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1

Boiler control systems oxygen trim systems manual. Final report fy 82  

SciTech Connect

The Oxygen Trim Systems Manual is intended to serve as a guide for boiler operating personnel in understanding the concepts and principles which govern combustion air trim systems and their application to industrial boiler combustion control for the purpose of increasing the boiler efficiency. The Oxygen Trim Systems Manual also serves to familiarize the boiler operating personnel with the various trim systems that are commercially available, using different constituents of the flue gas as a control parameter. The manual is generally confined to oil and gas-fired heating boilers in the 60 million BTU per hour capacity range, but many of the concepts and principles discussed are applicable to boilers of any size. Combustion air trim systems employing carbon dioxide, oxygen, and carbon monoxide as a control parameter, singly or in combination, are covered. Smoke prevention and control is also discussed. Section 2.0 is devoted to terminology and definitions of technical and non-technical terms peculiar to combustion control, with which the user might not be familiar. This was done so that the manual be self-contained to the extent practicable.

Not Available

1983-02-01

2

Moving mass trim control system design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the design of a moving mass trim control system for maneuvering axisymmetric reentry vehicles. The moving mass trim controller is composed of three equal masses that are independently positioned in order to deliver a desired center of mass position. For a slowly spinning reentry vehicle, the mass offset creates a trim angle-of-attack to generate modest flight path

R. H. Byrne; R. D. Robinett; B. R. Sturgis

1996-01-01

3

Establishing Control Valve Trim Flow Velocity  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is provided for establishing a control valve trim's throttling exit flow area using readily available information in the technical literature and known process conditions in the fluid flow field. The area at the exit of the throttling trim is needed to determine the velocity and energy content of the fluid jets leaving the valve trim. The velocity and

Gerald Liu; Laurence R. Stratton; Herbert L. Miller; Laguna Hills

4

Moving mass trim control system design  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the design of a moving mass trim control system for maneuvering axisymmetric reentry vehicles. The moving mass trim controller is composed of three equal masses that are independently positioned in order to deliver a desired center of mass position. For a slowly spinning reentry vehicle, the mass offset creates a trim angle-of-attack to generate modest flight path corrections. The control system must maintain the desired position of each mass in the face of large disturbances. A novel algorithm for determining the desired mass positions is developed in conjunction with a preliminary controller design. The controller design is based on classical frequency domain techniques where a bound on the disturbance magnitude is used to formulate the disturbance rejection problem. Simulation results for the controller are presented for a typical reentry vehicle.

Byrne, R.H.; Robinett, R.D.; Sturgis, B.R.

1996-03-01

5

Moving mass trim control for aerospace vehicles.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A moving mass trim controller increase the accuracy of axisymmetric, ballistic vehicles. The MMTC is different than other moving mass schemes because it generates an angle-of-attack (AOA) directly from the mass motion. The nonlinear equations of motion fo...

R. D. Robinett B. A. Rainwater S. A. Kerr

1994-01-01

6

Feed forward control scheme boosts boiler trim savings  

SciTech Connect

Automatic trim controls can provide combustion efficiency improvements of 2-14%. But to be truly safe and effective, these microprocessor-based controls must be able to adjust the air-to-fuel ratio on a dynamic basis. One controls manufacturer incorporates a dynamic feed forward scheme as standard in its small-boiler trim package. The operation of the system is discussed.

Not Available

1986-03-01

7

Local Analysis of Flow Conditions within a Geometrically Complex Control Valve Trim using CFD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computational Fluid Dynamics software has been used to simulate the flow conditions within a geometrically complex control valve trim. The results of this simulation are then analysed to find velocity and static pressure profiles at critical points within the trim to investigate the trim's ability to limit erosion caused by high flow velocities and cavitation. The CFD analysis carried out showed that trim offers favourable features against these causes of erosion for this trim design.

Green, J.; Mishra, R.; Charlton, M.; Owen, R.

2012-05-01

8

Depth-trim mapping control of underwater vehicle with fins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Underwater vehicle plays an important role in ocean engineering. Depth control by fin is one of the difficulties for underwater vehicle in motion control. Depth control is indirect due to the freedom coupling between trim and axial motion. It includes the method of dynamic analysis and lift-resistance-coefficient experiment and theory algorithm. By considering the current speed and depth deviation, comprehensive interpretation is used in object-planning instruction. Expected depth is transformed into expected trim. Dynamic output fluctuation can be avoided, which is caused by linear mapping of deviation. It is steady and accurate for the motion of controlled underwater vehicles. The feasibility and efficiency of the control method are testified in the pool and natural area for experiments.

Li, Ye; Pang, Yong-Jie; Huang, Shu-Ling; Wan, Lei

2011-12-01

9

Local Analysis of Flow Conditions within a Geometrically Complex Control Valve Trim using CFD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Computational Fluid Dynamics software has been used to simulate the flow conditions within a geometrically complex control valve trim. The results of this simulation are then analysed to find velocity and static pressure profiles at critical points within the trim to investigate the trim's ability to limit erosion caused by high flow velocities and cavitation. The CFD analysis carried out

J Green; R Mishra; M Charlton; R Owen

2012-01-01

10

Development and Operation of an Automatic Rotor Trim Control System for the UH-60 Individual Blade Control Wind Tunnel Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An automatic rotor trim control system was developed and successfully used during a wind tunnel test of a full-scale UH-60 rotor system with Individual Blade Control (IBC) actuators. The trim control system allowed rotor trim to be set more quickly, preci...

C. R. Theodore M. B. Tischler

2010-01-01

11

Experimental Study of Smart Segmented Trim Panels for Aircraft Interior Noise Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A smart trim panel used as a secondary source for active noise control in aircraft is developed and tested. The smart trim panel is a rectangular segment of aircraft trim panel which is suspended by a flexible support. This support converts the stiff trim panel into flexibly mounted pistons which can be driven by light-weight and low-profile force actuators. The smart trim panel has many advantages as an acoustic source over traditional loudspeakers: it is of lower profile, lower mass, and requires only a simple modification of materials already installed on aircraft. The static and dynamic properties of a smart trim panel are studied, verifying that when subjected to low-frequency (<500 Hz) excitation, it vibrates in the efficiently radiating piston mode. Real-time active noise control experiments are conducted in a laboratory-scale fuselage model using the smart trim panels as secondary sources. Global attenuation of sound pressure levels of up to 15 dB is realized.

Hirsch, S. M.; Meyer, N. E.; Westervelt, M. A.; King, P.; Li, F. J.; Petrova, M. V.; Sun, J. Q.

2000-04-01

12

Rapid response missile pitch to trim flight control using sliding modes  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is concerned with the problem of designing a pitch autopilot for the EMRRAT missile system which achieves a high angle of attack trim condition in approximately minimum time. Tradeoffs between robust performance and minimum time requirements are discussed, as well as possible scheduling of the aerodynamic coefficients. A variable structure control algorithm is used because of its inherent

Darren A. Schumacher; Eglin AFB

1994-01-01

13

On-line determination and control of fat content in batches of beef trimmings by NIR imaging spectroscopy.  

PubMed

An NIR imaging scanner was calibrated for on-line determination of the fat content of beef trimmings. A good calibration model was obtained for fat in intact beef (R=0.98, RMSECV=3.0%). The developed model could be used on single pixels to get an image of the fat distribution, or on the average spectrum from each trimming/portion of trimmings passing under the scanner. The fat model gave a rather high prediction error (RMSEP=8.7%) and a correlation of 0.84 when applied to 45 single trimmings with average fat content ranging from 1.6 to 49.3% fat. Test measurements on streams of trimmings making up batches varying from 10 to 24 kg gave a much lower prediction error (RMSEP=1.33%). Simulations based on true measurements indicate that the RMSEP decreases with increasing batch size and, for the present case, reached about 0.6% for 100 kg batches. The NIR scanner was tested on six batches of intact trimmings varying from 145 to 210 kg and gave similar fat estimates as an established microwave system obtained on the ground batches. The proven concept should be applicable to on-line estimation of fat in trimmings in order to determine the batch fat content and also to control the production of batches to different target fat levels. A possible requirement for the concept to work properly is that the trimming or layer of trimmings on the belt is not too thick. In this study maximum thickness was about 8 cm. Thicker trimmings might be measured, but careful hardware adjustments are then required. PMID:21636219

Wold, J P; O'Farrell, M; Høy, M; Tschudi, J

2011-05-11

14

TRIM28 is required by the mouse KRAB domain protein ZFP568 to control convergent extension and morphogenesis of extra-embryonic tissues  

PubMed Central

TRIM28 is a transcriptional regulator that is essential for embryonic development and is implicated in a variety of human diseases. The roles of TRIM28 in distinct biological processes are thought to depend on its interaction with factors that determine its DNA target specificity. However, functional evidence linking TRIM28 to specific co-factors is scarce. chatwo, a hypomorphic allele of Trim28, causes embryonic lethality and defects in convergent extension and morphogenesis of extra-embryonic tissues. These phenotypes are remarkably similar to those of mutants in the Krüppel-associated box (KRAB) zinc finger protein ZFP568, providing strong genetic evidence that ZFP568 and TRIM28 control morphogenesis through a common molecular mechanism. We determined that chatwo mutations decrease TRIM28 protein stability and repressive activity, disrupting both ZFP568-dependent and ZFP568-independent roles of TRIM28. These results, together with the analysis of embryos bearing a conditional inactivation of Trim28 in embryonic-derived tissues, revealed that TRIM28 is differentially required by ZFP568 and other factors during the early stages of mouse embryogenesis. In addition to uncovering novel roles of TRIM28 in convergent extension and morphogenesis of extra-embryonic tissues, our characterization of chatwo mutants demonstrates that KRAB domain proteins are essential to determine some of the biological functions of TRIM28.

Shibata, Maho; Blauvelt, Kristin E.; Liem, Karel F.; Garcia-Garcia, Maria J.

2011-01-01

15

Trimming of hard-masks by gaseous Chemical Oxide Removal (COR) for sub-10 nm gates\\/fins, for gate length control and for embedded logic  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for formation and control of silicon gates or fins uses trim of a hard mask by a new gaseous oxide etch. The method decouples final feature size from lithography and from the RIE resist trim\\/oxide mask open processes. Logic blocks with two separately controlled gate lengths and dielectric thicknesses are embedded on chip. COR control has achieved final

Wesley C. Natzle; David Horak; Sadanand Deshpande; Chien-Fan Yu; Joyce C. Liu; Randy W. Mann; Bruce Doris; Hussein Hanafi; Jeffre Brown; Akihisa Sekiguchi; M. Tomoyasu; A. Yamashita; D. Prager; M. Funk; P. Cottrell; F. Higuchi; H. Takahashi; M. Sendelbach; E. Solecky; Wendy Yan; L. Tsou; Qingyun Yang; J. P. Norum; S. S. Iyer

2004-01-01

16

Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) Report: Tree Trimming Crew Leader Caught in Wood Chipper, Virginia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On April 23, 1997, a 24-year-old tree-trimming crew leader (the victim) died after he was caught and pulled through a wood chipper. The victim and two co-workers, a tree climber and a ground man, were in the process of trimming trees at a residence. While...

1997-01-01

17

Active control of broadband sound transmission through an airplane trim panel using hybrid feedforward and feedback techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis presents a method of actively controlling the sound transmission through two designs of aircraft trim panels using a hybrid feedforward and feedback control technique. The active trim panels are designed for a high stiffness to mass ratio to allow only rigid body modal vibration in the frequency range of interest, thus simplifying the control technique, which is developed to minimize the vibration of a panel and therefore minimize the sound transmission. The hybrid controller consists of an adaptive feedforward (filtered-X LMS algorithm) controller in conjunction with a linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) feedback controller. The LQG feedback controller is designed to alter the dynamics of the estimated plant model of the filtered-x LMS algorithm, improving control performance for both steady state and transient disturbances. Numerical simulations indicate that the hybrid controller is a more effective method of reducing the vibrations of the panels (and therefore the sound transmission) when compared to using only a feedforward or feedback controller. Experiments were carried out by using two trim panel designs, the first exhibiting only an out-of-plane piston mode, and the second exhibiting three rigid body modes and the first bending mode in control frequency range. For the first trim panel, the implementation of the active control experiment showed that a 5 to 20 dB reduction in both the vibration level and sound pressure level could be achieved over 50 to 500 Hz under a plane acoustic wave excitation. For the second trim panel, the hybrid controller achieved a 5 to 20 dB vibration reduction over the 50 to 400 Hz frequency band under structure-borne excitation. For air-borne excitation, the control scheme produced a 5 to 15 dB vibration reduction over the 70 to 400 Hz bandwidth with a reference microphone attached on the center of the fuselage skin and facing the sound source. In the near field (50 cm from the panel), the sound pressure levels measured on the line projecting from the center of the trim panel was reduced 11 and 5 dB in the 125 and 250 Hz octave bands, respectively, which are close to the vibration level reductions.

Ho, Yun-Ren

18

Maximising municipal solid waste - Legume trimming residue mixture degradation in composting by control parameters optimization.  

PubMed

Composting is one of the most successful biological processes for the treatment of the residues enriched in putrescible materials. The optimization of parameters which have an influence on the stability of the products is necessary in order to maximize recycling and recovery of waste components. The influence of the composting process parameters (aeration, moisture, C/N ratio, and time) on the stability parameters (organic matter, N-losses, chemical oxygen demand, nitrate, biodegradability coefficient) of the compost was studied. The composting experiment was carried out using Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and Legume Trimming Residues (LTR) in 200 L isolated acrylic barrels following a Box-Behnken central composite experimental design. Second-order polynomial models were found for each of the studied compost stability parameter, which accurately described the relationship between the parameters. The differences among the experimental values and those estimated by using the equations never exceeded 10% of the former. Results of the modelling showed that excluding the time, the C/N ratio is the strongest variable influencing almost all the stability parameters studied in this case, with the exception of N-losses which is strongly dependent on moisture. Moreover, an optimized ratio MSW/LTR of 1/1 (w/w), moisture content in the range of 40-55% and moderate to low aeration rate (0.05-0.175 Lair kg(-)(1) min(-1)) is recommended to maximise degradation and to obtain a stable product during co-composting of MSW and LTR. PMID:23764508

Cabeza, I O; López, R; Ruiz-Montoya, M; Díaz, M J

2013-06-10

19

Eight-point curve plots simpler combustion trim strategy  

SciTech Connect

New oxygen trim control for gas/oil fired boilers uses a pre-set combustion curve to achieve the optimum air-to-fuel ratio. The field-tested system has multi-boiler capability, is easy to retrofit, and requires calibration only during initial startup. It can be cost-justified on small boilers. The control system is described.

Not Available

1986-03-01

20

Influence of control parameters in VOCs evolution during MSW trimming residues composting.  

PubMed

The influence of control parameters (aeration, moisture, and C/N ratio) during composting of a municipal solid waste (MSW)-legume-trimming residue (LTR) mixture was studied at a pilot plant scale. Factors measured included the composition of the main volatile organic carbons (VOCs) emitted including limonene, ?-pinene, 2-butanone, undecane, phenol, toluene, and dimethyl disulfide. Polynomial models were found to reproduce the experimental results with errors at less than 10%. The relative influence of the independent variables on temperature and selected VOCs followed the order: aeration > moisture > C/N. A high aeration rate results in higher (strong negative effect) values on selected VOCs emissions (41-71% on emitted VOCs variation). Moisture had a positive and negative effect depending on the selected VOCs. A high C/N ratio caused lower production of VOCs except for undecane and 2-butanone. Providing an aerobic environment (0.05 Lair kg(-1) min(-1)), high C/N ratios (>50), and medium moisture (55%) minimize emitted VOCs during MSW composting, ultimately resulting in less odors in the surrounding environment. PMID:22060272

Delgado-Rodríguez, Margarita; Ruiz-Montoya, Mercedes; Giraldez, Inmaculada; López, Rafael; Madejón, Engracia; Díaz, Manuel Jesús

2011-11-17

21

Quantum state control interference lithography and trim double patterning for 32-16-nm lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Double patterning has been proposed as a method to extend DUV lithography to 32nm and below. Here, a new form of double, or higher, multiple exposure technique is proposed. This new form of lithography uses a combination of Quantum State Control (QuSC) chemistry, Amplitude Modulation Optical Lithography (AMOL), and multiple micro-stepped exposures, without development between exposures. Further it is proposed to use this form of lithography (called QuSC-litho), to pattern a perfect grating grid, and to trim this grid with an earlier generation lithography tool. QuSC lithography uses short optical pulses to modulate a photochemical pathway while an intermediate is still in a defined vibrational excited state. This is a variation of Stimulated Emission Depletion Microscopy (STED) developed for fluorescence microscopy. With this approach immersion tools that produce 90 nm pitch and 45 nm features should be able to pattern levels with 22 nm features with a 1:1 line-space ratio. This approach is much less sensitive to misalignment than present double patterning approaches. Key to successful deployment of QuSC lithography is defining a resist photochemistry consistent with the QuSC process. There are several approaches to Photo Acid Generator (PAG) - matrix interaction that may be consistent with this approach.

Frankel, Robert D.; Smith, Bruce W.; Estroff, Andrew

2007-03-01

22

14 CFR 23.677 - Trim systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Trim systems. 23.677 Section 23.677...Construction Control Systems § 23.677 Trim systems. (a) Proper precautions...prevent inadvertent, improper, or abrupt trim tab operation. There must be means...

2009-01-01

23

14 CFR 23.677 - Trim systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trim systems. 23.677 Section 23.677...Construction Control Systems § 23.677 Trim systems. (a) Proper precautions...prevent inadvertent, improper, or abrupt trim tab operation. There must be means...

2010-01-01

24

Jefferson Lab's Trim Card II  

SciTech Connect

Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) uses Trim Card I power supplies to drive approximately 1900 correction magnets. These trim cards have had a long and illustrious service record. However, some of the employed technology is now obsolete, making it difficult to maintain the system and retain adequate spares. The Trim Card II is being developed to act as a transparent replacement for its aging predecessor. A modular approach has been taken in its development to facilitate the substitution of sections for future improvements and maintenance. The resulting design has been divided into a motherboard and 7 daughter cards which has also allowed for parallel development. The Trim Card II utilizes modern technologies such as a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and a microprocessor to embed trim card controls and diagnostics. These reprogrammable devices also provide the versatility to incorporate future requirements.

Trent Allison; Sarin Philip; C. Higgins; Edward Martin; William Merz

2005-05-01

25

Trimming for subdivision surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trimming is an important primitive operation in geometric modeling. It is also the root of many numerical and topological problems in modern NURBS based CAGD systems. In this paper we introduce a new method for trimming subdivision surfaces. It is based on the use of combined subdivision schemes to guarantee exact interpolation of trim curves. The latter ensures, for example,

Nathan Litke; Adi Levin; Peter Schröder

2001-01-01

26

Tessellating trimmed nurbs surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm for obtaining a piecewise planar approximation of a trimmed nurbs surface is presented. Given a model space tolerance ?. the algorithm triangulates the parameter space domain of the trimmed surface such that the 3D planar approximation, obtained by mapping 2D triangles onto the surface, deviates from the trimmed surface by no more than ?. The number of triangles

Leslie A Piegl; Arnaud M Richard

1995-01-01

27

14 CFR 25.255 - Out-of-trim characteristics.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Out-of-trim characteristics. 25.255 Section...Requirements § 25.255 Out-of-trim characteristics. (a) From an initial...controllability with the degree of out-of-trim in both the airplane nose-up and...

2010-01-01

28

14 CFR 25.255 - Out-of-trim characteristics.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Out-of-trim characteristics. 25.255 Section...Requirements § 25.255 Out-of-trim characteristics. (a) From an initial...controllability with the degree of out-of-trim in both the airplane nose-up and...

2009-01-01

29

Pulse Combustion Control Technology for Oxygen Atmosphere  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new combustion control method for oxygen-enriched or pure-oxygen ceramic roller kilns is proposed in this paper. This kind of roller kiln uses high-concentration oxygen or pure oxygen as the combustion-supporting medium. The new method introduces the pulse combustion control technology into the ceramic roller kiln to fine tune its oxygen-and-gas proportional regulator. This technology can greatly improve the combustion

Chen Jing; Huang Bihui; Yuan Youxin; Chun Xiao; Xiang Kui

2009-01-01

30

14 CFR 23.677 - Trim systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...directional trimming devices. (c) Tab controls must be irreversible unless the tab is properly balanced and has no unsafe flutter characteristics. Irreversible tab systems must have adequate rigidity and reliability in the portion of the system from...

2013-01-01

31

NCSX Trim Coil Design  

SciTech Connect

The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) was being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory before work was stopped in 2008. The objective of this experiment was to develop the stellarator concept and evaluate it's potential as a model for future fusion power plants. Stellarator design requires very precisely positioned Modular Coils of complex shape to form 3D plasmas. In the design of NCSX, Trim Coils were required to compensate for both the positioning of the coils during assembly and the fabrication tolerances of the Modular Coils. Use of the Trim Coils allowed for larger tolerances increasing ease of assembly and decreasing overall cost. A set of Trim coils was developed to suppress the toroidal flux in island regions due to misalignment, magnetic materials, and eddy currents. The requirement imposed upon the design forced the toroidal flux in island regions below 10% of the total toroidal flux in the plasma. An analysis was first performed to evaluate candidate Trim Coil configurations iterating both the size, number, and position of the coils. The design was optimized considering both performance and cost while staying within the tight restraints presented by the space limited geometry. The final design of the Trim Coils incorporated a 48 Coil top bottom symmetric set. Fabrication costs were minimized by having only two coil types and using a planar conventional design with off the shelf commercial conductor. The Trim Coil design incorporated supports made from simple structural shapes assembled together in a way which allowed for adjustment as well as accommodation for the tolerance build up on the mating surfaces. This paper will summarize the analysis that led to the optimization of the Trim Coils set, the trim coil mechanical design, thermal and stress analysis, and the design of the supporting Trim Coil structure.

M. Kalish, A. Brooks, J. Rushinski, R. Upcavage

2009-05-29

32

TRIM5? and Species Tropism of HIV/SIV  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infects humans and chimpanzees but not old world monkeys (OWMs) such as the rhesus monkey (Rh) and cynomolgus monkey (CM). HIV-1 efficiently enters cells of OWMs but encounters a block before reverse transcription. This narrow host range is attributed to a barrier in the host cell. In 2004, the screening of a Rh cDNA library identified tripartite motif 5? (TRIM5?) as a cellular antiviral factor. TRIM5? is one of splicing variants produced by TRIM5 gene and TRIM5 proteins are members of the TRIM family containing RING, B-box 2, and coiled-coil domains. The RING domain is frequently found in E3 ubiquitin ligase and TRIM5? is degraded via the ubiquitin–proteasome-dependent pathway. Among TRIM5 splicing variants, TRIM5? alone has an additional C-terminal PRYSPRY (B30.2) domain. Previous studies have shown that sequence variation in variable regions of the PRYSPRY domain among different monkey species affects species-specific retrovirus infection, while amino acid sequence differences in the viral capsid protein determine viral sensitivity to restriction. TRIM5? recognizes the multimerized capsid proteins (viral core) of an incoming virus by its PRYSPRY domain and is thus believed to control retroviral infection. There are significant intraspecies variations in the Rh-TRIM5 gene. It has also been reported that some Rh and CM individuals have retrotransposed cyclophilin A open reading frame in the TRIM5 gene, which produces TRIM5–cyclophilin A fusion protein (TRIMCyp). TRIMCyp, which was originally identified as an anti-HIV-1 factor of New World owl monkeys, is an interesting example of the gain of a new function by retrotransposition. As different TRIM5 genotypes of Rh showed different levels of simian immunodeficiency virus replication in vivo, the TRIM5 genotyping is thought to be important in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome monkey models.

Nakayama, Emi E.; Shioda, Tatsuo

2011-01-01

33

Control of Dissolved Oxygen in Stirred Bioreactors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report discusses control of dissolved oxygen in a biore­ actor where the oxygen supply is manipulated using the stirrer speed. In batch and fed­batch cultivations the operating conditions change signifi­ cantly which may cause tuning problems. Analysis using a linearized pro­ cess model shows that the process dynamics is mainly affected by changes in the volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient

Mats Åkesson Per Hagander

34

DEVICE FOR CONTROL OF OXYGEN PARTIAL PRESSURE  

DOEpatents

A device is described that can sense changes in oxygen partial pressure and cause a corresponding mechanical displacement sufficient to actuate meters, valves and similar devices. A piston and cylinder arrangement contains a charge of crystalline metal chelate pellets which have the peculiar property of responding to variations in the oxygen content of the ambient atmosphere by undergoing a change in dimension. A lever system amplifies the relative displacement of the piston in the cylinder, and actuates the controlled valving device. This partial pressure oxygen sensing device is useful in controlled chemical reactions or in respiratory devices such as the oxygen demand meters for high altitude aircraft.

Bradner, H.; Gordon, H.S.

1957-12-24

35

Transcription cofactors TRIM24, TRIM28, and TRIM33 associate to form regulatory complexes that suppress murine hepatocellular carcinoma  

PubMed Central

TRIM24 (TIF1?), TRIM28 (TIF1?), and TRIM33 (TIF1?) are three related cofactors belonging to the tripartite motif superfamily that interact with distinct transcription factors. TRIM24 interacts with the liganded retinoic acid (RA) receptor to repress its transcriptional activity. Germ line inactivation of TRIM24 in mice deregulates RA-signaling in hepatocytes leading to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here we show that TRIM24 can be purified as at least two macromolecular complexes comprising either TRIM33 or TRIM33 and TRIM28. Somatic hepatocyte-specific inactivation of TRIM24, TRIM28, or TRIM33 all promote HCC in a cell-autonomous manner in mice. Moreover, HCC formation upon TRIM24 inactivation is strongly potentiated by further loss of TRIM33. These results demonstrate that the TIF1-related subfamily of TRIM proteins interact both physically and functionally to modulate HCC formation in mice.

Herquel, Benjamin; Ouararhni, Khalid; Khetchoumian, Konstantin; Ignat, Mihaela; Teletin, Marius; Mark, Manuel; Bechade, Guillaume; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Sanglier-Cianferani, Sarah; Hamiche, Ali; Cammas, Florence; Davidson, Irwin; Losson, Regine

2011-01-01

36

The Trim Problem  

Microsoft Academic Search

A problem of primary significance to a variety of industries is the suppression of trim losses in cutting rolls of paper, textiles, cellophane, metallic foil, or other material, for the execution of business orders. This problem is amenable to solution by the application of mathematical tools. We shall illustrate the general treatment of such problems by demonstrating a numerical example.

Kurt Eisemann

1957-01-01

37

14 CFR 25.677 - Trim systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...creeping in flight. Trim tab controls must be irreversible unless the tab is appropriately balanced and shown to be free from flutter. (d) If an irreversible tab control system is used, the part from the tab to the attachment of the irreversible...

2013-01-01

38

Fore-aft oxygen storage control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes model-based, active control of an aftertreatment system for a spark ignition engine equipped with a three-way catalyst (TWC) and pre- and post-TWC oxygen sensors. A controller is designed to manage the oxygen storage level in the TWC in order to maximize the simultaneous conversion efficiencies of oxides of nitrogen, NOx, unburned hydrocarbons, HC, and carbon monoxide, CO.

G. Fiengo; J. A. Cook; J. W. Grizzle

2002-01-01

39

TRIM proteins as trim tabs for the homoeostasis.  

PubMed

The tripartite motif (TRIM) or RBCC proteins are characterized by the TRIM composed of a RING finger, B-box and coiled-coil domains. TRIM proteins often play roles in the post-translational protein modification, including ubiquitylation and other ubiquitin-like modifications. Evidence has accumulated in regard to the contribution of TRIM proteins to diverse cellular processes, including such as cell cycle progression, apoptosis, immunity and transcriptional regulation. In particular, some of the TRIM proteins have been characterized to exert oncogenic or tumour suppressor-like functions depending on the context. A recent report by Inoue and his colleagues has revealed that Terf/TRIM17 stimulates the degradation of a kinetochore protein ZWINT and regulates the proliferation of breast cancer cells. Terf has also been paid attention as a factor promoting neuronal apoptosis, by degrading a Bcl2-like anti-apoptotic protein Mcl-1. Like aircraft trim tabs, TRIM proteins trim the balance of homoeostasis by modulating various biological pathways through protein-protein interactions. PMID:23969027

Horie-Inoue, Kuniko

2013-08-21

40

The Cell Biology of TRIM5?  

PubMed Central

The tripartite motif (TRIM)–containing proteins are involved in many cellular functions such as cell signaling, apoptosis, cell differentiation, and immune modulation. TRIM5 proteins, including TRIM5? and TRIM-Cyp, are known to possess antiretroviral activity against many different retroviruses. Besides being retroviral restriction factors, TRIM5 proteins participate in other cellular functions that have recently emerged in the study of TRIM5?. In this review, we discuss properties of TRIM5? such as cytoplasmic body formation, protein turnover, and trafficking. Also, we discuss recent insights into innate immune modulation mediated by TRIM5?, highlighting the various functions TRIM5? has in cellular processes.

Lukic, Zana

2012-01-01

41

TRIM: Total Risk Integrated Methodology. Status Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Table of Contents: Introduction; May 1998 Science Advisory Board Review and Agency Responses; Treatment of Uncertainty and Variability in TRIM; Revisions and Additions to TRIM.FaTE; Current Status of TRIM.FaTE; Evaluation Plan for TRIM.FaTE; TRIM.FaTE Mer...

1999-01-01

42

Thermal trim for a luminaire  

DOEpatents

A luminaire with a thermal pathway to reduce the junction temperature of the luminaire's light source, and methods for so doing, are disclosed. The luminaire includes a can, a light engine, and a trim, that define a substantially continuous thermal pathway from the light engine to a surrounding environment. The can defines a can cavity and includes a can end region. The light engine is within the can cavity and includes a light source and a heat sink, including a heat sink end region, coupled thereto. The trim is at least partially disposed within the can cavity and includes a first trim end region coupled to the heat sink end region and a second trim end region coupled to the can end region. Thermal interface material may be located between: the heat sink and the trim, the trim and the can, and/or the heat sink and the light source.

Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Jeswani, Anil

2013-02-19

43

The TRIM-NHL Protein TRIM32 Activates MicroRNAs and Prevents Self-Renewal in Mouse Neural Progenitors  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY In the mouse neocortex, neural progenitor cells generate both differentiating neurons and daughter cells that maintain progenitor fate. Here, we show that the TRIM-NHL protein TRIM32 regulates protein degradation and microRNA activity to control the balance between those two daughter cell types. In both horizontally and vertically dividing progenitors, TRIM32 becomes polarized in mitosis and is concentrated in one of the two daughter cells. TRIM32 overexpression induces neuronal differentiation while inhibition of TRIM32 causes both daughter cells to retain progenitor cell fate. TRIM32 ubiquitinates and degrades the transcription factor c-Myc but also binds Argonaute-1 and thereby increases the activity of specific microRNAs. We show that Let-7 is one of the TRIM32 targets and is required and sufficient for neuronal differentiation. TRIM32 is the mouse ortholog of Drosophila Brat and Mei-P26 and might be part of a protein family that regulates the balance between differentiation and proliferation in stem cell lineages.

Schwamborn, Jens C.; Berezikov, Eugene; Knoblich, Juergen A.

2010-01-01

44

Trim or Replace Impellers on Oversized Pumps  

SciTech Connect

One in a series of tip sheets to help manufacturers optimize their industrial pumping systems. As a result of conservative engineering practices, pumps are often substantially larger than they need to be for an industrial plant's process requirements. Centrifugal pumps can often be oversized because of ''rounding up'', trying to accommodate gradual increases in pipe surface roughness and flow resistance over time, or anticipating future plant capacity expansions. In addition, the plant's pumping requirements might not have been clearly defined during the design phase. Because of this conservative approach, pumps can have operating points completely different from their design points. The pump head is often less than expected, while the flow rate is greater. This can cause cavitation and waste energy as the flow rate typically must be regulated with bypass or throttle control. Oversized and throttled pumps that produce excess pressure are excellent candidates for impeller replacement or ''trimming'', to save energy and reduce costs. Trimming involves machining the impeller to reduce its diameter. Trimming should be limited to about 75% of a pump's maximum impeller diameter, because excessive trimming can result in a mismatched impeller and casing. As the impeller diameter decreases, added clearance between the impeller and the fixed pump casing increases internal flow recirculation, causes head loss, and lowers pumping efficiency. For manufacturing standardization purposes, pump casings and shafts are designed to accommodate impellers in a range of sizes. Many pump manufacturers provide pump performance curves that indicate how various models will perform with different impeller diameters or trims. The impeller should not be trimmed any smaller than the minimum diameter shown on the curve. Net positive suction head requirements (NPSHR) usually decrease at lower flow rates and can increase at the higher end of the pump head curve. The NPSHR at a given flow rate will normally be greater with a smaller impeller, but engineers should consult with the pump manufacturer to determine variations in NPSHR before trimming the impeller. Manufacturers can often provide trim correction charts based on historical test data.

Not Available

2006-09-01

45

Role of Human TRIM5? in Intrinsic Immunity  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has a very narrow host range. HIV type 1 (HIV-1) does not infect Old World monkeys, such as the rhesus monkey (Rh). Rh TRIM5? was identified as a factor that confers resistance, intrinsic immunity, to HIV-1 infection. Unfortunately, human TRIM5? is almost powerless to restrict HIV-1. However, human TRIM5? potently restricts N-tropic murine leukemia viruses (MLV) but not B-tropic MLV, indicating that human TRIM5? represents the restriction factor previously designated as Ref1. African green monkey TRIM5? represents another restriction factor previously designated as Lv1, which restricts both HIV-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from macaque (SIVmac) infection. TRIM5 is a member of the tripartite motif family containing RING, B-box2, and coiled-coil domains. The RING domain is frequently found in E3 ubiquitin ligase, and TRIM5? is thought to degrade viral core via ubiquitin–proteasome-dependent and -independent pathways. The alpha isoform of TRIM5 has an additional C-terminal PRYSPRY domain, which is a determinant of species-specific retrovirus restriction by TRIM5?. On the other hand, the target regions of viral capsid protein (CA) are scattered on the surface of core. A single amino acid difference in the surface-exposed loop between ?-helices 6 and 7 (L6/7) of HIV type 2 (HIV-2) CA affects viral sensitivity to human TRIM5? and was also shown to be associated with viral load in West African HIV-2 patients, indicating that human TRIM5? is a critical modulator of HIV-2 replication in vivo. Interestingly, L6/7 of CA corresponds to the MLV determinant of sensitivity to mouse factor Fv1, which potently restricts N-tropic MLV. In addition, human genetic polymorphisms also affect antiviral activity of human TRIM5?. Recently, human TRIM5? was shown to activate signaling pathways that lead to activation of NF-?B and AP-1 by interacting with TAK1 complex. TRIM5? is thus involved in control of viral infection in multiple ways.

Nakayama, Emi E.; Shioda, Tatsuo

2012-01-01

46

Trim loss and related problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the diversity of the structures of real-world trim loss (or cutting stock) problems there exist no general standard methods for solving these problems. Hence many solution methods for trim loss problems have been developed in practice, especially heuristics. Since these methods are strongly based on the particular problems to which they are applied, the study of papers on

H Dyckhoff; H-J Kruse; D Abel; T Gal

1985-01-01

47

Compensation of the AKT signaling by ERK signaling in transgenic mice hearts overexpressing TRIM72.  

PubMed

The AKT and ERK signaling pathways are known to be involved in cell hypertrophy, proliferation, survival and differentiation. Although there is evidence for crosstalk between these two signaling pathways in cellulo, there is less evidence for cross talk in vivo. Here, we show that crosstalk between AKT and ERK signaling in the hearts of TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice (TRIM72-Tg) with alpha-MHC promoter regulates and maintains their heart size. TRIM72, a heart- and skeletal muscle-specific protein, downregulates AKT-mTOR signaling via IRS-1 degradation and reduces the size of rat cardiomyocytes and the size of postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts. TRIM72 expression was upregulated by hypertrophic inducers in cardiomyocytes, while IRS-1 was downregulated by IGF-1. TRIM72 specifically regulated IGF-1-dependent AKT-mTOR signaling, resulting in a reduction of the size of cardiomyocytes. Postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts were smaller than control-treated hearts with inhibition of AKT-mTOR signaling. However, adult TRIM72-Tg hearts were larger than of control despite the suppression of AKT-mTOR signaling. Activation of ERK, PKC-?, and JNK were observed to be elevated in adult TRIM72-Tg, and these signals were mediated by ET-1 via the ET receptors A and B. Altogether, these results suggest that AKT signaling regulates cardiac hypertrophy in physiological conditions, and ERK signaling compensates for the absence of AKT signaling during TRIM72 overexpression, leading to pathological hypertrophy. PMID:23567182

Ham, Young-Mi; Mahoney, Sarah Jane

2013-04-06

48

TRIM: Total Risk Integrated Methodology. TRIM.Expo Technical Support Document.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This TSD describes the development of TRIM Expo, detailing work completed to date toward developing the first TRIM Expo prototypes. More specifically, the report addresses the following areas: OAQPS' modeling needs and the intended goals for TRIM; Design ...

1999-01-01

49

Control of mitochondrial and cellular respiration by oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control and regulation of mitochondrial and cellular respiration by oxygen is discussed with three aims: (1) A review of intracellular oxygen levels and gradients, particularly in heart, emphasizes the dominance of extracellular oxygen gradients. Intracellular oxygen pressure,\\u000a

Erich Gnaiger; Rosmarie Steinlechner-Maran; Gabriela Méndez; Thomas Eberl; Raimund Margreiter

1995-01-01

50

Loss of heterozygosity of TRIM3 in malignant gliomas  

PubMed Central

Background Malignant gliomas are frequent primary brain tumors associated with poor prognosis and very limited response to conventional chemo- and radio-therapies. Besides sharing common growth features with other types of solid tumors, gliomas are highly invasive into adjacent brain tissue, which renders them particularly aggressive and their surgical resection inefficient. Therefore, insights into glioma formation are of fundamental interest in order to provide novel molecular targets for diagnostic purposes and potential anti-cancer drugs. Human Tripartite motif protein 3 (TRIM3) encodes a structural homolog of Drosophila brain tumor (brat) implicated in progenitor cell proliferation control and cancer stem cell suppression. TRIM3 is located within the loss of allelic heterozygosity (LOH) hotspot of chromosome segment 11p15.5, indicating a potential role in tumor suppression. ... Methods Here we analyze 70 primary human gliomas of all types and grades and report somatic deletion mapping as well as single nucleotide polymorphism analysis together with quantitative real-time PCR of chromosome segment 11p15.5. Results Our analysis identifies LOH in 17 cases (24%) of primary human glioma which defines a common 130 kb-wide interval within the TRIM3 locus as a minimal area of loss. We further detect altered genomic dosage of TRIM3 in two glioma cases with LOH at 11p15.5, indicating homozygous deletions of TRIM3. Conclusion Loss of heterozygosity of chromosome segment 11p15.5 in malignant gliomas suggests TRIM3 as a candidate brain tumor suppressor gene.

2009-01-01

51

114. WEST SIDE OF LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROL ROOM (205). LIQUID ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

114. WEST SIDE OF LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROL ROOM (205). LIQUID NITROGEN (LN2) SUBCOOLER ON LEFT; SKID 8, LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROLLER FOR SWITCHING BETWEEN RAPID-LOAD AND TOPPING ON RIGHT. LIQUID OXYGEN LINE FROM SKID 9A AT RIGHT EDGE OF PHOTO. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

52

Control of nitrogen fixation by oxygen in purple nonsulfur bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some members of the facultatively phototrophic bacteria are able to grow diazotrophically in the presence of oxygen. As in\\u000a other diazotrophs, the nitrogenase of the phototrophic bacteria is highly sensitive to oxygen; therefore, both the function\\u000a and the expression of nitrogenase are strictly controlled by oxygen. This review focuses on the different levels of oxygen\\u000a control in the two most

Jürgen Oelze; Gesine Klein

1996-01-01

53

Safety and Efficacy of Argon Plasma Coagulation Trimming of Malpositioned and Migrated Biliary Metal Stents: A Controlled Study in the Porcine Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND:Argon plasma coagulation (APC) has been used to trim uncovered Elgiloy® stents, but the extent of thermal damage and bile duct injury is not known. The goal of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of APC for this application.METHODS:Eight Elgiloy® (covered and uncovered) and four nitinol stents were deployed in the bile duct at ERCP in 12

Yang K. Chen; Vaman Jakribettuu; Erik W. Springer; Raj J. Shah; Jeanine Penberthy; S. Russell Nash

2006-01-01

54

7 CFR 51.607 - Well trimmed.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...INSPECTION ACT FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.607 Well trimmed. Well trimmed means that the...

2013-01-01

55

Saddlepoint Approximations to the Trimmed Mean.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Saddlepoint approximations for the trimmed mean and the studentized trimmed mean are established. Some numerical evidence on the quality of our saddlepoint approximations is also included. These approximations can be applied to the bootstrap for the stude...

B. Y. Jing G. Qin R. Helmers W. Zhou

2002-01-01

56

Characterization of the oncogenic activity of the novel TRIM59 gene in mouse cancer models.  

PubMed

A novel TRIM family member, TRIM59 gene was characterized to be upregulated in SV40 Tag oncogene-directed transgenic and knockout mouse prostate cancer models as a signaling pathway effector. We identified two phosphorylated forms of TRIM59 (p53 and p55) and characterized them using purified TRIM59 proteins from mouse prostate cancer models at different stages with wild-type mice and NIH3T3 cells as controls. p53/p55-TRIM59 proteins possibly represent Ser/Thr and Tyr phosphorylation modifications, respectively. Quantitative measurements by ELISA showed that the p-Ser/Thr TRIM59 correlated with tumorigenesis, whereas the p-Tyr-TRIM59 protein correlated with advanced cancer of the prostate (CaP). The function of TRIM59 was elucidated using short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of the gene in human CaP cells, which caused S-phase cell-cycle arrest and cell growth retardation. A hit-and-run effect of TRIM59 shRNA knockdown was observed 24 hours posttransfection. Differential cDNA microarrray analysis was conducted, which showed that the initial and rapid knockdown occurred early in the Ras signaling pathway. To confirm the proto-oncogenic function of TRIM59 in the Ras signaling pathway, we generated a transgenic mouse model using a prostate tissue-specific gene (PSP94) to direct the upregulation of the TRIM59 gene. Restricted TRIM59 gene upregulation in the prostate revealed the full potential for inducing tumorigenesis, similar to the expression of SV40 Tag, and coincided with the upregulation of genes specific to the Ras signaling pathway and bridging genes for SV40 Tag-mediated oncogenesis. The finding of a possible novel oncogene in animal models will implicate a novel strategy for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy for cancer. PMID:21593385

Valiyeva, Fatma; Jiang, Fei; Elmaadawi, Ahmed; Moussa, Madeleine; Yee, Siu-Pok; Raptis, Leda; Izawa, Jonathan I; Yang, Burton B; Greenberg, Norman M; Wang, Fen; Xuan, Jim W

2011-05-18

57

A Magnetically Controlled Wireless Optical Oxygen Sensor for Intraocular Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of oxygen on various ophthalmological complications is not completely understood and intraocular oxygen measurements are essential for better diagnosis and treatment. A magnetically controlled wireless sensor device is proposed for minimally invasive intraocular oxygen concentration measurements. This device will make it possible to make measurements at locations that are currently too invasive for human intervention by integrating a

OlgaÇ Ergeneman; GÖrkem Dogangil; Michael P. Kummer; Jake J. Abbott; Mohammad K. Nazeeruddin; Bradley J. Nelson

2008-01-01

58

Efficient rendering of Trimmed NURBS Surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

An algorithm for the interactive display of trimmed nurbs surfaces is presented. The algorithm converts the nurbs surfaces to Bézier surfaces, and nurbs trimming curves to Bézier curves. It tessellates each trimmed Bézier surface into triangles, and renders them using the triangle rendering capabilities common in current graphics systems. It makes use of tight bounds for the uniform tessellation of

Subodh Kumar; Dinesh Manocha

1995-01-01

59

The Asymptotic Distribution of the Trimmed Mean  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper it is shown that in order for the trimmed mean to be asymptotically normal, it is necessary and sufficient that the sample be trimmed at sample percentiles such that the corresponding population percentiles are uniquely defined. (The sufficiency of this condition is well known.) In addition, the (non-normal) limiting distribution of the trimmed mean when this condition

Stephen M. Stigler

1973-01-01

60

Climatic and environmental controls on speleothem oxygen-isotope values  

Microsoft Academic Search

Variations in speleothem oxygen-isotope values (?18O) result from a complicated interplay of environmental controls and processes in the ocean, atmosphere, soil zone, epikarst, and cave system. As such, the controls on speleothem ?18O values are extremely complex. An understanding of the processes that control equilibrium and kinetic fractionation of oxygen isotopes in water and carbonate species is essential for the

Matthew S. Lachniet

2009-01-01

61

COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF INFRARED AND HOT-BLADE TRIMMING ON FEEDING BEHAVIOR AND PRODUCTIVITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this research was to examine the impact of a relatively new method of beak trimming on poultry welfare. Seventy-two layer chicks were assigned to hot-blade trimming (HB), infrared treatment (IR) or a control (C) group at 1d of age. Chicks were pair housed by treatment and body weight ...

62

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2004-01-01

63

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the thirteenth quarter, April-June 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with project objectives. REI's model was modified to evaluate mixing issues in the upper furnace of a staged unit. Analysis of the results, and their potential application to this unit is ongoing. Economic evaluation continues to confirm the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. A contract for a commercial demonstration has been signed with the Northeast Generation Services Company to supply oxygen and license the oxygen enhanced low NOx combustor technology for use at the 147-megawatt coal fired Mt. Tom Station in Holyoke, MA. Commercial proposals have been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2003-08-01

64

The role of telomere trimming in normal telomere length dynamics.  

PubMed

Telomeres consist of repetitive DNA and associated proteins that protect chromosome ends from illicit DNA repair. It is well known that telomeric DNA is progressively eroded during cell division, until telomeres become too short and the cell stops dividing. There is a second mode of telomere shortening, however, which is a regulated form of telomere rapid deletion (TRD) termed telomere trimming that is reviewed here. Telomere trimming appears to involve resolution of recombination intermediate structures, which shortens the telomere by release of extrachromosomal telomeric DNA. This has been detected in human and in mouse cells and occurs both in somatic and germline cells, where it sets an upper limit on telomere length and contributes to a length equilibrium set-point in cells that have a telomere elongation mechanism. Telomere trimming thus represents an additional mechanism of telomere length control that contributes to normal telomere dynamics and cell proliferative potential. PMID:22421147

Pickett, Hilda A; Reddel, Roger R

2012-04-01

65

INFRARED BEAK TREATMENT: PART III, COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF INFRARED AND 1/2 HOT-BLADE TRIMMING ON BEAK TOPOGRAPHY AND GROWTH.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of infrared beak trimming (IR) and hot-blade beak trimming (HB) on beak length and production were examined in chickens beak trimmed at 1 day of age. Seventy-two chicks were randomly assigned to HB (1/2 beak), IR at 60 watt (1/3-1/2 reduction in length), or a control (C) group at 1 d old...

66

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the twelfth quarter, January-March 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Pilot scale experiments conducted at the University of Utah explored both the effectiveness of oxygen addition and the best way to add oxygen with a scaled version of Riley Power's newest low NOx burner design. CFD modeling was done to compare the REI's modeling results for James River Unit 3 with the NOx and LOI results obtained during the demonstration program at that facility. Investigation of an alternative method of fabrication of PSO1d elements was conducted. OTM process development work has concluded with the completion of a long-term test of a PSO1d element Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Proposals have been submitted for two additional beta test sites. Commercial proposals have been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2003-04-01

67

Halfplane Trimming for Bivariate Distributions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Let [mu] be a probability measure on R2 and let u [set membership, variant] (0, 1). A bivariate u-trimmed region D(u), defined as the intersection of all halfplanes whose [mu]-probability measure is at least equal to u, is studied. It is shown that D(u) is not empty for u sufficiently close to 1 and that D(u) satisfies some natural continuity

J. C. Masse; R. Theodorescu

1994-01-01

68

Vegetally localized Xenopus trim36 regulates cortical rotation and dorsal axis formation.  

PubMed

Specification of the dorsoventral axis in Xenopus depends on rearrangements of the egg vegetal cortex following fertilization, concomitant with activation of Wnt/beta-catenin signaling. How these processes are tied together is not clear, but RNAs localized to the vegetal cortex during oogenesis are known to be essential. Despite their importance, few vegetally localized RNAs have been examined in detail. In this study, we describe the identification of a novel localized mRNA, trim36, and characterize its function through maternal loss-of-function experiments. We find that trim36 is expressed in the germ plasm and encodes a ubiquitin ligase of the Tripartite motif-containing (Trim) family. Depletion of maternal trim36 using antisense oligonucleotides results in ventralized embryos and reduced organizer gene expression. We show that injection of wnt11 mRNA rescues this effect, suggesting that Trim36 functions upstream of Wnt/beta-catenin activation. We further find that vegetal microtubule polymerization and cortical rotation are disrupted in trim36-depleted embryos, in a manner dependent on Trim36 ubiquitin ligase activity. Additionally, these embryos can be rescued by tipping the eggs 90 degrees relative to the animal-vegetal axis. Taken together, our results suggest a role for Trim36 in controlling the stability of proteins regulating microtubule polymerization during cortical rotation, and subsequently axis formation. PMID:19675128

Cuykendall, Tawny N; Houston, Douglas W

2009-08-12

69

Polydopamine gradients by oxygen diffusion controlled autoxidation.  

PubMed

We report a simple and facile protocol to fabricate mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA) gradients on different surfaces. An oxygen diffusion phenomenon was used for dopamine autoxidation to form thickness gradients of PDA on different substrates. These PDA gradients showed gradual changes in thickness, roughness, wettability and light transmittance. PMID:24088788

Yang, Hao-Cheng; Wu, Qing-Yun; Wan, Ling-Shu; Xu, Zhi-Kang

2013-10-15

70

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the second quarter July--September 2000 in the following task areas: Task 1-Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2-Oxygen Transport Membranes and Task 4-Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the first year. OTM tube characterization is well underway, the design and assembly of the high pressure permeation test facility is complete and the facility will be in full operation during the next quarter. Combustion testing has been initiated at both the University of Arizona and Praxair. Testing at the University of Arizona has experienced some delays; steps have been take to get the test work back on schedule. Completion of the first phase of the testing is expected in next quarter. Combustion modeling has been started at both REI and Praxair, preliminary results are expected in the next quarter.

Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen; David R. Thompson

2000-10-01

71

The Antiviral Spectra of TRIM5? Orthologues and Human TRIM Family Proteins against Lentiviral Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundRhesus monkey TRIM5? (TRIM5?rh) recognizes the incoming HIV-1 core through its C-terminal B30.2(PRYSPRY) domain and promotes its premature disassembly or degradation before reverse transcription. Previously, we have shown that TRIM5?rh blocks HIV-1 production through the N-terminal RBCC domain by the recognition of Gag polyproteins. Although all TRIM family proteins have RBCC domains, it remains elusive whether they possess similar late-restriction

Seiga Ohmine; Ryuta Sakuma; Toshie Sakuma; Tayaramma Thatava; Hiroaki Takeuchi; Yasuhiro Ikeda

2011-01-01

72

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased environmental regulations will require utility boilers to reduce NOâ emissions to less than 0.15lb\\/MMBtu in the near term. Conventional technologies such as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) are unable to achieve these lowered emission levels without substantially higher costs and major operating problems. Oxygen enhanced combustion is a novel technology that allows utilities to meet

Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen; David R. Thompson

2000-01-01

73

Microbial degradation and humification of the lawn care pesticide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid during the composting of yard trimmings.  

PubMed Central

The fate of the widely used lawn care herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) during the composting of yard trimmings consisting of primarily leaves and grass is an important unexplored question. In this study, we determined the extent of 2,4-D mineralization, incorporation into humic matter, volatilization, and sorption during the composting of yard trimmings. Yard trimmings (2:1 [wt/wt] leaves-grass) were amended with 14C-ring-labeled 2,4-D (17 mg/kg of dry weight) and composted in a temperature-controlled laboratory scale compost system. During composting, thermophilic microbes were numerically dominant, reaching a maximum of 2 x 10(11)/g. At the end of composting, 46% of the organic matter (OM) present in the yard trimmings was lost and the compost was stable, with an oxygen uptake rate of 0.09 mg of O2 per g of OM per h, and was well humified (humification index, 0.39). Mineralization of the OM temporally paralleled mineralization of 2,4-D. In the final compost, 47% of the added 2,4-D carbon was mineralized, about 23% was complexed with high-molecular-weight humic acids, and about 20% was not extractable (humin fraction). Less than 1% of the added 14C was present in water expressed from the finished compost, suggesting a low potential for leaching of 2,4-D. Very little volatilization of 2,4-D occurred during composting. It is of interest that our results indicate active mineralization of 2,4-D at composting temperatures of 60 degrees C because microbial 2,4-D degradation at thermophilic temperatures has not been previously documented.

Michel, F C; Reddy, C A; Forney, L J

1995-01-01

74

Identification of a Genomic Reservoir for New TRIM Genes in Primate Genomes  

PubMed Central

Tripartite Motif (TRIM) ubiquitin ligases act in the innate immune response against viruses. One of the best characterized members of this family, TRIM5?, serves as a potent retroviral restriction factor with activity against HIV. Here, we characterize what are likely to be the youngest TRIM genes in the human genome. For instance, we have identified 11 TRIM genes that are specific to humans and African apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas) and another 7 that are human-specific. Many of these young genes have never been described, and their identification brings the total number of known human TRIM genes to approximately 100. These genes were acquired through segmental duplications, most of which originated from a single locus on chromosome 11. Another polymorphic duplication of this locus has resulted in these genes being copy number variable within the human population, with a Han Chinese woman identified as having 12 additional copies of these TRIM genes compared to other individuals screened in this study. Recently, this locus was annotated as one of 34 “hotspot” regions that are also copy number variable in the genomes of chimpanzees and rhesus macaques. Most of the young TRIM genes originating from this locus are expressed, spliced, and contain signatures of positive natural selection in regions known to determine virus recognition in TRIM5?. However, we find that they do not restrict the same retroviruses as TRIM5?, consistent with the high degree of divergence observed in the regions that control target specificity. We propose that this recombinationally volatile locus serves as a reservoir from which new TRIM genes arise through segmental duplication, allowing primates to continually acquire new antiviral genes that can be selected to target new and evolving pathogens.

Sawyer, Sara L.

2011-01-01

75

Identification of a genomic reservoir for new TRIM genes in primate genomes.  

PubMed

Tripartite Motif (TRIM) ubiquitin ligases act in the innate immune response against viruses. One of the best characterized members of this family, TRIM5?, serves as a potent retroviral restriction factor with activity against HIV. Here, we characterize what are likely to be the youngest TRIM genes in the human genome. For instance, we have identified 11 TRIM genes that are specific to humans and African apes (chimpanzees, bonobos, and gorillas) and another 7 that are human-specific. Many of these young genes have never been described, and their identification brings the total number of known human TRIM genes to approximately 100. These genes were acquired through segmental duplications, most of which originated from a single locus on chromosome 11. Another polymorphic duplication of this locus has resulted in these genes being copy number variable within the human population, with a Han Chinese woman identified as having 12 additional copies of these TRIM genes compared to other individuals screened in this study. Recently, this locus was annotated as one of 34 "hotspot" regions that are also copy number variable in the genomes of chimpanzees and rhesus macaques. Most of the young TRIM genes originating from this locus are expressed, spliced, and contain signatures of positive natural selection in regions known to determine virus recognition in TRIM5?. However, we find that they do not restrict the same retroviruses as TRIM5?, consistent with the high degree of divergence observed in the regions that control target specificity. We propose that this recombinationally volatile locus serves as a reservoir from which new TRIM genes arise through segmental duplication, allowing primates to continually acquire new antiviral genes that can be selected to target new and evolving pathogens. PMID:22144910

Han, Kyudong; Lou, Dianne I; Sawyer, Sara L

2011-12-01

76

16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303.12 Section 303...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles. (a) Trimmings...

2009-01-01

77

16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303.12 Section 303...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles. (a) Trimmings...

2010-01-01

78

Development and Operation of an Automatic Rotor Trim Control System for use During the UH-60 Individual Blade Control Wind Tunnel Test.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A full-scale wind tunnel test to evaluate the effects of Individual Blade Control (IBC) on the performance, vibration, noise and loads of a UH-60A rotor was recently completed in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunn...

C. R. Theodore

2010-01-01

79

AUTOMATIC CONTROL OF THE INSPIRED OXYGEN FRACTION IN PRETERM INFANTS. A RANDOMIZED CROSS-OVER TRIAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

In preterm infants receiving supplemental oxygen, manual control of the inspired oxygen fraction is often time-consuming and inap- propriate. We developed a system for automatic oxygen control and hypothesized that this system is more effective than routine manual oxygen control in maintaining target arterial oxygen satura- tion levels. We performed a randomized controlled crossover clini- cal trial in 12 preterm

Michael S. Urschitz; Werner Horn; Andreas Seyfang; Antonella Hallenberger; Tina Herberts; Silvia Miksch; Christian Popow; Ingo Müller-Hansen; Christian F. Poets

80

TRIM39R, but not TRIM39B, regulates type I interferon response.  

PubMed

Behcet's disease (BD) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by recurrent oral and genital ulcers, skin legions and uveitis and its pathogenesis is not fully elucidated. Previously we identified that two novel susceptible SNPs are associated with BD. One is located in putative RNF39 promoter region, another is located on TRIM39 coding exon. In this study, in order to identify the molecular function of TRIM39, we established gain-of-function of TRIM39 related genes and thus, performed microarray analysis. Our results indicate that TRIM39R, but not TRIM39B, regulates type I interferon response. PMID:23707810

Kurata, Riho; Tajima, Atsushi; Yonezawa, Tomo; Inoko, Hidetoshi

2013-05-23

81

Control of mitochondrial and cellular respiration by oxygen.  

PubMed

Control and regulation of mitochondrial and cellular respiration by oxygen is discussed with three aims: (1) A review of intracellular oxygen levels and gradients, particularly in heart, emphasizes the dominance of extracellular oxygen gradients. Intracellular oxygen pressure, pO2, is low, typically one to two orders of magnitude below incubation conditions used routinely for the study of respiratory control in isolated mitochondria. The pO2 range of respiratory control by oxygen overlaps with cellular oxygen profiles, indicating the significance of pO2 in actual metabolic regulation. (2) A methodologically detailed discussion of high-resolution respirometry is necessary for the controversial topic of respiratory control by oxygen, since the risk of methodological artefact is closely connected with far-reaching theoretical implications. Instrumental and analytical errors may mask effects of energetic state and partially explain the divergent views on the regulatory role of intracellular pO2. Oxygen pressure for half-maximum respiration, p50, in isolated mitochondria at state 4 was 0.025 kPa (0.2 Torr; 0.3 microM O2), whereas p50 in endothelial cells was 0.06-0.08 kPa (0.5 Torr). (3) A model derived from the thermodynamics of irreversible processes was developed which quantitatively accounts for near-hyperbolic flux/pO2 relations in isolated mitochondria. The apparent p50 is a function of redox potential and protonmotive force. The protonmotive force collapses after uncoupling and consequently causes a decrease in p50. Whereas it is becoming accepted that flux control is shared by several enzymes, insufficient attention is paid to the notion of complementary kinetic and thermodynamic flux control mechanisms. PMID:8746845

Gnaiger, E; Steinlechner-Maran, R; Méndez, G; Eberl, T; Margreiter, R

1995-12-01

82

An Interview with John Trim at 80  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an interview with Dr. John Trim, which was recorded at his home in Cambridge on January 21, 2005, not long after his 80th birthday in October 2004. Although he would not consider himself a language tester, Dr. Trim has followed the trends in language assessment since the 1960s and his own work, particularly as a coauthor of…

Saville, Nick

2005-01-01

83

An Interview with John Trim at 80  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents an interview with Dr. John Trim, which was recorded at his home in Cambridge on January 21, 2005, not long after his 80th birthday in October 2004. Although he would not consider himself a language tester, Dr. Trim has followed the trends in language assessment since the 1960s and his own work, particularly as a coauthor of…

Saville, Nick

2005-01-01

84

Adaptive trimmed mean filters for image restoration  

Microsoft Academic Search

An adaptive smoothing filter is proposed for reducing noise in digital signals of any dimensionality. The adaptive procedure is based on the selection of an appropriate inner or outer trimmed mean filter according to local measurements of the tail behavior (impulsivity) of the noise process. The set of trimmed means used provides robustness against a wide range of noise possibilities

A. Restrepo; A. C. Bovik

1988-01-01

85

The Trimmed Mean in the Linear Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the general linear model with independent errors, we propose and examine the large sample properties of an estimator of the regression parameter. In the location model, the estimator has the same properties as the trimmed mean and the robustness and efficiency properties of the trimmed mean carry over to the general model. The estimator depends on a preliminary estimate

A. H. Welsh

1987-01-01

86

Wavelength Trimming of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers with High-Contrast Subwavelength Grating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We proposed a trimming technology for the precise control of the lasing wavelength and lasing performance of high-contrast subwavelength grating (HCG) loaded vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The trimming is based on the postprocess surface etching of HCG. Our result obtained using rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) shows a possible precise wavelength tuning range of 3 nm for GaAs-based HCG-VCSELs. Our preliminary experiment reveals an expected smallest wavelength trimming of 0.07 nm.

Gu, Xiaodong; Imamura, Akihiro; Koyama, Fumio

2011-10-01

87

Reactive Oxygen Species Controls Endometriosis Progression  

PubMed Central

Endometriosis is associated with chronic inflammation, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are proinflammatory mediators that modulate cell proliferation. We have investigated whether the dysregulation of ROS production in endometriotic cells correlates with a pro-proliferative phenotype and can explain the spreading of this disease. Stromal and epithelial cells were purified from ovarian endometrioma and eutopic endometrium from 14 patients with endometriosis to produce four primary cell lines from each patient. ROS production, detoxification pathways, cell proliferation, and mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation were studied and compared with epithelial and stromal cell lines from 14 patients without endometriosis. Modulation of the proliferation of endometriosis by N-acetyl-cysteine, danazol, and mifepristone was tested in vitro and in 28 nude mice implanted with endometriotic tissue of human origin. Endometriotic cells displayed higher endogenous oxidative stress with an increase in ROS production, alterations in ROS detoxification pathways, and a drop in catalase levels, as observed for tumor cells. This increase in endogenous ROS correlated with increased cellular proliferation and activation of ERK1/2. These phenomena were abrogated by the antioxidant molecule N-acetyl-cysteine both in vitro and in a mouse model of endometriosis. Human endometriotic cells display activated pERK, enhanced ROS production, and proliferative capability. Our murine model shows that antioxidant molecules could be used as safe and efficient treatments for endometriosis.

Ngo, Charlotte; Chereau, Christiane; Nicco, Carole; Weill, Bernard; Chapron, Charles; Batteux, Frederic

2009-01-01

88

[Effect of controlled hypotension on cerebral oxygen delivery].  

PubMed

The margin of safety for controlled hypotension is still unclear especially in the central nervous system (CNS) which is one of the most sensitive organs to hypoxia and ischemia. Recently, cerebral optical spectroscopy in the infrared light range was developed as a useful tool which makes it possible to monitor cerebral oxygenation (rSO2) non-invasively and continuously during anesthesia. Resulting rSO2 mainly reflects oxygen extracts by cerebral tissue and then indicates cerebral oxygen delivery. We examined the limitation of controlled hypotension in the brain in 12 patients by monitoring rSO2 during anesthesia. rSO2 under room air breathing (control value as normal physiological condition) was 67 +/- 3% (mean +/- SEM). It significantly increased by 5.6 +/- 0.8% under 100% oxygen breathing, but decreased near to the control value under sevoflurane anesthesia (FIO2 1.0). During moderate controlled hypotension (70% of normal blood pressure) by prostaglandin E1 under sevoflurane anesthesia (FIO2 1.0). rSO2 remained at control value, indicating that cerebral oxygen delivery was still sufficiently maintained. However rSO2 decreased significantly by 9.0 +/- 1.1% in same controlled hypotension condition under FIO2 0.4. This decrease in rSO2 could be potentially harmful for CNS although any post-operative neurological disorder was not observed in our cases. We conclude that cerebral oxygen delivery may be insufficient even in the moderate controlled hypotension, and thus higher FIO2 is recommended in such procedures. PMID:9251505

Tsuchiya, M; Tokai, H; Imazu, Y; Arai, K; Manabe, M

1997-07-01

89

142. STANDBY PRESSURE CONTROL UNIT FOR FUEL AND LIQUID OXYGEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

142. STANDBY PRESSURE CONTROL UNIT FOR FUEL AND LIQUID OXYGEN IN SOUTHWEST PORTION OF CONTROL ROOM (214), LSB (BLDG. 751), FACING WEST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

90

Atmospheric oxygen concentration controls the size history of foraminifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Body size correlates with numerous physiological traits and thus influences organism fitness. However, long-term controls on size evolution remain poorly understood because few datasets spans sufficiently long intervals. One proposed controlling factor is variation in atmospheric oxygen, which is widely argued to have influenced size evolution in numerous taxa, notably gigantism in arthropods during the late Paleozoic. In this study, we compiled a comprehensive genus- and species-level size database of foraminifers (marine protists) to enable an extensive analysis of factors influencing size evolution. Foraminifers are an ideal study group because they are present in all Phanerozoic periods and have been diverse and abundant in shallow-marine habitats since Devonian time. We observe significant correlation between foraminiferan size and atmospheric oxygen concentration in foraminifers as a whole and in half of the major subclades. Larger size is associated with higher oxygen concentrations, as predicted by simple physiological models based on changes in the ratio of surface area to volume. Because the oxygen content ocean waters is controlled in part by atmospheric pO2, we interpret the association between foraminiferan size and pO2 to result from a direct physiological effect of oxygen availability. Atmospheric oxygen concentration predicts foraminiferan size better than six other Phanerozoic time series (pCO2, sea level, number of named geological formations, ?18O, ?13C, 87Sr/86Sr), further suggesting the correlation between oxygen and size does not occur simply through some common geological cause that influences many aspects of Earth system history. These findings support the hypothesis that widespread Permo-Carboniferous gigantism was enabled by high pO2 and suggest that oxygen availability has been among the most important influences on size evolution through Phanerozoic time.

Payne, J.; Jost, A. B.; Ouyang, X.; Skotheim, J. M.; Wang, S. C.

2010-12-01

91

Laser-Trimming Adjustment of Waveguide Birefringence in Optical FDM Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser trimming of amorphous-silicon stress-applying films deposited on silica-based single-mode waveguides is demonstrated for controlling waveguide birefringence. Successful applications to polarization-insensitive operation of an optical ring resonator and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer are presented. A phase difference of less than ?\\/100 between TE and TM modes has been attained. It is noted that this laser trimming method can also be applicable

Akio Sugita; Kaname Jinguji; Norio Takato; Masao Kawachi

1990-01-01

92

Control of oxygenation in lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase catalysis  

PubMed Central

Lipoxygenases (LOX) and cyclooxygenases (COX) react an achiral polyunsaturated fatty acid with oxygen to form a chiral peroxide product of high regio- and stereochemical purity. Both enzymes employ free radical chemistry reminiscent of hydrocarbon autoxidation but execute efficient control during catalysis to form a specific product over the multitude of isomers found in the non-enzymatic reaction. Exactly how both dioxygenases achieve this positional and stereo control is far from clear. We present four mechanistic models, not mutually exclusive, that could account for the specific reactions of molecular oxygen with a fatty acid in the LOX or COX active site.

Schneider, Claus; Pratt, Derek A.; Porter, Ned A.; Brash, Alan R.

2009-01-01

93

Ovine TRIM5? Can Restrict Visna/Maedi Virus  

PubMed Central

The restrictive properties of tripartite motif-containing 5 alpha (TRIM5?) from small ruminant species have not been explored. Here, we identify highly similar TRIM5? sequences in sheep and goats. Cells transduced with ovine TRIM5? effectively restricted the lentivirus visna/maedi virus DNA synthesis. Proteasome inhibition in cells transduced with ovine TRIM5? restored restricted viral DNA synthesis, suggesting a conserved mechanism of restriction. Identification of TRIM5? active molecular species may open new prophylactic strategies against lentiviral infections.

Jauregui, P.; Crespo, H.; Glaria, I.; Lujan, L.; Contreras, A.; Rosati, S.; de Andres, D.; Amorena, B.; Towers, G. J.

2012-01-01

94

Experimental Control of Oxygen Fugacities by Graphite-Gas Equilibriums  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control of oxygen fugacities in a CO2 + CO atmosphere has been established experimentally by using a solid-phase buffer technique. Equilibration between the buffer and the enclosed sample is established by diffusion of the gas atmosphere through the buffer. The establishment of equilibrium by this method is indicated by the reversibility of experimental results in a study of the decomposition

Bevan M. French; Hans P. Eugster

1965-01-01

95

Trim waste minimization at the Pinellas Plant  

SciTech Connect

Bacteria counts and several methods of slowing bacterial growth in machine trim coolant are suggested to reduce the frequency of coolant replacement without risking employee health or the longevity of the product or machinery. On-site treatment and disposal of waste trim are recommended to further reduce waste volume. This paper discusses the benefits of these efforts, including projected cost savings based on partial implementation at the Department of Energy`s Pinellas Plant.

DeLaneuville, D.

1992-01-30

96

Noble gas sputtering calculations using TRIM  

SciTech Connect

In conjunction with our experimental work on saddle field ion sputtering, we have attempted to apply the Monte Carlo program TRIM (Transport of Ions in Matter) to calculate the sputter yields for a variety of noble gas sputtering applications. Comparison with experiments are shown. Information extracted from these analyses have proved useful in optimizing the experimental sputtering parameters. Calculated sputter yields obtained utilizing TRIM are presented for noble gas sputtering of a variety of materials common to nuclear target production.

Greene, J.P.; Nemanich, J.; Thomas, G.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Physics Div.; Schiel, S.L. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States)

1996-12-31

97

Trim waste minimization at the Pinellas Plant  

SciTech Connect

Bacteria counts and several methods of slowing bacterial growth in machine trim coolant are suggested to reduce the frequency of coolant replacement without risking employee health or the longevity of the product or machinery. On-site treatment and disposal of waste trim are recommended to further reduce waste volume. This paper discusses the benefits of these efforts, including projected cost savings based on partial implementation at the Department of Energy's Pinellas Plant.

DeLaneuville, D.

1992-01-30

98

Oxygen-controlled Biosurfactant Production in a Bench Scale Bioreactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rhamnolipids have been pointed out as promising biosurfactants. The most studied microorganisms for the aerobic production of these molecules are the bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. The aim of this work was to produce a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant in a bench-scale bioreactor by one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil environments. To study the microorganism growth and production dependency on oxygen, a nondispersive oxygenation device was developed, and a programmable logic controller (PLC) was used to set the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Using the data stored in a computer and the predetermined characteristics of the oxygenation device, it was possible to evaluate the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and the specific OUR (SOUR) of this microorganism. These rates, obtained for some different DO concentrations, were then compared to the bacterial growth, to the carbon source consumption, and to the rhamnolipid and other virulence factors production. The SOUR presented an initial value of about 60.0 mg02/gdw h. Then, when the exponential growth phase begins, there is a rise in this rate. After that, the SOUR reduces to about 20.0 mg02/gdw h. The carbon source consumption is linear during the whole process.

de Kronemberger, Frederico Araujo; Anna, Lidia Maria Melo Santa; Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; de Menezes, Reginaldo Ramos; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

99

The Flammability Aspects of Decorative Trimmings: Part 1Flammability of Trimmings Used on Upholstered Furniture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fundamental studies have been carried out on the flammability aspects of decorative trimmings used on upholstered furniture. In addition to the trimmings being tested in isolation, tests were also carried out to assess their flammability in conjunction with flammable upholstery foam as well as with a variety of fabric\\/foam composites. The flammability has been assessed by ignition to a smouldering

A. P. DSilva; N. Sorensen

1996-01-01

100

Oxygen Control For Bioreactors And In-vitro Cell Assays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved oxygen (DO) is an important parameter in biomedical and cell-culture applications. Several studies have found cell survival and function to be intimately linked to oxygen concentration. Laminar flow, as observed in microfluidic devices, provides an ideal environment to manipulate and control concentration gradients. In this paper we demonstrate the first characterization of integrated fluorescence-based oxygen sensors for DO measurement within a cell-culture bioreactor device. Solid-state PtOEPK/PS sensor patterns were integrated into the PDMS-based bioreactor and calibrated for detection of DO concentration with a superimposed layer of collagen and Ishikawa human endometrial cancer cells. The sensor signal of the layer subjacent to the cells was found to follow a Stern-Volmer model and the intensity ratio was measured to I0/I100 = 3.9 after 3 days in culture. The device provides a novel tool for the control and spatially-resolved measurement of oxygen levels in cellular assays and cell-culture applications.

Nock, V.; Blaikie, R. J.; David, T.

2009-07-01

101

p300, but not PCAF, collaborates with IRF-1 in stimulating TRIM22 expression independently of its histone acetyltransferase activity.  

PubMed

Tripartite motif (TRIM) 22 plays an important role in IFN-mediated antiviral activity. We previously demonstrated that IFN regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) was crucial for constitutive and IFN-induced TRIM22 expression via binding to a special cis-element named 5' extended IFN-stimulating response element. Here, we further investigate the molecular mechanisms of TRIM22 with a focus on the co-activators of IRF-1. Using an in vitro DNA affinity binding assay and an in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we found that IFN-? stimulation significantly enhanced the binding of p300 and p300/CBP-associated factor, but not other co-activators such as general control nondepressible 5, steroid receptor co-activator-1, and activator of thyroid and retinoic, to the 5' extended IFN-stimulating response element containing TRIM22 promoter region together with IRF-1. Overexpression and knockdown analysis demonstrated that it was p300, but not p300/CBP-associated factor, that functioned as a transcriptional co-activator of IRF-1 in IFN-? induction of TRIM22. We further show that p300 contributed to both IFN-?- and IRF-1-mediated TRIM22 transcription independent of its histone acetyltransferase activity, however, it was required for the recruitment of RNA polymerase II to TRIM22 promoter region. These data indicate that p300 plays a critical role in IFN-?-induced TRIM22 expression via recruiting RNA polymerase II to the TRIM22 promoter, and might serve as a bridge between IRF-1 and the basal transcriptional apparatus in TRIM22 induction. PMID:23670564

Gao, Bo; Xu, Wei; Zhong, Linmao; Zhang, Qilin; Su, Ya; Xiong, Sidong

2013-06-12

102

Evolution of a cytoplasmic tripartite motif (TRIM) protein in cows that restricts retroviral infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Primate tripartite motif 5 (TRIM5) proteins mediate innate intracellular resistance to retroviruses. In humans, TRIM5 is located in a paralogous cluster that includes TRIM6, TRIM34, and TRIM22. Although TRIM6 and TRIM34 orthologs are found in other mammals, TRIM5 has to date been identified only in primates. Cow cells exhibit early blocks to infection by several retroviruses. We identify a cytoplasmic

Zhihai Si; Nick Vandegraaff; Colm O'Huigin; Byeongwoon Song; Wen Yuan; Chen Xu; Michel Perron; Xing Li; Wayne A. Marasco; Alan Engelman; Michael Dean; Joseph Sodroski

2006-01-01

103

Glycemic control in pediatric patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES To determine whether glycemic control has an effect on outcomes for pediatric patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy, while controlling for multiple factors. METHODS A single-center retrospective chart review was performed on 82 patients who required ECMO from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2010. All glucose concentrations collected while patients were on ECMO were analyzed; multiple other factors that may have affected mortality were also recorded. Primary outcome was mortality, and secondary outcomes were length of time on ECMO and length of time until death or discharge from the hospital. RESULTS Of 82 patients, 53 patients survived ECMO (64.6%). Glucose control had no effect on survival of patients on ECMO (p=0.56), even when controlling for multiple factors (p=0.48). Similarly, statistical evaluation showed no differences for hospital mortality in relationship to controlled serum glucose (p=0.50). Patients with controlled glucose spent an average of 31.5% more time on ECMO than non-controlled patients (p=0.048). CONCLUSIONS In this study, glycemic control, defined as serum glucose concentration between 60 mg/dL and 250 mg/dL for >95% of the time on ECMO, had no statistically significant effect on mortality for patients on ECMO. Future studies could focus on tighter glucose control or specific dextrose/glucose protocols to evaluate whether improved glucose control would have an effect on morbidity and mortality. PMID:24052786

Wierer, Kathryn L; Pagryzinski, Rachel A; Xiang, Qun

2013-07-01

104

TRIM16 Acts as an E3 Ubiquitin Ligase and Can Heterodimerize with Other TRIM Family Members  

PubMed Central

The TRIM family of proteins is distinguished by its tripartite motif (TRIM). Typically, TRIM proteins contain a RING finger domain, one or two B-box domains, a coiled-coil domain and the more variable C-terminal domains. TRIM16 does not have a RING domain but does harbour two B-box domains. Here we showed that TRIM16 homodimerized through its coiled-coil domain and heterodimerized with other TRIM family members; TRIM24, Promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) protein and Midline-1 (MID1). Although, TRIM16 has no classic RING domain, three-dimensional modelling of TRIM16 suggested that its B-box domains adopts RING-like folds leading to the hypothesis that TRIM16 acts as an ubiquitin ligase. Consistent with this hypothesis, we demonstrated that TRIM16, devoid of a classical RING domain had auto-polyubiquitination activity and acted as an E3 ubiquitin ligase in vivo and in vitro assays. Thus via its unique structure, TRIM16 possesses both heterodimerization function with other TRIM proteins and also has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity.

Holien, Jessica K.; Koach, Jessica; Parker, Michael W.; Kavallaris, Maria; Marshall, Glenn M.; Cheung, Belamy B.

2012-01-01

105

An electromic controller for maintaining low dissolved oxygen levels in a bench-top fermentor  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electronic dissolved oxygen controller for use with a bench-top fermentor is described. It was designed to give an accurate control of low dissolved oxygen levels by continuous regulation of the agitation speed.

J. C. du Preez; A. B. Hugo

1989-01-01

106

Molecular evolution of the antiretroviral TRIM5 gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2004, the first report of TRIM5? as a cellular antiretroviral factor triggered intense interest among virologists, particularly\\u000a because some primate orthologs of TRIM5? have activity against HIV. Since that time, a complex and eventful evolutionary history\\u000a of the TRIM5 locus has emerged. A review of the TRIM5 literature constitutes a veritable compendium of evolutionary phenomena, including elevated rates of

Welkin E. Johnson; Sara L. Sawyer

2009-01-01

107

Alpha-trimmed means and their relationship to median filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppose that X is a finite set of N numbers, The ?-trimmed mean of X is obtained by sorting X into ascending order, removing (trimming) a fixed fractionalpha(0 leq alpha leq 0.5)from the high and low ends of the sorted set, and computing the average of the remaining values. When applied to a sliding window of length LW, the ?-trimming

J. BEE BEDNAR; TERRY L. WATT

1984-01-01

108

Tri-M: Try it; You'll Like it!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the Tri-M Music Honor Society that is for middle/junior high and senior high school students. Discusses what having a Tri-M Society can do for a music department and the benefits of having a Tri-M Society. Includes information on starting the society, a history, and Web sites. (CMK)|

Beelendorf, Pierre

2002-01-01

109

TRIM5 alpha drives SIVsmm evolution in rhesus macaques.  

PubMed

The antagonistic interaction with host restriction proteins is a major driver of evolutionary change for viruses. We previously reported that polymorphisms of the TRIM5? B30.2/SPRY domain impacted the level of SIVsmm viremia in rhesus macaques. Viremia in macaques homozygous for the non-restrictive TRIM5? allele TRIM5(Q) was significantly higher than in macaques expressing two restrictive TRIM5alpha alleles TRIM5(TFP/TFP) or TRIM5(Cyp/TFP). Using this model, we observed that despite an early impact on viremia, SIVsmm overcame TRIM5? restriction at later stages of infection and that increasing viremia was associated with specific amino acid substitutions in capsid. Two amino acid substitutions (P37S and R98S) in the capsid region were associated with escape from TRIM5(TFP) restriction and substitutions in the CypA binding-loop (GPLPA87-91) in capsid were associated with escape from TRIM5(Cyp). Introduction of these mutations into the original SIVsmE543 clone not only resulted in escape from TRIM5? restriction in vitro but the P37S and R98S substitutions improved virus fitness in macaques with homozygous restrictive TRIM(TFP) alleles in vivo. Similar substitutions were observed in other SIVsmm strains following transmission and passage in macaques, collectively providing direct evidence that TRIM5? exerts selective pressure on the cross-species transmission of SIV in primates. PMID:23990789

Wu, Fan; Kirmaier, Andrea; Goeken, Robert; Ourmanov, Ilnour; Hall, Laura; Morgan, Jennifer S; Matsuda, Kenta; Buckler-White, Alicia; Tomioka, Keiko; Plishka, Ronald; Whitted, Sonya; Johnson, Welkin; Hirsch, Vanessa M

2013-08-22

110

Three-dimensional trim coil field in the VINCY cyclotron.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The trim coil magnetic field in the VINCY cyclotron was performed with the help of the three-dimensional (3D) software. The comparison of the 2D and 3D trim coil calculation results are presented. The 3d calculations of trim coil show some difference in t...

S. B. Vorozhtsov I. V. Titkova O. V. Lomakina D. V. Altiparmakov M. Lazovic

1996-01-01

111

Origin and Evolution of TRIM Proteins: New Insights from the Complete TRIM Repertoire of Zebrafish and Pufferfish  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tripartite motif proteins (TRIM) constitute a large family of proteins containing a RING-Bbox-Coiled Coil motif followed by different C-terminal domains. Involved in ubiquitination, TRIM proteins participate in many cellular processes including antiviral immunity. The TRIM family is ancient and has been greatly diversified in vertebrates and especially in fish. We analyzed the complete sets of trim genes of the large

Pierre Boudinot; Lieke M. van der Aa; Luc Jouneau; Louis Du Pasquier; Pierre Pontarotti; Valérie Briolat; Abdenour Benmansour; Jean-Pierre Levraud

2011-01-01

112

Effects of Beak Trimming on Pecking Force  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Beak trimming in the production laying hen has come under great scrutiny by welfare and consumer advocacy groups as a potential source of acute and chronic pain as well as having the potential to inhibit the freedom to express normal behaviors such as feeding behaviors. Although several studies have...

113

On the Least Trimmed Squares Estimator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The linear least trimmed squares (LTS) estimator is a statistical technique for estimating the line (or generally hyperplane) of fit for a set of points. It was proposed by Rousseeuw as a robust alternative to the classical least squares estimator. Given a set of n points in Rd, in classical least squares the objective is to find a linear model

David M. Mount; Nathan S. Netanyahu; Christine D. Piatko; Ruth Silverman; Angela Y. Wu

114

Trimming and procrastination as inversion techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

By examining the processes of truncating and approximating the model space (trimming it), and by committing to neither the objectivist nor the subjectivist interpretation of probability (procrastinating), we construct a formal scheme for solving linear and non-linear geophysical inverse problems. The necessary prior information about the correct model xE can be either a collection of inequalities or a probability measure

George E. Backus

1996-01-01

115

Real-time rendering of trimmed surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rational tensor product surfaces, (Bézier, NURBS, Hermite, polynomial, etc.) are rendered in real-time by uniform faceting. The described methods are modular and can be balanced for optimal implementation on different hardware platforms. Discretization anomalies such as angularities, Mach banding, cracking etc. are avoided by tessellating the surface patches and segmenting the trimming curves based on the view.

Alyn P. Rockwood; Kurt Heaton; Tom Davis

1989-01-01

116

Rendering trimmed NURBS with adaptive forward differencing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trimmed non-uniform rational B-splines have become a very useful surface representation form in the mechanical CAD industry. Previous rendering methods use the de Boor algorithm to evaluate the surface at equal increments in parameter space. This yields polygons which are then rendered. Alternatively the Oslo algorithm and Boehm's knot insertion algorithms are used in a subdivision approach. In this paper

Michael Shantz; Sheue-Ling Chang

1988-01-01

117

Inhibition of nitrogenase by oxygen in marine cyanobacteria controls the global nitrogen and oxygen cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cyanobacterial N2-fixation supplies the vast majority of biologically accessible inorganic nitrogen to nutrient-poor aquatic ecosystems. The process, catalyzed by the heterodimeric protein complex, nitrogenase, is thought to predate that of oxygenic photosynthesis. Remarkably, while the enzyme plays such a critical role in Earth's biogeochemical cycles, the activity of nitrogenase in cyanobacteria is markedly inhibited in vivo at a post-translational level by the concentration of O2 in the contemporary atmosphere leading to metabolic and biogeochemical inefficiency in N2 fixation. We illustrate this crippling effect with data from Trichodesmium spp. an important contributor of "new nitrogen" to the world's subtropical and tropical oceans. The enzymatic inefficiency of nitrogenase imposes a major elemental taxation on diazotrophic cyanobacteria both in the costs of protein synthesis and for scarce trace elements, such as iron. This restriction has, in turn, led to a global limitation of fixed nitrogen in the contemporary oceans and provides a strong biological control on the upper bound of oxygen concentration in Earth's atmosphere.

Berman-Frank, I.; Chen, Y.-B.; Gerchman, Y.; Dismukes, G. C.; Falkowski, P. G.

2005-03-01

118

Dissolved oxygen control of the activated sludge wastewater treatment process using stable adaptive fuzzy control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the operation of wastewater treatment plants a key variable is dissolved oxygen (DO) content in the bioreactors. The paper describes the development of an adaptive fuzzy control strategy for tracking the DO reference trajectory applied to the Benchmark Simulation Model n.1. The design methodology of this data-driven controller uses the Lyapunov synthesis approach with a parameter projection algorithm to

Carlos Alberto Coelho Belchior; Rui Alexandre Matos Araújo; Jorge Afonso Cardoso Landeck

119

Hare TRIM5? Restricts Divergent Retroviruses and Exhibits Significant Sequence Variation from Closely Related Lagomorpha TRIM5 Genes?  

PubMed Central

TRIM5? proteins recruit and restrict incoming cytoplasmic retroviruses. Primate TRIM5? sequence diversity underlies species-specific restriction and is likely caused by selective pressure from ancient pathogenic infections. Here we show that TRIM5? from the European brown hare restricts diverse retroviruses. Furthermore, it differs significantly in sequence from TRIM5? from the closely related rabbit, suggesting evolutionary changes in the last 12 million years since these species diverged. We propose that, like primates, lagomorphs have been subject to selective pressure from TRIM5-sensitive viruses, possibly related to the endogenous lentivirus RELIK found in both rabbits and hares.

Fletcher, Adam J.; Hue, Stephane; Schaller, Torsten; Pillay, Deenan; Towers, Greg J.

2010-01-01

120

TRIM28 repression of retrotransposon-based enhancers is necessary to preserve transcriptional dynamics in embryonic stem cells  

PubMed Central

TRIM28 is critical for the silencing of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Here, we reveal that an essential impact of this process is the protection of cellular gene expression in early embryos from perturbation by cis-acting activators contained within these retroelements. In TRIM28-depleted ES cells, repressive chromatin marks at ERVs are replaced by histone modifications typical of active enhancers, stimulating transcription of nearby cellular genes, notably those harboring bivalent promoters. Correspondingly, ERV-derived sequences can repress or enhance expression from an adjacent promoter in transgenic embryos depending on their TRIM28 sensitivity in ES cells. TRIM28-mediated control of ERVs is therefore crucial not just to prevent retrotransposition, but more broadly to safeguard the transcriptional dynamics of early embryos.

Rowe, Helen M.; Kapopoulou, Adamandia; Corsinotti, Andrea; Fasching, Liana; Macfarlan, Todd S.; Tarabay, Yara; Viville, Stephane; Jakobsson, Johan; Pfaff, Samuel L.; Trono, Didier

2013-01-01

121

Abiotic Reduction of Selenite and Antimonate Under Controlled Oxygen Conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory and field studies have reported the oxidation of elemental Se to selenite or selenate or that of antimonite to antimonate but the reduction studies of the two elements, especially in absence of bacteria are more scarce. We have performed experiments on the abiotic reduction of Se(IV) and Sb(V) under controlled oxygen conditions in presence of naturally-encountered reducing agents such as Fe(II) and dissolved sulfide. In the case of selenite, the reduction by ferrous iron is barely detectable at very low concentrations of oxygen. However, at concentrations of 200 ± 50 ppmv in the controlled atmosphere glove box, more iron oxide particles were formed at a higher initial Fe(II) concentration in the system and with time. In the pellets collected after filtration, a significant amount of Se(0) was found. Our field geochemical studies on Se also showed the same phenomenon, i.e. a higher level of Se(0) in lake sediments was accompanied by a higher presence of iron oxides. In the case of antimony, the reduction of Sb(V) by dissolved sulfide was extensive and far more rapid at more acidic pH values. Half lives for Sb(V) in the presence of excess dissolved sulfide at pH values of 5 to 7 were calculated and the reaction was found to be first order with respect to all three of [Sb(V)], [dissolved sulfide] and [H+]. Metastibnite precipitated after reduction of Sb(V) in working experimental samples at buffered pH of 5 and 6. The oxidation product of dissolved sulfide was identified as elemental sulfur. This study has demonstrated the ability of dissolved sulfide to reduce Sb(V) under a variety of environmentally relevant concentrations and conditions.

Belzile, N.; Truong, H. T.; Polack, R.; Chen, Y.

2008-12-01

122

Method of forming an interior trim component  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An interior trim component is formed utilizing an injection molding apparatus having first and second molds. The component includes a laminate and a polymer. The laminate includes a face layer having a finished and unfinished side, an adhesive layer bonded to the unfinished side, and a barrier bonded to the adhesive layer. The barrier includes a non-woven textile weighing at least 80 g/m.sup.2. The laminate is positioned in the first mold such that the barrier is exposed to face the second mold. The apparatus is moved into a closed position and a cavity is established between the barrier and the second mold. The polymer is injected into the cavity at a pressure of at least 500 psi. The polymer reacts with the barrier to bond the laminate to the polymer and to form the interior trim component without the polymer penetrating through the barrier and into the face layer.

2006-02-28

123

Theory and application of polysilicon resistor trimming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The resistivity of polysilicon films are dramatically altered when subjected to high current densities via a technique known as pulse current trimming[1,2,8,10]. A new physical model for the mechanisms governing the observed resistance reduction and recovery is presented. The model views the grain boundary as a defect-laden transition region between grains of different crystal orientation. Severe temperatures induced in the

D. W Feldbaumer; J. A Babcock

1995-01-01

124

Ray tracing trimmed rational surface patches  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new algorithm for computing the points at which a ray intersects a rational Bézier surface patch, and also an algorithm for determining if an intersection point lies within a region trimmed by piecewise Bézier curves. Both algorithms are based on a recent innovation known as Bézier clipping, described herein. The intersection algorithm is faster than previous

Tomoyuki Nishita; Thomas W. Sederberg; Masanori Kakimoto

1990-01-01

125

Solution found to chronic trim damage  

SciTech Connect

For some time, 2-inch single-stage gas-pressure letdown valve trim at a large Mideast oil and gas production facility suffered severe erosion damage, and experienced noise/vibration problems both within the valves themselves and the downstream piping. It was determined that the trim erosion which caused the problem was due to high oxide corrosion products from the upstream piping passing at high velocity (1,020 ft/sec) through the single-stage, drilled-hole-cage valve trim. This was also the source of the noise/vibration problems. Since it takes into account fluid density, it has been established that velocity head (V2/2) is a better criterion than just pure fluid velocity in judging design adequacy in pressure-reducing valves. It is very useful in eliminating the destructive effects of high fluid velocity and noise/vibration problems. In this case, the actual velocity head equaled 360 psi. For these reasons, it was decided to replace these single-stage pressure-reduction valves with multi-stage pressure-reduction valves capable of limiting this high velocity. These valves are described.

Smirl, P.A. [Design Engineering Control Components Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, CA (United States); Edwards, T.W. [Edwards (T.W.), Sun City, CA (United States)

1997-09-01

126

Characterization of OPC masks for thin-film head pole trimming applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The storage space of hard disk drives more than doubles every 18 months. In order to maintain this growth rate, thin film head (TFH) manufacturers continue to seek new technologies to increase the areal density on the magnetic media. The trimming of the track at the rowbar level known as 'pole trimming' has proven itself to be very effective at increasing the number of tracks per inch (TPI) during the inductive head generation. However, the transition to magneto-resistive (MR) head technologies with ever smaller form factors has continued to push the trackwidth (TW) requirements of the industry. Optical proximity correction (OPC) enhanced masks have been used in the semiconductor industry for controlling the shape of contacts and eliminating line shortening effects for submicron features. The TFH industry is facing a similar challenge as TWs dip below 1 micrometer. In an attempt to transition the pole trimming process technology from inductive to MR heads, the issue of magnetic performance versus pattern fidelity of the feature becomes critical. OPC masks can be used to minimize the corner rounding effects of trimmed shared magnetic poles, which are ultimately responsible for the track width. This paper evaluates OPC mask technology on rowbar level pole trimming using a 1X stepper to identify the extendibility of minimum TWs for the MR head generation. Various combinations of serifs were experimentally evaluated at different track widths. Multiple photoresists and photoresist thicknesses were selected to represent the range of processes used in the industry. The experimental results were then compared with photoresist simulation studies of the same OPC reticle features. The validation of the simulation results allowed a wider range of conditions to be studied. The results show that OPC is an effective technique for enhancing pole trimming and extending the areal density of modern head designs.

Flack, Warren W.; White, Sylvia; Ho, Calvin; Schurz, Dan L.; Consentino, Fabio

1998-12-01

127

The mammalian TRIM-NHL protein TRIM71/LIN-41 is a repressor of mRNA function.  

PubMed

TRIM-NHL proteins are conserved regulators of development and differentiation but their molecular function has remained largely elusive. Here, we report an as yet unrecognized activity for the mammalian TRIM-NHL protein TRIM71 as a repressor of mRNAs. We show that TRIM71 is associated with mRNAs and that it promotes translational repression and mRNA decay. We have identified Rbl1 and Rbl2, two transcription factors whose down-regulation is important for stem cell function, as TRIM71 targets in mouse embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, one of the defining features of TRIM-NHL proteins, the NHL domain, is necessary and sufficient to target TRIM71 to RNA, while the RING domain that confers ubiquitin ligase activity is dispensable for repression. Our results reveal strong similarities between TRIM71 and Drosophila BRAT, the best-studied TRIM-NHL protein and a well-documented translational repressor, suggesting that BRAT and TRIM71 are part of a family of mRNA repressors regulating proliferation and differentiation. PMID:23125361

Loedige, Inga; Gaidatzis, Dimos; Sack, Ragna; Meister, Gunter; Filipowicz, Witold

2012-11-03

128

The mammalian TRIM-NHL protein TRIM71/LIN-41 is a repressor of mRNA function  

PubMed Central

TRIM-NHL proteins are conserved regulators of development and differentiation but their molecular function has remained largely elusive. Here, we report an as yet unrecognized activity for the mammalian TRIM-NHL protein TRIM71 as a repressor of mRNAs. We show that TRIM71 is associated with mRNAs and that it promotes translational repression and mRNA decay. We have identified Rbl1 and Rbl2, two transcription factors whose down-regulation is important for stem cell function, as TRIM71 targets in mouse embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, one of the defining features of TRIM-NHL proteins, the NHL domain, is necessary and sufficient to target TRIM71 to RNA, while the RING domain that confers ubiquitin ligase activity is dispensable for repression. Our results reveal strong similarities between TRIM71 and Drosophila BRAT, the best-studied TRIM-NHL protein and a well-documented translational repressor, suggesting that BRAT and TRIM71 are part of a family of mRNA repressors regulating proliferation and differentiation.

Loedige, Inga; Gaidatzis, Dimos; Sack, Ragna; Meister, Gunter; Filipowicz, Witold

2013-01-01

129

A Magnetically Controlled Wireless Intraocular Oxygen Sensor: Concept, Prototype, and In Vitro Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of oxygen on various ophthalmologic complications is not completely understood and intraocular oxygen measurements are essential for better diagnosis and treatment. A magnetically controlled wireless sensor device is proposed for minimally invasive intraocular oxygen concentration measurements. This device will make it possible to make measurements at locations that are currently too invasive for human intervention by integrating a

O. Ergeneman; G. Dogangil; J. J. Abbott; M. K. Nazeeruddin; B. J. Nelson

2007-01-01

130

A procedure to determine the water-binding capacity of meat trimmings for cooked sausage formulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

An attempt was made to determine the water-binding capacity of each individual trimming in a multicomponent system. Three types of experimental cooked sausages (finely chopped luncheon sausage, coarsely chopped sausage and ring sausage with potato starch) were made of five different meat trimmings: two pork trimmings and two beef trimmings, and one beef trimming used as a replacer. The water-binding

Petri Pouttu; Eero Puolanne

2004-01-01

131

The E3-ubiquitin ligase TRIM2 regulates neuronal polarization.  

PubMed

The establishment of a polarized morphology with a single axon and multiple dendrites is an essential step during neuronal differentiation. This cellular polarization is largely depending on changes in the dynamics of the neuronal cytoskeleton. Here, we show that the tripartite motif (TRIM)-NHL protein TRIM2 is regulating axon specification in cultured mouse hippocampal neurons, where one of several initially indistinguishable neurites is selected to become the axon. Suppression of TRIM2 by RNA interference results in the loss of neuronal polarity while over-expression of TRIM2 induces the specification of multiple axons. TRIM2 conducts its function during neuronal polarization by ubiquitination of the neurofilament light chain. Together, our results imply an important function of TRIM2 for axon outgrowth during development. PMID:20796172

Khazaei, Mohammad R; Bunk, Eva C; Hillje, Anna-Lena; Jahn, Hannah M; Riegler, Eva M; Knoblich, Jürgen A; Young, Peter; Schwamborn, Jens C

2010-09-28

132

Automatic Trimming Technique for Superconducting Band-Pass Filters Using a Trimming Library  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The superconducting band-pass filter has small insertion loss and excellent out-of-band rejection properties. It has been put to practical use in a number of applications. However, in order to expand its range of application, a tuning technique that can restore the filter characteristics is needed. We propose an automatic tuning system using a trimming library and checked the feasibility of the system by tuning a forward-coupled filter with three resonators. The results show that the trimming library method is an effective way of automatically improving the filter characteristics.

Ohshima, Shigetoshi; Kaneko, Takuro; Lee, Jae-Hun; Osaka, Maya; Ono, Satoshi; Saito, Atsushi

133

5. GENERAL VIEW, SECOND FLOOR, SHOWING TYPICAL WINDOW TRIM AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. GENERAL VIEW, SECOND FLOOR, SHOWING TYPICAL WINDOW TRIM AND THE PRESSED METAL CEILING, VIEW FROM SOUTHWEST. - 443 Seventh Street, Northwest (Commercial Building), Washington, District of Columbia, DC

134

Generation of Mice with a Conditional Allele for Trim33  

PubMed Central

Trim33 (Tif1?, ectodermin, moonshine), a member of the TIF1 family of transcriptional coactivators and corepressors, is a large nuclear protein that contains an N-terminal tripartite (Trim) domain composed of a RING domain, two B-box domains and a coiled coil domain. It has been suggested that Trim33 (Ectodermin) mediates ectodermal induction in the Xenopus by functioning as a Smad4 ubiquitin ligase, while in the zebrafish Trim33 (moonshine) has been reported to act as a R-Smad binding protein in induction of erythroid differentiation. Since the developmental role of Trim33 in mammals is currently unknown, we generated mice carrying the conditional Trim33 (Trim33FX) allele by flanking exons 2–4 encoding most of the functionally critical N-terminal tripartite domain by loxP sites. We confirmed the null genotype by using the EIIa-Cre transgenic approach to create mice that lack exons 2–4. Embryos deficient in Trim33 die during early somitogenesis, demonstrating that Trim33 plays an important non-redundant role in mammalian embryonic development.

Kim, Jieun; Kaartinen, Vesa

2008-01-01

135

Generation of mice with a conditional allele for Trim33.  

PubMed

Trim33 (Tif1gamma, ectodermin, moonshine), a member of the TIF1 family of transcriptional coactivators and corepressors, is a large nuclear protein that contains an N-terminal tripartite (Trim) domain composed of a RING domain, two B-box domains, and a coiled coil domain. It has been suggested that Trim33 (Ectodermin) mediates ectodermal induction in the Xenopus by functioning as a Smad4 ubiquitin ligase, while in the zebrafish Trim33 (moonshine) has been reported to act as a R-Smad binding protein in induction of erythroid differentiation. Since the developmental role of Trim33 in mammals is currently unknown, we generated mice carrying the conditional Trim33 (Trim33(FX)) allele by flanking exons 2-4 encoding most of the functionally critical N-terminal tripartite domain by loxP sites. We confirmed the null genotype by using the EIIa-Cre transgenic approach to create mice that lack exons 2-4. Embryos deficient in Trim33 die during early somitogenesis, demonstrating that Trim33 plays an important nonredundant role in mammalian embryonic development. PMID:18543301

Kim, Jieun; Kaartinen, Vesa

2008-06-01

136

Origin and evolution of TRIM proteins: new insights from the complete TRIM repertoire of zebrafish and pufferfish.  

PubMed

Tripartite motif proteins (TRIM) constitute a large family of proteins containing a RING-Bbox-Coiled Coil motif followed by different C-terminal domains. Involved in ubiquitination, TRIM proteins participate in many cellular processes including antiviral immunity. The TRIM family is ancient and has been greatly diversified in vertebrates and especially in fish. We analyzed the complete sets of trim genes of the large zebrafish genome and of the compact pufferfish genome. Both contain three large multigene subsets--adding the hsl5/trim35-like genes (hltr) to the ftr and the btr that we previously described--all containing a B30.2 domain that evolved under positive selection. These subsets are conserved among teleosts. By contrast, most human trim genes of the other classes have only one or two orthologues in fish. Loss or gain of C-terminal exons generated proteins with different domain organizations; either by the deletion of the ancestral domain or, remarkably, by the acquisition of a new C-terminal domain. Our survey of fish trim genes in fish identifies subsets with different evolutionary dynamics. trims encoding RBCC-B30.2 proteins show the same evolutionary trends in fish and tetrapods: they evolve fast, often under positive selection, and they duplicate to create multigenic families. We could identify new combinations of domains, which epitomize how new trim classes appear by domain insertion or exon shuffling. Notably, we found that a cyclophilin-A domain replaces the B30.2 domain of a zebrafish fintrim gene, as reported in the macaque and owl monkey antiretroviral TRIM5?. Finally, trim genes encoding RBCC-B30.2 proteins are preferentially located in the vicinity of MHC or MHC gene paralogues, which suggests that such trim genes may have been part of the ancestral MHC. PMID:21789205

Boudinot, Pierre; van der Aa, Lieke M; Jouneau, Luc; Du Pasquier, Louis; Pontarotti, Pierre; Briolat, Valérie; Benmansour, Abdenour; Levraud, Jean-Pierre

2011-07-15

137

Origin and Evolution of TRIM Proteins: New Insights from the Complete TRIM Repertoire of Zebrafish and Pufferfish  

PubMed Central

Tripartite motif proteins (TRIM) constitute a large family of proteins containing a RING-Bbox-Coiled Coil motif followed by different C-terminal domains. Involved in ubiquitination, TRIM proteins participate in many cellular processes including antiviral immunity. The TRIM family is ancient and has been greatly diversified in vertebrates and especially in fish. We analyzed the complete sets of trim genes of the large zebrafish genome and of the compact pufferfish genome. Both contain three large multigene subsets - adding the hsl5/trim35-like genes (hltr) to the ftr and the btr that we previously described - all containing a B30.2 domain that evolved under positive selection. These subsets are conserved among teleosts. By contrast, most human trim genes of the other classes have only one or two orthologues in fish. Loss or gain of C-terminal exons generated proteins with different domain organizations; either by the deletion of the ancestral domain or, remarkably, by the acquisition of a new C-terminal domain. Our survey of fish trim genes in fish identifies subsets with different evolutionary dynamics. trims encoding RBCC-B30.2 proteins show the same evolutionary trends in fish and tetrapods: they evolve fast, often under positive selection, and they duplicate to create multigenic families. We could identify new combinations of domains, which epitomize how new trim classes appear by domain insertion or exon shuffling. Notably, we found that a cyclophilin-A domain replaces the B30.2 domain of a zebrafish fintrim gene, as reported in the macaque and owl monkey antiretroviral TRIM5?. Finally, trim genes encoding RBCC-B30.2 proteins are preferentially located in the vicinity of MHC or MHC gene paralogues, which suggests that such trim genes may have been part of the ancestral MHC.

Boudinot, Pierre; van der Aa, Lieke M.; Jouneau, Luc; Du Pasquier, Louis; Pontarotti, Pierre; Briolat, Valerie; Benmansour, Abdenour; Levraud, Jean-Pierre

2011-01-01

138

System Controls and Measures Oxygen Fugacity: Ceramic-electrolyte cell monitors the oxygen fugacity in high-temperature reactions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This citation summarizes a one-page announcement of technology available for utilization. A system controls and measures oxygen fugacity in high-temperature chemical research. A ceramic-electrolyte cell is the sensing element. All the hardware needed to c...

1982-01-01

139

Hexagonal assembly of a restricting TRIM5? protein  

PubMed Central

TRIM5? proteins are restriction factors that protect mammalian cells from retroviral infections by binding incoming viral capsids, accelerating their dissociation, and preventing reverse transcription of the viral genome. Individual TRIM5 isoforms can often protect cells against a broad range of retroviruses, as exemplified by rhesus monkey TRIM5? and its variant, TRIM5-21R, which recognize HIV-1 as well as several distantly related retroviruses. Although capsid recognition is not yet fully understood, previous work has shown that the C-terminal SPRY/B30.2 domain of dimeric TRIM5? binds directly to viral capsids, and that higher-order TRIM5? oligomerization appears to contribute to the efficiency of capsid recognition. Here, we report that recombinant TRIM5-21R spontaneously assembled into two-dimensional paracrystalline hexagonal lattices comprising open, six-sided rings. TRIM5-21R assembly did not require the C-terminal SPRY domain, but did require both protein dimerization and a B-box 2 residue (Arg121) previously implicated in TRIM5? restriction and higher-order assembly. Furthermore, TRIM5-21R assembly was promoted by binding to hexagonal arrays of the HIV-1 CA protein that mimic the surface of the viral capsid. We therefore propose that TRIM5? proteins have evolved to restrict a range of different retroviruses by assembling a deformable hexagonal scaffold that positions the capsid-binding domains to match the symmetry and spacing of the capsid surface lattice. Capsid recognition therefore involves a synergistic combination of direct binding interactions, avidity effects, templated assembly, and lattice complementarity.

Ganser-Pornillos, Barbie K.; Chandrasekaran, Viswanathan; Pornillos, Owen; Sodroski, Joseph G.; Sundquist, Wesley I.; Yeager, Mark

2011-01-01

140

Computerized maintenance boosts reliability, trims costs  

SciTech Connect

A natural gas-fired combined-cycle power plant has operated successfully for the past three years at the 3800-acre Pitchess Honor Rancho jail complex in Saugus, Calif. One of the reasons for the plant's success has been its computerized maintenance system. This paper reports that utilization of the computerized plant maintenance system program, in conjunction with several data base programs, has increased the plant's reliability and trimmed costs. As we learned at Pitchess, a computerized maintenance program provides two key advantages over the traditional breakdown maintenance approach: minimal equipment breakdown, and a reduction in operations and maintenance man-hours.

Hammer, K. (County of Los Angeles, CA (US)); Egleston, P.C.; Steinert, M.P.; Goldstein, M. (Charles T. Main Inc. (US))

1992-01-01

141

Catalytic Synthesis of Oxygenates: Mechanisms, Catalysts and Controlling Characteristics  

SciTech Connect

This research focused on catalytic synthesis of unsymmetrical ethers as a part of a larger program involving oxygenated products in general, including alcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids and their derivatives that link together environmentally compliant fuels, monomers, and high-value chemicals. The catalysts studied here were solid acids possessing strong Br�������¸nsted acid functionalities. The design of these catalysts involved anchoring the acid groups onto inorganic oxides, e.g. surface-grafted acid groups on zirconia, and a new class of mesoporous solid acids, i.e. propylsulfonic acid-derivatized SBA-15. The former catalysts consisted of a high surface concentration of sulfate groups on stable zirconia catalysts. The latter catalyst consists of high surface area, large pore propylsulfonic acid-derivatized silicas, specifically SBA-15. In both cases, the catalyst design and synthesis yielded high concentrations of acid sites in close proximity to one another. These materials have been well-characterization in terms of physical and chemical properties, as well as in regard to surface and bulk characteristics. Both types of catalysts were shown to exhibit high catalytic performance with respect to both activity and selectivity for the bifunctional coupling of alcohols to form ethers, which proceeds via an efficient SN2 reaction mechanism on the proximal acid sites. This commonality of the dual-site SN2 reaction mechanism over acid catalysts provides for maximum reaction rates and control of selectivity by reaction conditions, i.e. pressure, temperature, and reactant concentrations. This research provides the scientific groundwork for synthesis of ethers for energy applications. The synthesized environmentally acceptable ethers, in part derived from natural gas via alcohol intermediates, exhibit high cetane properties, e.g. methylisobutylether with cetane No. of 53 and dimethylether with cetane No. of 55-60, or high octane properties, e.g. diisopropylether with blending octane No. of 105, and can replace aromatics in liquid fuels.

Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman

2005-11-30

142

14 CFR 25.407 - Trim tab effects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...pilot effort. In these cases, the tabs are considered to be deflected in the direction that would assist the pilot, and the deflections areâ (a) For elevator trim tabs, those required to trim the airplane at any point within the positive portion of...

2013-01-01

143

Performance of trim coils made by a novel method  

SciTech Connect

A precision, automated method of manufacturing trim coils based on printed circuit technology has been developed. Excellent quench performance and increased radiation resistance have been achieved in recently-tested models of sextupole trim coils developed for operation inside 40 mm-aperture SSC Main Collider dipoles. 6 refs., 2 figs.

Wanderer, P.; Anerella, M.; Cottingham, J.; Ganetis, G.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.; Goodzeit, C.; Greene, A.; Gupta, R.; Herrera, J.; Kahn, S.; Kelly, E.; Meade, A.; Morgan, G.; Muratore, J.; Prodell, A.; Rehak, M.; Rohrer, E.P.; Sampson, W.; Shutt, R.; Skaritka, J.; Thompson, P.; Willen, E.

1991-01-01

144

Sputtering studies with the Monte Carlo Program TRIM.SP  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Monte Carlo Program TRIM.SP (sputtering version of TRIM) was used to determine sputtering yields and energy and angular distributions of sputtered particles in physical (collisional) sputtering processes. The output is set up to distinguish between the contributions of primary and secondary knock-on atoms as caused by in- and outgoing incident ions, in order to get a better understanding of

J. P. Biersack; W. Eckstein

1984-01-01

145

Trimmed Least Squares Estimation in the Linear Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider two methods of defining a regression analog to a trimmed mean. The first was suggested by Koenker and Bassett and uses their concept of regression quantiles. Its asymptotic behavior is completely analogous to that of a trimmed mean. The second method uses residuals from a preliminary estimator. Its asymptotic behavior depends heavily on the preliminary estimate; it behaves,

David Ruppert; Raymond J. Carroll

1980-01-01

146

Building for the Future through Tri-M.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Few teaching techniques encourage excellence in music education more effectively than recognition through membership in the Tri-M International Music Honor Society. Examined are how Tri-M promotes excellence, rewards achievement, and benefits both school and student. Membership requirements are also discussed. (RM)|

Thoms, Paul E.

1984-01-01

147

Performance of trim coils made by a novel method  

SciTech Connect

This paper reports on a precision, automated method of manufacturing trim coils based on printed circuit technology. Excellent quench performance and increased radiation resistance have been achieved in recently-tested models of sextupole trim coils developed for operation inside 40 mm-aperture SSC Main Collider dipoles.

Wanderer, P.; Anerella, M.; Cottingham, J.; Ganetis, G.; Garber, M.; Ghosh, A.; Goodzeit, C.; Greene, A.; Gupta, R.; Herrera, J. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States))

1992-01-01

148

Pain in Chickens and Effects of Beak Trimming  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Beak trimming may cause pain (acute, chronic or both) in trimmed chickens due to tissue damage and nerve injury. The complexity and plasticity of the nervous system and the animal’s inability to communicate verbally make pain difficult to measure directly. However, pain in animals can be recognized...

149

Simulation of router action on a lathe to test the cutting tool performance in edge-trimming of graphite/epoxy composite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The predominant machining application with graphite/epoxy composite materials in aerospace industry is peripheral trimming. The computer numerically controlled (CNC) high speed routers required to do edge trimming work are generally scheduled for production work in industry and are not available for extensive cutter testing. Therefore, an experimental method of simulating the conditions of periphery trim using a lathe is developed in this paper. The validity of the test technique will be demonstrated by conducting carbide tool wear tests under dry cutting conditions. The experimental results will be analyzed to characterize the wear behavior of carbide cutting tools in machining the composite materials.

Ramulu, M.; Rogers, E.

1994-04-01

150

TRIM22: A Diverse and Dynamic Antiviral Protein  

PubMed Central

The tripartite motif (TRIM) family of proteins is an evolutionarily ancient group of proteins with homologues identified in both invertebrate and vertebrate species. Human TRIM22 is one such protein that has a dynamic evolutionary history that includes gene expansion, gene loss, and strong signatures of positive selection. To date, TRIM22 has been shown to restrict the replication of a number of viruses, including encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In addition, TRIM22 has also been implicated in cellular differentiation and proliferation and may play a role in certain cancers and autoimmune diseases. This comprehensive paper summarizes our current understanding of TRIM22 structure and function.

Hattlmann, Clayton J.; Kelly, Jenna N.; Barr, Stephen D.

2012-01-01

151

Implementation of a digital trim scheme for SAR ADCs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital Converters (ADC) are based on a capacitive digital-to-analog converter (CDAC) (McCreary and Gray, 1975). The capacitor mismatch in the capacitor array of the CDAC impacts the differential non-linearity (DNL) of the ADC directly. In order to achieve a transfer function without missing codes, trimming of the capacitor array becomes necessary for SAR ADCs with a resolution of more than 12 bit. This article introduces a novel digital approach for trimming. DNL measurements of an 18 bit SAR ADC show that digital trimming allows the same performance as analog trimming. Digital trimming however reduces the power consumption of the ADC, the die size and the required time for the production test.

Bialek, J.; Wickmann, A.; Ohnhaeuser, F.; Fischer, G.; Weigel, R.; Ussmueller, T.

2013-07-01

152

Friction coefficient investigation on IC dam-bar trimming process by inverse method with experimental trimmed geometric profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the trimming process of integrated circuit (IC), the friction between punch and workpiece has been studied extensively. The value of the friction coefficient was usually assumed as a fixed value for the simplification of the investigations in most literature. It was seldom discussed that the values of the friction coefficient would actually increase as the trimming strokes increased. The

Zone-Ching Lin; Chang-Cheng Chen

2007-01-01

153

Mitochondrial oxygen affinity, respiratory flux control and excess capacity of cytochrome c oxidase.  

PubMed

The oxygen affinity of the enzyme system involved in mitochondrial respiration indicates, in relation to intracellular oxygen levels and interpreted with the aid of flux control analysis, a significant role of oxygen supply in limiting maximum exercise. This implies that the flux control coefficient of mitochondria is not excessively high, based on a capacity of mitochondrial oxygen consumption that is slightly higher than the capacity for oxygen supply through the respiratory cascade. Close matching of the capacities and distribution of flux control is consistent with the concept of symmorphosis. Within the respiratory chain, however, the large excess capacity of cytochrome c oxidase, COX, appears to be inconsistent with the economic design of the respiratory cascade. To address this apparent discrepancy, we used three model systems: cultured endothelial cells and mitochondria isolated from heart and liver. Intracellular oxygen gradients increase with oxygen flux, explaining part of the observed decrease in oxygen affinity with increasing metabolic rate in cells. In addition, mitochondrial oxygen affinities decrease from the resting to the active state. The oxygen affinity in the active ADP-stimulated state is higher in mitochondria from heart than in those from liver, in direct relationship to the higher excess capacity of COX in heart. This yields, in turn, a lower turnover rate of COX even at maximum flux through the respiratory chain, which is necessary to prevent a large decrease in oxygen affinity in the active state. Up-regulation of oxygen affinity provides a functional explanation of the excess capacity of COX. The concept of symmorphosis, a matching of capacities in the respiratory cascade, is therefore complemented by 'synkinetic' considerations on optimum enzyme ratios in the respiratory chain. Accordingly, enzymatic capacities are matched in terms of optimum ratios, rather than equal levels, to meet the specific kinetic and thermodynamic demands set by the low-oxygen environment in the cell. PMID:9510525

Gnaiger, E; Lassnig, B; Kuznetsov, A; Rieger, G; Margreiter, R

1998-04-01

154

Development of a System for Controlling Dissolved-Oxygen Content of Water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system for controlling the dissolved-oxygen content of a continuous flow of water was developed and tested. It is essentially a continuous flow of water through a partial vacuum. Two daily adjustments maintain the dissolved-oxygen content of the effluent water within 0.05 p.p.m. of the desired concentration. Minimum oxygen content of 0.5 p.p.m. and flow rates greater than 10 liters

Donald I. Mount

1961-01-01

155

The control of ventilatory and cardiac responses to changes in ambient oxygen tension and oxygen demand in octopus  

PubMed

Octopus vulgaris can regulate its oxygen uptake down to a PO2 of around 6.7 kPa. As the tension falls from 18.6 to 6.7 kPa (140 to 50 mmHg), Pv (the pressure pulse driving the ventilatory flow, measured inside the mantle cavity) can more than double while fv (the ventilation frequency) increases by a few per cent at most. Both changes are reversed when the ambient oxygen tension is returned to normal. Cutting the visceral nerves linking the hearts and gills to the brain prevents these adaptive changes in Pv and fv, as does section of the branchial nerves linking the cardiac ganglia to the gills. Responses to changes in ambient oxygen tension are very fast, beginning within two or three ventilation cycles. It is concluded that changes to Pv and fv depend upon receptors in the gills and on the integrity of a nervous pathway to the brain. Changes in oxygen tension also affect the hearts, where aortic pulse amplitude (Pa) and, to a lesser extent, heartbeat frequency (fh) fall and rise with the ambient PO2. In this case, section of the visceral or branchial nerves has no effect. Responses are again very rapid. It is concluded that the observed fall and return to normoxic values of Pa and fh are local responses to a fall and rise in the oxygen tension of blood coming from the gills into the systemic heart. Changes to ventilation and heartbeat can also occur in normoxic water when oxygen demand rises after feeding. These responses are not prevented by section of the visceral or branchial nerves. Possible control of ventilation and heartbeat through the neurosecretory system in the anterior vena cava is discussed. PMID:9319626

Wells; Wells

1995-01-01

156

Method for the Controlled Addition of Oxygen to Columbium.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A technique for making additions of small amounts of oxygen to columbium (niobium) is presented. The technique involves complete reduction of a carefully weighed metal-metal oxide mixture by the columbium in a sealed evacuated chamber at 900 deg C. The ox...

J. D. Gerber F. E. Rizzo R. D. Daniels

1968-01-01

157

SAB advisory on the TRIM.FaTE module of the total risk integrated methodology (TRIM)  

SciTech Connect

The Environmental Models Subcommittee (EMS) of the Executive Committee (EC) of the Science Advisory Board (SAB) reviewed the TRIM.FaTE Module of the Total Risk Integrated Methodology (TRIM) being developed by the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (QAQPS) in the Office of Air and Radiation (OAR). Recommendations are made to seek input from users before and after the methodology is developed to maximize its utility, to know how it is being used, and to guard against inappropriate uses; to provide documentation of recommended and inappropriate applications; to provide training for users; to test the model and its subcomponents against current data and models to evaluate its ability to provide realistic results; and to apply terminology consistently.

NONE

1998-12-01

158

Fuzzy control of dissolved oxygen in a sequencing batch reactor pilot plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present work is part of a global development of reliable real-time control and supervision tools applied to wastewater pollution removal processes. In these processes, oxygen is a key substrate in animal cell metabolism and its consumption is thus a parameter of great interest for the monitoring. In this paper, are presented and discussed the results of the dissolved oxygen

A. Traoré; S. Grieu; S. Puig; F. Thiery; M. Polit; J. Colprim

2005-01-01

159

Evaluation of secondary-system oxygen control in PWR power plants. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study discusses measures that should be incorporated into the balance of plant equipment in PWR plants to minimize oxygen content. It first reviews technical information about typical fossil and nuclear power plants in the USSR from the viewpoint of oxygen control. Next it addresses water conditioning in the condensate-feedwater system, including hydrazine-ammonia, chelate, and neutral modes, and variations of

I. Oliker; D. Katsman

1982-01-01

160

CryoEM Analysis of Capsid Assembly and Structural Changes Upon Interactions with a Host Restriction Factor, TRIM5?.  

PubMed

After virus fusion with a target cell, the viral core is released into the host cell cytoplasm and undergoes a controlled disassembly process, termed uncoating, before or as reverse transcription takes place. The cellular protein TRIM5? is a host cell restriction factor that blocks HIV-1 infection in rhesus macaque cells by targeting the viral capsid and inducing premature uncoating. The molecular mechanism of the interaction between capsid and TRIM5? remains unclear. Here, we describe an approach that utilizes cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) to examine the structural changes exerted on HIV-1 capsid (CA) assembly by TRIM5? binding. The TRIM5? interaction sites on CA assembly were further dissected by combining cryoEM with pair-wise cysteine mutations that crosslink CA either within a CA hexamer or between CA hexamers. Based on the structural information from cryoEM and crosslinking results from in vitro CA assemblies and purified intact HIV-1 cores, we demonstrate that direct binding of TRIM5? CC-SPRY domains to the viral capsid results in disruption and fragmentation of the surface lattice of HIV-1 capsid, specifically at inter-hexamer interfaces. The method described here can be easily adopted to study other important interactions in multi-protein complexes. PMID:24158810

Zhao, Gongpu; Zhang, Peijun

2014-01-01

161

Trimming and procrastination as inversion techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By examining the processes of truncating and approximating the model space (trimming it), and by committing to neither the objectivist nor the subjectivist interpretation of probability (procrastinating), we construct a formal scheme for solving linear and non-linear geophysical inverse problems. The necessary prior information about the correct model xE can be either a collection of inequalities or a probability measure describing where xE was likely to be in the model space X before the data vector y0 was measured. The results of the inversion are (1) a vector z0 that estimates some numerical properties zE of xE; (2) an estimate of the error ?z = z0 - zE. As y0 is finite dimensional, so is z0, and hence in principle inversion cannot describe all of xE. The error ?z is studied under successively more specialized assumptions about the inverse problem, culminating in a complete analysis of the linear inverse problem with a prior quadratic bound on xE. Our formalism appears to encompass and provide error estimates for many of the inversion schemes current in geomagnetism, and would be equally applicable in geodesy and seismology if adequate prior information were available there. As an idealized example we study the magnetic field at the core-mantle boundary, using satellite measurements of field elements at sites assumed to be almost uniformly distributed on a single spherical surface. Magnetospheric currents are neglected and the crustal field is idealized as a random process with rotationally invariant statistics. We find that an appropriate data compression diagonalizes the variance matrix of the crustal signal and permits an analytic trimming of the idealized problem.

Backus, George E.

1996-12-01

162

Effect of Controlled Oxygen Therapy on Arterial Blood Gases in Acute Respiratory Failure  

PubMed Central

Seven patients in acute exacerbation of chronic respiratory failure were given 24·5% and later 28% oxygen through Ventimasks. The mean increases in arterial PO2 were 11 and 21 mm. Hg while breathing 24·5% and 28% oxygen respectively compared with control values while breathing air. Associated increases in arterial PCO2 were 4 and 8 mm. Hg, respectively. In five of the patients these increases in inspired oxygen concentration resulted in useful increases in tissue oxygen supply without significant deterioration in ventilation, but in two patients arterial PCO2 rose excessively and artificial ventilation was required.

Warrell, D. A.; Edwards, R. H. T.; Godfrey, S.; Jones, N. L.

1970-01-01

163

Evolution and control of oxygen order in a cuprate superconductor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The disposition of defects in metal oxides is a key attribute exploited for applications from fuel cells and catalysts to superconducting devices and memristors. The most typical defects are mobile excess oxygens and oxygen vacancies, which can be manipulated by a variety of thermal protocols as well as optical and d.c. electric fields. Here we report the X-ray writing of high-quality superconducting regions, derived from defect ordering, in the superoxygenated layered cuprate, La2CuO4+y. Irradiation of a poor superconductor prepared by rapid thermal quenching results first in the growth of ordered regions, with an enhancement of superconductivity becoming visible only after a waiting time, as is characteristic of other systems such as ferroelectrics, where strain must be accommodated for order to become extended. However, in La2CuO4+y, we are able to resolve all aspects of the growth of (oxygen) intercalant order, including an extraordinary excursion from low to high and back to low anisotropy of the ordered regions. We can also clearly associate the onset of high-quality superconductivity with defect ordering in two dimensions. Additional experiments with small beams demonstrate a photoresist-free, single-step strategy for writing functional materials.

Poccia, Nicola; Fratini, Michela; Ricci, Alessandro; Campi, Gaetano; Barba, Luisa; Vittorini-Orgeas, Alessandra; Bianconi, Ginestra; Aeppli, Gabriel; Bianconi, Antonio

2011-10-01

164

Integrated process of photoresist trimming and dielectric hard mask etching for sub-50 nm gate patterning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photoresist (PR) trimming for narrowing gate critical dimensions (CD) to sub-50 nm range is a known technique in polysilicon gate CMOS technology. However, the trend to replace polysilicon by a suitable metal such as TaN involves replacement of PR mask by a dielectric hard mask (HM) for providing tight CD and profile control in subsequent TaN etching. We have found

Vladimir Bliznetsov; Rakesh Kumar; Huizhen Lin; Kah-Wee Ang; Won Jong Yoo; Anyan Du

2006-01-01

165

Development of a digital adaptive control system for PO2 regulation in a membrane oxygenator.  

PubMed

Regulation of gas exchange in artificial lungs (oxygenators) during cardiopulmonary bypass is normally achieved by manual control of the gas composition and flow in response to intermittent sampling of the arterial partial pressures of oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2). Manual control often results in abnormal blood gases which have been implicated in patient morbidity as well as influencing perfusion safety. Fine control of PaO2 and PaCO2 may be achieved by a combination of an in-line blood gas monitoring system and a membrane type oxygenator which is automatically regulated. The overall dynamics of the oxygenation process and control system components are complex and have nonlinear, multivariable and time-varying characteristics. Consequently, an adaptive control system approach is necessary. The implementation of a digital self-tuning control regime for PaO2 is described here. The controller is based on an explicit Linear Quadratic Gaussian (LQG) self-tuning control design which is presented using a polynomial equation approach. The controller performance was investigated in in vitro experiments. The self-tuner performed satisfactorily with various sensor/oxygenator combinations for blood flow and temperature load disturbances. In contrast, a nonadaptive (proportional-integral, PI) type of control system was found to be unsuitable. PMID:1405558

Allen, J; Fisher, A C; Gaylor, J D; Razieh, A R

1992-09-01

166

Oxygen deficiency hazards associated with liquefied gas systems development of a program of controls  

SciTech Connect

The use of liquefied gases in industry and research has become commonplace. Release into the atmosphere of these gases, whether intentional or not, will result in a displacement of air and a reduction in the oxygen concentration. Exposure to reduced levels of oxygen levels may cause reduced abilities, unconsciousness, or death. This paper describes the derivation of a novel program of controls for oxygen deficiency hazards. The key to this approach is a quantitative assessment of risk for each planned operation and the application of control measures to reduce that risk to an acceptable level. Five risk levels evolve which are based on the probability of fatality. Controls such as training, oxygen monitoring equipment, self-rescue respirators, and medical surveillance are required when the probability of fatality exceeds 10/sup -7/ per hour. The quantitative nature of this program ensures an appropriate level of control without undue burden or expense. 11 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

Miller, T.M.; Mazur, P.O.

1983-01-01

167

A naturally occurring single amino acid substitution in human TRIM5? linker region affects its anti-HIV type 1 activity and susceptibility to HIV type 1 infection.  

PubMed

TRIM5? is a factor contributing to intracellular defense mechanisms against retrovirus infection. Rhesus and cynomolgus monkey TRIM5?s potently restrict HIV-1, whereas human TRIM5? shows weak effects against HIV-1. We investigated the association between a single nucleotide polymorphism in the TRIM5? linker 2 region (rs11038628), which substituted aspartic acid (D) for glycine (G) at position 249, with susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in Japanese and Indian subjects. rs11038628 is rare in Europeans but common in Asians and Africans. Functional analyses were performed by multiple-round replication and single-round assays, and indicated that the G249D substitution attenuated anti-HIV-1 activity of human TRIM5?. A slight attenuation of anti-HIV-2 activity was also observed in TRIM5? with 249D. The predicted secondary structure of the linker region suggested that the 249D substitution extended the ?-helix in the neighboring coiled-coil domain, suggesting that human TRIM5? with 249D may lose the flexibility required for optimal recognition of retroviral capsid protein. We further analyzed the frequency of G249D in Japanese (93 HIV-1-infected subjects and 279 controls) and Indians (227 HIV-1-infected subjects and 280 controls). The frequency of 249D was significantly higher among HIV-1-infected Indian subjects than in ethnicity-matched control subjects [odds ratio (OR)=1.52, p=0.026]. A similar weak tendency was observed in Japanese subjects, but it was not statistically significant (OR=1.19, p=0.302). In conclusion, G249D, a common variant of human TRIM5? in Asians and Africans, is associated with increased susceptibility to HIV-1 infection. PMID:23379364

Nakayama, Emi E; Nakajima, Toshiaki; Kaur, Gurvinder; Mimaya, Jun-ich; Terunuma, Hiroshi; Mehra, Narinder; Kimura, Akinori; Shioda, Tatsuo

2013-02-26

168

A Naturally Occurring Single Amino Acid Substitution in Human TRIM5? Linker Region Affects Its Anti-HIV Type 1 Activity and Susceptibility to HIV Type 1 Infection  

PubMed Central

Abstract TRIM5? is a factor contributing to intracellular defense mechanisms against retrovirus infection. Rhesus and cynomolgus monkey TRIM5?s potently restrict HIV-1, whereas human TRIM5? shows weak effects against HIV-1. We investigated the association between a single nucleotide polymorphism in the TRIM5? linker 2 region (rs11038628), which substituted aspartic acid (D) for glycine (G) at position 249, with susceptibility to HIV-1 infection in Japanese and Indian subjects. rs11038628 is rare in Europeans but common in Asians and Africans. Functional analyses were performed by multiple-round replication and single-round assays, and indicated that the G249D substitution attenuated anti-HIV-1 activity of human TRIM5?. A slight attenuation of anti-HIV-2 activity was also observed in TRIM5? with 249D. The predicted secondary structure of the linker region suggested that the 249D substitution extended the ?-helix in the neighboring coiled-coil domain, suggesting that human TRIM5? with 249D may lose the flexibility required for optimal recognition of retroviral capsid protein. We further analyzed the frequency of G249D in Japanese (93 HIV-1-infected subjects and 279 controls) and Indians (227 HIV-1-infected subjects and 280 controls). The frequency of 249D was significantly higher among HIV-1-infected Indian subjects than in ethnicity-matched control subjects [odds ratio (OR)=1.52, p=0.026]. A similar weak tendency was observed in Japanese subjects, but it was not statistically significant (OR=1.19, p=0.302). In conclusion, G249D, a common variant of human TRIM5? in Asians and Africans, is associated with increased susceptibility to HIV-1 infection.

Nakayama, Emi E.; Nakajima, Toshiaki; Kaur, Gurvinder; Mimaya, Jun-ich; Terunuma, Hiroshi; Mehra, Narinder; Kimura, Akinori

2013-01-01

169

TRIM39 and RNF39 are associated with Behçet's disease independently of HLA-B?51 and -A?26.  

PubMed

Behcet's disease (BD) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease and strongly associated with human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B?51 and -A?26. We examined whether other genetic factors may exist in HLA region by 135 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 384 pairs of Japanese BD patients and controls. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified two novel susceptibility SNPs: rs9261365 near a ring finger protein (RNF) 39 and rs2074474 on exon 9 of tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) 39 independently of HLA-B?51 and -A?26 alleles. Our findings suggest that RNF39 and TRIM39 are involved in the etiology of BD. PMID:20875797

Kurata, Riho; Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Tajima, Atsushi; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Shiina, Takashi; Meguro, Akira; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Ohono, Shigeaki; Inoue, Ituro; Inoko, Hidetoshi

2010-09-27

170

TRIM37 defective in mulibrey nanism is a novel RING finger ubiquitin E3 ligase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mulibrey nanism is an autosomal recessive prenatal-onset growth disorder characterized by dysmorphic features, cardiomyopathy, and hepatomegaly. Mutations in TRIM37 encoding a tripartite motif (TRIM, RING-B-box-coiled-coil)-family protein underlie mulibrey nanism. We investigated the ubiquitin ligase activity predicted for the RING domain of TRIM37 by analyzing its autoubiquitination. Full-length TRIM37 and its TRIM domain were highly polyubiquitinated when co-expressed with ubiquitin. Polyubiquitination

Jukka Kallijaervi; Ulla Lahtinen; Riikka Haemaelaeinen; Marita Lipsanen-Nyman; Jorma J. Palvimo; Anna-Elina. Lehesjoki

2005-01-01

171

Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control  

SciTech Connect

Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic (i.e., man-made) CO{sub 2} emissions. In 2001, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) began a two-phase program to investigate the feasibility of various carbon capture technologies. This program was sponsored under a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE). The first phase entailed a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen cases, representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated. Seven cases represented coal combustion in CFB type equipment. Four cases represented Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Two cases represented advanced Chemical Looping Combined Cycle systems. Marion, et al. reported the details of this work in 2003. One of the thirteen cases studied utilized an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. In this concept, the fuel is fired with a mixture of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (mainly CO{sub 2}). This combustion process yields a flue gas containing over 80 percent (by volume) CO{sub 2}. This flue gas can be processed relatively easily to enrich the CO{sub 2} content to over 96 percent for use in enhanced oil or gas recovery (EOR or EGR) or simply dried for sequestration. The Phase I study identified the O{sub 2}-fired CFB as having a near term development potential, because it uses conventional commercial CFB technology and commercially available CO{sub 2} capture enabling technologies such as cryogenic air separation and simple rectification or distillation gas processing systems. In the long term, air separation technology advancements offer significant reductions in power requirements, which would improve plant efficiency and economics for the oxygen-fired technology. The second phase consisted of pilot-scale testing followed by a refined performance and economic evaluation of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. As a part of this workscope, ALSTOM modified its 3 MW{sub th} (9.9 MMBtu/hr) Multiuse Test Facility (MTF) pilot plant to operate with O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures of up to 70 percent O{sub 2} by volume. Tests were conducted with coal and petroleum coke. The test objectives were to determine the impacts of oxygen firing on heat transfer, bed dynamics, potential agglomeration, and gaseous and particulate emissions. The test data results were used to refine the design, performance, costs, and economic models developed in Phase-I for the O{sub 2}-fired CFB with CO{sub 2} capture. Nsakala, Liljedahl, and Turek reported results from this study in 2004. ALSTOM identified several items needing further investigation in preparation for large scale demonstration of the oxygen-fired CFB concept, namely: (1) Operation and performance of the moving bed heat exchanger (MBHE) to avoid recarbonation and also for cost savings compared to the standard bubbling fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHE); (2) Performance of the back-end flash dryer absorber (FDA) for sulfur capture under high CO{sub 2}/high moisture flue gas environment using calcined limestone in the fly ash and using fresh commercial lime directly in the FDA; (3) Determination of the effect of recarbonation on fouling in the convective pass; (4) Assessment of the impact of oxygen firing on the mercury, other trace elements, and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions; and (5) Develop a proposal-level oxygen-fired retrofit design for a relatively small existing CFB steam power plant in preparation for a large-scale demonstration of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. Hence, ALSTOM responded to a DOE Solicitation to address all these issues with further O{sub 2} fired MTF pilot testing and a subsequent retrofit design study of oxygen firing and CO{s

Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

2007-03-31

172

32. TRIM SAWS IN BACKGROUND, VIEW FROM SOUTH WEST. NOTE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. TRIM SAWS IN BACKGROUND, VIEW FROM SOUTH WEST. NOTE WASTE CONVEYOR IN FOREGROUND, CANT ROLL CASE TO BEAM SAW, THEN ROLL CASE FROM EDGER IN MIDDLE GROUND. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

173

1. GENERAL VIEW. TRIM, ROOF AND STABLE DOORS ALL ARE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW. TRIM, ROOF AND STABLE DOORS ALL ARE PAINTED RED. HEX SIGNS ARE PAINTED OCHRE, BLACK, RED, WHITE AND BLUE. NOTE PAINTED FLAGS ON SHED - Decorated White Barn, (Maiden Creek Township), Maiden Creek, Berks County, PA

174

16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...garment in minor proportion for holding, reinforcing or similar structural purposes; (2) decorative trim, whether applied by embroidery, overlay, applique, or attachment; and (3) decorative patterns or designs which are an integral part of the fabric...

2013-01-01

175

33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30 Section 401.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

2013-07-01

176

14. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF TRIMMED FLASH; FLASH IS EXCESS ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF TRIMMED FLASH; FLASH IS EXCESS METAL EXTRUDED BETWEEN THE DIES USED TO FORGE THE BLADE END OF THE POST HOLE DIGGER - Warwood Tool Company, Foot of Nineteenth Street, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

177

Elevated rate of fixation of endogenous retroviral elements in Haplorhini TRIM5 and TRIM22 genomic sequences: impact on transcriptional regulation.  

PubMed

All genes in the TRIM6/TRIM34/TRIM5/TRIM22 locus are type I interferon inducible, with TRIM5 and TRIM22 possessing antiviral properties. Evolutionary studies involving the TRIM6/34/5/22 locus have predominantly focused on the coding sequence of the genes, finding that TRIM5 and TRIM22 have undergone high rates of both non-synonymous nucleotide replacements and in-frame insertions and deletions. We sought to understand if divergent evolutionary pressures on TRIM6/34/5/22 coding regions have selected for modifications in the non-coding regions of these genes and explore whether such non-coding changes may influence the biological function of these genes. The transcribed genomic regions, including the introns, of TRIM6, TRIM34, TRIM5, and TRIM22 from ten Haplorhini primates and one prosimian species were analyzed for transposable element content. In Haplorhini species, TRIM5 displayed an exaggerated interspecies variability, predominantly resulting from changes in the composition of transposable elements in the large first and fourth introns. Multiple lineage-specific endogenous retroviral long terminal repeats (LTRs) were identified in the first intron of TRIM5 and TRIM22. In the prosimian genome, we identified a duplication of TRIM5 with a concomitant loss of TRIM22. The transposable element content of the prosimian TRIM5 genes appears to largely represent the shared Haplorhini/prosimian ancestral state for this gene. Furthermore, we demonstrated that one such differentially fixed LTR provides for species-specific transcriptional regulation of TRIM22 in response to p53 activation. Our results identify a previously unrecognized source of species-specific variation in the antiviral TRIM genes, which can lead to alterations in their transcriptional regulation. These observations suggest that there has existed long-term pressure for exaptation of retroviral LTRs in the non-coding regions of these genes. This likely resulted from serial viral challenges and provided a mechanism for rapid alteration of transcriptional regulation. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of persistent evolutionary pressure for the capture of retroviral LTR insertions. PMID:23516500

Diehl, William E; Johnson, Welkin E; Hunter, Eric

2013-03-14

178

Elevated Rate of Fixation of Endogenous Retroviral Elements in Haplorhini TRIM5 and TRIM22 Genomic Sequences: Impact on Transcriptional Regulation  

PubMed Central

All genes in the TRIM6/TRIM34/TRIM5/TRIM22 locus are type I interferon inducible, with TRIM5 and TRIM22 possessing antiviral properties. Evolutionary studies involving the TRIM6/34/5/22 locus have predominantly focused on the coding sequence of the genes, finding that TRIM5 and TRIM22 have undergone high rates of both non-synonymous nucleotide replacements and in-frame insertions and deletions. We sought to understand if divergent evolutionary pressures on TRIM6/34/5/22 coding regions have selected for modifications in the non-coding regions of these genes and explore whether such non-coding changes may influence the biological function of these genes. The transcribed genomic regions, including the introns, of TRIM6, TRIM34, TRIM5, and TRIM22 from ten Haplorhini primates and one prosimian species were analyzed for transposable element content. In Haplorhini species, TRIM5 displayed an exaggerated interspecies variability, predominantly resulting from changes in the composition of transposable elements in the large first and fourth introns. Multiple lineage-specific endogenous retroviral long terminal repeats (LTRs) were identified in the first intron of TRIM5 and TRIM22. In the prosimian genome, we identified a duplication of TRIM5 with a concomitant loss of TRIM22. The transposable element content of the prosimian TRIM5 genes appears to largely represent the shared Haplorhini/prosimian ancestral state for this gene. Furthermore, we demonstrated that one such differentially fixed LTR provides for species-specific transcriptional regulation of TRIM22 in response to p53 activation. Our results identify a previously unrecognized source of species-specific variation in the antiviral TRIM genes, which can lead to alterations in their transcriptional regulation. These observations suggest that there has existed long-term pressure for exaptation of retroviral LTRs in the non-coding regions of these genes. This likely resulted from serial viral challenges and provided a mechanism for rapid alteration of transcriptional regulation. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of persistent evolutionary pressure for the capture of retroviral LTR insertions.

Diehl, William E.; Johnson, Welkin E.; Hunter, Eric

2013-01-01

179

Different effects of infrared and one-half hot-blade beak trimming on beak topography and growth  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study examined the effects of infrared beak treatment (IR) and hot blade beak trimming (HB) on beak length and production in laying hens. Seventy-two day-old layer chicks were randomly assigned to HB, IR or a control (C) group. Chicks were pair housed by treatment, and beak images and productio...

180

Evaluation of the UnTRIM model for 3-D tidal circulation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A family of numerical models, known as the TRIM models, shares the same modeling philosophy for solving the shallow water equations. A characteristic analysis of the shallow water equations points out that the numerical instability is controlled by the gravity wave terms in the momentum equations and by the transport terms in the continuity equation. A semi-implicit finite-difference scheme has been formulated so that these terms and the vertical diffusion terms are treated implicitly and the remaining terms explicitly to control the numerical stability and the computations are carried out over a uniform finite-difference computational mesh without invoking horizontal or vertical coordinate transformations. An unstructured grid version of TRIM model is introduced, or UnTRIM (pronounces as "you trim"), which preserves these basic numerical properties and modeling philosophy, only the computations are carried out over an unstructured orthogonal grid. The unstructured grid offers the flexibilities in representing complex study areas so that fine grid resolution can be placed in regions of interest, and coarse grids are used to cover the remaining domain. Thus, the computational efforts are concentrated in areas of importance, and an overall computational saving can be achieved because the total number of grid-points is dramatically reduced. To use this modeling approach, an unstructured grid mesh must be generated to properly reflect the properties of the domain of the investigation. The new modeling flexibility in grid structure is accompanied by new challenges associated with issues of grid generation. To take full advantage of this new model flexibility, the model grid generation should be guided by insights into the physics of the problems; and the insights needed may require a higher degree of modeling skill.

Cheng, R. T.; Casulli, V.

2001-01-01

181

What Controls the Temporal Variability of Oxygen in the Gulf of Alaska?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved oxygen in the ocean is a widely observed chemical quantity along with temperature and salinity. Changes in the dissolved oxygen over the world ocean have been interpreted as the response of ocean circulation and biology to climate variability. Observed oxygen at Station P exhibits strong variability in interannual and decadal timescales. However, the mechanisms driving the observed variability are not yet fully understood, and the irregular sampling frequency and relatively short record length make it difficult to detect the low-frequency variability. The purpose of this study is to 1) evaluate the robustness of the observed low-frequency variability of dissolved oxygen and 2) investigate the mechanisms driving the observed variability using statistical data analysis and numerical simulations. To answer the first question, we conducted spectral analyses on the observed oxygen concentration at Station P. To address the irregular sampling frequency we randomly sampled the raw data to form 500 ensemble members with a regular time interval, and then performed spectral analysis. The resulting power spectrum of oxygen exhibits robust low-frequency variability and a statistically significant spectral peak at a timescale of 15-20 years. We hypothesize that the observed low-frequency variability is primarily driven by the variability of ocean circulation in the North Pacific. Three-dimensional distribution of oxygen anomaly is simulated using the data-constrained circulation fields from Estimating Climate and the Circulation of Oceans project. The simulated oxygen anomaly shows outstanding variability in the Gulf of Alaska, showing that this region is a hotspot of oxygen fluctuation. Anomalous advection acting on the climatological mean oxygen gradient is the source of oxygen variability in this simulation. Statistical analyses using atmospheric and oceanic variables indicate that the wintertime subtropical high and associated wind stress pattern is significantly correlated to the interannual variability of dissolved oxygen with a 5-10 year lag. This connection is explained by the fluctuation of the basin-scale, wind-driven circulation. The barotropic streamfunction is significantly correlated with the oxygen anomaly at station P with a 5-10 year lag, showing a north-south dipole structure over the North Pacific (positive anomaly around the Kuroshio extension region and negative anomaly in the south of that). The enhanced eastward transport of waters with high oxygen concentration from the western Pacific is a precursor of the enhanced oxygen concentrations in the Station P. Our result implies the important role of basin-scale ocean transport in controlling the observed oxygen variability in the Gulf of Alaska.

Takano, Y.; Ito, T.; Deutsch, C. A.

2010-12-01

182

Control of oxygen transport in the microcrustacean Daphnia: regulation of haemoglobin expression as central mechanism of adaptation to different oxygen and temperature conditions.  

PubMed

The pathway for oxygen, the control of oxygen transport and the role of haemoglobin expression for the physiological adaptation to different oxygen and temperature conditions were studied in the ecological model organism Daphnia magna. Ventilation of the inner walls of the carapace as the main gas exchange area as well as of the embryos in the brood pouch are controlled, oxygen-dependent processes. The P(O2)-dependent increase of heart rate as well as perfusion rate during short-term, progressive hypoxia improves the circulatory oxygen transport within the body. The regulation of haemoglobin (Hb) expression is the central mechanism for a medium-term adaptation to hypoxia. Genetic control elements and oxygen conditions near the two Hb synthesis sites (fat cells, epipodite epithelial cells) determine, which types of Hb subunits and, accordingly, hetero-multimeric Hb macromolecules are produced. One synthesis site may respond mainly to internal, the other one to external oxygen conditions. Depending on environmental condition, either higher quantities of macromolecules of unchanged functionality (P50) or increasing amounts of macromolecules with higher oxygen affinity are synthesized. The Hb subunit DmHbA is probably of considerable importance for this functional change. The physiological benefits of haemoglobin in Daphnia are discussed. Physiological adaptation of Daphnia to different temperatures is also related to the control of oxygen transport processes with the regulation of haemoglobin expression again as a central mechanism. PMID:15491405

Paul, R J; Zeis, B; Lamkemeyer, T; Seidl, M; Pirow, R

2004-11-01

183

Data trimming, nuclear emissions, and climate change.  

PubMed

Ethics requires good science. Many scientists, government leaders, and industry representatives support tripling of global-nuclear-energy capacity on the grounds that nuclear fission is "carbon free" and "releases no greenhouse gases." However, such claims are scientifically questionable (and thus likely to lead to ethically questionable energy choices) for at least 3 reasons. (i) They rely on trimming the data on nuclear greenhouse-gas emissions (GHGE), perhaps in part because flawed Kyoto Protocol conventions require no full nuclear-fuel-cycle assessment of carbon content. (ii) They underestimate nuclear-fuel-cycle releases by erroneously assuming that mostly high-grade uranium ore, with much lower emissions, is used. (iii) They inconsistently compare nuclear-related GHGE only to those from fossil fuels, rather than to those from the best GHG-avoiding energy technologies. Once scientists take account of (i)-(iii), it is possible to show that although the nuclear fuel cycle releases (per kWh) much fewer GHG than coal and oil, nevertheless it releases far more GHG than wind and solar-photovoltaic. Although there may be other, ethical, reasons to support nuclear tripling, reducing or avoiding GHG does not appear to be one of them. PMID:18937054

Shrader-Frechette, Kristin Sharon

2008-10-21

184

Trimming the UCERF2 hazard logic tree  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast 2 (UCERF2) is a fully time?dependent earthquake rupture forecast developed with sponsorship of the California Earthquake Authority (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities [WGCEP], 2007; Field et al., 2009). UCERF2 contains 480 logic?tree branches reflecting choices among nine modeling uncertainties in the earthquake rate model shown in Figure 1. For seismic hazard analysis, it is also necessary to choose a ground?motion?prediction equation (GMPE) and set its parameters. Choosing among four next?generation attenuation (NGA) relationships results in a total of 1920 hazard calculations per site. The present work is motivated by a desire to reduce the computational effort involved in a hazard analysis without understating uncertainty. We set out to assess which branching points of the UCERF2 logic tree contribute most to overall uncertainty, and which might be safely ignored (set to only one branch) without significantly biasing results or affecting some useful measure of uncertainty. The trimmed logic tree will have all of the original choices from the branching points that contribute significantly to uncertainty, but only one arbitrarily selected choice from the branching points that do not.

Porter, Keith A.; Field, Edward H.; Milner, Kevin

2012-01-01

185

DESIGN PROCEDURES FOR DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONTROL OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents design procedures and guidelines for the selection of aeration equipment and dissolved (DO) control systems for activated sludge treatment plants. Aeration methods, equipment and application techniques are examined and selection procedures offered. Various DO...

186

Reactive oxygen species delay control of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus.  

PubMed

Cluster of differentiation (CD)8(+) T cells are like a double edged sword during chronic viral infections because they not only promote virus elimination but also induce virus-mediated immunopathology. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been reported during virus infections. However, the role of ROS in T-cell-mediated immunopathology remains unclear. Here we used the murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus to explore the role of ROS during the processes of virus elimination and induction of immunopathology. We found that virus infection led to elevated levels of ROS producing granulocytes and macrophages in virus-infected liver and spleen tissues that were triggered by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. Lack of the regulatory subunit p47phox of the NADPH oxidase diminished ROS production in these cells. While CD8(+) T cells exhibited ROS production that was independent of NADPH oxidase expression, survival and T-cell function was elevated in p47phox-deficient (Ncf1(-/-)) mice. In the absence of p47phox, enhanced T-cell immunity promoted virus elimination and blunted corresponding immunopathology. In conclusion, we find that NADPH-mediated production of ROS critically impairs the immune response, impacting elimination of virus and outcome of liver cell damage. PMID:23328631

Lang, P A; Xu, H C; Grusdat, M; McIlwain, D R; Pandyra, A A; Harris, I S; Shaabani, N; Honke, N; Maney, S Kumar; Lang, E; Pozdeev, V I; Recher, M; Odermatt, B; Brenner, D; Häussinger, D; Ohashi, P S; Hengartner, H; Zinkernagel, R M; Mak, T W; Lang, K S

2013-01-18

187

Reactive oxygen species delay control of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus  

PubMed Central

Cluster of differentiation (CD)8+ T cells are like a double edged sword during chronic viral infections because they not only promote virus elimination but also induce virus-mediated immunopathology. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been reported during virus infections. However, the role of ROS in T-cell-mediated immunopathology remains unclear. Here we used the murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus to explore the role of ROS during the processes of virus elimination and induction of immunopathology. We found that virus infection led to elevated levels of ROS producing granulocytes and macrophages in virus-infected liver and spleen tissues that were triggered by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. Lack of the regulatory subunit p47phox of the NADPH oxidase diminished ROS production in these cells. While CD8+ T cells exhibited ROS production that was independent of NADPH oxidase expression, survival and T-cell function was elevated in p47phox-deficient (Ncf1?/?) mice. In the absence of p47phox, enhanced T-cell immunity promoted virus elimination and blunted corresponding immunopathology. In conclusion, we find that NADPH-mediated production of ROS critically impairs the immune response, impacting elimination of virus and outcome of liver cell damage.

Lang, P A; Xu, H C; Grusdat, M; McIlwain, D R; Pandyra, A A; Harris, I S; Shaabani, N; Honke, N; Kumar Maney, S; Lang, E; Pozdeev, V I; Recher, M; Odermatt, B; Brenner, D; Haussinger, D; Ohashi, P S; Hengartner, H; Zinkernagel, R M; Mak, T W; Lang, K S

2013-01-01

188

Dust Emission Control, Steel Works (Brown Smoke) Oxygen-Blown Steel Processes, Converter (Staubauswurfbegrenzung Stahlwerksbetrieb (Brauner Rauch) I. Sauerstoffaufblasverfahren, Konverter).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Oxygen processes (oxygen-blown steel processes); Waste gases; Some typical data concerning LD-Converters; Reduction of brown smoke; Dust collector plants; Waste-gas removal; Emission control.

1969-01-01

189

The molluscan RING-finger protein L-TRIM is essential for neuronal outgrowth.  

PubMed

The tripartite motif proteins TRIM-2 and TRIM-3 have been put forward as putative organizers of neuronal outgrowth and structural plasticity. Here, we identified a molluscan orthologue of TRIM-2/3, named L-TRIM, which is up-regulated during in vitro neurite outgrowth of central neurons. In adult animals, L-Trim mRNA is ubiquitously expressed at low levels in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues. Central nervous system expression of L-Trim mRNA is increased during postnatal brain development and during in vitro and in vivo neuronal regeneration. In vitro double-stranded RNA knock-down of L-Trim mRNA resulted in a >70% inhibition of neurite outgrowth. Together, our data establish a crucial role for L-TRIM in developmental neurite outgrowth and functional neuronal regeneration and indicate that TRIM-2/3 family members may have evolutionary conserved functions in neuronal differentiation. PMID:15866048

van Diepen, M T; Spencer, G E; van Minnen, J; Gouwenberg, Y; Bouwman, J; Smit, A B; van Kesteren, R E

2005-05-01

190

Identification of TRIM22 as a RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase  

SciTech Connect

TRIM22, a member of the TRIM family proteins which contain RING finger, B-box, and coiled-coil domains, has been reported as a transcriptional regulator and involved in various cellular processes. In this study, the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, a novel property of TRIM22, was demonstrated. It was found that TRIM22 underwent self-ubiquitylation in vitro in combination with the E2 enzyme UbcH5B and the ubiquitylation was dependent on its RING finger domain. Further evidences showed that TRIM22 could also be self-ubiquitylated in vivo. Importantly, TRIM22 was conjugated with poly-ubiquitin chains and stabilized by the proteasome inhibitor in 293T cells, suggesting that TRIM22 targeted itself for proteasomal degradation through the poly-ubiquitylation. We also found that TRIM22 was located in the nucleus, indicating that TRIM22 might function as a nuclear E3 ubiquitin ligase.

Duan Zhijian; Gao Bo; Xu Wei [Institute for Immunobiology, Department of Immunology, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Xiong Sidong [Institute for Immunobiology, Department of Immunology, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai 200032 (China) and Immunology Division, E-Institutes of Shanghai Universities (China)], E-mail: sdxiongfd@126.com

2008-09-26

191

Characterization of feline TRIM genes: molecular cloning, expression in tissues, and response to type I interferon.  

PubMed

Members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family in mammals are responsible for various cellular processes. Previous studies have revealed that several TRIM proteins were induced by interferons (IFN) and that these proteins were involved in innate immune response against retroviral infection. Although retroviral infection is prevalent in domestic cats, the expression profiles and roles of feline TRIM genes against these viral infections are not well understood. In the present study, we examined tissue expression and IFN inducibility of nine feline TRIM genes. In addition, the complete coding sequences of six cloned TRIM genes were determined, and their structures were analyzed. Nine TRIM genes were expressed in feline tissues and five were up-regulated by type I IFN. The predicted amino acid sequence of six feline TRIM proteins showed high sequence similarities to other mammalian TRIM proteins, and suggest that feline TRIM genes are potentially involved in antiviral reactivity in IFN-mediated immune response. PMID:23497841

Koba, Ryota; Kokaji, Chika; Fujisaki, Gentoku; Oguma, Keisuke; Sentsui, Hiroshi

2013-02-27

192

Oxygen regulated gene expression in Escherichia coli: Control of anaerobic respiration by the FNR protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular oxygen is an important regulatory signal in facultative anaerobic bacteria and controles the expression of a great variety of genes positively or negatively. The expression of anaerobic respiration and of related functions of E. coli is controlled by the positive gene regulator FNR, which activates transcription in the absence of O2. The regulated genes carry a FNR consensus sequence

Gottfried Unden; Martin Trageser

1991-01-01

193

Efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for control of Tribolium castaneum with reduced oxygen and increased carbon dioxide  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study investigated the effect of atmosphere modification, being a widely adopted means of insect control in stored products, on the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana against one of the most difficult to control pests, Tribolium castaneum. Oxygen reduction to 5% (± 1%) as opposed to CO2 elevation t...

194

Fast Predictive Oxygen Charge Control of a Diesel Engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every control system of a diesel engine tries to supply the combustion chamber with the mixture of fresh gas and recirculated exhaust gas adequate to the requested injection quantity. Usually, this mixture is expressed in particular by a combination of intake manifold pressure, measured locally, and fresh air flow measured at a substantial distance from the combustion chamber. As the

Peter Langthaler; L. del Re

2007-01-01

195

A study on a voloxidizer with an oxygen concentration controller for a scale-up DESIGN  

SciTech Connect

For a oxidation of UO{sub 2} pellets of tens/kg in a vol-oxidizer, the existing devices take a long time, also, for their scale-up to an engineering scale, we need the optimum oxygen concentration with an maximum oxidation efficiency. In this study, we attained the optimum oxygen concentration to shorten the oxidation time of a simulation fuel using a vol-oxidizer with an oxygen concentration controller and sensor. We compared the characteristics of a galvanic sensor with a zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) one. The simulation fuel was manufactured with 14 metallic oxides, and used at a mass of 500 g HM/batch. At 500 deg. C, the galvanic and zirconium oxide sensors measured the oxidation time for the simulation fuel. Also, the oxidation time of the simulation fuel was measured according to a change of the oxygen concentration with the selected sensor, and the sample was analyzed. (authors)

Kim, Young-Hwan; Yoon, Ji-Sup; Park, Byung-Suk; Jung, Jae-Hoo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150 Dukjin-dong, Yuseong Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of)

2007-07-01

196

Control of chemical reaction involving dissolved oxygen using magnetic field gradient  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated the control of dissolved oxygen concentration using magnetic forces from gradient magnetic fields near a Nd Fe B permanent magnet. Maximum values of magnetic flux density and the product of the magnetic flux density and its gradient were 0.63 T and 44 T2/m, respectively. The magnet was placed under a Petri dish filled with 15 ml of 10% ammonia water. The Petri dish had a copper sheet in the center. Absorbance of tetraamminecopper(II) complex produced by the reaction in oxygen was measured using a spectrophotometer to observe oxygen concentration. Results showed that the magnetic field quantitatively enhanced tetraamminecopper(II) complex production. Moreover, remarkable enhancement of the copper complex production occurred in the magnetic field at less than 2 mm depth. The calculated magnetic force increase near the magnet surface supports this result. These results show that greater enhancement of the reaction rate occurs when the stronger magnetic force acts on oxygen molecules.

Aoyagi, Satoka; Yano, Akira; Yanagida, Yasutaka; Tanihira, Eiji; Tagawa, Akio; Iimoto, Mitsuo

2006-12-01

197

Control of a hydrogen/oxygen steam generator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An H2/O2 steam generator, which is capable of producing steam at a given thermal capacity and state after a very short period of time, is described. The main components of the system are the reactor and the storage for H2, O2, and H2O. The mathematical model should not be very complex in order to keep the computation time small, but it should be capable of directly describing the main features of the system. Different strategies are proposed for the controller which need different computation times due to their inherent complexity. For the measurement of steam temperature and the ratio of propellant supply, different methods were developed and tested. Results derived from the experimental program are presented and discussed.

Beer, Stefan; Willms, Herbert

1992-09-01

198

Comparison of the effects of controlled ventilation with 100% oxygen, 50% oxygen in nitrogen, and 50% oxygen in nitrous oxide on responses to venous air embolism in pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In this randomized, experimental study in 18 pigs, we have investigated the effects of inspiratory air in oxygen, 100% oxygen and 50% nitrous oxide in oxygen on the detection and consequences of venous air embolism. Each animal was tested with injections of 1.0 ml kg 1 and 2.0 ml kg 1 of air. All animals, except one in the

J. KYTTÄ; P. TANSKANEN; T. RANDELL

199

To trim or not to trim: progression and control of DSB end resection.  

PubMed

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most cytotoxic form of DNA damage, since they can lead to genome instability and chromosome rearrangements, which are hallmarks of cancer cells. To face this kind of lesion, eukaryotic cells developed two alternative repair pathways, homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Repair pathway choice is influenced by the cell cycle phase and depends upon the 5'-3' nucleolytic processing of the break ends, since the generation of ssDNA tails strongly stimulates HR and inhibits NHEJ. A large amount of work has elucidated the key components of the DSBs repair machinery and how this crucial process is finely regulated. The emerging view suggests that besides endo/exonucleases and helicases activities required for end resection, molecular barrier factors are specifically loaded in the proximity of the break, where they physically or functionally limit DNA degradation, preventing excessive accumulation of ssDNA, which could be threatening for cell survival. PMID:23708517

Granata, Magda; Panigada, Davide; Galati, Elena; Lazzaro, Federico; Pellicioli, Achille; Plevani, Paolo; Muzi-Falconi, Marco

2013-05-29

200

Trim coils and magnet alignment in MFTF-B  

SciTech Connect

Performance of the MFTF-B tandem mirror reactor is critically dependent upon precise alignment of the superconducting magnets in the transition region. Given the size and nature of these magnets, mechanical alignment under operating conditions to the tolerances required is an impossible task, as placement must anticipate deflections due to vacuum conditions, cooling to cryogenic temperatures, and magnetic forces. A cost-effective solution to the alignment problem is presented here. In each transition region, a set of eight trimming magnets capable of introducing dipole- and quadrupole-field components allows the field curvatures to be finely tuned to offset the effects of mechanical alignment errors. Trimming current values for correcting representative single- and multiple-coil misalignments, as well as an analytic method for determining them are given. Finally, design considerations that will minimize the need for trim coils in future tandem mirror devices are suggested.

Yamaguchi, G.T.; Baldwin, D.E.

1983-11-23

201

Microfluidic chemostat and turbidostat with flow rate, oxygen, and temperature control for dynamic continuous culture.  

PubMed

This work reports on an instrument capable of supporting automated microscale continuous culture experiments. The instrument consists of a plastic-PDMS device capable of continuous flow without volume drift or evaporation. We apply direct computer controlled machining and chemical bonding fabrication for production of fluidic devices with a 1 mL working volume, high oxygen transfer rate (k(L)a?0.025 s(-1)), fast mixing (2 s), accurate flow control (±18 nL), and closed loop control over temperature, cell density, dissolved oxygen, and pH. Integrated peristaltic pumps and valves provide control over input concentrations and allow the system to perform different types of cell culture on a single device, such as batch, chemostat, and turbidostat continuous cultures. Continuous cultures are demonstrated without contamination for 3 weeks in a single device and both steady state and dynamically controlled conditions are possible. PMID:21445442

Lee, Kevin S; Boccazzi, Paolo; Sinskey, Anthony J; Ram, Rajeev J

2011-03-29

202

Active control of oxygen in molten lead–bismuth eutectic systems to prevent steel corrosion and coolant contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermodynamic basis for controlling oxygen level in lead–bismuth to prevent steel corrosion and coolant contamination is examined. The operational conditions, including the thermodynamic activity of oxygen, cover gas oxygen partial pressure, mixtures of H2 and H2O (steam) to obtain such low oxygen partial pressure (<10?24 atm or around 10?6 wt% in lead–bismuth), and the voltage signals of one type

Ning Li

2002-01-01

203

Extending, trimming and fusing WordNet for technical documents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a tool for the automatic\\u000aextension and trimming of a multilingual\\u000aWordNet database for cross-lingual retrieval\\u000aand multilingual ontology building in\\u000aintranets and domain-specific document\\u000acollections. Hierarchies, built from\\u000aautomatically extracted terms and combined\\u000awith the WordNet relations, are trimmed\\u000awith a disambiguation method based on the\\u000adocument salience of the words in the\\u000aglosses. The disambiguation

Piek Vossen

2001-01-01

204

Identification of TRIM22 as a RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase  

Microsoft Academic Search

TRIM22, a member of the TRIM family proteins which contain RING finger, B-box, and coiled-coil domains, has been reported as a transcriptional regulator and involved in various cellular processes. In this study, the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, a novel property of TRIM22, was demonstrated. It was found that TRIM22 underwent self-ubiquitylation in vitro in combination with the E2 enzyme UbcH5B

Zhijian Duan; Bo Gao; Wei Xu; Sidong Xiong

2008-01-01

205

A comparison of robust estimators based on two types of trimming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The least trimmed squares (LTS) estimator and the trimmed mean (TM) are two well-known trimming-based estimators of the location\\u000a parameter. Both estimates are used in practice, and they are implemented in standard statistical software (e.g., S-PLUS, R,\\u000a Matlab, SAS). The breakdown point of each of these estimators increases as the trimming proportion increases, while the efficiency\\u000a decreases. Here we have

Subhra Sankar Dhar; Probal Chaudhuri

2009-01-01

206

Rapid turnover and polyubiquitylation of the retroviral restriction factor TRIM5  

Microsoft Academic Search

TRIM5? and TRIMCyp are retroviral restriction factors that, like other members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family, contain RING, B-box 2 and coiled-coil domains. We found that both proteins are rapidly turned over, with half-lives of 50–60 min. Polyubiquitylation and rapid degradation of TRIM5? depended upon intact RING and B-box 2 domains. A chimera consisting of monkey TRIM5? with a

Felipe Diaz-Griffero; Xing Li; Hassan Javanbakht; Byeongwoon Song; Sohanya Welikala; Matthew Stremlau; Joseph Sodroski

2006-01-01

207

The Effects of Different Bill-Trimming Methods on the Well-Being of Pekin Ducks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pekin ducks are often bill-trimmed to pre- vent feather pecking and cannibalism, but this practice has been criticized because of the resulting potential for acute and chronic pain. The goal of this experiment was to compare 2 different bill-trimming methods, hot blade trimming with cautery (TRIM) and cautery only (tip-sear- ing; SEAR), on the behavior, bill morphology, and weight gain

L. A. Gustafson; H.-W. Cheng; J. P. Garner; E. A. Pajor; J. A. Mench

208

Effects of bill-trimming Muscovy ducks on behavior, body weight gain, and bill morphopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In commercial production facilities, ducks are often bill-trimmed to prevent feather pecking and cannibalism. Beak-trimming of chickens and turkeys has been criticized because of its potential to cause acute and chronic pain, but little is known about the effects of bill-trimming on the welfare of ducks. We conducted a study to determine the effects of a commercial bill-trimming method, cutting

Leslie A. Gustafson; Heng-Wei Cheng; Joseph P. Garner; Edmond A. Pajor; Joy A. Mench

2007-01-01

209

Specific Recognition and Accelerated Uncoating of Retroviral Capsids by the TRIM5? Restriction Factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The host restriction factor TRIM5a mediates species-specific, early blocks to retrovirus infection; susceptibility to these blocks is determined by viral capsid sequences. Here we demonstrate that TRIM5? variants from Old World monkeys specifically associate with the HIV type 1 (HIV-1) capsid and that this interaction depends on the TRIM5? B30.2 domain. Human and New World monkey TRIM5? proteins associated less

Matthew Stremlau; Michel Perron; Mark Lee; Yuan Li; Byeongwoon Song; Hassan Javanbakht; Felipe Diaz-Griffero; Donovan J. Anderson; Wesley I. Sundquist; Joseph Sodroski

2006-01-01

210

The Effect of Trim5 Polymorphisms on the Clinical Course of HIV1 Infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The antiviral factor tripartite interaction motif 5? (Trim5?) restricts a broad range of retroviruses in a species-specific manner. Although human Trim5? is unable to block HIV-1 infection in human cells, a modest inhibition of HIV-1 replication has been reported. Recently two polymorphisms in the Trim5 gene (H43Y and R136Q) were shown to affect the antiviral activity of Trim5? in vitro.

Daniëlle van Manen; Maarten A. N. Rits; Corrine Beugeling; Karel van Dort; Hanneke Schuitemaker; Neeltje A. Kootstra

2008-01-01

211

Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Latrodectus hesperus (Araneae: Theridiidae) on harvested table grapes.  

PubMed

The spider Latrodectus hesperus Chamberlin & Ivie (Araneae: Theridiidae) was subjected to low and ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments at different temperatures. Complete control of the spiders was achieved in 24-h ULO treatments with 0.5% O2 or lower at 1 degrees C and in a 24-h low oxygen (2%) treatment at 15 degrees C. Oxygen level and temperature greatly affected spider mortality. At 1 degrees C, as oxygen level was decreased from 2 to 0.5%, spider mortality increased from 0 to 100%. At 2% O2, as temperature was increased from 1 to 15 degrees C, spider mortality increased from 0 to 100%. Grape clusters from two table grape (Vitis spp.) cultivars, 'Thompson Seedless' and 'Flame Seedless', were subjected to the 24-h ULO treatment with 0.5% O2 at 1 degrees C. The ULO treatment had no negative effects on grape quality. Because of the relatively short treatment time, effectiveness at low storage temperature and the easily attained oxygen level, we conclude that the ULO treatment have good potential to be implemented commercially for control of black widow spiders on harvested table grapes. PMID:18950031

Liu, Yong-Biao; Daane, Kent M; Tebbets, J Steve; Bettiga, Larry J

2008-10-01

212

Evaluation of secondary-system oxygen control in PWR power plants. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The study discusses measures that should be incorporated into the balance of plant equipment in PWR plants to minimize oxygen content. It first reviews technical information about typical fossil and nuclear power plants in the USSR from the viewpoint of oxygen control. Next it addresses water conditioning in the condensate-feedwater system, including hydrazine-ammonia, chelate, and neutral modes, and variations of these modes. Reduction of oxygen ingress is discussed from the viewpoint of the condenser, feedwater heaters, moisture separator-reheater, and condensate storage tank. Emphasis is placed on proper condenser design and ejector operation. The importance of installing deaerating devices in the condenser itself and the feedwater system is discussed. Materials used in balance of plant equipment are analyzed for susceptibility to corrosion in the PWR plant environment. Recommendations are developed for protecting the system from oxygen contamination in different operating modes, particularly at startup and low load, and during shutdown. Suggestions for continuous monitoring and control of oxygen content in the condensate-feedwater system are included.

Oliker, I.; Katsman, D.

1982-06-01

213

A novel approach to controlling dissolved oxygen levels in laboratory experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hypoxia is a widespread environmental stressor that affects marine, estuarine and freshwater systems worldwide. Investigating the effects of hypoxia on aquatic animals in the natural environment is difficult and expensive. Laboratory experiments provide an alternative that allows manipulation of environmental variables and simulation of altered conditions that are expected in the future. However, controlling dissolved oxygen (DO) levels precisely in

K. L. Hassell; P. C. Coutin; D. Nugegoda

2009-01-01

214

DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTROLLING BOP (BASIC OXYGEN PROCESS) CHARGING EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of the basic oxygen process (BOP) hot metal charging emission control technology, conducted with a 900 kg pilot vessel designed for the experiments. Complete instrumentation was provided to measure the emissions, the effectiveness of the variou...

215

Growth and magnetosome formation by microaerophilic Magnetospirillum strains in an oxygen-controlled fermentor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Media and growth conditions were optimized for the microaerobic cultivation of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense in flasks and in a fermentor, resulting in significantly increased cell and magnetosome yields, compared with earlier studies. A reliable method was established for the automatic control of low dissolved oxygen tensions (pO2) in the fermentor (oxystat). Growth and magnetosome formation by M. gryphiswaldense, M. magnetotacticum and

U. Heyen; D. Schüler

2003-01-01

216

Fluid zeolite catalyzed conversion of alcohols and oxygenated derivatives to hydrocarbons by controlling exothermic reaction heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohols and related oxygenates converted in a riser reactor and dense fluid catalyst bed (Zsm-5 cat) circulated through a plurality of satellite stripping-cooling zones for temperature control. Catalyst utilized comprises from 5 to 20 weight percent coke for activity and selectivity characteristics promoting the formation of olefins and aromatics at temperatures below 800°F.

N. Daviduk; J. H. Haddad

1980-01-01

217

Fluid zeolite catalyst conversion of alcohols and oxygenated derivatives to hydrocarbons by controlling exothermic reaction heat  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohols and related oxygenates are converted in a riser reactor and dense fluid catalyst bed (Zsm-5 zeolite catalyst) circulated through a plurality of satellite stripping-cooling zones for temperature control. Catalyst utilized comprises from 5 to 20 weight percent coke for activity and selectivity characteristics promoting the formation of olefins and aromatics at temperatures below about 427* C. (800* F.).

N. Daviduk; J. H. Haddad

1982-01-01

218

Controls on ostracod valve geochemistry: Part 2. Carbon and oxygen isotope compositions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stable carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of fossil ostracods are powerful tools to estimate past environmental and climatic conditions. The basis for such interpretations is that the calcite of the valves reflects the isotopic composition of water and its temperature of formation. However, calcite of ostracods is known not to form in isotopic equilibrium with water and different species may have different offsets from inorganic precipitates of calcite formed under the same conditions. To estimate the fractionation during ostracod valve calcification, the oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of 15 species living in Lake Geneva were related to their autoecology and the environmental parameters measured during their growth. The results indicate that: (1) Oxygen isotope fractionation is similar for all species of Candoninae with an enrichment in 18 O of more than 3‰ relative to equilibrium values for inorganic calcite. Oxygen isotope fractionation for Cytheroidea is less discriminative relative to the heavy oxygen, with enrichments in 18 O for these species of 1.7 to 2.3‰. Oxygen isotope fractionations for Cyprididae are in-between those of Candoninae and Cytheroidea. The difference in oxygen isotope fractionation between ostracods and inorganic calcite has been interpreted as resulting from a vital effect. (2) Comparison with previous work suggests that oxygen isotope fractionation may depend on the total and relative ion content of water. (3) Carbon isotope compositions of ostracod valves are generally in equilibrium with DIC. The specimens' ? 13 C values are mainly controlled by seasonal variations in ? 13 C DIC of bottom water or variation thereof in sediment pore water. (4) Incomplete valve calcification has an effect on carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of ostracod valves. Preferential incorporation of CO 3 2 - at the beginning of valve calcification may explain this effect. (5) Results presented here as well as results from synthetic carbonate growth indicate that different growth rates or low pH within the calcification site cannot be the cause of oxygen isotope 'vital effects' in ostracods. Two mechanisms that might enrich the 18 O of ostracod valves are deprotonation of HCO 3 - that may also contribute to valve calcification, and effects comparable to salt effects with high concentrations of Ca and/or Mg within the calcification site that may also cause a higher temperature dependency of oxygen isotope fractionation.

Decrouy, Laurent; Vennemann, Torsten Walter; Ariztegui, Daniel

2011-11-01

219

The Interferon Response Inhibits HIV Particle Production by Induction of TRIM22  

PubMed Central

Treatment of human cells with Type 1 interferons restricts HIV replication. Here we report that the tripartite motif protein TRIM22 is a key mediator. We used transcriptional profiling to identify cellular genes that were induced by interferon treatment and identified TRIM22 as one of the most strongly up-regulated genes. We confirmed, as in previous studies, that TRIM22 over-expression inhibited HIV replication. To assess the role of TRIM22 expressed under natural inducing conditions, we compared the effects of interferon in cells depleted for TRIM22 using RNAi and found that HIV particle release was significantly increased in the knockdown, implying that TRIM22 acts as a natural antiviral effector. Further studies showed that TRIM22 inhibited budding of virus-like particles containing Gag only, indicating that Gag was the target of TRIM22. TRIM22 did not block the release of MLV or EIAV Gag particles. Inhibition was associated with diffuse cytoplasmic staining of HIV Gag rather than accumulation at the plasma membrane, suggesting TRIM22 disrupts proper trafficking. Mutational analyses of TRIM22 showed that the catalytic amino acids Cys15 and Cys18 of the RING domain are required for TRIM22 antiviral activity. These data disclose a pathway by which Type 1 interferons obstruct HIV replication.

Barr, Stephen D.; Smiley, James R.; Bushman, Frederic D.

2008-01-01

220

TRIM E3 Ligases Interfere with Early and Late Stages of the Retroviral Life Cycle  

Microsoft Academic Search

Members of the TRIpartite interaction Motif (TRIM) family of E3 ligases have been shown to exhibit antiviral activities. Here we report a near comprehensive screen for antiretroviral activities of 55 TRIM proteins (36 human, 19 mouse). We identified ?20 TRIM proteins that, when transiently expressed in HEK293 cells, affect the entry or release of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV), murine

Pradeep D Uchil; Brian D Quinlan; Wai-Tsing Chan; Joseph M Luna; Walther Mothes

2008-01-01

221

A Comparison of Robust Estimators Based on Two Types of Trimming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The least trimmed squares (LTS) estimator and the trimmed mean are two well known trimming based estimators. Both estimates are popular in practice, and they are implemented in standard statistical softwares. In this paper, we compare the asymptotic variances of these two estimators in a location model, when the two location estimates have the highest breakdown point (i.e., 50%). Some

SUBHRA SANKAR DHAR; PROBAL CHAUDHURI

2007-01-01

222

Purity predictive model-based control of oxygen vacuum swing adsorption process  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with both dynamic modeling and control of the oxygen vacuum swing adsorption (VSA) process. This process is well known for its batch-like operation and inherent non-linearities. The main objectives are to establish a robust dynamic model and then to demonstrate the practical application of a purity predictive model-based control to this industrial system. Experimental results point out

J. Macron; O. Roy; J. Pierquin; P. Rouchon

2010-01-01

223

Air-fuel ratio control with respect to oxygen storage dynamics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reducing exhaust emissions is one of the biggest challenges facing the automotive engineering community today. In order to comply with future more stringent emission standards, the air-fuel ratio control must be improved. Commonly used control concepts do not account for the oxygen storage ability of the three-way catalyst, even though the storage state mainly influences post-catalyst exhaust emissions. In this

Michael Tomforde; Wolfgang Drewelow; Matthias Schultalbers

2011-01-01

224

Singlet oxygen-dependent translational control in the tigrina-d.12 mutant of barley  

PubMed Central

The tigrina (tig)-d.12 mutant of barley is impaired in the negative control limiting excess protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) accumulation in the dark. Upon illumination, Pchlide operates as photosensitizer and triggers singlet oxygen production and cell death. Here, we show that both Pchlide and singlet oxygen operate as signals that control gene expression and metabolite accumulation in tig-d.12 plants. In vivo labeling, Northern blotting, polysome profiling, and protein gel blot analyses revealed a selective suppression of synthesis of the small and large subunits of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RBCSs and RBCLs), the major light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein of photosystem II (LHCB2), as well as other chlorophyll-binding proteins, in response to singlet oxygen. In part, these effects were caused by an arrest in translation initiation of photosynthetic transcripts at 80S cytoplasmic ribosomes. The observed changes in translation correlated with a decline in the phosphorylation level of ribosomal protein S6. At later stages, ribosome dissociation occurred. Together, our results identify translation as a major target of singlet oxygen-dependent growth control and cell death in higher plants.

Khandal, Dhriti; Samol, Iga; Buhr, Frank; Pollmann, Stephan; Schmidt, Holger; Clemens, Stephan; Reinbothe, Steffen; Reinbothe, Christiane

2009-01-01

225

14 CFR 23.153 - Control during landings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...following an approach to landâ (a) At a speed of VREF minus 5 knots; (b) With the airplane in trim, or as nearly as possible in trim and without the trimming control being moved throughout the maneuver; (c) At an approach...

2013-01-01

226

Control of apple superficial scald and ripening—a comparison between 1-methylcyclopropene and diphenylamine postharvest treatments, initial low oxygen stress and ultra low oxygen storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Granny Smith’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruit were treated with 1 ?l l?1 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) at room temperature for 12 h. Quality of fruit stored 4 and 6 months in air, under different controlled atmospheres (CA) at low oxygen concentration (1.5, 1.0 and 0.7 kPa O2), with initial low oxygen stress (ILOS) at 0.4 kPa O2 for 2 weeks, and

A Zanella

2003-01-01

227

Effect of nitroimidazoles on the oxygen consumption rate and respiratory control ratio of beef heart mitochondria  

SciTech Connect

The neurotoxic effect of the nitroimidazole radiosensitizers misonidazole (MISO) and desmethylmisonidazole (DMM) has seriously compromised their clinical effectiveness. The authors compare here the effect of MISO and DMM on oxygen consumption in purified beef heart mitochondria. MISO has been found to significantly increase the oxygen consumption rate and decrease the respiratory control ratio in isolated mitochondria when incubated in the presence of the NAD+ dependent substrate, ..beta..-hydroxybutyrate. DMM has a similar but less pronounced effect than MISO on these respiratory parameters. When mitochondria were incubated in the presence of these radiosensitizers for 8, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes, the oxygen consumption rate was decreased when succinate, a FAD dependent substrate, was added following the incubation. This decrease, which is both time and dosage dependent, is equivalent for MISO and DMM.

Chao, C.F.; Ting, L.; Subjeck, J.R.; Johnson, R.J.

1984-08-01

228

Maturity and Stability Evaluation of Composted Yard Trimmings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to evaluate a variety of stability and maturity in- dices for yard trimmings compost produced in the Puget Sound region of western Washington State. Compost samples were collected periodically during a 133-d com- posting cycle at a commercial composting facility, showing that indices of compost respiration rate were sensitive indicators of compost quality. All

Linda J. Brewer; Dan M. Sullivan; Oregon Corvallis

2003-01-01

229

A precision trim technique for monolithic analog circuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for permanent adjustment of precision analog circuits at wafer test by selective shorting of Zener diodes is presented. Analytical details of the trimming procedure and a physical description of diode short-circuiting are given. The method is applied to a precision operational amplifier with input offset voltage reduced to 10 ?V. The necessity of optimizing other related parameters is

GEORGE ERDI

1975-01-01

230

TRIM proteins in therapeutic membrane repair of muscular dystrophy.  

PubMed

Muscular dystrophy represents a major unmet medical need; only palliative treatments exist for this group of debilitating diseases. Because multiple forms of muscular dystrophy arise from compromised sarcolemmal membrane integrity, a therapeutic approach that can target this loss of membrane function could be applicable to a number of these distinct diseases.One promising therapeutic approach involves the process the cell uses to repair injuries to the plasma membrane. Recent discoveries of genes associated with the membrane repair process provide an opportunity to promote this process as a way to treat muscular dystrophy. One such gene is mitsugumin 53 (MG53), a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family of proteins (TRIM72), which is an essential component of the membrane repair pathway in muscle. Recent results indicate that MG53/TRIM72 protein can be directly applied as a therapeutic agent to increase membrane repair capacity of many cell types and treat some aspects of the disease in mouse models of muscular dystrophy. There is great potential for the use of recombinant human MG53 in treating muscular dystrophy and other diseases in which compromised membrane integrity contributes to the disease. Other TRIM family proteins may provide additional targets for therapeutic intervention in similar disease states. PMID:23699904

Alloush, Jenna; Weisleder, Noah

2013-07-01

231

An aeration control strategy for oxidation ditch processes based on online oxygen requirement estimation.  

PubMed

A feedforward-feedback aeration control strategy based on online oxygen requirements (OR) estimation is proposed for oxidation ditch (OD) processes, and it is further developed for intermittent aeration OD processes, which are the most popular type in Japan. For calculating OR, concentrations of influent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) are estimated online by the measurement of suspended solids (SS) and sometimes TKN is estimated by NH4-N. Mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and temperature are used to estimate the required oxygen for endogenous respiration. A straightforward parameter named aeration coefficient, Ka, is introduced as the only parameter that can be tuned automatically by feedback control or manually by the operators. Simulation with an activated sludge model was performed in comparison to fixed-interval aeration and satisfying result of OR control strategy was obtained. The OR control strategy has been implemented at seven full-scale OD plants and improvements in nitrogen removal are obtained in all these plants. Among them, the results obtained in Yumoto wastewater treatment plant were presented, in which continuous aeration was applied previously. After implementing intermittent OR control, the total nitrogen concentration was reduced from more than 5 mg/L to under 2 mg/L, and the electricity consumption was reduced by 61.2% for aeration or 21.5% for the whole plant. PMID:23823542

Zhan, J X; Ikehata, M; Mayuzumi, M; Koizumi, E; Kawaguchi, Y; Hashimoto, T

2013-01-01

232

Total Risk Integrated Methodology. Implementation of the TRIM Conceptual Design through the TRIM.FaTE Module. A Status Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing the Total Risk Integrated Methodology (TRIM), a multimedia, time-series simulation modeling system for the assessment of human and eco...

1998-01-01

233

Design and development of microbioreactors for long-term cell culture in controlled oxygen microenvironments.  

PubMed

The ability to control the oxygen level to which cells are exposed in tissue culture experiments is crucial for many applications. Here, we design, develop and test a microbioreactor (MBR) for long-term cell culture studies with the capability to accurately control and continuously monitor the dissolved oxygen (DO) level in the cell microenvironment. In addition, the DO level can be controlled independently from other cues, such as the viscous shear-stress acting on the cells. We first analyze the transport of oxygen in the proposed device and determine the materials and dimensions that are compatible with uniform oxygen tension and low shear-stress at the cell level. The device is also designed to culture a statistically significant number of cells. We use fully transparent materials and the overall design of the device is compatible with live-cell imaging. The proposed system includes real-time read-out of actual DO levels, is simple to fabricate at low cost, and can be easily expanded to control the concentration of other microenvironmental solutes. We performed control experiments in the absence of cells to demonstrate that the MBR can be used to accurately modulate DO levels ranging from atmospheric level to 1%, both under no flow and perfusion conditions. We also demonstrate cancer cell attachment and viability within the MBR. The proposed MBR offers the unprecedented capability to perform on-line measurement and analysis of DO levels in the microenvironment of adherent cultures and to correlate them with various cellular responses. PMID:21947550

Abaci, Hasan E; Devendra, Raghavendra; Smith, Quinton; Gerecht, Sharon; Drazer, German

2012-02-01

234

TRIM5{alpha} association with cytoplasmic bodies is not required for antiretroviral activity  

SciTech Connect

The tripartite motif (TRIM) protein, TRIM5{alpha}, restricts infection by particular retroviruses. Many TRIM proteins form cytoplasmic bodies of unknown function. We investigated the relationship between cytoplasmic body formation and the structure and antiretroviral activity of TRIM5{alpha}. In addition to diffuse cytoplasmic staining, the TRIM5{alpha} proteins from several primate species were located in cytoplasmic bodies of different sizes; by contrast, TRIM5{alpha} from spider monkeys did not form cytoplasmic bodies. Despite these differences, all of the TRIM5{alpha} proteins exhibited the ability to restrict infection by particular retroviruses. Treatment of cells with geldanamycin, an Hsp90 inhibitor, resulted in disappearance or reduction of the TRIM5{alpha}-associated cytoplasmic bodies, yet exerted little effect on the restriction of retroviral infection. Studies of green fluorescent protein-TRIM5{alpha} fusion proteins indicated that no TRIM5{alpha} domain is specifically required for association with cytoplasmic bodies. Apparently, the formation of cytoplasmic bodies is not required for the antiretroviral activity of TRIM5{alpha}.

Song, Byeongwoon [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Diaz-Griffero, Felipe [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Park, Do Hyun [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Rogers, Thomas [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Stremlau, Matthew [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Sodroski, Joseph [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States) and Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)]. E-mail: joseph_sodroski@dfci.harvard.edu

2005-12-20

235

Intracellular antibody-bound pathogens stimulate immune signaling via Fc-receptor TRIM21  

PubMed Central

Antibodies can be carried into the cell during pathogen infection where they are detected by the ubiquitously expressed cytosolic antibody receptor TRIM21. Here we show that TRIM21 recognition of intracellular antibodies activates immune signaling. TRIM21 catalyses K63-ubiquitin chain formation, stimulating transcription factor pathways NF-?B, AP-1 and IRF3, IRF5, IRF7. Activation results in proinflammatory cytokine production, modulation of natural killer (NK) stress ligands and the induction of an antiviral state. Intracellular antibody signaling is abrogated by genetic deletion of TRIM21 and is recovered by ectopic TRIM21 expression. Antibody sensing by TRIM21 can be stimulated upon infection by DNA or RNA non-enveloped viruses or intracellular bacteria. The antibody-TRIM21 detection system provides potent, comprehensive innate immune activation, independent of known pattern recognition receptors.

McEwan, W.A; Tam, J.C.H; Watkinson, R.E; Bidgood, S.R; Mallery, D.L; James, L.C

2013-01-01

236

Intracellular antibody-bound pathogens stimulate immune signaling via the Fc receptor TRIM21.  

PubMed

During pathogen infection, antibodies can be carried into the infected cell, where they are detected by the ubiquitously expressed cytosolic antibody receptor TRIM21. Here we found that recognition of intracellular antibodies by TRIM21 activated immune signaling. TRIM21 catalyzed the formation of Lys63 (K63)-linked ubiquitin chains and stimulated the transcription factor pathways of NF-?B, AP-1, IRF3, IRF5 and IRF7. Activation resulted in the production of proinflammatory cytokines, modulation of natural killer stress ligands and induction of an antiviral state. Intracellular antibody signaling was abrogated by genetic deletion of TRIM21 and was restored by ectopic expression of TRIM21. The sensing of antibodies by TRIM21 was stimulated after infection by DNA or RNA nonenveloped viruses or intracellular bacteria. Thus, the antibody-TRIM21 detection system provides potent, comprehensive activation of the innate immune system independently of known pattern-recognition receptors. PMID:23455675

McEwan, William A; Tam, Jerry C H; Watkinson, Ruth E; Bidgood, Susanna R; Mallery, Donna L; James, Leo C

2013-03-03

237

Spectroscopic Signatures of Novel Oxygen-Defect Complexes in Stoichiometrically Controlled CdSe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Growth of single crystals of CdSe with oxygen, introduced by stoichiometric control to suppress the formation of native Se and Cd vacancies, generates oxygen centers replacing Cd (OCd) rather than Se (OSe) as expected. This antisite substitution is unambiguously singled out by the host isotope fine structure of the nearest neighbor (NN) Se atoms in the localized vibrational modes (LVMs) of OCd. When the stoichiometry control favors the formation of Cd vacancies, three infrared signatures ?1, ?2 and ?3 appear ascribable to the LVMs of OSe in association with a Cd vacancy in the NN position as (OSe-VCd) centers. Polarization measurements establish the monoclinic Cs symmetry for these centers. As a function of temperature, they display a remarkable two-step symmetry transformation, Cs?C3v?Td, due to the dynamic switching of the OSe-VCd dangling bond.

Chen, G.; Bhosale, J. S.; Miotkowski, I.; Ramdas, A. K.

2008-11-01

238

Role of SUMO-1 and SUMO interacting motifs in rhesus TRIM5?-mediated restriction  

PubMed Central

Background TRIM5? is a member of the tripartite motif family of proteins that restricts retroviral infection in a species-specific manner. The restriction requires an interaction between the viral capsid lattice and the B30.2/SPRY domain of TRIM5?. Previously, we determined that two SUMO interacting motifs (SIMs) present in the B30.2/SPRY domain of human TRIM5? (huTRIM5?) were important for the restriction of N-tropic Murine Leukemia Virus. Here, we examined whether SUMO expression and the SIM1 and SIM2 motifs in rhesus monkey TRIM5? (rhTRIM5?) are similarly important for Human Immunodeficiency Type 1 (HIV-) restriction. Results We found that mutation of SIM1 and SIM2 of rhTRIM5? abolished the restriction of HIV-1 virus. Further, knockdown of SUMO-1 in rhTRIM5? expressing cells abolished restriction of HIV-1. These results may be due, in part, to the ability of SUMO-1 to stabilize rhTRIM5? protein expression, as SUMO-1 knockdown increased rhTRIM5? turnover and the mutations in SIM1 and SIM2 led to more rapid degradation than the wild type protein. The NF-?B signaling ability of rhTRIM5? was also attenuated by SUMO-1 knockdown. Finally, upon inhibition of CRM1-dependent nuclear export with Leptomycin B (LMB), wild type rhTRIM5? localized to SUMO-1 bodies in the nucleus, while the SIM1 and SIM2 mutants did not localize to SUMO-1. Conclusions Our results suggest that the rhTRIM5? B30.2/SPRY domain is not only important for the recognition of the HIV-1 CA, but it is also important for its association with SUMO-1 or SUMO-1 modified proteins. These interactions help to maintain TRIM5? protein levels and its nuclear localization into specific nuclear bodies.

2013-01-01

239

Oxygen stoichiometry control of nanometric oxide compounds: The case of titanium ferrites  

SciTech Connect

Three techniques have been coupled with an original device, based on H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O equilibrium, controlling oxygen partial pressure: XRD, TGA and DC conductivity in order to characterize very reactive compounds such as nanometric powders. From XRD, both the structure and the oxygen stoichiometry (thanks to their lattice parameter) were investigated in situ. From TGA, it was the oxygen stoichiometry (thanks to mass gain or loss) which was determined. From DC conductivity, it was both the structure and the oxygen stoichiometry (thanks to the activation energy) which were obtained. The advantages were to determine very rapidly and with a small amount of powder the equilibrium conditions (T, pO{sub 2}) necessary to obtain the desired phase and stoichiometry. These methods have been evaluated for nanometric titanium ferrites. Two phenomena have been observed during the reducing process: the precipitation of a rhombohedral phase and a significant grain growth linked together. - Graphical abstract: XRD patterns of Fe{sub 3(1-{delta})}O{sub 4} nanometric powders obtained in situ during a reducing treatment. The stoichiometric compound was obtained by a thermal annealing at 460 deg. C under pO{sub 2}=3x10{sup -26} Pa ({Phi}{sub DRX}=100 nm). In inset, data of the experimental lattice parameter compared to the theoretical one. {alpha} represents the rhomboedrical phase which precipitates during this thermal treatment, then disappeared. Highlights: > The control of the deviation from oxygen stoichiometry is rarely consider in literature. > At the nanometric scale, it is necessary to develop synthesis routes under appropriate atmosphere. > These synthesis must be coupled with in situ characterization tools. > It opens the door to fast and precise studies concerning the evolution of nanometric materials.

Millot, N., E-mail: nmillot@u-bourgogne.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, U.M.R. 5209 C.N.R.S./Universite de Bourgogne, BP 47 870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Perriat, P. [Materiaux, Ingenierie et Sciences, CNRS UMR 5510, INSA de Lyon, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

2011-10-15

240

Oxygen and an Extracellular Phase Transition Independently Control Central Regulatory Genes and Conidiogenesis in Aspergillus fumigatus.  

PubMed

Conidiogenesis is the primary process for asexual reproduction in filamentous fungi. As the conidia resulting from the conidiogenesis process are primarily disseminated via air currents and/or water, an outstanding question has been how fungi recognize aerial environments suitable for conidial development. In this study, we documented the somewhat complex development of the conidia-bearing structures, termed conidiophores, from several Aspergillus species in a subsurface (gel-phase) layer of solid media. A subset of the isolates studied was able to develop conidiophores in a gel-phase environment, but exposure to the aeriform environment was required for the terminal developmental transition from phialide cells to conidia. The remaining Aspergilli could not initiate the conidiogenesis process until they were exposed to the aeriform environment. Our observations of conidiophore development in high or low oxygen conditions in both aeriform and gel-phase environments revealed that oxygen and the aeriform state are positive environmental factors for inducing conidiogenesis in most of the aspergilli tested in this study. Transcriptional analysis using A. fumigatus strain AF293 confined to either the aeriform or gel-phase environments revealed that expression of a key regulatory gene for conidiophore development (AfubrlA) is facilitated by oxygen while expression of another regulatory gene controlling conidia formation from phialides (AfuabaA) was repressed regardless of oxygen levels in the gel-embedded environment. Furthermore, by comparing the developmental behavior of conidiation-defective mutants lacking genes controlling various regulatory checkpoints throughout the conidiogenesis pathway, we propose that this aerial response by the fungus requires both oxygen and the phase transition (solid to aeriform), with these environmental signals integrating into the upstream regulatory pathway and central regulatory pathway of conidiogenesis, respectively. Our findings provide not only novel insight into how fungi respond to an aerial environment to trigger development for airborne conidia production but also the relationship between environmental factors and conidiogenesis regulation in aspergilli. PMID:24040343

Chi, Myoung-Hwan; Craven, Kelly D

2013-09-05

241

Oxygen and an Extracellular Phase Transition Independently Control Central Regulatory Genes and Conidiogenesis in Aspergillus fumigatus  

PubMed Central

Conidiogenesis is the primary process for asexual reproduction in filamentous fungi. As the conidia resulting from the conidiogenesis process are primarily disseminated via air currents and/or water, an outstanding question has been how fungi recognize aerial environments suitable for conidial development. In this study, we documented the somewhat complex development of the conidia-bearing structures, termed conidiophores, from several Aspergillus species in a subsurface (gel-phase) layer of solid media. A subset of the isolates studied was able to develop conidiophores in a gel-phase environment, but exposure to the aeriform environment was required for the terminal developmental transition from phialide cells to conidia. The remaining Aspergilli could not initiate the conidiogenesis process until they were exposed to the aeriform environment. Our observations of conidiophore development in high or low oxygen conditions in both aeriform and gel-phase environments revealed that oxygen and the aeriform state are positive environmental factors for inducing conidiogenesis in most of the aspergilli tested in this study. Transcriptional analysis using A. fumigatus strain AF293 confined to either the aeriform or gel-phase environments revealed that expression of a key regulatory gene for conidiophore development (AfubrlA) is facilitated by oxygen while expression of another regulatory gene controlling conidia formation from phialides (AfuabaA) was repressed regardless of oxygen levels in the gel-embedded environment. Furthermore, by comparing the developmental behavior of conidiation-defective mutants lacking genes controlling various regulatory checkpoints throughout the conidiogenesis pathway, we propose that this aerial response by the fungus requires both oxygen and the phase transition (solid to aeriform), with these environmental signals integrating into the upstream regulatory pathway and central regulatory pathway of conidiogenesis, respectively. Our findings provide not only novel insight into how fungi respond to an aerial environment to trigger development for airborne conidia production but also the relationship between environmental factors and conidiogenesis regulation in aspergilli.

Chi, Myoung-Hwan; Craven, Kelly D.

2013-01-01

242

Novel oxygen storage components for advanced catalysts for emission control in natural gas fueled vehicles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Advanced catalysts based on a novel oxygen storage component (OSC) were developed for emission control in natural gas fueled vehicles. The catalysts contain a manganese oxide (MnOx) as the OSC supported on an inert LaA1O3 perovskite and a noble metal component (Pd) supported on a separate high surface area refractory material, for example lanthana stabilized A12O3. The MnOx has higher

Yun-feng Chang; Jon G. McCarty

1996-01-01

243

An Oxygen Control Strategy for Corrosion Minimization in Direct-Contact Lead- Bismuth/Water Systems  

SciTech Connect

The selection of structural materials suitable for fuel cladding and primary system purposes is key to the development of all lead and lead-bismuth cooled nuclear systems. Traditional austenitic stainless steels cannot be used at the temperatures of interest (>450 deg. C), because of the large solubility of nickel in bismuth. The possibility of employing low nickel martensitic/ferritic stainless steels is currently being studied. Corrosion control for these alloys is based on the formation of a stable iron oxide film on the surfaces exposed to the liquid-metal coolant. This requires maintenance of at least a minimum concentration of oxygen in the liquid metal. On the other hand, excessive oxygen can cause precipitation of lead- and bismuth-oxide slag. Excessive oxidation of the coolant is particularly challenging in the case of a direct-contact system where lead-bismuth and water are mixed to generate steam. In this paper it is demonstrated that an oxygen control strategy based on injection of minute amounts of hydrogen in the feedwater can ensure formation of the stable iron film, while preventing precipitation of the liquid-metal oxides. This corrosion-control approach is quantified in the context of a conceptual lead-bismuth-cooled fast reactor of recent development, which makes use of in-vessel direct-contact generation of the working steam. (authors)

Buongiorno, Jacopo [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Nuclear Engineering Department, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3860 (United States); Todreas, Neil E.; Kazimi, Mujid S. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Nuclear Engineering Department, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307 (United States)

2002-07-01

244

Species-Specific Variation in the B30.2(SPRY) Domain of TRIM5  Determines the Potency of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Restriction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retroviruses encounter dominant postentry restrictions in cells of particular species. Human immunodefi- ciency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is blocked in the cells of Old World monkeys by TRIM5, a tripartite motif (TRIM) protein composed of RING, B-box 2, coiled-coil, and B30.2(SPRY) domains. Rhesus monkey TRIM5 (TRIM5rh) more potently blocks HIV-1 infection than human TRIM5 (TRIM5hu). Here, by studying chimeric TRIM5

Matthew Stremlau; Michel Perron; Sohanya Welikala; Joseph Sodroski

2005-01-01

245

The economic efficiency of sampling size: the case of beef trim revisited.  

PubMed

A recent paper by Ferrier and Buzby provides a framework for selecting the sample size when testing a lot of beef trim for Escherichia coli O157:H7 that equates the averted costs of recalls and health damages from contaminated meats sold to consumers with the increased costs of testing while allowing for uncertainty about the underlying prevalence of contamination. Ferrier and Buzby conclude that the optimal sample size is larger than the current sample size. However, Ferrier and Buzby's optimization model has a number of errors, and their simulations failed to consider available evidence about the likelihood of the scenarios explored under the model. After correctly modeling microbial prevalence as dependent on portion size and selecting model inputs based on available evidence, the model suggests that the optimal sample size is zero under most plausible scenarios. It does not follow, however, that sampling beef trim for E. coli O157:H7, or food safety sampling more generally, should be abandoned. Sampling is not generally cost effective as a direct consumer safety control measure due to the extremely large sample sizes required to provide a high degree of confidence of detecting very low acceptable defect levels. Food safety verification sampling creates economic incentives for food producing firms to develop, implement, and maintain effective control measures that limit the probability and degree of noncompliance with regulatory limits or private contract specifications. PMID:23496435

Powell, Mark R

2013-03-01

246

TRIM22 Inhibits Influenza A Virus Infection by Targeting the Viral Nucleoprotein for Degradation  

PubMed Central

Tripartite motif (TRIM) protein superfamily members are emerging as important effectors of the innate immune response against viral infections. In particular, TRIM22 was reported to exert antiviral activity against RNA viruses, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), encephalomyocarditis virus (ECMV), and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). We demonstrate here, for the first time, that TRIM22 is upregulated by influenza A virus (IAV) infection at both mRNA and protein levels in human alveolar epithelial A549 cells. Conversely, TRIM22 potently restricted IAV replication, in that prevention of TRIM22 expression by means of short hairpin RNA led to a 10-fold enhancement of IAV replication in these cells. Depletion of TRIM22 also reduced the anti-IAV activity of alpha interferon (IFN-?), suggesting that TRIM22 is an important IFN-stimulated gene that is required for maximal suppression of IAV by type I IFN. Furthermore, the IAV infectious titer decreased up to 100-fold in MDCK cells expressing exogenous human TRIM22. Restriction of IAV replication was accounted for by the interaction between TRIM22 and the viral nucleoprotein (NP), resulting in its polyubiquitination and degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner. Thus, TRIM22 represents a novel restriction factor upregulated upon IAV infection that curtails its replicative capacity in epithelial cells.

Di Pietro, Andrea; Kajaste-Rudnitski, Anna; Oteiza, Alexandra; Nicora, Lucia; Towers, Greg J.; Mechti, Nadir

2013-01-01

247

TRIM50 Protein Regulates Vesicular Trafficking for Acid Secretion in Gastric Parietal Cells*  

PubMed Central

Of the TRIM/RBCC family proteins taking part in a variety of cellular processes, TRIM50 is a stomach-specific member with no defined biological function. Our biochemical data demonstrated that TRIM50 is specifically expressed in gastric parietal cells and is predominantly localized in the tubulovesicular and canalicular membranes. In cultured cells ectopically expressing GFP-TRIM50, confocal microscopic imaging revealed dynamic movement of TRIM50-associated vesicles in a phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent manner. A protein overlay assay detected preferential binding of the PRY-SPRY domain from the TRIM50 C-terminal region to phosphatidylinositol species, suggesting that TRIM50 is involved in vesicular dynamics by sensing the phosphorylated state of phosphoinositol lipids. Trim50 knock-out mice retained normal histology in the gastric mucosa but exhibited impaired secretion of gastric acid. In response to histamine, Trim50 knock-out parietal cells generated deranged canaliculi, swollen microvilli lacking actin filaments, and excess multilamellar membrane complexes. Therefore, TRIM50 seems to play an essential role in tubulovesicular dynamics, promoting the formation of sophisticated canaliculi and microvilli during acid secretion in parietal cells.

Nishi, Miyuki; Aoyama, Fumiyo; Kisa, Fumihiko; Zhu, Hua; Sun, Mingzhai; Lin, Peihui; Ohta, Hiroya; Van, Bo; Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Kakizawa, Sho; Sakai, Hideki; Ma, Jianjie; Sawaguchi, Akira; Takeshima, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

248

TRIM16 inhibits neuroblastoma cell proliferation through cell cycle regulation and dynamic nuclear localization.  

PubMed

Neuroblastoma is the most common solid tumor in childhood and represents 15% of all children's cancer deaths. We have previously demonstrated that tripartite motif 16 (TRIM16), a member of the RING B-box coiled-coil (RBCC)/tripartite totif (TRIM) protein family, has significant effects on neuroblastoma proliferation and migration in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. However, the mechanism by which this putative tumor suppressor influences cell proliferation and tumorigenicity was undetermined. Here we show, for the first time, TRIM16's striking pattern of expression and dynamic localization during cell cycle progression and neuroblastoma tumor development. In a tyrosine hydroxylase MYCN (TH-MYCN) neuroblastoma mouse model, immunohistochemical staining revealed strong nuclear TRIM16 expression in differentiating ganglia cells but not in the tumor-initiating cells. Furthermore in vitro studies clearly demonstrated that during G 1 cell cycle phase, TRIM16 protein expression is upregulated and shifts to the nucleus of cells. TRIM16 also plays a role in cell cycle progression through changes in Cyclin D1 and p27 expression. Importantly, using TRIM16 deletion mutants, an uncharacterized protein domain of TRIM16 was found to be required for both TRIM16's growth inhibitory effects and its nuclear localization. Taken together, our data suggest that TRIM16 acts as a novel regulator of both neuroblastoma G 1/S progression and cell differentiation. PMID:23422002

Bell, Jessica L; Malyukova, Alena; Kavallaris, Maria; Marshall, Glenn M; Cheung, Belamy B

2013-02-19

249

TRIM72 negatively regulates myogenesis via targeting insulin receptor substrate-1.  

PubMed

Lipid rafts have been known to be platforms to initiate cellular signal transduction of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) inducing skeletal muscle differentiation and hypertrophy. Here, tripartite motif 72 (TRIM72), with a really interesting new gene (RING)-finger domain, a B-box, two coiled-coil domains, and a SPRY (SPla and RYanodine receptor) domain, was revealed to be predominantly expressed in the sarcolemma lipid rafts of skeletal and cardiac muscles. Adenoviral TRIM72 overexpression prevented but RNAi-mediated TRIM72 silencing enhanced C2C12 myogenesis by modulating the IGF-induced insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) activation through the molecular association of TRIM72 with IRS-1. Furthermore, myogenic activity was highly enhanced with increased IGF-induced Akt activation in the satellite cells of TRIM72(-/-) mice, compared to those of TRIM72+/+ mice. Because TRIM72 promoter analysis shows that two proximal E-boxes in TRIM72 promoter were essential for MyoD- and Akt-dependent TRIM72 transcription, we can conclude that TRIM72 is a novel antagonist of IRS-1, and is essential as a negative regulator of IGF-induced muscle differentiation. PMID:20139895

Lee, C S; Yi, J-S; Jung, S-Y; Kim, B-W; Lee, N-R; Choo, H-J; Jang, S-Y; Han, J; Chi, S-G; Park, M; Lee, J-H; Ko, Y-G

2010-02-05

250

Regulation of the Sre1 hypoxic transcription factor by oxygen-dependent control of DNA binding  

PubMed Central

Summary Regulation of gene expression plays an integral role in adaptation of cells to hypoxic stress. In mammals, prolyl hydroxylases control levels of the central transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) through regulation of HIF? subunit stability. Here, we report that the hydroxylase Ofd1 regulates the Sre1 hypoxic transcription factor in fission yeast by controlling DNA binding. Prolyl hydroxylases require oxygen as a substrate and the activity of Ofd1 regulates Sre1-dependent transcription. In the presence of oxygen, Ofd1 binds the Sre1 N-terminal transcription factor domain (Sre1N) and inhibits Sre1-dependent transcription by blocking DNA binding. In the absence of oxygen, the inhibitor Nro1 binds Ofd1, thereby releasing Sre1N and leading to activation of genes required for hypoxic growth. In contrast to the HIF system where proline hydroxylation is essential for regulation, Ofd1 inhibition of Sre1N does not require hydroxylation, and thus defines a new mechanism for hypoxic gene regulation.

Lee, Chih-Yung S.; Yeh, Tzu-Lan; Hughes, Bridget T.; Espenshade, Peter J.

2011-01-01

251

TRIM37 defective in mulibrey nanism is a novel RING finger ubiquitin E3 ligase  

SciTech Connect

Mulibrey nanism is an autosomal recessive prenatal-onset growth disorder characterized by dysmorphic features, cardiomyopathy, and hepatomegaly. Mutations in TRIM37 encoding a tripartite motif (TRIM, RING-B-box-coiled-coil)-family protein underlie mulibrey nanism. We investigated the ubiquitin ligase activity predicted for the RING domain of TRIM37 by analyzing its autoubiquitination. Full-length TRIM37 and its TRIM domain were highly polyubiquitinated when co-expressed with ubiquitin. Polyubiquitination was decreased in a mutant protein with disrupted RING domain (Cys35Ser;Cys36Ser) and in the Leu76Pro mutant protein, a disease-associated missense mutation affecting the TRIM domain of TRIM37. Bacterially produced GST-TRIM domain fusion protein, but not its Cys35Ser;Cys36Ser or Leu76Pro mutants, were polyubiquitinated in cell-free conditions, implying RING-dependent modification. Ubiquitin was also identified as an interaction partner for TRIM37 in a yeast two-hybrid screen. Ectopically expressed TRIM37 rapidly formed aggregates that were ubiquitin-, proteasome subunit-, and chaperone-positive in immunofluorescence analysis, defining them as aggresomes. The Cys35Ser;Cys36Ser mutant and the Leu76Pro and Gly322Val patient mutant proteins were markedly less prone to aggregation, implying that aggresomal targeting reflects a physiological function of TRIM37. These findings suggest that TRIM37 acts as a TRIM domain-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase and imply defective ubiquitin-dependent degradation of an as-yet-unidentified target protein in the pathogenesis of mulibrey nanism.

Kallijaervi, Jukka [Folkhaelsan Institute of Genetics, Department of Medical Genetics and Neuroscience Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Lahtinen, Ulla [Folkhaelsan Institute of Genetics, Department of Medical Genetics and Neuroscience Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Haemaelaeinen, Riikka [Folkhaelsan Institute of Genetics, Department of Medical Genetics and Neuroscience Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Lipsanen-Nyman, Marita [The Hospital for Children and Adolescents and Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland); Palvimo, Jorma J. [Institute of Biomedicine, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Kuopio, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina [Folkhaelsan Institute of Genetics, Department of Medical Genetics and Neuroscience Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: anna-elina.lehesjoki@helsinki.fi

2005-08-01

252

Identification and characterization of multiple TRIM proteins that inhibit hepatitis B virus transcription.  

PubMed

Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins constitute a family of over 100 members that share conserved tripartite motifs and exhibit diverse biological functions. Several TRIM proteins have been shown to restrict viral infections and regulate host cellular innate immune responses. In order to identify TRIM proteins that modulate the infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV), we tested 38 human TRIMs for their effects on HBV gene expression, capsid assembly and DNA synthesis in human hepatoma cells (HepG2). The study revealed that ectopic expression of 8 TRIM proteins in HepG2 cells potently reduced the amounts of secreted HBV surface and e antigens as well as intracellular capsid and capsid DNA. Mechanistic analyses further demonstrated that the 8 TRIMs not only reduced the expression of HBV mRNAs, but also inhibited HBV enhancer I and enhancer II activities. Studies focused on TRIM41 revealed that a HBV DNA segment spanning nucleotide 1638 to nucleotide 1763 was essential for TRIM41-mediated inhibition of HBV enhancer II activity and the inhibitory effect depended on the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of TRIM41 as well as the integrity of TRIM41 C-terminal domain. Moreover, knockdown of endogenous TRIM41 in a HepG2-derived stable cell line significantly increased the level of HBV preC/C RNA, leading to an increase in viral core protein, capsid and capsid DNA. Our studies have thus identified eight TRIM proteins that are able to inhibit HBV transcription and provided strong evidences suggesting the endogenous role of TRIM41 in regulating HBV transcription in human hepatoma cells. PMID:23936368

Zhang, Shijian; Guo, Ju-Tao; Wu, Jim Z; Yang, Guang

2013-08-01

253

The Trimmed-Haplotype Test for Linkage Disequilibrium  

PubMed Central

Single-marker linkage-disequilibrium (LD) methods cannot fully describe disequilibrium in an entire chromosomal region surrounding a disease allele. With the advent of myriad tightly linked microsatellite markers, we have an opportunity to extend LD analysis from single markers to multiple-marker haplotypes. Haplotype analysis has increased statistical power to disclose the presence of a disease locus in situations where it correctly reflects the historical process involved. For maximum efficiency, evidence of LD ought to come not just from a single haplotype, which may well be rare, but in addition from many similar haplotypes that could have descended from the same ancestral founder but have been trimmed in succeeding generations. We present such an analysis, called the “trimmed-haplotype method.” We focus on chromosomal regions that are small enough that disequilibrium in significant portions of them may have been preserved in some pedigrees and yet that contain enough markers to minimize coincidental occurrence of the haplotype in the absence of a disease allele: perhaps regions 1–2 cM in length. In general, we could have no idea what haplotype an ancestral founder carried generations ago, nor do we usually have a precise chromosomal location for the disease-susceptibility locus. Therefore, we must search through all possible haplotypes surrounding multiple locations. Since such repeated testing obliterates the sampling distribution of the test, we employ bootstrap methods to calculate significance levels. Trimmed-haplotype analysis is performed on family data in which genotypes have been assembled into haplotypes. It can be applied either to conventional parent–affected-offspring triads or to multiplex pedigrees. We present a method for summarizing the LD evidence, in any pedigree, that can be employed in trimmed-haplotype analysis as well as in other methods.

MacLean, Charles J.; Martin, Rory B.; Sham, Pak C.; Wang, Huan; Straub, Richard E.; Kendler, Kenneth S.

2000-01-01

254

A statistical comparison of Monte Carlo codes TRIM and EVOLVE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The common variables in both TRIM and EVOLVE Monte Carlo codes were identified and parameterized by grouping them into specific ranges of interest and simple statistical tests were performed on them. In comparing the range distributions, the most significant differences between the two codes were found in the selection procedures and the ranges of the impact parameter and path length. Also at: Department of Physics, Georgetown University, Washington, DC 20057, USA.

Goktepe, Omer F.

1991-07-01

255

Randomized controlled trial of high concentration oxygen in suspected community-acquired pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether high concentration oxygen increases the PaCO2 in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. Design Randomized controlled clinical trial in which patients received high concentration oxygen (8 L/min via medium concentration mask) or titrated oxygen (to achieve oxygen saturations between 93 and 95%) for 60 minutes. Transcutaneous CO2 (PtCO2) was measured at 0, 20, 40 and 60 minutes. Setting The Emergency Departments at Wellington, Hutt and Kenepuru Hospitals. Participants 150 patients with suspected community-acquired pneumonia presenting to the Emergency Department. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or disorders associated with hypercapnic respiratory failure were excluded. Main outcome variables The primary outcome variable was the proportion of patients with a rise in PtCO2 ?4 mmHg at 60 minutes. Secondary outcome variables included the proportion of patients with a rise in PtCO2 ?8 mmHg at 60 minutes. Results The proportion of patients with a rise in PtCO2 ?4 mmHg at 60 minutes was greater in the high concentration oxygen group, 36/72 (50.0%) vs 11/75 (14.7%), relative risk (RR) 3.4 (95% CI 1.9 to 6.2), P < 0.001. The high concentration group had a greater proportion of patients with a rise in PtCO2 ?8 mmHg, 11/72 (15.3%) vs 2/75 (2.7%), RR 5.7 (95% CI 1.3 to 25.0), P = 0.007. Amongst the 74 patients with radiological confirmation of pneumonia, the high concentration group had a greater proportion with a rise in PtCO2 ?4 mmHg, 20/35 (57.1%) vs 5/39 (12.8%), RR 4.5 (95% CI 1.9 to 10.6) P < 0.001. Conclusions We conclude that high concentration oxygen therapy increases the PtCO2 in patients presenting with suspected community-acquired pneumonia. This suggests that the potential increase in PaCO2 with high concentration oxygen therapy is not limited to COPD, but may also occur in other respiratory disorders with abnormal gas exchange.

Wijesinghe, Meme; Perrin, Kyle; Healy, Bridget; Weatherall, Mark; Beasley, Richard

2012-01-01

256

Effects of maximal oxygen uptake test and prolonged cycle ergometer exercise on sway density plot of postural control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work aims at testing the influence of the maximal oxygen uptake test and prolonged cycle ergometer exercise on sway density plot (SDP) parameters of postural control. Sixteen healthy male subjects were submitted to stabilometric tests with eye open and closed, before and after two different exercises. The maximal oxygen uptake test caused decrease of the mean duration of peaks

Roger G. T. Mello; Liliam F. Oliveira; Jurandir Nadal

2009-01-01

257

Addition of Trim Coils to the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade (TMX-U) Magnet System to Improve the Magnetic Field Mapping.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The mapping of the magnetic flux bundle from the center cell to the Plasma Potential Control plates (PPC) on the end fan of the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade (TMX-U), was improved by the addition of trim coils (12,000 amp-turns) on each side of each en...

R. L. Wong L. R. Pedrotti D. E. Baldwin S. M. Hibbs D. N. Hill

1985-01-01

258

Uridylation prevents 3? trimming of oligoadenylated mRNAs  

PubMed Central

Degradation of mRNAs is usually initiated by deadenylation, the shortening of long poly(A) tails to oligo(A) tails of 12–15 As. Deadenylation leads to decapping and to subsequent 5? to 3? degradation by XRN proteins, or alternatively 3? to 5? degradation by the exosome. Decapping can also be induced by uridylation as shown for the non-polyadenylated histone mRNAs in humans and for several mRNAs in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Aspergillus nidulans. Here we report a novel role for uridylation in preventing 3? trimming of oligoadenylated mRNAs in Arabidopsis. We show that oligo(A)-tailed mRNAs are uridylated by the cytosolic UTP:RNA uridylyltransferase URT1 and that URT1 has no major impact on mRNA degradation rates. However, in absence of uridylation, oligo(A) tails are trimmed, indicating that uridylation protects oligoadenylated mRNAs from 3? ribonucleolytic attacks. This conclusion is further supported by an increase in 3? truncated transcripts detected in urt1 mutants. We propose that preventing 3? trimming of oligo(A)-tailed mRNAs by uridylation participates in establishing the 5? to 3? directionality of mRNA degradation. Importantly, uridylation prevents 3? shortening of mRNAs associated with polysomes, suggesting that a key biological function of uridylation is to confer 5? to 3? polarity in case of co-translational mRNA decay.

Sement, Francois Michael; Ferrier, Emilie; Zuber, Helene; Merret, Remy; Alioua, Malek; Deragon, Jean-Marc; Bousquet-Antonelli, Cecile; Lange, Heike; Gagliardi, Dominique

2013-01-01

259

Controlled oxygen vacancy induced p-type conductivity in HfO{sub 2-x} thin films  

SciTech Connect

We have synthesized highly oxygen deficient HfO{sub 2-x} thin films by controlled oxygen engineering using reactive molecular beam epitaxy. Above a threshold value of oxygen vacancies, p-type conductivity sets in with up to 6 times 10{sup 21} charge carriers per cm{sup 3}. At the same time, the band-gap is reduced continuously by more than 1 eV. We suggest an oxygen vacancy induced p-type defect band as origin of the observed behavior.

Hildebrandt, Erwin; Kurian, Jose; Mueller, Mathis M.; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim; Alff, Lambert [Institute of Materials Science, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Schroeder, Thomas [IHP, 15236 Frankfurt/Oder (Germany)

2011-09-12

260

Role of lipid trimming and CD1 groove size in cellular antigen presentation  

PubMed Central

Cellular CD1 proteins bind lipids that differ in length (C12?80), including antigens that exceed the capacity of the CD1 groove. This could be accomplished by trimming lipids to a uniform length before loading or by inserting each lipid so that it penetrates the groove to a varying extent. New assays to detect antigen fragments generated within human dendritic cells showed that bacterial antigens remained intact, even after delivery to lysosomes, where control lipids were cleaved. Further, recombinant CD1b proteins could bind and present C80 lipid antigens using a mechanism that did not involve cellular enzymes or lipid cleavage, but was regulated by pH in the physiologic range. We conclude that endosomal acidification acts directly, rather than through enzymatic trimming, to insert lipids into CD1b. Lipids are loaded in an intact form, so that they likely protrude through a portal near the bottom of the groove, which represents an escape hatch for long lipids from mycobacterial pathogens.

Cheng, Tan-Yun; Relloso, Miguel; Van Rhijn, Ildiko; Young, David C; Besra, Gurdyal S; Briken, Volker; Zajonc, Dirk M; Wilson, Ian A; Porcelli, Steven; Moody, D Branch

2006-01-01

261

TRIM3, a tumor suppressor linked to regulation of p21(Waf1/Cip1).  

PubMed

The TRIM family of genes is largely studied because of their roles in development, differentiation and host cell antiviral defenses; however, roles in cancer biology are emerging. Loss of heterozygosity of the TRIM3 locus in ?20% of human glioblastomas raised the possibility that this NHL-domain containing member of the TRIM gene family might be a mammalian tumor suppressor. Consistent with this, reducing TRIM3 expression increased the incidence of and accelerated the development of platelet-derived growth factor -induced glioma in mice. Furthermore, TRIM3 can bind to the cdk inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1). Thus, we conclude that TRIM3 is a tumor suppressor mapping to chromosome 11p15.5 and that it might block tumor growth by sequestering p21 and preventing it from facilitating the accumulation of cyclin D1-cdk4.Oncogene advance online publication, 14 January 2013; doi:10.1038/onc.2012.596. PMID:23318451

Liu, Y; Raheja, R; Yeh, N; Ciznadija, D; Pedraza, A M; Ozawa, T; Hukkelhoven, E; Erdjument-Bromage, H; Tempst, P; Gauthier, N P; Brennan, C; Holland, E C; Koff, A

2013-01-14

262

Trim24-repressed VL30 retrotransposons regulate gene expression by producing noncoding RNA.  

PubMed

Trim24 (Tif1?) and Trim33 (Tif1?) interact to form a co-repressor complex that suppresses murine hepatocellular carcinoma. Here we show that Trim24 and Trim33 cooperatively repress retinoic acid receptor-dependent activity of VL30-class endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) in liver. In Trim24-knockout hepatocytes, VL30 derepression leads to accumulation of reverse-transcribed VL30 cDNA in the cytoplasm that correlates with activation of the viral-defense interferon responses mimicking the preneoplastic inflammatory state seen in human liver following exogenous viral infection. Furthermore, upon derepression, VL30 long terminal repeats (LTRs) act as promoter and enhancer elements deregulating expression of neighboring genes and generating enhancer RNAs that are required for LTR enhancer activity in hepatocytes in vivo. These data reinforce the role of the TRIM family of proteins in retroviral restriction and antiviral defense and provide an example of an ERV-derived oncogenic regulatory network. PMID:23377542

Herquel, Benjamin; Ouararhni, Khalid; Martianov, Igor; Le Gras, Stéphanie; Ye, Tao; Keime, Céline; Lerouge, Thierry; Jost, Bernard; Cammas, Florence; Losson, Régine; Davidson, Irwin

2013-02-03

263

Regulation of Virus Neutralization and the Persistent Fraction by TRIM21  

PubMed Central

Despite a central role in immunity, antibody neutralization of virus infection is poorly understood. Here we show how the neutralization and persistence of adenovirus type 5, a prevalent nonenveloped human virus, are dependent upon the intracellular antibody receptor TRIM21. Cells with insufficient amounts of TRIM21 are readily infected, even at saturating concentrations of neutralizing antibody. Conversely, high TRIM21 expression levels decrease the persistent fraction of the infecting virus and allows neutralization by as few as 1.6 antibody molecules per virus. The direct interaction between TRIM21 and neutralizing antibody is essential, as single-point mutations within the TRIM21-binding site in the Fc region of a potently neutralizing antibody impair neutralization. However, infection at high multiplicity can saturate TRIM21 and overcome neutralization. These results provide insight into the mechanism and importance of a newly discovered, effector-driven process of antibody neutralization of nonenveloped viruses.

McEwan, W. A.; Hauler, F.; Williams, C. R.; Bidgood, S. R.; Mallery, D. L.; Crowther, R. A.

2012-01-01

264

The Stroke Oxygen Pilot Study: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effects of Routine Oxygen Supplementation Early after Acute Stroke--Effect on Key Outcomes at Six Months  

PubMed Central

Introduction Post-stroke hypoxia is common, and may adversely affect outcome. We have recently shown that oxygen supplementation may improve early neurological recovery. Here, we report the six-month outcomes of this pilot study. Methods Patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute stroke were randomized within 24 h of admission to oxygen supplementation at 2 or 3 L/min for 72 h or to control treatment (room air). Outcomes (see below) were assessed by postal questionnaire at 6 months. Analysis was by intention-to-treat, and statistical significance was set at p?0.05. Results Out of 301 patients randomized two refused/withdrew consent and 289 (148 in the oxygen and 141 in the control group) were included in the analysis: males 44%, 51%; mean (SD) age 73 (12), 71 (12); median (IQR) National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score 6 (3, 10), 5 (3, 10) for the two groups respectively. At six months 22 (15%) patients in the oxygen group and 20 (14%) in the control group had died; mean survival in both groups was 162 days (p?=?0.99). Median (IQR) scores for the primary outcome, the modified Rankin Scale, were 3 (1, 5) and 3 (1, 4) for the oxygen and control groups respectively. The covariate-adjusted odds ratio was 1.04 (95% CI 0.67, 1.60), indicating that the odds of a lower (i.e. better) score were non-significantly higher in the oxygen group (p?=?0.86). The mean differences in the ability to perform basic (Barthel Index) and extended activities of daily living (NEADL), and quality of life (EuroQol) were also non-significant. Conclusions None of the key outcomes differed at 6 months between the groups. Although not statistically significant and generally of small magnitude, the effects were predominantly in favour of the oxygen group; a larger trial, powered to show differences in longer-term functional outcomes, is now on-going. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN12362720; Eudract.ema.europa.eu 2004-001866-41

Ali, Khalid; Warusevitane, Anushka; Lally, Frank; Sim, Julius; Sills, Sheila; Pountain, Sarah; Nevatte, Tracy; Allen, Martin; Roffe, Christine

2013-01-01

265

Growth and magnetosome formation by microaerophilic Magnetospirillum strains in an oxygen-controlled fermentor.  

PubMed

Media and growth conditions were optimized for the microaerobic cultivation of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense in flasks and in a fermentor, resulting in significantly increased cell and magnetosome yields, compared with earlier studies. A reliable method was established for the automatic control of low dissolved oxygen tensions (pO(2)) in the fermentor (oxystat). Growth and magnetosome formation by M. gryphiswaldense, M. magnetotacticum and Magnetospirillum sp. AMB-1 were studied at various oxygen concentrations. Despite differences in their growth responses with respect to oxygen, we found a clear correlation between pO(2) and magnetosome formation in all three Magnetospirillum strains. Magnetite biomineralization was induced only below a threshold value of 20 mbar O(2) and optimum conditions for magnetosome formation were found at a pO(2) of 0.25 mbar (1 bar = 10(5) Pa). A maximum yield of 6.3 mg magnetite l(-1) day(-1) was obtained with M. gryphiswaldense grown under oxystat conditions, which is the highest magnetosome productivity reported so far for a magnetotactic bacterium. In conclusion, the presented results provide the basis for large-scale cultivation of magnetospirilla under defined conditions. PMID:12764570

Heyen, U; Schüler, D

2003-02-20

266

Composition-controlled PtCo alloy nanocubes with tuned electrocatalytic activity for oxygen reduction.  

PubMed

Modification of the electronic structure and lattice contraction of Pt alloy nanocatalysts through control over their morphology and composition has been a crucial issue for improving their electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity. In the present work, we synthesized PtCo alloy nanocubes with controlled compositions (Pt(x)Co NCs, x = 2, 3, 5, 7, and 9) by regulating the ratio of surfactants and the amount of Co precursor to elucidate the effect of the composition of nanocatalysts on their ORR activity. Pt(x)Co NCs had a Pt-skin structure after electrochemical treatment. The electrocatalysis experiments revealed a strong correlation between ORR activity and Co composition. Pt?Co NCs exhibited the best ORR performance among the various Pt(x)Co NCs. From density functional theory calculations, a typical volcano-type relationship was established between ORR activity and oxygen binding energy (E(OB)) on NC surfaces, which showed that Pt?Co NCs had the optimal E(OB) to achieve the maximum ORR activity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements demonstrated that the electronic structure and lattice contraction of the Pt(x)Co NCs could be tuned by controlling the composition of NCs, which are highly correlated with the trends of E(OB) change. PMID:23106417

Choi, Sang-Il; Lee, Su-Un; Kim, Woo Youn; Choi, Ran; Hong, Kwangwoo; Nam, Ki Min; Han, Sang Woo; Park, Joon T

2012-11-06

267

The Interferon Response Inhibits HIV Particle Production by Induction of TRIM22  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of human cells with Type 1 interferons restricts HIV replication. Here we report that the tripartite motif protein TRIM22 is a key mediator. We used transcriptional profiling to identify cellular genes that were induced by interferon treatment and identified TRIM22 as one of the most strongly up-regulated genes. We confirmed, as in previous studies, that TRIM22 over-expression inhibited HIV

Stephen D. Barr; James R. Smiley; Frederic D. Bushman

2008-01-01

268

Net-Shape Forging of Aerofoil Blade based on Flash Trimming and Compensation methods  

SciTech Connect

In this research, an automatic blade forging die shape optimisation system was developed by using direct compensation and flash trimming algorithms and integrating with the DEFORM 3D software package. To validate the developed system, a 3D blade forging case problem was simulated and optimised with and without the consideration of trimming simulation. The results were compared with actual measurement data of the forged aerofoil blade with excellent results obtained with the fast trimming simulation procedure used.

Lu, B. [Department of Plasticity Forming Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200030 (China); Ou, H. [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Armstrong, C. G. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, BT9 5AH (United Kingdom)

2011-05-04

269

Net-Shape Forging of Aerofoil Blade based on Flash Trimming and Compensation methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, an automatic blade forging die shape optimisation system was developed by using direct compensation and flash trimming algorithms and integrating with the DEFORM 3D software package. To validate the developed system, a 3D blade forging case problem was simulated and optimised with and without the consideration of trimming simulation. The results were compared with actual measurement data of the forged aerofoil blade with excellent results obtained with the fast trimming simulation procedure used.

Lu, B.; Ou, H.; Armstrong, C. G.

2011-05-01

270

Effects of human TRIM5? polymorphisms on antiretroviral function and susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus infection  

Microsoft Academic Search

TRIM5? acts on several retroviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), to restrict cross-species transmission. Using natural history cohorts and tissue culture systems, we examined the effect of polymorphism in human TRIM5? on HIV-1 infection. In African Americans, the frequencies of two non-coding SNP variant alleles in exon 1 and intron 1 of TRIM5 were elevated in HIV-1-infected persons compared with

Hassan Javanbakht; Ping An; Bert Gold; Desiree C. Petersen; Colm O'Huigin; George W. Nelson; Stephen J. O'Brien; Gregory D. Kirk; Roger Detels; Susan Buchbinder; Sharyne Donfield; Sergey Shulenin; Byeongwoon Song; Michel J. Perron; Matthew Stremlau; Joseph Sodroski; Michael Dean; Cheryl Winkler

2006-01-01

271

Controls on in situ oxygen and dissolved inorganic carbon dynamics in peats of a temperate fen  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Changes in hydrological conditions are expected and may alter carbon cycling in peatlands. Peat aeration with water table change has not commonly been investigated, and the water table is often assumed to constitute the oxic-anoxic boundary in peat. We analyzed temperature, moisture, oxygen (O2), and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in profiles of a temperate fen during two seasons. A drying-rewetting cycle and flooding were induced and compared to controls. The response of moisture and water table position varied greatly and was related to gradients of peat compaction and ash content. Background drought raised air-filled porosity (AFP) to a maximum of 15%-38% in shallow peat and experimental drought up to 50%. Decline in water table and soil moisture broadly led to O2 penetration and CO2 degassing, and rewetting and flooding led to anoxic conditions and CO2 accumulation in peat pore water. In dense peat with ?20% ash content the unsaturated zone remained partly low in oxygen, however, and up to 5% AFP and 20 cm above water table O2 concentrations frequently remained below 50 ?mol L-1. Moderately intense and short drying did not induce substantial oxygen penetration in the compacted soil profiles. The likelihood of the presence of oxygen in the peat was predicted by logistic regression using water table and ash content or bulk density as predictors (p < 0.0005). The model is potentially useful for predicting the position of the redoxcline in peat deposits and may assist in improving statistical models of trace gas emission from peatlands.

Estop-AragonéS, Cristian; Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Blodau, Christian

2012-06-01

272

FinTRIMs, fish virus-inducible proteins with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity.  

PubMed

TRIM proteins have recently emerged as novel players in antiviral defense. TRIM proteins contain a tri-partite motif, composed of a RING zinc finger, one or two B-boxes and a coiled-coil domain. Many members of this large protein family of E3 ubiquitin ligases catalyze the attachment of ubiquitin to a substrate protein, an activity dependent on the RING domain. We earlier made a full description of the TRIM gene family in zebrafish and pufferfish and identified three multigene TRIM subsets, a feature unique to fish. To determine their biological role, we further characterized members of the finTRIM subset. FinTRIM gene expression was studied during development and in multiple tissues in adult rainbow trout. Upregulation of a large number of finTRIM upon viral stimulation suggests they are involved in antiviral immunity. We also demonstrate that two finTRIM members display E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, indicating that finTRIMs could regulate antiviral signaling through ubiquitination. PMID:21907235

van der Aa, Lieke M; Jouneau, Luc; Laplantine, Emmanuel; Bouchez, Olivier; Van Kemenade, Lidy; Boudinot, Pierre

2011-08-28

273

The TIF1?-related TRIM cofactors couple chromatin modifications to transcriptional regulation, signaling and tumor suppression  

PubMed Central

TRIM24 (TIF1?), TRIM28 (TIF1?) and TRIM33 (TIF1?) are related cofactors defining a subgroup of the tripartite motif (TRIM) superfamily comprising an N-terminal RING finger E3 ligase and a C-terminal PHD-Bromodomain chromatin interacting module. Increasing evidence highlights the important roles of these proteins as modulators of multiple signaling pathways during normal development and as tumor suppressors. The finding that they interact to form a multiprotein complex suggests new mechanisms to integrate multiple signaling pathways for tumor suppression.

2011-01-01

274

Characterization of TRIM62 as a RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase and its subcellular localization.  

PubMed

TRIM62, also named DEAR1, is a member of the TRIM/RBCC family, which includes proteins with conserved RING finger, B-box and coiled-coil domains. Several reports have identified a role for this family in cancer, retroviral infection and innate immunity. In this study, the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and subcellular localization of TRIM62 were characterized. TRIM62, in association with the E2 enzyme UbcH5b, was found to catalyze self-ubiquitination in vitro, a process that required an intact RING finger domain. A ubiquitination assay performed in HEK293T cells further confirmed the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and self-ubiquitination activity of TRIM62 and the requirement of the RING finger domain. Importantly, the treatment of HEK293T cells with a proteasome inhibitor stabilized poly-ubiquitinated TRIM62, indicating that self-ubiquitination promoted the proteasomal degradation of TRIM62. Additionally, TRIM62 and its two mutants were distinctly localized in the cytoplasm in both HEK293T and HeLa cells. Collectively, our data indicate that TRIM62, a cytoplasmic protein, is a RING finger domain-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase that catalyzes self-ubiquitination both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:23402750

Huang, Fang; Xiao, Han; Sun, Bin-Lian; Yang, Rong-Ge

2013-02-10

275

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

2003-05-15

276

Supplemental Oxygen (Oxygen Therapy)  

MedlinePLUS

... There are three ways oxygen therapy is supplied: Compressed oxygen gas and liquid oxygen are two ways to have oxygen delivered to the home. Oxygen gas is stored in tanks or cylinders of steel or aluminum. These tanks ...

277

Delaying Reverse Transcription Does Not Increase Sensitivity of HIV-1 to Human TRIM5?  

PubMed Central

Background Because uncoating of the capsid is linked to reverse transcription, modifications that delay this process lead to the persistence in the cytoplasm of capsids susceptible to recognition by the human restriction factor TRIM5? (hTRIM5?). It is unknown, however, if increasing the time available for capsid-hTRIM5? interactions would actually render viruses more sensitive to hTRIM5?. Results Viral sensitivity to hTRIM5? was evaluated by comparing their replication in human U373-X4 cells in which hTRIM5? activity had or had not been inhibited by overexpression of human TRIM5?. No differences were observed comparing wild-type HIV-1 and variants carrying mutations in reverse transcriptase or the central polypurine tract that delayed the completion of reverse transcription. In addition, the effect of delaying the onset of reverse transcription for several hours by treating target cells with nevirapine was evaluated using viral isolates with different sensitivities to hTRIM5?. Delaying reverse transcription led to a time-dependent loss in viral infectivity that was increased by inhibiting capsid-cyclophilin A interactions, but did not result in increased viral sensitivity to hTRIM5?, regardless of their intrinsic sensitivity to this restriction factor. Conclusions Consistent with prior studies, the HIV-1 capsid can be targeted for destruction by hTRIM5?, but different strains display considerable variability in their sensitivity to this restriction factor. Capsids can also be lost more slowly through a TRIM5?-independent process that is accelerated when capsid-cyclophilin A interactions are inhibited, an effect that may reflect changes in the intrinsic stability of the capsid. Blocking the onset or delaying reverse transcription does not, however, increase viral sensitivity to hTRIM5?, indicating that the recognition of the capsids by hTRIM5? is completed rapidly following entry into the cytoplasm, as previously observed for the simian restriction factors TRIM-Cyp and rhesus TRIM5?.

Battivelli, Emilie; Lecossier, Denise; Clavel, Francois; Hance, Allan J.

2013-01-01

278

Air-cooled trim dipoles for the Fermilab Main Injector  

SciTech Connect

New horizontal and vertical trim dipoles have been designed for the Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) and are being assembled in the Fermilab Technical Division. Magnets are 42.6 cm in length (30.5 cm steel length) and have similar cross-section dimensions. The horizontal (vertical) magnet gap is 50.8 mm (127 mm) and the target integrated strength is 0.072 T*m (0.029 T*m). The major design effort lay in making air cooling possible for these magnets. This report presents the magnets` thermal and magnetic properties and discusses the limitation on excitation current.

Harding, D. J.; Chester, N. S.; Garvey, J. D.; Krafczyk, G. E.; Makarov, A. I.; Terechkine, I.

1997-05-01

279

Multi-fuel engine control with oxygen sensor signal reference control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This patent describes a closed loop engine fuel control for providing to a combustion chamber a fuel mixture of two combustible fuels and air in a stoichiometric fuel\\/air ratio in response to an air\\/fuel ratio signal from an exhaust sensor effective to generate an output signal varying with air\\/fuel ratio in a range about stoichiometry but shifting relative to stoichiometry

D. B. Brown; E. V. Gonze

1990-01-01

280

Oxygen persufflation as adjunct in liver preservation (OPAL): Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Early graft dysfunction due to preservation/reperfusion injury represents a dramatic event after liver transplantation. Enhancement of donor organ criteria, in order to cope with the ever increasing donor shortage, further increases graft susceptibility to ischemic alterations. Major parts of post-preservation injury, however, occur at the time of warm reperfusion but not during ischemic storage; successful reperfusion of ischemic tissue in turn depends on an adequate redox and intracellular signal homeostasis. The latter has been shown experimentally to be favorably influenced by oxygen persufflation within short time spans. Thus viability of marginally preserved liver grafts could still be augmented by transient hypothermic reconditioning even after normal procurement and static cold storage. The present study is aimed to confirm the conceptual expectations, that hypothermic reconditioning by gaseous oxygen persufflation is a useful method to suppress injurious cellular activation cascades and to improve post-ischemic recovery of marginally preserved liver grafts. Methods/Design OPAL is a prospective single center randomized proof of concept study, including two parallel groups in a total of 116 liver transplant patients. The effect of an in hospital treatment of the isolated liver graft by 2 hours of oxygen persufflation immediately prior to transplantation will be assesses as compared to standard procedure (cold storage without further intervention). The primary endpoint is the peak transaminase serum level (AST) during the first three days after transplantation as a surrogate readout for parenchymal liver injury. Other outcomes comprise patient and graft survival, time of intensive care requirement, hepatic tissue perfusion 1h after revascularisation, early onset of graft dysfunction based on coagulation parameters, as well as the use of a refined scoring-system for initial graft function based on a multi-parameter (AST, ALT, Quick and bilirubin) score. Furthermore, the effect of OPAL on molecular pathways of autophagy and inflammatory cell activation will be evaluated. Final analysis will be based on all participants as randomized (intention to treat). Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN00167887

2011-01-01

281

Local control of skeletal muscle blood flow during exercise: influence of available oxygen  

PubMed Central

Reductions in oxygen availability (O2) by either reduced arterial O2 content or reduced perfusion pressure can have profound influences on the circulation, including vasodilation in skeletal muscle vascular beds. The purpose of this review is to put into context the present evidence regarding mechanisms responsible for the local control of blood flow during acute systemic hypoxia and/or local hypoperfusion in contracting muscle. The combination of submaximal exercise and hypoxia produces a “compensatory” vasodilation and augmented blood flow in contracting muscles relative to the same level of exercise under normoxic conditions. A similar compensatory vasodilation is observed in response to local reductions in oxygen availability (i.e., hypoperfusion) during normoxic exercise. Available evidence suggests that nitric oxide (NO) contributes to the compensatory dilator response under each of these conditions, whereas adenosine appears to only play a role during hypoperfusion. During systemic hypoxia the NO-mediated component of the compensatory vasodilation is regulated through a ?-adrenergic receptor mechanism at low-intensity exercise, while an additional (not yet identified) source of NO is likely to be engaged as exercise intensity increases during hypoxia. Potential candidates for stimulating and/or interacting with NO at higher exercise intensities include prostaglandins and/or ATP. Conversely, prostaglandins do not appear to play a role in the compensatory vasodilation during exercise with hypoperfusion. Taken together, the data for both hypoxia and hypoperfusion suggest NO is important in the compensatory vasodilation seen when oxygen availability is limited. This is important from a basic biological perspective and also has pathophysiological implications for diseases associated with either hypoxia or hypoperfusion.

Joyner, Michael J.

2011-01-01

282

Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts  

DOEpatents

A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power.

Erickson, Donald C. (Annapolis)

1985-06-04

283

Effect of high flow oxygen on mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in prehospital setting: Randomised controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To compare standard high flow oxygen treatment with titrated oxygen treatment for patients with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the prehospital setting.\\u000aDesign: Cluster randomised controlled parallel group trial.\\u000aSetting: Ambulance service in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia.\\u000aParticipants: 405 patients with a presumed acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who were treated by paramedics, transported,

Michael A Austin; Karen E Wills; Leigh Blizzard; Haydn Walters; Richard Wood-Baker

2010-01-01

284

Oxygen-controlled phase segregation in poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)/laponite nanocomposite hydrogels.  

PubMed

The combination of nanoparticles and polymers into nanocomposite gels has been shown to be a promising route to creating soft materials with new or improved properties. In the present work, we have made use of Laponite nanoparticles in combination with a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAM) polymer and describe a phenomenon taking place during the polymerization and gelling of this system. The presence of small amounts of oxygen in the process induces two distinctly separated phases, one polymer-rich and one polymer-deficient water-clay phase. Complex interactions among clay, oxygen, and the polymer are found to govern the behavior of these phases. It is also observed that the initial clay concentration can be used to control the volume fraction of the polymer-deficient phase directly. The dynamics of the phase boundary is found to be dependent on water penetration and in general to exhibit non-Fickian behavior. An approach using video recording to monitor hydrogel swelling is also presented, and its advantages are addressed. PMID:23210524

Mauroy, Henrik; Rozynek, Zbigniew; Plivelic, Tomás S; Fossum, Jon Otto; Helgesen, Geir; Knudsen, Kenneth D

2012-12-18

285

Controlled synthesis of Pd-Pt alloy hollow nanostructures with enhanced catalytic activities for oxygen reduction.  

PubMed

Pd-Pt alloy nanocrystals (NCs) with hollow structures such as nanocages with porous walls and dendritic hollow structures and Pd@Pt core-shell dendritic NCs could be selectively synthesized by a galvanic replacement method with uniform Pd octahedral and cubic NCs as sacrificial templates. Fine control over the degree of galvanic replacement of Pd with Pt allowed the production of Pd-Pt NCs with distinctly different morphologies. The synthesized hollow NCs exhibited considerably enhanced oxygen reduction activities compared to those of Pd@Pt core-shell NCs and a commercial Pt/C catalyst, and their electrocatalytic activities were highly dependent on their morphologies. The Pd-Pt nanocages prepared from octahedral Pd NC templates exhibited the largest improvement in catalytic performance. We expect that the present work will provide a promising strategy for the development of efficient oxygen reduction electrocatalysts and can also be extended to the preparation of other hybrid or hetero-nanostructures with desirable morphologies and functions. PMID:22360814

Hong, Jong Wook; Kang, Shin Wook; Choi, Bu-Seo; Kim, Dongheun; Lee, Sang Bok; Han, Sang Woo

2012-02-29

286

A power investigation of Alexander Govern test with adaptive trimmed mean as a central tendency measure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study investigated on power of the test for Alexander Govern method using adaptive trimmed mean as a central measurement (AH). The power of the test is controlled by three parametric specification namely significance level (?), sample size (n) and effect size (EF). Previous studies on Type I error rates found that this method is robust and perform very well even under extreme conditions. To check on the strength and weakness of the method with regards to power of test, variables such as the shape of the distribution of data, variance ratio, sample sizes and the pair between sample sizes and unequal variance were manipulated to create various conditions. Results from this study show that the power of the AH test can be considered high in all of the normal distribution. High power test is also consistent under nonnormal data for the case of unbalanced sample sizes and equal variance of positive pairing.

Abdullah, Suhaida; Syed Yahaya, Sharipah Soaad; Othman, Abdul Rahman

2013-04-01

287

46 CFR 72.05-15 - Ceilings, linings, trim, and decorations in accommodation spaces and safety areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...trim, and decorations in accommodation spaces and safety areas. 72.05-15 Section...trim, and decorations in accommodation spaces and safety areas. (a) Ceilings...passageways or stairway enclosures, or in spaces specifically restricted by tables...

2011-10-01

288

46 CFR 72.05-15 - Ceilings, linings, trim, and decorations in accommodation spaces and safety areas.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...trim, and decorations in accommodation spaces and safety areas. 72.05-15 Section...trim, and decorations in accommodation spaces and safety areas. (a) Ceilings...passageways or stairway enclosures, or in spaces specifically restricted by tables...

2012-10-01

289

Comparison of the trimming procedure of six different farriers by quantitative evaluation of hoof radiographs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hoof preparation and shoe fit are integral to the long term soundness and athletic ability of horses. The farrier influences the balance of the hoof by both the trimming and the shoeing procedure. The goal of this study was to investigate and quantify the influence of the farrier on hoof parameters by trimming. Forty Warmblood horses ranging in age from

Martin Kummer; Diego Gygax; Christoph Lischer; Jörg Auer

2009-01-01

290

Structural insight into HIV-1 capsid recognition by rhesus TRIM5?  

PubMed Central

Tripartite motif protein isoform 5 alpha (TRIM5?) is a potent antiviral protein that restricts infection by HIV-1 and other retroviruses. TRIM5? recognizes the lattice of the retrovirus capsid through its B30.2 (PRY/SPRY) domain in a species-specific manner. Upon binding, TRIM5? induces premature disassembly of the viral capsid and activates the downstream innate immune response. We have determined the crystal structure of the rhesus TRIM5? PRY/SPRY domain that reveals essential features for capsid binding. Combined cryo-electron microscopy and biochemical data show that the monomeric rhesus TRIM5? PRY/SPRY, but not the human TRIM5? PRY/SPRY, can bind to HIV-1 capsid protein assemblies without causing disruption of the capsid. This suggests that the PRY/SPRY domain alone constitutes an important pattern-sensing component of TRIM5? that is capable of interacting with viral capsids of different curvatures. Our results provide molecular insights into the mechanisms of TRIM5?-mediated retroviral restriction.

Yang, Haitao; Ji, Xiaoyun; Zhao, Gongpu; Ning, Jiying; Zhao, Qi; Aiken, Christopher; Gronenborn, Angela M.; Zhang, Peijun; Xiong, Yong

2012-01-01

291

Object Trimming: When Masking Dots Alter Rather than Replace Target Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Five experiments demonstrate that when dots appear beside a briefly presented target object, and persist on view longer than the target, the flanked object is perceptually altered by the dots. Three methods are used to explore this "object trimming effect". Experiments 1-3 assess participants' conscious reports of trimmed digits, Experiment 4…

Kahan, Todd A.; Enns, James T.

2010-01-01

292

Virus-specific effects of TRIM5?(rh) RING domain functions on restriction of retroviruses.  

PubMed

The tripartite motif protein TRIM5? restricts particular retrovirus infections by binding to the incoming capsid and inhibiting the early stage of virus infection. The TRIM5? RING domain exhibits E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and assists the higher-order association of TRIM5? dimers, which promotes capsid binding. We characterized a panel of RING domain mutants of the rhesus monkey TRIM5? (TRIM5?(rh)) protein. The RING domain function that significantly contributed to retroviral restriction depended upon the restricted virus. The E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of the RING domain contributes to the potency of HIV-1 restriction. Nonetheless, TRIM5?(rh) mutants without detectable E3 ubiquitin ligase activity still blocked reverse transcription and inhibited HIV-1 infection at a moderate level. When TRIM5?(rh) capsid binding was weakened by substitution with a less efficient B30.2/SPRY domain, the promotion of higher-order association by the RING domain was more important to HIV-1 restriction than its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. For the restriction of N-tropic murine leukemia virus (N-MLV) and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) infection, promotion of higher-order association represented the major contribution of the RING domain. Thus, both identity of the target virus and the B30.2/SPRY domain-mediated affinity for the viral capsid determine the relative contribution of the two known RING domain functions to TRIM5? restriction of retrovirus infection. PMID:23637418

Li, Xing; Kim, Jonghwa; Song, Byeongwoon; Finzi, Andrés; Pacheco, Beatriz; Sodroski, Joseph

2013-05-01

293

Retrovirus Restriction by TRIM5  Variants from Old World and New World Primates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The TRIM5 proteins of humans and some Old World monkeys have been shown to block infection of particular retroviruses following virus entry into the host cell. Infection of most New World monkey cells by the simian immunodeficiency virus of macaques (SIVmac) is restricted at a similar point. Here we examine the antiretroviral activity of TRIM5 orthologs from humans, apes, Old

Byeongwoon Song; Hassan Javanbakht; Michel Perron; Do Hyun Park; Matthew Stremlau; Joseph Sodroski

2005-01-01

294

77 FR 60103 - Approval of Subzone Status; TST NA TRIM, LLC; Hidalgo, TX  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Zones Board [S-90-2012] Approval of Subzone Status; TST NA TRIM, LLC; Hidalgo, TX On August 3, 2012, the Executive Secretary...the existing activation limit of FTZ 12, on behalf of TST NA TRIM, LLC, in Hidalgo, Texas. The application was processed...

2012-10-02

295

GPU-based trimming and tessellation of NURBS and T-Spline surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

As there is no hardware support neither for rendering trimmed NURBS -- the standard surface representation in CAD -- nor for T-Spline surfaces the usability of existing rendering APIs like OpenGL, where a run-time tessellation is performed on the CPU, is limited to simple scenes. Due to the irregular mesh data structures required for trimming no algorithms exists that exploit

Michael Guthe; Ákos Balázs; Reinhard Klein

2005-01-01

296

Large deployable antenna reflector trimming mechanism (LDA-RTM)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future projects dealing with radars or telecommunications require deployable antennas. ESA Contract no. 15230 for the "Development of Large Deployable Antenna Reflector for Advanced Mobile Communication" has the objective of developing this critical technology in Europe for the commercial market. The Reflector Trimming Mechanism (RTM) allows the fine adjustment of the huge Reflector Dish (12 meters projected aperture diameter) in such a way to recover the mispointing induced by all sources inclusive of the S/C, the Antenna Arm, the feed and the Reflector. The RTM design is modular and allows its implementation in different reflector types and dimensions changing the distance between movable and fixed points and the lateral stiffener. In each linear actuator, it is implemented a device which is able to decouple the top and the bottom part. This is required because of imposed displacements of the interfaces during launch. The decoupling device is latched before starting normal operating condition. It is actuated with the same stepper motor used for trimming. The RTM has been designed to be operated with the electronic box already developed for moving the Antenna Pointing Mechanism in Hispasat 1-C.

Domingo, Miguel; Vázquez, Jorge

2003-09-01

297

PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CONTROLS ON DISSOLVED OXYGEN DYNAMICS IN PENSACOLA BAY, FL  

EPA Science Inventory

Nutrient enrichment of estuaries and coastal waters can contribute to hypoxia (low dissolved oxygen) by increasing primary production and biological oxygen demand. Other factors, however, contribute to hypoxia and affect the susceptibility of coastal waters to hypoxia. Hypoxia fo...

298

From the Cover: Specific recognition and accelerated uncoating of retroviral capsids by the TRIM5 restriction factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The host restriction factor TRIM5 mediates species-specific, early blocks to retrovirus infection; susceptibility to these blocks is determined by viral capsid sequences. Here we demonstrate that TRIM5 variants from Old World monkeys specifically associate with the HIV type 1 (HIV-1) capsid and that this interaction depends on the TRIM5 B30.2 domain. Human and New World monkey TRIM5 proteins associated less

Matthew Stremlau; Michel Perron; Mark Lee; Yuan Li; Byeongwoon Song; Hassan Javanbakht; Felipe Diaz-Griffero; Donovan J. Anderson; Wesley I. Sundquist; Joseph Sodroski

2006-01-01

299

Oxygen Profile. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The oxygen profile procedure is a means of measuring the oxygen concentration at various locations in a basin. By dividing the surface of a basin into sections and then establishing sample points on the surface, at mid-depth, and near the bottom, a waste water treatment plant operator can measure and plot dissolved oxygen data which can be plotted…

Wooley, John F.

300

HYPERBARIC-OXYGEN TREATMENT OF MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several uncontrolled studies have suggested a beneficial effect of hyperbaric oxygen on multiple sclero- sis. We studied 40 patients with advanced chronic multiple sclerosis who were randomly divided into two matching groups. The experimental group received pure oxygen, and the placebo group received a mixture of 10 per cent oxygen and 90 per cent nitrogen; both groups were treated at

BOGUSLAV H. FISCHER; MORTON MARKS; THEOBALD REICH

301

Fates of Retroviral Core Components during Unrestricted and TRIM5-Restricted Infection  

PubMed Central

TRIM5 proteins can restrict retroviral infection soon after delivery of the viral core into the cytoplasm. However, the molecular mechanisms by which TRIM5? inhibits infection have been elusive, in part due to the difficulty of developing and executing biochemical assays that examine this stage of the retroviral life cycle. Prevailing models suggest that TRIM5? causes premature disassembly of retroviral capsids and/or degradation of capsids by proteasomes, but whether one of these events leads to the other is unclear. Furthermore, how TRIM5? affects the essential components of the viral core, other than capsid, is unknown. To address these questions, we devised a biochemical assay in which the fate of multiple components of retroviral cores during infection can be determined. We utilized cells that can be efficiently infected by VSV-G-pseudotyped retroviruses, and fractionated the cytosolic proteins on linear gradients following synchronized infection. The fates of capsid and integrase proteins, as well as viral genomic RNA and reverse transcription products were then monitored. We found that components of MLV and HIV-1 cores formed a large complex under non-restrictive conditions. In contrast, when MLV infection was restricted by human TRIM5?, the integrase protein and reverse transcription products were lost from infected cells, while capsid and viral RNA were both solubilized. Similarly, when HIV-1 infection was restricted by rhesus TRIM5? or owl monkey TRIMCyp, the integrase protein and reverse transcription products were lost. However, viral RNA was also lost, and high levels of preexisting soluble CA prevented the determination of whether CA was solubilized. Notably, proteasome inhibition blocked all of the aforementioned biochemical consequences of TRIM5?-mediated restriction but had no effect on its antiviral potency. Together, our results show how TRIM5? affects various retroviral core components and indicate that proteasomes are required for TRIM5?-induced core disruption but not for TRIM5?-induced restriction.

Bieniasz, Paul D.

2013-01-01

302

Fates of retroviral core components during unrestricted and TRIM5-restricted infection.  

PubMed

TRIM5 proteins can restrict retroviral infection soon after delivery of the viral core into the cytoplasm. However, the molecular mechanisms by which TRIM5? inhibits infection have been elusive, in part due to the difficulty of developing and executing biochemical assays that examine this stage of the retroviral life cycle. Prevailing models suggest that TRIM5? causes premature disassembly of retroviral capsids and/or degradation of capsids by proteasomes, but whether one of these events leads to the other is unclear. Furthermore, how TRIM5? affects the essential components of the viral core, other than capsid, is unknown. To address these questions, we devised a biochemical assay in which the fate of multiple components of retroviral cores during infection can be determined. We utilized cells that can be efficiently infected by VSV-G-pseudotyped retroviruses, and fractionated the cytosolic proteins on linear gradients following synchronized infection. The fates of capsid and integrase proteins, as well as viral genomic RNA and reverse transcription products were then monitored. We found that components of MLV and HIV-1 cores formed a large complex under non-restrictive conditions. In contrast, when MLV infection was restricted by human TRIM5?, the integrase protein and reverse transcription products were lost from infected cells, while capsid and viral RNA were both solubilized. Similarly, when HIV-1 infection was restricted by rhesus TRIM5? or owl monkey TRIMCyp, the integrase protein and reverse transcription products were lost. However, viral RNA was also lost, and high levels of preexisting soluble CA prevented the determination of whether CA was solubilized. Notably, proteasome inhibition blocked all of the aforementioned biochemical consequences of TRIM5?-mediated restriction but had no effect on its antiviral potency. Together, our results show how TRIM5? affects various retroviral core components and indicate that proteasomes are required for TRIM5?-induced core disruption but not for TRIM5?-induced restriction. PMID:23505372

Kutluay, Sebla B; Perez-Caballero, David; Bieniasz, Paul D

2013-03-07

303

Validation comparing the effectiveness of a lactic acid dip with a lactic acid spray for reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and non-O157 Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli on beef trim and ground beef.  

PubMed

The objective of this research was to compare the effectiveness of two application methods (dip versus spray) of 4.4% lactic acid for reducing pathogens on inoculated beef trim and in ground beef. Beef trim inoculated with cocktail mixtures of E. coli O157:H7, non-O157 Shiga toxigenic E. coli (STEC), or Salmonella (10(5) to 10(6) CFU/g) at separate times was subjected to five treatments: lactic acid spray (LS), lactic acid dip (LD), water spray (WS), water dip (WD), and untreated control (CTL). Intervention effectiveness for pathogen reduction was measured at 1 and 20 h after treatment on beef trim. Trim was then ground and intervention effectiveness was measured 1 h, 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days after grinding. The LD treatment reduced all pathogens significantly (P < 0.05); E. coli O157:H7 was reduced by 0.91 to 1.41 log CFU/g on beef trim and ground beef, non-O157 STEC by 0.48 to 0.82 log CFU/g, and Salmonella by 0.51 to 0.81 log CFU/g. No other treatment significantly reduced any pathogen, although the WD treatment noticeably reduced (P > 0.05) both E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC populations compared with the CTL. The LS treatment reduced E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella by up to 0.5 log CFU/g on beef trim, but these reduced counts did not significantly differ (P > 0.05) from the CTL counts. Overall, the LD treatment was most effective for reducing all pathogens and is the best of these options for improving the safety of beef trim and subsequently produced ground beef. PMID:23127705

Wolf, M J; Miller, M F; Parks, A R; Loneragan, G H; Garmyn, A J; Thompson, L D; Echeverry, A; Brashears, M M

2012-11-01

304

77 FR 67399 - Trim Systems Operating Corp., a Subsidiary of Commercial Vehicle Group, Inc., Including On-Site...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Administration [TA-W-81,393] Trim Systems Operating Corp., a Subsidiary of Commercial...workers and former workers of Trim Systems Operating Corp., a subsidiary of Commercial...follows: All workers of Trim Systems Operating Corp., a subsidiary of...

2012-11-09

305

Reactive oxygen species controllable non-thermal helium plasmas for evaluation of plasmid DNA strand breaks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Non-thermal, oxygen-rich helium plasmas were investigated to achieve an enhanced reactive oxygen species concentration at low voltage driving conditions. A non-thermal plasma device was fabricated based on a theta-shaped tube, and its potential was investigated for use in topological alteration of plasmid DNA. The optical emission spectra of the plasma showed that the oxygen flow affected the plasma properties, even though an oxygen plasma was not produced. The plasmid DNA strand breaks became more significant with the addition of oxygen flow to the helium in a single hollow, theta-shaped tube with other experimental conditions being unchanged.

Young Kim, Jae; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Ballato, John; Cao, Weiguo; Kim, Sung-O.

2012-11-01

306

Control and homogenization of oxygen distribution in Si crystals by the novel technique: electromagnetic Czochralski method (EMCZ)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method for control and homogenization oxygen distribution in silicon crystals by using electromagnetic force (EMF) to rotate the melt without crucible rotation has been developed. We call it electromagnetic Czochralski method. An EMF in the azimuthal direction is generated in the melt by the interaction between an electric current through the melt in the radial direction and a vertical magnetic field. (B). The rotation rate of the silicon melt is continuously changed from 0 to over 105 rpm under I equals 0 to 8 A and B equals 0 to 0.1 T. Thirty-mm-diameter silicon single crystals free of dislocations could be grown under several conditions. The oxygen concentration in the crystals was continuously changed from 1 X 1017 to 1 X 1018 atoms/cm3 with increase of melt rotation by electromagnetic force. The homogeneous oxygen distributions in the radial directions were achieved. The continuous change of oxygen concentration and the homogenization of oxygen distribution along the radial direction are attributed to the control of the diffusion-boundary-layer at both the melt/crucible and crystal/melt by forced flow due to the EMF. This new method would be useful for growth of the large-diameter silicon crystals with a homogeneous distribution of oxygen.

Watanabe, Masahito; Eguchi, Minoru; Hibiya, Taketoshi

1999-07-01

307

Controlled experimental aquarium system for multi-stressor investigation: carbonate chemistry, oxygen saturation, and temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the field of ocean acidification has grown, researchers have increasingly turned to laboratory experiments to understand the impacts of increased CO2 on marine organisms. However, other changes such as ocean warming and deoxygenation are occurring concurrently with the increasing CO2 concentrations, complicating the anthropogenic impact on organisms. This experimental aquarium design allows for independent regulation of CO2 concentration, O2 levels, and temperature in a controlled environment to study the impacts of multiple stressors. The system has the flexibility for a wide range of treatment chemistry, seawater volumes, and study organisms. Control of the seawater chemistry is achieved by equilibration of a chosen gas mixture with seawater using a Liqui-Cel® membrane contactor. Included as examples, two experiments performed using the system have shown control of CO2 between approximately 500-1400 ?atm and O2 from 80-240 ?mol kg-1. Temperature has been maintained to 0.5 °C or better in the range of 10-17 °C. On a weeklong timescale, control results in variability in pH of less than 0.007 pH units and in oxygen concentration less than 3.5 ?mol kg-1. Longer experiments, over a month, have been completed with reasonable but lessened control, still better than 0.08 pH units and 13 ?mol kg-1 O2. The ability to study the impacts of multiple stressors in the laboratory simultaneously, as well as independently, will be an important part of understanding the response of marine organisms to a high-CO2 world.

Bockmon, E. E.; Frieder, C. A.; Navarro, M. O.; White-Kershek, L. A.; Dickson, A. G.

2013-02-01

308

Overcoming challenges in WAVE Bioreactors without feedback controls for pH and dissolved oxygen.  

PubMed

The biopharmaceutical industry is increasing its use of the WAVE Bioreactor for culturing cells. Although this disposable bioreactor can be equipped to provide real-time pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) monitoring and control, our goal was to develop a process for culturing CHO cells in this system without relying on pH and DO feedback controls. After identifying challenges in culturing cells without controlling for pH and DO in the WAVE Bioreactor, we characterized O(2) and CO(2) transfer in the system. From these cell-free studies, we identified rock rate and rock angle as key parameters affecting O(2) transfer. We also identified the concentration of CO(2) in the incoming gas and the rate of gas flow into the headspace as key parameters affecting CO(2) transfer--and therefore pH--in the disposable culture chamber. Using a full-factorial design to evaluate the rock rate, rock angle, and gas flow rate defined for this WAVE Bioreactor process, we found comparable cell growth and pH profiles in the ranges tested for these three parameters in two CHO cell lines. This process supported cell growth, and maintained pH and DO within our desired range--pH 6.8-7.2 and DO exceeding 20% of air saturation--for six CHO cell lines, and it also demonstrated comparable cell growth and viability with the stirred-tank bioreactor process with online pH and DO control. By eliminating the use of pH and DO probes, this process provides a simple and more cost-effective method for culturing cells in the WAVE Bioreactor. PMID:21987370

Yuk, Inn H; Baskar, Dinesh; Duffy, Philip H; Hsiung, Jenny; Leung, Susan; Lin, Andy A

2011-07-11

309

Synthesis and oxygen reduction activity of shape-controlled Pt(3)Ni nanopolyhedra.  

PubMed

Platinum-based alloys have been extensively shown to be effective catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). Most of these catalysts are nanoparticles without shape control. Recently, extended Pt(3)Ni(111) surfaces prepared in ultrahigh vacuum were demonstrated to possess enhanced ORR catalytic activity as compared to the state-of-the-art carbon supported Pt (Pt/C) nanoparticle catalysts. How and whether this promising surface can be transformed into practical nanoscale electrocatalysts used in PEMFCs remain a challenge. We report a new wet-chemical approach of preparing monodisperse Pt(3)Ni nanoctahedra and nanocubes terminated with {111} and {100} facets, respectively. We further show that the ORR activity on the Pt(3)Ni nanoctahedra is approximately 5-fold higher than that of nanocubes with a similar size. Comparison of ORR activity between carbon-supported Pt(3)Ni nanoctahedra and commercial Pt/C reveals that the Pt(3)Ni nanoctahedra are highly active electrocatalysts. This synthetic strategy may be extended to the preparation of other shape-controlled fuel cell electrocatalysts. PMID:20078068

Zhang, Jun; Yang, Hongzhou; Fang, Jiye; Zou, Shouzhong

2010-02-10

310

The TRIM family protein KAP1 inhibits HIV-1 integration.  

PubMed

The integration of viral cDNA into the host genome is a critical step in the life cycle of HIV-1. This step is catalyzed by integrase (IN), a viral enzyme that is positively regulated by acetylation via the cellular histone acetyl transferase (HAT) p300. To investigate the relevance of IN acetylation, we searched for cellular proteins that selectively bind acetylated IN and identified KAP1, a protein belonging to the TRIM family of antiviral proteins. KAP1 binds acetylated IN and induces its deacetylation through the formation of a protein complex which includes the deacetylase HDAC1. Modulation of intracellular KAP1 levels in different cell types including T cells, the primary HIV-1 target, revealed that KAP1 curtails viral infectivity by selectively affecting HIV-1 integration. This study identifies KAP1 as a cellular factor restricting HIV-1 infection and underscores the relevance of IN acetylation as a crucial step in the viral infectious cycle. PMID:21669397

Allouch, Awatef; Di Primio, Cristina; Alpi, Emanuele; Lusic, Marina; Arosio, Daniele; Giacca, Mauro; Cereseto, Anna

2011-06-16

311

Trimming of a Migrated Biliary Nitinol Stent Using Argon Plasma  

PubMed Central

Metallic stent migration is a well-known complication which cannot always be managed by removal or repositioning, especially in case of uncovered stent. We report a patient who developed obstructive jaundice due to migration of an expandable metallic stent (EMS) inserted in the lower bile duct. Trimming of the EMS using argon plasma was performed, with the power setting of 60 W and 2.0 l/min of argon flow. The distal part of the EMS was removed and mechanical cleaning using balloon catheter was performed for remnant EMS. Without additional stent insertion, jaundice was relieved in a few days. No complication was recognized during the procedure and no recurrence of jaundice in the rest of his life.

Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Hasuike, Noriaki; Tanaka, Masaki; Takizawa, Kohei; Yamaguchi, Yuichiro; Ono, Hiroyuki

2009-01-01

312

Overexpression of TRIM24 Correlates with Tumor Progression in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

The objective of the current study was to investigate the expression pattern and clinicopathological significance of TRIM24 in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The expression profile of TRIM24 in NSCLC tissues and adjacent noncancerous lung tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. TRIM24 was found to be overexpressed in 81 of 113 (71.7%) human lung cancer samples and correlated with p-TNM stage (p ?=?0.0006), poor differentiation (p?=?0.004), Ki67 index (p<0.0001), cyclin D1(p?=?0.0096) and p-Rb expression (p?=?0.0318). In addition, depleting TRIM24 expression by small interfering RNA inhibited growth and invasion in lung cell lines. Moreover, TRIM24 depletion induced cell cycle arrest at the G1/S boundary and induced apoptosis. Western blotting analysis revealed that knockdown of TRIM24 decreased the protein levels of Cyclin A, Cyclin B, Cyclin D1, cyclin E and p-Rb and increased P27 expression. These results indicate that TRIM24 plays an important role in NSCLC progression.

Li, Haiying; Sun, Liangliang; Tang, Zhongping; Fu, Lin; Xu, Ying; Li, Zixuan; Luo, Wenting; Qiu, Xueshan; Wang, Enhua

2012-01-01

313

Unique spectrum of activity of prosimian TRIM5alpha against exogenous and endogenous retroviruses.  

PubMed

Lentiviruses, the genus of retrovirus that includes HIV-1, rarely endogenize. Some lemurs uniquely possess an endogenous lentivirus called PSIV ("prosimian immunodeficiency virus"). Thus, lemurs provide the opportunity to study the activity of host defense factors, such as TRIM5?, in the setting of germ line invasion. We characterized the activities of TRIM5? proteins from two distant lemurs against exogenous retroviruses and a chimeric PSIV. TRIM5? from gray mouse lemur, which carries PSIV in its genome, exhibited the narrowest restriction activity. One allelic variant of gray mouse lemur TRIM5? restricted only N-tropic murine leukemia virus (N-MLV), while a second variant restricted N-MLV and, uniquely, B-tropic MLV (B-MLV); both variants poorly blocked PSIV. In contrast, TRIM5? from ring-tailed lemur, which does not contain PSIV in its genome, revealed one of the broadest antiviral activities reported to date against lentiviruses, including PSIV. Investigation into the antiviral specificity of ring-tailed lemur TRIM5? demonstrated a major contribution of a 32-amino-acid expansion in variable region 2 (v2) of the B30.2/SPRY domain to the breadth of restriction. Data on lemur TRIM5? and the prediction of ancestral simian sequences hint at an evolutionary scenario where antiretroviral specificity is prominently defined by the lineage-specific expansion of the variable loops of B30.2/SPRY. PMID:21345948

Rahm, Nadia; Yap, Melvyn; Snoeck, Joke; Zoete, Vincent; Muñoz, Miguel; Radespiel, Ute; Zimmermann, Elke; Michielin, Olivier; Stoye, Jonathan P; Ciuffi, Angela; Telenti, Amalio

2011-02-23

314

Unique Spectrum of Activity of Prosimian TRIM5? against Exogenous and Endogenous Retroviruses?†  

PubMed Central

Lentiviruses, the genus of retrovirus that includes HIV-1, rarely endogenize. Some lemurs uniquely possess an endogenous lentivirus called PSIV (“prosimian immunodeficiency virus”). Thus, lemurs provide the opportunity to study the activity of host defense factors, such as TRIM5?, in the setting of germ line invasion. We characterized the activities of TRIM5? proteins from two distant lemurs against exogenous retroviruses and a chimeric PSIV. TRIM5? from gray mouse lemur, which carries PSIV in its genome, exhibited the narrowest restriction activity. One allelic variant of gray mouse lemur TRIM5? restricted only N-tropic murine leukemia virus (N-MLV), while a second variant restricted N-MLV and, uniquely, B-tropic MLV (B-MLV); both variants poorly blocked PSIV. In contrast, TRIM5? from ring-tailed lemur, which does not contain PSIV in its genome, revealed one of the broadest antiviral activities reported to date against lentiviruses, including PSIV. Investigation into the antiviral specificity of ring-tailed lemur TRIM5? demonstrated a major contribution of a 32-amino-acid expansion in variable region 2 (v2) of the B30.2/SPRY domain to the breadth of restriction. Data on lemur TRIM5? and the prediction of ancestral simian sequences hint at an evolutionary scenario where antiretroviral specificity is prominently defined by the lineage-specific expansion of the variable loops of B30.2/SPRY.

Rahm, Nadia; Yap, Melvyn; Snoeck, Joke; Zoete, Vincent; Munoz, Miguel; Radespiel, Ute; Zimmermann, Elke; Michielin, Olivier; Stoye, Jonathan P.; Ciuffi, Angela; Telenti, Amalio

2011-01-01

315

Proteasome inhibitors uncouple rhesus TRIM5alpha restriction of HIV-1 reverse transcription and infection.  

PubMed

The primate TRIM5alpha proteins have recently been defined as cellular restriction factors, preventing primate infection by retroviruses from different species. For instance, rhesus TRIM5alpha (rhTRIM5alpha) restricts infection by HIV-1. Virtually all TRIM5alpha proteins block the early replication of retroviruses by preventing the accumulation of reverse transcription products, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In this article, we find that disrupting proteasome function alters rhTRIM5alpha localization and allows the normal generation of HIV-1 late reverse transcription products, even though HIV-1 infection and the generation of nuclear 1-LTR and 2-LTR viral cDNA forms remain impaired. This finding suggests rhTRIM5alpha restricts HIV infection in two distinct phases: (i) altering the normal passage of the reverse-transcribing viral genome to the nucleus and (ii) targeting the reverse transcription complex to be disrupted by the proteasome. Because proteasome inhibitor blocks the second phase, accumulation of a nonfunctional viral DNA genome can be readily observed. Defining each phase may reveal HIV-1 targets for future antiviral therapy in which dual blockade may be equally as effective as naturally occurring rhTRIM5alpha protein in preventing HIV-1 infection in vivo. PMID:16648264

Wu, Xiaolu; Anderson, Jenny L; Campbell, Edward M; Joseph, Ajith M; Hope, Thomas J

2006-04-28

316

Autoantigen TRIM21/Ro52 as a Possible Target for Treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus  

PubMed Central

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, systemic, and autoimmune disease, whose etiology is still unknown. Although there has been progress in the treatment of SLE through the use of glucocorticoid and immunosuppressive drugs, these drugs have limited efficacy and pose significant risks of toxicity. Moreover, prognosis of patients with SLE has remained difficult to assess. TRIM21/Ro52/SS-A1, a 52-kDa protein, is an autoantigen recognized by antibodies in sera of patients with SLE and Sjögren's syndrome (SS), another systemic autoimmune disease, and anti-TRIM21 antibodies have been used as a diagnostic marker for decades. TRIM21 belongs to the tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) super family, which has been found to play important roles in innate and acquired immunity. Recently, TRIM21 has been shown to be involved in both physiological immune responses and pathological autoimmune processes. For example, TRIM21 ubiquitylates proteins of the interferon-regulatory factor (IRF) family and regulates type I interferon and proinflammatory cytokines. In this paper, we summarize molecular features of TRIM21 revealed so far and discuss its potential as an attractive therapeutic target for SLE.

Yoshimi, Ryusuke; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki; Ozato, Keiko

2012-01-01

317

Caging the Beast: TRIM5? Binding to the HIV-1 Core  

PubMed Central

The potent HIV-1 inhibitor TRIM5? blocks HIV-1 infection by accelerating the uncoating of HIV-1. TRIM5? is known to form higher-order self-association complexes that contribute to the avidity of TRIM5? for the HIV-1 capsid, and are essential to inhibit infection; these higher-order self-association complexes are dependent upon an intact B-box 2 domain. Even though the ability to form higher-order self-association complexes resembles the clathrin triskelion that forms a protein array, or cage, around the endocytic vesicle, evidence for the ability of TRIM5? to assemble a similar type of structure surrounding the HIV-1 core has been lacking. Recent work by Ganser-Pornillos, Chandrasekaran and colleagues has now demonstrated the ability of the restriction factor TRIM5? to “cage” or “net” the HIV-1 core by forming an hexagonal array on the surface of the viral capsid [1]. This hexagonal array is strikingly similar in design to the array formed by the clathrin triskelion on the surface of the clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle. This remarkable finding represents an important advance on our understanding of the restriction factor TRIM5?, and suggests that TRIM5? cages the HIV-1 core in order to terminate infection. The present note discusses the implications of this discovery.

Diaz-Griffero, Felipe

2011-01-01

318

TRIM3 Regulates the Motility of the Kinesin Motor Protein KIF21B.  

PubMed

Kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) are molecular motors that transport cellular cargo along the microtubule cytoskeleton. KIF21B is a neuronal kinesin that is highly enriched in dendrites. The regulation and specificity of microtubule transport involves the binding of motors to individual cargo adapters and accessory proteins. Moreover, posttranslational modifications of either the motor protein, their cargos or tubulin regulate motility, cargo recognition and the binding or unloading of cargos. Here we show that the ubiquitin E3 ligase TRIM3, also known as BERP, interacts with KIF21B via its RBCC domain. TRIM3 is found at intracellular and Golgi-derived vesicles and co-localizes with the KIF21B motor in neurons. Trim3 gene deletion in mice and TRIM3 overexpression in cultured neurons both suggested that the E3-ligase function of TRIM3 is not involved in KIF21B degradation, however TRIM3 depletion reduces the motility of the motor. Together, our data suggest that TRIM3 is a regulator in the modulation of KIF21B motor function. PMID:24086586

Labonté, Dorthe; Thies, Edda; Pechmann, Yvonne; Groffen, Alexander J; Verhage, Matthijs; Smit, August B; van Kesteren, Ronald E; Kneussel, Matthias

2013-09-24

319

Susceptibility and adaptation to human TRIM5? alleles at positive selected sites in HIV-1 capsid.  

PubMed

Numerous in vitro studies attribute to human TRIM5? some modest anti-HIV-1 activity and human population studies suggest some differential effect of TRIM5? polymorphisms on disease progression. If the activity of TRIM5? were relevant in vivo, it could result in positive selection on the viral capsid. To address this issue, we identified 10 positively selected sites in HIV-1 capsid from multiple viral strains and generated 17 clade B viruses carrying a minor (i.e. low frequency) residue or an alanine at those positions. All recombinant viruses were susceptible to the modest effect of common human TRIM5? and allelic variants R136Q, and H419Y; H43Y and G249D TRIM5? were generally inactive. Increased sensitivity to TRIM5? was observed for some capsid variants, suggesting that minor residues are selected against in human populations. On the other hand, the modest potency of human TRIM5? does not translate in escape mutations in the viral capsid. PMID:23601783

Rahm, Nadia; Gfeller, David; Snoeck, Joke; Martinez, Raquel; McLaren, Paul J; Ortiz, Millán; Ciuffi, Angela; Telenti, Amalio

2013-04-17

320

TRIM3 Regulates the Motility of the Kinesin Motor Protein KIF21B  

PubMed Central

Kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) are molecular motors that transport cellular cargo along the microtubule cytoskeleton. KIF21B is a neuronal kinesin that is highly enriched in dendrites. The regulation and specificity of microtubule transport involves the binding of motors to individual cargo adapters and accessory proteins. Moreover, posttranslational modifications of either the motor protein, their cargos or tubulin regulate motility, cargo recognition and the binding or unloading of cargos. Here we show that the ubiquitin E3 ligase TRIM3, also known as BERP, interacts with KIF21B via its RBCC domain. TRIM3 is found at intracellular and Golgi-derived vesicles and co-localizes with the KIF21B motor in neurons. Trim3 gene deletion in mice and TRIM3 overexpression in cultured neurons both suggested that the E3-ligase function of TRIM3 is not involved in KIF21B degradation, however TRIM3 depletion reduces the motility of the motor. Together, our data suggest that TRIM3 is a regulator in the modulation of KIF21B motor function.

Labonte, Dorthe; Thies, Edda; Pechmann, Yvonne; Groffen, Alexander J.; Verhage, Matthijs; Smit, August B.; van Kesteren, Ronald E.; Kneussel, Matthias

2013-01-01

321

Positive selection of primate TRIM5? identifies a critical species-specific retroviral restriction domain  

PubMed Central

Primate genomes encode a variety of innate immune strategies to defend themselves against retroviruses. One of these, TRIM5?, can restrict diverse retroviruses in a species-specific manner. Thus, whereas rhesus TRIM5? can strongly restrict HIV-1, human TRIM5? only has weak HIV-1 restriction. The biology of TRIM5? restriction suggests that it is locked in an antagonistic conflict with the proteins encoding the viral capsid. Such antagonistic interactions frequently result in rapid amino acid replacements at the protein–protein interface, as each genetic entity vies for evolutionary dominance. By analyzing its evolutionary history, we find strong evidence for ancient positive selection in the primate TRIM5? gene. This selection is strikingly variable with some of the strongest selection occurring in the human lineage. This history suggests that TRIM5? evolution has been driven by antagonistic interactions with a wide variety of viruses and endogenous retroviruses that predate the origin of primate lentiviruses. A 13-aa “patch” in the SPRY protein domain bears a dense concentration of positively selected residues, potentially implicating it as an antiviral interface. By using functional studies of chimeric TRIM5? genes, we show that this patch is generally essential for retroviral restriction and is responsible for most of the species-specific antiretroviral restriction activity. Our study highlights the power of evolutionary analyses, in which positive selection identifies not only the age of genetic conflict but also the interaction interface where this conflict plays out.

Sawyer, Sara L.; Wu, Lily I.; Emerman, Michael; Malik, Harmit S.

2005-01-01

322

Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts  

DOEpatents

A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power. 1 fig.

Erickson, D.C.

1985-06-04

323

Rhesus TRIM5? Disrupts the HIV-1 Capsid at the Inter-Hexamer Interfaces  

PubMed Central

TRIM proteins play important roles in the innate immune defense against retroviral infection, including human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Rhesus macaque TRIM5? (TRIM5?rh) targets the HIV-1 capsid and blocks infection at an early post-entry stage, prior to reverse transcription. Studies have shown that binding of TRIM5? to the assembled capsid is essential for restriction and requires the coiled-coil and B30.2/SPRY domains, but the molecular mechanism of restriction is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated, by cryoEM combined with mutagenesis and chemical cross-linking, the direct interactions between HIV-1 capsid protein (CA) assemblies and purified TRIM5?rh containing coiled-coil and SPRY domains (CC-SPRYrh). Concentration-dependent binding of CC-SPRYrh to CA assemblies was observed, while under equivalent conditions the human protein did not bind. Importantly, CC-SPRYrh, but not its human counterpart, disrupted CA tubes in a non-random fashion, releasing fragments of protofilaments consisting of CA hexamers without dissociation into monomers. Furthermore, such structural destruction was prevented by inter-hexamer crosslinking using P207C/T216C mutant CA with disulfide bonds at the CTD-CTD trimer interface of capsid assemblies, but not by intra-hexamer crosslinking via A14C/E45C at the NTD-NTD interface. The same disruption effect by TRIM5?rh on the inter-hexamer interfaces also occurred with purified intact HIV-1 cores. These results provide insights concerning how TRIM5? disrupts the virion core and demonstrate that structural damage of the viral capsid by TRIM5? is likely one of the important components of the mechanism of TRIM5?-mediated HIV-1 restriction.

Zhao, Gongpu; Ke, Danxia; Vu, Thomas; Ahn, Jinwoo; Shah, Vaibhav B.; Yang, Ruifeng; Aiken, Christopher; Charlton, Lisa M.; Gronenborn, Angela M.; Zhang, Peijun

2011-01-01

324

Two useful dimensionless parameters that combine physiological, operational and bioreactor design parameters for improved control of dissolved oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new dimensionless parameters (F and O) are proposed for calculating the proportional, integral, and derivative constants of a dissolved oxygen proportional integral-derivative (PID) feed-back control algorithm from knowledge of the growth rate, bioreactor design and operation variables. The values of F and O were determined for a broad range of Reynolds numbers (between 1000 to 40 000) during the

A. De León; A. P. Barba-de la Rosa; H. Mayani; E. Galindo; O. T. Ramírez

2001-01-01

325

Carcinoma of the larynx treated with hypofractionated radiation and hyperbaric oxygen: long-term tumor control and complications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To evaluate the long-term outcome with respect to local control, survival, and complications in a cohort of patients with locally advanced laryngeal carcinoma treated with hypofractionated radiation and hyperbaric oxygen at 4 atmosphers of pressure (HBO-4).Methods and Materials: Between January 1970 and August 1982, 45 patients with locally advanced carcinoma of the larynx were treated with primary radiation using

Bruce G Haffty; Ronald A Hurley; Lester G Peters

1999-01-01

326

A recruitment maneuver increases oxygenation after intubation of hypoxemic intensive care unit patients: a randomized controlled study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Tracheal intubation and anaesthesia promotes lung collapse and hypoxemia. In acute lung injury patients, recruitment maneuvers (RMs) increase lung volume and oxygenation, and decrease atelectasis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of RMs performed immediately after intubation. METHODS: This randomized controlled study was conducted in two 16-bed medical-surgical intensive care units within

Jean-Michel Constantin; Emmanuel Futier; Anne-Laure Cherprenet; Gérald Chanques; Renaud Guerin; Sophie Cayot-Constantin; Mathieu Jabaudon; Sebastien Perbet; Christian Chartier; Boris Jung; Dominique Guelon; Samir Jaber; Jean-Etienne Bazin

2010-01-01

327

Oxygen Potential of Uranium--Plutonium Oxide as Determined by Controlled-Atmosphere Thermogravimetry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The oxygen-to-metal atom ratio, or O/M, of solid solution uranium-plutonium oxide reactor fuel is a measure of the concentration of crystal defects in the oxide which affect many fuel properties, particularly, fuel oxygen potential. Fabrication of a high-...

G. C. Swanson

1975-01-01

328

Oxygen Uptake. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Biological waste treatment in the activated sludge process is based on the ability of microorganisms to use dissolved oxygen in breaking down soluble organic substances. The oxygen uptake test is a means of measuring the respiration rate of microorganisms in this process. Designed for individuals who have completed National Pollutant Discharge…

Wooley, John F.

329

Organic carbon, and not copper, controls denitrification in oxygen minimum zones of the ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incubation experiments under trace metal clean conditions and ambient oxygen concentrations were used to investigate the response of microbial assemblages in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) to additions of organic carbon and copper, two factors that might be expected to limit denitrification in the ocean. In the OMZs of the Eastern Tropical North and South Pacific, denitrification appeared to be limited

Bess B. Ward; Caroline B. Tuit; Amal Jayakumar; Jeremy J. Rich; James Moffett; S. Wajih A. Naqvi

2008-01-01

330

The dual function of the lung in chelonian sea turtles: buoyancy control and oxygen storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chelonian sea turtles use their lung as a buoyancy organ and as the major oxygen store when diving, and hence, buoyancy regulation and oxygen consumption can be expected to interact. The buoyancy of seven juvenile loggerhead turtles, Caretta caretta, was determined by measuring directly their underwater weight (Muw) while they were resting on a freely suspended weighing platform at a

Sandra Hochscheid; Flegra Bentivegna; John R. Speakman

331

A Novel Solid Electrolyte Oxygen Sensor System for In-Situ Measurement and Process Control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1993 the oxygen partial pressure was firstly measured inside a plasma wind tunnel using conventional ?-probes. Since then, a considerable amount of knowledge has been gained in using these sensors in ground test facilities and space. However, these commercially available sensors were too large in scale and weight. Consequently, a new development of solid electrolyte sensors called FIPEX more feasible for space was initiated. Due to space driven benefits, interest arose to use FIPEX technique in terrestrial applications e.g. to monitor sputter plants for float glass coating. Therefore, the VacuSen® sensor was developed. The characterization of VacuSen® at nominal sensor temperature TS = 680° C resulted in a sensor current according to IS = b.pO20.8+/-0.05 I[?A] in the operation range between ptot = 1.10-3 to 5 Pa. From pulse width modulation (PWM) temperature control, additional information allows to measure ptot according to ptot = a.RPWM0.107+/-0.005 thus enlarging the operation range to ptot = 1.10-3 to 1.105 Pa. A one point calibration routine with air, ideally at ptot = 5 Pa in order to determine both calibration parameters a and b simultaneously, is proposed.

Hammer, Frank Uwe; Messerschmid, Ernst; Rogg, Markus

2010-10-01

332

Magnetically Remote-Controlled Optical Sensor Spheres for Monitoring Oxygen or pH  

PubMed Central

Magnetic sensor macrospheres (MagSeMacs), i.e., stainless steel spheres coated with optical chemical sensors, are presented as an alternative to existing optical sensor patches and fiber-optical dip-probes. Such spheres can either be reversibly attached to the tip of an optical fiber (dip-probe) or trapped inside a vessel for read-out through the side wall. Moving the magnetic separator at the exterior enables measurements at varying positions with a single sensor. Moreover, the sensor’s replacement is rapid and contactless. We measured dissolved oxygen or pH in stirred liquids, rotating flasks, and 24-well plates with a SensorDish-reader device for parallel cell culture monitoring. In these applications, MagSeMacs proved to be advantageous over conventional sensor patches and magnetic optical sensor particles because of their magnetism, spherical shape, reflectance, and size. These properties resulted in strong but reversible fixation, magnetic remote-controllability, short response times, high signal intensities, and simplified handling.

2010-01-01

333

Sensitivity of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, multidrug-resistant Salmonella, and antibiotic-susceptible Salmonella to lactic acid on inoculated beef trimmings.  

PubMed

Studies were performed to determine whether lactic acid treatments used to reduce Escherichia coli O157:H7 on beef trimmings are also effective in controlling non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (nSTEC), and multidrug-resistant and antibiotic-susceptible Salmonella. Beef trimming pieces (10 by 5 by 1 cm) were inoculated (3 log CFU/cm(2)) separately with four-strain mixtures of rifampin-resistant E. coli O157:H7, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145. Similarly, in a second study, trimmings were separately inoculated with rifampin-resistant E. coli O157:H7, and antibiotic-susceptible or multidrug-resistant (MDR and/or MDR-AmpC) Salmonella Newport and Salmonella Typhimurium. Inoculated trimmings were left untreated (control) or were immersed for 30 s in 5% lactic acid solutions (25 or 55°C). No differences (P ? 0.05) were obtained among surviving counts of E. coli O157:H7 and those of the tested nSTEC serogroups on lactic acid-treated (25 or 55°C) samples. Counts (3.1 to 3.3 log CFU/cm(2)) of E. coli O157:H7 and nSTEC were reduced (P < 0.05) by 0.5 to 0.9 (25°C lactic acid) and 1.0 to 1.4 (55°C lactic acid) log CFU/cm(2). Surviving counts of Salmonella on treated trimmings were not influenced by serotype or antibiotic resistance phenotype and were similar (P ? 0.05) or lower (P < 0.05) than surviving counts of E. coli O157:H7. Counts (3.0 to 3.3 log CFU/cm(2)) were reduced (P < 0.05) by 0.5 to 0.8 (E. coli O157:H7) and 1.3 to 1.5 (Salmonella) log CFU/cm(2) after treatment of samples with 25°C lactic acid. Corresponding reductions following treatment with lactic acid at 55°C were 1.2 to 1.5 (E. coli O157:H7) and 1.6 to 1.9 (Salmonella) log CFU/cm(2). Overall, the results indicated that lactic acid treatments used against E. coli O157:H7 on beef trimmings should be similarly or more effective against the six nSTEC serogroups and against multidrug-resistant and antibiotic-susceptible Salmonella Newport and Salmonella Typhimurium. PMID:23043822

Fouladkhah, Aliyar; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Yang, Hua; Belk, Keith E; Nightingale, Kendra K; Woerner, Dale R; Smith, Gary C; Sofos, John N

2012-10-01

334

Melting of Bi-2212 under controlled oxygen partial pressures with silver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solidus temperature Tsolidus of Bi2Sr2CaCu2Ox (Bi-2212) is decreased from 893°C to 880°C and further down to 834°C when the oxygen partial pressure of the atmosphere is changed from pO2 = 1 atm to 0.21 atm and further to 0.001 atm. Silver additions to the superconductor exceeding 2 wt% lower Tsolidus by up to 25 K in a pure oxygen atmosphere. The weight loss during melting, which is related to oxygen release, is highest at low oxygen partial pressures and can be reduced by silver additions due to increased oxygen solubility of the Bi-2212 melt in presence of dissolved silver. The experimental results are compared with thermodynamic data of the Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O system.

Lang, Th.; Buhl, D.; Gauckler, L. J.

1997-02-01

335

The oxygen-responsive NIFL-NIFA complex: a novel two-component regulatory system controlling nitrogenase synthesis in ?-Proteobacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high energetic requirements for nitrogen fixation and the extreme oxygen sensitivity of the nitrogenase enzyme impose\\u000a physiological constraints on diazotrophy that necessitate stringent control of nitrogen fixation (nif) gene expression at the transcriptional level. In the ?-subdivision of the Proteobacteria, this control is maintained by\\u000a a regulatory complex comprising an enhancer-binding protein (NIFA), which activates transcription at ?N-dependent nif

Ray Dixon

1998-01-01

336

Adaptive haemoglobin gene control in Daphnia pulex at different oxygen and temperature conditions.  

PubMed

Hypoxia-induced haemoglobin (Hb) expression is a central regulatory mechanism in Daphnia in response to environmental hypoxia or warm temperatures. Changes in Hb concentration as well as Hb subunit composition, which modulate Hb oxygen affinity, guarantee the oxygen supply of tissues under these environmental conditions. Based on the sequenced D. pulex genome, Hb genes were related to the properties of haemolymph Hb, which included its concentration and oxygen affinity (both measured by spectrophotometry) as well as the Hb subunit composition (determined by 2-D gel electrophoresis and ESI-MS analysis). Permanent cultures of D. pulex acclimated to different oxygen conditions (normoxia and hypoxia) and temperatures (10°C, 20°C, and 24°C), showed characteristic changes in Hb concentration, subunit composition and oxygen affinity. Several subunits (Hb4, Hb7, Hb8, and Hb10) were obviously responsible for changes in oxygen affinity including those, which carry a number of hypoxia-responsive elements (HREs) upstream of the respective gene (hb4 and hb10). Analysing the effects of different oxygen- or temperature-acclimations on Hb subunit expression in D. pulex and D. magna on a common basis (Hb concentration or oxygen affinity) revealed a general pattern of oxygen and temperature effects on Hb, which implies that Hb quantity and quality are mostly influenced by the degree of tissue hypoxia. Differences between both species in the onset of hypoxia-induced differential Hb expression and Hb oxygen affinity, which are probably related to different HRE patterns and functionally important differences in the amino acid sequence of only a few subunits, cause a reduced ability of D. pulex to adjust Hb function to temperature changes in comparison to D. magna. PMID:21281731

Gerke, Peter; Börding, Christina; Zeis, Bettina; Paul, Rüdiger J

2011-01-31

337

Simple and Controlled Method to Avoid Hyperperfusion of the Right Arm Following Axillary Artery Cannulation for Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenator Support.  

PubMed

The right axillary artery has become the cannulation site of choice for establishment of extracorporeal membrane oxygenator support in many centers. Dissection and cannulation of this vessel are simple and safe in the majority of patients. Typically, a side graft is used to avoid malperfusion of the right arm. Although this protocol offers many advantages, a common complication is the critical hyperperfusion of the right arm. Subsequent compartment syndrome and decline of antegrade inflow of oxygenated blood, especially into the brain and coronary arteries, can be life threatening in such critical patients. We describe herein a simple yet effective and controlled technique to avoid this particular problem. PMID:23169105

Papadopoulos, Nestoras; Ahmad, Ali El-Sayed; Marinos, Spiros; Moritz, Anton; Zierer, Andreas

2012-11-20

338

Mechanisms controlling the oxygen consumption in experimentally induced hypochloremic alkalosis in calves.  

PubMed

The study was carried out on healthy Friesian calves (n = 10) aged between 10 and 30 days. Hypochloremia and alkalosis were induced by intravenous administration of furosemide and isotonic sodium bicarbonate. The venous and arterial blood samples were collected repeatedly. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), hemoglobin and plasmatic chloride concentrations were determined. The red blood cell chloride concentration was also calculated. pH, PCO2 and PO2 were measured in arterial and mixed venous blood. The oxygen equilibrium curve (OEC) was measured in standard conditions. The correspondence of the OEC to the arterial and mixed venous compartments was calculated, taking blood temperature, pH and PCO2 values into account. The oxygen exchange fraction (OEF%), corresponding to the degree of blood desaturation between the arterial and mixed venous compartments and the amount of oxygen released at the tissue level by 100 mL of blood (OEF Vol%) were calculated from the arterial and mixed venous OEC, combined with PO2 and hemoglobin concentration. Oxygen delivery (DO2) was calculated using the arterial oxygen content, the cardiac output measured by thermodilution, and the body weight of the animal. The oxygen consumption (VO2) was derived from the cardiac output, OEF Vol% and body weight values. Despite the plasma hypochloremia, the erythrocyte chloride concentration was not influenced by furosemide and sodium bicarbonate infusion. Due to the alkalosis-induced increase in the 2,3-DPG, the standard OEC was shifted to the right, allowing oxygen to dissociate from hemoglobin more rapidly. These changes opposed the increased affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen induced by alkalosis. Moreover, respiratory acidosis, hemoconcentration, and the slight decrease in the partial oxygen pressure in mixed venous blood (Pvo2) tended to improve the OEF Vol% and maintain the oxygen consumption in a physiological range while the cardiac output, and the oxygen delivery were significantly decreased. It may be concluded that, despite reduced oxygen delivery, oxygen consumption is maintained during experimentally induced hypochloremic alkalosis in healthy 10-30 day old calves. PMID:12498570

Cambier, Carole; Clerbaux, Thierry; Amory, Hélène; Detry, Bruno; Florquin, Sandra; Marville, Vincent; Frans, Albert; Gustin, Pascal

339

Production of a superconductor powder having a narrow melting transition width using a controlled oxygen atmosphere  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a process for producing a superconductor powder, it comprises: providing a mixture of finely divided R[sub 2]O[sub 3], BaCO[sub 3] and CuO in stoichiometric proportions; heating the mixture to a preheat temperature in oxygen at an initial oxygen partial pressure between about 1 and 40 torr; heating the mixture from the preheat temperature to a plateau temperature greater than the preheat temperature; maintaining the mixture at the plateau temperature and the initial oxygen partial pressure for a time sufficient to calcine the mixture to a superconductor powder; increasing oxygen partial pressure to between about 200 and about 800 torr above the initial oxygen partial pressure; heating the superconductor powder to an increased temperature between about 880[degrees]C and 925[degrees]C at the increased oxygen partial pressure; and maintaining the superconductor powder at the increased temperature and the increased oxygen partial pressure for a time sufficient to reduce the melting transition width of the superconductor powder.

Woolf, L.D.; Elsner, F.H.; Shearer, C.H.

1992-09-22

340

Fnr Is Involved in Oxygen Control of Herbaspirillum seropedicae N-Truncated NifA Protein Activity in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Herbaspirillum seropedicae is an endophytic diazotroph belonging to the ?-subclass of the class Proteobacteria, which colonizes many members of the Gramineae. The activity of the NifA protein, a transcriptional activator of nif genes in H. seropedicae, is controlled by ammonium ions through its N-terminal domain and by oxygen through mechanisms that are not well understood. Here we report that the NifA protein of H. seropedicae is inactive and more susceptible to degradation in an fnr Escherichia coli background. Both effects correlate with oxygen exposure and iron deprivation. Our results suggest that the oxygen sensitivity and iron requirement for H. seropedicae NifA activity involve the Fnr protein.

Monteiro, Rose A.; de Souza, Emanuel M.; Yates, M. Geoffrey; Pedrosa, Fabio O.; Chubatsu, Leda S.

2003-01-01

341

Magnetic design of trim excitations for the advanced light source storage ring sextupole.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring sextupole is a unique multi-purpose magnet. It is designed to operate as a sextupole with three auxiliary trim modes: horizontal steering, vertical steering, and skew quadrupole. A perturbation theory for iron-...

S. Marks

1995-01-01

342

Biogeochemical Control on the Flux of Trace Elements from Estuarine Sediments: Water Column Oxygen Concentrations and Benthic Infauna  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trace element (arsenic, copper and manganese) fluxes between sediment and water were examined for approximately 2 months in replicated sediment/water microcosms. Treatments consisted of three oxygen levels in the water column (saturated, 10% saturation and anaerobic) and three different organism treatments (control, Macoma balthicaand Nereis succinea). Both arsenic and manganese were released from the sediment in the anoxic treatment, while copper was lost from the water. With the water column either saturated or at 10% oxygen saturation, both arsenic and manganese fluxes were negligible. In contrast, copper fluxes out of the sediment increased with increasing oxygen concentrations. The effect of organisms on the trace element fluxes were greatest immediately after their introduction to the microcosms, and declined substantially thereafter. Nereiscaused a substantial initial increase in manganese fluxes, but caused a negative flux (out of the water column) for arsenic. Macomahad a much smaller effect on flux than Nereis. Neither organism had a substantial effect on copper fluxes. Porewater profiles gave good predictions of arsenic and manganese fluxes in the anoxic treatment, but not in the 10% or saturated-oxygen treatments. Porewater profiles underestimated copper fluxes in the oxygenated treatments somewhat, and predicted copper flux in the opposite direction in the anoxic treatment. These results suggest that the annual cycle of anoxia in systems like Chesapeake Bay, and the resulting annual cycle of organism death and recruitment, can significantly alter the cycling of trace elements between the sediment and water column.

Riedel, Gerhardt F.; Sanders, James G.; Osman, Richard W.

1997-01-01

343

A CMOS bandgap voltage reference with absolute value and temperature drift trims  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a curvature-corrected CMOS bandgap voltage reference with in-package trim of the absolute value and first-order temperature drift during the final test. The trim settings are stored using a poly fuse ROM. The output buffer has a single-stage topology with voltage and current gain boosts, providing 20 ?V\\/mA load regulation and frequency stability with any load. The total error

David Spady; Vadim Ivanov

2005-01-01

344

Terminal repeat retrotransposon in miniature (TRIM) as DNA markers in Brassica relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a display system using a unique sequence of terminal repeat retrotransposon in miniature (TRIM) elements,\\u000a which were recently identified from gene-rich regions of Brassica rapa. The technique, named TRIM display, is based on modification of the AFLP technique using an adapter primer for the restriction\\u000a fragments of BfaI and a primer derived from conserved terminal repeat sequences

Soo-Jin Kwon; Dong-Hyun Kim; Myung-Ho Lim; Yan Long; Jin-Ling Meng; Ki-Byung Lim; Jin-A Kim; Jung Sun Kim; Mina Jin; Ho-Il Kim; Sang-Nag Ahn; Susan R. Wessler; Tae-Jin Yang; Beom-Seok Park

2007-01-01

345

Bovine Claw and Limb Disorders at Claw Trimming Related to Milk Yield  

Microsoft Academic Search

As part of a cross-sectional study of Norwegian Red Cattle, associations of lameness, lesions at the tarsus, claw shapes, claw lesions, and claw trimming with milk yield were examined. Fifty-five tie-stall herds and 57 free-stall herds were sampled by computerized system- atic selection, and 2,665 cows were trimmed and limb and claw disorders recorded. After exclusions, 2,599 cows were included

M. Sogstad; T. Fjeldaas; A. O. Refsdal; TINE BA; GENO Breeding

346

Understanding and assessing the impact of treatment in diabetes: the Treatment-Related Impact Measures for Diabetes and Devices (TRIM-Diabetes and TRIM-Diabetes Device)  

PubMed Central

Purpose Diabetes is a debilitating illness requiring lifelong management. Treatments can be varied in terms of mode of administration as well as type of agent. Unfortunately, most patient reported outcome measures currently available to assess the impact of treatment are specific to diabetes type, treatment modality or delivery systems and are designed to be either a HRQoL or treatment satisfaction measure. To address these gaps, the Treatment Related Impact Measure-Diabetes and Device measures were developed. This paper presents the item development and validation of the TRIM Diabetes/Device. Methods Patient interviews were conducted to collect the patient perspective and ensure high content validity. Interviews were hand coded and qualitatively analyzed to identify common themes. A conceptual model of the impact of diabetes medication was developed and preliminary items for the TRIM-Diabetes/Device were generated and cognitively debriefed. Validation data was collected via an on-line survey and analyzed according to an a priori statistical analysis plan to validate the overall score as well as each domain. Item level criteria were used to reduce the preliminary item pool. Next, factor analysis to identify structural domains was performed. Reliability and validity testing was then performed. Results One hundred and five patients were interviewed in focus groups, individual interviews and for cognitive debriefing. Five hundred seven patients participated in the validation study. Factor analysis identified seven domains: Treatment Burden, Daily Life; Diabetes Management; Psychological Health; Compliance and Device Function and Bother. Internal consistency reliability coefficients of the TRIM-Diabetes/Device ranged from 0.80 and 0.94. Test-retest reliability of the TRIM-Diabetes/Device ranged from 0.71 to 0.89. All convergent and known groups validity hypotheses were met for the TRIM-Diabetes/Device total scores and sub-scales. Conclusion Validation is an ongoing and iterative process. These findings are the first step in that process and have shown that both the TRIM-Diabetes and the TRIM-Diabetes Device have acceptable psychometric properties. Future research is needed to continue the validation process and examine responsiveness and the validity of the TRIM-Diabetes/Device in a clinical trial population.

Brod, Meryl; Hammer, Mette; Christensen, Torsten; Lessard, Suzanne; Bushnell, Donald M

2009-01-01

347

Oxygen minimum zone controlled Mn redistribution in Arabian Sea sediments during the late Quaternary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accumulation of labile Mn is related to bottom water oxygen concentrations. In this study we investigate the relation between oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) intensity and Mn burial in Arabian Sea during the late Quaternary. Mn carbonates in sediments of the deep Arabian Basin indicate that this part of the basin remained oxygenated for at least the last 185 kyr. Sequential leaching showed manganese carbonate enrichments with concentrations up to 3750 ppm in deep basin sediments. These Mn spikes must have formed diagenetically during periods of increased Mn oxide fluxes to the deep basin, associated with vertical extension of the OMZ. This extension caused remobilization of Mn oxides from a previously oxic slope, resulting in increased Mn accumulation in the deep basin. Mn relocation is evidenced by synchronous Mn depletions in organic-rich intervals in slope sediments. Mn records from the deep basin can thus be used as a qualitative proxy to reconstruct intermediate water oxygenation.

Schenau, S. J.; Reichart, G. J.; de Lange, G. J.

2002-12-01

348

TRIM protein-mediated regulation of inflammatory and innate immune signaling and its association with antiretroviral activity.  

PubMed

Members of the tripartite interaction motif (TRIM) family of E3 ligases are emerging as critical regulators of innate immunity. To identify new regulators, we carried out a screen of 43 human TRIM proteins for the ability to activate NF-?B, AP-1, and interferon, hallmarks of many innate immune signaling pathways. We identified 16 TRIM proteins that induced NF-?B and/or AP-1. We found that one of these, TRIM62, functions in the TRIF branch of the TLR4 signaling pathway. Knockdown of TRIM62 in primary macrophages led to a defect in TRIF-mediated late NF-?B, AP-1, and interferon production after lipopolysaccharide challenge. We also discovered a role for TRIM15 in the RIG-I-mediated interferon pathway upstream of MAVS. Knockdown of TRIM15 limited virus/RIG-I ligand-induced interferon production and enhanced vesicular stomatitis virus replication. In addition, most TRIM proteins previously identified to inhibit murine leukemia virus (MLV) demonstrated an ability to induce NF-?B/AP-1. Interfering with the NF-?B and AP-1 signaling induced by the antiretroviral TRIM1 and TRIM62 proteins rescued MLV release. In contrast, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gene expression was increased by TRIM proteins that induce NF-?B. HIV-1 resistance to inflammatory TRIM proteins mapped to the NF-?B sites in the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) U3 and could be transferred to MLV. Thus, our work identifies new TRIM proteins involved in innate immune signaling and reinforces the striking ability of HIV-1 to exploit innate immune signaling for the purpose of viral replication. PMID:23077300

Uchil, Pradeep D; Hinz, Angelika; Siegel, Steven; Coenen-Stass, Anna; Pertel, Thomas; Luban, Jeremy; Mothes, Walther

2012-10-17

349

Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of the Aspergillus fumigatus hypoxia response using an oxygen-controlled fermenter  

PubMed Central

Background Aspergillus fumigatus is a mold responsible for the majority of cases of aspergillosis in humans. To survive in the human body, A. fumigatus must adapt to microenvironments that are often characterized by low nutrient and oxygen availability. Recent research suggests that the ability of A. fumigatus and other pathogenic fungi to adapt to hypoxia contributes to their virulence. However, molecular mechanisms of A. fumigatus hypoxia adaptation are poorly understood. Thus, to better understand how A. fumigatus adapts to hypoxic microenvironments found in vivo during human fungal pathogenesis, the dynamic changes of the fungal transcriptome and proteome in hypoxia were investigated over a period of 24 hours utilizing an oxygen-controlled fermenter system. Results Significant increases in transcripts associated with iron and sterol metabolism, the cell wall, the GABA shunt, and transcriptional regulators were observed in response to hypoxia. A concomitant reduction in transcripts was observed with ribosome and terpenoid backbone biosynthesis, TCA cycle, amino acid metabolism and RNA degradation. Analysis of changes in transcription factor mRNA abundance shows that hypoxia induces significant positive and negative changes that may be important for regulating the hypoxia response in this pathogenic mold. Growth in hypoxia resulted in changes in the protein levels of several glycolytic enzymes, but these changes were not always reflected by the corresponding transcriptional profiling data. However, a good correlation overall (R2 = 0.2, p < 0.05) existed between the transcriptomic and proteomics datasets for all time points. The lack of correlation between some transcript levels and their subsequent protein levels suggests another regulatory layer of the hypoxia response in A. fumigatus. Conclusions Taken together, our data suggest a robust cellular response that is likely regulated both at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level in response to hypoxia by the human pathogenic mold A. fumigatus. As with other pathogenic fungi, the induction of glycolysis and transcriptional down-regulation of the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation appear to major components of the hypoxia response in this pathogenic mold. In addition, a significant induction of the transcripts involved in ergosterol biosynthesis is consistent with previous observations in the pathogenic yeasts Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans indicating conservation of this response to hypoxia in pathogenic fungi. Because ergosterol biosynthesis enzymes also require iron as a co-factor, the increase in iron uptake transcripts is consistent with an increased need for iron under hypoxia. However, unlike C. albicans and C. neoformans, the GABA shunt appears to play an important role in reducing NADH levels in response to hypoxia in A. fumigatus and it will be intriguing to determine whether this is critical for fungal virulence. Overall, regulatory mechanisms of the A. fumigatus hypoxia response appear to involve both transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of transcript and protein levels and thus provide candidate genes for future analysis of their role in hypoxia adaptation and fungal virulence.

2012-01-01

350

TRIM45 negatively regulates NF-?B-mediated transcription and suppresses cell proliferation.  

PubMed

The NF-?B signaling pathway plays an important role in cell survival, immunity, inflammation, carcinogenesis, and organogenesis. Activation of NF-?B is regulated by several posttranslational modifications including phosphorylation, neddylation and ubiquitination. The NF-?B signaling pathway is activated by two distinct signaling mechanisms and is strictly modulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. It has been reported that overexpression of TRIM45, one of the TRIM family ubiquitin ligases, suppresses transcriptional activities of Elk-1 and AP-1, which are targets of the MAPK signaling pathway. In this study, we showed that TRIM45 also negatively regulates TNF?-induced NF-?B-mediated transcription by a luciferase reporter assay and that TRIM45 lacking a RING domain also has an activity to inhibit the NF-?B signal. Moreover, we found that TRIM45 overexpression suppresses cell growth. These findings suggest that TRIM45 acts as a repressor for the NF-?B signal and regulates cell growth. PMID:22634006

Shibata, Mio; Sato, Tomonobu; Nukiwa, Ryota; Ariga, Tadashi; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu

2012-05-23

351

Simultaneous neutralization and innate immune detection of a replicating virus by TRIM21.  

PubMed

Tripartite motif-containing 21 (TRIM21) is a cytosolic immunoglobulin receptor that mediates antibody-dependent intracellular neutralization (ADIN). Here we show that TRIM21 potently inhibits the spreading infection of a replicating cytopathic virus and activates innate immunity. We used a quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based assay to measure in vitro replication of mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1), a virus that causes dose-dependent hemorrhagic encephalitis in mice. Using this assay, we show that genetic ablation of TRIM21 or chemical inhibition of either the AAA ATPase p97/valosin-containing protein (VCP) or the proteasome results in a >1,000-fold increase in the relative level of infection in the presence of immune serum. Moreover, the TRIM21-mediated ability of antisera to block replication was a consistent feature of the humoral immune response in immunized mice. In the presence of immune sera and upon infection, TRIM21 also activates a proinflammatory response, resulting in secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). These results demonstrate that TRIM21 provides a potent block to spreading infection and induces an antiviral state. PMID:23596308

Watkinson, R E; Tam, J C H; Vaysburd, M J; James, L C

2013-04-17

352

Oxygen Depletion Events Control the Invasive Golden Mussel ( Limnoperna fortunei ) in a Tropical Floodplain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past 10 years the golden mussel (Limnoperna fortunei), an exotic species native to eastern Asia, has become widespread and abundant in the Pantanal Wetland, Brazil. Oxygen concentrations\\u000a are often low in rivers and floodplain waters of the Pantanal and oxygen depletion events can last for several weeks during\\u000a the rising water phase. Although mortality of L. fortunei has been

Márcia D. Oliveira; Stephen K. Hamilton; Debora F. Calheiros; Claudia M. Jacobi

2010-01-01

353

Controlled epitaxial growth of Cu and Ni islands on oxygen-preadsorbed Cu(100) surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth of Cu and Ni islands was studied on the two oxygen-preadsorbed Cu(100) surfaces, a Cu(100) surface covered with nanometer size c(2×2)–O domains and a reconstructed (22×2)R45°Cu(100)–O surface. Preadsorbed oxygen on Cu(100) migrates onto the epitaxially grown metal islands. Homoepitaxial growth of Cu on a nanometer-size c(2×2)–O Cu(100) surface forms monolayered rectangular Cu islands which grow in the [010] and

Takaya Fujita; Ken-ichi Tanaka

1998-01-01

354

The relative importance of selected factors controlling the oxygen dynamics in the water column of the Baltic Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 1-D biogeochemical/physical model of marine systems has been applied to study the oxygen cycle in four stations of the different sub-basins of the Baltic Sea, namely, in Gotland Deep, Bornholm, Arkona and Fladen. The model consists of biogeochemical model of Neumann et al. (2002) coupled with the 1-D General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM). The model has been forced with meteorological data from the ECMWF reanalysis project for the period 1998-2003, producing a 6-year hindcast validated with datasets from the Baltic Environmental Database (BED) for the same period. The vertical profiles of temperature and salinity are relaxed towards both profiles provided by 3-D simulations of General Estuarine Turbulent Model (GETM) and observed profiles from BED. Modifications in the parameterisation of the air/sea oxygen fluxes have led to significant improvement of the model results in the surface and intermediate water levels. The largest mismatch with observation is found in simulating the oxygen dynamics in the Baltic Sea bottom waters. The model results demonstrate the good capability of the model to predict the time-evolution of the physical and biogeochemical variables at all different stations. Comparative analysis of the modelled oxygen concentrations with respect to the observation data is performed to distinguish the relative importance of several factors on the seasonal, interannual and long-term variations of oxygen. It is found that the natural physical factors, like the magnitude of the vertical turbulent mixing, wind speed, the variation in temperature and salinity field are the major factors controlling the oxygen dynamics in the Baltic Sea. The influence of limiting nutrients is less pronounced, at least under the nutrient flux parameterisation assumed in the model.

Miladinova, S.; Stips, A.

2009-09-01

355

Influence of perioperative oxygen fraction on pulmonary function after abdominal surgery: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background A high perioperative inspiratory oxygen fraction (FiO2) may reduce the frequency of surgical site infection. Perioperative atelectasis is caused by absorption, compression and reduced function of surfactant. It is well accepted, that ventilation with 100% oxygen for only a few minutes is associated with significant formation of atelectasis. However, it is still not clear if a longer period of 80% oxygen results in more atelectasis compared to a low FiO2. Our aim was to assess if a high FiO2 is associated with impaired oxygenation and decreased pulmonary functional residual capacity (FRC). Methods Thirty-five patients scheduled for laparotomy for ovarian cancer were randomized to receive either 30% oxygen (n?=?15) or 80% oxygen (n?=?20) during and for 2?h after surgery. The oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2) was measured every 30?min during anesthesia and 90?min after extubation. FRC was measured the day before surgery and 2?h after extubation by a rebreathing method using the inert gas SF6. Results Five min after intubation, the median PaO2/FiO2 was 69 kPa [53-71] in the 30%-group vs. 60 kPa [47-69] in the 80%-group (P?=?0.25). At the end of anesthesia, the PaO2/FiO2 was 58 kPa [40-70] vs. 57 kPa [46-67] in the 30%- and 80%-group, respectively (P?=?0.10). The median FRC was 1993?mL [1610-2240] vs. 1875?mL [1545-2048] at baseline and 1615?mL [1375-2318] vs. 1633?mL [1343-1948] postoperatively in the 30%- and 80%-group, respectively (P?=?0.70). Conclusion We found no significant difference in oxygenation index or functional residual capacity between patients given 80% and 30% oxygen for a period of approximately 5 hours. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00637936.

2012-01-01

356

Oxygen control of atomic structure and physical properties of SrRuO3 surfaces.  

PubMed

Complex oxide thin films and heterostructures have become one of the foci for condensed matter physics research due to a broad variety of properties they exhibit. Similar to the bulk, properties of oxide surfaces can be expected to be strongly affected by oxygen stoichiometry. Here we explore the coupling between atomic structure and physical properties of SrRuO3 (SRO), one of the most well-studied oxide materials. We perform a detailed in situ and ex situ experimental investigation of the surfaces of SRO thin films using a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, SQUID magnetometry, and magnetotransport measurements, as well as ab initio modeling. A number of remarkable linear surface reconstructions were observed by STM and interpreted as oxygen adatoms, favorably adsorbed in a regular rectangular or zigzag patterns. The degree of oxygen coverage and different surface patterns change the work function of the thin films, and modify local electronic and magnetic properties of the topmost atomic layer. The ab initio modeling reveals that oxygen adatoms possess frustrated local spin moments with possible spin-glass behavior of the surface covered by adsorbed oxygen. Additionally, the modeling indicates presence of a pseudo gap on the topmost SrO layer on pristine SrO-terminated surface, suggesting possibility for realization of a surface half-metallic film. PMID:23570268

Tselev, Alexander; Ganesh, P; Qiao, Liang; Siemons, Wolter; Gai, Zheng; Biegalski, Michael D; Baddorf, Arthur P; Kalinin, Sergei V

2013-04-09

357

Crystallographic texture control of sputtered HfN thin films using low oxygen partial pressures  

SciTech Connect

The authors studied the development of crystallographic texture in hafnium nitride (HfN) films deposited by off-normal incidence reactive magnetron sputtering at room temperature. Films are prepared with and without added oxygen in N{sub 2}/Ar mixtures. Texture measurements were performed by x-ray pole figure analysis of the (111) and (200) diffraction peaks. The authors found that HfN deposited at 40 deg. without added oxygen has a strong <100> fiber texture with no in-plane alignments showing the dominance of thermodynamic effects in the course of texture evolution. Oxygen is deliberately introduced into the sputtering gas ambient to study its effects on microstructure formation. As the oxygen partial pressure (O{sub 2} pp) is increased in the range of 1.33x10{sup -5} to 1.33x10{sup -4} Pa, HfN out-of-plane orientation changed to <111> with a substantial in-plane alignment in <100> direction as well. In this case, texture analysis of each individual diffraction peak revealed the existence of two populations of grains indicating a competition between (111) and (200) planes. A transition towards hafnium oxynitride phases occurred at high O{sub 2} pp's. The authors propose that oxygen presence during deposition reduces the adatom surface mobility, which enables kinetic effects to govern the texture formation and thus leads to a biaxial alignment in HfN films.

Deniz, D.; Harper, J. M. E. [Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824 (United States)

2009-01-15

358

Characterisation of human RING finger protein TRIM69, a novel testis E3 ubiquitin ligase and its subcellular localisation.  

PubMed

The E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and subcellular localisation of human TRIM69 (hTRIM69) gene were studied. It was found that hTRIM69 mediated ubiquitination in an E2 conjugating enzyme selective fashion in vitro and an intact RING finger domain was indispensible for the process. Further evidences showed that hTRIM69 could mediate ubiquitination in vivo, which could be enhanced by a proteasome inhibitor. hTRIM69 was found to localise in both the cytoplasm and the nucleus in a speckled aggregating pattern, which also required an intact RING finger domain. Collectively, hTRIM69 is a novel E3 ubiquitin ligase identified from human testis and may function to ubiquitinate its particular substrates during spermatogenesis. PMID:23131556

Han, Yongqing; Li, Rong; Gao, Jinlan; Miao, Shiying; Wang, Linfang

2012-11-03

359

Metabolic and energetic control of Pseudomonas mendocina growth during transitions from aerobic to oxygen-limited conditions in chemostat cultures.  

PubMed Central

Several metabolic fluxes were analyzed during gradual transitions from aerobic to oxygen-limited conditions in chemostat cultures of Pseudomonas mendocina growing in synthetic medium at a dilution rate of 0.25 h-1. P. mendocina growth was glucose limited at high oxygen partial pressures (70 and 20% pO2) and exhibited an oxidative type of metabolism characterized by respiratory quotient (RQ) values of 1.0. A similar RQ value was obtained at low pO2 (2%), and detectable levels of acetic, formic, and lactic acids were determined in the extracellular medium. RQs of 0.9 +/- 0.12 were found at 70% pO2 for growth rates ranging from 0.025 to 0.5 h-1. At high pO2, the control coefficients of oxygen on catabolic fluxes were 0.19 and 0.22 for O2 uptake and CO2 production, respectively. At low pO2 (2%), the catabolic and anabolic fluxes were highly controlled by oxygen. P. mendocina showed a mixed-type fermentative metabolism when nitrogen was flushed into chemostat cultures. Ethanol and acetic, lactic, and formic acids were excreted and represented 7.5% of the total carbon recovered. Approximately 50% of the carbon was found as uronic acids in the extracellular medium. Physiological studies were performed under microaerophilic conditions (nitrogen flushing) in continuous cultures for a wide range of growth rates (0.03 to 0.5 h-1). A cell population, able to exhibit a near-maximum theoretical yield of ATP (YmaxATP = 25 g/mol) with a number of ATP molecules formed during the transfer of an electron towards oxygen along the respiration chain (P/O ratio) of 3, appears to have adapted to microaerophilic conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Verdoni, N; Aon, M A; Lebeault, J M

1992-01-01

360

Ethanol tolerance of Pichia stipitis and Candida shehatae strains in fed-batch cultures at controlled low dissolved oxygen levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fed-batch cultivations of Pichia stipitis and strains of Candida shehatae with d-xylose or d-glucose were conducted at controlled low dissolved oxygen tension (DOT) levels. There were some marked differences between the strains. In general growth was inhibited at lower ethanol concentrations than fermentation, and ethanol levels of up to 47 g·l-1 were produced at 30°C. Ethanol production was mainly growth

J. C. Preez; B. Driessel; B. A. Prior

1989-01-01

361

Control of dissolved oxygen levels of water in net pens for fish farming by a microscopic bubble generating system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microscopic bubble generating system (MBGS) has been developed to control dissolved oxygen (DO) levels suitable for fish\\u000a farming. The MBGS has been tested to confirm its capability in net pens. Water conditions in a fish farm were monitored every\\u000a two hours from June to October 2004 by setting an online vertical profiling system (OVPS) close to the net pen.

Sarawut Srithongouthai; Akira Endo; Akihiro Inoue; Kyoko Kinoshita; Miho Yoshioka; Ayako Sato; Takaaki Iwasaki; Ichiro Teshiba; Hisatsune Nashiki; Daigo Hama; Hiroaki Tsutsumi

2006-01-01

362

Control of sulphide during anaerobic treatment of S-containing wastewaters by adding limited amounts of oxygen or nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sulphide generated during anaerobic treatment of S-containing wastewaters represents an environmental problem. Adding limited\\u000a amounts of oxygen or nitrate (or nitrite) to biologically (or chemically) oxidise sulphide forms a simple process-level strategy\\u000a to control this problem. This short review evaluates the feasibility and limitations of this strategy on the basis of the\\u000a results of bioreactor studies.

Dores G. Cirne; Frank P. van der Zee; Maria Fernandez-Polanco; Fernando Fernandez-Polanco

2008-01-01

363

Engine combustion control responsive to location and magnitude of peak combustion pressure  

SciTech Connect

A combustion control is described for an internal combustion engine of the type having combustion chambers, means for supplying a combustible charge to and igniting the combustible charge within each combustion chamber, power output apparatus including a rotating crankshaft, and means for sensing the crankshaft angle (LPP) and magnitude (MPP) of peak combustion pressure for each combustion chamber. The combustion control consists of: means for deriving the average magnitude of peak combustion pressure (AMPP); means for determining base values; memory means for storing tables of LPP ignition trim values, MPP ignition trim values and A/F trim values for each combustion chamber; means for comparing the sensed LPP value for each combustion chamber with a desired LPP value (DLPP) for that combustion chamber and adjusting the LPP ignition trim value for the predetermined engine operating parameters; means for comparing the MPP value for each combustion chamber with the average magnitude of peak combustion pressure; means to adjust the A/F trim value in the rich direction and reset the MPP ignition trim value; means to adjust the MPP ignition trim value in the advance direction; means to adjust the A/F trim value in the lean direction and reset the MPP ignition trim value; means for determining the combustible charge mixture for each combustion chamber from the base value thereof and the A/F trim value for the sensed predetermined engine operating parameters; means for determining the ignition timing for each combustion.

Tombley, D.E.

1987-11-17

364

Materials for temperature independent resistive oxygen sensors for combustion exhaust gas control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acceptor and donor doped SrTi1?xFexO3?? materials for novel temperature independent resistive oxygen sensors for lean-burn engine exhaust gases were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction. Their electrical resistance, R, was investigated in the oxygen partial pressure range from 10?4 to 1 bar between 700°C and 1000°C. Doped and undoped samples with x=0.3 obey an R?pO2?1\\/5 power law. Undoped samples show

Ralf Moos; Wolfgang Menesklou; Hans-Jürgen Schreiner; Karl Heinz Härdtl

2000-01-01

365

RING Domain Mutations Uncouple TRIM5? Restriction of HIV-1 from Inhibition of Reverse Transcription and Acceleration of Uncoating  

PubMed Central

Rhesus TRIM5? (TRIM5?rh) is a cytosolic protein that potently restricts HIV-1 at an early postentry stage, prior to reverse transcription. The ability of TRIM5?rh to block HIV-1 infection has been correlated with a decrease of pelletable HIV-1 capsid during infection. To genetically dissect the ability of TRIM5? to block reverse transcription, we studied a set of TRIM5?rh RING domain mutants that potently restrict HIV-1 but allow the occurrence of reverse transcription. These TRIM5?rh RING variants blocked HIV-1 infection after reverse transcription but prior to integration, as suggested by the routing of nuclear viral DNA to circularization in the form of 2-long terminal repeat (2-LTR) circles. The folding of RING domain variants was similar to that of the wild type, as evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance. RING domain changes that allowed the occurrence of reverse transcription were impaired in their ability to decrease the amount of pelletable capsid compared with wild-type TRIM5?. Similar effects of this particular group of mutations were observed with human TRIM5? inhibition of N-tropic murine leukemia virus (N-MLV). Interestingly, TRIM5?rh RING domain variants also prevented the degradation of TRIM5?rh that occurs following cell entry of HIV-1. These data correlated the block of reverse transcription with the ability of TRIM5? to accelerate uncoating. Collectively, these results suggest that TRIM5?rh blocks HIV-1 reverse transcription by inducing premature viral uncoating in target cells.

Roa, Amanda; Hayashi, Fumiaki; Yang, Yang; Lienlaf, Maritza; Zhou, Jing; Shi, Jiong; Watanabe, Satoru; Kigawa, Takanori; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Aiken, Christopher

2012-01-01

366

TRIM24 Overexpression Is Common in Locally Advanced Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Correlates with Aggressive Malignant Phenotypes  

PubMed Central

Tripartite motif-containing 24 (TRIM24), a member of the transcriptional intermediary factor 1 family, functions as a co-regulator that positively or negatively modulates the transcriptional activities of several nuclear receptors. The aim of this study was to investigate TRIM24 expression and its clinical significance in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The expression levels of TRIM24 variants were examined in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) samples and cell lines by real-time PCR and WB. The expression levels of TRIM24 measured in 91 locally advanced HNSCC tumors were measured by immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinical and pathological parameters. The functional role of TRIM24 in HNSCC was further investigated by silencing its expression in HNSCC cell lines. TRIM24 variants were up-regulated in 56 HNSCC samples (P<.001) and 9 HNSCC cell lines (P<.05). TRIM24 protein was overexpressed in 6 of 8 HNSCC cell lines and in 2 of 3 HNSCC samples. Furthermore, 54.95% (50/91) of HNSCC samples exhibited remarkably elevated expression of TRIM24 by immunohistochemistry. Univariate analysis revealed that high TRIM24 expression was associated with worse overall survival (P?=?.020). In multivariate analysis, TRIM24 expression was identified as an independent predictor of overall survival (P?=?.030), after adjusting for other clinicopathological parameters. Upon TRIM24 silencing, the proliferation of HNSCC cells was notably inhibited due to the induction of apoptosis. These results suggest that aberrant TRIM24 expression may play an important role in the development of HNSCC and is a promising prognostic indicator for patients with locally advanced HNSCC.

Li, Jiang; Song, Xiaomeng; Mao, Li; Chen, Wantao

2013-01-01

367

The Human TRIM5  Restriction Factor Mediates Accelerated Uncoating of the N-Tropic Murine Leukemia Virus Capsid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The host cell factors TRIM5hu and Fv-1 restrict N-tropic murine leukemia virus (N-MLV) infection at an early postentry step before or after reverse transcription, respectively. Interestingly, the identity of residue 110 of the MLV capsid determines susceptibility to both TRIM5hu and Fv-1. In this study, we investigate the fate of the MLV capsid in cells expressing either the TRIM5hu or

Michel J. Perron; Matthew Stremlau; Mark Lee; Hassan Javanbakht; Byeongwoon Song; Joseph Sodroski

2007-01-01

368

Determinants of cyclophilin A-dependent TRIM5 alpha restriction against HIV-1.  

PubMed

TRIM5 alpha is a host protein that can bind to incoming retroviral capsid (CA) and inhibit retroviruses in a species-specific manner. The CA protein of HIV-1 also interacts with high affinity to the host protein cyclophilin A (CypA). This binding has been shown to positively affect some early stage of the viral life cycle in human cells. However, the CypA/CA interaction also renders HIV-1 more susceptible to rhesus TRIM5 alpha (rhTRIM5 alpha) restriction. We find that the ability of old world monkey TRIM5 alpha genes to restrict HIV-1 in a CypA-dependent manner is widespread. On the other hand, we find that simian immunodeficiency viruses from tantalus monkeys (SIVagmTAN), is unlike HIV-1 in that CypA does not enhance the rhTRIM5 alpha restriction against the virus even though the CA of this virus, like HIV-1, does bind CypA. Mapping of the determinants for this phenotype by swapping regions on CA between SIVagmTAN and HIV-1 showed that when SIVagmTAN contains loops between helices 4/5 (4-5 loop) and 6/7 (6-7 loop) from HIV-1 CA, it becomes susceptible to the CypA-enhanced rhTRIM5 alpha restriction. Surprisingly, when SIVagmTAN contains either loop from HIV-1 CA, it gains sensitivity to TRIM5 alpha from species which originally have no effect on the wild-type virus. Moreover, we find that CypA/CA interaction occurs early after viral entry but the CypA-enhanced restriction mostly acts on the stage after reverse transcription. PMID:18678385

Lin, Tsai-Yu; Emerman, Michael

2008-08-03

369

Determinants of Cyclophilin A-dependent TRIM5? restriction against HIV-1  

PubMed Central

TRIM5? is a host protein that can bind to incoming retroviral capsid (CA) and inhibit retroviruses in a species-specific manner. The CA protein of HIV-1 also interacts with high affinity to the host protein cyclophilin A (CypA). This binding has been shown to positively affect some early stage of the viral life-cycle in human cells. However, the CypA/CA interaction also renders HIV-1 more susceptible to rhesus TRIM5? (rhTRIM5?) restriction. We find that the ability of old world monkey TRIM5? genes to restrict HIV-1 in a CypA-dependent manner is widespread. On the other hand, we find that simian immunodeficiency viruses from tantalus monkeys (SIVagmTAN), is unlike HIV-1 in that CypA does not enhance the rhTRIM5? restriction against the virus even though the CA of this virus, like HIV-1, does bind CypA. Mapping of the determinants for this phenotype by swapping regions on CA between SIVagmTAN and HIV-1 showed that when SIVagmTAN contains loops between helices 4/5 (4–5 loop) and 6/7 (6–7 loop) from HIV-1 CA, it becomes susceptible to the CypA-enhanced rhTRIM5? restriction. Surprisingly, when SIVagmTAN contains either loop from HIV-1 CA, it gains sensitivity to TRIM5? from species which originally have no effect on the wild-type virus. Moreover, we find that CypA/CA interaction occurs early after viral entry but the CypA-enhanced restriction mostly acts on the stage after reverse transcription.

Lin, Tsai-Yu; Emerman, Michael

2008-01-01

370

Species-specific variation in the B30.2(SPRY) domain of TRIM5alpha determines the potency of human immunodeficiency virus restriction.  

PubMed

Retroviruses encounter dominant postentry restrictions in cells of particular species. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is blocked in the cells of Old World monkeys by TRIM5alpha, a tripartite motif (TRIM) protein composed of RING, B-box 2, coiled-coil, and B30.2(SPRY) domains. Rhesus monkey TRIM5alpha (TRIM5alpha(rh)) more potently blocks HIV-1 infection than human TRIM5alpha (TRIM5alpha(hu)). Here, by studying chimeric TRIM5alpha proteins, we demonstrate that the major determinant of anti-HIV-1 potency is the B30.2(SPRY) domain. Analysis of species-specific variation in TRIM5alpha has identified three variable regions (v1, v2, and v3) within the B30.2 domain. The TRIM5alpha proteins of Old World primates exhibit expansion, duplication, and residue variation specifically in the v1 region. Replacement of three amino acids in the N terminus of the TRIM5alpha(hu) B30.2 v1 region with the corresponding TRIM5alpha(rh) residues resulted in a TRIM5alpha molecule that restricted HIV-1 nearly as efficiently as wild-type TRIM5alpha(rh). Surprisingly, a single-amino-acid change in this region of TRIM5alpha(hu) allowed potent restriction of simian immunodeficiency virus, a phenotype not observed for either wild-type TRIM5alpha(hu) or TRIM5alpha(rh). Some of the chimeric TRIM5alpha proteins that are >98% identical to the human protein yet mediate a strong restriction of HIV-1 infection may have therapeutic utility. These observations implicate the v1 variable region of the B30.2(SPRY) domain in TRIM5alpha(rh) antiviral potency. PMID:15709033

Stremlau, Matthew; Perron, Michel; Welikala, Sohanya; Sodroski, Joseph

2005-03-01

371

Genetic parameters of natural antibody isotypes and survival analysis in beak-trimmed and non-beak-trimmed crossbred laying hens.  

PubMed

Natural antibodies (NAb) are important humoral components of innate immunity. As the first line of defense, NAb provide protection against infection and support adaptive immunity. An earlier study indicated that serum levels of NAb isotypes IgM and IgG at a young age were predictive for survival in non-beak-trimmed purebred laying hens during the laying period. In the present study, genetic parameters of NAb isotypes were estimated and relationships between survival and NAb isotypes levels in crossbred laying hens were investigated. In total, 1,555 beak-trimmed and 1,169 non-beak-trimmed crossbred laying hens were used. Genetic parameters of IgM and IgG titers binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin at 24 wk of age were estimated with a linear animal model. The heritabilities of NAb isotypes IgG and IgM were 0.21 (SE = 0.04) and 0.26 (SE = 0.04), respectively. The genetic correlation between IgG and IgM isotypes was 0.43 (SE = 0.11). These results indicated that NAb isotype titers were heritable traits in the crossbred laying hens. Both NAb isotypes can be selected for simultaneously because the detected positive genetic correlation (0.43, SE = 0.11) between them is positive. Both row and level of the cage were indicated to be associated environmental factors for NAb isotype titers. Different from an earlier study with purebred hens, survival analysis showed no significant associations of survival with NAb isotype titers in beak-trimmed or non-beak-trimmed crossbred hens. Non-health-related causes of mortality, especially in birds with intact beaks, overruled the anticipated relationships between NAb isotype titers and survival. PMID:23873549

Sun, Y; Ellen, E D; Parmentier, H K; van der Poel, J J

2013-08-01

372

Quality Control of Reactive Oxygen Species Measurement by Luminol-Dependent Chemiluminescence Assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 28 donor semen samples were used to eval- uate the characteristics of laboratory variability in measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS). The objectives of this study were to assess the interassay (same sample observed on different days by the same observers) variability; interdonor, intraobserver (replications of the same sample on the same day) variability; and interobserver (multiple observers

HIROSHI KOBAYASHI; ENRIQUE GIL-GUZMAN; AYMAN M. MAHRAN; RAKESH K. SHARMA; DAVID R. NELSON; ANTHONY J. THOMAS JR; ASHOK AGARWAL

373

Land Floras: The Major Late Phanerozoic Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide\\/Oxygen Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since at least the late Mesozoic, the abundance of terrestrial vegetation has been the major factor in atmospheric carbon dioxide\\/oxygen fluctuations. Of modern ecosystem types occupying more than 1 percent of the earth's surface, productivity\\/area ratios of terrestrial ecosystems (excepting tundra and alpine meadow, desert scrub, and rock, ice, and sand) exceed those of marine ecosystems and probably have done

Dewey M. McLean

1978-01-01

374

Osseointegrated implants in irradiated bone: A case-controlled study using adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The current investigation was undertaken to study whether osseointegration of implants in irradiated tissues is subject to a higher failure rate than in nonirradiated tissues. It further aimed to study whether hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBO) can be used to reduce implant failure.Patients and Methods: Seventy-eight cancer patients who were rehabilitated using osseointegrated implants between 1981 and 1997 were investigated.

Gösta Granström; Anders Tjellström; Per-Ingvar Brånemark

1999-01-01

375

CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Enhancement of the efficiency and control of emission parameters of an unstable-resonator chemical oxygen—iodine laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The outlook is considered for the development of a high-power supersonic flowing chemical oxygen—iodine laser operating as an amplifier and controlled by radiation from a master oscillator by using an unstable resonator with a hole-coupled mirror. The influence of the seed radiation intensity, the coupling-hole diameter, the active-medium length, and the magnification factor on the parameters of laser radiation is analysed. It is shown that the use of such resonators is most advisable in medium-power oxygen—iodine lasers for which classical unstable resonators are inefficient because of their low magnification factors. The use of unstable resonators with a hole-coupled mirror and injection provides the control of radiation parameters and a considerable increase in the output power and brightness of laser radiation.

Boreisho, A. S.; Lobachev, V. V.; Savin, A. V.; Strakhov, S. Yu; Trilis, A. V.

2007-07-01

376

Oxygen rotation driven ferroelectricity enables controllable magnetization-polarization coupling in Ca3Mn2O7  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show how to achieve the electric field switching of magnetism in a multiferroic with a large polarization by having the ferroelectric state arise from the same lattice instability that modulates the spin system. Oxygen octahedron rotations, ubiquitous in perovskites and related materials, are natural candidates for this lattice instability. First-principles calculations are presented for the layered perovskite Ca3Mn2O7, in which rotations induce both ferroelectricity and weak ferromagnetism. The key point is that this rotation pattern is a combination of two non-polar structural modes with different symmetries. We introduce the term "hybrid" improper ferroelectricity to describe this phenomenon. Our results suggest a new strategy in magnetoelectronics, whereby control over magnetism is achieved through functional antiferrodistortive oxygen octahedron rotations.N. A. Benedek and C. J. Fennie, arXiv:1007.1003 (2010).

Fennie, Craig; Benedek, Nicole

2011-03-01

377

Structure of the rhesus monkey TRIM5? PRYSPRY domain, the HIV capsid recognition module  

PubMed Central

Tripartite motif protein TRIM5? blocks retroviral replication after cell entry, and species-specific differences in its activity are determined by sequence variations within the C-terminal B30.2/PRYSPRY domain. Here we report a high-resolution structure of a TRIM5? PRYSPRY domain, the PRYSPRY of the rhesus monkey TRIM5? that potently restricts HIV infection, and identify features involved in its interaction with the HIV capsid. The extensive capsid-binding interface maps on the structurally divergent face of the protein formed by hypervariable loop segments, confirming that TRIM5? evolution is largely determined by its binding specificity. Interactions with the capsid are mediated by flexible variable loops via a mechanism that parallels antigen recognition by IgM antibodies, a similarity that may help explain some of the unusual functional properties of TRIM5?. Distinctive features of this pathogen-recognition interface, such as structural plasticity conferred by the mobile v1 segment and interaction with multiple epitopes, may allow restriction of divergent retroviruses and increase resistance to capsid mutations.

Biris, Nikolaos; Yang, Yang; Taylor, Alexander B.; Tomashevski, Andrei; Guo, Miao; Hart, P. John; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Ivanov, Dmitri N.

2012-01-01

378

TRIM24 Links a Non-canonical Histone Signature to Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Recognition of modified histone species by distinct structural domains within 'reader' proteins plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression. Readers that simultaneously recognize histones with multiple marks allow transduction of complex chromatin modification patterns into specific biological outcomes. Here we report that chromatin regulator tripartite motif-containing 24 (TRIM24) functions in humans as a reader of dual histone marks by means of tandem plant homeodomain (PHD) and bromodomain (Bromo) regions. The three-dimensional structure of the PHD-Bromo region of TRIM24 revealed a single functional unit for combinatorial recognition of unmodified H3K4 (that is, histone H3 unmodified at lysine 4, H3K4me0) and acetylated H3K23 (histone H3 acetylated at lysine 23, H3K23ac) within the same histone tail. TRIM24 binds chromatin and oestrogen receptor to activate oestrogen-dependent genes associated with cellular proliferation and tumour development. Aberrant expression of TRIM24 negatively correlates with survival of breast cancer patients. The PHD-Bromo of TRIM24 provides a structural rationale for chromatin activation through a non-canonical histone signature, establishing a new route by which chromatin readers may influence cancer pathogenesis.

W Tsai; Z Wang; T Yiu; K Akdemir; W Xia; S Winter; C Tsai; X Shi; D Schwarzer; et al.

2011-12-31

379

Endoscopic removal and trimming of distal self-expandable metallic biliary stents  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic removal and trimming of self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS). METHODS: All SEMS had been placed for distal biliary strictures. Twenty-seven endoscopic procedures were performed in 19 patients in whom SEMS (one uncovered and 18 covered) removal had been attempted, and 8 patients in whom stent trimming using argon plasma coagulation (APC) had been attempted at Tokyo Medical University Hospital. The APC settings were: voltage 60-80 W and gas flow at 1.5 L/min. RESULTS: The mean stent indwelling period for all patients in whom stent removal had been attempted was 113.7 ± 77.6 d (range, 8-280 d). Of the 19 patients in whom removal of the SEMS had been attempted, the procedure was successful in 14 (73.7%) without procedure-related adverse events. The indwelling period in the stent removable group was shorter than that in the unremovable group (94.9 ± 71.5 d vs 166.2 ± 76.2 d, P = 0.08). Stent trimming was successful for all patients with one minor adverse event consisting of self-limited hemorrhage. Trimming time ranged from 11 to 16 min. CONCLUSION: Although further investigations on larger numbers of cases are necessary to accumulate evidence, the present data suggested that stent removal and stent trimming is feasible and effective for stent-related complications.

Ishii, Kentaro; Itoi, Takao; Sofuni, Atsushi; Itokawa, Fumihide; Tsuchiya, Takayoshi; Kurihara, Toshio; Tsuji, Shujiro; Ikeuchi, Nobuhito; Umeda, Junko; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Tsuchida, Akihiko

2011-01-01

380

Interfering Residues Narrow the Spectrum of MLV Restriction by Human TRIM5?  

PubMed Central

TRIM5? is a restriction factor that limits infection of human cells by so-called N- but not B- or NB-tropic strains of murine leukemia virus (MLV). Here, we performed a mutation-based functional analysis of TRIM5?-mediated MLV restriction. Our results reveal that changes at tyrosine336 of human TRIM5?, within the variable region 1 of its C-terminal PRYSPRY domain, can expand its activity to B-MLV and to the NB-tropic Moloney MLV. Conversely, we demonstrate that the escape of MLV from restriction by wild-type or mutant forms of huTRIM5? can be achieved through interdependent changes at positions 82, 109, 110, and 117 of the viral capsid. Together, our results support a model in which TRIM5?-mediated retroviral restriction results from the direct binding of the antiviral PRYSPRY domain to the viral capsid, and can be prevented by interferences exerted by critical residues on either one of these two partners.

Maillard, Pierre V; Reynard, Severine; Serhan, Fatima; Turelli, Priscilla; Trono, Didier

2007-01-01

381

AISI\\/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 1 of 6: Optical Sensors and Controls for Improved Basic Oxygen Furnace Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of an optical sensor for basic oxygen furnace (BOF) off-gas composition and temperature in this Advanced Process Control project has been a laboratory spectroscopic method evolve into a pre-commercialization prototype sensor system. The sensor simultaneously detects an infrared tunable diode laser ITDL beam transmitted through the process off-gas directly above the furnace mouth, and the infrared greybody emission

Sarah Allendorf; David Ottesen; Donald Hardesty

2002-01-01

382

Effect of Oxygen and Redox Potential on Glucose Fermentation in Thermotoga maritima under Controlled Physicochemical Conditions  

PubMed Central

Batch cultures of Thermotoga maritima were performed in a bioreactor equipped with instruments adapted for experiments performed at 80°C to mimic the fluctuating oxidative conditions in the hot ecosystems it inhabits. When grown anaerobically on glucose, T. maritima was shown to significantly decrease the redox potential (Eh) of the culture medium down to about ?480?mV, as long as glucose was available. Addition of oxygen into T. maritima cultures during the stationary growth phase led to a drastic reduction in glucose consumption rate. However, although oxygen was toxic, our experiment unambiguously proved that T. maritima was able to consume it during a 12-hour exposure period. Furthermore, a shift in glucose metabolism towards lactate production was observed under oxidative conditions.

Lakhal, Raja; Auria, Richard; Davidson, Sylvain; Ollivier, Bernard; Dolla, Alain; Hamdi, Moktar; Combet-Blanc, Yannick

2010-01-01

383

Doped LaFeO3 as SOFC Catalysts: Control of Oxygen Mobility Oxidation Activity  

SciTech Connect

The bulk structure and surface properties of Fe-based perovskite-type oxides with the formula La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}O{sub 3-{delta}} for y = 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 have been investigated. The properties were found to strongly depend upon Co content, temperature, and environment. The materials were selected due to their potential use as solid oxide fuel cell cathodes. The intermediate Co loading formed oxygen vacancies most easily and several other properties including oxidation activity and surface sites showed a similar non-linear trend. Trends are related to a possible transition in electronic structure. Activity for oxidation of methane, oxygen storage and chemical compatibility was shown to be superior to that of the La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}MnO{sub 3}.

N Lakshminarayanan; J Kuhn; S Rykov; J Millet; U Ozkan; T Rao; J Smedley; E Wang; E Muller; et al.

2011-12-31

384

Ferric iron in orogenic lherzolite massifs and controls of oxygen fugacity in the upper mantle  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The bulk Fe2O3 contents and inter-mineral distributions of Fe3+ were investigated in a suite of samples from several orogenic lherzolite massifs, including Beni Bousera (Morocco), Ronda (Spain) and Lherz (France). Ferric iron contents were determined for each phase by Mössbauer spectroscopy and these results were combined with microprobe data and modal abundances to determine the bulk Fe2O3 contents. The notion that Fe3+ is moderately incompatible during partial melting in the mantle is supported by the observed decrease in bulk Fe2O3 content with increasing MgO, as well as by the generally lower Fe3+ content of clinopyroxene in samples with low modal abundances of this phase. The partitioning of Fe3+ between orthopyroxene and clinopyroxene is consistent with literature data for spinel peridotite xenoliths. The partitioning of Fe3+ between clinopyroxene and spinel is composition dependent, changing with the Cr/Al of spinel. Thus partitioning is expected to be different in the spinel peridotite and plagioclase peridotite facies of the upper mantle. The ƒO2 of orogenic massifs varies over several log units relative to the FMQ buffer. The values recorded by spinel-based and clinopyroxene-based oxygen barometry are generally comparable, indicating redox equilibrium between these two phases even at the relatively low temperature conditions existing in parts of the lithospheric mantle. Calculated bulk Fe2O3 contents range from 0.03 to 0.27 wt.%. The combination of modal abundance and major element composition means that orthopyroxene is a major contributor to the bulk Fe2O3 budget of peridotites, although clinopyroxene and spinel are much richer in Fe3+ on a per formula unit basis. Residual Cr-rich spinel is the dominant source of Fe3+ in plagioclase peridotites. In terms of the geochemical behaviour of Fe3+, it can be concluded that orogenic peridotites exhibit essentially the same behaviour as spinel peridotite xenoliths. In terms of the controlling factors of ƒO2 in the upper mantle, our data set records a certain degree of decoupling of ƒO2 from whole rock Fe2O3 content, even if a correlation between these two parameters is generally apparent. This decoupling is because, whereas both whole rock Fe2O3 content and ƒO2 are influenced by partial melting and melt extraction, additional processes such as metasomatism and phase changes can effectively reset ƒO2 without always causing a concomitant change in bulk Fe2O3 content. Modelling the oxidation of spinel reveals that the ƒO2 can be readily reset under initially reducing conditions, but the incorporation of progressively more and more Fe3+ in spinel is required to further raise ƒO2. A quasi-limit of ?logƒO2 = FMQ + 1 is expected. These results are consistent with the general redox behaviour observed for spinel peridotites. Our data imply that Fe3+ Fe2+ equilibria have an important, if not dominant influence on ƒO2 in the spinel peridotite facies of the upper mantle.

Woodland, A. B.; Kornprobst, J.; Tabit, A.

2006-06-01

385

Czochralski growth of single-crystal fayalite under controlled oxygen fugacity conditionsl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Single-crystal boules of fayalite (FerSiOo) were grown in the temperature range 1165 to 1200'C at I bar total pressure from high-purity oxide melts of 1.95:l to 2.10:l Fe:Si atom ratio. A modified Czochralski technique was used, with platinum crucibles inductively heated under oxygen fugacities, \\/(Or), between l0-e and l0-'2 bar. The boules are up to l0 mm in diameter by

Cennrr B. FrNcH; G. WayNn Cram; Orro C. Kopp

386

Evaluation of Translational Control Mechanisms in Response to Oxygen Deprivation in Maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous changes in gene expression occur in response to flooding (oxygen deprivation, i.e., anoxia and hypoxia) in seedling roots of maize (Zea mays L.) and other plants. Increased de novo transcription of anaerobic polypeptide (ANP) genes is responsible, in part for increased production of glycolytic and fermentative enzymes, such as alcohol dehydrogenase-1. There is increasing evidence that regulation of mRNA

K. Szick-Miranda; S. Jayachandran; A. Tam; J. Werner-Fraczek; A. J. Williams; J. Bailey-Serres

2003-01-01

387

Identification of key parameters controlling dissolved oxygen migration and attenuation in fractured crystalline rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the crystalline rocks of the Canadian Shield, geochemical conditions are currently reducing at depths of 500–1000 m. However, during future glacial periods, altered hydrologic conditions could potentially result in enhanced recharge of glacial melt water containing a relatively high concentration of dissolved oxygen (O2). It is therefore of interest to investigate the physical and geochemical processes, including naturally-occurring redox reactions,

S. M. Spiessl; K. T. B. MacQuarrie; K. U. Mayer

2008-01-01

388

Photochemical and biochemical controls on reactive oxygen and iron speciation in the pelagic surface ocean  

Microsoft Academic Search

A time-dependent chemistry model is used to predict reactive oxygen species (ROS=H2O2+O2?) and dissolved Fe (DFe) speciation in the surface ocean. A new feature of the model is inclusion of biological sources of superoxide. The model suggests that biochemistry mediated by phytoplankton cells is as important as photochemistry for the formation of ROS. Formation of stable organic Fe(III) complexes (FeL)

Song-Miao Fan

2008-01-01

389

TRIM11 is overexpressed in high-grade gliomas and promotes proliferation, invasion, migration and glial tumor growth.  

PubMed

TRIM11 (tripartite motif-containing protein 11), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is known to be involved in the development of the central nervous system. However, very little is known regarding the role of TRIM11 in cancer biology. Here, we examined the expression profile of TRIM11, along with two stem cell markers CD133 and nestin, in multiple glioma patient specimens, glioma primary cultures derived from tumors taken at surgery and normal neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs). The oncogenic function of TRIM11 in glioma biology was investigated by knockdown and/or overexpression in vitro and in vivo experiments. Our results showed that TRIM11 expression levels were upregulated in malignant glioma specimens and in high-grade glioma-derived primary cultures, whereas remaining low in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) stable cell lines, low-grade glioma-derived primary cultures and NSCs. The expression pattern of TRIM11 strongly correlated with that of CD133 and nestin and differentiation status of malignant glioma cells. Knock down of TRIM11 inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of GBM cells, significantly decreased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) levels and mitogen-activated protein kinase activity, and downregulated HB-EGF (heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor) mRNA levels. Meanwhile, TRIM11 overexpression promoted a stem-like phenotype in vitro (tumorsphere formation) and enhanced glial tumor growth in immunocompromised mice. These findings suggest that TRIM11 might be an indicator of glioma malignancy and has an oncogenic function mediated through the EGFR signaling pathway. TRIM11 overexpression potentially leads to a more aggressive glioma phenotype, along with increased malignant tumor growth and poor survival. Taken together, clarification of the biological function of TRIM11 and pathways it affects may provide novel therapeutic strategies for treating malignant glioma patients. PMID:23178488

Di, K; Linskey, M E; Bota, D A

2012-11-26

390

TRIM11 is over-expressed in high-grade gliomas and promotes proliferation, invasion, migration and glial tumor growth  

PubMed Central

TRIM11 (tripartite motif-containing protein 11), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is known to be involved in the development of the central nervous system. However, very little is known regarding the role of TRIM11 in cancer biology. Here, we examined the expression profile of TRIM11, along with two stem cell markers CD133 and nestin, in multiple glioma patient specimens, glioma primary cultures derived from tumors taken at surgery, and normal neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs). The oncogenic function of TRIM11 in glioma biology was investigated by knockdown and/or over-expression in vitro and in vivo experiments. Our results showed that TRIM11 expression levels were up-regulated in malignant glioma specimens and in high-grade glioma-derived primary cultures, while remaining low in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) stable cell lines, low-grade glioma-derived primary cultures, and NSCs. The expression pattern of TRIM11 strongly correlated with that of CD133 and nestin, and differentiation status of malignant glioma cells. Knockdown of TRIM11 inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of GBM cells, significantly decreased EGFR levels and MAPK activity, and down-regulated HB-EGF mRNA levels. Meanwhile, TRIM11 over-expression promoted a stem-like phenotype in vitro (tumorsphere formation) and enhanced glial tumor growth in immunocompromised mice. These findings suggest that TRIM11 might be an indicator of glioma malignancy, and has an oncogenic function mediated through the EGFR signaling pathway. TRIM11 over-expression potentially leads to a more aggressive glioma phenotype, along with increased malignant tumor growth and poor survival. Taken together, clarification of the biological function of TRIM11 and pathways it affects may provide novel therapeutic strategies for treating malignant glioma patients.

Di, Kaijun; Linskey, Mark E.; Bota, Daniela A.

2013-01-01

391

The effects of oxygen on controlling the number of carbon layers in the chemical vapor deposition of graphene on a nickel substrate.  

PubMed

While oxygen is typically considered undesirable during the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of graphene on metal substrates, we demonstrate that suitable amounts of oxygen in the CVD system can in fact improve the uniformity and thickness control of the graphene film. The role of oxygen on the CVD of graphene on a nickel substrate using a propylene precursor was investigated with various surface analytical techniques. It was found that the number of carbon layers in the deposited graphene sample decreases as the concentration of oxygen increases. In particular, single-layer graphene can be easily obtained with an oxygen/propylene ratio of 1/9. In the presence of oxygen, a thin layer of nickel oxide will form on the substrate. The oxide layer decreases the concentration of carbon atoms dissolved in the nickel substrate and results in graphene samples with a decreasing number of carbon layers. PMID:23575390

Dou, Wei-Dong; Yang, Qingdan; Lee, Chun-Sing

2013-04-11

392

The effects of oxygen on controlling the number of carbon layers in the chemical vapor deposition of graphene on a nickel substrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While oxygen is typically considered undesirable during the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of graphene on metal substrates, we demonstrate that suitable amounts of oxygen in the CVD system can in fact improve the uniformity and thickness control of the graphene film. The role of oxygen on the CVD of graphene on a nickel substrate using a propylene precursor was investigated with various surface analytical techniques. It was found that the number of carbon layers in the deposited graphene sample decreases as the concentration of oxygen increases. In particular, single-layer graphene can be easily obtained with an oxygen/propylene ratio of 1/9. In the presence of oxygen, a thin layer of nickel oxide will form on the substrate. The oxide layer decreases the concentration of carbon atoms dissolved in the nickel substrate and results in graphene samples with a decreasing number of carbon layers.

Dou, Wei-Dong; Yang, Qingdan; Lee, Chun-Sing

2013-05-01

393

Control of the surface electronic structure of SrTiO3(001) by modulation of the density of oxygen vacancies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of electron irradiation and the subsequent oxygen adsorption on the electronic structure of an SrTiO3(001) surface was investigated by ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS). Electron irradiation induced an in-gap state (IGS) as observed by UPS keeping the surface 1 × 1, which is considered to originate from oxygen vacancies on the topmost surface due to the electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) of oxygen. Electron irradiation also caused a downward shift of the valence band maximum, indicating downward band bending and the formation of a conductive layer on the surface. Adsorption of oxygen on the electron-irradiated surface, on the other hand, reduced the intensity of the IGS along with yielding upward band bending, which points to disappearance of the conductive layer. The results show that ESD and oxygen adsorption can be used to control the surface electronic structure switching between semiconducting and metallic regimes by changing the density of the oxygen vacancies.

Takeyasu, Kotaro; Fukada, Keisuke; Matsumoto, Masuaki; Fukutani, Katsuyuki

2013-04-01

394

Magnetic design of trim excitations for the advanced light source storage ring sextupole  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring sextupole is a unique multi-purpose magnet. It is designed to operate as a sextupole with three auxiliary trim modes: horizontal steering, vertical steering, and skew quadrupole. A perturbation theory for iron-dominated magnets developed by Klaus Halbach provides the basis for this design. The three trim excitations are produced by violating sextupole symmetry and are thus perturbations of the normal sextupole excitation. The magnet was designed such that all four modes are decoupled and can be excited independently. This paper discusses the use of Halbach`s perturbation theory to design the trim functions and to evaluate the primary asymmetry in the sextupole mode, namely, a gap in the return yoke to accommodate the vacuum chamber.

Marks, S.

1995-06-01

395

Magnetic design of trim excitations for the Advanced Light Source storage ring sextupole  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring sextupole is a unique multi-purpose magnet. It is designed to operate as a sextupole with three auxiliary trim modes: horizontal steering, vertical steering, and skew quadrupole. A perturbation theory for iron-dominated magnets developed by Klaus Halbach provides the basis for this design. The three trim excitations are produced by violating sextupole symmetry and are thus perturbations of the normal sextupole excitation. The magnet was designed such that all four modes are decoupled and can be excited independently. This paper discusses the use of Halbach`s perturbation theory to design the trim functions and to evaluate the primary asymmetry in the sextupole mode, namely, a gap in the return yoke to accommodate the vacuum chamber.

Marks, S. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

1996-07-01

396

Precise control of end-tidal carbon dioxide and oxygen improves BOLD and ASL cerebrovascular reactivity measures.  

PubMed

In-depth investigation of cerebrovascular blood flow and MR mechanisms underlying the blood oxygenation level dependent signal requires precise manipulation of the arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide and oxygen, measured by their noninvasive surrogates, the end-tidal values. The traditional methodology consists of administering a fixed fractional concentration of inspired CO(2), but this causes a variable ventilatory response across subjects, resulting in different values of end-tidal partial pressures of CO(2) and O(2). In this study, we investigated whether fine control of these end-tidal partial pressures would improve stability and predictability of blood oxygenation level dependent and arterial spin labeling signals for studying cerebrovascular reactivity. In 11 healthy volunteers, we compared the MR signals generated by the traditional fixed fractional concentration of inspired CO(2) method to those of an automated feed-forward system, a simpler, safer, and more compact alternative to dynamic end-tidal forcing systems, designed to target constant end-tidal partial pressures of CO(2) and O(2). We found that near square-wave changes in end-tidal partial pressure of CO(2) of 5, 7.5, and 10 mm Hg (+/-1.01 mm Hg within two to three breaths) and constrained changes in the end-tidal partial pressure of O(2) (<10 mm Hg) induced cerebral vascular reactivity measurements with faster transitions, together with improved stability and gradation, than those achieved with the traditional fixed fractional concentration of inspired CO(2) method. PMID:20648687

Mark, Clarisse I; Slessarev, Marat; Ito, Shoji; Han, Jay; Fisher, Joseph A; Pike, G Bruce

2010-09-01

397

Recruitment and dynamics of proteasome association with rhTRIM5? cytoplasmic complexes during HIV-1 infection  

PubMed Central

A variety of proteins have been identified that restrict infection by different viruses. One such restriction factor is the rhesus macaque variant of TRIM5? (rhTRIM5?), which potently blocks infection by HIV-1. The block to infection mediated by rhTRIM5? occurs early after entry into the host cell, generally prior to reverse transcription. However, proteasome inhibitors reveal an intermediate step of restriction in which virus can complete reverse transcription but still fails to infect the cell. While proteasome inhibitors have been a useful tool in understanding how restriction takes place, the role of the proteasome itself during restriction has not yet been examined. Here, we characterize the interaction of rhTRIM5? and incoming virions with the proteasome. We show that proteasomes localize to rhTRIM5? cytoplasmic bodies, and this localization is more evident when the activity of the proteasome is inhibited pharmacologically. We also show that restricted virus associates with complexes of proteasomes and rhTRIM5?, suggesting that rhTRIM5? utilizes the proteasome during restriction. Finally, live cell imaging experiments reveal that virus associates with proteasomes, and proteasome inhibition affects the duration of association. Taken together, these studies implicate the proteasome as playing a functional role during rhTRIM5? restriction of incoming virions.

Danielson, Cindy M.; Cianci, Gianguido C.; Hope, Thomas J.

2013-01-01

398

Efficient MHC Class I-Independent Amino-Terminal Trimming of Epitope Precursor Peptides in the Endoplasmic Reticulum  

Microsoft Academic Search

MHC class I ligands are produced mainly by proteasomal proteolysis, in conjunction with an unknown extent of trimming by peptidases. Trimming of precursor peptides in the endoplasmic reticulum, a process postulated to be class I dependent, may substantially enhance the efficiency of antigen presentation. However, monitoring of luminal peptide processing has not so far been possible. Here we show that

Doriana Fruci; Gabriele Niedermann; Richard H Butler; Peter M van Endert

2001-01-01

399

Control of Oxygen Delamination in Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cells via Modifying Operational Regime  

SciTech Connect

Possible modifications of operational regimes for solid oxide fuel cell (SOEC) devices for hydrogen production are discussed. It is shown that applying alternating current (AC) voltage pulses at a certain frequency range to SOECs could reduce oxygen delamination degradation in these devices and significantly increase their lifetime. This operational scheme provides wide possibilities to increase longevity of SOEC devices required for their use in commercial hydrogen production processes, without any significant modification of used materials and/or cell design. Developed simulation method possesses a broad generality and be employed in a number of other industrial processes.

Sergey N. Rashkeev; Michael V. Glazoff

2011-10-01

400

Resuscitation of very preterm infants with 30% vs. 65% oxygen at birth: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background Resuscitation at birth with 100% oxygen is known to increase the oxidative burden with concomitant deleterious effects. Although fractions of inspired oxygen (FiO2)?controlled trial, 200 very preterm infants with a gestational age?oxygen. The FiO2 will be adjusted based on oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry (SpO2) and pulse rate (which should be over 100 beats per minute) in order to achieve a target SpO2 of 88–94% at 10 min of life. The FiO2 and pulse oximetry data will be continuously recorded. The primary outcome is survival without bronchopulmonary dysplasia, as assessed by a physiological test at 36 weeks postmenstrual age. The secondary outcomes include the time to achieve SpO2?>?88%, Apgar score at 5 min, cumulative O2 exposure, oxidative stress (as determined by glutathione synthesis and oxidative stress markers), retinopathy of prematurity, brain injury and neurodevelopmental outcome at 2 years of age. This study will provide insight into determining the appropriate initial FiO2 to start resuscitation of very preterm infants. Trial registration http://www.trialregister.nl, NTR243.

2012-01-01

401

Laser Trimming of CuAlMo Thin-Film Resistors: Effect of Laser Processing Parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the effect of varying laser trimming process parameters on the electrical performance of a novel CuAlMo thin-film resistor material. The films were prepared on Al2O3 substrates by direct-current (DC) magnetron sputtering, before being laser trimmed to target resistance value. The effect of varying key laser parameters of power, Q-rate, and bite size on the resistor stability and tolerance accuracy were systematically investigated. By reducing laser power and bite size and balancing this with Q-rate setting, significant improvements in resistor stability and resistor tolerance accuracies of less than ±0.5% were achieved.

Birkett, Martin; Penlington, Roger

2012-08-01

402

Tissue oxygenation during exercise measured with NIRS: a quality control study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We assess the data quality of calculated tissue oxygen saturation (SO2) and haemoglobin concentrations recorded on muscle during an incremental cycling protocol in healthy volunteers. The protocol was repeated three times at the same day and a fourth time at a different day to estimate the reproducibility of the method. A novel broad-band, spatially resolved spectrometer (SRS) system was employed which allowed us to compare SRS-based oxygenation parameters with modified Lambert-Beer (MLB) data. We found that the inter-subject variation in SO2 (standard deviation about 6 %) is considerably larger than the reproducibility (about 1.5 %) both for same day and different day tests. When changes in SO2 during the cycling test were considered the reproducibility is better than 1 %. Time courses of SRS-based haemoglobin parameters are different from MLB-data with higher reproducibility for SRS. The magnitudes of the haemoglobin changes were found to be considerably larger for the SRS method. Furthermore, the broad band approach was tested against a four-wavelength analysis with the differences found to be negligible.

Gerz, Erwin; Geraskin, Dmitri; Neary, Patrick; Franke, Julia; Platen, Petra; Kohl-Bareis, Matthias

2009-07-01

403

Porcine endogenous retroviruses PERV A and A\\/C recombinant are insensitive to a range of divergent mammalian TRIM5  proteins including human TRIM5  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential risk of cross-species transmission of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERV) to humans has slowed the development of xenotransplantation, using pigs as organ donors. Here, we show that PERVs are insensitive to restriction by divergent TRIM5a molecules despite the fact that they strongly restrict a variety of divergent lentiviruses. We also show that the human PERV A\\/C recombinant clone 14\\/220

Andrew Wood; Benjamin L. J. Webb; Birke Bartosch; Torsten Schaller; Yasuhiro Takeuchi; Greg J. Towers

2009-01-01

404

Experimental Evidence for Oxygen Sublattice Control in Polar Infinite Layer SrCuO_{2}.  

PubMed

A recent theoretical study [Phys. Rev. B 85, 121411(R) (2012)] predicted a thickness limit below which ideal polar cuprates turn nonpolar driven by the associated electrostatic instability. Here we demonstrate this possibility by inducing a structural transformation from the bulk planar to chainlike structure upon reducing the SrCuO_{2} repeat thickness in SrCuO_{2}/SrTiO_{3} superlattices with unit-cell precision. Our results, based on structural investigation by x-ray diffraction and high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, demonstrate that the oxygen sublattice can essentially be built by design. In addition, the electronic structure of the chainlike structure, as studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy, shows the signature for preferential hole occupation in the Cu 3d_{3z^{2}-r^{2}} orbital, which is different from the planar case. PMID:24033050

Samal, D; Tan, Haiyan; Molegraaf, H; Kuiper, B; Siemons, W; Bals, Sara; Verbeeck, Jo; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Takamura, Y; Arenholz, Elke; Jenkins, Catherine A; Rijnders, G; Koster, Gertjan

2013-08-27

405

Experimental Evidence for Oxygen Sublattice Control in Polar Infinite Layer SrCuO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A recent theoretical study [Phys. Rev. B 85, 121411(R) (2012)] predicted a thickness limit below which ideal polar cuprates turn nonpolar driven by the associated electrostatic instability. Here we demonstrate this possibility by inducing a structural transformation from the bulk planar to chainlike structure upon reducing the SrCuO2 repeat thickness in SrCuO2/SrTiO3 superlattices with unit-cell precision. Our results, based on structural investigation by x-ray diffraction and high resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy, demonstrate that the oxygen sublattice can essentially be built by design. In addition, the electronic structure of the chainlike structure, as studied by x-ray absorption spectroscopy, shows the signature for preferential hole occupation in the Cu 3d3z2-r2 orbital, which is different from the planar case.

Samal, D.; Haiyan, Tan; Molegraaf, H.; Kuiper, B.; Siemons, W.; Bals, Sara; Verbeeck, Jo; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Takamura, Y.; Arenholz, Elke; Jenkins, Catherine A.; Rijnders, G.; Koster, Gertjan

2013-08-01

406

Assisted Evolution Enables HIV-1 to Overcome a High TRIM5?-Imposed Genetic Barrier to Rhesus Macaque Tropism.  

PubMed

Diversification of antiretroviral factors during host evolution has erected formidable barriers to cross-species retrovirus transmission. This phenomenon likely protects humans from infection by many modern retroviruses, but it has also impaired the development of primate models of HIV-1 infection. Indeed, rhesus macaques are resistant to HIV-1, in part due to restriction imposed by the TRIM5? protein (rhTRIM5?). Initially, we attempted to derive rhTRIM5?-resistant HIV-1 strains using two strategies. First, HIV-1 was passaged in engineered human cells expressing rhTRIM5?. Second, a library of randomly mutagenized capsid protein (CA) sequences was screened for mutations that reduced rhTRIM5? sensitivity. Both approaches identified several individual mutations in CA that reduced rhTRIM5? sensitivity. However, neither approach yielded mutants that were fully resistant, perhaps because the locations of the mutations suggested that TRIM5? recognizes multiple determinants on the capsid surface. Moreover, even though additive effects of various CA mutations on HIV-1 resistance to rhTRIM5? were observed, combinations that gave full resistance were highly detrimental to fitness. Therefore, we employed an 'assisted evolution' approach in which individual CA mutations that reduced rhTRIM5? sensitivity without fitness penalties were randomly assorted in a library of viral clones containing synthetic CA sequences. Subsequent passage of the viral library in rhTRIM5?-expressing cells resulted in the selection of individual viral species that were fully fit and resistant to rhTRIM5?. These viruses encoded combinations of five mutations in CA that conferred complete or near complete resistance to the disruptive effects of rhTRIM5? on incoming viral cores, by abolishing recognition of the viral capsid. Importantly, HIV-1 variants encoding these CA substitutions and SIVmac239 Vif replicated efficiently in primary rhesus macaque lymphocytes. These findings demonstrate that rhTRIM5? is difficult to but not impossible to evade, and doing so should facilitate the development of primate models of HIV-1 infection. PMID:24086139

Soll, Steven J; Wilson, Sam J; Kutluay, Sebla B; Hatziioannou, Theodora; Bieniasz, Paul D

2013-09-26

407

Assisted Evolution Enables HIV-1 to Overcome a High TRIM5?-Imposed Genetic Barrier to Rhesus Macaque Tropism  

PubMed Central

Diversification of antiretroviral factors during host evolution has erected formidable barriers to cross-species retrovirus transmission. This phenomenon likely protects humans from infection by many modern retroviruses, but it has also impaired the development of primate models of HIV-1 infection. Indeed, rhesus macaques are resistant to HIV-1, in part due to restriction imposed by the TRIM5? protein (rhTRIM5?). Initially, we attempted to derive rhTRIM5?-resistant HIV-1 strains using two strategies. First, HIV-1 was passaged in engineered human cells expressing rhTRIM5?. Second, a library of randomly mutagenized capsid protein (CA) sequences was screened for mutations that reduced rhTRIM5? sensitivity. Both approaches identified several individual mutations in CA that reduced rhTRIM5? sensitivity. However, neither approach yielded mutants that were fully resistant, perhaps because the locations of the mutations suggested that TRIM5? recognizes multiple determinants on the capsid surface. Moreover, even though additive effects of various CA mutations on HIV-1 resistance to rhTRIM5? were observed, combinations that gave full resistance were highly detrimental to fitness. Therefore, we employed an ‘assisted evolution’ approach in which individual CA mutations that reduced rhTRIM5? sensitivity without fitness penalties were randomly assorted in a library of viral clones containing synthetic CA sequences. Subsequent passage of the viral library in rhTRIM5?-expressing cells resulted in the selection of individual viral species that were fully fit and resistant to rhTRIM5?. These viruses encoded combinations of five mutations in CA that conferred complete or near complete resistance to the disruptive effects of rhTRIM5? on incoming viral cores, by abolishing recognition of the viral capsid. Importantly, HIV-1 variants encoding these CA substitutions and SIVmac239 Vif replicated efficiently in primary rhesus macaque lymphocytes. These findings demonstrate that rhTRIM5? is difficult to but not impossible to evade, and doing so should facilitate the development of primate models of HIV-1 infection.

Soll, Steven J.; Wilson, Sam J.; Kutluay, Sebla B.; Hatziioannou, Theodora; Bieniasz, Paul D.

2013-01-01

408

Oxygen Consumption of a Pneumatically Controlled Ventilator in a Field Anesthesia Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Field anesthesia machines (FAM) have been developed for remote locations where reliable supplies of compressed medical gases or electricity may be absent. In place of electricity, pneumatically controlled ventilators use compressed gas to power timing circuitry and actuate valves. We sought to determine the total O2 consumption and ventilator gas consumption (drive gas (DG) plus pneumatic control (PC) gas)

Dale F. Szpisjak; Elizabeth N. Javernick; Richard R. Kyle; Paul N. Austin

2008-01-01

409

High frequency multiplication of Phalaenopsis gigantea using trimmed bases protocorms technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was conducted to determine the effects of coconut water (CW) and activated charcoal (AC) on multiplication of Phalaenopsis gigantea protocorms. The protocorms used for this study were obtained by germinating seeds in vitro. Protocorms with trimmed and untrimmed bases were cultured on XER basal medium containing 0, 10, 15 or 20% (v\\/v) CW; and 0, 1, 2 or

Rosmah Murdad; Kuik Sok Hwa; Choo Khen Seng; Mariam Abd. Latip; Zaleha Abdul Aziz; Rimi Ripin

2006-01-01

410

ANALYSIS AND ASSESSMENT OF THE SENSITIVITY OF TRIM PARAMETERS ON SEA SIMULATION FOR INTERIOR NOISE REDUCTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

To predict and analyse the acoustical behaviour of complex structures at higher frequencies the field of deterministic analysis methods like FEM or BEM has to be left. In this paper the energy based statistical approach called Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) is used. To optimize acoustic packages of vehicles a definition of interior equipment (trim) in SEA models is required. One

Stephan Brandl; Irena Hauer; Hans-Herwig Priebsch; Thorsten Bartosch; Stefan Volkwein

411

Sample Size Determination for One- and Two-Sample Trimmed Mean Tests  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Formulas to determine the necessary sample sizes for parametric tests of group comparisons are available from several sources and appropriate when population distributions are normal. However, in the context of nonnormal population distributions, researchers recommend Yuen's trimmed mean test, but formulas to determine sample sizes have not been…

Luh, Wei-Ming; Olejnik, Stephen; Guo, Jiin-Huarng

2008-01-01

412

Inflammatory mediators in fluid extracted from the coronal occlusal dentin of trimmed teeth  

PubMed Central

Background Chemokines and cytokines may occur in dentinal fluids in response to local infection and inflammation. To test this hypothesis, we assessed the presence and concentration of inflammatory mediators in fluid extracted from the coronal occlusal dentin of trimmed teeth. Design Freshly extracted sound, carious, and restored molars were trimmed through the enamel to expose the underlying dentin, etched with 35% phosphoric acid, and rinsed. Fluid was extracted from the coronal occlusal dentin of these trimmed teeth by centrifugation at 2,750 × g for 30 minutes. Results When assessed by MALDI-TOF, fluid extracted from the coronal occlusal dentin from 16 molars contained at least 117 peaks with different masses suggesting that this fluid was rich with molecules within the appropriate mass range of potential mediators. Indeed, when assessed for chemokines and cytokines, fluid extracted from the coronal occlusal dentin from 25 extracted molars with caries lesions, 10 extracted restored molars with occlusal amalgam, and 77 extracted sound molars contained IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12(p70), and IL-10. A significant elevation was found for TNF-? (p=0.041) in extracted fluid from teeth restored with amalgam fillings. Conclusions Overall, fluid extracted from the coronal occlusal dentin of trimmed teeth may be useful in identifying proteins and other molecules in dentin and pulpal fluids and determining their role as mediators in the pathogenesis of oral infection and inflammation.

Geraldeli, Saulo; Li, Yalan; Tjaderhane, Leo S.; Pashley, David H.; Morgan, Teresa A.; Zimmerman, M. Bridget; Brogden, Kim A.

2011-01-01

413

Development of the SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) trim coil beam tube assembly  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Superconducting Super Collider uses approx. =9600 dipole magnets. The magnets have been carefully designed to exhibit minimal magnetic field harmonics. However, because of superconductor magnetization effects, iron saturation and conductor\\/coil positioning errors, certain harmonic errors are possible and must be corrected by use of multipole correctors called trim coils. For the most efficient use of axial space in the

J. Skaritka; E. Kelly; W. Schneider; R. Shutt; P. Thompson; P. Wanderer; E. Willen; D. Bintinger; R. Coluccio; L. Schieber

1987-01-01

414

METALLURGICAL EXAMINATION OF VALVE TRIM FROM HRP DUMP VALVE TEST LOOP  

Microsoft Academic Search

An investigation of trim from the HRP Dump Valve Test Loop revealed that ; performance improved with increasing poppet hardness. From this it was ; hypothesized that deformation of softer poppets increased the poppet-seat contact ; area, thus reducing the closing pressure. The deformation areas of a number of ; poppets were measured and the closing pressures calculated. A plot

Cooke

1958-01-01

415

The Effect of Laser Trimming on Properties of Ti6A1-4V Sheet  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of laser trimming on the tensile strength and fatigue resistance of Ti, 6 wt% Al, and 4 wt% V specimens was investigated. Due to the nature of laser processing, the microstructure of the titanium alloy was altered in areas local to the cut known as the kerf and the heat affected zone (HAZ), respectively. Experimental cutting was conducted

Dean Whitesel; R. E. Goforth; M. N. Srinivasan

1995-01-01

416

Evaluation of beef trim sampling methods for detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC)  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Presence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a major concern in ground beef. Several methods for sampling beef trim prior to grinding are currently used in the beef industry. The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of the sampling methods for detecting STEC in beef ...

417

Relative Coordination 3D Trajectory Generation Based on the Trimmed ACO  

Microsoft Academic Search

Relative coordination has predominant advantage in uncertain environment path planning problem because it denies much of redundant information of the dynamic environment while avoids the rotation transformation which is a big burden in the traditional methods. Based on relative coordination, this paper proposes a trimmed Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) algorithm for three dimensional trajectory generation, i.e., path planning for target-pursuing

Yang Chen; Xingang Zhao; Chan Zhang; Jianda Han

2010-01-01

418

Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Electrical Wiring. Course: Electrical Wiring Trim-Out.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|One of two individualized courses included in an electrical wiring curriculum, this course covers electrical materials installation for the trim-out stage. The course is comprised of five units: (1) Outlets, (2) Fixtures, (3) Switches, (4) Appliances, and (5) Miscellaneous. Each unit begins with a Unit Learning Experience Guide that gives…

Arneson, R.; And Others

419

Wavelength trimming of a microring resonator filter by means of a UV sensitive polymer overlay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trimming of the resonant wavelength of a vertically coupled glass microring resonator channel dropping filter with a photo-induced refractive index change in a dip coated polymer overlay is reported. In this letter, the glass microring resonator has a radius of 19 ?m, a free-spectral range of 10 nm, and a Q value of 800. The maximum wavelength shift observed is

Sai T. Chu; Wugen Pan; Shinya Sato; T. Kaneko; B. E. Little; Y. Kokubun

1999-01-01

420

Multiple trim magnets, or magic fingers,'' for insertion device field integral correction  

SciTech Connect

Multiple trim magnets (MTMs), also known as magic fingers,'' are an arrangement of magnets for reducing integrated magnetic-field errors in insertion devices. The idea is to use transverse arrays of permanent magnets, hence the name multiple trim magnets,'' above and below the midplane, to correct both normal and skew longitudinal magnetic-field integral errors in a device. MTMs are typically installed at the ends of an ID. Adjustments are made by changing either the size, position, or orientation of each trim magnet. Application of the MTMs to the ALS undulators reduced both the normal and skew longitudinal field integral errors, over the entire 20 mm[times]60 mm good field region,'' of the beam aperture by as much as an order of magnitude. The requirements included corrections of field and gradients outside the multipole convergence radius. Additionally, these trim magnet arrays provided correction of the linear component of the integrated field gradients for particles with trajectories not parallel to the nominal beam axis. The MTM concept, design, construction, tests that demonstrated feasibility, and magnetic-field integral reduction of ALS undulators are presented.

Hoyer, E.; Marks, S.; Pipersky, P.; Schlueter, R. (Advanced Light Source, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States))

1995-02-01

421

TRIMMED SPEARMAN-KARBER METHOD FOR ESTIMATING MEDIAN LETHAL CONCENTRATIONS IN TOXICITY BIOASSAYS  

EPA Science Inventory

Several methods for treatment of data from toxicity tests to determine the median lethal concentration (LC50) are discussed. The probit and logit models widely used for these calculations have deficiencies; therefore, a calculational method, named the 'trimmed Spearman-Karber met...

422

Automotive Body Trim and Glass; Automotive Mechanics 2: 9045.05.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help students become employable with skills, knowledge, attitudes, and values necessary for performing the required service of the automotive trim and glass mechanic. The course of study includes an orientation to the course, service tools and bench skills development, and a…

Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

423

16 CFR 300.23 - Linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings and facings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER...a) In labeling or marking garments or articles of apparel which...trimmings or facings of such garments or articles of apparel shall...made. (b) In the case of garments which contain...

2009-01-01

424

16 CFR 300.23 - Linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings and facings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER...a) In labeling or marking garments or articles of apparel which...trimmings or facings of such garments or articles of apparel shall...made. (b) In the case of garments which contain...

2013-01-01

425

16 CFR 300.23 - Linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings and facings.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER...a) In labeling or marking garments or articles of apparel which...trimmings or facings of such garments or articles of apparel shall...made. (b) In the case of garments which contain...

2010-01-01

426

Cyclophilin A: An auxiliary but not necessary cofactor for TRIM5? restriction of HIV1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cyclophilin A (Cyp A) binds the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) capsid (CA) protein and contributes to the early events in virus replication in some cells. The retroviral restriction factor TRIM5? can inhibit the early, post-entry phase of infection by associating with the incoming viral capsid. Cyp A has been proposed to prevent restriction factor binding in human cells,

Matthew Stremlau; Byeongwoon Song; Hassan Javanbakht; Michel Perron; Joseph Sodroski

2006-01-01

427

Study of Sylvilagus rabbit TRIM5? species-specific domain: how ancient endoviruses could have shaped the antiviral repertoire in Lagomorpha  

PubMed Central

Background Since the first report of the antiretroviral restriction factor TRIM5? in primates, several orthologs in other mammals have been described. Recent studies suggest that leporid retroviruses like RELIK, the first reported endogenous lentivirus ever, may have imposed positive selection in TRIM5? orthologs of the European rabbit and European brown hare. Considering that RELIK must already have been present in a common ancestor of the leporid genera Lepus, Sylvilagus and Oryctolagus, we extended the study of evolutionary patterns of TRIM5? to other members of the Leporidae family, particularly to the genus Sylvilagus. Therefore, we obtained the TRIM5? nucleotide sequences of additional subspecies and species of the three leporid genera. We also compared lagomorph TRIM5? deduced protein sequences and established TRIM5? gene and TRIM5? protein phylogenies. Results The deduced protein sequence of Iberian hare TRIM5? was 89% identical to European rabbit TRIM5?, although high divergence was observed at the PRYSPRY v1 region between rabbit and the identified alleles from this hare species (allele 1: 50% divergence; allele 2: 53% divergence). A high identity was expected between the Sylvilagus and Oryctolagus TRIM5? proteins and, in fact, the Sylvilagus TRIM5? was 91% identical to the Oryctolagus protein. Nevertheless, the PRYSPRY v1 region was only 50% similar between these genera. Selection analysis of Lagomorpha TRIM5? proteins identified 25 positively-selected codons, 11 of which are located in the PRYSPRY v1 region, responsible for species specific differences in viral capsid recognition. Conclusions By extending Lagomorpha TRIM5? studies to an additional genus known to bear RELIK, we verified that the divergent species-specific pattern observed between the Oryctolagus and Lepus PRYSPRY-domains is also present in Sylvilagus TRIM5?. This work is one of the first known studies that compare the evolution of the antiretroviral restriction factor TRIM5? in different mammalian groups, Lagomorpha and Primates.

2011-01-01

428

Ultrafast laser trimming for reduced device leakage in high performance OTFT semiconductors for flexible displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic semiconductors (OSC) are solution processable synthetic materials with high carrier mobility that promise to revolutionise flexible electronics manufacturing due to their low cost, lightweight and high volume low temperature printing in reel-to-reel (R2R) [1] for applications such as flexible display backplanes (Fig.1), RFID tags, and logic/memory devices. Despite several recent technological advances, organic thin film transistor (OTFT) printing is still not production-ready due to limitations mainly with printing resolution on dimensionally unstable substrates and device leakage that reduces dramatically electrical performance. OTFTs have the source-drain in ohmic contact with the OSC material to lower contact resistance. If they are unpatterned, a leakage pathway from source to drain develops which results in non-optimum on/off currents and not controllable device uniformity (Fig.2). DPSS lasers offer several key advantages for OTFT patterning including maskless, non-contact, dry patterning, scalable large area operation with precision registration, well-suited to R2R manufacturing at overall ?m size resolutions. But the thermal management of laser processing is very important as the devices are very sensitive to heat and thermomechanical damage [2]. This paper discusses 343nm picosecond laser ablation trimming of 50nm thick PTAA, TIPS pentacene and other semiconductor compounds on thin 50nm thick metal gold electrodes in a top gate configuration. It is shown that with careful optimisation, a suitable process window exists resulting in clean laser structuring without damage to the underlying layers while also containing laser debris. Several order of magnitude improvements were recorded in on/off currents up to 106 with OSC mobilities of 1 cm2/Vsec, albeit at slightly higher than optimum threshold voltages which support demanding flexible display backplane applications.

Karnakis, Dimitris; Cooke, Michael D.; Chan, Y. F.; Ogier, Simon D.

2013-03-01

429

Processes controlling the oxygen isotope ratio of soil CO{sub 2}: Analytic and numerical modeling  

SciTech Connect

The {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O ratio of soil CO{sub 2} is important for both global and ecosystem scale budgets of the {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O ratio of atmospheric CO{sub 2}, as well as for using this ratio as a proxy for the isotopic ratio of soil water. The {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O ratio of soil CO{sub 2} reflects that of soil water due to the isotope exchange which occurs during the CO{sub 2} hydration reaction. The rate of this isotope exchange reaction strongly influences the oxygen isotope ratio of soil CO{sub 2}, and may be about two orders of magnitude slower than the isotope exchange reaction between CO{sub 2}(aq) and water (effective first order rate constant, k{sub eff}, of 10{sup {minus}4} versus 10{sup {minus}2} s{sup {minus}1} at 25 C). This difference in rate reflects transport across the soil water/soil air interface, which limits the overall rate of reaction. A diffusion-production-reaction model (Hesterberg and Siegenthaler, 1991) suggests that the {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O ratio of soil CO{sub 2} at depth deviates from the equilibrium value by {approximately}1--2{per_thousand} if k{sub eff} = 10{sup {minus}4} s{sup {minus}1}, negating the assumption that soil CO{sub 2} is in isotopic equilibrium with soil water. A sensitivity analysis of this model indicates the following factors affect {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O ratio of soil CO{sub 2} (in order of decreasing importance): (1) the isotope ratio of soil water; (2) the rate constant of the isotope exchange; (3) soil air-filled pore space and tortuosity. Notably, soil respiration rate has only a minor effect. Advection of soil gas due to wind pumping has a negligible effect on the {delta}{sup 18}O value of soil CO{sub 2} except in most extreme cases. Likewise, transient effects on the oxygen isotope ratio of soil CO{sub 2} due to changes in soil respiration rate are small.

Stern, L.; Baisden, W.T.; Amundson, R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

1999-03-01

430

Spatial Control of Reactive Oxygen Species Formation in Fibroblasts Using Two-photon Excitation¶  

PubMed Central

Two-photon excitation (2PE) provides a means of generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells and tissues with a high degree of spatial specificity. In cultured monolayers of human fibroblasts and fibroblast-derived cells treated with the commonly used probe of ROS formation, 5-(and 6)-chloromethyl-2?,7?-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester (CM-H2DCFDA), cells irradiated through a microscope objective with 150 fs near-infrared laser pulses became highly fluorescent, reflecting intracellular ROS formation. The fluorescence intensity inside cells increased quadratically with the average power of radiation for pulsed excitation and was unchanged for continuous wave irradiation with the same average power. Single fibroblasts embedded within dermal equivalents were also targeted in this manner and formed ROS, whereas neighboring unirradiated cells were spared. These results demonstrate that ROS can be generated intracellularly in skin cells using 2PE of the metabolic or oxidative products of CM-H2DCFDA and that formation of ROS can be localized in both cell monolayers and in a tissue equivalent. This technique should be useful in understanding the response of whole tissues such as skin to local generation of ROS and may have applications in photodynamic therapy.

King, Brett A.; Oh, Dennis H.

2009-01-01

431

Electrocatalysis on shape-controlled titanium nitride nanocrystals for the oxygen reduction reaction.  

PubMed

The high price of platinum (Pt)-based cathode catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) have slowed down the practical application of fuel cells. Thanks to their low cost, and outstanding, stable catalytic properties, titanium nitrides (TiN) are among the most promising non-precious metal electrocatalysts for replacing Pt. However, the shape-activity relationships of TiN electrocatalysts have not been well-studied or understood up to now. In this work, by simply adjusting the shape of TiO2 precursor, we are able to tailor the morphology of the TiN catalysts from nanoparticles to nanotubes. We have synthetized uniform carbon-coated titanium nitride nanotubes (carbon-coated TiN?NTs) through a nitridation reaction in NH3 flow using a TiO2 nanotubes/melamine mixture as precursor. The carbon-coated TiN?NTs hybrids exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity for the OR