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Sample records for oxygen trim control

  1. An Advanced Oxygen Trim Control System 

    E-print Network

    Miller, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    combustion control begin with the Arab oil boycott of 1974. This is no exception. In the pre-1974 era of cheap fuel, boi 1er controls were primari 1y designed for safety. Combustion control en gineers understood that operating with excess oxygen wasted... for the problem is of such a nature that if ignored this conclusion: it may cause migraine headaches. 349 ., FIGURE 4. ESL-IE-85-05-65 Proceedings from the Seventh National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, May 12-15, 1985 The largest...

  2. Flow Metering and Oxygen Trim Control Reduce Dairy Steam Plant Fuel Costs 

    E-print Network

    Foster, E. L.; Nelson, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    milk. Actual reductions in fuel costs of $1,000 to $1,500 per week were achieved by the addition of flue gas oxygen trim control and by altering the plant production schedule so that process steam demands were met by the largest boiler operating near...

  3. 14 CFR 29.161 - Trim control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trim control. 29.161 Section 29.161... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 29.161 Trim control. The trim control— (a) Must trim any steady longitudinal, lateral, and collective control forces to zero in...

  4. 14 CFR 27.161 - Trim control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... at any appropriate speed; and (b) May not introduce any undesirable discontinuities in control force... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trim control. 27.161 Section 27.161... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 27.161 Trim control. The trim...

  5. A closed-form trim solution yielding minimum trim drag for airplanes with multiple longitudinal-control effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Sliwa, Steven M.; Lallman, Frederick J.

    1989-01-01

    Airplane designs are currently being proposed with a multitude of lifting and control devices. Because of the redundancy in ways to generate moments and forces, there are a variety of strategies for trimming each airplane. A linear optimum trim solution (LOTS) is derived using a Lagrange formulation. LOTS enables the rapid calculation of the longitudinal load distribution resulting in the minimum trim drag in level, steady-state flight for airplanes with a mixture of three or more aerodynamic surfaces and propulsive control effectors. Comparisons of the trim drags obtained using LOTS, a direct constrained optimization method, and several ad hoc methods are presented for vortex-lattice representations of a three-surface airplane and two-surface airplane with thrust vectoring. These comparisons show that LOTS accurately predicts the results obtained from the nonlinear optimization and that the optimum methods result in trim drag reductions of up to 80 percent compared to the ad hoc methods.

  6. Matlab Stability and Control Toolbox: Trim and Static Stability Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the technical background of the Trim and Static module of the Matlab Stability and Control Toolbox. This module performs a low-fidelity stability and control assessment of an aircraft model for a set of flight critical conditions. This is attained by determining if the control authority available for trim is sufficient and if the static stability characteristics are adequate. These conditions can be selected from a prescribed set or can be specified to meet particular requirements. The prescribed set of conditions includes horizontal flight, take-off rotation, landing flare, steady roll, steady turn and pull-up/ push-over flight, for which several operating conditions can be specified. A mathematical model was developed allowing for six-dimensional trim, adjustable inertial properties, asymmetric vehicle layouts, arbitrary number of engines, multi-axial thrust vectoring, engine(s)-out conditions, crosswind and gyroscopic effects.

  7. Development and Operation of an Automatic Rotor Trim Control System for the UH-60 Individual Blade Control Wind Tunnel Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodore, Colin R.; Tischler, Mark B.

    2010-01-01

    An automatic rotor trim control system was developed and successfully used during a wind tunnel test of a full-scale UH-60 rotor system with Individual Blade Control (IBC) actuators. The trim control system allowed rotor trim to be set more quickly, precisely and repeatably than in previous wind tunnel tests. This control system also allowed the rotor trim state to be maintained during transients and drift in wind tunnel flow, and through changes in IBC actuation. The ability to maintain a consistent rotor trim state was key to quickly and accurately evaluating the effect of IBC on rotor performance, vibration, noise and loads. This paper presents details of the design and implementation of the trim control system including the rotor system hardware, trim control requirements, and trim control hardware and software implementation. Results are presented showing the effect of IBC on rotor trim and dynamic response, a validation of the rotor dynamic simulation used to calculate the initial control gains and tuning of the control system, and the overall performance of the trim control system during the wind tunnel test.

  8. MATLAB Stability and Control Toolbox Trim and Static Stability Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Sean P.; Crespo, Luis

    2012-01-01

    MATLAB Stability and Control Toolbox (MASCOT) utilizes geometric, aerodynamic, and inertial inputs to calculate air vehicle stability in a variety of critical flight conditions. The code is based on fundamental, non-linear equations of motion and is able to translate results into a qualitative, graphical scale useful to the non-expert. MASCOT was created to provide the conceptual aircraft designer accurate predictions of air vehicle stability and control characteristics. The code takes as input mass property data in the form of an inertia tensor, aerodynamic loading data, and propulsion (i.e. thrust) loading data. Using fundamental nonlinear equations of motion, MASCOT then calculates vehicle trim and static stability data for the desired flight condition(s). Available flight conditions include six horizontal and six landing rotation conditions with varying options for engine out, crosswind, and sideslip, plus three take-off rotation conditions. Results are displayed through a unique graphical interface developed to provide the non-stability and control expert conceptual design engineer a qualitative scale indicating whether the vehicle has acceptable, marginal, or unacceptable static stability characteristics. If desired, the user can also examine the detailed, quantitative results.

  9. Flight Investigation of the Effectiveness of an Automatic Aileron Trim Control Device for Personal Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, William H; Kuehnel, Helmut A; Whitten, James B

    1957-01-01

    A flight investigation to determine the effectiveness of an automatic aileron trim control device installed in a personal airplane to augment the apparent spiral stability has been conducted. The device utilizes a rate-gyro sensing element in order to switch an on-off type of control that operates the ailerons at a fixed rate through control centering springs. An analytical study using phase-plane and analog-computer methods has been carried out to determine a desirable method of operation for the automatic trim control.

  10. JWBS121-c02 JWBS121-Razeghifard Printer: Yet to Come July 30, 2013 8:16 Trim: 6.125in 9.25in Oxygenic Photosynthesis

    E-print Network

    Govindjee

    JWBS121-c02 JWBS121-Razeghifard Printer: Yet to Come July 30, 2013 8:16 Trim: 6.125in × 9.25in] and Blankenship [2], and for reviews on all aspects of Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration Including121-c02 JWBS121-Razeghifard Printer: Yet to Come July 30, 2013 8:16 Trim: 6.125in × 9.25in 14 OXYGENIC

  11. Development and Operation of an Automatic Rotor Trim Control System for use During the UH-60 Individual Blade Control Wind Tunnel Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodore, Colin R.

    2010-01-01

    A full-scale wind tunnel test to evaluate the effects of Individual Blade Control (IBC) on the performance, vibration, noise and loads of a UH-60A rotor was recently completed in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel [1]. A key component of this wind tunnel test was an automatic rotor trim control system that allowed the rotor trim state to be set more precisely, quickly and repeatably than was possible with the rotor operator setting the trim condition manually. The trim control system was also able to maintain the desired trim condition through changes in IBC actuation both in open- and closed-loop IBC modes, and through long-period transients in wind tunnel flow. This ability of the trim control system to automatically set and maintain a steady rotor trim enabled the effects of different IBC inputs to be compared at common trim conditions and to perform these tests quickly without requiring the rotor operator to re-trim the rotor. The trim control system described in this paper was developed specifically for use during the IBC wind tunnel test

  12. Application of a Broadband Active Vibration Control System to a Helicopter Trim Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, Randolph H.; Schiller, Noah H.; Simon, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses testing of a broadband active vibration control concept on an interior trim panel in a helicopter cabin mockup located at ONERA's Centre de Toulouse. The control system consisted of twelve diamond-shaped piezoelectric actuators distributed around a 1.2m x 1.2m trim panel. Accelerometers were mounted at the four vertices of each diamond. The aspect ratio of the diamond was based on the dielectric constants of the piezoelectric material in order to create an actuator-sensor pair that was collocated over a broad frequency range. This allowed robust control to be implemented using simple, low power analog electronics. Initial testing on a thick acrylic window demonstrated the capability of the controller, but actuator performance was less satisfactory when mounted on a composite sandwich trim panel. This may have been due to the orthotropic nature of the trim panel, or due to its much higher stiffness relative to the acrylic window. Insights gained from a finite element study of the actuator-sensor-structural system are discussed.

  13. Application of Oxygen Trim Control to Small Packaged Boilers 

    E-print Network

    Nelson, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    Small packaged boilers are used to generate steam or hot water for industrial, commercial and institutional power plants. Due to their small size and relatively small fuel capacity, they have not received the energy saving attention that larger...

  14. 14 CFR 25.677 - Trim systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 25.677 Trim systems. (a) Trim controls must be designed to prevent inadvertent or abrupt operation and to operate in the...

  15. 14 CFR 25.677 - Trim systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 25.677 Trim systems. (a) Trim controls must be designed to prevent inadvertent or abrupt operation and to operate in the...

  16. 14 CFR 25.677 - Trim systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 25.677 Trim systems. (a) Trim controls must be designed to prevent inadvertent or abrupt operation and to operate in the...

  17. 14 CFR 25.677 - Trim systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 25.677 Trim systems. (a) Trim controls must be designed to prevent inadvertent or abrupt operation and to operate in the...

  18. 14 CFR 25.677 - Trim systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 25.677 Trim systems. (a) Trim controls must be designed to prevent inadvertent or abrupt operation and to operate in the...

  19. Cassini Orbit Trim Maneuvers at Saturn - Overview of Attitude Control Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burk, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft has been in orbit around Saturn since July 1, 2004. To remain on the planned trajectory which maximizes science data return, Cassini must perform orbit trim maneuvers using either its main engine or its reaction control system thrusters. Over 200 maneuvers have been executed on the spacecraft since arrival at Saturn. To improve performance and maintain spacecraft health, changes have been made in maneuver design command placement, in accelerometer scale factor, and in the pre-aim vector used to align the engine gimbal actuator prior to main engine burn ignition. These and other changes have improved maneuver performance execution errors significantly since 2004. A strategy has been developed to decide whether a main engine maneuver should be performed, or whether the maneuver can be executed using the reaction control system.

  20. Reducing Pointing Errors During Cassini Reaction Control System Orbit Trim Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizvi, Farheen

    2013-01-01

    The effect of altering a gain parameter in the Cassini reaction control system (RCS) delta-V controller on the maneuver execution errors during orbit trim maneuvers (OTMs) is explored. Cassini consists of two reaction control thruster branches (A & B) each with eight thrusters. Currently, the B-branch is operational while the A-branch serves as a back-up. The four Z-thrusters control the X and Y-axes, while the four Y-thrusters control the Z-axis. During an OTM, the Z-thrusters fire to maintain the X and Y-axes pointing within an attitude control dead-zone (-10 to 10 milliradians). The errors do not remain at zero due to pointing error sources such as spacecraft center of mass offset from the geometric center of the Z-facing thrusters, and variability in the thruster forces due to the thruster hardware differences. The delta-V reaction control system (RCS) controller ensures that the attitude error remains within this dead-zone. Gain parameters within the RCS delta-V controller affect the maneuver execution errors. Different parameter values are used to explore effect on these errors. It is found that pointing error decreases and magnitude error increases rapidly for gain parameters 10 times greater than the current parameter values used in the flight software.

  1. Maximising municipal solid waste--legume trimming residue mixture degradation in composting by control parameters optimization.

    PubMed

    Cabeza, I O; López, R; Ruiz-Montoya, M; Díaz, M J

    2013-10-15

    Composting is one of the most successful biological processes for the treatment of the residues enriched in putrescible materials. The optimization of parameters which have an influence on the stability of the products is necessary in order to maximize recycling and recovery of waste components. The influence of the composting process parameters (aeration, moisture, C/N ratio, and time) on the stability parameters (organic matter, N-losses, chemical oxygen demand, nitrate, biodegradability coefficient) of the compost was studied. The composting experiment was carried out using Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and Legume Trimming Residues (LTR) in 200 L isolated acrylic barrels following a Box-Behnken central composite experimental design. Second-order polynomial models were found for each of the studied compost stability parameter, which accurately described the relationship between the parameters. The differences among the experimental values and those estimated by using the equations never exceeded 10% of the former. Results of the modelling showed that excluding the time, the C/N ratio is the strongest variable influencing almost all the stability parameters studied in this case, with the exception of N-losses which is strongly dependent on moisture. Moreover, an optimized ratio MSW/LTR of 1/1 (w/w), moisture content in the range of 40-55% and moderate to low aeration rate (0.05-0.175 Lair kg(-)(1) min(-1)) is recommended to maximise degradation and to obtain a stable product during co-composting of MSW and LTR. PMID:23764508

  2. Predictions of Control Inputs, Periodic Responses and Damping Levels of an Isolated Experimental Rotor in Trimmed Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaonkar, G. H.; Subramanian, S.

    1996-01-01

    Since the early 1990s the Aeroflightdynamics Directorate at the Ames Research Center has been conducting tests on isolated hingeless rotors in hover and forward flight. The primary objective is to generate a database on aeroelastic stability in trimmed flight for torsionally soft rotors at realistic tip speeds. The rotor test model has four soft inplane blades of NACA 0012 airfoil section with low torsional stiffness. The collective pitch and shaft tilt are set prior to each test run, and then the rotor is trimmed in the following sense: the longitudinal and lateral cyclic pitch controls are adjusted through a swashplate to minimize the 1/rev flapping moment at the 12 percent radial station. In hover, the database comprises lag regressive-mode damping with pitch variations. In forward flight the database comprises cyclic pitch controls, root flap moment and lag regressive-mode damping with advance ratio, shaft angle and pitch variations. This report presents the predictions and their correlation with the database. A modal analysis is used, in which nonrotating modes in flap bending, lag bending and torsion are computed from the measured blade mass and stiffness distributions. The airfoil aerodynamics is represented by the ONERA dynamic stall models of lift, drag and pitching moment, and the wake dynamics is represented by a state-space wake model. The trim analysis of finding, the cyclic controls and the corresponding, periodic responses is based on periodic shooting with damped Newton iteration; the Floquet transition matrix (FTM) comes out as a byproduct. The stabillty analysis of finding the frequencies and damping levels is based on the eigenvalue-eigenvector analysis of the FTM. All the structural and aerodynamic states are included from modeling to trim analysis. A major finding is that dynamic wake dramatically improves the correlation for the lateral cyclic pitch control. Overall, the correlation is fairly good.

  3. Nucleotide biosynthetic enzyme GMP synthase is a TRIM21-controlled relay of p53 stabilization.

    PubMed

    Reddy, B Ashok; van der Knaap, Jan A; Bot, Alice G M; Mohd-Sarip, Adone; Dekkers, Dick H W; Timmermans, Mieke A; Martens, John W M; Demmers, Jeroen A A; Verrijzer, C Peter

    2014-02-01

    Nucleotide biosynthesis is fundamental to normal cell proliferation as well as to oncogenesis. Tumor suppressor p53, which prevents aberrant cell proliferation, is destabilized through ubiquitylation by MDM2. Ubiquitin-specific protease 7 (USP7) plays a dualistic role in p53 regulation and has been proposed to deubiquitylate either p53 or MDM2. Here, we show that guanosine 5'-monophosphate synthase (GMPS) is required for USP7-mediated stabilization of p53. Normally, most GMPS is sequestered in the cytoplasm, separated from nuclear USP7 and p53. In response to genotoxic stress or nucleotide deprivation, GMPS becomes nuclear and facilitates p53 stabilization by promoting its transfer from MDM2 to a GMPS-USP7 deubiquitylation complex. Intriguingly, cytoplasmic sequestration of GMPS requires ubiquitylation by TRIM21, a ubiquitin ligase associated with autoimmune disease. These results implicate a classic nucleotide biosynthetic enzyme and a ubiquitin ligase, better known for its role in autoimmune disease, in p53 control. PMID:24462112

  4. Jefferson Lab's Trim Card II

    SciTech Connect

    Trent Allison; Sarin Philip; C. Higgins; Edward Martin; William Merz

    2005-05-01

    Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) uses Trim Card I power supplies to drive approximately 1900 correction magnets. These trim cards have had a long and illustrious service record. However, some of the employed technology is now obsolete, making it difficult to maintain the system and retain adequate spares. The Trim Card II is being developed to act as a transparent replacement for its aging predecessor. A modular approach has been taken in its development to facilitate the substitution of sections for future improvements and maintenance. The resulting design has been divided into a motherboard and 7 daughter cards which has also allowed for parallel development. The Trim Card II utilizes modern technologies such as a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and a microprocessor to embed trim card controls and diagnostics. These reprogrammable devices also provide the versatility to incorporate future requirements.

  5. Oxygen pressure control for electrolysis cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    Duty cycle of switched, constant current circuit controlled by pressure sensor provides oxygen at a constant pressure from a cell which electrolyzes water, eliminating possibility of cell damage by excessive oxygen demand.

  6. 14 CFR 25.407 - Trim tab effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.407 Trim tab effects... required to trim the airplane in the critical unsymmetrical power and loading conditions, with...

  7. 14 CFR 25.407 - Trim tab effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.407 Trim tab effects... required to trim the airplane in the critical unsymmetrical power and loading conditions, with...

  8. Microprocessor Based Combustion Monitoring and Control Systems Utilizing in Situ Opacity, Oxygen and CO Measurement 

    E-print Network

    Molloy, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    A new hybrid combustion control system has been developed which combines the functions which have traditionally been performed by separate stand-alone measurement and control instruments into one low-cost integrated system. Complete O2 Trim Control...

  9. High pressure spray with water shows similar efficiency to trimming in controlling microorganisms on poultry carcasses.

    PubMed

    Giombelli, Audecir; Hammerschmitt, Dandara; Cerutti, Marisete F; Chiarini, Eb; Landgraf, Mariza; Franco, Bernardete D G M; Destro, Maria T

    2015-10-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate a high pressure spray (HPS) with water as an alternative to trimming to remove gastrointestinal contamination on poultry carcasses and improve microbiological quality. The study was conducted under commercial conditions in 5 slaughter plants with one plant presenting approximately 5% of carcasses with visible gastrointestinal contamination (VGC), and the others showing approximately 12% of VGC. In all 5 plants, carcasses were sampled from the slaughter line and separated into 6 groups corresponding to 3 different treatments: A) carcasses with VGC before and after trimming; B) carcasses with VGC before and after HPS; and C) carcasses with no VGC before and after HPS. At the end of Trial A and prior to Trials B and C, an HPS equipment was installed before the end of the slaughter line. The HPS equipment was operated with 10 kgf/cm² of pressure and 1.5 L of potable water per carcass. Carcasses were analyzed using a rinsing procedure, and the following microbiological parameters were evaluated: the prevalence of Salmonella and Campylobacter, the abundance of Escherichia coli (EC), Enterobacteriaceae (EB), and the Total Viable Count (TVC). Salmonella was found in all plants at a prevalence ranging from 0.8% (plant 1) to 17.3% (plant 5), and the difference between plants was significant (P < 0.05%). The prevalence of Campylobacter ranged from 2.1 (plant 1) to 18.6% (plant 4) (P < 0.05%). The prevalence of Campylobacter was similar in plants 2, 3, and 5, and a significant difference (P < 0.05%) was observed compared to plants 1 and 4. In all plants, the EC, EB, and TVC counts did not show a significant difference (P > 0.05%) in any treatments. These results demonstrate that HPS with water is an alternative method for removing VGC and improving or maintaining the microbiological quality and safety of broiler carcasses. PMID:26286999

  10. Development of decontamination procedures for beef trimmings 

    E-print Network

    Ebeling, Christine Suzanne

    2001-01-01

    Beef trimmings of 73/27 or 50/50 lean and fat content were obtained from a commercial plant. The trimmings were randomly assigned to four treatments: control, 4% lactic acid (LA), 4% lactic acid plus hot water (LA+HW), ...

  11. 14 CFR 23.677 - Trim systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trim systems. 23.677 Section 23.677 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 23.677 Trim systems. (a)...

  12. 14 CFR 23.677 - Trim systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Trim systems. 23.677 Section 23.677 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 23.677 Trim systems. (a)...

  13. Evaluation of peroxyacetic acid as a potential pre-grinding treatment for control of enteric pathogens on fresh beef trim 

    E-print Network

    Ellebracht, John Wayne

    2005-11-01

    Peroxyacetic acid was evaluated in four separate trials for ability to reduce populations of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella serotype Typhimurium (ATCC 13311) on fresh beef trim. Trial 1 examined the effectiveness of peroxyacetic acid...

  14. Oxygen atom density and thermal energy control in an electric-oxygen iodine laser

    E-print Network

    Carroll, David L.

    Oxygen atom density and thermal energy control in an electric-oxygen iodine laser Benavides G. F-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801, USA E-mail: benavides@cuaerospace.com ABSTRACT Experiments[1] with Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser (ElectricOIL) heat exchanger technology have demonstrated improved control of oxygen atom density

  15. Oxygen vacancy control of a ferroelectric memristor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santamaria, J.; Liu, Yaohua; Te Velthuis, S. G. E.; Hernandez-Martin, D.; Perez Munoz, A.; Cabero, M.; Sanchez-Santolino, G.; Tornos, J.; Varela, M.; Leon, C.; Sefrioui, Z.; Pennycook, S. J.

    2015-03-01

    The rich phenomenology exhibited by correlated oxide interfaces can be expanded by the control and manipulation of point defects. In particular oxygen vacancies can be induced by electro forming processes at redox active electrodes and, when ionized, can be manipulated by electric fields. We aim at using the strong electric fields building up in ultrathin tunnel barriers to generate and manipulate oxygen vacancies in Ag / BaTiO3/ La0.7Sr0.3MnO3(LSMO) micron-size structures defined by optical and electronic lithography techniques. Controlling accumulation of oxygen vacancies in the BTO barrier at either Ag or LSMO interfaces allows modification of the magnetic state of the LSMO at the interface, enabling independent variation of the width or the height of the tunnel barrier. This yields a controlled sign change of the electroresistance upon polarization switching. We show that clockwise and counter-clockwise memristors can be tailored on the same sample yielding multiple resistance states. The memristive response resulting from the controlled switching of polarization and-or oxygen vacancies may open new routes towards new computing architectures.

  16. Thermal trim for luminaire

    DOEpatents

    Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Jeswani, Anil

    2013-11-19

    A luminaire with a thermal pathway to reduce the junction temperature of the luminaire's light source, and methods for so doing, are disclosed. The luminaire includes a can, a light engine, and a trim, that define a substantially continuous thermal pathway from the light engine to a surrounding environment. The can defines a can cavity and includes a can end region. The light engine is within the can cavity and includes a light source and a heat sink, including a heat sink end region, coupled thereto. The trim is at least partially disposed within the can cavity and includes a first trim end region coupled to the heat sink end region and a second trim end region coupled to the can end region. Thermal interface material may be located between: the heat sink and the trim, the trim and the can, and/or the heat sink and the light source.

  17. Association of connexin43 with E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM21 reveals a mechanism for gap junction phosphodegron control.

    PubMed

    Chen, Vincent C; Kristensen, Anders R; Foster, Leonard J; Naus, Christian C

    2012-12-01

    Gap junctions (GJs) are sites of direct cell-to-cell communication formed by the connexin (Cx) family of ion channel proteins. The aberrant intercellular communication mediated by GJs is associated with a variety of hereditary and acquired human diseases. GJs utilize a highly interconnected network that is indispensible for synthesis, trafficking and degradation of their constituent proteins. By unbiased proteomic examination and network enrichment, we identified interacting components of the ubiquitin proteasome system associated with Cx43. LC-MS/MS identification and quantification of tryptic peptides from IP materials revealed a variety of interacting candidates, including the E3 ligase TRIM21 and ubiquitin. The interaction of Cx43 with TRIM21 was confirmed by confocal microscopy and coimmunoprecipitation of these proteins from C6 rat glioma and mouse primary astrocyte cultures. To gain a better understanding of this interaction, complexes isolated by high-resolution size-exclusion chromatography revealed signal integration by phosphorylation, ubiquitylation and proteolytic turnover within complexes of Cx43/TRIM21. Cx43/TRIM21 is also responsive to E1 UBE1 and E2 UbcH5a, with the interruption of this activity being an effective inhibitor of in vitro ubiquitin-conjugation. Mathematical models of these complexes demonstrated a mechanism for the switch-like degradation of GJs that were validated in EGF-stimulated cell cultures. Our finding of the interaction of Cx43 with TRIM21 provides mechanisms for the down-regulation of GJ intercellular communication that are known to impact a variety of physiological processes. PMID:23106098

  18. 114. WEST SIDE OF LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROL ROOM (205). LIQUID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    114. WEST SIDE OF LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROL ROOM (205). LIQUID NITROGEN (LN2) SUBCOOLER ON LEFT; SKID 8, LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROLLER FOR SWITCHING BETWEEN RAPID-LOAD AND TOPPING ON RIGHT. LIQUID OXYGEN LINE FROM SKID 9A AT RIGHT EDGE OF PHOTO. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  19. Circuit-lead trimming template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ofarrell, K.; Winn, E.

    1979-01-01

    Template for use in trimming leads on production wiring boards is low-cost means for eliminating rejections for short leads and improving lead-strength uniformity. Template is simply unclad piece of printed-circuit board material that is drilled using same drill control tape used in making original production board. Revisions in component layout of board can therefore be made simultaneously in template.

  20. NCSX Trim Coil Design

    SciTech Connect

    M. Kalish, A. Brooks, J. Rushinski, R. Upcavage

    2009-05-29

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) was being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory before work was stopped in 2008. The objective of this experiment was to develop the stellarator concept and evaluate it's potential as a model for future fusion power plants. Stellarator design requires very precisely positioned Modular Coils of complex shape to form 3D plasmas. In the design of NCSX, Trim Coils were required to compensate for both the positioning of the coils during assembly and the fabrication tolerances of the Modular Coils. Use of the Trim Coils allowed for larger tolerances increasing ease of assembly and decreasing overall cost. A set of Trim coils was developed to suppress the toroidal flux in island regions due to misalignment, magnetic materials, and eddy currents. The requirement imposed upon the design forced the toroidal flux in island regions below 10% of the total toroidal flux in the plasma. An analysis was first performed to evaluate candidate Trim Coil configurations iterating both the size, number, and position of the coils. The design was optimized considering both performance and cost while staying within the tight restraints presented by the space limited geometry. The final design of the Trim Coils incorporated a 48 Coil top bottom symmetric set. Fabrication costs were minimized by having only two coil types and using a planar conventional design with off the shelf commercial conductor. The Trim Coil design incorporated supports made from simple structural shapes assembled together in a way which allowed for adjustment as well as accommodation for the tolerance build up on the mating surfaces. This paper will summarize the analysis that led to the optimization of the Trim Coils set, the trim coil mechanical design, thermal and stress analysis, and the design of the supporting Trim Coil structure.

  1. Structural basis for PRYSPRY-mediated tripartite motif (TRIM) protein function.

    PubMed

    James, Leo C; Keeble, Anthony H; Khan, Zahra; Rhodes, David A; Trowsdale, John

    2007-04-10

    The human tripartite motif (TRIM) family comprises 70 members, including HIV restriction factor TRIM5alpha and disease-associated proteins TRIM20 (pyrin) and TRIM21. TRIM proteins have conserved domain architecture but diverse cellular roles. Here, we describe how the C-terminal PRYSPRY domain mediates diverse TRIM functions. The crystal structure of TRIM21 PRYSPRY in complex with its target IgG Fc reveals a canonical binding interface comprised of two discrete pockets formed by antibody-like variable loops. Alanine scanning of this interface has identified the hot-spot residues that control TRIM21 binding to Fc; the same hot-spots control HIV/murine leukemia virus restriction by TRIM5alpha and mediate severe familial Mediterranean fever in TRIM20/pyrin. Characterization of the IgG binding site for TRIM21 PRYSPRY reveals TRIM21 as a superantigen analogous to bacterial protein A and suggests that an antibody bipolar bridging mechanism may contribute to the pathogenic accumulation of anti-TRIM21 autoantibody immune complex in autoimmune disease. PMID:17400754

  2. Compact Analyzer/Controller For Oxygen-Enrichment System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puster, Richard L.; Singh, Jag J.; Sprinkle, Danny R.

    1990-01-01

    System controls hypersonic air-breathing engine tests. Compact analyzer/controller developed, built, and tested in small-scale wind tunnel prototype of the 8' HTT (High-Temperature Tunnel). Monitors level of oxygen and controls addition of liquid oxygen to enrich atmosphere for combustion. Ensures meaningful ground tests of hypersonic engines in range of speeds from mach 4 to mach 7.

  3. Oxygen-depleted zones inside reproductive structures of Brassicaceae: implications for oxygen control of seed development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porterfield, D. M.; Kuang, A.; Smith, P. J.; Crispi, M. L.; Musgrave, M. E.

    1999-01-01

    Growth of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. in decreasing oxygen partial pressures revealed a linear decrease in seed production below 15 kPa, with a complete absence of seed production at 2.5 kPa oxygen. This control of plant reproduction by oxygen had previously been attributed to an oxygen effect on the partitioning between vegetative and reproductive growth. However, plants grown in a series of decreasing oxygen concentrations produced progressively smaller embryos that had stopped developing at progressively younger stages, suggesting instead that their growth is limited by oxygen. Internal oxygen concentrations of buds, pistils, and developing siliques of Brassica rapa L. and siliques of Arabidopsis were measured using a small-diameter glass electrode that was moved into the structures using a micromanipulator. Oxygen partial pressures were found to be lowest in the developing perianth (11.1 kPa) and pistils (15.2 kPa) of the unopened buds. Pollination reduced oxygen concentration inside the pistils by 3 kPa after just 24 h. Inside Brassica silique locules, partial pressures of oxygen averaged 12.2 kPa in darkness, and increased linearly with increasing light levels to 16.2 kPa. Measurements inside Arabidopsis siliques averaged 6.1 kPa in the dark and rose to 12.2 kPa with light. Hypoxia in these microenvironments is postulated to be the point of control of plant reproduction by oxygen.

  4. Compensation of the AKT signaling by ERK signaling in transgenic mice hearts overexpressing TRIM72

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, Young-Mi; Mahoney, Sarah Jane

    2013-06-10

    The AKT and ERK signaling pathways are known to be involved in cell hypertrophy, proliferation, survival and differentiation. Although there is evidence for crosstalk between these two signaling pathways in cellulo, there is less evidence for cross talk in vivo. Here, we show that crosstalk between AKT and ERK signaling in the hearts of TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice (TRIM72-Tg) with alpha-MHC promoter regulates and maintains their heart size. TRIM72, a heart- and skeletal muscle-specific protein, downregulates AKT-mTOR signaling via IRS-1 degradation and reduces the size of rat cardiomyocytes and the size of postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts. TRIM72 expression was upregulated by hypertrophic inducers in cardiomyocytes, while IRS-1 was downregulated by IGF-1. TRIM72 specifically regulated IGF-1-dependent AKT-mTOR signaling, resulting in a reduction of the size of cardiomyocytes. Postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts were smaller than control-treated hearts with inhibition of AKT-mTOR signaling. However, adult TRIM72-Tg hearts were larger than of control despite the suppression of AKT-mTOR signaling. Activation of ERK, PKC-?, and JNK were observed to be elevated in adult TRIM72-Tg, and these signals were mediated by ET-1 via the ET receptors A and B. Altogether, these results suggest that AKT signaling regulates cardiac hypertrophy in physiological conditions, and ERK signaling compensates for the absence of AKT signaling during TRIM72 overexpression, leading to pathological hypertrophy. -- Highlights: • TRIM72 inhibits AKT signaling through ubiquitination of IRS-1 in cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates the size of cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates size of postnatal TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts. • Adult TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts showed cardiac dysfunction. • Adult TRIM72 transgenic mice hearts showed higher expression of endothelin receptors.

  5. Identification of anisoelasticity for electrostatic " trimming " of rate integrating gyroscopes

    E-print Network

    Chen, Zhongping

    Identification of anisoelasticity for electrostatic " trimming " of rate integrating gyroscopes of anisoelasticities in rate integrating gyroscopes as part of a self- calibrative control architecture. In contrast imperfections is discussed. Keywords: Anisoelasticity, Rate Integrating Gyroscopes, Feedforward Control, Smart

  6. Trim58 degrades dynein and regulates terminal erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Thom, Christopher S; Traxler, Elizabeth A; Khandros, Eugene; Nickas, Jenna M; Zhou, Olivia Y; Lazarus, Jacob E; Silva, Ana PG; Prabhu, Dolly; Yao, Yu; Aribeana, Chiaka; Fuchs, Serge Y; Mackay, Joel P; Holzbaur, Erika LF; Weiss, Mitchell J

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY TRIM58 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase superfamily member implicated by genome wide association studies (GWAS) to regulate human erythrocyte traits. Here we show that Trim58 expression is induced during late erythropoiesis and that its depletion by shRNAs inhibits the maturation of late stage nucleated erythroblasts to anucleate reticulocytes. Imaging flow cytometry studies demonstrate that Trim58 regulates polarization and/or extrusion of erythroblast nuclei. In vitro, Trim58 directly binds and ubiquitinates the intermediate chain of the microtubule motor dynein. In cells, Trim58 stimulates proteasome-dependent degradation of the dynein holoprotein complex. During erythropoiesis, Trim58 expression, dynein loss and enucleation occur concomitantly and all are inhibited by Trim58 shRNAs. Dynein regulates nuclear positioning and microtubule organization, both of which undergo dramatic changes during erythroblast enucleation. Thus, we propose that Trim58 regulates this process by eliminating dynein. Our findings identify an erythroid-specific regulator of enucleation and elucidate a previously unrecognized mechanism for controlling dynein activity. PMID:25241935

  7. Intracellular antibody receptor TRIM21 prevents fatal viral infection.

    PubMed

    Vaysburd, Marina; Watkinson, Ruth E; Cooper, Helen; Reed, Martin; O'Connell, Kevin; Smith, Jackie; Cruickshanks, James; James, Leo C

    2013-07-23

    Host species have evolved mechanisms that can inhibit pathogen replication even after a cell has been successfully invaded. Here we show that tripartite-motif protein 21 (TRIM21), a ubiquitously expressed E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets viruses inside the cytosol, protects mice against fatal viral infection. Upon infection with mouse adenovirus-1, naive mice lacking TRIM21 succumb to encephalomyelitis within 7 d. In contrast, wild-type mice rapidly up-regulate TRIM21 and control viremia. Trim21 heterozygous mice have a haploinsufficiency phenotype in which reduced TRIM21 expression leads to a viral load that is higher than wild types but lower than knockouts. TRIM21 is a high-affinity antibody receptor that allows antibodies to operate inside an infected cell. In passive transfer experiments at high viral dose, antisera that fully protects wild-type mice fails to protect most Trim21 knockout animals. These results demonstrate that TRIM21 provides potent antiviral protection and forms an important part of the humoral immune response. PMID:23840060

  8. Methods to study the tumor microenvironment under controlled oxygen conditions

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Matthew B.; Leslie, Matthew T.; Gaskins, H. Rex; Kenis, Paul J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is a complex heterogeneous assembly composed of a variety of cell types and physical features. One such feature, hypoxia, is associated with metabolic reprogramming, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and therapeutic resistance. Many questions remain regarding the effects of hypoxia on these outcomes, yet only few experimental methods enable both precise control over oxygen concentration and real-time imaging of cell behavior. Recent efforts with microfluidic platforms offer a promising solution to these limitations. We discuss conventional methods and tools used to control oxygen concentration for cell studies then highlight recent advances in microfluidic-based approaches for controlling oxygen in engineered platforms. PMID:25282035

  9. Trim or Replace Impellers on Oversized Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-09-01

    One in a series of tip sheets to help manufacturers optimize their industrial pumping systems. As a result of conservative engineering practices, pumps are often substantially larger than they need to be for an industrial plant's process requirements. Centrifugal pumps can often be oversized because of ''rounding up'', trying to accommodate gradual increases in pipe surface roughness and flow resistance over time, or anticipating future plant capacity expansions. In addition, the plant's pumping requirements might not have been clearly defined during the design phase. Because of this conservative approach, pumps can have operating points completely different from their design points. The pump head is often less than expected, while the flow rate is greater. This can cause cavitation and waste energy as the flow rate typically must be regulated with bypass or throttle control. Oversized and throttled pumps that produce excess pressure are excellent candidates for impeller replacement or ''trimming'', to save energy and reduce costs. Trimming involves machining the impeller to reduce its diameter. Trimming should be limited to about 75% of a pump's maximum impeller diameter, because excessive trimming can result in a mismatched impeller and casing. As the impeller diameter decreases, added clearance between the impeller and the fixed pump casing increases internal flow recirculation, causes head loss, and lowers pumping efficiency. For manufacturing standardization purposes, pump casings and shafts are designed to accommodate impellers in a range of sizes. Many pump manufacturers provide pump performance curves that indicate how various models will perform with different impeller diameters or trims. The impeller should not be trimmed any smaller than the minimum diameter shown on the curve. Net positive suction head requirements (NPSHR) usually decrease at lower flow rates and can increase at the higher end of the pump head curve. The NPSHR at a given flow rate will normally be greater with a smaller impeller, but engineers should consult with the pump manufacturer to determine variations in NPSHR before trimming the impeller. Manufacturers can often provide trim correction charts based on historical test data.

  10. Thermal trim for a luminaire

    DOEpatents

    Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Jeswani, Anil

    2013-02-19

    A luminaire with a thermal pathway to reduce the junction temperature of the luminaire's light source, and methods for so doing, are disclosed. The luminaire includes a can, a light engine, and a trim, that define a substantially continuous thermal pathway from the light engine to a surrounding environment. The can defines a can cavity and includes a can end region. The light engine is within the can cavity and includes a light source and a heat sink, including a heat sink end region, coupled thereto. The trim is at least partially disposed within the can cavity and includes a first trim end region coupled to the heat sink end region and a second trim end region coupled to the can end region. Thermal interface material may be located between: the heat sink and the trim, the trim and the can, and/or the heat sink and the light source.

  11. 142. STANDBY PRESSURE CONTROL UNIT FOR FUEL AND LIQUID OXYGEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    142. STANDBY PRESSURE CONTROL UNIT FOR FUEL AND LIQUID OXYGEN IN SOUTHWEST PORTION OF CONTROL ROOM (214), LSB (BLDG. 751), FACING WEST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  12. Atmospheric oxygen concentration controls the size history of foraminifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, J.; Jost, A. B.; Ouyang, X.; Skotheim, J. M.; Wang, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    Body size correlates with numerous physiological traits and thus influences organism fitness. However, long-term controls on size evolution remain poorly understood because few datasets spans sufficiently long intervals. One proposed controlling factor is variation in atmospheric oxygen, which is widely argued to have influenced size evolution in numerous taxa, notably gigantism in arthropods during the late Paleozoic. In this study, we compiled a comprehensive genus- and species-level size database of foraminifers (marine protists) to enable an extensive analysis of factors influencing size evolution. Foraminifers are an ideal study group because they are present in all Phanerozoic periods and have been diverse and abundant in shallow-marine habitats since Devonian time. We observe significant correlation between foraminiferan size and atmospheric oxygen concentration in foraminifers as a whole and in half of the major subclades. Larger size is associated with higher oxygen concentrations, as predicted by simple physiological models based on changes in the ratio of surface area to volume. Because the oxygen content ocean waters is controlled in part by atmospheric pO2, we interpret the association between foraminiferan size and pO2 to result from a direct physiological effect of oxygen availability. Atmospheric oxygen concentration predicts foraminiferan size better than six other Phanerozoic time series (pCO2, sea level, number of named geological formations, ?18O, ?13C, 87Sr/86Sr), further suggesting the correlation between oxygen and size does not occur simply through some common geological cause that influences many aspects of Earth system history. These findings support the hypothesis that widespread Permo-Carboniferous gigantism was enabled by high pO2 and suggest that oxygen availability has been among the most important influences on size evolution through Phanerozoic time.

  13. Oxygen control in lead-bismuth eutectic: First validation of electrochemical oxygen sensors in static conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courouau, J.-L.; Deloffre, P.; Adriano, R.

    2002-09-01

    The control of the impurities, and of oxygen in particular, is of major interest for ensuring adequate and safe operation of lead alloys facilities from the viewpoint of the corrosion phenomenon : spallation targets or coolants for hybrid or fast reactors, currently under studies within the transmutation topic of the 1991 law on nuclear waste disposal. In addition, because of the very low oxygen solubility in lead alloys, it is compulsory to avoid saturation in any part of a defined system and in any operating condition so as to avoid any plugging by lead oxide built-up (fuel assembly feet, ...). For the oxygen control, the on-line monitoring of the dissolved oxygen content is required. Electrochemical sensors built with yttria stabilized zirconia were developed and tested in various static facilities : BIP, JACOMEX glove box, COLIMESTA. The experimental results were compared to the theoretical formulation, and a calibration method was applied (search for the singular point defining the saturation temperature). The operating range is as follows: 280°C-550°C, 10^{-10} - 10 ppm (1 ppm = l0^{-4} weight%), for a 40% estimated accuracy. Service life is more than 1000 hours up to now. Reproducibility, time drift, time to response, and mechanical resistance are satisfactory. Based upon these results a first validation of these oxygen sensors is obtained in static conditions.

  14. Control of oxygenation in lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Claus; Pratt, Derek A.; Porter, Ned A.; Brash, Alan R.

    2009-01-01

    Lipoxygenases (LOX) and cyclooxygenases (COX) react an achiral polyunsaturated fatty acid with oxygen to form a chiral peroxide product of high regio- and stereochemical purity. Both enzymes employ free radical chemistry reminiscent of hydrocarbon autoxidation but execute efficient control during catalysis to form a specific product over the multitude of isomers found in the non-enzymatic reaction. Exactly how both dioxygenases achieve this positional and stereo control is far from clear. We present four mechanistic models, not mutually exclusive, that could account for the specific reactions of molecular oxygen with a fatty acid in the LOX or COX active site. PMID:17524979

  15. Clinical significance and biological roles of TRIM24 in human bladder carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xue, Dongwei; Zhang, Xiuwei; Zhang, Xilin; Liu, Jia; Li, Ning; Liu, Chunlai; Liu, Yili; Wang, Ping

    2015-08-01

    Tripartite motif-containing 24 (TRIM24), also known as transcription intermediary factor 1-alpha (TIF1?), is a chromatin-associated protein which as been has been implicated in carcinogenesis. However, its expression profile and biological roles in human bladder carcinoma has not been investigated. In this study, we examined its expression in 95 bladder cancer specimens. We found that TRIM24 expression was upregulated in 39 of 95 (41.1 %) specimens compared with normal control. TRIM24 overexpression was associated with local invasion and advanced grade of bladder cancer. In addition, we transfected TRIM24 plasmid into BIU-87 cell line and TRIM24 siRNA into 5637 cell line. Colony formation, CCK-8, and transwell assay were used to assess its biological roles in bladder cancer cells. The result showed that TRIM24 could facilitate cancer cell growth and invading ability. Western blot analysis demonstrated that TRIM24 upregulated cyclin D1, cyclin E, p-I?B?, and p-AKT expression, suggesting TRIM24 activates NF-?B and AKT pathways. In addition, NF-?B inhibitor reversed the effect of TRIM24 on cyclin D1. In conclusion, TRIM24 is overexpressed in human bladder cancer and facilitates bladder cancer growth and invasion, possibly through NF-?B and AKT signaling pathways. PMID:25846736

  16. Oxygen controlled bipolar switching in NiO memristor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhong; Zhao, Yonggang; Zhao, Diyang; Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China Team

    2015-03-01

    As Leon Chua demonstrated, both unipolar and bipolar resistance switching devices are memristors. Over the past decade, metal/oxide/metal structure with NiO as a ReRAM functional layer has been investigated widely and in depth, due to its intrinsic unipolar resistance switching, which is attributed to the connection and rupture of nickel filament in NiO. Recently, several papers studying NiO nanowires or NiO films with C-AFM infer that bipolar switching mechanism may govern the NiO memristors on the nanoscale. However, a systematic research on the mechanism of bipolar switching in NiO memristor on the nanoscale is still lacking. Especially, the role of oxygen in a NiO memristor has never been explored. Here we carry out a comprehensive study of the mechanism of bipolar switching in NiO memristor, and uncover the dominant role of oxygen. NiO/Pt structures were measured by C-AFM equipped with 20 nm conductive tips. By controlling the inherent oxygen concentration of NiO film, film thickness, and chamber oxygen pressure, we demonstrate that it is the inner oxygen distribution, related to electric field-induced ion drift and oxygen exchange between NiO film and ambient, that acts as the state variable, whose response to applied bias results in the bipolar switching in NiO memristor.

  17. Molecular Controls of the Oxygenation and Redox Reactions of Hemoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Henkens, Robert; Alayash, Abdu I.; Banerjee, Sambuddha; Crumbliss, Alvin L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The broad classes of O2-binding proteins known as hemoglobins (Hbs) carry out oxygenation and redox functions that allow organisms with significantly different physiological demands to exist in a wide range of environments. This is aided by allosteric controls that modulate the protein's redox reactions as well as its O2-binding functions. Recent Advances: The controls of Hb's redox reactions can differ appreciably from the molecular controls for Hb oxygenation and come into play in elegant mechanisms for dealing with nitrosative stress, in the malarial resistance conferred by sickle cell Hb, and in the as-yet unsuccessful designs for safe and effective blood substitutes. Critical Issues: An important basic principle in consideration of Hb's redox reactions is the distinction between kinetic and thermodynamic reaction control. Clarification of these modes of control is critical to gaining an increased understanding of Hb-mediated oxidative processes and oxidative toxicity in vivo. Future Directions: This review addresses emerging concepts and some unresolved questions regarding the interplay between the oxygenation and oxidation reactions of structurally diverse Hbs, both within red blood cells and under acellular conditions. Developing methods that control Hb-mediated oxidative toxicity will be critical to the future development of Hb-based blood substitutes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 2298–2313. PMID:23198874

  18. Control of seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana by atmospheric oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, A.; Crispi, M.; Musgrave, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    Seed development is known to be inhibited completely when plants are grown in oxygen concentrations below 5.1 kPa, but apart from reports of decreased seed weight little is known about embryogenesis at subambient oxygen concentrations above this critical level. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants were grown full term under continuous light in premixed atmospheres with oxygen partial pressures of 2.5, 5.1, 10.1, 16.2 and 21.3 kPa O2, 0.035 kPa CO2 and the balance nitrogen. Seeds were harvested for germination tests and microscopy when siliques had yellowed. Seed germination was depressed in O2 treatments below 16.2 kPa, and seeds from plants grown in 2.5 kPa O2 did not germinate at all. Fewer than 25% of the seeds from plants grown in 5.1 kPa oxygen germinated and most of the seedlings appeared abnormal. Light and scanning electron microscopic observation of non-germinated seeds showed that these embryos had stopped growing at different developmental stages depending upon the prevailing oxygen level. Embryos stopped growing at the heart-shaped to linear cotyledon stage in 5.1 kPa O2, at around the curled cotyledon stage in 10.1 kPa O2, and at the premature stage in 16.2 kPa O2. Globular and heart-shaped embryos were observed in sectioned seeds from plants grown in 2.5 kPa O2. Tissue degeneration caused by cell autolysis and changes in cell structure were observed in cotyledons and radicles. Transmission electron microscopy of mature seeds showed that storage substances, such as protein bodies, were reduced in subambient oxygen treatments. The results demonstrate control of embryo development by oxygen in Arabidopsis.

  19. Oxygen-controlled Biosurfactant Production in a Bench Scale Bioreactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Kronemberger, Frederico Araujo; Anna, Lidia Maria Melo Santa; Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; de Menezes, Reginaldo Ramos; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

    Rhamnolipids have been pointed out as promising biosurfactants. The most studied microorganisms for the aerobic production of these molecules are the bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. The aim of this work was to produce a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant in a bench-scale bioreactor by one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil environments. To study the microorganism growth and production dependency on oxygen, a nondispersive oxygenation device was developed, and a programmable logic controller (PLC) was used to set the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Using the data stored in a computer and the predetermined characteristics of the oxygenation device, it was possible to evaluate the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and the specific OUR (SOUR) of this microorganism. These rates, obtained for some different DO concentrations, were then compared to the bacterial growth, to the carbon source consumption, and to the rhamnolipid and other virulence factors production. The SOUR presented an initial value of about 60.0 mg02/gdw h. Then, when the exponential growth phase begins, there is a rise in this rate. After that, the SOUR reduces to about 20.0 mg02/gdw h. The carbon source consumption is linear during the whole process.

  20. Surface Control of Epitaxial Manganite Films via Oxygen Pressure.

    PubMed

    Tselev, Alexander; Vasudevan, Rama K; Gianfrancesco, Anthony G; Qiao, Liang; Ganesh, P; Meyer, Tricia L; Lee, Ho Nyung; Biegalski, Michael D; Baddorf, Arthur P; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2015-04-28

    The trend to reduce device dimensions demands increasing attention to atomic-scale details of structure of thin films as well as to pathways to control it. This is of special importance in the systems with multiple competing interactions. We have used in situ scanning tunneling microscopy to image surfaces of La5/8Ca3/8MnO3 films grown by pulsed laser deposition. The atomically resolved imaging was combined with in situ angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We find a strong effect of the background oxygen pressure during deposition on structural and chemical features of the film surface. Deposition at 50 mTorr of O2 leads to mixed-terminated film surfaces, with B-site (MnO2) termination being structurally imperfect at the atomic scale. A relatively small reduction of the oxygen pressure to 20 mTorr results in a dramatic change of the surface structure leading to a nearly perfectly ordered B-site terminated surface with only a small fraction of A-site (La,Ca)O termination. This is accompanied, however, by surface roughening at a mesoscopic length scale. The results suggest that oxygen has a strong link to the adatom mobility during growth. The effect of the oxygen pressure on dopant surface segregation is also pronounced: Ca surface segregation is decreased with oxygen pressure reduction. PMID:25758864

  1. Oxygen Control For Bioreactors And In-vitro Cell Assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nock, V.; Blaikie, R. J.; David, T.

    2009-07-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) is an important parameter in biomedical and cell-culture applications. Several studies have found cell survival and function to be intimately linked to oxygen concentration. Laminar flow, as observed in microfluidic devices, provides an ideal environment to manipulate and control concentration gradients. In this paper we demonstrate the first characterization of integrated fluorescence-based oxygen sensors for DO measurement within a cell-culture bioreactor device. Solid-state PtOEPK/PS sensor patterns were integrated into the PDMS-based bioreactor and calibrated for detection of DO concentration with a superimposed layer of collagen and Ishikawa human endometrial cancer cells. The sensor signal of the layer subjacent to the cells was found to follow a Stern-Volmer model and the intensity ratio was measured to I0/I100 = 3.9 after 3 days in culture. The device provides a novel tool for the control and spatially-resolved measurement of oxygen levels in cellular assays and cell-culture applications.

  2. Trim drag reduction concepts for horizontal takeoff single-stage-to-Orbit vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaughnessy, John D.; Gregory, Irene M.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a study to investigate concepts for minimizing trim drag of horizontal takeoff single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicles are presented. A generic hypersonic airbreathing conical configuration was used as the subject aircraft. The investigation indicates that extreme forward migration of the aerodynamic center as the vehicle accelerates to orbital velocities causes severe aerodynamic instability and trim moments that must be counteracted. Adequate stability can be provided by active control of elevons and rudder, but use of elevons to produce trim moments results in excessive trim drag and fuel consumption. To alleviate this problem, two solution concepts are examined. Active control of the center of gravity (COG) location to track the aerodynamic center decreases trim moment requirements, reduces elevon deflections, and leads to significant fuel savings. Active control of the direction of the thrust vector produces required trim moments, reduces elevon deflections, and also results in significant fuel savings. It is concluded that the combination of active flight control to provide stabilization, (COG) position control to minimize trim moment requirements, and thrust vectoring to generate required trim moments has the potential to significantly reduce fuel consumption during ascent to orbit of horizontal takeoff SSTO vehicles.

  3. Interferon alpha (IFN?)-induced TRIM22 interrupts HCV replication by ubiquitinating NS5A.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen; Zhao, Xinhao; Sun, Dakang; Yang, Leilei; Chong, Chang; Pan, Yu; Chi, Xiumei; Gao, Yanhang; Wang, Moli; Shi, Xiaodong; Sun, Haibo; Lv, Juan; Gao, Yuanda; Zhong, Jin; Niu, Junqi; Sun, Bing

    2016-01-01

    TRIM22, a tripartite-motif (TRIM) protein, is upregulated upon interferon alpha (IFN?) administration to hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. However, the physiological role of TRIM22 upregulation remains unclear. Here, we describe a potential antiviral function of TRIM22's targeting of the HCV NS5A protein. NS5A is important for HCV replication and for resistance to IFN? therapy. During the first 24 h following the initiation of IFN? treatment, upregulation of TRIM22 in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HCV patients correlated with a decrease in viral titer. This phenomenon was confirmed in the hepatocyte-derived cell line Huh-7, which is highly permissive for HCV infection. TRIM22 over-expression inhibited HCV replication, and Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of TRIM22 diminished IFN?-induced anti-HCV function. Furthermore, we determined that TRIM22 ubiquitinates NS5A in a concentration-dependent manner. In summary, our results suggest that TRIM22 upregulation is associated with HCV decline during IFN? treatment and plays an important role in controlling HCV replication in vitro. PMID:25683609

  4. INFRARED BEAK TREATMENT: PART III, COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF INFRARED AND 1/2 HOT-BLADE TRIMMING ON BEAK TOPOGRAPHY AND GROWTH.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of infrared beak trimming (IR) and hot-blade beak trimming (HB) on beak length and production were examined in chickens beak trimmed at 1 day of age. Seventy-two chicks were randomly assigned to HB (1/2 beak), IR at 60 watt (1/3-1/2 reduction in length), or a control (C) group at 1 d old...

  5. Controlling the bond scission sequence of oxygenates for energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stottlemyer, Alan L.

    The so called "Holy Grail" of heterogeneous catalysis is a fundamental understanding of catalyzed chemical transformations which span multidimensional scales of both length and time, enabling rational catalyst design. Such an undertaking is realizable only with an atomic level understanding of bond formation and destruction with respect to intrinsic properties of the metal catalyst. In this study, we investigate the bond scission sequence of small oxygenates (methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol) on bimetallic transition metal catalysts and transition metal carbide catalysts. Oxygenates are of interest both as hydrogen carriers for reforming to H2 and CO and as fuels in direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFC). To address the so-called "materials gap" and "pressure gap" this work adopted three parallel research approaches: (1) ultra high vacuum (UHV) studies including temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) on polycrystalline surfaces; (2) DFT studies including thermodynamic and kinetic calculations; (3) electrochemical studies including cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA). Recent studies have suggested that tungsten monocarbide (WC) may behave similarly to Pt for the electrooxidation of oxygenates. TPD was used to quantify the activity and selectivity of oxygenate decomposition for WC and Pt-modifiedWC (Pt/WC) as compared to Pt. While decomposition activity was generally higher on WC than on Pt, scission of the C-O bond resulted in alkane/alkene formation on WC, an undesired product for DAFC. When Pt was added to WC by physical vapor deposition C-O bond scission was limited, suggesting that Pt synergistically modifies WC to improve the selectivity toward C-H bond scission to produce H2 and CO. Additionally, TPD confirmed WC and Pt/WC to be more CO tolerant than Pt. HREELS results verified that surface intermediates were different on Pt/WC as compared to Pt or WC and evidence of aldehyde intermediates was observed on the Pt and Pt/WC surfaces. For CH3OH decomposition, DFT calculations suggested that the bond scission sequence could be controlled using monolayer coverage of Pt on WC. The Ni/Pt bimetallic system was studied as an example for using oxygenates as a hydrogen source. There are two well characterized surface structures for the Ni/Pt system: the surface configuration, in which the Ni atoms reside primarily on the surface of the Pt bulk, and the subsurface configuration, in which the second atomic layer is enriched in Ni atoms and the surface is enriched in Pt atoms. These configurations are denoted NiPtPt and PtNiPt, respectively. DFT results revealed that trends established for the Ni/Pt(111) system extend to the Ni/Pt(100) analogue. TPD studies revealed that the NiPtPt surface was more active for oxygenate reforming than the Pt or PtNiPt surfaces. HREELS confirmed the presence of strongly bound reaction intermediates, including aldehyde-like species, and suggested that the first decomposition step was likely O-H bond scission. Thus, the binding energies of the deprotonated reaction intermediates are important parameters in controlling the decomposition pathways of oxygenates. These studies have demonstrated that the bond scission sequence of oxygenate decomposition can be controlled using bimetallic and transition metal carbide catalysts. While this study has focused on oxygenate decomposition for energy applications, the principles and methodology applied herein are universally applicable to the development of novel and marketable value-added products. The value in such a methodology is in the combination of both calculations to predict catalytic and chemical properties, and experiments to fine-tune theoretical predictions.

  6. Controlled oxygen doping of GaN using plasma assisted molecular-beam epitaxy

    E-print Network

    Myers, Tom

    Controlled oxygen doping of GaN using plasma assisted molecular-beam epitaxy A. J. Ptak, L. J-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy to study the dependence of oxygen incorporation on polarity and oxygen partial pressure. Oxygen incorporates at a rate ten times faster on nitrogen-polar GaN than on the Ga polarity

  7. Control and monitoring of oxygen fugacity in piston cylinder experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matjuschkin, Vladimir; Brooker, Richard A.; Tattitch, Brian; Blundy, Jon D.; Stamper, Charlotte C.

    2015-01-01

    We present a newly developed capsule design that resolves some common problems associated with the monitoring and control of oxygen fugacity ( fO2) in high-pressure piston cylinder experiments. The new fO2 control assembly consists of an AuPd outer capsule enclosing two inner capsules: one of AuPd capsule containing the experimental charge (including some water), and the other of Pt containing a solid oxygen buffer plus water. The inner capsules are separated by crushable alumina. The outer capsule is surrounded by a Pyrex sleeve to simultaneously minimise hydrogen loss from the cell and carbon infiltration from the graphite furnace. Controlled fO2 experiments using this cell design were carried out at 1.0 GPa and 1,000 °C. We used NiPd, CoPd and (Ni, Mg)O fO2 sensors, whose pressure sensitivity is well calibrated, to monitor the redox states achieved in experiments buffered by Re-ReO2, Ni-NiO and Co-CoO, respectively. Results for the fO2 sensors are in good agreement with the intended fO2 established by the buffer, demonstrating excellent control for durations of 24-48 h, with uncertainties less than ± 0.3 log bar units of fO2.

  8. Amplification of TRIM44: Pairing a Prognostic Target With Potential Therapeutic Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Chin-Ann Johnny; Shannon, Nicholas B.; Ross-Innes, Caryn S.; O’Donovan, Maria; Rueda, Oscar M.; Hu, De-en; Kettunen, Mikko I.; Walker, Christina Elaine; Noorani, Ayesha; Hardwick, Richard H.; Caldas, Carlos; Brindle, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Background Many prognostic biomarkers have been proposed recently. However, there is a lack of therapeutic strategies exploiting novel prognostic biomarkers. We aimed to propose therapeutic options in patients with overexpression of TRIM44, a recently identified prognostic gene. Methods Genomic and transcriptomic data of epithelial cancers (n = 1932), breast cancers (BCs; n = 1980) and esophago-gastric cancers (EGCs; n = 163) were used to identify genomic aberrations driving TRIM44 overexpression. The driver gene status of TRIM44 was determined using a small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen of the 11p13 amplicon. Integrative analysis was applied across multiple datasets to identify pathway activation and potential therapeutic strategies. Validation of the in silico findings were performed using in vitro assays, xenografts, and patient samples (n = 160). Results TRIM44 overexpression results from genomic amplification in 16.1% of epithelial cancers, including 8.1% of EGCs and 6.1% of BCs. This was confirmed using fluorescent in situ hybridization. The siRNA screen confirmed TRIM44 to be a driver of the amplicon. In silico analysis revealed an association between TRIM44 and mTOR signalling, supported by a decrease in mTOR signalling after siRNA knockdown of TRIM44 in cell lines and colocalization of TRIM44 and p-mTOR in patient samples. In vitro inhibition studies using an mTOR inhibitor (everolimus) decreased cell viability in two TRIM44-amplified cells lines by 88% and 70% compared with 35% in the control cell line. These findings were recapitulated in xenograft models. Conclusions Genomic amplification drives TRIM44 overexpression in EGCs and BCs. Targeting the mTOR pathway provides a potential therapeutic option for TRIM44-amplified tumors. PMID:24777112

  9. Modeling, simulation, and control of an extraterrestrial oxygen production plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schooley, L.; Cellier, F.; Zeigler, B.; Doser, A.; Farrenkopf, G.

    1991-01-01

    The immediate objective is the development of a new methodology for simulation of process plants used to produce oxygen and/or other useful materials from local planetary resources. Computer communication, artificial intelligence, smart sensors, and distributed control algorithms are being developed and implemented so that the simulation or an actual plant can be controlled from a remote location. The ultimate result of this research will provide the capability for teleoperation of such process plants which may be located on Mars, Luna, an asteroid, or other objects in space. A very useful near-term result will be the creation of an interactive design tool, which can be used to create and optimize the process/plant design and the control strategy. This will also provide a vivid, graphic demonstration mechanism to convey the results of other researchers to the sponsor.

  10. 7 CFR 51.571 - Well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1 2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.571 Well trimmed. Well trimmed means that not more than 2 relatively thin, short or...

  11. 7 CFR 51.607 - Well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.607 Well trimmed. Well trimmed means that the outside coarse and damaged branches...

  12. 7 CFR 51.571 - Well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.571 Well trimmed. Well trimmed means that not more than 2 relatively thin, short or...

  13. 7 CFR 51.607 - Well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1 2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.607 Well trimmed. Well trimmed means that the outside coarse and damaged branches...

  14. 7 CFR 51.571 - Well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.571 Well trimmed. Well trimmed means that not more than 2 relatively thin, short or...

  15. 7 CFR 51.571 - Well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.571 Well trimmed. Well trimmed means that not more than 2 relatively thin, short or...

  16. 7 CFR 51.607 - Well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.607 Well trimmed. Well trimmed means that the outside coarse and damaged branches...

  17. 7 CFR 51.607 - Well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.607 Well trimmed. Well trimmed means that the outside coarse and damaged branches...

  18. 7 CFR 51.571 - Well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.571 Well trimmed. Well trimmed means that not more than 2 relatively thin, short or...

  19. 7 CFR 51.607 - Well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.607 Well trimmed. Well trimmed means that the outside coarse and damaged branches...

  20. 14 CFR 23.677 - Trim systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... gravity positions and each flap position approved for takeoff. (b) Trimming devices must be designed so... all maneuvers and operations necessary to effect a safe landing following any probable powered trim... weights and center of gravity positions....

  1. 14 CFR 23.677 - Trim systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... gravity positions and each flap position approved for takeoff. (b) Trimming devices must be designed so... all maneuvers and operations necessary to effect a safe landing following any probable powered trim... weights and center of gravity positions....

  2. 14 CFR 23.677 - Trim systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... gravity positions and each flap position approved for takeoff. (b) Trimming devices must be designed so... all maneuvers and operations necessary to effect a safe landing following any probable powered trim... weights and center of gravity positions....

  3. Supersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of Blunt Body Trim Tab Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korzun, Ashley M.; Murphy, Kelly J.; Edquist, Karl T.

    2013-01-01

    Trim tabs are aerodynamic control surfaces that can allow an entry vehicle to meet aerodynamic performance requirements while reducing or eliminating the use of ballast mass and providing a capability to modulate the lift-to-drag ratio during entry. Force and moment data were obtained on 38 unique, blunt body trim tab configurations in the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The data were used to parametrically assess the supersonic aerodynamic performance of trim tabs and to understand the influence of tab area, cant angle, and aspect ratio. Across the range of conditions tested (Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5; angles of attack from -4deg to +20deg; angles of sideslip from 0deg to +8deg), the effects of varying tab area and tab cant angle were found to be much more significant than effects from varying tab aspect ratio. Aerodynamic characteristics exhibited variation with Mach number and forebody geometry over the range of conditions tested. Overall, the results demonstrate that trim tabs are a viable approach to satisfy aerodynamic performance requirements of blunt body entry vehicles with minimal ballast mass. For a 70deg sphere-cone, a tab with 3% area of the forebody and canted approximately 35deg with no ballast mass was found to give the same trim aerodynamics as a baseline model with ballast mass that was 5% of the total entry mass.

  4. Microfluidic chemostat and turbidostat with flow rate, oxygen, and temperature control for dynamic continuous culture

    E-print Network

    Ram, Rajeev J.

    L), and closed loop control over temperature, cell density, dissolved oxygen, and pH. Integrated peristaltic of electrical or optical trans- ducers for measuring oxygen, pH, cell density, and different forms of microscaleMicrofluidic chemostat and turbidostat with flow rate, oxygen, and temperature control for dynamic

  5. NCI-Frederick PHL - Trimming and Embedding

    Cancer.gov

    Trimming consists of cutting 3-4 mm thick representative sections of requested tissues following specialized trim protocols with detailed orientation instructions of each tissue. The trimmed tissues are then placed in uniquely identified cassettes for processing into paraffin blocks. An average of 3 different tissues or sections of one tissue are embedded per block.

  6. Factors affecting laser-trim stability of thick film resistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cote, R. E.; Headley, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    Various factors affecting precision of trim and resistor stability were considered. The influence of machine operating parameters on resistor performance was examined and quantified through statistically designed experiments for a Q switched YAG laser system. Laser kerf quality was studied by scanning electron microscopy and related to kerf isolation resistance measurements. A relatively simple production oriented, quality control test is proposed for rapid determination of kerf electrical stability. In addition, the effect of cut design and extent of trim on precision and stability were discussed.

  7. TRIM25 has a dual function in the p53/Mdm2 circuit.

    PubMed

    Zhang, P; Elabd, S; Hammer, S; Solozobova, V; Yan, H; Bartel, F; Inoue, S; Henrich, T; Wittbrodt, J; Loosli, F; Davidson, G; Blattner, C

    2015-11-12

    P53 is an important tumor suppressor that, upon activation, induces growth arrest and cell death. Control of p53 is thus of prime importance for proliferating cells, but also for cancer therapy, where p53 activity contributes to the eradication of tumors. Mdm2 functionally inhibits p53 and targets the tumor suppressor protein for degradation. In a genetic screen, we identified TRIM25 as a novel regulator of p53 and Mdm2. TRIM25 increased p53 and Mdm2 abundance by inhibiting their ubiquitination and degradation in 26?S proteasomes. TRIM25 co-precipitated with p53 and Mdm2 and interfered with the association of p300 and Mdm2, a critical step for p53 polyubiquitination. Despite the increase in p53 levels, p53 activity was inhibited in the presence of TRIM25. Downregulation of TRIM25 resulted in an increased acetylation of p53 and p53-dependent cell death in HCT116 cells. Upon genotoxic insults, TRIM25 dampened the p53-dependent DNA damage response. The downregulation of TRIM25 furthermore resulted in massive apoptosis during early embryogenesis of medaka, which was rescued by the concomitant downregulation of p53, demonstrating the functional relevance of the regulation of p53 by TRIM25 in an organismal context. PMID:25728675

  8. Oxygen Generation System Laptop Bus Controller Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, Chad; Panter, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The Oxygen Generation System Laptop Bus Controller Flight Software was developed to allow the International Space Station (ISS) program to activate specific components of the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) to perform a checkout of key hardware operation in a microgravity environment, as well as to perform preventative maintenance operations of system valves during a long period of what would otherwise be hardware dormancy. The software provides direct connectivity to the OGS Firmware Controller with pre-programmed tasks operated by on-orbit astronauts to exercise OGS valves and motors. The software is used to manipulate the pump, separator, and valves to alleviate the concerns of hardware problems due to long-term inactivity and to allow for operational verification of microgravity-sensitive components early enough so that, if problems are found, they can be addressed before the hardware is required for operation on-orbit. The decision was made to use existing on-orbit IBM ThinkPad A31p laptops and MIL-STD-1553B interface cards as the hardware configuration. The software at the time of this reporting was developed and tested for use under the Windows 2000 Professional operating system to ensure compatibility with the existing on-orbit computer systems.

  9. Tinning/Trimming Robot System

    SciTech Connect

    Fureigh, M.L.

    1993-02-01

    In a new surface mount assembly area at AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD), a tinning/trimming robot system tins and trims the gold-plated leads of surface mount technology (SMT) transistors. The KCD-designed system uses a Unimation PUMA 260 robot, a General Production Devices SP-2000 solder pot; water-soluble Blackstone No. 2508 flux; and a Virtual Industries high-temperature, ESD-conductive, miniature suction cup. After the manual cleaning operation, the processed SMT transistors go to the QUADSTAR Automated Component Placement System for a Radar Logic Assembly. The benefits are reductions in the cost of nonconformance, worker fatigue, and standard hours.

  10. Oxygen pumping device for control of the air fuel ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Logothetis, E.M.; Hetrick, R.E.; Soltis, R.E.; Vassell, W.C.

    1989-06-27

    This patent describes a method operating a two cell oxygen pumping device to control the air fuel ratio of an engine, the oxygen pumping device having a pumping cell and sensing cell. The method includes the steps of: introducing exhaust gas from the engine to a region between the pumping cell and the sensing cell; applying a pumping current to the pumping cell; sensing an EMF across the sensing cell; comparing an adjustable reference voltage with the sensed EMF; generating an error signal from the comparison between the reference voltage and the sensed EMF: changing the air fuel ratio in response to the error signal so as to reduce the absolute magnitude of the error signal, including the step of decreasing the engine air fuel ratio in response to a positive error signal until the measured EMF becomes equal to the reference voltage, and the step of increasing the engine air fuel ratio in response to a negative error signal until the measured EMF becomes equal to the reference voltage; establishing a predetermined desired air fuel ratio from a range of possible operating air fuel ratio values.

  11. Fuzzy logic assisted control of inspired oxygen in ventilated newborn infants.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Y.; Kohane, I.; Stark, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The control of oxygen delivery to mechanically ventilated newborn infants is a time intensive process that must balance adequate tissue oxygenation against possible toxic effects of oxygen exposure. Investigation in computer assisted control of mechanical ventilation is increasing, although very few studies involve newborn infants. We have implemented a fuzzy controller for the adjustment of inspired oxygen concentration (FIO2) in ventilated newborns. The controller utilizes rules produced by neonatologists, and operates in real-time. A clinical trial of this controller is currently taking place in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Children's Hospital, Boston, MA. PMID:7950026

  12. A 3D-Printed Oxygen Control Insert for a 24-Well Plate

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Martin D.; Rexius-Hall, Megan L.; Eddington, David T.

    2015-01-01

    3D printing has emerged as a method for directly printing complete microfluidic devices, although printing materials have been limited to oxygen-impermeable materials. We demonstrate the addition of gas permeable PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) membranes to 3D-printed microfluidic devices as a means to enable oxygen control cell culture studies. The incorporation of a 3D-printed device and gas-permeable membranes was demonstrated on a 24-well oxygen control device for standard multiwell plates. The direct printing allows integrated distribution channels and device geometries not possible with traditional planar lithography. With this device, four different oxygen conditions were able to be controlled, and six wells were maintained under each oxygen condition. We demonstrate enhanced transcription of the gene VEGFA (vascular endothelial growth factor A) with decreasing oxygen levels in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. This is the first 3D-printed device incorporating gas permeable membranes to facilitate oxygen control in cell culture. PMID:26360882

  13. Abiotic Reduction of Selenite and Antimonate Under Controlled Oxygen Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belzile, N.; Truong, H. T.; Polack, R.; Chen, Y.

    2008-12-01

    Laboratory and field studies have reported the oxidation of elemental Se to selenite or selenate or that of antimonite to antimonate but the reduction studies of the two elements, especially in absence of bacteria are more scarce. We have performed experiments on the abiotic reduction of Se(IV) and Sb(V) under controlled oxygen conditions in presence of naturally-encountered reducing agents such as Fe(II) and dissolved sulfide. In the case of selenite, the reduction by ferrous iron is barely detectable at very low concentrations of oxygen. However, at concentrations of 200 ± 50 ppmv in the controlled atmosphere glove box, more iron oxide particles were formed at a higher initial Fe(II) concentration in the system and with time. In the pellets collected after filtration, a significant amount of Se(0) was found. Our field geochemical studies on Se also showed the same phenomenon, i.e. a higher level of Se(0) in lake sediments was accompanied by a higher presence of iron oxides. In the case of antimony, the reduction of Sb(V) by dissolved sulfide was extensive and far more rapid at more acidic pH values. Half lives for Sb(V) in the presence of excess dissolved sulfide at pH values of 5 to 7 were calculated and the reaction was found to be first order with respect to all three of [Sb(V)], [dissolved sulfide] and [H+]. Metastibnite precipitated after reduction of Sb(V) in working experimental samples at buffered pH of 5 and 6. The oxidation product of dissolved sulfide was identified as elemental sulfur. This study has demonstrated the ability of dissolved sulfide to reduce Sb(V) under a variety of environmentally relevant concentrations and conditions.

  14. Recent advances in development of ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest pest control on perishable commodities.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several controlled atmosphere treatments with ultralow oxygen (ULO treatments) have been developed for postharvest pest control on different types of perishable products. Complete control of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia sp.), twopotted spider mite (Tetranychus u...

  15. Measurement and Control of Oxygen Partial Pressure in an Electrostatic Levitator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.

    2014-01-01

    Recently the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center electrostatic levitation (ESL) laboratory has been upgraded to include an oxygen control system. This system allows the oxygen partial pressure within the vacuum chamber to be measured and controlled, at elevated temperatures, theoretically in the range from 10(exp -36) to 10(exp 0) bar. The role of active surface agents in liquid metals is fairly well known; however, published surface tension data typically has large scatter, which has been hypothesized to be caused by the presence of oxygen. The surface tension of metals is affected by even a small amount of adsorption of oxygen. It has even been shown that oxygen partial pressures may need to be as low as 10(exp -24) bar to avoid oxidation. While electrostatic levitation is done under high vacuum, oxide films or dissolved oxygen may have significant effects on materials properties, such as surface tension and viscosity. Therefore, the ability to measure and control the oxygen partial pressure within the chamber is highly desirable. The oxygen control system installed at MSFC contains a potentiometric sensor, which measures the oxygen partial pressure, and an oxygen ion pump. In the pump, a pulse-width modulated electric current is applied to yttrium-stabilized zirconia, resulting in oxygen transfer into or out of the system. Also part of the system is a control unit, which consists of temperature controllers for the sensor and pump, PID-based current loop for the ion pump, and a control algorithm. This system can be used to study the effects of oxygen on the thermophysical properties of metals, ceramics, glasses, and alloys. It can also be used to provide more accurate measurements by processing the samples at very low oxygen partial pressures. The oxygen control system will be explained in more detail and an overview of its use and limitations in an electrostatic levitator will be described. Some preliminary measurements have been made, and the results to date will be provided.

  16. Oxygen as a control on seafloor biological communities and their roles in sedimentary carbon cycling

    E-print Network

    to bacterial uptake and/or total respiration. Bottom-water dissolved oxygen concentrations exerted a strong control over metazoan macrofaunal OM processing. At oxygen concentrations .7 mmol L21 (0.16 ml L21 of OM above and below, respectively, the proposed threshold concentrations of bottom-water oxygen

  17. Organic carbon, and not copper, controls denitrification in oxygen minimum zones of the ocean

    E-print Network

    Ward, Bess

    conditions and ambient oxygen concentrations were used to investigate the response of microbial assemblagesOrganic carbon, and not copper, controls denitrification in oxygen minimum zones of the ocean Bess Oxygen minimum zone Carbon limitation a b s t r a c t Incubation experiments under trace metal clean

  18. Alloimmunization against RBC or PLT antigens is independent of TRIM21 expression in a murine model.

    PubMed

    Patel, Seema R; Hendrickson, Jeanne E; Smith, Nicole H; Cadwell, Chantel M; Ozato, Keiko; Morse, Herbert C; Yoshimi, Ryusuke; Zimring, James C

    2011-03-01

    Generation of alloantibodies to transfused RBCs can be a serious medical problem for patients who require chronic RBC transfusion therapy. Patients with sickle cell disease have a substantially increased rate of alloimmunization compared to other chronically transfused populations. A recent study has forwarded the hypothesis that a polymorphism in an immunoregulatory gene in close proximity to beta-globin (TRIM21 rs660) plays a role in the increased rates of RBC alloimmunization in sickle cell patients. In particular, it was hypothesized that rs660C/T decreases expression of TRIM21, resulting in loss of a negative feedback pathway in immune responses and increased RBC alloimmunization. To test the effects of TRIM21 expression on alloimmunization, we analyzed antibody responses to alloantigens on RBCs and platelets transfused into wild-type and TRIM21 KO mice. No significant increases were seen in the frequency or magnitude of humoral immunization to alloantigens on transfused RBCs or platelets in adult or juvenile TRIM21 KO recipients compared to wild-type controls. Moreover, recipient inflammation with poly (I:C) enhanced RBC alloimmunization to similar degrees in both TRIM21 KO and wild-type control recipients. Together, these data rule out the hypothesis that decreased TRIM21 expression enhances transfusion induced humoral alloimmunization, in the context of a reductionist murine model. PMID:21269695

  19. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on grape rootstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlled atmosphere with ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments for control of vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus Signoret (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), on grape rootstocks were developed successfully. Two ULO treatments with 30 ppm oxygen, 3 days at 25'C and 4 days at 15'C, achieved complete control of a...

  20. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on grape benchgrafts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlled atmosphere with ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments for control of vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus Signoret (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), on grape rootstocks were developed successfully. Two ULO treatments with 30 ppm oxygen, 3 days at 25'C and 4 days at 15'C, achieved complete control of a...

  1. May 25, 2012 16:34 WSPC -Proceedings Trim Size: 9in x 6in CLAWARadaptiveControl ENVIRONMENTALLY ADAPTIVE CONTROL POLICIES

    E-print Network

    Choset, Howie

    ENVIRONMENTALLY ADAPTIVE CONTROL POLICIES FOR EXPENSIVE SYSTEMS Matthew Tesch, Jeff Schneider, and Howie Choset policy to adapt controllers for such systems based on the value of these external conditions in order changes significantly depending on the environmental conditions. Here we show a system objective function

  2. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303.12 Section 303...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles. (a) Trimmings...

  3. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303.12 Section 303...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles. (a) Trimmings...

  4. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303.12 Section 303...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles. (a) Trimmings...

  5. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303.12 Section 303...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles. (a) Trimmings...

  6. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303.12 Section 303...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles. (a) Trimmings...

  7. Compartment A1, trim tanks viewed aft to forward from watertight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-1, trim tanks viewed aft to forward from watertight bulkhead no. 6. Using remotely controlled valves, the tanks could be flooded with water or pumped clear to compensate for variations in the ship's displacement and maintain the water line at the desired point. The trim tanks could also be used to counteract the effect of variations in sea water density. (02) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. Control of oxygen release from peroxides using polymers.

    PubMed

    Steg, Hilde; Buizer, Arina T; Woudstra, Willem; Veldhuizen, Albert G; Bulstra, Sjoerd K; Grijpma, Dirk W; Kuijer, Roel

    2015-07-01

    An important limitation in cell therapy for the regeneration of tissue is the initial lack of oxygen. After implantation of large 3D cell-seeded structures, cells die rather than contribute to tissue regenerating. Here we've tested oxygen-releasing materials to improve cell survival and growth after implantation. Calcium peroxide (CaO2) in a polymer matrix was used as source of oxygen. Two polymers were tested in order to slow down and extend the period of oxygen release, poly(D,L-lactic acid) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid). Compared to CaO2 particles, both releasing systems showed an initially higher and shorter oxygen release. Human mesenchymal stromal cells cultured on casted films of these oxygen-releasing composites required catalase to proliferate, indicating the production of cytotoxic hydrogen peroxide as intermediate. Poly(D,L-lactic acid) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) are less suited for slowly oxygen-releasing materials. Catalase was able to reduce the cytotoxic effect of H2O2. PMID:26155978

  9. Piloted simulation study of the effects of an automated trim system on flight characteristics of a light twin-engine airplane with one engine inoperative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, E. C.; Brown, P. W.; Yenni, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted to investigate the piloting problems associated with failure of an engine on a generic light twin-engine airplane. A primary piloting problem for a light twin-engine airplane after an engine failure is maintaining precise control of the airplane in the presence of large steady control forces. To address this problem, a simulated automatic trim system which drives the trim tabs as an open-loop function of propeller slipstream measurements was developed. The simulated automatic trim system was found to greatly increase the controllability in asymmetric powered flight without having to resort to complex control laws or an irreversible control system. However, the trim-tab control rates needed to produce the dramatic increase in controllability may require special design consideration for automatic trim system failures. Limited measurements obtained in full-scale flight tests confirmed the fundamental validity of the proposed control law.

  10. Processes controlling mid-water column oxygen minima over the Texas-Louisiana shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenxia; Hetland, Robert D.; DiMarco, Steven F.; Fennel, Katja

    2015-04-01

    We investigate distributions of dissolved oxygen over the Texas-Louisiana shelf using spatially highly resolved observations in combination with a regional circulation model with simple oxygen dynamics. The observations were collected using a towed, undulating CTD during the Mechanisms Controlling Hypoxia (MCH) program. Mid-water oxygen minimum layers (dissolved oxygen lower than 3.2 mL L-1) were detected in many transects. These oxygen minimum layers are connected with the bottom boundary layer and follow the pycnocline seaward as a tongue of low oxygen into the mid-water column. T-S diagrams highlighting the low oxygen minima in both observations and simulations imply direct connections between low-oxygen bottom water and the oxygen minimum layer. The dynamics of these oxygen minimum layers in the mid-water column are examined using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). Convergence within the bottom boundary layer relative to density surfaces is calculated, results show that there is a convergence in the bottom boundary layer at the location where the pycnocline intersects the bottom. Buoyancy advection forced by bottom Ekman transport creates this convergent flow, and the corresponding low-oxygen intrusion. Similar intrusions of near-bottom water into the pycnocline are observed in other regions. The presence of hypoxia within the bottom boundary layer in the northern Gulf of Mexico creates a unique situation in which these intrusions are also associated with low dissolved oxygen.

  11. Trimming an aircraft model for flight simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcfarland, Richard E.

    1987-01-01

    Real-time piloted aircraft simulations with digital computers have been performed at Ames Research Center (ARC) for over two decades. For the simulation of conventional aircraft models, the establishment of initial vehicle and control orientations at various operational flight regimes has been adequately handled by either analog techniques or simple inversion processes. However, exotic helicopter configurations have been introduced recently that require more sophisticated techniques because of their expanded degrees of freedom and environmental vibration levels. At ARC, these techniques are used for the backward solutions to real-time simulation models as required for the generation of trim points. These techniques are presented in this paper with examples from a blade-element helicopter simulation model.

  12. Biochemical and biophysical characterization of a chimeric TRIM21-TRIM5alpha protein.

    PubMed

    Kar, Alak Kanti; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Li, Yuan; Li, Xing; Sodroski, Joseph

    2008-12-01

    The tripartite motif (TRIM) protein, TRIM5alpha, is an endogenous factor in primates that recognizes the capsids of certain retroviruses after virus entry into the host cell. TRIM5alpha promotes premature uncoating of the capsid, thus blocking virus infection. Low levels of expression and tendencies to aggregate have hindered the biochemical, biophysical, and structural characterization of TRIM proteins. Here, a chimeric TRIM5alpha protein (TRIM5(Rh)-21R) with a RING domain derived from TRIM21 was expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells and purified. Although a fraction of the TRIM5(Rh)-21R protein formed large aggregates, soluble fractions of the protein formed oligomers (mainly dimers), exhibited a protease-resistant core, and contained a high percentage of helical secondary structure. Cross-linking followed by negative staining and electron microscopy suggested a globular structure. The purified TRIM5(Rh)-21R protein displayed E3-ligase activity in vitro and also self-ubiquitylated in the presence of ubiquitin-activating and -conjugating enzymes. The purified TRIM5(Rh)-21R protein specifically associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid-like complexes; a deletion within the V1 variable region of the B30.2(SPRY) domain decreased capsid binding. Thus, the TRIM5(Rh)-21R restriction factor can directly recognize retroviral capsid-like complexes in the absence of other mammalian proteins. PMID:18799572

  13. Catalytic Synthesis of Oxygenates: Mechanisms, Catalysts and Controlling Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman

    2005-11-30

    This research focused on catalytic synthesis of unsymmetrical ethers as a part of a larger program involving oxygenated products in general, including alcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids and their derivatives that link together environmentally compliant fuels, monomers, and high-value chemicals. The catalysts studied here were solid acids possessing strong Br�������¸nsted acid functionalities. The design of these catalysts involved anchoring the acid groups onto inorganic oxides, e.g. surface-grafted acid groups on zirconia, and a new class of mesoporous solid acids, i.e. propylsulfonic acid-derivatized SBA-15. The former catalysts consisted of a high surface concentration of sulfate groups on stable zirconia catalysts. The latter catalyst consists of high surface area, large pore propylsulfonic acid-derivatized silicas, specifically SBA-15. In both cases, the catalyst design and synthesis yielded high concentrations of acid sites in close proximity to one another. These materials have been well-characterization in terms of physical and chemical properties, as well as in regard to surface and bulk characteristics. Both types of catalysts were shown to exhibit high catalytic performance with respect to both activity and selectivity for the bifunctional coupling of alcohols to form ethers, which proceeds via an efficient SN2 reaction mechanism on the proximal acid sites. This commonality of the dual-site SN2 reaction mechanism over acid catalysts provides for maximum reaction rates and control of selectivity by reaction conditions, i.e. pressure, temperature, and reactant concentrations. This research provides the scientific groundwork for synthesis of ethers for energy applications. The synthesized environmentally acceptable ethers, in part derived from natural gas via alcohol intermediates, exhibit high cetane properties, e.g. methylisobutylether with cetane No. of 53 and dimethylether with cetane No. of 55-60, or high octane properties, e.g. diisopropylether with blending octane No. of 105, and can replace aromatics in liquid fuels.

  14. Fast-Response Oxygen-Monitoring and Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Puster, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    Oxygen sensor is Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 ceramic disk maintained at 843 degrees C. Overall system response time reduced to about 0.2 second, equal to or less than 1 percent of tunnel run time. When test gas oxygen concentration differs from normal air concentration by 25 percent or more, alarm sounds, and emergency tunnel shutdown signal operates. New ZrO2 sensors intended for hypersonic-vehicle testing.

  15. An Interview with John Trim at 80

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saville, Nick

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Dr. John Trim, which was recorded at his home in Cambridge on January 21, 2005, not long after his 80th birthday in October 2004. Although he would not consider himself a language tester, Dr. Trim has followed the trends in language assessment since the 1960s and his own work, particularly as a coauthor of…

  16. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Trim7 mediates c-Jun/AP-1 activation by Ras signalling

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Atanu; Diefenbacher, Markus E.; Mylona, Anastasia; Kassel, Olivier; Behrens, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The c-Jun/AP-1 transcription factor controls key cellular behaviours, including proliferation and apoptosis, in response to JNK and Ras/MAPK signalling. While the JNK pathway has been well characterised, the mechanism of activation by Ras was elusive. Here we identify the uncharacterised ubiquitin ligase Trim7 as a critical component of AP-1 activation via Ras. We found that MSK1 directly phosphorylates Trim7 in response to direct activation by the Ras–Raf–MEK–ERK pathway, and this modification stimulates Trim7 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Trim7 mediates Lys63-linked ubiquitination of the AP-1 coactivator RACO-1, leading to RACO-1 protein stabilisation. Consequently, Trim7 depletion reduces RACO-1 levels and AP-1-dependent gene expression. Moreover, transgenic overexpression of Trim7 increases lung tumour burden in a Ras-driven cancer model, and knockdown of Trim7 in established xenografts reduces tumour growth. Thus, phosphorylation-ubiquitination crosstalk between MSK1, Trim7 and RACO-1 completes the long sought-after mechanism linking growth factor signalling and AP-1 activation. PMID:25851810

  17. Impact of TRIM5? in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Emi E.; Shioda, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    HIV type 1 (HIV-1) has a very narrow host range that is limited to humans and chimpanzees. HIV-1 cannot replicate well in Old World monkey cells such as rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys. Tripartite motif (TRIM)5? is a key molecule that confers potent resistance against HIV-1 infection and is composed of really interesting new gene, B-box2, coiled-coil and PRYSPRY domains. Interaction between TRIM5? PRYSPRY domains and HIV-1 capsid core triggers the anti-HIV-1 activity of TRIM5?. Analysis of natural HIV variants and extensive mutational experiments has revealed the presence of critical amino acid residues in both the PRYSPRY domain and HIV capsid for potent HIV suppression by TRIM5?. Genetic manipulation of the human TRIM5 gene could establish human cells totally resistant to HIV-1, which may lead to a cure for HIV-1 infection in the future. PMID:26372380

  18. Growth control of budding yeast cells by oxygen-radical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Takayuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ito, Masafumi; Takeda, Keigo; Hori, Masaru

    2013-09-01

    Microorganisms respond to stimuli or stresses such as chemicals, nutrition, pressure, heat and so on. Those stimuli lead to cell activation, inactivation or cell death, such as apoptosis and necrosis. Reactive oxygen species possibly affect cell growth as well as inactivation depending on stimuli. In this study, we investigated effects of oxygen-radical treatment on not only inactivation but also promoted/repressed cell growth of budding yeast by varying dose of atomic oxygen produced from an atmospheric-pressure oxygen radical source. Dose of atomic oxygen was estimated based on treatment time and oxygen flux. Cell growth was promoted with atomic oxygen between 0 and 2.1 ×1019 cm-2 dose of atomic oxygen. The treated cells were grown about 10 percent more proliferously than the control cells. Moreover, 64 percent of the treated cells to the control ones were inactivated at more than 4.2 ×1020 cm-2. These results, therefore, suggested that atomic-oxygen dose had a potential to control mitotic promotion and repression, and inactivation of yeast cell growth.

  19. ULTRALOW OXYGEN TREATMENT FOR POSTHARVEST INSECT CONTROL ON LETTUCE AND BROCCOLI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlled atmosphere treatment with ultralow oxygen (ultralow oxygen treatment or ULO treatment) was studied to develop an alternative treatment to the current practice of chemical fumigation with methyl bromide. Lettuce aphid, western flower thrips, and leafminer, Liriomyza langei, were tested und...

  20. Growth control of Saccharomyces cerevisiae through dose of oxygen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ohta, Takayuki; Hori, Masaru; Ito, Masafumi

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the dose-dependent effects of neutral oxygen radicals on the proliferation as well as the inactivation of microorganisms, we treated suspensions of budding yeast cells with oxygen radicals using an atmospheric-pressure oxygen radical source, varying the fluxes of O(3Pj) from 1.3 × 1016 to 2.3 × 1017 cm-2 s-1. Proliferation was promoted at doses of O(3Pj) ranging from 6 × 1016 to 2 × 1017 cm-3, and suppressed at doses ranging from 3 × 1017 to 1 × 1018 cm-3; cells were inactivated by O(3Pj) doses exceeding 1 × 1018 cm-3, even when the flux was varied over the above flux range. These results showed that the growth of cells was regulated primarily in response to the total dose of O(3Pj).

  1. CATION CONTROLLED SINGLET OXYGEN MEDIATED OXIDATION OF OLEFINS WITHIN ZEOLITES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidation of trialkyl olefins has been performed within zeolites employing thionin as the singlet oxygen sensitizer. Unusual selectivity in favor of secondary hydroperoxides is observed within zeolites. In light of the fact that in solution such a selectivity is never observed the selectivity report...

  2. 76 FR 72978 - Premier Trim, LLC, Spectrum Trim, LLC and Grant Products International, Inc. D/B/A Spectrum Grant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ...TA-W-73,681] Premier Trim, LLC, Spectrum Trim, LLC and Grant Products International, Inc. D/B/A Spectrum Grant De Mexico Including Workers Whose...to workers of Premier Trim, LLC and Spectrum Trim, LLC, d/b/a Spectrum...

  3. Oxygen deficiency hazards associated with liquefied gas systems development of a program of controls

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.M.; Mazur, P.O.

    1983-01-01

    The use of liquefied gases in industry and research has become commonplace. Release into the atmosphere of these gases, whether intentional or not, will result in a displacement of air and a reduction in the oxygen concentration. Exposure to reduced levels of oxygen levels may cause reduced abilities, unconsciousness, or death. This paper describes the derivation of a novel program of controls for oxygen deficiency hazards. The key to this approach is a quantitative assessment of risk for each planned operation and the application of control measures to reduce that risk to an acceptable level. Five risk levels evolve which are based on the probability of fatality. Controls such as training, oxygen monitoring equipment, self-rescue respirators, and medical surveillance are required when the probability of fatality exceeds 10/sup -7/ per hour. The quantitative nature of this program ensures an appropriate level of control without undue burden or expense. 11 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  4. Method of controlled reduction of nitroaromatics by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes

    DOEpatents

    Shah, Manish M. (Richland, WA); Campbell, James A. (Pasco, WA)

    1998-01-01

    A method for the controlled reduction of nitroaromatic compounds such as nitrobenzene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes, such as ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase.

  5. Method of controlled reduction of nitroaromatics by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes

    DOEpatents

    Shah, M.M.; Campbell, J.A.

    1998-07-07

    A method is described for the controlled reduction of nitroaromatic compounds such as nitrobenzene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes, such as ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase. 6 figs.

  6. Infrared Beak Treatment: Part I, Comparative Effects of Infrared and 1/3 Hot-blade Trimming on Beak Topography, Focal Behavior and Growth.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examines the effects of beak trimming on production and well-being. Seventy-two layer chicks were assigned to hot-blade trimming (HB), infrared treatment (IR), or a control(C) untrimmed treatment at one-day-old. Chicks were pair housed by treatment and beak images, behavior and production...

  7. Noble gas sputtering calculations using TRIM

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, J.P.; Nemanich, J.; Thomas, G.E.; Schiel, S.L.

    1996-12-31

    In conjunction with our experimental work on saddle field ion sputtering, we have attempted to apply the Monte Carlo program TRIM (Transport of Ions in Matter) to calculate the sputter yields for a variety of noble gas sputtering applications. Comparison with experiments are shown. Information extracted from these analyses have proved useful in optimizing the experimental sputtering parameters. Calculated sputter yields obtained utilizing TRIM are presented for noble gas sputtering of a variety of materials common to nuclear target production.

  8. Oxygen Concentration Controls Epigenetic Effects in Models of Familial Paraganglioma

    PubMed Central

    Her, Yeng F.; Nelson-Holte, Molly; Maher, Louis James

    2015-01-01

    Familial paraganglioma (PGL) is a rare neuroendocrine cancer associated with defects in the genes encoding the subunits of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH), a tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzyme. For unknown reasons, a higher prevalence of PGL has been reported for humans living at higher altitude, with increased disease aggressiveness and morbidity. In this study, we evaluate the effects of oxygen on epigenetic changes due to succinate accumulation in three SDH loss cell culture models. We test the hypothesis that the mechanism of ?-ketoglutarate (?-KG)-dependent dioxygenase enzymes explains the inhibitory synergy of hypoxia and succinate accumulation. We confirm that SDH loss leads to profound succinate accumulation. We further show that hypoxia and succinate accumulation synergistically inhibit ?-KG-dependent dioxygenases leading to increased stabilization of transcription factor HIF1?, HIF2?, and hypermethylation of histones and DNA. Increasing oxygen suppresses succinate inhibition of ?-KG-dependent dioxygenases. This result provides a possible explanation for the association between hypoxia and PGL, and suggests hyperoxia as a potential novel therapy. PMID:25985299

  9. Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2007-03-31

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic (i.e., man-made) CO{sub 2} emissions. In 2001, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) began a two-phase program to investigate the feasibility of various carbon capture technologies. This program was sponsored under a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE). The first phase entailed a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen cases, representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated. Seven cases represented coal combustion in CFB type equipment. Four cases represented Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Two cases represented advanced Chemical Looping Combined Cycle systems. Marion, et al. reported the details of this work in 2003. One of the thirteen cases studied utilized an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. In this concept, the fuel is fired with a mixture of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (mainly CO{sub 2}). This combustion process yields a flue gas containing over 80 percent (by volume) CO{sub 2}. This flue gas can be processed relatively easily to enrich the CO{sub 2} content to over 96 percent for use in enhanced oil or gas recovery (EOR or EGR) or simply dried for sequestration. The Phase I study identified the O{sub 2}-fired CFB as having a near term development potential, because it uses conventional commercial CFB technology and commercially available CO{sub 2} capture enabling technologies such as cryogenic air separation and simple rectification or distillation gas processing systems. In the long term, air separation technology advancements offer significant reductions in power requirements, which would improve plant efficiency and economics for the oxygen-fired technology. The second phase consisted of pilot-scale testing followed by a refined performance and economic evaluation of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. As a part of this workscope, ALSTOM modified its 3 MW{sub th} (9.9 MMBtu/hr) Multiuse Test Facility (MTF) pilot plant to operate with O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures of up to 70 percent O{sub 2} by volume. Tests were conducted with coal and petroleum coke. The test objectives were to determine the impacts of oxygen firing on heat transfer, bed dynamics, potential agglomeration, and gaseous and particulate emissions. The test data results were used to refine the design, performance, costs, and economic models developed in Phase-I for the O{sub 2}-fired CFB with CO{sub 2} capture. Nsakala, Liljedahl, and Turek reported results from this study in 2004. ALSTOM identified several items needing further investigation in preparation for large scale demonstration of the oxygen-fired CFB concept, namely: (1) Operation and performance of the moving bed heat exchanger (MBHE) to avoid recarbonation and also for cost savings compared to the standard bubbling fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHE); (2) Performance of the back-end flash dryer absorber (FDA) for sulfur capture under high CO{sub 2}/high moisture flue gas environment using calcined limestone in the fly ash and using fresh commercial lime directly in the FDA; (3) Determination of the effect of recarbonation on fouling in the convective pass; (4) Assessment of the impact of oxygen firing on the mercury, other trace elements, and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions; and (5) Develop a proposal-level oxygen-fired retrofit design for a relatively small existing CFB steam power plant in preparation for a large-scale demonstration of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. Hence, ALSTOM responded to a DOE Solicitation to address all these issues with further O{sub 2} fired MTF pilot testing and a subsequent retrofit design study of oxygen firing and CO{s

  10. October 6, 2005 18:8 Proceedings Trim Size: 9.75in x 6.5in boolcontrol ON THE COMPLEXITY OF FINDING CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR

    E-print Network

    Wong, Limsoon

    of the important future directions of bioinformatics and systems biology is to develop a control theory for complex are not satis- factory. Many important results in control theory are based on linear algebra, but it seems that biological systems contain many non-linear subsystems. Therefore, it is required to develop a control theory

  11. Anoxygenic Photosynthesis Controls Oxygenic Photosynthesis in a Cyanobacterium from a Sulfidic Spring

    PubMed Central

    Al-Najjar, Mohammad A. A.; Yilmaz, Pelin; Lavik, Gaute; de Beer, Dirk; Polerecky, Lubos

    2015-01-01

    Before the Earth's complete oxygenation (0.58 to 0.55 billion years [Ga] ago), the photic zone of the Proterozoic oceans was probably redox stratified, with a slightly aerobic, nutrient-limited upper layer above a light-limited layer that tended toward euxinia. In such oceans, cyanobacteria capable of both oxygenic and sulfide-driven anoxygenic photosynthesis played a fundamental role in the global carbon, oxygen, and sulfur cycle. We have isolated a cyanobacterium, Pseudanabaena strain FS39, in which this versatility is still conserved, and we show that the transition between the two photosynthetic modes follows a surprisingly simple kinetic regulation controlled by this organism's affinity for H2S. Specifically, oxygenic photosynthesis is performed in addition to anoxygenic photosynthesis only when H2S becomes limiting and its concentration decreases below a threshold that increases predictably with the available ambient light. The carbon-based growth rates during oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis were similar. However, Pseudanabaena FS39 additionally assimilated NO3? during anoxygenic photosynthesis. Thus, the transition between anoxygenic and oxygenic photosynthesis was accompanied by a shift of the C/N ratio of the total bulk biomass. These mechanisms offer new insights into the way in which, despite nutrient limitation in the oxic photic zone in the mid-Proterozoic oceans, versatile cyanobacteria might have promoted oxygenic photosynthesis and total primary productivity, a key step that enabled the complete oxygenation of our planet and the subsequent diversification of life. PMID:25576611

  12. TRIM5? and TRIM22 Are Differentially Regulated According to HIV-1 Infection Phase and Compartment

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Ravesh; Patel, Vinod; Mureithi, Marianne W.; Naranbhai, Vivek; Ramsuran, Duran; Tulsi, Sahil; Hiramen, Keshni; Werner, Lise; Mlisana, Koleka; Altfeld, Marcus; Luban, Jeremy; Kasprowicz, Victoria; Dheda, Keertan; Abdool Karim, Salim S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The antiviral role of TRIM E3 ligases in vivo is not fully understood. To test the hypothesis that TRIM5? and TRIM22 have differential transcriptional regulation and distinct anti-HIV roles according to infection phase and compartment, we measured TRIM5?, TRIM22, and type I interferon (IFN-I)-inducible myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during primary and chronic HIV-1 infection, with chronic infection samples being matched PBMCs and central nervous system (CNS)-derived cells. Associations with biomarkers of disease progression were explored. The impact of IFN-I, select proinflammatory cytokines, and HIV on TRIM E3 ligase-specific expression was investigated. PBMCs from individuals with primary and chronic HIV-1 infection had significantly higher levels of MxA and TRIM22 than did PBMCs from HIV-1-negative individuals (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). PBMCs from chronic infection had lower levels of TRIM5? than did PBMCs from primary infection or HIV-1-uninfected PBMCs (P = 0.0001 for both). In matched CNS-derived samples and PBMCs, higher levels of MxA (P = 0.001) and TRIM5? (P = 0.0001) in the CNS were noted. There was a negative correlation between TRIM22 levels in PBMCs and plasma viral load (r = ?0.40; P = 0.04). In vitro, IFN-I and, rarely, proinflammatory cytokines induced TRIM5? and TRIM22 in a cell type-dependent manner, and the knockdown of either protein in CD4+ lymphocytes resulted in increased HIV-1 infection. These data suggest that there are infection-phase-specific and anatomically compartmentalized differences in TRIM5? and TRIM22 regulation involving primarily IFN-I and specific cell types and indicate subtle differences in the antiviral roles and transcriptional regulation of TRIM E3 ligases in vivo. IMPORTANCE Type I interferon-inducible TRIM E3 ligases are a family of intracellular proteins with potent antiviral activities mediated through diverse mechanisms. However, little is known about the contribution of these proteins to antiviral immunity in vivo and how their expression is regulated. We show here that TRIM5? and TRIM22, two prominent members of the family, have different expression patterns in vivo and that the expression pattern depends on HIV-1 infection status and phase. Furthermore, expression differs in peripheral blood versus central nervous system anatomical sites of infection. Only TRIM22 expression correlated negatively with HIV-1 viral load, but gene silencing of both proteins enhances HIV-1 infection of target cells. We report subtle differences in TRIM5? and TRIM22 gene induction by IFN-I and proinflammatory cytokines in CD4+ lymphocytes, monocytes, and neuronal cells. This study enhances our understanding of antiviral immunity by intrinsic antiviral factors and how their expression is determined. PMID:24478420

  13. Efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for control of Tribolium castaneum with reduced oxygen and increased carbon dioxide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated the effect of atmosphere modification, being a widely adopted means of insect control in stored products, on the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana against one of the most difficult to control pests, Tribolium castaneum. Oxygen reduction to 5% (± 1%) as opposed to CO2 elevation t...

  14. TRIM33 switches off Ifnb1 gene transcription during the late phase of macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Federica; Parcelier, Aude; Petit, Vanessa; Gallouet, Anne-Sophie; Lewandowski, Daniel; Dalloz, Marion; van den Heuvel, Anita; Kolovos, Petros; Soler, Eric; Squadrito, Mario Leonardo; De Palma, Michele; Davidson, Irwin; Rousselet, Germain; Romeo, Paul-Henri

    2015-01-01

    Despite its importance during viral or bacterial infections, transcriptional regulation of the interferon-? gene (Ifnb1) in activated macrophages is only partially understood. Here we report that TRIM33 deficiency results in high, sustained expression of Ifnb1 at late stages of toll-like receptor-mediated activation in macrophages but not in fibroblasts. In macrophages, TRIM33 is recruited by PU.1 to a conserved region, the Ifnb1 Control Element (ICE), located 15?kb upstream of the Ifnb1 transcription start site. ICE constitutively interacts with Ifnb1 through a TRIM33-independent chromatin loop. At late phases of lipopolysaccharide activation of macrophages, TRIM33 is bound to ICE, regulates Ifnb1 enhanceosome loading, controls Ifnb1 chromatin structure and represses Ifnb1 gene transcription by preventing recruitment of CBP/p300. These results characterize a previously unknown mechanism of macrophage-specific regulation of Ifnb1 transcription whereby TRIM33 is critical for Ifnb1 gene transcription shutdown. PMID:26592194

  15. TRIM33 switches off Ifnb1 gene transcription during the late phase of macrophage activation

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Federica; Parcelier, Aude; Petit, Vanessa; Gallouet, Anne-Sophie; Lewandowski, Daniel; Dalloz, Marion; van den Heuvel, Anita; Kolovos, Petros; Soler, Eric; Squadrito, Mario Leonardo; De Palma, Michele; Davidson, Irwin; Rousselet, Germain; Romeo, Paul-Henri

    2015-01-01

    Despite its importance during viral or bacterial infections, transcriptional regulation of the interferon-? gene (Ifnb1) in activated macrophages is only partially understood. Here we report that TRIM33 deficiency results in high, sustained expression of Ifnb1 at late stages of toll-like receptor-mediated activation in macrophages but not in fibroblasts. In macrophages, TRIM33 is recruited by PU.1 to a conserved region, the Ifnb1 Control Element (ICE), located 15?kb upstream of the Ifnb1 transcription start site. ICE constitutively interacts with Ifnb1 through a TRIM33-independent chromatin loop. At late phases of lipopolysaccharide activation of macrophages, TRIM33 is bound to ICE, regulates Ifnb1 enhanceosome loading, controls Ifnb1 chromatin structure and represses Ifnb1 gene transcription by preventing recruitment of CBP/p300. These results characterize a previously unknown mechanism of macrophage-specific regulation of Ifnb1 transcription whereby TRIM33 is critical for Ifnb1 gene transcription shutdown. PMID:26592194

  16. Methodology for determining elevon deflections to trim and maneuver the DAST vehicle with negative static margin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, B., III

    1982-01-01

    The relationships between elevon deflection and static margin using elements from static and dynamic stability and control and from classical control theory are emphasized. Expressions are derived and presented for calculating elevon deflections required to trim the vehicle in lg straight-and-level flight and to perform specified longitudinal and lateral maneuvers. Applications of this methodology are made at several flight conditions for the ARW-2 wing. On the basis of these applications, it appears possible to trim and maneuver the vehicle with the existing elevons at -15% static margin.

  17. Factors Controlling Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in the Hyporheic Zone Induced by Fish Egg Nests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, A.; Cardenas, M. B.; Kaufman, M.; Zheng, L.; Kessler, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    There is currently limited research on the effects of bed depressions, such as those associated with fish nests, on hyporheic flow and biogeochemistry. A series of flume experiments are in progress, with the aim of understanding the effects of bed depressions on the hyporheic flow of oxygenated water. This study focuses on fish nests, also called redds, which represent a typical depression or scour feature. Previous research has shown that redd topography induces hyporheic circulation, but experiments regarding the oxygen concentration in and around the redds have not been conducted. We are determining the ways in which redds affect dissolved oxygen distribution and how this is controlled by hyporheic flow. The oxygen concentration across the cross-sectional plane of a fish nest is measured using a planar optode and microsensors. Hydraulic measurements include pressure measurements along the sediment-water interface and dye visualization. The redd design is based on a salmonid redd, which consists of a scour feature and a tailspin. The salmonid eggs are found in the tailspin. We hypothesize that the oxygen concentration will be greatest in close proximity to the gravel base of the redd and concentration will decrease with increasing depth and distance from the redd. Higher oxygen concentrations in the tailspin supports the placement of fish eggs within that area as opposed to a less oxygenated area of the streambed. Thus, fish nests are likely bio-engineered to optimize hyporheic flow and biogeochemistry to improve egg viability.

  18. Numerical analysis of the primary processes controlling oxygen dynamics on the Louisiana shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, L.; Fennel, K.; Laurent, A.; Murrell, M. C.; Lehrter, J. C.

    2015-04-01

    The Louisiana shelf, in the northern Gulf of Mexico, receives large amounts of freshwater and nutrients from the Mississippi-Atchafalaya river system. These river inputs contribute to widespread bottom-water hypoxia every summer. In this study, we use a physical-biogeochemical model that explicitly simulates oxygen sources and sinks on the Louisiana shelf to identify the key mechanisms controlling hypoxia development. First, we validate the model simulation against observed dissolved oxygen concentrations, primary production, water column respiration, and sediment oxygen consumption. In the model simulation, heterotrophy is prevalent in shelf waters throughout the year, except near the mouths of the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers, where primary production exceeds respiratory oxygen consumption during June and July. During this time, efflux of oxygen to the atmosphere, driven by photosynthesis and surface warming, becomes a significant oxygen sink. A substantial fraction of primary production occurs below the pycnocline in summer. We investigate whether this primary production below the pycnocline is mitigating the development of hypoxic conditions with the help of a sensitivity experiment where we disable biological processes in the water column (i.e., primary production and water column respiration). With this experiment we show that below-pycnocline primary production reduces the spatial extent of hypoxic bottom waters only slightly. Our results suggest that the combination of physical processes (advection and vertical diffusion) and sediment oxygen consumption largely determine the spatial extent and dynamics of hypoxia on the Louisiana shelf.

  19. Modeling, simulation, and high-autonomy control of a Martian oxygen production plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schooley, L. C.; Cellier, F. E.; Wang, F.-Y.; Zeigler, B. P.

    1992-01-01

    Progress on a project for the development of a high-autonomy intelligent command and control architecture for process plants used to produce oxygen from local planetary resources is reported. A distributed command and control architecture is being developed and implemented so that an oxygen production plant, or other equipment, can be reliably commanded and controlled over an extended time period in a high-autonomy mode with high-level task-oriented teleoperation from one or several remote locations. During the reporting period, progress was made at all levels of the architecture. At the remote site, several remote observers can now participate in monitoring the plant. At the local site, a command and control center was introduced for increased flexibility, reliability, and robustness. The local control architecture was enhanced to control multiple tubes in parallel, and was refined for increased robustness. The simulation model was enhanced to full dynamics descriptions.

  20. April 27, 2015 22:30 WSPC -Proceedings Trim Size: 9in x 6in upslopewalking A Bio-inspired Behavior Based Bipedal Locomotion Control

    E-print Network

    Berns, Karsten

    prosthesis. The knee and an- kle kinematic data for healthy subjects walking on level and up 5 , 8 and 10 parameters for the lower limb prosthesis in different inclinations. The suggested control approach utilizes

  1. 7 CFR 51.585 - Fairly well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1 2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.585 Fairly well trimmed. Fairly well trimmed means that the main root has been cut off so...

  2. 7 CFR 51.585 - Fairly well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.585 Fairly well trimmed. Fairly well trimmed means that the main root has been cut off so...

  3. 7 CFR 51.585 - Fairly well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.585 Fairly well trimmed. Fairly well trimmed means that the main root has been cut off so...

  4. 7 CFR 51.585 - Fairly well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.585 Fairly well trimmed. Fairly well trimmed means that the main root has been cut off so...

  5. 7 CFR 51.585 - Fairly well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.585 Fairly well trimmed. Fairly well trimmed means that the main root has been cut off so...

  6. Eutectic Trimming of Polysilicon Micro Hemispherical Resonating Gyroscope

    E-print Network

    Ayazi, Farrokh

    Eutectic Trimming of Polysilicon Micro Hemispherical Resonating Gyroscope Benoit Hamelin, Vahid stiffness modification for mode trimming of poly-silicon micro hemispherical resonating gyroscope (HRG MEMS resonant gyroscopes are vital components of an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU), and can enable

  7. Quality control of long-term oxygen and related observations at the Koljoe Fjord Observatory, Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kononets, M.; Tengberg, A.; Atamanchuk, D.; Waldmann, C.; Behnken, A.; Hall, P. O. J.

    2012-04-01

    A cabled observatory was deployed at 40 m depth in the Koljoe Fjord, Swedish west-coast, in April 2011. One node of the observatory is equipped with around 30 sensors to monitor oxygen (with optodes), salinity, temperature and currents in the water column. This node has also been used for testing of new CO2 optodes. The Observatory has a remote telemetry system implemented with on-line control, and measured values are available in real time (see http://mkononets.dyndns-home.com:8080/). Located close to the Observatory is a sampling station for the Swedish national monitoring program run by SMHI (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, http://www.smhi.se/oceanografi/oce_info_data/SODC/download_sv.htm). Every month samples are taken at several depths, and numerous water parameters are analyzed with traceable high accuracy and precision methods. In this presentation quality control of oxygen and other data collected by this coastal observatory will be in focus. Even with the monthly reference data available, checking measured sensor values against the reference is challenging, especially for oxygen. There are several potential sources of errors like biofouling, tidal fluctuations that induce movements of pycno/oxycline and difficulties in taking uncontaminated samples at low oxygen conditions. Sensor data suggest that oxygen can occasionally vary with up to 70% of air saturation within a few hours at a single depth. Influence of the factors affecting oxygen measurements will be illustrated. Points important for correctly checking oxygen data will be highlighted. Possible ways of improving quality control from continuous monitoring data will also be discussed.

  8. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303... household textile articles. (a) Trimmings incorporated in articles of wearing apparel and other household textile articles may, among other forms of trim, include: (1) Rick-rack, tape, belting, binding,...

  9. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303... household textile articles. (a) Trimmings incorporated in articles of wearing apparel and other household textile articles may, among other forms of trim, include: (1) Rick-rack, tape, belting, binding,...

  10. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303... household textile articles. (a) Trimmings incorporated in articles of wearing apparel and other household textile articles may, among other forms of trim, include: (1) Rick-rack, tape, belting, binding,...

  11. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303... household textile articles. (a) Trimmings incorporated in articles of wearing apparel and other household textile articles may, among other forms of trim, include: (1) Rick-rack, tape, belting, binding,...

  12. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles. (a) Trimmings incorporated in articles of wearing apparel and other...

  13. Oxygen fugacity control in piston-cylinder experiments: a re-evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, Sigurdur; Blundy, Jon; Moore, Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Jakobsson (Contrib Miner Petrol 164(3):397-407, 2012) investigated a double capsule assembly for use in piston-cylinder experiments that would allow hydrous, high-temperature, and high-pressure experiments to be conducted under controlled oxygen fugacity conditions. Using a platinum outer capsule containing a metal oxide oxygen buffer (Ni-NiO or Co-CoO) and H2O, with an inner gold-palladium capsule containing hydrous melt, this study was able to compare the oxygen fugacity imposed by the outer capsule oxygen buffer with an oxygen fugacity estimated by the AuPdFe ternary system calibrated by Barr and Grove (Contrib Miner Petrol 160(5):631-643, 2010). H2O loss or gain, as well as iron loss to the capsule walls and carbon contamination, is often observed in piston-cylinder experiments and often go unexplained. Only a few have attempted to actually quantify various aspects of these changes (Brooker et al. in Am Miner 83(9-10):985-994, 1998; Truckenbrodt and Johannes in Am Miner 84:1333-1335, 1999). It was one of the goals of Jakobsson (Contrib Miner Petrol 164(3):397-407, 2012) to address these issues by using and testing the AuPdFe solution model of Barr and Grove (Contrib Miner Petrol 160(5):631-643, 2010), as well as to constrain the oxygen fugacity of the inner capsule. The oxygen fugacities of the analyzed melts were assumed to be equal to those of the solid Ni-NiO and Co-CoO buffers, which is incorrect since the melts are all undersaturated in H2O and the oxygen fugacities should therefore be lower than that of the buffer by 2 log.

  14. CONTROL OF TRANSIENT INCINERATOR EMISSIONS WITH AN OXYGEN BASED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The subject of this paper is the experience with a novel and field-proven method for the enhanced control of transient emissions from rotary kiln incinerators using oxygen enrichment. hen high-BTU content wastes are fed into rotary kiln incinerators in an intermittent mode (typic...

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTROLLING BOP (BASIC OXYGEN PROCESS) CHARGING EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of the basic oxygen process (BOP) hot metal charging emission control technology, conducted with a 900 kg pilot vessel designed for the experiments. Complete instrumentation was provided to measure the emissions, the effectiveness of the variou...

  16. Oxygen as a control on seafloor biological communities and their roles in sedimentary carbon cycling

    E-print Network

    Whitcraft, Christine

    environments. Metazoan macrofauna and macrofauna-sized foraminiferans took up as much as 56 6 13 mg of added C) foraminiferans. This led us to propose the hypothesis that oxygen controls the relative dominance of metazoan, the polychaete Linopherus sp. and the calcareous foraminiferan Uvigerina ex gr. semiornata, dominated the uptake

  17. PROCESSES CONTROLLING THE AIR-SEA EXCHANGE OF OXYGEN IN SOUTHERN KANEOHE BAY, OAHU, HAWAII

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Bo

    PROCESSES CONTROLLING THE AIR-SEA EXCHANGE OF OXYGEN IN SOUTHERN KANEOHE BAY, OAHU, HAWAII A THESIS Thesis Advisor Fred T. Mackenzie #12;ii ABSTRACT Measuring the net rate of exchange of O2 across the air flux across the air-sea interface of Southern Kaneohe Bay. The role of biological and physical mixing

  18. Control of functional responses via reversible oxygen loss in La?-xSrxFeO?-? films.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yujun; Scafetta, Mark D; Sichel-Tissot, Rebecca J; Moon, Eun Ju; Devlin, Robert C; Wu, Hanqi; Krick, Alex L; May, Steven J

    2014-03-01

    La0.3 Sr0.7 FeO3-? films undergo dramatic changes in electronic and optical properties due to reversible oxygen loss induced by low-temperature heating. This mechanism to control the functional properties may serve as a platform for new devices or sensors in which external stimuli are used to dynamically control the composition of complex oxide heterostructures. PMID:24734299

  19. How to minimize power in dissolved oxygen control... DSM in action

    SciTech Connect

    Skrentner, R.G.; Lutman, C.G.

    1994-12-31

    As part of the EPRI Municipal Water and Sewage Project, Demand-Side Energy Management, EPRI retained EMA to evaluate the life cycle cost of three alternatives for controlling low-pressure centrifugal compressors to reduce power costs. The alternatives included: inlet guide vanes, inlet butterfly valves, and adjustable speed drives. This paper contains the findings and identifies actions that could benefit wastewater treatment facilities. Many wastewater treatment plants use an activated sludge process to remove organic pollutants. In this process, a large mass of microbes consumes the organic matter in the wastewater. The microbes require diffused oxygen to metabolize the organic material. The diffused air mixes with the contents of the aeration basin and provides oxygen to the microbes. The basic activated sludge process has the following features: (1) An aeration basin with provisions for oxygenation and mixing of the mixed liquor, (2) A settling tank or clarifier to separate mixed liquor solids and liquid, (3) A sludge recycling system to return settled activated sludge to the aeration basin, and (4) A sludge wasting system to remove solids at the rate that it grows, thus maintaining the desired mass of solids in the process. The operator has three main control variables: (1) Aeration rate to control the dissolved oxygen concentration in the aeration basin. The operator sets the aeration rate to maintain dissolved oxygen at 1-2 mg/l. (2) Sludge recycle rate to control the concentration of the return sludge and the mass of solids in the clarifier. The operator sets the return rate to maintain the sludge blanket level at some predetermined depth. (3) Sludge wasting rate to control the solids retention time and mass of solids in the process. The operator sets the waste rate usually once per day to remove a pre-determined mass.

  20. Insulating ferromagnetic oxide films: the controlling role of oxygen vacancy ordering

    SciTech Connect

    Salafranca Laforga, Juan I; Salafranca, Juan; Biskup, Nevenko; Mehta, Virat; Oxley, Mark P; Suzuki, Yuri; Pennycook, Stephen J; Pantelides, Sokrates T.; Varela del Arco, Maria

    2014-01-01

    The origin of ferromagnetism in strained epitaxial LaCoO3 films has been a long-standing mystery. Here, we combine atomically resolved Z-contrast imaging, electron-energy-loss spectroscopy, and density-functional calculations to demonstrate that, in epitaxial LaCoO3 films, oxygen-vacancy superstructures release strain, control the film s electronic properties, and produce the observed ferromagnetism via the excess electrons in the Co d states. Although oxygen vacancies typically dope a material n-type, we find that ordered vacancies induce Peierls-like minigaps which, combined with strain relaxation, trigger a nonlinear rupture of the energy bands, resulting in insulating behavior.

  1. Scaling-Free Electrochemical Production of Caustic and Oxygen for Sulfide Control in Sewers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Wen; Rabaey, Korneel; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo; Pikaar, Ilje

    2015-10-01

    Caustic shock-loading and oxygen injection are commonly used by the water industry for biofilm and sulfide control in sewers. Caustic can be produced onsite from wastewater using a two-compartment electrochemical cell. This avoids the need for import and storage of caustic soda, which typically represents a cost and a hazard. An issue limiting the practical implementation of this approach is the occurrence of membrane scaling due to the almost universal presence of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in wastewater. It results in a rapid increase in the cell voltage, thereby increasing the energy consumption of the system. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate an innovative solution for this problem involving the inclusion of a middle compartment between the anode and cathode compartments. Caustic was efficiently produced from wastewater over a period of 12 weeks and had an average Coulombic efficiency (CE) of 84.1 ± 1.1% at practically relevant caustic strengths (?3 wt %). Neither membrane scaling nor an increase in the cell voltage was observed throughout the experiments. In addition, dissolved oxygen was produced in the anode, resulting in continuously oxygenated wastewater leaving the three-compartment cell. This membrane-scaling control strategy represents a major step forward toward practical implementation of on-site simultaneous electrochemical caustic and oxygen generation for sulfide control in sewers and also has the potential to be applied to other (bio)electrochemical systems receiving wastewater as source for product recovery. PMID:26377687

  2. Predicting Tensile Stretchability of Trimmed AA6111-T4 Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Xiaohua; Sun, Xin; Golovashchenko, Sergey F.

    2014-02-15

    An integrated manufacturing process simulation framework has been developed to predict the trimmed edge tensile stretchability of AA6111-T4 sheets by incorporating the burr geometry, damage, and plastic strain from trimming simulations into subsequent tensile stretchability simulations. The influence of the trimming die clearances on the predicted tensile stretching ductility (stretchability) is studied and quantitatively compared with experimental measurements. Stretchability is found to decrease with increasing cutting clearances, and simulation results have successfully captured experimentally observed edge crack initiation and failure mode variations for different trimming clearances. Subsequent computational sensitivity studies reveal that while deburring of previously trimmed edges has little influence on tensile stretchability, removal of trimmed edge initial plastic strain may significantly enhance the subsequent trimmed edge stretchability.

  3. Antibody- and TRIM21-dependent intracellular restriction of Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Rakebrandt, Nikolas; Lentes, Sabine; Neumann, Heinz; James, Leo C; Neumann-Staubitz, Petra

    2014-11-01

    TRIM21 ('tripartite motif-containing protein 21', Ro52) is a ubiquitously expressed cytosolic Fc receptor, which has a potent role in protective immunity against nonenveloped viruses. TRIM21 mediates intracellular neutralisation of antibody-coated viruses, a process called ADIN (antibody-dependent intracellular neutralisation). Our results reveal a similar mechanism to fight bacterial infections. TRIM21 is recruited to the intracellular pathogen Salmonella enterica in epithelial cells early in infection. TRIM21 does not bind directly to S. enterica, but to antibodies opsonising it. Most importantly, bacterial restriction is dependent on TRIM21 as well as on the opsonisation state of the bacteria. Finally, Salmonella and TRIM21 colocalise with the autophagosomal marker LC3, and intracellular defence is enhanced in starved cells suggesting an involvement of the autophagocytic pathway. Our data extend the protective role of TRIM21 from viruses to bacteria and thereby strengthening the general role of ADIN in cellular immunity. PMID:24920099

  4. Foodservice industry market profile study: in-plant beef fat trim level survey and cutting yields.

    PubMed

    Neel, S W; Williams, S E; Johnson, L P; Gwartney, B L; Reagan, J O

    1993-07-01

    Fifty foodservice purveying companies were sampled in 12 U.S. cities evenly distributed across six geographical regions. Beef whole muscle cuts (WMC) and portion control items (PCI) from the primal rib and loin were evaluated for surface fat levels. Fat thicknesses were measured on WMC before and after fabrication, whereas additional PCI were measured for fat trim levels before distribution. The average initial fat thickness was 11.9 mm (174 Short Loin and 180A Strip Loin) and 15.6 mm (184 Top Sirloin Butt); maximum fat thicknesses ranged from 16.2 mm (strip loin) to 22.2 mm (top sirloin butt). After fabrication, average fat thicknesses were 6.2, 5.1, and 4.0 mm for resulting products from the short loin, strip loin, and top sirloin butt, respectively. The average initial fat thickness for the strip loin was greater (P < .05) in Southeast and Northeast regions than in Mountain/Desert, Midwest, and Southwest regions. In contrast, average trimmed fat thicknesses for products from the strip loin and top sirloin butt were lower (P < .05) in the Southeast and Northeast than in all other regions. Average fat trim levels for PCI were 3.0 (1112A Ribeye Roll steak, Lip-On), 5.3 (1173B/1174B T-Bone/Porterhouse steak), 5.0 (1180A Strip Loin steak), and 4.0 mm (1184B Top Sirloin steak). Maximum fat trim levels were 4.4 (IMPS 1112A), 7.4 (IMPS 1173B/1174B), 6.9 (IMPS 1180A), and 5.5 mm (IMPS 1184B). The PCI had average and maximum fat trim levels in compliance with USDA (1988) recommendations for fat trim specifications.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8349507

  5. Two-level multivariable control system of dissolved oxygen tracking and aeration system for activated sludge processes.

    PubMed

    Piotrowski, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The problem of tracking dissolved oxygen is one of the most complex and fundamental issues related to biological processes. The dissolved oxygen level in aerobic tanks has a significant influence on the behavior and activity of microorganisms. Aerated tanks are supplied with air from an aeration system (blowers, pipes, throttling valves, and diffusers). It is a complex, dynamic system governed by nonlinear hybrid dynamics. Control of the aeration system is also difficult in terms of control of the dissolved oxygen. In this article, a two-level multivariable control system for tracking dissolved oxygen and controlling an aeration system is designed. A nonlinear model predictive control algorithm was applied to design controllers for each level. This overall hierarchical control system was validated by simulation based on real data records provided by a water resource recovery facility located in Kartuzy, Northern Poland. The effect of control system parameters and disturbances was also investigated. PMID:25630122

  6. Spatial control of the energy metabolism of yeast cells through electrolytic generation of oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnke, Christian; Mair, Thomas; Witte, Hartmut; Reiher, Antje; Hauser, Marcus J. B.; Krost, Alois

    2009-12-01

    The metabolic dynamics of yeast cells is controlled by electric pulses delivered through a spatially extended yeast cell/Au electrode interface. Concomitant with voltage pulses, oxygen is generated electrolytically at the electrode surface and delivered to the cells. The generation of oxygen was investigated in dependence of the applied voltage, width of the voltage pulses and temperature of the electrolytic solution. The local oxygen pulses at the electrodes lead to a transient activation of the aerobic energy metabolism of the yeast cells causing a perturbation in their energy balance. The effect of these local perturbations on the temporal dynamics of glycolysis in yeast cells is quantified in dependence of the energy state of cells.

  7. Control of nitratation in an oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification/denitrification rotating biological contactor through disc immersion level variation.

    PubMed

    Courtens, Emilie N P; Boon, Nico; De Clippeleir, Haydée; Berckmoes, Karla; Mosquera, Mariela; Seuntjens, Dries; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E

    2014-03-01

    With oxygen supply playing a crucial role in an oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification/denitrification (OLAND) rotating biological contactor (RBC), its controlling factors were investigated in this study. Disc rotation speeds (1.8 and 3.6rpm) showed no influence on the process performance of a lab-scale RBC, although abiotic experiments showed a significant effect on the oxygenation capacity. Estimations of the biological oxygen uptake rate revealed that 85-89% of the oxygen was absorbed by the microorganisms during the air exposure of the discs. Indeed, increasing the disc immersion (50 to 75-80%) could significantly suppress undesired nitratation, on the short and long term. The presented results demonstrated that nitratation could be controlled by the immersion level and revealed that oxygen control in an OLAND RBC should be predominantly based on the atmospheric exposure percentage of the discs. PMID:24457304

  8. Prediction and innovative control strategies for oxygen and hazardous gases from diesel emission in underground mines.

    PubMed

    Kurnia, Jundika C; Sasmito, Agus P; Wong, Wai Yap; Mujumdar, Arun S

    2014-05-15

    Diesel engine is widely used in underground mining machines due to its efficiency, ease of maintenance, reliability and durability. However, it possesses significant danger to the miners and mining operations as it releases hazardous gases (CO, NO, CO2) and fine particles which can be easily inhaled by the miners. Moreover, the diesel engine consumes significant amount of oxygen which can lead to insufficient oxygen supply for miners. It is therefore critical to maintain sufficient oxygen supply while keeping hazardous gas concentrations from diesel emission below the maximum allowable level. The objective of this study is to propose and to examine various innovative ventilation strategies to control oxygen and hazardous gas concentrations in underground mine to ensure safety, productivity and cost related to energy consumption. Airflow distribution, oxygen and hazardous gas dispersion as well as ambient temperature within the mining area are evaluated by utilizing the well-established computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. The results suggest that our newly proposed ventilation design performs better as compared to the conventional design to handle hazardous gases from diesel emission. PMID:24607396

  9. Building Trades. Block VIII. Interior Trim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This curriculum for interior trim provides instructional materials for 18 informational and manipulative lessons. A list of 11 references precedes the course materials. The instructor's plan for each informational lesson begins by providing this information: subject, aim, required teaching aids, required materials, references, and prerequisite…

  10. Compensation, Tuning, and Trimming of MEMS Resonators

    E-print Network

    Ayazi, Farrokh

    Compensation, Tuning, and Trimming of MEMS Resonators Farrokh Ayazi, Roozbeh Tabrizian, Logan Sorenson Center for MEMS and Microsystems Technologies Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, GA, USA ayazi@gatech.edu Abstract--Fundamental characteristics of MEMS resonators such as acoustic velocity

  11. 14 CFR 25.161 - Trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Trim. 25.161 Section 25.161 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS... extended, the wing flaps (i) retracted and (ii) extended, and with the most unfavorable combination...

  12. 14 CFR 25.161 - Trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Trim. 25.161 Section 25.161 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS... extended, the wing flaps (i) retracted and (ii) extended, and with the most unfavorable combination...

  13. 14 CFR 25.161 - Trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Trim. 25.161 Section 25.161 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS... extended, the wing flaps (i) retracted and (ii) extended, and with the most unfavorable combination...

  14. 14 CFR 25.161 - Trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trim. 25.161 Section 25.161 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS... extended, the wing flaps (i) retracted and (ii) extended, and with the most unfavorable combination...

  15. Control of oxygen vacancies and their kinetic behaviours via reversible oxygen loss in BiFeO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Kangli; Huang, Fengzhen; Jin, Yaming; Lu, Xiaomei; Wu, Huarui; Zhu, Jinsong

    2015-11-01

    Oxygen vacancies and their kinetic behaviours were systematically investigated in quenched BiFeO3 ceramics. Complex relaxation processes were observed and discussed based on the migration of V\\text{o}+ , V\\text{o}2+ and the transition in between them, where V\\text{o}+ , V\\text{o}2+ represent the oxygen vacancies with single and two positive charges, respectively. It is found that an oxygen-deficient environment promotes the transformation from V\\text{o}+ to V\\text{o}2+ , while oxygen treatment can reverse such a transformation. This work provides a feasible alternative method to modulate oxygen vacancies and their migration in favour of the applications of BiFeO3.

  16. Dissolved oxygen regulation by logarithmic/antilogarithmic control to improve a wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Flores, Victor R; Sanchez, Edgar N; Béteau, Jean-François; Hernandez, Salvador Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the automation of a real activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, which is located at San Antonio Ajijic in Jalisco, Mexico. The main objective is to create an on-line automatic supervision system, and to regulate the dissolved oxygen concentration in order to improve the performances of the process treating municipal wastewater. An approximate mathematical model is determined in order to evaluate via simulations different control strategies: proportional integral (PI), fuzzy PI and PI Logarithm/Antilogarithm (PI L/A). The controlled variable is dissolved oxygen and the control input is the injected oxygen. Based on this evaluation, the PI L/A controller is selected to be implemented in the real process. After that, the implementation, testing and fully operation of the plant automation are described. With this system, the considered wastewater treatment plant save energy and improves the effluent quality; also, the process monitoring is done online and it is easily operated by the plant users. PMID:24617069

  17. Design and development of microbioreactors for long-term cell culture in controlled oxygen microenvironments.

    PubMed

    Abaci, Hasan E; Devendra, Raghavendra; Smith, Quinton; Gerecht, Sharon; Drazer, German

    2012-02-01

    The ability to control the oxygen level to which cells are exposed in tissue culture experiments is crucial for many applications. Here, we design, develop and test a microbioreactor (MBR) for long-term cell culture studies with the capability to accurately control and continuously monitor the dissolved oxygen (DO) level in the cell microenvironment. In addition, the DO level can be controlled independently from other cues, such as the viscous shear-stress acting on the cells. We first analyze the transport of oxygen in the proposed device and determine the materials and dimensions that are compatible with uniform oxygen tension and low shear-stress at the cell level. The device is also designed to culture a statistically significant number of cells. We use fully transparent materials and the overall design of the device is compatible with live-cell imaging. The proposed system includes real-time read-out of actual DO levels, is simple to fabricate at low cost, and can be easily expanded to control the concentration of other microenvironmental solutes. We performed control experiments in the absence of cells to demonstrate that the MBR can be used to accurately modulate DO levels ranging from atmospheric level to 1%, both under no flow and perfusion conditions. We also demonstrate cancer cell attachment and viability within the MBR. The proposed MBR offers the unprecedented capability to perform on-line measurement and analysis of DO levels in the microenvironment of adherent cultures and to correlate them with various cellular responses. PMID:21947550

  18. Functional replacement of the RING, B-box 2, and coiled-coil domains of tripartite motif 5alpha (TRIM5alpha) by heterologous TRIM domains.

    PubMed

    Li, Xing; Li, Yuan; Stremlau, Matthew; Yuan, Wen; Song, Byeongwoon; Perron, Michel; Sodroski, Joseph

    2006-07-01

    Tripartite motif 5alpha (TRIM5alpha) restricts some retroviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), from infecting the cells of particular species. TRIM5alpha is a member of the TRIM family of proteins, which contain RING, B-box, coiled-coil (CC), and, in some cases, B30.2(SPRY) domains. Here we investigated the abilities of domains from TRIM proteins (TRIM6, TRIM34, and TRIM21) that do not restrict HIV-1 infection to substitute for the domains of rhesus monkey TRIM5alpha (TRIM5alpha(rh)). The RING, B-box 2, and CC domains of the paralogous TRIM6 and TRIM34 proteins functionally replaced the corresponding TRIM5alpha(rh) domains, allowing HIV-1 restriction. By contrast, similar chimeras containing the components of TRIM21, a slightly more distant relative of TRIM5, did not restrict HIV-1 infection. The TRIM21 B-box 2 domain and its flanking linker regions contributed to the functional defectiveness of these chimeras. All of the chimeric proteins formed trimers. All of the chimeras that restricted HIV-1 infection bound the assembled HIV-1 capsid complexes. These results indicate that heterologous RING, B-box 2, and CC domains from related TRIM proteins can functionally substitute for TRIM5alpha(rh) domains. PMID:16775307

  19. Oxygen binding and its allosteric control in hemoglobin of the primitive branchiopod crustacean Triops cancriformis.

    PubMed

    Pirow, Ralph; Hellmann, Nadja; Weber, Roy E

    2007-07-01

    Branchiopod crustaceans are endowed with extracellular, high-molecular-mass hemoglobins (Hbs), the functional and allosteric properties of which have largely remained obscure. The Hb of the phylogenetically ancient Triops cancriformis (Notostraca) revealed moderate oxygen affinity, cooperativity and pH dependence (Bohr effect) coefficients: P(50) = 13.3 mmHg, n(50) = 2.3, and Phi = -0.18, at 20 degrees C and pH 7.44 in Tris buffer. The in vivo hemolymph pH was 7.52. Bivalent cations increased oxygen affinity, Mg(2+) exerting a greater effect than Ca(2+). Analysis of cooperative oxygen binding in terms of the nested Monod-Wyman-Changeux (MWC) model revealed an allosteric unit of four oxygen-binding sites and functional coupling of two to three allosteric units. The predicted 2 x 4 and 3 x 4 nested structures are in accord with stoichiometric models of the quarternary structure. The allosteric control mechanism of protons comprises a left shift of the upper asymptote of extended Hill plots which is ascribable to the displacement of the equilibrium between (at least) two high-affinity (relaxed) states, similar to that found in extracellular annelid and pulmonate molluscan Hbs. Remarkably, Mg(2+) ions increased oxygen affinity solely by displacing the equilibrium between the tense and relaxed conformations towards the relaxed states, which accords with the original MWC concept, but appears to be unique among Hbs. This effect is distinctly different from those of ionic effectors (bivalent cations, protons and organic phosphates) on annelid, pulmonate and vertebrate Hbs, which involve changes in the oxygen affinity of the tense and/or relaxed conformations. PMID:17550418

  20. Ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on iceberg lettuce. II. Pre-treatment on lettuce tolerance and sequential controlled atmosphere

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-stored iceberg lettuce under normal atmosphere and controlled atmosphere (CA) with about 3% oxygen at low temperature for one week was compared with fresh lettuce for their response to 2-day ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment at 10 degrees C for control of western flower thrips. For both atmospheri...

  1. Data acquisition and control system with a programmable logic controller (PLC) for a pulsed chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haijun; Li, Guofu; Duo, Liping; Jin, Yuqi; Wang, Jian; Sang, Fengting; Kang, Yuanfu; Li, Liucheng; Wang, Yuanhu; Tang, Shukai; Yu, Hongliang

    2015-02-01

    A user-friendly data acquisition and control system (DACS) for a pulsed chemical oxygen -iodine laser (PCOIL) has been developed. It is implemented by an industrial control computer?a PLC, and a distributed input/output (I/O) module, as well as the valve and transmitter. The system is capable of handling 200 analogue/digital channels for performing various operations such as on-line acquisition, display, safety measures and control of various valves. These operations are controlled either by control switches configured on a PC while not running or by a pre-determined sequence or timings during the run. The system is capable of real-time acquisition and on-line estimation of important diagnostic parameters for optimization of a PCOIL. The DACS system has been programmed using software programmable logic controller (PLC). Using this DACS, more than 200 runs were given performed successfully.

  2. Optimization of the operating parameters of a grass trimming machine.

    PubMed

    Mallick, Zulquernain

    2010-03-01

    Hand-arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) is very common among the workers operating power tools and doing similar nature of work for long hours. Grass trimming is one of the operations that involves use of vibrating cutter, and results in hand-arm vibration among workers. In this study, the influence of several operating parameters (length of nylon cutting thread, engine speed and handle material) is investigated in terms of HAV. Data are analyzed via orthogonal array, main effect, signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio, and analysis of variance to determine the appropriate operating parameter levels to minimize HAV. Operating parameters under investigation are found to be influential in controlling HAV generation during grass trimming operation. Experiments are carried out for measuring hand-arm vibration using tri-axial accelerometer conforming the effectiveness of this approach. Results show that 100mm length of nylon thread, 3000+/-400rpm of engine speed and ABS handle material combination results in minimum HAV (HARM) of magnitude 2.76m/s(2). Through this study not only the optimal operating parameter levels for GTM are obtained, but also the main process parameters that affect the HAV are determined. The optimum HAV obtained through appropriate level selection of operating parameters, significantly reduces the occurrence of HAVS among the grass trimmers. PMID:19762006

  3. Oxygen stoichiometry control of nanometric oxide compounds: The case of titanium ferrites

    SciTech Connect

    Millot, N.

    2011-10-15

    Three techniques have been coupled with an original device, based on H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O equilibrium, controlling oxygen partial pressure: XRD, TGA and DC conductivity in order to characterize very reactive compounds such as nanometric powders. From XRD, both the structure and the oxygen stoichiometry (thanks to their lattice parameter) were investigated in situ. From TGA, it was the oxygen stoichiometry (thanks to mass gain or loss) which was determined. From DC conductivity, it was both the structure and the oxygen stoichiometry (thanks to the activation energy) which were obtained. The advantages were to determine very rapidly and with a small amount of powder the equilibrium conditions (T, pO{sub 2}) necessary to obtain the desired phase and stoichiometry. These methods have been evaluated for nanometric titanium ferrites. Two phenomena have been observed during the reducing process: the precipitation of a rhombohedral phase and a significant grain growth linked together. - Graphical abstract: XRD patterns of Fe{sub 3(1-{delta})}O{sub 4} nanometric powders obtained in situ during a reducing treatment. The stoichiometric compound was obtained by a thermal annealing at 460 deg. C under pO{sub 2}=3x10{sup -26} Pa ({Phi}{sub DRX}=100 nm). In inset, data of the experimental lattice parameter compared to the theoretical one. {alpha} represents the rhomboedrical phase which precipitates during this thermal treatment, then disappeared. Highlights: > The control of the deviation from oxygen stoichiometry is rarely consider in literature. > At the nanometric scale, it is necessary to develop synthesis routes under appropriate atmosphere. > These synthesis must be coupled with in situ characterization tools. > It opens the door to fast and precise studies concerning the evolution of nanometric materials.

  4. Oxygen control of ethylene biosynthesis during seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramonell, K. M.; McClure, G.; Musgrave, M. E.

    2002-01-01

    An unforeseen side-effect on plant growth in reduced oxygen is the loss of seed production at concentrations around 25% atmospheric (50 mmol mol-1 O2). In this study, the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. cv. 'Columbia' was used to investigate the effect of low oxygen on ethylene biosynthesis during seed development. Plants were grown in a range of oxygen concentrations (210 [equal to ambient], 160, 100, 50 and 25 mmol mol-1) with 0.35 mmol mol-1 CO2 in N2. Ethylene in full-sized siliques was sampled using gas chromatography, and viable seed production was determined at maturity. Molecular analysis of ethylene biosynthesis was accomplished using cDNAs encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase in ribonuclease protection assays and in situ hybridizations. No ethylene was detected in siliques from plants grown at 50 and 25 mmol mol-1 O2. At the same time, silique ACC oxidase mRNA increased three-fold comparing plants grown under the lowest oxygen with ambient controls, whereas ACC synthase mRNA was unaffected. As O2 decreased, tissue-specific patterning of ACC oxidase and ACC synthase gene expression shifted from the embryo to the silique wall. These data demonstrate how low O2 modulates the activity and expression of the ethylene biosynthetic pathway during seed development in Arabidopsis.

  5. The 6670-Newton attitude-control thruster using hydrogen-oxygen propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1977-01-01

    The development of a reusable, attitude-control propulsion system for the space transportation system is discussed. A flight weight, gaseous oxygen attitude control thruster assembly was tested to obtain data on cyclic life, thermal and hydraulic characteristics, pulse response, and performance. The basic thruster components were tested in excess of 51,000 pulses and 660 seconds, steady state, with no degradation of the 93 percent characteristic exhaust velocity efficiency level. Nominal operating conditions were a chamber pressure of 207 N sq cm (300 psia), a mixture ratio of 4.0, a pulse width of 100 ms, and a pulse frequency of 2 Hz.

  6. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    DOEpatents

    Van Hoek, Pim (Minnetonka, MN); Aristidou, Aristos (Maple Grove, MN); Rush, Brian (Minneapolis, MN)

    2011-05-10

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  7. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoek, Pim; Aristidou, Aristos; Rush, Brian

    2014-09-09

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  8. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoek; Pim , Aristidou; Aristos , Rush; Brian

    2007-06-19

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  9. Semi-commercial ultralow oxygen treatment for control of western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (thysanoptera: thripidae), on harvested iceberg lettuce.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pallet scale two day ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment with 30 ppm oxygen at 10°C ambient temperature was conducted on seven cultivars of vacuum cooled iceberg lettuce which had been stored for 1, 3, 4, and 6 days to develop a safe and effective treatment for control of western flower thrips, Franklin...

  10. What Processes Control the Oxygen Isotopes of Soil Bio-available Phosphate? L. Bigio*, A. Gross and A. Angert

    E-print Network

    Einat, Aharonov

    driven towards isotopic equilibrium with soil water, which reflects the release of cell internalWhat Processes Control the Oxygen Isotopes of Soil Bio-available Phosphate? L. Bigio*, A. Gross that mediate its biological availability in soils. The use of the stable isotopes of oxygen in soil phosphate

  11. Computational aspects of helicopter trim analysis and damping levels from Floquet theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaonkar, Gopal H.; Achar, N. S.

    1992-01-01

    Helicopter trim settings of periodic initial state and control inputs are investigated for convergence of Newton iteration in computing the settings sequentially and in parallel. The trim analysis uses a shooting method and a weak version of two temporal finite element methods with displacement formulation and with mixed formulation of displacements and momenta. These three methods broadly represent two main approaches of trim analysis: adaptation of initial-value and finite element boundary-value codes to periodic boundary conditions, particularly for unstable and marginally stable systems. In each method, both the sequential and in-parallel schemes are used and the resulting nonlinear algebraic equations are solved by damped Newton iteration with an optimally selected damping parameter. The impact of damped Newton iteration, including earlier-observed divergence problems in trim analysis, is demonstrated by the maximum condition number of the Jacobian matrices of the iterative scheme and by virtual elimination of divergence. The advantages of the in-parallel scheme over the conventional sequential scheme are also demonstrated.

  12. Helicopter trim analysis by shooting and finite element methods with optimally damped Newton iterations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achar, N. S.; Gaonkar, G. H.

    1993-01-01

    Helicopter trim settings of periodic initial state and control inputs are investigated for convergence of Newton iteration in computing the settings sequentially and in parallel. The trim analysis uses a shooting method and a weak version of two temporal finite element methods with displacement formulation and with mixed formulation of displacements and momenta. These three methods broadly represent two main approaches of trim analysis: adaptation of initial-value and finite element boundary-value codes to periodic boundary conditions, particularly for unstable and marginally stable systems. In each method, both the sequential and in-parallel schemes are used, and the resulting nonlinear algebraic equations are solved by damped Newton iteration with an optimally selected damping parameter. The impact of damped Newton iteration, including earlier-observed divergence problems in trim analysis, is demonstrated by the maximum condition number of the Jacobian matrices of the iterative scheme and by virtual elimination of divergence. The advantages of the in-parallel scheme over the conventional sequential scheme are also demonstrated.

  13. Oxygen analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Benner, William H. (Danville, CA)

    1986-01-01

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  14. Multidecadal trends of oxygen and their controlling factors in the western North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasano, Daisuke; Takatani, Yusuke; Kosugi, Naohiro; Nakano, Toshiya; Midorikawa, Takashi; Ishii, Masao

    2015-07-01

    The rate of change of dissolved oxygen (O2) concentrations was analyzed over 1987-2011 for the high-frequency repeat section along 165°E in the western North Pacific. Significant trends toward decreasing O2 were detected in the northern subtropical to subtropical-subarctic transition zones over a broad range of isopycnal horizons. On 25.3?? between 25°N and 30°N in North Pacific Subtropical Mode Water, the rate of O2 decrease reached -0.45 ± 0.16 µmol kg-1 yr-1. It is largely attributed to a deepening of isopycnal horizons and to a reduction in oxygen solubility associated with ocean warming. In North Pacific Intermediate Water, the rate of O2 decrease was elevated (-0.44 ± 0.14 µmol kg-1 yr-1 on 26.8??) and was associated with net increases in apparent oxygen utilization in the source waters. On 27.3?? in the subtropical Oxygen Minimum Layer (OML) between 32.5°N and 35°N, the rate of O2 decrease was significant (-0.22 ± 0.05 µmol kg-1 yr-1). It was likely due to the increases in westward transport of low-oxygen water. These various drivers controlling changes in O2 along the 165°E section are the same as those acting along 137°E (analyzed previously) and also account for the differences in the rate of O2 decrease between these sections. Additionally, in the tropical OML near 26.8?? between 5°N and 10°N, significant trends toward increasing O2 were detected in both sections (+0.36 ± 0.04 µmol kg-1 yr-1 in the 165°E section). These results demonstrate that warming and circulation changes are causing multidecadal changes in dissolved O2 over wide expanses of the western North Pacific.

  15. Effect of controlled oxygen limitation on Candida shehatae physiology for ethanol production from xylose and glucose.

    PubMed

    Fromanger, Romain; Guillouet, S E; Uribelarrea, J L; Molina-Jouve, C; Cameleyre, X

    2010-05-01

    Carbon distribution and kinetics of Candida shehatae were studied in fed-batch fermentation with xylose or glucose (separately) as the carbon source in mineral medium. The fermentations were carried out in two phases, an aerobic phase dedicated to growth followed by an oxygen limitation phase dedicated to ethanol production. Oxygen limitation was quantified with an average specific oxygen uptake rate (OUR) varying between 0.30 and 2.48 mmolO(2) g dry cell weight (DCW)(-1) h(-1), the maximum value before the aerobic shift. The relations among respiration, growth, ethanol production and polyol production were investigated. It appeared that ethanol was produced to provide energy, and polyols (arabitol, ribitol, glycerol and xylitol) were produced to reoxidize NADH from assimilatory reactions and from the co-factor imbalance of the two-first enzymatic steps of xylose uptake. Hence, to manage carbon flux to ethanol production, oxygen limitation was a major controlled parameter; an oxygen limitation corresponding to an average specific OUR of 1.19 mmolO(2) g DCW(-1) h(-1) allowed maximization of the ethanol yield over xylose (0.327 g g(-1)), the average productivity (2.2 g l(-1) h(-1)) and the ethanol final titer (48.81 g l(-1)). For glucose fermentation, the ethanol yield over glucose was the highest (0.411 g g(-1)) when the specific OUR was low, corresponding to an average specific OUR of 0.30 mmolO(2) g DCW(-1) h(-1), whereas the average ethanol productivity and ethanol final titer reached the maximum values of 1.81 g l(-1) h(-1) and 54.19 g l(-1) when the specific OUR was the highest. PMID:20066468

  16. TRIMe7-CypA, an alternative splicing isoform of TRIMCyp in rhesus macaque, negatively modulates TRIM5? activity

    SciTech Connect

    Na, Lei; Tang, Yan-Dong; Liu, Jian-Dong; Yu, Chang-Qing; Sun, Liu-Ke; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Wang, Xue-Feng; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • TRIMe7-CypA expresses in rhesus and pig-tailed, but not long-tailed macaques. • TRIMe7-CypA does not show the restriction to a HIV-GFP report virus in vitro. • It acts as a negative modulator to TRIM5? likely by competitive inhibition. - Abstract: The existence of innate, host-specific restriction factors is a major obstacle to the development of nonhuman primate models for AIDS studies, and TRIM5? is one of the most important of these restriction factors. In recent years, a TRIM5 chimeric gene that was retrotransposed by a cyclophilin A (CypA) cDNA was identified in certain macaque species. The TRIM5?-CypA fusion protein, TRIMCyp, which was expressed in these monkeys, had lost its restriction ability toward HIV-1. We previously found that TRIMe7-CypA, an alternative splicing isoform of the TRIMCyp transcripts, was expressed in pig-tailed and rhesus macaques but absent in long-tailed macaques. In this study, the anti-HIV-1 activity of TRIMe7-CypA in the rhesus macaque (RhTRIMe7-CypA) was investigated. The over-expression of RhTRIMe7-CypA in CrFK, HeLa and HEK293T cells did not restrict the infection or replication of an HIV-1-GFP reporter virus in these cells. As a positive control, rhesus (rh)TRIM5? strongly inhibited the reporter virus. Intriguingly, the anti-HIV-1 activity of RhTRIM5? was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the co-repression of RhTRIMe7-CypA. Our data indicate that although the RhTRIMe7-CypA isoform does not appear to restrict HIV-1, it may act as a negative modulator of TRIM family proteins, presumably by competitive inhibition.

  17. Advancements in oxygen generation and humidity control by water vapor electrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Sudar, M.; Lee, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Regenerative processes for the revitalization of manned spacecraft atmospheres or other manned habitats are essential for realization of long-term space missions. These processes include oxygen generation through water electrolysis. One promising technique of water electrolysis is the direct conversion of the water vapor contained in the cabin air to oxygen. This technique is the subject of the present program on water vapor electrolysis development. The objectives were to incorporate technology improvements developed under other similar electrochemical programs and add new ones; design and fabricate a mutli-cell electrochemical module and a testing facility; and demonstrate through testing the improvements. Each aspect of the water vapor electrolysis cell was reviewed. The materials of construction and sizing of each element were investigated analytically and sometime experimentally. In addition, operational considerations such as temperature control in response to inlet conditions were investigated. Three specific quantitative goals were established.

  18. Changes in the microflora on commercial beef trimmings during their collection, distribution and preparation for retail sale as ground beef.

    PubMed

    Gill, C O; McGinnis, C

    1993-06-01

    A commercial process for ground meat production, from the collection of meat plant trimmings to the retailing of consumer packs of ground beef, was examined. The selected process compiled with current concepts of Good Manufacturing Practice. During storage for up to 18 days before grinding, most trimming developed a flora of lactobacilli, of up to 10(7) CFU/g. Numbers of coliforms and of Escherichia coli on stored trimmings increased little and not at all, respectively. Increased total counts, and numbers of both coliforms and E. coli in displayed product indicated loss of control of the temperature of the displayed packaged product. It appears that the need to store a product, taking into account the unpredictable fluctuations in supply and demand, will inevitably result in much ground beef carrying large numbers of spoilage bacteria. Furthermore, currently accepted Good Practice in the retail handling of ground beef does not adequately control either spoilage or the growth of pathogenic bacteria. PMID:8347430

  19. Temperature, oxygen, and vegetation controls on decomposition in a James Bay peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philben, Michael; Holmquist, James; MacDonald, Glen; Duan, Dandan; Kaiser, Karl; Benner, Ronald

    2015-06-01

    The biochemical composition of a peat core from James Bay Lowland, Canada, was used to assess the extent of peat decomposition and diagenetic alteration. Our goal was to identify environmental controls on peat decomposition, particularly its sensitivity to naturally occurring changes in temperature, oxygen exposure time, and vegetation. All three varied substantially during the last 7000 years, providing a natural experiment for evaluating their effects on decomposition. The bottom 50 cm of the core formed during the Holocene Climatic Optimum (~7000-4000 years B.P.), when mean annual air temperature was likely 1-2°C warmer than present. A reconstruction of the water table level using testate amoebae indicated oxygen exposure time was highest in the subsequent upper portion of the core between 150 and 225 cm depth (from ~2560 to 4210 years B.P.) and the plant community shifted from mostly Sphagnum to vascular plant dominance. Several independent biochemical indices indicated that decomposition was greatest in this interval. Hydrolysable amino acid yields, hydroxyproline yields, and acid:aldehyde ratios of syringyl lignin phenols were higher, while hydrolysable neutral sugar yields and carbon:nitrogen ratios were lower in this zone of both vascular plant vegetation and elevated oxygen exposure time. Thus, peat formed during the Holocene Climatic Optimum did not appear to be more extensively decomposed than peat formed during subsequent cooler periods. Comparison with a core from the West Siberian Lowland, Russia, indicates that oxygen exposure time and vegetation are both important controls on decomposition, while temperature appears to be of secondary importance. The low apparent sensitivity of decomposition to temperature is consistent with recent observations of a positive correlation between peat accumulation rates and mean annual temperature, suggesting that contemporary warming could enhance peatland carbon sequestration, although this could be offset by an increasing contribution of vascular plants to the vegetation.

  20. (-)-Epicatechin administration and exercising skeletal muscle vascular control and microvascular oxygenation in healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Copp, Steven W; Inagaki, Tadakatsu; White, Michael J; Hirai, Daniel M; Ferguson, Scott K; Holdsworth, Clark T; Sims, Gabrielle E; Poole, David C; Musch, Timothy I

    2013-01-15

    Consumption of the dietary flavanol (-)-epicatechin (EPI) is associated with enhanced endothelial function and augmented skeletal muscle capillarity and mitochondrial volume density. The potential for EPI to improve peripheral vascular function and muscle oxygenation during exercise is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that EPI administration in healthy rats would improve treadmill exercise performance secondary to elevated skeletal muscle blood flow and vascular conductance [VC, blood flow/mean arterial pressure (MAP)] and improved skeletal muscle microvascular oxygenation. Rats received water (control, n = 12) or 4 mg/kg EPI (n = 12) via oral gavage daily for 24 days. Exercise endurance capacity and peak O(2) uptake (Vo(2) peak) were measured via treadmill runs to exhaustion. MAP (arterial catheter) and blood flow (radiolabeled microspheres) were measured and VC was calculated during submaximal treadmill exercise (25 m/min, 5% grade). Spinotrapezius muscle microvascular O(2) pressure (Po(2mv)) was measured (phosphorescence quenching) during electrically induced twitch (1 Hz) contractions. In conscious rats, EPI administration resulted in lower (?~5%) resting (P = 0.03) and exercising (P = 0.04) MAP. There were no differences in exercise endurance capacity, Vo(2) peak, total exercising hindlimb blood flow (control, 154 ± 13; and EPI, 159 ± 8 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1), P = 0.68), or VC (control, 1.13 ± 0.10; and EPI, 1.24 ± 0.08 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1)·mmHg(-1), P = 0.21) between groups. Following anesthesia, EPI resulted in lower MAP (?~16%) but did not impact resting Po(2mv) or any kinetics parameters (P > 0.05 for all) during muscle contractions compared with control. EPI administration (4 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) improved modestly cardiovascular function (i.e., ?MAP) with no impact on exercise performance, total exercising skeletal muscle blood flow and VC, or contracting muscle microvascular oxygenation in healthy rats. PMID:23144313

  1. Effect of high flow oxygen on mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in prehospital setting: randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To compare standard high flow oxygen treatment with titrated oxygen treatment for patients with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the prehospital setting. Design Cluster randomised controlled parallel group trial. Setting Ambulance service in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. Participants 405 patients with a presumed acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who were treated by paramedics, transported, and admitted to the Royal Hobart Hospital during the trial period; 214 had a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease confirmed by lung function tests in the previous five years. Interventions High flow oxygen treatment compared with titrated oxygen treatment in the prehospital (ambulance/paramedic) setting. Main outcome measure Prehospital or in-hospital mortality. Results In an intention to treat analysis, the risk of death was significantly lower in the titrated oxygen arm compared with the high flow oxygen arm for all patients (high flow oxygen n=226; titrated oxygen n=179) and for the subgroup of patients with confirmed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (high flow n=117; titrated n=97). Overall mortality was 9% (21 deaths) in the high flow oxygen arm compared with 4% (7 deaths) in the titrated oxygen arm; mortality in the subgroup with confirmed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was 9% (11 deaths) in the high flow arm compared with 2% (2 deaths) in the titrated oxygen arm. Titrated oxygen treatment reduced mortality compared with high flow oxygen by 58% for all patients (relative risk 0.42, 95% confidence interval 0.20 to 0.89; P=0.02) and by 78% for the patients with confirmed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (0.22, 0.05 to 0.91; P=0.04). Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who received titrated oxygen according to the protocol were significantly less likely to have respiratory acidosis (mean difference in pH 0.12 (SE 0.05); P=0.01; n=28) or hypercapnia (mean difference in arterial carbon dioxide pressure ?33.6 (16.3) mm Hg; P=0.02; n=29) than were patients who received high flow oxygen. Conclusions Titrated oxygen treatment significantly reduced mortality, hypercapnia, and respiratory acidosis compared with high flow oxygen in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These results provide strong evidence to recommend the routine use of titrated oxygen treatment in patients with breathlessness and a history or clinical likelihood of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the prehospital setting. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Register ACTRN12609000236291. PMID:20959284

  2. TRIM5? H43Y Polymorphism and Susceptibility to HIV-1 Infection: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Deng, Junxiao; Chen, Yan; Ding, Donglin; Lu, Panpan; Yang, Xinyi; Song, Zhishuo; Zhu, Huanzhang

    2015-12-01

    TRIM5? is an antiviral factor that can greatly limit HIV-1 infection. Although several researchers have investigated whether TRIM5? H43Y polymorphism influences the risk of HIV-1 infection, no definite conclusion has ever been drawn. In this research, we performed a meta-analysis to generate a more robust estimate of the association between TRIM5? H43Y and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. In total, six studies including 1,713 HIV-1 patients and 1,814 controls were included. TRIM5? H43Y polymorphisms of all individuals were genotyped. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals were presented as the result of analysis. ORs for the main analysis were 0.82 (95% CI: 0.63-1.08) in the allelic comparison, 0.57 (95% CI: 0.34-0.95) in the homozygote comparison, 0.82 (95% CI: 0.57-1.16) in the dominant model, and 0.56 (95% CI: 0.33-0.93) in the recessive model. In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, significantly decreased risks of infection were detected in the Asian population (homozygote comparison: 0.50, 95% CI: 0.28-0.89; recessive model: 0.49, 95% CI: 0.28-0.87), whereas such effects were not observed in the non-Asian population. Our meta-analysis indicates that TRIM5? H43Y polymorphism is associated with a decreased risk of HIV-1 infection in the homozygote comparison and recessive model. This polymorphism may act as a protective factor against HIV-1 infection, especially in Asians. PMID:26398573

  3. Impact of hyperbaric oxygen on diabetic ulcers is unaffected by glycemic control.

    PubMed

    Bahktiani, Parkash; Mansuri, Owaise; Yadav, Abhijeet; Osuoha, Chima; Knight, Patty; Baynosa, Richard; McLafferty, Robert; Jakoby, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy is an established intervention for treating chronic diabetic lower extremity ulcers, but the impact of glycemic control on its efficacy has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of blood glucose control at initiation of HBO2 treatment on wound healing. Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was measured at start of HBO2 therapy for 22 patients undergoing treatment of chronic lower extremity ulcers at two regional wound care centers. Patients with HbA1c < 7.5% were stratified into a "good glycemic control" group (n = 12, mean HbA1c 6.5 ± 0.8%), and patients with HbA1c ? 7.5% were stratified into a "poor glycemic control" group (n = 10, mean HbA1c 8.8 ± 1.4%, p = 0.004 compared to "good glycemic control group"). After 20 HBO2 sessions over 30 days in addition to standard wound care interventions, there was no difference in wound healing between the two glycemic control groups as indicated by. reduction from baseline in ulcer surface area, depth, or volume. The diabetic lower extremity wound response to HBO2 therapy is unaffected by glycemic control prior to treatment, and HBO2 treatment should not be delayed for suboptimal blood glucose control. PMID:26152102

  4. African Green Monkey TRIM5? Restriction in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Specific Rhesus Macaque Effector CD4 T Cells Enhances Their Survival and Antiviral Function

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Sumiti; Trivett, Matthew T.; Ayala, Victor I.; Ohlen, Claes

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The expression of xenogeneic TRIM5? proteins can restrict infection in various retrovirus/host cell pairings. Previously, we have shown that African green monkey TRIM5? (AgmTRIM5?) potently restricts both human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus mac239 (SIVmac239) replication in a transformed human T-cell line (L. V. Coren, et al., Retrovirology 12:11, 2015, http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12977-015-0137-9). To assess AgmTRIM5? restriction in primary cells, we transduced AgmTRIM5? into primary rhesus macaque CD4 T cells and infected them with SIVmac239. Experiments with T-cell clones revealed that AgmTRIM5? could reproducibly restrict SIVmac239 replication, and that this restriction synergizes with an intrinsic resistance to infection present in some CD4 T-cell clones. AgmTRIM5? transduction of virus-specific CD4 T-cell clones increased and prolonged their ability to suppress SIV spread in CD4 target cells. This increased antiviral function was strongly linked to decreased viral replication in the AgmTRIM5?-expressing effectors, consistent with restriction preventing the virus-induced cytopathogenicity that disables effector function. Taken together, our data show that AgmTRIM5? restriction, although not absolute, reduces SIV replication in primary rhesus CD4 T cells which, in turn, increases their antiviral function. These results support prior in vivo data indicating that the contribution of virus-specific CD4 T-cell effectors to viral control is limited due to infection. IMPORTANCE The potential of effector CD4 T cells to immunologically modulate SIV/HIV infection likely is limited by their susceptibility to infection and subsequent inactivation or elimination. Here, we show that AgmTRIM5? expression inhibits SIV spread in primary effector CD4 T cells in vitro. Importantly, protection of effector CD4 T cells by AgmTRIM5? markedly enhanced their antiviral function by delaying SIV infection, thereby extending their viability despite the presence of virus. Our in vitro data support prior in vivo HIV-1 studies suggesting that the antiviral CD4 effector response is impaired due to infection and subsequent cytopathogenicity. The ability of AgmTRIM5? expression to restrict SIV infection in primary rhesus effector CD4 T cells now opens an opportunity to use the SIV/rhesus macaque model to further elucidate the potential and scope of anti-AIDS virus effector CD4 T-cell function. PMID:25653448

  5. Hydrodynamic controls on oxygen dynamics in a riverine salt wedge estuary, the Yarra River estuary, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, L. C.; Cook, P. L. M.; Teakle, I.; Hipsey, M. R.

    2014-04-01

    Oxygen depletion in coastal and estuarine waters has been increasing rapidly around the globe over the past several decades, leading to decline in water quality and ecological health. In this study we apply a numerical model to understand how salt wedge dynamics, changes in river flow and temperature together control oxygen depletion in a micro-tidal riverine estuary, the Yarra River estuary, Australia. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models have been previously applied to study how hydrodynamics impact upon seasonal hypoxia; however, their application to relatively shallow, narrow riverine estuaries with highly transient patterns of river inputs and sporadic periods of oxygen depletion has remained challenging, largely due to difficulty in accurately simulating salt wedge dynamics in morphologically complex areas. In this study we overcome this issue through application of a flexible mesh 3-D hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model in order to predict the extent of salt wedge intrusion and consequent patterns of oxygen depletion. The extent of the salt wedge responded quickly to the sporadic riverine flows, with the strength of stratification and vertical density gradients heavily influenced by morphological features corresponding to shallow points in regions of tight curvature ("horseshoe" bends). The spatiotemporal patterns of stratification led to the emergence of two "hot spots" of anoxia, the first downstream of a shallow region of tight curvature and the second downstream of a sill. Whilst these areas corresponded to regions of intense stratification, it was found that antecedent conditions related to the placement of the salt wedge played a major role in the recovery of anoxic regions following episodic high flow events. Furthermore, whilst a threshold salt wedge intrusion was a requirement for oxygen depletion, analysis of the results allowed us to quantify the effect of temperature in determining the overall severity and extent of hypoxia and anoxia. Climate warming scenarios highlighted that oxygen depletion is likely to be exacerbated through changes in flow regimes and warming temperatures; however, the increasing risk of hypoxia and anoxia can be mitigated through management of minimum flow allocations and targeted reductions in organic matter loading. A simple statistical model (R2 > 0.65) is suggested to relate riverine flow and temperature to the extent of estuary-wide anoxia.

  6. Laser controlled singlet oxygen generation in mitochondria to promote mitochondrial DNA replication in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xin; Wang, Yupei; Si, Jing; Zhou, Rong; Gan, Lu; Di, Cuixia; Xie, Yi; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Reports have shown that a certain level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can promote mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication. However, it is unclear whether it is the mitochondrial ROS that stimulate mtDNA replication and this requires further investigation. Here we employed a photodynamic system to achieve controlled mitochondrial singlet oxygen (1O2) generation. HeLa cells incubated with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) were exposed to laser irradiation to induce 1O2 generation within mitochondria. Increased mtDNA copy number was detected after low doses of 630?nm laser light in ALA-treated cells. The stimulated mtDNA replication was directly linked to mitochondrial 1O2 generation, as verified using specific ROS scavengers. The stimulated mtDNA replication was regulated by mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and mtDNA polymerase ?. MtDNA control region modifications were induced by 1O2 generation in mitochondria. A marked increase in 8-Oxoguanine (8-oxoG) level was detected in ALA-treated cells after irradiation. HeLa cell growth stimulation and G1-S cell cycle transition were also observed after laser irradiation in ALA-treated cells. These cellular responses could be due to a second wave of ROS generation detected in mitochondria. In summary, we describe a controllable method of inducing mtDNA replication in vitro. PMID:26577055

  7. Laser controlled singlet oxygen generation in mitochondria to promote mitochondrial DNA replication in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xin; Wang, Yupei; Si, Jing; Zhou, Rong; Gan, Lu; Di, Cuixia; Xie, Yi; Zhang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Reports have shown that a certain level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can promote mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication. However, it is unclear whether it is the mitochondrial ROS that stimulate mtDNA replication and this requires further investigation. Here we employed a photodynamic system to achieve controlled mitochondrial singlet oxygen ((1)O2) generation. HeLa cells incubated with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) were exposed to laser irradiation to induce (1)O2 generation within mitochondria. Increased mtDNA copy number was detected after low doses of 630?nm laser light in ALA-treated cells. The stimulated mtDNA replication was directly linked to mitochondrial (1)O2 generation, as verified using specific ROS scavengers. The stimulated mtDNA replication was regulated by mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and mtDNA polymerase ?. MtDNA control region modifications were induced by (1)O2 generation in mitochondria. A marked increase in 8-Oxoguanine (8-oxoG) level was detected in ALA-treated cells after irradiation. HeLa cell growth stimulation and G1-S cell cycle transition were also observed after laser irradiation in ALA-treated cells. These cellular responses could be due to a second wave of ROS generation detected in mitochondria. In summary, we describe a controllable method of inducing mtDNA replication in vitro. PMID:26577055

  8. A simple and inexpensive method to control oxygen concentrations within physiological and neoplastic ranges.

    PubMed

    Penketh, P G; Shyam, K; Baumann, R P; Ratner, E S; Sartorelli, A C

    2015-12-15

    Traditional methods for regulating oxygen concentration ([O2]) in in vitro experiments over the range found in normal and tumor tissues require the use of expensive equipment to generate controlled gas atmospheres or the purchase of a range of gas cylinders with certified O2 percentages. Here we describe a simple and inexpensive enzymatic method for generating low, precise steady-state [O2] levels that are stable for several hours. This method is particularly applicable to the in vitro study of some classes of hypoxia-targeted antitumor prodrugs and bioreductively activated agents. PMID:26361820

  9. Oxygen analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Benner, W.H.

    1984-05-08

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N/sub 2/), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135/sup 0/C, or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135/sup 0/C as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N/sub 2/, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  10. Tumour suppressor TRIM33 targets nuclear ?-catenin degradation

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jianfei; Chen, Yaohui; Wu, Yamei; Wang, Zhongyong; Zhou, Aidong; Zhang, Sicong; Lin, Kangyu; Aldape, Kenneth; Majumder, Sadhan; Lu, Zhimin; Huang, Suyun

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant activation of ?-catenin in the nucleus has been implicated in a variety of human cancers but the fate of nuclear ?-catenin is unknown. Here we demonstrate that tripartite motif-containing protein 33 (TRIM33), acting as an E3 ubiquitin ligase, reduces the abundance of nuclear ?-catenin protein. TRIM33-mediated ?-catenin is destabilized and is GSK-3? or ?-TrCP independent. TRIM33 interacts with and ubiquitylates nuclear ?-catenin. Moreover, protein kinase C?, which directly phosphorylates ?-catenin at Ser715, is required for the TRIM33–?-catenin interaction. The function of TRIM33 in suppressing tumour cell proliferation and brain tumour development depends on TRIM33-promoted ?-catenin degradation. In human glioblastoma specimens, endogenous TRIM33 levels are inversely correlated with ?-catenin. In summary, our findings identify TRIM33 as a tumour suppressor that can abolish tumour cell proliferation and tumorigenesis by degrading nuclear ?-catenin. This work suggests a new therapeutic strategy against human cancers caused by aberrant activation of ?-catenin. PMID:25639486

  11. 7 CFR 58.725 - Trimming and cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Trimming and cleaning. 58.725 Section 58.725 Agriculture Regulations...Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.725 Trimming and cleaning. The natural cheese shall be cleaned free of all...

  12. 7 CFR 58.725 - Trimming and cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Trimming and cleaning. 58.725 Section 58.725 Agriculture Regulations...Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.725 Trimming and cleaning. The natural cheese shall be cleaned free of all...

  13. 7 CFR 58.725 - Trimming and cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trimming and cleaning. 58.725 Section 58.725 Agriculture Regulations...Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.725 Trimming and cleaning. The natural cheese shall be cleaned free of all...

  14. 7 CFR 58.725 - Trimming and cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Trimming and cleaning. 58.725 Section 58.725 Agriculture Regulations...Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.725 Trimming and cleaning. The natural cheese shall be cleaned free of all...

  15. 7 CFR 58.725 - Trimming and cleaning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Trimming and cleaning. 58.725 Section 58.725 Agriculture Regulations...Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.725 Trimming and cleaning. The natural cheese shall be cleaned free of all...

  16. Pain in Chickens and Effects of Beak Trimming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beak trimming may cause pain (acute, chronic or both) in trimmed chickens due to tissue damage and nerve injury. The complexity and plasticity of the nervous system and the animal’s inability to communicate verbally make pain difficult to measure directly. However, pain in animals can be recognized...

  17. The optimal dissolved oxygen profile in a nitrifying activated sludge process - comparisons with ammonium feedback control.

    PubMed

    Amand, L; Carlsson, B

    2013-01-01

    Ammonium feedback control is increasingly used to determine the dissolved oxygen (DO) set-point in aerated activated sludge processes for nitrogen removal. This study compares proportional-integral (PI) ammonium feedback control with a DO profile created from a mathematical minimisation of the daily air flow rate. All simulated scenarios are set to reach the same treatment level of ammonium, based on a daily average concentration. The influent includes daily variations only and the model has three aerated zones. Comparisons are made at different plant loads and DO concentrations, and the placement of the ammonium sensor is investigated. The results show that ammonium PI control can achieve the best performance if the DO set-point is limited at a maximum value and with little integral action in the controller. Compared with constant DO control the best-performing ammonium controller can achieve 1-3.5% savings in the air flow rate, while the optimal solution can achieve a 3-7% saving. Energy savings are larger when operating at higher DO concentrations. PMID:23925193

  18. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2003-05-15

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

  19. Method of controlling injection of oxygen into hydrogen-rich fuel cell feed stream

    DOEpatents

    Meltser, Mark Alexander (Pittsford, NY); Gutowski, Stanley (Pittsford, NY); Weisbrod, Kirk (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A method of operating a H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 fuel cell fueled by hydrogen-rich fuel stream containing CO. The CO content is reduced to acceptable levels by injecting oxygen into the fuel gas stream. The amount of oxygen injected is controlled in relation to the CO content of the fuel gas, by a control strategy that involves (a) determining the CO content of the fuel stream at a first injection rate, (b) increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate, (c) determining the CO content of the stream at the higher injection rate, (d) further increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is lower than the first measured CO content or reducing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is greater than the first measured CO content, and (e) repeating steps a-d as needed to optimize CO consumption and minimize H.sub.2 consumption.

  20. Mechanical control of magnetism in oxygen deficient perovskite SrTiO3.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yajun; Wang, Jie; Sahoo, M P K; Shimada, Takahiro; Kitamura, Takayuki

    2015-10-28

    Mechanical control of magnetism in perovskite oxides is an important and promising approach in spintronics. Based on the first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that a negative pressure leads to a great enhancement of magnetic moment in deficient SrTiO3 with oxygen vacancies, whereas a positive pressure results in the gradual disappearance of magnetism. Spin charge density, Bader charge analysis and electronic density of states successfully elucidate the origin and underlying physics of the enhancement and disappearance of magnetism. It is found that the split electronic states of dz(2), dyz and dzx in the 3d orbitals of Ti atoms remarkably contribute to the occupancy of majority spin states under negative pressure, which induces a large magnetic moment. Under positive pressure, however, the equal occupancy of both majority and minority t2g and eg states leads to the disappearance of magnetization. In addition, both negative and positive pressures can largely lower the vacancy formation enthalpy, suggesting that the oxygen vacancy is preferable with pressure. Our findings may provide a mechanism to achieve the pressure control of magnetization in nonmagnetic perovskite oxides. PMID:26415718

  1. Dynamic controlled atmosphere and ultralow oxygen storage on 'Gala' mutants quality maintenance.

    PubMed

    Thewes, Fabio Rodrigo; Both, Vanderlei; Brackmann, Auri; Weber, Anderson; de Oliveira Anese, Rogerio

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present work was to compare the effect of ultralow oxygen (ULO) with dynamic controlled atmosphere (DCA) and controlled atmosphere (CA) on the post storage quality of 'Royal Gala' and 'Galaxy' apples after long-term storage. Two experiments were carried out with 'Royal Gala' and 'Galaxy' apples, in the years 2012 and 2013, respectively. A higher internal ethylene concentration was observed in fruits stored under CA; intermediate concentration in fruits under ULO; and the lowest by fruits stored under DCA-CF (DCA based on chlorophyll fluorescence). Flesh firmness was higher in fruits stored under DCA-CF and ULO differing from CA, in the year 2012, but in 2013 fruits stored under ULO showed the highest flesh firmness, differing from CA fruits. DCA-CF is efficient in quality maintenance of 'Royal Gala' and 'Galaxy' apples. Both 'Gala' mutants stored under ULO show a similar quality maintenance to those stored under DCA-CF. PMID:26041165

  2. 76 FR 72978 - Premier Trim, LLC, Spectrum Trim, LLC and Grant Products International, Inc. D/B/A Spectrum Grant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... in the Federal Register on July 7, 2010 (75 FR 39047). At the request of the State agency, the... and Training Administration Premier Trim, LLC, Spectrum Trim, LLC and Grant Products International, Inc. D/B/A Spectrum Grant De Mexico Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are...

  3. Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Flight-test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Nelson Andrew; Schaefer, Jacob Robert

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control algorithm for real-time trim optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control algorithm is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are used for optimization of fuel flow. Results from six research flights are presented herein. The optimization algorithm found a trim configuration that required approximately 3 percent less fuel flow than the baseline trim at the same flight condition. The algorithm consistently rediscovered the solution from several initial conditions. These results show that the algorithm has good performance in a relevant environment.

  4. Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Flight-Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Nelson Andrew; Schaefer, Jacob Robert

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control algorithm for real-time trim optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control algorithm is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are used for optimization of fuel flow. Results from six research flights are presented herein. The optimization algorithm found a trim configuration that required approximately 3 percent less fuel flow than the baseline trim at the same flight condition. The algorithm consistently rediscovered the solution from several initial conditions. These results show that the algorithm has good performance in a relevant environment.

  5. THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT BILL-TRIMMING METHODS ON THE WELL-BEING OF PEKIN DUCKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pekin ducks are often bill-trimmed to prevent feather pecking and cannibalism, but this practice has been criticized because of the resulting potential for acute and chronic pain. The goal of this experiment was to compare two different bill-trimming methods, hot blade trimming with cautery (TRIM) a...

  6. How do changes in dissolved oxygen concentration influence microbially-controlled phosphorus cycling in stream biofilms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saia, S. M.; Locke, N. A.; Regan, J. M.; Carrick, H. J.; Buda, A. R.; Walter, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    Advances in molecular microbiology techniques (e.g. epi-fluorescent microscopy and PCR) are making it easier to study the influence of specific microorganisms on nutrient transport. Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) are commonly used in wastewater treatment plants to remove excess phosphorus (P) from effluent water. PAOs have also been identified in natural settings but their ecological function is not well known. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that PAOs in natural environments would release and accumulate P during anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. We placed stream biofilms in sealed, covered tubs and subjected them to alternating air (aerobic conditions) and N2 gas (anaerobic condition) bubbling for 12 hours each. Four treatments investigated the influence of changing dissolved oxygen on micribially-controlled P cycling: (1) biofilms bubbled continuously with air, (2) biofilms bubbled alternatively with air and N2, (3) biocide treated biofilms bubbled continuously with air, and (4) biocide treated biofilms bubbled alternatively with air and N2. Treatments 3 and 4 serve as abiotic controls to treatments 1 and 2. We analyzed samples every 12 hours for soluble reactive P (SRP), temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH. We also used fluorescent microscopy (i.e. DAPI staining) and PCR to verify the presence of PAOs in the stream biofilms. SRP results over the course of the experiment support our hypothesis that anaerobic and aerobic stream conditions may impact PAO mediated P release and uptake, respectively in natural environments. The results of these experiments draw attention to the importance of microbiological controls on P mobility in freshwater ecosystems.

  7. Identification of key parameters controlling dissolved oxygen migration and attenuation in fractured crystalline rocks.

    PubMed

    Spiessl, S M; MacQuarrie, K T B; Mayer, K U

    2008-01-28

    In the crystalline rocks of the Canadian Shield, geochemical conditions are currently reducing at depths of 500-1000 m. However, during future glacial periods, altered hydrologic conditions could potentially result in enhanced recharge of glacial melt water containing a relatively high concentration of dissolved oxygen (O2). It is therefore of interest to investigate the physical and geochemical processes, including naturally-occurring redox reactions, that may control O2 ingress. In this study, the reactive transport code MIN3P is used in combination with 2k factorial analyses to identify the most important parameters controlling oxygen migration and attenuation in fractured crystalline rocks. Scenarios considered are based on simplified conceptual models that include a single vertical fracture, or a fracture zone, contained within a rock matrix that extends from the ground surface to a depth of 500 m. Consistent with field observations, Fe(II)-bearing minerals are present in the fractures (i.e. chlorite) and the rock matrix (biotite and small quantities of pyrite). For the parameter ranges investigated, results indicate that for the single fracture case, the most influential factors controlling dissolved O2 ingress are flow velocity in the fracture, fracture aperture, and the biotite reaction rate in the rock matrix. The most important parameters for the fracture zone simulations are flow velocity in the individual fractures, pO2 in the recharge water, biotite reaction rate, and to a lesser degree the abundance and reactivity of chlorite in the fracture zone, and the fracture zone width. These parameters should therefore receive increased consideration during site characterization, and in the formulation of site-specific models intended to predict O2 behavior in crystalline rocks. PMID:17935829

  8. Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, Donald C. (Annapolis)

    1985-06-04

    A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power.

  9. Oxygen-controlled phase segregation in poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)/laponite nanocomposite hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Mauroy, Henrik; Rozynek, Zbigniew; Plivelic, Tomás S; Fossum, Jon Otto; Helgesen, Geir; Knudsen, Kenneth D

    2013-01-01

    The combination of nanoparticles and polymers into nanocomposite gels has been shown to be a promising route to creating soft materials with new or improved properties. In the present work, we have made use of Laponite nanoparticles in combination with a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAM) polymer and describe a phenomenon taking place during the polymerization and gelling of this system. The presence of small amounts of oxygen in the process induces two distinctly separated phases, one polymer-rich and one polymer-deficient water-clay phase. Complex interactions among clay, oxygen, and the polymer are found to govern the behavior of these phases. It is also observed that the initial clay concentration can be used to control the volume fraction of the polymer-deficient phase directly. The dynamics of the phase boundary is found to be dependent on water penetration and in general to exhibit non-Fickian behavior. An approach using video recording to monitor hydrogel swelling is also presented, and its advantages are addressed. PMID:23210524

  10. Evaluation of the UnTRIM model for 3-D tidal circulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, R.T.; Casulli, V.

    2001-01-01

    A family of numerical models, known as the TRIM models, shares the same modeling philosophy for solving the shallow water equations. A characteristic analysis of the shallow water equations points out that the numerical instability is controlled by the gravity wave terms in the momentum equations and by the transport terms in the continuity equation. A semi-implicit finite-difference scheme has been formulated so that these terms and the vertical diffusion terms are treated implicitly and the remaining terms explicitly to control the numerical stability and the computations are carried out over a uniform finite-difference computational mesh without invoking horizontal or vertical coordinate transformations. An unstructured grid version of TRIM model is introduced, or UnTRIM (pronounces as "you trim"), which preserves these basic numerical properties and modeling philosophy, only the computations are carried out over an unstructured orthogonal grid. The unstructured grid offers the flexibilities in representing complex study areas so that fine grid resolution can be placed in regions of interest, and coarse grids are used to cover the remaining domain. Thus, the computational efforts are concentrated in areas of importance, and an overall computational saving can be achieved because the total number of grid-points is dramatically reduced. To use this modeling approach, an unstructured grid mesh must be generated to properly reflect the properties of the domain of the investigation. The new modeling flexibility in grid structure is accompanied by new challenges associated with issues of grid generation. To take full advantage of this new model flexibility, the model grid generation should be guided by insights into the physics of the problems; and the insights needed may require a higher degree of modeling skill.

  11. Effects of inhibiting oligosaccharide trimming by 1-deoxynojirimycin on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.M.; Schlesinger, S.; Lindstrom, J.; Merlie, J.P.

    1986-11-05

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor has a subunit stoichiometry of ..cap alpha.. /sub 2/..beta gamma..delta; all 5 subunits contain N-linked oligosaccharides. The authors investigated what role trimming of the oligosaccharides played in the post-translational processing of the subunits and assembly of the receptor by examining the receptor synthesized in the presence of an inhibitor of oligosaccharide trimming, 1-deoxynojirimycin. BC3H-1 cells express one-third fewer receptors when grown in the presence of 1-deoxynojirimycin. The receptor subunits that are expressed have decreased mobility by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, indicating an inhibition of oligosaccharide trimming. In control cells, 40% of the translated ..cap alpha.. subunit acquires the capacity to bind ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin with a half-time of 40 min before assembly with the other subunits; the rest is rapidly degraded. In 1-deoxynojirimycin-treated cells approximately the same amount of ..cap alpha.. subunit is translated as in control cells, but that ..cap alpha.. subunit is degraded more rapidly, and only 25% acquires the capacity to bind ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin. From these results, they conclude that oligosaccharide processing either may aid in protecting the ..cap alpha.. subunit primary translation product from degradation or may be required for the conformational change or other post-translational modifications(s) necessary for formation of the ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin binding form of the ..cap alpha.. subunit, which is then protected from proteolytic degradation. The cell surface receptor that is expressed in the presence of 1-deoxynojirimycin, however, is not altered in its affinity for cholinergic ligands. Thus, they conclude that differential N-linked oligosaccharide trimming of the 2 ..cap alpha.. subunits does not appear to play a part in the differences in affinities of the 2 ..cap alpha.. subunits for cholinergic ligands.

  12. Brain oxygen tension controls the expansion of outer subventricular zone-like basal progenitors in the developing mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Wagenführ, Lisa; Meyer, Anne K; Braunschweig, Lena; Marrone, Lara; Storch, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    The mammalian neocortex shows a conserved six-layered structure that differs between species in the total number of cortical neurons produced owing to differences in the relative abundance of distinct progenitor populations. Recent studies have identified a new class of proliferative neurogenic cells in the outer subventricular zone (OSVZ) in gyrencephalic species such as primates and ferrets. Lissencephalic brains of mice possess fewer OSVZ-like progenitor cells and these do not constitute a distinct layer. Most in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that oxygen regulates the maintenance, proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells. Here we dissect the effects of fetal brain oxygen tension on neural progenitor cell activity using a novel mouse model that allows oxygen tension to be controlled within the hypoxic microenvironment in the neurogenic niche of the fetal brain in vivo. Indeed, maternal oxygen treatment of 10%, 21% and 75% atmospheric oxygen tension for 48?h translates into robust changes in fetal brain oxygenation. Increased oxygen tension in fetal mouse forebrain in vivo leads to a marked expansion of a distinct proliferative cell population, basal to the SVZ. These cells constitute a novel neurogenic cell layer, similar to the OSVZ, and contribute to corticogenesis by heading for deeper cortical layers as a part of the cortical plate. PMID:26329599

  13. Streptococcus mutans NADH Oxidase Lies at the Intersection of Overlapping Regulons Controlled by Oxygen and NAD+ Levels

    PubMed Central

    Baker, J. L.; Derr, A. M.; Karuppaiah, K.; MacGilvray, M. E.; Kajfasz, J. K.; Faustoferri, R. C.; Rivera-Ramos, I.; Bitoun, J. P.; Lemos, J. A.; Wen, Z. T.

    2014-01-01

    NADH oxidase (Nox, encoded by nox) is a flavin-containing enzyme used by the oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans to reduce diatomic oxygen to water while oxidizing NADH to NAD+. The critical nature of Nox is 2-fold: it serves to regenerate NAD+, a carbon cycle metabolite, and to reduce intracellular oxygen, preventing formation of destructive reactive oxygen species (ROS). As oxygen and NAD+ have been shown to modulate the activity of the global transcription factors Spx and Rex, respectively, Nox is potentially poised at a critical junction of two stress regulons. In this study, microarray data showed that either addition of oxygen or loss of nox resulted in altered expression of genes involved in energy metabolism and transport and the upregulation of genes encoding ROS-metabolizing enzymes. Loss of nox also resulted in upregulation of several genes encoding transcription factors and signaling molecules, including the redox-sensing regulator gene rex. Characterization of the nox promoter revealed that nox was regulated by oxygen, through SpxA, and by Rex. These data suggest a regulatory loop in which the roles of nox in reduction of oxygen and regeneration of NAD+ affect the activity levels of Spx and Rex, respectively, and their regulons, which control several genes, including nox, crucial to growth of S. mutans under conditions of oxidative stress. PMID:24682329

  14. PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CONTROLS ON DISSOLVED OXYGEN DYNAMICS IN PENSACOLA BAY, FL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient enrichment of estuaries and coastal waters can contribute to hypoxia (low dissolved oxygen) by increasing primary production and biological oxygen demand. Other factors, however, contribute to hypoxia and affect the susceptibility of coastal waters to hypoxia. Hypoxia fo...

  15. SAB advisory on the TRIM.FaTE module of the total risk integrated methodology (TRIM)

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    The Environmental Models Subcommittee (EMS) of the Executive Committee (EC) of the Science Advisory Board (SAB) reviewed the TRIM.FaTE Module of the Total Risk Integrated Methodology (TRIM) being developed by the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (QAQPS) in the Office of Air and Radiation (OAR). Recommendations are made to seek input from users before and after the methodology is developed to maximize its utility, to know how it is being used, and to guard against inappropriate uses; to provide documentation of recommended and inappropriate applications; to provide training for users; to test the model and its subcomponents against current data and models to evaluate its ability to provide realistic results; and to apply terminology consistently.

  16. Oxygen Profile. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooley, John F.

    The oxygen profile procedure is a means of measuring the oxygen concentration at various locations in a basin. By dividing the surface of a basin into sections and then establishing sample points on the surface, at mid-depth, and near the bottom, a waste water treatment plant operator can measure and plot dissolved oxygen data which can be plotted…

  17. Autophagy proteins control goblet cell function by potentiating reactive oxygen species production

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Khushbu K; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Beatty, Wandy L; Head, Richard D; Malvin, Nicole P; Cadwell, Ken; Guan, Jun-Lin; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Akira, Shizuo; Seglen, Per O; Dinauer, Mary C; Virgin, Herbert W; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S

    2013-01-01

    Delivery of granule contents to epithelial surfaces by secretory cells is a critical physiologic process. In the intestine, goblet cells secrete mucus that is required for homeostasis. Autophagy proteins are required for secretion in some cases, though the mechanism and cell biological basis for this requirement remain unknown. We found that in colonic goblet cells, proteins involved in initiation and elongation of autophagosomes were required for efficient mucus secretion. The autophagy protein LC3 localized to intracellular multi-vesicular vacuoles that were consistent with a fusion of autophagosomes and endosomes. Using cultured intestinal epithelial cells, we found that NADPH oxidases localized to and enhanced the formation of these LC3-positive vacuoles. Both autophagy proteins and endosome formation were required for maximal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from NADPH oxidases. Importantly, generation of ROS was critical to control mucin granule accumulation in colonic goblet cells. Thus, autophagy proteins can control secretory function through ROS, which is in part generated by LC3-positive vacuole-associated NADPH oxidases. These findings provide a novel mechanism by which autophagy proteins can control secretion. PMID:24185898

  18. In situ control of oxygen vacancies in TiO? by atomic layer deposition for resistive switching devices.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Joon; Lee, Jeong-Pyo; Jang, Jong Shik; Rhu, Hyun; Yu, Hyunung; You, Byung Youn; Kim, Chang Soo; Kim, Kyung Joong; Cho, Yong Jai; Baik, Sunggi; Lee, Woo

    2013-07-26

    Oxygen vacancies (V(O)) have profound effects on the physical and chemical performance of devices based on oxide materials. This is particularly true in the case of oxide-based resistive random access memories, in which memory switching operation under an external electrical stimulus is closely associated with the migration and ordering of the oxygen vacancies in the oxide material. In this paper, we report on a reliable approach to in situ control of the oxygen vacancies in TiOx films. Our strategy for tight control of the oxygen vacancy is based on the utilization of plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of titanium oxide under precisely regulated decomposition of the precursor molecules (titanium (IV) tetraisopropoxide, Ti[OCH(CH?)?]?) by plasma-activated reactant mixture (N?+O?). From the various spectroscopic and microstructural analyses by using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, confocal Raman spectroscopy, and spectroscopic ellipsometry, we found that the precursor decomposition power (R(F)) of plasma-activated reactant mixture determines not only the oxygen vacancy concentration but also the crystallinity of the resulting TiO(x) film: nanocrystalline anatase TiO(x) with fewer oxygen vacancies under high R(F), while amorphous TiOx with more oxygen vacancies under low RF. Enabled by our controlling capability over the oxygen vacancy concentration, we were able to thoroughly elucidate the effect of oxygen vacancies on the resistive switching behavior of TiO(x)-based memory capacitors (Pt/TiO(x)/Pt). The electrical conduction behavior at the high resistance state could be explained within the framework of the trap-controlled space-charge-limited conduction with two characteristic transition voltages. One is the voltage (V(SCL)) for the transition from Ohmic conduction to space-charge-limited conduction, and the other is the voltage (V(TFL)) for transition from space-charge-limited conduction to trap-filled-limited conduction. In this work, we have disclosed for the first time the dependence of these two characteristic transition voltages (i.e., V(SCL) and V(TFL)) on the oxygen vacancy concentration. PMID:23799660

  19. ISOLATION OF THE FIRST NON-PRIMATE TRIM5-ALPHA FROM CATTLE INDICATES THAT TRIM5-ALPHA MEDIATED INNATE IMMUNITY TO RETROVIRAL INFECTION MAY BE WIDESPREAD AMONG MAMMALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TRIM5-alpha has recently emerged as an important factor influencing species-specific permissivity to retroviral infection in a range of primates including humans. Old World monkey TRIM5-alpha blocks HIV-1 infectivity and human or New World TRIM5-alpha proteins are inactive against HIV-1 but active a...

  20. Controlled intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species in human mesenchymal stem cells using porphyrin conjugated nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavado, Andrea S.; Chauhan, Veeren M.; Alhaj Zen, Amer; Giuntini, Francesca; Jones, D. Rhodri E.; Boyle, Ross W.; Beeby, Andrew; Chan, Weng C.; Aylott, Jonathan W.

    2015-08-01

    Nanoparticles capable of generating controlled amounts of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), that advance the study of oxidative stress and cellular communication, were synthesized by functionalizing polyacrylamide nanoparticles with zinc(ii) porphyrin photosensitisers. Controlled ROS production was demonstrated in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) through (1) production of nanoparticles functionalized with varying percentages of Zn(ii) porphyrin and (2) modulating the number of doses of excitation light to internalized nanoparticles. hMSCs challenged with nanoparticles functionalized with increasing percentages of Zn(ii) porphyrin and high numbers of irradiations of excitation light were found to generate greater amounts of ROS. A novel dye, which is transformed into fluorescent 7-hydroxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, provided an indirect indicator for cumulative ROS production. The mitochondrial membrane potential was monitored to investigate the destructive effect of increased intracellular ROS production. Flow cytometric analysis of nanoparticle treated hMSCs suggested irradiation with excitation light signalled controlled apoptotic cell death, rather than uncontrolled necrotic cell death. Increased intracellular ROS production did not induce phenotypic changes in hMSC subcultures.Nanoparticles capable of generating controlled amounts of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), that advance the study of oxidative stress and cellular communication, were synthesized by functionalizing polyacrylamide nanoparticles with zinc(ii) porphyrin photosensitisers. Controlled ROS production was demonstrated in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) through (1) production of nanoparticles functionalized with varying percentages of Zn(ii) porphyrin and (2) modulating the number of doses of excitation light to internalized nanoparticles. hMSCs challenged with nanoparticles functionalized with increasing percentages of Zn(ii) porphyrin and high numbers of irradiations of excitation light were found to generate greater amounts of ROS. A novel dye, which is transformed into fluorescent 7-hydroxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, provided an indirect indicator for cumulative ROS production. The mitochondrial membrane potential was monitored to investigate the destructive effect of increased intracellular ROS production. Flow cytometric analysis of nanoparticle treated hMSCs suggested irradiation with excitation light signalled controlled apoptotic cell death, rather than uncontrolled necrotic cell death. Increased intracellular ROS production did not induce phenotypic changes in hMSC subcultures. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Materials and experimental methods for the synthesis of (1) positively charged alkyne functionalized nanoparticles (2) Zn(ii) and Cu(ii) centred porphyrin (3); conjugating porphyrins to alkyne-functionalized nanoparticles via click chemistry (4) nanoparticle characterisation (size charge and fluorescence), (5) synthesis of BPTFMC (6) hMSC collection, storage and preparation (7) delivery of porphyrin functionalized nanoparticles (8) staining mitochondria, cumulative ROS production and determination of nanoparticles subcellular localisation (9) fluorescence microscopy and controlled irradiation of hMSCs (10) flow cytometry and controlled irradiation using a custom built irradiator. In addition, results highlighting: (1) nanoparticles emission spectra, size and charge, (2) BPTFMC fluorescence response and (3) hMSCs following light irradiation using flow cytometry. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00795j

  1. 14 CFR 25.145 - Longitudinal control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., no change in trim control, or exertion of more than 50 pounds control force (representative of the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Longitudinal control. 25.145 Section 25.145... control. (a) It must be possible, at any point between the trim speed prescribed in § 25.103(b)(6)...

  2. 14. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF TRIMMED FLASH; FLASH IS EXCESS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF TRIMMED FLASH; FLASH IS EXCESS METAL EXTRUDED BETWEEN THE DIES USED TO FORGE THE BLADE END OF THE POST HOLE DIGGER - Warwood Tool Company, Foot of Nineteenth Street, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  3. Intracellular antibody immunity and the cytosolic Fc receptor TRIM21.

    PubMed

    James, Leo C

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, it was thought that antibody effector mechanisms were mediated purely by Fc receptors expressed on professional cells, following capture of immune complexes in the extracellular space. Recently a new Fc receptor, TRIM21, was discovered that is expressed by cells of all histogenetic lineages and which mediates immune responses intracellularly. This new receptor possesses many unique structural and functional properties. TRIM21 binds both IgG and IgM, interacts primarily with the CH3 rather than CH2 domain and engages two heavy chains simultaneously. This latter property allows TRIM21 to bind antibodies with a higher affinity than any other Fc receptor. TRIM21 is cytosolic, has both effector and signalling functions and is exquisitely conserved in mammals. The discovery of this missing part of humoral immunity has important implications for where and how antibodies work. PMID:25116095

  4. 155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal after excavation by steam shovel. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 701). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  5. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30 Section 401.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30 Section 401.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  7. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30 Section 401.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  8. Weight-Loss Surgery May Trim Health Care Costs

    MedlinePLUS

    ... fullstory_155520.html Weight-Loss Surgery May Trim Health Care Costs Study found people, especially diabetes patients, spent ... 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Weight-loss surgery may save health care dollars down the road, a new study suggests. ...

  9. Trimming and procrastination as inversion techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backus, George E.

    1996-12-01

    By examining the processes of truncating and approximating the model space (trimming it), and by committing to neither the objectivist nor the subjectivist interpretation of probability (procrastinating), we construct a formal scheme for solving linear and non-linear geophysical inverse problems. The necessary prior information about the correct model xE can be either a collection of inequalities or a probability measure describing where xE was likely to be in the model space X before the data vector y0 was measured. The results of the inversion are (1) a vector z0 that estimates some numerical properties zE of xE; (2) an estimate of the error ?z = z0 - zE. As y0 is finite dimensional, so is z0, and hence in principle inversion cannot describe all of xE. The error ?z is studied under successively more specialized assumptions about the inverse problem, culminating in a complete analysis of the linear inverse problem with a prior quadratic bound on xE. Our formalism appears to encompass and provide error estimates for many of the inversion schemes current in geomagnetism, and would be equally applicable in geodesy and seismology if adequate prior information were available there. As an idealized example we study the magnetic field at the core-mantle boundary, using satellite measurements of field elements at sites assumed to be almost uniformly distributed on a single spherical surface. Magnetospheric currents are neglected and the crustal field is idealized as a random process with rotationally invariant statistics. We find that an appropriate data compression diagonalizes the variance matrix of the crustal signal and permits an analytic trimming of the idealized problem.

  10. Identification of TRIM22 as a RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase

    SciTech Connect

    Duan Zhijian; Gao Bo; Xu Wei; Xiong Sidong

    2008-09-26

    TRIM22, a member of the TRIM family proteins which contain RING finger, B-box, and coiled-coil domains, has been reported as a transcriptional regulator and involved in various cellular processes. In this study, the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, a novel property of TRIM22, was demonstrated. It was found that TRIM22 underwent self-ubiquitylation in vitro in combination with the E2 enzyme UbcH5B and the ubiquitylation was dependent on its RING finger domain. Further evidences showed that TRIM22 could also be self-ubiquitylated in vivo. Importantly, TRIM22 was conjugated with poly-ubiquitin chains and stabilized by the proteasome inhibitor in 293T cells, suggesting that TRIM22 targeted itself for proteasomal degradation through the poly-ubiquitylation. We also found that TRIM22 was located in the nucleus, indicating that TRIM22 might function as a nuclear E3 ubiquitin ligase.

  11. Nuclear-cytoplasmatic shuttling of proteins in control of cellular oxygen sensing.

    PubMed

    Depping, Reinhard; Jelkmann, Wolfgang; Kosyna, Friederike Katharina

    2015-06-01

    In order to pass through the nuclear pore complex, proteins larger than ?40 kDa require specific nuclear transport receptors. Defects in nuclear-cytoplasmatic transport affect fundamental processes such as development, inflammation and oxygen sensing. The transcriptional response to O2 deficiency is controlled by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). These are heterodimeric transcription factors of each ?100-120 kDa proteins, consisting of one out of three different O2-labile ? subunits (primarily HIF-1?) and a more constitutive 1? subunit. In the presence of O2, the ? subunits are hydroxylated by specific prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain proteins (PHD1, PHD2, and PHD3) and an asparaginyl hydroxylase (factor inhibiting HIF-1, FIH-1). The prolyl hydroxylation causes recognition by von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL), ubiquitination, and proteasomal degradation. The activity of the oxygen sensing machinery depends on dynamic intracellular trafficking. Nuclear import of HIF-1? and HIF-1? is mainly mediated by importins ? and ? (?/?). HIF-1? can shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm, while HIF-1? is permanently inside the nucleus. pVHL is localized to both compartments. Nuclear import of PHD1 relies on a nuclear localization signal (NLS) and uses the classical import pathway involving importin ?/? receptors. PHD2 shows an atypical NLS, and its nuclear import does not occur via the classical pathway. PHD2-mediated hydroxylation of HIF-1? occurs predominantly in the cell nucleus. Nuclear export of PHD2 involves a nuclear export signal (NES) in the N-terminus and depends on the export receptor chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1). Nuclear import of PHD3 is mediated by importin ?/? receptors and depends on a non-classical NLS. Specific modification of the nuclear translocation of the three PHD isoforms could provide a promising strategy for the development of new therapeutic substances to tackle major diseases. PMID:25809665

  12. Room temperature alcohol sensing by oxygen vacancy controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotube array

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, A.; Dutta, K.; Bhowmik, B.; Bhattacharyya, P.; Chattopadhyay, P. P.

    2014-08-25

    Oxygen vacancy (OV) controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, having diameters of 50–70?nm and lengths of 200–250?nm, were synthesized by electrochemical anodization in the mixed electrolyte comprising NH{sub 4}F and ethylene glycol with selective H{sub 2}O content. The structural evolution of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Variation in the formation of OVs with the variation of the structure of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been evaluated by photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sensor characteristics were correlated to the variation of the amount of induced OVs in the nanotubes. The efficient room temperature sensing achieved by the control of OVs of TiO{sub 2} nanotube array has paved the way for developing fast responding alcohol sensor with corresponding response magnitude of 60.2%, 45.3%, and 36.5% towards methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, respectively.

  13. Controllable generation of reactive oxygen species by femtosecond-laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wei; He, Hao; Wang, Yintao; Wang, Yisen; Hu, Minglie; Wang, Chingyue

    2014-02-01

    Femtosecond lasers have been advancing Biophotonics research in the past two decades with multiphoton microscopy, microsurgery, and photodynamic therapy. Nevertheless, laser irradiation is identified to bring photodamage to cells via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation with unclear mechanism. Meanwhile, currently in biological researches, there is no effective method to provide controllable ROS production precisely, which originally is leaked from mitochondria during respiration and plays a key role in a lot of important cellular processes and cellular signaling pathways. In this study, we show the process of how the tightly focused femtosecond-laser induces ROS generation solely in mitochondria at the very beginning and then release to cytosol if the stimulus is intense enough. At certain weak power levels, the laser pulses induce merely moderate Ca2+ release but this is necessary for the laser to generate ROS in mitochondria. Cellular original ROS are also involved with a small contribution. When the power is above a threshold, ROS are then released to cytosol, indicating photodamage overwhelming cellular repair ability. The mechanisms in those two cases are quite different. Those results clarify parts of the mechanism in laser-induced ROS generation. Hence, it is possible to further this optical scheme to provide controllable ROS generation for ROS-related biological researches including mitochondrial diseases and aging.

  14. Does oxygen exposure time control the extent of organic matter decomposition in peatlands?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philben, Michael; Kaiser, Karl; Benner, Ronald

    2014-05-01

    The extent of peat decomposition was investigated in four cores collected along a latitudinal gradient from 56°N to 66°N in the West Siberian Lowland. The acid:aldehyde ratios of lignin phenols were significantly higher in the two northern cores compared with the two southern cores, indicating peats at the northern sites were more highly decomposed. Yields of hydroxyproline, an amino acid found in plant structural glycoproteins, were also significantly higher in northern cores compared with southern cores. Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins are not synthesized by microbes and are generally less reactive than bulk plant carbon, so elevated yields indicated that northern cores were more extensively decomposed than the southern cores. The southern cores experienced warmer temperatures, but were less decomposed, indicating that temperature was not the primary control of peat decomposition. The plant community oscillated between Sphagnum and vascular plant dominance in the southern cores, but vegetation type did not appear to affect the extent of decomposition. Oxygen exposure time appeared to be the strongest control of the extent of peat decomposition. The northern cores had lower accumulation rates and drier conditions, so these peats were exposed to oxic conditions for a longer time before burial in the catotelm, where anoxic conditions prevail and rates of decomposition are generally lower by an order of magnitude.

  15. Controllable generation of reactive oxygen species by femtosecond-laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Wei; He, Hao Wang, Yintao; Wang, Yisen; Hu, Minglie; Wang, Chingyue

    2014-02-24

    Femtosecond lasers have been advancing Biophotonics research in the past two decades with multiphoton microscopy, microsurgery, and photodynamic therapy. Nevertheless, laser irradiation is identified to bring photodamage to cells via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation with unclear mechanism. Meanwhile, currently in biological researches, there is no effective method to provide controllable ROS production precisely, which originally is leaked from mitochondria during respiration and plays a key role in a lot of important cellular processes and cellular signaling pathways. In this study, we show the process of how the tightly focused femtosecond-laser induces ROS generation solely in mitochondria at the very beginning and then release to cytosol if the stimulus is intense enough. At certain weak power levels, the laser pulses induce merely moderate Ca{sup 2+} release but this is necessary for the laser to generate ROS in mitochondria. Cellular original ROS are also involved with a small contribution. When the power is above a threshold, ROS are then released to cytosol, indicating photodamage overwhelming cellular repair ability. The mechanisms in those two cases are quite different. Those results clarify parts of the mechanism in laser-induced ROS generation. Hence, it is possible to further this optical scheme to provide controllable ROS generation for ROS-related biological researches including mitochondrial diseases and aging.

  16. Advances in postharvest pest control on perishable commodities using ultralow oxygen treatment and low temperature phosphine funigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent research in postharvest pest control on fresh fruits and vegetables for export to markets have resulted in promising ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments and low temperature phosphine fumigation treatments for a variety of pests on different commodities. Lettuce aphid (Nasonovia ribisnigri), wes...

  17. Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, D.C.

    1985-06-04

    A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power. 1 fig.

  18. Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Architecture and Performance Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Jacob; Brown, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control approach for real-time trim configuration optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control approach is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an FA-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are controlled for optimization of fuel flow. This presentation presents the design and integration of this peak-seeking controller on a modified NASA FA-18 airplane with research flight control computers. A research flight was performed to collect data to build a realistic model of the performance function and characterize measurement noise. This model was then implemented into a nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom FA-18 simulation along with the peak-seeking control algorithm. With the goal of eventual flight tests, the algorithm was first evaluated in the improved simulation environment. Results from the simulation predict good convergence on minimum fuel flow with a 2.5-percent reduction in fuel flow relative to the baseline trim of the aircraft.

  19. Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Architecture and Performance Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Jacob; Brown, Nelson A.

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control approach for real-time trim configuration optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control approach is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are controlled for optimization of fuel flow. This paper presents the design and integration of this peak-seeking controller on a modified NASA F/A-18 airplane with research flight control computers. A research flight was performed to collect data to build a realistic model of the performance function and characterize measurement noise. This model was then implemented into a nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom F/A-18 simulation along with the peak-seeking control algorithm. With the goal of eventual flight tests, the algorithm was first evaluated in the improved simulation environment. Results from the simulation predict good convergence on minimum fuel flow with a 2.5-percent reduction in fuel flow relative to the baseline trim of the aircraft.

  20. Kinetic modelling of the sequential production of lactic acid and xylitol from vine trimming wastes.

    PubMed

    García-Diéguez, Carlos; Salgado, José Manuel; Roca, Enrique; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2011-09-01

    A mathematical model describing the kinetics of the sequential production of lactic acid and xylitol from detoxified-concentrated vine trimming hemicellulosic hydrolysates by Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Debaryomyces hansenii, respectively, was developed from the basic principles of mass balance in two stages considering as main reactions: (1) glucose and xylose consumption by L. rhamnosus; and (2) xylitol and arabitol production by D. hansenii. The model allows to evaluate the yields and productivities under microaerobic and oxygen restricted conditions (in particular the effects caused by purging the oxygen with nitrogen), which were particularly important during the xylose to xylitol bioconversion by yeasts. The model was tested using experimental data obtained from detoxified-concentrated hemicellulosic hydrolysates, after CaCO3 addition in both types of fermentation processes, without purges (microaerobic conditions) or purging oxygen with nitrogen (oxygen-limited conditions) after sampling in order to reduce the oxygen dissolved. L. rhamnosus was removed by microfiltration before adding D. hansenii at the beginning of the second stage. Mass balance-based and logistic functions were successfully applied to develop the model of the system which properly predicts the consumption of sugars as well as the metabolites produced and yields. The dynamics of fermentation were also adequately described by the developed model. PMID:21461772

  1. Phase and composition controllable synthesis of cobalt manganese spinel nanoparticles towards efficient oxygen electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun; Han, Xiaopeng; Cheng, Fangyi; Hu, Yuxiang; Chen, Chengcheng; Chen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Spinel-type oxides are technologically important in many fields, including electronics, magnetism, catalysis and electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Typically, these materials are prepared by conventional ceramic routes that are energy consuming and offer limited control over shape and size. Moreover, for mixed-metal oxide spinels (for example, Co(x)Mn(3-x)O4), the crystallographic phase sensitively correlates with the metal ratio, posing great challenges to synthesize active product with simultaneously tuned phase and composition. Here we report a general synthesis of ultrasmall cobalt manganese spinels with tailored structural symmetry and composition through facile solution-based oxidation-precipitation and insertion-crystallization process at modest condition. As an example application, the nanocrystalline spinels catalyse the oxygen reduction/evolution reactions, showing phase and composition co-dependent performance. Furthermore, the mild synthetic strategy allows the formation of homogeneous and strongly coupled spinel/carbon nanocomposites, which exhibit comparable activity but superior durability to Pt/C and serve as efficient catalysts to build rechargeable Zn-air and Li-air batteries. PMID:26040417

  2. Phase and composition controllable synthesis of cobalt manganese spinel nanoparticles towards efficient oxygen electrocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun; Han, Xiaopeng; Cheng, Fangyi; Hu, Yuxiang; Chen, Chengcheng; Chen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Spinel-type oxides are technologically important in many fields, including electronics, magnetism, catalysis and electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Typically, these materials are prepared by conventional ceramic routes that are energy consuming and offer limited control over shape and size. Moreover, for mixed-metal oxide spinels (for example, CoxMn3?xO4), the crystallographic phase sensitively correlates with the metal ratio, posing great challenges to synthesize active product with simultaneously tuned phase and composition. Here we report a general synthesis of ultrasmall cobalt manganese spinels with tailored structural symmetry and composition through facile solution-based oxidation–precipitation and insertion–crystallization process at modest condition. As an example application, the nanocrystalline spinels catalyse the oxygen reduction/evolution reactions, showing phase and composition co-dependent performance. Furthermore, the mild synthetic strategy allows the formation of homogeneous and strongly coupled spinel/carbon nanocomposites, which exhibit comparable activity but superior durability to Pt/C and serve as efficient catalysts to build rechargeable Zn–air and Li–air batteries. PMID:26040417

  3. Magnetically Remote-Controlled Optical Sensor Spheres for Monitoring Oxygen or pH

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic sensor macrospheres (MagSeMacs), i.e., stainless steel spheres coated with optical chemical sensors, are presented as an alternative to existing optical sensor patches and fiber-optical dip-probes. Such spheres can either be reversibly attached to the tip of an optical fiber (dip-probe) or trapped inside a vessel for read-out through the side wall. Moving the magnetic separator at the exterior enables measurements at varying positions with a single sensor. Moreover, the sensor’s replacement is rapid and contactless. We measured dissolved oxygen or pH in stirred liquids, rotating flasks, and 24-well plates with a SensorDish-reader device for parallel cell culture monitoring. In these applications, MagSeMacs proved to be advantageous over conventional sensor patches and magnetic optical sensor particles because of their magnetism, spherical shape, reflectance, and size. These properties resulted in strong but reversible fixation, magnetic remote-controllability, short response times, high signal intensities, and simplified handling. PMID:20121206

  4. A Novel Solid Electrolyte Oxygen Sensor System for In-Situ Measurement and Process Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Frank Uwe; Messerschmid, Ernst; Rogg, Markus

    2010-10-01

    In 1993 the oxygen partial pressure was firstly measured inside a plasma wind tunnel using conventional ?-probes. Since then, a considerable amount of knowledge has been gained in using these sensors in ground test facilities and space. However, these commercially available sensors were too large in scale and weight. Consequently, a new development of solid electrolyte sensors called FIPEX more feasible for space was initiated. Due to space driven benefits, interest arose to use FIPEX technique in terrestrial applications e.g. to monitor sputter plants for float glass coating. Therefore, the VacuSen® sensor was developed. The characterization of VacuSen® at nominal sensor temperature TS = 680° C resulted in a sensor current according to IS = b?pO20?8±0?05 I[?A] in the operation range between ptot = 1?10-3 to 5 Pa. From pulse width modulation (PWM) temperature control, additional information allows to measure ptot according to ptot = a?RPWM0?107±0?005 thus enlarging the operation range to ptot = 1?10-3 to 1?105Pa. A one point calibration routine with air, ideally at ptot = 5 Pa in order to determine both calibration parameters a and b simultaneously, is proposed.

  5. Phase and composition controllable synthesis of cobalt manganese spinel nanoparticles towards efficient oxygen electrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun; Han, Xiaopeng; Cheng, Fangyi; Hu, Yuxiang; Chen, Chengcheng; Chen, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Spinel-type oxides are technologically important in many fields, including electronics, magnetism, catalysis and electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Typically, these materials are prepared by conventional ceramic routes that are energy consuming and offer limited control over shape and size. Moreover, for mixed-metal oxide spinels (for example, CoxMn3-xO4), the crystallographic phase sensitively correlates with the metal ratio, posing great challenges to synthesize active product with simultaneously tuned phase and composition. Here we report a general synthesis of ultrasmall cobalt manganese spinels with tailored structural symmetry and composition through facile solution-based oxidation-precipitation and insertion-crystallization process at modest condition. As an example application, the nanocrystalline spinels catalyse the oxygen reduction/evolution reactions, showing phase and composition co-dependent performance. Furthermore, the mild synthetic strategy allows the formation of homogeneous and strongly coupled spinel/carbon nanocomposites, which exhibit comparable activity but superior durability to Pt/C and serve as efficient catalysts to build rechargeable Zn-air and Li-air batteries.

  6. Interplay between reactive oxygen species and hormones in the control of plant development and stress tolerance.

    PubMed

    Xia, Xiao-Jian; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Shi, Kai; Zhou, Jie; Foyer, Christine H; Yu, Jing-Quan

    2015-05-01

    As a consequence of a sessile lifestyle, plants are continuously exposed to changing environmental conditions and often life-threatening stresses caused by exposure to excessive light, extremes of temperature, limiting nutrient or water availability, and pathogen/insect attack. The flexible coordination of plant growth and development is necessary to optimize vigour and fitness in a changing environment through rapid and appropriate responses to such stresses. The concept that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are versatile signalling molecules in plants that contribute to stress acclimation is well established. This review provides an overview of our current knowledge of how ROS production and signalling are integrated with the action of auxin, brassinosteroids, gibberellins, abscisic acid, ethylene, strigolactones, salicylic acid, and jasmonic acid in the coordinate regulation of plant growth and stress tolerance. We consider the local and systemic crosstalk between ROS and hormonal signalling pathways and identify multiple points of reciprocal control, as well as providing insights into the integration nodes that involve Ca(2+)-dependent processes and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation cascades. PMID:25788732

  7. Oxygen Uptake. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooley, John F.

    Biological waste treatment in the activated sludge process is based on the ability of microorganisms to use dissolved oxygen in breaking down soluble organic substances. The oxygen uptake test is a means of measuring the respiration rate of microorganisms in this process. Designed for individuals who have completed National Pollutant Discharge…

  8. Ultralow Oxygen Treatment for Postharvest Control of Western Flower Thrips on Head Lettuce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), were subjected to ULO treatments with different combinations of oxygen level, temperature, and treatment duration in plastic jars. Oxygen levels used ranged from 0.0015% to 0.01%. Temperatures ranged from 1 to 10°C. Treatme...

  9. Proposed fast-response oxygen monitoring and control system for the Langley 8-foot high-temperature tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Puster, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    A fast-response oxygen monitoring and control system, based on a Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 sensor, was developed and tested in the laboratory. The system is capable of maintaining oxygen concentration in the CH4-O2-air combustion product gases at 20.9 + or - 1.0 percent. If the oxygen concentration in the exhaust stream differs from that in normal air by 25 percent or more, an alarm signal is provided for automatic tunnel shutdown. The overall prototype system response time was reduced from about 1 sec in the original configuration to about 0.2 sec. The basis of operation and the results of laboratory tests of the system are described.

  10. Maximizing biomass concentration in baker's yeast process by using a decoupled geometric controller for substrate and dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Chopda, Viki R; Rathore, Anurag S; Gomes, James

    2015-11-01

    Biomass production by baker's yeast in a fed-batch reactor depends on the metabolic regime determined by the concentration of glucose and dissolved oxygen in the reactor. Achieving high biomass concentration in turn is dependent on the dynamic interaction between the glucose and dissolved oxygen concentration. Taking this into account, we present in this paper the implementation of a decoupled input-output linearizing controller (DIOLC) for maximizing biomass in a fed-batch yeast process. The decoupling is based on the inversion of 2×2 input-output matrix resulting from global linearization. The DIOLC was implemented online using a platform created in LabVIEW employing a TCP/IP protocol via the reactor's built-in electronic system. An improvement in biomass yield by 23% was obtained compared to that using a PID controller. The results demonstrate superior capability of the DIOLC and that the cumulative effect of smoother control action contributes to biomass maximization. PMID:26233328

  11. Failure of polymeric light emitting diodes by controlled exposure of the polymer-cathode interface to oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, G. G.; de Jong, M. P.; Winands, G. J. J.; Denier van der Gon, A. W.; van IJzendoorn, L. J.; Brongersma, H. H.; de Voigt, M. J. A.

    2002-06-01

    The influence of the controlled exposure to oxygen of the calcium cathode of polymeric light emitting diodes (pLEDs) is investigated. The LEDs are fabricated with ITO as anode, OC1C10-PPV as electroluminescent polymer, calcium as cathode and aluminium as protecting layer. The polymer layers of the LEDs are spincoated in a dry nitrogen atmosphere and transported directly into an UHV chamber where the metal electrodes are deposited by evaporation. In order to investigate the influence of the exposure to oxygen of the calcium cathode, the deposition of the calcium layer was interrupted in some cases and the samples were exposed to 30-1000 mbar of oxygen. We determined the amount of oxygen in the different layers of the I-V-light characterized pLEDs with elastic recoil detection analysis and correlated it with the characteristics of the devices. Exposing a part of the calcium layer to oxygen at layer thicknesses equal to or less than 10 nm leads to a total loss of the brightness, while exposing thicker layers or the pristine PPV does not affect the LEDs significantly.

  12. Processes controlling dissolved oxygen and pH in the upper Willamette River basin, Oregon, 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pogue, Ted R., Jr.; Anderson, Chauncey W.

    1995-01-01

    In July and August of 1994, the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (ODEQ) collected data to document the spatial extent and diel variability of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations and pH levels in selected reaches of streams in the upper Willamette River Basin. These data were also collected to identify primary factors that control DO concentrations downstream from major point sources as well as to provide ODEQ with data to refine calibration of their steady-state DO and nutrient models for the upper Willamette River Basin. All of the reaches studied had diel variations in DO and pH. The magnitude of the diel variations in DO ranged from 0.2 to 3.9 milligrams per liter (7 to 50 percent-saturation units based on ambient water temperature and barometric pressure) and in pH from 0.3 to 1.4 units. However, of the reaches studied, only the Coast Fork Willamette River from river mile (RM) 21.7 to 12.5 and the Willamette River from RM 151 to 141.6 had field measured violations of State standards for DO and pH. DO concentration and pH in water depend on many factors. Data were collected to examine several major factors, including BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), carbonaceous BOD, nitrogenous BOD, and measures of photosynthetic activity. Of the four study reaches, only a short stretch of the Coast Fork Willamette River has potential for important levels of oxygen consumption from BOD or nitrification. Additionally, water-column primary-productivity measurements indicated that respiration and photosynthesis by free-floating algae did not explain the observed diel variations in DO in the study reaches. Results from a simple mathematical model incorporating measures of community respiration and net primary productivities indicated that periphyton are capable of producing a diel variation of the order of magnitude observed during the August study period. In the Willamette River near Peoria, the combined periphyton DO consumption and production estimate at RM 151 (2.4 mg/L) and RM 144.6 (1.7 mg/L) would account for 90 and 63 percent, respectively, of the observed diel fluctuation. The estimates for the Corvallis reach at RM 132.6 (0.4 mg/L) and RM 130.7 (2.9 mg/L) had a considerably larger range of 36 to 264 percent of DO saturation, respectively. Therefore, because BOD and phytoplankton do not appear to be important contributors to diel DO fluctuations, periphyton are likely the primary contributor to diel fluctuations in the upper Willamette River Basin during July and August.

  13. Oxygenated Phosphine Fumigation for Control of Light Brown Apple Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Eggs on Cut-Flowers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Samuel S; Liu, Yong-Biao; Simmons, Gregory S

    2015-08-01

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), eggs were subjected to oxygenated phosphine fumigation treatments under 70% oxygen on cut flowers to determine efficacy and safety. Five cut flower species: roses, lilies, tulips, gerbera daisy, and pompon chrysanthemums, were fumigated in separate groups with 2,500?ppm phosphine for 72?h at 5°C. Egg mortality and postharvest quality of cut flowers were determined after fumigation. Egg mortalities of 99.7-100% were achieved among the cut flower species. The treatment was safe to all cut flowers except gerbera daisy. A 96-h fumigation treatment with 2,200?ppm phosphine of eggs on chrysanthemums cut flowers also did not achieve complete control of light brown apple moth eggs. A simulation of fumigation in hermetically sealed fumigation chambers with gerbera daisy showed significant accumulations of carbon dioxide and ethylene by the end of 72-h sealing. However, oxygenated phosphine fumigations with carbon dioxide and ethylene absorbents did not reduce the injury to gerbera daisy, indicating that it is likely that phosphine may directly cause the injury to gerbera daisy cut flowers. The study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation is effective against light brown apple moth eggs. However, it may not be able to achieve the probit9 quarantine level of control and the treatment was safe to most of the cut flower species. PMID:26470303

  14. Data trimming, nuclear emissions, and climate change.

    PubMed

    Shrader-Frechette, Kristin Sharon

    2009-03-01

    Ethics requires good science. Many scientists, government leaders, and industry representatives support tripling of global-nuclear-energy capacity on the grounds that nuclear fission is "carbon free" and "releases no greenhouse gases." However, such claims are scientifically questionable (and thus likely to lead to ethically questionable energy choices) for at least 3 reasons. (i) They rely on trimming the data on nuclear greenhouse-gas emissions (GHGE), perhaps in part because flawed Kyoto Protocol conventions require no full nuclear-fuel-cycle assessment of carbon content. (ii) They underestimate nuclear-fuel-cycle releases by erroneously assuming that mostly high-grade uranium ore, with much lower emissions, is used. (iii) They inconsistently compare nuclear-related GHGE only to those from fossil fuels, rather than to those from the best GHG-avoiding energy technologies. Once scientists take account of (i)-(iii), it is possible to show that although the nuclear fuel cycle releases (per kWh) much fewer GHG than coal and oil, nevertheless it releases far more GHG than wind and solar-photovoltaic. Although there may be other, ethical, reasons to support nuclear tripling, reducing or avoiding GHG does not appear to be one of them. PMID:18937054

  15. Transdermal Wound Oxygen Therapy on Pressure Ulcer Healing: A Single-Blind Multi-Center Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Azimian, Jalil; Dehghan Nayeri, Nahid; Pourkhaleghi, Enis; Ansari, Monireh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although healthcare quality has considerably improved in many countries, pressure ulcer is still a major health challenge worldwide. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of TWOT on the healing of pressure ulcers. Patients and Methods: This study was a randomized controlled trial, and the convenient sample including 100 patients hospitalized in two university-affiliated medical-surgical intensive care units and one neurology unit located in Qazvin, Iran were studied. Patients with stage II-IV pressure ulcer on the sacral or ischial areas were randomly assigned to either the control or the experimental groups. The experimental group received a 12-day transdermal wound oxygen therapy. Wound status was assessed seven times before the intervention, as well as two, four, six, eight, ten, and twelve days after the intervention. Results: After 12 days of wound oxygen therapy, the number of patients with complete wound healing in the experimental group was significantly greater than that of the control group. Moreover, the total mean of wound area in the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group. Conclusions: Transdermal wound oxygen therapy can effectively promote wound healing in patients with pressure ulcers.

  16. Stabilized Human TRIM5? Protects Human T Cells From HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Max W; Guo, Lili; Xin, Frances; Yang, Xiaolu; Riley, James L

    2014-01-01

    Rhesus (rh) but not human (hu) TRIM5? potently restricts human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. It is not clear why huTRIM5? fails to effectively block HIV infection, but it is thought to have a lower affinity for the viral core. Using primary human CD4 T cells, we investigated the ability of huTRIM5?, rhTRIM5?, and the huTRIM5?R323–332 B30.2/SPRY patch-mutant to form cytoplasmic bodies, postulated as key components of the HIV-1 restriction apparatus. Both rhTRIM5? and huTRIM5?R323–332 formed pronounced cytoplasmic bodies, whereas cytoplasmic bodies in T cells overexpressing huTRIM5? were present but more difficult to detect. As expression of all three TRIM5? orthologs was similar at the RNA level, we next investigated the role of protein stability in conferring TRIM5?-mediated HIV-1 restriction. Both steady-state and pulse-chase experiments revealed that the huTRIM5? protein was much less stable than rhTRIM5?, and this difference correlated with higher self-ubiquitination activity. Using a stabilized form of huTRIM5? in which the steady-state expression level was more similar to rhTRIM5?, we observed comparable HIV-1 restriction activity in multi-round HIV-1 challenge assays. Lastly, primary human CD4 T cells expressing a stabilized huTRIM5? were protected from HIV-1-mediated destruction in vivo, indicating that efforts to stabilize huTRIM5? should have significant long-term therapeutic value. PMID:24662946

  17. Designing a Microfluidic Device with Integrated Ratiometric Oxygen Sensors for the Long-Term Control and Monitoring of Chronic and Cyclic Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Grist, Samantha M; Schmok, Jonathan C; Liu, Meng-Chi Andy; Chrostowski, Lukas; Cheung, Karen C

    2015-01-01

    Control of oxygen over cell cultures in vitro is a topic of considerable interest, as chronic and cyclic hypoxia can alter cell behaviour. Both static and transient hypoxic levels have been found to affect tumour cell behaviour; it is potentially valuable to include these effects in early, in vitro stages of drug screening. A barrier to their inclusion is that rates of transient hypoxia can be a few cycles/hour, which is difficult to reproduce in traditional in vitro cell culture environments due to long diffusion distances from control gases to the cells. We use a gas-permeable three-layer microfluidic device to achieve spatial and temporal oxygen control with biologically-relevant switching times. We measure the oxygen profiles with integrated, ratiometric optical oxygen sensors, demonstrate sensor and system stability over multi-day experiments, and characterize a pre-bleaching process to improve sensor stability. We show, with both finite-element modelling and experimental data, excellent control over the oxygen levels by the device, independent of fluid flow rate and oxygenation for the operating flow regime. We measure equilibration times of approximately 10 min, generate complex, time-varying oxygen profiles, and study the effects of oxygenated media flow rates on the measured oxygen levels. This device could form a useful tool for future long-term studies of cell behaviour under hypoxia. PMID:26287202

  18. Designing a Microfluidic Device with Integrated Ratiometric Oxygen Sensors for the Long-Term Control and Monitoring of Chronic and Cyclic Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Grist, Samantha M.; Schmok, Jonathan C.; Liu, Meng-Chi (Andy); Chrostowski, Lukas; Cheung, Karen C.

    2015-01-01

    Control of oxygen over cell cultures in vitro is a topic of considerable interest, as chronic and cyclic hypoxia can alter cell behaviour. Both static and transient hypoxic levels have been found to affect tumour cell behaviour; it is potentially valuable to include these effects in early, in vitro stages of drug screening. A barrier to their inclusion is that rates of transient hypoxia can be a few cycles/hour, which is difficult to reproduce in traditional in vitro cell culture environments due to long diffusion distances from control gases to the cells. We use a gas-permeable three-layer microfluidic device to achieve spatial and temporal oxygen control with biologically-relevant switching times. We measure the oxygen profiles with integrated, ratiometric optical oxygen sensors, demonstrate sensor and system stability over multi-day experiments, and characterize a pre-bleaching process to improve sensor stability. We show, with both finite-element modelling and experimental data, excellent control over the oxygen levels by the device, independent of fluid flow rate and oxygenation for the operating flow regime. We measure equilibration times of approximately 10 min, generate complex, time-varying oxygen profiles, and study the effects of oxygenated media flow rates on the measured oxygen levels. This device could form a useful tool for future long-term studies of cell behaviour under hypoxia. PMID:26287202

  19. The control of reactive oxygen species influences porcine oocyte in vitro maturation.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, G M; Morado, S A; Soto, M P; Dalvit, G C; Cetica, P D

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of varying intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels during oocyte in vitro maturation with enzymatic ROS production systems (xanthine + xanthine oxidase or xanthine + xanthine oxidase + catalase), scavenger systems (catalase or superoxide dismutase + catalase) or cysteine on porcine oocyte maturation. Oocyte ROS levels showed an increase when H2O2 or O2?(-) production systems were added to the culture medium (p < 0.05). On the other hand, the presence of ROS scavengers in the maturation medium did not modify oocyte ROS levels compared with the control after 48 h of maturation, but the addition of cysteine induced a decrease in oocyte ROS levels (p < 0.05). The ROS production systems used in this work did not modified the percentage of oocyte nuclear maturation, but increased the decondensation of sperm head (p < 0.05) and decreased the pronuclear formation (p < 0.05). In turn, the addition of O2?(-) and H2O2 scavenging systems during in vitro maturation did not modify the percentage of oocytes reaching metaphase II nor the oocytes with decondensed sperm head or pronuclei after fertilization. However, both parameters increased in the presence of cysteine (p < 0.05). The exogenous generation of O2?(-) and H2O2 during oocyte in vitro maturation would not affect nuclear maturation or later sperm penetration, but most of the spermatozoa cannot progress to form the pronuclei after fusion with the oocyte. The decrease in endogenous ROS levels by the addition of cysteine would improve pronuclear formation after sperm penetration. PMID:25522082

  20. A Novel Solid Electrolyte Oxygen Sensor System for In-Situ Measurement and Process Control

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, Frank Uwe; Messerschmid, Ernst; Rogg, Markus

    2010-10-13

    In 1993 the oxygen partial pressure was firstly measured inside a plasma wind tunnel using conventional {lambda}-probes. Since then, a considerable amount of knowledge has been gained in using these sensors in ground test facilities and space. However, these commercially available sensors were too large in scale and weight. Consequently, a new development of solid electrolyte sensors called FIPEX more feasible for space was initiated. Due to space driven benefits, interest arose to use FIPEX technique in terrestrial applications e.g. to monitor sputter plants for float glass coating. Therefore, the VacuSen registered sensor was developed. The characterization of VacuSen registered at nominal sensor temperature T{sub S} = 680 deg. C resulted in a sensor current according to I{sub S} = b{center_dot}p{sub O2}{sup 0{center_dot}8{+-}0{center_dot}05} I[{mu}A] in the operation range between p{sub tot} = 1{center_dot}10{sup -3} to 5 Pa. From pulse width modulation (PWM) temperature control, additional information allows to measure ptot according to p{sub tot} = a{center_dot}RPWM{sup 0{center_dot}107{+-}0{center_dot}005} thus enlarging the operation range to p{sub tot} = 1{center_dot}10{sup -3} to 1{center_dot}10{sup 5} Pa. A one point calibration routine with air, ideally at p{sub tot} = 5 Pa in order to determine both calibration parameters a and b simultaneously, is proposed.

  1. Hypothalamic Apelin/Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling Controls Hepatic Glucose Metabolism in the Onset of Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Drougard, Anne; Duparc, Thibaut; Brenachot, Xavier; Carneiro, Lionel; Gouazé, Alexandra; Fournel, Audren; Geurts, Lucie; Cadoudal, Thomas; Prats, Anne-Catherine; Pénicaud, Luc; Vieau, Didier; Lesage, Jean; Leloup, Corinne; Benani, Alexandre; Cani, Patrice D.; Valet, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Aims: We have previously demonstrated that central apelin is implicated in the control of peripheral glycemia, and its action depends on nutritional (fast versus fed) and physiological (normal versus diabetic) states. An intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of a high dose of apelin, similar to that observed in obese/diabetic mice, increase fasted glycemia, suggesting (i) that apelin contributes to the establishment of a diabetic state, and (ii) the existence of a hypothalamic to liver axis. Using pharmacological, genetic, and nutritional approaches, we aim at unraveling this system of regulation by identifying the hypothalamic molecular actors that trigger the apelin effect on liver glucose metabolism and glycemia. Results: We show that icv apelin injection stimulates liver glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis via an over-activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), leading to fasted hyperglycemia. The effect of central apelin on liver function is dependent of an increased production of hypothalamic reactive oxygen species (ROS). These data are strengthened by experiments using lentiviral vector-mediated over-expression of apelin in hypothalamus of mice that present over-activation of SNS associated to an increase in hepatic glucose production. Finally, we report that mice fed a high-fat diet present major alterations of hypothalamic apelin/ROS signaling, leading to activation of glycogenolysis. Innovation/Conclusion: These data bring compelling evidence that hypothalamic apelin is one master switch that participates in the onset of diabetes by directly acting on liver function. Our data support the idea that hypothalamic apelin is a new potential therapeutic target to treat diabetes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 557–573. PMID:23879244

  2. Size-controlled large-diameter and few-walled carbon nanotube catalysts for oxygen reduction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianliang; Li, Qing; Pan, Hengyu; Lin, Ye; Ke, Yujie; Sheng, Haiyang; Swihart, Mark T; Wu, Gang

    2015-12-21

    We demonstrate a new strategy for tuning the size of large-diameter and few-walled nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) from 50 to 150 nm by varying the transition metal (TM = Fe, Co, Ni or Mn) used to catalyze graphitization of dicyandiamide. Fe yielded the largest tubes, followed by Co and Ni, while Mn produced a clot-like carbon morphology. We show that morphology is correlated with electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). A clear trend of Fe > Co > Ni > Mn for the ORR catalytic activity was observed, in both alkaline media and more demanding acidic media. The Fe-derived N-CNTs exhibited the highest BET (?870 m(2) g(-1)) and electrochemically accessible (?450 m(2) g(-1)) surface areas and, more importantly, the highest concentration of nitrogen incorporated into the carbon planes. Thus, in addition to the intrinsic high activity of Fe-derived catalysts, the high surface area and nitrogen doping contribute to high ORR activity. This work, for the first time, demonstrates size-controlled synthesis of large-diameter N-doped carbon tube electrocatalysts by varying the metal used in N-CNT generation. Electrocatalytic activity of the Fe-derived catalyst is already the best among studied metals, due to the high intrinsic activity of possible Fe-N coordination. This work further provides a promising route to advanced Fe-N-C nonprecious metal catalysts by generating favorable morphology with more active sites and improved mass transfer. PMID:26579622

  3. Retinal venous oxygen saturation and cardiac output during controlled hemorrhage and resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Denninghoff, Kurt R; Smith, Matthew H; Lompado, Art; Hillman, Lloyd W

    2003-03-01

    The objective was to test calibration of an eye oximeter (EOX) in a vitiligo swine eye and correlate retinal venous oxygen saturation (Srv(O(2))), mixed venous oxygen saturation (Sv(O(2))), and cardiac output (CO) during robust changes in blood volume. Ten anesthetized adult Sinclair swine with retinal vitiligo were placed on stepwise decreasing amounts of oxygen. At each oxygen level, femoral artery oxygen saturation (Sa(O(2))) and retinal artery oxygen saturation (Sra(O(2))) were obtained. After equilibration on 100% O(2), subjects were bled at 1.4 ml. kg(-1). min(-1) for 20 min. Subsequently, anticoagulated shed blood was reinfused at the same rate. During graded hypoxia, exsanguination, and reinfusion, Sra(O(2)) and Srv(O(2)) were measured by using the EOX, and CO and Sv(O(2)) were measured by using a pulmonary artery catheter. During graded hypoxia, Sra(O(2)) correlated with Sa(O(2)) (r = 0.92). Srv(O(2)) correlated with Sv(O(2)) (r = 0.89) during exsanguination and reinfusion. Sv(O(2)) and Srv(O(2)) correlated with CO during blood removal and resuscitation (r = 0.92). Use of vitiligo retinas improved the calibration of EOX measurements. In this robust hemorrhage model, Srv(O(2)) correlates with CO and Sv(O(2)) across the range of exsanguination and resuscitation. PMID:12571124

  4. Trim and Structural Optimization of Subsonic Transport Wings Using Nonconventional Aeroelastic Tailoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Bret K.; Jutte, Christine V.

    2014-01-01

    Several minimum-mass aeroelastic optimization problems are solved to evaluate the effectiveness of a variety of novel tailoring schemes for subsonic transport wings. Aeroelastic strength and panel buckling constraints are imposed across a variety of trimmed maneuver loads. Tailoring with metallic thickness variations, functionally graded materials, composite laminates, tow steering, and distributed trailing edge control effectors are all found to provide reductions in structural wing mass with varying degrees of success. The question as to whether this wing mass reduction will offset the increased manufacturing cost is left unresolved for each case.

  5. Comparison of decontamination methods to reduce microbial levels in fresh beef trimmings 

    E-print Network

    Ellebracht, Emily Annette

    1999-01-01

    -inoculated trimmings also were treated and the trimmings were used for chemical and sensory measurements. After treatment, trimmings were ground, packaged as chubs and stored for 0, 14, 28 and 42 days. Toil aerobic plate counts, rifnmpicin-resistant E. coli 0157...

  6. Effects of bill-trimming Muscovy ducks on behavior, body weight gain, and bill morphopathology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In commercial production facilities, ducks are often bill-trimmed to prevent feather pecking and cannibalism. Beak-trimming of chickens and turkeys has been criticized because of its potential to cause acute and chronic pain, but little is known about the effects of bill-trimming on the welfare of d...

  7. What processes control the oxygen isotopes of soil bio-available phosphate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Avner; Angert, Alon

    2015-06-01

    The biological availability of phosphorus (P) is considered to be the limiting factor for plant growth in many natural and agricultural soils. Recent studies demonstrated that valuable information on soil P dynamics can be gained from the stable oxygen isotopes of soil phosphate (?18OP). However, to interpret this information correctly, our understanding of the processes that controls soil phosphate ?18OP values needs to be improved since most of the current data is based primarily on laboratory studies of pure microbial cultures and enzymatic assays and may not be relevant to soils. Here we designed a series of controlled soil incubation experiments to study the actual isotopic effects induced by abiotic reactions, biological uptake, microbial turnover and organic-P mineralization on soil phosphate ?18OP values. We used this data to estimate the role of these processes in mediating soil P availability. Our study was conducted on Mediterranean soils sampled from the same site during winter, spring and summer. The soils were incubated with various mineral and organic-P compounds and their bioavailable phosphate concentrations and ?18OP values were measured. We confirmed that the role of abiotic reactions on phosphate ?18OP values was negligible and that the ?18OP values of the added phosphate were rapidly driven towards isotopic equilibrium with soil water. We suggest this process was mediated by rapid microbial phosphate turnover. Yet, we did not detect the expected isotopic enrichment effect associated with phosphate biological uptake. In another set of incubation experiments we demonstrated that mineralization of phosphate from organic compounds, such as phospho-mono-ester (PME) and phosphor-di-ester (PDE), produced an offset from isotopic equilibrium, as a result of the strong isotopic fractionation associated with the mineralization process. However, the ?18OP values recorded by the mineralized phosphate were gradually driven back towards isotopic equilibrium, probably due to its rapid microbial turnover after its release. By identifying the isotopic effects of the different processes in soils we could use a simple isotopic calculation to estimate the extent of biological phosphate turnover in our experimental system.

  8. Influence of perioperative oxygen fraction on pulmonary function after abdominal surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A high perioperative inspiratory oxygen fraction (FiO2) may reduce the frequency of surgical site infection. Perioperative atelectasis is caused by absorption, compression and reduced function of surfactant. It is well accepted, that ventilation with 100% oxygen for only a few minutes is associated with significant formation of atelectasis. However, it is still not clear if a longer period of 80% oxygen results in more atelectasis compared to a low FiO2. Our aim was to assess if a high FiO2 is associated with impaired oxygenation and decreased pulmonary functional residual capacity (FRC). Methods Thirty-five patients scheduled for laparotomy for ovarian cancer were randomized to receive either 30% oxygen (n?=?15) or 80% oxygen (n?=?20) during and for 2?h after surgery. The oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2) was measured every 30?min during anesthesia and 90?min after extubation. FRC was measured the day before surgery and 2?h after extubation by a rebreathing method using the inert gas SF6. Results Five min after intubation, the median PaO2/FiO2 was 69 kPa [53-71] in the 30%-group vs. 60 kPa [47-69] in the 80%-group (P?=?0.25). At the end of anesthesia, the PaO2/FiO2 was 58 kPa [40-70] vs. 57 kPa [46-67] in the 30%- and 80%-group, respectively (P?=?0.10). The median FRC was 1993?mL [1610-2240] vs. 1875?mL [1545-2048] at baseline and 1615?mL [1375-2318] vs. 1633?mL [1343-1948] postoperatively in the 30%- and 80%-group, respectively (P?=?0.70). Conclusion We found no significant difference in oxygenation index or functional residual capacity between patients given 80% and 30% oxygen for a period of approximately 5 hours. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00637936. PMID:22840231

  9. Expression of the immune regulator tripartite-motif 21 is controlled by IFN regulatory factors.

    PubMed

    Sjöstrand, Maria; Ambrosi, Aurélie; Brauner, Susanna; Sullivan, Jenna; Malin, Stephen; Kuchroo, Vijay K; Espinosa, Alexander; Wahren-Herlenius, Marie

    2013-10-01

    Tripartite-motif 21 (TRIM21) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates innate immune responses by ubiquitinating IFN regulatory factors (IRFs). TRIM21 is mainly found in hematopoietic cells in which its expression is induced by IFNs during viral. infections and in systemic autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren's syndrome. However, the exact molecular mechanism by which the expression of the Trim21 gene is regulated is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that IFNs induce Trim21 expression in immune cells via IRFs and that IFN-? and IFN-? are the most potent inducers of Trim21. A functional IFN-stimulated response element but no conserved IFN-?-activated site was detected in the promoter of Trim21. IRF1 and IRF2 strongly induced Trim21 expression in an IFN-stimulated response element-dependent manner, whereas IRF4 and IRF8 strongly repressed the IRF1-mediated induction of Trim21. Consistent with this observation, baseline expression of Trim21 was elevated in Irf4(-/-) cells. TRIM21, IRF1, and IRF2 expression was increased in PBMCs from patients with Sjögren's syndrome compared with healthy controls. In contrast, IRF4 and IRF8 expression was not increased in PBMCs from patients. The IFN-?-mediated induction of Trim21 was completely abolished by inhibiting protein synthesis with cycloheximide, and Trim21 expression could not be induced by IFN-? in Irf1(-/-) cells, demonstrating that IFN-? induces Trim21 indirectly via IRF1 and not directly via STAT1 activation. Our data demonstrate that multiple IRFs tightly regulate expression of Trim21 in immune cells, suggesting that a well-controlled expression of the E3 ligase TRIM21 is important for regulation of immune responses. PMID:23975864

  10. Trimmed-diamond shaped toggle magnetoresistive random access memory cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuma, Y.; Fujiwara, H.; Visscher, P. B.; Mankey, G. J.

    2009-04-01

    We have performed micromagnetic simulations for the design of toggle magnetoresistive random access memory (MRAM) cells to make the operating field as low as possible while keeping a reasonable margin and thermal stability. The memory cells are composed of weakly coupled synthetic antiferromagnets. The cells are diamond-shaped to suppress the formation of edge domains, which increase the operating field. The adverse effect of the diamond shape making the remanent state too stable is prevented by trimming the sharp points. The optimization of the trimming allows us to reduce the operating field and offer a pathway for realizing high-density toggle MRAM.

  11. TRIM59 Promotes the Proliferation and Migration of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells by Upregulating Cell Cycle Related Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Weihua; Han, Tianyu; Zhang, Chenfu; Xie, Caifeng; Gan, Mingxi; Deng, Keyu; Fu, Mingui; Wang, Jian-Bin

    2015-01-01

    TRIM protein family is an evolutionarily conserved gene family implicated in a number of critical processes including inflammation, immunity, antiviral and cancer. In an effort to profile the expression patterns of TRIM superfamily in several non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, we found that the expression of 10 TRIM genes including TRIM3, TRIM7, TRIM14, TRIM16, TRIM21, TRIM22, TRIM29, TRIM59, TRIM66 and TRIM70 was significantly upregulated in NSCLC cell lines compared with the normal human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cell line, whereas the expression of 7 other TRIM genes including TRIM4, TRIM9, TRIM36, TRIM46, TRIM54, TRIM67 and TRIM76 was significantly down-regulated in NSCLC cell lines compared with that in HBE cells. As TRIM59 has been reported to act as a proto-oncogene that affects both Ras and RB signal pathways in prostate cancer models, we here focused on the role of TRIM59 in the regulation of NSCLC cell proliferation and migration. We reported that TRIM59 protein was significantly increased in various NSCLC cell lines. SiRNA-induced knocking down of TRIM59 significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of NSCLC cell lines by arresting cell cycle in G2 phase. Moreover, TRIM59 knocking down affected the expression of a number of cell cycle proteins including CDC25C and CDK1. Finally, we knocked down TRIM59 and found that p53 protein expression levels did not upregulate, so we proposed that TRIM59 may promote NSCLC cell growth through other pathways but not the p53 signaling pathway. PMID:26599082

  12. TRIM59 Promotes the Proliferation and Migration of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells by Upregulating Cell Cycle Related Proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Weihua; Han, Tianyu; Zhang, Chenfu; Xie, Caifeng; Gan, Mingxi; Deng, Keyu; Fu, Mingui; Wang, Jian-Bin

    2015-01-01

    TRIM protein family is an evolutionarily conserved gene family implicated in a number of critical processes including inflammation, immunity, antiviral and cancer. In an effort to profile the expression patterns of TRIM superfamily in several non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines, we found that the expression of 10 TRIM genes including TRIM3, TRIM7, TRIM14, TRIM16, TRIM21, TRIM22, TRIM29, TRIM59, TRIM66 and TRIM70 was significantly upregulated in NSCLC cell lines compared with the normal human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cell line, whereas the expression of 7 other TRIM genes including TRIM4, TRIM9, TRIM36, TRIM46, TRIM54, TRIM67 and TRIM76 was significantly down-regulated in NSCLC cell lines compared with that in HBE cells. As TRIM59 has been reported to act as a proto-oncogene that affects both Ras and RB signal pathways in prostate cancer models, we here focused on the role of TRIM59 in the regulation of NSCLC cell proliferation and migration. We reported that TRIM59 protein was significantly increased in various NSCLC cell lines. SiRNA-induced knocking down of TRIM59 significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of NSCLC cell lines by arresting cell cycle in G2 phase. Moreover, TRIM59 knocking down affected the expression of a number of cell cycle proteins including CDC25C and CDK1. Finally, we knocked down TRIM59 and found that p53 protein expression levels did not upregulate, so we proposed that TRIM59 may promote NSCLC cell growth through other pathways but not the p53 signaling pathway. PMID:26599082

  13. TRIM5{alpha} association with cytoplasmic bodies is not required for antiretroviral activity

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Byeongwoon; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Park, Do Hyun; Rogers, Thomas; Stremlau, Matthew; Sodroski, Joseph . E-mail: joseph_sodroski@dfci.harvard.edu

    2005-12-20

    The tripartite motif (TRIM) protein, TRIM5{alpha}, restricts infection by particular retroviruses. Many TRIM proteins form cytoplasmic bodies of unknown function. We investigated the relationship between cytoplasmic body formation and the structure and antiretroviral activity of TRIM5{alpha}. In addition to diffuse cytoplasmic staining, the TRIM5{alpha} proteins from several primate species were located in cytoplasmic bodies of different sizes; by contrast, TRIM5{alpha} from spider monkeys did not form cytoplasmic bodies. Despite these differences, all of the TRIM5{alpha} proteins exhibited the ability to restrict infection by particular retroviruses. Treatment of cells with geldanamycin, an Hsp90 inhibitor, resulted in disappearance or reduction of the TRIM5{alpha}-associated cytoplasmic bodies, yet exerted little effect on the restriction of retroviral infection. Studies of green fluorescent protein-TRIM5{alpha} fusion proteins indicated that no TRIM5{alpha} domain is specifically required for association with cytoplasmic bodies. Apparently, the formation of cytoplasmic bodies is not required for the antiretroviral activity of TRIM5{alpha}.

  14. Intracellular antibody-bound pathogens stimulate immune signaling via the Fc receptor TRIM21.

    PubMed

    McEwan, William A; Tam, Jerry C H; Watkinson, Ruth E; Bidgood, Susanna R; Mallery, Donna L; James, Leo C

    2013-04-01

    During pathogen infection, antibodies can be carried into the infected cell, where they are detected by the ubiquitously expressed cytosolic antibody receptor TRIM21. Here we found that recognition of intracellular antibodies by TRIM21 activated immune signaling. TRIM21 catalyzed the formation of Lys63 (K63)-linked ubiquitin chains and stimulated the transcription factor pathways of NF-?B, AP-1, IRF3, IRF5 and IRF7. Activation resulted in the production of proinflammatory cytokines, modulation of natural killer stress ligands and induction of an antiviral state. Intracellular antibody signaling was abrogated by genetic deletion of TRIM21 and was restored by ectopic expression of TRIM21. The sensing of antibodies by TRIM21 was stimulated after infection by DNA or RNA nonenveloped viruses or intracellular bacteria. Thus, the antibody-TRIM21 detection system provides potent, comprehensive activation of the innate immune system independently of known pattern-recognition receptors. PMID:23455675

  15. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on harvested lettuce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A laboratory study was conducted to compare phosphine fumigations under the normal and superatmospheric oxygen levels on toxicity against Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) and effects on postharvest quality of romaine and head lettuce. Low temperature phosphine fumigation was effective against the aphi...

  16. Design and Control of Hot-Gas Desulfurization Systems with High Oxygen Regenerator Feed Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, C-K.; Luyben, W.L.

    2002-09-20

    This paper studies the use of regenerator feeds that have higher oxygen concentrations. Not only steady-state but also dynamic issues are examined. The key issue is identified to be heat-removal limitations which is confirmed by dynamic simulations.

  17. Hyperbaric Oxygen as an Adjunct in Zygomycosis: Randomized Controlled Trial in a Murine Model

    PubMed Central

    Barratt, Diana Marie; Van Meter, Keith; Asmar, Philip; Nolan, Terry; Trahan, Chris; Garcia-Covarrubias, Lisardo; Metzinger, Stephen E.

    2001-01-01

    Zygomycosis was induced by injecting CD-1 mice with 5 mg of intraperitoneal deferoxamine and then 106 CFU of intravenous and intrasinus Rhizopus arrhizus. The addition of hyperbaric oxygen (2.0 atm absolute twice daily) to amphotericin B did not improve survival over that achieved with amphotericin B and placebo air treatments. PMID:11709348

  18. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for postharvest control of light brown apple moth on lettuce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postharvest treatment for light brown apple moth (LBAM), Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), is needed to safe guard domestic distribution and export of U.S. fresh fruits and vegetables including lettuce as the pest becomes established in California with risk of potential spread. Oxygenated phosphine fu...

  19. Oxygen controlled product formation in CCl{sub 4} dechlorination using zero-valent iron

    SciTech Connect

    Helland, B.R.; Alvarez, P.J.J.; Schnoor, J.L.

    1995-12-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) was abiotically dechlorinated using zero-valent iron powder (Fe{sup o}) to yield chloroform (CHCl{sub 3}) and methylene chloride (CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}), which did not undergo further dechlorination. Dechlorination was rapid and approximated first-order kinetics in the range of concentrations tested (CCl{sub 4}: 1.5 to 5.5 {mu}M; Fe{sup o}: 1 to 10 g per 265 mL distilled deionized water). Initial dechlorination rate coefficients for anoxic batch reactors (0.290 {plus_minus} 0.009 hr{sup -1} for 1 g Fe{sup o}; 1.723 {plus_minus} 0.078 hr{sup -1} for 10 g Fe{sup o}) increased with iron surface area (initially 2.4 {plus_minus} 0.2 m{sup 2}/g). Dechlorination also occurred under oxic conditions, although rates were significantly slower (e.g., 0.085 {plus_minus} 0.041 hr{sup -1} for 1 g Fe{sup o} and 7.4 mg/L initial dissolved oxygen). Rate coefficients increased with time, probably due to an increase in reactive surface area from pitting and dissolution of the iron surface. A rapid pH increase was synchronous to dissolved oxygen consumption, and the pH remained constant after oxygen depletion. This was attributed to the proton and oxygen consuming aerobic corrosion of the Fe{sup o} surface. Recalcitrant CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} was decreased in the presence of dissolved oxygen, which reacted with dechlorinated intermediates to yield less environmentally onerous products such as formic acid and carbon monoxide.

  20. Ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on iceberg lettuce. I. Temperature, time & oxygen level on insect mortality & lettuce quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments with different oxygen levels, treatment times, and temperatures were studied to determine responses of western flower thrips and effects on postharvest quality of iceberg lettuce. Over 99.6% mortality rates of thrips were achieved in three ULO treatments of 2, 3, and...

  1. Duck TRIM27-L enhances MAVS signaling and is absent in chickens and turkeys.

    PubMed

    Blaine, Alysson H; Miranzo-Navarro, Domingo; Campbell, Lee K; Aldridge, Jerry R; Webster, Robert G; Magor, Katharine E

    2015-10-01

    Wild waterfowl, including mallard ducks, are the natural reservoir of avian influenza A virus and they are resistant to strains that would cause fatal infection in chickens. Here we investigate potential involvement of TRIM proteins in the differential response of ducks and chickens to influenza. We examine a cluster of TRIM genes located on a single scaffold in the duck genome, which is a conserved synteny group with a TRIM cluster located in the extended MHC region in chickens and turkeys. We note a TRIM27-like gene is present in ducks, and absent in chickens and turkeys. Orthologous genes are predicted in many birds and reptiles, suggesting the gene has been lost in chickens and turkeys. Using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) we show that TRIM27-L, and the related TRIM27.1, are upregulated 5- and 9-fold at 1 day post-infection with highly pathogenic A/Vietnam/1203/2004. To assess whether TRIM27.1 or TRIM27-L are involved in modulation of antiviral gene expression, we overexpressed them in DF1 chicken cells, and neither show any direct effect on innate immune gene expression. However, when co-transfected with duck RIG-I-N (d2CARD) to constitutively activate the MAVS pathway, TRIM27.1 weakly decreases, while TRIM27-L strongly activates innate immune signaling leading to increased transcription of antiviral genes MX1 and IFN-?. Furthermore, when both are co-expressed, the activation of the MAVS signaling pathway by TRIM27-L over-rides the inhibition by TRIM27.1. Thus, ducks have an activating TRIM27-L to augment MAVS signaling following RIG-I detection, while chickens lack both TRIM27-L and RIG-I itself. PMID:26254985

  2. Enhancing dissolved oxygen control using an on-line hybrid fuzzy-neural soft-sensing model-based control system in an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingzhi; Wan, Jinquan; Hu, Kang; Ma, Yongwen; Wang, Yan

    2013-12-01

    An on-line hybrid fuzzy-neural soft-sensing model-based control system was developed to optimize dissolved oxygen concentration in a bench-scale anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A(2)/O) process. In order to improve the performance of the control system, a self-adapted fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm and adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) models were employed. The proposed control system permits the on-line implementation of every operating strategy of the experimental system. A set of experiments involving variable hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent pH (pH), dissolved oxygen in the aerobic reactor (DO), and mixed-liquid return ratio (r) was carried out. Using the proposed system, the amount of COD in the effluent stabilized at the set-point and below. The improvement was achieved with optimum dissolved oxygen concentration because the performance of the treatment process was optimized using operating rules implemented in real time. The system allows various expert operational approaches to be deployed with the goal of minimizing organic substances in the outlet while using the minimum amount of energy. PMID:24052227

  3. Astronaut Owen Garriott trims hair of Astronaut Alan Bean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, trims the hair of Astronaut Alan L. Bean, commander, in this on-board photograph from the Skylab Orbital Workshop (OWS). Bean holds a vacuum hose to gather in loose hair.

  4. Interior view of the trimming and packing tables, ginaca machines ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of the trimming and packing tables, ginaca machines deliver pineapples from the left to the tables, view facing east - Kahului Cannery, Plant No. 28, Cannery Building and Dryer House/Feed Storage Building, 120 Kane Street, Kahului, Maui County, HI

  5. TRIM21-dependent intracellular antibody neutralization of virus infection.

    PubMed

    McEwan, William A; James, Leo C

    2015-01-01

    The ability of antibodies to prevent viral infection has long been recognized. In vitro neutralization assays, which take place in the absence of professional immune effector mechanisms, have demonstrated that the process of neutralization can occur by a variety of molecular mechanisms. Most known mechanisms involve the blocking of an event essential for infection, for instance, the steric inhibition of attachment to entry receptors. As such, neutralization is often thought of as a passive process that can occur without the need for host effector machinery. In contrast to this view, it has recently been demonstrated that neutralization can depend on the widely expressed cytosolic Fc binding protein TRIM21. This unique and novel Ig receptor directs the ubiquitin and proteasome-dependent degradation of intracellular antibody-bound viral particles and prevents infection. It has been further demonstrated that detection of cytosolic antibody by TRIM21 activates inflammatory signaling pathways and promotes the production of cytokines and chemokines. Studies in a TRIM21-null mouse demonstrate the importance of these activities: homozygous knockouts suffer fatal viral infection where wild-type mice survive. Though there is much to be learned about the role of TRIM21 in immunity, it is clear that there is a hitherto unappreciated role for antibodies in the intracellular environment. PMID:25595804

  6. Infrared beak treatment: an alternative to conventional beak trimming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infrared lasers have been widely used in human medicine and its results are reliable, predictable and reproducible. Infrared lasers have recently been designed with the expressed purpose of providing a less painful, more precise beak treatment compared with conventional beak trimming. This study was...

  7. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.30 Ballast water... exclusive economic zone must agree to comply with the “Code of Best Practices for Ballast Water...

  8. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.30 Ballast water... exclusive economic zone must agree to comply with the “Code of Best Practices for Ballast Water...

  9. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.30 Ballast water... exclusive economic zone must agree to comply with the “Code of Best Practices for Ballast Water...

  10. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30 Section... Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT...comply with the “Code of Best Practices for Ballast Water...Great Lakes so as to eliminate fresh and or brackish water...

  11. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30 Section... Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT...comply with the “Code of Best Practices for Ballast Water...Great Lakes so as to eliminate fresh and or brackish water...

  12. 30 CFR 57.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 57.9314 Section 57.9314 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  13. 30 CFR 57.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 57.9314 Section 57.9314 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  14. Controlled synthesis of a highly dispersed BiPO4 photocatalyst with surface oxygen vacancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhen; Liu, Yanfang; Wang, Jun; Zong, Ruilong; Yao, Wenqing; Wang, Juan; Zhu, Yongfa

    2015-08-01

    Highly dispersed BiPO4 with surface oxygen vacancies was synthesized via a solvothermal-calcination method. It can disperse uniformly in water for more than three days and the optimum photocatalytic activity of this highly dispersed BiPO4 was more than twice as high as that of Degussa P25 due to the oxygen vacancies. The high dispersibility is attributed to a layer of organic matter formed on the surface of BiPO4via the solvothermal approach. Most of the organic matter can be removed by calcination at 450 °C, but a small amount remains, thus the calcined BiPO4 retained its high dispersibility. This high dispersibility maintains a good contact between BiPO4 and the pollutants, resulting in the efficient removal of the pollutants by BiPO4. Besides, calcination at 450 °C also induced the formation of oxygen defects in BiPO4, which promotes the separation of photogenerated charge carriers and thus improves the photocatalytic activity of BiPO4.Highly dispersed BiPO4 with surface oxygen vacancies was synthesized via a solvothermal-calcination method. It can disperse uniformly in water for more than three days and the optimum photocatalytic activity of this highly dispersed BiPO4 was more than twice as high as that of Degussa P25 due to the oxygen vacancies. The high dispersibility is attributed to a layer of organic matter formed on the surface of BiPO4via the solvothermal approach. Most of the organic matter can be removed by calcination at 450 °C, but a small amount remains, thus the calcined BiPO4 retained its high dispersibility. This high dispersibility maintains a good contact between BiPO4 and the pollutants, resulting in the efficient removal of the pollutants by BiPO4. Besides, calcination at 450 °C also induced the formation of oxygen defects in BiPO4, which promotes the separation of photogenerated charge carriers and thus improves the photocatalytic activity of BiPO4. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02345a

  15. Effect of Oxygen and Redox Potential on Glucose Fermentation in Thermotoga maritima under Controlled Physicochemical Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lakhal, Raja; Auria, Richard; Davidson, Sylvain; Ollivier, Bernard; Dolla, Alain; Hamdi, Moktar; Combet-Blanc, Yannick

    2010-01-01

    Batch cultures of Thermotoga maritima were performed in a bioreactor equipped with instruments adapted for experiments performed at 80°C to mimic the fluctuating oxidative conditions in the hot ecosystems it inhabits. When grown anaerobically on glucose, T. maritima was shown to significantly decrease the redox potential (Eh) of the culture medium down to about ?480?mV, as long as glucose was available. Addition of oxygen into T. maritima cultures during the stationary growth phase led to a drastic reduction in glucose consumption rate. However, although oxygen was toxic, our experiment unambiguously proved that T. maritima was able to consume it during a 12-hour exposure period. Furthermore, a shift in glucose metabolism towards lactate production was observed under oxidative conditions. PMID:21461371

  16. Evaluation of Thermal Control Coatings and Polymeric Materials Exposed to Ground Simulated Atomic Oxygen and Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamenetzky, R. R.; Vaughn, J. A.; Finckenor, M. M.; Linton, R. C.

    1995-01-01

    Numerous thermal control and polymeric samples with potential International Space Station applications were evaluated for atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet radiation effects in the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory 5 eV Neutral Atomic Oxygen Facility and in the MSFC Atomic Oxygen Drift Tube System. Included in this study were samples of various anodized aluminum samples, ceramic paints, polymeric materials, and beta cloth, a Teflon-impregnated fiberglass cloth. Aluminum anodizations tested were black duranodic, chromic acid anodize, and sulfuric acid anodize. Paint samples consisted of an inorganic glassy black paint and Z-93 white paint made with the original PS7 binder and the new K2130 binder. Polymeric samples evaluated included bulk Halar, bulk PEEK, and silverized FEP Teflon. Aluminized and nonaluminized Chemfab 250 beta cloth were also exposed. Samples were evaluated for changes in mass, thickness, solar absorptance, and infrared emittance. In addition to material effects, an investigation was made comparing diffuse reflectance/solar absorptance measurements made using a Beckman DK2 spectroreflectometer and like measurements made using an AZ Technology-developed laboratory portable spectroreflectometer.

  17. Controlling the oxygen potential to improve the densification and the solid solution formation of uranium-plutonium mixed oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzati, Ségolène; Vaudez, Stéphane; Belin, Renaud C.; Léchelle, Jacques; Marc, Yves; Richaud, Jean-Christophe; Heintz, Jean-Marc

    2014-04-01

    Diffusion mechanisms occurring during the sintering of oxide ceramics are affected by the oxygen content of the atmosphere, as it imposes the nature and the concentration of structural defects in the material. Thus, the oxygen partial pressure, p(O2), of the sintering gas has to be precisely controlled, otherwise a large dispersion in various parameters, critical for the manufacturing of ceramics such as nuclear oxides fuels, is likely to occur. In the present work, the densification behaviour and the solid solution formation of a mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) were investigated. The initial mixture, composed of 70% UO2 + 30% PuO2, was studied at p(O2) ranging from 10-15 to 10-4 atm up to 1873 K both with dilatometry and in situ high temperature X-ray diffraction. This study has shown that the initial oxides UO2+x and PuO2-x first densify during heating and then the solid solution formation starts at about 200 K higher. The densification and the formation of the solid solution both occur at a lower temperature when p(O2) increases. Based on this result, it is possible to better define the sintering atmosphere, eventually leading to optimized parameters such as density, oxygen stoichiometry and cations homogenization of nuclear ceramics and of a wide range of industrial ceramic materials.

  18. A bench-scale assessment for phosphorus release control of sediment by an oxygen-releasing compound (ORC).

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Lin, Feng K; Yang, Lei; Hua, Dan Y

    2015-01-01

    The effects of oxygen-releasing compound (ORC) on the control of phosphorus (P) release as well as the spatial and temporal distribution of P fractions in sediment were studied through a bench-scale test. An ORC with an extended oxygen-releasing capacity was prepared. The results of the oxygen-releasing test showed that the ORC provided a prolonged period of oxygen release with a highly effective oxygen content of 60.6% when compared with powdery CaO2. In the bench-scale test, an ORC dose of 180 g·m(-2) provided a higher inhibition efficiency for P release within 50 days. With the application of the ORC, the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and redox potential (ORP) of the overlying water were notably improved, and the dissolved total phosphorus (DTP) was maintained below 0.689 mg·L(-1) compared to 2.906 mg·L(-1) without the ORC treatment. According to the P fractions distribution, the summation of all detectable P fractions in each sediment layer exhibited an enhanced accumulation tendency with the application of ORC. Higher phosphorus retention efficiencies were observed in the second and third layers of sediment from days 10 to 20 with the ORC. Phosphorus was trapped mainly in the form of iron bound P (Fe-P) and organically bound P (O-P) in sediment with the ORC, whereas the effects of the ORC on exchangeable P (EX-P), apatite-associated P (A-P) and detrital P (De-P) in the sediment sample were not significant. The microbial activities of the sediment samples demonstrated that both the dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) in the upper sediment layer increased with the ORC treatment, which indicated that the mineralization of P was accelerated and the microbial biomass was increased. As the accumulation of P suppressed the release of P, the sediment exhibited an increased P retention efficiency with the application of the ORC. PMID:25438131

  19. Resuscitation of very preterm infants with 30% vs. 65% oxygen at birth: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Resuscitation at birth with 100% oxygen is known to increase the oxidative burden with concomitant deleterious effects. Although fractions of inspired oxygen (FiO2)?controlled trial, 200 very preterm infants with a gestational age?oxygen. The FiO2 will be adjusted based on oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry (SpO2) and pulse rate (which should be over 100 beats per minute) in order to achieve a target SpO2 of 88–94% at 10 min of life. The FiO2 and pulse oximetry data will be continuously recorded. The primary outcome is survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia, as assessed by a physiological test at 36 weeks postmenstrual age. The secondary outcomes include the time to achieve SpO2?>?88%, Apgar score at 5 min, cumulative O2 exposure, oxidative stress (as determined by glutathione synthesis and oxidative stress markers), retinopathy of prematurity, brain injury and neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years of age. This study will provide insight into determining the appropriate initial FiO2 to start resuscitation of very preterm infants. Trial registration http://www.trialregister.nl, NTR243. PMID:22621326

  20. TRIM32 modulates pluripotency entry and exit by directly regulating Oct4 stability

    PubMed Central

    Bahnassawy, Lamia’a; Perumal, Thanneer M.; Gonzalez-Cano, Laura; Hillje, Anna-Lena; Taher, Leila; Makalowski, Wojciech; Suzuki, Yutaka; Fuellen, Georg; Sol, Antonio del; Schwamborn, Jens Christian

    2015-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have revolutionized the world of regenerative medicine; nevertheless, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying their generation and differentiation remain elusive. Here, we investigated the role of the cell fate determinant TRIM32 in modulating such processes. TRIM32 is essential for the induction of neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells by poly-ubiquitinating cMyc to target it for degradation resulting in inhibition of cell proliferation. To elucidate the role of TRIM32 in regulating somatic cell reprogramming we analysed the capacity of TRIM32-knock-out mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) in generating iPSC colonies. TRIM32 knock-out MEFs produced a higher number of iPSC colonies indicating a role for TRIM32 in inhibiting this cellular transition. Further characterization of the generated iPSCs indicated that the TRIM32 knock-out iPSCs show perturbed differentiation kinetics. Additionally, mathematical modelling of global gene expression data revealed that during differentiation an Oct4 centred network in the wild-type cells is replaced by an E2F1 centred network in the TRIM32 deficient cells. We show here that this might be caused by a TRIM32-dependent downregulation of Oct4. In summary, the data presented here reveal that TRIM32 directly regulates at least two of the four Yamanaka Factors (cMyc and Oct4), to modulate cell fate transitions. PMID:26307407

  1. Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a gas that your body needs to function. Normally, your lungs absorb oxygen from the air you breathe. But some conditions ...

  2. Attenuation of wall disturbances in an electron cyclotron resonance oxygen–argon plasma using real time control

    SciTech Connect

    Keville, Bernard Gaman, Cezar; Turner, Miles M.; Zhang, Yang; Daniels, Stephen; Holohan, Anthony M.

    2014-07-01

    Present practice in plasma-assisted semiconductor manufacturing specifies recipes in terms of inputs such as gas flow rates, power and pressure. However, ostensibly identical chambers running identical recipes may produce very different results. Extensive chamber matching, i.e., initial iterative, empirical tuning of the process recipe, which entails time-consuming, ex situ statistical analysis of process metrics such as etch depth, uniformity, anisotropy and selectivity, is required to ensure acceptable results. Once matched, chambers are run open loop and are thus sensitive to disturbances such as actuator drift, wall seasoning and substrate loading, which may impact negatively on process reproducibility. An alternative approach, which may obviate the need for chamber matching and reduce the sensitivity of process metrics to exogenous disturbances, would be to specify a recipe in terms of quantities such as active species densities, and to regulate these in real time by adjusting the inputs with a suitable control algorithm. In this work, real time control of an electron cyclotron resonance O{sub 2}/Ar plasma used for photoresist ashing has been implemented. The design of elementary, model-based algorithms for the control of the argon 750 and oxygen 844 line intensities measured by optical emission spectroscopy is described. Fluorination of the chamber walls by means of an SF{sub 6} plasma prior to ashing inhibits wall recombination of oxygen radicals resulting in an approximately 20% increase in ash rate in the open loop case. However, closed loop control almost completely attenuates the effect of fluorination, thus demonstrating the efficacy of the control algorithms in ensuring a reproducible ash rate in the face of a wall disturbance.

  3. Hyperbaric Oxygen in Lower Limb Trauma (HOLLT); protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Millar, Ian L; McGinnes, Rosemary A; Williamson, Owen; Lind, Folke; Jansson, Karl-Åke; Hajek, Michal; Smart, David; Fernandes, Tiago; Miller, Russell; Myles, Paul; Cameron, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Open fractures with significant soft tissue injury are associated with high rates of complications, such as non-union, infection, chronic pain and disability. Complications often require further inpatient care, and in many cases, multiple operations and prolonged rehabilitation. Use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy as an adjunct to standard orthopaedic trauma care has the potential to reduce the complications of musculoskeletal injury and thus improve outcomes. Two previous randomised trials have suggested some positive effect, but neither functional measures nor long-term outcomes were reported. Methods and analysis An international, multicentre, randomised, open-label, clinical trial. Patients with trauma with an acute open fracture of the tibia with severe soft tissue injury (Gustilo grade 3) and high risk of injury-related complications were recruited from participating major trauma hospitals with hyperbaric facilities. Patients were enrolled with the expectation of commencing 12 sessions of hyperbaric oxygen therapy within 48?h of injury. The primary outcome measure is the incidence of acute complications of the open fracture wound at 14?days. Other short-term outcome measures include amputation, need for fasciotomy, time until wound closure, breakdown of closed wounds, time until definitive orthopaedic fixation, number of operative procedures, intensive care stay and hospital stay. Long-term follow-up will continue for 2?years postinjury. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was given by The Alfred Health Human Ethics Committee (206/04) and the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee (CF07/4208). Approval was also obtained from the institutional research ethics committee at each participating site. This study will make a significant contribution to the trauma literature and should answer the question of whether hyperbaric oxygen therapy can significantly improve outcomes in severe lower limb trauma. Collective study results will be published in international journals and presented at relevant conferences. Trial registration number Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00264511; Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): ACTRN12607000559415. PMID:26068515

  4. Control of Oxygen Delamination in Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cells via Modifying Operational Regime

    SciTech Connect

    Sergey N. Rashkeev; Michael V. Glazoff

    2011-10-01

    Possible modifications of operational regimes for solid oxide fuel cell (SOEC) devices for hydrogen production are discussed. It is shown that applying alternating current (AC) voltage pulses at a certain frequency range to SOECs could reduce oxygen delamination degradation in these devices and significantly increase their lifetime. This operational scheme provides wide possibilities to increase longevity of SOEC devices required for their use in commercial hydrogen production processes, without any significant modification of used materials and/or cell design. Developed simulation method possesses a broad generality and be employed in a number of other industrial processes.

  5. Space Shuttle Orbiter oxygen partial pressure sensing and control system improvements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frampton, Robert F.; Hoy, Dennis M.; Kelly, Kevin J.; Walleshauser, James J.

    1992-01-01

    A program aimed at developing a new PPO2 oxygen sensor and a replacement amplifier for the Space Shuttle Orbiter is described. Experimental design methodologies used in the test and modeling process made it possible to enhance the effectiveness of the program and to reduce its cost. Significant cost savings are due to the increased lifetime of the basic sensor cell, the maximization of useful sensor life through an increased amplifier gain adjustment capability, the use of streamlined production processes for the manufacture of the assemblies, and the refurbishment capability of the replacement sensor.

  6. Autonomic control of cardiac function and myocardial oxygen consumption during hypoxic hypoxia.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, H. H.; Stone, H. L.

    1972-01-01

    Investigation in 19 conscious dogs of the importance of the sympathetic nervous system in the coronary and cardiac response to altitude (hypoxic) hypoxia. Beta-adrenergic blockade was used to minimize the cardiac effect associated with sympathetic receptors. It is shown that the autonomic nervous system, and particularly the sympathetic nervous system, is responsible for the increase in ventricular function and myocardial oxygen consumption that occurs during hypoxia. Minimizing this response through appropriate conditioning and training may improve the operating efficiency of the heart and reduce the hazard of hypoxia and other environmental stresses, such as acceleration, which are encountered in advanced aircraft systems.

  7. Emissions of parent, nitrated, and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from indoor corn straw burning in normal and controlled combustion conditions

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Guofeng; Xue, Miao; Wei, Siye; Chen, Yuanchen; Wang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Lv, Yan; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yanyan; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Wei, Wen; Zhao, Qiuyue; Li, Bin; Wu, Haisuo; Tao, Shu

    2014-01-01

    Emission factors (EFs) of parent polycyclic aromatic (pPAHs), nitrated PAHs (nPAHs), and oxygenated PAHs (oPAHs) were measured for indoor corn straw burned in a cooking brick stove in both normal and controlled burning conditions. EFs of total 28 pPAHs, 6 nPAHs and 4 oPAHs were 7.9±3.4, 6.5±1.6×10-3, and 6.1±1.4×10-1 mg/kg, respectively. By controlling the burning conditions, it was found that the influence of fuel charge size on EFs of the pPAHs and derivatives was insignificant. Measured EFs increased significantly in a fast burning mainly because of the oxygen deficient atmosphere formed in the stove chamber with a small volume. In both restricted and enhance air supply conditions, EFs of pPAHs, nPAHs and oPAHs were significantly higher than those measured in normal burning conditions. Though EFs varied in different burning conditions, the composition profiles and calculated isomer ratios were similar without significant differences. The results from the stepwise regression model showed that fuel burning rate, air supply amount, and modified combustion efficiency were three most significant influencing factors, explaining 72-85% of the total variations. PMID:24494494

  8. Trauma hemostasis and oxygenation research position paper on remote damage control resuscitation: definitions, current practice, and knowledge gaps.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Donald H; Rappold, Joseph F; Badloe, John F; Berséus, Olle; Blackbourne, Lorne; Brohi, Karim H; Butler, Frank K; Cap, Andrew P; Cohen, Mitchell Jay; Davenport, Ross; DePasquale, Marc; Doughty, Heidi; Glassberg, Elon; Hervig, Tor; Hooper, Timothy J; Kozar, Rosemary; Maegele, Marc; Moore, Ernest E; Murdock, Alan; Ness, Paul M; Pati, Shibani; Rasmussen, Todd; Sailliol, Anne; Schreiber, Martin A; Sunde, Geir Arne; van de Watering, Leo M G; Ward, Kevin R; Weiskopf, Richard B; White, Nathan J; Strandenes, Geir; Spinella, Philip C

    2014-05-01

    The Trauma Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research Network held its third annual Remote Damage Control Resuscitation Symposium in June 2013 in Bergen, Norway. The Trauma Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research Network is a multidisciplinary group of investigators with a common interest in improving outcomes and safety in patients with severe traumatic injury. The network's mission is to reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality from traumatic hemorrhagic shock, in the prehospital phase of resuscitation through research, education, and training. The concept of remote damage control resuscitation is in its infancy, and there is a significant amount of work that needs to be done to improve outcomes for patients with life-threatening bleeding secondary to injury. The prehospital phase of resuscitation is critical in these patients. If shock and coagulopathy can be rapidly identified and minimized before hospital admission, this will very likely reduce morbidity and mortality. This position statement begins to standardize the terms used, provides an acceptable range of therapeutic options, and identifies the major knowledge gaps in the field. PMID:24430539

  9. Sensitivity of the invasive bivalve Corbicula fluminea to candidate control chemicals: The role of dissolved oxygen conditions.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Inês C; Garrido, Rita; Ré, Ana; Gomes, João; Pereira, Joana L; Gonçalves, Fernando; Costa, Raquel

    2015-12-01

    The freshwater Corbicula fluminea is a major aquatic nuisance worldwide. Current pest control methods raise cost-effectiveness and environmental concerns, which motivate research into improved mitigation approaches. In this context, the susceptibility of the clams to chemicals under reduced oxygen conditions was examined. Biocides with different mechanisms of toxicity (niclosamide, polyDADMAC, ammonium nitrate, potassium chloride and dimethoate) were tested under normoxic (>7 mg L(-1) dissolved O2) and hypoxic (<2 mg L(-1) dissolved O2) conditions. Hypoxia was observed to potentiate chemical treatment, particularly when combined with non-overwhelming doses that would produce only intermediate responses by themselves. For niclosamide, ammonium nitrate and dimethoate, clam mortality enhancements up to 400% were observed under hypoxia as compared to dosing upon normal dissolved oxygen conditions. For polyDADMAC and potassium chloride, substantially lower mortality enhancements were found. The differences in the clams' sensitivity to the chemicals under hypoxia could be linked to the expected mechanisms of action. This suggests that judicious selection of the biocide is essential if optimized combined control treatments are to be designed and provides an insight into the interference of frequent hypoxia events in the response of natural clam populations to contaminant loads. PMID:26254082

  10. New Developments in Closed Loop Combustion Control Using Flue Gas Analysis 

    E-print Network

    Nelson, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    with the air and fuel metering systems providing the required dynamic response. In smaller boilers the transport lag can be much shorter so that flue gas trim can be allocated a more dynamic control function if analyzer dead time is kept short. Figure 18... of an oxygen analyzer whose output was zero valued when zero excess air Figure 23-Nema Type Electronic Linearizer Figure 24-Hazardous Area Electronic Linearizer : was reached. In reality, many disturbances may c~use temporary excursions on the air...

  11. TRIM proteins regulate autophagy and can target autophagic substrates by direct recognition

    PubMed Central

    Mandell, Michael A.; Jain, Ashish; Arko-Mensah, John; Chauhan, Santosh; Kimura, Tomonori; Dinkins, Christina; Silvestri, Guido; Münch, Jan; Kirchhoff, Frank; Simonsen, Anne; Wei, Yongjie; Levine, Beth; Johansen, Terje; Deretic, Vojo

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Autophagy, a homeostatic process whereby eukaryotic cells target cytoplasmic cargo for degradation, plays a broad role in health and disease states. Here we screened the TRIM family for roles in autophagy and found that half of TRIMs modulated autophagy. In mechanistic studies we show that TRIMs associate with autophagy factors and act as platforms assembling ULK1 and Beclin 1 in their activated states. Furthermore, TRIM5? acts as a selective autophagy receptor. Based on direct sequence-specific recognition, TRIM5? delivered its cognate cytosolic target, a viral capsid protein, for autophagic degradation. Thus, our study establishes that TRIMs can function both as regulators of autophagy and as autophagic cargo receptors, and reveals a new basis for selective autophagy in mammalian cells. PMID:25127057

  12. Regulation of virus neutralization and the persistent fraction by TRIM21.

    PubMed

    McEwan, W A; Hauler, F; Williams, C R; Bidgood, S R; Mallery, D L; Crowther, R A; James, L C

    2012-08-01

    Despite a central role in immunity, antibody neutralization of virus infection is poorly understood. Here we show how the neutralization and persistence of adenovirus type 5, a prevalent nonenveloped human virus, are dependent upon the intracellular antibody receptor TRIM21. Cells with insufficient amounts of TRIM21 are readily infected, even at saturating concentrations of neutralizing antibody. Conversely, high TRIM21 expression levels decrease the persistent fraction of the infecting virus and allows neutralization by as few as 1.6 antibody molecules per virus. The direct interaction between TRIM21 and neutralizing antibody is essential, as single-point mutations within the TRIM21-binding site in the Fc region of a potently neutralizing antibody impair neutralization. However, infection at high multiplicity can saturate TRIM21 and overcome neutralization. These results provide insight into the mechanism and importance of a newly discovered, effector-driven process of antibody neutralization of nonenveloped viruses. PMID:22647693

  13. Pilot study to visualise and measure skin tissue oxygenation, erythema, total haemoglobin and melanin content using index maps in healthy controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poxon, Ian; Wilkinson, Jack; Herrick, Ariane; Dickinson, Mark; Murray, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    We report on a method for analysing multispectral images of skin in vivo for the measurement and visualisation of skin characteristics. Four different indices were used to characterise skin tissue oxygenation, erythema, total haemoglobin and melanin content. Index values were calculated pixel-wise and combined to create index maps to visualise skin properties. Quantitative measurement of tissue oxygenation saturation was possible by calibrating the oxygenation index using a commercial, calibrated oximeter. Index maps were tested by arterial occlusion of the index finger with multispectral images taken before, during and after occlusion in a pilot study with 10 healthy controls.

  14. Mult-Pollutant Control Through Novel Approaches to Oxygen Enhanced Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Axelbaum; Pratim Biswas

    2009-02-28

    Growing concerns about global climate change have focused effortss on identifying approaches to stabilizing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. One approach utilizes oxy-fuel combustion to produce a concentrated flue gas that will enable economical CO{sub 2} capture by direct methods. Oxy-fuel combustion rewuires an Air Separation Unit (ASU) to provide a high-purity stream of oxygen as well as a Compression and Purification Unit (CPU) to clean and compress the CO{sub 2} for long term storage. Overall plant efficiency will suffer from the parasitic load of both the ASU and CPU and researchers are investigating techniques to enhance other aspects of the combustion and gas cleanup proceses to improve the benefit-to-cost ratio. This work examines the influence of oxy-fuel combustion and non-carbon based sorbents on the formation and fate of multiple combustion pollutants both numerically and experimentally.

  15. Orientation-Controlled Electrocatalytic Efficiency of an Adsorbed Oxygen-Tolerant Hydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Zerball, Maximilian; Horch, Marius; Millo, Diego; Fritsch, Johannes; Lenz, Oliver; von Klitzing, Regine; Hildebrandt, Peter; Fischer, Anna; Mroginski, Maria Andrea; Zebger, Ingo

    2015-01-01

    Protein immobilization on electrodes is a key concept in exploiting enzymatic processes for bioelectronic devices. For optimum performance, an in-depth understanding of the enzyme-surface interactions is required. Here, we introduce an integral approach of experimental and theoretical methods that provides detailed insights into the adsorption of an oxygen-tolerant [NiFe] hydrogenase on a biocompatible gold electrode. Using atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry, surface-enhanced IR spectroscopy, and protein film voltammetry, we explore enzyme coverage, integrity, and activity, thereby probing both structure and catalytic H2 conversion of the enzyme. Electrocatalytic efficiencies can be correlated with the mode of protein adsorption on the electrode as estimated theoretically by molecular dynamics simulations. Our results reveal that pre-activation at low potentials results in increased current densities, which can be rationalized in terms of a potential-induced re-orientation of the immobilized enzyme. PMID:26580976

  16. Kinetically-controlled growth of cubic and octahedral Rh-Pd alloy oxygen reduction electrocatalysts with high activity and durability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yucong; Zhan, Fangwei; Du, Jingshan; Jiang, Yingying; Jin, Chuanhong; Fu, Maoshen; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren

    2014-11-01

    Rh is a promising candidate as an indispensible component in bimetallic catalysts due to its unique capability to resist against the aggressive corrosion from the reaction medium. However, Rh has a very strong oxygen binding ability and is generally not suitable for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Here, we have demonstrated shape-controlled synthesis of Rh-Pd alloy nanocrystals with high activity and durability for ORR by retarding the reaction kinetics at an ultra-slow injection rate of metal salts using a syringe pump. Under precise control of sluggish reaction kinetics, Pd followed a preferential overgrowth along the <100> direction, whereas the growth behavior of Rh was dominant along the <111> direction. These different kinetically-controlled growth behaviors associated with Rh and Pd were essential for achieving the shape transition between the cube and the octahedron of their alloys. The Rh8Pd92 alloy octahedra exhibited the highest mass activity with a value of 0.18 mA ?g-1 in terms of the equivalent Pt cost, and were two-fold higher than that of commercial Pt/C. Significantly, all Rh-Pd alloy nanocrystals were highly stable with only less than 25% loss in mass activity after 30 000 CV cycles in O2 saturated acid solution compared to ~56% loss of the commercial Pt/C (E-TEK). Indeed, the mass activity of Rh8Pd92 was 3.3 times higher than that of commercial Pt/C after the accelerated stability test (ADT). This improvement in activity and durability may arise possibly from synergistic effects between the facet and the surface composition.Rh is a promising candidate as an indispensible component in bimetallic catalysts due to its unique capability to resist against the aggressive corrosion from the reaction medium. However, Rh has a very strong oxygen binding ability and is generally not suitable for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Here, we have demonstrated shape-controlled synthesis of Rh-Pd alloy nanocrystals with high activity and durability for ORR by retarding the reaction kinetics at an ultra-slow injection rate of metal salts using a syringe pump. Under precise control of sluggish reaction kinetics, Pd followed a preferential overgrowth along the <100> direction, whereas the growth behavior of Rh was dominant along the <111> direction. These different kinetically-controlled growth behaviors associated with Rh and Pd were essential for achieving the shape transition between the cube and the octahedron of their alloys. The Rh8Pd92 alloy octahedra exhibited the highest mass activity with a value of 0.18 mA ?g-1 in terms of the equivalent Pt cost, and were two-fold higher than that of commercial Pt/C. Significantly, all Rh-Pd alloy nanocrystals were highly stable with only less than 25% loss in mass activity after 30 000 CV cycles in O2 saturated acid solution compared to ~56% loss of the commercial Pt/C (E-TEK). Indeed, the mass activity of Rh8Pd92 was 3.3 times higher than that of commercial Pt/C after the accelerated stability test (ADT). This improvement in activity and durability may arise possibly from synergistic effects between the facet and the surface composition. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04942j

  17. Measurement of axial injection displacement with trim coil current unbalance

    SciTech Connect

    Covo, Michel Kireeff

    2014-08-15

    The Dee probe used for measuring internal radial beam intensity shows large losses inside the radius of 20 cm of the 88 in. cyclotron. The current of the top and bottom innermost trim coil 1 is unbalanced to study effects of the axial injection displacement. A beam profile monitor images the ion beam bunches, turn by turn. The experimental bunch center of mass position is compared with calculations of the magnetic mirror effect displacement and shows good agreement.

  18. Astronaut Charles Conrad trims hair of Astronaut Paul Weitz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., Skylab 2 commander, trims the hair of Astronaut Paul J. Weitz, Skylab 2 pilot, during the 28-day Skylab 2 mission in Earth orbit. They are in the crew quarters wardroom of the Orbital Workshop of the Skylab 1 and 2 space station. Weitz is holding a vacuum hose in his right hand. This picture was taken by Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, Skylab 2 science pilot.

  19. Adhesive Fiber Stratification in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Biofilms Unveils Oxygen-Mediated Control of Type 1 Pili

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Kyle A.; Moore, Jessica L.; Eberly, Allison R.; Good, James A. D.; Shaffer, Carrie L.; Zaver, Himesh; Almqvist, Fredrik; Skaar, Eric P.; Caprioli, Richard M.; Hadjifrangiskou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms account for a significant number of hospital-acquired infections and complicate treatment options, because bacteria within biofilms are generally more tolerant to antibiotic treatment. This resilience is attributed to transient bacterial subpopulations that arise in response to variations in the microenvironment surrounding the biofilm. Here, we probed the spatial proteome of surface-associated single-species biofilms formed by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the major causative agent of community-acquired and catheter-associated urinary tract infections. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) to analyze the spatial proteome of intact biofilms in situ. MALDI-TOF IMS revealed protein species exhibiting distinct localizations within surface-associated UPEC biofilms, including two adhesive fibers critical for UPEC biofilm formation and virulence: type 1 pili (Fim) localized exclusively to the air-exposed region, while curli amyloid fibers localized to the air-liquid interface. Comparison of cells grown aerobically, fermentatively, or utilizing an alternative terminal electron acceptor showed that the phase-variable fim promoter switched to the “OFF” orientation under oxygen-deplete conditions, leading to marked reduction of type 1 pili on the bacterial cell surface. Conversely, S pili whose expression is inversely related to fim expression were up-regulated under anoxic conditions. Tethering the fim promoter in the “ON” orientation in anaerobically grown cells only restored type 1 pili production in the presence of an alternative terminal electron acceptor beyond oxygen. Together these data support the presence of at least two regulatory mechanisms controlling fim expression in response to oxygen availability and may contribute to the stratification of extracellular matrix components within the biofilm. MALDI IMS facilitated the discovery of these mechanisms, and we have demonstrated that this technology can be used to interrogate subpopulations within bacterial biofilms. PMID:25738819

  20. TRIM45 negatively regulates NF-{kappa}B-mediated transcription and suppresses cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, Mio; Sato, Tomonobu; Department of Pediatrics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 ; Nukiwa, Ryota; Ariga, Tadashi; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NF-{kappa}B plays an important role in cell survival and carcinogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM45 negatively regulates TNF{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B-mediated transcription. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM45 overexpression suppresses cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM45 acts as a repressor for the NF-{kappa}B signal and regulates cell growth. -- Abstract: The NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway plays an important role in cell survival, immunity, inflammation, carcinogenesis, and organogenesis. Activation of NF-{kappa}B is regulated by several posttranslational modifications including phosphorylation, neddylation and ubiquitination. The NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway is activated by two distinct signaling mechanisms and is strictly modulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. It has been reported that overexpression of TRIM45, one of the TRIM family ubiquitin ligases, suppresses transcriptional activities of Elk-1 and AP-1, which are targets of the MAPK signaling pathway. In this study, we showed that TRIM45 also negatively regulates TNF{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B-mediated transcription by a luciferase reporter assay and that TRIM45 lacking a RING domain also has an activity to inhibit the NF-{kappa}B signal. Moreover, we found that TRIM45 overexpression suppresses cell growth. These findings suggest that TRIM45 acts as a repressor for the NF-{kappa}B signal and regulates cell growth.

  1. Rapid turnover and polyubiquitylation of the retroviral restriction factor TRIM5.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Li, Xing; Javanbakht, Hassan; Song, Byeongwoon; Welikala, Sohanya; Stremlau, Matthew; Sodroski, Joseph

    2006-06-01

    TRIM5alpha and TRIMCyp are retroviral restriction factors that, like other members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family, contain RING, B-box 2 and coiled-coil domains. We found that both proteins are rapidly turned over, with half-lives of 50-60 min. Polyubiquitylation and rapid degradation of TRIM5alpha depended upon intact RING and B-box 2 domains. A chimera consisting of monkey TRIM5alpha with a RING domain of human TRIM21 exhibited a half-life of 210 min, yet potently restricted human immunodeficiency virus; therefore, rapid turnover of TRIM5alpha is not required for its antiretroviral activity. TRIM5alpha forms cytoplasmic bodies that contain other polyubiquitylated proteins, heat shock proteins and dynein, and thus resemble aggresome precursors. Consistent with this interpretation, proteasomal inhibitors triggered the formation of TRIM5alpha(rh)-containing aggresomes in a microtubule-dependent manner. Thus, TRIM5alpha levels in the cell are maintained by continuous synthesis and rapid proteasome-mediated degradation, imbalances in which result in the formation of pre-aggresomal cytoplasmic bodies. PMID:16472833

  2. The TIF1?-related TRIM cofactors couple chromatin modifications to transcriptional regulation, signaling and tumor suppression

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    TRIM24 (TIF1?), TRIM28 (TIF1?) and TRIM33 (TIF1?) are related cofactors defining a subgroup of the tripartite motif (TRIM) superfamily comprising an N-terminal RING finger E3 ligase and a C-terminal PHD-Bromodomain chromatin interacting module. Increasing evidence highlights the important roles of these proteins as modulators of multiple signaling pathways during normal development and as tumor suppressors. The finding that they interact to form a multiprotein complex suggests new mechanisms to integrate multiple signaling pathways for tumor suppression. PMID:22231120

  3. Gas turbine engine fuel control system

    SciTech Connect

    Burrage, R.G.

    1983-10-04

    A fuel system includes a known hydromechanical governor fuel control, which has an electromechanical trim device. The trim device is controlled by a circuit which includes an error signal generating means for producing an error signal representing the difference between the desired and actual values of an engine parameter a proportional-plus-integral controller circuit, a trim datum signal generator and a differentiator which connects the generator to the integrator of the controller, so that in transient conditions the integrator output will ramp to a new value required for a new steady state condition.

  4. Trimmed strategy for affine registration of point sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yaxin; Ying, Shihui; Qin, Jing; Zeng, Tieyong

    2013-01-01

    We propose a trimmed strategy for affine registration of point sets using the Lie group parameterization. All affine transformations form an affine Lie group, thus finding an optimal transformation in registration is reduced to finding an optimal element in the affine group. Given two point sets (with outliers) and an initial element in the transformation group, we seek the optimal group element iteratively by minimizing an energy functional. This is conducted by sequentially finding the closest correspondence of two point sets, estimating the overlap rate of two sets, and finding the optimal affine transformation via the exponential map of the affine group. This method improves the trimmed iterative closest point algorithm (TrICP) in two aspects: (1) We use the Lie group parameterization to implement TrICP. (2) We also extend TrICP to the case of affine transformations. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by using the LiDAR data acquired in the Mount St. Helens area. Both visual inspections and evaluation index (root mean trimmed squared distance) indicate that our algorithm performs consistently better than TrICP and other related algorithms, especially in the presence of outliers and missing points.

  5. Determinants for the rhesus monkey TRIM5alpha-mediated block of the late phase of HIV-1 replication.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Ryuta; Ohmine, Seiga; Ikeda, Yasuhiro

    2010-02-01

    Rhesus monkey TRIM5alpha (TRIM5alpharh) includes RING, B-box, coiled-coil, and B30.2(PRYSPRY) domains and blocks HIV-1 infection by targeting HIV-1 core through a B30.2(PRYSPRY) domain. Previously, we reported that TRIM5alpharh also blocks HIV-1 production in a B30.2(PRYSPRY)-independent manner. Efficient encapsidation of TRIM5alpharh, but not human TRIM5alpha (TRIM5alphahu), in HIV-1 virus-like particles suggests the interaction between Gag and TRIM5alpharh during viral assembly. Here, we determined responsible regions for late restriction activity of TRIM5alpharh. The RING disruption, but not the replacement with human TRIM21 RING, ablated the efficient encapsidation and the late restriction, suggesting that a RING structure was essential for the late restriction and efficient interaction with HIV-1 Gag. The prominent cytoplasmic body formation of TRIM5alpharh, which depended on the coiled-coil domain and the ensuing linker 2 region, was not required for the encapsidation. Intriguingly, TRIM5alpharh coiled-coil domain mutants (M133T and/or T146A) showed impaired late restriction activity, despite the efficient encapsidation and cytoplasmic body formation. Our results suggest that the TRIM5alpharh-mediated late restriction involves at least two distinct activities as follows: (i) interaction with HIV-1 Gag polyprotein through the N-terminal, RING, and B-box 2 regions of a TRIM5alpharh monomer, and (ii) an effector function(s) that depends upon the coiled-coil and linker 2 domains of TRIM5alpharh. We speculate that the TRIM5alpharh coiled-coil region recruits additional factor(s), such as other TRIM family proteins or a cellular protease, during the late restriction. RBCC domains of TRIM family proteins may play a role in sensing newly synthesized viral proteins as a part of innate immunity against viral infection. PMID:19951947

  6. Shape-controlled synthesis and influence of W doping and oxygen nonstoichiometry on the phase transition of VO2

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ru; Miao, Lei; Liu, Chengyan; Zhou, Jianhua; Cheng, Haoliang; Asaka, Toru; Iwamoto, Yuji; Tanemura, Sakae

    2015-01-01

    Monoclinic VO2(M) in nanostructure is a prototype material for interpreting correlation effects in solids with fully reversible phase transition and for the advanced applications to smart devices. Here, we report a facile one-step hydrothermal method for the controlled growth of single crystalline VO2(M/R) nanorods. Through tuning the hydrothermal temperature, duration of the hydrothermal time and W-doped level, single crystalline VO2(M/R) nanorods with controlled aspect ratio can be synthesized in large quantities, and the crucial parameter for the shape-controlled synthesis is the W-doped content. The dopant greatly promotes the preferential growth of (110) to form pure phase VO2(R) nanorods with high aspect ratio for the W-doped level?=?2.0 at% sample. The shape-controlled process of VO2(M/R) nanorods upon W-doping are systematically studied. Moreover, the phase transition temperature (Tc) of VO2 depending on oxygen nonstoichiometry is investigated in detail. PMID:26373612

  7. Shape-controlled synthesis and influence of W doping and oxygen nonstoichiometry on the phase transition of VO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ru; Miao, Lei; Liu, Chengyan; Zhou, Jianhua; Cheng, Haoliang; Asaka, Toru; Iwamoto, Yuji; Tanemura, Sakae

    2015-09-01

    Monoclinic VO2(M) in nanostructure is a prototype material for interpreting correlation effects in solids with fully reversible phase transition and for the advanced applications to smart devices. Here, we report a facile one-step hydrothermal method for the controlled growth of single crystalline VO2(M/R) nanorods. Through tuning the hydrothermal temperature, duration of the hydrothermal time and W-doped level, single crystalline VO2(M/R) nanorods with controlled aspect ratio can be synthesized in large quantities, and the crucial parameter for the shape-controlled synthesis is the W-doped content. The dopant greatly promotes the preferential growth of (110) to form pure phase VO2(R) nanorods with high aspect ratio for the W-doped level?=?2.0 at% sample. The shape-controlled process of VO2(M/R) nanorods upon W-doping are systematically studied. Moreover, the phase transition temperature (Tc) of VO2 depending on oxygen nonstoichiometry is investigated in detail.

  8. Shape-controlled synthesis and influence of W doping and oxygen nonstoichiometry on the phase transition of VO2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ru; Miao, Lei; Liu, Chengyan; Zhou, Jianhua; Cheng, Haoliang; Asaka, Toru; Iwamoto, Yuji; Tanemura, Sakae

    2015-01-01

    Monoclinic VO2(M) in nanostructure is a prototype material for interpreting correlation effects in solids with fully reversible phase transition and for the advanced applications to smart devices. Here, we report a facile one-step hydrothermal method for the controlled growth of single crystalline VO2(M/R) nanorods. Through tuning the hydrothermal temperature, duration of the hydrothermal time and W-doped level, single crystalline VO2(M/R) nanorods with controlled aspect ratio can be synthesized in large quantities, and the crucial parameter for the shape-controlled synthesis is the W-doped content. The dopant greatly promotes the preferential growth of (110) to form pure phase VO2(R) nanorods with high aspect ratio for the W-doped level = 2.0 at% sample. The shape-controlled process of VO2(M/R) nanorods upon W-doping are systematically studied. Moreover, the phase transition temperature (Tc) of VO2 depending on oxygen nonstoichiometry is investigated in detail. PMID:26373612

  9. Surface profile control of FeNiPt/Pt core/shell nanowires for oxygen reduction reaction

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhu, Huiyuan; Zhang, Sen; Su, Dong; Jiang, Guangming; Sun, Shouheng

    2015-03-18

    The ever-increasing energy demand requires renewable energy schemes with low environmental impacts. Electrochemical energy conversion devices, such as fuel cells, combine fuel oxidization and oxygen reduction reactions and have been studied extensively for renewable energy applications. However, their energy conversion efficiency is often limited by kinetically sluggish chemical conversion reactions, especially oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). [1-5] To date, extensive efforts have been put into developing efficient ORR catalysts with controls on catalyst sizes, compositions, shapes and structures. [6-12] Recently, Pt-based catalysts with core/shell and one-dimensional nanowire (NW) morphologies were found to be promising to further enhance ORR catalysis. With themore »core/shell structure, the ORR catalysis of a nanoparticle (NP) catalyst can be tuned by both electronic and geometric effects at the core/shell interface. [10,13,14] With the NW structure, the catalyst interaction with the conductive support can be enhanced to facilitate electron transfer between the support and the NW catalyst and to promote ORR. [11,15,16]« less

  10. Surface profile control of FeNiPt/Pt core/shell nanowires for oxygen reduction reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Huiyuan; Zhang, Sen; Su, Dong; Jiang, Guangming; Sun, Shouheng

    2015-03-18

    The ever-increasing energy demand requires renewable energy schemes with low environmental impacts. Electrochemical energy conversion devices, such as fuel cells, combine fuel oxidization and oxygen reduction reactions and have been studied extensively for renewable energy applications. However, their energy conversion efficiency is often limited by kinetically sluggish chemical conversion reactions, especially oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). [1-5] To date, extensive efforts have been put into developing efficient ORR catalysts with controls on catalyst sizes, compositions, shapes and structures. [6-12] Recently, Pt-based catalysts with core/shell and one-dimensional nanowire (NW) morphologies were found to be promising to further enhance ORR catalysis. With the core/shell structure, the ORR catalysis of a nanoparticle (NP) catalyst can be tuned by both electronic and geometric effects at the core/shell interface. [10,13,14] With the NW structure, the catalyst interaction with the conductive support can be enhanced to facilitate electron transfer between the support and the NW catalyst and to promote ORR. [11,15,16]

  11. Effect of post heat-treatment of composition-controlled PdFe nanoparticles for oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yun Sik; Choi, Kwang-Hyun; Ahn, Docheon; Lee, Myeong Jae; Baik, Jaeyoon; Chung, Dong Young; Kim, Mi-Ju; Lee, Stanfield Youngwon; Kim, Minhyoung; Shin, Heejong; Lee, Kug-Seung; Sung, Yung-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Composition-controlled and carbon-supported PdFe nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared via a modified chemical synthesis after heat-treatment at high temperature under a reductive atmosphere. This novel synthesis, which combines the polyol reduction method and hydride method, was used to obtain monodispersed PdFe NPs. In addition, to induce structural modifications, the as-prepared PdFe NPs received heat-treatment under a reductive atmosphere. Structural characterization, including high-resolution powder diffraction (HRPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis, indicated that heat-treated PdFe NPs exhibited a higher degree of alloying and surface Pd atomic composition compared with as-prepared ones. Furthermore, new crystalline phases were detected after heat-treatment. Thanks to the structural alterations, heat-treated PdFe NPs showed ?3 and ?18 times higher mass- and area-normalized oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activities, respectively than commercial Pt/C. Single cell testing with heat-treated PdFe catalysts exhibited a ?2.5 times higher mass-normalized maximum power density than the reference cell. Surface structure analyses, including cyclic voltammetry (CV), COad oxidation, and XPS, revealed that, after heat-treatment, a downshift of the Pd d-band center occurred, which led to a decrease in the affinity of Pd for oxygen species, resulting in more favorable ORR kinetics.

  12. Controlled field study on the use of nitrate and oxygen for bioremediation of a gasoline source zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbaro, J.R.; Barker, J.F.

    2000-01-01

    Controlled releases of unleaded gasoline were utilized to evaluate the biotransformation of the soluble aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene isomers, trimethylbenzene isomers, and naphthalene) within a source zone using nitrate and oxygen as electron acceptors. Experiments were conducted within two 2 m ?? 2 m ?? 3.5 m deep sheet-piling cells. In each treatment cell, a gasoline-contaminated zone was created below the water table. Groundwater amended with electron acceptors was then flushed continuously through the cells for 174 day. Electron-acceptor utilization and hydrocarbon-metabolite formation were noted in both cells, indicating that some microbial activity had been induced in response to flushing. Relative to the cell residence time, nitrate utilization was slow and aromatic-hydrocarbon mass losses in response to microaerophilic dissolved oxygen addition were not obvious under these in situ conditions. There was relatively little biotransformation of the aromatic hydrocarbons over the 2-m flow path monitored in this experiment. A large denitrifying population capable of aromatic hydrocarbon biotransformation failed to develop within the gasoline source zone over a 14-mo period of nitrate exposure.

  13. Development of a Self-calibrating Dissolved Oxygen Microsensor Array for the Monitoring and Control of Plant Growth in a Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Chang-Soo; Brown, Christopher S.; Nagle, H. Troy

    2004-01-01

    Plant experiments in space will require active nutrient delivery concepts in which water and nutrients are replenished on a continuous basis for long-term growth. The goal of this study is to develop a novel microsensor array to provide information on the dissolved oxygen environment in the plant root zone for the optimum control of plant cultivation systems in the space environment. Control of water and oxygen is limited by the current state-of-the-art in sensor technology. Two capabilities of the new microsensor array were tested. First, a novel in situ self-diagnosis/self-calibration capability for the microsensor was explored by dynamically controlling the oxygen microenvironment in close proximity to an amperometric dissolved oxygen microsensors. A pair of integrated electrochemical actuator electrodes provided the microenvironments based on water electrolysis. Miniaturized thin film dissolved oxygen microsensors on a flexible polyimide (Kapton(Registered Trademark)? substrate were fabricated and their performances were tested. Secondly, measurements of dissolved oxygen in two representative plant growth systems were made, which had not been performed previously due to lack of proper sensing technology. The responses of the oxygen microsensor array on a flexible polymer substrate properly reflected the oxygen contents on the surface of a porous tube nutrient delivery system and within a particulate substrate system. Additionally, we demonstrated the feasibility of using a 4-point thin film microprobe for water contents measurements for both plant growth systems. mechanical flexibility, and self-diagnosis. The proposed technology is anticipated to provide a reliable sensor feedback plant growth nutrient delivery systems in both terrestrial environment and the microgravity environment during long term space missions. The unique features of the sensor include small size and volume, multiple-point sensing,

  14. In Situ CO, Oxygen, and Opacity Measurement for Optimizing Combustion Control System Performance 

    E-print Network

    Molloy, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    The performance of a combustion control system is limited by the accuracy and reliability of the feedback provided by the stack emission flue gas monitoring system which is utilized to analyze the composition of the products of combustion. A...

  15. Tyrosine phosphorylation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM21 positively regulates interaction with IRF3 and hence TRIM21 activity.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Kevin B; Breen, Eamon; Jefferies, Caroline A

    2012-01-01

    Patients suffering from Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE) have elevated type I interferon (IFN) levels which correlate with disease activity and severity. TRIM21, an autoantigen associated with SLE, has been identified as an ubiquitin E3 ligase that targets the transcription factor IRF3 in order to turn off and limit type I IFN production following detection of viral and bacterial infection by Toll Like Receptors (TLRs). However, how the activity of TRIM21 is regulated downstream of TLRs is unknown. In this study we demonstrate that TRIM21 is tyrosine phosphorylated following TLR3 and TLR4 stimulation, suggesting that its activity is potentially regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation. Using Netphos, we have identified three key tyrosines that are strongly predicted to be phosphorylated, two of which are conserved between the human and murine forms of TRIM21, at residues 343, 388, and 393, all of which have been mutated from tyrosine to phenylalanine (Y343F, Y388F, and Y393F). We have observed that tyrosine phosphorylation of TRIM21 only occurs in the substrate binding PRY/SPRY domain, and that Y393, and to a lesser extent, Y388 are required for TRIM21 to function as a negative regulator of IFN-? promoter activity. Further studies revealed that mutating Y393 to phenylalanine inhibits the ability of TRIM21 to interact with its substrate, IRF3, thus providing a molecular explanation for the lack of activity of Y393 on the IFN-? promoter. Our data demonstrates a novel role for tyrosine phosphorylation in regulating the activity of TRIM21 downstream of TLR3 and TLR4. Given the pathogenic role of TRIM21 in systemic autoimmunity, these findings have important implications for the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:22479513

  16. Equilibrium polarization of ultrathin PbTiO{<_3} with surface compensation controlled by oxygen partial pressure.

    SciTech Connect

    Highland, M. J.; Fister, T. T.; Fong, D. D.; Fuoss, P. H.; Thompson, C.; Eastman, J. A.; Streiffer, S. K.; Stephenson, G. B.

    2011-01-01

    We present a synchrotron x-ray study of the equilibrium polarization structure of ultrathin PbTiO{sub 3} films on SrRuO{sub 3} electrodes epitaxially grown on SrTiO{sub 3} (001) substrates, as a function of temperature and the external oxygen partial pressure (pO{sub 2}) controlling their surface charge compensation. We find that the ferroelectric Curie temperature (T{sub c}) varies with pO{sub 2} and has a minimum at the intermediate pO{sub 2}, where the polarization below T{sub c} changes sign. The experiments are in qualitative agreement with a model based on Landau theory that takes into account the interaction of the phase transition with the electrochemical equilibria for charged surface species. The paraelectric phase is stabilized at intermediate pO2 when the concentrations of surface species are insufficient to compensate either polar orientation.

  17. Rotor Flapping Response to Active Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Khanh; Johnson, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    Rotor active control using higher harmonic blade pitch has been proposed as a means to reduce both rotor radiated noise and airframe vibration and to enhance rotor performance. The higher harmonic input, however, can affect rotor thrust and cyclic flapping - the basic trim characteristics of the rotor. Some of the trim changes can negate the active control benefits. For example, wind tunnel test results of a full scale BO-105 rotor with individual-blade control indicate some rotor performance improvements, accompanied with changes in rotor trim, using two-per-rev blade pitch input. The observed performance benefits could therefore be a simple manifestation of the trim change rather than an efficient redistribution of the rotor airloads. More recently, the flight test of the BO-105 helicopter equip,ped with individual-blade-control actuators also reported trim changes whenever the two-per-rev blade pitch for noise reduction was activated. The pilot had to adjust the trim control to maintain the aircraft under a constant flight path. These two cases highlight the, importance of trim considerations in the application of active control to rotorcraft.

  18. A pilot prospective study on closed loop controlled ventilation and oxygenation in ventilated children during the weaning phase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The present study is a pilot prospective safety evaluation of a new closed loop computerised protocol on ventilation and oxygenation in stable, spontaneously breathing children weighing more than 7 kg, during the weaning phase of mechanical ventilation. Methods Mechanically ventilated children ready to start the weaning process were ventilated for five periods of 60 minutes in the following order: pressure support ventilation, adaptive support ventilation (ASV), ASV plus a ventilation controller (ASV-CO2), ASV-CO2 plus an oxygenation controller (ASV-CO2-O2) and pressure support ventilation again. Based on breath-by-breath analysis, the percentage of time with normal ventilation as defined by a respiratory rate between 10 and 40 breaths/minute, tidal volume > 5 ml/kg predicted body weight and end-tidal CO2 between 25 and 55 mmHg was determined. The number of manipulations and changes on the ventilator were also recorded. Results Fifteen children, median aged 45 months, were investigated. No adverse event and no premature protocol termination were reported. ASV-CO2 and ASV-CO2-O2 kept the patients within normal ventilation for, respectively, 94% (91 to 96%) and 94% (87 to 96%) of the time. The tidal volume, respiratory rate, peak inspiratory airway pressure and minute ventilation were equivalent for all modalities, although there were more automatic setting changes in ASV-CO2 and ASV-CO2-O2. Positive end-expiratory pressure modifications by ASV-CO2-O2 require further investigation. Conclusion Over the short study period and in this specific population, ASV-CO2 and ASV-CO2-O2 were safe and kept the patient under normal ventilation most of the time. Further research is needed, especially for positive end-expiratory pressure modifications by ASV-CO2-O2. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01095406 PMID:22591622

  19. Technical Update: Johnson Space Center system using a solid electrolytic cell in a remote location to measure oxygen fugacities in CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurewicz, A. J. G.; Williams, R. J.; Le, L.; Wagstaff, J.; Lofgren, G.; Lanier, A.; Carter, W.; Roshko, A.

    1993-01-01

    Details are given for the design and application of a (one atmosphere) redox-control system. This system differs from that given in NASA Technical Memorandum 58234 in that it uses a single solid-electrolytic cell in a remote location to measure the oxygen fugacities of multiple CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces. This remote measurement extends the range of sample-furnace conditions that can be measured using a solid-electrolytic cell, and cuts costs by extending the life of the sensors and by minimizing the number of sensors in use. The system consists of a reference furnace and an exhaust-gas manifold. The reference furnace is designed according to the redox control system of NASA Technical Memorandum 58234, and any number of CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces can be attached to the exhaust-gas manifold. Using the manifold, the exhaust gas from individual CO/CO2 controlled atmosphere furnaces can be diverted through the reference furnace, where a solid-electrolyte cell is used to read the ambient oxygen fugacity. The oxygen fugacity measured in the reference furnace can then be used to calculate the oxygen fugacity in the individual CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnace. A BASIC computer program was developed to expedite this calculation.

  20. Internal voltage control of hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells: Feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokopius, P. R.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to assess the feasibility of internal voltage regulation of fuel cell systems. Two methods were tested. In one, reactant partial pressure was used as the voltage control parameter and in the other reactant total pressure was used for control. Both techniques were breadboarded and tested on a single alkaline-electrolyte fuel cell. Both methods were found to be possible forms of regulation, however, of the two the total pressure technique would be more efficient, simpler to apply and would provide better transient characteristics.

  1. Quasi-Linear Parameter Varying Representation of General Aircraft Dynamics Over Non-Trim Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jong-Yeob

    2007-01-01

    For applying linear parameter varying (LPV) control synthesis and analysis to a nonlinear system, it is required that a nonlinear system be represented in the form of an LPV model. In this paper, a new representation method is developed to construct an LPV model from a nonlinear mathematical model without the restriction that an operating point must be in the neighborhood of equilibrium points. An LPV model constructed by the new method preserves local stabilities of the original nonlinear system at "frozen" scheduling parameters and also represents the original nonlinear dynamics of a system over a non-trim region. An LPV model of the motion of FASER (Free-flying Aircraft for Subscale Experimental Research) is constructed by the new method.

  2. Scoparone attenuates RANKL-induced osteoclastic differentiation through controlling reactive oxygen species production and scavenging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Jang, Hae-Dong

    2015-02-15

    Scoparone, one of the bioactive components of Artemisia capillaris Thunb, has various biological properties including immunosuppressive, hepatoprotective, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. This study aims at evaluating the anti-osteoporotic effect of scoparone and its underlying mechanism in vitro. Scoparone demonstrated potent cellular antioxidant capacity. It was also found that scoparone inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and suppressed cathepsin K and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) expression via c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/p38-mediated c-Fos-nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) signaling pathway. During osteoclast differentiation, the production of general reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide anions was dose-dependently attenuated by scoparone. In addition, scoparone diminished NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase 1 (Nox1) expression and activation via the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6)-cSrc-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3k) signaling pathway and prevented the disruption of mitochondrial electron transport chain system. Furthermore, scoparone augmented the expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and catalase (CAT). The overall results indicate that the inhibitory effect of scoparone on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation is attributed to the suppressive effect on ROS and superoxide anion production by inhibiting Nox1 expression and activation and protecting the mitochondrial electron transport chain system and the scavenging effect of ROS resulting from elevated SOD1 and CAT expression. PMID:25576385

  3. Tripartite Motif (TRIM) 12c, a Mouse Homolog of TRIM5, Is a Ubiquitin Ligase That Stimulates Type I IFN and NF-?B Pathways along with TNFR-Associated Factor 6

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Tsung-Hsien; Yoshimi, Ryusuke

    2015-01-01

    Tripartite motif (TRIM) protein TRIM5 of the primate species restricts replication of HIV and other retroviruses. Whereas primates have a single TRIM5 gene, the corresponding locus in the mouse has expanded during evolution, now containing more than eight related genes. Owing to the complexity of the genomic organization, a mouse homolog of TRIM5 has not been fully studied thus far. In the present study, we report that Trim12c (formerly Trim12-2) encodes a TRIM5-like protein with a ubiquitin ligase activity. Similar to the primate TRIM5, TRIM12c is expressed in the cytoplasm as a punctate structure and induced upon IFN and pathogen stimulation in macrophages and dendritic cells. We show that TRIM12c interacts with TRAF6, a key protein in the pathogen recognition receptor signaling, and reciprocally enhances their ubiquitination, leading to cooperative activation of IFN and NF-?B pathways. This study identifies TRIM12c as a mouse TRIM5 equivalent, critical for host innate immunity. PMID:26503954

  4. Tripartite Motif (TRIM) 12c, a Mouse Homolog of TRIM5, Is a Ubiquitin Ligase That Stimulates Type I IFN and NF-?B Pathways along with TNFR-Associated Factor 6.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tsung-Hsien; Yoshimi, Ryusuke; Ozato, Keiko

    2015-12-01

    Tripartite motif (TRIM) protein TRIM5 of the primate species restricts replication of HIV and other retroviruses. Whereas primates have a single TRIM5 gene, the corresponding locus in the mouse has expanded during evolution, now containing more than eight related genes. Owing to the complexity of the genomic organization, a mouse homolog of TRIM5 has not been fully studied thus far. In the present study, we report that Trim12c (formerly Trim12-2) encodes a TRIM5-like protein with a ubiquitin ligase activity. Similar to the primate TRIM5, TRIM12c is expressed in the cytoplasm as a punctate structure and induced upon IFN and pathogen stimulation in macrophages and dendritic cells. We show that TRIM12c interacts with TRAF6, a key protein in the pathogen recognition receptor signaling, and reciprocally enhances their ubiquitination, leading to cooperative activation of IFN and NF-?B pathways. This study identifies TRIM12c as a mouse TRIM5 equivalent, critical for host innate immunity. PMID:26503954

  5. Biochemical characterization of a recombinant TRIM5alpha protein that restricts human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication.

    PubMed

    Langelier, Charles R; Sandrin, Virginie; Eckert, Debra M; Christensen, Devin E; Chandrasekaran, Viswanathan; Alam, Steven L; Aiken, Christopher; Olsen, John C; Kar, Alak Kanti; Sodroski, Joseph G; Sundquist, Wesley I

    2008-12-01

    The rhesus monkey intrinsic immunity factor TRIM5alpha(rh) recognizes incoming capsids from a variety of retroviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), and inhibits the accumulation of viral reverse transcripts. However, direct interactions between restricting TRIM5alpha proteins and retroviral capsids have not previously been demonstrated using pure recombinant proteins. To facilitate structural and mechanistic studies of retroviral restriction, we have developed methods for expressing and purifying an active chimeric TRIM5alpha(rh) protein containing the RING domain from the related human TRIM21 protein. This recombinant TRIM5-21R protein was expressed in SF-21 insect cells and purified through three chromatographic steps. Two distinct TRIM5-21R species were purified and shown to correspond to monomers and dimers, as analyzed by analytical ultracentrifugation. Chemically cross-linked recombinant TRIM5-21R dimers and mammalian-expressed TRIM5-21R and TRIM5alpha proteins exhibited similar sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis mobilities, indicating that mammalian TRIM5alpha proteins are predominantly dimeric. Purified TRIM5-21R had ubiquitin ligase activity and could autoubquitylate with different E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes in vitro. TRIM5-21R bound directly to synthetic capsids composed of recombinant HIV-1 CA-NC proteins and to authentic EIAV core particles. HIV-1 CA-NC assemblies bound dimeric TRIM5-21R better than either monomeric TRIM5-21R or TRIM5-21R constructs that lacked the SPRY domain or its V1 loop. Thus, our studies indicate that TRIM5alpha proteins are dimeric ubiquitin E3 ligases that recognize retroviral capsids through direct interactions mediated by the SPRY domain and demonstrate that these activities can be recapitulated in vitro using pure recombinant proteins. PMID:18799573

  6. Advanced control concepts. [for shuttle ascent vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, J. B.; Coppey, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The problems of excess control devices and insufficient trim control capability on shuttle ascent vehicles were investigated. The trim problem is solved at all time points of interest using Lagrangian multipliers and a Simplex based iterative algorithm developed as a result of the study. This algorithm has the capability to solve any bounded linear problem with physically realizable constraints, and to minimize any piecewise differentiable cost function. Both solution methods also automatically distribute the command torques to the control devices. It is shown that trim requirements are unrealizable if only the orbiter engines and the aerodynamic surfaces are used.

  7. Closed loop orbit trim using GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, B. W.; Axelrad, P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an onboard closed-loop navigation and control system capable of executing extremely precise orbit maneuvers. It uses information from the Global Positioning System (GPS) and an onboard controller to perform orbit adjustments. As a result, the system circumvents the need for extensive ground support. The particular application considered is an orbit injection system for NASA's Gravity Probe B (GP-B) spacecraft. Eccentricity adjustments of 0.0004 to 0.005, and inclination and node changes of 0.001 to 0.01 deg are demonstrated. The same technique can be adapted to other satellite missions.

  8. Dynamic process of H-controlled oxygen concentration in LBE: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dongdong; Zhang, Y. G.; He, H. Y.; Liu, C. S.; Pan, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    First-principles molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to study the behaviors of H and the dynamic process of H-controlled O concentration in the liquid lead bismuth eutectic (LBE). Our calculations show that H2 molecules in LBE are dissociated to be diffusive H atoms, taking the forms of H-metal clusters. Meanwhile, H prefers to interact with O in LBE to form HO radicals and H2O molecules, reducing the O concentration in LBE. With the mass action analysis, we quantitatively predict the variation of the O concentration in LBE with the amount of the introduced H2 at different temperatures. Our results are practical for the H-controlled O concentration in LBE experiments.

  9. Relationship between Body Weight and Beak Characteristics in One-Day-Old White Leghorn Chicks: its implications for beak trimming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beak trimming is a routine practice used in laying hens to prevent feather pecking and cannibalism. The effects of beak trimming on bird well-being depend on multiple factors, including the length of beak that is trimmed and the quality of the procedure. The aim of this work was to determine if a ...

  10. A Comparison of the Long Term Effects of Infrared Beak Treatment and Hot Blade Beak Trimming in Laying Hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The poultry industry is under intense pressure from the public and animal welfare advocates to eliminate the practice of beak trimming due to the potential for acute and chronic pain in the trimmed birds. However, elimination of beak trimming may have severe implications for animal welfare, as peck...

  11. Clean Photothermal Heating and Controlled Release From Near Infrared Dye Doped Nanoparticles Without Oxygen Photosensitization

    PubMed Central

    Guha, Samit; Shaw, Scott K.; Spence, Graeme T.; Roland, Felicia M.; Smith, Bradley D.

    2015-01-01

    The photothermal heating and release properties of biocompatible organic nanoparticles, doped with a near-infrared croconaine (Croc) dye, were compared with analogous nanoparticles doped with the common near-infrared dyes ICG and IR780. Separate formulations of lipid-polymer-hybrid nanoparticles and liposomes, each containing Croc dye, absorbed strongly at 808 nm and generated clean laser-induced heating (no production of 1O2 and no photobleaching of the dye). In contrast, laser-induced heating of nanoparticles containing ICG or IR780 produced reactive 1O2 leading to bleaching of the dye and also decomposition of co-encapsulated payload such as the drug Doxorubicin. Croc dye was especially useful as a photothermal agent for laser controlled release of chemically sensitive payload from nanoparticles. Solution state experiments demonstrated repetitive fractional release of water soluble fluorescent dye from the interior of thermosensitive liposomes. Additional experiments used a focused laser beam to control leakage from immobilized liposomes with very high spatial and temporal precision. The results indicate that fractional photothermal leakage from nanoparticles doped with Croc dye is a promising method for a range of controlled release applications. PMID:26149326

  12. HARD RED SPRING WHEAT / C-TRIM 20 BREAD: FORMULATION, PROCESSING AND TEXTURE ANALYSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    C-TRIM, a beta-glucan-rich fraction, was added to Hard Red Spring wheat (HRSW) flour in order to increase soluble fiber content of bread to a minimum of 0.75 g / bread serving, the minimum required for health claim as established by the FDA. Two blends FGT1 (flour, 25% gluten, and 17% C-TRIM) and F...

  13. Flight Dynamics of High Aspect-Ratio Flying Wings: Effect of Large Trim Deformation

    E-print Network

    Patil, Mayuresh

    Flight Dynamics of High Aspect-Ratio Flying Wings: Effect of Large Trim Deformation Brijesh Flight Mechanics Conference and Exhibit Hilton Head, SC, August 2007 (Virginia Tech) HALE Flight Dynamics: Effect of Large Trim Deformation AFM 07 1 / 1 #12;Outline (Virginia Tech) HALE Flight Dynamics: Effect

  14. Sequential ubiquitination and deubiquitination enzymes synchronize the dual sensor and effector functions of TRIM21.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Adam J; Mallery, Donna L; Watkinson, Ruth E; Dickson, Claire F; James, Leo C

    2015-08-11

    Tripartite motif (TRIM) 21 is a cytosolic antibody receptor that neutralizes antibody-coated viruses that penetrate the cell and simultaneously activates innate immunity. Here we show that the conjugation of TRIM21 with K63-linked ubiquitin (Ub-(63)Ub) catalyzed by the sequential activity of nonredundant E2 Ub enzymes is required for its dual antiviral functions. TRIM21 is first labeled with monoubiquitin (monoUb) by the E2 Ube2W. The monoUb is a substrate for the heterodimeric E2 Ube2N/Ube2V2, resulting in TRIM21-anchored Ub-(63)Ub. Depletion of either E2 abolishes Ub-(63)Ub and Ub-(48)Ub conjugation of TRIM21, NF-?B signaling, and virus neutralization. The formation of TRIM21-Ub-(63)Ub precedes proteasome recruitment, and we identify an essential role for the 19S-resident and degradation-coupled deubiquitinase Poh1 in TRIM21 neutralization, signaling, and cytokine induction. This study elucidates a complex mechanism of step-wise ubiquitination and deubiquitination activities that allows contemporaneous innate immune signaling and neutralization by TRIM21. PMID:26150489

  15. Object Trimming: When Masking Dots Alter Rather than Replace Target Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahan, Todd A.; Enns, James T.

    2010-01-01

    Five experiments demonstrate that when dots appear beside a briefly presented target object, and persist on view longer than the target, the flanked object is perceptually altered by the dots. Three methods are used to explore this "object trimming effect". Experiments 1-3 assess participants' conscious reports of trimmed digits, Experiment 4 uses…

  16. TRIM72 is required for effective repair of alveolar epithelial cell wounding

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Chul; Kellett, Thomas; Wang, Shaohua; Nishi, Miyuki; Nagre, Nagaraja; Zhou, Beiyun; Flodby, Per; Shilo, Konstantin; Ghadiali, Samir N.; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Hubmayr, Rolf D.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms for lung cell repair are largely unknown. Previous studies identified tripartite motif protein 72 (TRIM72) from striated muscle and linked its function to tissue repair. In this study, we characterized TRIM72 expression in lung tissues and investigated the role of TRIM72 in repair of alveolar epithelial cells. In vivo injury of lung cells was introduced by high tidal volume ventilation, and repair-defective cells were labeled with postinjury administration of propidium iodide. Primary alveolar epithelial cells were isolated and membrane wounding and repair were labeled separately. Our results show that absence of TRIM72 increases susceptibility to deformation-induced lung injury whereas TRIM72 overexpression is protective. In vitro cell wounding assay revealed that TRIM72 protects alveolar epithelial cells through promoting repair rather than increasing resistance to injury. The repair function of TRIM72 in lung cells is further linked to caveolin 1. These data suggest an essential role for TRIM72 in repair of alveolar epithelial cells under plasma membrane stress failure. PMID:25106429

  17. Finite Sample Tail Behavior of the Multivariate Trimmed Mean Based on

    E-print Network

    Zuo, Yijun

    Finite Sample Tail Behavior of the Multivariate Trimmed Mean Based on Tukey-Donoho Halfspace Depth by a grant (FGIA) from Arizona State University. #12; Abstract Finite sample tail behavior of the Tukey-Donoho halfspace depth based multivariate trimmed mean is investigated with respect to a tail performance measure

  18. Dose dependent effects of nitrate supplementation on cardiovascular control and microvascular oxygenation dynamics in healthy rats

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Scott K.; Hirai, Daniel M.; Copp, Steven W.; Holdsworth, Clark T.; Allen, Jason D.; Jones, Andrew M.; Musch, Timothy I.; Poole, David C.

    2014-01-01

    High dose nitrate (NO3-) supplementation via beetroot juice (BR, 1 mmol/kg/day) lowers mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and improves skeletal muscle blood flow and O2 delivery/utilization matching thereby raising microvascular O2 pressure (PO2mv). We tested the hypothesis that a low dose of NO3- supplementation, consistent with a diet containing NO3- rich vegetables (BRLD, 0.3 mmol/kg/day), would be sufficient to cause these effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a low dose of NO3- (0.3 mmol/kg/day; n=12), a high dose (1 mmol/kg/day; BRHD, n=6) or tap water (control, n=10) for 5 days. MAP, heart rate (HR), blood flow (radiolabeled microspheres) and vascular conductance (VC) were measured during submaximal treadmill exercise (20 m/min, 5% grade, equivalent to ?60% of maximal O2 uptake). Subsequently, PO2mv (phosphorescence quenching) was measured at rest and during 180 s of electrically-induced twitch contractions (1 Hz, ?6 volts) of the surgically-exposed spinotrapezius muscle. BRLD and BRHD lowered resting (control: 139±4, BRLD: 124±5, BRHD: 128±9 mmHg, P<0.05) and exercising (control: 138±3, BRLD: 126±4, BRHD: 125±5 mmHg, P<0.05) MAP to a similar extent. For BRLD this effect occurred in the absence of altered exercising hindlimb muscle(s) blood flow or spinotrapezius PO2mv (rest and across the transient response at the onset of contractions, all P>0.05), each of which increased significantly for the BRHD condition (all P<0.05). Whereas BRHD slowed the PO2mv kinetics significantly (i.e., >mean response time, MRT; control: 16.6±2.1, BRHD: 23.3±4.7 s) following the onset of contractions compared to control, in the BRLD group this effect did not reach statistical significance (BRLD: 20.9±1.9 s, P=0.14). These data demonstrate that while low dose NO3- supplementation lowers MAP it does so in the absence of augmented muscle blood flow, VC and PO2mv; all of which are elevated at a higher dose. Thus, in healthy animals, a high dose of NO3- supplementation seems necessary to elicit significant changes in exercising skeletal muscle O2 delivery/utilization. PMID:24769046

  19. Efficacy of oxygen-supplying capacity of Azolla in a controlled life support system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Min; Deng, Sufang; Yang, Youquan; Huang, Yibing; Liu, Chongchu

    2012-02-01

    Azolla shows high growth and propagation rates, strong photosynthetic O2-releasing ability and high nutritional value. It is suitable as a salad vegetable and can be cultured on a multi-layered wet bed. Hence, it possesses potential as a fresh vegetable, and to release O2 and absorb CO2 in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System in space. In this study, we investigated the O2-providing characteristics of Azolla in a closed chamber under manned, controlled conditions to lay a foundation for use of Azolla as a biological component in ground simulation experiments for space applications. A closed test chamber, representing a Controlled Ecological Life Support System including an Azolla wet-culture device, was built to measure the changes in atmospheric O2 and CO2 concentrations inside the chamber in the presence of coexisting Azolla, fish and men. The amount of O2 consumed by fish was 0.0805-0.0831 L kg-1 h-1 and the level of CO2 emission was 0.0705-0.0736 L kg-1 h-1; O2 consumption by the two trial volunteers was 19.71 L h-1 and the volume of respiration-released CO2 was 18.90 L h-1. Under 7000-8000 Lx artificial light and Azolla wet-culture conditions, human and fish respiration and Azolla photosynthesis were complementary, thus the atmospheric O2 and CO2 concentrations inside chamber were maintained in equilibrium. The increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration in the closed chamber enhanced the net photosynthesis efficiency of the Azolla colony. This study showed that Azolla has strong photosynthetic O2-releasing ability, which equilibrates the O2 and CO2 concentrations inside the chamber in favor of human survival and verifies the potential of Azolla for space applications.

  20. Raceway control with oxygen, steam and coal for stable blast furnace operation

    SciTech Connect

    Chatterjee, L.M.

    1996-12-31

    Tata Steel operates seven blast furnaces at its Jamshedpur works. Coal injection was introduced in the three larger furnaces starting in 1991, and coal tar injection was commissioned in the A blast furnace in June, 1996. Presently, a coal injection level of 130 kg/thm has been achieved at G blast furnace, which is the newest and the largest among all blast furnaces at Tata Steel. The paper discusses the operational features of the blast furnaces at Tata Steel, practical limits of fuel injection, the philosophy of the control of raceway conditions, and experience with fuel injection at Tata Steel.

  1. Edge Fracture Prediction ofTraditional and Advanced Trimming Processes for AA6111-T4 Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Xiaohua; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Sun, Xin; Golovashchenko, Segey F.

    2014-02-15

    This work examines the traditional and advanced trimming of AA6111-T4 aluminum sheets with finite element simulations. The Rice-Tracy damage model is used for the simulation with damage parameters estimated from experimental observation of grain aspect ratio near the fracture surface of trimmed parts. Fine meshes at the shearing zone, adaptive meshing, and adaptive contact techniques are used to accurately capture the contact interactions between the sharp corner of the trimming tools and the blank to be trimmed. To the knowledge of the authors, these are the first trimming simulations that can predict the effects of shearing clearance on burr heights with quantitative accuracy for AA6111-T4 aluminum sheets. In addition, the models have also accurately reproduced the crack initiation site as well as burr and sliver formation mechanisms observed experimentally.

  2. Periodic trim solutions with HP-version finite elements in time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Finite Element in Time has been proven to be a powerful alternative solving strategy for the rotor craft trim problem. Additionally, Finite Element Method in Time has been developed in various versions like time-marching framework, Galerkin framework, Rayleigh-Ritz framework, and mixed formulation. Recently, this method was applied to the rotorcraft trim problem to obtain linearized solutions. The rotorcraft trim problem consists of trying to find a period solution for period-coefficient, differential equations subject to side constraints where certain force and momentum balance equations are forced to be equal to zero. There are free (or trim) parameters that are chosen to meet these side constraints. This project aims at expanding the application, in terms of the rotorcraft trim problem, from a linearized solution to nonlinear solution.

  3. Testing of a Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Reaction Control Thruster in a New Altitude Rocket Engine Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Michael L.; Arrington, Lynn A.; Kleinhenz, Julie E.; Marshall, William M.

    2012-01-01

    A relocated rocket engine test facility, the Altitude Combustion Stand (ACS), was activated in 2009 at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This facility has the capability to test with a variety of propellants and up to a thrust level of 2000 lbf (8.9 kN) with precise measurement of propellant conditions, propellant flow rates, thrust and altitude conditions. These measurements enable accurate determination of a thruster and/or nozzle s altitude performance for both technology development and flight qualification purposes. In addition the facility was designed to enable efficient test operations to control costs for technology and advanced development projects. A liquid oxygen-liquid methane technology development test program was conducted in the ACS from the fall of 2009 to the fall of 2010. Three test phases were conducted investigating different operational modes and in addition, the project required the complexity of controlling propellant inlet temperatures over an extremely wide range. Despite the challenges of a unique propellant (liquid methane) and wide operating conditions, the facility performed well and delivered up to 24 hot fire tests in a single test day. The resulting data validated the feasibility of utilizing this propellant combination for future deep space applications.

  4. Application of linear multiple model predictive control (MMPC) framework towards dynamic maximazation of oxygen yield in an elevated-pressure air separation unit

    SciTech Connect

    Mahapatra, P.; Zitney, S.; Bequette, B. Wayne

    2012-01-01

    In a typical air separation unit (ASU) utilizing either a simple gaseous oxygen (GOX) cycle or a pumped liquid oxygen (PLOX) cycle, the flowrate of liquid nitrogen (LN2) stream connecting high-pressure and low-pressure ASU columns plays an important role in the total oxygen yield. It has been observed that this yield reaches a maximum at a certain optimal flowrate of LN2 stream. At nominal full-load operation, the flowrate of LN2 stream is maintained near this optimum value, whereas at part-load conditions this flowrate is typically modified in proportion with the load-change (oxygen demand) through a ratio/feed-forward controller. Due to nonlinearity in the entire ASU process, the ratio-modified LN2 flowrate does not guarantee an optimal oxygen yield at part-load conditions. This is further exacerbated when process disturbances in form of “cold-box” heat-leaks enter the system. To address this problem of dynamically maximizing the oxygen yield while the ASU undergoes a load-change and/or a process disturbance, a multiple model predictive control (MMPC) algorithm is proposed. This approach has been used in previous studies to handle large ramp-rates of oxygen demand posed by the gasifier in an IGCC plant. In this study, the proposed algorithm uses linear step-response “blackbox” models surrounding the operating points corresponding to maximum oxygen yield points at different loads. It has been shown that at any operating point of the ASU, the MMPC algorithm, through model-weight calculation based on plant measurements, naturally and continuously selects the dominant model(s) corresponding to the current plant state, while making control-move decisions that approach the maximum oxygen yield point. This dynamically facilitates less energy consumption in form of compressed feed-air compared to a simple ratio control during load-swings. In addition, since a linear optimization problem is solved at each time step, the approach involves much less computational cost compared to a firstprinciple based nonlinear MPC. Introduction

  5. In Silico Analysis of Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Human TRIM22 Gene

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Jenna N.; Barr, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Tripartite motif protein 22 (TRIM22) is an evolutionarily ancient protein that plays an integral role in the host innate immune response to viruses. The antiviral TRIM22 protein has been shown to inhibit the replication of a number of viruses, including HIV-1, hepatitis B, and influenza A. TRIM22 expression has also been associated with multiple sclerosis, cancer, and autoimmune disease. In this study, multiple in silico computational methods were used to identify non-synonymous or amino acid-changing SNPs (nsSNP) that are deleterious to TRIM22 structure and/or function. A sequence homology-based approach was adopted for screening nsSNPs in TRIM22, including six different in silico prediction algorithms and evolutionary conservation data from the ConSurf web server. In total, 14 high-risk nsSNPs were identified in TRIM22, most of which are located in a protein interaction module called the B30.2 domain. Additionally, 9 of the top high-risk nsSNPs altered the putative structure of TRIM22's B30.2 domain, particularly in the surface-exposed v2 and v3 regions. These same regions are critical for retroviral restriction by the closely-related TRIM5? protein. A number of putative structural and functional residues, including several sites that undergo post-translational modification, were also identified in TRIM22. This study is the first extensive in silico analysis of the highly polymorphic TRIM22 gene and will be a valuable resource for future targeted mechanistic and population-based studies. PMID:24983760

  6. Air-cooled trim dipoles for the Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, D. J.; Chester, N. S.; Garvey, J. D.; Krafczyk, G. E.; Makarov, A. I.; Terechkine, I.

    1997-05-01

    New horizontal and vertical trim dipoles have been designed for the Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) and are being assembled in the Fermilab Technical Division. Magnets are 42.6 cm in length (30.5 cm steel length) and have similar cross-section dimensions. The horizontal (vertical) magnet gap is 50.8 mm (127 mm) and the target integrated strength is 0.072 T*m (0.029 T*m). The major design effort lay in making air cooling possible for these magnets. This report presents the magnets` thermal and magnetic properties and discusses the limitation on excitation current.

  7. Isolated resonator gyroscope with isolation trimming using a secondary element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention discloses a resonator gyroscope including an isolated resonator. One or more flexures support the isolated resonator and a baseplate is affixed to the resonator by the flexures. Drive and sense elements are affixed to the baseplate and used to excite the resonator and sense movement of the gyroscope. In addition, at least one secondary element (e.g., another electrode) is affixed to the baseplate and used for trimming isolation of the resonator. The resonator operates such that it transfers substantially no net momentum to the baseplate when the resonator is excited. Typically, the isolated resonator comprises a proof mass and a counterbalancing plate.

  8. Lentiviral gene therapy against human immunodeficiency virus type 1, using a novel human TRIM21-cyclophilin A restriction factor.

    PubMed

    Chan, Emma; Schaller, Torsten; Eddaoudi, Ayad; Zhan, Hong; Tan, Choon Ping; Jacobsen, Marianne; Thrasher, Adrian J; Towers, Greg J; Qasim, Waseem

    2012-11-01

    TRIM5? (tripartite motif-containing protein-5, isoform ?)-cyclophilin A fusion proteins are anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) restriction factors that have evolved in certain nonhuman primates over millions of years and protect against HIV and related viruses. Restriction by TRIM5?CypA is potent and highly resistant to viral escape by mutation and, in combination with a suitable gene delivery platform, offers the possibility of novel therapeutic approaches against HIV. Here we report that lentiviral vector delivery of human mimics of TRIM5?-cyclophilin A (TRIM5CypA) fusion proteins afforded robust and durable protection against HIV-1, but resulted in downregulation of host cell antiviral responses mediated by endogenous TRIM5?. We found that substitution of TRIM5? RING, B-box, and coiled-coil domains with similar domains from a related TRIM protein, TRIM21, produced a novel and equally potent inhibitor of HIV-1. Both TRIM5CypA and TRIM21CypA inhibited transduction by HIV-1-derived viral vectors and prevented propagation of replication-competent HIV-1 in human cell lines and in primary human T cells. Restriction factor-modified T cells exhibited preferential survival in the presence of wild-type HIV. Restriction was dependent on proteasomal degradation and was reversed in the presence of the cyclophilin inhibitor cyclosporin. Importantly, TRIM21CypA did not disturb endogenous TRIM5?-mediated restriction of gammaretroviral infection. Furthermore, endogenous TRIM21 antiviral activity was assessed by measuring inhibition of adenovirus-antibody complexes and was found to be preserved in all TRIMCypA-modified groups. We conclude that lentivirus-mediated expression of the novel chimeric restriction factor TRIM21CypA provides highly potent protection against HIV-1 without loss of normal innate immune TRIM activity. PMID:22909012

  9. Electrical control of Co/Ni magnetism adjacent to gate oxides with low oxygen ion mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Y. N.; Zhou, X. J.; Li, F.; Cui, B.; Wang, Y. Y.; Wang, G. Y.; Pan, F.; Song, C.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the electrical manipulation of Co/Ni magnetization through a combination of ionic liquid and oxide gating, where HfO2 with a low O2- ion mobility is employed. A limited oxidation-reduction process at the metal/HfO2 interface can be induced by large electric field, which can greatly affect the saturated magnetization and Curie temperature of Co/Ni bilayer. Besides the oxidation/reduction process, first-principles calculations show that the variation of d electrons is also responsible for the magnetization variation. Our work discloses the role of gate oxides with a relatively low O2- ion mobility in electrical control of magnetism, and might pave the way for the magneto-ionic memory with low power consumption and high endurance performance.

  10. Fuel control system for an engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brogdon, James William (Inventor); Gill, David Keith (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A fuel control system responsive to a power controller and controlling a fuel delivery system. The fuel control system includes a control arm connected to both the power controller and the fuel delivery system, a position sensor connected to the control arm, and a trim controller connected to the control arm at a pivot point and connected to the position sensor.

  11. Controllable synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanospheres and Fe-N/carbon nanospheres as efficient oxygen reduction electrocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jing; Liang, Yan; Zhang, Xinyi; Simon, George P.; Zhao, Dongyuan; Zhang, Jin; Jiang, Sanping; Wang, Huanting

    2015-03-01

    The synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanospheres (MCNs), especially with diameters below 200 nm remains a great challenge due to weak interactions between the carbon precursors and soft templates, as well as the uncontrollable cross-linking rate of carbon precursors. Herein, we demonstrate a simple acid-assisted, hydrothermal synthesis approach to synthesizing such uniform MCNs with well controlled diameters ranging from 20 to 150 nm under highly acidic conditions (2 M HCl). Both the carbon precursor and the template are partly protonated under such conditions and show additional Coulombic interactions with chloride ions (acts as mediators). This kind of enhanced interaction is similar to that of the ``I+X-S+'' mechanism in the synthesis of mesoporous metal oxide, which can effectively retard the cross-linking rate of resol molecules and avoid macroscopic phase separation during the hydrothermal synthesis. Due to their uniform spherical morphology, small diameter, and high surface areas, MCNs can be modified with Fe and N species via impregnation of cheap precursors (ferric nitrate and dicyandiamide), which are further converted into nonprecious electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions. The resulting Fe-N/MCNs exhibit high catalytic activities, long-term stability and improved methanol tolerance under alkaline conditions, which can be potentially used in direct methanol fuel cells and metal-air batteries.The synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanospheres (MCNs), especially with diameters below 200 nm remains a great challenge due to weak interactions between the carbon precursors and soft templates, as well as the uncontrollable cross-linking rate of carbon precursors. Herein, we demonstrate a simple acid-assisted, hydrothermal synthesis approach to synthesizing such uniform MCNs with well controlled diameters ranging from 20 to 150 nm under highly acidic conditions (2 M HCl). Both the carbon precursor and the template are partly protonated under such conditions and show additional Coulombic interactions with chloride ions (acts as mediators). This kind of enhanced interaction is similar to that of the ``I+X-S+'' mechanism in the synthesis of mesoporous metal oxide, which can effectively retard the cross-linking rate of resol molecules and avoid macroscopic phase separation during the hydrothermal synthesis. Due to their uniform spherical morphology, small diameter, and high surface areas, MCNs can be modified with Fe and N species via impregnation of cheap precursors (ferric nitrate and dicyandiamide), which are further converted into nonprecious electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions. The resulting Fe-N/MCNs exhibit high catalytic activities, long-term stability and improved methanol tolerance under alkaline conditions, which can be potentially used in direct methanol fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00331h

  12. Photo-controlled targeted intracellular delivery of both nitric oxide and singlet oxygen using a fluorescence-trackable ruthenium nitrosyl functional nanoplatform.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Hui-Jing; An, Lu; Tang, Wei-Wei; Yang, Shi-Ping; Liu, Jin-Gang

    2015-02-14

    A multifunctional nitric oxide (NO) delivery nanoplatform that combines functionalities of target directing, fluorescence tracking, and photo-controlled target attacking was developed. The {Ru-NO@TiO2 NPs} nanoplatform selectively targeted folate-receptor over-expressed cancer cells while being simultaneously traced based on its inherent fluorescence. Intracellular localized NO and singlet oxygen were produced on demand by controlled visible light illumination, producing a synergistic cytotoxic effect to cancer cells. PMID:25567668

  13. Controls on oxygen isotope variability in precipitation and drip water at eight caves in the monsoon regions of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Wuhui; Ruan, Jiaoyang; Luo, Weijun; Li, Tingyong; Tian, Lijun; Zeng, Guangneng; Zhang, Dezhong; Bai, Yijun; Li, Jilong; Tao, Tao; Zhang, Pingzhong; Tan, Ming

    2015-04-01

    Cave monitoring is important to fully understand the climatic significance of stalagmite ?18O records. Most previous studies focus on one cave, or several caves in one area. A large regional-scale investigation on the isotopic composition of precipitation and drip water is scarce. To investigate the regional-scale climate forcing on the oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation in the monsoon regions of China (MRC) and how the isotopic signals are transmitted to various drip sites, a three-year-long (2011-2014) on-site rainfall and drip water monitoring program has been carried out with approximately monthly sampling at 37 drip sites in eight caves in the MRC. Neither rainfall amount nor air temperature are the predominant controls on the oxygen isotopic composition of monthly precipitation. The rain in the wet season (May to October), with relatively low ?18O values, is sourced from tropical air masses, whereas the rainfall in the dry season (November to April), with relatively high ?18O values, is mostly sourced from continental air masses. Additionally, the weighted summer rainwater ?18O values decrease from coastal southwest China to inland northeast China, which suggests that the moisture of monsoon rainfall in China originates mainly from Indian Ocean, and transports to the north along the southwest-northeast path. 28 of the 37 drip sites are constant drips with little discernable variation in drip water ?18O through the whole study period. For most of the constant drips, the mean value of each drip water ?18O is nearly identical to or slightly higher than the three-year weighted mean value of the corresponding local rainwater ?18O, indicating these drips may be mainly recharged by none-evaporated or slightly evaporated, well-mixed older water stored in the vadose zone. 7 of all the 37 drip sites are seasonal drips, for which, although the amplitude of drip water ?18O is narrower than that of rainfall, the monthly response of drip water ?18O to local precipitation is not completely dampened. Specially, there are 3 sites in Shihua cave which can be classified not only as a seasonal drip but also as a constant drip. 2 of all the 37 drip sites are medium-variability drips, with constant and relatively negative drip water ?18O values in the wet season but with variable and relatively positive drip water ?18O values in the dry season. However, their essential recharge mode is different. For these drips, the drip water ?18O is not only unable to inherit the seasonal signals but also unable to inherit the long-term signals of the precipitation. Consequently, the factors controlling the oxygen isotopic composition of drip water and then the stalagmite is site-specific. In principle, though, for most of the stalagmites, the ?18O profile may record the annual or longer time-scale climatic signals of rainfall ?18O.

  14. A theoretical study of the application of jet flap circulation control for reduction of rotor vibratory forces, addendum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renka, A. R.

    1975-01-01

    The theoretical potential of a jet flap control system for reducing the vertical and horizontal non-cancelling helicopter rotor blade root shears was investigated. It was determined that the dominant contributor to the rotor power requirements is the requirement to maintain moment trim as well as force trim. It was also found that the requirement to maintain moment trim does not entail a power penalty.

  15. Size control of Cu nanorods through oxygen-mediated growth and low temperature sintering This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-print Network

    Wang, Gwo-Ching

    Size control of Cu nanorods through oxygen-mediated growth and low temperature sintering of Contents and more related content is available HOME | SEARCH | PACS & MSC | JOURNALS | ABOUT | CONTACT US.1088/0957-4484/20/8/085605 Size control of Cu nanorods through oxygen-mediated growth and low temperature sintering Pei-I Wang1

  16. High resolution micro ultrasonic machining for trimming 3D microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viswanath, Anupam; Li, Tao; Gianchandani, Yogesh

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports on the evaluation of a high resolution micro ultrasonic machining (HR-µUSM) process suitable for post fabrication trimming of complex 3D microstructures made from fused silica. Unlike conventional USM, the HR-µUSM process aims for low machining rates, providing high resolution and high surface quality. The machining rate is reduced by keeping the micro-tool tip at a fixed distance from the workpiece and vibrating it at a small amplitude. The surface roughness is improved by an appropriate selection of abrasive particles. Fluidic modeling is performed to study interaction among the vibrating micro-tool tip, workpiece, and the slurry. Using 304 stainless steel (SS304) tool tips of 50 µm diameter, the machining performance of the HR-µUSM process is characterized on flat fused silica substrates. The depths and surface finish of machined features are evaluated as functions of slurry concentrations, separation between the micro-tool and workpiece, and machining time. Under the selected conditions, the HR-µUSM process achieves machining rates as low as 10 nm s-1 averaged over the first minute of machining of a flat virgin sample. This corresponds to a mass removal rate of ?20 ng min-1. The average surface roughness, Sa, achieved is as low as 30 nm. Analytical and numerical modeling are used to explain the typical profile of the machined features as well as machining rates. The process is used to demonstrate trimming of hemispherical 3D shells made of fused silica.

  17. Synergistic Effects of Oxygen on Phosphine and Ethyl Formate for the Control of Phthorimaea operculella (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Kyung; Lee, Seon-Woo; Kim, Ju-Il; Yang, Jeong-Oh; Koo, Hyun-Na; Kim, Gil-Hah

    2015-12-01

    Phosphine (PH3) and ethyl formate (EF) are two potentially powerful postharvest fumigant insecticides. We investigated the effectiveness of both PH3 and EF as fumigants at all developmental stages of the potato tuber moth Phthorimaea operculella Zeller, and we also studied the synergistic effects of these fumigants under controlled atmospheres of 50 and 80% oxygen (O2). The larval stage of P. operculella was the most susceptible to fumigation with PH3 at both 5°C and 20°C. All of the developmental stages showed greater susceptibility to PH3 at 20°C than at 5°C, whereas the susceptibility of adult P. operculella to this fumigant was not affected by temperature. The toxicity of EF did not differ with temperature for any of the P. operculella developmental stages. The atmospheric oxidation of PH3 increased the toxicity of this fumigant toward all developmental stages at both temperatures. In contrast, no differences in toxicity were observed for oxidized EF compared with EF alone at any developmental stage. In conclusion, using fumigation tests, we showed that atmospherically oxidized PH3 was much more effective against P. operculella than PH3 alone, demonstrating a synergistic effect for this fumigant and O2. Therefore, treatment with PH3 and high concentrations of O2, as described in this study, could be useful for managing the postharvest pest P. operculella. PMID:26470389

  18. Controlled Evaluation of the Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy on the Behavior of 16 Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jepson, Bryan; Granpeesheh, Doreen; Tarbox, Jonathan; Olive, Melissa L.; Stott, Carol; Braud, Scott; Yoo, J. Helen; Wakefield, Andrew; Allen, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been used to treat individuals with autism. However, few studies of its effectiveness have been completed. The current study examined the effects of 40 HBOT sessions at 24% oxygen at 1.3 ATA on 11 topographies of directly observed behavior. Five replications of multiple baselines were completed across a total…

  19. Controlling Photoreactions with Restricted Spaces and Weak Intermolecular Forces: Exquisite Selectivity during Oxidation of Olefins by Singlet Oxygen

    E-print Network

    Turro, Nicholas J.

    hydrogen by singlet oxygen can be eliminated by encapsulating the methyl cycloalkenes within a water-soluble by using either water-soluble Rose Bengal (RB) or water- insoluble dimethyl benzil (DMB) as the sensitizer Selectivity during Oxidation of Olefins by Singlet Oxygen Arunkumar Natarajan, Lakshmi S. Kaanumalle, Steffen

  20. Autoantigen TRIM21/Ro52 as a Possible Target for Treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Yoshimi, Ryusuke; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki; Ozato, Keiko

    2012-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, systemic, and autoimmune disease, whose etiology is still unknown. Although there has been progress in the treatment of SLE through the use of glucocorticoid and immunosuppressive drugs, these drugs have limited efficacy and pose significant risks of toxicity. Moreover, prognosis of patients with SLE has remained difficult to assess. TRIM21/Ro52/SS-A1, a 52-kDa protein, is an autoantigen recognized by antibodies in sera of patients with SLE and Sjögren's syndrome (SS), another systemic autoimmune disease, and anti-TRIM21 antibodies have been used as a diagnostic marker for decades. TRIM21 belongs to the tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) super family, which has been found to play important roles in innate and acquired immunity. Recently, TRIM21 has been shown to be involved in both physiological immune responses and pathological autoimmune processes. For example, TRIM21 ubiquitylates proteins of the interferon-regulatory factor (IRF) family and regulates type I interferon and proinflammatory cytokines. In this paper, we summarize molecular features of TRIM21 revealed so far and discuss its potential as an attractive therapeutic target for SLE. PMID:22701487

  1. TRIM21 is essential to sustain IFN regulatory factor 3 activation during antiviral response.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kai; Shi, He-Xin; Liu, Xin-Yi; Shan, Yu-Fei; Wei, Bo; Chen, She; Wang, Chen

    2009-03-15

    Virus infection induces host antiviral responses including induction of type I IFNs. Transcription factor IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) plays an essential role and is tightly regulated in this process. Herein we report that TRIM21 (tripartite motif-containing 21) is significantly induced and interacts with IRF3 upon RNA virus infection. Ectopic expression or knockdown of TRIM21 could respectively enhance or impair IRF3-mediated gene expression. Mechanistically, TRIM21 interferes with the interaction between Pin1 (peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase, NIMA-interacting 1) and IRF3, thus preventing IRF3 ubiquitination and degradation. A conserved motif in the B 30.2 domain of TRIM21 is critical for its modulation of IRF3 function, while the RING finger is dispensable. Host antiviral responses are significantly boosted or crippled in the presence or absence of TRIM21. Our results identify TRIM21 as an essential modulator of IRF3 stability and demonstrate that it positively regulates the strength and duration of primary antiviral response, thus further strengthening the notion that the TRIM family is evolutionarily integrated with innate immunity. PMID:19265157

  2. Synthesis of mixed-valent [alpha]- and [beta]-NaFe[subscript 2]O[subscript 3] polymorphs under controlled partial oxygen pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, Shaun R.; Blakely, Colin K.; Poltavets, Viktor V.

    2012-09-05

    Synthesis of mixed valent compounds, especially when multiple polymorphs exist, requires careful control of the preparation conditions. {alpha}- and {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} polymorphs were synthesized under controlled partial oxygen pressure (pO{sub 2}). pO{sub 2} regions of stability at 850 C were determined for both phases for the first time. A modified oxygen buffer method was developed for the facile preparation of mixed valent oxides under controlled pO{sub 2}. {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is the only known n = 2 member of the AM{sub n}O{sub n+1} (A = alkali metal, M = 3d metal) rock-salt related homolog series with layered cation ordering. The possibility of new members of the homolog series with other 3d metals is considered.

  3. StreamingTrim 1.0: a Java software for dynamic trimming of 16S rRNA sequence data from metagenetic studies.

    PubMed

    Bacci, G; Bazzicalupo, M; Benedetti, A; Mengoni, A

    2014-03-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies are extensively used in the field of molecular microbial ecology to describe taxonomic composition and to infer functionality of microbial communities. In particular, the so-called barcode or metagenetic applications that are based on PCR amplicon library sequencing are very popular at present. One of the problems, related to the utilization of the data of these libraries, is the analysis of reads quality and removal (trimming) of low-quality segments, while retaining sufficient information for subsequent analyses (e.g. taxonomic assignment). Here, we present StreamingTrim, a DNA reads trimming software, written in Java, with which researchers are able to analyse the quality of DNA sequences in fastq files and to search for low-quality zones in a very conservative way. This software has been developed with the aim to provide a tool capable of trimming amplicon library data, retaining as much as taxonomic information as possible. This software is equipped with a graphical user interface for a user-friendly usage. Moreover, from a computational point of view, StreamingTrim reads and analyses sequences one by one from an input fastq file, without keeping anything in memory, permitting to run the computation on a normal desktop PC or even a laptop. Trimmed sequences are saved in an output file, and a statistics summary is displayed that contains the mean and standard deviation of the length and quality of the whole sequence file. Compiled software, a manual and example data sets are available under the BSD-2-Clause License at the GitHub repository at https://github.com/GiBacci/StreamingTrim/. PMID:24128146

  4. Development of the SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) trim coil beam tube assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Skaritka, J.; Kelly, E.; Schneider, W.; Shutt, R.; Thompson, P.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Bintinger, D.; Coluccio, R.; Schieber, L.

    1987-01-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider uses approx. =9600 dipole magnets. The magnets have been carefully designed to exhibit minimal magnetic field harmonics. However, because of superconductor magnetization effects, iron saturation and conductor/coil positioning errors, certain harmonic errors are possible and must be corrected by use of multipole correctors called trim coils. For the most efficient use of axial space in the magnet, and lowest possible current, a distributed internal correction coil design is planned. The trim coil assembly is secured to the beam tube, a uhv tube with special strength, size, conductivity and vacuum. The report details the SSC trim coil/beam tube assembly specifications, history, and ongoing development.

  5. TRIM13 Is a Negative Regulator of MDA5-Mediated Type I Interferon Production

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Kavitha; Waggoner, Lisa; Pham, Serena T.; Hendricks, Gabriel L.; Waggoner, Stephen N.; Conlon, Joseph; Wang, Jennifer P.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) are essential intracellular detectors of viral RNA. They contribute to the type I interferon (IFN) response that is crucial for host defense against viral infections. Given the potent antiviral and proinflammatory activities elicited by the type I IFNs, induction of the type I IFN response is tightly regulated. Members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family of proteins have recently emerged as key regulators of antiviral immunity. We show that TRIM13, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is expressed in immune cells and is upregulated in bone marrow-derived macrophages upon stimulation with inducers of type I IFN. TRIM13 interacts with MDA5 and negatively regulates MDA5-mediated type I IFN production in vitro, acting upstream of IFN regulatory factor 3. We generated Trim13?/? mice and show that upon lethal challenge with encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), which is sensed by MDA5, Trim13?/? mice produce increased amounts of type I IFNs and survive longer than wild-type mice. Trim13?/? murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) challenged with EMCV or poly(I·C) also show a significant increase in beta IFN (IFN-?) levels, but, in contrast, IFN-? responses to the RIG-I-detected Sendai virus were diminished, suggesting that TRIM13 may play a role in positively regulating RIG-I function. Together, these results demonstrate that TRIM13 regulates the type I IFN response through inhibition of MDA5 activity and that it functions nonredundantly to modulate MDA5 during EMCV infection. IMPORTANCE The type I interferon (IFN) response is crucial for host defense against viral infections, and proper regulation of this pathway contributes to maintaining immune homeostasis. Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) are intracellular detectors of viral RNA that induce the type I IFN response. In this study, we show that expression of the gene tripartite motif 13 (Trim13) is upregulated in response to inducers of type I IFN and that TRIM13 interacts with both MDA5 and RIG-I in vitro. Through the use of multiple in vitro and in vivo model systems, we show that TRIM13 is a negative regulator of MDA5-mediated type I IFN production and may also impact RIG-I-mediated type I IFN production by enhancing RIG-I activity. This places TRIM13 at a key junction within the viral response pathway and identifies it as one of the few known modulators of MDA5 activity. PMID:25008915

  6. Design, fabrication, and testing of a multichannel microfluidic device to dynamically control oxygen concentration conditions in-vitro

    E-print Network

    Rodriguez, Rosa H

    2008-01-01

    Multilayer microfluidic devices were designed and fabricated such that an array of different oxygen concentrations could be applied to a testing area in any desired sequence and with unconstraint application times. The ...

  7. Downregulation of TRIM27 expression inhibits the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanyan; Wei, Zengtao; Bast, Robert C; Wang, Zhanying; Li, Yan; Gao, Meng; Liu, Yanping; Wang, Xiaoyan; Guo, Chun; Zhang, Lining; Wang, Xiaoyan

    2016-01-01

    TRIM27 (tripartite motif-containing 27) was originally identified as a fusion partner with the RET (REarranged during transfection) proto-oncogene and is highly expressed in various tumor cells and tissues. However, the level of expression and function of TRIM27 in ovarian cancer remain unclear. Here we have measured the expression of TRIM27 in normal ovarian and fallopian tube epithelial cells and in ovarian serous carcinoma cells and correlated TRIM27 expression with clinical and pathological parameters. In addition, we detected the effect of TRIM27 knockdown on proliferation of ovarian cancer cells in cell culture and xenografts. The results demonstrated that TRIM27 was highly expressed in ovarian serous carcinoma cells, and TRIM27 expression was significantly correlated with metastasis and FIGO stage in ovarian serous carcinoma patients. Downregulation of TRIM27 expression suppressed the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells in cell culture and inhibited the growth of xenografts in nude mice. TRIM27 knockdown induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells by upregulating the expression of p-P38 and downregulating the expression of p-AKT. Thus the present study suggests that TRIM27 could have important roles as an oncogene during the development of ovarian cancer and could serve as a diagnostic and therapeutic target. PMID:26568293

  8. Component-controlled synthesis and assembly of Cu-Pd nanocrystals on graphene for oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yulin; Zhao, Shulin; Liu, Suli; Yin, Huanhuan; Chen, Yu-Yun; Bao, Jianchun; Han, Min; Dai, Zhihui

    2015-03-11

    Exploring low-cost, high-activity, and long-durability hybrid electrocatalysts for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is vital to advance fuel cells technologies. In this paper, a series of graphene (G)-CuxPdy (Cu4Pd, Cu3Pd, CuPd, CuPd3, CuPd4) nanocomposites (G-CuxPdy NCPs) is obtained by assembly of CuxPdy alloy nanocrystals (NCs) with controlled component ratios on G nanosheets using the "dispersing-mixing-vaporizing solvent" strategy and used as electrocatalysts for ORR. Compared with pure CuxPdy NCs, greatly enhanced interfacial electron transfer dynamics are observed in G-CuxPdy NCPs, which show a strong correlation with the alloy compositions of the NCPs. The electrocatalytic experiments in alkaline solution reveal that the ORR activities of those G-CuxPdy NCPs are also strongly dependent on alloy components and exhibit a double-volcano feature with variations of alloy components. Among them, G-Cu3Pd NCPs possess the highest electrocatalytic activity, which is much better than some reported electrocatalysts and commercial Pd/C catalyst and close to Pt/C catalyst. By correlating the Pd 3d binding energies and the sizes of CuxPdy NCs with the mass-specific activities of G-CuxPdy NCPs and considering the interfacial electron transfer dynamics, the best catalytic activity of G-Cu3Pd NCPs may result from the unique electronic structure and the smallest size of Cu3Pd NCs as well as the strong synergistic effect between G and Cu3Pd NCs. Moreover, the durability of G-Cu3Pd NCPs is superior to that of Pt/C catalyst, indicating that they are promising cathodic electrocatalysts for using in alkaline fuel cells. PMID:25695756

  9. Flight investigation of the effect of control centering springs on the apparent spiral stability of a personal-owner airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, John P; Hunter, Paul A; Hewes, Donald E; Whitten, James B

    1952-01-01

    Report presents the results of a flight investigation conducted on a typical high-wing personal-owner airplane to determine the effect of control centering springs on apparent spiral stability. Apparent spiral stability is the term used to describe the spiraling tendencies of an airplane in uncontrolled flight as affected both by the true spiral stability of the perfectly trimmed airplane and by out-of-trim control settings. Centering springs were used in both the aileron and rudder control systems to provide both a positive centering action and a means of trimming the airplane. The springs were preloaded so that when they were moved through neutral they produced a nonlinear force gradient sufficient to overcome the friction in the control surface at the proper setting for trim. The ailerons and rudder control surfaces did not have trim tabs that could be adjusted in flight.

  10. New controls spark boiler efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Engels, T. )

    1993-09-01

    Monsanto's NutraSweet plant in University Park, IL, produces aspartame, the patented NutraSweet artificial sweetener product. Until recently, boiler control was managed by a '60s-era Fireye jackshaft system in which air and natural gas were mechanically linked with an offset to compensate for oxygen trim. The interlocking devices on the Fireye system were becoming obsolete, and the boiler needed a new front end retrofitted for low emissions. In order to improve boiler control efficiency, we decided to modernize and automate the entire boiler control system. We replaced the original jackshaft system, and installed a Gordon-Piet burner system, including gas valves, air dampers, blowers, and burner. The upgrade challenges included developing a control strategy and selecting and implementing a process control system. Since our plant has standardized on the PROVOX process management information system from Fisher Controls (now Fisher-Rosemount Systems) to support most of our process, it was a natural and logical choice for boiler controls as well. 2 figs.

  11. Effects of Pasteurella haemolytica A1 culture supernatant on mechanisms controlling bovine alveolar macrophage oxygen radical production.

    PubMed Central

    Conlon, P D; Shewen, P E; Donnelly, S F; Burger, J P

    1990-01-01

    Pasteurella haemolytica A1 culture supernatant containing leukotoxin, and modifiers of cyclic nucleotide and arachidonate metabolism, were evaluated for their ability to alter oxygen radical production by pulmonary alveolar macrophages obtained from seven Holstein calves. Calves were sedated, and underwent bronchoalveolar lavage to harvest macrophages, which were then incubated with culture supernatant and/or the drugs and toxins under study, and challenged with opsonized zymosan to induce oxygen radical generation. This was measured by a chemiluminescence technique. Pasteurella haemolytica A1 culture supernatant alone delayed the time to maximum oxygen radical production, although total production was increased. The cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin and the phospholipase inhibitor p-bromophenacyl bromide significantly reduced maximum oxygen radical production, but their effects were diminished in the presence of culture supernatant. Although forskolin markedly inhibited oxygen radical generation, this effect was not altered by culture supernatant. Incubation of macrophages with pertussis toxin had no effect on oxygen radical production, while incubation with cholera toxin did inhibit production. This inhibitory effect was significantly lessened by concurrent incubation with P. haemolytica A1 culture supernatant. PMID:2357660

  12. Photo-induced trimming of chalcogenide-assisted silicon photonic circuits

    E-print Network

    Melloni, Andrea

    We present an innovative and efficient technique for post-fabrication trimming of silicon photonic integrated circuits (PICs). Our approach exploits the high photosensitivity of chalcogenide glasses (ChGs) to induce local ...

  13. Trauma risk management (TRiM) in the UK Armed Forces.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, N; Langston, V; Jones, N

    2008-06-01

    Trauma Risk Management (TRiM) is a novel system of post incident management which intend to allow commanders to provide appropriate support to their subordinates in the aftermath of traumatic events. Given the current very considerable operational tempo being experienced by the majority of the UK Armed Forces, it is perhaps not surprising that TRiM has been in use in both Iraq and Afghanistan. Although TRiM originated from within the Royal Marines, it is now widely used in both the Royal Navy and Army; there are also plans to introduce it into specific components of the Royal Air Force such as for the RAF Regiment. This paper aims to explore the basis behind the TRiM system and to explore the evidence for its growing popularity within hierarchical organisations such as the military. PMID:19043994

  14. Periodic trim solutions with hp-version finite elements in time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Lin-Jun; Peters, David A.

    1991-01-01

    Finite elements in time as an alternative strategy for rotorcraft trim problems are studied. The research treats linear flap and linearized flap-lag response both for quasi-trim and trim cases. The connection between Fourier series analysis and hp-finite elements for periodic a problem is also examined. It is proved that Fourier series is a special case of space-time finite elements in which one element is used with a strong displacement formulation. Comparisons are made with respect to accuracy among Fourier analysis, displacement methods, and mixed methods over a variety parameters. The hp trade-off is studied for the periodic trim problem to provide an optimum step size and order of polynomial for a given error criteria. It is found that finite elements in time can outperform Fourier analysis for periodic problems, and for some given error criteria. The mixed method provides better results than does the displacement method.

  15. Periodic trim solutions with hp-version finite elements in time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, David A.; Hou, Lin-Jun

    1990-01-01

    Finite elements in time as an alternative strategy for rotorcraft trim problems are studied. The research treats linear flap and linearized flap-lag response both for quasi-trim and trim cases. The connection between Fourier series analysis and hp-finite elements for periodic a problem is also examined. It is proved that Fourier series is a special case of space-time finite elements in which one element is used with a strong displacement formulation. Comparisons are made with respect to accuracy among Fourier analysis, displacement methods, and mixed methods over a variety parameters. The hp trade-off is studied for the periodic trim problem to provide an optimum step size and order of polynomial for a given error criteria. It is found that finite elements in time can outperform Fourier analysis for periodic problems, and for some given error criteria. The mixed method provides better results than does the displacement method.

  16. A multi-patch nonsingular isogeometric boundary element method using trimmed elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yingjun; Benson, David J.; Nagy, Attila P.

    2015-07-01

    One of the major goals of isogeometric analysis is direct design-to-analysis, i.e., using computer-aided design (CAD) files for analysis without the need for mesh generation. One of the primary obstacles to achieving this goal is CAD models are based on surfaces, and not volumes. The boundary element method (BEM) circumvents this difficulty by directly working with the surfaces. The standard basis functions in CAD are trimmed nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS). NURBS patches are the tensor product of one-dimensional NURBS, making the construction of arbitrary surfaces difficult. Trimmed NURBS use curves to trim away regions of the patch to obtain the desired shape. By coupling trimmed NURBS with a nonsingular BEM, the formulation proposed here comes close achieving the goal of direct design to analysis. Example calculations demonstrate its efficiency and accuracy.

  17. Btrim: a fast, lightweight adapter and quality trimming program for next-generation sequencing technologies.

    PubMed

    Kong, Yong

    2011-08-01

    Btrim is a fast and lightweight software to trim adapters and low quality regions in reads from ultra high-throughput next-generation sequencing machines. It also can reliably identify barcodes and assign the reads to the original samples. Based on a modified Myers's bit-vector dynamic programming algorithm, Btrim can handle indels in adapters and barcodes. It removes low quality regions and trims off adapters at both or either end of the reads. A typical trimming of 30M reads with two sets of adapter pairs can be done in about a minute with a small memory footprint. Btrim is a versatile stand-alone tool that can be used as the first step in virtually all next-generation sequence analysis pipelines. The program is available at http://graphics.med.yale.edu/trim/. PMID:21651976

  18. Clinical significance of antibodies to Ro52/TRIM21 in systemic sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Autoantibodies to Ro52 recently identified as TRIM21 are among the most common autoantibodies in systemic autoimmune rheumatic diseases, but their clinical association remains poorly understood. We undertook this study to determine the clinical and serologic associations of anti-Ro52/TRIM21 antibodies in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Methods Detailed clinical data and sera from 963 patients with SSc enrolled in a multicenter cohort study were collected and entered into a central database. Antibodies to Ro52/TRIM21 and other autoantibodies were detected with an addressable laser-bead immunoassay and different enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) systems. Associations between anti-Ro52/TRIM21 antibodies and clinical and other serologic manifestations of SSc were investigated. Results Anti-Ro52/TRIM21 antibodies were present in 20% of SSc patients and overlapped with other main SSc-related antibodies, including anti-centromere (by immunofluorescence and centromere protein (CENP)-A and CENP-B ELISA), anti-topoisomerase I, anti-RNA polymerase III, and anti-Pm/Scl antibodies. Anti-Ro52/TRIM21 antibodies were strongly associated with interstitial lung disease (odds ratio (OR), 1.53; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11 to 2.12; P = 0.0091) and overlap syndrome (OR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.01 to 4.19; P = 0.0059). Conclusions Anti-Ro52/TRIM21 antibodies were the second most common autoantibodies in this SSc cohort. In SSc, anti-Ro52/TRIM21 antibodies may be a marker of interstitial lung disease and overlap syndrome. PMID:22394602

  19. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 1 of 6: Optical Sensors and Controls for Improved Basic Oxygen Furnace Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sarah Allendorf; David Ottesen; Donald Hardesty

    2002-01-31

    The development of an optical sensor for basic oxygen furnace (BOF) off-gas composition and temperature in this Advanced Process Control project has been a laboratory spectroscopic method evolve into a pre-commercialization prototype sensor system. The sensor simultaneously detects an infrared tunable diode laser ITDL beam transmitted through the process off-gas directly above the furnace mouth, and the infrared greybody emission from the particulate-laden off-gas stream. Following developmental laboratory and field-testing, the sensor prototype was successfully tested in four long-term field trials at Bethlehem Steel's Sparrows Point plant in Baltimore, MD> The resulting optical data were analyzed and reveal correlations with four important process variables: (1) bath turndown temperature; (2) carbon monoxide post-combustion control; (2) bath carbon concentration; and (4) furnace slopping behavior. The optical sensor measurement of the off-gas temperature is modestly correlated with bath turndown temperature. A detailed regression analysis of over 200 heats suggests that a dynamic control level of +25 Degree F can be attained with a stand-alone laser-based optical sensor. The ability to track off-gas temperatures to control post-combustion lance practice is also demonstrated, and may be of great use in optimizing post-combustion efficiency in electric furnace steelmaking operations. In addition to the laser-based absorption spectroscopy data collected by this sensor, a concurrent signal generated by greybody emission from the particle-laden off-gas was collected and analyzed. A detailed regression analysis shows an excellent correlation of a single variable with final bath turndown carbon concentration. Extended field trials in 1998 and early 1999 show a response range from below 0.03% to a least 0.15% carbon concentration with a precision of +0.0007%. Finally, a strong correlation between prolonged drops in the off-gas emission signal and furnace slopping events was observed. A simple computer algorithm was written that successfully predicts furnace slopping for 90% of the heats observed; over 80% are predicted with at least a 30-second warning prior to the initial slopping events,

  20. Functional Evidence for the Involvement of Microtubules and Dynein Motor Complexes in TRIM5?-Mediated Restriction of Retroviruses

    PubMed Central

    Pawlica, Paulina; Le Sage, Valerie; Poccardi, Nolwenn; Tremblay, Michel J.; Mouland, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The tripartite motif (TRIM) family of proteins includes the TRIM5? antiretroviral restriction factor. TRIM5? from many Old World and some New World monkeys can restrict the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), while human TRIM5? restricts N-tropic murine leukemia virus (N-MLV). TRIM5? forms highly dynamic cytoplasmic bodies (CBs) that associate with and translocate on microtubules. However, the functional involvement of microtubules or other cytoskeleton-associated factors in the viral restriction process had not been shown. Here, we demonstrate the dependency of TRIM5?-mediated restriction on microtubule-mediated transport. Pharmacological disruption of the microtubule network using nocodazole or disabling it using paclitaxel (originally named taxol) decreased the restriction of N-MLV and HIV-1 by human or simian alleles of TRIM5?, respectively. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of dynein motor complexes using erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine (EHNA) and small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of the dynein heavy chain (DHC) similarly decreased TRIM5?-mediated restriction. The loss in restriction resulting from either the disassembly of microtubules or the disruption of dynein motor activity was seen for both endogenous and overexpressed TRIM5? and was not due to differences in protein stability or cell viability. Both nocodazole treatment and DHC depletion interfered with the dynamics of TRIM5? CBs, increasing their size and altering their intracellular localization. In addition, nocodazole, paclitaxel, and DHC depletion were all found to increase the stability of HIV-1 cores in infected cells, providing an alternative explanation for the decreased restriction. In conclusion, association with microtubules and the translocation activity of dynein motor complexes are required to achieve efficient restriction by TRIM5?. IMPORTANCE The primate innate cellular defenses against infection by retroviruses include a protein named TRIM5?, belonging to the family of restriction factors. TRIM5? is present in the cytoplasm, where it can intercept incoming retroviruses shortly after their entry. How TRIM5? manages to be present at the appropriate subcytoplasmic location to interact with its target is unknown. We hypothesized that TRIM5?, either as a soluble protein or a high-molecular-weight complex (the cytoplasmic body), is transported within the cytoplasm by a molecular motor called the dynein complex, which is known to interact with and move along microtubules. Our results show that destructuring microtubules or crippling their function decreased the capacity of human or simian TRIM5? to restrict their retroviral targets. Inhibiting dynein motor activity, or reducing the expression of a key component of this complex, similarly affected TRIM5?-mediated restriction. Thus, we have identified specific cytoskeleton structures involved in innate antiretroviral defenses. PMID:24600008

  1. Controls on oxygen dynamics in a riverine salt-wedge estuary - a three-dimensional model of the Yarra River estuary, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, L. C.; Cook, P. L. M.; Teakle, I.; Hipsey, M. R.

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen depletion in estuarine waters is an important factor governing water quality and ecological health. A complex and dynamic balance of physical and biogeochemical factors drive the extent and persistence of hypoxia and anoxia making it difficult to predict. An increased understanding of the effect of changing flow regimes and temperature on patterns of estuarine oxygen depletion is required to support ongoing management. Coupled physical and biogeochemical models have been applied to study the interaction of physical processes and seasonal hypoxia, however, application to riverine estuaries with tight curvature and more sporadic periods of oxygen depletion is rare. In this study we apply a finite volume 3-D hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model (TUFLOW-FV-FABM) to the Yarra River estuary, Australia, in order to predict the extent of salt-wedge intrusion and consequent patterns of oxygen depletion. The predictive capacity of the model was evaluated using a series of model verification metrics and the results evaluated to determine the dominant mechanisms affecting salt-wedge position and the extent and persistence of anoxia and hypoxia. Measures of model fit indicated that the model reasonably captured the strength of stratification and the position and extent of the salt wedge (r2 ~ 0.74). The extent of the salt wedge intrusion was controlled by riverine flow and the strength of stratification or mixing dominated by topographical features corresponding to areas of tight curvature ("horseshoe" bends). The model predicted that the extent of anoxic waters generally mimicked the extent of the salt wedge (r2 ~ 0.65) increasing during periods of low flow and reduced following episodic high flow events. The results showed two sporadically isolated "hot spots" of anoxia, the first downstream of the horseshoe bend and the second downstream of a sill. Simulated oxygen concentrations indicated that whilst a threshold salt wedge intrusion was a requirement of oxygen depletion, temperature was critical in determining the extent of hypoxia and anoxia in the estuary. These findings highlight the importance of how seasonal changes in flow events and environmental flow management can impact on estuarine oxygen depletion in a warming climate. This study provides an improved understanding of the controls on hypoxia and anoxia in riverine estuaries, which is essential to support improved prediction of nutrient dynamics and ecological heath.

  2. Simultaneous neutralization and innate immune detection of a replicating virus by TRIM21.

    PubMed

    Watkinson, R E; Tam, J C H; Vaysburd, M J; James, L C

    2013-07-01

    Tripartite motif-containing 21 (TRIM21) is a cytosolic immunoglobulin receptor that mediates antibody-dependent intracellular neutralization (ADIN). Here we show that TRIM21 potently inhibits the spreading infection of a replicating cytopathic virus and activates innate immunity. We used a quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based assay to measure in vitro replication of mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1), a virus that causes dose-dependent hemorrhagic encephalitis in mice. Using this assay, we show that genetic ablation of TRIM21 or chemical inhibition of either the AAA ATPase p97/valosin-containing protein (VCP) or the proteasome results in a >1,000-fold increase in the relative level of infection in the presence of immune serum. Moreover, the TRIM21-mediated ability of antisera to block replication was a consistent feature of the humoral immune response in immunized mice. In the presence of immune sera and upon infection, TRIM21 also activates a proinflammatory response, resulting in secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). These results demonstrate that TRIM21 provides a potent block to spreading infection and induces an antiviral state. PMID:23596308

  3. Identification and characterization of a nuclear localization signal of TRIM28 that overlaps with the HP1 box.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Tetsuji; Sangel, Percival; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Obuse, Chikashi; Miyamoto, Yoichi; Oka, Masahiro; Yoneda, Yoshihiro

    2015-07-01

    Tripartite motif-containing 28 (TRIM28) is a transcription regulator, which forms a repressor complex containing heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1). Here, we report identification of a nuclear localization signal (NLS) within the 462-494 amino acid region of TRIM28 that overlaps with its HP1 binding site, HP1 box. GST-pulldown experiments revealed the interaction of the arginine-rich TRIM28 NLS with various importin ? subtypes (?1, ?2 and ?4). In vitro transport assay demonstrated that nuclear localization of GFP-TRIM28 NLS is mediated by importin ?s, in conjunction with importin ?1 and Ran. Further, we demonstrated that HP1 and importin ?s compete for binding to TRIM28. Together, our findings suggest that importin ? has an essential role in the nuclear delivery and preferential HP1 interaction of TRIM28. PMID:25960296

  4. Toll-like receptor 3 stimulation promotes Ro52/TRIM21 synthesis and nuclear redistribution in salivary gland epithelial cells, partially via type I interferon pathway.

    PubMed

    Kyriakidis, N C; Kapsogeorgou, E K; Gourzi, V C; Konsta, O D; Baltatzis, G E; Tzioufas, A G

    2014-12-01

    Up-regulated expression of Ro52/tripartite motif-containing protein 21 (TRIM21), Ro60/TROVE domain family, member 2 (TROVE2) and lupus LA protein/Sjögren's syndrome antigen B (La/SSB) autoantigens has been described in the salivary gland epithelial cells (SGEC) of patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS). SGECs, the key regulators of autoimmune SS responses, express high levels of surface functional Toll-like receptor (TLR)-3, whereas Ro52/TRIM21 negatively regulates TLR-3-mediated inflammation. Herein, we investigated the effect of TLR-3-signalling on the expression of Ro52/TRIM21, as well as Ro60/TROVE2 and La/SSB autoantigens, by SGECs. The effect of TLR-3 or TLR-4 stimulation on autoantigen expression was evaluated by polyI:C or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment, respectively, of SGEC lines (10 from SS patients, 12 from non-SS controls) or HeLa cells, followed by analysis of mRNA and protein expression. PolyI:C, but not LPS, resulted in a two-step induction of Ro52/TRIM21 mRNA expression by SGECs, a 12-fold increment at 6 h followed by a 2.5-fold increment at 24-48 h, whereas it induced a late two-fold up-regulation of Ro60/TROVE2 and La/SSB mRNAs at 48 h. Although protein expression levels were not affected significantly, the late up-regulation of Ro52/TRIM21 mRNA was accompanied by protein redistribution, from nucleolar-like pattern to multiple coarse dots spanning throughout the nucleus. These late phenomena were mediated significantly by interferon (IFN)-? production, as attested by cognate secretion and specific inhibition experiments and associated with IFN regulatory factor (IRF)3 degradation. TLR-3-signalling had similar effects on SGECs obtained from SS patients and controls, whereas it did not affect the expression of these autoantigens in HeLa cells. TLR-3 signalling regulates the expression of autoantigens by SGECs, implicating innate immunity pathways in their over-expression in inflamed tissues and possibly in their exposure to the immune system. PMID:25098814

  5. Blue shift in the optical bandgap of tin oxide thin films by controlling oxygen-to-argon gas flow ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meenakshi; Gautam, Sanjeev; Chae, Keun Hwa; Lee, Ik-Jae; Shin, Hyun-Joon; Thakur, Anup

    2015-10-01

    Tin oxide (SnO2) thin films were deposited by radio-frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering on silicon and glass substrates at different oxygen-to-argon gas-flow ratio (O2-to-Ar = 0%, 10%, 20%, 30% and 50%). All films were deposited at room temperature and fixed working pressures, 10 mTorr. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement suggests that all films were crystalline in nature except film deposited only in argon environment. The transparency of all of the films was more than 85% in the visible range except the film deposited only in the argon environment. Atomic force microscopy results showed that the surface of all the films were highly flat and smooth. The optical bandgap, estimated by Tauc plot was increased with oxygen environment. Blue shift was observed in the absorption edge and was accounted to decrease in the oxygen vacancies and dangling bonds.

  6. Stability scheme of ZnO-thin film resistive switching memory: influence of defects by controllable oxygen pressure ratio

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report a stability scheme of resistive switching devices based on ZnO films deposited by radio frequency (RF) sputtering process at different oxygen pressure ratios. I-V measurements and statistical results indicate that the operating stability of ZnO resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices is highly dependent on oxygen conditions. Data indicates that the ZnO film ReRAM device fabricated at 10% O2 pressure ratio exhibits the best performance. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) of ZnO at different O2 pressure ratios were investigated to reflect influence of structure to the stable switching behaviors. In addition, PL and XPS results were measured to investigate the different charge states triggered in ZnO by oxygen vacancies, which affect the stability of the switching behavior. PMID:24237683

  7. Stability scheme of ZnO-thin film resistive switching memory: influence of defects by controllable oxygen pressure ratio.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsin-Wei; Kang, Chen-Fang; Lai, Fang-I; He, Jr-Hau; Lin, Su-Jien; Chueh, Yu-Lun

    2013-01-01

    We report a stability scheme of resistive switching devices based on ZnO films deposited by radio frequency (RF) sputtering process at different oxygen pressure ratios. I-V measurements and statistical results indicate that the operating stability of ZnO resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices is highly dependent on oxygen conditions. Data indicates that the ZnO film ReRAM device fabricated at 10% O2 pressure ratio exhibits the best performance. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) of ZnO at different O2 pressure ratios were investigated to reflect influence of structure to the stable switching behaviors. In addition, PL and XPS results were measured to investigate the different charge states triggered in ZnO by oxygen vacancies, which affect the stability of the switching behavior. PMID:24237683

  8. Minor beak trimming in chickens leads to loss of mechanoreception and magnetoreception.

    PubMed

    Freire, R; Eastwood, M A; Joyce, M

    2011-04-01

    Routine removal of the tip of the beak of chickens within the poultry industry leads to changes in pecking behavior, which have previously been interpreted as being indicative of pain. By analyzing the force of pecks, with and without the topical application of an analgesic to the beak, we investigated if changes in pecking behavior were due to a loss of sensitivity in the beak or were pain related. Pecking behavior was compared between intact-beak and beak-trimmed chicks with or without topical application of lignocaine during a pain-free period (within 24 h of beak trimming) or after this period (d 2 to 9 of age). After pecking behavior tests, chicks were trained to use a magnetic stimulus to locate hidden food in 1 corner of a square arena. In unrewarded magnetic tests, the location of the chick relative to the magnetic stimulus was determined by automatic image recognition. Beak-trimmed chicks pecked harder than intact-beak chicks within 24 h of beak trimming (P = 0.04), possibly as a means of compensating for the loss of sensory feedback in beak-trimmed chicks. At 2 to 9 d of age, beak-trimmed chicks took longer to peck the pecking stimulus (P < 0.001) and showed fewer pecks in total (P < 0.001), suggesting a reduced pecking motivation. The force of pecks, however, did not differ among treatments at 2 to 9 d of age, suggesting that beak-trimmed chicks were not experiencing pain from the beak. In the magnetic tests, hungry intact-beak chicks stayed nearer to the magnetic stimulus (P = 0.005) and spent proportionally more time within 125 mm of the magnetic stimulus (P = 0.02) that had previously been associated with food than beak-trimmed chicks, which indicated that intact-beak birds were better able to detect the magnetic stimulus than beak-trimmed birds. We concluded that minor beak trimming at a young age did not result in pain in young domestic chicks, but instead led to impaired function of the magnetoreceptors and mechanoreceptors of the beak. PMID:21148779

  9. Molecular characterization of a CpTRIM35-like protein and its splice variants from whitespotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xinshang Zhao, Heng Chen, Yeyu Luo, Huiying Yao, Bin

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • A TRIM gene and three splice variants were firstly cloned from elasmobranch fish. • The genes were constitutively expressed with high levels in spleen and kidney. • The gene products were distributed in cytoplasm alone or cytoplasm and nucleus. • As E3 ubiquitin ligases, the proteins differed in immune responses to challenges. - Abstract: The tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins play important roles in a broad range of biological processes, including apoptosis, cell proliferation and innate immunity response. In this study, a TRIM gene and its three splice variants were cloned from an elasmobranch fish—whitespotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum Bennett). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the gene was closely related to TRIM35 homologs, thus termed CpTRIM35-like. Deduced CpTRIM35 has a RBCC-PRY/SPRY structure typical of TRIM proteins, and its splice variants (CpTRIM35-1–3) have different truncations at the C-terminus. The gene products were constitutively expressed in adult sharks with the highest levels in spleen and kidney. The different subcellular locations, upregulation upon LPS and poly I:C stimulation, and significant E3 ubiquitin ligase activities suggested their different roles in immune responses as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. This is the first TRIM protein ever characterized in elasmobranch fish.

  10. Evaluation and use of a diffusion-controlled sampler for determining chemical and dissolved oxygen gradients at the sediment-water interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, N.S.; Kennedy, M.M.; Massoni, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    Field and laboratory evaluations were made of a simple, inexpensive diffusion-controlled sampler with ports on two sides at each interval which incorporates 0.2-??m polycarbonate membrane to filter samples in situ. Monovalent and divalent ions reached 90% of equilibrium between sampler contents and the external solution within 3 and 6 hours, respectively. Sediment interstitial water chemical gradients to depths of tens of centimeters were obtained within several days after placement. Gradients were consistent with those determined from interstitial water obtained by centrifugation of adjacent sediment. Ten milliliter sample volumes were collected at 1-cm intervals to determine chemical gradients and dissolved oxygen profiles at depth and at the interface between the sediment and water column. The flux of dissolved species, including oxygen, across the sediment-water interface can be assessed more accurately using this sampler than by using data collected from benthic cores. ?? 1985 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  11. How does the character of oxygen demand control the structure of hypoxia on the TexasLouisiana continental shelf?

    E-print Network

    Hetland, Robert D.

    ­Louisiana continental shelf? Robert D. Hetland , Steven F. DiMarco Department of Oceanography, Texas A&M University to the Texas­ Louisiana continental shelf. During summer when winds are generally upwelling favorable (i­Louisiana shelf is configured with various simple oxygen respiration models to isolate the effects

  12. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), eggs on cut-flowers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana, eggs were subjected to oxygenated phosphine fumigation treatments on cut flowers to determine efficacy and safety. Five cut flower species: roses, lilies, tulips, gerbera daisy, and pompon chrysanthemums, were fumigated in separate groups with 2500 ppm ...

  13. Effect of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating system for control of airborne microorganisms in meat processing environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effectiveness of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating AirOcare equipment on the reduction of airborne bacteria in a meat processing environment was determined. Serratia marcescens and lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus plantarum) were used to artificiall...

  14. How the structure of the large subunit controls function in an oxygen-tolerant [NiFe]-hydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Lisa; Flanagan, Lindsey; Fyfe, Paul K.; Parkin, Alison; Hunter, William N.; Sargent, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is an opportunistic pathogen that produces a [NiFe]-hydrogenase under aerobic conditions. In the present study, genetic engineering approaches were used to facilitate isolation of this enzyme, termed Hyd-5. The crystal structure was determined to a resolution of 3.2 Å and the hydro-genase was observed to comprise associated large and small subunits. The structure indicated that His229 from the large subunit was close to the proximal [4Fe–3S] cluster in the small subunit. In addition, His229 was observed to lie close to a buried glutamic acid (Glu73), which is conserved in oxygen-tolerant hydrogenases. His229 and Glu73 of the Hyd-5 large subunit were found to be important in both hydrogen oxidation activity and the oxygen-tolerance mechanism. Substitution of His229 or Glu73 with alanine led to a loss in the ability of Hyd-5 to oxidize hydrogen in air. Furthermore, the H229A variant was found to have lost the overpotential requirement for activity that is always observed with oxygen-tolerant [NiFe]-hydrogenases. It is possible that His229 has a role in stabilizing the super-oxidized form of the proximal cluster in the presence of oxygen, and it is proposed that Glu73could play a supporting role in fine-tuning the chemistry of His229 to enable this function. PMID:24428762

  15. Product Selectivity Control and Organic Oxygenate Pathways from Partial Oxidation of Methane in a Silent Electric Discharge Reactor

    E-print Network

    Mallinson, Richard

    toward oxygen dissociation under these conditions. Introduction Natural gas is looked upon as a desirable, are located in remote areas, so that it is economically infeasible to transport the gas via pipeline. One alternative is to convert the natural gas into an organic liquid, such as methanol, at the production site

  16. Apneic Oxygenation during simulated prolonged difficult laryngoscopy: Comparison of nasal prongs versus nasopharyngeal catheter: A prospective randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Achar, Shreepathi Krishna; Pai, Archana Jagdish; Shenoy, U. Kailasnath

    2014-01-01

    Background: Apneic oxygenation by insufflating O2 through nasal prongs (NP) and nasopharyngeal catheter (NC) has been proven to be effective. We conducted this study to compare the relative efficacy of these two techniques in a simulated difficult airway situation. Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of two techniques of apneic oxygenation (NP vs. NC) on the duration of oxygen saturation ?95% during simulated prolonged difficult laryngoscopy. Methods: A randomized non-blinded study was conducted in 56 adult patients, 28 in each group belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status class I and II scheduled for elective surgical procedures under general endotracheal anesthesia randomized to either NC or NP group. After pre-oxygenating for an end tidal oxygen concentration of 90% and induction, ability to mask ventilate was checked and paralyzed with rocuronium. Apneic oxygenation using 5 L/min of O2 was established either by NP or NC. After laryngoscopy the laryngoscope was withdrawn to simulate a Grade 4 laryngoscopy and held in this position for an apnea time (T1) of 10 min with SpO2 maintained at ?95% or until SpO2 dropped to < 95%, whichever is earlier. An arterial blood gas analysis was performed at the end of T1. Desaturation to < 95% were compared between the groups using Chi-square test (P < 0.05 as significant). Arterial blood gas analysis among those who sustained T1 for 10 min between the groups were compared using independent sample t-test (P < 0.05 was considered as significant). None of patients were excluded from the study. Results: In NP group nine patients desaturated as against none in the NC group (P = 0.001). Arterial blood gas analysis among non-desaturated patients was comparable with respect to PO2, PCO2 and pH. Conclusion: Nasopharyngeal catheter is a better device than nasal prongs in maintaining safe oxygenation during apnea in a simulated prolonged difficult laryngoscopy. PMID:25886106

  17. Appreciating Oxygen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Hilton M.

    2008-01-01

    Photosynthetic flora and microfauna utilize light from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and oxygen. While these carbohydrates and their derivative hydrocarbons are generally considered to be fuels, it is the thermodynamically energetic oxygen molecule that traps, stores, and provides almost all of the energy that…

  18. Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... not smoke near oxygen, or keep oxygen near open flames, or other sources of heat or flames Doctor’s Office Telephone: The ATS Patient Information Series is a public service of the American Thoracic Society and its journal, the AJRCCM. The information appearing ...

  19. Synthesis of mixed-valent {alpha}- and {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} polymorphs under controlled partial oxygen pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Bruno, Shaun R.; Blakely, Colin K.; Poltavets, Viktor V.

    2012-08-15

    Synthesis of mixed valent compounds, especially when multiple polymorphs exist, requires careful control of the preparation conditions. {alpha}- and {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} polymorphs were synthesized under controlled partial oxygen pressure (pO{sub 2}). pO{sub 2} regions of stability at 850 Degree-Sign C were determined for both phases for the first time. A modified oxygen buffer method was developed for the facile preparation of mixed valent oxides under controlled pO{sub 2}. {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is the only known n=2 member of the AM{sub n}O{sub n+1} (A=alkali metal, M=3d metal) rock-salt related homolog series with layered cation ordering. The possibility of new members of the homolog series with other 3d metals is considered. - Graphical abstract: Schematic section of phase composition vs. partial O{sub 2} pressure diagram at 850 Degree-Sign C for Na/Fe=1/2 and structure models of {alpha}- and {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {alpha}- and {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} polymorphs were synthesized under controlled oxygen pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} has rock-salt related structure with layered cation ordering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Existence of the rock-salt related homolog series AM{sub n}O{sub n+1} is discussed.

  20. The V86M mutation in HIV-1 capsid confers resistance to TRIM5¿ by abrogation of cyclophilin a-dependent restriction and enhancement of viral nuclear import

    E-print Network

    Veillette, Maxime; Bichel, Katsiaryna; Pawlica, Paulina; Freund, Stefan M. V.; Plourde, Mélodie B.; Pham, Quang Toan; Reyes-Moreno, Carlos; James, Leo C.; Berthoux, Lionel

    2013-02-28

    Abstract Background HIV-1 is inhibited early after entry into cells expressing some simian orthologues of the tripartite motif protein family member TRIM5?. Mutants of the human orthologue (TRIM5?hu) can also provide protection against HIV...

  1. Oxygen therapy and intraocular oxygenation.

    PubMed Central

    Jampol, L M

    1987-01-01

    When delivered to the corneal surface of rabbits or monkeys, 100% oxygen can significantly increase the pO2 in the aqueous humor. Under hyperbaric conditions (two atmospheres), an observed rise in the aqueous pO2 in rabbits breathing room air can be increased further by exposing the rabbit cornea to 100% oxygen. The high oxygen levels under hyperbaric conditions are mediated by intravascular and transcorneal delivery of oxygen. The increase in the pO2 levels in the aqueous can prevent sickling of intracameral human erythrocytes containing sickle hemoglobin. Thus, oxygen therapy transcorneally or systemically could potentially be used to treat a sickle cell hyphema. The exposure of rabbit eyes to 100% oxygen at the corneal surface is followed by autoregulation (constriction) of the iris vasculature. We could demonstrate no constriction in the eyes of two normal human volunteers or of four patients with chronic stable rubeosis iridis. Preretinal vitreous pO2 levels can be significantly raised by exposing monkeys to hyperbaric 100% oxygen. This procedure may be of value in treating acute, reversible ischemic inner retinal diseases. Transcorneal or vascular delivery of oxygen to the eye under normobaric or hyperbaric conditions may be effective in treating ischemic diseases of the anterior segment, such as anterior segment necrosis or rubeosis iridis, or ischemic inner retinal diseases. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 B FIGURE 5 C FIGURE 5 A FIGURE 6 PMID:3447339

  2. Two-dimensional electron gas at the epitaxial alumina/SrTiO3 interface: control of oxygen vacancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kormondy, Kristy; Posadas, Agham; Ngo, Thong; Lu, Sirong; Goble, Nicholas; Jordan-Sweet, Jean; Gao, Xuan; McCartney, Martha; Smith, David; Ekerdt, John; Demkov, Alexander

    2015-03-01

    A highly interesting application for SrTiO3 involves the formation of a high mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the oxide/oxide interface. We report on the conducting layer formed at the crystalline ?-alumina/SrTiO3 (STO) interface which is attributed to oxygen vacancies. We describe the structure of thin ?-alumina layers deposited by molecular beam epitaxy on STO (001), as determined by reflection-high-energy electron diffraction, x-ray diffraction, and high-resolution electron microscopy. In-situ x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to confirm the presence of oxygen vacancies at the interface. Electrical characterization indicates a higher sheet resistance for lower deposition temperature. A maximum electron Hall mobility of 3100 cm2V-1s-1 at 3.2 K and room temperature mobility of 22 cm2V-1s-1 are measured.

  3. Solving the problem at the source: Controlling Mn release at the sediment-water interface via hypolimnetic oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Lee D; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Gantzer, Paul A; Little, John C

    2011-12-01

    One of the primary goals of hypolimnetic oxygenation systems (HOx) from a drinking water perspective is to suppress sediment-water fluxes of reduced chemical species (e.g., manganese and iron) by replenishing dissolved oxygen (O(2)) in the hypolimnion. Manganese (Mn) in particular is becoming a serious problem for water treatment on a global scale. While it has been established that HOx can increase sediment O(2) uptake rates and subsequently enhance the sediment oxic zone via elevated near-sediment O(2) and mixing, the influence of HOx on sediment-water fluxes of chemical species with more complicated redox kinetics like Mn has not been comprehensively evaluated. This study was based on Mn and O(2) data collected primarily in-situ to characterize both the sediment and water column in a drinking-water-supply reservoir equipped with an HOx. While diffusive Mn flux out of the sediment was enhanced by HOx operation due to an increased concentration driving force across the sediment-water interface, oxygenation maintained elevated near-sediment and porewater O(2) levels that facilitated biogeochemical cycling and subsequent retention of released Mn within the benthic region. Results show that soluble Mn levels in the lower hypolimnion increased substantially when the HOx was turned off for as little as ?48 h and the upper sediment became anoxic. Turning off the HOx for longer periods (i.e., several weeks) significantly impaired water quality due to sediment Mn release. Continual oxygenation maintained an oxic benthic region sufficient to prevent Mn release to the overlying source water. PMID:22000717

  4. Reduced cortical microvascular oxygenation in multiple sclerosis: a blinded, case-controlled study using a novel quantitative near-infrared spectroscopy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Runze; Dunn, Jeff F.

    2015-11-01

    Hypoxia (low oxygen) is associated with many brain disorders as well as inflammation, but the lack of widely available technology has limited our ability to study hypoxia in human brain. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a poorly understood neurological disease with a significant inflammatory component which may cause hypoxia. We hypothesized that if hypoxia were to occur, there should be reduced microvascular hemoglobin saturation (StO2). In this study, we aimed to determine if reduced StO2 can be detected in MS using frequency domain near-infrared spectroscopy (fdNIRS). We measured fdNIRS data in cortex and assessed disability of 3 clinical isolated syndrome (CIS), 72 MS patients and 12 controls. Control StO2 was 63.5?±?3% (mean?±?SD). In MS patients, 42% of StO2 values were more than 2?×?SD lower than the control mean. There was a significant relationship between StO2 and clinical disability. A reduced microvascular StO2 is supportive (although not conclusive) that there may be hypoxic regions in MS brain. This is the first study showing how quantitative NIRS can be used to detect reduced StO2 in patients with MS, opening the door to understanding how microvascular oxygenation impacts neurological conditions.

  5. Reduced cortical microvascular oxygenation in multiple sclerosis: a blinded, case-controlled study using a novel quantitative near-infrared spectroscopy method

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Runze; Dunn, Jeff F.

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia (low oxygen) is associated with many brain disorders as well as inflammation, but the lack of widely available technology has limited our ability to study hypoxia in human brain. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a poorly understood neurological disease with a significant inflammatory component which may cause hypoxia. We hypothesized that if hypoxia were to occur, there should be reduced microvascular hemoglobin saturation (StO2). In this study, we aimed to determine if reduced StO2 can be detected in MS using frequency domain near-infrared spectroscopy (fdNIRS). We measured fdNIRS data in cortex and assessed disability of 3 clinical isolated syndrome (CIS), 72 MS patients and 12 controls. Control StO2 was 63.5?±?3% (mean?±?SD). In MS patients, 42% of StO2 values were more than 2?×?SD lower than the control mean. There was a significant relationship between StO2 and clinical disability. A reduced microvascular StO2 is supportive (although not conclusive) that there may be hypoxic regions in MS brain. This is the first study showing how quantitative NIRS can be used to detect reduced StO2 in patients with MS, opening the door to understanding how microvascular oxygenation impacts neurological conditions. PMID:26563581

  6. Rational design of a receptor-targeted photodynamic molecular beacon for the multilevel control of singlet oxygen production and PDT activity in cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Juan; Stefflova, Klara; Warren, Mike; Bu, Jiachuan; Wilson, Brian C.; Zheng, Gang

    2007-02-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) involves the combined action of light, oxygen and a photosensitizer (PS). It offers unique control in the PS's action because the key cytotoxic agent, singlet oxygen (1O II), is only produced in situ upon irradiation. The 1O II production can be controlled in three levels. The first level involves the judicious use of fiber optics to selectively deliver light to disease tissues. The second level is to exert control over the PS's localization by selectively delivering PS to cancer cells. The third level is to exert control of the PS's ability to generate 1O II in responding to specific cancer biomarkers. Here, we present two PDT agents based on the latter two levels of 1O II control. The first PDT agent "PPF" contains a PS (Pyro) and a tumor homing molecule (folate) and a peptide linker. PPF was found to be selectively accumulated in cancer cells via folate receptor (FR) pathway. The second PDT agent "PP MMP7B" is a matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7)-triggered photodynamic molecular beacon (PMB) containing a PS (Pyro), a 1O II quencher (BHQ3) and a MMP7-cleavable peptide linker. Thus, the 1O II production of PP MMP7B is highly sequence-specific and its photodynamic cytotoxicity is MMP7-dependent. Since these agents are designed to share functional modules (PS and peptide linker) and common cancer cell model (KB cells overexpress both FR and MMP7), it forms the basis for rational design of receptor-targeted PMB for achieving a multi-level control of 1O II production in cancer cells, which in term, could provide a much higher level of PDT selectivity.

  7. TRIM21: a cytosolic Fc receptor with broad antibody isotype specificity.

    PubMed

    Foss, Stian; Watkinson, Ruth; Sandlie, Inger; James, Leo C; Andersen, Jan Terje

    2015-11-01

    Antibodies are key molecules in the fight against infections. Although previously thought to mediate protection solely in the extracellular environment, recent research has revealed that antibody-mediated protection extends to the cytosolic compartment of cells. This postentry viral defense mechanism requires binding of the antibody to a cytosolic Fc receptor named tripartite motif containing 21 (TRIM21). In contrast to other Fc receptors, TRIM21 shows remarkably broad isotype specificity as it does not only bind IgG but also IgM and IgA. When viral pathogens coated with these antibody isotypes enter the cytosol, TRIM21 is rapidly recruited and efficient neutralization occurs before the virus has had the time to replicate. In addition, inflammatory signaling is induced. As such, TRIM21 acts as a cytosolic sensor that engages antibodies that have failed to protect against infection in the extracellular environment. Here, we summarize our current understanding of how TRIM21 orchestrates humoral immunity in the cytosolic environment. PMID:26497531

  8. Trim21 regulates Nmi-IFI35 complex-mediated inhibition of innate antiviral response.

    PubMed

    Das, Anshuman; Dinh, Phat X; Pattnaik, Asit K

    2015-11-01

    In this study, using an immunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry approach, we have identified the E3 ubiquitin ligase Trim21 as an interacting partner of IFI35 and Nmi. We found that this interaction leads to K63-linked ubiquitination on K22 residue of Nmi, but not IFI35. Using domain deletion analysis, we found that the interaction is mediated via the coiled-coil domain of Nmi and the carboxyl-terminal SPRY domain of Trim21. Furthermore, we show that depletion of Trim21 leads to significantly reduced interaction of Nmi with IFI35, which results in the abrogation of the negative regulatory function of the Nmi-IFI35 complex on innate antiviral signaling. Thus, Trim21 appears to be a critical regulator of the functions of the Nmi-IFI35 complex. Overall, the results presented here uncover a new mechanism of regulation of the Nmi-IFI35 complex by Trim21, which may have implications for various autoimmune diseases associated uncontrolled antiviral signaling. PMID:26342464

  9. TRIM21 is an IgG receptor that is structurally, thermodynamically, and kinetically conserved.

    PubMed

    Keeble, Anthony H; Khan, Zahra; Forster, Alan; James, Leo C

    2008-04-22

    The newly identified tripartite motif (TRIM) family of proteins mediate innate immunity and other critical cellular functions. Here we show that TRIM21, which mediates the autoimmune diseases rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Sjögren's syndrome, is a previously undescribed IgG receptor with a binding mechanism unlike known mammalian Fcgamma receptors. TRIM21 simultaneously targets conserved hot-spot residues on both Ig domains of the Fc fragment using a PRYSPRY domain with a preformed multisite interface. The binding sites on both TRIM21 and Fc are highly conserved to the extent that the proteins are functionally interchangeable through murine, canine, primate, and human species. Pre-steady-state analysis exposes mechanistic conservation at the level of individual residues, which make the same energetic and kinetic contributions to binding despite varying in sequence. Together, our results reveal that TRIM21 is a previously undescribed type of IgG receptor based on a non-Ig scaffold whose interaction at the fundamental level-structural, thermodynamic, and kinetic-is evolutionarily conserved. PMID:18420815

  10. TRIM21: a cytosolic Fc receptor with broad antibody isotype specificity

    PubMed Central

    Foss, Stian; Watkinson, Ruth; Sandlie, Inger; James, Leo C; Andersen, Jan Terje

    2015-01-01

    Antibodies are key molecules in the fight against infections. Although previously thought to mediate protection solely in the extracellular environment, recent research has revealed that antibody-mediated protection extends to the cytosolic compartment of cells. This postentry viral defense mechanism requires binding of the antibody to a cytosolic Fc receptor named tripartite motif containing 21 (TRIM21). In contrast to other Fc receptors, TRIM21 shows remarkably broad isotype specificity as it does not only bind IgG but also IgM and IgA. When viral pathogens coated with these antibody isotypes enter the cytosol, TRIM21 is rapidly recruited and efficient neutralization occurs before the virus has had the time to replicate. In addition, inflammatory signaling is induced. As such, TRIM21 acts as a cytosolic sensor that engages antibodies that have failed to protect against infection in the extracellular environment. Here, we summarize our current understanding of how TRIM21 orchestrates humoral immunity in the cytosolic environment. PMID:26497531

  11. Bottom water oxygenation changes in the northern Okinawa Trough since the last 88ka: Controlled by local hydrology and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jianjun; Shi, Xuefa; Zhu, Aimei; Bai, Yazhi; Selvaraj, Kandasamy

    2014-05-01

    Dissolved oxygen content in oceanic bottom water is closely related to the surface organic carbon export and subsurface water stratification, regulating the biogeochemical cycles of some key nutrients and trace elements in intermediate and deep water columns. Further, the rate of organic carbon flux to sediments and bottom water oxygen concentration together determine the intensity of reducing conditions in sediments. In this study, we obtain high-resolution geochemical elements (TOC, TN, TS, CaCO3, Cd, U, Mn and Mo) in a radiocarbon (14C) and ?18O dated, sediment core CSH1 collected from the northern Okinawa Trough to reconstruct the history of bottom water redox conditions over 88 ka. Our data revealed the presence of hypoxic bottom water in the northern Okinawa Trough during late MIS5a-early MIS4, Last Glacial Maximum, and the early Last Deglacial intervals. During the Holocene and the early MIS5a, the dissolved oxygen content in bottom water has increased with decreasing water stratification, which was probably caused by the increased upwelling from the bottom in tandem with the climbing of Kuroshio Current and subdued freshwater effect in the northern Okinawa Trough. The reasons that caused the change of dissolved oxygen content in bottom water in the northern Okinawa Trough varied during different periods. The main factors are related to sea level, strengths of East Asian monsoon and the Kuroshio Current, and the shift of Westerly Jet Axis. The semi-closed topography in the northern Okinawa Trough provides a space framework for the presence of anoxia, while the sea level together with the Kuroshio Current, the East Asian monsoon and the Westerly Jet Axis seems to affect the strength of water stratification and the nutrient supply; thereby, regulating the dissolved oxygen exchange between surface and bottom waters. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(Grant No.:40906035,40710069004) and by basic scientific fund for National public reserch institutes of China (No.2012G31, 2010G24).

  12. Oxygen safety

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Toys with electric motors Electric baseboard or space heaters Wood stoves or fireplaces Electric blankets Hairdryers, electric ... catch fire away from your oxygen. This includes cleaning products that contain oil, grease, alcohol, or other ...

  13. Hovering and forward flight of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta: trim search and 6-DOF dynamic stability characterization.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joong-Kwan; Han, Jong-Seob; Lee, Jun-Seong; Han, Jae-Hung

    2015-10-01

    We show that the forward flight speed affects the stability characteristics of the longitudinal and lateral dynamics of a flying hawkmoth; dynamic modal structures of both the planes of motion are altered due to variations in the stability derivatives. The forward flight speed u e is changed from 0.00 to 1.00 m s(-1) with an increment of 0.25 m s(-1). (The equivalent advance ratio is 0.00 to 0.38; the advance ratio is the ratio of the forward flight speed to the average wing tip speed.) As the flight speed increases, for the longitudinal dynamics, an unstable oscillatory mode becomes more unstable. Also, we show that the up/down (w(b)) dynamics become more significant at a faster flight speed due to the prominent increase in the stability derivative Z(u) (up/down force due to the forward/backward velocity). For the lateral dynamics, the decrease in the stability derivative L(v) (roll moment due to side slip velocity) at a faster flight speed affects a slightly damped stable oscillatory mode, causing it to become more stable; however, the t(half) (the time taken to reach half the amplitude) of this slightly damped stable oscillatory mode remains relatively long (?12T at u(e) = 1 m s(-1); T is wingbeat period) compared to the other modes of motion, meaning that this mode represents the most vulnerable dynamics among the lateral dynamics at all flight speeds. To obtain the stability derivatives, trim conditions for linearization are numerically searched to find the exact trim trajectory and wing kinematics using an algorithm that uses the gradient information of a control effectiveness matrix and fully coupled six-degrees of freedom nonlinear multibody equations of motion. With this algorithm, trim conditions that consider the coupling between the dynamics and aerodynamics can be obtained. The body and wing morphology, and the wing kinematics used in this study are based on actual measurement data from the relevant literature. The aerodynamic model of the flapping wings of a hawkmoth is based on the blade element theory, and the necessary aerodynamic coefficients, including the lift, drag and wing pitching moment, are experimentally obtained from the results of previous work by the authors. PMID:26414442

  14. A Novel Terminal-Repeat Retrotransposon in Miniature (TRIM) Is Massively Expressed in Echinococcus multilocularis Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Koziol, Uriel; Radio, Santiago; Smircich, Pablo; Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Fernández, Cecilia; Brehm, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Taeniid cestodes (including the human parasites Echinococcus spp. and Taenia solium) have very few mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in their genome, despite lacking a canonical PIWI pathway. The MGEs of these parasites are virtually unexplored, and nothing is known about their expression and silencing. In this work, we report the discovery of a novel family of small nonautonomous long terminal repeat retrotransposons (also known as terminal-repeat retrotransposons in miniature, TRIMs) which we have named ta-TRIM (taeniid TRIM). ta-TRIMs are only the second family of TRIM elements discovered in animals, and are likely the result of convergent reductive evolution in different taxonomic groups. These elements originated at the base of the taeniid tree and have expanded during taeniid diversification, including after the divergence of closely related species such as Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus granulosus. They are massively expressed in larval stages, from a small proportion of full-length copies and from isolated terminal repeats that show transcriptional read-through into downstream regions, generating novel noncoding RNAs and transcriptional fusions to coding genes. In E. multilocularis, ta-TRIMs are specifically expressed in the germinative cells (the somatic stem cells) during asexual reproduction of metacestode larvae. This would provide a developmental mechanism for insertion of ta-TRIMs into cells that will eventually generate the adult germ line. Future studies of active and inactive ta-TRIM elements could give the first clues on MGE silencing mechanisms in cestodes. PMID:26133390

  15. 46 CFR 72.05-15 - Ceilings, linings, trim, and decorations in accommodation spaces and safety areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ceilings, linings, trim, and decorations in accommodation spaces and safety areas. 72.05-15 Section 72.05-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PASSENGER VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-15 Ceilings, linings, trim, and decorations...

  16. TRIM26 Negatively Regulates Interferon-? Production and Antiviral Response through Polyubiquitination and Degradation of Nuclear IRF3

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Kai; Zhang, Lei; Gao, Chengjiang

    2015-01-01

    Virus infection leads to the activation of transcription factor IRF3 and subsequent production of type I inteferons, which induce the transcription of various antiviral genes called interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) to eliminate viral infection. IRF3 activation requires phosphorylation, dimerization and nuclear translocation. However, the mechanisms for the termination of IRF3 activation in nucleus are elusive. Here we report the identification of TRIM26 to negatively regulate IFN-? production and antiviral response by targeting nuclear IRF3. TRIM26 bound to IRF3 and promoted its K48-linked polyubiquitination and degradation in nucleus. TRIM26 degraded WT IRF3 and the constitutive active mutant IRF3 5D, but not the phosphorylation deficient mutant IRF3 5A. Furthermore, IRF3 mutant in the Nuclear Localization Signal (NLS), which could not move into nucleus, was not degraded by TRIM26. Importantly, virus infection promoted TRIM26 nuclear translocation, which was required for IRF3 degradation. As a consequence, TRIM26 attenuated IFN-? promoter activation and IFN-? production downstream of TLR3/4, RLR and DNA sensing pathways. TRIM26 transgenic mice showed much less IRF3 activation and IFN-? production, while increased virus replication. Our findings delineate a novel mechanism for the termination of IRF3 activation in nucleus through TRIM26-mediated IRF3 ubiquitination and degradation. PMID:25763818

  17. TRIM21 is a trimeric protein that binds IgG Fc via the B30.2 domain.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, David A; Trowsdale, John

    2007-03-01

    TRIMs comprise a large protein family that include anti-retroviral restriction factors such as TRIM5alpha. Auto-antibodies to TRIM21 (Ro52) are a common serological feature of patients with Sjogren's syndrome and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We show that, in addition to this autoantibody response, TRIM21 binds specifically to the Fc region of human IgG isotypes 1, 2 and 4, via a conformation dependent interaction. The minimal binding epitope was identified as the C-terminal B30.2 domain. The interaction was independent of N-linked glycosylation of the IgG CH2 domain. TRIM21 formed a trimer that competed with protein A for binding to IgG Fc. We conclude that TRIM21 binds to the consensus CH2/CH3 domain interface in the Fc region, overlapping the binding site of several other proteins, including Staphylococcus aureus protein A and Streptococcus spp. protein G. The data suggest that the normal function of TRIM21 involves regulation of IgG functions and that TRIM/B30.2 molecules may have broader and unsuspected roles in innate immunity, beyond that of retroviral restriction. PMID:17118455

  18. Detection of TRIM32 deletions in LGMD patients analyzed by a combined strategy of CGH array and massively parallel sequencing.

    PubMed

    Nectoux, Juliette; de Cid, Rafael; Baulande, Sylvain; Leturcq, France; Urtizberea, Jon Andoni; Penisson-Besnier, Isabelle; Nadaj-Pakleza, Aleksandra; Roudaut, Carinne; Criqui, Audrey; Orhant, Lucie; Peyroulan, Delphine; Ben Yaou, Raba; Nelson, Isabelle; Cobo, Anna Maria; Arné-Bes, Marie-Christine; Uro-Coste, Emmanuelle; Nitschke, Patrick; Claustres, Mireille; Bonne, Gisèle; Lévy, Nicolas; Chelly, Jamel; Richard, Isabelle; Cossée, Mireille

    2015-07-01

    Defects in TRIM32 were reported in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H (LGMD2H), sarcotubular myopathies (STM) and in Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Few cases have been described to date in LGMD2H/STM, but this gene is not systematically analysed because of the absence of specific signs and difficulties in protein analysis. By using high-throughput variants screening techniques, we identified variants in TRIM32 in two patients presenting nonspecific LGMD. We report the first case of total inactivation by homozygous deletion of the entire TRIM32 gene. Of interest, the deletion removes part of the ASTN2 gene, a large gene in which TRIM32 is nested. Despite the total TRIM32 gene inactivation, the patient does not present a more severe phenotype. However, he developed a mild progressive cognitive impairment that may be related to the loss of function of ASTN2 because association between ASTN2 heterozygous deletions and neurobehavioral disorders was previously reported. Regarding genomic characteristics at breakpoint of the deleted regions of TRIM32, we found a high density of repeated elements, suggesting a possible hotspot. These observations illustrate the importance of high-throughput technologies for identifying molecular defects in LGMD, confirm that total loss of function of TRIM32 is not associated with a specific phenotype and that TRIM32/ASTN2 inactivation could be associated with cognitive impairment. PMID:25351777

  19. |August|4, 2004 21:35 Proceedings Trim Size: 9in x 6in or* REGULARITY OF PSEUDOGROUP ORBITS

    E-print Network

    Pohjanpelto, Juha

    |4, 2004 21:35 Proceedings Trim Size: 9in x 6in or* *bits- ________________________* Work partially supported by grant DMS 01-03944 of the National Sci* *ence Foundation; | * * | |August|4, 2004 21:35 Proceedings Trim Size: 9in x 6in or* *bits

  20. RNase T in DNA repair DNA repair relies on various enzymes, including exonucleases that bind and trim

    E-print Network

    Chen, Sheng-Wei

    RNase T in DNA repair DNA repair relies on various enzymes, including exonucleases that bind and trim DNA at broken ends. However, we know little about how an exonuclease precisely selects and trims a DNA broken end in specific repair pathways. In this study, the enzyme RNase T, previously known

  1. A Novel Terminal-Repeat Retrotransposon in Miniature (TRIM) Is Massively Expressed in Echinococcus multilocularis Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Koziol, Uriel; Radio, Santiago; Smircich, Pablo; Zarowiecki, Magdalena; Fernández, Cecilia; Brehm, Klaus

    2015-08-01

    Taeniid cestodes (including the human parasites Echinococcus spp. and Taenia solium) have very few mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in their genome, despite lacking a canonical PIWI pathway. The MGEs of these parasites are virtually unexplored, and nothing is known about their expression and silencing. In this work, we report the discovery of a novel family of small nonautonomous long terminal repeat retrotransposons (also known as terminal-repeat retrotransposons in miniature, TRIMs) which we have named ta-TRIM (taeniid TRIM). ta-TRIMs are only the second family of TRIM elements discovered in animals, and are likely the result of convergent reductive evolution in different taxonomic groups. These elements originated at the base of the taeniid tree and have expanded during taeniid diversification, including after the divergence of closely related species such as Echinococcus multilocularis and Echinococcus granulosus. They are massively expressed in larval stages, from a small proportion of full-length copies and from isolated terminal repeats that show transcriptional read-through into downstream regions, generating novel noncoding RNAs and transcriptional fusions to coding genes. In E. multilocularis, ta-TRIMs are specifically expressed in the germinative cells (the somatic stem cells) during asexual reproduction of metacestode larvae. This would provide a developmental mechanism for insertion of ta-TRIMs into cells that will eventually generate the adult germ line. Future studies of active and inactive ta-TRIM elements could give the first clues on MGE silencing mechanisms in cestodes. PMID:26133390

  2. Restriction of HIV-1 by Rhesus TRIM5? Is Governed by Alpha Helices in the Linker2 Region

    PubMed Central

    Sastri, Jaya; Johnsen, Laura; Smolin, Nikolai; Imam, Sabrina; Mukherjee, Santanu; Lukic, Zana; Brandariz-Nuñez, Alberto; Robia, Seth L.; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Wiethoff, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT TRIM5? proteins are a potent barrier to the cross-species transmission of retroviruses. TRIM5? proteins exhibit an ability to self-associate at many levels, ultimately leading to the formation of protein assemblies with hexagonal symmetry in vitro and cytoplasmic assemblies when expressed in cells. However, the role of these assemblies in restriction, the determinants that mediate their formation, and the organization of TRIM5? molecules within these assemblies have remained unclear. Here we show that ?-helical elements within the Linker2 region of rhesus macaque TRIM5? govern the ability to form cytoplasmic assemblies in cells and restrict HIV-1 infection. Mutations that reduce ?-helix formation by the Linker2 region disrupt assembly and restriction. More importantly, mutations that enhance the ?-helical content of the Linker2 region, relative to the wild-type protein, also exhibit an increased ability to form cytoplasmic assemblies and restrict HIV-1 infection. Molecular modeling of the TRIM5? dimer suggests a model in which ?-helical elements within the Linker2 region dock to ?-helices of the coiled-coil domain, likely establishing proper orientation and spacing of protein domains necessary for assembly and restriction. Collectively, these studies provide critical insight into the determinants governing TRIM5? assembly and restriction and demonstrate that the antiviral potency of TRIM5? proteins can be significantly increased without altering the affinity of SPRY/capsid binding. IMPORTANCE Many members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family of proteins act as restriction factors that directly inhibit viral infection and activate innate immune signaling pathways. Another common feature of TRIM proteins is the ability to form protein assemblies in the nucleus or the cytoplasm. However, the determinants in TRIM proteins required for assembly and the degree to which assembly affects TRIM protein function have been poorly understood. Here we show that alpha helices in the Linker2 (L2) region of rhesus TRIM5? govern assembly and restriction of HIV-1 infection. Helix-disrupting mutations disrupt the assembly and restriction of HIV-1, while helix-stabilizing mutations enhance assembly and restriction relative to the wild-type protein. Circular dichroism analysis suggests that that the formation of this helical structure is supported by intermolecular interactions with the coiled-coil (CC) domain in the CCL2 dimer. These studies reveal a novel mechanism by which the antiviral activity of TRIM5? proteins can be regulated and provide detailed insight into the assembly determinants of TRIM family proteins. PMID:24872590

  3. Control of a two-dimensional electron gas on SrTiO?(111) by atomic oxygen.

    PubMed

    Walker, S McKeown; de la Torre, A; Bruno, F Y; Tamai, A; Kim, T K; Hoesch, M; Shi, M; Bahramy, M S; King, P D C; Baumberger, F

    2014-10-24

    We report on the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the bare surface of (111) oriented SrTiO3. Angle resolved photoemission experiments reveal highly itinerant carriers with a sixfold symmetric Fermi surface and strongly anisotropic effective masses. The electronic structure of the 2DEG is in good agreement with self-consistent tight-binding supercell calculations that incorporate a confinement potential due to surface band bending. We further demonstrate that alternate exposure of the surface to ultraviolet light and atomic oxygen allows tuning of the carrier density and the complete suppression of the 2DEG. PMID:25379937

  4. Effect of hot water treatment of beef trimmings on processing characteristics and eating quality of ground beef.

    PubMed

    Pietrasik, Z; Gaudette, N J; Klassen, M

    2016-03-01

    The effect of hot water treatment of beef trimmings on the processing characteristics, shelf-life and consumer acceptability of ground beef was evaluated. Hot water treatment (85°C for 40s) substantially enhanced the microbial quality of trimmings during refrigerated storage and this was independent of the fat level of the trimmings. Treatment had no effect on the oxidative stability of trimmings stored up to 7days, ground beef displayed in a retail cabinet for up to 3days, and had minimal effect on textural properties. Instrumental results demonstrate that ground beef from hot water treated trimmings was slightly lighter and tended to have less red color compared to non-treated beef. These color differences did not impact the consumer acceptance of raw patties, and in addition, hot water treatment did not significantly affect the consumer acceptability of cooked patty attributes. PMID:26610290

  5. Experimental trim drag values for conventional and supercritical wings. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, P. F.

    1981-01-01

    Supercritical wings were studied to determine whether they incur higher trim drag values at cruise conditions than wide body technology wings. Relative trim drag increments were measured in an experimental wind tunnel investigation. The tests utilized high aspect ratio supercritical wing and a wide body wing in conjunction with five different horizontal tail configurations, mounted on a representative wide body fuselage. The three low tail configurations and two T tail configurations were chosen to measure the effects on horizontal tail size, location, and camber on the trim drag increments for the two wings. The increase in performance (lift to drag ratio) for supercritical wing over the wide body wing was 11 percent for both the optimum low tail and T tail configurations.

  6. The innate immune roles of host factors TRIM5? and Cyclophilin A on HIV-1 replication.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Yi-Qun; Liu, Hong-Liang; Zheng, Yong-Tang

    2015-10-01

    During the long-term evolutionary history, the interaction between virus and host has driven the first-line barrier, innate immunity, to invading pathogens. Innate immune factor TRIM5? and host peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase Cyclophilin A are two key players in the interaction between HIV-1 and host. Interestingly, Cyclophilin A is retrotransposed into the critical host gene, TRIM5, locus via LINE-1 element in some primate species including New World monkeys and Old World monkeys. This review aims to comprehensively discuss the sensing and immune activation procedures of TRIM5? innate signaling pathway through Cyclophilin A. It will then present the production of TRIMCyp chimeric gene and the different fusion patterns in primates. Finally, it will summarize the distinct restriction activity of TRIMCyp from different primates and explain the current understanding on the innate immune mechanisms involved in the early phase of the viral life cycle during HIV-1 replication. PMID:25894765

  7. An Extensive Evaluation of Read Trimming Effects on Illumina NGS Data Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Morgante, Michele; Giorgi, Federico M.

    2013-01-01

    Next Generation Sequencing is having an extremely strong impact in biological and medical research and diagnostics, with applications ranging from gene expression quantification to genotyping and genome reconstruction. Sequencing data is often provided as raw reads which are processed prior to analysis 1 of the most used preprocessing procedures is read trimming, which aims at removing low quality portions while preserving the longest high quality part of a NGS read. In the current work, we evaluate nine different trimming algorithms in four datasets and three common NGS-based applications (RNA-Seq, SNP calling and genome assembly). Trimming is shown to increase the quality and reliability of the analysis, with concurrent gains in terms of execution time and computational resources needed. PMID:24376861

  8. A study of tyre cavity resonance and noise reduction using inner trim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Zamri; Wang, Xu

    2015-01-01

    A study of tyre inner trim as a method for reducing tyre cavity resonance noise is presented. The tyre is modelled as a rectangular toroid where only the outside shell is flexible. A modal series solution of the sound pressure frequency response inside the tyre cavity is derived from the wave equation using modal superposition. In the solution with the rigid and flexible wall boundary condition, the effect of placing a trim layer onto the inner surface of the tyre tread plate wall is reflected by adding a damping loss term in the sound pressure frequency response function. The numerical simulation result was then compared with the result obtained from a roving impact test performed on a tyre. The results show that selective trim material may be effective for reducing the structure-borne noise magnitude resulting from the tyre cavity resonance.

  9. Effect of animal age and trimming practices on the physical composition of Bonsmara beef.

    PubMed

    Hall, Nicolette; Schönfeldt, Hettie C; Pretorius, Beulah

    2016-02-15

    Increased economic incentive for producing young and leaner carcasses, as well as demand for lean meat from progressively health conscious consumers, are considered drivers for change in carcass composition over time. Furthermore, many retailers trim visible fat from meat to various degrees and consumers increasingly remove visible fat from meat prior to, or after, cooking. The objective of this study was to determine the composition of South African Bonsmara beef from four age groups from different production systems, as well as to extrapolate the effect of fat trimming on physical composition. Fat content of marketable beef has decreased notably since the 1930s, and beef from the South African Bonsmara breed contains less than 10g lipid per 100g after trimming of subcutaneous fat, irrespective of age. Removal of all visible fat reduces the lipid content to less than 5g per 100g, comparing favourably with other lean animal products. PMID:26433303

  10. An Exercise Protocol Designed to control Energy Expenditure and to have a Positive Impact on Maximal Oxygen Consumption for Long-Term Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Tomoaki; Ohkawara, Kazunori; Seino, Satoshi; Shimojo, Nobutake; Yamada, Shin; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Mukai, Chiaki

    2013-02-01

    Maximal oxygen consumption decreases during spaceflight, and astronauts also experience controversial weight loss. Future space missions require a more efficient exercise program to maintain work efficiency and to control increased energy expenditure (EE). We have been developing two types of original exercise training protocols which are better suited to astronauts’ daily routine exercise during long-term spaceflight: sprint interval training (SIT) and high-intensity interval aerobic training (HIAT). In this study, we compared the total EE, including excess post-exercise energy expenditure (EPEE), induced by our interval cycling protocols with the total EE of a traditional, continuous aerobic training (CAT). In the results, while the EPEEs after the SIT and HIAT were greater than after the CAT, the total EE for an entire exercise/rest session with the CAT was the greatest of our three exercise protocols. The SIT and HIAT would be potential protocols to control energy expenditure for long space missions.

  11. High latitude control on tropical North Pacific thermocline oxygen via deep ocean circulation: implications for atmospheric CO2 and N2O concentrations over TERM1.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaccard, S. L.; Eric, G. D.; Haug, G. H.; Sigman, D. M.; Francois, R.; Dulski, P.

    2006-12-01

    Low-latitude Pacific Ocean records of past changes in productivity and denitrification have often been ascribed to local processes, including changes in local wind forcing, with some recent hypothesis calling on remote control by thermocline ventilation processes. Here we show that deep thermohaline circulation, a fundamentally high-latitude process, is also linked to the low-latitude thermocline biogeochemistry through its impact on nutrient and dissolved oxygen distributions. We present new, multi-proxy evidence from sediment records from the abyssal subarctic North Pacific, including sedimentary redox-sensitive trace metal distribution, Th-normalized biogenic barium, calcium carbonate, and opal mass accumulation rates, and bulk sedimentary 15N measurements. These proxies show that the abyss was significantly depleted in oxygen, and low 13C, all consistent with high DIC concentrations. Meanwhile, above a deep chemical divide, the overlying waters were relatively well-oxygenated and nutrient-poor. At the mid-point of the deglaciation, the glacial deep water mass dissipated upwards in the water column, releasing deeply-sequestered CO2 to the atmosphere and shifting nutrients into the thermocline. The flux of regenerated nutrients to the sunlit surface ocean associated with this breakdown of the deep water mass enhanced primary productivity throughout the subarctic Pacific, while records from lower latitudes of the North Pacific show a parallel boom in export production. The accelerated flux of organic matter from the surface contributed towards an intensification of the thermocline oxygen minimum zone, accelerating denitrification in the Eastern (sub)tropical North Pacific and the production of nitrous oxide. These observations, taken together with our evidence for changes in the deep North Pacific, suggest that the flux of nutrients from the deep North Pacific into the upper water column increased at the end of the ice age. This release may have occurred via the polar oceans, which today feed nutrients into the lower latitude thermocline. Alternatively, it may have occurred directly, by vertical mixing in the ocean interior. Regardless of the mechanism, this transition led to the modern configuration of a relatively well-ventilated deep sea, overlain by an oxygen minimum.

  12. Oxygen-Concentrating Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, K.

    1986-01-01

    High-purity oxygen produced from breathing air or from propellantgrade oxygen in oxygen-concentrating cell. Operating economics of concentrator attractive: Energy consumption about 4 Wh per liter of oxygen, slightly lower than conventional electrochemical oxygen extractors.

  13. Assisted evolution enables HIV-1 to overcome a high TRIM5?-imposed genetic barrier to rhesus macaque tropism.

    PubMed

    Soll, Steven J; Wilson, Sam J; Kutluay, Sebla B; Hatziioannou, Theodora; Bieniasz, Paul D

    2013-01-01

    Diversification of antiretroviral factors during host evolution has erected formidable barriers to cross-species retrovirus transmission. This phenomenon likely protects humans from infection by many modern retroviruses, but it has also impaired the development of primate models of HIV-1 infection. Indeed, rhesus macaques are resistant to HIV-1, in part due to restriction imposed by the TRIM5? protein (rhTRIM5?). Initially, we attempted to derive rhTRIM5?-resistant HIV-1 strains using two strategies. First, HIV-1 was passaged in engineered human cells expressing rhTRIM5?. Second, a library of randomly mutagenized capsid protein (CA) sequences was screened for mutations that reduced rhTRIM5? sensitivity. Both approaches identified several individual mutations in CA that reduced rhTRIM5? sensitivity. However, neither approach yielded mutants that were fully resistant, perhaps because the locations of the mutations suggested that TRIM5? recognizes multiple determinants on the capsid surface. Moreover, even though additive effects of various CA mutations on HIV-1 resistance to rhTRIM5? were observed, combinations that gave full resistance were highly detrimental to fitness. Therefore, we employed an 'assisted evolution' approach in which individual CA mutations that reduced rhTRIM5? sensitivity without fitness penalties were randomly assorted in a library of viral clones containing synthetic CA sequences. Subsequent passage of the viral library in rhTRIM5?-expressing cells resulted in the selection of individual viral species that were fully fit and resistant to rhTRIM5?. These viruses encoded combinations of five mutations in CA that conferred complete or near complete resistance to the disruptive effects of rhTRIM5? on incoming viral cores, by abolishing recognition of the viral capsid. Importantly, HIV-1 variants encoding these CA substitutions and SIV(mac239) Vif replicated efficiently in primary rhesus macaque lymphocytes. These findings demonstrate that rhTRIM5? is difficult to but not impossible to evade, and doing so should facilitate the development of primate models of HIV-1 infection. PMID:24086139

  14. The TRIM37 Gene Encodes a Peroxisomal RING-B-Box-Coiled-Coil Protein: Classification of Mulibrey Nanism as a New Peroxisomal Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kallijärvi, Jukka; Avela, Kristiina; Lipsanen-Nyman, Marita; Ulmanen, Ismo; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina

    2002-01-01

    Mulibrey nanism is a rare growth disorder of prenatal onset caused by mutations in the TRIM37 gene, which encodes a RING-B-box-coiled-coil protein. The pathogenetic mechanisms of mulibrey nanism are unknown. We have used transiently transfected cells and antibodies raised against the predicted TRIM37 protein to characterize the TRIM37 gene product and to determine its intracellular localization. We show that the human TRIM37 cDNA encodes a peroxisomal protein with an apparent molecular weight of 130 kD. Peroxisomal localization is compromised in mutant protein representing the major Finnish TRIM37 mutation but is retained in the protein representing the minor Finnish mutation. Colocalization of endogenous TRIM37 with peroxisomal markers was observed by double immunofluorescence staining in HepG2 and human intestinal smooth muscle cell lines. In human tissue sections, TRIM37 shows a granular cytoplasmic pattern. Endogenous TRIM37 is not imported into peroxisomes in peroxin 1 (PEX1?/?) and peroxin 5 (PEX5?/?) mutant fibroblasts but is imported normally in peroxin 7 (PEX7?/?) deficient fibroblasts, giving further evidence for a peroxisomal localization of TRIM37. Fibroblasts derived from patients with mulibrey nanism lack C-terminal TRIM37 immunoreactivity but stain normally for both peroxisomal matrix and membrane markers, suggesting apparently normal peroxisome biogenesis in patient fibroblasts. Taken together, this molecular evidence unequivocally indicates that TRIM37 is located in the peroxisomes, and Mulibrey nanism thus can be classified as a new peroxisomal disorder. PMID:11938494

  15. Iron Response Regulator Protein IrrB in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense MSR-1 Helps Control the Iron/Oxygen Balance, Oxidative Stress Tolerance, and Magnetosome Formation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Wang, Meiwen; Wang, Xu; Guan, Guohua; Li, Ying; Peng, Youliang; Li, Jilun

    2015-12-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are capable of forming nanosized, membrane-enclosed magnetosomes under iron-rich and oxygen-limited conditions. The complete genomic sequence of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense strain MSR-1 has been analyzed and found to contain five fur homologue genes whose protein products are predicted to be involved in iron homeostasis and the response to oxidative stress. Of these, only the MGMSRv2_3149 gene (irrB) was significantly downregulated under high-iron and low-oxygen conditions, during the transition of cell growth from the logarithmic to the stationary phase. The encoded protein, IrrB, containing the conserved HHH motif, was identified as an iron response regulator (Irr) protein belonging to the Fur superfamily. To investigate the function of IrrB, we constructed an irrB deletion mutant (?irrB). The levels of cell growth and magnetosome formation were lower in the ?irrB strain than in the wild type (WT) under both high-iron and low-iron conditions. The ?irrB strain also showed lower levels of iron uptake and H2O2 tolerance than the WT. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR analysis indicated that the irrB mutation reduced the expression of numerous genes involved in iron transport, iron storage, heme biosynthesis, and Fe-S cluster assembly. Transcription studies of the other fur homologue genes in the ?irrB strain indicated complementary functions of the Fur proteins in MSR-1. IrrB appears to be directly responsible for iron metabolism and homeostasis and to be indirectly involved in magnetosome formation. We propose two IrrB-regulated networks (under high- and low-iron conditions) in MSR-1 cells that control the balance of iron and oxygen metabolism and account for the coexistence of five Fur homologues. PMID:26386052

  16. SU-E-T-326: The Oxygen Saturation (SO2) and Breath-Holding Time Variation Applied Active Breathing Control (ABC)

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, G; Yin, Y

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To study the oxygen saturation (SO2) and breath-holding time variation applied active breathing control (ABC) in radiotherapy of tumor. Methods: 24 volunteers were involved in our trials, and they all did breath-holding motion assisted by ELEKTA Active Breathing Coordinator 2.0 for 10 times respectively. And the patient monitor was used to observe the oxygen saturation (SO2) variation. The variation of SO2, and length of breath-holding time and the time for recovering to the initial value of SO2 were recorded and analyzed. Results: (1) The volunteers were divided into two groups according to the SO2 variation in breath-holding: A group, 14 cases whose SO2 reduction were more than 2% (initial value was 97% to 99%, while termination value was 91% to 96%); B group, 10 cases were less than 2% in breath-holding without inhaling oxygen. (2) The interfraction breath holding time varied from 8 to 20s for A group compared to the first breath-holding time, and for B group varied from 4 to 14s. (3) The breathing holding time of B group prolonged mean 8s, compared to A group. (4) The time for restoring to the initial value of SO2 was from 10s to 30s. And the breath-holding time shortened obviously for patients whose SO2 did not recover to normal. Conclusion: It is very obvious that the SO2 reduction in breath-holding associated with ABC for partial people. It is necessary to check the SO2 variation in breath training, and enough time should be given to recover SO2.

  17. Influence of aeration-homogenization system in stirred tank bioreactors, dissolved oxygen concentration and pH control mode on BHK-21 cell growth and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Eutimio Gustavo Fernández; Leme, Jaci; de Almeida Parizotto, Letícia; Chagas, Wagner Antonio; de Rezende, Alexandre Gonçalves; da Costa, Bruno Labate Vale; Monteiro, Daniela Cristina Ventini; Boldorini, Vera Lucia Lopes; Jorge, Soraia Attie Calil; Astray, Renato Mancini; Pereira, Carlos Augusto; Caricati, Celso Pereira; Tonso, Aldo

    2014-08-01

    This work focused on determining the effect of dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) on growth and metabolism of BHK-21 cell line (host cell for recombinant proteins manufacturing and viral vaccines) cultured in two stirred tank bioreactors with different aeration-homogenization systems, as well as pH control mode. BHK-21 cell line adapted to single-cell suspension was cultured in Celligen without aeration cage (rotating gas-sparger) and Bioflo 110, at 10, 30 and 50 % air saturation (impeller for gas dispersion from sparger-ring). The pH was controlled at 7.2 as far as it was possible with gas mixtures. In other runs, at 30 and 50 % (DO) in Bioflo 110, the cells grew at pH controlled with CO2 and NaHCO3 solution. Glucose, lactate, glutamine, and ammonium were quantified by enzymatic methods. Cell concentration, size and specific oxygen consumption were also determined. When NaHCO3 solution was not used, the optimal DOs were 10 and 50 % air saturation for Celligen and Bioflo 110, respectively. In this condition maximum cell concentrations were higher than 4 × 10(6) cell/mL. An increase in maximum cell concentration of 36 % was observed in batch carried out at 30 % air saturation in a classical stirred tank bioreactor (Bioflo 110) with base solution addition. The optimal parameters defined in this work allow for bioprocess developing of viral vaccines, transient protein expression and viral vector for gene therapy based on BHK-21 cell line in two stirred tank bioreactors with different agitation-aeration systems. PMID:23846480

  18. Fracture Profile and Crack Propagation of Ultra-High Strength Hot-Stamped Boron Steel During Mechanical Trimming Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xianhong; Yang, Kun; Chen, Sisi; Chen, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Mechanical trimming process for ultra-high strength boron steel after hot stamping was carried out in this study. Shear and tensile tests were designed to analyze the influences of stress state on the fracture mode; trimmed fracture surface and profile were observed and compared to other commonly used steels such as DP980 and Q235 etc.; the crack propagation during trimming process was studied through step-by-step tests. The observation and analysis reveal that the fracture mode of hot-stamped boron steel is highly related to the stress state, it belongs to cleavage fracture on low stress triaxiality but dimple fracture on high stress triaxiality. Such phenomenon is reflected in the trimming process, during which the stress state changes from shear-dominated state to tensile-dominated state. In addition, the burnish zone of trimmed boron steel is much smaller than other high strength steels, and the profile of cutting surface shows an `S'-like shape which is destructive to the trimming tool. Moreover, during the trimming process, most martensite laths near the cutting edge are stretched and rotated markedly to the direction of the shear band, and the main crack expands along those grain boundaries, which may penetrate through a few martensite laths and form small crack branches.

  19. TRIM5? requires Ube2W to anchor Lys63-linked ubiquitin chains and restrict reverse transcription

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Adam J; Christensen, Devin E; Nelson, Chad; Tan, Choon Ping; Schaller, Torsten; Lehner, Paul J; Sundquist, Wesley I; Towers, Greg J

    2015-01-01

    TRIM5? is an antiviral, cytoplasmic, E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase that assembles on incoming retroviral capsids and induces their premature dissociation. It inhibits reverse transcription of the viral genome and can also synthesize unanchored polyubiquitin (polyUb) chains to stimulate innate immune responses. Here, we show that TRIM5? employs the E2 Ub-conjugating enzyme Ube2W to anchor the Lys63-linked polyUb chains in a process of TRIM5? auto-ubiquitination. Chain anchoring is initiated, in cells and in vitro, through Ube2W-catalyzed monoubiquitination of TRIM5?. This modification serves as a substrate for the elongation of anchored Lys63-linked polyUb chains, catalyzed by the heterodimeric E2 enzyme Ube2N/Ube2V2. Ube2W targets multiple TRIM5? internal lysines with Ub especially lysines 45 and 50, rather than modifying the N-terminal amino group, which is instead ?N-acetylated in cells. E2 depletion or Ub mutation inhibits TRIM5? ubiquitination in cells and restores restricted viral reverse transcription, but not infection. Our data indicate that the stepwise formation of anchored Lys63-linked polyUb is a critical early step in the TRIM5? restriction mechanism and identify the E2 Ub-conjugating cofactors involved. PMID:26101372

  20. TRIM5? requires Ube2W to anchor Lys63-linked ubiquitin chains and restrict reverse transcription.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Adam J; Christensen, Devin E; Nelson, Chad; Tan, Choon Ping; Schaller, Torsten; Lehner, Paul J; Sundquist, Wesley I; Towers, Greg J

    2015-08-01

    TRIM5? is an antiviral, cytoplasmic, E3 ubiquitin (Ub) ligase that assembles on incoming retroviral capsids and induces their premature dissociation. It inhibits reverse transcription of the viral genome and can also synthesize unanchored polyubiquitin (polyUb) chains to stimulate innate immune responses. Here, we show that TRIM5? employs the E2 Ub-conjugating enzyme Ube2W to anchor the Lys63-linked polyUb chains in a process of TRIM5? auto-ubiquitination. Chain anchoring is initiated, in cells and in vitro, through Ube2W-catalyzed monoubiquitination of TRIM5?. This modification serves as a substrate for the elongation of anchored Lys63-linked polyUb chains, catalyzed by the heterodimeric E2 enzyme Ube2N/Ube2V2. Ube2W targets multiple TRIM5? internal lysines with Ub especially lysines 45 and 50, rather than modifying the N-terminal amino group, which is instead ?N-acetylated in cells. E2 depletion or Ub mutation inhibits TRIM5? ubiquitination in cells and restores restricted viral reverse transcription, but not infection. Our data indicate that the stepwise formation of anchored Lys63-linked polyUb is a critical early step in the TRIM5? restriction mechanism and identify the E2 Ub-conjugating cofactors involved. PMID:26101372

  1. Near infrared spectroscopy describes physiologic payback associated with excess postexercise oxygen consumption in healthy controls and children with complex congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Danduran, Michael J; Dixon, Jennifer E; Rao, Rohit P

    2012-01-01

    Exercise creates a physiologic burden with recovery from such effort crucial to adaptation. Excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) refers to the body's increased metabolic need after work. This investigation was designed to determine the role of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in the description of exercise recovery in healthy controls (NL) and children with congenital heart disease (CHD). Subjects were recruited with exercise testing performed to exhaustion. Exercise time (EXT), heart rate (HR), and oxygen consumption (VO(2)) were measured. Four-site NIRS (brain, kidney, deltoid, and vastus lateralis) were measured during exercise and into recovery to establish trends. Fifty individuals were recruited for each group (NL = 26 boys and 24 girls; CHD = 33 boys and 17 girls). Significant differences existed between EXT, VO(2), and peak HR (P < 0.01). NIRS values were examined at four distinct intervals: rest, peak work, and 2 and 5 min after exercise. Significant cerebral hyperemia was seen in children with CHD post exercise when compared to normal individuals in whom redistribution patterns were directed to somatic muscles. These identified trends support an immediate compensation of organ systems to re-establish homeostasis in peripheral beds through enhanced perfusion. Noninvasive NIRS monitoring helps delineate patterns of redistribution associated with EPOC in healthy adolescents and children with CHD. PMID:21892649

  2. Gene disruption study reveals a nonredundant role for TRIM21/Ro52 in NF-kappaB-dependent cytokine expression in fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Yoshimi, Ryusuke; Chang, Tsung-Hsien; Wang, Hongsheng; Atsumi, Toru; Morse, Herbert C; Ozato, Keiko

    2009-06-15

    The tripartite motif (TRIM) family member, TRIM21, is an E3 ubiquitin ligase for IFN regulatory factor (IRF)3 and IRF8 that functions in both innate and acquired immunity. It is also an autoantigen known as Ro52/SS-A. The function of TRIM21 in vivo, however, has remained elusive. We generated Trim21(-/-) mice with the Trim21 gene replaced by an enhanced GFP (EGFP) reporter. EGFP expression analyses showed that Trim21 was widely expressed in many tissues, with the highest levels in immune cells. Studies of Trim21(-/-) embryonic fibroblasts demonstrated that TLR-mediated induction of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and CXCL10, was consistently up-regulated relative to wild-type cells. Reporter analyses demonstrated that TLR-mediated NF-kappaB activation was higher in Trim21(-/-) cells than in wild-type cells, most likely accounting for their enhanced cytokine expression. In contrast, functional analyses of immune cells from Trim21(-/-) mice revealed no abnormalities in their composition or function, even though ubiquitylation of IRF3 and IRF8 was impaired. These results suggested possible redundancies in activities mediated by TRIM21. In keeping with this concept, we found that a number of TRIM family members were up-regulated in Trim21(-/-) cells. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that TRIM21 plays a previously unrecognized role in the negative regulation of NF-kappaB-dependent proinflammatory cytokine responses, and suggest that multiple TRIM proteins contribute to the maintenance of functional equilibrium in inflammatory responses, in part through functional redundancy. PMID:19494276

  3. NASA/TM-1998-208427 A Note About HARPs State Trimming

    E-print Network

    Butler, Ricky W.

    May 1998 NASA/TM-1998-208427 A Note About HARPÕs State Trimming Method Ricky W. Butler, Kelly J. Hayhurst, and Sally C. Johnson Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia #12;The NASA STI Program Office ... in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics and space science

  4. Trim65: A cofactor for regulation of the microRNA pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shitao; Wang, Lingyan; Fu, Bishi; Dorf, Martin E

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) comprise a large family of non-protein coding transcripts which regulate gene expression in diverse biological pathways of both plants and animals. We recently used a systematic proteomic approach to generate a protein interactome map of the human miRNA pathway involved in miRNA biogenesis and processing. The interactome expands the number of candidate proteins in the miRNA pathway and connects the network to other cellular processes. Functional analyses identified TRIM65 and at least 3 other proteins as novel regulators of the miRNA pathway. Biochemical studies established that TRIM65 forms stable complexes with TNRC6 proteins and these molecules co-localize in P-body-like structures. Gain of function and RNAi analyses reveal that TRIM65 negatively regulates miRNA-driven suppression of mRNA translation by targeting TNRC6 proteins for ubiquitination and degradation. The potential molecular mechanisms which regulate TRIM65 catalytic activity are discussed. PMID:25483047

  5. INFERENCE ABOUT THE ED50 USING THE TRIMMED SPEARMAN-KARBER PROCEDURE - A MONTE CARLO INVESTIGATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Monte Carlo study was conducted to investigate the estimated standard errors of the estimate and the 95 percent confidence interval estimates associated with the trimmed Spearman-Karber (SK) estimators of the ED50 and the logistic model maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). The s...

  6. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Electrical Wiring. Course: Electrical Wiring Trim-Out.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arneson, R.; And Others

    One of two individualized courses included in an electrical wiring curriculum, this course covers electrical materials installation for the trim-out stage. The course is comprised of five units: (1) Outlets, (2) Fixtures, (3) Switches, (4) Appliances, and (5) Miscellaneous. Each unit begins with a Unit Learning Experience Guide that gives…

  7. TRIM65 regulates microRNA activity by ubiquitination of TNRC6

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shitao; Wang, Lingyan; Fu, Bishi; Berman, Michael A.; Diallo, Alos; Dorf, Martin E.

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small evolutionarily conserved regulatory RNAs that modulate mRNA stability and translation in a wide range of cell types. MiRNAs are involved in a broad array of biological processes, including cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. To identify previously unidentified regulators of miRNA, we initiated a systematic discovery-type proteomic analysis of the miRNA pathway interactome in human cells. Six of 66 genes identified in our proteomic screen were capable of regulating lethal-7a (let-7a) miRNA reporter activity. Tripartite motif 65 (TRIM65) was identified as a repressor of miRNA activity. Detailed analysis indicates that TRIM65 interacts and colocalizes with trinucleotide repeat containing six (TNRC6) proteins in processing body-like structures. Ubiquitination assays demonstrate that TRIM65 is an ubiquitin E3 ligase for TNRC6 proteins. The combination of overexpression and knockdown studies establishes that TRIM65 relieves miRNA-driven suppression of mRNA expression through ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of TNRC6. PMID:24778252

  8. Effect of partial comb and wattle trim on pullet behavior and thermoregulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The wattles and comb of chickens are important for thermoregulation allowing for heat exchange during high temperatures. These integumentary tissues are sometimes trimmed to prevent tears if caught on cage equipment and to also improve feed efficiency; however, the procedure itself could be painful ...

  9. EDEM2 initiates mammalian glycoprotein ERAD by catalyzing the first mannose trimming step

    PubMed Central

    Ninagawa, Satoshi; Okada, Tetsuya; Sumitomo, Yoshiki; Kamiya, Yukiko; Kato, Koichi; Horimoto, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Tokiro; Takeda, Shunichi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Glycoproteins misfolded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are subjected to ER-associated glycoprotein degradation (gpERAD) in which Htm1-mediated mannose trimming from the oligosaccharide Man8GlcNAc2 to Man7GlcNAc2 is the rate-limiting step in yeast. In contrast, the roles of the three Htm1 homologues (EDEM1/2/3) in mammalian gpERAD have remained elusive, with a key controversy being whether EDEMs function as mannosidases or as lectins. We therefore conducted transcription activator-like effector nuclease–mediated gene knockout analysis in human cell line and found that all endogenous EDEMs possess mannosidase activity. Mannose trimming from Man8GlcNAc2 to Man7GlcNAc2 is performed mainly by EDEM3 and to a lesser extent by EDEM1. Most surprisingly, the upstream mannose trimming from Man9GlcNAc2 to Man8GlcNAc2 is conducted mainly by EDEM2, which was previously considered to lack enzymatic activity. Based on the presence of two rate-limiting steps in mammalian gpERAD, we propose that mammalian cells double check gpERAD substrates before destruction by evolving EDEM2, a novel-type Htm1 homologue that catalyzes the first mannose trimming step from Man9GlcNAc2. PMID:25092655

  10. Talking with John Trim (Part I): A Career in Phonetics, Applied Linguistics and the Public Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, David; King, Lid

    2013-01-01

    As this issue was in preparation, the journal learned with great regret of the passing of John Trim. John was a long-serving member of the "Language Teaching" Board and his insight and advice proved invaluable for this and previous editors. An expert in the field of phonetics, linguistics, language didactics and policy, John worked…

  11. TRIM32 promotes retinoic acid receptor {alpha}-mediated differentiation in human promyelogenous leukemic cell line HL60

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Tomonobu; Department of Pediatrics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8638 ; Okumura, Fumihiko; Iguchi, Akihiro; Ariga, Tadashi; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM32 enhanced RAR{alpha}-mediated transcriptional activity even in the absence of RA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM32 stabilized RAR{alpha} in the human promyelogenous leukemic cell line HL60. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of TRIM32 in HL60 cells induced granulocytic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM32 may function as a coactivator for RAR{alpha}-mediated transcription in APL cells. -- Abstract: Ubiquitination, one of the posttranslational modifications, appears to be involved in the transcriptional activity of nuclear receptors including retinoic acid receptor {alpha} (RAR{alpha}). We previously reported that an E3 ubiquitin ligase, TRIM32, interacts with several important proteins including RAR{alpha} and enhances transcriptional activity of RAR{alpha} in mouse neuroblastoma cells and embryonal carcinoma cells. Retinoic acid (RA), which acts as a ligand to nuclear receptors including RAR{alpha}, plays crucial roles in development, differentiation, cell cycles and apoptosis. In this study, we found that TRIM32 enhances RAR{alpha}-mediated transcriptional activity even in the absence of RA and stabilizes RAR{alpha} in the human promyelogenous leukemic cell line HL60. Moreover, we found that overexpression of TRIM32 in HL60 cells suppresses cellular proliferation and induces granulocytic differentiation even in the absence of RA. These findings suggest that TRIM32 functions as one of the coactivators for RAR{alpha}-mediated transcription in acute promyelogenous leukemia (APL) cells, and thus TRIM32 may become a potentially therapeutic target for APL.

  12. Activation of Duck RIG-I by TRIM25 Is Independent of Anchored Ubiquitin

    PubMed Central

    Miranzo-Navarro, Domingo; Magor, Katharine E.

    2014-01-01

    Retinoic acid inducible gene I (RIG-I) is a viral RNA sensor crucial in defense against several viruses including measles, influenza A and hepatitis C. RIG-I activates type-I interferon signalling through the adaptor for mitochondrial antiviral signaling (MAVS). The E3 ubiquitin ligase, tripartite motif containing protein 25 (TRIM25), activates human RIG-I through generation of anchored K63-linked polyubiquitin chains attached to lysine 172, or alternatively, through the generation of unanchored K63-linked polyubiquitin chains that interact non-covalently with RIG-I CARD domains. Previously, we identified RIG-I of ducks, of interest because ducks are the host and natural reservoir of influenza viruses, and showed it initiates innate immune signaling leading to production of interferon-beta (IFN-?). We noted that K172 is not conserved in RIG-I of ducks and other avian species, or mouse. Because K172 is important for both mechanisms of activation of human RIG-I, we investigated whether duck RIG-I was activated by TRIM25, and if other residues were the sites for attachment of ubiquitin. Here we show duck RIG-I CARD domains are ubiquitinated for activation, and ubiquitination depends on interaction with TRIM25, as a splice variant that cannot interact with TRIM25 is not ubiquitinated, and cannot be activated. We expressed GST-fusion proteins of duck CARD domains and characterized TRIM25 modifications of CARD domains by mass spectrometry. We identified two sites that are ubiquitinated in duck CARD domains, K167 and K193, and detected K63 linked polyubiquitin chains. Site directed mutagenesis of each site alone, does not alter the ubiquitination profile of the duck CARD domains. However, mutation of both sites resulted in loss of all attached ubiquitin and polyubiquitin chains. Remarkably, the double mutant duck RIG-I CARD still interacts with TRIM25, and can still be activated. Our results demonstrate that anchored ubiquitin chains are not necessary for TRIM25 activation of duck RIG-I. PMID:24466302

  13. Guide for Oxygen Compatibility Assessments on Oxygen Components and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosales, Keisa R.; Shoffstall, Michael S.; Stoltzfus, Joel M.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding and preventing fire hazards is necessary when designing, maintaining, and operating oxygen systems. Ignition risks can be minimized by controlling heat sources and using materials that will not ignite or will not support burning in the end-use environment. Because certain materials are more susceptible to ignition in oxygen-enriched environments, a compatibility assessment should be performed before the component is introduced into an oxygen system. This document provides an overview of oxygen fire hazards and procedures that are consistent with the latest versions of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standards G63 (1999) and G94 (2005) to address fire hazards associated with oxygen systems. This document supersedes the previous edition, NASA Technical Memorandum 104823, Guide for Oxygen Hazards Analyses on Components and Systems (1996). The step-by-step oxygen compatibility assessment method described herein (see Section 4) enables oxygen-system designers, system engineers, and facility managers to determine areas of concern with respect to oxygen compatibility and, ultimately, prevent damage to a system or injury to personnel.

  14. The neural stem cell fate determinant TRIM32 regulates complex behavioral traits

    PubMed Central

    Hillje, Anna-Lena; Beckmann, Elisabeth; Pavlou, Maria A. S.; Jaeger, Christian; Pacheco, Maria P.; Sauter, Thomas; Schwamborn, Jens C.; Lewejohann, Lars

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, new neurons are generated throughout the entire lifespan in two restricted areas of the brain, the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ)—olfactory bulb (OB) system. In both regions newborn neurons display unique properties that clearly distinguish them from mature neurons. Enhanced excitability and increased synaptic plasticity enables them to add specific properties to information processing by modulating the existing local circuitry of already established mature neurons. Hippocampal neurogenesis has been suggested to play a role in spatial-navigation learning, spatial memory, and spatial pattern separation. Cumulative evidences implicate that adult-born OB neurons contribute to learning processes and odor memory. We recently demonstrated that the cell fate determinant TRIM32 is upregulated in differentiating neuroblasts of the SVZ-OB system in the adult mouse brain. The absence of TRIM32 leads to increased progenitor cell proliferation and less cell death. Both effects accumulate in an overproduction of adult-generated OB neurons. Here, we present novel data from behavioral studies showing that such an enhancement of OB neurogenesis not necessarily leads to increased olfactory performance but in contrast even results in impaired olfactory capabilities. In addition, we show at the cellular level that TRIM32 protein levels increase during differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs). At the molecular level, several metabolic intermediates that are connected to glycolysis, glycine, or cysteine metabolism are deregulated in TRIM32 knockout mice brain tissue. These metabolomics pathways are directly or indirectly linked to anxiety or depression like behavior. In summary, our study provides comprehensive data on how the impairment of neurogenesis caused by the loss of the cell fate determinant TRIM32 causes a decrease of olfactory performance as well as a deregulation of metabolomic pathways that are linked to mood disorders. PMID:25852471

  15. TRIM retrotransposons occur in apple and are polymorphic between varieties but not sports.

    PubMed

    Antonius-Klemola, Kristiina; Kalendar, Ruslan; Schulman, Alan H

    2006-04-01

    Retrotransposon markers have been demonstrated to be powerful tools for investigating linkage, evolution and genetics diversity in plants. In the present study, we identified and cloned three full-size TRIM (terminal-repeat retrotransposon in miniature) group retrotransposon elements from apple (Malus domestica) cv. 'Antonovka', the first from the Rosaceae. To investigate their utility as markers, we designed primers to match the long terminal repeats (LTRs) of the apple TRIM sequences. We found that PCR reactions with even a single primer produced multiple bands, suggesting that the copy number of these TRIM elements is relatively high, and that they may be locally clustered or nested in the genome. Furthermore, the apple TRIM primers employed in IRAP (inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism) or REMAP (retrotransposon-microsatellite amplified polymorphism) analyses produced unique, reproducible profiles for 12 standard apple cultivars. On the other hand, all seven of the sport mutations in this study were identical to their mother cultivar. Genetic similarity values calculated from the IRAP/REMAP analyses or the STMS (sequence tagged microsatellite sites) analysis were generally comparable. PAUP cluster analysis based on IRAP and REMAP markers in apple and Japanese quince generated an NJ tree that is in good accordance with both a tree based on SMTS markers and the origin of the studied samples. Our results demonstrate that, although they do not encode the proteins necessary to carry out a life cycle and are thereby non-autonomous, TRIMs are at least as polymorphic in their insertion patterns as conventional complete retrotransposons. PMID:16404583

  16. 14 CFR 23.145 - Longitudinal control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... speed increase. (d) It must be possible, with a pilot control force of not more than 10 pounds, to... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Longitudinal control. 23.145 Section 23.145... Maneuverability § 23.145 Longitudinal control. (a) With the airplane as nearly as possible in trim at 1.3 VS1,...

  17. CDK2 differentially controls normal cell senescence and cancer cell proliferation upon exposure to reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Chae Young; Lee, Seung-Min; Park, Sung Sup; Kwon, Ki-Sun

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} differently adjusted senescence and proliferation in normal and cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} exposure transiently decreased PCNA levels in normal cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} exposure transiently increased CDK2 activity in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p21{sup Cip1} is likely dispensable when H{sub 2}O{sub 2} induces senescence in normal cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suggestively, CDK2 and PCNA play critical roles in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cell fate decision. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species modulate cell fate in a context-dependent manner. Sublethal doses of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decreased the level of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in normal cells (including primary human dermal fibroblasts and IMR-90 cells) without affecting cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) activity, leading to cell cycle arrest and subsequent senescence. In contrast, exposure of cancer cells (such as HeLa and MCF7 cells) to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} increased CDK2 activity with no accompanying change in the PCNA level, leading to cell proliferation. A CDK2 inhibitor, CVT-313, prevented H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cancer cell proliferation. These results support the notion that the cyclin/CDK2/p21{sup Cip1}/PCNA complex plays an important role as a regulator of cell fate decisions.

  18. Reversible Oxygenation of Oxygen Transport Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drain, C. M.; Corden, Barry B.

    1987-01-01

    Describes a lecture demonstration which illustrates changes in the visible spectra of oxygen transport proteins upon reversible oxygen binding. Provides a comparison of the physical characteristics of oxygen storage and transport proteins. Reviews essentials for preparation of the materials. (ML)

  19. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (thysanoptera: thripidae), on harvested table grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), is a common pest on grapes and other fresh commodities in the United States, but a quarantined pest in Taiwan. Methyl bromide fumigation has been used to control the thrips on U.S. exported fresh commodities, including organic table grap...

  20. An invariant surface patch on the TRIM5alpha PRYSPRY domain is required for retroviral restriction but dispensable for capsid binding.

    PubMed

    Sebastian, Sarah; Grütter, Christian; Strambio de Castillia, Caterina; Pertel, Thomas; Olivari, Silvia; Grütter, Markus G; Luban, Jeremy

    2009-04-01

    TRIM5alpha is a retrovirus restriction factor in the host cell cytoplasm that blocks infection before provirus establishment. Restriction activity requires capsid (CA)-specific recognition by the PRYSPRY domain of TRIM5alpha. To better understand the restriction mechanism, nine charge-cluster-to-triple-alanine mutants in the TRIM5alpha PRYSPRY domain were assessed for CA-specific restriction activity. Five mutants distributed along the TRIM5alpha PRYSPRY primary sequence disrupted restriction activity against N-tropic murine leukemia virus and equine infectious anemia virus. Modeling of the TRIM5alpha PRYSPRY domain based on the crystal structures of PRYSPRY-19q13.4.1, GUSTAVUS, and TRIM21 identified a surface patch where disruptive mutants clustered. All mutants in this patch retained CA-binding activity, a reticular distribution in the cytoplasm, and steady-state protein levels comparable to those of the wild type. Residues in the essential patch are conserved in TRIM5alpha orthologues and in closely related paralogues. The same surface patch in the TRIM18 and TRIM20 PRYSPRY domains is the site of mutants causing Opitz syndrome and familial Mediterranean fever. These results indicate that, in addition to CA-specific binding, the PRYSPRY domain possesses a second function, possibly binding of a cofactor, that is essential for retroviral restriction activity by TRIM5alpha. PMID:19153241