGDA structures, thus enabling many possible applications for nano- and micro- structured hydrogels. The presence of oxygen, however, dramatically inhibits the photopolymerization of PEGDA, which in turn frustrates hydrogel formation in environments of persistently high oxygen concentration. Using PEGDA that has been emulsified in fluorocarbon oil via microfluidic flow focusing within polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) devices, we show that polymerization is completely inhibited below critical droplet diameters. By developing an integrated model incorporating reaction kinetics and oxygen diffusion, we demonstrate that the critical droplet diameter is largely determined by the oxygen transport rate, which is dictated by the oxygen saturation concentration of the continuous oil phase. To overcome this fundamental limitation, we present a nitrogen micro-jacketed microfluidic device to reduce oxygen within the droplet, enabling the continuous on-chip photopolymerization of microscale PEGDA particles. PMID:26987384

  1. Genomic analysis of the TRIM family reveals two groups of genes with distinct evolutionary properties

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background The TRIM family is composed of multi-domain proteins that display the Tripartite Motif (RING, B-box and Coiled-coil) that can be associated with a C-terminal domain. TRIM genes are involved in ubiquitylation and are implicated in a variety of human pathologies, from Mendelian inherited disorders to cancer, and are also involved in cellular response to viral infection. Results Here we defined the entire human TRIM family and also identified the TRIM sets of other vertebrate (mouse, rat, dog, cow, chicken, tetraodon, and zebrafish) and invertebrate species (fruitfly, worm, and ciona). By means of comparative analyses we found that, after assembly of the tripartite motif in an early metazoan ancestor, few types of C-terminal domains have been associated with this module during evolution and that an important increase in TRIM number occurred in vertebrate species concomitantly with the addition of the SPRY domain. We showed that the human TRIM family is split into two groups that differ in domain structure, genomic organization and evolutionary properties. Group 1 members present a variety of C-terminal domains, are highly conserved among vertebrate species, and are represented in invertebrates. Conversely, group 2 is absent in invertebrates, is characterized by the presence of a C-terminal SPRY domain and presents unique sets of genes in each mammal examined. The generation of independent sets of group 2 genes is also evident in the other vertebrate species. Comparing the murine and human TRIM sets, we found that group 1 and 2 genes evolve at different speeds and are subject to different selective pressures. Conclusion We found that the TRIM family is composed of two groups of genes with distinct evolutionary properties. Group 2 is younger, highly dynamic, and might act as a reservoir to develop novel TRIM functions. Since some group 2 genes are implicated in innate immune response, their evolutionary features may account for species-specific battles against viral infection. PMID:18673550

  2. Electrochemical tuning of oxygen-containing groups on graphene oxides: towards control of the performance for the analysis of biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chee Shan; Ambrosi, Adriano; Pumera, Martin

    2014-06-28

    Graphene materials are very popular in the field of biosensing owing to their distinctive characteristics. However, oxygen-containing groups are known to exist intrinsically in graphene-related materials. These groups influence the electrochemical properties of graphene materials and therefore affect the sensing performance of graphene-based electrodes when used to detect redox active biomarkers. A well-defined carbon/oxygen (C/O) ratio can be obtained upon applying different reduction potentials to graphene oxide (GO) films for a controlled removal of redox active oxygen functionalities. Here, we show that a precise control of the oxygen functionalities on the graphene oxide films allows the tuning of the biosensing capabilities of the electrodes for the analysis of two significant biomarkers, uric acid and ascorbic acid, as well as two DNA bases, guanine and adenine. Both the catalytic properties and the sensitivity of the reduced GO film electrodes (ERGOs) are evaluated by measuring the oxidation potential and the peak current, respectively. We demonstrate that each biomarker requires different optimal conditions which can be easily matched by varying the electrochemical pre-treatment of the sensing GO film. PMID:24817612

  3. Effects of Cold Water Immersion on Muscle Oxygenation During Repeated Bouts of Fatiguing Exercise: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Simon S; Ting, Kin Hung; Hon, Maurice; Fung, Natalie Y; Choi, Manfi M; Cheng, Juno C; Yeung, Ella W

    2016-01-01

    Postexercise cold water immersion has been advocated to athletes as a means of accelerating recovery and improving performance. Given the effects of cold water immersion on blood flow, evaluating in vivo changes in tissue oxygenation during cold water immersion may help further our understanding of this recovery modality. This study aimed to investigate the effects of cold water immersion on muscle oxygenation and performance during repeated bouts of fatiguing exercise in a group of healthy young adults. Twenty healthy subjects performed 2 fatiguing bouts of maximal dynamic knee extension and flexion contractions both concentrically on an isokinetic dynamometer with a 10-min recovery period in between. Subjects were randomly assigned to either a cold water immersion (treatment) or passive recovery (control) group. Changes in muscle oxygenation were monitored continuously using near-infrared spectroscopy. Muscle performance was measured with isokinetic dynamometry during each fatiguing bout. Skin temperature, heart rate, blood pressure, and muscle soreness ratings were also assessed. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis was used to evaluate treatment effects. The treatment group had a significantly lower mean heart rate and lower skin temperature compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Cold water immersion attenuated a reduction in tissue oxygenation in the second fatiguing bout by 4% when compared with control. Muscle soreness was rated lower 1 day post-testing (P < 0.05). However, cold water immersion had no significant effect on muscle performance in subsequent exercise. As the results show that cold water immersion attenuated decreased tissue oxygenation in subsequent exercise performance, the metabolic response to exercise after cold water immersion is worthy of further exploration. PMID:26735552

  4. What processes control the oxygen isotopes of soil bio-available phosphate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Avner; Angert, Alon

    2015-06-01

    The biological availability of phosphorus (P) is considered to be the limiting factor for plant growth in many natural and agricultural soils. Recent studies demonstrated that valuable information on soil P dynamics can be gained from the stable oxygen isotopes of soil phosphate (δ18OP). However, to interpret this information correctly, our understanding of the processes that controls soil phosphate δ18OP values needs to be improved since most of the current data is based primarily on laboratory studies of pure microbial cultures and enzymatic assays and may not be relevant to soils. Here we designed a series of controlled soil incubation experiments to study the actual isotopic effects induced by abiotic reactions, biological uptake, microbial turnover and organic-P mineralization on soil phosphate δ18OP values. We used this data to estimate the role of these processes in mediating soil P availability. Our study was conducted on Mediterranean soils sampled from the same site during winter, spring and summer. The soils were incubated with various mineral and organic-P compounds and their bioavailable phosphate concentrations and δ18OP values were measured. We confirmed that the role of abiotic reactions on phosphate δ18OP values was negligible and that the δ18OP values of the added phosphate were rapidly driven towards isotopic equilibrium with soil water. We suggest this process was mediated by rapid microbial phosphate turnover. Yet, we did not detect the expected isotopic enrichment effect associated with phosphate biological uptake. In another set of incubation experiments we demonstrated that mineralization of phosphate from organic compounds, such as phospho-mono-ester (PME) and phosphor-di-ester (PDE), produced an offset from isotopic equilibrium, as a result of the strong isotopic fractionation associated with the mineralization process. However, the δ18OP values recorded by the mineralized phosphate were gradually driven back towards isotopic equilibrium, probably due to its rapid microbial turnover after its release. By identifying the isotopic effects of the different processes in soils we could use a simple isotopic calculation to estimate the extent of biological phosphate turnover in our experimental system.

  5. Transdermal Wound Oxygen Therapy on Pressure Ulcer Healing: A Single-Blind Multi-Center Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Azimian, Jalil; Dehghan Nayeri, Nahid; Pourkhaleghi, Enis; Ansari, Monireh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although healthcare quality has considerably improved in many countries, pressure ulcer is still a major health challenge worldwide. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of TWOT on the healing of pressure ulcers. Patients and Methods: This study was a randomized controlled trial, and the convenient sample including 100 patients hospitalized in two university-affiliated medical-surgical intensive care units and one neurology unit located in Qazvin, Iran were studied. Patients with stage II-IV pressure ulcer on the sacral or ischial areas were randomly assigned to either the control or the experimental groups. The experimental group received a 12-day transdermal wound oxygen therapy. Wound status was assessed seven times before the intervention, as well as two, four, six, eight, ten, and twelve days after the intervention. Results: After 12 days of wound oxygen therapy, the number of patients with complete wound healing in the experimental group was significantly greater than that of the control group. Moreover, the total mean of wound area in the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group. Conclusions: Transdermal wound oxygen therapy can effectively promote wound healing in patients with pressure ulcers. PMID:26734476

  6. The Stroke Oxygen Study (SO2S) - a multi-center, study to assess whether routine oxygen treatment in the first 72 hours after a stroke improves long-term outcome: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mild hypoxia is common in stroke patients and may have significant adverse effects on the ischemic brain after stroke. The use of oxygen treatment is rapidly increasing in European stroke units but is not without side effects. It impedes early mobilization, could pose an infection risk, and may encourage the formation of toxic free radicals, leading to further damage to the ischemic brain. In the Stroke Oxygen Pilot Study (2 or 3 L/min for 72 hours) neurological recovery at one week was better in the oxygen group than in controls, and after correction for difference in baseline stroke severity and prognostic factors, there was a trend to better outcome with oxygen at six months. Oxygen was as effective in mild as in severe strokes. Oxygen saturation is lower at night than during the day, and episodes of oxygen desaturation are common during sleep. Nocturnal oxygen supplementation is likely to reduce the burden of hypoxia without interfering with daytime mobilization and rehabilitation. Before wider use of oxygen supplementation becomes established it is important to obtain better evidence on which patients benefit from such treatment. Methods Participants will be randomized to one of three groups: the first will receive continuous oxygen for 72 hours (at a rate of 2 or 3 L/min depending on baseline oxygen saturation), the second group will receive nocturnal oxygen only (at a rate of 2 or 3 L/min depending on baseline oxygen saturation) and the third group will not receive any oxygen (control). A baseline assessment is performed at randomization and a one-week follow-up completed. Outcome data at three, six and twelve months will be obtained via a questionnaire sent to the patient by the trial center. Discussion This study will provide evidence on the effectiveness of oxygen supplementation for the treatment of stroke and whether nocturnal oxygen is a potentially beneficial therapy regimen. Trial registration This trial is registered with the ISRCTN register ID number ISRCTN52416964 PMID:24684940

  7. TRIM13 Is a Negative Regulator of MDA5-Mediated Type I Interferon Production

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Kavitha; Waggoner, Lisa; Pham, Serena T.; Hendricks, Gabriel L.; Waggoner, Stephen N.; Conlon, Joseph; Wang, Jennifer P.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) are essential intracellular detectors of viral RNA. They contribute to the type I interferon (IFN) response that is crucial for host defense against viral infections. Given the potent antiviral and proinflammatory activities elicited by the type I IFNs, induction of the type I IFN response is tightly regulated. Members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family of proteins have recently emerged as key regulators of antiviral immunity. We show that TRIM13, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is expressed in immune cells and is upregulated in bone marrow-derived macrophages upon stimulation with inducers of type I IFN. TRIM13 interacts with MDA5 and negatively regulates MDA5-mediated type I IFN production in vitro, acting upstream of IFN regulatory factor 3. We generated Trim13−/− mice and show that upon lethal challenge with encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), which is sensed by MDA5, Trim13−/− mice produce increased amounts of type I IFNs and survive longer than wild-type mice. Trim13−/− murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) challenged with EMCV or poly(I·C) also show a significant increase in beta IFN (IFN-β) levels, but, in contrast, IFN-β responses to the RIG-I-detected Sendai virus were diminished, suggesting that TRIM13 may play a role in positively regulating RIG-I function. Together, these results demonstrate that TRIM13 regulates the type I IFN response through inhibition of MDA5 activity and that it functions nonredundantly to modulate MDA5 during EMCV infection. IMPORTANCE The type I interferon (IFN) response is crucial for host defense against viral infections, and proper regulation of this pathway contributes to maintaining immune homeostasis. Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) are intracellular detectors of viral RNA that induce the type I IFN response. In this study, we show that expression of the gene tripartite motif 13 (Trim13) is upregulated in response to inducers of type I IFN and that TRIM13 interacts with both MDA5 and RIG-I in vitro. Through the use of multiple in vitro and in vivo model systems, we show that TRIM13 is a negative regulator of MDA5-mediated type I IFN production and may also impact RIG-I-mediated type I IFN production by enhancing RIG-I activity. This places TRIM13 at a key junction within the viral response pathway and identifies it as one of the few known modulators of MDA5 activity. PMID:25008915

  8. Development of the SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) trim coil beam tube assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Skaritka, J.; Kelly, E.; Schneider, W.; Shutt, R.; Thompson, P.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Bintinger, D.; Coluccio, R.; Schieber, L.

    1987-01-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider uses approx. =9600 dipole magnets. The magnets have been carefully designed to exhibit minimal magnetic field harmonics. However, because of superconductor magnetization effects, iron saturation and conductor/coil positioning errors, certain harmonic errors are possible and must be corrected by use of multipole correctors called trim coils. For the most efficient use of axial space in the magnet, and lowest possible current, a distributed internal correction coil design is planned. The trim coil assembly is secured to the beam tube, a uhv tube with special strength, size, conductivity and vacuum. The report details the SSC trim coil/beam tube assembly specifications, history, and ongoing development.

  9. Lower Restrictions for Sheet Metal Trimming Processes can Reduce Die Costs in The Automotive Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, Markus; Rohleder, Martin; Roll, Karl

    2011-05-01

    To reduce costs of trimming dies influencing parameters of the shearing process were identified, new technical approaches for a more cost efficient die design were developed, and comprehensive investigations on a sample tool were done. These approaches will be verified on a trimming die in series production. If this pilot application is successful, many sheet metal forming parts can be trimmed by less die investment in the future. In the automotive industry complex sheet metal forming parts are often trimmed by shearing. Ideally this shearing is done with a 90° angle between the cutting edge and the part surface. Because of complex part geometry different angles always occur. Often shearing angles and the effective sheet thickness increases so much that trimming in the working direction of the press machine is not possible anymore. In these cases sliding cams have to be used. That makes trimming dies expensive and maintenance intensive. For reliable trimming a good understanding of the process and its limitations is necessary. By not considering these limitations the tool can fail after a few operations or/and the resulting edge of the sheet metal part is no longer acceptable. In worst case a new tool has to be built or at least must be reworked. In operational practice so far only empirical values about limitations are known. The stability limit for trimming is not known for all shearing angles and for new high-strength materials. Therefore detailed investigations were done on a sample tool to determine these stability limits for different materials and shearing angles. The basis for starting these principle investigations was empirical values from operational practise. By using a high-quality material and a completely new shape for the trimming die elements both the reliable processable effective sheet thickness respectively the shearing angle as well as the acting forces could be optimized. In the basic investigations trimming in one direction was often still possible although from operational practice point of view the stability limit is already exceeded. These optimistic results are being validated in series production right now. The sheet metal car body parts consist of steel grades up to high-strength steel material. They are mostly completely trimmed in the working direction of the press. If these tests are successful, the results will be used in the design of future trimming dies. Less sliding cams are necessary and costs can be reduced.

  10. TRIM56 Is a Virus- and Interferon-Inducible E3 Ubiquitin Ligase That Restricts Pestivirus Infection ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Liu, Baoming; Wang, Nan; Lee, Young-Min; Liu, Chunming; Li, Kui

    2011-01-01

    The tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family comprises more than 60 members that have diverse functions in various biological processes. Although a small number of TRIM proteins have been shown to regulate innate immunity, much remains to be learned about the functions of the majority of the TRIM proteins. Here we identify TRIM56 as a cellular protein associated with the N-terminal protease (Npro) of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a pestiviral interferon antagonist which degrades interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) through the proteasome. We found that TRIM56 was constitutively expressed in most tissues, and its abundance was further upregulated moderately by interferon or virus. The manipulation of TRIM56 abundance did not affect the protein turnover of Npro and IRF3. Rather, ectopic expression of TRIM56 substantially impaired, while knockdown of TRIM56 expression greatly enhanced, BVDV replication in cell culture. The antiviral activity of TRIM56 depended on its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity as well as the integrity of its C-terminal region but was not attributed to a general augmentation of the interferon antiviral response. Overexpression of TRIM56 did not inhibit the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus or hepatitis C virus, a virus closely related to BVDV. Together, our data demonstrate that TRIM56 is a novel antiviral host factor that restricts pestivirus infection. PMID:21289118

  11. Designing a Microfluidic Device with Integrated Ratiometric Oxygen Sensors for the Long-Term Control and Monitoring of Chronic and Cyclic Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Grist, Samantha M; Schmok, Jonathan C; Liu, Meng-Chi Andy; Chrostowski, Lukas; Cheung, Karen C

    2015-01-01

    Control of oxygen over cell cultures in vitro is a topic of considerable interest, as chronic and cyclic hypoxia can alter cell behaviour. Both static and transient hypoxic levels have been found to affect tumour cell behaviour; it is potentially valuable to include these effects in early, in vitro stages of drug screening. A barrier to their inclusion is that rates of transient hypoxia can be a few cycles/hour, which is difficult to reproduce in traditional in vitro cell culture environments due to long diffusion distances from control gases to the cells. We use a gas-permeable three-layer microfluidic device to achieve spatial and temporal oxygen control with biologically-relevant switching times. We measure the oxygen profiles with integrated, ratiometric optical oxygen sensors, demonstrate sensor and system stability over multi-day experiments, and characterize a pre-bleaching process to improve sensor stability. We show, with both finite-element modelling and experimental data, excellent control over the oxygen levels by the device, independent of fluid flow rate and oxygenation for the operating flow regime. We measure equilibration times of approximately 10 min, generate complex, time-varying oxygen profiles, and study the effects of oxygenated media flow rates on the measured oxygen levels. This device could form a useful tool for future long-term studies of cell behaviour under hypoxia. PMID:26287202

  12. Designing a Microfluidic Device with Integrated Ratiometric Oxygen Sensors for the Long-Term Control and Monitoring of Chronic and Cyclic Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Grist, Samantha M.; Schmok, Jonathan C.; Liu, Meng-Chi (Andy); Chrostowski, Lukas; Cheung, Karen C.

    2015-01-01

    Control of oxygen over cell cultures in vitro is a topic of considerable interest, as chronic and cyclic hypoxia can alter cell behaviour. Both static and transient hypoxic levels have been found to affect tumour cell behaviour; it is potentially valuable to include these effects in early, in vitro stages of drug screening. A barrier to their inclusion is that rates of transient hypoxia can be a few cycles/hour, which is difficult to reproduce in traditional in vitro cell culture environments due to long diffusion distances from control gases to the cells. We use a gas-permeable three-layer microfluidic device to achieve spatial and temporal oxygen control with biologically-relevant switching times. We measure the oxygen profiles with integrated, ratiometric optical oxygen sensors, demonstrate sensor and system stability over multi-day experiments, and characterize a pre-bleaching process to improve sensor stability. We show, with both finite-element modelling and experimental data, excellent control over the oxygen levels by the device, independent of fluid flow rate and oxygenation for the operating flow regime. We measure equilibration times of approximately 10 min, generate complex, time-varying oxygen profiles, and study the effects of oxygenated media flow rates on the measured oxygen levels. This device could form a useful tool for future long-term studies of cell behaviour under hypoxia. PMID:26287202

  13. Discovery of a Chemical Tool Inhibitor Targeting the Bromodomains of TRIM24 and BRPF

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    TRIM24 is a transcriptional regulator as well as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. It is overexpressed in diverse tumors, and high expression levels have been linked to poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. TRIM24 contains a PHD/bromodomain offering the opportunity to develop protein interaction inhibitors that target this protein interaction module. Here we identified potent acetyl-lysine mimetic benzimidazolones TRIM24 bromodomain inhibitors. The best compound of this series is a selective BRPF1B/TRIM24 dual inhibitor that bound with a KD of 137 and 222 nM, respectively, but exerted good selectivity over other bromodomains. Cellular activity of the inhibitor was demonstrated using FRAP assays as well as cell viability data. PMID:25974391

  14. Feasibility of Supersonic Aircraft Concepts for Low-Boom and Flight Trim Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu

    2015-01-01

    This paper documents a process for analyzing whether a particular supersonic aircraft configuration layout and a given cruise condition are feasible to achieve a trimmed low-boom design. This process was motivated by the need to know whether a particular configuration at a given cruise condition could be reshaped to satisfy both low-boom and flight trim constraints. Without such a process, much effort could be wasted on shaping a configuration layout at a cruise condition that could never satisfy both low-boom and flight trim constraints simultaneously. The process helps to exclude infeasible configuration layouts with minimum effort and allows a designer to develop trimmed low-boom concepts more effectively. A notional low-boom supersonic demonstrator concept is used to illustrate the analysis/design process.

  15. A multi-patch nonsingular isogeometric boundary element method using trimmed elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yingjun; Benson, David J.; Nagy, Attila P.

    2015-07-01

    One of the major goals of isogeometric analysis is direct design-to-analysis, i.e., using computer-aided design (CAD) files for analysis without the need for mesh generation. One of the primary obstacles to achieving this goal is CAD models are based on surfaces, and not volumes. The boundary element method (BEM) circumvents this difficulty by directly working with the surfaces. The standard basis functions in CAD are trimmed nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS). NURBS patches are the tensor product of one-dimensional NURBS, making the construction of arbitrary surfaces difficult. Trimmed NURBS use curves to trim away regions of the patch to obtain the desired shape. By coupling trimmed NURBS with a nonsingular BEM, the formulation proposed here comes close achieving the goal of direct design to analysis. Example calculations demonstrate its efficiency and accuracy.

  16. Talk to Your Doctor about Ways to Trim Health Care Costs

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_157369.html Talk to Your Doctor About Ways to Trim Health Care Costs Quick ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Discussing medical costs with your doctor could save you money without affecting your care, ...

  17. Trauma risk management (TRiM) in the UK Armed Forces.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, N; Langston, V; Jones, N

    2008-06-01

    Trauma Risk Management (TRiM) is a novel system of post incident management which intend to allow commanders to provide appropriate support to their subordinates in the aftermath of traumatic events. Given the current very considerable operational tempo being experienced by the majority of the UK Armed Forces, it is perhaps not surprising that TRiM has been in use in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Although TRiM originated from within the Royal Marines, it is now widely used in both the Royal Navy and Army; there are also plans to introduce it into specific components of the Royal Air Force such as for the RAF Regiment. This paper aims to explore the basis behind the TRiM system and to explore the evidence for its growing popularity within hierarchical organisations such as the military. PMID:19043994

  18. 82. Neg. No. F66A, Apr 13, 1930, INTERIORASSEMBLY BUILDING, TRIM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    82. Neg. No. F-66A, Apr 13, 1930, INTERIOR-ASSEMBLY BUILDING, TRIM LINE AND GLASS DEPARTMENTS - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Periodic trim solutions with hp-version finite elements in time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, David A.; Hou, Lin-Jun

    1990-01-01

    Finite elements in time as an alternative strategy for rotorcraft trim problems are studied. The research treats linear flap and linearized flap-lag response both for quasi-trim and trim cases. The connection between Fourier series analysis and hp-finite elements for periodic a problem is also examined. It is proved that Fourier series is a special case of space-time finite elements in which one element is used with a strong displacement formulation. Comparisons are made with respect to accuracy among Fourier analysis, displacement methods, and mixed methods over a variety parameters. The hp trade-off is studied for the periodic trim problem to provide an optimum step size and order of polynomial for a given error criteria. It is found that finite elements in time can outperform Fourier analysis for periodic problems, and for some given error criteria. The mixed method provides better results than does the displacement method.

  20. Discovery of a Chemical Tool Inhibitor Targeting the Bromodomains of TRIM24 and BRPF.

    PubMed

    Bennett, James; Fedorov, Oleg; Tallant, Cynthia; Monteiro, Octovia; Meier, Julia; Gamble, Vicky; Savitsky, Pavel; Nunez-Alonso, Graciela A; Haendler, Bernard; Rogers, Catherine; Brennan, Paul E; Müller, Susanne; Knapp, Stefan

    2016-02-25

    TRIM24 is a transcriptional regulator as well as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. It is overexpressed in diverse tumors, and high expression levels have been linked to poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. TRIM24 contains a PHD/bromodomain offering the opportunity to develop protein interaction inhibitors that target this protein interaction module. Here we identified potent acetyl-lysine mimetic benzimidazolones TRIM24 bromodomain inhibitors. The best compound of this series is a selective BRPF1B/TRIM24 dual inhibitor that bound with a KD of 137 and 222 nM, respectively, but exerted good selectivity over other bromodomains. Cellular activity of the inhibitor was demonstrated using FRAP assays as well as cell viability data. PMID:25974391

  1. Modelling of feather pecking behavior in beak-trimmed and non-beak-trimmed crossbred laying hens: variance component and trait-based approach.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Ellen, E D; van der Poel, J J; Parmentier, H K; Bijma, P

    2014-04-01

    Because of a ban on the use of beak trimming in some European countries, feather pecking is becoming a substantial problem in the layer industry, both from animal welfare and economic points of view. The feather condition score (FCS) as a measure of feather damage has been shown to be closely related to feather pecking behavior in laying hens housed in groups. To obtain a better understanding of genetic and other biological mechanisms underlying feather pecking behavior, data on FCS of a population of 2,724 female offspring from crossing 50 male W1 and 907 female WB purebred lines were used. The offspring of 25 sires were beak-trimmed, and the offspring of another 25 sires were non-beak-trimmed. Titers of plasma natural antibody (NAb) isotypes IgM and IgG binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin at 24 wk of age were measured. Feather condition was scored at 53 wk of age. In the first part of the present study, we estimated genetic parameters for FCS with 2 variance components models: a traditional linear animal model and a model combining direct and associative genetic effects. In the second part of the present study, a trait-based analysis for FCS was conducted to investigate whether NAb isotype titers can explain variation in FCS among individuals, by fitting a linear mixed model. Though the estimated associative genetic variance was substantial, associative effects for FCS were not statistically significant in both populations (P = 0.09 in beak-trimmed birds, and P = 0.08 in non-beak-trimmed birds). This suggests an insufficient number of records on FCS. Individual's NAb isotypes titers did not show direct effect for FCS of itself, but individual's IgG titers showed a suggestive effect on the FCS of cage mates (associative effect) in beak-trimmed laying hens, which need further confirmation. PMID:24706953

  2. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on harvested lettuce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A laboratory study was conducted to compare phosphine fumigations under the normal and superatmospheric oxygen levels on toxicity against Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) and effects on postharvest quality of romaine and head lettuce. Low temperature phosphine fumigation was effective against the aphi...

  3. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for postharvest control of light brown apple moth on lettuce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postharvest treatment for light brown apple moth (LBAM), Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), is needed to safe guard domestic distribution and export of U.S. fresh fruits and vegetables including lettuce as the pest becomes established in California with risk of potential spread. Oxygenated phosphine fu...

  4. Design and Control of Hot-Gas Desulfurization Systems with High Oxygen Regenerator Feed Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, C-K.; Luyben, W.L.

    2002-09-20

    This paper studies the use of regenerator feeds that have higher oxygen concentrations. Not only steady-state but also dynamic issues are examined. The key issue is identified to be heat-removal limitations which is confirmed by dynamic simulations.

  5. Correcting speleothem oxygen isotopic variations for growth-rate controlled kinetic fractionation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, Heather; Moreno, Ana; Cacho, Isabel; Mendez Vicence, Ana; Gonzalez Lemos, Saul; Pirla Casasayas, Gemma; Cheng, Hai; Wang, Xianfeng; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    2015-04-01

    The oxygen isotopic signature may be the most widely used climate indicator in stalagmites, but recent experimental and theoretical studies indicate the potential for kinetic fractionation effects which may be significant, especially in situations where the primary signal from rainfall isotopic composition and cave temperature is limited to a few permil. Here we use a natural set of stalagmites to illustrate the magnitude of such effects and the potential for deconvolving kinetic signals from the primary temperature and rainfall signals. We compare isotopic records from 6 coeval stalagmites covering the interval 140 to 70 ka, from two proximal caves in NW Spain which experienced the same primary variations in temperature and rainfall d18O, but exhibit a large range in growth rates and temporal trends in growth rate. Stalagmites growing at faster rates near 50 microns/year have oxygen isotopic ratios more than 1 permil more negative than coeval stalagmites with very slow (5 micron/year) growth rates. Because growth rate variations also occur over time within any given stalagmite, the measured oxygen isotopic time series for a given stalagmite includes both climatic and kinetic components. Removal of the kinetic component of variation in each stalagmite, based on the dependence of the kinetic component on growth rate, is effective at distilling a common temporal evolution among the oxygen isotopic records of the multiple stalagmites. However, this approach is limited by the quality of the age model. For time periods characterized by very slow growth and long durations between dates, the presence of crypto-hiatus may result in average growth rates which underestimate the instantaneous speleothem deposition rates and which therefore underestimate the magnitude of kinetic effects. We compare the composite corrected oxygen isotopic record with other records of the timing of glacial inception in the North Atlantic realm.

  6. Reversible Control of Magnetism in La0.67 Sr0.33 MnO3 through Chemically-Induced Oxygen Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grutter, Alexander; Gilbert, Dustin; Maranville, Brian; Borchers, Julie; Kirby, Brian; Arenholz, Elke; Alaan, Urusa; Suzuki, Yuri; Liu, Kai

    There has been a surge of interest in controlling magnetism through oxygen migration for applications in hybrid ionic/magnetoelectric device architectures. With a rich magnetic and electronic phase diagram, the colossal magnetoresistive perovskite (La,Sr)MnO3 (LSMO) is an ideal candidate for achieving large modulations in magnetic properties with small changes in oxygen content. We demonstrate reversible control of magnetism in LSMO films through interfacial oxygen migration. Gd metal capping layers deposited onto LSMO leach oxygen from the film to form porous Gd2O3. X-ray absorption and polarized neutron reflectometry measurements show Mn valence alterations consistent with high oxygen vacancy concentrations, resulting in suppressed magnetization and increased coercive fields. Oxygen migration is observed both at the interface and also throughout the majority of a 40 nm thick film, suggesting extensive oxygen vacancy diffusion. After Gd-capped LSMO is exposed to atmospheric oxygen for a prolonged period of time, oxygen diffuses through the Gd2O3 layer and the magnetization of the LSMO returns to the uncapped value. These findings showcase perovskite heterostructures as ideal candidates for developing functional interfaces through chemically-induced oxygen migration.

  7. Claw length recommendations for dairy cow foot trimming

    PubMed Central

    Archer, S. C.; Newsome, R.; Dibble, H.; Sturrock, C. J.; Chagunda, M. G. G.; Mason, C. S.; Huxley, J. N.

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to describe variation in length of the dorsal hoof wall in contact with the dermis for cows on a single farm, and hence, derive minimum appropriate claw lengths for routine foot trimming. The hind feet of 68 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were collected post mortem, and the internal structures were visualised using x-ray µCT. The internal distance from the proximal limit of the wall horn to the distal tip of the dermis was measured from cross-sectional sagittal images. A constant was added to allow for a minimum sole thickness of 5 mm and an average wall thickness of 8 mm. Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics and two-level linear regression models with claw nested within cow. Based on 219 claws, the recommended dorsal wall length from the proximal limit of hoof horn was up to 90 mm for 96 per cent of claws, and the median value was 83 mm. Dorsal wall length increased by 1 mm per year of age, yet 85 per cent of the null model variance remained unexplained. Overtrimming can have severe consequences; the authors propose that the minimum recommended claw length stated in training materials for all Holstein-Friesian cows should be increased to 90 mm. PMID:26220848

  8. Claw length recommendations for dairy cow foot trimming.

    PubMed

    Archer, S C; Newsome, R; Dibble, H; Sturrock, C J; Chagunda, M G G; Mason, C S; Huxley, J N

    2015-09-01

    The aim was to describe variation in length of the dorsal hoof wall in contact with the dermis for cows on a single farm, and hence, derive minimum appropriate claw lengths for routine foot trimming. The hind feet of 68 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were collected post mortem, and the internal structures were visualised using x-ray µCT. The internal distance from the proximal limit of the wall horn to the distal tip of the dermis was measured from cross-sectional sagittal images. A constant was added to allow for a minimum sole thickness of 5 mm and an average wall thickness of 8 mm. Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics and two-level linear regression models with claw nested within cow. Based on 219 claws, the recommended dorsal wall length from the proximal limit of hoof horn was up to 90 mm for 96 per cent of claws, and the median value was 83 mm. Dorsal wall length increased by 1 mm per year of age, yet 85 per cent of the null model variance remained unexplained. Overtrimming can have severe consequences; the authors propose that the minimum recommended claw length stated in training materials for all Holstein-Friesian cows should be increased to 90 mm. PMID:26220848

  9. Experimental and Computational Analysis of Shuttle Orbiter Hypersonic Trim Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Paulson, John W., Jr.; Weilmuenster, K. James

    1995-01-01

    During the high-Mach-number, high-altitude portion of the first entry of the Shuttle Orbiter, the vehicle exhibited a nose-up pitching moment relative to preflight prediction of approximately Delta Cm = 0.03. This trim anomaly has been postulated to be due to compressibility, viscous, and/or real-gas (lowered specific heat ratio gamma) effects on basic body pitching moment, body-flap effectiveness, or both. In order to assess the relative contribution of each of these effects, an experimental study was undertaken to examine the effects of Mach number, Reynolds number, and ratio of specific heats. Complementary computational solutions were obtained for wind-tunnel and flight conditions. The primary cause of the anomaly was determined to be lower pressures on the aft windward surface of the Orbiter than deduced from hypersonic wind-tunnel tests with ideal- or near-ideal-gas test flow. The lower pressure levels are a result of the lowering of the flowfield gamma due to high-temperature effects. This phenomenon was accurately simulated in a hypersonic wind tunnel using a heavy gas, which provided a lower, gamma, and was correctly predicted by Navier-Stokes computations using nonequilibrium chemistry.

  10. Presence of digital dermatitis treponemes on cattle and sheep hoof trimming equipment.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, L E; Blowey, R W; Carter, S D; Duncan, J S; Grove-White, D H; Page, P; Iveson, T; Angell, J W; Evans, N J

    2014-08-30

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious foot disease causing severe lameness in dairy cattle (worldwide) and sheep (UK). This study investigated whether DD Treponema phylogroups can be present on equipment used to trim ruminant hooves and, therefore, consider this trimming equipment as a possible vector for the transmission of DD. Equipment was tested after being used to trim DD symptomatic and asymptomatic cattle and sheep hooves, and subsequently after disinfection of equipment. After trimming, 'Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like', 'Treponema phagedenis-like' and 'Treponema denticola/T putidum-like' DD spirochaetes, were shown to be present on 23/37 (62%), 21/37 (57%) and 20/37 (54%) of knives, respectively. After disinfection, detection rates for the DD treponemes were 9/37 (24%), 6/37 (16%) and 3/37 (8%), respectively. Following culture of a swab, an isolate belonging to the T phagedenis-like spirochaetes was identified from a knife sample after trimming a DD positive cow. No isolates were obtained from knife samples after disinfection. This new data has, for the first time, identified treponemes in the farm environment, and highlighted disinfection of hoof trimming equipment between animals and between farms, as a logical precaution to limit the spread of DD. PMID:24821857

  11. Identification and characterization of a nuclear localization signal of TRIM28 that overlaps with the HP1 box

    SciTech Connect

    Moriyama, Tetsuji; Sangel, Percival; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Obuse, Chikashi; Miyamoto, Yoichi; Oka, Masahiro; Yoneda, Yoshihiro

    2015-07-03

    Tripartite motif-containing 28 (TRIM28) is a transcription regulator, which forms a repressor complex containing heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1). Here, we report identification of a nuclear localization signal (NLS) within the 462-494 amino acid region of TRIM28 that overlaps with its HP1 binding site, HP1 box. GST-pulldown experiments revealed the interaction of the arginine-rich TRIM28 NLS with various importin α subtypes (α1, α2 and α4). In vitro transport assay demonstrated that nuclear localization of GFP-TRIM28 NLS is mediated by importin αs, in conjunction with importin β1 and Ran. Further, we demonstrated that HP1 and importin αs compete for binding to TRIM28. Together, our findings suggest that importin α has an essential role in the nuclear delivery and preferential HP1 interaction of TRIM28. - Highlights: • TRIM28 contains an NLS within the 462-494 amino acid region. • The nuclear import of TRIM28 is mediated by importin α/importin β1. • TRIM28 NLS overlaps with HP1 Box. • HP1 and importin α compete for binding to TRIM28.

  12. Susceptibility to Repeated, Low-Dose, Rectal SHIVSF162P3 Challenge Is Independent of TRIM5 Genotype in Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Katherine; Morgan, Jennifer S.; Hanson, Debra L.; Adams, Debra; Garcia-Lerma, J. Gerardo; Heneine, Walid; Ellenberger, Dennis; Hendry, R. Michael; McNicholl, Janet; Johnson, Welkin E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Infections following repeated, low-dose (RLD), mucal S(H)IV exposures of macaques are used to model sexual HIV exposures for biomedical prevention testing. Different susceptibilities among animals can complicate study designs. In rhesus macaques, TRIM5 alleles Q, CypA, and TFP are resistance factors for infection with some S(H)IV strains, but not for SIVmac239 due to its capsid properties. SIVmac239-derived SHIVSF162P3 has been demonstrated to reproducibly infect mucosally in vaginal and rectal RLD models. To further test the suitability of SHIVSF162P3 for RLD models, we studied the influence of the TRIM5 genotype on susceptibility to rectal RLD infection and on plasma viremia by analyzing 43 male Indian rhesus macaques from control arms of completed studies. The median number of exposures required for infection was three (Q/Q, n=4) (TRIM5 alleles, number of macaques, respectively), four (Q/CypA, n=7), three (TFP/Q, n=15), three (TFP/TFP, n=15), and two (TFP/CypA, n=2); TRIM5CypA/CypA was not represented in our study. Median peak viremia (log10 viral copies/ml) in infected animals was 7.4 (Q/Q, n=4), 7.2 (Q/CypA, n=6), 7.3 (TFP/Q, n=13), 7.1 (TFP/TFP, n=15), and 6.5 (TFP/CypA; n=2). Neither susceptibility nor peak viremia was significantly different (log rank test, Kruskal–Wallis test, respectively). Rhesus macaques' susceptibility to RLD SHIVSF162P3 is independent of the TRIM5 TFP, CypA, and Q alleles, with the limitation that the power to detect any impact of CypA/CypA and TFP/CypA genotypes was nonexistent or low, due to absence or infrequency, respectively. The finding that TRIM5 alleles do not restrict mucosal infection or ensuing replication rates suggests that SHIVSF162P3 is indeed suitable for RLD experimentation. PMID:23461569

  13. Ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on iceberg lettuce. I. Temperature, time & oxygen level on insect mortality & lettuce quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments with different oxygen levels, treatment times, and temperatures were studied to determine responses of western flower thrips and effects on postharvest quality of iceberg lettuce. Over 99.6% mortality rates of thrips were achieved in three ULO treatments of 2, 3, and...

  14. The use of dissolved oxygen-controlled, fed-batch aerobic cultivation for recombinant protein subunit vaccine manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Patrick; Sun, Jacob; Champagne, Paul-Philippe; Lau, Heron; Gao, Meg; Sun, Hong; Zeiser, Arno; D'Amore, Tony

    2015-11-27

    A simple "off-the-shelf" fed-batch approach to aerobic bacterial cultivation for recombinant protein subunit vaccine manufacturing is presented. In this approach, changes in the dissolved oxygen levels are used to adjust the nutrient feed rate (DO-stat), so that the desired dissolved oxygen level is maintained throughout cultivation. This enables high Escherichia coli cell densities and recombinant protein titers. When coupled to a kLa-matched scale-down model, process performance is shown to be consistent at the 2L, 20L, and 200L scales for two recombinant E. coli strains expressing different protein subunit vaccine candidates. Additionally, by mining historical DO-stat nutrient feeding data, a method to transition from DO-stat to a pre-determined feeding profile suitable for larger manufacturing scales without using feedback control is demonstrated at the 2L, 20L, and 200L scales. PMID:26518402

  15. The Oxygen Sensor PHD2 Controls Dendritic Spines and Synapses via Modification of Filamin A

    PubMed Central

    Segura, Inmaculada; Lange, Christian; Knevels, Ellen; Moskalyuk, Anastasiya; Pulizzi, Rocco; Eelen, Guy; Chaze, Thibault; Tudor, Cicerone; Boulegue, Cyril; Holt, Matthew; Daelemans, Dirk; Matondo, Mariette; Ghesquière, Bart; Giugliano, Michele; Ruiz de Almodovar, Carmen; Dewerchin, Mieke; Carmeliet, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Summary Neuronal function is highly sensitive to changes in oxygen levels, but how hypoxia affects dendritic spine formation and synaptogenesis is unknown. Here we report that hypoxia, chemical inhibition of the oxygen-sensing prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins (PHDs), and silencing of Phd2 induce immature filopodium-like dendritic protrusions, promote spine regression, reduce synaptic density, and decrease the frequency of spontaneous action potentials independently of HIF signaling. We identified the actin cross-linker filamin A (FLNA) as a target of PHD2 mediating these effects. In normoxia, PHD2 hydroxylates the proline residues P2309 and P2316 in FLNA, leading to von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. In hypoxia, PHD2 inactivation rapidly upregulates FLNA protein levels because of blockage of its proteasomal degradation. FLNA upregulation induces more immature spines, whereas Flna silencing rescues the immature spine phenotype induced by PHD2 inhibition. PMID:26972007

  16. Effect of Oxygen and Redox Potential on Glucose Fermentation in Thermotoga maritima under Controlled Physicochemical Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lakhal, Raja; Auria, Richard; Davidson, Sylvain; Ollivier, Bernard; Dolla, Alain; Hamdi, Moktar; Combet-Blanc, Yannick

    2010-01-01

    Batch cultures of Thermotoga maritima were performed in a bioreactor equipped with instruments adapted for experiments performed at 80°C to mimic the fluctuating oxidative conditions in the hot ecosystems it inhabits. When grown anaerobically on glucose, T. maritima was shown to significantly decrease the redox potential (Eh) of the culture medium down to about −480 mV, as long as glucose was available. Addition of oxygen into T. maritima cultures during the stationary growth phase led to a drastic reduction in glucose consumption rate. However, although oxygen was toxic, our experiment unambiguously proved that T. maritima was able to consume it during a 12-hour exposure period. Furthermore, a shift in glucose metabolism towards lactate production was observed under oxidative conditions. PMID:21461371

  17. Enhancing dissolved oxygen control using an on-line hybrid fuzzy-neural soft-sensing model-based control system in an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingzhi; Wan, Jinquan; Hu, Kang; Ma, Yongwen; Wang, Yan

    2013-12-01

    An on-line hybrid fuzzy-neural soft-sensing model-based control system was developed to optimize dissolved oxygen concentration in a bench-scale anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A(2)/O) process. In order to improve the performance of the control system, a self-adapted fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm and adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) models were employed. The proposed control system permits the on-line implementation of every operating strategy of the experimental system. A set of experiments involving variable hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent pH (pH), dissolved oxygen in the aerobic reactor (DO), and mixed-liquid return ratio (r) was carried out. Using the proposed system, the amount of COD in the effluent stabilized at the set-point and below. The improvement was achieved with optimum dissolved oxygen concentration because the performance of the treatment process was optimized using operating rules implemented in real time. The system allows various expert operational approaches to be deployed with the goal of minimizing organic substances in the outlet while using the minimum amount of energy. PMID:24052227

  18. Gas holdup, power consumption, and oxygen absorption coefficient in a stirred-tank fermentor under foam control.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, M; Onodera, M; Yamagiwa, K; Ohkawa, A

    1991-09-01

    For a laboratory stirred-tank fermentor (STF) with foaming system of 0.5M sulfite solution containing an anionic soft detergent, the performing of a foam-breaking apparatus with a rotating disk (FARD)fitted to the STF was evaluated. The gas holdup in a mechanical foam-control system (MFS), i.e., the stirred-tank fermentor with the rotating disk foambreaker, was confirmed to be larger than that in a nonfoaming system (NS), i.e., the STF with an antifoam agent added. The agitation power in the mechanical foam control system was found to be smaller compared with the agitation power in the nonfoaming system, due to the increased gas holdup. Comparison of the oxygen absorption coefficient between the mechanical foam control system and the nonfoaming system in terms of the specific power input also demonstrated the superiority of the mechanical foam control system, not only in oxygen transfer performance but also in power input economy. PMID:18604881

  19. Dissolved oxygen controller based on on-line measurements of ammonium combining feed-forward and feedback.

    PubMed

    Ingildsen, P; Jeppsson, U; Olsson, G

    2002-01-01

    As the largest single energy-consuming component in most biological wastewater treatment systems, control of aeration is of great interest seen from an energy savings point of view. This paper suggests a simple way of using on-line ammonium measurements to control aeration in a pre-denitrification plant by controlling the dissolved oxygen setpoint. The controller works primarily by feed-forward based on an ammonium sensor located at the head of the aerobic process part. Using online in-situ sensor measurements directly from the process have the important advantage over effluent measurements that there is no or very short time delay for information. The controller has been implemented in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant for a period of 35 days. During the experiment two identical activated sludge lines were used. The controller was implemented in one line, while the other line worked as a reference for comparison. The preliminary results indicate that the described control strategy leads to energy savings for the aeration in the region of 5-15%, while maintaining approximately the same effluent quality as in the reference line. Even higher energy savings can probably be achieved by optimising the controller. An automatic procedure for updating the controller parameters based on dynamic effluent ammonium measurement has been tested. PMID:11936667

  20. Ubiquitination-deubiquitination by the TRIM27-USP7 complex regulates tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Mohammad Mahabub-Uz; Nomura, Teruaki; Takagi, Tsuyoshi; Okamura, Tomoo; Jin, Wanzhu; Shinagawa, Toshie; Tanaka, Yasunori; Ishii, Shunsuke

    2013-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) plays a role in apoptosis and proliferation in multiple types of cells, and defects in TNF-α-induced apoptosis are associated with various autoimmune diseases. Here, we show that TRIM27, a tripartite motif (TRIM) protein containing RING finger, B-box, and coiled-coil domains, positively regulates TNF-α-induced apoptosis. Trim27-deficient mice are resistant to TNF-α-d-galactosamine-induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Trim27-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are also resistant to TNF-α-cycloheximide-induced apoptosis. TRIM27 forms a complex with and ubiquitinates the ubiquitin-specific protease USP7, which deubiquitinates receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1), resulting in the positive regulation of TNF-α-induced apoptosis. Our findings indicate that the ubiquitination-deubiquitination cascade mediated by the TRIM27-USP7 complex plays an important role in TNF-α-induced apoptosis. PMID:24144979

  1. A bench-scale assessment for phosphorus release control of sediment by an oxygen-releasing compound (ORC).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Lin, Feng K; Yang, Lei; Hua, Dan Y

    2015-01-01

    The effects of oxygen-releasing compound (ORC) on the control of phosphorus (P) release as well as the spatial and temporal distribution of P fractions in sediment were studied through a bench-scale test. An ORC with an extended oxygen-releasing capacity was prepared. The results of the oxygen-releasing test showed that the ORC provided a prolonged period of oxygen release with a highly effective oxygen content of 60.6% when compared with powdery CaO2. In the bench-scale test, an ORC dose of 180 g·m(-2) provided a higher inhibition efficiency for P release within 50 days. With the application of the ORC, the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and redox potential (ORP) of the overlying water were notably improved, and the dissolved total phosphorus (DTP) was maintained below 0.689 mg·L(-1) compared to 2.906 mg·L(-1) without the ORC treatment. According to the P fractions distribution, the summation of all detectable P fractions in each sediment layer exhibited an enhanced accumulation tendency with the application of ORC. Higher phosphorus retention efficiencies were observed in the second and third layers of sediment from days 10 to 20 with the ORC. Phosphorus was trapped mainly in the form of iron bound P (Fe-P) and organically bound P (O-P) in sediment with the ORC, whereas the effects of the ORC on exchangeable P (EX-P), apatite-associated P (A-P) and detrital P (De-P) in the sediment sample were not significant. The microbial activities of the sediment samples demonstrated that both the dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) in the upper sediment layer increased with the ORC treatment, which indicated that the mineralization of P was accelerated and the microbial biomass was increased. As the accumulation of P suppressed the release of P, the sediment exhibited an increased P retention efficiency with the application of the ORC. PMID:25438131

  2. Hyperbaric Oxygen in Lower Limb Trauma (HOLLT); protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Millar, Ian L; McGinnes, Rosemary A; Williamson, Owen; Lind, Folke; Jansson, Karl-Åke; Hajek, Michal; Smart, David; Fernandes, Tiago; Miller, Russell; Myles, Paul; Cameron, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Open fractures with significant soft tissue injury are associated with high rates of complications, such as non-union, infection, chronic pain and disability. Complications often require further inpatient care, and in many cases, multiple operations and prolonged rehabilitation. Use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy as an adjunct to standard orthopaedic trauma care has the potential to reduce the complications of musculoskeletal injury and thus improve outcomes. Two previous randomised trials have suggested some positive effect, but neither functional measures nor long-term outcomes were reported. Methods and analysis An international, multicentre, randomised, open-label, clinical trial. Patients with trauma with an acute open fracture of the tibia with severe soft tissue injury (Gustilo grade 3) and high risk of injury-related complications were recruited from participating major trauma hospitals with hyperbaric facilities. Patients were enrolled with the expectation of commencing 12 sessions of hyperbaric oxygen therapy within 48 h of injury. The primary outcome measure is the incidence of acute complications of the open fracture wound at 14 days. Other short-term outcome measures include amputation, need for fasciotomy, time until wound closure, breakdown of closed wounds, time until definitive orthopaedic fixation, number of operative procedures, intensive care stay and hospital stay. Long-term follow-up will continue for 2 years postinjury. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was given by The Alfred Health Human Ethics Committee (206/04) and the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee (CF07/4208). Approval was also obtained from the institutional research ethics committee at each participating site. This study will make a significant contribution to the trauma literature and should answer the question of whether hyperbaric oxygen therapy can significantly improve outcomes in severe lower limb trauma. Collective study results will be published in international journals and presented at relevant conferences. Trial registration number Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00264511; Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): ACTRN12607000559415. PMID:26068515

  3. Evaluation of Thermal Control Coatings and Polymeric Materials Exposed to Ground Simulated Atomic Oxygen and Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamenetzky, R. R.; Vaughn, J. A.; Finckenor, M. M.; Linton, R. C.

    1995-01-01

    Numerous thermal control and polymeric samples with potential International Space Station applications were evaluated for atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet radiation effects in the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory 5 eV Neutral Atomic Oxygen Facility and in the MSFC Atomic Oxygen Drift Tube System. Included in this study were samples of various anodized aluminum samples, ceramic paints, polymeric materials, and beta cloth, a Teflon-impregnated fiberglass cloth. Aluminum anodizations tested were black duranodic, chromic acid anodize, and sulfuric acid anodize. Paint samples consisted of an inorganic glassy black paint and Z-93 white paint made with the original PS7 binder and the new K2130 binder. Polymeric samples evaluated included bulk Halar, bulk PEEK, and silverized FEP Teflon. Aluminized and nonaluminized Chemfab 250 beta cloth were also exposed. Samples were evaluated for changes in mass, thickness, solar absorptance, and infrared emittance. In addition to material effects, an investigation was made comparing diffuse reflectance/solar absorptance measurements made using a Beckman DK2 spectroreflectometer and like measurements made using an AZ Technology-developed laboratory portable spectroreflectometer.

  4. Flammability control in the oxygen environment of the Apollo guidance and navigation equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, M. D.; Bachman, S.

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo guidance and navigation (G&N) equipment test program, the redesign philosophy, and the actual equipment modifications that were used to limit burn rates in an environment of 100 percent oxygen at pressures of 6.2 and 16 psia are described. The major approach was a serious basic review of the real function of the nonmetallic materials of concern. The result of this review was that the materials could be replaced, eliminated, or covered by nonflammable metallic materials. Although several low-flammability nonmetallic materials were investigated, the direct approach of cover, eliminate, or replace generally proved to be quicker and more effective.

  5. Space Shuttle Orbiter oxygen partial pressure sensing and control system improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frampton, Robert F.; Hoy, Dennis M.; Kelly, Kevin J.; Walleshauser, James J.

    1992-01-01

    A program aimed at developing a new PPO2 oxygen sensor and a replacement amplifier for the Space Shuttle Orbiter is described. Experimental design methodologies used in the test and modeling process made it possible to enhance the effectiveness of the program and to reduce its cost. Significant cost savings are due to the increased lifetime of the basic sensor cell, the maximization of useful sensor life through an increased amplifier gain adjustment capability, the use of streamlined production processes for the manufacture of the assemblies, and the refurbishment capability of the replacement sensor.

  6. Autonomic control of cardiac function and myocardial oxygen consumption during hypoxic hypoxia.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, H. H.; Stone, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation in 19 conscious dogs of the importance of the sympathetic nervous system in the coronary and cardiac response to altitude (hypoxic) hypoxia. Beta-adrenergic blockade was used to minimize the cardiac effect associated with sympathetic receptors. It is shown that the autonomic nervous system, and particularly the sympathetic nervous system, is responsible for the increase in ventricular function and myocardial oxygen consumption that occurs during hypoxia. Minimizing this response through appropriate conditioning and training may improve the operating efficiency of the heart and reduce the hazard of hypoxia and other environmental stresses, such as acceleration, which are encountered in advanced aircraft systems.

  7. On–off asymmetries in oxygen consumption kinetics of single Xenopus laevis skeletal muscle fibres suggest higher-order control

    PubMed Central

    Wüst, Rob CI; van der Laarse, Willem J; Rossiter, Harry B

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms controlling skeletal muscle oxygen consumption () during exercise are not well understood. We determined whether first-order control could explain kinetics at contractions onset () and cessation () in single skeletal muscle fibres differing in oxidative capacity, and across stimulation intensities up to . Xenopus laevis fibres (n= 21) were suspended in a sealed chamber with a fast response electrode to measure every second before, during and after stimulated isometric contractions. A first-order model did not well characterise on-transient kinetics. Including a time delay (TD) in the model provided a significantly improved characterisation than a first-order fit without TD (F-ratio; P < 0.05), and revealed separate ‘activation’ and ‘exponential’ phases in 15/21 fibres contracting at (mean ± SD TD: 14 ± 3 s). On-transient kinetics () was weakly and linearly related to (R2= 0.271, P= 0.015). Off-transient kinetics, however, were first-order, and was greater in low-oxidative ( < 0.05 nmol mm−3 s−1) than high-oxidative fibres ( > 0.10 nmol mm−3 s−1; 170 ± 70 vs. 29 ± 6 s, P < 0.001). was proportional to (R2= 0.727, P < 0.001), unlike in the on-transient. The calculated oxygen deficit was larger (P < 0.05) than the post-contraction volume of consumed oxygen at all intensities except . These data show a clear dissociation between the kinetic control of at the onset and cessation of contractions and across stimulation intensities. More complex models are therefore required to understand the activation of mitochondrial respiration in skeletal muscle at the start of exercise. PMID:23165768

  8. Trimming Line Design using New Development Method and One Step FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Wan-Jin; Park, Choon-Dal; Yang, Dong-yol

    2005-08-01

    In most of automobile panel manufacturing, trimming is generally performed prior to flanging. To find feasible trimming line is crucial in obtaining accurate edge profile after flanging. Section-based method develops blank along section planes and find trimming line by generating loop of end points. This method suffers from inaccurate results for regions with out-of-section motion. On the other hand, simulation-based method can produce more accurate trimming line by iterative strategy. However, due to limitation of time and lack of information in initial die design, it is still not widely accepted in the industry. In this study, new fast method to find feasible trimming line is proposed. One step FEM is used to analyze the flanging process because we can define the desired final shape after flanging and most of strain paths are simple in flanging. When we use one step FEM, the main obstacle is the generation of initial guess. Robust initial guess generation method is developed to handle bad-shaped mesh, very different mesh size and undercut part. The new method develops 3D triangular mesh in propagational way from final mesh onto the drawing tool surface. Also in order to remedy mesh distortion during development, energy minimization technique is utilized. Trimming line is extracted from the outer boundary after one step FEM simulation. This method shows many benefits since trimming line can be obtained in the early design stage. The developed method is successfully applied to the complex industrial applications such as flanging of fender and door outer.

  9. A "Pedi" Cures All: Toenail Trimming and the Treatment of Ulcerative Dermatitis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Adams, Sean C; Garner, Joseph P; Felt, Stephen A; Geronimo, Jerome T; Chu, David K

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative Dermatitis (UD) is the most common cause of unplanned euthanasia in mice used in research, with prevalence rates reported between 4 and 21%. UD is characterized by a deep, ulcerative lesion that appears most commonly over the dorsal neck and is attendant with an intense pruritus. The underlying cause of UD is currently unknown, and as a consequence, there are no directed therapies that resolve lesions reliably. However, there is a growing body of evidence that suggests a behavioral component to the onset, maintenance, and progression of UD lesions. Scratching behavior in response to the intense pruritus associated with UD lesions may be an effective target for interventional therapies. We hypothesized that interfering with scratching behavior by trimming the toenails of mice with UD, would resolve UD lesions. To test this hypothesis, we first evaluated the efficacy of toenail trims with a single application of Vetericyn at the time of treatment versus our previous standard of care, topical Tresaderm applied daily. We found that toenail trims were significantly more effective at resolving lesions (n = 39 toenail trims, n = 100 Tresaderm, p<0.0001) with 93.3% of animals healing by 14 days (median time to lesion resolution). Furthermore, dorsal neck lesions did not recur by 42 days after a single toenail trim (n = 54); however, flank lesions did not resolve and the outcome of the two lesion distributions following treatment were significantly different (p<0.0001). Finally, we implemented toenail trims at an institutional level and found similar efficacies (approximately 90%) for toenail trims regardless of one-time topical supplement used (triple antibiotic ointment, Tresaderm, and Vetericyn, n = 55, 58, 18, p = 0.63). This is the first report of a highly effective treatment for one of the most serious welfare issues in laboratory mice. PMID:26735497

  10. A “Pedi” Cures All: Toenail Trimming and the Treatment of Ulcerative Dermatitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Sean C.; Garner, Joseph P.; Felt, Stephen A.; Geronimo, Jerome T.; Chu, David K.

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative Dermatitis (UD) is the most common cause of unplanned euthanasia in mice used in research, with prevalence rates reported between 4 and 21%. UD is characterized by a deep, ulcerative lesion that appears most commonly over the dorsal neck and is attendant with an intense pruritus. The underlying cause of UD is currently unknown, and as a consequence, there are no directed therapies that resolve lesions reliably. However, there is a growing body of evidence that suggests a behavioral component to the onset, maintenance, and progression of UD lesions. Scratching behavior in response to the intense pruritus associated with UD lesions may be an effective target for interventional therapies. We hypothesized that interfering with scratching behavior by trimming the toenails of mice with UD, would resolve UD lesions. To test this hypothesis, we first evaluated the efficacy of toenail trims with a single application of Vetericyn at the time of treatment versus our previous standard of care, topical Tresaderm applied daily. We found that toenail trims were significantly more effective at resolving lesions (n = 39 toenail trims, n = 100 Tresaderm, p<0.0001) with 93.3% of animals healing by 14 days (median time to lesion resolution). Furthermore, dorsal neck lesions did not recur by 42 days after a single toenail trim (n = 54); however, flank lesions did not resolve and the outcome of the two lesion distributions following treatment were significantly different (p<0.0001). Finally, we implemented toenail trims at an institutional level and found similar efficacies (approximately 90%) for toenail trims regardless of one-time topical supplement used (triple antibiotic ointment, Tresaderm, and Vetericyn, n = 55, 58, 18, p = 0.63). This is the first report of a highly effective treatment for one of the most serious welfare issues in laboratory mice. PMID:26735497

  11. Trimming and washing poultry carcass to reduce microbial contamination: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Stefani, Lenita Moura; Backes, Rodrigo Guilherme; Faria, Glaucia Amorim; Biffi, Claudia Pies; de Almeida, Juliana Maria; da Silva, Helen Krystine; das Neves, Gabriella Bassi; Langaro, Anaiara

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of washing and trimming broiler carcasses to reduce bacterial contamination. At the postevisceration site, 100 broiler carcasses were collected during 4 visits to a slaughterhouse in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Birds were from the same flock, age, and approximately 2.4 kg of weight. Groups were as follows: group 1, with fecal contamination; group 2, without fecal contamination; group 3, with fecal contamination and trimmed; group 4, with fecal contamination and washed; group 5, with fecal contamination, and washed and trimmed. Carcass washings were performed with at least 1.5 L/bird of potable water (0.5 to 1 mg/kg of residual chlorine) at room temperature (20-25°C) using spray cabinets with 44 spray nozzles distributed into 2 chambers (pressure of 2 kgf/cm(2) and 4 kgf/cm(2)). Washed carcasses (trimmed or not) showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower counts of aerobic mesophiles (plate count agar) on the third evaluation, and even lower (P < 0.01) counts for total coliforms (CT) and fecal coliforms (Escherichia coli). Trimmed carcasses showed significantly lower counts (P < 0.05) for plate count agar; however, we observed higher counts for E. coli (P < 0.05). The association of both treatments (washing and trimming) showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) counts for coliforms (CT and E. coli). We can conclude that the washing method is overall more efficient than the trimming method to decontaminate chicken carcasses at the postevisceration site. Hopefully, our findings can help poultry companies to minimize production costs by applying the washing method for carcass decontamination. PMID:25306453

  12. Halloysite nanotube with fluorinated lumen: non-foaming nanocontainer for storage and controlled release of oxygen in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Cavallaro, Giuseppe; Lazzara, Giuseppe; Milioto, Stefana; Palmisano, Giovanni; Parisi, Filippo

    2014-03-01

    Halloysite clay nanotubes were selectivity modified by adsorbing perfluoroalkylated anionic surfactants at the inner surface. The modified nanotubes formed kinetically stable dispersions due to the enhanced electrostatic repulsions exercised between the particles. We proved that the modified nanotubes can be used as non-foaming oxygen nanocontainers in aqueous media. The gas release from supersaturated dispersions can be controlled by external stimuli and system composition. In conclusion, we managed to put forward an easy strategy to develop smart materials from natural nanoclays, which can endow important applications like the storage and delivery of gas. PMID:24407660

  13. Peak Oxygen Uptake after Cardiac Rehabilitation: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a 12-Month Maintenance Program versus Usual Care

    PubMed Central

    Madssen, Erik; Arbo, Ingerid; Granøien, Ingrid; Walderhaug, Liv; Moholdt, Trine

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise capacity is a strong predictor of survival in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Exercise capacity improves after cardiac rehabilitation exercise training, but previous studies have demonstrated a decline in peak oxygen uptake after ending a formal rehabilitation program. There is a lack of knowledge on how long-term exercise adherence can be achieved in CAD patients. We therefore assessed if a 12-month maintenance program following cardiac rehabilitation would lead to increased adherence to exercise and increased exercise capacity compared to usual care. Materials and Methods Two-centre, open, parallel randomized controlled trial with 12 months follow-up comparing usual care to a maintenance program. The maintenance program consisted of one monthly supervised high intensity interval training session, a written exercise program and exercise diary, and a maximum exercise test every third month during follow-up. Forty-nine patients (15 women) on optimal medical treatment were included following discharge from cardiac rehabilitation. The primary endpoint was change in peak oxygen uptake at follow-up; secondary endpoints were physical activity level, quality of life and blood markers of cardiovascular risk. Results There was no change in peak oxygen uptake from baseline to follow-up in either group (intervention group 27.9 (±4.7) to 28.8 (±5.6) mL·kg (-1) min (−1), control group 32.0 (±6.2) to 32.8 (±5.8) mL·kg (−1) min (−1), with no between-group difference, p = 0.22). Quality of life and blood biomarkers remained essentially unchanged, and both self-reported and measured physical activity levels were similar between groups after 12 months. Conclusions A maintenance exercise program for 12 months did not improve adherence to exercise or peak oxygen uptake in CAD patients after discharge from cardiac rehabilitation compared to usual care. This suggests that infrequent supervised high intensity interval training sessions are inadequate to improve peak oxygen uptake in this patient group. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01246570 PMID:25247991

  14. Tissue oxygenation during exercise measured with NIRS: a quality control study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerz, Erwin; Geraskin, Dmitri; Neary, Patrick; Franke, Julia; Platen, Petra; Kohl-Bareis, Matthias

    2009-07-01

    We assess the data quality of calculated tissue oxygen saturation (SO2) and haemoglobin concentrations recorded on muscle during an incremental cycling protocol in healthy volunteers. The protocol was repeated three times at the same day and a fourth time at a different day to estimate the reproducibility of the method. A novel broad-band, spatially resolved spectrometer (SRS) system was employed which allowed us to compare SRS-based oxygenation parameters with modified Lambert-Beer (MLB) data. We found that the inter-subject variation in SO2 (standard deviation about 6 %) is considerably larger than the reproducibility (about 1.5 %) both for same day and different day tests. When changes in SO2 during the cycling test were considered the reproducibility is better than 1 %. Time courses of SRS-based haemoglobin parameters are different from MLB-data with higher reproducibility for SRS. The magnitudes of the haemoglobin changes were found to be considerably larger for the SRS method. Furthermore, the broad band approach was tested against a four-wavelength analysis with the differences found to be negligible.

  15. Mechanical Analysis of the Effects of Cephalic Trim on Lower Lateral Cartilage Stability

    PubMed Central

    Oliaei, Sepehr; Manuel, Cyrus; Protsenko, Dmitriy; Hamamoto, Ashley; Chark, Davin; Wong, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine how mechanical stability changes in the lower lateral cartilage (LLC) after varying degrees of cephalic resection in a porcine cartilage nasal tip model. Methods Alar cartilage was harvested from fresh porcine crania (n=14) and sectioned to precisely emulate a human LLC in size and dimension. Flexural mechanical analysis was performed both before and after cephalic trims of 0 (control), 4, and 6 mm. Cantilever deformation tests were performed on the LLC models at 3 locations (4, 6, and 8 mm from the midline), and the integrated reaction force was measured. An equivalent elastic modulus of the crura was calculated assuming that the geometry of the LLC model approximated a modified single cantilever beam. A 3-dimensional finite element model was used to model the stress distribution of the prescribed loading conditions for each of the 3 types of LLC widths. Results A statistically significant decrease (P=.02) in the equivalent elastic modulus of the LLC model was noted at the most lateral point at 8 mm and only when 4 mm of the strut remained (P=05). The finite element model revealed that the greatest internal stresses was at the tip of the nose when tissue was flexed 8 mm from the midline. Conclusion Our results provide the mechanical basis for suggested clinical guidelines stating that a residual strut of less than 6 mm can lead to suboptimal cosmetic results owing to poor structural support of the overlying skin soft-tissue envelope by an overly resected LLC. PMID:22250265

  16. Measuring of Geometrical Precision of Some parts Obtained by Asymmetric Incremental Forming Process After Trimming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrogio, G.; Filice, L.; Fratini, L.; Ingarao, G.; Manco, L.

    2007-05-01

    Asymmetric Incremental Forming exalts the advantages of Incremental Forming process since no dies are strictly necessary. In this way complex geometries may be manufactured with a very simple clamping equipment. On the other hand, this characteristic determines some intrinsic drawbacks which penalise its industrial suitability; first of all, the dimensional control of the manufactured part is a still open point for researchers all over the world. Several approaches have been already proposed in the last years to solve the problem, resulting only in partial solutions. At the same time, up to now, the numerical simulation did not supply significant aid to the designers, due to the problem complexity and the very long simulation time when an elasto-plastic analysis has to be carried out. For this reason an experimental trial and error approach is often preferred. An innovative approach is represented by the application of numerical analysis based on a coupled explicit-implicit formulation. In this paper, some results of a wide research on the application of explicit-implicit code for the dimensional accuracy analysis are proposed. Both the problems related to the dimensional accuracy and springback phenomenon after the manufacturing step and the trimming operation are analysed from an experimental and a numerical point of view. In this way, some relevant issues, as well as the FEM capability, have been derived by the comparisons with the experiments. All the details are widely discussed in the paper.

  17. Molecular characterization of a CpTRIM35-like protein and its splice variants from whitespotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xinshang Zhao, Heng Chen, Yeyu Luo, Huiying Yao, Bin

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • A TRIM gene and three splice variants were firstly cloned from elasmobranch fish. • The genes were constitutively expressed with high levels in spleen and kidney. • The gene products were distributed in cytoplasm alone or cytoplasm and nucleus. • As E3 ubiquitin ligases, the proteins differed in immune responses to challenges. - Abstract: The tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins play important roles in a broad range of biological processes, including apoptosis, cell proliferation and innate immunity response. In this study, a TRIM gene and its three splice variants were cloned from an elasmobranch fish—whitespotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum Bennett). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the gene was closely related to TRIM35 homologs, thus termed CpTRIM35-like. Deduced CpTRIM35 has a RBCC-PRY/SPRY structure typical of TRIM proteins, and its splice variants (CpTRIM35-1–3) have different truncations at the C-terminus. The gene products were constitutively expressed in adult sharks with the highest levels in spleen and kidney. The different subcellular locations, upregulation upon LPS and poly I:C stimulation, and significant E3 ubiquitin ligase activities suggested their different roles in immune responses as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. This is the first TRIM protein ever characterized in elasmobranch fish.

  18. TRIM25 blockade by RNA interference inhibited migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells through TGF-β signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhenya; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Chunhui; Yu, Shiyong; Zhu, Qi; Hou, Kun; Yan, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Tripartite Motif Containing 25 (TRIM25), a member of TRIM proteins, has been found abnormally expressed in cancers of female reproductive system. Here, TRIM25 was conspicuously expressed in human gastric cancer (GC) tissues in which its higher expression generally correlated with the poor prognosis of patients. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of TRIM25 expression in MGC-803 and AGS cells had no effects on cell proliferation, whereas reduced cell migration and invasion. Gene set enrichment analysis on The Cancer Genome Atlas stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD) dataset revealed that several signaling pathways, including the migration, E-cadherin and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) pathways, were enriched in TRIM25 higher expression patients. Moreover, ectopic expression of TRIM25 in a GC cell line with lower expression of TRIM25 significantly promoted the migration and invasion. Further experiments with TGF-β inhibitor suggested that TRIM25 may exert its function through TGF-β pathway. In summary, our results indicate that TRIM25 acts as an oncogene in GC and thus presents a novel target for the detection and treatment of GC. PMID:26754079

  19. The Reversal Intervention for Metabolic Syndrome (TRIMS) study: rationale, design, and baseline data

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent attention has focused on strategies to combat the forecast epidemic of type-2 diabetes (T2DM) and its major vascular sequelae. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) comprises a constellation of factors that increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and T2DM. Our study aims to develop a structured self-management education programme for people with MetS, which includes management of cardiovascular and diabetes risk factors, and to determine its impact. This paper describes the rationale and design of the TRIMS study, including intervention development, and presents baseline data. Methods Subjects recruited from a mixed-ethnic population with MetS were randomised to intervention or control arms. The intervention arm received structured group education based on robust psychological theories and current evidence. The control group received routine care. Follow-up data will be collected at 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome measure will be reversal of metabolic syndrome in the intervention group subjects compared to controls at 12 months follow-up. Results 82 participants (44% male, 22% South Asian) were recruited between November 2009 and July 2010. Baseline characteristics were similar for both the intervention (n = 42) and control groups (n = 40). Median age was 63 years (IQR 57 - 67), mean waist size 106 cm (SD ± 11), and prescribing of statins and anti-hypertensives was 51% in each case. Conclusion Results will provide information on changes in diabetes and CVD risk factors and help to inform primary prevention strategies in people with MetS from varied ethnic backgrounds who are at high risk of developing T2DM and CVD. Information gathered in relation to the programme's acceptability and effectiveness in a multi-ethnic population would ensure that our results are widely applicable. Trial registration The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, study identifier: NCT01043770. PMID:21542913

  20. Oxygen-dependent control of respiratory nitrate reduction in mycelium of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).

    PubMed

    Fischer, Marco; Falke, Dörte; Pawlik, Tony; Sawers, R Gary

    2014-12-01

    Several members of the obligately aerobic genus Streptomyces are able to reduce nitrate, catalyzed by Nar-type respiratory nitrate reductases. A unique feature of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) compared with other streptomycetes is that it synthesizes three nonredundant Nar enzymes. In this study, we show that Nar2 is the main Nar enzyme active in mycelium and could characterize the conditions governing its synthesis. Nar2 was present at low levels in aerobically cultivated mycelium, but synthesis was induced when cultures were grown under oxygen limitation. Growth in the presence of high oxygen concentrations prevented the induction of Nar2 synthesis. Equally, an abrupt shift from aerobiosis to anaerobiosis did not result in the immediate induction of Nar2 synthesis. This suggests that the synthesis of Nar2 is induced during a hypoxic downshift, probably to allow maintenance of a proton gradient during the transition to anaerobiosis. Although no Nar2 could be detected in freshly harvested mature spores, synthesis of the enzyme could be induced after long-term (several days) incubation of these resting spores under anaerobic conditions. Induction of Nar2 synthesis in spores was linked to transcriptional control. Nar2 activity in whole mycelium was strictly dependent on the presence of a putative nitrate transporter, NarK2. The oxygen-dependent inhibition of nitrate reduction by Nar2 was mediated by NarK2-dependent nitrate:nitrite antiport. This antiport mechanism likely prevents the accumulation of toxic nitrite in the cytoplasm. A deletion of the narK2 gene had no effect on Nar1-dependent nitrate reduction in resting spores. Together, our results indicate redox-dependent transcriptional and posttranslational control of nitrate reduction by Nar2. PMID:25225271

  1. Fungal pretreatment of unsterilized yard trimmings for enhanced methane production by solid-state anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jia; Ge, Xumeng; Vasco-Correa, Juliana; Li, Yebo

    2014-04-01

    Fungal pretreatment is an environmentally friendly process that has been widely studied to improve the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. However, sterilization of feedstocks, a costly process, is generally required prior to the fungal pretreatment. In this study, fungal pretreatment of unsterilized yard trimmings using yard trimmings pre-colonized with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora as an inoculum was investigated. Degradation of lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, and dry matter in yard trimmings during 30 days of fungal pretreatment using different inoculum/substrate ratios (1:19, 1:9 and 1:4) was 14.8-20.2%, 8.1-15.4%, 20.7-27.8%, and 9.8-16.2%, respectively. Methane yields of 34.9-44.6L/kg volatile solids were achieved during solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) of the pretreated yard trimmings, which were comparable to those obtained by using the traditional method requiring feedstock sterilization. The technology developed in this study can save about 501-789 kJ/kg of dry yard trimmings processed, which is about half of the total biogas energy produced by SS-AD. PMID:24607461

  2. Endoscopic removal and trimming of distal self-expandable metallic biliary stents

    PubMed Central

    Ishii, Kentaro; Itoi, Takao; Sofuni, Atsushi; Itokawa, Fumihide; Tsuchiya, Takayoshi; Kurihara, Toshio; Tsuji, Shujiro; Ikeuchi, Nobuhito; Umeda, Junko; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Tsuchida, Akihiko

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic removal and trimming of self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS). METHODS: All SEMS had been placed for distal biliary strictures. Twenty-seven endoscopic procedures were performed in 19 patients in whom SEMS (one uncovered and 18 covered) removal had been attempted, and 8 patients in whom stent trimming using argon plasma coagulation (APC) had been attempted at Tokyo Medical University Hospital. The APC settings were: voltage 60-80 W and gas flow at 1.5 L/min. RESULTS: The mean stent indwelling period for all patients in whom stent removal had been attempted was 113.7 ± 77.6 d (range, 8-280 d). Of the 19 patients in whom removal of the SEMS had been attempted, the procedure was successful in 14 (73.7%) without procedure-related adverse events. The indwelling period in the stent removable group was shorter than that in the unremovable group (94.9 ± 71.5 d vs 166.2 ± 76.2 d, P = 0.08). Stent trimming was successful for all patients with one minor adverse event consisting of self-limited hemorrhage. Trimming time ranged from 11 to 16 min. CONCLUSION: Although further investigations on larger numbers of cases are necessary to accumulate evidence, the present data suggested that stent removal and stent trimming is feasible and effective for stent-related complications. PMID:21677835

  3. TRIM24 Links a Non-canonical Histone Signature to Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    W Tsai; Z Wang; T Yiu; K Akdemir; W Xia; S Winter; C Tsai; X Shi; D Schwarzer; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Recognition of modified histone species by distinct structural domains within 'reader' proteins plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression. Readers that simultaneously recognize histones with multiple marks allow transduction of complex chromatin modification patterns into specific biological outcomes. Here we report that chromatin regulator tripartite motif-containing 24 (TRIM24) functions in humans as a reader of dual histone marks by means of tandem plant homeodomain (PHD) and bromodomain (Bromo) regions. The three-dimensional structure of the PHD-Bromo region of TRIM24 revealed a single functional unit for combinatorial recognition of unmodified H3K4 (that is, histone H3 unmodified at lysine 4, H3K4me0) and acetylated H3K23 (histone H3 acetylated at lysine 23, H3K23ac) within the same histone tail. TRIM24 binds chromatin and oestrogen receptor to activate oestrogen-dependent genes associated with cellular proliferation and tumour development. Aberrant expression of TRIM24 negatively correlates with survival of breast cancer patients. The PHD-Bromo of TRIM24 provides a structural rationale for chromatin activation through a non-canonical histone signature, establishing a new route by which chromatin readers may influence cancer pathogenesis.

  4. TRIM21: a cytosolic Fc receptor with broad antibody isotype specificity

    PubMed Central

    Foss, Stian; Watkinson, Ruth; Sandlie, Inger; James, Leo C; Andersen, Jan Terje

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies are key molecules in the fight against infections. Although previously thought to mediate protection solely in the extracellular environment, recent research has revealed that antibody-mediated protection extends to the cytosolic compartment of cells. This postentry viral defense mechanism requires binding of the antibody to a cytosolic Fc receptor named tripartite motif containing 21 (TRIM21). In contrast to other Fc receptors, TRIM21 shows remarkably broad isotype specificity as it does not only bind IgG but also IgM and IgA. When viral pathogens coated with these antibody isotypes enter the cytosol, TRIM21 is rapidly recruited and efficient neutralization occurs before the virus has had the time to replicate. In addition, inflammatory signaling is induced. As such, TRIM21 acts as a cytosolic sensor that engages antibodies that have failed to protect against infection in the extracellular environment. Here, we summarize our current understanding of how TRIM21 orchestrates humoral immunity in the cytosolic environment. PMID:26497531

  5. Oceanography: Oxygen and climate dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doney, Scott C.; Karnauskas, Kristopher B.

    2014-10-01

    Low oxygen levels in tropical oceans shape marine ecosystems and biogeochemistry, and climate change is expected to expand these regions. Now a study indicates that regional dynamics control tropical oxygen trends, bucking projected global reductions in ocean oxygen.

  6. Orientation-Controlled Electrocatalytic Efficiency of an Adsorbed Oxygen-Tolerant Hydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Zerball, Maximilian; Horch, Marius; Millo, Diego; Fritsch, Johannes; Lenz, Oliver; von Klitzing, Regine; Hildebrandt, Peter; Fischer, Anna; Mroginski, Maria Andrea; Zebger, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Protein immobilization on electrodes is a key concept in exploiting enzymatic processes for bioelectronic devices. For optimum performance, an in-depth understanding of the enzyme-surface interactions is required. Here, we introduce an integral approach of experimental and theoretical methods that provides detailed insights into the adsorption of an oxygen-tolerant [NiFe] hydrogenase on a biocompatible gold electrode. Using atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry, surface-enhanced IR spectroscopy, and protein film voltammetry, we explore enzyme coverage, integrity, and activity, thereby probing both structure and catalytic H2 conversion of the enzyme. Electrocatalytic efficiencies can be correlated with the mode of protein adsorption on the electrode as estimated theoretically by molecular dynamics simulations. Our results reveal that pre-activation at low potentials results in increased current densities, which can be rationalized in terms of a potential-induced re-orientation of the immobilized enzyme. PMID:26580976

  7. Mult-Pollutant Control Through Novel Approaches to Oxygen Enhanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Axelbaum; Pratim Biswas

    2009-02-28

    Growing concerns about global climate change have focused effortss on identifying approaches to stabilizing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. One approach utilizes oxy-fuel combustion to produce a concentrated flue gas that will enable economical CO{sub 2} capture by direct methods. Oxy-fuel combustion rewuires an Air Separation Unit (ASU) to provide a high-purity stream of oxygen as well as a Compression and Purification Unit (CPU) to clean and compress the CO{sub 2} for long term storage. Overall plant efficiency will suffer from the parasitic load of both the ASU and CPU and researchers are investigating techniques to enhance other aspects of the combustion and gas cleanup proceses to improve the benefit-to-cost ratio. This work examines the influence of oxy-fuel combustion and non-carbon based sorbents on the formation and fate of multiple combustion pollutants both numerically and experimentally.

  8. Sensitivity of the invasive bivalve Corbicula fluminea to candidate control chemicals: The role of dissolved oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Inês C; Garrido, Rita; Ré, Ana; Gomes, João; Pereira, Joana L; Gonçalves, Fernando; Costa, Raquel

    2015-12-01

    The freshwater Corbicula fluminea is a major aquatic nuisance worldwide. Current pest control methods raise cost-effectiveness and environmental concerns, which motivate research into improved mitigation approaches. In this context, the susceptibility of the clams to chemicals under reduced oxygen conditions was examined. Biocides with different mechanisms of toxicity (niclosamide, polyDADMAC, ammonium nitrate, potassium chloride and dimethoate) were tested under normoxic (>7 mg L(-1) dissolved O2) and hypoxic (<2 mg L(-1) dissolved O2) conditions. Hypoxia was observed to potentiate chemical treatment, particularly when combined with non-overwhelming doses that would produce only intermediate responses by themselves. For niclosamide, ammonium nitrate and dimethoate, clam mortality enhancements up to 400% were observed under hypoxia as compared to dosing upon normal dissolved oxygen conditions. For polyDADMAC and potassium chloride, substantially lower mortality enhancements were found. The differences in the clams' sensitivity to the chemicals under hypoxia could be linked to the expected mechanisms of action. This suggests that judicious selection of the biocide is essential if optimized combined control treatments are to be designed and provides an insight into the interference of frequent hypoxia events in the response of natural clam populations to contaminant loads. PMID:26254082

  9. Emissions of parent, nitrated, and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from indoor corn straw burning in normal and controlled combustion conditions

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guofeng; Xue, Miao; Wei, Siye; Chen, Yuanchen; Wang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Lv, Yan; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yanyan; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Wei, Wen; Zhao, Qiuyue; Li, Bin; Wu, Haisuo; Tao, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Emission factors (EFs) of parent polycyclic aromatic (pPAHs), nitrated PAHs (nPAHs), and oxygenated PAHs (oPAHs) were measured for indoor corn straw burned in a cooking brick stove in both normal and controlled burning conditions. EFs of total 28 pPAHs, 6 nPAHs and 4 oPAHs were 7.9±3.4, 6.5±1.6×10-3, and 6.1±1.4×10-1 mg/kg, respectively. By controlling the burning conditions, it was found that the influence of fuel charge size on EFs of the pPAHs and derivatives was insignificant. Measured EFs increased significantly in a fast burning mainly because of the oxygen deficient atmosphere formed in the stove chamber with a small volume. In both restricted and enhance air supply conditions, EFs of pPAHs, nPAHs and oPAHs were significantly higher than those measured in normal burning conditions. Though EFs varied in different burning conditions, the composition profiles and calculated isomer ratios were similar without significant differences. The results from the stepwise regression model showed that fuel burning rate, air supply amount, and modified combustion efficiency were three most significant influencing factors, explaining 72-85% of the total variations. PMID:24494494

  10. Toll-like receptor 3 stimulation promotes Ro52/TRIM21 synthesis and nuclear redistribution in salivary gland epithelial cells, partially via type I interferon pathway.

    PubMed

    Kyriakidis, N C; Kapsogeorgou, E K; Gourzi, V C; Konsta, O D; Baltatzis, G E; Tzioufas, A G

    2014-12-01

    Up-regulated expression of Ro52/tripartite motif-containing protein 21 (TRIM21), Ro60/TROVE domain family, member 2 (TROVE2) and lupus LA protein/Sjögren's syndrome antigen B (La/SSB) autoantigens has been described in the salivary gland epithelial cells (SGEC) of patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). SGECs, the key regulators of autoimmune SS responses, express high levels of surface functional Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3, whereas Ro52/TRIM21 negatively regulates TLR-3-mediated inflammation. Herein, we investigated the effect of TLR-3-signalling on the expression of Ro52/TRIM21, as well as Ro60/TROVE2 and La/SSB autoantigens, by SGECs. The effect of TLR-3 or TLR-4 stimulation on autoantigen expression was evaluated by polyI:C or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment, respectively, of SGEC lines (10 from SS patients, 12 from non-SS controls) or HeLa cells, followed by analysis of mRNA and protein expression. PolyI:C, but not LPS, resulted in a two-step induction of Ro52/TRIM21 mRNA expression by SGECs, a 12-fold increment at 6 h followed by a 2.5-fold increment at 24-48 h, whereas it induced a late two-fold up-regulation of Ro60/TROVE2 and La/SSB mRNAs at 48 h. Although protein expression levels were not affected significantly, the late up-regulation of Ro52/TRIM21 mRNA was accompanied by protein redistribution, from nucleolar-like pattern to multiple coarse dots spanning throughout the nucleus. These late phenomena were mediated significantly by interferon (IFN)-β production, as attested by cognate secretion and specific inhibition experiments and associated with IFN regulatory factor (IRF)3 degradation. TLR-3-signalling had similar effects on SGECs obtained from SS patients and controls, whereas it did not affect the expression of these autoantigens in HeLa cells. TLR-3 signalling regulates the expression of autoantigens by SGECs, implicating innate immunity pathways in their over-expression in inflamed tissues and possibly in their exposure to the immune system. PMID:25098814

  11. Photodynamic molecular beacon as an activatable photosensitizer based on protease-controlled singlet oxygen quenching and activation

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Gang; Chen, Juan; Stefflova, Klara; Jarvi, Mark; Li, Hui; Wilson, Brian C.

    2007-01-01

    Molecular beacons are FRET-based target-activatable probes. They offer control of fluorescence emission in response to specific cancer targets, thus are useful tools for in vivo cancer imaging. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a cell-killing process by light activation of a photosensitizer (PS) in the presence of oxygen. The key cytotoxic agent is singlet oxygen (1O2). By combining these two principles (FRET and PDT), we have introduced a concept of photodynamic molecular beacons (PMB) for controlling the PS's ability to generate 1O2 and, ultimately, for controlling its PDT activity. The PMB comprises a disease-specific linker, a PS, and a 1O2 quencher, so that the PS's photoactivity is silenced until the linker interacts with a target molecule, such as a tumor-associated protease. Here, we report the full implementation of this concept by synthesizing a matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7)-triggered PMB and achieving not only MMP7-triggered production of 1O2 in solution but also MMP7-mediated photodynamic cytotoxicity in cancer cells. Preliminary in vivo studies also reveal the MMP7-activated PDT efficacy of this PMB. This study validates the core principle of the PMB concept that selective PDT-induced cell death can be achieved by exerting precise control of the PS's ability to produce 1O2 by responding to specific cancer-associated biomarkers. Thus, PDT selectivity will no longer depend solely on how selectively the PS can be delivered to cancer cells. Rather, it will depend on how selective a biomarker is to cancer cells, and how selective the interaction of PMB is to this biomarker. PMID:17502620

  12. Air/fuel ratio control system for an internal combustion engine with a function for preventing the blackening phenomenon of oxygen concentration sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Kawanabe, T.; Asakura, M.; Kimura, K.; Muroya, M.

    1988-03-22

    An air/fuel ratio control system for an internal combustion engine is described comprising: an air supply passage connected to an air intake system of the internal combustion engine, for varying the air/fuel ratio of the mixture to be supplied to the engine; an open/close valve disposed in the air supply passage for controlling the air flow in the air supply passage; an oxygen concentration sensing unit disposed in an exhaust gas of the internal combustion engine; current supply means for supplying a pump current across the electrodes of the oxygen pump element so as to keep constant voltage generated across the electrodes of the sensor cell element thereby causing the sensing unit to monitor a magnitude of the pump current which is substantially in proportion to the oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas; valve open time period control circuit means connected to the oxygen concentration detection device; valve drive means connected to the valve open time period control circuit means for opening the open/close valve for the calculated valve open time period in each of the cycles; and control means responsive to output signals of the current supply means and the valve open time period control circuit means for stopping the supply of the pump current across the electrodes of the oxygen pump element when the valve open time period calculated by the valve open time period control circuit means exceeds a predetermined upper limit of valve open time period.

  13. The effect of routine hoof trimming on locomotion score, ruminating time, activity, and milk yield of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Van Hertem, T; Parmet, Y; Steensels, M; Maltz, E; Antler, A; Schlageter-Tello, A A; Lokhorst, C; Romanini, C E B; Viazzi, S; Bahr, C; Berckmans, D; Halachmi, I

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of hoof trimming on cow behavior (ruminating time, activity, and locomotion score) and performance (milk yield) over time. Data were gathered from a commercial dairy farm in Israel where routine hoof trimming is done by a trained hoof trimmer twice per year on the entire herd. In total, 288 cows spread over 6 groups with varying production levels were used for the analysis. Cow behavior was measured continuously with a commercial neck activity logger and a ruminating time logger (HR-Tag, SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel). Milk yield was recorded during each milking session with a commercial milk flow sensor (Free Flow, SCR Engineers Ltd.). A trained observer assigned on the spot 5-point locomotion scores during 19 nighttime milking occasions between 22 October 2012 and 4 February 2013. Behavioral and performance data were gathered from 1wk before hoof trimming until 1wk after hoof trimming. A generalized linear mixed model was used to statistically test all main and interactive effects of hoof trimming, parity, lactation stage, and hoof lesion presence on ruminating time, neck activity, milk yield, and locomotion score. The results on locomotion scores show that the proportional distribution of cows in the different locomotion score classes changes significantly after trimming. The proportion of cows with a locomotion score ≥3 increases from 14% before to 34% directly after the hoof trimming. Two months after the trimming, the number of cows with a locomotion score ≥3 reduced to 20%, which was still higher than the baseline values 2wk before the trimming. The neck activity level was significantly reduced 1d after trimming (380±6 bits/d) compared with before trimming (389±6 bits/d). Each one-unit increase in locomotion score reduced cow activity level by 4.488 bits/d. The effect of hoof trimming on ruminating time was affected by an interaction effect with parity. The effect of hoof trimming on locomotion scores was affected by an interaction effect with lactation stage and tended to be affected by interaction effects with hoof lesion presence, indicating that cows with a lesion reacted different to the trimming than cows without a lesion did. The results show that the routine hoof trimming affected dairy cow behavior and performance in this farm. PMID:24931530

  14. Investigation of cylindrical TIC with cesium-oxygen filling and with the working medium mixture composition controlled through the use of electromagnetic forces

    SciTech Connect

    Kalandarishvili, A.G.; Yermilov, B.I.

    1998-07-01

    The paper presents results of investigation of cylindrical thermionic converters (TIC) with cesium and cesium-oxygen working medium units in which the electromagnetic method was used to control stoichiometric composition of the mixture supplied to the TIC interelectrode gap. The working medium unit design is described wherein ponderomotive forces are used to control the composition of the mixture. A comparison is made between the TIC electric output obtained in cesium vapor, in cesium and oxygen atmosphere with optimization of the mixture composition through the use of electromagnetic control, and without the optimization. It is demonstrated that the employment of the electromagnetic control enables further increase in the maximum values of output electric power shown by TIC with cesium-oxygen filling. It is concluded that the proposed method can be used to control composition of the mixture when implementing cesium-barium TIC.

  15. In-situ control of oxygen fugacity for laboratory measurements of electrical conductivity of minerals and rocks in a multi-anvil press

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Li-Dong; Li, He-Ping; Hu, Hai-Ying; Shan, Shuang-Ming

    2011-04-01

    In this paper, a new of oxygen fugacity controltechnique that can be widely applied to in-situ measurement of the grain interior electrical conductivities of minerals and rocks is presented for high temperature and high pressure. Inside the sample assembly, a metal and corresponding metal oxide form a solid oxygen buffer. The principle of this technique is to randomly monitor and adjust oxygen fugacity in the large-volume multi-anvil press by changing the types of solid oxygen buffer, metal shielding case and electrodes. At a pressure of up to 5.0 GPa and a temperature of up to 1423 K, the electrical conductivities of the dry peridotite are tested under the conditions of different oxygen fugacities. By virtue of this new technique, more and more reasonable and accurate laboratory electrical property data will be successfully obtained under controlled thermodynamic conditions.

  16. Experimental trim drag values for conventional and supercritical wings. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, P. F.

    1981-01-01

    Supercritical wings were studied to determine whether they incur higher trim drag values at cruise conditions than wide body technology wings. Relative trim drag increments were measured in an experimental wind tunnel investigation. The tests utilized high aspect ratio supercritical wing and a wide body wing in conjunction with five different horizontal tail configurations, mounted on a representative wide body fuselage. The three low tail configurations and two T tail configurations were chosen to measure the effects on horizontal tail size, location, and camber on the trim drag increments for the two wings. The increase in performance (lift to drag ratio) for supercritical wing over the wide body wing was 11 percent for both the optimum low tail and T tail configurations.

  17. Effect of animal age and trimming practices on the physical composition of Bonsmara beef.

    PubMed

    Hall, Nicolette; Schönfeldt, Hettie C; Pretorius, Beulah

    2016-02-15

    Increased economic incentive for producing young and leaner carcasses, as well as demand for lean meat from progressively health conscious consumers, are considered drivers for change in carcass composition over time. Furthermore, many retailers trim visible fat from meat to various degrees and consumers increasingly remove visible fat from meat prior to, or after, cooking. The objective of this study was to determine the composition of South African Bonsmara beef from four age groups from different production systems, as well as to extrapolate the effect of fat trimming on physical composition. Fat content of marketable beef has decreased notably since the 1930s, and beef from the South African Bonsmara breed contains less than 10g lipid per 100g after trimming of subcutaneous fat, irrespective of age. Removal of all visible fat reduces the lipid content to less than 5g per 100g, comparing favourably with other lean animal products. PMID:26433303

  18. A technique using a nonlinear helicopter model for determining trims and derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostroff, A. J.; Downing, D. R.; Rood, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    A technique is described for determining the trims and quasi-static derivatives of a flight vehicle for use in a linear perturbation model; both the coupled and uncoupled forms of the linear perturbation model are included. Since this technique requires a nonlinear vehicle model, detailed equations with constants and nonlinear functions for the CH-47B tandem rotor helicopter are presented. Tables of trims and derivatives are included for airspeeds between -40 and 160 knots and rates of descent between + or - 10.16 m/sec (+ or - 200 ft/min). As a verification, the calculated and referenced values of comparable trims, derivatives, and linear model poles are shown to have acceptable agreement.

  19. The Effect of Patient-Specific Cerebral Oxygenation Monitoring on Postoperative Cognitive Function: A Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Lucy; Murphy, Gavin J; Culliford, Lucy; Dreyer, Lucy; Clayton, Gemma; Downes, Richard; Nicholson, Eamonn; Stoica, Serban; Reeves, Barnaby C

    2015-01-01

    Background Indices of global tissue oxygen delivery and utilization such as mixed venous oxygen saturation, serum lactate concentration, and arterial hematocrit are commonly used to determine the adequacy of tissue oxygenation during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). However, these global measures may not accurately reflect regional tissue oxygenation and ischemic organ injury remains a common and serious complication of CPB. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive technology that measures regional tissue oxygenation. NIRS may be used alongside global measures to optimize regional perfusion and reduce organ injury. It may also be used as an indicator of the need for red blood cell transfusion in the presence of anemia and tissue hypoxia. However, the clinical benefits of using NIRS remain unclear and there is a lack of high-quality evidence demonstrating its efficacy and cost effectiveness. Objective The aim of the patient-specific cerebral oxygenation monitoring as part of an algorithm to reduce transfusion during heart valve surgery (PASPORT) trial is to determine whether the addition of NIRS to CPB management algorithms can prevent cognitive decline, postoperative organ injury, unnecessary transfusion, and reduce health care costs. Methods Adults aged 16 years or older undergoing valve or combined coronary artery bypass graft and valve surgery at one of three UK cardiac centers (Bristol, Hull, or Leicester) are randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to either a standard algorithm for optimizing tissue oxygenation during CPB that includes a fixed transfusion threshold, or a patient-specific algorithm that incorporates cerebral NIRS monitoring and a restrictive red blood cell transfusion threshold. Allocation concealment, Internet-based randomization stratified by operation type and recruiting center, and blinding of patients, ICU and ward care staff, and outcome assessors reduce the risk of bias. The primary outcomes are cognitive function 3 months after surgery and infectious complications during the first 3 months after surgery. Secondary outcomes include measures of inflammation, organ injury, and volumes of blood transfused. The cost effectiveness of the NIRS-based algorithm is described in terms of a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve. The trial tests the superiority of the patient-specific algorithm versus standard care. A sample size of 200 patients was chosen to detect a small to moderate target difference with 80% power and 5% significance (two tailed). Results Over 4 years, 208 patients have been successfully randomized and have been followed up for a 3-month period. Results are to be reported in 2015. Conclusions This study provides high-quality evidence, both valid and widely applicable, to determine whether the use of NIRS monitoring as part of a patient-specific management algorithm improves clinical outcomes and is cost effective. Trial Registration International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number (ISRCTN): 23557269; http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN23557269 (Archived by Webcite at http://www.webcitation.org/6buyrbj64) PMID:26685289

  20. High TDP43 expression is required for TRIM16-induced inhibition of cancer cell growth and correlated with good prognosis of neuroblastoma and breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Patrick Y; Tan, Owen; Liu, Bing; Trahair, Toby; Liu, Tao; Haber, Michelle; Norris, Murray D; Marshall, Glenn M; Cheung, Belamy B

    2016-05-01

    Tripartite Motif-containing protein 16 (TRIM16) is a member of a large family of tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins, that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple cancers. However, the mechanism by which TRIM16 acts as a tumour suppressor is currently unknown. We used the versatile yeast two-hybrid assay on a cDNA library from human testes, which has relative high TRIM16 expression, to identify potential TRIM16-binding proteins. We identified transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP43) as a novel TRIM16 binding protein. Co-immunoprecipitation assay demonstrated that TDP43 bound TRIM16 in neuroblastoma and breast cancer cells. Enforced over-expression of TRIM16 increased the protein half-life of TDP43, through the inhibition of the proteosomal degradation pathway. High levels of TRIM16 and TDP43 are associated with good prognosis in both human neuroblastoma and breast cancer tissues. Importantly, we found TDP43 expression was required for TRIM16-induced inhibition of neuroblastoma and breast cancer cell growth and the repressive effect of TRIM16 on cell cycle regulatory proteins, E2F1 and pRb. Taken together, our data suggest that TRIM16 and TDP43 are both good prognosis indicators; also we showed that TRIM16 inhibits cancer cell viability by a novel mechanism involving interaction and stabilisation of TDP43 with consequent effects on E2F1 and pRb proteins. PMID:26902425