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1

Moving mass trim control system design  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the design of a moving mass trim control system for maneuvering axisymmetric reentry vehicles. The moving mass trim controller is composed of three equal masses that are independently positioned in order to deliver a desired center of mass position. For a slowly spinning reentry vehicle, the mass offset creates a trim angle-of-attack to generate modest flight path corrections. The control system must maintain the desired position of each mass in the face of large disturbances. A novel algorithm for determining the desired mass positions is developed in conjunction with a preliminary controller design. The controller design is based on classical frequency domain techniques where a bound on the disturbance magnitude is used to formulate the disturbance rejection problem. Simulation results for the controller are presented for a typical reentry vehicle.

Byrne, R.H.; Robinett, R.D.; Sturgis, B.R.

1996-03-01

2

Moving mass trim control for aerospace vehicles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A moving mass trim controller increases the accuracy of axisymmetric, ballistic vehicles. The MMTC is different than other moving mass schemes because it generates an angle-of-attack (AOA) directly from the mass motion. The nonlinear equations of motion for a ballistic vehicle with one moving point mass are derived and provide the basis for a detailed simulation model. The full nonlinear equations are linearized to produce a set of linear, time-varying autopilot equations. These autopilot equations are analyzed and used to develop theoretical design tools for the creation of MMTC's for both fast and slow spinning vehicles. A fast spinning MMTC is designed for a generic artillery rocket that uses principal axis misalignment to generate trim AOA. A slow spinning is designed for a generic reentry vehicle that generates a trim AOA with a center of mass offset and aerodynamic drag. The performance of both MMTC's are evaluated with the detailed simulation.

Robinett, R. D.; Rainwater, B. A.; Kerr, S. A.

3

Investigation of an automatic trim algorithm for restructurable aircraft control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper develops and solves an automatic trim problem for restructurable aircraft control. The trim solution is applied as a feed-forward control to reject measurable disturbances following control element failures. Disturbance rejection and command following performances are recovered through the automatic feedback control redesign procedure described by Looze et al. (1985). For this project the existence of a failure detection mechanism is assumed, and methods to cope with potential detection and identification inaccuracies are addressed.

Weiss, J.; Eterno, J.; Grunberg, D.; Looze, D.; Ostroff, A.

1986-01-01

4

An Advanced Oxygen Trim Control System  

E-print Network

cell has fundamental design problems that can cause errors. First, the output of the cell is determined by the Nernst equation (B). (B) E RT 4r logn Pl P2 where E e.m.f. (potential) R Gas Co nstant T Absolute Temperature F Faraday Constant... cell has fundamental design problems that can cause errors. First, the output of the cell is determined by the Nernst equation (B). (B) E RT 4r logn Pl P2 where E e.m.f. (potential) R Gas Co nstant T Absolute Temperature F Faraday Constant...

Miller, J. G.

5

Automatic channel trimming for control systems: A concept  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Set of bias signals added to channel inputs automatically normalize differences between channels. Algorithm and second feedback loop compute trim biases. Concept could be applied to regulators and multichannel servosystems for remote manipulators in undersea mining.

Vandervoort, R. J.; Sykes, H. A.

1977-01-01

6

Oxygen control with microfluidics.  

PubMed

Cellular function and behavior are affected by the partial pressure of O2, or oxygen tension, in the microenvironment. The level of oxygenation is important, as it is a balance of oxygen availability and oxygen consumption that is necessary to maintain normoxia. Changes in oxygen tension, from above physiological oxygen tension (hyperoxia) to below physiological levels (hypoxia) or even complete absence of oxygen (anoxia), trigger potent biological responses. For instance, hypoxia has been shown to support the maintenance and promote proliferation of regenerative stem and progenitor cells. Paradoxically, hypoxia also contributes to the development of pathological conditions including systemic inflammatory response, tumorigenesis, and cardiovascular disease, such as ischemic heart disease and pulmonary hypertension. Current methods to study cellular behavior in low levels of oxygen tension include hypoxia workstations and hypoxia chambers. These culture systems do not provide oxygen gradients that are found in vivo or precise control at the microscale. Microfluidic platforms have been developed to overcome the inherent limits of these current methods, including lack of spatial control, slow equilibration, and unachievable or difficult coupling to live-cell microscopy. The various applications made possible by microfluidic systems are the topic of this review. In order to understand how the microscale can be leveraged for oxygen control of cells and tissues within microfluidic systems, some background understanding of diffusion, solubility, and transport at the microscale will be presented in addition to a discussion on the methods for measuring the oxygen tension in microfluidic channels. Finally the various methods for oxygen control within microfluidic platforms will be discussed including devices that rely on diffusion from liquid or gas, utilizing on-or-off-chip mixers, leveraging cellular oxygen uptake to deplete the oxygen, relying on chemical reactions in channels to generate oxygen gradients in a device, and electrolytic reactions to produce oxygen directly on chip. PMID:25251498

Brennan, Martin D; Rexius-Hall, Megan L; Elgass, Laura Jane; Eddington, David T

2014-10-14

7

14 CFR 25.677 - Trim systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Trim systems. 25.677 Section...OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...Design and Construction Control Systems § 25.677 Trim...takeoff. (c) Trim control systems must be designed...

2011-01-01

8

14 CFR 25.677 - Trim systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Trim systems. 25.677 Section...OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...Design and Construction Control Systems § 25.677 Trim...takeoff. (c) Trim control systems must be designed...

2010-01-01

9

Use of an optimized controller and a finite-state stall model to find trimmed helicopter flight controls  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An auto-pilot is applied to helicopter rotor flap-lag-torsion equations in order to obtain the control settings for a trimmed flight condition. The rotor aerodynamic description includes a state-space dynamic stall model for lift and for pitching moments. Thus, an attempt is made to trim the rotor for flight conditions in which significant stall and torsional deformations are present. The auto-pilot is extended to Q-bladed rotors by a series of time-delay terms. As a result, the optimum gains and time constants depend upon the number of blades as well as upon the torsional stiffness.

Peters, David A.; Chouchane, Mnaouar; Fulton, Mark

1989-01-01

10

EXPERIMENTAL TREE TRIMMING TO CONTROL AN URBAN WINTER BLACKBIRD ROOST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every fall millions of blackbirds come down the Mississippi Flyway to return to their winter roosts in Arkansas, Louisiana, and East Texas. When these roosts are located in urban areas, public pressure makes the more common chemical means of control impractical. A less destructive and more permanent method of control was sought. At Rice University, in Houston, Texas, there has

Heidi B. Good; Dan M. Johnson

1976-01-01

11

Application of Oxygen Trim Control to Small Packaged Boilers  

E-print Network

Small packaged boilers are used to generate steam or hot water for industrial, commercial and institutional power plants. Due to their small size and relatively small fuel capacity, they have not received the energy saving attention that larger...

Nelson, R. L.

1984-01-01

12

The TRIM-NHL Protein LIN-41 Controls the Onset of Developmental Plasticity in Caenorhabditis elegans  

PubMed Central

The mechanisms controlling cell fate determination and reprogramming are fundamental for development. A profound reprogramming, allowing the production of pluripotent cells in early embryos, takes place during the oocyte-to-embryo transition. To understand how the oocyte reprogramming potential is controlled, we sought Caenorhabditis elegans mutants in which embryonic transcription is initiated precociously in germ cells. This screen identified LIN-41, a TRIM-NHL protein and a component of the somatic heterochronic pathway, as a temporal regulator of pluripotency in the germline. We found that LIN-41 is expressed in the cytoplasm of developing oocytes, which, in lin-41 mutants, acquire pluripotent characteristics of embryonic cells and form teratomas. To understand LIN-41 function in the germline, we conducted structure-function studies. In contrast to other TRIM-NHL proteins, we found that LIN-41 is unlikely to function as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. Similar to other TRIM-NHL proteins, the somatic function of LIN-41 is thought to involve mRNA regulation. Surprisingly, we found that mutations predicted to disrupt the association of LIN-41 with mRNA, which otherwise compromise LIN-41 function in the heterochronic pathway in the soma, have only minor effects in the germline. Similarly, LIN-41-mediated repression of a key somatic mRNA target is dispensable for the germline function. Thus, LIN-41 appears to function in the germline and the soma via different molecular mechanisms. These studies provide the first insight into the mechanism inhibiting the onset of embryonic differentiation in developing oocytes, which is required to ensure a successful transition between generations. PMID:25167051

Tocchini, Cristina; Finger, Susanne; Gut, Heinz; Stadler, Michael B.; Ciosk, Rafal

2014-01-01

13

14 CFR 23.677 - Trim systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Trim systems. 23.677 Section...OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...Design and Construction Control Systems § 23.677 Trim...in the primary flight control system fails, adequate...

2011-01-01

14

14 CFR 23.677 - Trim systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Trim systems. 23.677 Section...OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...Design and Construction Control Systems § 23.677 Trim...in the primary flight control system fails, adequate...

2010-01-01

15

Application of the concept of dynamic trim control to automatic landing of carrier aircraft. [utilizing digital feedforeward control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a simulation study of an alternative design concept for an automatic landing control system are presented. The alternative design concept for an automatic landing control system is described. The design concept is the total aircraft flight control system (TAFCOS). TAFCOS is an open loop, feed forward system that commands the proper instantaneous thrust, angle of attack, and roll angle to achieve the forces required to follow the desired trajector. These dynamic trim conditions are determined by an inversion of the aircraft nonlinear force characteristics. The concept was applied to an A-7E aircraft approaching an aircraft carrier. The implementation details with an airborne digital computer are discussed. The automatic carrier landing situation is described. The simulation results are presented for a carrier approach with atmospheric disturbances, an approach with no disturbances, and for tailwind and headwind gusts.

Smith, G. A.; Meyer, G.

1980-01-01

16

14 CFR 25.407 - Trim tab effects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.407 Trim tab...The effects of trim tabs on the control surface design...

2011-01-01

17

14 CFR 25.407 - Trim tab effects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS...CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.407 Trim tab...The effects of trim tabs on the control surface design...

2010-01-01

18

Evaluation of peroxyacetic acid as a potential pre-grinding treatment for control of enteric pathogens on fresh beef trim  

E-print Network

Peroxyacetic acid was evaluated in four separate trials for ability to reduce populations of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella serotype Typhimurium (ATCC 13311) on fresh beef trim. Trial 1 examined the effectiveness of peroxyacetic acid...

Ellebracht, John Wayne

2005-11-01

19

Role of N-linked oligosaccharide recognition, glucose trimming, and calnexin in glycoprotein folding and quality control.  

PubMed Central

Using a pulse-chase approach combined with immunoprecipitation, we showed that newly synthesized influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) and vesicular stomatitis virus G protein associate transiently during their folding with calnexin, a membrane-bound endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone. Inhibitors of N-linked glycosylation (tunicamycin) and glucosidases I and II (castanospermine and 1-deoxynojirimycin) prevented the association, whereas inhibitors of ER alpha-mannosidases did not. Our results indicated that binding of these viral glycoproteins to calnexin correlated closely with the composition of their N-linked oligosaccharide side chains. Proteins with monoglucosylated oligosaccharides were the most likely binding species. On the basis of our data and existing information concerning the role of monoglucosylated oligosaccharides on glycoproteins, we propose that the ER contains a unique folding and quality control machinery in which calnexin acts as a chaperone that binds proteins with partially glucose-trimmed carbohydrate side chains. In this model glucosidases I and II serve as signal modifiers and UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase, as a folding sensor. Images PMID:8302866

Hammond, C; Braakman, I; Helenius, A

1994-01-01

20

Thermal trim for luminaire  

SciTech Connect

A luminaire with a thermal pathway to reduce the junction temperature of the luminaire's light source, and methods for so doing, are disclosed. The luminaire includes a can, a light engine, and a trim, that define a substantially continuous thermal pathway from the light engine to a surrounding environment. The can defines a can cavity and includes a can end region. The light engine is within the can cavity and includes a light source and a heat sink, including a heat sink end region, coupled thereto. The trim is at least partially disposed within the can cavity and includes a first trim end region coupled to the heat sink end region and a second trim end region coupled to the can end region. Thermal interface material may be located between: the heat sink and the trim, the trim and the can, and/or the heat sink and the light source.

Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Jeswani, Anil

2013-11-19

21

Sub100 nm MOSFET fabrication with low temperature resist trimming process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low temperature resist trimming process with low trimming rate and good uniformity was developed. Wafer chuck temperature in the ashing chamber was adjusted to be 6 °C to achieve low trimming rate and improve process uniformity. Low power oxygen and argon plasma was used for ashing the resist. Resist lines (0.5 ?m wide) patterned with a g-line stepper was

Shajan Mathew; Ranganathan Nagarajan; L. K. Bera; Feng Han Hua; Du An Yan; N. Balasubramanian

2004-01-01

22

System Controls and Measures Oxygen Fugacity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System developed at Johnson Space Center controls and measures oxygen fugacity in high-temperature chemical research. A ceramic-electrolyte cell is the sensing element. All hardware needed to control gas flow and temperature and to measure cell electromotive force is included. An analytic balance allows in situ thermogravimetric sample analysis.

Williams, R. J.

1982-01-01

23

The TRIM-NHL Protein TRIM32 Activates MicroRNAs and Prevents Self-Renewal in Mouse Neural Progenitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the mouse neocortex, neural progenitor cells generate both differentiating neurons and daughter cells that maintain progenitor fate. Here, we show that the TRIM-NHL protein TRIM32 regulates protein degradation and microRNA activity to control the balance between those two daughter cell types. In both horizontally and vertically dividing progenitors, TRIM32 becomes polarized in mitosis and is concentrated in one of

Jens C. Schwamborn; Eugene Berezikov; Juergen A. Knoblich

2009-01-01

24

Fish 'n' TRIMs  

PubMed Central

A novel diversified multigene family of tripartite-motif (TRIM) intracellular receptors with putative antiviral activity has been identified in teleost fish and published in BMC Biology. The history of these receptors involves ancient linkage to paralogs of the major histocompatibility complex, and the family has invertebrate precursors. PMID:19519941

Du Pasquier, Louis

2009-01-01

25

Oxygen Control in Static Cell Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen control in static cell cultures is one of the most critical parameters of a process, influencing the metabolism of\\u000a the cells and ultimately the final yield of the product. With the aim to improve the cultures of different types of cells,\\u000a both anchorage dependent and suspension, we have carried out several experiments evaluating the behaviour of some types of

Nadia De Bernardi; Edwin Schwander; Antonio Orlandi; Ilaria Tano; Sonia Castiglioni; Elena Muru; Fausto Gaspari; Marta Galgano; Claudia Mattei; Luigi Cavenaghi; Maria Nolli

26

Identification of anisoelasticity for electrostatic " trimming " of rate integrating gyroscopes  

E-print Network

Identification of anisoelasticity for electrostatic " trimming " of rate integrating gyroscopes of anisoelasticities in rate integrating gyroscopes as part of a self- calibrative control architecture. In contrast imperfections is discussed. Keywords: Anisoelasticity, Rate Integrating Gyroscopes, Feedforward Control, Smart

Tang, William C

27

Compensation of the AKT signaling by ERK signaling in transgenic mice hearts overexpressing TRIM72  

SciTech Connect

The AKT and ERK signaling pathways are known to be involved in cell hypertrophy, proliferation, survival and differentiation. Although there is evidence for crosstalk between these two signaling pathways in cellulo, there is less evidence for cross talk in vivo. Here, we show that crosstalk between AKT and ERK signaling in the hearts of TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice (TRIM72-Tg) with alpha-MHC promoter regulates and maintains their heart size. TRIM72, a heart- and skeletal muscle-specific protein, downregulates AKT-mTOR signaling via IRS-1 degradation and reduces the size of rat cardiomyocytes and the size of postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts. TRIM72 expression was upregulated by hypertrophic inducers in cardiomyocytes, while IRS-1 was downregulated by IGF-1. TRIM72 specifically regulated IGF-1-dependent AKT-mTOR signaling, resulting in a reduction of the size of cardiomyocytes. Postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts were smaller than control-treated hearts with inhibition of AKT-mTOR signaling. However, adult TRIM72-Tg hearts were larger than of control despite the suppression of AKT-mTOR signaling. Activation of ERK, PKC-?, and JNK were observed to be elevated in adult TRIM72-Tg, and these signals were mediated by ET-1 via the ET receptors A and B. Altogether, these results suggest that AKT signaling regulates cardiac hypertrophy in physiological conditions, and ERK signaling compensates for the absence of AKT signaling during TRIM72 overexpression, leading to pathological hypertrophy. -- Highlights: • TRIM72 inhibits AKT signaling through ubiquitination of IRS-1 in cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates the size of cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates size of postnatal TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts. • Adult TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts showed cardiac dysfunction. • Adult TRIM72 transgenic mice hearts showed higher expression of endothelin receptors.

Ham, Young-Mi, E-mail: youngmi_ham@hms.harvard.edu [College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Mahoney, Sarah Jane [Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

2013-06-10

28

TRIM28 is essential for erythroblast differentiation in the mouse.  

PubMed

In previous mass spectrometry and coimmune precipitation studies, we identified tripartite motif-containing 28 (TRIM28; also known as transcriptional intermediary factor1? and Krüppel-associated box-associated protein-1) as a cofactor that specifically copurified with an NR2C1/NR2C2 (TR2/TR4) orphan nuclear receptor heterodimer that previous studies had implicated as an embryonic/fetal ?-type globin gene repressor. TRIM28 has been characterized as a transcriptional corepressor that can associate with many different transcription factors and can play functional roles in multiple tissues and cell types. Here, we tested the contribution of TRIM28 to globin gene regulation and erythropoiesis using a conditional loss-of-function in vivo model. We discovered that Trim28 genetic loss in the adult mouse leads to defective immature erythropoiesis in the bone marrow and consequently to anemia. We further found that TRIM28 controls erythropoiesis in a cell-autonomous manner by inducibly deleting Trim28 exclusively in hematopoietic cells. Finally, in the absence of TRIM28, we observed increased apoptosis as well as diminished expression of multiple erythroid transcription factors and heme biosynthetic enzymes in immature erythroid cells. Thus, TRIM28 is essential for the cell-autonomous development of immature erythroblasts in the bone marrow. PMID:24092935

Hosoya, Tomonori; Clifford, Mary; Losson, Régine; Tanabe, Osamu; Engel, James Douglas

2013-11-28

29

Trim58 degrades Dynein and regulates terminal erythropoiesis.  

PubMed

TRIM58 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase superfamily member implicated by genome-wide association studies to regulate human erythrocyte traits. Here, we show that Trim58 expression is induced during late erythropoiesis and that its depletion by small hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) inhibits the maturation of late-stage nucleated erythroblasts to anucleate reticulocytes. Imaging flow cytometry studies demonstrate that Trim58 regulates polarization and/or extrusion of erythroblast nuclei. In vitro, Trim58 directly binds and ubiquitinates the intermediate chain of the microtubule motor dynein. In cells, Trim58 stimulates proteasome-dependent degradation of the dynein holoprotein complex. During erythropoiesis, Trim58 expression, dynein loss, and enucleation occur concomitantly, and all are inhibited by Trim58 shRNAs. Dynein regulates nuclear positioning and microtubule organization, both of which undergo dramatic changes during erythroblast enucleation. Thus, we propose that Trim58 promotes this process by eliminating dynein. Our findings identify an erythroid-specific regulator of enucleation and elucidate a previously unrecognized mechanism for controlling dynein activity. PMID:25241935

Thom, Christopher S; Traxler, Elizabeth A; Khandros, Eugene; Nickas, Jenna M; Zhou, Olivia Y; Lazarus, Jacob E; Silva, Ana P G; Prabhu, Dolly; Yao, Yu; Aribeana, Chiaka; Fuchs, Serge Y; Mackay, Joel P; Holzbaur, Erika L F; Weiss, Mitchell J

2014-09-29

30

Thermal trim for a luminaire  

DOEpatents

A luminaire with a thermal pathway to reduce the junction temperature of the luminaire's light source, and methods for so doing, are disclosed. The luminaire includes a can, a light engine, and a trim, that define a substantially continuous thermal pathway from the light engine to a surrounding environment. The can defines a can cavity and includes a can end region. The light engine is within the can cavity and includes a light source and a heat sink, including a heat sink end region, coupled thereto. The trim is at least partially disposed within the can cavity and includes a first trim end region coupled to the heat sink end region and a second trim end region coupled to the can end region. Thermal interface material may be located between: the heat sink and the trim, the trim and the can, and/or the heat sink and the light source.

Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Jeswani, Anil

2013-02-19

31

Control of mitochondrial and cellular respiration by oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control and regulation of mitochondrial and cellular respiration by oxygen is discussed with three aims: (1) A review of intracellular oxygen levels and gradients, particularly in heart, emphasizes the dominance of extracellular oxygen gradients. Intracellular oxygen pressure,\\u000a

Erich Gnaiger; Rosmarie Steinlechner-Maran; Gabriela Méndez; Thomas Eberl; Raimund Margreiter

1995-01-01

32

JWBS121-c02 JWBS121-Razeghifard Printer: Yet to Come July 30, 2013 8:16 Trim: 6.125in 9.25in Oxygenic Photosynthesis  

E-print Network

CHAPTER 2 Oxygenic Photosynthesis DMITRIY SHEVELA, LARS OLOF BJ �ORN, and GOVINDJEE 2.1 INTRODUCTION 2.1.1 Importance of Photosynthesis: Why Study Photosynthesis? In a general sense the term photosynthesis energy to chemical forms of energy. Most photosynthesis is coupled to assimilation of carbon in the form

Govindjee

33

A Novel Accessory Molecule Trim59 Involved in Cytotoxicity of BCG-Activated Macrophages  

PubMed Central

BCG-activated macrophages (BAM) could kill the tumor cells through cell-cell contact. In this process membrane proteins play an important role. However, up to date, few membrane proteins were revealed. In this study, we selected a surface molecule named Trim59, which was specifically expressed on BAM membrane (compared with the negative control). We cloned and prokaryoticly expressed the extracellular domain of Trim59, purified the recombinant protein and generated polyclonal antibodies. Immunohistochemistry showed that Trim59 abundantly expressed in spleen, stomach and ovary; intermediately expressed in brain, lung, kidney, muscle and intestine; but not in thymus, liver, heart, uterus. Using the antibodies to block Trim59 on BAM significantly reduced BAM cytotoxicity against MCA207 cells. This demonstrated that Trim59 serves as an indispensable molecule in maintaining BAM activity. Overexpression of Trim59 in Raw264.7 cell line failed to lyse target MCA207 cells, which potentiated Trim59 per se could not enhance macrophage cytotoxicity; on another hand, overexpression of Trim59 enhance the pinocytosis and Phagocytosis activity of Raw-264.7, which imply Trim59 might mediate the cell-molecule interaction. Our results indicate Trim59 might be an essential accessory molecule in mediating BAM tumoricidal functions; and Trim59 is a phagocytosis-correlated molecule. PMID:22949172

Zhao, Xiangfeng; Liu, Qihui; Du, Baiqiu; Li, Peng; Cui, Qu; Han, Xiao; Du, Bairong; Yan, Dongmei; Zhu, Xun

2012-01-01

34

Controlling the sensitivity of optical oxygen sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most optical oxygen sensors work on the principle of luminescence quenching by oxygen. The sensitivity of such sensors depends upon the factors commonly associated with the Stern–Volmer constant, KSV, i.e. the natural lifetime, ?o, of the luminescent electronically excited state and the solubility of oxygen, KH, and quenching rate constant, kQ, in the encapsulating medium. The natural lifetime of the

Andrew Mills

1998-01-01

35

Oxygen-depleted zones inside reproductive structures of Brassicaceae: implications for oxygen control of seed development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Growth of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. in decreasing oxygen partial pressures revealed a linear decrease in seed production below 15 kPa, with a complete absence of seed production at 2.5 kPa oxygen. This control of plant reproduction by oxygen had previously been attributed to an oxygen effect on the partitioning between vegetative and reproductive growth. However, plants grown in a series of decreasing oxygen concentrations produced progressively smaller embryos that had stopped developing at progressively younger stages, suggesting instead that their growth is limited by oxygen. Internal oxygen concentrations of buds, pistils, and developing siliques of Brassica rapa L. and siliques of Arabidopsis were measured using a small-diameter glass electrode that was moved into the structures using a micromanipulator. Oxygen partial pressures were found to be lowest in the developing perianth (11.1 kPa) and pistils (15.2 kPa) of the unopened buds. Pollination reduced oxygen concentration inside the pistils by 3 kPa after just 24 h. Inside Brassica silique locules, partial pressures of oxygen averaged 12.2 kPa in darkness, and increased linearly with increasing light levels to 16.2 kPa. Measurements inside Arabidopsis siliques averaged 6.1 kPa in the dark and rose to 12.2 kPa with light. Hypoxia in these microenvironments is postulated to be the point of control of plant reproduction by oxygen.

Porterfield, D. M.; Kuang, A.; Smith, P. J.; Crispi, M. L.; Musgrave, M. E.

1999-01-01

36

Fault Tolerant Oxygen Control of a Diesel Engine Air System  

E-print Network

Fault Tolerant Oxygen Control of a Diesel Engine Air System Rainer Nitsche Matthias Bitzer control problem of a Diesel engine air system having a jammed Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve which is the oxygen concentration in the intake manifold instead of the fresh air mass flow

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

37

Discordant Evolution of the Adjacent Antiretroviral Genes TRIM22 and TRIM5 in Mammals  

PubMed Central

TRIM5? provides a cytoplasmic block to retroviral infection, and orthologs encoded by some primates are active against HIV. Here, we present an evolutionary comparison of the TRIM5 gene to its closest human paralogs: TRIM22, TRIM34, and TRIM6. We show that TRIM5 and TRIM22 have a dynamic history of gene expansion and loss during the evolution of mammals. The cow genome contains an expanded cluster of TRIM5 genes and no TRIM22 gene, while the dog genome encodes TRIM22 but has lost TRIM5. In contrast, TRIM6 and TRIM34 have been strictly preserved as single gene orthologs in human, dog, and cow. A more focused analysis of primates reveals that, while TRIM6 and TRIM34 have evolved under purifying selection, TRIM22 has evolved under positive selection as was previously observed for TRIM5. Based on TRIM22 sequences obtained from 27 primate genomes, we find that the positive selection of TRIM22 has occurred episodically for approximately 23 million years, perhaps reflecting the changing pathogenic landscape. However, we find that the evolutionary episodes of positive selection that have acted on TRIM5 and TRIM22 are mutually exclusive, with generally only one of these genes being positively selected in any given primate lineage. We interpret this to mean that the positive selection of one gene has constrained the adaptive flexibility of its neighbor, probably due to genetic linkage. Finally, we find a striking congruence in the positions of amino acid residues found to be under positive selection in both TRIM5? and TRIM22, which in both proteins fall predominantly in the ?2-?3 surface loop of the B30.2 domain. Astonishingly, this same loop is under positive selection in the multiple cow TRIM5 genes as well, indicating that this small structural loop may be a viral recognition motif spanning a hundred million years of mammalian evolution. PMID:18159944

Sawyer, Sara L; Emerman, Michael; Malik, Harmit S

2007-01-01

38

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the twelfth quarter, January-March 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Pilot scale experiments conducted at the University of Utah explored both the effectiveness of oxygen addition and the best way to add oxygen with a scaled version of Riley Power's newest low NOx burner design. CFD modeling was done to compare the REI's modeling results for James River Unit 3 with the NOx and LOI results obtained during the demonstration program at that facility. Investigation of an alternative method of fabrication of PSO1d elements was conducted. OTM process development work has concluded with the completion of a long-term test of a PSO1d element Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Proposals have been submitted for two additional beta test sites. Commercial proposals have been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2003-04-01

39

Safety and Efficacy of Argon Plasma Coagulation Trimming of Malpositioned and Migrated Biliary Metal Stents: A Controlled Study in the Porcine Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND:Argon plasma coagulation (APC) has been used to trim uncovered Elgiloy® stents, but the extent of thermal damage and bile duct injury is not known. The goal of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of APC for this application.METHODS:Eight Elgiloy® (covered and uncovered) and four nitinol stents were deployed in the bile duct at ERCP in 12

Yang K. Chen; Vaman Jakribettuu; Erik W. Springer; Raj J. Shah; Jeanine Penberthy; S. Russell Nash

2006-01-01

40

Early postmortem carcass trim effects on the tenderness of broiler breast fillets.  

PubMed

Broiler carcasses are often trimmed during evisceration to remove damaged areas of the carcass. Because deboning before rigor mortis development can toughen meat, trimming during evisceration may toughen the meat. This study evaluated the effects of trimming on the tenderness of broiler breast meat. To evaluate the effect of wing removal on tenderness, breast halves from 2 flocks were collected after chilling at a commercial plant. One-third were untrimmed controls, one-third had small amounts of breast meat removed with wing (WMin), and one-third had large amounts of breast meat removed with wing (Wmax). Salvage fillets from the 2 flocks were also collected from the salvage table of the plant. Carcasses were also processed to evaluate the effect of breast blister trimming that removed a superficial amount of muscle tissue, half of which had breast blister trims, and half did not. All front halves or carcasses were aged until 24 h postmortem and deboned. Salvage fillets were held refrigerated until 24 h postmortem. Fillets were cooked and then sheared in 2 locations on the fillet, upper and lower, to determine if tenderness was more affected at areas close to the trim. Carcasses with wing trims had significantly higher shear values compared with the control, and shear values from the upper portion of the fillets from the WMax and WMin (nearer the trim) were significantly greater than for the lower portion. Location, however, did not affect shear values in the control carcasses. This finding indicated that tenderness of the areas nearest the trim might be affected more by the trim process. Salvage table deboning significantly increased shear values throughout the fillet. There was no significant difference in shear value due to breast blister trimming. The results of this study suggest that trimming carcasses by wing or breast fillet removal results in decreased meat tenderness. PMID:15971536

Castañeda, M P; Hirschler, E M; Sams, A R

2005-06-01

41

Tinning/Trimming Robot System  

SciTech Connect

In a new surface mount assembly area at AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD), a tinning/trimming robot system tins and trims the gold-plated leads of surface mount technology (SMT) transistors. The KCD-designed system uses a Unimation PUMA 260 robot, a General Production Devices SP-2000 solder pot; water-soluble Blackstone No. 2508 flux; and a Virtual Industries high-temperature, ESD-conductive, miniature suction cup. After the manual cleaning operation, the processed SMT transistors go to the QUADSTAR Automated Component Placement System for a Radar Logic Assembly. The benefits are reductions in the cost of nonconformance, worker fatigue, and standard hours.

Fureigh, M.L.

1993-02-01

42

Trim drag reduction concepts for horizontal takeoff single-stage-to-Orbit vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a study to investigate concepts for minimizing trim drag of horizontal takeoff single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicles are presented. A generic hypersonic airbreathing conical configuration was used as the subject aircraft. The investigation indicates that extreme forward migration of the aerodynamic center as the vehicle accelerates to orbital velocities causes severe aerodynamic instability and trim moments that must be counteracted. Adequate stability can be provided by active control of elevons and rudder, but use of elevons to produce trim moments results in excessive trim drag and fuel consumption. To alleviate this problem, two solution concepts are examined. Active control of the center of gravity (COG) location to track the aerodynamic center decreases trim moment requirements, reduces elevon deflections, and leads to significant fuel savings. Active control of the direction of the thrust vector produces required trim moments, reduces elevon deflections, and also results in significant fuel savings. It is concluded that the combination of active flight control to provide stabilization, (COG) position control to minimize trim moment requirements, and thrust vectoring to generate required trim moments has the potential to significantly reduce fuel consumption during ascent to orbit of horizontal takeoff SSTO vehicles.

Shaughnessy, John D.; Gregory, Irene M.

1991-01-01

43

Weight Trimming and Propensity Score Weighting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Propensity score weighting is sensitive to model misspecification and outlying weights that can unduly influence results. The authors investigated whether trimming large weights downward can improve the performance of propensity score weighting and whether the benefits of trimming differ by propensity score estimation method. In a simulation study, the authors examined the performance of weight trimming following logistic regression, classification

Brian K. Lee; Justin Lessler; Elizabeth A. Stuart; Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai

2011-01-01

44

Aeroelastic tailoring for oblique wing lateral trim  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Composite material aeroelastic tailoring is presently explored as a means for the correction of the roll trim imbalance of oblique-wing aircraft configurations. The concept is demonstrated through the analysis of a realistic oblique wing by a static aeroelastic computational procedure encompassing the full potential transonic aerodynamic code FLO22 and a Ritz structural plate program that models the stiffness due to symmetrical-but-unbalanced composite wing skins. Results indicate that asymetric composite tailoring reduces the aileron deflection needed for roll equilibrium, and reduces control surface hinge moment and drag. Wing skin stresses are, however, very high.

Bohlmann, Jonathan D.; Weisshaar, Terrence A.; Eckstrom, Clinton V.

1988-01-01

45

Supersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of Blunt Body Trim Tab Configurations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Trim tabs are aerodynamic control surfaces that can allow an entry vehicle to meet aerodynamic performance requirements while reducing or eliminating the use of ballast mass and providing a capability to modulate the lift-to-drag ratio during entry. Force and moment data were obtained on 38 unique, blunt body trim tab configurations in the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The data were used to parametrically assess the supersonic aerodynamic performance of trim tabs and to understand the influence of tab area, cant angle, and aspect ratio. Across the range of conditions tested (Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5; angles of attack from -4deg to +20deg; angles of sideslip from 0deg to +8deg), the effects of varying tab area and tab cant angle were found to be much more significant than effects from varying tab aspect ratio. Aerodynamic characteristics exhibited variation with Mach number and forebody geometry over the range of conditions tested. Overall, the results demonstrate that trim tabs are a viable approach to satisfy aerodynamic performance requirements of blunt body entry vehicles with minimal ballast mass. For a 70deg sphere-cone, a tab with 3% area of the forebody and canted approximately 35deg with no ballast mass was found to give the same trim aerodynamics as a baseline model with ballast mass that was 5% of the total entry mass.

Korzun, Ashley M.; Murphy, Kelly J.; Edquist, Karl T.

2013-01-01

46

TRIM32 Regulates Skeletal Muscle Stem Cell Differentiation and Is Necessary for Normal Adult Muscle Regeneration  

PubMed Central

Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H (LGMD2H) is an inherited autosomal recessive disease of skeletal muscle caused by a mutation in the TRIM32 gene. Currently its pathogenesis is entirely unclear. Typically the regeneration process of adult skeletal muscle during growth or following injury is controlled by a tissue specific stem cell population termed satellite cells. Given that TRIM32 regulates the fate of mammalian neural progenitor cells through controlling their differentiation, we asked whether TRIM32 could also be essential for the regulation of myogenic stem cells. Here we demonstrate for the first time that TRIM32 is expressed in the skeletal muscle stem cell lineage of adult mice, and that in the absence of TRIM32, myogenic differentiation is disrupted. Moreover, we show that the ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 controls this process through the regulation of c-Myc, a similar mechanism to that previously observed in neural progenitors. Importantly we show that loss of TRIM32 function induces a LGMD2H-like phenotype and strongly affects muscle regeneration in vivo. Our studies implicate that the loss of TRIM32 results in dysfunctional muscle stem cells which could contribute to the development of LGMD2H. PMID:22299041

Wu, Xiaoli; Miller, Pamela; Stelzer, Sandra; Wen, Yefei; Kuang, Shihuan; Wrogemann, Klaus; Patel, Ketan; Ding, Hao; Schwamborn, Jens C.

2012-01-01

47

Decomposing trimmed surfaces using the Voronoie tesselation  

SciTech Connect

Many applications deal with the rendering of trimmed surfaces and the generation of grids for trimmed surfaces. Usually, a structured or unstructured grid must be constructed in the parameter space of the trimmed surface. Trimmed surfaces not only cause problems in the context of grid generation but also when exchanging data between different CAD systems. This paper describes a new approach for decomposing the valid part of the parameter space of a trimmed surface into a set of four-sided surfaces. The boundaries of these four-sided surfaces axe line segments, segments of the trimming curves themselves, and segments of bisecting curves that are defined by a generalized Voronoi diagram implied by the trimming curves in parameter space. We use a triangular background mesh for the approximation of the bisecting curves of the generalized Voronoi diagram.

Tsai, Po-Yu [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States); Hamann, B. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

1996-12-31

48

Atmospheric oxygen concentration controls the size history of foraminifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Body size correlates with numerous physiological traits and thus influences organism fitness. However, long-term controls on size evolution remain poorly understood because few datasets spans sufficiently long intervals. One proposed controlling factor is variation in atmospheric oxygen, which is widely argued to have influenced size evolution in numerous taxa, notably gigantism in arthropods during the late Paleozoic. In this study, we compiled a comprehensive genus- and species-level size database of foraminifers (marine protists) to enable an extensive analysis of factors influencing size evolution. Foraminifers are an ideal study group because they are present in all Phanerozoic periods and have been diverse and abundant in shallow-marine habitats since Devonian time. We observe significant correlation between foraminiferan size and atmospheric oxygen concentration in foraminifers as a whole and in half of the major subclades. Larger size is associated with higher oxygen concentrations, as predicted by simple physiological models based on changes in the ratio of surface area to volume. Because the oxygen content ocean waters is controlled in part by atmospheric pO2, we interpret the association between foraminiferan size and pO2 to result from a direct physiological effect of oxygen availability. Atmospheric oxygen concentration predicts foraminiferan size better than six other Phanerozoic time series (pCO2, sea level, number of named geological formations, ?18O, ?13C, 87Sr/86Sr), further suggesting the correlation between oxygen and size does not occur simply through some common geological cause that influences many aspects of Earth system history. These findings support the hypothesis that widespread Permo-Carboniferous gigantism was enabled by high pO2 and suggest that oxygen availability has been among the most important influences on size evolution through Phanerozoic time.

Payne, J.; Jost, A. B.; Ouyang, X.; Skotheim, J. M.; Wang, S. C.

2010-12-01

49

Robust Nonorthogonal Analyses Revisited: An Update Based on Trimmed Means.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three approaches to the analysis of main and interaction effect hypotheses in nonorthogonal designs were compared in a 2 x 2 design for data that was neither normal in form nor equal in variance. The Welch-James test with trimmed means and Winsorized variances provided excellent Type I error control. (SLD)

Keselman, H. J.; Kowalchuk, Rhonda K.; Lix, Lisa M.

1998-01-01

50

Adaptive dissolved oxygen control through the glycerol feeding in a recombinant Pichia pastoris cultivation in conditions of oxygen transfer limitation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In high cell density cultivation processes the productivity is frequently constrained by the bioreactor maximum oxygen transfer capacity. The productivity can often be increased by operating the process at low dissolved oxygen concentrations close to the limitation level. This may be accomplished with a closed-loop controller that regulates the dissolved oxygen concentration by manipulating the dominant carbon source feeding rate.

R. Oliveira; J. J. Clemente; A. E. Cunha; M. J. T. Carrondo

2005-01-01

51

Molecular Controls of the Oxygenation and Redox Reactions of Hemoglobin  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: The broad classes of O2-binding proteins known as hemoglobins (Hbs) carry out oxygenation and redox functions that allow organisms with significantly different physiological demands to exist in a wide range of environments. This is aided by allosteric controls that modulate the protein's redox reactions as well as its O2-binding functions. Recent Advances: The controls of Hb's redox reactions can differ appreciably from the molecular controls for Hb oxygenation and come into play in elegant mechanisms for dealing with nitrosative stress, in the malarial resistance conferred by sickle cell Hb, and in the as-yet unsuccessful designs for safe and effective blood substitutes. Critical Issues: An important basic principle in consideration of Hb's redox reactions is the distinction between kinetic and thermodynamic reaction control. Clarification of these modes of control is critical to gaining an increased understanding of Hb-mediated oxidative processes and oxidative toxicity in vivo. Future Directions: This review addresses emerging concepts and some unresolved questions regarding the interplay between the oxygenation and oxidation reactions of structurally diverse Hbs, both within red blood cells and under acellular conditions. Developing methods that control Hb-mediated oxidative toxicity will be critical to the future development of Hb-based blood substitutes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 2298–2313. PMID:23198874

Henkens, Robert; Alayash, Abdu I.; Banerjee, Sambuddha; Crumbliss, Alvin L.

2013-01-01

52

Biological nitrification process simulation in groundwater with dissolved oxygen controller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays groundwater contamination by nitrogenous fertilizer is a globally growing problem, but groundwater always serves as an important water source, especially in rural area. In order to tackle this problem, biological nitrification and denitrification process has been widely used for removal of nitrogenous pollutants from polluted water. To improve removal efficiency, the dissolved oxygen (DO) controller is presented. And the control strategies for the activated sludge process have been developed and evaluated by simulation. The results also showed that the DO controller will be applied widely in the control and management of the decentralization water treatment.

Zuo, Jinlong

2009-07-01

53

16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303.12 Section 303...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles. (a) Trimmings...

2013-01-01

54

16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303.12 Section 303...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles. (a) Trimmings...

2010-01-01

55

16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303.12 Section 303...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles. (a) Trimmings...

2011-01-01

56

16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.  

...2014-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303.12 Section 303...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles. (a) Trimmings...

2014-01-01

57

16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303.12 Section 303...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles. (a) Trimmings...

2012-01-01

58

Oxygen-controlled Biosurfactant Production in a Bench Scale Bioreactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rhamnolipids have been pointed out as promising biosurfactants. The most studied microorganisms for the aerobic production of these molecules are the bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. The aim of this work was to produce a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant in a bench-scale bioreactor by one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil environments. To study the microorganism growth and production dependency on oxygen, a nondispersive oxygenation device was developed, and a programmable logic controller (PLC) was used to set the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Using the data stored in a computer and the predetermined characteristics of the oxygenation device, it was possible to evaluate the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and the specific OUR (SOUR) of this microorganism. These rates, obtained for some different DO concentrations, were then compared to the bacterial growth, to the carbon source consumption, and to the rhamnolipid and other virulence factors production. The SOUR presented an initial value of about 60.0 mg02/gdw h. Then, when the exponential growth phase begins, there is a rise in this rate. After that, the SOUR reduces to about 20.0 mg02/gdw h. The carbon source consumption is linear during the whole process.

de Kronemberger, Frederico Araujo; Anna, Lidia Maria Melo Santa; Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; de Menezes, Reginaldo Ramos; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

59

Controlling the bond scission sequence of oxygenates for energy applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The so called "Holy Grail" of heterogeneous catalysis is a fundamental understanding of catalyzed chemical transformations which span multidimensional scales of both length and time, enabling rational catalyst design. Such an undertaking is realizable only with an atomic level understanding of bond formation and destruction with respect to intrinsic properties of the metal catalyst. In this study, we investigate the bond scission sequence of small oxygenates (methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol) on bimetallic transition metal catalysts and transition metal carbide catalysts. Oxygenates are of interest both as hydrogen carriers for reforming to H2 and CO and as fuels in direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFC). To address the so-called "materials gap" and "pressure gap" this work adopted three parallel research approaches: (1) ultra high vacuum (UHV) studies including temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) on polycrystalline surfaces; (2) DFT studies including thermodynamic and kinetic calculations; (3) electrochemical studies including cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA). Recent studies have suggested that tungsten monocarbide (WC) may behave similarly to Pt for the electrooxidation of oxygenates. TPD was used to quantify the activity and selectivity of oxygenate decomposition for WC and Pt-modifiedWC (Pt/WC) as compared to Pt. While decomposition activity was generally higher on WC than on Pt, scission of the C-O bond resulted in alkane/alkene formation on WC, an undesired product for DAFC. When Pt was added to WC by physical vapor deposition C-O bond scission was limited, suggesting that Pt synergistically modifies WC to improve the selectivity toward C-H bond scission to produce H2 and CO. Additionally, TPD confirmed WC and Pt/WC to be more CO tolerant than Pt. HREELS results verified that surface intermediates were different on Pt/WC as compared to Pt or WC and evidence of aldehyde intermediates was observed on the Pt and Pt/WC surfaces. For CH3OH decomposition, DFT calculations suggested that the bond scission sequence could be controlled using monolayer coverage of Pt on WC. The Ni/Pt bimetallic system was studied as an example for using oxygenates as a hydrogen source. There are two well characterized surface structures for the Ni/Pt system: the surface configuration, in which the Ni atoms reside primarily on the surface of the Pt bulk, and the subsurface configuration, in which the second atomic layer is enriched in Ni atoms and the surface is enriched in Pt atoms. These configurations are denoted NiPtPt and PtNiPt, respectively. DFT results revealed that trends established for the Ni/Pt(111) system extend to the Ni/Pt(100) analogue. TPD studies revealed that the NiPtPt surface was more active for oxygenate reforming than the Pt or PtNiPt surfaces. HREELS confirmed the presence of strongly bound reaction intermediates, including aldehyde-like species, and suggested that the first decomposition step was likely O-H bond scission. Thus, the binding energies of the deprotonated reaction intermediates are important parameters in controlling the decomposition pathways of oxygenates. These studies have demonstrated that the bond scission sequence of oxygenate decomposition can be controlled using bimetallic and transition metal carbide catalysts. While this study has focused on oxygenate decomposition for energy applications, the principles and methodology applied herein are universally applicable to the development of novel and marketable value-added products. The value in such a methodology is in the combination of both calculations to predict catalytic and chemical properties, and experiments to fine-tune theoretical predictions.

Stottlemyer, Alan L.

60

Compartment A1, trim tanks viewed aft to forward from watertight ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Compartment A-1, trim tanks viewed aft to forward from watertight bulkhead no. 6. Using remotely controlled valves, the tanks could be flooded with water or pumped clear to compensate for variations in the ship's displacement and maintain the water line at the desired point. The trim tanks could also be used to counteract the effect of variations in sea water density. (02) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

61

CST: Constructive Solid Trimming for Rendering BReps and CSG  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract, To eliminate the need to evaluate the intersection curves in explicit representations of surface cutouts or of trimmed faces in BReps of CSG solids, we advocate using Constructive Solid Trimming (CST). A CST face is the intersection of a surface with a Blist representation of a trimming CSG volume. We propose a new, GPU-based, CSG rendering algorithm, which trims

John Hable; Jarek Rossignac

2007-01-01

62

Modeling, simulation, and control of an extraterrestrial oxygen production plant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The immediate objective is the development of a new methodology for simulation of process plants used to produce oxygen and/or other useful materials from local planetary resources. Computer communication, artificial intelligence, smart sensors, and distributed control algorithms are being developed and implemented so that the simulation or an actual plant can be controlled from a remote location. The ultimate result of this research will provide the capability for teleoperation of such process plants which may be located on Mars, Luna, an asteroid, or other objects in space. A very useful near-term result will be the creation of an interactive design tool, which can be used to create and optimize the process/plant design and the control strategy. This will also provide a vivid, graphic demonstration mechanism to convey the results of other researchers to the sponsor.

Schooley, L.; Cellier, F.; Zeigler, B.; Doser, A.; Farrenkopf, G.

1991-01-01

63

Anti-HIV-1 activity of Trim 37.  

PubMed

Trim 5? was the first member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family of proteins that was identified to potently restrict human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. The breadth of antiretroviral activity of TRIM family members is an active area of investigation. In this study, we demonstrate that human Trim 37 possesses anti-HIV-1 activity. This antiretroviral activity and the manner in which it was displayed were implicated by (1) decreased viral replication upon Trim 37 transient overexpression in virus-producing cells, (2) correlation of the reduction of viral infectivity with Trim 37 virion incorporation, (3) increased HIV-1 replication during siRNA depletion of Trim 37 expression, and (4) reduction in viral DNA synthesis upon Trim 37 transient overexpression. Our findings provide the first demonstration, to our knowledge, of the potent antiviral activity of human Trim 37, and implicate an antiviral mechanism whereby Trim 37 interferes with viral DNA synthesis. PMID:24317724

Tabah, Azah A; Tardif, Keith; Mansky, Louis M

2014-04-01

64

76 FR 72978 - Premier Trim, LLC, Spectrum Trim, LLC and Grant Products International, Inc. D/B/A Spectrum Grant...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...TA-W-73,681] Premier Trim, LLC, Spectrum Trim, LLC and Grant Products International, Inc. D/B/A Spectrum Grant De Mexico Including Workers Whose...to workers of Premier Trim, LLC and Spectrum Trim, LLC, d/b/a Spectrum...

2011-11-28

65

Inhibition of nitrogenase by oxygen in marine cyanobacteria controls the global nitrogen and oxygen cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyanobacterial N2-fixation supplies the vast majority of biologically accessible inorganic nitrogen to nutrient-poor aquatic ecosystems. The process, catalyzed by the heterodimeric protein complex, nitrogenase, is thought to predate that of oxygenic photosynthesis. Remarkably, while the enzyme plays such a critical role in Earth's biogeochemical cycles, the activity of nitrogenase in cyanobacteria is markedly inhibited in vivo at a post-translational level by the concentration of O2 in the contemporary atmosphere leading to metabolic and biogeochemical inefficiency in N2 fixation. We illustrate this crippling effect with data from Trichodesmium spp. an important contributor of "new nitrogen" to the world's subtropical and tropical oceans. The enzymatic inefficiency of nitrogenase imposes a major elemental taxation on diazotrophic cyanobacteria both in the costs of protein synthesis and for scarce trace elements, such as iron. This restriction has, in turn, led to a global limitation of fixed nitrogen in the contemporary oceans and provides a strong biological control on the upper bound of oxygen concentration in Earth's atmosphere.

Berman-Frank, I.; Chen, Y.-B.; Gerchman, Y.; Dismukes, G. C.; Falkowski, P. G.

2005-03-01

66

Fixed-trim re-entry guidance analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The terminal guidance problem for a fixed-trim re-entry body is formulated with the objective of synthesizing a closed-loop steering law. A transformation of variables and subsequent linearization of the motion, with the sight-line to the target as a reference, reduces the order of the state system for the guidance problem. The reduced order system, although nonlinear and time-varying, is simple enough to lend itself to synthesis of a class of guidance laws. A generalization of the feedforward device of classical control theory is successfully employed for compensation of roll autopilot lags. The proposed steering law exhibits superior miss-distance performance in a computational comparison with existing fixed-trim guidance laws.

Gracey, C.; Cliff, E. M.; Lutze, F. H.; Kelley, H. J.

1981-08-01

67

Fixed-trim re-entry guidance analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The terminal guidance problem for a fixed-trim re-entry body is formulated with the objective of synthesizing a closed-loop steering law. A transformation of variables and subsequent linearization of the motion, with the sight-line to the target as a reference, reduces the order of the state system for the guidance problem. The reduced order system, although nonlinear and time-varying, is simple enough to lend itself to synthesis of a class of guidance laws. A generalization of the feedforward device of classical control theory is successfully employed for compensation of roll autopilot lags. The proposed steering law exhibits superior miss-distance performance in a computational comparison with existing fixed-trim guidance laws.

Gracey, C.; Cliff, E. M.; Lutze, F. H.; Kelley, H. J.

1981-01-01

68

Noble gas sputtering calculations using TRIM  

SciTech Connect

In conjunction with our experimental work on saddle field ion sputtering, we have attempted to apply the Monte Carlo program TRIM (Transport of Ions in Matter) to calculate the sputter yields for a variety of noble gas sputtering applications. Comparison with experiments are shown. Information extracted from these analyses have proved useful in optimizing the experimental sputtering parameters. Calculated sputter yields obtained utilizing TRIM are presented for noble gas sputtering of a variety of materials common to nuclear target production.

Greene, J.P.; Nemanich, J.; Thomas, G.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Physics Div.; Schiel, S.L. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States)

1996-12-31

69

Nonlinear Constrained Predictive Control of dissolved oxygen in bio-reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nonlinear constrained model predictive control (NCMPC) method is presented for the control of the dissolved oxygen in a bio-reactor system using Hammerstein model. The control of dissolved oxygen as output is accomplished by adjusting the stirrer speed as input. The proposed controller is compared with the Nonlinear Model Predictive Control(NMPC) method without input constraints. The simulations and experiments are

Xu Zhe; Shouqi Cao; Hak Kyeong Kim; Sang Bong Kim

2008-01-01

70

TRIM24 is a p53-induced E3-ubiquitin ligase that undergoes ATM-mediated phosphorylation and autodegradation during DNA damage.  

PubMed

Tumor suppressor p53 protects cells from genomic insults and is a target of mutation in more than 50% of human cancers. Stress-mediated modification and increased stability of p53 promote p53 interaction with chromatin, which results in transcription of target genes that are critical for the maintenance of genomic integrity. We recently discovered that TRIM24, an E3-ubiquitin ligase, ubiquitinates and promotes proteasome-mediated degradation of p53. Here, we show that TRIM24 is destabilized by ATM-mediated phosphorylation of TRIM24S768 in response to DNA damage, which disrupts TRIM24-p53 interactions and promotes the degradation of TRIM24. Transcription of TRIM24 is directly induced by damage-activated p53, which binds p53 response elements and activates expression of TRIM24. Newly synthesized TRIM24 interacts with phosphorylated p53 to target it for degradation and termination of the DNA damage response. These studies indicate that TRIM24, like MDM2, controls p53 levels in an autoregulatory feedback loop. However, unlike MDM2, TRIM24 also targets activated p53 to terminate p53-regulated response to DNA damage. PMID:24820418

Jain, Abhinav K; Allton, Kendra; Duncan, Aundrietta D; Barton, Michelle C

2014-07-01

71

Piloted simulation study of the effects of an automated trim system on flight characteristics of a light twin-engine airplane with one engine inoperative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simulation study was conducted to investigate the piloting problems associated with failure of an engine on a generic light twin-engine airplane. A primary piloting problem for a light twin-engine airplane after an engine failure is maintaining precise control of the airplane in the presence of large steady control forces. To address this problem, a simulated automatic trim system which drives the trim tabs as an open-loop function of propeller slipstream measurements was developed. The simulated automatic trim system was found to greatly increase the controllability in asymmetric powered flight without having to resort to complex control laws or an irreversible control system. However, the trim-tab control rates needed to produce the dramatic increase in controllability may require special design consideration for automatic trim system failures. Limited measurements obtained in full-scale flight tests confirmed the fundamental validity of the proposed control law.

Stewart, E. C.; Brown, P. W.; Yenni, K. R.

1986-01-01

72

TRIM5? and TRIM22 Are Differentially Regulated According to HIV-1 Infection Phase and Compartment  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The antiviral role of TRIM E3 ligases in vivo is not fully understood. To test the hypothesis that TRIM5? and TRIM22 have differential transcriptional regulation and distinct anti-HIV roles according to infection phase and compartment, we measured TRIM5?, TRIM22, and type I interferon (IFN-I)-inducible myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during primary and chronic HIV-1 infection, with chronic infection samples being matched PBMCs and central nervous system (CNS)-derived cells. Associations with biomarkers of disease progression were explored. The impact of IFN-I, select proinflammatory cytokines, and HIV on TRIM E3 ligase-specific expression was investigated. PBMCs from individuals with primary and chronic HIV-1 infection had significantly higher levels of MxA and TRIM22 than did PBMCs from HIV-1-negative individuals (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). PBMCs from chronic infection had lower levels of TRIM5? than did PBMCs from primary infection or HIV-1-uninfected PBMCs (P = 0.0001 for both). In matched CNS-derived samples and PBMCs, higher levels of MxA (P = 0.001) and TRIM5? (P = 0.0001) in the CNS were noted. There was a negative correlation between TRIM22 levels in PBMCs and plasma viral load (r = ?0.40; P = 0.04). In vitro, IFN-I and, rarely, proinflammatory cytokines induced TRIM5? and TRIM22 in a cell type-dependent manner, and the knockdown of either protein in CD4+ lymphocytes resulted in increased HIV-1 infection. These data suggest that there are infection-phase-specific and anatomically compartmentalized differences in TRIM5? and TRIM22 regulation involving primarily IFN-I and specific cell types and indicate subtle differences in the antiviral roles and transcriptional regulation of TRIM E3 ligases in vivo. IMPORTANCE Type I interferon-inducible TRIM E3 ligases are a family of intracellular proteins with potent antiviral activities mediated through diverse mechanisms. However, little is known about the contribution of these proteins to antiviral immunity in vivo and how their expression is regulated. We show here that TRIM5? and TRIM22, two prominent members of the family, have different expression patterns in vivo and that the expression pattern depends on HIV-1 infection status and phase. Furthermore, expression differs in peripheral blood versus central nervous system anatomical sites of infection. Only TRIM22 expression correlated negatively with HIV-1 viral load, but gene silencing of both proteins enhances HIV-1 infection of target cells. We report subtle differences in TRIM5? and TRIM22 gene induction by IFN-I and proinflammatory cytokines in CD4+ lymphocytes, monocytes, and neuronal cells. This study enhances our understanding of antiviral immunity by intrinsic antiviral factors and how their expression is determined. PMID:24478420

Singh, Ravesh; Patel, Vinod; Mureithi, Marianne W.; Naranbhai, Vivek; Ramsuran, Duran; Tulsi, Sahil; Hiramen, Keshni; Werner, Lise; Mlisana, Koleka; Altfeld, Marcus; Luban, Jeremy; Kasprowicz, Victoria; Dheda, Keertan; Abdool Karim, Salim S.

2014-01-01

73

Climatic and environmental controls on speleothem oxygen-isotope values  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Variations in speleothem oxygen-isotope values ( ?18O) result from a complicated interplay of environmental controls and processes in the ocean, atmosphere, soil zone, epikarst, and cave system. As such, the controls on speleothem ?18O values are extremely complex. An understanding of the processes that control equilibrium and kinetic fractionation of oxygen isotopes in water and carbonate species is essential for the proper interpretation of speleothem ?18O as paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental proxies, and is best complemented by study of site-specific cave processes such as infiltration, flow routing, drip seasonality and saturation state, and cave microclimate, among others. This review is a process-based summary of the multiple controls on ?18O in the atmosphere, soil, epikarst, and speleothem calcite, illustrated with case studies. Primary controls of ?18O in the atmosphere include temperature and relative humidity through their role in the multiple isotope "effects". Variability and modifications of water ?18O values in the soil and epikarst zones are dominated by evaporation, mixing, and infiltration of source waters. The isotopically effective recharge into a cave system consists of those waters that participate in precipitation of CaCO 3, resulting in calcite deposition rates which may be biased to time periods with optimal dripwater saturation state. Recent modeling, experimental, and observational data yield insight into the significance of kinetic fractionation between dissolved carbonate phases and solid CaCO 3, and have implications for the 'Hendy' test. To assist interpretation of speleothem ?18O time series, quantitative and semi-quantitative ?18O-climate calibrations are discussed with an emphasis on some of the difficulties inherent in using modern spatial and temporal isotope gradients to interpret speleothems as paleoclimate proxy records. Finally, several case studies of globally significant speleothem paleoclimate records are discussed that show the utility of ?18O to reconstruct past climate changes in regions that have been typically poorly represented in paleoclimate records, such as tropical and subtropical terrestrial locations. The new approach to speleothem paleoclimatology emphasizes climate teleconnections between regions and attribution of forcing mechanisms. Such investigations allow paleoclimatologists to infer regional to global-scale climate dynamics.

Lachniet, Matthew S.

2009-03-01

74

Ship Trim Optimization: Assessment of Influence of Trim on Resistance of MOERI Container Ship  

PubMed Central

Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy efficiency in all sectors. Shipping industry is a stakeholder in environmental issues. Shipping industry is responsible for approximately 3% of global CO2 emissions, 14-15% of global NOX emissions, and 16% of global SOX emissions. Ship trim optimization has gained enormous momentum in recent years being an effective operational measure for better energy efficiency to reduce emissions. Ship trim optimization analysis has traditionally been done through tow-tank testing for a specific hullform. Computational techniques are increasingly popular in ship hydrodynamics applications. The purpose of this study is to present MOERI container ship (KCS) hull trim optimization by employing computational methods. KCS hull total resistances and trim and sinkage computed values, in even keel condition, are compared with experimental values and found in reasonable agreement. The agreement validates that mesh, boundary conditions, and solution techniques are correct. The same mesh, boundary conditions, and solution techniques are used to obtain resistance values in different trim conditions at Fn = 0.2274. Based on attained results, optimum trim is suggested. This research serves as foundation for employing computational techniques for ship trim optimization. PMID:24578649

Duan, Wenyang

2014-01-01

75

A new control strategy for the composting process based on the oxygen uptake rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Up to now different control strategies to supply the oxygen requirements to the composting process have been studied. All of them seek for the biological activity optimization. In general, temperature and oxygen content are identified as the key parameters to assess the microbial activity. For this reason, the most favorable range of temperature and oxygen content for composting has frequently

Belén Puyuelo; Teresa Gea; Antoni Sánchez

2010-01-01

76

The Research for Dissolved Oxygen Experts Fuzzy Control System in Sewage Treatment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The stable control of dissolved oxygen in biological wastewater treatment system is a typical large inertia, the longer lag time and a certain degree of uncertainty in the system. This paper analyzes the process of CAST wastewater treatment technology and establishes a model of dissolved oxygen control. The article analyses the underlying causes in instable control system by step response

Yang Ping; Zhao De-An; Lian Xian-Guo

2009-01-01

77

14 CFR 25.407 - Trim tab effects.  

...limited by the stops; and (b) For aileron and rudder trim tabs, those required to trim the airplane in the critical unsymmetrical power and loading conditions, with appropriate allowance for rigging...

2014-01-01

78

TRIM16 acts as an E3 ubiquitin ligase and can heterodimerize with other TRIM family members.  

PubMed

The TRIM family of proteins is distinguished by its tripartite motif (TRIM). Typically, TRIM proteins contain a RING finger domain, one or two B-box domains, a coiled-coil domain and the more variable C-terminal domains. TRIM16 does not have a RING domain but does harbour two B-box domains. Here we showed that TRIM16 homodimerized through its coiled-coil domain and heterodimerized with other TRIM family members; TRIM24, Promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) protein and Midline-1 (MID1). Although, TRIM16 has no classic RING domain, three-dimensional modelling of TRIM16 suggested that its B-box domains adopts RING-like folds leading to the hypothesis that TRIM16 acts as an ubiquitin ligase. Consistent with this hypothesis, we demonstrated that TRIM16, devoid of a classical RING domain had auto-polyubiquitination activity and acted as an E3 ubiquitin ligase in vivo and in vitro assays. Thus via its unique structure, TRIM16 possesses both heterodimerization function with other TRIM proteins and also has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. PMID:22629402

Bell, Jessica L; Malyukova, Alena; Holien, Jessica K; Koach, Jessica; Parker, Michael W; Kavallaris, Maria; Marshall, Glenn M; Cheung, Belamy B

2012-01-01

79

Alpha-trimmed means and their relationship to median filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppose that X is a finite set of N numbers, The ?-trimmed mean of X is obtained by sorting X into ascending order, removing (trimming) a fixed fractionalpha(0 leq alpha leq 0.5)from the high and low ends of the sorted set, and computing the average of the remaining values. When applied to a sliding window of length LW, the ?-trimming

J. BEE BEDNAR; TERRY L. WATT

1984-01-01

80

Tri-M: Try it; You'll Like it!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Tri-M Music Honor Society that is for middle/junior high and senior high school students. Discusses what having a Tri-M Society can do for a music department and the benefits of having a Tri-M Society. Includes information on starting the society, a history, and Web sites. (CMK)

Beelendorf, Pierre

2002-01-01

81

14 CFR 23.255 - Out of trim characteristics.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...A three-second movement of the longitudinal trim system at its normal rate for the particular flight condition with no aerodynamic load (or an equivalent degree of trim for airplanes that do not have a power-operated trim system), except as...

2013-01-01

82

14 CFR 25.255 - Out-of-trim characteristics.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...1) A three-second movement of the longitudinal trim system at its normal rate for the particular flight condition with no aerodynamic load (or an equivalent degree of trim for airplanes that do not have a power-operated trim system), except as...

2011-01-01

83

14 CFR 23.255 - Out of trim characteristics.  

...A three-second movement of the longitudinal trim system at its normal rate for the particular flight condition with no aerodynamic load (or an equivalent degree of trim for airplanes that do not have a power-operated trim system), except as...

2014-01-01

84

14 CFR 23.255 - Out of trim characteristics.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...A three-second movement of the longitudinal trim system at its normal rate for the particular flight condition with no aerodynamic load (or an equivalent degree of trim for airplanes that do not have a power-operated trim system), except as...

2012-01-01

85

Development of decontamination procedures for beef trimmings  

E-print Network

% trisodium phosphate plus hot water (LA+TSP+HW). Meat color was evaluated on both the trimmings before and after treatment and on the ground beef chubs on days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 of storage. The L*, a*, and b* color space values were determined to measure...

Ebeling, Christine Suzanne

2012-06-07

86

Control of Fuel Cell Breathing: Initial Results on the Oxygen Starvation Problem  

E-print Network

Control of Fuel Cell Breathing: Initial Results on the Oxygen Starvation Problem Jay T. Pukrushpan starvation and degradation of the stack voltage. Different control configurations and FCS measurements of oxygen starvation and fast net FCS power response during rapid current (load) demands is also delineated

Stefanopoulou, Anna

87

Flavor and Texture Characteristics of Foods Containing Z-Trim Corn and Oat Fibers as Fat and Flour Replacers1  

Microsoft Academic Search

To determine the effects of partial replacement of fat and flour in f oods with Z-Trim corn and oat fibers, brownies and ground beef pa tties containing Z-Trim were evaluated for flavor and texture characteristics. A cake-like brownie formulation containing 26% fat (control) was pre- pared with 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% fat repl acement using four levels of

K. WARNER; G. E. INGLETT

88

Ovine TRIM5? Can Restrict Visna/Maedi Virus  

PubMed Central

The restrictive properties of tripartite motif-containing 5 alpha (TRIM5?) from small ruminant species have not been explored. Here, we identify highly similar TRIM5? sequences in sheep and goats. Cells transduced with ovine TRIM5? effectively restricted the lentivirus visna/maedi virus DNA synthesis. Proteasome inhibition in cells transduced with ovine TRIM5? restored restricted viral DNA synthesis, suggesting a conserved mechanism of restriction. Identification of TRIM5? active molecular species may open new prophylactic strategies against lentiviral infections. PMID:22696640

Jauregui, P.; Crespo, H.; Glaria, I.; Lujan, L.; Contreras, A.; Rosati, S.; de Andres, D.; Amorena, B.; Towers, G. J.

2012-01-01

89

Role of Oxygen in Cerebrovascular Control: A Mathematical Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A former model of cerebrovascular regulation and intracranial pressure dynamics has been improved to account for the effect of oxygen lack on cerebral vessels and cerebral blood flow (CBF). Model assumes that CBF regulation is the result of three distinct...

M. Ursino, E. Magosso

2001-01-01

90

Fast-Response Oxygen-Monitoring and Control System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Oxygen sensor is Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 ceramic disk maintained at 843 degrees C. Overall system response time reduced to about 0.2 second, equal to or less than 1 percent of tunnel run time. When test gas oxygen concentration differs from normal air concentration by 25 percent or more, alarm sounds, and emergency tunnel shutdown signal operates. New ZrO2 sensors intended for hypersonic-vehicle testing.

Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Puster, R. L.

1986-01-01

91

Oxygen control of intracellular distribution of mitochondria in muscle fibers.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle fibers is governed by the demand for aerobic ATP production, but the heterogeneous distribution of these mitochondria appears to be governed by constraints associated with oxygen diffusion. We propose that each muscle fiber has an optimal mitochondrial distribution at which it attains a near maximal rate of ATP consumption (RATPase ) while mitochondria are exposed to a minimal oxygen concentration, thus minimizing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. We developed a coupled reaction-diffusion/cellular automata (CA) mathematical model of mitochondrial function and considered four fiber types in mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscle. The developed mathematical model uses a reaction-diffusion analysis of metabolites including oxygen, ATP, ADP, phosphate, and phosphocreatine (PCr) involved in energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. A CA approach governing mitochondrial life cycles in response to the metabolic state of the fiber was superimposed and coupled to the reaction-diffusion approach. The model results show the sensitivity of important model outputs such as the RATPase , effectiveness factor (?) and average oxygen concentration available at each mitochondrion to local oxygen concentration in the fibers through variation in the CA model parameter ?det , which defines the sensitivity of mitochondrial death to the oxygen concentration. The predicted optimal mitochondrial distributions matched previous experimental findings. Deviations from this optimal distribution corresponding to higher CA model parameter values (a more uniform mitochondrial distribution) lead to lower aerobic rates. In contrast, distributions corresponding to lower CA model parameter values (a more asymmetric distribution) lead to an increased exposure of mitochondria to oxygen, usually without substantial increases in aerobic rates, which would presumably result in increased ROS production and thus increased risks of cytotoxicity. PMID:23568454

Pathi, B; Kinsey, S T; Locke, B R

2013-09-01

92

Respiratory Development in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Grown at Controlled Oxygen Tension  

PubMed Central

Saccharomyces cerevisiae was grown in batch culture over a wide range of oxygen concentrations, varying from the anaerobic condition to a maximal dissolved oxygen concentration of 3.5 ?M. The development of cells was assayed by measuring amounts of the aerobic cytochromes aa3, b, c, and c1, the cellular content of unsaturated fatty acids and ergosterol, and the activity of respiratory enzyme complexes. The half-maximal levels of membrane-bound cytochromes aa3, b, and c1, were reached in cells grown in O2 concentrations around 0.1 ?M; this was similar to the oxygen concentration required for half-maximal levels of unsaturated fatty acid and sterol. However, the synthesis of ubiquinone and cytochrome c and the increase in fumarase activity were essentially linear functions of the dissolved oxygen concentration up to 3.5 ?M oxygen. The synthesis of the succinate dehydrogenase, succinate cytochrome c reductase, and cytochrome c oxidase complexes showed different responses to changes in O2 concentration in the growth medium. Cyanide-insensitive respiration and P450 cytochrome content were maximal at 0.25 ?M oxygen and declined in both more anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Cytochrome c peroxidase and catalase activities in cell-free homogenates were high in all but the most strictly anaerobic cells. PMID:4352179

Rogers, P. J.; Stewart, P. R.

1973-01-01

93

TRIM5 alpha Drives SIVsmm Evolution in Rhesus Macaques  

PubMed Central

The antagonistic interaction with host restriction proteins is a major driver of evolutionary change for viruses. We previously reported that polymorphisms of the TRIM5? B30.2/SPRY domain impacted the level of SIVsmm viremia in rhesus macaques. Viremia in macaques homozygous for the non-restrictive TRIM5? allele TRIM5Q was significantly higher than in macaques expressing two restrictive TRIM5alpha alleles TRIM5TFP/TFP or TRIM5Cyp/TFP. Using this model, we observed that despite an early impact on viremia, SIVsmm overcame TRIM5? restriction at later stages of infection and that increasing viremia was associated with specific amino acid substitutions in capsid. Two amino acid substitutions (P37S and R98S) in the capsid region were associated with escape from TRIM5TFP restriction and substitutions in the CypA binding-loop (GPLPA87-91) in capsid were associated with escape from TRIM5Cyp. Introduction of these mutations into the original SIVsmE543 clone not only resulted in escape from TRIM5? restriction in vitro but the P37S and R98S substitutions improved virus fitness in macaques with homozygous restrictive TRIMTFP alleles in vivo. Similar substitutions were observed in other SIVsmm strains following transmission and passage in macaques, collectively providing direct evidence that TRIM5? exerts selective pressure on the cross-species transmission of SIV in primates. PMID:23990789

Wu, Fan; Kirmaier, Andrea; Goeken, Robert; Ourmanov, Ilnour; Hall, Laura; Morgan, Jennifer S.; Matsuda, Kenta; Buckler-White, Alicia; Tomioka, Keiko; Plishka, Ronald; Whitted, Sonya; Johnson, Welkin; Hirsch, Vanessa M.

2013-01-01

94

Controls on soil oxygen variation across aquatic-terrestrial interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil oxygen (O2) is a fundamental control on terrestrial biogeochemical cycles including processes producing and consuming greenhouse gases (GHG), yet it is rarely measured. Instead, soil O2 is assumed to be proportional to soil moisture and physical soil properties. For example, soil O2 is often inferred from a 25-year old steady-state diffusion model; however, few data exist to test this model in stochastic systems. The variability of soil O2 may be particularly important to GHG emissions from aquatic-terrestrial interface zones because of the convergence of variable hydrology and rapid biogeochemical processing. Our objective is to gain a better understanding of soil O2 variation and its role in controlling GHG emissions across aquatic-terrestrial interface zones. Specifically, we hypothesize that in aquatic-terrestrial interface ecosystems, soil moisture predicts O2 concentration under stable conditions where diffusion dominates, but fails under dynamic conditions (e.g., water table fluctuations or precipitation) due to advective flux during soil drainage and lags in biological O2 consumption. Furthermore, we hypothesize that GHG emissions will correspond to variation in soil O2. Twenty-four near-continuous (hourly readings) soil O2 and moisture sensors were installed across an aquatic-terrestrial interface zone of a constructed wetland in April 2012. Drought conditions (2012) resulted in minimal soil O2 variation. Despite dry conditions a diurnal pattern of lower soil O2 during the day was observed. When precipitation increased in September (due to the remnants of Hurricane Isaac), soil O2 variation increased substantially with 20 of the 24 sensors recording soil O2 concentrations below 5%. The relationship between soil moisture and soil O2 was non-linear during periods of soil drainage and precipitation. A rapid (change of 10% over <24 hours) increase in soil O2 occurs at ~ 40% water filled soil volume during soil drainage. This rapid increase appears related to drainage of soil macropores ahead of changes in bulk soil moisture. As soil moisture increased due to precipitation, soil O2 decreased slower than predicted by simple diffusion models. A lag in O2 consumption is hypothesized to explain this divergence from the diffusion model. Weekly methane and nitrous oxide emissions corresponded to variation in soil O2. Future research will explore the importance of temporal soil O2 and moisture variation in driving GHG emissions.

Loecke, T.; Burgin, A. J.

2013-12-01

95

TRIM28 repression of retrotransposon-based enhancers is necessary to preserve transcriptional dynamics in embryonic stem cells  

PubMed Central

TRIM28 is critical for the silencing of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Here, we reveal that an essential impact of this process is the protection of cellular gene expression in early embryos from perturbation by cis-acting activators contained within these retroelements. In TRIM28-depleted ES cells, repressive chromatin marks at ERVs are replaced by histone modifications typical of active enhancers, stimulating transcription of nearby cellular genes, notably those harboring bivalent promoters. Correspondingly, ERV-derived sequences can repress or enhance expression from an adjacent promoter in transgenic embryos depending on their TRIM28 sensitivity in ES cells. TRIM28-mediated control of ERVs is therefore crucial not just to prevent retrotransposition, but more broadly to safeguard the transcriptional dynamics of early embryos. PMID:23233547

Rowe, Helen M.; Kapopoulou, Adamandia; Corsinotti, Andrea; Fasching, Liana; Macfarlan, Todd S.; Tarabay, Yara; Viville, Stephane; Jakobsson, Johan; Pfaff, Samuel L.; Trono, Didier

2013-01-01

96

Economic Impact of Control and Optimization on Industrial Utilities  

E-print Network

mandated requirements need very little justification. Either comply or be punished. Unfortunately, conservation mandated by regulation motivates only minimum compliance criteria with mini mum investments and falls short of motivating opti mum, "good... is to modify the control scheme to trim the fueVair ratio that will mini mize excess oxygen. Figure 3 shows Council of In dustrial Boiler Owners (ClBO) data that demonstrates the relationship between excess oxygen and boiler ef ficiency. Notice...

Collins, D.; Lang, R.

97

Development of a System for Controlling Dissolved-Oxygen Content of Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for controlling the dissolved-oxygen content of a continuous flow of water was developed and tested. It is essentially a continuous flow of water through a partial vacuum. Two daily adjustments maintain the dissolved-oxygen content of the effluent water within 0.05 p.p.m. of the desired concentration. Minimum oxygen content of 0.5 p.p.m. and flow rates greater than 10 liters

Donald I. Mount

1961-01-01

98

A DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEM FOR OPTIMAL OXYGEN TRANSFER  

E-print Network

Soneto Drive Whittier, CA 90605 June 2006 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS Page No. 1. Executive Summary .......................................... 14 5.6 Factors that influence oxygen transfer efficiency .................... 15 5.7 Aeration system.1 Factors that affect estimation of OTE field testing ................... 23 7.2 Advantages and limitations of the

99

Zinc-aminomethylenephosphonate for control of oxygen corrosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aminomethylenephosphonates will provide protection against oxygen corrosion. This action is markedly enhanced when these phosphonates are used in conjunction with zinc salts. Inhibition is somewhat analogous to that by the polyphosphates, but differs in several significant respects. The pronounced hydrolytic stability of the aminomethylenephosphonates renders them particularily attractive for applications where prolonged exposure to high water temperatures are involved. It

G. B. Hatch; P. H. Ralston

1970-01-01

100

TRIM29 as a Novel Biomarker in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim. Tripartite motif-containing 29 (TRIM29) is structurally a member of the tripartite motif family of proteins and is involved in diverse human cancers. However, its role in pancreatic cancer remains unclear. Methods. The expression pattern of TRIM29 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma was assessed by immunocytochemistry. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between TRIM29 and clinical characteristics. In vitro analyses by scratch wound healing assay and invasion assays were performed using the pancreatic cancer cell lines. Results. Immunohistochemical analysis showed TRIM29 expression in pancreatic cancer tissues was significantly higher??(n = 186) than that in matched adjacent nontumor tissues. TRIM29 protein expression was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.019). Patients with positive TRIM29 expression showed both shorter overall survival and shorter recurrence-free survival than those with negative TRIM29 expression. Multivariate analysis revealed that TRIM29 was an independent factor for pancreatic cancer over survival (HR = 2.180, 95% CI: 1.324–4.198, P = 0.011). In vitro, TRIM29 knockdown resulted in inhibition of pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Conclusions. Our results indicate that TRIM29 promotes tumor progression and may be a novel prognostic marker for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. PMID:24864129

Sun, Hongli; Han, Bing

2014-01-01

101

New controls spark boiler efficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monsanto's NutraSweet plant in University Park, IL, produces aspartame, the patented NutraSweet artificial sweetener product. Until recently, boiler control was managed by a '60s-era Fireye jackshaft system in which air and natural gas were mechanically linked with an offset to compensate for oxygen trim. The interlocking devices on the Fireye system were becoming obsolete, and the boiler needed a new

Engels

1993-01-01

102

A climatology-based quality control procedure for profiling float oxygen data  

E-print Network

A climatology-based quality control procedure for profiling float oxygen data Yuichiro Takeshita,1-order errors (offset and drift) in profiling float oxygen data by comparing float data to a monthly climatology procedure was evaluated by (1) comparing the climatology-derived correction coefficients to those derived

Riser, Stephen C.

103

Principles of solid state oxygen sensors for lean combustion gas control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives an overview about oxygen sensors for automotive applications to control the air–fuel ratio in order to reduce emissions and fuel consumption. The three-way catalyst system (TWC) using the potentiometric sensors based on zirconia represents the most effective system for the emission control at this time. New control strategies with linear lambda control at ?=1, for direct injection

E. Ivers-Tiffée; K. H. Härdtl; W. Menesklou; J. Riegel

2001-01-01

104

Optimization of the operating parameters of a grass trimming machine.  

PubMed

Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is very common among the workers operating power tools and doing similar nature of work for long hours. Grass trimming is one of the operations that involves use of vibrating cutter, and results in hand-arm vibration among workers. In this study, the influence of several operating parameters (length of nylon cutting thread, engine speed and handle material) is investigated in terms of HAV. Data are analyzed via orthogonal array, main effect, signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, and analysis of variance to determine the appropriate operating parameter levels to minimize HAV. Operating parameters under investigation are found to be influential in controlling HAV generation during grass trimming operation. Experiments are carried out for measuring hand-arm vibration using tri-axial accelerometer conforming the effectiveness of this approach. Results show that 100mm length of nylon thread, 3000+/-400rpm of engine speed and ABS handle material combination results in minimum HAV (HARM) of magnitude 2.76m/s(2). Through this study not only the optimal operating parameter levels for GTM are obtained, but also the main process parameters that affect the HAV are determined. The optimum HAV obtained through appropriate level selection of operating parameters, significantly reduces the occurrence of HAVS among the grass trimmers. PMID:19762006

Mallick, Zulquernain

2010-03-01

105

Controlling factors of the oxygen balance in the Arabian Sea's OMZ  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expansion of OMZs (oxygen minimum zones) due to climate change and their possible evolution and impacts on the ecosystems and the atmosphere are still debated, mostly because of the unability of global climate models to adequatly reproduce the processes governing OMZs. In this study, we examine the factors controlling the oxygen budget, i.e. the equilibrium between oxygen sources and sinks in the northern Arabian Sea OMZ using an eddy-resolving biophysical model. Our model confirms that the biological consumption of oxygen is most intense below the region of highest productivity in the western Arabian Sea. The oxygen drawdown in this region is counterbalanced by the large supply of oxygenated waters originated from the south and advected horizontally by the western boundary current. Although the biological sink and the dynamical sources of oxygen compensate on annual average, we find that the seasonality of the dynamical transport of oxygen is 3 to 5 times larger than the seasonality of the biological sink. In agreement with previous findings, the resulting seasonality of oxygen concentration in the OMZ is relatively weak, with a variability of the order of 15% of the annual mean oxygen concentration in the oxycline and 5% elsewhere. This seasonality primarily arises from the vertical displacement of the OMZ forced by the monsoonal reversal of Ekman pumping across the basin. In coastal areas, the oxygen concentration is also modulated seasonally by lateral advection. Along the western coast of the Arabian Sea, the Somali Current transports oxygen-rich waters originated from the south during summer and oxygen-poor waters from the northeast during winter. Along the eastern coast of the Arabian Sea, we find that the main contributor to lateral advection in the OMZ is the Indian coastal undercurrent that advects southern oxygenated waters during summer and northern low-oxygen waters during winter. In this region, our model indicates that oxygen concentrations are modulated seasonally by coastal Kelvin waves and westward-propagating Rossby waves. Whereas on seasonal time scales the sources and sinks of oxygen are dominated by the mean vertical and lateral advection (Ekman pumping and monsoonal currents), on annual time scales we find that the biological sink is counterbalanced by the supply of oxygen sustained by mesoscale structures (eddies and filaments). Eddy-driven advection hence promotes the vertical supply of oxygen along the western coast of the Arabian Sea and the lateral transport of ventilated waters offshore the coast of Oman and southwest India.

Resplandy, L.; Lévy, M.; Bopp, L.; Echevin, V.; Pous, S.; Sarma, V. V. S. S.; Kumar, D.

2012-12-01

106

Method of controlled reduction of nitroaromatics by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes  

DOEpatents

A method for the controlled reduction of nitroaromatic compounds such as nitrobenzene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes, such as ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase.

Shah, Manish M. (Richland, WA); Campbell, James A. (Pasco, WA)

1998-01-01

107

Method of controlled reduction of nitroaromatics by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes  

DOEpatents

A method is described for the controlled reduction of nitroaromatic compounds such as nitrobenzene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes, such as ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase. 6 figs.

Shah, M.M.; Campbell, J.A.

1998-07-07

108

EPR oxygen images predict tumor control by a 50 percent tumor control radiation dose  

PubMed Central

Clinical trials to ameliorate hypoxia as a strategy to relieve the radiation resistance it causes have prompted a need to assay the precise extent and location of hypoxia in tumors. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance oxygen imaging (EPR O2 imaging) provides a non-invasive means to address this need. To obtain a preclinical proof of principle that EPR O2 images could predict radiation control, we treated mouse tumors at or near doses required to achieve 50 percent control (TCD50). Mice with FSa fibrosarcoma or MCa4 carcinoma were subjected to EPR O2 imaging and immediately radiated to a TCD50 or TCD50 ±10 Gy.. Statistical analysis was permitted by collection of ~ 1300 tumor pO2 image voxels, including the fraction of tumor voxels with pO2 less than 10 mm Hg (HF10). Tumors were followed for 90 days (FSa) or 120 days (MCa4) to determine local control or failure. HF10 obtained from EPR images showed statistically significant differences between tumors that were controlled by the TCD50 and those that were not controlled for both FSa and MCa4. Kaplan-Meier analysis of both types of tumors showed ~90% of mildly hypoxic tumors were controlled (HF10<10%), and only 37% (FSA) and 23% (MCa4) tumors controlled if hypoxic. EPR pO2 image voxel distributions in these ~0.5 ml tumors provide a prediction of radiation curability independent of radiation dose. These data confirm the significance of EPR pO2 hypoxic fractions. The ~90% control of low HF10 tumors argue that ½ ml subvolumes of tumors may be more sensitive to radiation and may need less radiation for high tumor control rates. PMID:23861469

Elas, Martyna; Magwood, Jessica M.; Butler, Brandi; Li, Chanel; Wardak, Rona; Barth, Eugene D.; Epel, Boris; Rubinstein, Samuel; Pelizzari, Charles A.; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.; Halpern, Howard J.

2013-01-01

109

Combustion control in domestic boilers using an oxygen sensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the problem of controlling the combustion process in a domestic boiler fed with natural gas. Combustion control is of particular interest because of its implications with respect to safety, energy saving and reduction of pollution. Traditionally, the control system of a domestic boiler is conceived in such a way to regulate simply the water temperature by

G. Conte; M. Cesaretti; D. Scaradozzi

2006-01-01

110

Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control  

SciTech Connect

Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic (i.e., man-made) CO{sub 2} emissions. In 2001, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) began a two-phase program to investigate the feasibility of various carbon capture technologies. This program was sponsored under a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE). The first phase entailed a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen cases, representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated. Seven cases represented coal combustion in CFB type equipment. Four cases represented Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Two cases represented advanced Chemical Looping Combined Cycle systems. Marion, et al. reported the details of this work in 2003. One of the thirteen cases studied utilized an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. In this concept, the fuel is fired with a mixture of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (mainly CO{sub 2}). This combustion process yields a flue gas containing over 80 percent (by volume) CO{sub 2}. This flue gas can be processed relatively easily to enrich the CO{sub 2} content to over 96 percent for use in enhanced oil or gas recovery (EOR or EGR) or simply dried for sequestration. The Phase I study identified the O{sub 2}-fired CFB as having a near term development potential, because it uses conventional commercial CFB technology and commercially available CO{sub 2} capture enabling technologies such as cryogenic air separation and simple rectification or distillation gas processing systems. In the long term, air separation technology advancements offer significant reductions in power requirements, which would improve plant efficiency and economics for the oxygen-fired technology. The second phase consisted of pilot-scale testing followed by a refined performance and economic evaluation of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. As a part of this workscope, ALSTOM modified its 3 MW{sub th} (9.9 MMBtu/hr) Multiuse Test Facility (MTF) pilot plant to operate with O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures of up to 70 percent O{sub 2} by volume. Tests were conducted with coal and petroleum coke. The test objectives were to determine the impacts of oxygen firing on heat transfer, bed dynamics, potential agglomeration, and gaseous and particulate emissions. The test data results were used to refine the design, performance, costs, and economic models developed in Phase-I for the O{sub 2}-fired CFB with CO{sub 2} capture. Nsakala, Liljedahl, and Turek reported results from this study in 2004. ALSTOM identified several items needing further investigation in preparation for large scale demonstration of the oxygen-fired CFB concept, namely: (1) Operation and performance of the moving bed heat exchanger (MBHE) to avoid recarbonation and also for cost savings compared to the standard bubbling fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHE); (2) Performance of the back-end flash dryer absorber (FDA) for sulfur capture under high CO{sub 2}/high moisture flue gas environment using calcined limestone in the fly ash and using fresh commercial lime directly in the FDA; (3) Determination of the effect of recarbonation on fouling in the convective pass; (4) Assessment of the impact of oxygen firing on the mercury, other trace elements, and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions; and (5) Develop a proposal-level oxygen-fired retrofit design for a relatively small existing CFB steam power plant in preparation for a large-scale demonstration of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. Hence, ALSTOM responded to a DOE Solicitation to address all these issues with further O{sub 2} fired MTF pilot testing and a subsequent retrofit design study of oxygen firing and CO{s

Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

2007-03-31

111

Hexagonal assembly of a restricting TRIM5? protein  

PubMed Central

TRIM5? proteins are restriction factors that protect mammalian cells from retroviral infections by binding incoming viral capsids, accelerating their dissociation, and preventing reverse transcription of the viral genome. Individual TRIM5 isoforms can often protect cells against a broad range of retroviruses, as exemplified by rhesus monkey TRIM5? and its variant, TRIM5-21R, which recognize HIV-1 as well as several distantly related retroviruses. Although capsid recognition is not yet fully understood, previous work has shown that the C-terminal SPRY/B30.2 domain of dimeric TRIM5? binds directly to viral capsids, and that higher-order TRIM5? oligomerization appears to contribute to the efficiency of capsid recognition. Here, we report that recombinant TRIM5-21R spontaneously assembled into two-dimensional paracrystalline hexagonal lattices comprising open, six-sided rings. TRIM5-21R assembly did not require the C-terminal SPRY domain, but did require both protein dimerization and a B-box 2 residue (Arg121) previously implicated in TRIM5? restriction and higher-order assembly. Furthermore, TRIM5-21R assembly was promoted by binding to hexagonal arrays of the HIV-1 CA protein that mimic the surface of the viral capsid. We therefore propose that TRIM5? proteins have evolved to restrict a range of different retroviruses by assembling a deformable hexagonal scaffold that positions the capsid-binding domains to match the symmetry and spacing of the capsid surface lattice. Capsid recognition therefore involves a synergistic combination of direct binding interactions, avidity effects, templated assembly, and lattice complementarity. PMID:21187419

Ganser-Pornillos, Barbie K.; Chandrasekaran, Viswanathan; Pornillos, Owen; Sodroski, Joseph G.; Sundquist, Wesley I.; Yeager, Mark

2011-01-01

112

Hexagonal assembly of a restricting TRIM5alpha protein.  

PubMed

TRIM5? proteins are restriction factors that protect mammalian cells from retroviral infections by binding incoming viral capsids, accelerating their dissociation, and preventing reverse transcription of the viral genome. Individual TRIM5 isoforms can often protect cells against a broad range of retroviruses, as exemplified by rhesus monkey TRIM5? and its variant, TRIM5-21R, which recognize HIV-1 as well as several distantly related retroviruses. Although capsid recognition is not yet fully understood, previous work has shown that the C-terminal SPRY/B30.2 domain of dimeric TRIM5? binds directly to viral capsids, and that higher-order TRIM5? oligomerization appears to contribute to the efficiency of capsid recognition. Here, we report that recombinant TRIM5-21R spontaneously assembled into two-dimensional paracrystalline hexagonal lattices comprising open, six-sided rings. TRIM5-21R assembly did not require the C-terminal SPRY domain, but did require both protein dimerization and a B-box 2 residue (Arg121) previously implicated in TRIM5? restriction and higher-order assembly. Furthermore, TRIM5-21R assembly was promoted by binding to hexagonal arrays of the HIV-1 CA protein that mimic the surface of the viral capsid. We therefore propose that TRIM5? proteins have evolved to restrict a range of different retroviruses by assembling a deformable hexagonal scaffold that positions the capsid-binding domains to match the symmetry and spacing of the capsid surface lattice. Capsid recognition therefore involves a synergistic combination of direct binding interactions, avidity effects, templated assembly, and lattice complementarity. PMID:21187419

Ganser-Pornillos, Barbie K; Chandrasekaran, Viswanathan; Pornillos, Owen; Sodroski, Joseph G; Sundquist, Wesley I; Yeager, Mark

2011-01-11

113

Computerized maintenance boosts reliability, trims costs  

SciTech Connect

A natural gas-fired combined-cycle power plant has operated successfully for the past three years at the 3800-acre Pitchess Honor Rancho jail complex in Saugus, Calif. One of the reasons for the plant's success has been its computerized maintenance system. This paper reports that utilization of the computerized plant maintenance system program, in conjunction with several data base programs, has increased the plant's reliability and trimmed costs. As we learned at Pitchess, a computerized maintenance program provides two key advantages over the traditional breakdown maintenance approach: minimal equipment breakdown, and a reduction in operations and maintenance man-hours.

Hammer, K. (County of Los Angeles, CA (US)); Egleston, P.C.; Steinert, M.P.; Goldstein, M. (Charles T. Main Inc. (US))

1992-01-01

114

A Note About HARP's State Trimming Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This short note provides some additional insight into how the HARP program works. In some cases, it is possible for HARP to tdm away too many states and obtain an optimistic result. The HARP Version 7.0 manual warns the user that 'Unlike the ALL model, the SAME model can automatically drop failure modes for certain system models. The user is cautioned to insure that no important failure modes are dropped; otherwise, a non-conservative result can be given.' This note provides an example of where this occurs and a pointer to further documentation that gives a means of bounding the error associated with trimming these states.

Butler, Ricky W.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Johnson, Sally C.

1998-01-01

115

Helicopter trim analysis by shooting and finite element methods with optimally damped Newton iterations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Helicopter trim settings of periodic initial state and control inputs are investigated for convergence of Newton iteration in computing the settings sequentially and in parallel. The trim analysis uses a shooting method and a weak version of two temporal finite element methods with displacement formulation and with mixed formulation of displacements and momenta. These three methods broadly represent two main approaches of trim analysis: adaptation of initial-value and finite element boundary-value codes to periodic boundary conditions, particularly for unstable and marginally stable systems. In each method, both the sequential and in-parallel schemes are used, and the resulting nonlinear algebraic equations are solved by damped Newton iteration with an optimally selected damping parameter. The impact of damped Newton iteration, including earlier-observed divergence problems in trim analysis, is demonstrated by the maximum condition number of the Jacobian matrices of the iterative scheme and by virtual elimination of divergence. The advantages of the in-parallel scheme over the conventional sequential scheme are also demonstrated.

Achar, N. S.; Gaonkar, G. H.

1993-01-01

116

DESIGN PROCEDURES FOR DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONTROL OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents design procedures and guidelines for the selection of aeration equipment and dissolved (DO) control systems for activated sludge treatment plants. Aeration methods, equipment and application techniques are examined and selection procedures offered. Various DO...

117

Grid generation on trimmed Bezier and NURBS quilted surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents some recently added capabilities to RAGGS, Rockwell Automated Grid Generation System. Included are the trimmed surface handling and display capability and structures and unstructured grid generation on trimmed Bezier and NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces) quilted surfaces. Samples are given to demonstrate the new capabilities.

Woan, Chung-Jin; Clever, Willard C.; Tam, Clement K.

1995-01-01

118

TRIM32 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase for dysbindin  

PubMed Central

Mutations in the gene encoding tripartite motif protein 32 (TRIM32) cause two seemingly diverse diseases: limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H (LGMD2H) or sarcotubular myopathy (STM) and Bardet–Biedl syndrome type 11(BBS11). Although TRIM32 is involved in protein ubiquitination, its substrates and the molecular consequences of disease-causing mutations are poorly understood. In this paper, we show that TRIM32 is a widely expressed ubiquitin ligase that is localized to the Z-line in skeletal muscle. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we found that TRIM32 binds and ubiquitinates dysbindin, a protein implicated in the genetic aetiology of schizophrenia, augmenting its degradation. Small-interfering RNA-mediated knock-down of TRIM32 in myoblasts resulted in elevated levels of dysbindin. Importantly, the LGMD2H/STM-associated TRIM32 mutations, D487N and R394H impair ubiquitin ligase activity towards dysbindin and were mislocalized in heterologous cells. These mutants were able to self-associate and also co-immunoprecipitated with wild-type TRIM32 in transfected cells. Furthermore, the D487N mutant could bind to both dysbindin and its E2 enzyme but was defective in monoubiquitination. In contrast, the BBS11 mutant P130S did not show any biochemical differences compared with the wild-type protein. Our data identify TRIM32 as a regulator of dysbindin and demonstrate that the LGMD2H/STM mutations may impair substrate ubiquitination. PMID:19349376

Locke, Matthew; Tinsley, Caroline L.; Benson, Matthew A.; Blake, Derek J.

2009-01-01

119

Robust Tessellation of Trimmed Rational BSpline Surface Patches  

E-print Network

in the current CAD/CAM systems. Rational B­spline curves and trimmed rational B­spline surfaces playRobust Tessellation of Trimmed Rational B­Spline Surface Patches Wonjoon Cho 1 Takashi Maekawa 1 B­spline surface patches within a user specified geometric tol­ erance. The proposed method uses

Peraire, Jaime

120

Neurobiological Basis of Sensory Perception: Welfare Implications of Beak Trimming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The practice of beak trimming in the poul- try industry occurs to prevent excessive body pecking, cannibalism, and to avoid feed wastage. To assess the welfare implications of the procedure, an emphasis of this paper has been placed on the anatomical structures that comprise the beak and mouth parts and a representa- tion of the structures removed following beak trimming.

W. J. Kuenzel

121

TRIM22: A Diverse and Dynamic Antiviral Protein  

PubMed Central

The tripartite motif (TRIM) family of proteins is an evolutionarily ancient group of proteins with homologues identified in both invertebrate and vertebrate species. Human TRIM22 is one such protein that has a dynamic evolutionary history that includes gene expansion, gene loss, and strong signatures of positive selection. To date, TRIM22 has been shown to restrict the replication of a number of viruses, including encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In addition, TRIM22 has also been implicated in cellular differentiation and proliferation and may play a role in certain cancers and autoimmune diseases. This comprehensive paper summarizes our current understanding of TRIM22 structure and function. PMID:22649727

Hattlmann, Clayton J.; Kelly, Jenna N.; Barr, Stephen D.

2012-01-01

122

Dissolved oxygen control of mechanical aerators at the Rensselaer county wastewater treatment plant. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report describes the results of testing dissolved oxygen analyzers to control operation of mechanical aerators at the Rensselaer County Sewer District Wastewater Treatment Plant and reduce the amount of energy uses while maintaining or enhancing biological treatment. Current electricity costs are more than $300,000 annually for aeration in the activated sludge process. Motors for the aerators are manually controlled

F. J. Wurtenberger; W. K. Biski; J. A. Guagno

1994-01-01

123

A device for simultaneously controlling multiple treatment levels of dissolved oxygen in laboratory experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypoxia is common in freshwater, estuarine, and shallow or enclosed marine systems. Research on the sub-lethal effects of hypoxia on feeding and growth includes both field and laboratory studies. Extended regulation of dissolved oxygen (DO) is difficult to precisely control in the laboratory. Here we describe a device that is capable of simultaneously monitoring and controlling DO at multiple treatment

P. A Grecay; K. L Stierhoff

2002-01-01

124

Fast Predictive Oxygen Charge Control of a Diesel Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every control system of a diesel engine tries to supply the combustion chamber with the mixture of fresh gas and recirculated exhaust gas adequate to the requested injection quantity. Usually, this mixture is expressed in particular by a combination of intake manifold pressure, measured locally, and fresh air flow measured at a substantial distance from the combustion chamber. As the

Peter Langthaler; L. del Re

2007-01-01

125

Dissolved Oxygen Saturation Controls PAH Biodegradation in Freshwater Estuary Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common contaminants in terrestrial and aquatic environments and can represent a significant constituent of the carbon pool in coastal sediments. We report here the results of an 18-month seasonal study of PAH biodegradation and heterotrophic bacterial production and their controlling biogeochemical factors from 186 sediment samples taken in a tidally influenced freshwater estuary. For each

T. J. Boyd; M. T. Montgomery; J. K. Steele; J. W. Pohlman; S. R. Reatherford; B. J. Spargo; D. C. Smith

2005-01-01

126

Control of myocardial oxygen consumption: relative influence of contractile state and tension development  

PubMed Central

Myocardial oxygen consumption was measured in 11 anesthetized, open-chest dogs in order to compare in the same heart the relative influence on oxygen usage of tension development and the contractile or inotropic state, as reflected in Vmax. the maximum velocity of shortening of the unloaded contractile elements. The isovolumetrically contracting left ventricle was studied with left ventricular volume, heart rate, and systemic perfusion rate controlled. Wall tension, contractile element velocity, and Vmax were calculated. Peak developed tension was increased at a constant Vmax by increasing ventricular volume, and the effect on oxygen consumption was determined. Oxygen utilization was then redetermined at an increased Vmax but at a constant peak developed tension by infusing norepinephrine (0.76 to 7.6 ?g/min) and decreasing ventricular volume to match the tension existing before norepinephrine infusion. Oxygen consumption consistently increased with increases in both developed tension and Vmax with the following multiple regression equation relating these variables: myocardial oxygen consumption (?l/beat per 100 g in LV) = K + 0.25 peak developed tension (g/cm2) + 1.43 Vmax (cm/sec). These data indicate that the oxygen cost of augmentation of contractility is substantial, can be independent of any change in fiber shortening, and is similar in order of magnitude to the effect of alterations in tension development PMID:12066781

Graham, Thomas P.; Covell, James W.; Sonnenblick, Edmund H.; Ross, John; Braunwald, Eugene

1968-01-01

127

Numerical analysis of the primary processes controlling oxygen dynamics on the Louisiana Shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Louisiana shelf in the northern Gulf of Mexico receives large amounts of freshwater and nutrients from the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River system. These river inputs contribute to widespread bottom-water hypoxia every summer. In this study, we use a physical-biogeochemical model that explicitly simulates oxygen sources and sinks on the Louisiana shelf to identify the key mechanisms controlling hypoxia development. First, we validate the model simulation against observed dissolved oxygen concentrations, primary production, water column respiration, and sediment oxygen consumption. In the model simulation, heterotrophy is prevalent in shelf waters throughout the year except near the mouths of the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers where primary production exceeds respiratory oxygen consumption during June and July. During this time, efflux of oxygen to the atmosphere, driven by photosynthesis and surface warming, becomes a significant oxygen sink while the well-developed pycnocline isolates autotrophic surface waters from the heterotrophic and hypoxic waters below. A substantial fraction of primary production occurs below the pycnocline in summer. We investigate whether this primary production below the pycnocline is mitigating the development of hypoxic conditions with the help of a sensitivity experiment where we disable biological processes in the water column (i.e. primary production and water column respiration). In this experiment below-pycnocline primary production reduces the spatial extent of hypoxic bottom waters only slightly. Our results suggest that the combination of physical processes and sediment oxygen consumption largely determine the spatial extent and dynamics of hypoxia on the Louisiana shelf.

Yu, L.; Fennel, K.; Laurent, A.; Murrell, M. C.; Lehrter, J. C.

2014-10-01

128

A study on a voloxidizer with an oxygen concentration controller for a scale-up DESIGN  

SciTech Connect

For a oxidation of UO{sub 2} pellets of tens/kg in a vol-oxidizer, the existing devices take a long time, also, for their scale-up to an engineering scale, we need the optimum oxygen concentration with an maximum oxidation efficiency. In this study, we attained the optimum oxygen concentration to shorten the oxidation time of a simulation fuel using a vol-oxidizer with an oxygen concentration controller and sensor. We compared the characteristics of a galvanic sensor with a zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) one. The simulation fuel was manufactured with 14 metallic oxides, and used at a mass of 500 g HM/batch. At 500 deg. C, the galvanic and zirconium oxide sensors measured the oxidation time for the simulation fuel. Also, the oxidation time of the simulation fuel was measured according to a change of the oxygen concentration with the selected sensor, and the sample was analyzed. (authors)

Kim, Young-Hwan; Yoon, Ji-Sup; Park, Byung-Suk; Jung, Jae-Hoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Dukjin-dong, Yuseong Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-07-01

129

Trim71 cooperates with microRNAs to repress Cdkn1a expression and promote embryonic stem cell proliferation  

PubMed Central

Pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs) have a shortened cell cycle that enables their rapid proliferation. The ESC-specific miR-290 and miR-302 microRNA families promote proliferation whereas let-7 microRNAs inhibit self-renewal and promote cell differentiation. Lin28 suppresses let-7 expression in ESCs. Here, to gain further insight into mechanisms controlling ESC self-renewal we explore the molecular and cellular role of the let-7 target Trim71 (mLin41). We show that Trim71 associates with Argonaute2 (Ago2) and microRNAs and represses expression of Cdkn1a, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that negatively regulates the G1–S transition. We identify protein domains required for Trim71 association with Ago2, localization to P-bodies, and for repression of reporter mRNAs. Trim71 knockdown prolongs the G1 phase of the cell cycle and slows ESC proliferation, a phenotype that was rescued by depletion of Cdkn1a. Thus, we demonstrate Trim71 is a factor that facilitates the G1–S transition to promote rapid ESC self-renewal. PMID:22735451

Chang, Hao-Ming; Martinez, Natalia J.; Thornton, James E.; Gregory, Richard I.

2012-01-01

130

Trimming and procrastination as inversion techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By examining the processes of truncating and approximating the model space (trimming it), and by committing to neither the objectivist nor the subjectivist interpretation of probability (procrastinating), we construct a formal scheme for solving linear and non-linear geophysical inverse problems. The necessary prior information about the correct model xE can be either a collection of inequalities or a probability measure describing where xE was likely to be in the model space X before the data vector y0 was measured. The results of the inversion are (1) a vector z0 that estimates some numerical properties zE of xE; (2) an estimate of the error ?z = z0 - zE. As y0 is finite dimensional, so is z0, and hence in principle inversion cannot describe all of xE. The error ?z is studied under successively more specialized assumptions about the inverse problem, culminating in a complete analysis of the linear inverse problem with a prior quadratic bound on xE. Our formalism appears to encompass and provide error estimates for many of the inversion schemes current in geomagnetism, and would be equally applicable in geodesy and seismology if adequate prior information were available there. As an idealized example we study the magnetic field at the core-mantle boundary, using satellite measurements of field elements at sites assumed to be almost uniformly distributed on a single spherical surface. Magnetospheric currents are neglected and the crustal field is idealized as a random process with rotationally invariant statistics. We find that an appropriate data compression diagonalizes the variance matrix of the crustal signal and permits an analytic trimming of the idealized problem.

Backus, George E.

1996-12-01

131

Microfluidic chemostat and turbidostat with flow rate, oxygen, and temperature control for dynamic continuous culture.  

PubMed

This work reports on an instrument capable of supporting automated microscale continuous culture experiments. The instrument consists of a plastic-PDMS device capable of continuous flow without volume drift or evaporation. We apply direct computer controlled machining and chemical bonding fabrication for production of fluidic devices with a 1 mL working volume, high oxygen transfer rate (k(L)a?0.025 s(-1)), fast mixing (2 s), accurate flow control (±18 nL), and closed loop control over temperature, cell density, dissolved oxygen, and pH. Integrated peristaltic pumps and valves provide control over input concentrations and allow the system to perform different types of cell culture on a single device, such as batch, chemostat, and turbidostat continuous cultures. Continuous cultures are demonstrated without contamination for 3 weeks in a single device and both steady state and dynamically controlled conditions are possible. PMID:21445442

Lee, Kevin S; Boccazzi, Paolo; Sinskey, Anthony J; Ram, Rajeev J

2011-05-21

132

A comparison of murine leukemia viruses that escape from human and rhesus macaque TRIM5?s.  

PubMed

To better understand the binding mechanism of TRIM5? to retrovirus capsid, we had previously selected N-tropic murine leukemia virus (N-MLV) mutants escaping from rhesus macaque TRIM5? (rhTRIM5?) by passaging the virus in rhTRIM5?-expressing cells and selecting for nonrestricted variants. To test the commonality of the findings from the rhTRIM5? study, we have now employed a similar genetic approach using human TRIM5? (huTRIM5?). Consistent with the rhTRIM5? study, the mapped huTRIM5? escape mutations were distributed across the capsid exterior, confirming the extended binding surface between virus and restriction factor. Compared to the results of the previous study, fewer escape mutations were identified, with particular mutants being repeatedly selected. Three out four huTRIM5? escape variants showed resistance to all primate TRIM5?s tested, but two of them sacrificed viral fitness, observations that were not made in the rhTRIM5? study. Moreover, differences in amino acid changes associated with escape from hu- and rhTRIM5?s suggested a charge dependence of the restriction by different TRIM5?s. Taken together, these results suggest that the recognition of the entire capsid surface is a general strategy for TRIM5? to restrict MLV but that significantly different specific interactions are involved in the binding of TRIM5? from different species to the MLV capsid core. PMID:23536686

Ohkura, Sadayuki; Stoye, Jonathan P

2013-06-01

133

Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Flight-test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A peak-seeking control algorithm for real-time trim optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control algorithm is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are used for optimization of fuel flow. Results from six research flights are presented herein. The optimization algorithm found a trim configuration that required approximately 3 percent less fuel flow than the baseline trim at the same flight condition. The algorithm consistently rediscovered the solution from several initial conditions. These results show that the algorithm has good performance in a relevant environment.

Brown, Nelson Andrew; Schaefer, Jacob Robert

2013-01-01

134

DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTROLLING BOP (BASIC OXYGEN PROCESS) CHARGING EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of the basic oxygen process (BOP) hot metal charging emission control technology, conducted with a 900 kg pilot vessel designed for the experiments. Complete instrumentation was provided to measure the emissions, the effectiveness of the variou...

135

EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF OXYGEN AND AIR ACTIVATED SLUDGE NITRIFICATION SYSTEMS WITH AND WITHOUT PH CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The nitrification capabilities of two oxygen activated sludge systems receiving District of Columbia secondary effluent at a steady state flow of 190 cu m/day (50,000 gpd) were evaluated. The pH of one system was controlled to maintain a pH of 7.0 in the last reactor pass of the ...

136

The genetic control of avascular area in mouse oxygen-induced retinopathy  

E-print Network

Purpose: The C57BL/6ByJ and BALB/cByJ inbred strains of mice are, respectively, susceptible and resistant to oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). The purpose of this work was to investigate the genetic control of the retinal ...

O'Bryhim, Bliss; Radel, Jeff; Macdonald, Stuart J.; Symons, R. C. Andrew

2012-02-08

137

How to minimize power in dissolved oxygen control... DSM in action  

SciTech Connect

As part of the EPRI Municipal Water and Sewage Project, Demand-Side Energy Management, EPRI retained EMA to evaluate the life cycle cost of three alternatives for controlling low-pressure centrifugal compressors to reduce power costs. The alternatives included: inlet guide vanes, inlet butterfly valves, and adjustable speed drives. This paper contains the findings and identifies actions that could benefit wastewater treatment facilities. Many wastewater treatment plants use an activated sludge process to remove organic pollutants. In this process, a large mass of microbes consumes the organic matter in the wastewater. The microbes require diffused oxygen to metabolize the organic material. The diffused air mixes with the contents of the aeration basin and provides oxygen to the microbes. The basic activated sludge process has the following features: (1) An aeration basin with provisions for oxygenation and mixing of the mixed liquor, (2) A settling tank or clarifier to separate mixed liquor solids and liquid, (3) A sludge recycling system to return settled activated sludge to the aeration basin, and (4) A sludge wasting system to remove solids at the rate that it grows, thus maintaining the desired mass of solids in the process. The operator has three main control variables: (1) Aeration rate to control the dissolved oxygen concentration in the aeration basin. The operator sets the aeration rate to maintain dissolved oxygen at 1-2 mg/l. (2) Sludge recycle rate to control the concentration of the return sludge and the mass of solids in the clarifier. The operator sets the return rate to maintain the sludge blanket level at some predetermined depth. (3) Sludge wasting rate to control the solids retention time and mass of solids in the process. The operator sets the waste rate usually once per day to remove a pre-determined mass.

Skrentner, R.G.; Lutman, C.G.

1994-12-31

138

33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30 Section 401.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

2013-07-01

139

33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30 Section 401.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

2012-07-01

140

14. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF TRIMMED FLASH; FLASH IS EXCESS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF TRIMMED FLASH; FLASH IS EXCESS METAL EXTRUDED BETWEEN THE DIES USED TO FORGE THE BLADE END OF THE POST HOLE DIGGER - Warwood Tool Company, Foot of Nineteenth Street, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

141

17. photographer unknown undated TRIMMED FACE OF LOWER LAND THRUST ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. photographer unknown undated TRIMMED FACE OF LOWER LAND THRUST WALL OF LOCK. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

142

155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal after excavation by steam shovel. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 701). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

143

Text Cluster Trimming for Better Descriptions and Improved Quality  

E-print Network

Text clustering is potentially very useful for exploration of text sets that are too large to study manually. The success of such a tool depends on whether the results can be explained to the user. An automatically extracted cluster description usually consists of a few words that are deemed representative for the cluster. It is preferably short in order to be easily grasped. However, text cluster content is often diverse. We introduce a trimming method that removes texts that do not contain any, or a few of the words in the cluster description. The result is clusters that match their descriptions better. In experiments on two quite different text sets we obtain significant improvements in both internal and external clustering quality for the trimmed clustering compared to the original. The trimming thus has two positive effects: it forces the clusters to agree with their descriptions (resulting in better descriptions) and improves the quality of the trimmed clusters. 1.

Magnus Rosell

144

Insulating ferromagnetic oxide films: the controlling role of oxygen vacancy ordering  

SciTech Connect

The origin of ferromagnetism in strained epitaxial LaCoO3 films has been a long-standing mystery. Here, we combine atomically resolved Z-contrast imaging, electron-energy-loss spectroscopy, and density-functional calculations to demonstrate that, in epitaxial LaCoO3 films, oxygen-vacancy superstructures release strain, control the film s electronic properties, and produce the observed ferromagnetism via the excess electrons in the Co d states. Although oxygen vacancies typically dope a material n-type, we find that ordered vacancies induce Peierls-like minigaps which, combined with strain relaxation, trigger a nonlinear rupture of the energy bands, resulting in insulating behavior.

Salafranca Laforga, Juan I [ORNL] [ORNL; Salafranca, Juan [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain] [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain; Biskup, Nevenko [ORNL] [ORNL; Mehta, Virat [University of California, Berkeley] [University of California, Berkeley; Oxley, Mark P [ORNL] [ORNL; Suzuki, Yuri [Stanford University] [Stanford University; Pennycook, Stephen J [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Pantelides, Sokrates T. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville] [Vanderbilt University, Nashville; Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

145

Elevated Rate of Fixation of Endogenous Retroviral Elements in Haplorhini TRIM5 and TRIM22 Genomic Sequences: Impact on Transcriptional Regulation  

PubMed Central

All genes in the TRIM6/TRIM34/TRIM5/TRIM22 locus are type I interferon inducible, with TRIM5 and TRIM22 possessing antiviral properties. Evolutionary studies involving the TRIM6/34/5/22 locus have predominantly focused on the coding sequence of the genes, finding that TRIM5 and TRIM22 have undergone high rates of both non-synonymous nucleotide replacements and in-frame insertions and deletions. We sought to understand if divergent evolutionary pressures on TRIM6/34/5/22 coding regions have selected for modifications in the non-coding regions of these genes and explore whether such non-coding changes may influence the biological function of these genes. The transcribed genomic regions, including the introns, of TRIM6, TRIM34, TRIM5, and TRIM22 from ten Haplorhini primates and one prosimian species were analyzed for transposable element content. In Haplorhini species, TRIM5 displayed an exaggerated interspecies variability, predominantly resulting from changes in the composition of transposable elements in the large first and fourth introns. Multiple lineage-specific endogenous retroviral long terminal repeats (LTRs) were identified in the first intron of TRIM5 and TRIM22. In the prosimian genome, we identified a duplication of TRIM5 with a concomitant loss of TRIM22. The transposable element content of the prosimian TRIM5 genes appears to largely represent the shared Haplorhini/prosimian ancestral state for this gene. Furthermore, we demonstrated that one such differentially fixed LTR provides for species-specific transcriptional regulation of TRIM22 in response to p53 activation. Our results identify a previously unrecognized source of species-specific variation in the antiviral TRIM genes, which can lead to alterations in their transcriptional regulation. These observations suggest that there has existed long-term pressure for exaptation of retroviral LTRs in the non-coding regions of these genes. This likely resulted from serial viral challenges and provided a mechanism for rapid alteration of transcriptional regulation. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of persistent evolutionary pressure for the capture of retroviral LTR insertions. PMID:23516500

Diehl, William E.; Johnson, Welkin E.; Hunter, Eric

2013-01-01

146

Effect of nitroimidazoles on the oxygen consumption rate and respiratory control ratio of beef heart mitochondria  

SciTech Connect

The neurotoxic effect of the nitroimidazole radiosensitizers misonidazole (MISO) and desmethylmisonidazole (DMM) has seriously compromised their clinical effectiveness. The authors compare here the effect of MISO and DMM on oxygen consumption in purified beef heart mitochondria. MISO has been found to significantly increase the oxygen consumption rate and decrease the respiratory control ratio in isolated mitochondria when incubated in the presence of the NAD+ dependent substrate, ..beta..-hydroxybutyrate. DMM has a similar but less pronounced effect than MISO on these respiratory parameters. When mitochondria were incubated in the presence of these radiosensitizers for 8, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes, the oxygen consumption rate was decreased when succinate, a FAD dependent substrate, was added following the incubation. This decrease, which is both time and dosage dependent, is equivalent for MISO and DMM.

Chao, C.F.; Ting, L.; Subjeck, J.R.; Johnson, R.J.

1984-08-01

147

TRIMe7-CypA, an alternative splicing isoform of TRIMCyp in rhesus macaque, negatively modulates TRIM5? activity.  

PubMed

The existence of innate, host-specific restriction factors is a major obstacle to the development of nonhuman primate models for AIDS studies, and TRIM5? is one of the most important of these restriction factors. In recent years, a TRIM5 chimeric gene that was retrotransposed by a cyclophilin A (CypA) cDNA was identified in certain macaque species. The TRIM5?-CypA fusion protein, TRIMCyp, which was expressed in these monkeys, had lost its restriction ability toward HIV-1. We previously found that TRIMe7-CypA, an alternative splicing isoform of the TRIMCyp transcripts, was expressed in pig-tailed and rhesus macaques but absent in long-tailed macaques. In this study, the anti-HIV-1 activity of TRIMe7-CypA in the rhesus macaque (RhTRIMe7-CypA) was investigated. The over-expression of RhTRIMe7-CypA in CrFK, HeLa and HEK293T cells did not restrict the infection or replication of an HIV-1-GFP reporter virus in these cells. As a positive control, rhesus (rh)TRIM5? strongly inhibited the reporter virus. Intriguingly, the anti-HIV-1 activity of RhTRIM5? was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the co-repression of RhTRIMe7-CypA. Our data indicate that although the RhTRIMe7-CypA isoform does not appear to restrict HIV-1, it may act as a negative modulator of TRIM family proteins, presumably by competitive inhibition. PMID:24613845

Na, Lei; Tang, Yan-Dong; Liu, Jian-Dong; Yu, Chang-Qing; Sun, Liu-Ke; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Wang, Xue-Feng; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhou, Jian-Hua

2014-04-01

148

Oxygen control systems and impurity purification in LBE: Learning from DEMETRA project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operating a system using Lead-Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) requires a control of the dissolved oxygen concentration to avoid corrosion of structural materials and oxide build-up in the coolant. Reliable devices are therefore needed to monitor and adjust the oxygen concentration and to remove impurities during operation. In this article, we describe the learning gained from experiments run in the framework of the DEMETRA project (IP-EUROTRANS 6th FP contract) on the oxygen supply in LBE and on impurity filtration and management in different European facilities. An oxygen control device should supply oxygen in LBE at sufficient rate to compensate loss by surface oxidation, otherwise local dissolution of oxide layers might lead to the loss of steel protection against dissolution. Oxygen can be supplied by gas phase H 2O or O 2, or by solid phase, PbO dissolution. Each of these systems has substantial advantages and drawbacks. Considerations are given on devices for large scale facilities. The management of impurities (lead oxides and corrosion products) is also a crucial issue as their presence in the liquid phase or in the aerosols is likely to impair the facility, instrumentation and mechanical devices. To avoid impurity build-up on the long-term, purification of LBE is required to keep the impurity inventory low by trapping oxide and metallic impurities in specific filter units. On the basis of impurities characterisation and experimental results gained through filtration tests in different loops, this paper gives a description of the state-of-art knowledge of LBE purification with different filter media. It is now understood that the nature and behaviour of impurities formed in LBE will change according to the operating modes as well as the method to propose to remove impurities. This experience can be used to validate the basis filtration process, define the operating procedures and evaluate perspectives for the design of purification units for long-term application in lead-alloys liquid metal coolant systems.

Brissonneau, L.; Beauchamp, F.; Morier, O.; Schroer, C.; Konys, J.; Kobzova, A.; Di Gabriele, F.; Courouau, J.-L.

2011-08-01

149

Short-burst oxygen therapy for COPD patients: a 6-month randomised, controlled study.  

PubMed

Short-burst oxygen therapy (SBOT) remains widely advocated for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), despite a lack of supporting evidence. The aim of this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study was to determine whether SBOT improves health-related quality of life (HRQL) or reduces acute healthcare utilisation in patients discharged following an acute exacerbation of COPD. Consecutive patients were screened; 78 of 331 were eligible for randomisation to cylinder oxygen, cylinder air or usual care following discharge. Patients were elderly with high acute healthcare utilisation, forced expiratory volume in one second of <1 L and had dyspnoea limiting daily activity but were not hypoxaemic at rest. Over the 6-month study period, there were no significant differences between patient groups in HRQL (Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire (CRQ), 36-item Short-Form Health Survey, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) except for CRQ emotion domain. There were no significant differences in acute healthcare utilisation. Time to readmission was greatest in the usual care group. Cylinder use was high initially, but rapidly fell to very low levels within weeks in both cylinder oxygen and air groups. In conclusion, the availability of short-burst oxygen therapy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients discharged from hospital following an acute exacerbation did not improve health-related quality of life or reduce acute healthcare utilisation. These results provide no support for the widespread use of short-burst oxygen therapy. PMID:16585078

Eaton, T; Fergusson, W; Kolbe, J; Lewis, C A; West, T

2006-04-01

150

Data trimming, nuclear emissions, and climate change.  

PubMed

Ethics requires good science. Many scientists, government leaders, and industry representatives support tripling of global-nuclear-energy capacity on the grounds that nuclear fission is "carbon free" and "releases no greenhouse gases." However, such claims are scientifically questionable (and thus likely to lead to ethically questionable energy choices) for at least 3 reasons. (i) They rely on trimming the data on nuclear greenhouse-gas emissions (GHGE), perhaps in part because flawed Kyoto Protocol conventions require no full nuclear-fuel-cycle assessment of carbon content. (ii) They underestimate nuclear-fuel-cycle releases by erroneously assuming that mostly high-grade uranium ore, with much lower emissions, is used. (iii) They inconsistently compare nuclear-related GHGE only to those from fossil fuels, rather than to those from the best GHG-avoiding energy technologies. Once scientists take account of (i)-(iii), it is possible to show that although the nuclear fuel cycle releases (per kWh) much fewer GHG than coal and oil, nevertheless it releases far more GHG than wind and solar-photovoltaic. Although there may be other, ethical, reasons to support nuclear tripling, reducing or avoiding GHG does not appear to be one of them. PMID:18937054

Shrader-Frechette, Kristin Sharon

2009-03-01

151

Dissolved oxygen regulation by logarithmic/antilogarithmic control to improve a wastewater treatment process.  

PubMed

This paper presents the automation of a real activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, which is located at San Antonio Ajijic in Jalisco, Mexico. The main objective is to create an on-line automatic supervision system, and to regulate the dissolved oxygen concentration in order to improve the performances of the process treating municipal wastewater. An approximate mathematical model is determined in order to evaluate via simulations different control strategies: proportional integral (PI), fuzzy PI and PI Logarithm/Antilogarithm (PI L/A). The controlled variable is dissolved oxygen and the control input is the injected oxygen. Based on this evaluation, the PI L/A controller is selected to be implemented in the real process. After that, the implementation, testing and fully operation of the plant automation are described. With this system, the considered wastewater treatment plant save energy and improves the effluent quality; also, the process monitoring is done online and it is easily operated by the plant users. PMID:24617069

Flores, Victor R; Sanchez, Edgar N; Béteau, Jean-François; Hernandez, Salvador Carlos

2013-01-01

152

Smad4 and trim33/tif1? redundantly regulate neural stem cells in the developing cortex.  

PubMed

During central nervous system (CNS) development, proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) have to be regulated in a spatio-temporal fashion. Here, we report different branches of the transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) signaling pathway to be required for the brain area-specific control of NSCs. In the midbrain, canonical TGF? signaling via Smad4 regulates the balance between proliferation and differentiation of NSCs. Accordingly, Smad4 deletion resulted in horizontal expansion of NSCs due to increased proliferation, decreased differentiation, and decreased cell cycle exit. In the developing cortex, however, ablation of Smad4 alone did not have any effect on proliferation and differentiation of NSCs. In contrast, concomitant mutation of both Smad4 and Trim33 led to an increase in proliferative cells in the ventricular zone due to decreased cell cycle exit, revealing a functional redundancy of Smad4 and Trim33. Furthermore, in Smad4-Trim33 double mutant embryos, cortical NSCs generated an excess of deep layer neurons concurrent with a delayed and reduced production of upper layer neurons and, in addition, failed to undergo the neurogenic to gliogenic switch at the right developmental stage. Thus, our data disclose that in different regions of the developing CNS different aspects of the TGF? signaling pathway are required to ensure proper development. PMID:23765158

Falk, Sven; Joosten, Esméé; Kaartinen, Vesa; Sommer, Lukas

2014-11-01

153

Identification of TRIM22 as a RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase  

SciTech Connect

TRIM22, a member of the TRIM family proteins which contain RING finger, B-box, and coiled-coil domains, has been reported as a transcriptional regulator and involved in various cellular processes. In this study, the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, a novel property of TRIM22, was demonstrated. It was found that TRIM22 underwent self-ubiquitylation in vitro in combination with the E2 enzyme UbcH5B and the ubiquitylation was dependent on its RING finger domain. Further evidences showed that TRIM22 could also be self-ubiquitylated in vivo. Importantly, TRIM22 was conjugated with poly-ubiquitin chains and stabilized by the proteasome inhibitor in 293T cells, suggesting that TRIM22 targeted itself for proteasomal degradation through the poly-ubiquitylation. We also found that TRIM22 was located in the nucleus, indicating that TRIM22 might function as a nuclear E3 ubiquitin ligase.

Duan Zhijian; Gao Bo; Xu Wei [Institute for Immunobiology, Department of Immunology, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Xiong Sidong [Institute for Immunobiology, Department of Immunology, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai 200032 (China) and Immunology Division, E-Institutes of Shanghai Universities (China)], E-mail: sdxiongfd@126.com

2008-09-26

154

Spectroscopic Signatures of Novel Oxygen-Defect Complexes in Stoichiometrically Controlled CdSe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth of single crystals of CdSe with oxygen, introduced by stoichiometric control to suppress the formation of native Se and Cd vacancies, generates oxygen centers replacing Cd (OCd) rather than Se (OSe) as expected. This antisite substitution is unambiguously singled out by the host isotope fine structure of the nearest neighbor (NN) Se atoms in the localized vibrational modes (LVMs) of OCd. When the stoichiometry control favors the formation of Cd vacancies, three infrared signatures ?1, ?2 and ?3 appear ascribable to the LVMs of OSe in association with a Cd vacancy in the NN position as (OSe-VCd) centers. Polarization measurements establish the monoclinic Cs symmetry for these centers. As a function of temperature, they display a remarkable two-step symmetry transformation, Cs?C3v?Td, due to the dynamic switching of the OSe-VCd dangling bond.

Chen, G.; Bhosale, J. S.; Miotkowski, I.; Ramdas, A. K.

2008-11-01

155

Short-burst oxygen therapy for COPD patients: a 6-month randomised, controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Short-burst oxygen therapy (SBOT) remains widely advocated for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), despite a lack of supporting evidence. The aim of this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group study was to determine whether SBOT improves health-related quality of life (HRQL) or reduces acute healthcare utilisation in patients discharged following an acute exacerbation of COPD. Consecutive patients were screened;

T. Eaton; W. Fergusson; J. Kolbe; C. A. Lewis

2006-01-01

156

Boolean logic gates based on oxygen-controlled biofuel cell in “one pot”  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper is the first report on an enzymatic logic gates system based on oxygen-controlled biofuel cell (BFC). By accepting dual gas-input signals and resulting in the maximum power output changes of the compartmentless BFC with bioanode\\/biocathode-immobilized enzymes, such system permits AND and XNOR Boolean logic gates readily achieved, reset and interconverted into each other in “one pot”. On

Ming Zhou; Fuan Wang; Shaojun Dong

2011-01-01

157

An Oxygen Control Strategy for Corrosion Minimization in Direct-Contact Lead- Bismuth/Water Systems  

SciTech Connect

The selection of structural materials suitable for fuel cladding and primary system purposes is key to the development of all lead and lead-bismuth cooled nuclear systems. Traditional austenitic stainless steels cannot be used at the temperatures of interest (>450 deg. C), because of the large solubility of nickel in bismuth. The possibility of employing low nickel martensitic/ferritic stainless steels is currently being studied. Corrosion control for these alloys is based on the formation of a stable iron oxide film on the surfaces exposed to the liquid-metal coolant. This requires maintenance of at least a minimum concentration of oxygen in the liquid metal. On the other hand, excessive oxygen can cause precipitation of lead- and bismuth-oxide slag. Excessive oxidation of the coolant is particularly challenging in the case of a direct-contact system where lead-bismuth and water are mixed to generate steam. In this paper it is demonstrated that an oxygen control strategy based on injection of minute amounts of hydrogen in the feedwater can ensure formation of the stable iron film, while preventing precipitation of the liquid-metal oxides. This corrosion-control approach is quantified in the context of a conceptual lead-bismuth-cooled fast reactor of recent development, which makes use of in-vessel direct-contact generation of the working steam. (authors)

Buongiorno, Jacopo [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Nuclear Engineering Department, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3860 (United States); Todreas, Neil E.; Kazimi, Mujid S. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Nuclear Engineering Department, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States)

2002-07-01

158

Oxygen transfer in solid-state cultivation under controlled moisture conditions.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study oxygen transfer as a function of the initial moisture content in solid-state cultivation under controlled moisture conditions. The use of controlled moisture conditions prevents drastic changes in the medium during cultivation, allowing the use of a pseudo-steady-state model to estimate the overall oxygen mass transfer coefficient (K L a) in the biofilm around the solid particles. Drechslera (Helminthosporium) monoceras, an aerobic mold that produces allergenic proteins, was cultured on wheat bran in a packed bed column bioreactor. The bed height (30 mm) and air flow rate (0.4 L/min) were selected to implement moisture control. The results show that there is an optimal moisture content (35 %) at which a lower biofilm thickness and packing of the bed improves K L a. However, a higher biomass growth was obtained at 45 % moisture. The different patterns of biomass growth demonstrate the importance of the balance between aerial and film growth in solid-state cultivation. These results contribute to the understanding of oxygen transfer in solid fermentation, optimization of processes, and production of allergen extracts from D. (Helminthosporium) monoceras biomass. PMID:25086924

Bastos, R G; Motta, F L; Santana, M H A

2014-09-01

159

Oxygen-tension controlled matrices for enhanced osteogenic cell survival and performance.  

PubMed

The success of a clinically-applicable bone tissue engineering construct for large area bone defects depends on its ability to allow for homogeneous bone regeneration throughout the construct. Insufficient vascularization, and consequently inadequate oxygen tension, throughout constructs has been largely cited as the most significant obstacle facing successful bone regeneration in large area defects. The development of constructs that support bone and vessel-forming cell growth and function throughout the scaffold structure are desired for large-area bone defect repair. Here, we developed oxygen tension-controlled matrices that support more homogenous oxygen levels throughout the constructs. Specifically, we examined polylactic co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffolds with optimized pore distribution and the percent pore volumes, and demonstrated significantly decreased oxygen and pH gradient from the exterior of the construct to the interior after long-term cell culture in vitro. We confirmed the ability of these optimized constructs to support the cellular survival via live/dead assay. In addition, we examined their ability to support the maintenance of two clinically relevant progenitor cell populations for bone tissue engineering and vascularization, namely mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), and confirmed the expression of key bone and vascular markers via immunofluorescence. PMID:24570389

Amini, A R; Nukavarapu, S P

2014-06-01

160

Controlled oxygenated rewarming of cold stored liver grafts by thermally graduated machine perfusion prior to reperfusion.  

PubMed

The quality of cold-stored livers declines with the extension of ischemic time, increasing the risk of primary dys or nonfunction. A new concept to rescue preserved marginal liver grafts by gentle oxygenated warming-up prior to blood reperfusion was investigated. Porcine livers were preserved by cold storage (CS) in modified HTK-solution for 18 h. Some grafts were subsequently subjected to 90 min of controlled oxygenated rewarming (COR) by machine perfusion with gradual increase of perfusate temperature up to 20°C or simple oxygenated machine perfusion in hypothermia (HMP) or subnormothermia (SNP). Graft viability was assessed thereafter by 4 h of normothermic blood reperfusion ex vivo. Endischemic tissue energetics were significantly improved by COR or SNP and to a notably lesser extent by HMP. COR significantly reduced cellular enzyme loss, gene expression and perfusate activities of TNF-alpha, radical mediated lipid peroxidation (LPO) and increase of portal vascular perfusion resistance upon reperfusion, while HMP or SNP were less protective. Only COR resulted in significantly more bile production than after CS. Histological injury score and caspase 3-activation were significantly lower after COR than after CS. Oxygenated rewarming prior to reperfusion seems to be a promising technique to improve subsequent organ recovery upon reperfusion of long preserved liver grafts. PMID:23617781

Minor, T; Efferz, P; Fox, M; Wohlschlaeger, J; Lüer, B

2013-06-01

161

Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control  

DOEpatents

Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

Van Hoek; Pim (Minnetonka, MN), Aristidou; Aristos (Maple Grove, MN), Rush; Brian (Minneapolis, MN)

2007-06-19

162

Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control  

DOEpatents

Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

Van Hoek, Pim (Minnetonka, MN); Aristidou, Aristos (Maple Grove, MN); Rush, Brian (Minneapolis, MN)

2011-05-10

163

An Evolutionary Screen Highlights Canonical and Noncanonical Candidate Antiviral Genes within the Primate TRIM Gene Family  

PubMed Central

Recurrent viral pressure has acted on host-encoded antiviral genes during primate and mammalian evolution. This selective pressure has resulted in dramatic episodes of adaptation in host antiviral genes, often detected via positive selection. These evolutionary signatures of adaptation have the potential to highlight previously unrecognized antiviral genes (also called restriction factors). Although the TRIM multigene family is recognized for encoding several bona fide restriction factors (e.g., TRIM5alpha), most members of this expansive gene family remain uncharacterized. Here, we investigated the TRIM multigene family for signatures of positive selection to identify novel candidate antiviral genes. Our analysis reveals previously undocumented signatures of positive selection in 17 TRIM genes, 10 of which represent novel candidate restriction factors. These include the unusual TRIM52 gene, which has evolved under strong positive selection despite its encoded protein lacking a putative viral recognition (B30.2) domain. We show that TRIM52 arose via gene duplication from the TRIM41 gene. Both TRIM52 and TRIM41 have dramatically expanded RING domains compared with the rest of the TRIM multigene family, yet this domain has evolved under positive selection only in primate TRIM52, suggesting that it represents a novel host–virus interaction interface. Our evolutionary-based screen not only documents positive selection in known TRIM restriction factors but also highlights candidate novel restriction factors, providing insight into the interfaces of host–pathogen interactions mediated by the TRIM multigene family. PMID:24158625

Malfavon-Borja, Ray; Sawyer, Sara L.; Wu, Lily I.; Emerman, Michael; Malik, Harmit S.

2013-01-01

164

Adaptive predictive control of dissolved oxygen concentration in a laboratory-scale bioreactor.  

PubMed

We present an algorithm for the adaptive control of dissolved oxygen concentration in a bioreactor, based on the agitation rate. The dynamics are represented by an incremental first-order model with variable dead-time and parameters. These are estimated on-line by a recursive least-squares identification method with a forgetting factor and a constant sensitivity. The model is employed to predict the behaviour of the dissolved oxygen concentration over a finite horizon, using an original method which requires little computation. Then, a Generalized Predictive Control optimisation strategy computes the agitation rate from the predictions and the desired set point, while gradually updating the controller smoothness. This algorithm, which requires little preliminary knowledge, has been implemented on a laboratory-scale fed-batch bioreactor for which the use of conventional controllers showed limited performance, due to the unpredictable and evolutive nature of the dynamics. The new controller proved to be robust and effective over a wide range of operating conditions, while requiring no operator adjustments. PMID:8573319

Diaz, C; Dieu, P; Feuillerat, C; Lelong, P; Salomé, M

1995-11-21

165

The oxygen sensor MgFnr controls magnetite biomineralization by regulation of denitrification in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense  

PubMed Central

Background Magnetotactic bacteria are capable of synthesizing magnetosomes only under oxygen-limited conditions. However, the mechanism of the aerobic repression on magnetite biomineralization has remained unknown. In Escherichia coli and other bacteria, Fnr (fumarate and nitrate reduction regulator) proteins are known to be involved in controlling the switch between microaerobic and aerobic metabolism. Here, we report on an Fnr-like protein (MgFnr) and its role in growth metabolism and magnetite biomineralization in the alphaproteobacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. Results Deletion of Mgfnr not only resulted in decreased N2 production due to reduced N2O reductase activity, but also impaired magnetite biomineralization under microaerobic conditions in the presence of nitrate. Overexpression of MgFnr in the WT also caused the synthesis of smaller magnetite particles under anaerobic and microaerobic conditions in the presence of nitrate. These data suggest that proper expression of MgFnr is required for WT-like magnetosome synthesis, which is regulated by oxygen. Analyses of transcriptional gusA reporter fusions revealed that besides showing similar properties to Fnr proteins reported in other bacteria, MgFnr is involved in the repression of the expression of denitrification genes nor and nosZ under aerobic conditions, possibly owing to several unique amino acid residues specific to MTB-Fnr. Conclusions We have identified and thoroughly characterized the first regulatory protein mediating denitrification growth and magnetite biomineralization in response to different oxygen conditions in a magnetotactic bacterium. Our findings reveal that the global oxygen regulator MgFnr is a genuine O2 sensor. It is involved in controlling expression of denitrification genes and thereby plays an indirect role in maintaining proper redox conditions required for magnetite biomineralization. PMID:24915802

2014-01-01

166

Controlled oxygen vacancy induced p-type conductivity in HfO{sub 2-x} thin films  

SciTech Connect

We have synthesized highly oxygen deficient HfO{sub 2-x} thin films by controlled oxygen engineering using reactive molecular beam epitaxy. Above a threshold value of oxygen vacancies, p-type conductivity sets in with up to 6 times 10{sup 21} charge carriers per cm{sup 3}. At the same time, the band-gap is reduced continuously by more than 1 eV. We suggest an oxygen vacancy induced p-type defect band as origin of the observed behavior.

Hildebrandt, Erwin; Kurian, Jose; Mueller, Mathis M.; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim; Alff, Lambert [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Schroeder, Thomas [IHP, 15236 Frankfurt/Oder (Germany)

2011-09-12

167

Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs on lettuce.  

PubMed

Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), is a quarantined pest in most countries. Its establishment in California and potential spread to other parts of the state and beyond make it urgent to develop effective postharvest treatments to control the pest on fresh commodities. Fumigation with cylindered phosphine at low temperature has emerged to be a practical methyl bromide alternative treatment for postharvest pest control on fresh commodities. However, its use to control E. postvittana eggs on sensitive commodities such as lettuce is problematic. E. postvittana eggs are tolerant of phosphine and long phosphine treatment also injures lettuce. In the current study, E. postvittana eggs were subjected to oxygenated phosphine fumigations to develop an effective treatment at a low storage temperature of 2 degrees C. In addition, soda lime as a CO2 absorbent was tested to determine its effects in reducing and preventing injuries to lettuce associated with phosphine fumigations. Three-day fumigation with 1,000 ppm phosphine under 60% O2 achieved 100% mortality of E. postvittana eggs in small-scale laboratory tests. In the presence of the CO2 absorbent, a 3-d large-scale fumigation of lettuce with 1,700 ppm phosphine under 60% O2 resulted in a relative egg mortality of 99.96% without any negative effect on lettuce quality. The 3-d fumigation treatment without the CO2 absorbent, however, resulted in significant injuries to lettuce and consequential quality reductions. The study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation has the potential to control E. postvittana eggs and the CO2 absorbent has the potential to prevent injuries and quality reductions of lettuce associated with long-term oxygenated phosphine fumigation. PMID:25195424

Liu, Samuel S; Liu, Yong-Biao; Simmons, Gregory S

2014-08-01

168

Trim coil effect of EBIS MEBIT quad 1. Modified design of the EBIS MEBIT quad  

E-print Network

. The thicker yoke reduces the operating current from 2710A/cm2 to 2257A/cm2 to give same g x l value. The coil current with trim coil · Half current · Half current with trim coil · Only trim coil 3. Deflection angle.0 mrad deflection angle. The trim coil field induce 240 Gauss with 13.5cm effective length. This value

169

CONTROLLED FIELD STUDY ON THE USE OF NITRATE AND OXYGEN FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF A GASOLINE SOURCE ZONE  

EPA Science Inventory

Controlled releases of unleaded gasoline were used to evaluate the biotransformation of the soluble aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene isomers, trimethylbenzene isomers, and naphthalene) within a source zone using nitrate and oxygen as electron accepto...

170

The Stroke Oxygen Pilot Study: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effects of Routine Oxygen Supplementation Early after Acute Stroke--Effect on Key Outcomes at Six Months  

PubMed Central

Introduction Post-stroke hypoxia is common, and may adversely affect outcome. We have recently shown that oxygen supplementation may improve early neurological recovery. Here, we report the six-month outcomes of this pilot study. Methods Patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute stroke were randomized within 24 h of admission to oxygen supplementation at 2 or 3 L/min for 72 h or to control treatment (room air). Outcomes (see below) were assessed by postal questionnaire at 6 months. Analysis was by intention-to-treat, and statistical significance was set at p?0.05. Results Out of 301 patients randomized two refused/withdrew consent and 289 (148 in the oxygen and 141 in the control group) were included in the analysis: males 44%, 51%; mean (SD) age 73 (12), 71 (12); median (IQR) National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score 6 (3, 10), 5 (3, 10) for the two groups respectively. At six months 22 (15%) patients in the oxygen group and 20 (14%) in the control group had died; mean survival in both groups was 162 days (p?=?0.99). Median (IQR) scores for the primary outcome, the modified Rankin Scale, were 3 (1, 5) and 3 (1, 4) for the oxygen and control groups respectively. The covariate-adjusted odds ratio was 1.04 (95% CI 0.67, 1.60), indicating that the odds of a lower (i.e. better) score were non-significantly higher in the oxygen group (p?=?0.86). The mean differences in the ability to perform basic (Barthel Index) and extended activities of daily living (NEADL), and quality of life (EuroQol) were also non-significant. Conclusions None of the key outcomes differed at 6 months between the groups. Although not statistically significant and generally of small magnitude, the effects were predominantly in favour of the oxygen group; a larger trial, powered to show differences in longer-term functional outcomes, is now on-going. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN12362720; Eudract.ema.europa.eu 2004-001866-41 PMID:23755093

Ali, Khalid; Warusevitane, Anushka; Lally, Frank; Sim, Julius; Sills, Sheila; Pountain, Sarah; Nevatte, Tracy; Allen, Martin; Roffe, Christine

2013-01-01

171

Human classical monocytes control the intracellular stage of Leishmania braziliensis by reactive oxygen species.  

PubMed

Leishmania braziliensis are intracellular parasites that cause unique clinical forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Previous studies with other leishmania species demonstrated that reactive oxygen species (ROS) control promastigotes, the infective stage of the parasite, but not the amastigote form that exists in the mammalian host. Here we show that ROS inhibits growth of L. braziliensis amastigotes in resting monocytes, and that classical monocytes are primarily responsible for this control. ROS, but not nitric oxide, also contributed to killing of L. braziliensis by IFN-? activated monocytes. Furthermore, by gene expression profiling of human lesions we found greater expression of genes associated with ROS, but not nitric oxide, compared to normal skin. This study shows that ROS are important for control of L. braziliensis both at the initial stages of infection, as well as at later time points, and highlights that monocyte subsets may play different roles during leishmaniasis. PMID:24403561

Novais, Fernanda O; Nguyen, Ba T; Beiting, Daniel P; Carvalho, Lucas P; Glennie, Nelson D; Passos, Sara; Carvalho, Edgar M; Scott, Phillip

2014-04-15

172

Feasibility and reliability of an automated controller of inspired oxygen concentration during mechanical ventilation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Hypoxemia and high fractions of inspired oxygen (FiO2) are concerns in critically ill patients. An automated FiO2 controller based on continuous oxygen saturation (SpO2) measurement was tested. Two different SpO2-FiO2 feedback open loops, designed to react differently based on the level of hypoxemia, were compared. The results of the FiO2 controller were also compared with a historical control group. Methods The system measures SpO2, compares with a target range (92% to 96%), and proposes in real time FiO2 settings to maintain SpO2 within target. In 20 patients under mechanical ventilation, two different FiO2-SpO2 open loops were applied by a dedicated research nurse during 3 hours, each in random order. The times spent in and outside the target SpO2 values were measured. The results of the automatic controller were then compared with a retrospective control group of 30 ICU patients. SpO2-FiO2 values of the control group were collected over three different periods of 6 hours. Results Time in the target range was higher than 95% with the controller. When the 20 patients were separated according to the median PaO2/FiO2 (160(133-176) mm Hg versus 239(201-285)), the loop with the highest slope was slightly better (P?=?0.047) for the more-hypoxemic patients. Hyperoxemia and hypoxemia durations were significantly shorter with the controller compared with usual care: SpO2 target range was reached 90% versus 24%, 27% and 32% (P?controller, compared with three historical control-group periods. Conclusion A specific FiO2 controller is able to maintain SpO2 reliably within a predefined target range. Two different feedback loops can be used, depending on the initial PaO2/FiO2; with both, the automatic controller showed excellent performance when compared with usual care. PMID:24552490

2014-01-01

173

Control of oxygen octahedral rotations and physical properties in SrRuO3 films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Control of octahedral rotations in the ABO3 perovskite oxides has been of great interest due to its potential in rationally discovering and designing new multifunctional phases. In this study, we show that octahedral rotations of the SrRuO3 films can be controlled by oxygen vacancies as well as by interfacial coupling, which further determines the physical properties. Half-integer reflections using high-resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction were carried out to determine the octahedral rotation pattern of SrRuO3 films on SrTiO3 substrates. The transition of RuO6 rotation pattern accompanied by the structural change from monoclinic P21/m to tetragonal F4/mmc can be understood from the preference of oxygen vacancies in the SrO atomic plane and the coupling of octahedra across the interface between film and substrate. The field angle dependence of magnetoresistance further confirmed the structural phase transition with changes in octahedral rotations. The monoclinic phase has the uniaxial magnetic easy axis 30° away from the [001] direction towards the [010] direction while the tetragonal phase has uniaxial magnetic easy axis along the fourfold axis which is perpendicular to the film surface. This study demonstrates the ability to control the octahedral rotations in perovskite films and its importance when designing thin films and multilayers with desired functional property.

Lu, Wenlai; Yang, Ping; Song, Wen Dong; Chow, Gan Moog; Chen, Jing Sheng

2013-12-01

174

Oxygen analyzer  

DOEpatents

An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

Benner, William H. (Danville, CA)

1986-01-01

175

Coordination of Heart Attack Care Trims Time to Treatment  

MedlinePLUS

... on this page, please enable JavaScript. Coordination of Heart Attack Care Trims Time to Treatment: Study Survival rates ... 19, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Emergency Medical Services Heart Attack WEDNESDAY, Nov. 19, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- Improved coordination ...

176

A Note About HARP's State Trimming Method Ricky W. Butler  

E-print Network

A Note About HARP's State Trimming Method by Ricky W. Butler Kelly J. Hayhurst Sally C. Johnson NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA 23681­001 Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Overview of the Harp 2.2 Introduction to HARP User­Interface : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4 3

Butler, Ricky W.

177

Postfabrication Electrical Trimming of Silicon Micromechanical Resonators via Joule Heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method to electrically trim the resonance frequency of a silicon bulk acoustic resonator (SiBAR) after its fabrication is completed. The small volume of the mi- croresonator can be Joule heated to a sufficiently high temperature to allow for diffusion of deposited metals from its surface onto its bulk. Such high temperatures also facilitate the formation of

Ashwin K. Samarao; Farrokh Ayazi

2011-01-01

178

[Serious mistakes in hoof trimming of cattle by the layman].  

PubMed

Observations on the clinic showed a high frequency (round 20%) of toes in cattle, damaged by non-professional claw-trimming. Various types of mistakes are shown by examples and the severity of the subsequent diseases is emphasized. Increased instruction of qualified persons for the care of the claw could relief the problems. PMID:4071528

Reicher, R

1985-01-01

179

Measuring Core Inflation for Turkey - Trimmed Means Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is one of the the pioneers in measuring the core inflation for Turkey and uses the methodology developed by Bryan, Cecchetti and Wiggins II (1997). As the price change distributions are not normally distributed, weighted sample means are not the efficient estimators of inflation. In such leptokurtic distributions trimmed means provide statistically more efficient estimators of inflation. For

Pelin Berkmen

2002-01-01

180

Trimmed Means in Split-Plot Repeated Measurement Designs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Welch-James (WJ) and Improved General Approximation (IGA) tests for the within-subjects main and interaction effects in a split-plot repeated measurement design were investigated when least squares estimates and robust estimates based on trimmed means were used. Variables manipulated in the Monte Carlo study included the degree of multivariate…

Lix, Lisa M.; And Others

181

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

2003-05-15

182

Circadian Clock Control of Nox4 and Reactive Oxygen Species in the Vasculature  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have shown that circadian clock disruption is associated with pathological remodeling in the arterial structure and vascular stiffness. Moreover, chronic circadian disruption is associated with dysfunction in endothelial responses and signaling. Reactive oxygen species have emerged as key regulators in vascular pathology. Previously, we have demonstrated that circadian clock dysfunction exacerbates superoxide production through eNOS uncoupling. To date, the impact of circadian clock mutation on vascular NADPH oxidase expression and function is not known. The goal in the current study was to determine if the circadian clock controls vascular Nox4 expression and hydrogen peroxide formation in arteries, particularly in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. In aorta, there was an increase in hydrogen peroxide and Nox4 expression in mice with a dysfunctional circadian rhythm (Bmal1-KO mice). In addition, the Nox4 gene promoter is activated by the core circadian transcription factors. Lastly, in synchronized cultured human endothelial cells, Nox4 gene expression exhibited rhythmic oscillations. These data reveal that the circadian clock plays an important role in the control of Nox4 and disruption of the clock leads to subsequent production of reaction oxygen species. PMID:24205282

Chen, Feng; Ali, M. Irfan; Hart, C. Michael M.; Stepp, David W.; Kovalenkov, Yevgeniy O.; Merloiu, Ana-Maria; Pati, Paramita; Fulton, David; Rudic, R. Daniel

2013-01-01

183

Circadian clock control of Nox4 and reactive oxygen species in the vasculature.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that circadian clock disruption is associated with pathological remodeling in the arterial structure and vascular stiffness. Moreover, chronic circadian disruption is associated with dysfunction in endothelial responses and signaling. Reactive oxygen species have emerged as key regulators in vascular pathology. Previously, we have demonstrated that circadian clock dysfunction exacerbates superoxide production through eNOS uncoupling. To date, the impact of circadian clock mutation on vascular NADPH oxidase expression and function is not known. The goal in the current study was to determine if the circadian clock controls vascular Nox4 expression and hydrogen peroxide formation in arteries, particularly in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. In aorta, there was an increase in hydrogen peroxide and Nox4 expression in mice with a dysfunctional circadian rhythm (Bmal1-KO mice). In addition, the Nox4 gene promoter is activated by the core circadian transcription factors. Lastly, in synchronized cultured human endothelial cells, Nox4 gene expression exhibited rhythmic oscillations. These data reveal that the circadian clock plays an important role in the control of Nox4 and disruption of the clock leads to subsequent production of reaction oxygen species. PMID:24205282

Anea, Ciprian B; Zhang, Maoxiang; Chen, Feng; Ali, M Irfan; Hart, C Michael M; Stepp, David W; Kovalenkov, Yevgeniy O; Merloiu, Ana-Maria; Pati, Paramita; Fulton, David; Rudic, R Daniel

2013-01-01

184

Method of controlling injection of oxygen into hydrogen-rich fuel cell feed stream  

DOEpatents

A method of operating a H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 fuel cell fueled by hydrogen-rich fuel stream containing CO. The CO content is reduced to acceptable levels by injecting oxygen into the fuel gas stream. The amount of oxygen injected is controlled in relation to the CO content of the fuel gas, by a control strategy that involves (a) determining the CO content of the fuel stream at a first injection rate, (b) increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate, (c) determining the CO content of the stream at the higher injection rate, (d) further increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is lower than the first measured CO content or reducing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is greater than the first measured CO content, and (e) repeating steps a-d as needed to optimize CO consumption and minimize H.sub.2 consumption.

Meltser, Mark Alexander (Pittsford, NY); Gutowski, Stanley (Pittsford, NY); Weisbrod, Kirk (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-01-01

185

Antioxidant-photosensitizer dual-loaded polymeric micelles with controllable production of reactive oxygen species.  

PubMed

Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(caprolactone) (PEG-b-PCL) micelles dually loaded with both pheophorbide a (PhA) as a photosensitizer and ?-carotene (CAR) as a singlet oxygen ((1)O2) scavenger were designed to control photodynamic therapy (PDT) activity in cancer treatment. The CAR in the PhA/CAR micelles significantly diminished PhA-generated (1)O2 through direct (1)O2 scavenging, whereas the CAR molecules lost their (1)O2 scavenging activity when the PhA and CAR were spatially isolated by the disintegration of the PEG-b-PCL micelles. In cell-culture systems, light irradiation at a post-treatment time that corresponded to the presence of the micelles in the blood environment induced negligible phototoxicity, whereas light irradiation at a post-treatment time that corresponded to the presence of the micelles in the intracellular environment induced remarkable phototoxicity. In addition, a longer post-treatment time induced greater internalization of PhA/CAR micelles, which resulted in higher phototoxicity, suggesting an increase in photo killing activity against the tumor cells of interest. Thus, the co-loading of a (1)O2 generator and a (1)O2 scavenger into a single micelle is a potential strategy that may be useful in facilitating more accurate and reliable PDT with site-specific controllable production of singlet oxygen species for cancer treatment. PMID:24939615

Li, Li; Cho, Hana; Yoon, Kwon Hyeok; Kang, Han Chang; Huh, Kang Moo

2014-08-25

186

Room temperature alcohol sensing by oxygen vacancy controlled TiO2 nanotube array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen vacancy (OV) controlled TiO2 nanotubes, having diameters of 50-70 nm and lengths of 200-250 nm, were synthesized by electrochemical anodization in the mixed electrolyte comprising NH4F and ethylene glycol with selective H2O content. The structural evolution of TiO2 nanoforms has been studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Variation in the formation of OVs with the variation of the structure of TiO2 nanoforms has been evaluated by photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sensor characteristics were correlated to the variation of the amount of induced OVs in the nanotubes. The efficient room temperature sensing achieved by the control of OVs of TiO2 nanotube array has paved the way for developing fast responding alcohol sensor with corresponding response magnitude of 60.2%, 45.3%, and 36.5% towards methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, respectively.

Hazra, A.; Dutta, K.; Bhowmik, B.; Chattopadhyay, P. P.; Bhattacharyya, P.

2014-08-01

187

TRIM56 Is an Essential Component of the TLR3 Antiviral Signaling Pathway*  

PubMed Central

Members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins are being recognized as important regulators of host innate immunity. However, specific TRIMs that contribute to TLR3-mediated antiviral defense have not been identified. We show here that TRIM56 is a positive regulator of TLR3 signaling. Overexpression of TRIM56 substantially potentiated extracellular dsRNA-induced expression of interferon (IFN)-? and interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), while knockdown of TRIM56 greatly impaired activation of IRF3, induction of IFN-? and ISGs, and establishment of an antiviral state by TLR3 ligand and severely compromised TLR3-mediated chemokine induction following infection by hepatitis C virus. The ability to promote TLR3 signaling was independent of the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of TRIM56. Rather, it correlated with a physical interaction between TRIM56 and TRIF. Deletion of the C-terminal portion of TRIM56 abrogated the TRIM56-TRIF interaction as well as the augmentation of TLR3-mediated IFN response. Together, our data demonstrate TRIM56 is an essential component of the TLR3 antiviral signaling pathway and reveal a novel role for TRIM56 in innate antiviral immunity. PMID:22948160

Shen, Yang; Li, Nan L.; Wang, Jie; Liu, Baoming; Lester, Sandra; Li, Kui

2012-01-01

188

TRIM5{alpha} association with cytoplasmic bodies is not required for antiretroviral activity  

SciTech Connect

The tripartite motif (TRIM) protein, TRIM5{alpha}, restricts infection by particular retroviruses. Many TRIM proteins form cytoplasmic bodies of unknown function. We investigated the relationship between cytoplasmic body formation and the structure and antiretroviral activity of TRIM5{alpha}. In addition to diffuse cytoplasmic staining, the TRIM5{alpha} proteins from several primate species were located in cytoplasmic bodies of different sizes; by contrast, TRIM5{alpha} from spider monkeys did not form cytoplasmic bodies. Despite these differences, all of the TRIM5{alpha} proteins exhibited the ability to restrict infection by particular retroviruses. Treatment of cells with geldanamycin, an Hsp90 inhibitor, resulted in disappearance or reduction of the TRIM5{alpha}-associated cytoplasmic bodies, yet exerted little effect on the restriction of retroviral infection. Studies of green fluorescent protein-TRIM5{alpha} fusion proteins indicated that no TRIM5{alpha} domain is specifically required for association with cytoplasmic bodies. Apparently, the formation of cytoplasmic bodies is not required for the antiretroviral activity of TRIM5{alpha}.

Song, Byeongwoon [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Diaz-Griffero, Felipe [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Park, Do Hyun [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Rogers, Thomas [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Stremlau, Matthew [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Sodroski, Joseph [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States) and Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)]. E-mail: joseph_sodroski@dfci.harvard.edu

2005-12-20

189

Control of plasma properties in capacitively coupled oxygen discharges via the electrical asymmetry effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a combined experimental, numerical and analytical approach, we investigate the control of plasma properties via the electrical asymmetry effect (EAE) in a capacitively coupled oxygen discharge. In particular, we present the first experimental investigation of the EAE in electronegative discharges. A dual-frequency voltage source of 13.56 MHz and 27.12 MHz is applied to the powered electrode and the discharge symmetry is controlled by adjusting the phase angle ? between the two harmonics. It is found that the bulk position and density profiles of positive ions, negative ions, and electrons have a clear dependence on ?, while the peak densities and the electronegativity stay rather constant, largely due to the fact that the time-averaged power absorption by electrons is almost independent of ?. This indicates that the ion flux towards the powered electrode remains almost constant. Meanwhile, the dc self-bias and, consequently, the sheath widths and potential profile can be effectively tuned by varying ?. This enables a flexible control of the ion bombarding energy at the electrode. Therefore, our work proves the effectiveness of the EAE to realize separate control of ion flux and ion energy in electronegative discharges. At low pressure, the strength of resonance oscillations, which are found in the current of asymmetric discharges, can be controlled with ?.

Schüngel, E.; Zhang, Q.-Z.; Iwashita, S.; Schulze, J.; Hou, L.-J.; Wang, Y.-N.; Czarnetzki, U.

2011-07-01

190

Microbioreactor arrays with integrated mixers and fluid injectors for high-throughput experimentation with pH and dissolved oxygen control{  

E-print Network

experimentation with pH and dissolved oxygen control{ Harry L. T. Lee,a Paolo Boccazzi,b Rajeev J. Ram21 ) without introducing bubbles, and closed loop control over dissolved oxygen and pH (¡0, with 100 mL working volume, comprising a peristaltic oxygenating mixer and microfluidic injectors

Sinskey, Anthony J.

191

Physical and chemical analyses of separable lean of beef retail cuts with different external fat trim levels  

E-print Network

of four treatments: (1) 0.3 cm external fat trim, raw; (2) 0.0 cm external fat trim, cooked; (3) 0.3 cm external fat trim, cooked; and (4) 0.6 cm external fat trim, cooked. Retail cuts assigned to the cooked treatment were either braised, broiled...

Wahrmund, Jennifer Lyn

2012-06-07

192

Dissolved oxygen controller based on on-line measurements of ammonium combining feed-forward and feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract As the largest single energy-consuming component,in most biological wastewater treatment systems, control of aeration is of great interest seen from an energy savings point of view. This paper suggests asimple way of using on-line ammonium,measurements,to control aeration in a pre-denitrification plant by controlling the dissolved oxygen setpoint. The controller works primarily by feed-forward based on an ammonium,sensor located at

P. ingildsen; U. Jeppsson; G. Olsson

193

Quantitative and temporal control of oxygen microenvironment at the single islet level  

PubMed Central

Simultaneous oxygenation and monitoring of glucose stimulus-secretion coupling factors in a single technique is critical for modeling pathophysiological states of islet hypoxia, especially in transplant environments. Standard hypoxic chamber techniques cannot modulate both stimulations at the same time nor provide real-time monitoring of glucose stimulus-secretion coupling factors. To address these difficulties, we applied a multilayered microfluidic technique to integrate both aqueous and gas phase modulations via a diffusion membrane. This creates a stimulation sandwich around the microscaled islets within the transparent polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device, enabling monitoring of the aforementioned coupling factors via fluorescence microscopy. Additionally, the gas input is controlled by a pair of microdispensers, providing quantitative, sub-minute modulations of oxygen between 0 and 21%. This intermittent hypoxia is applied to investigate a new phenomenon of islet preconditioning. Moreover, armed with multimodal microscopy, we were able to look at detailed calcium and KATP channel dynamics during these hypoxic events. We envision microfluidic hypoxia, especially this simultaneous dual phase technique, as a valuable tool in studying islets as well as many ex vivo tissues. PMID:24299958

Lo, Joe F.; Wang, Yong; Eddington, David T.; Oberholzer, Jose

2014-01-01

194

Oxygen-controlled phase segregation in poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)/laponite nanocomposite hydrogels.  

PubMed

The combination of nanoparticles and polymers into nanocomposite gels has been shown to be a promising route to creating soft materials with new or improved properties. In the present work, we have made use of Laponite nanoparticles in combination with a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAM) polymer and describe a phenomenon taking place during the polymerization and gelling of this system. The presence of small amounts of oxygen in the process induces two distinctly separated phases, one polymer-rich and one polymer-deficient water-clay phase. Complex interactions among clay, oxygen, and the polymer are found to govern the behavior of these phases. It is also observed that the initial clay concentration can be used to control the volume fraction of the polymer-deficient phase directly. The dynamics of the phase boundary is found to be dependent on water penetration and in general to exhibit non-Fickian behavior. An approach using video recording to monitor hydrogel swelling is also presented, and its advantages are addressed. PMID:23210524

Mauroy, Henrik; Rozynek, Zbigniew; Plivelic, Tomás S; Fossum, Jon Otto; Helgesen, Geir; Knudsen, Kenneth D

2013-01-01

195

Control of the oxygen dependence of an implantable polymer/enzyme composite biosensor for glutamate.  

PubMed

Biosensors for glutamate (Glu) were fabricated from Teflon-coated Pt wire (cylinders and disks), modified with the enzyme glutamate oxidase (GluOx) and electrosynthesized polymer PPD, poly(o-phenylenediamine). The polymer/enzyme layer was deposited in two configurations: enzyme before polymer (GluOx/PPD) and enzyme after polymer (PPD/GluOx). These four biosensor designs were characterized in terms of response time, limit of detection, Michaelis-Menten parameters for Glu (J max and K(M)(Glu)), sensitivity to Glu in the linear response region, and dependence on oxygen concentration, K(M)(O2). Analysis showed that the two polymer/enzyme configurations behaved similarly on both cylinders and disks. Although the two geometries showed different behaviors, these differences could be explained in terms of higher enzyme loading density on the disks; in many analyses, the four designs behaved like a single population with a range of GluOx loading. Enzyme loading was the key to controlling the K(M)(O2) values of these first generation biosensors. The counterintuitive, and beneficial, behavior that biosensors with higher GluOx loading displayed a lower oxygen dependence was explained in terms of the effects of enzyme loading on the affinity of GluOx for its anionic substrate. Some differences between the properties of surface immobilized GluOx and glucose oxidase are highlighted. PMID:16579619

McMahon, Colm P; Rocchitta, Gaia; Serra, Pier A; Kirwan, Sarah M; Lowry, John P; O'Neill, Robert D

2006-04-01

196

Quantitative and temporal control of oxygen microenvironment at the single islet level.  

PubMed

Simultaneous oxygenation and monitoring of glucose stimulus-secretion coupling factors in a single technique is critical for modeling pathophysiological states of islet hypoxia, especially in transplant environments. Standard hypoxic chamber techniques cannot modulate both stimulations at the same time nor provide real-time monitoring of glucose stimulus-secretion coupling factors. To address these difficulties, we applied a multilayered microfluidic technique to integrate both aqueous and gas phase modulations via a diffusion membrane. This creates a stimulation sandwich around the microscaled islets within the transparent polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device, enabling monitoring of the aforementioned coupling factors via fluorescence microscopy. Additionally, the gas input is controlled by a pair of microdispensers, providing quantitative, sub-minute modulations of oxygen between 0-21%. This intermittent hypoxia is applied to investigate a new phenomenon of islet preconditioning. Moreover, armed with multimodal microscopy, we were able to look at detailed calcium and KATP channel dynamics during these hypoxic events. We envision microfluidic hypoxia, especially this simultaneous dual phase technique, as a valuable tool in studying islets as well as many ex vivo tissues. PMID:24299958

Lo, Joe Fu-Jiou; Wang, Yong; Li, Zidong; Zhao, Zhengtuo; Hu, Di; Eddington, David T; Oberholzer, Jose

2013-01-01

197

Oxygen-Controlled Three-Dimensional Cultures to Analyze Tumor Angiogenesis  

PubMed Central

Tumor angiogenesis is controlled by the integrated action of physicochemical and biological cues; however, the individual contributions of these cues are not well understood. We have designed alginate-based microscale tumor models to define the distinct importance of oxygen concentration, culture dimensionality, and cell–extracellular matrix interactions on the angiogenic capability of oral squamous cell carcinoma, and have verified the relevance of our findings with U87 glioblastoma cells. Our results revealed qualitative differences in the microenvironmental regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) secretion in three-dimensional (3D) culture. Specifically, IL-8 secretion was highest under ambient conditions, whereas VEGF secretion was highest in hypoxic cultures. Additionally, 3D integrin engagement by RGD-modified alginate matrices increased IL-8 secretion independently of oxygen, whereas VEGF secretion was only moderately affected by cell–extracellular matrix interactions. Using two-dimensional migration assays and a new 3D tumor angiogenesis model, we demonstrated that the resulting angiogenic signaling promotes tumor angiogenesis by increasing endothelial cell migration and invasion. Collectively, tissue-engineered tumor models improve our understanding of tumor angiogenesis, which may ultimately advance anticancer therapies. PMID:20214469

Verbridge, Scott S.; Choi, Nak Won; Zheng, Ying; Brooks, Daniel J.; Stroock, Abraham D.

2010-01-01

198

The Stroke Oxygen Study (SO2S) - a multi-center, study to assess whether routine oxygen treatment in the first 72 hours after a stroke improves long-term outcome: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Mild hypoxia is common in stroke patients and may have significant adverse effects on the ischemic brain after stroke. The use of oxygen treatment is rapidly increasing in European stroke units but is not without side effects. It impedes early mobilization, could pose an infection risk, and may encourage the formation of toxic free radicals, leading to further damage to the ischemic brain. In the Stroke Oxygen Pilot Study (2 or 3 L/min for 72 hours) neurological recovery at one week was better in the oxygen group than in controls, and after correction for difference in baseline stroke severity and prognostic factors, there was a trend to better outcome with oxygen at six months. Oxygen was as effective in mild as in severe strokes. Oxygen saturation is lower at night than during the day, and episodes of oxygen desaturation are common during sleep. Nocturnal oxygen supplementation is likely to reduce the burden of hypoxia without interfering with daytime mobilization and rehabilitation. Before wider use of oxygen supplementation becomes established it is important to obtain better evidence on which patients benefit from such treatment. Methods Participants will be randomized to one of three groups: the first will receive continuous oxygen for 72 hours (at a rate of 2 or 3 L/min depending on baseline oxygen saturation), the second group will receive nocturnal oxygen only (at a rate of 2 or 3 L/min depending on baseline oxygen saturation) and the third group will not receive any oxygen (control). A baseline assessment is performed at randomization and a one-week follow-up completed. Outcome data at three, six and twelve months will be obtained via a questionnaire sent to the patient by the trial center. Discussion This study will provide evidence on the effectiveness of oxygen supplementation for the treatment of stroke and whether nocturnal oxygen is a potentially beneficial therapy regimen. Trial registration This trial is registered with the ISRCTN register ID number ISRCTN52416964 PMID:24684940

2014-01-01

199

PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CONTROLS ON DISSOLVED OXYGEN DYNAMICS IN PENSACOLA BAY, FL  

EPA Science Inventory

Nutrient enrichment of estuaries and coastal waters can contribute to hypoxia (low dissolved oxygen) by increasing primary production and biological oxygen demand. Other factors, however, contribute to hypoxia and affect the susceptibility of coastal waters to hypoxia. Hypoxia fo...

200

A remote automated system for a case study of dissolved oxygen monitoring and control  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dissolved oxygen is one of important factors to evaluate the quality of water. Currently, various aeration and oxygenation devices have been developed for increasing its oxygen concentrations in water. However, the operations of those devices usually depend on the human operation with experience. In this study, we have developed a PC-based virtual instrument (VI) system using LabVIEW, which can

Hsiung-Cheng Lin; Liang-Tsung Huang; Lien-Fu Lai; Yin-Fan Chi

2009-01-01

201

Oxygen Profile. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The oxygen profile procedure is a means of measuring the oxygen concentration at various locations in a basin. By dividing the surface of a basin into sections and then establishing sample points on the surface, at mid-depth, and near the bottom, a waste water treatment plant operator can measure and plot dissolved oxygen data which can be plotted…

Wooley, John F.

202

Spectral semi-blind deconvolution with least trimmed squares regularization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spectral semi-blind deconvolution with least trimmed squares regularization (SBD-LTS) is proposed to improve spectral resolution. Firstly, the regularization term about the spectrum data is modeled as the form of least trimmed squares, which can help to preserve the peak details better. Then the regularization term about the PSF is modeled as L1-norm to enhance the stability of kernel estimation. The cost function of SBD-LTS is formulated and the numerical solution processes are deduced for deconvolving the spectra and estimating the PSF. The deconvolution results of simulated infrared spectra demonstrate that the proposed SBD-LTS can recover the spectrum effectively and estimate the PSF accurately, as well as has a merit on preserving the details, especially in the case of noise. The deconvolution result of experimental Raman spectrum indicates that SBD-LTS can resolve the spectrum and improve the resolution effectively.

Deng, Lizhen; Zhu, Hu

2014-11-01

203

TRIM50 Protein Regulates Vesicular Trafficking for Acid Secretion in Gastric Parietal Cells*  

PubMed Central

Of the TRIM/RBCC family proteins taking part in a variety of cellular processes, TRIM50 is a stomach-specific member with no defined biological function. Our biochemical data demonstrated that TRIM50 is specifically expressed in gastric parietal cells and is predominantly localized in the tubulovesicular and canalicular membranes. In cultured cells ectopically expressing GFP-TRIM50, confocal microscopic imaging revealed dynamic movement of TRIM50-associated vesicles in a phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent manner. A protein overlay assay detected preferential binding of the PRY-SPRY domain from the TRIM50 C-terminal region to phosphatidylinositol species, suggesting that TRIM50 is involved in vesicular dynamics by sensing the phosphorylated state of phosphoinositol lipids. Trim50 knock-out mice retained normal histology in the gastric mucosa but exhibited impaired secretion of gastric acid. In response to histamine, Trim50 knock-out parietal cells generated deranged canaliculi, swollen microvilli lacking actin filaments, and excess multilamellar membrane complexes. Therefore, TRIM50 seems to play an essential role in tubulovesicular dynamics, promoting the formation of sophisticated canaliculi and microvilli during acid secretion in parietal cells. PMID:22872646

Nishi, Miyuki; Aoyama, Fumiyo; Kisa, Fumihiko; Zhu, Hua; Sun, Mingzhai; Lin, Peihui; Ohta, Hiroya; Van, Bo; Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Kakizawa, Sho; Sakai, Hideki; Ma, Jianjie; Sawaguchi, Akira; Takeshima, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

204

Streptococcus mutans NADH oxidase lies at the intersection of overlapping regulons controlled by oxygen and NAD+ levels.  

PubMed

NADH oxidase (Nox, encoded by nox) is a flavin-containing enzyme used by the oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans to reduce diatomic oxygen to water while oxidizing NADH to NAD(+). The critical nature of Nox is 2-fold: it serves to regenerate NAD(+), a carbon cycle metabolite, and to reduce intracellular oxygen, preventing formation of destructive reactive oxygen species (ROS). As oxygen and NAD(+) have been shown to modulate the activity of the global transcription factors Spx and Rex, respectively, Nox is potentially poised at a critical junction of two stress regulons. In this study, microarray data showed that either addition of oxygen or loss of nox resulted in altered expression of genes involved in energy metabolism and transport and the upregulation of genes encoding ROS-metabolizing enzymes. Loss of nox also resulted in upregulation of several genes encoding transcription factors and signaling molecules, including the redox-sensing regulator gene rex. Characterization of the nox promoter revealed that nox was regulated by oxygen, through SpxA, and by Rex. These data suggest a regulatory loop in which the roles of nox in reduction of oxygen and regeneration of NAD(+) affect the activity levels of Spx and Rex, respectively, and their regulons, which control several genes, including nox, crucial to growth of S. mutans under conditions of oxidative stress. PMID:24682329

Baker, J L; Derr, A M; Karuppaiah, K; MacGilvray, M E; Kajfasz, J K; Faustoferri, R C; Rivera-Ramos, I; Bitoun, J P; Lemos, J A; Wen, Z T; Quivey, R G

2014-06-01

205

TRIM37 defective in mulibrey nanism is a novel RING finger ubiquitin E3 ligase  

SciTech Connect

Mulibrey nanism is an autosomal recessive prenatal-onset growth disorder characterized by dysmorphic features, cardiomyopathy, and hepatomegaly. Mutations in TRIM37 encoding a tripartite motif (TRIM, RING-B-box-coiled-coil)-family protein underlie mulibrey nanism. We investigated the ubiquitin ligase activity predicted for the RING domain of TRIM37 by analyzing its autoubiquitination. Full-length TRIM37 and its TRIM domain were highly polyubiquitinated when co-expressed with ubiquitin. Polyubiquitination was decreased in a mutant protein with disrupted RING domain (Cys35Ser;Cys36Ser) and in the Leu76Pro mutant protein, a disease-associated missense mutation affecting the TRIM domain of TRIM37. Bacterially produced GST-TRIM domain fusion protein, but not its Cys35Ser;Cys36Ser or Leu76Pro mutants, were polyubiquitinated in cell-free conditions, implying RING-dependent modification. Ubiquitin was also identified as an interaction partner for TRIM37 in a yeast two-hybrid screen. Ectopically expressed TRIM37 rapidly formed aggregates that were ubiquitin-, proteasome subunit-, and chaperone-positive in immunofluorescence analysis, defining them as aggresomes. The Cys35Ser;Cys36Ser mutant and the Leu76Pro and Gly322Val patient mutant proteins were markedly less prone to aggregation, implying that aggresomal targeting reflects a physiological function of TRIM37. These findings suggest that TRIM37 acts as a TRIM domain-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase and imply defective ubiquitin-dependent degradation of an as-yet-unidentified target protein in the pathogenesis of mulibrey nanism.

Kallijaervi, Jukka [Folkhaelsan Institute of Genetics, Department of Medical Genetics and Neuroscience Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Lahtinen, Ulla [Folkhaelsan Institute of Genetics, Department of Medical Genetics and Neuroscience Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Haemaelaeinen, Riikka [Folkhaelsan Institute of Genetics, Department of Medical Genetics and Neuroscience Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Lipsanen-Nyman, Marita [The Hospital for Children and Adolescents and Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland); Palvimo, Jorma J. [Institute of Biomedicine, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Kuopio, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina [Folkhaelsan Institute of Genetics, Department of Medical Genetics and Neuroscience Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: anna-elina.lehesjoki@helsinki.fi

2005-08-01

206

Topical wound oxygen therapy in the treatment of severe diabetic foot ulcers: a prospective controlled study.  

PubMed

Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) are common, difficult-to-treat, and prone to complications. A prospective, controlled study was conducted to: 1) examine the clinical efficacy of a pressurized topical oxygen therapy (TWO(2)) device in outpatients (N = 28) with severe DFU referred for care to a community wound care clinic and 2) assess ulcer reoccurrence rates after 24 months. Seventeen (17) patients received TWO(2) five times per week (60-minute treatment, pressure cycles between 5 and 50 mb) and 11 selected a silver-containing dressing changed at least twice per week (control). Patient demographics did not differ between treatment groups but wounds in the treatment group were more severe, perhaps as a result of selection bias. Ulcer duration was longer in the treatment (mean 6.1 months, SD 5.8) than in the control group (mean 3.2 months, SD 0.4) and mean baseline wound area was 4.1 cm2 (SD 4.3) in the treatment and 1.4 cm2 (SD 0.6) in the control group (P = 0.02). Fourteen (14) of 17 ulcers (82.4%) in the treatment group and five of 11 ulcers (45.5%) in the control group healed after a median of 56 and 93 days, respectively (P = 0.04). No adverse events were observed and there was no reoccurrence at the ulcer site after 24 months' follow-up in either group. Although the absence of randomization and blinding may have under- or overestimated the treatment effect of either group, the significant differences in treatment outcomes confirm the potential benefits of TWO(2) in the management of difficult-to-heal DFUs. Clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness studies as well as studies to elucidate the mechanisms of action of TWO(2) are warranted. PMID:20567051

Blackman, Eric; Moore, Candice; Hyatt, John; Railton, Richard; Frye, Christian

2010-06-01

207

TRIM Proteins in Therapeutic Membrane Repair of Muscular Dystrophy  

PubMed Central

Muscular dystrophy represents a major unmet medical need as only palliative treatments exist for these debilitating diseases. Since multiple forms of muscular dystrophy arise from compromised sarcolemmal membrane integrity a therapeutic approach that can target this loss of membrane barrier function could be applicable to a number of these distinct genetic diseases. One pathway that presents an excellent opportunity to affect compromised membrane integrity is the process that the cell uses to repair injuries to the plasma membrane. Membrane repair is a conserved pathway where disruptions in the plasma membrane of many different cell types are resealed by trafficking of intracellular vesicles to the injury site where these vesicles can fuse and patch the membrane disruption. Recent discoveries of multiple genes associated with this process in skeletal muscle provide opportunities to target this mechanism to increase membrane repair as a therapy to treat muscular dystrophy. One such gene is a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family of proteins, mitsugumin 53 (MG53) or TRIM72, that is an essential component of the membrane repair pathway in striated muscles. Recent results indicate that MG53/TRIM72 protein can be directly applied as a therapeutic agent to increase membrane repair capacity of many cell types and treat some aspects of the pathology in mouse models of muscular dystrophy. There is great potential for the use of recombinant human (rhMG53) in the treatment of muscular dystrophy and other diseases where compromised membrane integrity contributes to the progression of the disease. Other TRIM family proteins may provide additional targets for therapeutic intervention in similar disease states. PMID:23699904

Alloush, Jenna; Weisleder, Noah

2013-01-01

208

Astronaut Charles Conrad trims hair of Astronaut Paul Weitz  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., Skylab 2 commander, trims the hair of Astronaut Paul J. Weitz, Skylab 2 pilot, during the 28-day Skylab 2 mission in Earth orbit. They are in the crew quarters wardroom of the Orbital Workshop of the Skylab 1 and 2 space station. Weitz is holding a vacuum hose in his right hand. This picture was taken by Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, Skylab 2 science pilot.

1973-01-01

209

Measurement of axial injection displacement with trim coil current unbalance.  

PubMed

The Dee probe used for measuring internal radial beam intensity shows large losses inside the radius of 20 cm of the 88 in. cyclotron. The current of the top and bottom innermost trim coil 1 is unbalanced to study effects of the axial injection displacement. A beam profile monitor images the ion beam bunches, turn by turn. The experimental bunch center of mass position is compared with calculations of the magnetic mirror effect displacement and shows good agreement. PMID:25173318

Kireeff Covo, Michel

2014-08-01

210

Trimmed strategy for affine registration of point sets  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a trimmed strategy for affine registration of point sets using the Lie group parameterization. All affine transformations form an affine Lie group, thus finding an optimal transformation in registration is reduced to finding an optimal element in the affine group. Given two point sets (with outliers) and an initial element in the transformation group, we seek the optimal group element iteratively by minimizing an energy functional. This is conducted by sequentially finding the closest correspondence of two point sets, estimating the overlap rate of two sets, and finding the optimal affine transformation via the exponential map of the affine group. This method improves the trimmed iterative closest point algorithm (TrICP) in two aspects: (1) We use the Lie group parameterization to implement TrICP. (2) We also extend TrICP to the case of affine transformations. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by using the LiDAR data acquired in the Mount St. Helens area. Both visual inspections and evaluation index (root mean trimmed squared distance) indicate that our algorithm performs consistently better than TrICP and other related algorithms, especially in the presence of outliers and missing points.

Peng, Yaxin; Ying, Shihui; Qin, Jing; Zeng, Tieyong

2013-01-01

211

Uridylation prevents 3? trimming of oligoadenylated mRNAs  

PubMed Central

Degradation of mRNAs is usually initiated by deadenylation, the shortening of long poly(A) tails to oligo(A) tails of 12–15 As. Deadenylation leads to decapping and to subsequent 5? to 3? degradation by XRN proteins, or alternatively 3? to 5? degradation by the exosome. Decapping can also be induced by uridylation as shown for the non-polyadenylated histone mRNAs in humans and for several mRNAs in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Aspergillus nidulans. Here we report a novel role for uridylation in preventing 3? trimming of oligoadenylated mRNAs in Arabidopsis. We show that oligo(A)-tailed mRNAs are uridylated by the cytosolic UTP:RNA uridylyltransferase URT1 and that URT1 has no major impact on mRNA degradation rates. However, in absence of uridylation, oligo(A) tails are trimmed, indicating that uridylation protects oligoadenylated mRNAs from 3? ribonucleolytic attacks. This conclusion is further supported by an increase in 3? truncated transcripts detected in urt1 mutants. We propose that preventing 3? trimming of oligo(A)-tailed mRNAs by uridylation participates in establishing the 5? to 3? directionality of mRNA degradation. Importantly, uridylation prevents 3? shortening of mRNAs associated with polysomes, suggesting that a key biological function of uridylation is to confer 5? to 3? polarity in case of co-translational mRNA decay. PMID:23748567

Sement, Francois Michael; Ferrier, Emilie; Zuber, Helene; Merret, Remy; Alioua, Malek; Deragon, Jean-Marc; Bousquet-Antonelli, Cecile; Lange, Heike; Gagliardi, Dominique

2013-01-01

212

In situ control of oxygen vacancies in TiO2 by atomic layer deposition for resistive switching devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen vacancies (VO) have profound effects on the physical and chemical performance of devices based on oxide materials. This is particularly true in the case of oxide-based resistive random access memories, in which memory switching operation under an external electrical stimulus is closely associated with the migration and ordering of the oxygen vacancies in the oxide material. In this paper, we report on a reliable approach to in situ control of the oxygen vacancies in TiOx films. Our strategy for tight control of the oxygen vacancy is based on the utilization of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of titanium oxide under precisely regulated decomposition of the precursor molecules (titanium (IV) tetraisopropoxide, Ti[OCH(CH3)2]4) by plasma-activated reactant mixture (N2+O2). From the various spectroscopic and microstructural analyses by using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, confocal Raman spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry, we found that the precursor decomposition power (RF) of plasma-activated reactant mixture determines not only the oxygen vacancy concentration but also the crystallinity of the resulting TiOx film: nanocrystalline anatase TiOx with fewer oxygen vacancies under high RF, while amorphous TiOx with more oxygen vacancies under low RF. Enabled by our controlling capability over the oxygen vacancy concentration, we were able to thoroughly elucidate the effect of oxygen vacancies on the resistive switching behavior of TiOx-based memory capacitors (Pt/TiOx/Pt). The electrical conduction behavior at the high resistance state could be explained within the framework of the trap-controlled space-charge-limited conduction with two characteristic transition voltages. One is the voltage (VSCL) for the transition from Ohmic conduction to space-charge-limited conduction, and the other is the voltage (VTFL) for transition from space-charge-limited conduction to trap-filled-limited conduction. In this work, we have disclosed for the first time the dependence of these two characteristic transition voltages (i.e., VSCL and VTFL) on the oxygen vacancy concentration.

Park, Sang-Joon; Lee, Jeong-Pyo; Jang, Jong Shik; Rhu, Hyun; Yu, Hyunung; You, Byung Youn; Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Kyung Joong; Cho, Yong Jai; Baik, Sunggi; Lee, Woo

2013-07-01

213

Closed loop orbit trim using GPS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes an onboard closed-loop navigation and control system capable of executing extremely precise orbit maneuvers. It uses information from the Global Positioning System (GPS) and an onboard controller to perform orbit adjustments. As a result, the system circumvents the need for extensive ground support. The particular application considered is an orbit injection system for NASA's Gravity Probe B (GP-B) spacecraft. Eccentricity adjustments of 0.0004 to 0.005, and inclination and node changes of 0.001 to 0.01 deg are demonstrated. The same technique can be adapted to other satellite missions.

Parkinson, B. W.; Axelrad, P.

1989-01-01

214

Raising and controlling study of dissolved oxygen concentration in closed-type aeration tank.  

PubMed

This study investigated the promotion and control of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of the closed-type aeration tank via practical experiments in the wastewater treatment system of a 5-star hotel in Taipei. As with limited and treasured space in Taiwan, before the completion of the sewer system construction in cities, to utilize the mat foundation under large buildings as the space of sewage treatment plant still has been one of the alternatives of those sewage treatments. However, aeration tanks constructed in the mat foundation of buildings have smaller effective water depth, which will cause a lower total transfer amount of DO. Controlling the total exhaust gas flow rate can increase the pressure on such closed-type aeration tanks. The DO concentration thus may increase according to Henry's Law. Furthermore, it may enable operators to adjust the DO concentration of the aeration tank more precisely and thus sustain optimal operating conditions in these treatment facilities. Practical experiments indicated that the DO concentration of aeration tank maintains an average of 3.8 mg l(-1), obtaining the optimum operating conditions. The efficiency of the biological treatment facilities in the mat foundation could be markedly improved. PMID:16080335

Chen, C K; Lo, S L

2005-07-01

215

Controllable generation of reactive oxygen species by femtosecond-laser irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Femtosecond lasers have been advancing Biophotonics research in the past two decades with multiphoton microscopy, microsurgery, and photodynamic therapy. Nevertheless, laser irradiation is identified to bring photodamage to cells via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation with unclear mechanism. Meanwhile, currently in biological researches, there is no effective method to provide controllable ROS production precisely, which originally is leaked from mitochondria during respiration and plays a key role in a lot of important cellular processes and cellular signaling pathways. In this study, we show the process of how the tightly focused femtosecond-laser induces ROS generation solely in mitochondria at the very beginning and then release to cytosol if the stimulus is intense enough. At certain weak power levels, the laser pulses induce merely moderate Ca2+ release but this is necessary for the laser to generate ROS in mitochondria. Cellular original ROS are also involved with a small contribution. When the power is above a threshold, ROS are then released to cytosol, indicating photodamage overwhelming cellular repair ability. The mechanisms in those two cases are quite different. Those results clarify parts of the mechanism in laser-induced ROS generation. Hence, it is possible to further this optical scheme to provide controllable ROS generation for ROS-related biological researches including mitochondrial diseases and aging.

Yan, Wei; He, Hao; Wang, Yintao; Wang, Yisen; Hu, Minglie; Wang, Chingyue

2014-02-01

216

Does oxygen exposure time control the extent of organic matter decomposition in peatlands?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

extent of peat decomposition was investigated in four cores collected along a latitudinal gradient from 56°N to 66°N in the West Siberian Lowland. The acid:aldehyde ratios of lignin phenols were significantly higher in the two northern cores compared with the two southern cores, indicating peats at the northern sites were more highly decomposed. Yields of hydroxyproline, an amino acid found in plant structural glycoproteins, were also significantly higher in northern cores compared with southern cores. Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins are not synthesized by microbes and are generally less reactive than bulk plant carbon, so elevated yields indicated that northern cores were more extensively decomposed than the southern cores. The southern cores experienced warmer temperatures, but were less decomposed, indicating that temperature was not the primary control of peat decomposition. The plant community oscillated between Sphagnum and vascular plant dominance in the southern cores, but vegetation type did not appear to affect the extent of decomposition. Oxygen exposure time appeared to be the strongest control of the extent of peat decomposition. The northern cores had lower accumulation rates and drier conditions, so these peats were exposed to oxic conditions for a longer time before burial in the catotelm, where anoxic conditions prevail and rates of decomposition are generally lower by an order of magnitude.

Philben, Michael; Kaiser, Karl; Benner, Ronald

2014-05-01

217

TRIM28 regulates RNA polymerase II promoter-proximal pausing and pause release.  

PubMed

Promoter-proximal pausing of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is a major checkpoint in transcription. An unbiased search for new human proteins that could regulate paused Pol II at the HSPA1B gene identified TRIM28. In vitro analyses indicated HSF1-dependent attenuation of Pol II pausing upon TRIM28 depletion, whereas in vivo data revealed de novo expression of HSPA1B and other known genes regulated by paused Pol II upon TRIM28 knockdown. These results were supported by genome-wide ChIP-sequencing analyses of Pol II occupancy that revealed a global role for TRIM28 in regulating Pol II pausing and pause release. Furthermore, in vivo and in vitro mechanistic studies suggest that transcription-coupled phosphorylation regulates Pol II pause release by TRIM28. Collectively, our findings identify TRIM28 as a new factor that modulates Pol II pausing and transcriptional elongation at a large number of mammalian genes. PMID:25173174

Bunch, Heeyoun; Zheng, Xiaofeng; Burkholder, Adam; Dillon, Simon T; Motola, Shmulik; Birrane, Gabriel; Ebmeier, Christopher C; Levine, Stuart; Fargo, David; Hu, Guang; Taatjes, Dylan J; Calderwood, Stuart K

2014-10-01

218

TRIM proteins regulate autophagy and can target autophagic substrates by direct recognition.  

PubMed

Autophagy, a homeostatic process whereby eukaryotic cells target cytoplasmic cargo for degradation, plays a broad role in health and disease states. Here we screened the TRIM family for roles in autophagy and found that half of TRIMs modulated autophagy. In mechanistic studies, we show that TRIMs associate with autophagy factors and act as platforms assembling ULK1 and Beclin 1 in their activated states. Furthermore, TRIM5? acts as a selective autophagy receptor. Based on direct sequence-specific recognition, TRIM5? delivered its cognate cytosolic target, a viral capsid protein, for autophagic degradation. Thus, our study establishes that TRIMs can function both as regulators of autophagy and as autophagic cargo receptors, and reveals a basis for selective autophagy in mammalian cells. PMID:25127057

Mandell, Michael A; Jain, Ashish; Arko-Mensah, John; Chauhan, Santosh; Kimura, Tomonori; Dinkins, Christina; Silvestri, Guido; Münch, Jan; Kirchhoff, Frank; Simonsen, Anne; Wei, Yongjie; Levine, Beth; Johansen, Terje; Deretic, Vojo

2014-08-25

219

Regulation of Virus Neutralization and the Persistent Fraction by TRIM21  

PubMed Central

Despite a central role in immunity, antibody neutralization of virus infection is poorly understood. Here we show how the neutralization and persistence of adenovirus type 5, a prevalent nonenveloped human virus, are dependent upon the intracellular antibody receptor TRIM21. Cells with insufficient amounts of TRIM21 are readily infected, even at saturating concentrations of neutralizing antibody. Conversely, high TRIM21 expression levels decrease the persistent fraction of the infecting virus and allows neutralization by as few as 1.6 antibody molecules per virus. The direct interaction between TRIM21 and neutralizing antibody is essential, as single-point mutations within the TRIM21-binding site in the Fc region of a potently neutralizing antibody impair neutralization. However, infection at high multiplicity can saturate TRIM21 and overcome neutralization. These results provide insight into the mechanism and importance of a newly discovered, effector-driven process of antibody neutralization of nonenveloped viruses. PMID:22647693

McEwan, W. A.; Hauler, F.; Williams, C. R.; Bidgood, S. R.; Mallery, D. L.; Crowther, R. A.

2012-01-01

220

Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts  

DOEpatents

A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power. 1 fig.

Erickson, D.C.

1985-06-04

221

Williams–Beuren syndrome TRIM50 encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Williams–Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a neurodevelopmental and multisystemic disease that results from hemizygosity of approximately 25 genes mapping to chromosomal region 7q11.23. We report here the preliminary description of eight novel genes mapping within the WBS critical region and\\/or its syntenic mouse region. Three of these genes, TRIM50, TRIM73 and TRIM74, belong to the TRIpartite motif gene family, members of

Lucia Micale; Carmela Fusco; Bartolomeo Augello; Luisa M R Napolitano; Emmanouil T Dermitzakis; Germana Meroni; Giuseppe Merla; Alexandre Reymond

2008-01-01

222

Net-Shape Forging of Aerofoil Blade based on Flash Trimming and Compensation methods  

SciTech Connect

In this research, an automatic blade forging die shape optimisation system was developed by using direct compensation and flash trimming algorithms and integrating with the DEFORM 3D software package. To validate the developed system, a 3D blade forging case problem was simulated and optimised with and without the consideration of trimming simulation. The results were compared with actual measurement data of the forged aerofoil blade with excellent results obtained with the fast trimming simulation procedure used.

Lu, B. [Department of Plasticity Forming Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200030 (China); Ou, H. [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Armstrong, C. G. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, BT9 5AH (United Kingdom)

2011-05-04

223

Resistance to simian immunodeficiency virus low dose rectal challenge is associated with higher constitutive TRIM5? expression in PBMC  

PubMed Central

Background At least six host-encoded restriction factors (RFs), APOBEC3G, TRIM5?, tetherin, SAMHD1, schlafen 11, and Mx2 have now been shown to inhibit HIV and/or SIV replication in vitro. To determine their role in vivo in the resistance of macaques to mucosally-acquired SIV, we quantified both pre-exposure (basal) and post-exposure mRNA levels of these RFs, Mx1, and IFN? in PBMC, lymph nodes, and duodenum of rhesus macaques undergoing weekly low dose rectal exposures to the primary isolate, SIV/DeltaB670. Results Repetitive challenge divided the monkeys into two groups with respect to their susceptibility to infection: highly susceptible (2–3 challenges, 5 monkeys) and poorly susceptible (?6 challenges, 3 monkeys). Basal RF and Mx1 expression varied among the three tissues examined, with the lowest expression generally detected in duodenal tissues, and the highest observed in PBMC. The one exception was A3G whose basal expression was greatest in lymph nodes. Importantly, significantly higher basal expression of TRIM5? and Mx1 was observed in PBMC of animals more resistant to mucosal infection. Moreover, individual TRIM5? levels were stable throughout a year prior to infection. Post-exposure induction of these genes was also observed after virus appearance in plasma, with elevated levels in PBMC and duodenum transiently occurring 7–10 days post infection. They did not appear to have an effect on control of viremia. Interestingly, minimal to no induction was observed in the resistant animal that became an elite controller. Conclusions These results suggest that constitutively expressed TRIM5? appears to play a greater role in restricting mucosal transmission of SIV than that associated with type I interferon induction following virus entry. Surprisingly, this association was not observed with the other RFs. The higher basal expression of TRIM5? observed in PBMC than in duodenal tissues emphasizes the understated role of the second barrier to systemic infection involving the transport of virus from the mucosal compartment to the blood. Together, these observations provide a strong incentive for a more comprehensive examination of the intrinsic, variable control of constitutive expression of these genes in the sexual transmission of HIV. PMID:24884551

2014-01-01

224

Kinetic control of oxygen consumption during contractions in self-perfused skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Abstract Fast kinetics of muscle oxygen consumption () is characteristic of effective physiological systems integration. The mechanism of kinetic control in vivo is equivocal as measurements are complicated by the twin difficulties of making high-frequency direct measurements of and intramuscular metabolites, and in attaining high [ADP]; complexities that can be overcome utilising highly aerobic canine muscle for the investigation of the transition from rest to contractions at maximal . Isometric tetanic contractions of the gastrocnemius complex of six anaesthetised, ventilated dogs were elicited via sciatic nerve stimulation (50 Hz; 200 ms duration; 1 contraction s?1). Muscle and lactate efflux were determined from direct Fick measurements. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest and every ?10 s during the transient and analysed for [phosphates], [lactate] and pH. The temporal vs.[PCr] and [ADP] relationships were not well fitted by linear or classical hyperbolic models (respectively), due to the high sensitivity of to metabolic perturbations early in the transient. The time course of this apparent sensitisation was closely aligned to that of ATP turnover, which was lower in the first ?25 s of contractions compared to the steady state. These findings provide the first direct measurements of skeletal muscle and [PCr] in the non-steady state, and suggest that simple phosphate feedback models (which are adequate for steady-state observations in vitro) are not sufficient to explain the dynamic control of in situ. Rather an allosteric or ‘parallel activation’ mechanism of energy consuming and producing processes is required to explain the kinetic control of in mammalian skeletal muscle. PMID:21690197

Wust, Rob C I; Grassi, Bruno; Hogan, Michael C; Howlett, Richard A; Gladden, L Bruce; Rossiter, Harry B

2011-01-01

225

Effects of Contamination, UV Radiation, and Atomic Oxygen on ISS Thermal Control Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal control surfaces on the International Space Station (ISS) have been tailored for optimum optical properties. The space environment, particularly contamination, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and atomic oxygen (AO) may have a detrimental effect on these optical properties. These effects must be quantified for modeling and planning. Also of interest was the effect of porosity on the reaction to simulated space environment. Five materials were chosen for this study based on their use on ISS. The thermal control materials were Z-93 white coating, silverized Teflon, chromic acid anodized aluminum, sulfuric acid anodized aluminum, and 7075-T6 aluminum. Some of the samples were exposed to RTV 560 silicone; others were exposed to Tefzel offgassing products. Two samples of Z-93 were not exposed to contamination as clean "controls". VUV radiation was used to photo-fix the contaminant to the material surface, then the samples were exposed to AO. All samples were exposed to 1000 equivalent sun-hours (ESH) of vacuum ultraviolet radiation (VUV) at the AZ Technology facility and a minimum of 1.5 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm of AO at Marshall Space Flight Center. Half of the samples were exposed to an additional 2000 ESH of VUV at Huntington Beach prior to sent to AZ Technology. Darkening of the Z-93 white coating was noted after VUV exposure. AO exposure did bleach the Z-93 but not back to its original brightness. Solar absorptance curves show the degradation due to contamination and VUV and the recovery with AO exposure. More bleaching was noted on the Tefzel-contaminated samples than with the RTV-contaminated samples.

Visentine, Jim; Finckenor, Miria; Zwiener, Jim; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

226

E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 negatively regulates tumor suppressor p53 to promote tumorigenesis.  

PubMed

Tumor suppressor p53 has a key role in maintaining genomic stability and preventing tumorigenesis through its regulation of cellular stress responses, including apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and senescence. To ensure its proper levels and functions in cells, p53 is tightly regulated mainly through post-translational modifications, such as ubiquitination. Here, we identified E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 as a novel p53 target gene and negative regulator to regulate p53-mediated stress responses. In response to stress, such as DNA damage, p53 binds to the p53 responsive element in the promoter of the TRIM32 gene and transcriptionally induces the expression of TRIM32 in cells. In turn, TRIM32 interacts with p53 and promotes p53 degradation through ubiquitination. Thus, TRIM32 negatively regulates p53-mediated apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and senescence in response to stress. TRIM32 is frequently overexpressed in different types of human tumors. TRIM32 overexpression promotes cell oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis in mice in a largely p53-dependent manner. Taken together, our results demonstrated that as a novel p53 target and a novel negative regulator for p53, TRIM32 has an important role in regulation of p53 and p53-mediated cellular stress responses. Furthermore, our results also revealed that impairing p53 function is a novel mechanism for TRIM32 in tumorigenesis. PMID:25146927

Liu, Ju; Zhang, C; Wang, X L; Ly, P; Belyi, V; Xu-Monette, Z Y; Young, K H; Hu, W; Feng, Z

2014-11-01

227

Carcinoma of the larynx treated with hypofractionated radiation and hyperbaric oxygen: long-term tumor control and complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate the long-term outcome with respect to local control, survival, and complications in a cohort of patients with locally advanced laryngeal carcinoma treated with hypofractionated radiation and hyperbaric oxygen at 4 atmosphers of pressure (HBO-4).Methods and Materials: Between January 1970 and August 1982, 45 patients with locally advanced carcinoma of the larynx were treated with primary radiation using

Bruce G Haffty; Ronald A Hurley; Lester G Peters

1999-01-01

228

Fabrication of corneal epithelial cell sheets maintaining colony-forming cells without feeder cells by oxygen-controlled method.  

PubMed

The use of murine 3T3 feeder cells needs to be avoided when fabricating corneal epithelial cell sheets for use in treating ocular surface diseases. However, the expression level of the epithelial stem/progenitor cell marker, p63, is down-regulated in feeder-free culture systems. In this study, in order to fabricate corneal epithelial cell sheets that maintain colony-forming cells without using any feeder cells, we investigated the use of an oxygen-controlled method that was developed previously to fabricate cell sheets efficiently. Rabbit limbal epithelial cells were cultured under hypoxia (1-10% O2) and under normoxia during stratification after reaching confluence. Multilayered corneal epithelial cell sheets were fabricated using an oxygen-controlled method, and immunofluorescence analysis showed that cytokeratin 3 and p63 was expressed in appropriate localization in the cell sheets. The colony-forming efficiency of the cell sheets fabricated by the oxygen-controlled method without feeder cells was significantly higher than that of cell sheets fabricated under 20% O2 without feeder cells. These results indicate that the oxygen-controlled method has the potential to achieve a feeder-free culture system for fabricating corneal epithelial cell sheets for corneal regeneration. PMID:24184720

Nakajima, Ryota; Takeda, Shizu

2014-01-01

229

The Use of Bayesian Inference in the Design of an Endpoint Control System for the Basic Oxygen Steel Furnace  

Microsoft Academic Search

A digital simulation of the basic oxygen steel furnace was previously developed, and its output was compared with the available data taken from the literature. The output concentrations were within 10 percent of the literature data, while the simulated temperature was within 0.5 percent. The simulation is used as an off-line model of the process to design an endpoint control

Richard Kornblum; Myron Tribus

1970-01-01

230

Oxygen Uptake. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biological waste treatment in the activated sludge process is based on the ability of microorganisms to use dissolved oxygen in breaking down soluble organic substances. The oxygen uptake test is a means of measuring the respiration rate of microorganisms in this process. Designed for individuals who have completed National Pollutant Discharge…

Wooley, John F.

231

Creep-to-rupture of 9%Cr steel T91 in air and oxygen-controlled lead at 650 °C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article reports results of uniaxial creep-to-rupture experiments at static loads ranging from 100 to 200 MPa on ferritic-martensitic steel T91 in stagnant lead at 650 °C and oxygen concentration co in a narrow range around 10 -6 mass%. Respective experiments in stagnant air have been performed for comparison. The steel showed almost no difference in creep performance in oxygen-controlled lead and air at 650 °C. No dissolution attack and no lead penetration were found on the steel.

Yurechko, Mariya; Schroer, Carsten; Wedemeyer, Olaf; Skrypnik, Aleksandr; Konys, Jürgen

2011-12-01

232

Processes controlling dissolved oxygen and pH in the upper Willamette River basin, Oregon, 1994  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In July and August of 1994, the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (ODEQ) collected data to document the spatial extent and diel variability of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations and pH levels in selected reaches of streams in the upper Willamette River Basin. These data were also collected to identify primary factors that control DO concentrations downstream from major point sources as well as to provide ODEQ with data to refine calibration of their steady-state DO and nutrient models for the upper Willamette River Basin. All of the reaches studied had diel variations in DO and pH. The magnitude of the diel variations in DO ranged from 0.2 to 3.9 milligrams per liter (7 to 50 percent-saturation units based on ambient water temperature and barometric pressure) and in pH from 0.3 to 1.4 units. However, of the reaches studied, only the Coast Fork Willamette River from river mile (RM) 21.7 to 12.5 and the Willamette River from RM 151 to 141.6 had field measured violations of State standards for DO and pH. DO concentration and pH in water depend on many factors. Data were collected to examine several major factors, including BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), carbonaceous BOD, nitrogenous BOD, and measures of photosynthetic activity. Of the four study reaches, only a short stretch of the Coast Fork Willamette River has potential for important levels of oxygen consumption from BOD or nitrification. Additionally, water-column primary-productivity measurements indicated that respiration and photosynthesis by free-floating algae did not explain the observed diel variations in DO in the study reaches. Results from a simple mathematical model incorporating measures of community respiration and net primary productivities indicated that periphyton are capable of producing a diel variation of the order of magnitude observed during the August study period. In the Willamette River near Peoria, the combined periphyton DO consumption and production estimate at RM 151 (2.4 mg/L) and RM 144.6 (1.7 mg/L) would account for 90 and 63 percent, respectively, of the observed diel fluctuation. The estimates for the Corvallis reach at RM 132.6 (0.4 mg/L) and RM 130.7 (2.9 mg/L) had a considerably larger range of 36 to 264 percent of DO saturation, respectively. Therefore, because BOD and phytoplankton do not appear to be important contributors to diel DO fluctuations, periphyton are likely the primary contributor to diel fluctuations in the upper Willamette River Basin during July and August.

Pogue, T. R.; Anderson, C. W.

1995-01-01

233

Isolated resonator gyroscope with isolation trimming using a secondary element  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention discloses a resonator gyroscope including an isolated resonator. One or more flexures support the isolated resonator and a baseplate is affixed to the resonator by the flexures. Drive and sense elements are affixed to the baseplate and used to excite the resonator and sense movement of the gyroscope. In addition, at least one secondary element (e.g., another electrode) is affixed to the baseplate and used for trimming isolation of the resonator. The resonator operates such that it transfers substantially no net momentum to the baseplate when the resonator is excited. Typically, the isolated resonator comprises a proof mass and a counterbalancing plate.

Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

234

Enhancement of the efficiency and control of emission parameters of an unstable-resonator chemical oxygen-iodine laser  

SciTech Connect

The outlook is considered for the development of a high-power supersonic flowing chemical oxygen-iodine laser operating as an amplifier and controlled by radiation from a master oscillator by using an unstable resonator with a hole-coupled mirror. The influence of the seed radiation intensity, the coupling-hole diameter, the active-medium length, and the magnification factor on the parameters of laser radiation is analysed. It is shown that the use of such resonators is most advisable in medium-power oxygen-iodine lasers for which classical unstable resonators are inefficient because of their low magnification factors. The use of unstable resonators with a hole-coupled mirror and injection provides the control of radiation parameters and a considerable increase in the output power and brightness of laser radiation. (control of laser radiation parameters)

Boreisho, A S; Lobachev, V V; Savin, A V; Strakhov, S Yu; Trilis, A V [Institute of Laser Instruments and Technologies, D F Ustinov 'VOENMEKh' Baltic State Technical University, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2007-07-31

235

Effect of beak-trimming age and high fiber grower diets on layer performance.  

PubMed

The performance of three commercial strains of White Leghorn layers was compared following beak trimming (BT) at 6 or 12 wk of age when fed diets containing 4.45 and 6.30% fiber between 6 and 12 or 12 and 18 wk of age, respectively. Body weights were lower at 12 wk in the 6-wk BT pullets, but were heavier at 18 wk when compared with the 12 wk BT pullets. Eighteen-week body weights were unaffected by feeding regimens. Six week BT resulted in higher hen-day and hen housed egg production, total egg mass, feed consumption, and total egg income. Profitability was superior for the 6-wk BT treatment (P = .072). Feeding the high fiber diets from 6 to 12 or 12 to 18 wk of age resulted in no differences in any of the adult performance traits measured compared with the control diet. PMID:1649462

Bell, D D; Kuney, D R

1991-05-01

236

Quasi-Linear Parameter Varying Representation of General Aircraft Dynamics Over Non-Trim Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For applying linear parameter varying (LPV) control synthesis and analysis to a nonlinear system, it is required that a nonlinear system be represented in the form of an LPV model. In this paper, a new representation method is developed to construct an LPV model from a nonlinear mathematical model without the restriction that an operating point must be in the neighborhood of equilibrium points. An LPV model constructed by the new method preserves local stabilities of the original nonlinear system at "frozen" scheduling parameters and also represents the original nonlinear dynamics of a system over a non-trim region. An LPV model of the motion of FASER (Free-flying Aircraft for Subscale Experimental Research) is constructed by the new method.

Shin, Jong-Yeob

2007-01-01

237

[Oxidative power and intracellular distribution of mitochondria control cell oxygen regime when arterial hypoxemia occurs].  

PubMed

The regulatory impact of the mitochondria spatial distribution and enlargement in their oxidative power qO2 on the tissue oxygenation of skeletal muscle during hypoxia were studied. Investigations were performed by the mathematical modeling of 3D O2 diffusion-reaction in muscle fiber. The oxygen consumption rate VO2 and tissue pO2 were analyzed in response to a decrease in arterial blood oxygen concentration from 19.5 to 10 vol. % at a moderate load (3.5 ml/min per 100 g). The cells with evenly (case 1) and unevenly (case 2) distributed mitochondria were considered. According to calculations due to a rise in mitochondria oxidative power from 3.5 to 6.5 ml/min. per 100 g of tissue it is possible to maintain muscle oxygen V(O2) at constant level of 3.5 ml/min per 100 g despite a decrease in O2 delivery. Minimum value of tissue pO2 was about 0 and an area of hypoxia appeared inside the cell in case 1. But hypoxia disappeared and minimum value of pO2 increased from 0 to 4 mm Hg if mitochondria were distributed unevenly (case 2). It is shown that the possibilities of such regulation were limited and depended on the ratio of "the degree of hypoxemia--the level of oxygen delivery." It was assumed that an increase in mitochondria enzyme activity and mitochondria migration to the places of the greatest oxygen consumption rate can improve oxygen regime in the cells in terms of their adaptation to hypoxia. It is possible that changes in mitochondrial oxidative power and their intracellular redistribution may be considered as a new dimension in regulation of cell oxygen regime. PMID:23136773

Liabakh, E G; Lissov, P N

2012-01-01

238

Hypothalamic Apelin/Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling Controls Hepatic Glucose Metabolism in the Onset of Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Abstract Aims: We have previously demonstrated that central apelin is implicated in the control of peripheral glycemia, and its action depends on nutritional (fast versus fed) and physiological (normal versus diabetic) states. An intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of a high dose of apelin, similar to that observed in obese/diabetic mice, increase fasted glycemia, suggesting (i) that apelin contributes to the establishment of a diabetic state, and (ii) the existence of a hypothalamic to liver axis. Using pharmacological, genetic, and nutritional approaches, we aim at unraveling this system of regulation by identifying the hypothalamic molecular actors that trigger the apelin effect on liver glucose metabolism and glycemia. Results: We show that icv apelin injection stimulates liver glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis via an over-activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), leading to fasted hyperglycemia. The effect of central apelin on liver function is dependent of an increased production of hypothalamic reactive oxygen species (ROS). These data are strengthened by experiments using lentiviral vector-mediated over-expression of apelin in hypothalamus of mice that present over-activation of SNS associated to an increase in hepatic glucose production. Finally, we report that mice fed a high-fat diet present major alterations of hypothalamic apelin/ROS signaling, leading to activation of glycogenolysis. Innovation/Conclusion: These data bring compelling evidence that hypothalamic apelin is one master switch that participates in the onset of diabetes by directly acting on liver function. Our data support the idea that hypothalamic apelin is a new potential therapeutic target to treat diabetes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 557–573. PMID:23879244

Drougard, Anne; Duparc, Thibaut; Brenachot, Xavier; Carneiro, Lionel; Gouazé, Alexandra; Fournel, Audren; Geurts, Lucie; Cadoudal, Thomas; Prats, Anne-Catherine; Pénicaud, Luc; Vieau, Didier; Lesage, Jean; Leloup, Corinne; Benani, Alexandre; Cani, Patrice D.; Valet, Philippe

2014-01-01

239

A Novel Solid Electrolyte Oxygen Sensor System for In-Situ Measurement and Process Control  

SciTech Connect

In 1993 the oxygen partial pressure was firstly measured inside a plasma wind tunnel using conventional {lambda}-probes. Since then, a considerable amount of knowledge has been gained in using these sensors in ground test facilities and space. However, these commercially available sensors were too large in scale and weight. Consequently, a new development of solid electrolyte sensors called FIPEX more feasible for space was initiated. Due to space driven benefits, interest arose to use FIPEX technique in terrestrial applications e.g. to monitor sputter plants for float glass coating. Therefore, the VacuSen registered sensor was developed. The characterization of VacuSen registered at nominal sensor temperature T{sub S} = 680 deg. C resulted in a sensor current according to I{sub S} = b{center_dot}p{sub O2}{sup 0{center_dot}8{+-}0{center_dot}05} I[{mu}A] in the operation range between p{sub tot} = 1{center_dot}10{sup -3} to 5 Pa. From pulse width modulation (PWM) temperature control, additional information allows to measure ptot according to p{sub tot} = a{center_dot}RPWM{sup 0{center_dot}107{+-}0{center_dot}005} thus enlarging the operation range to p{sub tot} = 1{center_dot}10{sup -3} to 1{center_dot}10{sup 5} Pa. A one point calibration routine with air, ideally at p{sub tot} = 5 Pa in order to determine both calibration parameters a and b simultaneously, is proposed.

Hammer, Frank Uwe [Institut fuer Raumfahrtsysteme, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); ESCUBE GmbH and Co. KG, Nobelstrasse 15, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Messerschmid, Ernst; Rogg, Markus [Institut fuer Raumfahrtsysteme, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

2010-10-13

240

Oxygen Isotope in Phosphate an Indicator of Phosphorous Cycling in the Ocean - Controls, and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to better constrain the parameters affecting oxygen isotope exchange between water and phosphate via biochemical reactions a set of culture experiments were conducted. Different species of phytoplankton were grown in seawater at various temperatures, light levels, and phosphate concentrations. The oxygen isotopic composition in the phosphate source, algal cells, and the isotopic composition oxygen in the dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) were measured. Results showing the effect of species, temperature, light and P availability on intracellular oxygen isotope exchange between phosphorus compounds and water will be presented. The effect of these parameters on the utility of the oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate as a tracer of phosphate utilization rate in the ocean will be discussed. This information is fundamental to any application of isotopic composition of oxygen of dissolved inorganic or organic phosphate to quantify the dynamics of phosphorus cycling in aquatic systems. The data will be utilized to investigate seasonal changes in phosphate sources and cycling in the open ocean and how these relate to phytoplankton abundance, hydrography, and nutrient concentrations.

Paytan, A.; Roberts, K.; Defforey, D.; McLaughlin, K.; Lomas, M. W.; Church, M. J.; Mackey, K. R.

2012-12-01

241

Trim17-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of Mcl-1 initiate apoptosis in neurons  

PubMed Central

Short-term proteasome inhibition has been shown to prevent neuronal apoptosis. However, the key pro-survival proteins that must be degraded for triggering neuronal death are mostly unknown. Here, we show that Mcl-1, an anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family member, is degraded by the proteasome during neuronal apoptosis. Using primary cultures of cerebellar granule neurons deprived of serum and KCl, we found that ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of Mcl-1 depended on its prior phosphorylation by GSK3, providing the first insight into post-translational regulation of Mcl-1 in neurons. In a previous study, we have reported that the E3 ubiquitin-ligase Trim17 is both necessary and sufficient for neuronal apoptosis. Here, we identified Trim17 as a novel E3 ubiquitin-ligase for Mcl-1. Indeed, Trim17 co-immunoprecipitated with Mcl-1. Trim17 ubiquitinated Mcl-1 in vitro. Overexpression of Trim17 decreased the protein level of Mcl-1 in a phosphorylation- and proteasome-dependent manner. Finally, knock down of Trim17 expression reduced both ubiquitination and degradation of Mcl-1 in neurons. Moreover, impairment of Mcl-1 phosphorylation, by kinase inhibition or point mutations, not only decreased ubiquitination and degradation of Mcl-1, but also blocked the physical interaction between Trim17 and Mcl-1. As this stabilization of Mcl-1 increased its neuroprotective effect, our data strongly suggest that Trim17-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of Mcl-1 is necessary for initiating neuronal death. PMID:22976837

Magiera, M M; Mora, S; Mojsa, B; Robbins, I; Lassot, I; Desagher, S

2013-01-01

242

GPU-based trimming and tessellation of NURBS and T-Spline surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

As there is no hardware support neither for rendering trimmed NURBS -- the standard surface representation in CAD -- nor for T-Spline surfaces the usability of existing rendering APIs like OpenGL, where a run-time tessellation is performed on the CPU, is limited to simple scenes. Due to the irregular mesh data structures required for trimming no algorithms exists that exploit

Michael Guthe; Ákos Balázs; Reinhard Klein

2005-01-01

243

Virus-specific effects of TRIM5?(rh) RING domain functions on restriction of retroviruses.  

PubMed

The tripartite motif protein TRIM5? restricts particular retrovirus infections by binding to the incoming capsid and inhibiting the early stage of virus infection. The TRIM5? RING domain exhibits E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and assists the higher-order association of TRIM5? dimers, which promotes capsid binding. We characterized a panel of RING domain mutants of the rhesus monkey TRIM5? (TRIM5?(rh)) protein. The RING domain function that significantly contributed to retroviral restriction depended upon the restricted virus. The E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of the RING domain contributes to the potency of HIV-1 restriction. Nonetheless, TRIM5?(rh) mutants without detectable E3 ubiquitin ligase activity still blocked reverse transcription and inhibited HIV-1 infection at a moderate level. When TRIM5?(rh) capsid binding was weakened by substitution with a less efficient B30.2/SPRY domain, the promotion of higher-order association by the RING domain was more important to HIV-1 restriction than its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. For the restriction of N-tropic murine leukemia virus (N-MLV) and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infection, promotion of higher-order association represented the major contribution of the RING domain. Thus, both identity of the target virus and the B30.2/SPRY domain-mediated affinity for the viral capsid determine the relative contribution of the two known RING domain functions to TRIM5? restriction of retrovirus infection. PMID:23637418

Li, Xing; Kim, Jonghwa; Song, Byeongwoon; Finzi, Andrés; Pacheco, Beatriz; Sodroski, Joseph

2013-07-01

244

Contribution of E3-Ubiquitin Ligase Activity to HIV-1 Restriction by TRIM5?rh: Structure of the RING Domain of TRIM5??†  

PubMed Central

TRIM5?rh is a cytosolic protein that potently restricts HIV-1 before reverse transcription. TRIM5?rh is composed of four different domains: RING, B-box 2, coiled coil, and B30.2(SPRY). The contribution of each of these domains to restriction has been extensively studied, with the exception of the RING domain. The RING domain of TRIM5? exhibits E3-ubiquitin ligase activity, but the contribution of this activity to the restriction of HIV-1 is not known. To test the hypothesis that the E3-ubiquitin ligase activity of the RING domain modulates TRIM5?rh restriction of HIV-1, we correlated the E3-ubiquitin ligase activity of a panel of TRIM5?rh RING domain variants with the ability of these mutant proteins to restrict HIV-1. For this purpose, we first solved the nuclear magnetic resonance structure of the RING domain of TRIM5? and defined potential functional regions of the RING domain by homology to other RING domains. With this structural information, we performed a systematic mutagenesis of the RING domain regions and tested the TRIM5? RING domain variants for the ability to undergo self-ubiquitylation. Several residues, particularly the ones on the E2-binding region of the RING domain, were defective in their self-ubiquitylation ability. To correlate HIV-1 restriction to self-ubiquitylation, we used RING domain mutant proteins that were defective in self-ubiquitylation but preserve important properties required for potent restriction by TRIM5?rh, such as capsid binding and higher-order self-association. From these investigations, we found a set of residues that when mutated results in TRIM5? molecules that lost both the ability to potently restrict HIV-1 and their self-ubiquitylation activity. Remarkably, all of these changes were in residues located in the E2-binding region of the RING domain. Overall, these results demonstrate a role for TRIM5? self-ubiquitylation in the ability of TRIM5? to restrict HIV-1. PMID:21734049

Lienlaf, Maritza; Hayashi, Fumiaki; Di Nunzio, Francesca; Tochio, Naoya; Kigawa, Takanori; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe

2011-01-01

245

Supplemental Oxygen (Oxygen Therapy)  

MedlinePLUS

... mind when using oxygen. Oxygen is a safe gas and is non-flammable, however, it supports combustion. Materials burn more readily in an oxygen-enriched environment. Follow these tips for safe oxygen use: Post "No Smoking" and "No Open Flames" signs in and outside ...

246

New efficient offset voltage cancellation techniques using digital trimming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Operational amplifiers have an important role as a basic building block in analog circuit design. One of the performance limitations of these circuits is the input referred offset voltage or simply input offset voltage. This voltage can range between 1 - 30 mV depending on the fabrication process and the sizes of the ideally symmetrical input transistors of the differential amplifier. Two new techniques to digitally trim the offset voltage of operation amplifier are presented and discussed. The techniques can be divided into two categories. The first is called weighted current technique, while the second is called weighted voltage technique. The attractive features of the new techniques are the trimming is performed digitally, large dynamic range; require small silicon area, and the ability to provide auto-zero cancellation using extra hardware. In the presented analysis, a binary weighted scheme will be used. However, the techniques are not restricted to that scheme and they are still applicable with other weighting schemes. A detailed analysis of these techniques will be presented and discussed and measurement from fabrication and simulation will be presented.

Al-Sarawi, Said F.

2003-04-01

247

High resolution micro ultrasonic machining for trimming 3D microstructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the evaluation of a high resolution micro ultrasonic machining (HR-µUSM) process suitable for post fabrication trimming of complex 3D microstructures made from fused silica. Unlike conventional USM, the HR-µUSM process aims for low machining rates, providing high resolution and high surface quality. The machining rate is reduced by keeping the micro-tool tip at a fixed distance from the workpiece and vibrating it at a small amplitude. The surface roughness is improved by an appropriate selection of abrasive particles. Fluidic modeling is performed to study interaction among the vibrating micro-tool tip, workpiece, and the slurry. Using 304 stainless steel (SS304) tool tips of 50 µm diameter, the machining performance of the HR-µUSM process is characterized on flat fused silica substrates. The depths and surface finish of machined features are evaluated as functions of slurry concentrations, separation between the micro-tool and workpiece, and machining time. Under the selected conditions, the HR-µUSM process achieves machining rates as low as 10 nm s-1 averaged over the first minute of machining of a flat virgin sample. This corresponds to a mass removal rate of ?20 ng min-1. The average surface roughness, Sa, achieved is as low as 30 nm. Analytical and numerical modeling are used to explain the typical profile of the machined features as well as machining rates. The process is used to demonstrate trimming of hemispherical 3D shells made of fused silica.

Viswanath, Anupam; Li, Tao; Gianchandani, Yogesh

2014-06-01

248

A large new subset of TRIM genes highly diversified by duplication and positive selection in teleost fish  

PubMed Central

Background In mammals, the members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family are involved in various cellular processes including innate immunity against viral infection. Viruses exert strong selective pressures on the defense system. Accordingly, antiviral TRIMs have diversified highly through gene expansion, positive selection and alternative splicing. Characterizing immune TRIMs in other vertebrates may enlighten their complex evolution. Results We describe here a large new subfamily of TRIMs in teleosts, called finTRIMs, identified in rainbow trout as virus-induced transcripts. FinTRIMs are formed of nearly identical RING/B-box regions and C-termini of variable length; the long variants include a B30.2 domain. The zebrafish genome harbors a striking diversity of finTRIMs, with 84 genes distributed in clusters on different chromosomes. A phylogenetic analysis revealed different subsets suggesting lineage-specific diversification events. Accordingly, the number of fintrim genes varies greatly among fish species. Conserved syntenies were observed only for the oldest fintrims. The closest mammalian relatives are trim16 and trim25, but they are not true orthologs. The B30.2 domain of zebrafish finTRIMs evolved under strong positive selection. The positions under positive selection are remarkably congruent in finTRIMs and in mammalian antiviral TRIM5?, concentrated within a viral recognition motif in mammals. The B30.2 domains most closely related to finTRIM are found among NOD-like receptors (NLR), indicating that the evolution of TRIMs and NLRs was intertwined by exon shuffling. Conclusion The diversity, evolution, and features of finTRIMs suggest an important role in fish innate immunity; this would make them the first TRIMs involved in immunity identified outside mammals. PMID:19196451

van der Aa, Lieke M; Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Yahmi, Malika; Lauret, Emilie; Briolat, Valerie; Herbomel, Philippe; Benmansour, Abdenour; Boudinot, Pierre

2009-01-01

249

Periodic trim solutions with HP-version finite elements in time  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Finite Element in Time has been proven to be a powerful alternative solving strategy for the rotor craft trim problem. Additionally, Finite Element Method in Time has been developed in various versions like time-marching framework, Galerkin framework, Rayleigh-Ritz framework, and mixed formulation. Recently, this method was applied to the rotorcraft trim problem to obtain linearized solutions. The rotorcraft trim problem consists of trying to find a period solution for period-coefficient, differential equations subject to side constraints where certain force and momentum balance equations are forced to be equal to zero. There are free (or trim) parameters that are chosen to meet these side constraints. This project aims at expanding the application, in terms of the rotorcraft trim problem, from a linearized solution to nonlinear solution.

1991-01-01

250

Control of body size by oxygen supply reveals size-dependent and size-independent mechanisms of molting and metamorphosis  

PubMed Central

Body size profoundly affects many aspects of animal biology, including metamorphosis, allometry, size-dependent alternative pathways of gene expression, and the social and ecological roles of individuals. However, regulation of body size is one of the fundamental unsolved problems in developmental biology. The control of body size requires a mechanism that assesses size and stops growth within a characteristic range of sizes. Under normal growth conditions in Manduca sexta, the endocrine cascade that causes the brain to initiate metamorphosis starts when the larva reaches a critical weight. Metamorphosis is initiated by a size-sensing mechanism, but the nature of this mechanism has remained elusive. Here we show that this size-sensing mechanism depends on the limited ability of a fixed tracheal system to sustain the oxygen supply to a growing individual. As body mass increases, the demand for oxygen also increases, but the fixed tracheal system does not allow a corresponding increase in oxygen supply. We show that interinstar molting has the same size-related oxygen-dependent mechanism of regulation as metamorphosis. We show that low oxygen tension induces molting at smaller body size, consistent with the hypothesis that under normal growth conditions, body size is regulated by a mechanism that senses oxygen limitation. We also found that under poor growth conditions, larvae may never attain the critical weight but eventually molt regardless. We show that under these conditions, larvae do not use the critical weight mechanism, but instead use a size-independent mechanism that is independent of the brain. PMID:21873228

Callier, Viviane; Nijhout, H. Frederik

2011-01-01

251

77 FR 67399 - Trim Systems Operating Corp., a Subsidiary of Commercial Vehicle Group, Inc., Including On-Site...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [TA-W-81,393] Trim Systems Operating Corp., a Subsidiary of Commercial...workers and former workers of Trim Systems Operating Corp., a subsidiary of Commercial...follows: All workers of Trim Systems Operating Corp., a subsidiary of...

2012-11-09

252

Influence of perioperative oxygen fraction on pulmonary function after abdominal surgery: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background A high perioperative inspiratory oxygen fraction (FiO2) may reduce the frequency of surgical site infection. Perioperative atelectasis is caused by absorption, compression and reduced function of surfactant. It is well accepted, that ventilation with 100% oxygen for only a few minutes is associated with significant formation of atelectasis. However, it is still not clear if a longer period of 80% oxygen results in more atelectasis compared to a low FiO2. Our aim was to assess if a high FiO2 is associated with impaired oxygenation and decreased pulmonary functional residual capacity (FRC). Methods Thirty-five patients scheduled for laparotomy for ovarian cancer were randomized to receive either 30% oxygen (n?=?15) or 80% oxygen (n?=?20) during and for 2?h after surgery. The oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2) was measured every 30?min during anesthesia and 90?min after extubation. FRC was measured the day before surgery and 2?h after extubation by a rebreathing method using the inert gas SF6. Results Five min after intubation, the median PaO2/FiO2 was 69 kPa [53-71] in the 30%-group vs. 60 kPa [47-69] in the 80%-group (P?=?0.25). At the end of anesthesia, the PaO2/FiO2 was 58 kPa [40-70] vs. 57 kPa [46-67] in the 30%- and 80%-group, respectively (P?=?0.10). The median FRC was 1993?mL [1610-2240] vs. 1875?mL [1545-2048] at baseline and 1615?mL [1375-2318] vs. 1633?mL [1343-1948] postoperatively in the 30%- and 80%-group, respectively (P?=?0.70). Conclusion We found no significant difference in oxygenation index or functional residual capacity between patients given 80% and 30% oxygen for a period of approximately 5 hours. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00637936. PMID:22840231

2012-01-01

253

Oxygen control of atomic structure and physical properties of SrRuO3 surfaces.  

PubMed

Complex oxide thin films and heterostructures have become one of the foci for condensed matter physics research due to a broad variety of properties they exhibit. Similar to the bulk, properties of oxide surfaces can be expected to be strongly affected by oxygen stoichiometry. Here we explore the coupling between atomic structure and physical properties of SrRuO3 (SRO), one of the most well-studied oxide materials. We perform a detailed in situ and ex situ experimental investigation of the surfaces of SRO thin films using a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, SQUID magnetometry, and magnetotransport measurements, as well as ab initio modeling. A number of remarkable linear surface reconstructions were observed by STM and interpreted as oxygen adatoms, favorably adsorbed in a regular rectangular or zigzag patterns. The degree of oxygen coverage and different surface patterns change the work function of the thin films, and modify local electronic and magnetic properties of the topmost atomic layer. The ab initio modeling reveals that oxygen adatoms possess frustrated local spin moments with possible spin-glass behavior of the surface covered by adsorbed oxygen. Additionally, the modeling indicates presence of a pseudo gap on the topmost SrO layer on pristine SrO-terminated surface, suggesting possibility for realization of a surface half-metallic film. PMID:23570268

Tselev, Alexander; Ganesh, P; Qiao, Liang; Siemons, Wolter; Gai, Zheng; Biegalski, Michael D; Baddorf, Arthur P; Kalinin, Sergei V

2013-05-28

254

Materials for temperature independent resistive oxygen sensors for combustion exhaust gas control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acceptor and donor doped SrTi1?xFexO3?? materials for novel temperature independent resistive oxygen sensors for lean-burn engine exhaust gases were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction. Their electrical resistance, R, was investigated in the oxygen partial pressure range from 10?4 to 1 bar between 700°C and 1000°C. Doped and undoped samples with x=0.3 obey an R?pO2?1\\/5 power law. Undoped samples show

Ralf Moos; Wolfgang Menesklou; Hans-Jürgen Schreiner; Karl Heinz Härdtl

2000-01-01

255

Building the palliative care evidence base: Lessons from a randomized controlled trial of oxygen vs room air for refractory dyspnea.  

PubMed

Palliative care is increasingly seen as a standard component of high-quality comprehensive cancer care. However, several challenges remain to its widespread integration into clinical oncology practice, including workforce problems, reimbursement concerns, and a fledgling evidence base. This article discusses issues surrounding evidence base development in palliative cancer care, using the example of a recently published randomized controlled trial of oxygen versus room air. The Oxygen Trial randomized patients with refractory dyspnea and adequate Pao2 to oxygen or room air, administered via nasal cannula. Both groups experienced improvements in self-rated dyspnea scores, but no statistical differences were seen between intervention arms. These results suggest that supplementary oxygen is often unnecessary in the palliative setting, and that room air is similarly efficacious. This example highlights the importance and need for ongoing development of the evidence base in palliative medicine. The Palliative Care Research Cooperative (PCRC) is a novel National Institute of Nursing Research-funded research infrastructure that seeks to expand the palliative care evidence base. Its first multisite trial was recently completed, assessing the pragmatic question of whether statin medications can be safely discontinued in end-of-life settings. The PCRC will be a vehicle through which a high-quality evidence base will continue to expand and develop. Such ongoing research efforts are needed to inform and improve palliative care practice. PMID:24994919

LeBlanc, Thomas W; Abernethy, Amy P

2014-07-01

256

Controls of sub-surface dissolved oxygen in Massachusetts Bay USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in oceanic dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations are tightly coupled to coastal ecosystem dynamics, and as global climate change occurs, this linkage is expected to change as well. Although DO depends primarily upon temperature and salinity, other factors, especially in coastal regions like Massachusetts Bay, often affect this thermodynamic DO relationship. Linear correlations were examined between the monthly averages of

A. Hyde; D. C. Vandemark; J. Salisbury

2009-01-01

257

Design and Control of Hot-Gas Desulfurization Systems with High Oxygen Regenerator Feed Gas  

SciTech Connect

This paper studies the use of regenerator feeds that have higher oxygen concentrations. Not only steady-state but also dynamic issues are examined. The key issue is identified to be heat-removal limitations which is confirmed by dynamic simulations.

Yi, C-K.; Luyben, W.L.

2002-09-20

258

Effects of antioxidant enzymes in the molecular control of reactive oxygen species toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are produced during normal cellular function. ROS include hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide. They are very transient species due to their high chemical reactivity that leads to lipid peroxidation and oxidation of DNA and proteins. Under normal conditions, antioxidant systems of the cell minimize the perturbations caused by ROS. When ROS generation

2000-01-01

259

Osseointegrated implants in irradiated bone: A case-controlled study using adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The current investigation was undertaken to study whether osseointegration of implants in irradiated tissues is subject to a higher failure rate than in nonirradiated tissues. It further aimed to study whether hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBO) can be used to reduce implant failure.Patients and Methods: Seventy-eight cancer patients who were rehabilitated using osseointegrated implants between 1981 and 1997 were investigated.

Gösta Granström; Anders Tjellström; Per-Ingvar Brånemark

1999-01-01

260

Autoantigen TRIM21/Ro52 as a Possible Target for Treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus  

PubMed Central

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, systemic, and autoimmune disease, whose etiology is still unknown. Although there has been progress in the treatment of SLE through the use of glucocorticoid and immunosuppressive drugs, these drugs have limited efficacy and pose significant risks of toxicity. Moreover, prognosis of patients with SLE has remained difficult to assess. TRIM21/Ro52/SS-A1, a 52-kDa protein, is an autoantigen recognized by antibodies in sera of patients with SLE and Sjögren's syndrome (SS), another systemic autoimmune disease, and anti-TRIM21 antibodies have been used as a diagnostic marker for decades. TRIM21 belongs to the tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) super family, which has been found to play important roles in innate and acquired immunity. Recently, TRIM21 has been shown to be involved in both physiological immune responses and pathological autoimmune processes. For example, TRIM21 ubiquitylates proteins of the interferon-regulatory factor (IRF) family and regulates type I interferon and proinflammatory cytokines. In this paper, we summarize molecular features of TRIM21 revealed so far and discuss its potential as an attractive therapeutic target for SLE. PMID:22701487

Yoshimi, Ryusuke; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki; Ozato, Keiko

2012-01-01

261

TRIM3 Regulates the Motility of the Kinesin Motor Protein KIF21B  

PubMed Central

Kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) are molecular motors that transport cellular cargo along the microtubule cytoskeleton. KIF21B is a neuronal kinesin that is highly enriched in dendrites. The regulation and specificity of microtubule transport involves the binding of motors to individual cargo adapters and accessory proteins. Moreover, posttranslational modifications of either the motor protein, their cargos or tubulin regulate motility, cargo recognition and the binding or unloading of cargos. Here we show that the ubiquitin E3 ligase TRIM3, also known as BERP, interacts with KIF21B via its RBCC domain. TRIM3 is found at intracellular and Golgi-derived vesicles and co-localizes with the KIF21B motor in neurons. Trim3 gene deletion in mice and TRIM3 overexpression in cultured neurons both suggested that the E3-ligase function of TRIM3 is not involved in KIF21B degradation, however TRIM3 depletion reduces the motility of the motor. Together, our data suggest that TRIM3 is a regulator in the modulation of KIF21B motor function. PMID:24086586

Labonte, Dorthe; Thies, Edda; Pechmann, Yvonne; Groffen, Alexander J.; Verhage, Matthijs; Smit, August B.; van Kesteren, Ronald E.; Kneussel, Matthias

2013-01-01

262

Unique spectrum of activity of prosimian TRIM5alpha against exogenous and endogenous retroviruses.  

PubMed

Lentiviruses, the genus of retrovirus that includes HIV-1, rarely endogenize. Some lemurs uniquely possess an endogenous lentivirus called PSIV ("prosimian immunodeficiency virus"). Thus, lemurs provide the opportunity to study the activity of host defense factors, such as TRIM5?, in the setting of germ line invasion. We characterized the activities of TRIM5? proteins from two distant lemurs against exogenous retroviruses and a chimeric PSIV. TRIM5? from gray mouse lemur, which carries PSIV in its genome, exhibited the narrowest restriction activity. One allelic variant of gray mouse lemur TRIM5? restricted only N-tropic murine leukemia virus (N-MLV), while a second variant restricted N-MLV and, uniquely, B-tropic MLV (B-MLV); both variants poorly blocked PSIV. In contrast, TRIM5? from ring-tailed lemur, which does not contain PSIV in its genome, revealed one of the broadest antiviral activities reported to date against lentiviruses, including PSIV. Investigation into the antiviral specificity of ring-tailed lemur TRIM5? demonstrated a major contribution of a 32-amino-acid expansion in variable region 2 (v2) of the B30.2/SPRY domain to the breadth of restriction. Data on lemur TRIM5? and the prediction of ancestral simian sequences hint at an evolutionary scenario where antiretroviral specificity is prominently defined by the lineage-specific expansion of the variable loops of B30.2/SPRY. PMID:21345948

Rahm, Nadia; Yap, Melvyn; Snoeck, Joke; Zoete, Vincent; Muñoz, Miguel; Radespiel, Ute; Zimmermann, Elke; Michielin, Olivier; Stoye, Jonathan P; Ciuffi, Angela; Telenti, Amalio

2011-05-01

263

Deficiency in ubiquitin ligase TRIM2 causes accumulation of neurofilament light chain and neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

TRIM RING finger proteins have been shown to play an important role in cancerogenesis, in the pathogenesis of some human hereditary disorders, and in the defense against viral infection, but the function of the majority of TRIM proteins remains unknown. Here, we show that TRIM RING finger protein TRIM2, highly expressed in the nervous system, is an UbcH5a-dependent ubiquitin ligase. We further demonstrate that TRIM2 binds to neurofilament light subunit (NF-L) and regulates NF-L ubiquitination. Additionally, we show that mice deficient in TRIM2 have increased NF-L level in axons and NF-L-filled axonal swellings in cerebellum, retina, spinal cord, and cerebral cortex. The axonopathy is followed by progressive neurodegeneration accompanied by juvenile-onset tremor and ataxia. Our results demonstrate that TRIM2 is an ubiquitin ligase and point to a mechanism regulating NF-L metabolism through an ubiquitination pathway that, if deregulated, triggers neurodegeneration. PMID:18687884

Balastik, Martin; Ferraguti, Francesco; Pires-da Silva, Andre; Lee, Tae Ho; Alvarez-Bolado, Gonzalo; Lu, Kun Ping; Gruss, Peter

2008-01-01

264

TRIM8 anti-proliferative action against chemo-resistant renal cell carcinoma.  

PubMed

In some tumours, despite a wild-type p53 gene, the p53 pathway is inactivated by alterations in its regulators or by unknown mechanisms, leading to resistance to cytotoxic therapies. Understanding the mechanisms of functional inactivation of wild-type p53 in these tumours may help to define prospective targets for treating cancer by restoring p53 activity. Recently, we identified TRIM8 as a new p53 modulator, which stabilizes p53 impairing its association with MDM2 and inducing the reduction of cell proliferation. In this paper we demonstrated that TRIM8 deficit dramatically impairs p53-mediated cellular responses to chemotherapeutic drugs and that TRIM8 is down regulated in patients affected by clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC), an aggressive drug-resistant cancer showing wild-type p53. These results suggest that down regulation of TRIM8 might be an alternative way to suppress p53 activity in RCC. Interestingly, we show that TRIM8 expression recovery in RCC cell lines renders these cells sensitive to chemotherapeutic treatments following p53 pathway re-activation. These findings provide the first mechanistic link between TRIM8 and the drug resistance of ccRCC and suggest more generally that TRIM8 could be used as enhancer of the chemotherapy efficacy in cancers where p53 is wild-type and its pathway is defective. PMID:25277184

Caratozzolo, Mariano Francesco; Valletti, Alessio; Gigante, Margherita; Aiello, Italia; Mastropasqua, Francesca; Marzano, Flaviana; Ditonno, Pasquale; Carrieri, Giuseppe; Simonnet, Hélène; D'Erchia, Anna Maria; Ranieri, Elena; Pesole, Graziano; Sbisà, Elisabetta; Tullo, Apollonia

2014-09-15

265

TRIM8 anti-proliferative action against chemo-resistant renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

In some tumours, despite a wild-type p53 gene, the p53 pathway is inactivated by alterations in its regulators or by unknown mechanisms, leading to resistance to cytotoxic therapies. Understanding the mechanisms of functional inactivation of wild-type p53 in these tumours may help to define prospective targets for treating cancer by restoring p53 activity. Recently, we identified TRIM8 as a new p53 modulator, which stabilizes p53 impairing its association with MDM2 and inducing the reduction of cell proliferation. In this paper we demonstrated that TRIM8 deficit dramatically impairs p53-mediated cellular responses to chemotherapeutic drugs and that TRIM8 is down regulated in patients affected by clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC), an aggressive drug-resistant cancer showing wild-type p53. These results suggest that down regulation of TRIM8 might be an alternative way to suppress p53 activity in RCC. Interestingly, we show that TRIM8 expression recovery in RCC cell lines renders these cells sensitive to chemotherapeutic treatments following p53 pathway re-activation. These findings provide the first mechanistic link between TRIM8 and the drug resistance of ccRCC and suggest more generally that TRIM8 could be used as enhancer of the chemotherapy efficacy in cancers where p53 is wild-type and its pathway is defective. PMID:25277184

Gigante, Margherita; Aiello, Italia; Mastropasqua, Francesca; Marzano, Flaviana; Ditonno, Pasquale; Carrieri, Giuseppe; Simonnet, Helene; D'Erchia, Anna Maria; Ranieri, Elena; Pesole, Graziano; Sbisa, Elisabetta; Tullo, Apollonia

2014-01-01

266

Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1 Counteracts Rhesus Macaque TRIM5?-Induced Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Production  

PubMed Central

Old world monkey TRIM5? is a host factor that restricts human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. Previously, we reported that rhesus macaque TRIM5? (RhTRIM5?) restricts HIV-1 production by inducing degradation of precursor Gag. Since suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) is known to enhance HIV-1 production by rescuing Gag from lysosomal degradation, we examined if SOCS1 is involved in RhTRIM5?-mediated late restriction. Over-expression of SOCS1 restored HIV-1 production in the presence of RhTRIM5? to a level comparable to that in the absence of RhTRIM5? in terms of titer and viral protein expression. Co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed that SOCS1 physically interacted with RhTRIM5?. Over-expression of SOCS1 affected RhTRIM5? expression in a dose-dependent manner, which was not reversed by proteasome inhibitors. In addition, SOCS1 and RhTRIM5? were detected in virus-like particles. These results suggest that SOCS1 alleviates RhTRIM5?-mediated regulation in the late phase of HIV-1 life cycle probably due to the destabilization of RhTRIM5?. PMID:25310711

Sukegawa, Sayaka; Sakuma, Ryuta; Ohmine, Seiga; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Yamaoka, Shoji

2014-01-01

267

AISI\\/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 1 of 6: Optical Sensors and Controls for Improved Basic Oxygen Furnace Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of an optical sensor for basic oxygen furnace (BOF) off-gas composition and temperature in this Advanced Process Control project has been a laboratory spectroscopic method evolve into a pre-commercialization prototype sensor system. The sensor simultaneously detects an infrared tunable diode laser ITDL beam transmitted through the process off-gas directly above the furnace mouth, and the infrared greybody emission

Sarah Allendorf; David Ottesen; Donald Hardesty

2002-01-01

268

Development of the SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) trim coil beam tube assembly  

SciTech Connect

The Superconducting Super Collider uses approx. =9600 dipole magnets. The magnets have been carefully designed to exhibit minimal magnetic field harmonics. However, because of superconductor magnetization effects, iron saturation and conductor/coil positioning errors, certain harmonic errors are possible and must be corrected by use of multipole correctors called trim coils. For the most efficient use of axial space in the magnet, and lowest possible current, a distributed internal correction coil design is planned. The trim coil assembly is secured to the beam tube, a uhv tube with special strength, size, conductivity and vacuum. The report details the SSC trim coil/beam tube assembly specifications, history, and ongoing development.

Skaritka, J.; Kelly, E.; Schneider, W.; Shutt, R.; Thompson, P.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Bintinger, D.; Coluccio, R.; Schieber, L.

1987-01-01

269

Enhancing dissolved oxygen control using an on-line hybrid fuzzy-neural soft-sensing model-based control system in an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic process.  

PubMed

An on-line hybrid fuzzy-neural soft-sensing model-based control system was developed to optimize dissolved oxygen concentration in a bench-scale anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A(2)/O) process. In order to improve the performance of the control system, a self-adapted fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm and adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) models were employed. The proposed control system permits the on-line implementation of every operating strategy of the experimental system. A set of experiments involving variable hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent pH (pH), dissolved oxygen in the aerobic reactor (DO), and mixed-liquid return ratio (r) was carried out. Using the proposed system, the amount of COD in the effluent stabilized at the set-point and below. The improvement was achieved with optimum dissolved oxygen concentration because the performance of the treatment process was optimized using operating rules implemented in real time. The system allows various expert operational approaches to be deployed with the goal of minimizing organic substances in the outlet while using the minimum amount of energy. PMID:24052227

Huang, Mingzhi; Wan, Jinquan; Hu, Kang; Ma, Yongwen; Wang, Yan

2013-12-01

270

Effect of Oxygen and Redox Potential on Glucose Fermentation in Thermotoga maritima under Controlled Physicochemical Conditions.  

PubMed

Batch cultures of Thermotoga maritima were performed in a bioreactor equipped with instruments adapted for experiments performed at 80°C to mimic the fluctuating oxidative conditions in the hot ecosystems it inhabits. When grown anaerobically on glucose, T. maritima was shown to significantly decrease the redox potential (Eh) of the culture medium down to about -480?mV, as long as glucose was available. Addition of oxygen into T. maritima cultures during the stationary growth phase led to a drastic reduction in glucose consumption rate. However, although oxygen was toxic, our experiment unambiguously proved that T. maritima was able to consume it during a 12-hour exposure period. Furthermore, a shift in glucose metabolism towards lactate production was observed under oxidative conditions. PMID:21461371

Lakhal, Raja; Auria, Richard; Davidson, Sylvain; Ollivier, Bernard; Dolla, Alain; Hamdi, Moktar; Combet-Blanc, Yannick

2010-01-01

271

Doped LaFeO3 as SOFC Catalysts: Control of Oxygen Mobility Oxidation Activity  

SciTech Connect

The bulk structure and surface properties of Fe-based perovskite-type oxides with the formula La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}O{sub 3-{delta}} for y = 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 have been investigated. The properties were found to strongly depend upon Co content, temperature, and environment. The materials were selected due to their potential use as solid oxide fuel cell cathodes. The intermediate Co loading formed oxygen vacancies most easily and several other properties including oxidation activity and surface sites showed a similar non-linear trend. Trends are related to a possible transition in electronic structure. Activity for oxidation of methane, oxygen storage and chemical compatibility was shown to be superior to that of the La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}MnO{sub 3}.

N Lakshminarayanan; J Kuhn; S Rykov; J Millet; U Ozkan; T Rao; J Smedley; E Wang; E Muller; et al.

2011-12-31

272

Measuring Absolute Oxygen Pressure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sensor determines absolute pressure of oxygen without reference pressure source. Absolute oxygen pressure transducer with control circuit enables measurement without reference pressure. Transducer, two part device, combines solid electrolyte membranes sensor with diffusional orifice. Device adapted for direct control of oxygen pressure in combustion mixtures.

Richter, R.

1985-01-01

273

Dissolved oxygen control and monitoring implementation in the liquid lead–bismuth eutectic loop: HELIOS  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 12m tall LBE coolant loop, named as HELIOS, has been developed by thermal-hydraulic scaling of the PEACER-300MWe. Thermo-hydraulic experiment and materials test are the principal purposes of HELIOS operation. In this study, an yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) based oxygen sensor that was hermetically sealed for long-term applications using the electromagnetically swaged metal–ceramic joining method, have been developed for high

Hyo On Nam; Jun Lim; Dong Yoon Han; Il Soon Hwang

2008-01-01

274

Evaluation of Translational Control Mechanisms in Response to Oxygen Deprivation in Maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous changes in gene expression occur in response to flooding (oxygen deprivation, i.e., anoxia and hypoxia) in seedling roots of maize (Zea mays L.) and other plants. Increased de novo transcription of anaerobic polypeptide (ANP) genes is responsible, in part for increased production of glycolytic and fermentative enzymes, such as alcohol dehydrogenase-1. There is increasing evidence that regulation of mRNA

K. Szick-Miranda; S. Jayachandran; A. Tam; J. Werner-Fraczek; A. J. Williams; J. Bailey-Serres

2003-01-01

275

Rapid determination of chemical oxygen demand using a focused microwave heating system featuring temperature control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper demonstrates the use of a microwave heating system, employed\\u000a in the chemical digestion step, for the determination of chemical oxygen\\u000a demand in wastewater. The results are first compared with those provided\\u000a by standard methods using reference substances. The problems arising\\u000a from abrupt heating of the sample and the potential thermal\\u000a decomposition of potassium dichromate are examined. Two different

Ramon Ramon; Francisco Valero; M del Valle

2003-01-01

276

Identification of key parameters controlling dissolved oxygen migration and attenuation in fractured crystalline rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the crystalline rocks of the Canadian Shield, geochemical conditions are currently reducing at depths of 500–1000 m. However, during future glacial periods, altered hydrologic conditions could potentially result in enhanced recharge of glacial melt water containing a relatively high concentration of dissolved oxygen (O2). It is therefore of interest to investigate the physical and geochemical processes, including naturally-occurring redox reactions,

S. M. Spiessl; K. T. B. MacQuarrie; K. U. Mayer

2008-01-01

277

Czochralski growth of single-crystal fayalite under controlled oxygen fugacity conditionsl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-crystal boules of fayalite (FerSiOo) were grown in the temperature range 1165 to 1200'C at I bar total pressure from high-purity oxide melts of 1.95:l to 2.10:l Fe:Si atom ratio. A modified Czochralski technique was used, with platinum crucibles inductively heated under oxygen fugacities, \\/(Or), between l0-e and l0-'2 bar. The boules are up to l0 mm in diameter by

Cennrr B. FrNcH; G. WayNn Cram; Orro C. Kopp

278

Sensitivity of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, multidrug-resistant Salmonella, and antibiotic-susceptible Salmonella to lactic acid on inoculated beef trimmings.  

PubMed

Studies were performed to determine whether lactic acid treatments used to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 on beef trimmings are also effective in controlling non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (nSTEC), and multidrug-resistant and antibiotic-susceptible Salmonella. Beef trimming pieces (10 by 5 by 1 cm) were inoculated (3 log CFU/cm(2)) separately with four-strain mixtures of rifampin-resistant E. coli O157:H7, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145. Similarly, in a second study, trimmings were separately inoculated with rifampin-resistant E. coli O157:H7, and antibiotic-susceptible or multidrug-resistant (MDR and/or MDR-AmpC) Salmonella Newport and Salmonella Typhimurium. Inoculated trimmings were left untreated (control) or were immersed for 30 s in 5% lactic acid solutions (25 or 55°C). No differences (P ? 0.05) were obtained among surviving counts of E. coli O157:H7 and those of the tested nSTEC serogroups on lactic acid-treated (25 or 55°C) samples. Counts (3.1 to 3.3 log CFU/cm(2)) of E. coli O157:H7 and nSTEC were reduced (P < 0.05) by 0.5 to 0.9 (25°C lactic acid) and 1.0 to 1.4 (55°C lactic acid) log CFU/cm(2). Surviving counts of Salmonella on treated trimmings were not influenced by serotype or antibiotic resistance phenotype and were similar (P ? 0.05) or lower (P < 0.05) than surviving counts of E. coli O157:H7. Counts (3.0 to 3.3 log CFU/cm(2)) were reduced (P < 0.05) by 0.5 to 0.8 (E. coli O157:H7) and 1.3 to 1.5 (Salmonella) log CFU/cm(2) after treatment of samples with 25°C lactic acid. Corresponding reductions following treatment with lactic acid at 55°C were 1.2 to 1.5 (E. coli O157:H7) and 1.6 to 1.9 (Salmonella) log CFU/cm(2). Overall, the results indicated that lactic acid treatments used against E. coli O157:H7 on beef trimmings should be similarly or more effective against the six nSTEC serogroups and against multidrug-resistant and antibiotic-susceptible Salmonella Newport and Salmonella Typhimurium. PMID:23043822

Fouladkhah, Aliyar; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Yang, Hua; Belk, Keith E; Nightingale, Kendra K; Woerner, Dale R; Smith, Gary C; Sofos, John N

2012-10-01

279

Controlling the oxygen potential to improve the densification and the solid solution formation of uranium-plutonium mixed oxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion mechanisms occurring during the sintering of oxide ceramics are affected by the oxygen content of the atmosphere, as it imposes the nature and the concentration of structural defects in the material. Thus, the oxygen partial pressure, p(O2), of the sintering gas has to be precisely controlled, otherwise a large dispersion in various parameters, critical for the manufacturing of ceramics such as nuclear oxides fuels, is likely to occur. In the present work, the densification behaviour and the solid solution formation of a mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) were investigated. The initial mixture, composed of 70% UO2 + 30% PuO2, was studied at p(O2) ranging from 10-15 to 10-4 atm up to 1873 K both with dilatometry and in situ high temperature X-ray diffraction. This study has shown that the initial oxides UO2+x and PuO2-x first densify during heating and then the solid solution formation starts at about 200 K higher. The densification and the formation of the solid solution both occur at a lower temperature when p(O2) increases. Based on this result, it is possible to better define the sintering atmosphere, eventually leading to optimized parameters such as density, oxygen stoichiometry and cations homogenization of nuclear ceramics and of a wide range of industrial ceramic materials.

Berzati, Ségolène; Vaudez, Stéphane; Belin, Renaud C.; Léchelle, Jacques; Marc, Yves; Richaud, Jean-Christophe; Heintz, Jean-Marc

2014-04-01

280

Evaluation of Thermal Control Coatings and Polymeric Materials Exposed to Ground Simulated Atomic Oxygen and Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous thermal control and polymeric samples with potential International Space Station applications were evaluated for atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet radiation effects in the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory 5 eV Neutral Atomic Oxygen Facility and in the MSFC Atomic Oxygen Drift Tube System. Included in this study were samples of various anodized aluminum samples, ceramic paints, polymeric materials, and beta cloth, a Teflon-impregnated fiberglass cloth. Aluminum anodizations tested were black duranodic, chromic acid anodize, and sulfuric acid anodize. Paint samples consisted of an inorganic glassy black paint and Z-93 white paint made with the original PS7 binder and the new K2130 binder. Polymeric samples evaluated included bulk Halar, bulk PEEK, and silverized FEP Teflon. Aluminized and nonaluminized Chemfab 250 beta cloth were also exposed. Samples were evaluated for changes in mass, thickness, solar absorptance, and infrared emittance. In addition to material effects, an investigation was made comparing diffuse reflectance/solar absorptance measurements made using a Beckman DK2 spectroreflectometer and like measurements made using an AZ Technology-developed laboratory portable spectroreflectometer.

Kamenetzky, R. R.; Vaughn, J. A.; Finckenor, M. M.; Linton, R. C.

1995-01-01

281

Measurement of surface tension in an atmosphere with controlled oxygen partial pressure under microgravity using a parabolic flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Use of a levitation technique is an elegant way to determine thermophysical properties of high temperature melts, because this containerless technique can avoid contamination from a container and assures measurement in a wide temperature range including superheated and undercooled conditions. In particular, electromagnetic levitation is suitable for electrically conductive materials, such as molten metals, alloys and semiconductors. For surface tension measurement, the Rayleigh equation can be applicable only under microgravity condition [1]. However, when this technique is applied on earth, the l = 2 mode frequency is split into five frequencies, because a droplet is deformed from a spherical shape into an egg shape due to gravitational force and the Lorentz force. Surface tension must be calculated taking account of correction term [2]. Therefore, measurement under microgravity is required to minimize uncertainty. Furthermore, surface tension is sensitive to oxygen partial pressure of an ambient atmosphere. However, there has been less report on surface tension measurement under microgravity in an atmosphere with controlled oxygen partial pressure. We are going to measure surface tension of high temperature metallic melts under microgravity using a parabolic flight of a jet aircraft, the Gulf Stream II, operated by Diamond Air Service in Japan. In September of 2007, through parabolic flight experiments we confirmed that droplets of Cu and Ag were successfully levitated using a newly designed coil under the 1G and 10-2G conditions. Droplets were also assured to be levitated in the pull-up period (1.5G); we can melt samples before entering microgravity condition, so that we can use 20 second microgravity only for measurement. On earth, surface tension of molten silicon was successfully measured using electromagnetic levitation in an ambient atmosphere with various oxygen partial pressures; surface tension of molten silicon showed a marked dependence of oxygen partial pressure. Oxygen partial pressure control system has been designed and installed within an electromagnetic levitation facility for parabolic flight experiments. References [1] Lord Rayleigh: Proc. Royal Soc. London, 29, 71 (1879). [2] D. L. Cummings and D. A. Blackburn: J. Fluid Mech. 224, 395 (1991).

Hibiya, Taketoshi; Watanabe, Masahito; Ozawa, Shumpei; Adachi, Masayoshi; Takenaga, Noriaki; Aoyagai, Tomowo; Mizuno, Akitoshi; Higuchi, Kensuke

282

Peak Oxygen Uptake after Cardiac Rehabilitation: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a 12-Month Maintenance Program versus Usual Care  

PubMed Central

Background Exercise capacity is a strong predictor of survival in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Exercise capacity improves after cardiac rehabilitation exercise training, but previous studies have demonstrated a decline in peak oxygen uptake after ending a formal rehabilitation program. There is a lack of knowledge on how long-term exercise adherence can be achieved in CAD patients. We therefore assessed if a 12-month maintenance program following cardiac rehabilitation would lead to increased adherence to exercise and increased exercise capacity compared to usual care. Materials and Methods Two-centre, open, parallel randomized controlled trial with 12 months follow-up comparing usual care to a maintenance program. The maintenance program consisted of one monthly supervised high intensity interval training session, a written exercise program and exercise diary, and a maximum exercise test every third month during follow-up. Forty-nine patients (15 women) on optimal medical treatment were included following discharge from cardiac rehabilitation. The primary endpoint was change in peak oxygen uptake at follow-up; secondary endpoints were physical activity level, quality of life and blood markers of cardiovascular risk. Results There was no change in peak oxygen uptake from baseline to follow-up in either group (intervention group 27.9 (±4.7) to 28.8 (±5.6) mL·kg (-1) min (?1), control group 32.0 (±6.2) to 32.8 (±5.8) mL·kg (?1) min (?1), with no between-group difference, p?=?0.22). Quality of life and blood biomarkers remained essentially unchanged, and both self-reported and measured physical activity levels were similar between groups after 12 months. Conclusions A maintenance exercise program for 12 months did not improve adherence to exercise or peak oxygen uptake in CAD patients after discharge from cardiac rehabilitation compared to usual care. This suggests that infrequent supervised high intensity interval training sessions are inadequate to improve peak oxygen uptake in this patient group. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01246570 PMID:25247991

Madssen, Erik; Arbo, Ingerid; Gran?ien, Ingrid; Walderhaug, Liv; Moholdt, Trine

2014-01-01

283

Periodic trim solutions with hp-version finite elements in time  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Finite elements in time as an alternative strategy for rotorcraft trim problems are studied. The research treats linear flap and linearized flap-lag response both for quasi-trim and trim cases. The connection between Fourier series analysis and hp-finite elements for periodic a problem is also examined. It is proved that Fourier series is a special case of space-time finite elements in which one element is used with a strong displacement formulation. Comparisons are made with respect to accuracy among Fourier analysis, displacement methods, and mixed methods over a variety parameters. The hp trade-off is studied for the periodic trim problem to provide an optimum step size and order of polynomial for a given error criteria. It is found that finite elements in time can outperform Fourier analysis for periodic problems, and for some given error criteria. The mixed method provides better results than does the displacement method.

Peters, David A.; Hou, Lin-Jun

1990-01-01

284

Resuscitation of very preterm infants with 30% vs. 65% oxygen at birth: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Resuscitation at birth with 100% oxygen is known to increase the oxidative burden with concomitant deleterious effects. Although fractions of inspired oxygen (FiO2)?controlled trial, 200 very preterm infants with a gestational age?oxygen. The FiO2 will be adjusted based on oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry (SpO2) and pulse rate (which should be over 100 beats per minute) in order to achieve a target SpO2 of 88–94% at 10 min of life. The FiO2 and pulse oximetry data will be continuously recorded. The primary outcome is survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia, as assessed by a physiological test at 36 weeks postmenstrual age. The secondary outcomes include the time to achieve SpO2?>?88%, Apgar score at 5 min, cumulative O2 exposure, oxidative stress (as determined by glutathione synthesis and oxidative stress markers), retinopathy of prematurity, brain injury and neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years of age. This study will provide insight into determining the appropriate initial FiO2 to start resuscitation of very preterm infants. Trial registration http://www.trialregister.nl, NTR243. PMID:22621326

2012-01-01

285

Space Shuttle Orbiter oxygen partial pressure sensing and control system improvements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A program aimed at developing a new PPO2 oxygen sensor and a replacement amplifier for the Space Shuttle Orbiter is described. Experimental design methodologies used in the test and modeling process made it possible to enhance the effectiveness of the program and to reduce its cost. Significant cost savings are due to the increased lifetime of the basic sensor cell, the maximization of useful sensor life through an increased amplifier gain adjustment capability, the use of streamlined production processes for the manufacture of the assemblies, and the refurbishment capability of the replacement sensor.

Frampton, Robert F.; Hoy, Dennis M.; Kelly, Kevin J.; Walleshauser, James J.

1992-01-01

286

Control of Oxygen Delamination in Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cells via Modifying Operational Regime  

SciTech Connect

Possible modifications of operational regimes for solid oxide fuel cell (SOEC) devices for hydrogen production are discussed. It is shown that applying alternating current (AC) voltage pulses at a certain frequency range to SOECs could reduce oxygen delamination degradation in these devices and significantly increase their lifetime. This operational scheme provides wide possibilities to increase longevity of SOEC devices required for their use in commercial hydrogen production processes, without any significant modification of used materials and/or cell design. Developed simulation method possesses a broad generality and be employed in a number of other industrial processes.

Sergey N. Rashkeev; Michael V. Glazoff

2011-10-01

287

Autonomic control of cardiac function and myocardial oxygen consumption during hypoxic hypoxia.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigation in 19 conscious dogs of the importance of the sympathetic nervous system in the coronary and cardiac response to altitude (hypoxic) hypoxia. Beta-adrenergic blockade was used to minimize the cardiac effect associated with sympathetic receptors. It is shown that the autonomic nervous system, and particularly the sympathetic nervous system, is responsible for the increase in ventricular function and myocardial oxygen consumption that occurs during hypoxia. Minimizing this response through appropriate conditioning and training may improve the operating efficiency of the heart and reduce the hazard of hypoxia and other environmental stresses, such as acceleration, which are encountered in advanced aircraft systems.

Erickson, H. H.; Stone, H. L.

1972-01-01

288

Atomic Control of TiO2(110) Surface By Oxygen Plasma Treatment  

SciTech Connect

Segregation of impurities in TiO2 substrates impacts the local atomic structure and stoichiometry of the native TiO2 surfaces. We investigated the effects of oxygen plasma on the TiO2 surfaces. It was found that annealing TiO2 crystals at above 500 degrees C effectively removed calcium and carbon contaminants and dramatically improved the surface morphology and stoichiometry. Scanning tunneling micrographs revealed atomically smooth surfaces with well-defined step-terrace morphology after the plasma treatment, while x-ray photoelectron spectra showed that all the Ti cations on the resulting surfaces were fully coordinated.

Gan, Shupan; Liang, Yong; Baer, Donald R.

2000-07-12

289

Modelling of feather pecking behavior in beak-trimmed and non-beak-trimmed crossbred laying hens: variance component and trait-based approach.  

PubMed

Because of a ban on the use of beak trimming in some European countries, feather pecking is becoming a substantial problem in the layer industry, both from animal welfare and economic points of view. The feather condition score (FCS) as a measure of feather damage has been shown to be closely related to feather pecking behavior in laying hens housed in groups. To obtain a better understanding of genetic and other biological mechanisms underlying feather pecking behavior, data on FCS of a population of 2,724 female offspring from crossing 50 male W1 and 907 female WB purebred lines were used. The offspring of 25 sires were beak-trimmed, and the offspring of another 25 sires were non-beak-trimmed. Titers of plasma natural antibody (NAb) isotypes IgM and IgG binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin at 24 wk of age were measured. Feather condition was scored at 53 wk of age. In the first part of the present study, we estimated genetic parameters for FCS with 2 variance components models: a traditional linear animal model and a model combining direct and associative genetic effects. In the second part of the present study, a trait-based analysis for FCS was conducted to investigate whether NAb isotype titers can explain variation in FCS among individuals, by fitting a linear mixed model. Though the estimated associative genetic variance was substantial, associative effects for FCS were not statistically significant in both populations (P = 0.09 in beak-trimmed birds, and P = 0.08 in non-beak-trimmed birds). This suggests an insufficient number of records on FCS. Individual's NAb isotypes titers did not show direct effect for FCS of itself, but individual's IgG titers showed a suggestive effect on the FCS of cage mates (associative effect) in beak-trimmed laying hens, which need further confirmation. PMID:24706953

Sun, Y; Ellen, E D; van der Poel, J J; Parmentier, H K; Bijma, P

2014-04-01

290

Oceanography: Oxygen and climate dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Low oxygen levels in tropical oceans shape marine ecosystems and biogeochemistry, and climate change is expected to expand these regions. Now a study indicates that regional dynamics control tropical oxygen trends, bucking projected global reductions in ocean oxygen.

Doney, Scott C.; Karnauskas, Kristopher B.

2014-10-01

291

Terminal repeat retrotransposon in miniature (TRIM) as DNA markers in Brassica relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a display system using a unique sequence of terminal repeat retrotransposon in miniature (TRIM) elements,\\u000a which were recently identified from gene-rich regions of Brassica rapa. The technique, named TRIM display, is based on modification of the AFLP technique using an adapter primer for the restriction\\u000a fragments of BfaI and a primer derived from conserved terminal repeat sequences

Soo-Jin Kwon; Dong-Hyun Kim; Myung-Ho Lim; Yan Long; Jin-Ling Meng; Ki-Byung Lim; Jin-A Kim; Jung Sun Kim; Mina Jin; Ho-Il Kim; Sang-Nag Ahn; Susan R. Wessler; Tae-Jin Yang; Beom-Seok Park

2007-01-01

292

Role of common human TRIM5? variants in HIV1 disease progression  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The retroviral restriction factor tripartite motif protein (TRIM)5?, is characterized by marked amino acid diversity among primates, including specific clusters of residues under positive selection. The identification of multiple non-synonymous changes in humans suggests that TRIM5? variants might be relevant to retroviral pathogenesis. Previous studies have shown that such variants are unlikely to modify susceptibility to HIV-1 infection, or

Valérie Goldschmidt; Gabriela Bleiber; Margaret May; Raquel Martinez; Millàn Ortiz; Amalio Telenti

2006-01-01

293

Trimming of microring resonators by photo-oxidation of a plasma-polymerized organosilane cladding material  

Microsoft Academic Search

As the complexity of microphotonic devices grows, the ability to precisely trim microring resonators becomes increasingly important. Photo-oxidation trimming uses UV irradiation to oxidize a cladding layer composed of polymerized hexamethyldisilane (6M2S) deposited with plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). PECVD 6M2S has optical properties that are compatible with microring devices, and its high cross linking renders it insoluble. Photo-oxidation decreases

Daniel K. Sparacin; Ching-Yin Hong; Lionel C. Kimerling; Jurgen Michel; John P. Lock; Karen K. Gleason

2005-01-01

294

Trim28 Contributes to EMT via Regulation of E-Cadherin and N-Cadherin in Lung Cancer Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

In previous work, we demonstrated that transcription factor Trim28 (Tripartite motif containing 28) plays a tumor-suppressor role in early-staged adenocarcinoma of the lung due to its ability to restrain transcription of cell cycle-regulating genes. Herein we examine Trim28's role in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) which is strongly implicated in cancer metastasis. We found that Trim28 plays a role in TGF-?-induced EMT in non-small cell lung cancer cells. Silencing Trim28 with inhibitory RNAs alters the expression of numerous EMT markers, such as E-cadherin and N-cadherin, whereas overexpression of Trim28 has an opposite effect. Trim28 expression is induced following TGF-? treatment at both protein and mRNA levels. Trim28 deficiency impairs TGF-?-induced EMT and decreases cell migration and invasion. Finally, we demonstrate that the expression of Trim28 affects the acetylation and methylation of histones on E-cadherin and N-cadherin promoters. These results suggest that Trim28 contributes to EMT and might be important for tumor metastasis in lung cancer. Taken together with our previous work these results suggest a model in which Trim28 is a tumor suppressor early in the transformation process in lung cancer, but in later stages it functions as an oncogene. PMID:24983967

Chen, Lu; Munoz-Antonia, Teresita; Cress, W. Douglas

2014-01-01

295

Understanding and assessing the impact of treatment in diabetes: the Treatment-Related Impact Measures for Diabetes and Devices (TRIM-Diabetes and TRIM-Diabetes Device)  

PubMed Central

Purpose Diabetes is a debilitating illness requiring lifelong management. Treatments can be varied in terms of mode of administration as well as type of agent. Unfortunately, most patient reported outcome measures currently available to assess the impact of treatment are specific to diabetes type, treatment modality or delivery systems and are designed to be either a HRQoL or treatment satisfaction measure. To address these gaps, the Treatment Related Impact Measure-Diabetes and Device measures were developed. This paper presents the item development and validation of the TRIM Diabetes/Device. Methods Patient interviews were conducted to collect the patient perspective and ensure high content validity. Interviews were hand coded and qualitatively analyzed to identify common themes. A conceptual model of the impact of diabetes medication was developed and preliminary items for the TRIM-Diabetes/Device were generated and cognitively debriefed. Validation data was collected via an on-line survey and analyzed according to an a priori statistical analysis plan to validate the overall score as well as each domain. Item level criteria were used to reduce the preliminary item pool. Next, factor analysis to identify structural domains was performed. Reliability and validity testing was then performed. Results One hundred and five patients were interviewed in focus groups, individual interviews and for cognitive debriefing. Five hundred seven patients participated in the validation study. Factor analysis identified seven domains: Treatment Burden, Daily Life; Diabetes Management; Psychological Health; Compliance and Device Function and Bother. Internal consistency reliability coefficients of the TRIM-Diabetes/Device ranged from 0.80 and 0.94. Test-retest reliability of the TRIM-Diabetes/Device ranged from 0.71 to 0.89. All convergent and known groups validity hypotheses were met for the TRIM-Diabetes/Device total scores and sub-scales. Conclusion Validation is an ongoing and iterative process. These findings are the first step in that process and have shown that both the TRIM-Diabetes and the TRIM-Diabetes Device have acceptable psychometric properties. Future research is needed to continue the validation process and examine responsiveness and the validity of the TRIM-Diabetes/Device in a clinical trial population. PMID:19740444

Brod, Meryl; Hammer, Mette; Christensen, Torsten; Lessard, Suzanne; Bushnell, Donald M

2009-01-01

296

Oxygen-Dependent Control of Respiratory Nitrate Reduction in Mycelium of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).  

PubMed

Several members of the obligately aerobic genus Streptomyces are able to reduce nitrate, catalyzed by Nar-type respiratory nitrate reductases. A unique feature of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) compared with other streptomycetes is that it synthesizes three nonredundant Nar enzymes. In this study, we show that Nar2 is the main Nar enzyme active in mycelium and could characterize the conditions governing its synthesis. Nar2 was present at low levels in aerobically cultivated mycelium, but synthesis was induced when cultures were grown under oxygen limitation. Growth in the presence of high oxygen concentrations prevented the induction of Nar2 synthesis. Equally, an abrupt shift from aerobiosis to anaerobiosis did not result in the immediate induction of Nar2 synthesis. This suggests that the synthesis of Nar2 is induced during a hypoxic downshift, probably to allow maintenance of a proton gradient during the transition to anaerobiosis. Although no Nar2 could be detected in freshly harvested mature spores, synthesis of the enzyme could be induced after long-term (several days) incubation of these resting spores under anaerobic conditions. Induction of Nar2 synthesis in spores was linked to transcriptional control. Nar2 activity in whole mycelium was strictly dependent on the presence of a putative nitrate transporter, NarK2. The oxygen-dependent inhibition of nitrate reduction by Nar2 was mediated by NarK2-dependent nitrate:nitrite antiport. This antiport mechanism likely prevents the accumulation of toxic nitrite in the cytoplasm. A deletion of the narK2 gene had no effect on Nar1-dependent nitrate reduction in resting spores. Together, our results indicate redox-dependent transcriptional and posttranslational control of nitrate reduction by Nar2. PMID:25225271

Fischer, Marco; Falke, Dörte; Pawlik, Tony; Sawers, R Gary

2014-12-01

297

Trauma hemostasis and oxygenation research position paper on remote damage control resuscitation: definitions, current practice, and knowledge gaps.  

PubMed

The Trauma Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research Network held its third annual Remote Damage Control Resuscitation Symposium in June 2013 in Bergen, Norway. The Trauma Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research Network is a multidisciplinary group of investigators with a common interest in improving outcomes and safety in patients with severe traumatic injury. The network's mission is to reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality from traumatic hemorrhagic shock, in the prehospital phase of resuscitation through research, education, and training. The concept of remote damage control resuscitation is in its infancy, and there is a significant amount of work that needs to be done to improve outcomes for patients with life-threatening bleeding secondary to injury. The prehospital phase of resuscitation is critical in these patients. If shock and coagulopathy can be rapidly identified and minimized before hospital admission, this will very likely reduce morbidity and mortality. This position statement begins to standardize the terms used, provides an acceptable range of therapeutic options, and identifies the major knowledge gaps in the field. PMID:24430539

Jenkins, Donald H; Rappold, Joseph F; Badloe, John F; Berséus, Olle; Blackbourne, Lorne; Brohi, Karim H; Butler, Frank K; Cap, Andrew P; Cohen, Mitchell Jay; Davenport, Ross; DePasquale, Marc; Doughty, Heidi; Glassberg, Elon; Hervig, Tor; Hooper, Timothy J; Kozar, Rosemary; Maegele, Marc; Moore, Ernest E; Murdock, Alan; Ness, Paul M; Pati, Shibani; Rasmussen, Todd; Sailliol, Anne; Schreiber, Martin A; Sunde, Geir Arne; van de Watering, Leo M G; Ward, Kevin R; Weiskopf, Richard B; White, Nathan J; Strandenes, Geir; Spinella, Philip C

2014-05-01

298

A recruitment maneuver increases oxygenation after intubation of hypoxemic intensive care unit patients: a randomized controlled study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Tracheal intubation and anaesthesia promotes lung collapse and hypoxemia. In acute lung injury patients, recruitment maneuvers (RMs) increase lung volume and oxygenation, and decrease atelectasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of RMs performed immediately after intubation. Methods This randomized controlled study was conducted in two 16-bed medical-surgical intensive care units within the same university hospital. Consecutive patients requiring intubation for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure were included. Patients were randomized to undergo a RM immediately (within 2 minutes) after intubation, consisting of a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) of 40 cmH2O over 30 seconds (RM group), or not (control group). Blood gases were sampled and blood samples taken for culture before, within 2 minutes, 5 minutes, and 30 minutes after intubation. Haemodynamic and respiratory parameters were continuously recorded throughout the study. Positive end expiratory pressure (PEEP) was set at 5 cmH2O throughout. Results The control (n = 20) and RM (n = 20) groups were similar in terms of age, disease severity, diagnosis at time of admission, and PaO2 obtained under 10-15 L/min oxygen flow immediately before (81 ± 15 vs 83 ± 35 mmHg, P = 0.9), and within 2 minutes after, intubation under 100% FiO2 (81 ± 15 vs 83 ± 35 mmHg, P = 0.9). Five minutes after intubation, PaO2 obtained under 100% FiO2 was significantly higher in the RM group compared with the control group (93 ± 36 vs 236 ± 117 mmHg, P = 0.008). The difference remained significant at 30 minutes with 110 ± 39 and 180 ± 79 mmHg, respectively, for the control and RM groups. No significant difference in haemodynamic conditions was observed between groups at any time. Following tracheal intubation, 15 patients had positive blood cultures, showing microorganisms shared with tracheal aspirates, with no significant difference in the incidence of culture positivity between groups. Conclusions Recruitment maneuver following intubation in hypoxemic patients improved short-term oxygenation, and was not associated with increased adverse effects. Trial registration NCT01014299 PMID:20426859

2010-01-01

299

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for acute domestic carbon monoxide poisoning: two randomized controlled trials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  Although hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) is broadly used for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, its efficacy and practical modalities\\u000a remain controversial.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  To assess HBO in patients poisoned with CO.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Two prospective randomized trial on two parallel groups.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting  Critical Care Unit, Raymond Poincaré Hospital, Garches, France.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects  Three hundred eighty-five patients with acute domestic CO poisoning.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Intervention  Patients with transient loss of consciousness (trial

Djillali Annane; Karim Chadda; Philippe Gajdos; Marie-Claude Jars-Guincestre; Sylvie Chevret; Jean-Claude Raphael

2011-01-01

300

Processes controlling the oxygen isotope ratio of soil CO 2: analytic and numerical modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 18O/ 16O ratio of soil CO 2 is important for both global and ecosystem scale budgets of the 18O/ 16O ratio of atmospheric CO 2, as well as for using this ratio as a proxy for the isotopic ratio of soil water. The 18O/ 16O ratio of soil CO 2 reflects that of soil water due to the isotope exchange which occurs during the CO 2 hydration reaction. The rate of this isotope exchange reaction strongly influences the oxygen isotope ratio of soil CO 2, and may be about two orders of magnitude slower than the isotope exchange reaction between CO 2(aq) and water (effective first order rate constant, k eff, of 10 -4 versus 10 -2 s -1 at 25°C). This difference in rate reflects transport across the soil water/soil air interface, which limits the overall rate of reaction. A diffusion-production-reaction model (Hesterberg and Siegenthaler, 1991) suggests that the 18O/ 16O ratio of soil CO 2 at depth deviates from the equilibrium value by ˜1-2‰ if k eff = 10 -4 s -1, negating the assumption that soil CO 2 is in isotopic equilibrium with soil water. A sensitivity analysis of this model indicates the following factors affect 18O/ 16O ratio of soil CO 2 (in order of decreasing importance): (1) the isotope ratio of soil water; (2) the rate constant of the isotope exchange; (3) soil air-filled pore space and tortuosity. Notably, soil respiration rate has only a minor effect. Advection of soil gas due to wind pumping has a negligible effect on the ? 18O value of soil CO 2 except in most extreme cases. Likewise, transient effects on the oxygen isotope ratio of soil CO 2 due to changes in soil respiration rate are small.

Stern, Libby; Baisden, W. Troy; Amundson, Ronald

1999-07-01

301

Environmental and physiological controls over oxygen and carbon isotope composition of Tasmanian blue gum, Eucalyptus globulus.  

PubMed

We measured oxygen isotope ratios (delta18O) of xylem sap, phloem sap, leaves, wood and bark of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. growing in southwestern Australia. Carbon isotope ratios (delta13C) were measured in the dry matter of phloem sap, leaves and wood. Results were used to test several aspects of a mechanistic model of 18O enrichment and provided insights into post-photosynthetic variations in dry matter delta13C. Xylem water delta18O varied little within the tree crown, whereas variation at the landscape-level was more pronounced, with plantations near the coast being enriched by up to 3 per thousand compared with plantations less than 100 km inland. Phloem water was significantly enriched in 18O compared with xylem water in two of three sampling campaigns; mean enrichments were 0.5 and 0.8 per thousand. Phloem sap sugars exported from E. globulus leaves closely reflected observed leaf water enrichment when diurnal variation in photosynthesis was taken into account. Photosynthetic rates were higher in the morning than in the afternoon, whereas leaf water 18O enrichment increased to maximum values in the afternoon. A non-steady-state model of leaf water 18O enrichment accurately predicted observed values through a full diel cycle. Mean estimates of the proportion of organic oxygen effectively exchanging with xylem water during cellulose synthesis were close to 0.40 for both leaves and wood. Carbon isotope ratios of nascent xylem tissues did not differ from those of phloem sap sugars collected concurrently, whereas nascent leaf tissues were depleted in 13C by 2 per thousand compared with phloem sap sugars, suggesting that, in E. globulus, 13C enrichment of sink tissues compared with source leaves does not result from an enriching process within the sink tissue. PMID:15574395

Cernusak, Lucas A; Farquhar, Graham D; Pate, John S

2005-02-01

302

The TRIM-NHL Protein Brat Promotes Axon Maintenance by Repressing src64B Expression.  

PubMed

The morphology and the connectivity of neuronal structures formed during early development must be actively maintained as the brain matures. Although impaired axon stability is associated with the progression of various neurological diseases, relatively little is known about the factors controlling this process. We identified Brain tumor (Brat), a conserved member of the TRIM-NHL family of proteins, as a new regulator of axon maintenance in Drosophila CNS. Brat function is dispensable for the initial growth of Mushroom Body axons, but is required for the stabilization of axon bundles. We found that Brat represses the translation of src64B, an upstream regulator of a conserved Rho-dependent pathway previously shown to promote axon retraction. Furthermore, brat phenotypes are phenocopied by src64B overexpression, and partially suppressed by reducing the levels of src64B or components of the Rho pathway, suggesting that brat promotes axon maintenance by downregulating the levels of Src64B. Finally, Brat regulates brain connectivity via its NHL domain, but independently of its previously described partners Nanos, Pumilio, and d4EHP. Thus, our results uncover a novel post-transcriptional regulatory mechanism that controls the maintenance of neuronal architecture by tuning the levels of a conserved rho-dependent signaling pathway. PMID:25297111

Marchetti, Giovanni; Reichardt, Ilka; Knoblich, Juergen A; Besse, Florence

2014-10-01

303

Functional Evidence for the Involvement of Microtubules and Dynein Motor Complexes in TRIM5?-Mediated Restriction of Retroviruses  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The tripartite motif (TRIM) family of proteins includes the TRIM5? antiretroviral restriction factor. TRIM5? from many Old World and some New World monkeys can restrict the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), while human TRIM5? restricts N-tropic murine leukemia virus (N-MLV). TRIM5? forms highly dynamic cytoplasmic bodies (CBs) that associate with and translocate on microtubules. However, the functional involvement of microtubules or other cytoskeleton-associated factors in the viral restriction process had not been shown. Here, we demonstrate the dependency of TRIM5?-mediated restriction on microtubule-mediated transport. Pharmacological disruption of the microtubule network using nocodazole or disabling it using paclitaxel (originally named taxol) decreased the restriction of N-MLV and HIV-1 by human or simian alleles of TRIM5?, respectively. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of dynein motor complexes using erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine (EHNA) and small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of the dynein heavy chain (DHC) similarly decreased TRIM5?-mediated restriction. The loss in restriction resulting from either the disassembly of microtubules or the disruption of dynein motor activity was seen for both endogenous and overexpressed TRIM5? and was not due to differences in protein stability or cell viability. Both nocodazole treatment and DHC depletion interfered with the dynamics of TRIM5? CBs, increasing their size and altering their intracellular localization. In addition, nocodazole, paclitaxel, and DHC depletion were all found to increase the stability of HIV-1 cores in infected cells, providing an alternative explanation for the decreased restriction. In conclusion, association with microtubules and the translocation activity of dynein motor complexes are required to achieve efficient restriction by TRIM5?. IMPORTANCE The primate innate cellular defenses against infection by retroviruses include a protein named TRIM5?, belonging to the family of restriction factors. TRIM5? is present in the cytoplasm, where it can intercept incoming retroviruses shortly after their entry. How TRIM5? manages to be present at the appropriate subcytoplasmic location to interact with its target is unknown. We hypothesized that TRIM5?, either as a soluble protein or a high-molecular-weight complex (the cytoplasmic body), is transported within the cytoplasm by a molecular motor called the dynein complex, which is known to interact with and move along microtubules. Our results show that destructuring microtubules or crippling their function decreased the capacity of human or simian TRIM5? to restrict their retroviral targets. Inhibiting dynein motor activity, or reducing the expression of a key component of this complex, similarly affected TRIM5?-mediated restriction. Thus, we have identified specific cytoskeleton structures involved in innate antiretroviral defenses. PMID:24600008

Pawlica, Paulina; Le Sage, Valerie; Poccardi, Nolwenn; Tremblay, Michel J.; Mouland, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

304

Mathematical model of the Space Shuttle Main Engine gaseous oxygen control valve  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer program for modeling transient flow behavior of the GOX control valve (GCV) has been developed which makes it possible to model a variety of operating conditions and changes of physical hardware. The SSME GCV controls the flow of GOX that pressurizes the Pogo accumulator. The model simulates the transient flow behavior of the original, tight stacked, and redesigned

Susan L. Langer; Philip Tygielski

1992-01-01

305

Pilot study to visualise and measure skin tissue oxygenation, erythema, total haemoglobin and melanin content using index maps in healthy controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a method for analysing multispectral images of skin in vivo for the measurement and visualisation of skin characteristics. Four different indices were used to characterise skin tissue oxygenation, erythema, total haemoglobin and melanin content. Index values were calculated pixel-wise and combined to create index maps to visualise skin properties. Quantitative measurement of tissue oxygenation saturation was possible by calibrating the oxygenation index using a commercial, calibrated oximeter. Index maps were tested by arterial occlusion of the index finger with multispectral images taken before, during and after occlusion in a pilot study with 10 healthy controls.

Poxon, Ian; Wilkinson, Jack; Herrick, Ariane; Dickinson, Mark; Murray, Andrea

2014-02-01

306

Trimming Line Design using New Development Method and One Step FEM  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In most of automobile panel manufacturing, trimming is generally performed prior to flanging. To find feasible trimming line is crucial in obtaining accurate edge profile after flanging. Section-based method develops blank along section planes and find trimming line by generating loop of end points. This method suffers from inaccurate results for regions with out-of-section motion. On the other hand, simulation-based method can produce more accurate trimming line by iterative strategy. However, due to limitation of time and lack of information in initial die design, it is still not widely accepted in the industry. In this study, new fast method to find feasible trimming line is proposed. One step FEM is used to analyze the flanging process because we can define the desired final shape after flanging and most of strain paths are simple in flanging. When we use one step FEM, the main obstacle is the generation of initial guess. Robust initial guess generation method is developed to handle bad-shaped mesh, very different mesh size and undercut part. The new method develops 3D triangular mesh in propagational way from final mesh onto the drawing tool surface. Also in order to remedy mesh distortion during development, energy minimization technique is utilized. Trimming line is extracted from the outer boundary after one step FEM simulation. This method shows many benefits since trimming line can be obtained in the early design stage. The developed method is successfully applied to the complex industrial applications such as flanging of fender and door outer.

Chung, Wan-Jin; Park, Choon-Dal; Yang, Dong-yol

2005-08-01

307

Trimming and washing poultry carcass to reduce microbial contamination: A comparative study.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of washing and trimming broiler carcasses to reduce bacterial contamination. At the postevisceration site, 100 broiler carcasses were collected during 4 visits to a slaughterhouse in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Birds were from the same flock, age, and approximately 2.4 kg of weight. Groups were as follows: group 1, with fecal contamination; group 2, without fecal contamination; group 3, with fecal contamination and trimmed; group 4, with fecal contamination and washed; group 5, with fecal contamination, and washed and trimmed. Carcass washings were performed with at least 1.5 L/bird of potable water (0.5 to 1 mg/kg of residual chlorine) at room temperature (20-25°C) using spray cabinets with 44 spray nozzles distributed into 2 chambers (pressure of 2 kgf/cm(2) and 4 kgf/cm(2)). Washed carcasses (trimmed or not) showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower counts of aerobic mesophiles (plate count agar) on the third evaluation, and even lower (P < 0.01) counts for total coliforms (CT) and fecal coliforms (Escherichia coli). Trimmed carcasses showed significantly lower counts (P < 0.05) for plate count agar; however, we observed higher counts for E. coli (P < 0.05). The association of both treatments (washing and trimming) showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) counts for coliforms (CT and E. coli). We can conclude that the washing method is overall more efficient than the trimming method to decontaminate chicken carcasses at the postevisceration site. Hopefully, our findings can help poultry companies to minimize production costs by applying the washing method for carcass decontamination. PMID:25306453

Stefani, Lenita Moura; Backes, Rodrigo Guilherme; Faria, Glaucia Amorim; Biffi, Claudia Pies; de Almeida, Juliana Maria; da Silva, Helen Krystine; das Neves, Gabriella Bassi; Langaro, Anaiara

2014-12-01

308

Enhancement of crystallinity in ZnO:Al films using a two-step process involving the control of the oxygen pressure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ZnO:Al films were prepared using a two-step process through the control of oxygen pressure by DC-pulsed magnetron sputtering. The seed layers were prepared with various Ar to oxygen pressure, and the bulk layers were deposited under pure Ar. At the seed-layer condition of Ar\\/O2 = 24\\/1 (Ar rich), the seed layer showed grains that led to the formation of

Taeho Moon; Wonki Yoon; Kwang Sun Ji; Seh-Won Ahn; Minho Joo; Hui Youn Shin; Heon-Min Lee

2010-01-01

309

Origin of ferromagnetism and oxygen-vacancy ordering induced cross-controlled magnetoelectric effects at room temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In dilute magnetic oxide hexagonal Ba(Ti0.9Fe0.1)O2.81 bulk ceramic, we report on combined ferromagnetism and improper ferroelectricity as well as cross-controlled magnetoelectric effects at room temperature. The annular-bright-field (ABF) imaging technique in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) demonstrates an oxygen vacancy ordering in the hexagonal closest-packed Ba1-O1 layers and severe distortion of the octahedra and pyramids. Strong dependencies of the susceptibility on temperature and magnetic field as well as the frequency dependence of magnetization under an ac electric field reveal that the intrinsic ferromagnetism of the highly insulating system dynamically evolves from a paramagnetic ground state, and dynamic exchanges of trapped electrons in the ordered polarons are attributed to the ferromagnetic interaction. Accordingly, aided by the motion of oxygen vacancies, responses of the trapped electrons to the ac magnetic field result in the reversal of magnetically induced voltages between high and low states. Our results not only expand our understanding on the magnetoelectric coupling mechanism, but also provide a grand opportunity toward designing novel multiferroic materials through introducing ordered point defects into a centrosymmetric matrix.

Wei, X. K.; Zou, T.; Wang, F.; Zhang, Q. H.; Sun, Y.; Gu, L.; Hirata, A.; Chen, M. W.; Yao, Y.; Jin, C. Q.; Yu, R. C.

2012-04-01

310

Controlled field study on the use of nitrate and oxygen for bioremediation of a gasoline source zone  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Controlled releases of unleaded gasoline were utilized to evaluate the biotransformation of the soluble aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene isomers, trimethylbenzene isomers, and naphthalene) within a source zone using nitrate and oxygen as electron acceptors. Experiments were conducted within two 2 m ?? 2 m ?? 3.5 m deep sheet-piling cells. In each treatment cell, a gasoline-contaminated zone was created below the water table. Groundwater amended with electron acceptors was then flushed continuously through the cells for 174 day. Electron-acceptor utilization and hydrocarbon-metabolite formation were noted in both cells, indicating that some microbial activity had been induced in response to flushing. Relative to the cell residence time, nitrate utilization was slow and aromatic-hydrocarbon mass losses in response to microaerophilic dissolved oxygen addition were not obvious under these in situ conditions. There was relatively little biotransformation of the aromatic hydrocarbons over the 2-m flow path monitored in this experiment. A large denitrifying population capable of aromatic hydrocarbon biotransformation failed to develop within the gasoline source zone over a 14-mo period of nitrate exposure.

Barbaro, J.R.; Barker, J.F.

2000-01-01

311

Effects of human TRIM5alpha polymorphisms on antiretroviral function and susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus infection.  

PubMed

TRIM5alpha acts on several retroviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), to restrict cross-species transmission. Using natural history cohorts and tissue culture systems, we examined the effect of polymorphism in human TRIM5alpha on HIV-1 infection. In African Americans, the frequencies of two non-coding SNP variant alleles in exon 1 and intron 1 of TRIM5 were elevated in HIV-1-infected persons compared with uninfected subjects. By contrast, the frequency of the variant allele encoding TRIM5alpha 136Q was relatively elevated in uninfected individuals, suggesting a possible protective effect. TRIM5alpha 136Q protein exhibited slightly better anti-HIV-1 activity in tissue culture than the TRIM5alpha R136 protein. The 43Y variant of TRIM5alpha was less efficient than the H43 variant at restricting HIV-1 and murine leukemia virus infections in cultured cells. The ancestral TRIM5 haplotype specifying no observed variant alleles appeared to be protective against infection, and the corresponding wild-type protein partially restricted HIV-1 replication in vitro. A single logistic regression model with a permutation test indicated the global corrected P value of <0.05 for both SNPs and haplotypes. Thus, polymorphism in human TRIM5 may influence susceptibility to HIV-1 infection, a possibility that merits additional evaluation in independent cohorts. PMID:16887163

Javanbakht, Hassan; An, Ping; Gold, Bert; Petersen, Desiree C; O'Huigin, Colm; Nelson, George W; O'Brien, Stephen J; Kirk, Gregory D; Detels, Roger; Buchbinder, Susan; Donfield, Sharyne; Shulenin, Sergey; Song, Byeongwoon; Perron, Michel J; Stremlau, Matthew; Sodroski, Joseph; Dean, Michael; Winkler, Cheryl

2006-10-10

312

Equilibrium Polarization of Ultrathin PbTiO3 with Surface Compensation Controlled by Oxygen Partial Pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a synchrotron x-ray study of the equilibrium polarization structure of ultrathin PbTiO3 films on SrRuO3 electrodes epitaxially grown on SrTiO3 (001) substrates, as a function of temperature and the external oxygen partial pressure (pO2) controlling their surface charge compensation. We find that the ferroelectric Curie temperature (TC) varies with pO2 and has a minimum at the intermediate pO2, where the polarization below TC changes sign. The experiments are in qualitative agreement with a model based on Landau theory that takes into account the interaction of the phase transition with the electrochemical equilibria for charged surface species. The paraelectric phase is stabilized at intermediate pO2 when the concentrations of surface species are insufficient to compensate either polar orientation.

Highland, M. J.; Fister, T. T.; Fong, D. D.; Fuoss, P. H.; Thompson, Carol; Eastman, J. A.; Streiffer, S. K.; Stephenson, G. B.

2011-10-01

313

Dose dependent effects of nitrate supplementation on cardiovascular control and microvascular oxygenation dynamics in healthy rats.  

PubMed

High dose nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation via beetroot juice (BR, 1 mmol/kg/day) lowers mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and improves skeletal muscle blood flow and O2 delivery/utilization matching thereby raising microvascular O2 pressure (PO2mv). We tested the hypothesis that a low dose of NO3(-) supplementation, consistent with a diet containing NO3(-) rich vegetables (BRLD, 0.3 mmol/kg/day), would be sufficient to cause these effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a low dose of NO3(-) (0.3 mmol/kg/day; n=12), a high dose (1 mmol/kg/day; BRHD, n=6) or tap water (control, n=10) for 5 days. MAP, heart rate (HR), blood flow (radiolabeled microspheres) and vascular conductance (VC) were measured during submaximal treadmill exercise (20 m/min, 5% grade, equivalent to ~60% of maximal O2 uptake). Subsequently, PO2mv (phosphorescence quenching) was measured at rest and during 180 s of electrically-induced twitch contractions (1 Hz, ~6 V) of the surgically-exposed spinotrapezius muscle. BRLD and BRHD lowered resting (control: 139 ± 4, BRLD: 124 ± 5, BRHD: 128 ± 9 mmHg, P<0.05, BRLD vs. control) and exercising (control: 138 ± 3, BRLD: 126 ± 4, BRHD: 125 ± 5 mmHg, P<0.05) MAP to a similar extent. For BRLD this effect occurred in the absence of altered exercising hindlimb muscle(s) blood flow or spinotrapezius PO2mv (rest and across the transient response at the onset of contractions, all P>0.05), each of which increased significantly for the BRHD condition (all P<0.05). Whereas BRHD slowed the PO2mv kinetics significantly (i.e., >mean response time, MRT; control: 16.6 ± 2.1, BRHD: 23.3 ± 4.7s) following the onset of contractions compared to control, in the BRLD group this effect did not reach statistical significance (BRLD: 20.9 ± 1.9s, P=0.14). These data demonstrate that while low dose NO3(-) supplementation lowers MAP during exercise it does so in the absence of augmented muscle blood flow, VC and PO2mv; all of which are elevated at a higher dose. Thus, in healthy animals, a high dose of NO3(-) supplementation seems necessary to elicit significant changes in exercising skeletal muscle O2 delivery/utilization. PMID:24769046

Ferguson, Scott K; Hirai, Daniel M; Copp, Steven W; Holdsworth, Clark T; Allen, Jason D; Jones, Andrew M; Musch, Timothy I; Poole, David C

2014-05-30

314

Development of a Self-calibrating Dissolved Oxygen Microsensor Array for the Monitoring and Control of Plant Growth in a Space Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plant experiments in space will require active nutrient delivery concepts in which water and nutrients are replenished on a continuous basis for long-term growth. The goal of this study is to develop a novel microsensor array to provide information on the dissolved oxygen environment in the plant root zone for the optimum control of plant cultivation systems in the space environment. Control of water and oxygen is limited by the current state-of-the-art in sensor technology. Two capabilities of the new microsensor array were tested. First, a novel in situ self-diagnosis/self-calibration capability for the microsensor was explored by dynamically controlling the oxygen microenvironment in close proximity to an amperometric dissolved oxygen microsensors. A pair of integrated electrochemical actuator electrodes provided the microenvironments based on water electrolysis. Miniaturized thin film dissolved oxygen microsensors on a flexible polyimide (Kapton(Registered Trademark)? substrate were fabricated and their performances were tested. Secondly, measurements of dissolved oxygen in two representative plant growth systems were made, which had not been performed previously due to lack of proper sensing technology. The responses of the oxygen microsensor array on a flexible polymer substrate properly reflected the oxygen contents on the surface of a porous tube nutrient delivery system and within a particulate substrate system. Additionally, we demonstrated the feasibility of using a 4-point thin film microprobe for water contents measurements for both plant growth systems. mechanical flexibility, and self-diagnosis. The proposed technology is anticipated to provide a reliable sensor feedback plant growth nutrient delivery systems in both terrestrial environment and the microgravity environment during long term space missions. The unique features of the sensor include small size and volume, multiple-point sensing,

Kim, Chang-Soo; Brown, Christopher S.; Nagle, H. Troy

2004-01-01

315

Interfering Residues Narrow the Spectrum of MLV Restriction by Human TRIM5?  

PubMed Central

TRIM5? is a restriction factor that limits infection of human cells by so-called N- but not B- or NB-tropic strains of murine leukemia virus (MLV). Here, we performed a mutation-based functional analysis of TRIM5?-mediated MLV restriction. Our results reveal that changes at tyrosine336 of human TRIM5?, within the variable region 1 of its C-terminal PRYSPRY domain, can expand its activity to B-MLV and to the NB-tropic Moloney MLV. Conversely, we demonstrate that the escape of MLV from restriction by wild-type or mutant forms of huTRIM5? can be achieved through interdependent changes at positions 82, 109, 110, and 117 of the viral capsid. Together, our results support a model in which TRIM5?-mediated retroviral restriction results from the direct binding of the antiviral PRYSPRY domain to the viral capsid, and can be prevented by interferences exerted by critical residues on either one of these two partners. PMID:18166079

Maillard, Pierre V; Reynard, Severine; Serhan, Fatima; Turelli, Priscilla; Trono, Didier

2007-01-01

316

A Rare Null Allele Potentially Encoding a Dominant-Negative TRIM5? Protein in Baka Pygmies  

PubMed Central

The global acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) pandemic is thought to have arisen by the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1)-like viruses from chimpanzees in southeastern Cameroon to humans. TRIM5? is a restriction factor that can decrease the susceptibility of cells of particular mammalian species to retrovirus infection. A survey of TRIM5 genes in 127 indigenous individuals from southeastern Cameroon revealed that approximately 4 percent of the Baka pygmies studied were heterozygous for a rare variant with a stop codon in exon 8. The predicted product of this allele, TRIM5 R332X, is truncated in the functionally important B30.2(SPRY) domain, does not restrict retrovirus infection, and acts as a dominant-negative inhibitor of wild-type human TRIM5?. Thus, some indigenous African forest dwellers potentially exhibit diminished TRIM5? function; such genetic factors, along with the high frequency of exposure to chimpanzee body fluids, may have predisposed to the initial cross-species transmission of HIV-1-like viruses. PMID:19577266

Torimiro, Judith N.; Javanbakht, Hassan; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Kim, Jonghwa; Carr, Jean K.; Carrington, Mary; Sawitzke, Julie; Burke, Donald S.; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Dean, Michael; Sodroski, Joseph

2009-01-01

317

Adaptive and automatic trimming in testing the equality of two group case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In testing the equality of two independent groups, t-test plays a very important role for the purpose. This test is reliable when the data is normally distributed. Based on central limit theorem, the normality assumption is fulfilled with large data set, but getting large data set is not always feasible. Most of the time, the researchers have to make do with small sample sizes which are hardly normally distributed. There are many causes of non normality, and one of it is the presence of outliers. One way to handle outliers is by using robust estimator with trimming approach. In this study, robust estimators using different trimming approaches namely adaptive and automatic trimming were proposed as the center measures in Alexander-Govern (AG) test. The results of the Type I error rate was then compared with the original AG test and the classical t-test. The AG test with the adaptive and automatic trimming showed robustness across distributions. The two trimming approaches are comparable to each other in most conditions. As expected the original AG test and classical t-test cannot maintain their robustness especially under skewed distribution.

Abdullah, Suhaida; Yahaya, Sharipah Soaad Syed; Othman, Abdul Rahman

2014-06-01

318

Nifedipine improves blood flow and oxygen supply, but not steady-state oxygenation of tumours in perfusion pressure-controlled isolated limb perfusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Isolated limb perfusion allows the direct application of therapeutic agents to a tumour-bearing extremity. The present study investigated whether the dihydropyridine-type Ca2+-channel blocker nifedipine could improve blood flow and oxygenation status of experimental tumours during isolated limb perfusion. Perfusion was performed by cannulation of the femoral artery and vein in rats bearing DS-sarcoma on the hind foot dorsum. Perfusion rate

O Thews; M Hummel; D K Kelleher; B Lecher; P Vaupel

2002-01-01

319

Independent Birth of a Novel TRIMCyp in Tupaia belangeri with a Divergent Function from Its Paralog TRIM5.  

PubMed

The origin of novel genes and their evolutionary fates are long-standing questions in evolutionary biology. These questions become more complicated for genes conserved across various lineages, such as TRIM5, an antiretroviral restriction factor and a retrovirus capsid sensor in immune signaling. TRIM5 has been subjected to numerous pathogenic challenges and undergone dynamic evolution, making it an excellent example for studying gene diversification. Previous studies among several species showed that TRIM5 gained genetic and functional novelty in a lineage-specific manner, either through gene duplication or a cyclophilin A retrotransposing into the TRIM5 locus, creating the gene fusion known as TRIM5-Cyclophilin A (TRIMCyp). To date, the general pattern of TRIM5 across the mammalian lineage remains elusive. In this study, we surveyed 36 mammalian genomes to verify a potentially novel TRIM5 pattern that uniquely seems to have occurred in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri), and found that both gene duplication and retrotransposition worked jointly to form a specific TRIM5/TRIMCyp cluster not found among other mammals. Evolutionary analyses showed that tree shrew TRIMCyp (tsTRIMCyp) originated independently in comparison with previously reported TRIMCyps and underwent strong positive selection, whereas no signal of positive selection was detected for other tree shrew TRIM5 (tsTRIM5) genes. Functional assay results suggest a functional divergence between tsTRIMCyp and its closest paralog TRIM5-4, likely reflecting different fates under diverse evolutionary forces. These findings present a rare example of novel gene origination resulting from a combination of gene duplication, retrotransposition, and exon shuffling processes, providing a new paradigm to study genetic innovations and evolutionary fates of duplicated genes. PMID:25135944

Mu, Dan; Yang, Hui; Zhu, Jia-Wu; Liu, Feng-Liang; Tian, Ren-Rong; Zheng, Hong-Yi; Han, Jian-Bao; Shi, Peng; Zheng, Yong-Tang

2014-11-01

320

Improvement of superconducting properties by Y-211 particle size and oxygenation temperature control for bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of CeO 2 adding on the reduction of Y-211 particle size and the oxygenation temperature on Tc have been studied. It is shown that the decrease of pre-sintering temperature is more effective than adding CeO 2 for the Y-211 particle size reduction. For bulk YBCO, the oxygenation temperature affects not only the critical temperature Tc and other superconducting property, but also its microstructure. Our results show the low oxygenation temperature is suitable for the oxygenation process of melt-textured bulk YBCO. If the oxygenation temperature is above 600 °C, the macrocrack will propagate.

Yu, Z. M.; Zhang, C. P.; Xiong, X. M.; Wang, J. R.; Feng, Y.; Zhou, L.

2003-04-01

321

Raceway control with oxygen, steam and coal for stable blast furnace operation  

SciTech Connect

Tata Steel operates seven blast furnaces at its Jamshedpur works. Coal injection was introduced in the three larger furnaces starting in 1991, and coal tar injection was commissioned in the A blast furnace in June, 1996. Presently, a coal injection level of 130 kg/thm has been achieved at G blast furnace, which is the newest and the largest among all blast furnaces at Tata Steel. The paper discusses the operational features of the blast furnaces at Tata Steel, practical limits of fuel injection, the philosophy of the control of raceway conditions, and experience with fuel injection at Tata Steel.

Chatterjee, L.M. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India)

1996-12-31

322

Transition temperatures and irreversibility-field properties of (Cu1-xCx)Sr2CaCu2O7-? superconductors with precisely controlled oxygen contents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(Cu1-xCx)Sr2CaCu2O7-? samples with precisely controlled oxygen contents (? = 0.10-0.35) were successfully synthesized under a pressure of 5.5 GPa and followed by annealing in He gas at various temperatures. The oxygen content of an as-synthesized sample was determined by iodometric titration, and the changes of the oxygen content were estimated by measuring weight-loss during the post-annealing. Superconducting transition temperatures (Tc) decreased from 93.1 to 83.1 K with decreasing the oxygen content from 6.90 to 6.65. Hole-doping level was tuned to be underdoped so that the slope of the irreversibility field (Hirr) increased.

Shibaoka, Shunki; Aoba, Tomoya; Suzuki, Tsuneo; Nakayama, Tadachika; Suematsu, Hisayuki; Niihara, Koichi

2014-02-01

323

Technical Update: Johnson Space Center system using a solid electrolytic cell in a remote location to measure oxygen fugacities in CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Details are given for the design and application of a (one atmosphere) redox-control system. This system differs from that given in NASA Technical Memorandum 58234 in that it uses a single solid-electrolytic cell in a remote location to measure the oxygen fugacities of multiple CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces. This remote measurement extends the range of sample-furnace conditions that can be measured using a solid-electrolytic cell, and cuts costs by extending the life of the sensors and by minimizing the number of sensors in use. The system consists of a reference furnace and an exhaust-gas manifold. The reference furnace is designed according to the redox control system of NASA Technical Memorandum 58234, and any number of CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces can be attached to the exhaust-gas manifold. Using the manifold, the exhaust gas from individual CO/CO2 controlled atmosphere furnaces can be diverted through the reference furnace, where a solid-electrolyte cell is used to read the ambient oxygen fugacity. The oxygen fugacity measured in the reference furnace can then be used to calculate the oxygen fugacity in the individual CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnace. A BASIC computer program was developed to expedite this calculation.

Jurewicz, A. J. G.; Williams, R. J.; Le, L.; Wagstaff, J.; Lofgren, G.; Lanier, A.; Carter, W.; Roshko, A.

1993-01-01

324

A technique using a nonlinear helicopter model for determining trims and derivatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique is described for determining the trims and quasi-static derivatives of a flight vehicle for use in a linear perturbation model; both the coupled and uncoupled forms of the linear perturbation model are included. Since this technique requires a nonlinear vehicle model, detailed equations with constants and nonlinear functions for the CH-47B tandem rotor helicopter are presented. Tables of trims and derivatives are included for airspeeds between -40 and 160 knots and rates of descent between + or - 10.16 m/sec (+ or - 200 ft/min). As a verification, the calculated and referenced values of comparable trims, derivatives, and linear model poles are shown to have acceptable agreement.

Ostroff, A. J.; Downing, D. R.; Rood, W. J.

1976-01-01

325

Experimental trim drag values for conventional and supercritical wings. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Supercritical wings were studied to determine whether they incur higher trim drag values at cruise conditions than wide body technology wings. Relative trim drag increments were measured in an experimental wind tunnel investigation. The tests utilized high aspect ratio supercritical wing and a wide body wing in conjunction with five different horizontal tail configurations, mounted on a representative wide body fuselage. The three low tail configurations and two T tail configurations were chosen to measure the effects on horizontal tail size, location, and camber on the trim drag increments for the two wings. The increase in performance (lift to drag ratio) for supercritical wing over the wide body wing was 11 percent for both the optimum low tail and T tail configurations.

Jacobs, P. F.

1981-01-01

326

An Extensive Evaluation of Read Trimming Effects on Illumina NGS Data Analysis  

PubMed Central

Next Generation Sequencing is having an extremely strong impact in biological and medical research and diagnostics, with applications ranging from gene expression quantification to genotyping and genome reconstruction. Sequencing data is often provided as raw reads which are processed prior to analysis 1 of the most used preprocessing procedures is read trimming, which aims at removing low quality portions while preserving the longest high quality part of a NGS read. In the current work, we evaluate nine different trimming algorithms in four datasets and three common NGS-based applications (RNA-Seq, SNP calling and genome assembly). Trimming is shown to increase the quality and reliability of the analysis, with concurrent gains in terms of execution time and computational resources needed. PMID:24376861

Morgante, Michele; Giorgi, Federico M.

2013-01-01

327

Oxygen concentrators.  

PubMed

Oxygen concentrators offer an alternative source of oxygen to conventional methods of supply. The disadvantage of their high initial purchase price is offset by low running costs. In hospitals they may find a place in providing "oxygen" for some gas pipeline systems. They are the method of choice for supplying oxygen for long-term domiciliary oxygen therapy. PMID:4092132

Howell, R S

1985-10-01

328

Thermal conductivity control by oxygen defect concentration modification in reducible oxides: The case of Pr0.1Ce0.9O2-? thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the impact on thermal conductivity of varying the concentration of oxygen vacancies and reduced cations in Pr0.1Ce0.9O2-? thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition. The oxygen vacancy concentration is controlled by varying the oxygen partial pressure between 1 × 10-4 and 1 atm at 650 °C. Corresponding changes in the oxygen non-stoichiometry (?) are monitored by detecting the lattice parameters of the films with high-resolution X-ray diffraction, while the thermal properties are characterized by time-domain thermoreflectance measurements. The films are shown to exhibit a variation in oxygen vacancy content, and in the Pr3+/Pr4+ ratio, corresponding to changes in ? from 0.0027 to 0.0364, leading to a reduction in the thermal conductivity from k = 6.62 ± 0.61 to 3.82 ± 0.51 W/m-K, respectively. These values agree well with those predicted by the Callaway and von Baeyer model for thermal conductivity in the presence of point imperfections. These results demonstrate the capability of controlling thermal conductivity via control of anion and cation defect concentrations in a given reducible oxide.

Luckyanova, Maria N.; Chen, Di; Ma, Wen; Tuller, Harry L.; Chen, Gang; Yildiz, Bilge

2014-02-01

329

Testing of a Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Reaction Control Thruster in a New Altitude Rocket Engine Test Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A relocated rocket engine test facility, the Altitude Combustion Stand (ACS), was activated in 2009 at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This facility has the capability to test with a variety of propellants and up to a thrust level of 2000 lbf (8.9 kN) with precise measurement of propellant conditions, propellant flow rates, thrust and altitude conditions. These measurements enable accurate determination of a thruster and/or nozzle s altitude performance for both technology development and flight qualification purposes. In addition the facility was designed to enable efficient test operations to control costs for technology and advanced development projects. A liquid oxygen-liquid methane technology development test program was conducted in the ACS from the fall of 2009 to the fall of 2010. Three test phases were conducted investigating different operational modes and in addition, the project required the complexity of controlling propellant inlet temperatures over an extremely wide range. Despite the challenges of a unique propellant (liquid methane) and wide operating conditions, the facility performed well and delivered up to 24 hot fire tests in a single test day. The resulting data validated the feasibility of utilizing this propellant combination for future deep space applications.

Meyer, Michael L.; Arrington, Lynn A.; Kleinhenz, Julie E.; Marshall, William M.

2012-01-01

330

TRIM21 is a trimeric protein that binds IgG Fc via the B30.2 domain.  

PubMed

TRIMs comprise a large protein family that include anti-retroviral restriction factors such as TRIM5alpha. Auto-antibodies to TRIM21 (Ro52) are a common serological feature of patients with Sjogren's syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We show that, in addition to this autoantibody response, TRIM21 binds specifically to the Fc region of human IgG isotypes 1, 2 and 4, via a conformation dependent interaction. The minimal binding epitope was identified as the C-terminal B30.2 domain. The interaction was independent of N-linked glycosylation of the IgG CH2 domain. TRIM21 formed a trimer that competed with protein A for binding to IgG Fc. We conclude that TRIM21 binds to the consensus CH2/CH3 domain interface in the Fc region, overlapping the binding site of several other proteins, including Staphylococcus aureus protein A and Streptococcus spp. protein G. The data suggest that the normal function of TRIM21 involves regulation of IgG functions and that TRIM/B30.2 molecules may have broader and unsuspected roles in innate immunity, beyond that of retroviral restriction. PMID:17118455

Rhodes, David A; Trowsdale, John

2007-03-01

331

Deficiency of Trim27 protects dopaminergic neurons from apoptosis in the neurotoxin model of Parkinson?s disease.  

PubMed

Parkinson?s disease (PD) is an age-related neurodegenerative movement disorder, characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). The MPTP/MPP+ model is often used to investigate the signaling mechanisms of dopamine (DA) degeneration, both in vivo and in vitro. The identification of specific genetic and environmental factors responsible for PD has bolstered evidence for a shared pathway of neuronal death -apoptosis. Trim27 is reported to promote apoptosis. However, little evidence exists to indicate a linkage between Trim27 and PD. In this study, we found that compared to healthy individuals, Trim27 was significantly upregulated in patients with PD. We further showed that Trim27 expression was dramatically induced in PC12 cells and in the SNpc of the PD mouse model. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Trim27 in PC12 cells showed obvious suppression of apoptosis. There are reduced dopaminergic neuron loss and lower apoptotic protein expression levels in MPTP-treated Trim27-/- mice, compared with MPTP-treated WT mice. These data demonstrated that Trim27 deficiency decreases apoptosis and protects dopaminergic neurons in the neurotoxin model of PD, suggesting that Trim27 may be an effective potential target during the treatment of PD. PMID:25223908

Liu, YongDan; Zhu, Min; Lin, Li; Fan, XueLi; Piao, ZhongYuan; Jiang, XinMei

2014-11-01

332

Recruitment and dynamics of proteasome association with rhTRIM5? cytoplasmic complexes during HIV-1 infection  

PubMed Central

A variety of proteins have been identified that restrict infection by different viruses. One such restriction factor is the rhesus macaque variant of TRIM5? (rhTRIM5?), which potently blocks infection by HIV-1. The block to infection mediated by rhTRIM5? occurs early after entry into the host cell, generally prior to reverse transcription. However, proteasome inhibitors reveal an intermediate step of restriction in which virus can complete reverse transcription but still fails to infect the cell. While proteasome inhibitors have been a useful tool in understanding how restriction takes place, the role of the proteasome itself during restriction has not yet been examined. Here, we characterize the interaction of rhTRIM5? and incoming virions with the proteasome. We show that proteasomes localize to rhTRIM5? cytoplasmic bodies, and this localization is more evident when the activity of the proteasome is inhibited pharmacologically. We also show that restricted virus associates with complexes of proteasomes and rhTRIM5?, suggesting that rhTRIM5? utilizes the proteasome during restriction. Finally, live cell imaging experiments reveal that virus associates with proteasomes, and proteasome inhibition affects the duration of association. Taken together, these studies implicate the proteasome as playing a functional role during rhTRIM5? restriction of incoming virions. PMID:22624877

Danielson, Cindy M.; Cianci, Gianguido C.; Hope, Thomas J.

2013-01-01

333

Apparent effect of rabbit endogenous lentivirus type K acquisition on retrovirus restriction by lagomorph Trim5?s  

PubMed Central

To test the hypothesis that rabbit endogenous lentivirus type K (RELIK) could play a role in shaping the evolution of TRIM5?, the susceptibility of viruses containing the RELIK capsid (CA) to TRIM5 restriction was evaluated. RELIK CA-containing viruses were susceptible to the TRIM5?s from Old World monkeys but were unaffected by most ape or New World monkey factors. TRIM5?s from various lagomorph species were also isolated and tested for anti-retroviral activity. The TRIM5?s from both cottontail rabbit and pika restrict a range of retroviruses, including HIV-1, HIV-2, FIV, EIAV and N-MLV. TRIM5?s from the European and cottontail rabbit, which have previously been found to contain RELIK, also restricted RELIK CA-containing viruses, whereas a weaker restriction was observed with chimeric TRIM5? containing the B30.2 domain from the pika, which lacks RELIK. Taken together, these results could suggest that the pika had not been exposed to exogenous RELIK and that endogenized RELIK might exert a selective pressure on lagomorph TRIM5?. PMID:23938750

Yap, Melvyn W.; Stoye, Jonathan P.

2013-01-01

334

Laser Trimming of CuAlMo Thin-Film Resistors: Effect of Laser Processing Parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the effect of varying laser trimming process parameters on the electrical performance of a novel CuAlMo thin-film resistor material. The films were prepared on Al2O3 substrates by direct-current (DC) magnetron sputtering, before being laser trimmed to target resistance value. The effect of varying key laser parameters of power, Q-rate, and bite size on the resistor stability and tolerance accuracy were systematically investigated. By reducing laser power and bite size and balancing this with Q-rate setting, significant improvements in resistor stability and resistor tolerance accuracies of less than ±0.5% were achieved.

Birkett, Martin; Penlington, Roger

2012-08-01

335

Thermal conductivity control by oxygen defect concentration modification in reducible oxides: The case of Pr0.1Ce0.9O22d thin films  

E-print Network

thermal barrier coatings,2,3 memristors,4 and fuel cells.5,6 Due to their strategic use as thermal barrierThermal conductivity control by oxygen defect concentration modification in reducible oxides 2013; accepted 23 January 2014; published online 14 February 2014) We demonstrate the impact on thermal

Yildiz, Bilge

336

Generating controlled reducing environments in aerobic recombinant Escherichia coli fermentations: Effects on cell growth, oxygen uptake, heat shock protein expression, and in vivo CAT activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The independent control of culture redox po- tential (CRP) by the regulated addition of a reducing agent, dithiothreitol (DTT) was demonstrated in aerated recombinant Escherichia coli fermentations. Moderate levels of DTT addition resulted in minimal changes to specific oxygen uptake, growth rate, and dissolved oxy- gen. Excessive levels of DTT addition were toxic to the cells resulting in cessation of

Ryan T. Gill; Hyung Joon Cha; Alok Jain; Govind Rao; William E. Bentley

1998-01-01

337

Bacterial Inactivation by a Singlet Oxygen Bubbler: Identifying Factors Controlling the Toxicity of 1O2 Bubbles  

PubMed Central

A microphotoreactor device was developed to generate bubbles (sized: 1.4 mm diameter, 90 ?L) containing singlet oxygen at levels toxic to bacteria and fungus. As singlet oxygen decays rapidly to triplet oxygen, the bubbles leave behind no waste or by-products other than O2. From a comparative study in deaerated, air saturated, and oxygenated solutions, it was reasoned that the singlet oxygen bubbles inactivate Escherichia coli and Aspergillus fumigatus, mainly by an oxygen gradient inside and outside of the bubble such that singlet oxygen is solvated and diffuses through the aqueous solution until it reacts with the target organism. Thus, singlet oxygen bubble toxicity was inversely proportional to the amount of dissolved oxygen in solution. In a second mechanism, singlet oxygen interacts directly with E. coli that accumulate at the gas-liquid interface although this mechanism operates at a rate approximately 10 times slower. Due to encapsulation in the gaseous core of the bubble and a 0.98 ms lifetime, the bubbles can traverse relatively long 0.39 mm distances carrying 1O2 far into the solution; by comparison the diffusion distance of 1O2 fully solvated in H2O is much shorter (~150 nm). Bubbles that reached the outer air/water interface contained no 1O2. The mechanism by which 1O2 deactivated organisms was explored through the addition of detergent molecules and Ca2+ ions. Results indicate that the preferential accumulation of E. coli at the air-water interface of the bubble leads to enhanced toxicity of bubbles containing 1O2. The singlet oxygen device offers intriguing possibilities for creating new types of disinfection strategies based on photodynamic (1O2) bubble carriers. PMID:23075418

Bartusik, Dorota; Aebisher, David; Lyons, Alan

2013-01-01

338

Controlled Evaluation of the Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy on the Behavior of 16 Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been used to treat individuals with autism. However, few studies of its effectiveness have been completed. The current study examined the effects of 40 HBOT sessions at 24% oxygen at 1.3 ATA on 11 topographies of directly observed behavior. Five replications of multiple baselines were completed across a total…

Jepson, Bryan; Granpeesheh, Doreen; Tarbox, Jonathan; Olive, Melissa L.; Stott, Carol; Braud, Scott; Yoo, J. Helen; Wakefield, Andrew; Allen, Michael S.

2011-01-01

339

PSC: Progettazione di sistemi di controllo III Trim. 2007 Lezione 18 --24 Maggio  

E-print Network

colonna, è possibile scrivere la matrice P come P = v0wT + V W = ½wT + V W. (18.2) Ad un generico istante esponenziali g(t) = 2t + 1 2 t 2t per t elevati; 18-2 #12;PSC Lezione 18 -- 24 Maggio III Trim. 2007 si può

Schenato, Luca

340

INFERENCE ABOUT THE ED50 USING THE TRIMMED SPEARMAN-KARBER PROCEDURE - A MONTE CARLO INVESTIGATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A Monte Carlo study was conducted to investigate the estimated standard errors of the estimate and the 95 percent confidence interval estimates associated with the trimmed Spearman-Karber (SK) estimators of the ED50 and the logistic model maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). The s...

341

Using Trimmed Means To Compare "K" Measures Corresponding to Two Independent Groups.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compared two bootstrap methods that use trimmed means, the percentile and percentile T methods and considered how these methods might be adapted to comparing "K" measures corresponding to two independent groups. Results from simulation studies lead to an extension of the percentile bootstrap approach that gives better results. (SLD)

Wilcox, Rand R.; Keselman, H. J.

2001-01-01

342

Microbiological Characterization of Imported and Domestic Boneless Beef Trim Used for Ground Beef  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States imports lean boneless beef trim from Australia (AUS), New Zealand (NZL), and Uruguay (URY) to meet demand for ground beef production. The reported incidence of and etiological agents responsible for foodborne diseases differ between these countries and the United States. Our objective was to determine whether current U.S. microbiological profiling adequately addresses the potential differences between foreign

JOSEPH M. BOSILEVAC; MICHAEL N. GUERINI; DAYNA M. BRICHTA-HARHAY; TERRANCE M. ARTHUR; MOHAMMAD KOOHMARAIE

2007-01-01

343

Automotive Body Trim and Glass; Automotive Mechanics 2: 9045.05.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help students become employable with skills, knowledge, attitudes, and values necessary for performing the required service of the automotive trim and glass mechanic. The course of study includes an orientation to the course, service tools and bench skills development, and a study…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

344

EDEM2 initiates mammalian glycoprotein ERAD by catalyzing the first mannose trimming step.  

PubMed

Glycoproteins misfolded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are subjected to ER-associated glycoprotein degradation (gpERAD) in which Htm1-mediated mannose trimming from the oligosaccharide Man8GlcNAc2 to Man7GlcNAc2 is the rate-limiting step in yeast. In contrast, the roles of the three Htm1 homologues (EDEM1/2/3) in mammalian gpERAD have remained elusive, with a key controversy being whether EDEMs function as mannosidases or as lectins. We therefore conducted transcription activator-like effector nuclease-mediated gene knockout analysis in human cell line and found that all endogenous EDEMs possess mannosidase activity. Mannose trimming from Man8GlcNAc2 to Man7GlcNAc2 is performed mainly by EDEM3 and to a lesser extent by EDEM1. Most surprisingly, the upstream mannose trimming from Man9GlcNAc2 to Man8GlcNAc2 is conducted mainly by EDEM2, which was previously considered to lack enzymatic activity. Based on the presence of two rate-limiting steps in mammalian gpERAD, we propose that mammalian cells double check gpERAD substrates before destruction by evolving EDEM2, a novel-type Htm1 homologue that catalyzes the first mannose trimming step from Man9GlcNAc2. PMID:25092655

Ninagawa, Satoshi; Okada, Tetsuya; Sumitomo, Yoshiki; Kamiya, Yukiko; Kato, Koichi; Horimoto, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Tokiro; Takeda, Shunichi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Mori, Kazutoshi

2014-08-01

345

Effects of beak trimming and cage design on laying hen performance and egg quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

1.?Conventional cages are to be replaced by furnished cages or aviary systems to improve the welfare of hens. We compared the performance and egg quality of hens reared in two designs of furnished cages and of two standard cages. We also explored the consequences of the absence of beak trimming when using these designs.2.?Hens (2028) were housed from 18 to

V. Guesdon; A. M. H. Ahmed; S. Mallet; J. M. Faure; Y. Nys

2006-01-01

346

Flight Dynamics of High Aspect-Ratio Flying Wings: Effect of Large Trim Deformation  

E-print Network

, static aeroelastic effects generate significant structural deformation and thus the aircraft generated when the flying wing is subjected to static aeroelastic forces at trim, is used to define and the stability boundaries of the statically deformed rigid body configuration and the complete aeroelastic model

Patil, Mayuresh

347

Trimmed-Likelihood Estimation for Focal Lesions and Tissue Segmentation in Multisequence MRI for Multiple Sclerosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a new automatic method for segmentation of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions in magnetic resonance images. The method performs tissue classification using a model of inten- sities of the normal appearing brain tissues. In order to estimate the model, a trimmed likelihood estimator is initialized with a hi- erarchical random approach in order to be robust to MS lesions

Daniel Garcia-Lorenzo; Sylvain Prima; Douglas L. Arnold; D. Louis Collins; Christian Barillot

2011-01-01

348

TRIMMED SPEARMAN-KARBER METHOD FOR ESTIMATING MEDIAN LETHAL CONCENTRATIONS IN TOXICITY BIOASSAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

Several methods for treatment of data from toxicity tests to determine the median lethal concentration (LC50) are discussed. The probit and logit models widely used for these calculations have deficiencies; therefore, a calculational method, named the 'trimmed Spearman-Karber met...

349

Talking with John Trim (Part I): A Career in Phonetics, Applied Linguistics and the Public Service  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As this issue was in preparation, the journal learned with great regret of the passing of John Trim. John was a long-serving member of the "Language Teaching" Board and his insight and advice proved invaluable for this and previous editors. An expert in the field of phonetics, linguistics, language didactics and policy, John worked…

Little, David; King, Lid

2013-01-01

350

Online biochemical oxygen demand monitoring for wastewater process control--full-scale studies at Los Angeles Glendale wastewater plant, California.  

PubMed

The main objective of this investigation is to determine whether or not it would be feasible to use the measured values of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of wastewater obtained by an online instrument at the Los Angeles/Glendale Water Reclamation Plant (California) for controlling its activated sludge process. This investigation is part of a project to develop online BOD monitoring for process control in the City of Los Angeles wastewater treatment plants. Tests studied the Siepmann und Teutscher GmbH (ISCO-STIP Inc., Lincoln, Nebraska) BIOX-1010, which uses a bioreactor containing a culture of microbes from the wastewater to measure soluble BOD in 2 minutes. This rapid approximation to the operation of secondary treatment allows anticipation of system response. Calibration measurements allow the operators to find a conversion factor for the instrument's microprocessor to compute values of BOD that agree well with the standard 5-day BOD (BOD5) measurement, despite the differences in the details of the two testing methods. This instrument has recently been used at other wastewater treatment plants, at a number of airports in Europe and the United States to monitor runway runoff, and is also being used on waste streams at an increasing number of food processing plants. A comparison was made between the plant influent BOD values obtained by the BIOX-1010 online monitor from the end of August, 2000, to late January, 2001, and the individual and average values obtained for the same period using the standard BOD5, 20 degrees C test, to determine the effectiveness of the Biox-1010 to identify shock loads and their duration. Individual BOD estimates and averages over periods of overly high biological loads (shock loads) were compared, and the instrument readings were evaluated for their effectiveness in detecting shock loads. The results were highly satisfactory, so the instrument was used to trigger a shock-load warning alarm since late September, 2000. This allowed flow diversion and temporary storage to prevent process upsets. PMID:18536480

Iranpour, Reza; Zermeno, Miguel

2008-04-01

351

Gas carburizing of steel with furnace atmospheres formed In Situ from propane and air: Part III. Control of furnace atmosphere composition with a zirconia oxygen sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas carburizing experiments were conducted in a batch-type sealed-quench furnace using furnace atmospheres produced by the reaction of propane and air within the furnace. The air-propane ratio of the inlet gases was automatically controlled to maintain a constant oxygen potential, as measured by a zirconia oxygen sensor, within the furnace. The results of carburizing trials at 843 and 927 °C are described. The effect of inlet gas flow rate on furnace atmosphere composition and the amount of carburizing is illustrated.

Stickels, C. A.; Mack, C. M.; Pieprzak, J. A.

1980-09-01

352

Using antiubiquitin antibodies to probe the ubiquitination state within rhTRIM5? cytoplasmic bodies.  

PubMed

The first line of defense protecting rhesus macaques from HIV-1 is the restriction factor rhTRIM5?, which recognizes the capsid core of the virus early after entry and normally blocks infection prior to reverse transcription. Cytoplasmic bodies containing rhTRIM5? have been implicated in the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, but the specific roles these structures play remain uncharacterized. Here, we examine the ubiquitination status of cytoplasmic body proteins. Using antibodies specific for different forms of ubiquitin, we show that ubiquitinated proteins are present in cytoplasmic bodies, and that this localization is altered after proteasome inhibition. A decrease in polyubiquitinated proteins localizing to cytoplasmic bodies was apparent after 1 h of proteasome inhibition, and greater differences were seen after extended proteasome inhibition. The decrease in polyubiquitin conjugates within cytoplasmic bodies was also observed when deubiquitinating enzymes were inhibited, suggesting that the removal of ubiquitin moieties from polyubiquitinated cytoplasmic body proteins after extended proteasome inhibition is not responsible for this phenomenon. Superresolution structured illumination microscopy revealed finer details of rhTRIM5? cytoplasmic bodies and the polyubiquitin conjugates that localize to these structures. Finally, linkage-specific polyubiquitin antibodies revealed that K48-linked ubiquitin chains localize to rhTRIM5? cytoplasmic bodies, implicating these structures in proteasomal degradation. Differential staining of cytoplasmic bodies seen with different polyubiquitin antibodies suggests that structural changes occur during proteasome inhibition that alter epitope availability. Taken together, it is likely that rhTRIM5? cytoplasmic bodies are involved in recruiting components of the ubiquitin-proteasome system to coordinate proteasomal destruction of a viral or cellular protein(s) during restriction of HIV-1. PMID:23799296

Danielson, Cindy M; Hope, Thomas J

2013-10-01

353

Control of threshold voltage on the excimer laser annealed poly-Si TFT`s by oxygen plasma treatment on poly-Si surface  

SciTech Connect

Oxygen plasma treatment was performed on the excimer laser annealed poly-Si surface, followed by gate oxide deposition with low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) in order to control the threshold voltage of excimer laser annealed poly-Si thin film transistors (TFTs). Threshold voltages of n-channel TFTs increase from 0.4 to 2.8 V by varying the treatment time from 0 to 7 min. It is shown the effective charge density increased toward negative direction with increase of the treatment time. In addition to the increase of threshold voltage, the oxygen plasma treatment on the Si surface led to an increase in the deposition rate of LPCVD oxide films with an apparent reduction of carbon around the interface between gate insulator and poly-Si film after oxygen plasma treatment.

Woo, J.I.; Lee, S.G.; Moon, D.G.; Ha, Y.M.; Hong, C.H.; Soh, H.S. [LG Electronics Inc., Anyang, Kyongki (Korea, Republic of). LCD Research Lab.

1996-12-31

354

Flight investigation of the effect of control centering springs on the apparent spiral stability of a personal-owner airplane  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Report presents the results of a flight investigation conducted on a typical high-wing personal-owner airplane to determine the effect of control centering springs on apparent spiral stability. Apparent spiral stability is the term used to describe the spiraling tendencies of an airplane in uncontrolled flight as affected both by the true spiral stability of the perfectly trimmed airplane and by out-of-trim control settings. Centering springs were used in both the aileron and rudder control systems to provide both a positive centering action and a means of trimming the airplane. The springs were preloaded so that when they were moved through neutral they produced a nonlinear force gradient sufficient to overcome the friction in the control surface at the proper setting for trim. The ailerons and rudder control surfaces did not have trim tabs that could be adjusted in flight.

Campbell, John P; Hunter, Paul A; Hewes, Donald E; Whitten, James B

1952-01-01

355

Deficiency of the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 in mice leads to a myopathy with a neurogenic component  

PubMed Central

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H (LGMD2H) and sarcotubular myopathy are hereditary skeletal muscle disorders caused by mutations in TRIM32. We previously identified TRIM32 as an E3 ubiquitin ligase that binds to myosin and ubiquitinates actin. To date four TRIM32 mutations have been linked to LGMD2H, all of which occur in the C-terminal NHL domains. Unexpectedly, a fifth mutation in the B-box of TRIM32 causes a completely different, multisystemic disorder, Bardet–Biedl syndrome type 11. It is not understood how allelic mutations in TRIM32 can create such diverse phenotypic outcomes. To generate a tool for elucidating the complex in vivo functions of TRIM32, we created the first murine Trim32 knock-out model (T32KO). Histological analysis of T32KO skeletal muscles revealed mild myopathic changes. Electron microscopy showed areas with Z-line streaming and a dilated sarcotubular system with vacuoles—the latter being a prominent feature of sarcotubular myopathy. Therefore, our model replicates phenotypes of LGMD2H and sarcotubular myopathy. The level of Trim32 expression in normal mouse brain exceeds that observed in skeletal muscle by more than 100 times, as we demonstrated by real-time PCR. Intriguingly, analysis of T32KO neural tissue revealed a decreased concentration of neurofilaments and a reduction in myelinated motoraxon diameters. The axonal changes suggest a shift toward a slower motor unit type. Not surprisingly, T32KO soleus muscle expressed an elevated type I slow myosin isotype with a concomitant reduction in the type II fast myosin. These data suggest that muscular dystrophy due to TRIM32 mutations involves both neurogenic and myogenic characteristics. PMID:19155210

Kudryashova, Elena; Wu, Jun; Havton, Leif A.; Spencer, Melissa J.

2009-01-01

356

The TRIM37 Gene Encodes a Peroxisomal RING-B-Box-Coiled-Coil Protein: Classification of Mulibrey Nanism as a New Peroxisomal Disorder  

PubMed Central

Mulibrey nanism is a rare growth disorder of prenatal onset caused by mutations in the TRIM37 gene, which encodes a RING-B-box-coiled-coil protein. The pathogenetic mechanisms of mulibrey nanism are unknown. We have used transiently transfected cells and antibodies raised against the predicted TRIM37 protein to characterize the TRIM37 gene product and to determine its intracellular localization. We show that the human TRIM37 cDNA encodes a peroxisomal protein with an apparent molecular weight of 130 kD. Peroxisomal localization is compromised in mutant protein representing the major Finnish TRIM37 mutation but is retained in the protein representing the minor Finnish mutation. Colocalization of endogenous TRIM37 with peroxisomal markers was observed by double immunofluorescence staining in HepG2 and human intestinal smooth muscle cell lines. In human tissue sections, TRIM37 shows a granular cytoplasmic pattern. Endogenous TRIM37 is not imported into peroxisomes in peroxin 1 (PEX1?/?) and peroxin 5 (PEX5?/?) mutant fibroblasts but is imported normally in peroxin 7 (PEX7?/?) deficient fibroblasts, giving further evidence for a peroxisomal localization of TRIM37. Fibroblasts derived from patients with mulibrey nanism lack C-terminal TRIM37 immunoreactivity but stain normally for both peroxisomal matrix and membrane markers, suggesting apparently normal peroxisome biogenesis in patient fibroblasts. Taken together, this molecular evidence unequivocally indicates that TRIM37 is located in the peroxisomes, and Mulibrey nanism thus can be classified as a new peroxisomal disorder. PMID:11938494

Kallijarvi, Jukka; Avela, Kristiina; Lipsanen-Nyman, Marita; Ulmanen, Ismo; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina

2002-01-01

357

Design, fabrication, and testing of a multichannel microfluidic device to dynamically control oxygen concentration conditions in-vitro  

E-print Network

Multilayer microfluidic devices were designed and fabricated such that an array of different oxygen concentrations could be applied to a testing area in any desired sequence and with unconstraint application times. The ...

Rodriguez, Rosa H

2008-01-01

358

Product Selectivity Control and Organic Oxygenate Pathways from Partial Oxidation of Methane in a Silent Electric Discharge Reactor  

E-print Network

* Institute for Gas Utilization Technologies and School of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science), allowing the organic oxygenates to condense on the plate itself inside the reactor. The results show

Mallinson, Richard

359

Improvement of superconducting properties by Y-211 particle size and oxygenation temperature control for bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of CeO2 adding on the reduction of Y-211 particle size and the oxygenation temperature on Tc have been studied. It is shown that the decrease of pre-sintering temperature is more effective than adding CeO2 for the Y-211 particle size reduction. For bulk YBCO, the oxygenation temperature affects not only the critical temperature Tc and other superconducting property, but

Z. M. Yu; C. P. Zhang; X. M. Xiong; J. R. Wang; Y. Feng; L. Zhou

2003-01-01

360

Improvement of superconducting properties by Y-211 particle size and oxygenation temperature control for bulk Y–Ba–Cu–O  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of CeO2 adding on the reduction of Y-211 particle size and the oxygenation temperature on Tc have been studied. It is shown that the decrease of pre-sintering temperature is more effective than adding CeO2 for the Y-211 particle size reduction. For bulk YBCO, the oxygenation temperature affects not only the critical temperature Tc and other superconducting property, but

Z. M. Yu; C. P. Zhang; X. M. Xiong; J. R. Wang; Y. Feng; L. Zhou

2003-01-01

361

AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 1 of 6: Optical Sensors and Controls for Improved Basic Oxygen Furnace Operations  

SciTech Connect

The development of an optical sensor for basic oxygen furnace (BOF) off-gas composition and temperature in this Advanced Process Control project has been a laboratory spectroscopic method evolve into a pre-commercialization prototype sensor system. The sensor simultaneously detects an infrared tunable diode laser ITDL beam transmitted through the process off-gas directly above the furnace mouth, and the infrared greybody emission from the particulate-laden off-gas stream. Following developmental laboratory and field-testing, the sensor prototype was successfully tested in four long-term field trials at Bethlehem Steel's Sparrows Point plant in Baltimore, MD> The resulting optical data were analyzed and reveal correlations with four important process variables: (1) bath turndown temperature; (2) carbon monoxide post-combustion control; (2) bath carbon concentration; and (4) furnace slopping behavior. The optical sensor measurement of the off-gas temperature is modestly correlated with bath turndown temperature. A detailed regression analysis of over 200 heats suggests that a dynamic control level of +25 Degree F can be attained with a stand-alone laser-based optical sensor. The ability to track off-gas temperatures to control post-combustion lance practice is also demonstrated, and may be of great use in optimizing post-combustion efficiency in electric furnace steelmaking operations. In addition to the laser-based absorption spectroscopy data collected by this sensor, a concurrent signal generated by greybody emission from the particle-laden off-gas was collected and analyzed. A detailed regression analysis shows an excellent correlation of a single variable with final bath turndown carbon concentration. Extended field trials in 1998 and early 1999 show a response range from below 0.03% to a least 0.15% carbon concentration with a precision of +0.0007%. Finally, a strong correlation between prolonged drops in the off-gas emission signal and furnace slopping events was observed. A simple computer algorithm was written that successfully predicts furnace slopping for 90% of the heats observed; over 80% are predicted with at least a 30-second warning prior to the initial slopping events,

Sarah Allendorf; David Ottesen; Donald Hardesty

2002-01-31

362

Atmospheric Oxygen  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this feature, adapted from Interactive NOVA: Earth, students explore the relationship between oxygen concentration and the well-being of various organisms by simulating a change in oxygen levels and observing what happens.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2003-09-26

363

A quality-control method for physical and chemical monitoring data. Application to dissolved oxygen levels in the river Loire (France)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quality-control method is proposed for examining continuous physical and chemical measurements, including temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and electrical conductivity. Firstly, measurement consistency is evaluated by various modelling approaches: internal series structure, inter-variable relations or relations with external variables, spatial coherence and deterministic models. Secondly, outliers or systematic errors are detected using classical statistical tests. The method was evaluated for

F. Moatar; J. Miquel; A. Poirel

2001-01-01

364

Improved curdlan fermentation process based on optimization of dissolved oxygen combined with pH control and metabolic characterization of Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749  

Microsoft Academic Search

A significant problem in scale-down cultures, rarely studied for metabolic characterization and curdlan-producing Agrobacterium sp. ATCC 31749, is the presence of dissolved oxygen (DO) gradients combined with pH control. Constant DO, between 5% and\\u000a 75%, was maintained during batch fermentations by manipulating the agitation with PID system. Fermentation, metabolic and\\u000a kinetic characterization studies were conducted in a scale-down system. The

Hong-Tao Zhang; Xiao-Bei Zhan; Zhi-Yong Zheng; Jian-Rong Wu; Nike English; Xiao-Bin Yu; Chi-Chung Lin

365

The Oxygen Sensor FactorInhibiting Hypoxia-Inducible Factor1 Controls Expression of Distinct Genes through the Bifunctional Transcriptional Character of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor1A  

Microsoft Academic Search

The function of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), the key transcription factor involved in cellular adaptation to hypoxia, is restricted to low oxygen tension (pO2). As such, this transcription factor is central in modulating the tumor microenvironment, sensing nutrient availability, and control- ling anaerobic glycolysis, intracellular pH, and cell survival. Degradation and inhibition of the limiting HIF-1A subunit are intimately connected

Frederic Dayan; Daniele Roux; M. Christiane Brahimi-Horn; Jacques Pouyssegur; Nathalie M. Mazure

2006-01-01

366

Oxygen-limited control of methanol uptake for improved production of a single-chain antibody fragment with recombinant Pichia pastoris  

Microsoft Academic Search

The yeast Pichia pastoris is a suitable production system for recombinant proteins due to its strong methanol-inducible AOX1 promoter. A key parameter of the production process is the specific methanol uptake rate. To control the methanol uptake and simultaneously maintain a constant methanol concentration during the production phase, two strategies were developed to generate purposeful oxygen limitation and to feed-forward

Narendar K. Khatri; Frank Hoffmann

2006-01-01

367

Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Radionecrosis of the Jaw: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial From the ORN96 Study Group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose To determine the efficacy and safety of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) for overt mandibular osteoradionecrosis. Patients and Methods This prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was con- ducted at 12 university hospitals. Ambulatory adults with overt osteoradionecrosis of the mandible were assigned to receive 30 HBO exposures preoperatively at 2.4 absolute atmosphere for 90 minutes or a placebo, and

Djillali Annane; Joel Depondt; Philippe Aubert; Maryvonne Villart; Philippe Gajdos; Sylvie Chevret

2004-01-01

368

The effects of laser trimming on the tensile strength and fatigue resistance properties of titanium - 6Al-4V  

E-print Network

The effect of laser trimming on the tensile strength and fatigue resistance of titanium-6% aluminum-4% vanadium specimens was investigated. Due to the nature of laser processing, the microstructure of the titanium alloy was altered in an area local...

Whitesel, Dean Adam

2012-06-07

369

Efficacy of Beef Carcass Surface Trimming to Reduce or Eliminate Escherichia coli O157:H7 Surrogates from Subsequent Subprimals  

E-print Network

This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of trimming the original external carcass surfaces from subprimals during fabrication on the reduction of surrogates for Escherichia coli O157:H7. Carcass sides from five cattle (n = 10 sides...

Laster, Brittany Anise

2012-02-14

370

Synthetic control of interchromophoric interaction in cationic bis-porphyrins toward efficient DNA photocleavage and singlet oxygen production in aqueous solution.  

PubMed

We have synthesized cationic bis-porphyrins and their zinc(II) complexes with two TMPyP-like chromophores bridged by p- or m-xylylenediamine to develop effective DNA photocleaving agents. The xylylene linkers and zinc ion were introduced to control interchromophoric interaction that should be involved in photosensitization of the cationic bis-porphyrins. The molar absorptivities of all the bis-porphyrins in aqueous solution remained unchanged over a wide range of concentrations, indicating the absence of self-aggregation property. In particular, the molar absorptivity of the zinc(II) complex of the p-xylylenediamine-linked bis-porphyrin in aqueous solution was 2.0 times as large as that of unichromophoric ZnTMPyP, suggesting the absence of both intermolecular and intramolecular interchromophoric interaction. The metal-free p-xylylenediamine-linked bis-porphyrin showed the more efficient conversion ability of supercoiled to nicked circular pUC18 plasmid DNA by photosensitization than the metal-free m-xylylenediamine-linked one. Furthermore, the zinc complexes of the bis-porphyrins exhibited the more potent DNA photocleavage than did the metal-free bis-porphyrins. Singlet oxygen productivity of the four cationic bis-porphyrins was determined by measuring the decomposition rate of 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran. The amount of singlet oxygen generated by photosensitization of the zinc(II) complex of the p-xylylenediamine-linked bis-porphyrin in aqueous solution was 2.1 times as large as ZnTMPyP, indicating the full singlet oxygen productivity. A significant relationship between the DNA photocleaving abilities and the singlet oxygen productivities of the cationic porphyrins in aqueous solution was found. Hence, the degree of the intramolecular interchromophoric interaction, the DNA photocleaving ability, and the singlet oxygen productivity of the cationic bis-porphyrins in aqueous solution were successfully controlled by means of the introduction of the appropriate linker and metal ion. PMID:17513112

Ishikawa, Yoshinobu; Yamakawa, Naoki; Uno, Tadayuki

2007-08-01

371

Stability scheme of ZnO-thin film resistive switching memory: influence of defects by controllable oxygen pressure ratio.  

PubMed

We report a stability scheme of resistive switching devices based on ZnO films deposited by radio frequency (RF) sputtering process at different oxygen pressure ratios. I-V measurements and statistical results indicate that the operating stability of ZnO resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices is highly dependent on oxygen conditions. Data indicates that the ZnO film ReRAM device fabricated at 10% O2 pressure ratio exhibits the best performance. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) of ZnO at different O2 pressure ratios were investigated to reflect influence of structure to the stable switching behaviors. In addition, PL and XPS results were measured to investigate the different charge states triggered in ZnO by oxygen vacancies, which affect the stability of the switching behavior. PMID:24237683

Huang, Hsin-Wei; Kang, Chen-Fang; Lai, Fang-I; He, Jr-Hau; Lin, Su-Jien; Chueh, Yu-Lun

2013-01-01

372

High-Frequency-Discharge Trimming of RuO2Based Thick-Film Resistors-Part I: Affecting Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phenomena of high-frequency-discharge trimming of RuO2-basad glaze resistors was investigated as a function of the following: 1) the sintering condition of thick-film resistors, 2) the relation between the amount of additives to resistors and the rate of increase or decrease of resistance, 3) the effect of heat treatment before and after the trimming and effect of glass overcoating, 4)

Y. Taketa; M. Haradome

1973-01-01

373

Forward flight trim calculation and frequency response validation of a high-order helicopter simulation model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a new trim procedure, that includes the calculation of the steady-state response of the rotor blades, and that is applicable to straight flight and steady coordinated turns. This paper also describes the results of a validation study for a high order linearized model of helicopter flight dynamics, that includes rotor, inflow, and actuator dynamics. The model is obtained by numerical perturbations of a nonlinear, blade element type mathematical model. Predicted responses are compared with flight test data for two values of flight speed. The comparison is carried out in the frequency domain. Numerical simulations show that the trim algorithm is very accurate, and preserves the periodicity of the aircraft states. The results also indicate that the predictions of the linearized model are in good agreement with flight test data, especially at medium and high frequencies.

Kim, Frederick D.; Celi, Roberto; Tischler, Mark B.

1991-01-01

374

Digital Trimming Method Using Double DWA as ⊿? D/A converter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When sigma-delta digital to analogue converter that has multi bit DAC is used, because of the mismatches of elements in output DAC, the non-linearity occur to output. And non-linearity lower S/N and the accuracy of conversion go bad. These mismatches occur at manufacturing process, so we cannot avoid the non-linearity as far as we use multi bit DAC. Then “The Dynamic Element Matching” technique is proposed as a means to ease this deterioration. In order to ease the deterioration of accuracy, I propose digital trimming method using a Double DWA as ⊿? D/A converter. This paper shows that we can improve S/N about 10dB with the proposed technique (Double DWA and digital trimming) compared with conventional DWA, on the simulation.

Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Kobayashi, Toshio; Matsuya, Yasuyuki

375

Gene Therapy Strategies to Exploit TRIM Derived Restriction Factors against HIV-1  

PubMed Central

Restriction factors are a collection of antiviral proteins that form an important aspect of the innate immune system. Their constitutive expression allows immediate response to viral infection, ahead of other innate or adaptive immune responses. We review the molecular mechanism of restriction for four categories of restriction factors; TRIM5, tetherin, APOBEC3G and SAMHD1 and go on to consider how the TRIM5 and TRIMCyp proteins in particular, show promise for exploitation using gene therapy strategies. Such approaches could form an important alternative to current anti-HIV-1 drug regimens, especially if combined with strategies to eradicate HIV reservoirs. Autologous CD4+ T cells or their haematopoietic stem cell precursors engineered to express TRIMCyp restriction factors, and provided in a single therapeutic intervention could then be used to restore functional immunity with a pool of cells protected against HIV. We consider the challenges ahead and consider how early clinical phase testing may best be achieved. PMID:24424502

Chan, Emma; Towers, Greg J.; Qasim, Waseem

2014-01-01

376

Investigation Of Adhesion Formation In New Stainless Steel Trim Spring Operated Pressure Relief Valves  

SciTech Connect

Examination of proof test data for new (not previously installed) stainless steel (SS) trim spring operated pressure relief valves (SOPRV) reveals that adhesions form between the seat and disc in about 46% of all such SOPRV. The forces needed to overcome these adhesions can be sufficiently large to cause the SOPRV to fail its proof test (FPT) prior to installation. Furthermore, a significant percentage of SOPRV which are found to FPT are also found to ''fail to open'' (FTO) meaning they would not relief excess pressure in the event of an overpressure event. The cases where adhesions result in FTO or FPT appear to be confined to SOPRV with diameters < 1 in and set pressures < 150 psig and the FTO are estimated to occur in 0.31% to 2.00% of this subpopulation of SS trim SOPRV. The reliability and safety implications of these finding for end-users who do not perform pre-installation testing of SOPRV are discussed.

Gross, Robert E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Bukowski, Julia V. [Villanova University, Villanova, PA (United States); Goble, William M. [exida, Sellersville, PA (United States)

2013-04-16

377

Molecular characterization of tripartite motif protein 25 (TRIM25) involved in ER?-mediated transcription in the Korean rose bitterling Rhodeus uyekii.  

PubMed

Tripartite motif-containing 25 (TRIM25), also known as estrogen-responsive finger protein (EFP), plays an essential role in cell proliferation and innate immunity. In the present study, we isolated and characterized the TRIM25 cDNA of the Korean rose bitterling Rhodeus uyekii, designated RuTRIM25. It encodes an open reading frame of 669 amino acids containing an N-terminal RBCC motif composed of a RING domain, two B boxes, and a coiled-coil domain and a C-terminal B30.2 (PRY/SPRY) domain. RuTRIM25 shows strong homology (79.7%) to zebrafish TRIM25 and shared 32.4-28.8% homology with TRIM25 from other species, including mammals. RuTRIM25 mRNA was expressed ubiquitously. It was highly expressed in the ovary, spleen, and liver and moderately in the stomach and intestine of normal Korean rose bitterling. The intracellular localization of RuTRIM25 in HEK293T cells was diffusely localized in the cytoplasm and its RING domain deletion mutant (RuTRIM25?R) was detected diffusely with some aggregates in the cytoplasm. RuTRIM25, but not RuTRIM25?R, is ubiquitinated in vivo. Ectopic expression of RuTRIM25 synergistically activated the estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated luciferase reporter activity in a dose-dependent manner in HEK293T cells. Together, these results suggest that the RuTRIM25 regulates the ER-mediated transcription in fish similarly to its mammalian counterpart. PMID:22642868

Kong, Hee Jeong; Lee, Ye Ji; Shin, Jihye; Cho, Hyun Kook; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kim, Hyung Soo; Cheong, Jaehun; Sohn, Young Chang; Lee, Sang-Jun; Kim, Bong-Seok

2012-09-01

378

The effect of toe trimming on production characteristics of heavy turkey toms.  

PubMed

Trimming the 3 anterior toes on both feet at day of hatch to remove the claws, reduce bird scratching, and improve carcass grades is a common practice in the turkey industry. Changes in the method of trimming and the growth potential of turkeys since the majority of research on this topic was completed motivated this study with the objective of establishing the effects of microwave toe treatment on production characteristics of tom turkeys. Turkey toms (306 in total) were either toe trimmed at the hatchery using a microwave claw processor (T) or were sham treated only (NT). Poults were randomly assigned to 1 of 9 replicate pens for each treatment. Average BW, feed consumption, and feed efficiency were determined from BW and feed intake measured by pen on d 0, 7, 21, 42, 56, 70, 91, 126, and 140. On d 140, toms were sent to a commercial processing facility where 5 carcasses from each pen were examined for scratching and other externally visible damage. Average BW was higher for NT toms on d 91, 126, and 140, with final weights of 21.70 and 21.15 kg for NT and T birds, respectively. The T birds had lower feed consumption than their NT counterparts during the first and last week of production, but feed efficiency was unaffected. Carcass scratching (T, 13.33% of carcasses scratched vs. NT, 15.56%) and other carcass damages were not affected by treatment. Although overall mortality was not affected by treatment, the incidence of mortality due to skeletal causes, especially rotated tibia, was increased in T toms. Negative effects on performance and no effect on carcass quality suggest that toe trimming may not be required or recommended for heavy tom turkeys. PMID:25002552

Fournier, J; Schwean-Lardner, K; Knezacek, T D; Gomis, S; Classen, H L

2014-09-01

379

Development and validation of the Treatment Related Impact Measure of Weight (TRIM-Weight)  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The use of prescription anti-obesity medication (AOM) is becoming increasingly common as treatment options grow and become more accessible. However, AOM may not be without a wide range of potentially negative impacts on patient functioning and well being. The Treatment Related Impact Measure (TRIM-Weight) is an obesity treatment-specific patient reported outcomes (PRO) measure designed to assess the key impacts

Meryl Brod; Mette Hammer; Nana Kragh; Suzanne Lessard; Donald M Bushnell

2010-01-01

380

Integrated circuit mask generation using a raster scanned laser trimming system  

E-print Network

OF SCIENCE May 1982 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering INTEGRATED CIRCUIT MASK GENERATION USING A RASTER SCANNED LASER TRIMMING SYSTEM A Thesis by KEVIN DWAYNE GOURLEY Approved as to style and content by: hair ma ommittee Dr . Dou as M. Green 4... is that of IC mask generation. The topics of mask generation and laser applications wer e explored and are discussed in this section. A general discussion of computer aided design concepts will then be presented. Mask Gener ation Mask generation...

Gourley, Kevin Dwayne

2012-06-07

381

Potassium nutrition of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines ( Vitis vinifera L.) as affected by shoot trimming  

Microsoft Academic Search

As potassium (K) requirement of grapevine (Vitis viniferaL.) berries is high and phloem translocation from mature leaves to developing organs is well established, it was posited that shoot trimming, a widely applied technique which alters the source-sink balance and the mature-to-immature foliage ratio of a canopy, may influence K deficiency. Six-year-old Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines were grown in 0.045 m3 pots

Stefano Poni; Maurizio Quartieri; Massimo Tagliavini

2003-01-01

382

Regeneration of transgenic citrus plants from the trimmed shoot\\/root region of etiolated seedlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformation and high efficient regeneration of transgenic plants from the trimmed etiolated shoot\\/root region (TESRR) of\\u000a Anliucheng sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.] seedling was reported. A visual green fluorescent protein (GFP) marker gene was introduced to evaluate transformation\\u000a efficiency by using the explants from TESRR and epicotyls. The transformation protocol was: infection 20 min, co-culture 3\\u000a d, selection culture

D. L. Li; B. Tan; Y. X. Duan; W. W. Guo

2009-01-01

383

Transport versus on-farm slaughter of bison: physiological stress, animal welfare, and avoidable trim losses.  

PubMed

Ranched bison are typically less acclimated to handling than are domesticated livestock, suggesting that they might be more vulnerable to handling and transportation stressors. Grain-finished bison were slaughtered on-farm (n = 11), or held for 48 h, transported to a research abattoir, held in lairage for 18 h, and then slaughtered (n = 11). An additional group (n = 10) was sampled at a conventional fixed location abattoir. Measures included serum cortisol and corticosterone concentrations during on-farm handling and exsanguination, serum glucose, creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and trim losses. Transport was associated with an increase in trim loss. On-farm, glucose was elevated, CPK was positively associated with handling order over 12 h, and corticosterone concentration, although lower than cortisol concentration, showed a greater response to prolonged disturbance. With appropriate on-farm handling facilities, the use of on-farm slaughter and mobile abattoir could avoid muscle damage and trim losses, and mitigate injuries sustained during handling and transport of bison. PMID:24155478

McCorkell, Robert; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Galbraith, Jayson; Schaefer, Al; Caulkett, Nigel; Boysen, Soren; Pajor, Ed

2013-08-01

384

Conceptual Design of Low-Boom Aircraft with Flight Trim Requirement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new low-boom target generation approach is presented which allows the introduction of a trim requirement during the early conceptual design of supersonic aircraft. The formulation provides an approximation of the center of pressure for a presumed aircraft configuration with a reversed equivalent area matching a low-boom equivalent area target. The center of pressure is approximated from a surrogate lift distribution that is based on the lift component of the classical equivalent area. The assumptions of the formulation are verified to be sufficiently accurate for a supersonic aircraft of high fineness ratio through three case studies. The first two quantify and verify the accuracy and the sensitivity of the surrogate center of pressure corresponding to shape deformation of lifting components. The third verification case shows the capability of the approach to achieve a trim state while maintaining the low-boom characteristics of a previously untrimmed configuration. Finally, the new low-boom target generation approach is demonstrated through the early conceptual design of a demonstrator concept that is low-boom feasible, trimmed, and stable in cruise.

Ordaz, Irian; Geiselhart, Karl A.; Fenbert, James W.

2014-01-01

385

Scapuloperoneal muscular dystrophy phenotype due to TRIM32-sarcotubular myopathy in South Dakota Hutterite.  

PubMed

Scapuloperoneal muscular dystrophy is a group of genetically heterogeneous disorders that share the phenotype of progressive weakness of scapular and anterior distal leg muscles. Recessive mutations in C-terminal domains of TRIM32 result in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2H and sarcotubular myopathy, a rare congenital myopathy commonly seen in Hutterites. A scapuloperoneal phenotype has never been reported in sarcotubular myopathy. We here report a 23-year-old Hutterite man with a one-year history of progressive weakness predominantly involving the anterior tibial and left scapular muscles, and hyperCKemia. Biopsy of the anterior tibial muscle showed an active myopathy with non-rimmed vacuoles and mild denervation atrophy associated with reinnervation. The vacuoles are similar to those described in sarcotubular myopathy. TRIM32 sequencing revealed the common c.1459G>A mutation at homozygosity. A search for mutations in TRIM32 should be considered in patients with scapuloperoneal muscular dystrophy, and especially in patients of Hutterite origin or with an atypical vacuolar myopathy. PMID:23142638

Liewluck, Teerin; Tracy, Jennifer A; Sorenson, Eric J; Engel, Andrew G

2013-02-01

386

Apneic Oxygenation during simulated prolonged difficult laryngoscopy: Comparison of nasal prongs versus nasopharyngeal catheter: A prospective randomized controlled study  

PubMed Central

Background: Apneic oxygenation by insufflating O2 through nasal prongs (NP) and nasopharyngeal catheter (NC) has been proven to be effective. We conducted this study to compare the relative efficacy of these two techniques in a simulated difficult airway situation. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of two techniques of apneic oxygenation (NP vs. NC) on the duration of oxygen saturation ?95% during simulated prolonged difficult laryngoscopy. Methods: A randomized non-blinded study was conducted in 56 adult patients, 28 in each group belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class I and II scheduled for elective surgical procedures under general endotracheal anesthesia randomized to either NC or NP group. After pre-oxygenating for an end tidal oxygen concentration of 90% and induction, ability to mask ventilate was checked and paralyzed with rocuronium. Apneic oxygenation using 5 L/min of O2 was established either by NP or NC. After laryngoscopy the laryngoscope was withdrawn to simulate a Grade 4 laryngoscopy and held in this position for an apnea time (T1) of 10 min with SpO2 maintained at ?95% or until SpO2 dropped to < 95%, whichever is earlier. An arterial blood gas analysis was performed at the end of T1. Desaturation to < 95% were compared between the groups using Chi-square test (P < 0.05 as significant). Arterial blood gas analysis among those who sustained T1 for 10 min between the groups were compared using independent sample t-test (P < 0.05 was considered as significant). None of patients were excluded from the study. Results: In NP group nine patients desaturated as against none in the NC group (P = 0.001). Arterial blood gas analysis among non-desaturated patients was comparable with respect to PO2, PCO2 and pH. Conclusion: Nasopharyngeal catheter is a better device than nasal prongs in maintaining safe oxygenation during apnea in a simulated prolonged difficult laryngoscopy.

Achar, Shreepathi Krishna; Pai, Archana Jagdish; Shenoy, U. Kailasnath

2014-01-01

387

Implementation of the scale factor balance on two pairs of quartz-flexure capacitive accelerometers by trimming bias voltage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gravity gradient measurement makes use of the difference between the outputs of pairs of linear accelerometers, which results in cancelling out the common mode accelerations caused by mounting platform and external environment. One of the key technologies is to match the acceleration-to-voltage or acceleration-to-current transfer functions of the pairs of the accelerometers to an extremely high degree of accuracy. The differential signals then make the gravity gradients observable. By using two pairs of the quartz-flexure accelerometers with a capacitive sensing and electrostatic closed-loop control, the electrostatic control bias voltages were trimming remotely and automatically in real time. Each pair of accelerometers was matched individually and then all four accelerometers were finally re-balanced. The experimental results show that the consistency of five digits is achieved at a noise level of ˜5× 10^{-8} g/sqrt{Hz} (1 g ? 9.8 m/s2) and the scale factors ranging from 0.25 to 0.32 V/mg. Further improvement to the achieved level of matching is limited by the intrinsic noise of the accelerometers used.

Tu, L. C.; Wang, Z. W.; Liu, J. Q.; Huang, X. Q.; Li, Z.; Xie, Y. F.; Luo, J.

2014-09-01

388

Implementation of the scale factor balance on two pairs of quartz-flexure capacitive accelerometers by trimming bias voltage.  

PubMed

Gravity gradient measurement makes use of the difference between the outputs of pairs of linear accelerometers, which results in cancelling out the common mode accelerations caused by mounting platform and external environment. One of the key technologies is to match the acceleration-to-voltage or acceleration-to-current transfer functions of the pairs of the accelerometers to an extremely high degree of accuracy. The differential signals then make the gravity gradients observable. By using two pairs of the quartz-flexure accelerometers with a capacitive sensing and electrostatic closed-loop control, the electrostatic control bias voltages were trimming remotely and automatically in real time. Each pair of accelerometers was matched individually and then all four accelerometers were finally re-balanced. The experimental results show that the consistency of five digits is achieved at a noise level of ?5×10(-8)g/ Hz (1?g ??9.8 m/s(2)) and the scale factors ranging from 0.25 to 0.32 V/mg. Further improvement to the achieved level of matching is limited by the intrinsic noise of the accelerometers used. PMID:25273773

Tu, L C; Wang, Z W; Liu, J Q; Huang, X Q; Li, Z; Xie, Y F; Luo, J

2014-09-01

389

14 CFR 25.255 - Out-of-trim characteristics.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... (1) The stick force vs. g curve must have a positive slope at any speed up to and including VFC /MFC ; and (2) At speeds between VFC /MFC and VDF /MDF the direction of the primary longitudinal control force may not...

2013-01-01

390

14 CFR 25.255 - Out-of-trim characteristics.  

... (1) The stick force vs. g curve must have a positive slope at any speed up to and including VFC /MFC ; and (2) At speeds between VFC /MFC and VDF /MDF the direction of the primary longitudinal control force may not...

2014-01-01

391

14 CFR 25.255 - Out-of-trim characteristics.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... (1) The stick force vs. g curve must have a positive slope at any speed up to and including VFC /MFC ; and (2) At speeds between VFC /MFC and VDF /MDF the direction of the primary longitudinal control force may not...

2012-01-01

392

Programmed cell death: new role in trimming the root tips.  

PubMed

How is a rapid cellular turnover of the lateral root cap achieved in plants to control cap size in the growing root tips? Downstream of ANAC033/SOMBRERO, a highly organized and temporally coordinated cell death program involving BFN1 nuclease-mediated rapid corpse clearance eliminates these cells. PMID:24801191

Yadav, Shri Ram; Helariutta, Ykä

2014-05-01

393

Carrier-mediated interaction of magnetic moments in oxygen vacancy-controlled epitaxial Mn-doped ZnO thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Epitaxial Zn0.98Mn0.02O thin films were grown on c-cut sapphire substrates under various ambient oxygen pressures (pO2) using pulsed laser deposition. The variation of pO2 during the growth process allowed for the control of intrinsic oxygen vacancies and resulting carrier densities in the films. While no impurity phase contributions were detected, a strong correlation between the effective carrier densities and the observed ferromagnetism (FM) was established. The magnetic data was consistent with a Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) exchange mechanism. The average spin-spin interaction energy for RKKY at 10 K was found to be smaller than the thermal energy, ensuring the availability of carriers to mediate RKKY-type FM, even at low temperatures.

Mukherjee, Devajyoti; Mukherjee, Pritish; Srikanth, Hariharan; Witanachchi, Sarath

2012-04-01

394

Evaluation and use of a diffusion-controlled sampler for determining chemical and dissolved oxygen gradients at the sediment-water interface  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Field and laboratory evaluations were made of a simple, inexpensive diffusion-controlled sampler with ports on two sides at each interval which incorporates 0.2-??m polycarbonate membrane to filter samples in situ. Monovalent and divalent ions reached 90% of equilibrium between sampler contents and the external solution within 3 and 6 hours, respectively. Sediment interstitial water chemical gradients to depths of tens of centimeters were obtained within several days after placement. Gradients were consistent with those determined from interstitial water obtained by centrifugation of adjacent sediment. Ten milliliter sample volumes were collected at 1-cm intervals to determine chemical gradients and dissolved oxygen profiles at depth and at the interface between the sediment and water column. The flux of dissolved species, including oxygen, across the sediment-water interface can be assessed more accurately using this sampler than by using data collected from benthic cores. ?? 1985 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

Simon, N. S.; Kennedy, M. M.; Massoni, C. S.

1985-01-01

395

Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Mannosidase I Is Compartmentalized and Required for N-Glycan Trimming to Man5–6GlcNAc2 in Glycoprotein ER-associated Degradation  

PubMed Central

We had previously shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) of glycoproteins in mammalian cells involves trimming of three to four mannose residues from the N-linked oligosaccharide Man9GlcNAc2. A possible candidate for this activity, ER mannosidase I (ERManI), accelerates the degradation of ERAD substrates when overexpressed. Although in vitro, at low concentrations, ERManI removes only one specific mannose residue, at very high concentrations it can excise up to four ?1,2-linked mannose residues. Using small interfering RNA knockdown of ERManI, we show that this enzyme is required for trimming to Man5–6GlcNAc2 and for ERAD in cells in vivo, leading to the accumulation of Man9GlcNAc2 and Glc1Man9GlcNAc2 on a model substrate. Thus, trimming by ERManI to the smaller oligosaccharides would remove the glycoprotein from reglucosylation and calnexin binding cycles. ERManI is strikingly concentrated together with the ERAD substrate in the pericentriolar ER-derived quality control compartment (ERQC) that we had described previously. ERManI knockdown prevents substrate accumulation in the ERQC. We suggest that the ERQC provides a high local concentration of ERManI, and passage through this compartment would allow timing of ERAD, possibly through a cycling mechanism. When newly made glycoproteins cannot fold properly, transport through the ERQC leads to trimming of a critical number of mannose residues, triggering a signal for degradation. PMID:18003979

Avezov, Edward; Frenkel, Zehavit; Ehrlich, Marcelo; Herscovics, Annette

2008-01-01

396

Highly Transparent and High Haze Bilayer Al-Doped ZnO Thin Film Employing Oxygen-Controlled Seed Layer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Al-doped ZnO (AZO) film was continuously deposited by DC magnetron sputtering using pure Ar on a thin AZO seed layer prepared using an approximately 4% dilution of oxygen with Ar. X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the AZO film grown on the seed layer exhibited a much higher crystallinity and larger grain size than that without the seed layer. The electrical

Dong-Won Kang; Seung-Hee Kuk; Kwang-Sun Ji; Seh-Won Ahn; Min-Koo Han

2010-01-01

397

The Role of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Ischaemic Diabetic Lower Extremity Ulcers: a Double-blind Randomised-controlled Trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: ischaemic lower-extremity ulcers in the diabetic population are a source of major concern because of the associated high risk of limb-threatening complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of hyperbaric oxygen in the management of these ulcers.Method: eighteen diabetic patients with ischaemic, non-healing lower-extremity ulcers were recruited in a double-blind study. Patients were randomly assigned

A. Abidia; G. Laden; G. Kuhan; B. F. Johnson; A. R. Wilkinson; P. M. Renwick; E. A. Masson; P. T. McCollum

2003-01-01

398

Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Trafficking of TRIM8, a Novel Oncogene, Is Involved in Positive Regulation of TNF Induced NF-?B Pathway  

PubMed Central

TNF induced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) is one of the central signaling pathways that plays a critical role in carcinogenesis and inflammatory diseases. Post-translational modification through ubiquitin plays important role in the regulation of this pathway. In the current study, we investigated the role of TRIM8, member of RING family ubiquitin ligase in regulation of NF-?B pathway. We observed that TRIM8 positively regulates TNF induced NF-?B pathway. Different domains of TRIM8 showed discrete functions at the different steps in regulation of TNF induced NF-?B pathway. Ubiquitin ligase activity of TRIM8 is essential for regulation of NF-?B activation in both cytoplasm as well as nucleus. TRIM8 negates PIAS3 mediated negative repression of NF-?B at p65 by inducing translocation of PIAS3 from nucleus to cytoplasm as well as its turnover. TNF induces translocation of TRIM8 from nucleus to cytoplasm, which positively regulates NF-?B. The cytoplasmic translocation of TRIM8 is essential for TNF induced NF-?B but not for p65 mediated NF-?B regulation. TRIM8 also enhanced the clonogenic and migration ability of cells by modulating NF-?B. The further study will help to understand the role of TRIM8 in inflammation and cancer. PMID:23152791

Tomar, Dhanendra; Sripada, Lakshmi; Prajapati, Paresh; Singh, Rochika; Singh, Arun Kumar; Singh, Rajesh

2012-01-01

399

The V86M mutation in HIV-1 capsid confers resistance to TRIM5? by abrogation of cyclophilin A-dependent restriction and enhancement of viral nuclear import  

PubMed Central

Background HIV-1 is inhibited early after entry into cells expressing some simian orthologues of the tripartite motif protein family member TRIM5?. Mutants of the human orthologue (TRIM5?hu) can also provide protection against HIV-1. The host protein cyclophilin A (CypA) binds incoming HIV-1 capsid (CA) proteins and enhances early stages of HIV-1 replication by unknown mechanisms. On the other hand, the CA-CypA interaction is known to increase HIV-1 susceptibility to restriction by TRIM5?. Previously, the mutation V86M in the CypA-binding loop of HIV-1 CA was found to be selected upon serial passaging of HIV-1 in cells expressing Rhesus macaque TRIM5? (TRIM5?rh). The objectives of this study were (i) to analyze whether V86M CA allows HIV-1 to escape mutants of TRIM5?hu, and (ii) to characterize the role of CypA in the resistance to TRIM5? conferred by V86M. Results We find that in single-cycle HIV-1 vector transduction experiments, V86M confers partial resistance against R332G-R335G TRIM5?hu and other TRIM5?hu variable 1 region mutants previously isolated in mutagenic screens. However, V86M HIV-1 does not seem to be resistant to R332G-R335G TRIM5?hu in a spreading infection context. Strikingly, restriction of V86M HIV-1 vectors by TRIM5?hu mutants is mostly insensitive to the presence of CypA in infected cells. NMR experiments reveal that V86M alters CypA interactions with, and isomerisation of CA. On the other hand, V86M does not affect the CypA-mediated enhancement of HIV-1 replication in permissive human cells. Finally, qPCR experiments show that V86M increases HIV-1 transport to the nucleus of cells expressing restrictive TRIM5?. Conclusions Our study shows that V86M de-couples the two functions associated with CA-CypA binding, i.e. the enhancement of restriction by TRIM5? and the enhancement of HIV-1 replication in permissive human cells. V86M enhances the early stages of HIV-1 replication in restrictive cells by improving nuclear import. In summary, our data suggest that HIV-1 escapes restriction by TRIM5? through the selective disruption of CypA-dependent, TRIM5?-mediated inhibition of nuclear import. However, V86M does not seem to relieve restriction of a spreading HIV-1 infection by TRIM5?hu mutants, underscoring context-specific restriction mechanisms. PMID:23448277

2013-01-01

400

Appreciating Oxygen  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Photosynthetic flora and microfauna utilize light from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and oxygen. While these carbohydrates and their derivative hydrocarbons are generally considered to be fuels, it is the thermodynamically energetic oxygen molecule that traps, stores, and provides almost all of the energy that…

Weiss, Hilton M.

2008-01-01

401

Control of a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas on SrTiO3(111) by Atomic Oxygen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the bare surface of (111) oriented SrTiO3. Angle resolved photoemission experiments reveal highly itinerant carriers with a sixfold symmetric Fermi surface and strongly anisotropic effective masses. The electronic structure of the 2DEG is in good agreement with self-consistent tight-binding supercell calculations that incorporate a confinement potential due to surface band bending. We further demonstrate that alternate exposure of the surface to ultraviolet light and atomic oxygen allows tuning of the carrier density and the complete suppression of the 2DEG.

McKeown Walker, S.; de la Torre, A.; Bruno, F. Y.; Tamai, A.; Kim, T. K.; Hoesch, M.; Shi, M.; Bahramy, M. S.; King, P. D. C.; Baumberger, F.

2014-10-01

402

Measurement of end-expiratory lung volume by oxygen washin–washout in controlled and assisted mechanically ventilated patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Assessing limits of agreement with helium dilution and repeatability of a new system (lung funcution, LUFU) that measures\\u000a end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) in mechanically ventilated patients using the O2 washin (EELVWin) and washout (EELVWout) technique. LUFU consists of an Evita 4 ventilator, a side-stream oxygen analyzer, and a dedicated PC software.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design and setting  Prospective human study in a general ICU

N. Patroniti; M. Saini; A. Zanella; D. Weismann; S. Isgrò; G. Bellani; G. Foti; A. Pesenti

2008-01-01

403

TRIM28 mediates chromatin modifications at the TCR? enhancer and regulates the development of T and natural killer T cells  

PubMed Central

T-cell receptor–? (TCR?) rearrangement in CD4+CD8+ double-positive immature thymocytes is a prerequisite for production of ?? T cells and invariant natural killer T cells. This developmental event is regulated by the TCR? enhancer (E?), which induces chromatin modification and recruitment of the recombination-activating proteins Rag1 and Rag2. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the activation and long-range action of E? remains incompletely understood. We show here that the chromatin-modifying factor TRIM28 is highly expressed in double-positive thymocytes and persistently phosphorylated at serine 473. TRIM28 binds to E? and induces histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation in the E? and distant regions of the TCR? locus, coupled with recruitment of Rag proteins. T-cell–conditional ablation of TRIM28 impaired TCR? gene rearrangement and compromised the development of ?? T cells and invariant natural killer T cells. These findings establish TRIM28 as a unique regulator of thymocyte development and highlight an epigenetic mechanism involving TRIM28-mediated active chromatin modification in the TCR? locus. PMID:23169648

Zhou, Xiao-Fei; Yu, Jiayi; Chang, Mikyoung; Zhang, Minying; Zhou, Dapeng; Cammas, Florence; Sun, Shao-Cong

2012-01-01

404

Lafora disease E3-ubiquitin ligase malin is related to TRIM32 at both the phylogenetic and functional level  

PubMed Central

Background Malin is an E3-ubiquitin ligase that is mutated in Lafora disease, a fatal form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy. In order to perform its function, malin forms a functional complex with laforin, a glucan phosphatase that facilitates targeting of malin to its corresponding substrates. While laforin phylogeny has been studied, there are no data on the evolutionary lineage of malin. Results After an extensive search for malin orthologs, we found that malin is present in all vertebrate species and a cephalochordate, in contrast with the broader species distribution previously reported for laforin. These data suggest that in addition to forming a functional complex, laforin and perhaps malin may also have independent functions. In addition, we found that malin shares significant identity with the E3-ubiquitin ligase TRIM32, which belongs to the tripartite-motif containing family of proteins. We present experimental evidence that both malin and TRIM32 share some substrates for ubiquitination, although they produce ubiquitin chains with different topologies. However, TRIM32-specific substrates were not reciprocally ubiquitinated by the laforin-malin complex. Conclusions We found that malin and laforin are not conserved in the same genomes. In addition, we found that malin shares significant identity with the E3-ubiquitin ligase TRIM32. The latter result suggests a common origin for malin and TRIM32 and provides insights into possible functional relationships between both proteins. PMID:21798009

2011-01-01

405

Oxygen therapy and intraocular oxygenation.  

PubMed Central

When delivered to the corneal surface of rabbits or monkeys, 100% oxygen can significantly increase the pO2 in the aqueous humor. Under hyperbaric conditions (two atmospheres), an observed rise in the aqueous pO2 in rabbits breathing room air can be increased further by exposing the rabbit cornea to 100% oxygen. The high oxygen levels under hyperbaric conditions are mediated by intravascular and transcorneal delivery of oxygen. The increase in the pO2 levels in the aqueous can prevent sickling of intracameral human erythrocytes containing sickle hemoglobin. Thus, oxygen therapy transcorneally or systemically could potentially be used to treat a sickle cell hyphema. The exposure of rabbit eyes to 100% oxygen at the corneal surface is followed by autoregulation (constriction) of the iris vasculature. We could demonstrate no constriction in the eyes of two normal human volunteers or of four patients with chronic stable rubeosis iridis. Preretinal vitreous pO2 levels can be significantly raised by exposing monkeys to hyperbaric 100% oxygen. This procedure may be of value in treating acute, reversible ischemic inner retinal diseases. Transcorneal or vascular delivery of oxygen to the eye under normobaric or hyperbaric conditions may be effective in treating ischemic diseases of the anterior segment, such as anterior segment necrosis or rubeosis iridis, or ischemic inner retinal diseases. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 B FIGURE 5 C FIGURE 5 A FIGURE 6 PMID:3447339

Jampol, L M

1987-01-01

406

Emissions of parent, nitrated, and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from indoor corn straw burning in normal and controlled combustion conditions.  

PubMed

Emission factors (EFs) of parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs), nitrated PAHs (nPAHs), and oxygenated PAHs (oPAHs) were measured for indoor corn straw burned in a brick cooking stove under different burning conditions. The EFs of total 28 pPAHs, 6 nPAHs and 4 oPAHs were (7.9 +/- 3.4), (6.5 +/- 1.6) x 10(-3), and (6.1 +/- 1.4) x 10(-1) mg/kg, respectively. Fuel charge size had insignificant influence on the pollutant emissions. Measured EFs increased significantly in a fast burning due to the oxygen deficient atmosphere formed in the stove chamber. In both restricted and enhanced air supply conditions, the EFs of pPAHs, nPAHs and oPAHs were significantly higher than those measured in normal burning conditions. Though EFs varied among different burning conditions, the composition profiles and calculated isomer ratios were similar, without significant differences. The results from the stepwise regression model showed that fuel burning rate, air supply amount, and modified combustion efficiency were the three most significant influencing factors, explaining 72%-85% of the total variations. PMID:24494494

Shen, Guofeng; Xue, Miao; Wei, Siye; Chen, Yuanchen; Wang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Lv, Yan; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yanyan; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Wei, Wen; Zhao, Qiuyue; Li, Bing; Wu, Haisuo; Tao, Shu

2013-10-01

407

Regulation of innate immune signalling pathways by the tripartite motif (TRIM) family proteins  

PubMed Central

The innate immune system recognizes microbial components through pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), including membrane-bound Toll-like receptors and cytosolic receptors such as RIG-I-like receptors and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sensors. These PRRs trigger distinct signal transduction pathways that culminate in induction of an array of cytokines and other mediators required for host defense. The tripartite motif (TRIM) family is a diverse family of RING finger domain-containing proteins, which are involved in a variety of cellular functions. Importantly, recent studies have shown that they are also involved in the regulation of innate immune responses through the modulation of PRR signalling pathways. PMID:21826793

Kawai, Taro; Akira, Shizuo

2011-01-01

408

Conversion of trimmed NURBS surfaces to Catmull–Clark subdivision surfaces  

E-print Network

Computer Aided Geometric Design www.elsevier.com/locate/cagd onversion of trimmed NURBS surfaces to Catmull–Clark ubdivision surfaces ngjing Shen a,?, Jir?í Kosinka a, Malcolm A. Sabin b, Neil A. Dodgson a omputer Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 15 JJ... Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0FD, United Kingdom umerical Geometry Ltd., 19 John Amner Close, Ely, Cambridge CB6 1DT, United Kingdom r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t ticle history: ailable online xxxx ywords: immed NURBS surface tmull–Clark subdivision...

Shen, Jingjing; Kosinka, Ji?í; Sabin, Malcolm; Dodgson, Neil

2014-06-27

409

TRImP - A new facility to produce and trap radioactive isotopes  

E-print Network

At the Kernfysisch Vensneller Institiutr (KVI) in Groningen, NL, a new facility (TRImP) is under development. It aims for producing, slowing down, and trapping of radioactive isotopes in order to perform accurate measurements on fundamental symmetries and interactions. A production target station and a dual magnetic separator installed and commissioned. We will slow down the isotopes of interest using an ion catcher and in a further stage a radiofrequency quadropole gas cooler (RFQ). The isotopes will finally be trapped in an atomic trap for precision studies.

M. Sohani

2006-01-17

410

Sources of Weld Metal Oxygen Contamination During  

E-print Network

) Sources of Weld Metal Oxygen Contamination During Submerged Arc Welding The oxygen level of submerged arc weld metal is controlled by Si02 decomposition in most acidic fluxes whereas the oxygen level of weld metal oxygen contamination and pro- vide guidelines for design and selec- tion of welding

Eagar, Thomas W.

411

Experimental kinetic study of oxidation of uranium monocarbide powders under controlled oxygen partial pressures below 230 °C  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Uranium monocarbide (UC) powders are known to be easily oxidised by gas mixtures containing oxygen. In this study, the oxidation of UC micron powders was followed by isothermal thermogravimetry at temperatures ranging from 100 °C to 230 °C in two different gas mixtures: synthetic air and 97%N2 + 3%O2. X-ray diffraction tests conducted on powders after their oxidation showed that small crystallites of UO2 oxide are formed. Furthermore, an analysis of mass gain showed that the carbon initially linked with the uranium is not oxidised but retained in oxide layers. Additionally, this kinetic study revealed that the rate-limiting step mechanism governing the oxidation of UC powders is a diffusive process that follows the Arrhenius law regarding temperature. Finally, it was discovered that cracks occur in grains once a given fractional conversion has been reached, inducing a major increase in the volume of grains.

Berthinier, C.; Rado, C.; Dugne, O.; Cabie, M.; Chatillon, C.; Boichot, R.; Blanquet, E.

2013-01-01

412

Glucose trimming of N-glycan in endoplasmic reticulum is indispensable for the growth of Raphanus sativus seedling (kaiware radish).  

PubMed

Recently I found that glycosidase inhibitors such as castanospermine, deoxynojirimycin, swainsonine, 2-acetamindo 2,3-dideoxynojirimycin, and deoxymannojirimycin change the N-glycan structure of root glycoproteins, and that the glucosidase inhibitors castanospermine and deoxynojirimycin suppress the growth of Raphanus sativus seedlings (Mega, T., J. Biochem., 2004). The present study undertook to see whether the growth suppression is due to the inhibition of glucose trimming in endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The study, using three glucosidase inhibitors, castanospermine, N-methyl deoxynojirimycin, and deoxynojirimycin, upon the growth of R. sativus foliage leaf, made clear that glucose trimming is indispensable for plant growth, because the inhibition of glucose trimming correlated with leaf growth. On the other hand, processing inhibition in the Golgi apparatus by other glycosidase inhibitors had little effect on plant growth, although N-glycan processing was disrupted depending on inhibitor specificity. These results suggest that N-glycan processing after glucosidase processing is dispensable for plant growth and cell differentiation. PMID:16041142

Mega, Tomohiro

2005-07-01

413

New decision-based trimmed median filter for high-density salt-and-pepper noise removal in images  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new switching-based trimmed median filter to remove high-density salt-and-pepper noise in digital images is proposed. Initially, a 3×3 sliding window is applied on each pixel in the noisy image. The minimum- and maximum-intensity values are trimmed, and the noisy pixels are detected based on the predefined threshold value. In the filtering stage, the noisy pixels are replaced by median value of uncorrupted pixels in the trimmed array. At very high noise density, if all the pixels in the sliding window are corrupted, then the proposed algorithm replaces noisy pixels by the midpoint of recently processed pixels. The experimental results for various test images show that the performance of the proposed algorithm is superior to the existing algorithms, namely SMF, WMF, CWMF, AMF, DBA, and MDBUTMF in terms of visual quality and edge preservation, even at noise levels as high as 95%.

Vijaykumar, Vaithiyam Rengarajan; Santhanamari, Guru

2014-05-01

414

Elucidating microbial processes in nitrate- and sulfate-reducing systems using sulfur and oxygen isotope ratios: The example of oil reservoir souring control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are ubiquitous in anoxic environments where they couple the oxidation of organic compounds to the production of hydrogen sulfide. This can be problematic for various industries including oil production where reservoir "souring" (the generation of H 2S) requires corrective actions. Nitrate or nitrite injection into sour oil fields can promote SRB control by stimulating organotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing bacteria (O-NRB) that out-compete SRB for electron donors (biocompetitive exclusion), and/or by lithotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing sulfide oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) that remove H 2S directly. Sulfur and oxygen isotope ratios of sulfide and sulfate were monitored in batch cultures and sulfidic bioreactors to evaluate mitigation of SRB activities by nitrate or nitrite injection. Sulfate reduction in batch cultures of Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac15 indicated typical Rayleigh-type fractionation of sulfur isotopes during bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) with lactate, whereas oxygen isotope ratios in unreacted sulfate remained constant. Sulfur isotope fractionation in batch cultures of the NR-SOB Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO was minimal during the oxidation of sulfide to sulfate, which had ?18O SO4 values similar to that of the water-oxygen. Treating an up-flow bioreactor with increasing doses of nitrate to eliminate sulfide resulted in changes in sulfur isotope ratios of sulfate and sulfide but very little variation in oxygen isotope ratios of sulfate. These observations were similar to results obtained from SRB-only, but different from those of NR-SOB-only pure culture control experiments. This suggests that biocompetitive exclusion of SRB took place in the nitrate-injected bioreactor. In two replicate bioreactors treated with nitrite, less pronounced sulfur isotope fractionation and a slight decrease in ?18O SO4 were observed. This indicated that NR-SOB played a minor role during dosing with low nitrite and that biocompetitive exclusion was the major process. The results demonstrate that stable isotope data can contribute unique information for understanding complex microbial processes in nitrate- and sulfate-reducing systems, and offer important information for the management of H 2S problems in oil reservoirs and elsewhere.

Hubert, Casey; Voordouw, Gerrit; Mayer, Bernhard

2009-07-01

415

A Novel Family of Terminal-Repeat Retrotransposon in Miniature (TRIM) in the Genome of the Red Harvester Ant, Pogonomyrmex barbatus  

PubMed Central

We report the first described non-plant family of TRIMs (terminal-repeat retrotransposons in miniature), which are small nonautonomous LTR retrotransposons, from the whole-genome sequence of the red harvester ant, Pogonomyrmex barbatus (Hymenoptera: Myrmicinae). Members of this retrotransposon family, named PbTRIM, have typical features of plant TRIMs in length and structure, although they share no overall sequence similarity. PbTRIM elements and their solo-LTRs are abundant in the host genome and exhibit an uneven distribution pattern. Elements are preferentially inserted into TA-rich regions with ATAT as the most common pattern of target site duplication (TSD). PbTRIM is most likely mobile as indicated by the young age of many complete elements, the high degree of sequence similarity among elements at different genomic locations, the abundance of elements in the host genome, and the presence of 4-bp target site duplications (TSDs) flanking the elements and solo-LTRs. Many PbTRIM elements and their solo-LTRs are located within or near genes, suggesting their potential roles in restructuring the host genes and genome. Database search, PCR and sequencing analysis revealed the presence of homologous PbTRIM elements in other ant species. The high sequence similarity between elements from distantly related ant species, the incongruence between the phylogenies of PbTRIM and its hosts, and the patchy distribution of the retroelement within the Myrmicinae subfamily indicate possible horizontal transfer events of the retroelement. PMID:23285291

Zhou, Yihong; Cahan, Sara Helms

2012-01-01

416

September 23, 2008 14:49 WSPC -Proceedings Trim Size: 9in x 6in roth Rigidity Results for Geodesic Spheres in Space Forms  

E-print Network

September 23, 2008 14:49 WSPC - Proceedings Trim Size: 9in x 6in roth 1 Rigidity Results for Geodesic Spheres in Space Forms Julien Roth Laboratoire d'Analyse et de Math ´matiques Appliqu Compostela : Spain (2008)" #12;September 23, 2008 14:49 WSPC - Proceedings Trim Size: 9in x 6in roth 2 > 0

Boyer, Edmond

417

The influence of quality grade, fat trim level and degree of doneness on the fatty acid composition of beef  

E-print Network

THE INFLUENCE OF QUALITY GRADE, FAT TRIM LEVEL AND DEGREE OF DONENESS ON THE FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF BEEF A Thesis by TISH JOAN HARBERSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8 M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1988 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology THE INFLUENCE OF QUALITY GRADE, FAT TRIM LEVEL AND DEGREE OF DONENESS ON THE FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF BEEF A Thesis by TISH JOAN HARBERSON Approved as to style...

Harberson, Tish Joan

2012-06-07

418

Effect of different solid matrixes on surface free energy of EGDMA and TRIM polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advancing and receding contact angles of water, formamide, glycerol and diiodometane were measured on the two polymers; EGDMA (dimethacrylate of ethylene glycol) and TRIM (trimethacrylate-1,1,1-trihydroksymethylopropane) which were polymerized next to glass, silanized glass, stainless steel, mica and silicon surfaces as the matrices. Then from the contact angle hystereses (CAH) and van Oss, Good, Chaudhury (LWAB) approaches the apparent surface free energies were evaluated. The measured contact angles not only depend solely on the polymer chemical structure but also, to some extent, on the solid matrix next to whose surface the sample has polymerized. Surface free energy of the polymer samples calculated from the LWAB approach shows that they interact mainly by dispersive forces. The apparent surface free energy of the polymers calculated from the diiodomethane contact angles hysteresis is practically the same irrespective of the kind of the matrix used. Therefore it can be concluded that the observed weak polar interactions in the surface free energy of the samples depend on the polymer surface preparation. The AFM images show that the obtained surfaces are of different roughness. The RMS values of roughness range between 3.7-90.2 nm for EDGMA, and 5.3-124.5 nm for TRIM. However, as reported in literature, rather protrusions bigger than 1 ?m may significantly affect the contact angles, especially the receding ones.

Terpilowski, Konrad; Chibowski, Emil

2010-06-01

419

Model Averaging Methods for Weight Trimming in Generalized Linear Regression Models  

PubMed Central

In sample surveys where units have unequal probabilities of inclusion, associations between the inclusion probability and the statistic of interest can induce bias in unweighted estimates. This is true even in regression models, where the estimates of the population slope may be biased if the underlying mean model is misspecified or the sampling is nonignorable. Weights equal to the inverse of the probability of inclusion are often used to counteract this bias. Highly disproportional sample designs have highly variable weights; weight trimming reduces large weights to a maximum value, reducing variability but introducing bias. Most standard approaches are ad hoc in that they do not use the data to optimize bias-variance trade-offs. This article uses Bayesian model averaging to create “data driven” weight trimming estimators. We extend previous results for linear regression models (Elliott 2008) to generalized linear regression models, developing robust models that approximate fully-weighted estimators when bias correction is of greatest importance, and approximate unweighted estimators when variance reduction is critical. PMID:23275683

Elliott, Michael R.

2012-01-01

420

Antiviral effects of glycosylation and glucose trimming inhibitors on human parainfluenza virus type 3.  

PubMed

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) alpha-glucosidase inhibitors block the trimming of N-linked glycosylation and thus prevent the production of several viruses. The present study investigates the antiviral effects of the alpha-glucosidase and alpha-mannosidase inhibitors (castanospermine, 1-deoxynojirimycin, bromoconduritol, deoxymannojirimycin and swainsonine) on human parainfluenza virus type 3 (HPIV3). The alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (castanospermine, 1-deoxynojirimycin) in recombinant expression systems reduced the surface and intracellular expression of both HPIV3 F and HN proteins. On the other hand, alpha-mannosidase inhibitors prevented processing of the oligosaccharides on HPIV3 glycoproteins into the complex form. Consequently, alpha-glycosidase inhibitors (castanospermine and 1-deoxynojirimycin) significantly inhibited viral fusion activity. We demonstrated that the alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (castanospermine and 1-deoxynojirimycin) reduced the infectivity of newly released viral particles. We postulate that alpha-glucosidase inhibitors can prevent the first steps of HPIV3 envelope glycoprotein processing and that the inhibition of glucose trimming has antiviral effects. PMID:16730076

Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Kato, Junko; Kohara, Michinori; Galinski, Mark S

2006-10-01

421

Trimming of a Broken Migrated Biliary Metal Stent with the Nd:YAG Laser  

PubMed Central

Biliary metal stents are a permanent solution for bile duct stenosis. Complications can arise when the stent migrates, breaks or is overgrown by tumour. The following case demonstrates how a Nd:YAG laser can be used to solve these problems. A 93-year-old man presented with jaundice and fever. Two ye