Science.gov

Sample records for oxygen trim control

  1. 14 CFR 29.161 - Trim control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Trim control. 29.161 Section 29.161... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 29.161 Trim control. The trim control— (a) Must trim any steady longitudinal, lateral, and collective control forces to zero in...

  2. 14 CFR 27.161 - Trim control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Trim control. 27.161 Section 27.161... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Flight Flight Characteristics § 27.161 Trim control. The trim control— (a) Must trim any steady longitudinal, lateral, and collective control forces to zero in level...

  3. Moving mass trim control system design

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, R.H.; Robinett, R.D.; Sturgis, B.R.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes the design of a moving mass trim control system for maneuvering axisymmetric reentry vehicles. The moving mass trim controller is composed of three equal masses that are independently positioned in order to deliver a desired center of mass position. For a slowly spinning reentry vehicle, the mass offset creates a trim angle-of-attack to generate modest flight path corrections. The control system must maintain the desired position of each mass in the face of large disturbances. A novel algorithm for determining the desired mass positions is developed in conjunction with a preliminary controller design. The controller design is based on classical frequency domain techniques where a bound on the disturbance magnitude is used to formulate the disturbance rejection problem. Simulation results for the controller are presented for a typical reentry vehicle.

  4. Advanced control concepts. [trim solution for space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutton, M. F.; Friedland, B.

    1973-01-01

    The selection of a trim solution that provides the space shuttle with the highest level of performance and dynamic control in the presense of wind disturbances and bias torques due to misalignment of rocket engines is described. It was determined that engine gimballing is insufficient to provide control to trim the vehicle for headwind and sidewind disturbances, and that it is necessary to use aerodynamic surfaces in conjunction with engine gimballing to achieve trim. The algebraic equations for computing the trim solution were derived from the differential equations describing the motion of the vehicle by substituting the desired trim conditions. The general problem of showing how the trim equations are derived from the equations of motion and the mathematical forms of the performance criterion is discussed in detail, along with the general equations for studying the dynamic response of the trim solution.

  5. A closed-form trim solution yielding minimum trim drag for airplanes with multiple longitudinal-control effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Sliwa, Steven M.; Lallman, Frederick J.

    1989-01-01

    Airplane designs are currently being proposed with a multitude of lifting and control devices. Because of the redundancy in ways to generate moments and forces, there are a variety of strategies for trimming each airplane. A linear optimum trim solution (LOTS) is derived using a Lagrange formulation. LOTS enables the rapid calculation of the longitudinal load distribution resulting in the minimum trim drag in level, steady-state flight for airplanes with a mixture of three or more aerodynamic surfaces and propulsive control effectors. Comparisons of the trim drags obtained using LOTS, a direct constrained optimization method, and several ad hoc methods are presented for vortex-lattice representations of a three-surface airplane and two-surface airplane with thrust vectoring. These comparisons show that LOTS accurately predicts the results obtained from the nonlinear optimization and that the optimum methods result in trim drag reductions of up to 80 percent compared to the ad hoc methods.

  6. Matlab Stability and Control Toolbox: Trim and Static Stability Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the technical background of the Trim and Static module of the Matlab Stability and Control Toolbox. This module performs a low-fidelity stability and control assessment of an aircraft model for a set of flight critical conditions. This is attained by determining if the control authority available for trim is sufficient and if the static stability characteristics are adequate. These conditions can be selected from a prescribed set or can be specified to meet particular requirements. The prescribed set of conditions includes horizontal flight, take-off rotation, landing flare, steady roll, steady turn and pull-up/ push-over flight, for which several operating conditions can be specified. A mathematical model was developed allowing for six-dimensional trim, adjustable inertial properties, asymmetric vehicle layouts, arbitrary number of engines, multi-axial thrust vectoring, engine(s)-out conditions, crosswind and gyroscopic effects.

  7. Airplane automatic control force trimming device for asymmetric engine failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric C. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The difference in dynamic pressure in the propeller slipstreams as measured by sensors is divided by the freestream dynamic pressure generating a quantity proportional to the differential thrust coefficient. This quantity is used to command an electric trim motor to change the position of trim tab thereby retrimming the airplane to the new asymmetric power condition. The change in position of the trim tab produced by the electric trim motor is summed with the pilot's input to produce the actual trim tab position.

  8. The E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 regulates myoblast proliferation by controlling turnover of NDRG2.

    PubMed

    Mokhonova, Ekaterina I; Avliyakulov, Nuraly K; Kramerova, Irina; Kudryashova, Elena; Haykinson, Michael J; Spencer, Melissa J

    2015-05-15

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2H is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the E3 ubiquitin ligase, TRIM32. Previously, we generated and characterized a Trim32 knockout mouse (T32KO) that displays both neurogenic and myopathic features. The myopathy in these mice is attributable to impaired muscle growth, associated with satellite cell senescence and premature sarcopenia. This satellite cell senescence is due to accumulation of the SUMO ligase PIASy, a substrate of TRIM32. The goal of this investigation was to identify additional substrates of TRIM32 using 2D fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) in order to further explore its role in skeletal muscle. Because TRIM32 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase, we reasoned that TRIM32's substrates would accumulate in its absence. 2D-DIGE identified 19 proteins that accumulate in muscles from the T32KO mouse. We focused on two of these proteins, NDRG2 and TRIM72, due to their putative roles in myoblast proliferation and myogenesis. Follow-up analysis confirmed that both proteins were ubiquitinated by TRIM32 in vitro; however, only NDRG2 accumulated in skeletal muscle and myoblasts in the absence of TRIM32. NDRG2 overexpression in myoblasts led to reduced cell proliferation and delayed cell cycle withdrawal during differentiation. Thus, we identified NDRG2 as a novel target for TRIM32; these findings further corroborate the hypothesis that TRIM32 is involved in control of myogenic cells proliferation and differentiation. PMID:25701873

  9. The E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 regulates myoblast proliferation by controlling turnover of NDRG2

    PubMed Central

    Mokhonova, Ekaterina I.; Avliyakulov, Nuraly K.; Kramerova, Irina; Kudryashova, Elena; Haykinson, Michael J.; Spencer, Melissa J.

    2015-01-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2H is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the E3 ubiquitin ligase, TRIM32. Previously, we generated and characterized a Trim32 knockout mouse (T32KO) that displays both neurogenic and myopathic features. The myopathy in these mice is attributable to impaired muscle growth, associated with satellite cell senescence and premature sarcopenia. This satellite cell senescence is due to accumulation of the SUMO ligase PIASy, a substrate of TRIM32. The goal of this investigation was to identify additional substrates of TRIM32 using 2D fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) in order to further explore its role in skeletal muscle. Because TRIM32 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase, we reasoned that TRIM32's substrates would accumulate in its absence. 2D-DIGE identified 19 proteins that accumulate in muscles from the T32KO mouse. We focused on two of these proteins, NDRG2 and TRIM72, due to their putative roles in myoblast proliferation and myogenesis. Follow-up analysis confirmed that both proteins were ubiquitinated by TRIM32 in vitro; however, only NDRG2 accumulated in skeletal muscle and myoblasts in the absence of TRIM32. NDRG2 overexpression in myoblasts led to reduced cell proliferation and delayed cell cycle withdrawal during differentiation. Thus, we identified NDRG2 as a novel target for TRIM32; these findings further corroborate the hypothesis that TRIM32 is involved in control of myogenic cells proliferation and differentiation. PMID:25701873

  10. Development and Operation of an Automatic Rotor Trim Control System for the UH-60 Individual Blade Control Wind Tunnel Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodore, Colin R.; Tischler, Mark B.

    2010-01-01

    An automatic rotor trim control system was developed and successfully used during a wind tunnel test of a full-scale UH-60 rotor system with Individual Blade Control (IBC) actuators. The trim control system allowed rotor trim to be set more quickly, precisely and repeatably than in previous wind tunnel tests. This control system also allowed the rotor trim state to be maintained during transients and drift in wind tunnel flow, and through changes in IBC actuation. The ability to maintain a consistent rotor trim state was key to quickly and accurately evaluating the effect of IBC on rotor performance, vibration, noise and loads. This paper presents details of the design and implementation of the trim control system including the rotor system hardware, trim control requirements, and trim control hardware and software implementation. Results are presented showing the effect of IBC on rotor trim and dynamic response, a validation of the rotor dynamic simulation used to calculate the initial control gains and tuning of the control system, and the overall performance of the trim control system during the wind tunnel test.

  11. MATLAB Stability and Control Toolbox Trim and Static Stability Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Sean P.; Crespo, Luis

    2012-01-01

    MATLAB Stability and Control Toolbox (MASCOT) utilizes geometric, aerodynamic, and inertial inputs to calculate air vehicle stability in a variety of critical flight conditions. The code is based on fundamental, non-linear equations of motion and is able to translate results into a qualitative, graphical scale useful to the non-expert. MASCOT was created to provide the conceptual aircraft designer accurate predictions of air vehicle stability and control characteristics. The code takes as input mass property data in the form of an inertia tensor, aerodynamic loading data, and propulsion (i.e. thrust) loading data. Using fundamental nonlinear equations of motion, MASCOT then calculates vehicle trim and static stability data for the desired flight condition(s). Available flight conditions include six horizontal and six landing rotation conditions with varying options for engine out, crosswind, and sideslip, plus three take-off rotation conditions. Results are displayed through a unique graphical interface developed to provide the non-stability and control expert conceptual design engineer a qualitative scale indicating whether the vehicle has acceptable, marginal, or unacceptable static stability characteristics. If desired, the user can also examine the detailed, quantitative results.

  12. Interplay of TRIM28 and DNA methylation in controlling human endogenous retroelements.

    PubMed

    Turelli, Priscilla; Castro-Diaz, Nathaly; Marzetta, Flavia; Kapopoulou, Adamandia; Raclot, Charlène; Duc, Julien; Tieng, Vannary; Quenneville, Simon; Trono, Didier

    2014-08-01

    Reverse transcription-derived sequences account for at least half of the human genome. Although these retroelements are formidable motors of evolution, they can occasionally cause disease, and accordingly are inactivated during early embryogenesis through epigenetic mechanisms. In the mouse, at least for endogenous retroviruses, important mediators of this process are the tetrapod-specific KRAB-containing zinc finger proteins (KRAB-ZFPs) and their cofactor TRIM28. The present study demonstrates that KRAB/TRIM28-mediated regulation is responsible for controlling a very broad range of human-specific endogenous retroelements (EREs) in human embryonic stem (ES) cells and that it exerts, as a consequence, a marked effect on the transcriptional dynamics of these cells. It further reveals reciprocal dependence between TRIM28 recruitment at specific families of EREs and DNA methylation. It finally points to the importance of persistent TRIM28-mediated control of ERE transcriptional impact beyond their presumed inactivation by DNA methylation. PMID:24879559

  13. Control of neuronal apoptosis by reciprocal regulation of NFATc3 and Trim17

    PubMed Central

    Mojsa, B; Mora, S; Bossowski, J P; Lassot, I; Desagher, S

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal apoptosis induced by survival factor deprivation is strongly regulated at the transcriptional level. Notably, the nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) transcription factors have an important role in the control of the survival/death fate of neurons. However, the mechanisms that regulate NFAT activity in response to apoptotic stimuli and the target genes that mediate their effect on neuronal apoptosis are mostly unknown. In a previous study, we identified Trim17 as a crucial E3 ubiquitin ligase that is necessary and sufficient for neuronal apoptosis. Here, we show that Trim17 binds preferentially SUMOylated forms of NFATc3. Nonetheless, Trim17 does not promote the ubiquitination/degradation of NFATc3. NFAT transcription factors are regulated by calcium/calcineurin-dependent nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling. Interestingly, Trim17 reduced by twofold the calcium-mediated nuclear localization of NFATc3 and, consistent with this, halved NFATc3 activity, as estimated by luciferase assays and by measurement of target gene expression. Trim17 also inhibited NFATc4 nuclear translocation and activity. NFATc4 is known to induce the expression of survival factors and, as expected, overexpression of NFATc4 protected cerebellar granule neurons from serum/KCl deprivation-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of NFATc4 by Trim17 may thus partially mediate the proapoptotic effect of Trim17. In contrast, overexpression of NFATc3 aggravated neuronal death, whereas knockdown of NFATc3 protected neurons from apoptosis. This proapoptotic effect of NFATc3 might be due to a feedback loop in which NFATc3, but not NFATc4, induces the transcription of the proapoptotic gene Trim17. Indeed, we found that overexpression or silencing of NFATc3, respectively, increased or decreased Trim17 levels, whereas NFATc4 had no significant effect on Trim17 expression. Moreover, we showed that NFATc3 binds to the promoter of the Trim17 gene together with c-Jun. Therefore, our results describe a novel

  14. Ubiquitin ligase TRIM3 controls hippocampal plasticity and learning by regulating synaptic γ-actin levels

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Joerg; Végh, Marlene J.; Dawitz, Julia; Kroon, Tim; Loos, Maarten; Labonté, Dorthe; Li, Ka Wan; Van Nierop, Pim; Van Diepen, Michiel T.; De Zeeuw, Chris I.; Kneussel, Matthias; Meredith, Rhiannon M.; Smit, August B.

    2015-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity requires remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton. Although two actin isoforms, β- and γ-actin, are expressed in dendritic spines, the specific contribution of γ-actin in the expression of synaptic plasticity is unknown. We show that synaptic γ-actin levels are regulated by the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM3. TRIM3 protein and Actg1 transcript are colocalized in messenger ribonucleoprotein granules responsible for the dendritic targeting of messenger RNAs. TRIM3 polyubiquitylates γ-actin, most likely cotranslationally at synaptic sites. Trim3−/− mice consequently have increased levels of γ-actin at hippocampal synapses, resulting in higher spine densities, increased long-term potentiation, and enhanced short-term contextual fear memory consolidation. Interestingly, hippocampal deletion of Actg1 caused an increase in long-term fear memory. Collectively, our findings suggest that temporal control of γ-actin levels by TRIM3 is required to regulate the timing of hippocampal plasticity. We propose a model in which TRIM3 regulates synaptic γ-actin turnover and actin filament stability and thus forms a transient inhibitory constraint on the expression of hippocampal synaptic plasticity. PMID:26527743

  15. Flight Investigation of the Effectiveness of an Automatic Aileron Trim Control Device for Personal Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, William H; Kuehnel, Helmut A; Whitten, James B

    1957-01-01

    A flight investigation to determine the effectiveness of an automatic aileron trim control device installed in a personal airplane to augment the apparent spiral stability has been conducted. The device utilizes a rate-gyro sensing element in order to switch an on-off type of control that operates the ailerons at a fixed rate through control centering springs. An analytical study using phase-plane and analog-computer methods has been carried out to determine a desirable method of operation for the automatic trim control.

  16. Application of a Broadband Active Vibration Control System to a Helicopter Trim Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cabell, Randolph H.; Schiller, Noah H.; Simon, Frank

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses testing of a broadband active vibration control concept on an interior trim panel in a helicopter cabin mockup located at ONERA's Centre de Toulouse. The control system consisted of twelve diamond-shaped piezoelectric actuators distributed around a 1.2m x 1.2m trim panel. Accelerometers were mounted at the four vertices of each diamond. The aspect ratio of the diamond was based on the dielectric constants of the piezoelectric material in order to create an actuator-sensor pair that was collocated over a broad frequency range. This allowed robust control to be implemented using simple, low power analog electronics. Initial testing on a thick acrylic window demonstrated the capability of the controller, but actuator performance was less satisfactory when mounted on a composite sandwich trim panel. This may have been due to the orthotropic nature of the trim panel, or due to its much higher stiffness relative to the acrylic window. Insights gained from a finite element study of the actuator-sensor-structural system are discussed.

  17. Development and Operation of an Automatic Rotor Trim Control System for use During the UH-60 Individual Blade Control Wind Tunnel Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodore, Colin R.

    2010-01-01

    A full-scale wind tunnel test to evaluate the effects of Individual Blade Control (IBC) on the performance, vibration, noise and loads of a UH-60A rotor was recently completed in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel [1]. A key component of this wind tunnel test was an automatic rotor trim control system that allowed the rotor trim state to be set more precisely, quickly and repeatably than was possible with the rotor operator setting the trim condition manually. The trim control system was also able to maintain the desired trim condition through changes in IBC actuation both in open- and closed-loop IBC modes, and through long-period transients in wind tunnel flow. This ability of the trim control system to automatically set and maintain a steady rotor trim enabled the effects of different IBC inputs to be compared at common trim conditions and to perform these tests quickly without requiring the rotor operator to re-trim the rotor. The trim control system described in this paper was developed specifically for use during the IBC wind tunnel test

  18. Surface trimming of silicon photonics devices using controlled reactive ion etching chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, S.; Das, B. K.

    2015-06-01

    Surface trimming of rib waveguides fabricated in 5-μm SOI substrate has been carried out successfully without any significant increase of propagation losses. A reactive ion etching chemistry has been optimized for trimming and an empirical model has been developed to obtain the resulting waveguide geometries. This technique has been used to demonstrate smaller footprint devices like multimode interference based power splitters and ring resonators after defining them photolithographically with relatively large cross-section rib waveguides. We have been also successful to fabricate 2D tapered spot-size converter useful for monolithic integration of waveguides with varying heights and widths. The taper length is again precisely controlled by photolithographic definition. Minimum insertion loss of such a spot-size converter integrated between waveguides with 3-μm height difference has been recorded to be ∼2 dB. It has been also shown that the overall fiber-to-chip coupling loss can be reduced by >3 dB by using such spot-size converters at the input/output side of the waveguides.

  19. Cassini Orbit Trim Maneuvers at Saturn - Overview of Attitude Control Flight Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burk, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    The Cassini spacecraft has been in orbit around Saturn since July 1, 2004. To remain on the planned trajectory which maximizes science data return, Cassini must perform orbit trim maneuvers using either its main engine or its reaction control system thrusters. Over 200 maneuvers have been executed on the spacecraft since arrival at Saturn. To improve performance and maintain spacecraft health, changes have been made in maneuver design command placement, in accelerometer scale factor, and in the pre-aim vector used to align the engine gimbal actuator prior to main engine burn ignition. These and other changes have improved maneuver performance execution errors significantly since 2004. A strategy has been developed to decide whether a main engine maneuver should be performed, or whether the maneuver can be executed using the reaction control system.

  20. Reducing Pointing Errors During Cassini Reaction Control System Orbit Trim Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizvi, Farheen

    2013-01-01

    The effect of altering a gain parameter in the Cassini reaction control system (RCS) delta-V controller on the maneuver execution errors during orbit trim maneuvers (OTMs) is explored. Cassini consists of two reaction control thruster branches (A & B) each with eight thrusters. Currently, the B-branch is operational while the A-branch serves as a back-up. The four Z-thrusters control the X and Y-axes, while the four Y-thrusters control the Z-axis. During an OTM, the Z-thrusters fire to maintain the X and Y-axes pointing within an attitude control dead-zone (-10 to 10 milliradians). The errors do not remain at zero due to pointing error sources such as spacecraft center of mass offset from the geometric center of the Z-facing thrusters, and variability in the thruster forces due to the thruster hardware differences. The delta-V reaction control system (RCS) controller ensures that the attitude error remains within this dead-zone. Gain parameters within the RCS delta-V controller affect the maneuver execution errors. Different parameter values are used to explore effect on these errors. It is found that pointing error decreases and magnitude error increases rapidly for gain parameters 10 times greater than the current parameter values used in the flight software.

  1. Synthesis of a PID-controller of a trim robust control system of an autonomous underwater vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khozhaev, I. V.; Gayvoronskiy, S. A.

    2016-04-01

    Autonomous underwater vehicles are often used for performing scientific, emergency or other types of missions under harsh conditions and environments, which can have non-stable, variable parameters. So, the problem of developing autonomous underwater vehicle motion control systems, capable of operating properly in random environments, is highly relevant. The paper is dedicated to the synthesis of a PID-controller of a trim robust control system, capable of keeping an underwater vehicle stable during a translation at different angles of attack. In order to synthesize the PID-controller, two problems were solved: a new method of synthesizing a robust controller was developed and a mathematical model of an underwater vehicle motion process was derived. The newly developed mathematical model structure is simpler than others due to acceptance of some of the system parameters as interval ones. The synthesis method is based on a system poles allocation approach and allows providing the necessary transient process quality in a considered system.

  2. Application of the concept of dynamic trim control to automatic landing of carrier aircraft. [utilizing digital feedforeward control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, G. A.; Meyer, G.

    1980-01-01

    The results of a simulation study of an alternative design concept for an automatic landing control system are presented. The alternative design concept for an automatic landing control system is described. The design concept is the total aircraft flight control system (TAFCOS). TAFCOS is an open loop, feed forward system that commands the proper instantaneous thrust, angle of attack, and roll angle to achieve the forces required to follow the desired trajector. These dynamic trim conditions are determined by an inversion of the aircraft nonlinear force characteristics. The concept was applied to an A-7E aircraft approaching an aircraft carrier. The implementation details with an airborne digital computer are discussed. The automatic carrier landing situation is described. The simulation results are presented for a carrier approach with atmospheric disturbances, an approach with no disturbances, and for tailwind and headwind gusts.

  3. Predictions of Control Inputs, Periodic Responses and Damping Levels of an Isolated Experimental Rotor in Trimmed Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaonkar, G. H.; Subramanian, S.

    1996-01-01

    Since the early 1990s the Aeroflightdynamics Directorate at the Ames Research Center has been conducting tests on isolated hingeless rotors in hover and forward flight. The primary objective is to generate a database on aeroelastic stability in trimmed flight for torsionally soft rotors at realistic tip speeds. The rotor test model has four soft inplane blades of NACA 0012 airfoil section with low torsional stiffness. The collective pitch and shaft tilt are set prior to each test run, and then the rotor is trimmed in the following sense: the longitudinal and lateral cyclic pitch controls are adjusted through a swashplate to minimize the 1/rev flapping moment at the 12 percent radial station. In hover, the database comprises lag regressive-mode damping with pitch variations. In forward flight the database comprises cyclic pitch controls, root flap moment and lag regressive-mode damping with advance ratio, shaft angle and pitch variations. This report presents the predictions and their correlation with the database. A modal analysis is used, in which nonrotating modes in flap bending, lag bending and torsion are computed from the measured blade mass and stiffness distributions. The airfoil aerodynamics is represented by the ONERA dynamic stall models of lift, drag and pitching moment, and the wake dynamics is represented by a state-space wake model. The trim analysis of finding, the cyclic controls and the corresponding, periodic responses is based on periodic shooting with damped Newton iteration; the Floquet transition matrix (FTM) comes out as a byproduct. The stabillty analysis of finding the frequencies and damping levels is based on the eigenvalue-eigenvector analysis of the FTM. All the structural and aerodynamic states are included from modeling to trim analysis. A major finding is that dynamic wake dramatically improves the correlation for the lateral cyclic pitch control. Overall, the correlation is fairly good.

  4. Jefferson Lab's Trim Card II

    SciTech Connect

    Trent Allison; Sarin Philip; C. Higgins; Edward Martin; William Merz

    2005-05-01

    Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) uses Trim Card I power supplies to drive approximately 1900 correction magnets. These trim cards have had a long and illustrious service record. However, some of the employed technology is now obsolete, making it difficult to maintain the system and retain adequate spares. The Trim Card II is being developed to act as a transparent replacement for its aging predecessor. A modular approach has been taken in its development to facilitate the substitution of sections for future improvements and maintenance. The resulting design has been divided into a motherboard and 7 daughter cards which has also allowed for parallel development. The Trim Card II utilizes modern technologies such as a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and a microprocessor to embed trim card controls and diagnostics. These reprogrammable devices also provide the versatility to incorporate future requirements.

  5. 14 CFR 25.407 - Trim tab effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Trim tab effects. 25.407 Section 25.407... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.407 Trim tab effects. The effects of trim tabs on the control surface design conditions must be accounted for only where...

  6. 14 CFR 23.677 - Trim systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trim systems. 23.677 Section 23.677 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 23.677 Trim systems. (a)...

  7. 14 CFR 25.407 - Trim tab effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Trim tab effects. 25.407 Section 25.407 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.407 Trim tab effects. The effects of trim tabs on...

  8. 14 CFR 25.407 - Trim tab effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trim tab effects. 25.407 Section 25.407 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.407 Trim tab effects. The effects of trim tabs on...

  9. 14 CFR 23.407 - Trim tab effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Trim tab effects. 23.407 Section 23.407 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Loads § 23.407 Trim tab effects. The effects of trim tabs on the control surface design conditions...

  10. Role of N-linked oligosaccharide recognition, glucose trimming, and calnexin in glycoprotein folding and quality control.

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, C; Braakman, I; Helenius, A

    1994-01-01

    Using a pulse-chase approach combined with immunoprecipitation, we showed that newly synthesized influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) and vesicular stomatitis virus G protein associate transiently during their folding with calnexin, a membrane-bound endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone. Inhibitors of N-linked glycosylation (tunicamycin) and glucosidases I and II (castanospermine and 1-deoxynojirimycin) prevented the association, whereas inhibitors of ER alpha-mannosidases did not. Our results indicated that binding of these viral glycoproteins to calnexin correlated closely with the composition of their N-linked oligosaccharide side chains. Proteins with monoglucosylated oligosaccharides were the most likely binding species. On the basis of our data and existing information concerning the role of monoglucosylated oligosaccharides on glycoproteins, we propose that the ER contains a unique folding and quality control machinery in which calnexin acts as a chaperone that binds proteins with partially glucose-trimmed carbohydrate side chains. In this model glucosidases I and II serve as signal modifiers and UDP-glucose:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase, as a folding sensor. Images PMID:8302866

  11. Thermal trim for luminaire

    SciTech Connect

    Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Jeswani, Anil

    2013-11-19

    A luminaire with a thermal pathway to reduce the junction temperature of the luminaire's light source, and methods for so doing, are disclosed. The luminaire includes a can, a light engine, and a trim, that define a substantially continuous thermal pathway from the light engine to a surrounding environment. The can defines a can cavity and includes a can end region. The light engine is within the can cavity and includes a light source and a heat sink, including a heat sink end region, coupled thereto. The trim is at least partially disposed within the can cavity and includes a first trim end region coupled to the heat sink end region and a second trim end region coupled to the can end region. Thermal interface material may be located between: the heat sink and the trim, the trim and the can, and/or the heat sink and the light source.

  12. Some comments on trim drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roskam, J.

    1975-01-01

    A discussion of data of and methods for predicting trim drag is presented. Specifically the following subjects are discussed: (1) economic impact of trim drag; (2) the trim drag problem in propeller driven airplanes and the effect of propeller and nacelle location; (3) theoretical procedures for predicting trim drag; and (4) research needs in the area of trim drag.

  13. 14 CFR 23.677 - Trim systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... direction of trim control movement relative to airplane motion. In addition, there must be means to indicate... portion of the system from the tab to the attachment of the irreversible unit to the airplane...

  14. 14 CFR 23.677 - Trim systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... direction of trim control movement relative to airplane motion. In addition, there must be means to indicate... portion of the system from the tab to the attachment of the irreversible unit to the airplane...

  15. 14 CFR 23.677 - Trim systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... direction of trim control movement relative to airplane motion. In addition, there must be means to indicate... portion of the system from the tab to the attachment of the irreversible unit to the airplane...

  16. NCSX Trim Coil Design

    SciTech Connect

    M. Kalish, A. Brooks, J. Rushinski, R. Upcavage

    2009-05-29

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) was being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory before work was stopped in 2008. The objective of this experiment was to develop the stellarator concept and evaluate it's potential as a model for future fusion power plants. Stellarator design requires very precisely positioned Modular Coils of complex shape to form 3D plasmas. In the design of NCSX, Trim Coils were required to compensate for both the positioning of the coils during assembly and the fabrication tolerances of the Modular Coils. Use of the Trim Coils allowed for larger tolerances increasing ease of assembly and decreasing overall cost. A set of Trim coils was developed to suppress the toroidal flux in island regions due to misalignment, magnetic materials, and eddy currents. The requirement imposed upon the design forced the toroidal flux in island regions below 10% of the total toroidal flux in the plasma. An analysis was first performed to evaluate candidate Trim Coil configurations iterating both the size, number, and position of the coils. The design was optimized considering both performance and cost while staying within the tight restraints presented by the space limited geometry. The final design of the Trim Coils incorporated a 48 Coil top bottom symmetric set. Fabrication costs were minimized by having only two coil types and using a planar conventional design with off the shelf commercial conductor. The Trim Coil design incorporated supports made from simple structural shapes assembled together in a way which allowed for adjustment as well as accommodation for the tolerance build up on the mating surfaces. This paper will summarize the analysis that led to the optimization of the Trim Coils set, the trim coil mechanical design, thermal and stress analysis, and the design of the supporting Trim Coil structure.

  17. DEVICE FOR CONTROL OF OXYGEN PARTIAL PRESSURE

    DOEpatents

    Bradner, H.; Gordon, H.S.

    1957-12-24

    A device is described that can sense changes in oxygen partial pressure and cause a corresponding mechanical displacement sufficient to actuate meters, valves and similar devices. A piston and cylinder arrangement contains a charge of crystalline metal chelate pellets which have the peculiar property of responding to variations in the oxygen content of the ambient atmosphere by undergoing a change in dimension. A lever system amplifies the relative displacement of the piston in the cylinder, and actuates the controlled valving device. This partial pressure oxygen sensing device is useful in controlled chemical reactions or in respiratory devices such as the oxygen demand meters for high altitude aircraft.

  18. TRIM5α and Species Tropism of HIV/SIV

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Emi E.; Shioda, Tatsuo

    2011-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infects humans and chimpanzees but not old world monkeys (OWMs) such as the rhesus monkey (Rh) and cynomolgus monkey (CM). HIV-1 efficiently enters cells of OWMs but encounters a block before reverse transcription. This narrow host range is attributed to a barrier in the host cell. In 2004, the screening of a Rh cDNA library identified tripartite motif 5α (TRIM5α) as a cellular antiviral factor. TRIM5α is one of splicing variants produced by TRIM5 gene and TRIM5 proteins are members of the TRIM family containing RING, B-box 2, and coiled-coil domains. The RING domain is frequently found in E3 ubiquitin ligase and TRIM5α is degraded via the ubiquitin–proteasome-dependent pathway. Among TRIM5 splicing variants, TRIM5α alone has an additional C-terminal PRYSPRY (B30.2) domain. Previous studies have shown that sequence variation in variable regions of the PRYSPRY domain among different monkey species affects species-specific retrovirus infection, while amino acid sequence differences in the viral capsid protein determine viral sensitivity to restriction. TRIM5α recognizes the multimerized capsid proteins (viral core) of an incoming virus by its PRYSPRY domain and is thus believed to control retroviral infection. There are significant intraspecies variations in the Rh-TRIM5 gene. It has also been reported that some Rh and CM individuals have retrotransposed cyclophilin A open reading frame in the TRIM5 gene, which produces TRIM5–cyclophilin A fusion protein (TRIMCyp). TRIMCyp, which was originally identified as an anti-HIV-1 factor of New World owl monkeys, is an interesting example of the gain of a new function by retrotransposition. As different TRIM5 genotypes of Rh showed different levels of simian immunodeficiency virus replication in vivo, the TRIM5 genotyping is thought to be important in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome monkey models. PMID:22291694

  19. Control of Si nanowire growth by oxygen.

    PubMed

    Kodambaka, Suneel; Hannon, James B; Tromp, Rudolf M; Ross, Frances M

    2006-06-01

    Semiconductor nanowires formed using the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism are routinely grown in many laboratories, but a comprehensive understanding of the key factors affecting wire growth is still lacking. In this paper we show that, under conditions of low disilane pressure and higher temperature, long, untapered Si wires cannot be grown, using Au catalyst, without the presence of oxygen. Exposure to oxygen, even at low levels, reduces the diffusion of Au away from the catalyst droplets. This allows the droplet volumes to remain constant for longer times and therefore permits the growth of untapered wires. This effect is observed for both gas-phase and surface-bound oxygen, so the source of oxygen is unimportant. The control of oxygen exposure during growth provides a new tool for the fabrication of long, uniform-diameter structures, as required for many applications of nanowires. PMID:16771597

  20. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2004-04-01

    Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this

  1. 14 CFR 23.677 - Trim systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... a position or range within which it has been demonstrated that take-off is safe for all center of... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control... direction of trim control movement relative to airplane motion. In addition, there must be means to...

  2. 14 CFR 25.677 - Trim systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., and with the sense of motion, of the airplane. (b) There must be means adjacent to the trim control to indicate the direction of the control movement relative to the airplane motion. In addition, there must be... part from the tab to the attachment of the irreversible unit to the airplane structure must consist...

  3. 14 CFR 25.677 - Trim systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., and with the sense of motion, of the airplane. (b) There must be means adjacent to the trim control to indicate the direction of the control movement relative to the airplane motion. In addition, there must be... part from the tab to the attachment of the irreversible unit to the airplane structure must consist...

  4. 14 CFR 25.677 - Trim systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., and with the sense of motion, of the airplane. (b) There must be means adjacent to the trim control to indicate the direction of the control movement relative to the airplane motion. In addition, there must be... part from the tab to the attachment of the irreversible unit to the airplane structure must consist...

  5. 14 CFR 23.407 - Trim tab effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trim tab effects. 23.407 Section 23.407 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 23.407 Trim tab effects....

  6. 14 CFR 23.407 - Trim tab effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Trim tab effects. 23.407 Section 23.407 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 23.407 Trim tab effects....

  7. TRIM72 modulates caveolar endocytosis in repair of lung cells.

    PubMed

    Nagre, Nagaraja; Wang, Shaohua; Kellett, Thomas; Kanagasabai, Ragu; Deng, Jing; Nishi, Miyuki; Shilo, Konstantin; Oeckler, Richard A; Yalowich, Jack C; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Christman, John; Hubmayr, Rolf D; Zhao, Xiaoli

    2016-03-01

    Alveolar epithelial and endothelial cell injury is a major feature of the acute respiratory distress syndrome, in particular when in conjunction with ventilation therapies. Previously we showed [Kim SC, Kellett T, Wang S, Nishi M, Nagre N, Zhou B, Flodby P, Shilo K, Ghadiali SN, Takeshima H, Hubmayr RD, Zhao X. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 307: L449-L459, 2014.] that tripartite motif protein 72 (TRIM72) is essential for amending alveolar epithelial cell injury. Here, we posit that TRIM72 improves cellular integrity through its interaction with caveolin 1 (Cav1). Our data show that, in primary type I alveolar epithelial cells, lack of TRIM72 led to significant reduction of Cav1 at the plasma membrane, accompanied by marked attenuation of caveolar endocytosis. Meanwhile, lentivirus-mediated overexpression of TRIM72 selectively increases caveolar endocytosis in rat lung epithelial cells, suggesting a functional association between these two. Further coimmunoprecipitation assays show that deletion of either functional domain of TRIM72, i.e., RING, B-box, coiled-coil, or PRY-SPRY, abolishes the physical interaction between TRIM72 and Cav1, suggesting that all theoretical domains of TRIM72 are required to forge a strong interaction between these two molecules. Moreover, in vivo studies showed that injurious ventilation-induced lung cell death was significantly increased in knockout (KO) TRIM72(KO) and Cav1(KO) lungs compared with wild-type controls and was particularly pronounced in double KO mutants. Apoptosis was accompanied by accentuation of gross lung injury manifestations in the TRIM72(KO) and Cav1(KO) mice. Our data show that TRIM72 directly and indirectly modulates caveolar endocytosis, an essential process involved in repair of lung epithelial cells through removal of plasma membrane wounds. Given TRIM72's role in endomembrane trafficking and cell repair, we consider this molecule an attractive therapeutic target for patients with injured lungs. PMID

  8. 14 CFR 25.677 - Trim systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... clearly visible means to indicate the position of the trim device with respect to the range of adjustment. The indicator must be clearly marked with the range within which it has been demonstrated that takeoff... appropriately balanced and shown to be free from flutter. (d) If an irreversible tab control system is used,...

  9. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen; David R. Thompson

    2000-07-01

    Increased environmental regulations will require utility boilers to reduce NO{sub x} emissions to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu in the near term. Conventional technologies such as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) are unable to achieve these lowered emission levels without substantially higher costs and major operating problems. Oxygen enhanced combustion is a novel technology that allows utilities to meet the NO{sub x} emission requirements without the operational problems that occur with SCR and SNCR. Furthermore, oxygen enhanced combustion can achieve these NO{sub x} limits at costs lower than conventional technologies. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the use of oxygen enhanced combustion as a technical and economical method of meeting the EPA State Implementation Plan for NO{sub x} reduction to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu for a wide range of boilers and coal. The oxygen enhanced coal combustion program (Task 1) focused this quarter on the specific objective of exploration of the impact of oxygen enrichment on NO{sub x} formation utilizing small-scale combustors for parametric testing. Research efforts toward understanding any limitations to the applicability of the technology to different burners and fuels such as different types of coal are underway. The objective of the oxygen transport membrane (OTM) materials development program (Task 2.1) is to ascertain a suitable material composition that can be fabricated into dense tubes capable of producing the target oxygen flux under the operating conditions. This requires that the material have sufficient oxygen permeation resulting from high oxygen ion conductivity, high electronic conductivity and high oxygen surface exchange rate. The OTM element development program (Task 2.2) objective is to develop, fabricate and characterize OTM elements for laboratory and pilot reactors utilizing quality control parameters to ensure reproducibility and superior performance

  10. Thermal trim for a luminaire

    SciTech Connect

    Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Jeswani, Anil

    2013-02-19

    A luminaire with a thermal pathway to reduce the junction temperature of the luminaire's light source, and methods for so doing, are disclosed. The luminaire includes a can, a light engine, and a trim, that define a substantially continuous thermal pathway from the light engine to a surrounding environment. The can defines a can cavity and includes a can end region. The light engine is within the can cavity and includes a light source and a heat sink, including a heat sink end region, coupled thereto. The trim is at least partially disposed within the can cavity and includes a first trim end region coupled to the heat sink end region and a second trim end region coupled to the can end region. Thermal interface material may be located between: the heat sink and the trim, the trim and the can, and/or the heat sink and the light source.

  11. Compensation of the AKT signaling by ERK signaling in transgenic mice hearts overexpressing TRIM72

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, Young-Mi; Mahoney, Sarah Jane

    2013-06-10

    The AKT and ERK signaling pathways are known to be involved in cell hypertrophy, proliferation, survival and differentiation. Although there is evidence for crosstalk between these two signaling pathways in cellulo, there is less evidence for cross talk in vivo. Here, we show that crosstalk between AKT and ERK signaling in the hearts of TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice (TRIM72-Tg) with alpha-MHC promoter regulates and maintains their heart size. TRIM72, a heart- and skeletal muscle-specific protein, downregulates AKT-mTOR signaling via IRS-1 degradation and reduces the size of rat cardiomyocytes and the size of postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts. TRIM72 expression was upregulated by hypertrophic inducers in cardiomyocytes, while IRS-1 was downregulated by IGF-1. TRIM72 specifically regulated IGF-1-dependent AKT-mTOR signaling, resulting in a reduction of the size of cardiomyocytes. Postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts were smaller than control-treated hearts with inhibition of AKT-mTOR signaling. However, adult TRIM72-Tg hearts were larger than of control despite the suppression of AKT-mTOR signaling. Activation of ERK, PKC-α, and JNK were observed to be elevated in adult TRIM72-Tg, and these signals were mediated by ET-1 via the ET receptors A and B. Altogether, these results suggest that AKT signaling regulates cardiac hypertrophy in physiological conditions, and ERK signaling compensates for the absence of AKT signaling during TRIM72 overexpression, leading to pathological hypertrophy. -- Highlights: • TRIM72 inhibits AKT signaling through ubiquitination of IRS-1 in cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates the size of cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates size of postnatal TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts. • Adult TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts showed cardiac dysfunction. • Adult TRIM72 transgenic mice hearts showed higher expression of endothelin receptors.

  12. Trim or Replace Impellers on Oversized Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-09-01

    One in a series of tip sheets to help manufacturers optimize their industrial pumping systems. As a result of conservative engineering practices, pumps are often substantially larger than they need to be for an industrial plant's process requirements. Centrifugal pumps can often be oversized because of ''rounding up'', trying to accommodate gradual increases in pipe surface roughness and flow resistance over time, or anticipating future plant capacity expansions. In addition, the plant's pumping requirements might not have been clearly defined during the design phase. Because of this conservative approach, pumps can have operating points completely different from their design points. The pump head is often less than expected, while the flow rate is greater. This can cause cavitation and waste energy as the flow rate typically must be regulated with bypass or throttle control. Oversized and throttled pumps that produce excess pressure are excellent candidates for impeller replacement or ''trimming'', to save energy and reduce costs. Trimming involves machining the impeller to reduce its diameter. Trimming should be limited to about 75% of a pump's maximum impeller diameter, because excessive trimming can result in a mismatched impeller and casing. As the impeller diameter decreases, added clearance between the impeller and the fixed pump casing increases internal flow recirculation, causes head loss, and lowers pumping efficiency. For manufacturing standardization purposes, pump casings and shafts are designed to accommodate impellers in a range of sizes. Many pump manufacturers provide pump performance curves that indicate how various models will perform with different impeller diameters or trims. The impeller should not be trimmed any smaller than the minimum diameter shown on the curve. Net positive suction head requirements (NPSHR) usually decrease at lower flow rates and can increase at the higher end of the pump head curve. The NPSHR at a given flow rate will

  13. The TRIM-NHL protein TRIM32 activates microRNAs and prevents self-renewal in mouse neural progenitors.

    PubMed

    Schwamborn, Jens C; Berezikov, Eugene; Knoblich, Juergen A

    2009-03-01

    In the mouse neocortex, neural progenitor cells generate both differentiating neurons and daughter cells that maintain progenitor fate. Here, we show that the TRIM-NHL protein TRIM32 regulates protein degradation and microRNA activity to control the balance between those two daughter cell types. In both horizontally and vertically dividing progenitors, TRIM32 becomes polarized in mitosis and is concentrated in one of the two daughter cells. TRIM32 overexpression induces neuronal differentiation while inhibition of TRIM32 causes both daughter cells to retain progenitor cell fate. TRIM32 ubiquitinates and degrades the transcription factor c-Myc but also binds Argonaute-1 and thereby increases the activity of specific microRNAs. We show that Let-7 is one of the TRIM32 targets and is required and sufficient for neuronal differentiation. TRIM32 is the mouse ortholog of Drosophila Brat and Mei-P26 and might be part of a protein family that regulates the balance between differentiation and proliferation in stem cell lineages. PMID:19269368

  14. miRNAs Need a Trim : Regulation of miRNA Activity by Trim-NHL Proteins.

    PubMed

    Wulczyn, F Gregory; Cuevas, Elisa; Franzoni, Eleonora; Rybak, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    Trim-NHL proteins are defined by RING, B-Box and Coiled-coil protein motifs (referred to collectively as the Trim domain) coupled to an NHL domain. The C. elegans, D. melanogaster, mouse and human Trim-NHL proteins are potential and in several cases confirmed, E3 ubiquitin ligases. Current research is focused on identifying targets and pathways for Trim-NHL-mediated ubiquitination and in assessing the contribution of the NHL protein-protein interaction domain for function and specificity. Several Trim-NHL proteins were discovered in screens for developmental genes in model organisms; mutations in one of the family members, Trim32, cause developmental disturbances in humans. In most instances, mutations that alter protein function map to the NHL domain. The NHL domain is a scaffold for the assembly of a translational repressor complex by the Brat proto-oncogene, a well-studied family member in Drosophila. The link to translational control is common to at least four Trim-NHLs that associate with miRNA pathway proteins. So far, two have been shown to repress (Mei-P26 and Lin41) and two to promote (NHL-2, Trim32) miRNA-mediated gene silencing. In this chapter we will describe structure-function relations for each of the proteins and then focus on the lessons being learned from these proteins about miRNA functions in development and in stem cell biology. PMID:21755476

  15. MiRNA need a TRIM regulation of miRNA activity by Trim-NHL proteins.

    PubMed

    Wulczyn, F Gregory; Cuevas, Elisa; Franzoni, Eleonora; Rybak, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    Trim-NHL proteins are defined by RING, B-Box and Coiled-coil protein motifs (referred to collectively as the Trim domain) coupled to an NHL domain. The C. elegans, D. melanogaster, mouse and human Trim-NHL proteins are potential and in several cases confirmed, E3 ubiquitin ligases. Current research is focused on identifying targets and pathways for Trim-NHL-mediated ubiquitination and in assessing the contribution of the NHL protein-protein interactiondomain for function and specificity. Several Trim-NHL proteins were discovered in screens for developmental genes in model organisms; mutations in one of the family members, Trim32, cause developmental disturbances in humans. In most instances, mutations that alter protein function map to the NHL domain. The NHL domain is a scaffold for the assembly of a translational repressor complex by the Brat proto-oncogene, a well-studied family member in Drosophila. The link to translational control is common to at least four Trim-NHLs that associate with miRNA pathway proteins. So far, two have been shown to repress (Mei-P26 and Lin41) and two to promote (NHL-2, Trim32) miRNA-mediated gene silencing. In this chapter we will describe structure-function relations for each of the proteins and then focus on the lessons being learned from these proteins about miRNA functions in development and in stem cell biology. PMID:21627033

  16. 14 CFR 23.255 - Out of trim characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... airplane must have satisfactory maneuvering stability and controllability with the degree of out-of-trim in... force versus g curve must have a positive slope at any speed up to and including VFC/MFC; and (2)...

  17. 14 CFR 23.255 - Out of trim characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... satisfactory maneuvering stability and controllability with the degree of out-of-trim in both the airplane nose... have a positive slope at any speed up to and including VFC/MFC; and (2) At speeds between VFC/MFC...

  18. The TRIM-NHL Protein LIN-41 and the OMA RNA-Binding Proteins Antagonistically Control the Prophase-to-Metaphase Transition and Growth of Caenorhabditis elegans Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Spike, Caroline A.; Coetzee, Donna; Eichten, Carly; Wang, Xin; Hansen, Dave; Greenstein, David

    2014-01-01

    In many animals, oocytes enter meiosis early in their development but arrest in meiotic prophase I. Oocyte growth, which occurs during this arrest period, enables the acquisition of meiotic competence and the capacity to produce healthy progeny. Meiotic resumption, or meiotic maturation, involves the transition to metaphase I (M phase) and is regulated by intercellular signaling and cyclin-dependent kinase activation. Premature meiotic maturation would be predicted to diminish fertility as the timing of this event, which normally occurs after oocyte growth is complete, is crucial. In the accompanying article in this issue, we identify the highly conserved TRIM-NHL protein LIN-41 as a translational repressor that copurifies with OMA-1 and OMA-2, RNA-binding proteins redundantly required for normal oocyte growth and meiotic maturation. In this article, we show that LIN-41 enables the production of high-quality oocytes and plays an essential role in controlling and coordinating oocyte growth and meiotic maturation. lin-41 null mutants display a striking defect that is specific to oogenesis: pachytene-stage cells cellularize prematurely and fail to progress to diplotene. Instead, these cells activate CDK-1, enter M phase, assemble spindles, and attempt to segregate chromosomes. Translational derepression of the CDK-1 activator CDC-25.3 appears to contribute to premature M-phase entry in lin-41 mutant oocytes. Genetic and phenotypic analyses indicate that LIN-41 and OMA-1/2 exhibit an antagonistic relationship, and we suggest that translational regulation by these proteins could be important for controlling and coordinating oocyte growth and meiotic maturation. PMID:25261698

  19. The TRIM-NHL protein LIN-41 and the OMA RNA-binding proteins antagonistically control the prophase-to-metaphase transition and growth of Caenorhabditis elegans oocytes.

    PubMed

    Spike, Caroline A; Coetzee, Donna; Eichten, Carly; Wang, Xin; Hansen, Dave; Greenstein, David

    2014-12-01

    In many animals, oocytes enter meiosis early in their development but arrest in meiotic prophase I. Oocyte growth, which occurs during this arrest period, enables the acquisition of meiotic competence and the capacity to produce healthy progeny. Meiotic resumption, or meiotic maturation, involves the transition to metaphase I (M phase) and is regulated by intercellular signaling and cyclin-dependent kinase activation. Premature meiotic maturation would be predicted to diminish fertility as the timing of this event, which normally occurs after oocyte growth is complete, is crucial. In the accompanying article in this issue, we identify the highly conserved TRIM-NHL protein LIN-41 as a translational repressor that copurifies with OMA-1 and OMA-2, RNA-binding proteins redundantly required for normal oocyte growth and meiotic maturation. In this article, we show that LIN-41 enables the production of high-quality oocytes and plays an essential role in controlling and coordinating oocyte growth and meiotic maturation. lin-41 null mutants display a striking defect that is specific to oogenesis: pachytene-stage cells cellularize prematurely and fail to progress to diplotene. Instead, these cells activate CDK-1, enter M phase, assemble spindles, and attempt to segregate chromosomes. Translational derepression of the CDK-1 activator CDC-25.3 appears to contribute to premature M-phase entry in lin-41 mutant oocytes. Genetic and phenotypic analyses indicate that LIN-41 and OMA-1/2 exhibit an antagonistic relationship, and we suggest that translational regulation by these proteins could be important for controlling and coordinating oocyte growth and meiotic maturation. PMID:25261698

  20. Trim33/Tif1γ is involved in late stages of granulomonopoiesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Chrétien, Marie-Lorraine; Legouge, Caroline; Martin, Romain Z; Hammann, Arlette; Trad, Malika; Aucagne, Romain; Largeot, Anne; Bastie, Jean-Noël; Delva, Laurent; Quéré, Ronan

    2016-08-01

    Trim33/Tif1γ (Trim33) is a member of the tripartite motif family. Using a conditional hematopoietic-specific Trim33 knock-out (Trim33(Δ/Δ)) mouse, we showed previously that Trim33 deficiency in hematopoietic stem cells leads to severe defects in hematopoiesis, resembling the main features of human chronic myelomonocytic leukemia. We also demonstrated that Trim33 is involved in hematopoietic aging through TGFβ signaling. Nevertheless, how Trim33 contributes to the terminal stages of myeloid differentiation remains to be clarified. We reveal here the crucial role of Trim33 expression in the control of mature granulomonocytic differentiation. An important component of Trim33-deficient mice is the alteration of myeloid differentiation, as characterized by dysplastic features, abnormal granulocyte and monocyte maturation, and the expansion of CD11b(+)Ly6G(high)Ly6C(low) myeloid cells, which share some features with polymorphonuclear-myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Moreover, in Trim33(Δ/Δ) mice, we observed the alteration of CSF-1-mediated macrophage differentiation in association with the lack of Csf-1 receptor. Altogether, these results indicate that Trim33 deficiency leads to the expansion of a subset of myeloid cells characterizing the myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative neoplasm. PMID:27130375

  1. 114. WEST SIDE OF LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROL ROOM (205). LIQUID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    114. WEST SIDE OF LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROL ROOM (205). LIQUID NITROGEN (LN2) SUBCOOLER ON LEFT; SKID 8, LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROLLER FOR SWITCHING BETWEEN RAPID-LOAD AND TOPPING ON RIGHT. LIQUID OXYGEN LINE FROM SKID 9A AT RIGHT EDGE OF PHOTO. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  2. Use of mild irradiation doses to control pathogenic bacteria on meat trimmings for production of patties aiming at provoking minimal changes in quality attributes.

    PubMed

    Xavier, Ma de la Paz; Dauber, Cecilia; Mussio, Paula; Delgado, Enrique; Maquieira, Ana; Soria, Alejandra; Curuchet, Ana; Márquez, Rosa; Méndez, Carlos; López, Tomás

    2014-11-01

    The objectives of the present work were to assess the use of moderate doses of gamma irradiation (2 to 5 kGy) and to reduce the risk of pathogen presence without altering the quality attributes of bovine trimmings and of patties made of irradiated trimmings. Microbiological indicators (coliforms, Pseudomonas spp and mesophilic aerobic counts), physicochemical indicators (pH, color and tiobarbituric acid) and sensory changes were evaluated during storage. 5 kGy irradiation doses slightly increased off flavors in patties. Two pathogenic markers (Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7) were inoculated at high or low loads to trimming samples which were subsequently irradiated and lethality curves were obtained. Provided that using irradiation doses ≤2.5 kGy are used, reductions of 2 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes and 5 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 are expected. It seems reasonable to suppose that irradiation can be successfully employed to improve the safety of frozen trimmings when initial pathogenic bacteria burdens are not extremely high. PMID:25042241

  3. Trim17, a novel E3 ubiquitin-ligase, initiates neuronal apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Lassot, Irina; Robbins, Ian; Kristiansen, Mark; Rahmeh, Rita; Jaudon, Fanny; Magiera, Maria M.; Mora, Stéphan; Vanhille, Laurent; Lipkin, Alexey; Pettmann, Brigitte; Ham, Jonathan; Desagher, Solange

    2010-01-01

    Accumulating data indicate that the ubiquitin-proteasome system controls apoptosis by regulating the level and the function of key regulatory proteins. In the present study, we identified Trim17, a member of the TRIM/RBCC protein family, as one of the critical E3 ubiquitin-ligases involved in the control of neuronal apoptosis upstream of mitochondria. We show that expression of Trim17 is increased both at the mRNA and protein level in several in vitro models of transcription-dependent neuronal apoptosis. Expression of Trim17 is controlled by the PI3K/Akt/GSK3 pathway in cerebellar granule neurons (CGN). Moreover, the Trim17 protein is expressed in vivo, in apoptotic neurons that naturally die during postnatal cerebellar development. Overexpression of active Trim17 in primary CGN was sufficient to induce the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis in survival conditions. This proapoptotic effect was abolished in Bax−/− neurons and depended on the E3 activity of Trim17 conferred by its RING domain. Furthermore, knock-down of endogenous Trim17 and overexpression of dominant-negative mutants of Trim17 blocked trophic factor withdrawal-induced apoptosis both in CGN and in sympathetic neurons. Collectively, our data are the first to assign a cellular function to Trim17 by showing that its E3 activity is both necessary and sufficient for the initiation of neuronal apoptosis. PMID:20559321

  4. Structural basis for two-step glucose trimming by glucosidase II involved in ER glycoprotein quality control

    PubMed Central

    Satoh, Tadashi; Toshimori, Takayasu; Yan, Gengwei; Yamaguchi, Takumi; Kato, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has a sophisticated protein quality control system for the efficient folding of newly synthesized proteins. In this system, a variety of N-linked oligosaccharides displayed on proteins serve as signals recognized by series of intracellular lectins. Glucosidase II catalyzes two-step hydrolysis at α1,3-linked glucose–glucose and glucose–mannose residues of high-mannose-type glycans to generate a quality control protein tag that is transiently expressed on glycoproteins and recognized by ER chaperones. Here we determined the crystal structures of the catalytic α subunit of glucosidase II (GIIα) complexed with two different glucosyl ligands containing the scissile bonds of first- and second-step reactions. Our structural data revealed that the nonreducing terminal disaccharide moieties of the two kinds of substrates can be accommodated in a gourd-shaped bilocular pocket, thereby providing a structural basis for substrate-binding specificity in the two-step deglucosylation catalyzed by this enzyme. PMID:26847925

  5. Structural basis for two-step glucose trimming by glucosidase II involved in ER glycoprotein quality control.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Tadashi; Toshimori, Takayasu; Yan, Gengwei; Yamaguchi, Takumi; Kato, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has a sophisticated protein quality control system for the efficient folding of newly synthesized proteins. In this system, a variety of N-linked oligosaccharides displayed on proteins serve as signals recognized by series of intracellular lectins. Glucosidase II catalyzes two-step hydrolysis at α1,3-linked glucose-glucose and glucose-mannose residues of high-mannose-type glycans to generate a quality control protein tag that is transiently expressed on glycoproteins and recognized by ER chaperones. Here we determined the crystal structures of the catalytic α subunit of glucosidase II (GIIα) complexed with two different glucosyl ligands containing the scissile bonds of first- and second-step reactions. Our structural data revealed that the nonreducing terminal disaccharide moieties of the two kinds of substrates can be accommodated in a gourd-shaped bilocular pocket, thereby providing a structural basis for substrate-binding specificity in the two-step deglucosylation catalyzed by this enzyme. PMID:26847925

  6. Evaluation of peroxyacetic acid as a potential pre-grinding treatment for control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium on beef trimmings.

    PubMed

    Ellebracht, J W; King, D A; Castillo, A; Lucia, L M; Acuff, G R; Harris, K B; Savell, J W

    2005-05-01

    Peroxyacetic acid was evaluated in four separate trials for ability to reduce populations of Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella serotype Typhimurium on fresh beef trim. Trial 1 examined the effectiveness of peroxyacetic acid on individual pieces of fresh beef trim. Trial 2 evaluated the efficacy of peroxyacetic acid at low levels of contamination on batches of fresh beef trim. Trial 3 studied a washing effect of water. Lastly, Trial 4 compared the effectiveness of peroxyacetic acid to lactic acid. At various inoculation levels, peroxyacetic acid reduced populations of both pathogens by approximately 1.0log(10)CFU/cm(2) on fresh beef trim. Trial 3 showed that approximately half of the reductions found in Trials 1 and 2 were due to a washing effect of the water dip. In addition, as shown in Trial 1, increases in concentrations (>200ppm) did not significantly increase log(10) reductions of both pathogens. Following a water dip in Trial 4, peroxyacetic acid caused a reduction of 0.7log(10)CFU/cm(2) in E. coli O157:H7 and 1.0log(10)CFU/cm(2) in Salmonella Typhimurium, whereas lactic acid caused a reduction of 1.3log(10)CFU/cm(2) in E. coli O157:H7 and 2.1log(10)CFU/cm(2) in S. Typhimurium following the water dip. These results show that peroxyacetic acid was not more effective than 2% l-lactic acid in reducing pathogens on fresh beef trim. PMID:22063297

  7. Functional Laser Trimming Of Thin Film Resistors On Silicon ICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Michael J.; Mickanin, Wes

    1986-07-01

    Modern Laser Wafer Trimming (LWT) technology achieves exceptional analog circuit performance and precision while maintain-ing the advantages of high production throughput and yield. Microprocessor-driven instrumentation has both emphasized the role of data conversion circuits and demanded sophisticated signal conditioning functions. Advanced analog semiconductor circuits with bandwidths over 1 GHz, and high precision, trimmable, thin-film resistors meet many of todays emerging circuit requirements. Critical to meeting these requirements are optimum choices of laser characteristics, proper materials, trimming process control, accurate modeling of trimmed resistor performance, and appropriate circuit design. Once limited exclusively to hand-crafted, custom integrated circuits, designs are now available in semi-custom circuit configurations. These are similar to those provided for digital designs and supported by computer-aided design (CAD) tools. Integrated with fully automated measurement and trimming systems, these quality circuits can now be produced in quantity to meet the requirements of communications, instrumentation, and signal processing markets.

  8. The role of Trim25 in development, disease and RNA metabolism.

    PubMed

    Heikel, Gregory; Choudhury, Nila Roy; Michlewski, Gracjan

    2016-08-15

    Trim25 is a member of the tripartite motif family of E3 ubiquitin ligases. It plays major roles in innate immunity and defence against viral infection, control of cell proliferation and migration of cancer cells. Recent work identified Trim25 as being able to bind to RNA and to regulate Lin28a-mediated uridylation of pre-let-7. Here we review the current knowledge of the role of Trim25 in development, disease and RNA metabolism. PMID:27528750

  9. Oxygen-depleted zones inside reproductive structures of Brassicaceae: implications for oxygen control of seed development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porterfield, D. M.; Kuang, A.; Smith, P. J.; Crispi, M. L.; Musgrave, M. E.

    1999-01-01

    Growth of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. in decreasing oxygen partial pressures revealed a linear decrease in seed production below 15 kPa, with a complete absence of seed production at 2.5 kPa oxygen. This control of plant reproduction by oxygen had previously been attributed to an oxygen effect on the partitioning between vegetative and reproductive growth. However, plants grown in a series of decreasing oxygen concentrations produced progressively smaller embryos that had stopped developing at progressively younger stages, suggesting instead that their growth is limited by oxygen. Internal oxygen concentrations of buds, pistils, and developing siliques of Brassica rapa L. and siliques of Arabidopsis were measured using a small-diameter glass electrode that was moved into the structures using a micromanipulator. Oxygen partial pressures were found to be lowest in the developing perianth (11.1 kPa) and pistils (15.2 kPa) of the unopened buds. Pollination reduced oxygen concentration inside the pistils by 3 kPa after just 24 h. Inside Brassica silique locules, partial pressures of oxygen averaged 12.2 kPa in darkness, and increased linearly with increasing light levels to 16.2 kPa. Measurements inside Arabidopsis siliques averaged 6.1 kPa in the dark and rose to 12.2 kPa with light. Hypoxia in these microenvironments is postulated to be the point of control of plant reproduction by oxygen.

  10. Tinning/Trimming Robot System

    SciTech Connect

    Fureigh, M.L.

    1993-02-01

    In a new surface mount assembly area at AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD), a tinning/trimming robot system tins and trims the gold-plated leads of surface mount technology (SMT) transistors. The KCD-designed system uses a Unimation PUMA 260 robot, a General Production Devices SP-2000 solder pot; water-soluble Blackstone No. 2508 flux; and a Virtual Industries high-temperature, ESD-conductive, miniature suction cup. After the manual cleaning operation, the processed SMT transistors go to the QUADSTAR Automated Component Placement System for a Radar Logic Assembly. The benefits are reductions in the cost of nonconformance, worker fatigue, and standard hours.

  11. 7 CFR 51.3063 - Well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well trimmed. 51.3063 Section 51.3063 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Florida Avocados Definitions § 51.3063 Well trimmed. Well trimmed means that the stem,...

  12. 7 CFR 51.3063 - Well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well trimmed. 51.3063 Section 51.3063 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Florida Avocados Definitions § 51.3063 Well trimmed. Well trimmed means that the stem,...

  13. 7 CFR 51.571 - Well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well trimmed. 51.571 Section 51.571 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.571 Well trimmed. Well trimmed means that not more than 2...

  14. 7 CFR 51.607 - Well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well trimmed. 51.607 Section 51.607 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.607 Well trimmed. Well trimmed means that the...

  15. 7 CFR 51.571 - Well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Well trimmed. 51.571 Section 51.571 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.571 Well trimmed. Well trimmed means that not more than 2...

  16. 7 CFR 51.607 - Well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Well trimmed. 51.607 Section 51.607 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Consumer Standards for Celery Stalks Definitions § 51.607 Well trimmed. Well trimmed means that the...

  17. Trim drag reduction concepts for horizontal takeoff single-stage-to-Orbit vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaughnessy, John D.; Gregory, Irene M.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a study to investigate concepts for minimizing trim drag of horizontal takeoff single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) vehicles are presented. A generic hypersonic airbreathing conical configuration was used as the subject aircraft. The investigation indicates that extreme forward migration of the aerodynamic center as the vehicle accelerates to orbital velocities causes severe aerodynamic instability and trim moments that must be counteracted. Adequate stability can be provided by active control of elevons and rudder, but use of elevons to produce trim moments results in excessive trim drag and fuel consumption. To alleviate this problem, two solution concepts are examined. Active control of the center of gravity (COG) location to track the aerodynamic center decreases trim moment requirements, reduces elevon deflections, and leads to significant fuel savings. Active control of the direction of the thrust vector produces required trim moments, reduces elevon deflections, and also results in significant fuel savings. It is concluded that the combination of active flight control to provide stabilization, (COG) position control to minimize trim moment requirements, and thrust vectoring to generate required trim moments has the potential to significantly reduce fuel consumption during ascent to orbit of horizontal takeoff SSTO vehicles.

  18. TRIM-mediated precision autophagy targets cytoplasmic regulators of innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Tomonori; Jain, Ashish; Choi, Seong Won; Mandell, Michael A; Schroder, Kate; Johansen, Terje; Deretic, Vojo

    2015-09-14

    The present paradigms of selective autophagy in mammalian cells cannot fully explain the specificity and selectivity of autophagic degradation. In this paper, we report that a subset of tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins act as specialized receptors for highly specific autophagy (precision autophagy) of key components of the inflammasome and type I interferon response systems. TRIM20 targets the inflammasome components, including NLRP3, NLRP1, and pro-caspase 1, for autophagic degradation, whereas TRIM21 targets IRF3. TRIM20 and TRIM21 directly bind their respective cargo and recruit autophagic machinery to execute degradation. The autophagic function of TRIM20 is affected by mutations associated with familial Mediterranean fever. These findings broaden the concept of TRIMs acting as autophagic receptor regulators executing precision autophagy of specific cytoplasmic targets. In the case of TRIM20 and TRIM21, precision autophagy controls the hub signaling machineries and key factors, inflammasome and type I interferon, directing cardinal innate immunity response systems in humans. PMID:26347139

  19. Methods to study the tumor microenvironment under controlled oxygen conditions

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Matthew B.; Leslie, Matthew T.; Gaskins, H. Rex; Kenis, Paul J.A.

    2014-01-01

    The tumor microenvironment is a complex heterogeneous assembly composed of a variety of cell types and physical features. One such feature, hypoxia, is associated with metabolic reprogramming, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and therapeutic resistance. Many questions remain regarding the effects of hypoxia on these outcomes, yet only few experimental methods enable both precise control over oxygen concentration and real-time imaging of cell behavior. Recent efforts with microfluidic platforms offer a promising solution to these limitations. We discuss conventional methods and tools used to control oxygen concentration for cell studies then highlight recent advances in microfluidic-based approaches for controlling oxygen in engineered platforms. PMID:25282035

  20. Supersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of Blunt Body Trim Tab Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korzun, Ashley M.; Murphy, Kelly J.; Edquist, Karl T.

    2013-01-01

    Trim tabs are aerodynamic control surfaces that can allow an entry vehicle to meet aerodynamic performance requirements while reducing or eliminating the use of ballast mass and providing a capability to modulate the lift-to-drag ratio during entry. Force and moment data were obtained on 38 unique, blunt body trim tab configurations in the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The data were used to parametrically assess the supersonic aerodynamic performance of trim tabs and to understand the influence of tab area, cant angle, and aspect ratio. Across the range of conditions tested (Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5; angles of attack from -4deg to +20deg; angles of sideslip from 0deg to +8deg), the effects of varying tab area and tab cant angle were found to be much more significant than effects from varying tab aspect ratio. Aerodynamic characteristics exhibited variation with Mach number and forebody geometry over the range of conditions tested. Overall, the results demonstrate that trim tabs are a viable approach to satisfy aerodynamic performance requirements of blunt body entry vehicles with minimal ballast mass. For a 70deg sphere-cone, a tab with 3% area of the forebody and canted approximately 35deg with no ballast mass was found to give the same trim aerodynamics as a baseline model with ballast mass that was 5% of the total entry mass.

  1. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2002-08-01

    This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the ninth quarter April-June 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Full-scale testing using the Industrial Boiler Simulation Facility (ISBF) at Alstom Power was completed. The pilot scale experiments to evaluate the effect of air preheat and transport air stoichiometric ratio (SR) on NOx emissions were conducted at the University of Utah. Combustion modeling activities continued with full-scale combustion test furnace simulations. An OTM element was tested in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility and two thermal cycles were completed. PSO1d elements of new dimension were tested resulting in a lower flux than previous PSO1d elements of different dimensions, however, no element deformation was observed. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Two potential host beta sites have been identified and proposals submitted.

  2. Decomposing trimmed surfaces using the Voronoie tesselation

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Po-Yu; Hamann, B.

    1996-12-31

    Many applications deal with the rendering of trimmed surfaces and the generation of grids for trimmed surfaces. Usually, a structured or unstructured grid must be constructed in the parameter space of the trimmed surface. Trimmed surfaces not only cause problems in the context of grid generation but also when exchanging data between different CAD systems. This paper describes a new approach for decomposing the valid part of the parameter space of a trimmed surface into a set of four-sided surfaces. The boundaries of these four-sided surfaces axe line segments, segments of the trimming curves themselves, and segments of bisecting curves that are defined by a generalized Voronoi diagram implied by the trimming curves in parameter space. We use a triangular background mesh for the approximation of the bisecting curves of the generalized Voronoi diagram.

  3. TRIM32 regulates skeletal muscle stem cell differentiation and is necessary for normal adult muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Nicklas, Sarah; Otto, Anthony; Wu, Xiaoli; Miller, Pamela; Stelzer, Sandra; Wen, Yefei; Kuang, Shihuan; Wrogemann, Klaus; Patel, Ketan; Ding, Hao; Schwamborn, Jens C

    2012-01-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H (LGMD2H) is an inherited autosomal recessive disease of skeletal muscle caused by a mutation in the TRIM32 gene. Currently its pathogenesis is entirely unclear. Typically the regeneration process of adult skeletal muscle during growth or following injury is controlled by a tissue specific stem cell population termed satellite cells. Given that TRIM32 regulates the fate of mammalian neural progenitor cells through controlling their differentiation, we asked whether TRIM32 could also be essential for the regulation of myogenic stem cells. Here we demonstrate for the first time that TRIM32 is expressed in the skeletal muscle stem cell lineage of adult mice, and that in the absence of TRIM32, myogenic differentiation is disrupted. Moreover, we show that the ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 controls this process through the regulation of c-Myc, a similar mechanism to that previously observed in neural progenitors. Importantly we show that loss of TRIM32 function induces a LGMD2H-like phenotype and strongly affects muscle regeneration in vivo. Our studies implicate that the loss of TRIM32 results in dysfunctional muscle stem cells which could contribute to the development of LGMD2H. PMID:22299041

  4. Noise Reduction in an Aircraft Fuselage Model Using Active Trim Panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silcox, Richard J.; Lyle, Karen H.

    1996-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the use of force actuators on a model aircraft interior trim panel as the control element for active control of interior noise. The trim panel, designed specifically for this study, was constructed in three large identical sections and hard mounted to the ring frames of the primary structure. Piezoceramic actuators were bonded to the outer surface of the trim panels. Studies of the interior pressure response due to both the primary source alone and control sources alone were conducted as well as the control cases. A single acoustic loudspeaker, centered at the axial midpoint, generated the acoustic field to be controlled.

  5. Strain control of oxygen vacancies in epitaxial strontium cobaltite films

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jeen, Hyoung Jeen; Choi, Woo Seok; Reboredo, Fernando A.; Freeland, John W.; Eres, Gyula; Lee, Ho Nyung; Petrie, Jonathan R.; Mitra, Chandrima; Meyer, Tricia L.

    2016-01-25

    In this study, the ability to manipulate oxygen anion defects rather than metal cations in complex oxides can facilitate creating new functionalities critical for emerging energy and device technologies. However, the difficulty in activating oxygen at reduced temperatures hinders the deliberate control of important defects, oxygen vacancies. Here, strontium cobaltite (SrCoOx) is used to demonstrate that epitaxial strain is a powerful tool for manipulating the oxygen vacancy concentration even under highly oxidizing environments and at annealing temperatures as low as 300 °C. By applying a small biaxial tensile strain (2%), the oxygen activation energy barrier decreases by ≈30%, resulting inmore » a tunable oxygen deficient steady-state under conditions that would normally fully oxidize unstrained cobaltite. These strain-induced changes in oxygen stoichiometry drive the cobaltite from a ferromagnetic metal towards an antiferromagnetic insulator. The ability to decouple the oxygen vacancy concentration from its typical dependence on the operational environment is useful for effectively designing oxides materials with a specific oxygen stoichiometry.« less

  6. Automation and control of off-planet oxygen production processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marner, W. J.; Suitor, J. W.; Schooley, L. S.; Cellier, F. E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper addresses several aspects of the automation and control of off-planet production processes. First, a general approach to process automation and control is discussed from the viewpoint of translating human process control procedures into automated procedures. Second, the control issues for the automation and control of off-planet oxygen processes are discussed. Sensors, instruments, and components are defined and discussed in the context of off-planet applications, and the need for 'smart' components is clearly established.

  7. TRIM25 has a dual function in the p53/Mdm2 circuit.

    PubMed

    Zhang, P; Elabd, S; Hammer, S; Solozobova, V; Yan, H; Bartel, F; Inoue, S; Henrich, T; Wittbrodt, J; Loosli, F; Davidson, G; Blattner, C

    2015-11-12

    P53 is an important tumor suppressor that, upon activation, induces growth arrest and cell death. Control of p53 is thus of prime importance for proliferating cells, but also for cancer therapy, where p53 activity contributes to the eradication of tumors. Mdm2 functionally inhibits p53 and targets the tumor suppressor protein for degradation. In a genetic screen, we identified TRIM25 as a novel regulator of p53 and Mdm2. TRIM25 increased p53 and Mdm2 abundance by inhibiting their ubiquitination and degradation in 26 S proteasomes. TRIM25 co-precipitated with p53 and Mdm2 and interfered with the association of p300 and Mdm2, a critical step for p53 polyubiquitination. Despite the increase in p53 levels, p53 activity was inhibited in the presence of TRIM25. Downregulation of TRIM25 resulted in an increased acetylation of p53 and p53-dependent cell death in HCT116 cells. Upon genotoxic insults, TRIM25 dampened the p53-dependent DNA damage response. The downregulation of TRIM25 furthermore resulted in massive apoptosis during early embryogenesis of medaka, which was rescued by the concomitant downregulation of p53, demonstrating the functional relevance of the regulation of p53 by TRIM25 in an organismal context. PMID:25728675

  8. 142. STANDBY PRESSURE CONTROL UNIT FOR FUEL AND LIQUID OXYGEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    142. STANDBY PRESSURE CONTROL UNIT FOR FUEL AND LIQUID OXYGEN IN SOUTHWEST PORTION OF CONTROL ROOM (214), LSB (BLDG. 751), FACING WEST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. Microbial degradation and humification of the lawn care pesticide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid during the composting of yard trimmings.

    PubMed Central

    Michel, F C; Reddy, C A; Forney, L J

    1995-01-01

    The fate of the widely used lawn care herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) during the composting of yard trimmings consisting of primarily leaves and grass is an important unexplored question. In this study, we determined the extent of 2,4-D mineralization, incorporation into humic matter, volatilization, and sorption during the composting of yard trimmings. Yard trimmings (2:1 [wt/wt] leaves-grass) were amended with 14C-ring-labeled 2,4-D (17 mg/kg of dry weight) and composted in a temperature-controlled laboratory scale compost system. During composting, thermophilic microbes were numerically dominant, reaching a maximum of 2 x 10(11)/g. At the end of composting, 46% of the organic matter (OM) present in the yard trimmings was lost and the compost was stable, with an oxygen uptake rate of 0.09 mg of O2 per g of OM per h, and was well humified (humification index, 0.39). Mineralization of the OM temporally paralleled mineralization of 2,4-D. In the final compost, 47% of the added 2,4-D carbon was mineralized, about 23% was complexed with high-molecular-weight humic acids, and about 20% was not extractable (humin fraction). Less than 1% of the added 14C was present in water expressed from the finished compost, suggesting a low potential for leaching of 2,4-D. Very little volatilization of 2,4-D occurred during composting. It is of interest that our results indicate active mineralization of 2,4-D at composting temperatures of 60 degrees C because microbial 2,4-D degradation at thermophilic temperatures has not been previously documented. PMID:7618868

  10. Effect of partial comb and wattle trim on pullet behavior and thermoregulation,1.

    PubMed

    Hester, P Y; Al-Ramamneh, D S; Makagon, M M; Cheng, H W

    2015-05-01

    The wattles and comb of chickens are important for thermoregulation allowing for heat exchange during high temperatures. These integumentary tissues are sometimes trimmed to prevent tears if caught on cage equipment and to also improve feed efficiency; however, the procedure itself could be painful to chicks. Our objective was to determine the effect of trimming the comb and wattles on behavior, BW, feed usage, and the surface temperature of pullets. The wattles and comb of Leghorns were partially trimmed at 21 d age (n = 6 cages, 13 chicks each) with another 6 cages serving as controls. Behaviors were recorded 3 times daily for 1 h starting at 0800, 1200, and 1500 using instantaneous scan sampling observations conducted every 5 min prior to, on the d of, and after the trim. Group BW at 21, 28, and 36 d age and the amount of feed used for 7 d beginning at 21 and 29 d age were measured per cage. At 1300 h on d before and after the trim, thermal images of the pullet's beak, comb, eye, wattle, and shank were randomly taken on 3 pullets/cage. Smaller proportions of trimmed chicks were eating and greater proportions were sitting on the d of the trim as compared to the controls with the opposite trend occurring on 4 d post-trim (treatment by age interaction, P = 0.03 and 0.0001, respectively). Standing behavior differed only on the d of the trim where smaller proportions of trimmed pullets stood as compared to intact controls (treatment by age interaction, P = 0.0002). Trimming the comb and wattles did not affect preening, running, BW, feed utilization, and the surface temperature of the pullet. The indices of behavior suggest that on the d of the trim, pullets may have experienced temporary distress, but they returned to normal behavior by 5 h post-trim with no long-term effect on BW, feed usage, or surface body temperature. PMID:25796274

  11. Control of oxygen uptake during exercise.

    PubMed

    Poole, David C; Barstow, Thomas J; McDonough, Paul; Jones, Andrew M

    2008-03-01

    Other than during sleep and contrived laboratory testing protocols, humans rarely exist in prolonged metabolic steady states; rather, they transition among different metabolic rates (V O2). The dynamic transition of V O2 (V O2 kinetics), initiated, for example, at exercise onset, provides a unique window into understanding metabolic control. This brief review presents the state-of-the art regarding control of V O2 kinetics within the context of a simple model that helps explain the work rate dependence of V O2 kinetics as well as the effects of environmental perturbations and disease. Insights emerging from application of novel approaches and technologies are integrated into established concepts to assess in what circumstances O2 supply might exert a commanding role over V O2 kinetics, and where it probably does not. The common presumption that capillary blood flow dynamics can be extrapolated accurately from upstream arterial measurements is challenged. From this challenge, new complexities emerge with respect to the relationships between O2 supply and flux across the capillary-myocyte interface and the marked dependence of these processes on muscle fiber type. Indeed, because of interfiber type differences in O2 supply relative to V O2, the presence of much lower O2 levels in the microcirculation supplying fast-twitch muscle fibers, and the demonstrated metabolic sensitivity of muscle to O2, it is possible that fiber type recruitment profiles (and changes thereof) might help explain the slowing of V O2 kinetics at higher work rates and in chronic diseases such as heart failure and diabetes. PMID:18379208

  12. An Interview with John Trim at 80

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saville, Nick

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Dr. John Trim, which was recorded at his home in Cambridge on January 21, 2005, not long after his 80th birthday in October 2004. Although he would not consider himself a language tester, Dr. Trim has followed the trends in language assessment since the 1960s and his own work, particularly as a coauthor of…

  13. Biochemical and Biophysical Characterization of a Chimeric TRIM21-TRIM5α Protein▿

    PubMed Central

    Kar, Alak Kanti; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Li, Yuan; Li, Xing; Sodroski, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    The tripartite motif (TRIM) protein, TRIM5α, is an endogenous factor in primates that recognizes the capsids of certain retroviruses after virus entry into the host cell. TRIM5α promotes premature uncoating of the capsid, thus blocking virus infection. Low levels of expression and tendencies to aggregate have hindered the biochemical, biophysical, and structural characterization of TRIM proteins. Here, a chimeric TRIM5α protein (TRIM5Rh-21R) with a RING domain derived from TRIM21 was expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells and purified. Although a fraction of the TRIM5Rh-21R protein formed large aggregates, soluble fractions of the protein formed oligomers (mainly dimers), exhibited a protease-resistant core, and contained a high percentage of helical secondary structure. Cross-linking followed by negative staining and electron microscopy suggested a globular structure. The purified TRIM5Rh-21R protein displayed E3-ligase activity in vitro and also self-ubiquitylated in the presence of ubiquitin-activating and -conjugating enzymes. The purified TRIM5Rh-21R protein specifically associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid-like complexes; a deletion within the V1 variable region of the B30.2(SPRY) domain decreased capsid binding. Thus, the TRIM5Rh-21R restriction factor can directly recognize retroviral capsid-like complexes in the absence of other mammalian proteins. PMID:18799572

  14. Biochemical and biophysical characterization of a chimeric TRIM21-TRIM5alpha protein.

    PubMed

    Kar, Alak Kanti; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Li, Yuan; Li, Xing; Sodroski, Joseph

    2008-12-01

    The tripartite motif (TRIM) protein, TRIM5alpha, is an endogenous factor in primates that recognizes the capsids of certain retroviruses after virus entry into the host cell. TRIM5alpha promotes premature uncoating of the capsid, thus blocking virus infection. Low levels of expression and tendencies to aggregate have hindered the biochemical, biophysical, and structural characterization of TRIM proteins. Here, a chimeric TRIM5alpha protein (TRIM5(Rh)-21R) with a RING domain derived from TRIM21 was expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells and purified. Although a fraction of the TRIM5(Rh)-21R protein formed large aggregates, soluble fractions of the protein formed oligomers (mainly dimers), exhibited a protease-resistant core, and contained a high percentage of helical secondary structure. Cross-linking followed by negative staining and electron microscopy suggested a globular structure. The purified TRIM5(Rh)-21R protein displayed E3-ligase activity in vitro and also self-ubiquitylated in the presence of ubiquitin-activating and -conjugating enzymes. The purified TRIM5(Rh)-21R protein specifically associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid-like complexes; a deletion within the V1 variable region of the B30.2(SPRY) domain decreased capsid binding. Thus, the TRIM5(Rh)-21R restriction factor can directly recognize retroviral capsid-like complexes in the absence of other mammalian proteins. PMID:18799572

  15. Alterations in functional thalamocortical connectivity following neonatal whisker trimming with adult regrowth

    PubMed Central

    Carvell, G. E.; Kyriazi, H. T.

    2015-01-01

    Neonatal whisker trimming followed by adult whisker regrowth leads to higher responsiveness and altered receptive field properties of cortical neurons in corresponding layer 4 barrels. Studies of functional thalamocortical (TC) connectivity in normally reared adult rats have provided insights into how experience-dependent TC synaptic plasticity could impact the establishment of feedforward excitatory and inhibitory receptive fields. The present study employed cross-correlation analyses to investigate lasting effects of neonatal whisker trimming on functional connections between simultaneously recorded thalamic neurons and regular-spike (RS), presumed excitatory, and fast-spike (FS), presumed inhibitory, barrel neurons. We find that, as reported previously, RS and FS cells in whisker-trimmed animals fire more during the earliest phase of their whisker-evoked responses, corresponding to the arrival of TC inputs, despite a lack of change or even a slight decrease in the firing of thalamic cells that contact them. Functional connections from thalamus to cortex are stronger. The probability of finding TC-RS connections was twofold greater in trimmed animals and similar to the frequency of TC-FS connections in control and trimmed animals, the latter being unaffected by whisker trimming. Unlike control cases, trimmed RS units are more likely to receive inputs from TC units (TCUs) and have mismatched angular tuning and even weakly responsive TCUs make strong functional connections on them. Results indicate that developmentally appropriate tactile experience early in life promotes the differential thalamic engagement of excitatory and inhibitory cortical neurons that underlies normal barrel function. PMID:26245317

  16. Impact of TRIM5α in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Emi E.; Shioda, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    HIV type 1 (HIV-1) has a very narrow host range that is limited to humans and chimpanzees. HIV-1 cannot replicate well in Old World monkey cells such as rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys. Tripartite motif (TRIM)5α is a key molecule that confers potent resistance against HIV-1 infection and is composed of really interesting new gene, B-box2, coiled-coil and PRYSPRY domains. Interaction between TRIM5α PRYSPRY domains and HIV-1 capsid core triggers the anti-HIV-1 activity of TRIM5α. Analysis of natural HIV variants and extensive mutational experiments has revealed the presence of critical amino acid residues in both the PRYSPRY domain and HIV capsid for potent HIV suppression by TRIM5α. Genetic manipulation of the human TRIM5 gene could establish human cells totally resistant to HIV-1, which may lead to a cure for HIV-1 infection in the future. PMID:26372380

  17. Control of seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana by atmospheric oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, A.; Crispi, M.; Musgrave, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    Seed development is known to be inhibited completely when plants are grown in oxygen concentrations below 5.1 kPa, but apart from reports of decreased seed weight little is known about embryogenesis at subambient oxygen concentrations above this critical level. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants were grown full term under continuous light in premixed atmospheres with oxygen partial pressures of 2.5, 5.1, 10.1, 16.2 and 21.3 kPa O2, 0.035 kPa CO2 and the balance nitrogen. Seeds were harvested for germination tests and microscopy when siliques had yellowed. Seed germination was depressed in O2 treatments below 16.2 kPa, and seeds from plants grown in 2.5 kPa O2 did not germinate at all. Fewer than 25% of the seeds from plants grown in 5.1 kPa oxygen germinated and most of the seedlings appeared abnormal. Light and scanning electron microscopic observation of non-germinated seeds showed that these embryos had stopped growing at different developmental stages depending upon the prevailing oxygen level. Embryos stopped growing at the heart-shaped to linear cotyledon stage in 5.1 kPa O2, at around the curled cotyledon stage in 10.1 kPa O2, and at the premature stage in 16.2 kPa O2. Globular and heart-shaped embryos were observed in sectioned seeds from plants grown in 2.5 kPa O2. Tissue degeneration caused by cell autolysis and changes in cell structure were observed in cotyledons and radicles. Transmission electron microscopy of mature seeds showed that storage substances, such as protein bodies, were reduced in subambient oxygen treatments. The results demonstrate control of embryo development by oxygen in Arabidopsis.

  18. Environmental Control and Life Support System, Oxygen Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This is a close-up view of ECLSS Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack. The ECLSS Group at the MSFC oversees the development of the OGS, which produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen lost due to experiment use, airlock depressurization, module leakage, and carbon dioxide venting. The OGS consists primarily of the Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA), provided by the prime contractor, the Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems, International (HSSSI) in Windsor Locks, Cornecticut and a Power Supply Module (PSM), supplied by the MSFC. The OGA is comprised of a cell stack that electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the Water Recovery System and the separators that remove the gases from water after electrolysis. The PSM provides the high power to the OGA needed to electrolyze the water.

  19. Oxygen-controlled biosurfactant production in a bench scale bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Kronemberger, Frederico de Araujo; Santa Anna, Lidia Maria Melo; Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; Menezes, Reginaldo Ramos de; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

    2008-03-01

    Rhamnolipids have been pointed out as promising biosurfactants. The most studied microorganisms for the aerobic production of these molecules are the bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. The aim of this work was to produce a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant in a bench-scale bioreactor by one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil environments. To study the microorganism growth and production dependency on oxygen, a nondispersive oxygenation device was developed, and a programmable logic controller (PLC) was used to set the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Using the data stored in a computer and the predetermined characteristics of the oxygenation device, it was possible to evaluate the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and the specific OUR (SOUR) of this microorganism. These rates, obtained for some different DO concentrations, were then compared to the bacterial growth, to the carbon source consumption, and to the rhamnolipid and other virulence factors production. The SOUR presented an initial value of about 60.0 mgO(2)/g(DW) h. Then, when the exponential growth phase begins, there is a rise in this rate. After that, the SOUR reduces to about 20.0 mgO(2)/g(DW) h. The carbon source consumption is linear during the whole process. PMID:18401751

  20. Surface control of epitaxial manganite films via oxygen pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Tselev, Alexander; Vasudevan, Rama K.; Gianfrancesco, Anthony G.; Qiao, Liang; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Meyer, Tricia L.; Lee, Ho Nyung; Biegalski, Michael D.; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Kalinin, Sergei

    2015-03-11

    The trend to reduce device dimensions demands increasing attention to atomic-scale details of structure of thin films as well as to pathways to control it. We found that this is of special importance in the systems with multiple competing interactions. We have used in situ scanning tunneling microscopy to image surfaces of La5/8Ca3/8MnO3 films grown by pulsed laser deposition. The atomically resolved imaging was combined with in situ angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We find a strong effect of the background oxygen pressure during deposition on structural and chemical features of the film surface. Deposition at 50 mTorr of O2 leads to mixed-terminated film surfaces, with B-site (MnO2) termination being structurally imperfect at the atomic scale. Moreover, a relatively small reduction of the oxygen pressure to 20 mTorr results in a dramatic change of the surface structure leading to a nearly perfectly ordered B-site terminated surface with only a small fraction of A-site (La,Ca)O termination. This is accompanied, however, by surface roughening at a mesoscopic length scale. The results suggest that oxygen has a strong link to the adatom mobility during growth. The effect of the oxygen pressure on dopant surface segregation is also pronounced: Ca surface segregation is decreased with oxygen pressure reduction.

  1. Surface control of epitaxial manganite films via oxygen pressure

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Tselev, Alexander; Vasudevan, Rama K.; Gianfrancesco, Anthony G.; Qiao, Liang; Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Meyer, Tricia L.; Lee, Ho Nyung; Biegalski, Michael D.; Baddorf, Arthur P.; Kalinin, Sergei

    2015-03-11

    The trend to reduce device dimensions demands increasing attention to atomic-scale details of structure of thin films as well as to pathways to control it. We found that this is of special importance in the systems with multiple competing interactions. We have used in situ scanning tunneling microscopy to image surfaces of La5/8Ca3/8MnO3 films grown by pulsed laser deposition. The atomically resolved imaging was combined with in situ angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We find a strong effect of the background oxygen pressure during deposition on structural and chemical features of the film surface. Deposition at 50 mTorr of O2 leadsmore » to mixed-terminated film surfaces, with B-site (MnO2) termination being structurally imperfect at the atomic scale. Moreover, a relatively small reduction of the oxygen pressure to 20 mTorr results in a dramatic change of the surface structure leading to a nearly perfectly ordered B-site terminated surface with only a small fraction of A-site (La,Ca)O termination. This is accompanied, however, by surface roughening at a mesoscopic length scale. The results suggest that oxygen has a strong link to the adatom mobility during growth. The effect of the oxygen pressure on dopant surface segregation is also pronounced: Ca surface segregation is decreased with oxygen pressure reduction.« less

  2. TRIM5α Disrupts the Structure of Assembled HIV-1 Capsid Complexes In Vitro▿

    PubMed Central

    Black, Lesa R.; Aiken, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    The host restriction factor TRIM5α provides intrinsic defense against retroviral infections in mammalian cells. TRIM5α blocks infection by targeting the viral capsid after entry but prior to completion of reverse transcription, but whether this interaction directly alters the structure of the viral capsid is unknown. A previous study reported that rhesus macaque TRIM5α protein stably associates with cylindrical complexes formed by assembly of recombinant HIV-1 CA-NC protein in vitro and that restriction leads to accelerated HIV-1 uncoating in target cells. To gain further insight into the mechanism of TRIM5α-dependent restriction, we examined the structural effects of TRIM5 proteins on preassembled CA-NC complexes by electron microscopy. Incubation of assembled complexes with lysate of cells expressing the restrictive rhesus TRIM5α protein resulted in marked disruption of the normal cylindrical structure of the complexes. In contrast, incubation with lysate of control cells or cells expressing comparable levels of the nonrestrictive human TRIM5α protein had little effect on the complexes. Incubation with lysate of cells expressing the TRIMCyp restriction factor also disrupted the cylinders. The effect of TRIMCyp was prevented by the addition of cyclosporine, which inhibits binding of TRIMCyp to the HIV-1 capsid. Thus, disruption of CA-NC cylinders by TRIM5α and TRIMCyp was correlated with the specificity of restriction. Collectively, these results suggest that TRIM5α-dependent restriction of HIV-1 infection results from structural perturbation of the viral capsid leading to aberrant HIV-1 uncoating in target cells. PMID:20410272

  3. TRIM5alpha disrupts the structure of assembled HIV-1 capsid complexes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Black, Lesa R; Aiken, Christopher

    2010-07-01

    The host restriction factor TRIM5alpha provides intrinsic defense against retroviral infections in mammalian cells. TRIM5alpha blocks infection by targeting the viral capsid after entry but prior to completion of reverse transcription, but whether this interaction directly alters the structure of the viral capsid is unknown. A previous study reported that rhesus macaque TRIM5alpha protein stably associates with cylindrical complexes formed by assembly of recombinant HIV-1 CA-NC protein in vitro and that restriction leads to accelerated HIV-1 uncoating in target cells. To gain further insight into the mechanism of TRIM5alpha-dependent restriction, we examined the structural effects of TRIM5 proteins on preassembled CA-NC complexes by electron microscopy. Incubation of assembled complexes with lysate of cells expressing the restrictive rhesus TRIM5alpha protein resulted in marked disruption of the normal cylindrical structure of the complexes. In contrast, incubation with lysate of control cells or cells expressing comparable levels of the nonrestrictive human TRIM5alpha protein had little effect on the complexes. Incubation with lysate of cells expressing the TRIMCyp restriction factor also disrupted the cylinders. The effect of TRIMCyp was prevented by the addition of cyclosporine, which inhibits binding of TRIMCyp to the HIV-1 capsid. Thus, disruption of CA-NC cylinders by TRIM5alpha and TRIMCyp was correlated with the specificity of restriction. Collectively, these results suggest that TRIM5alpha-dependent restriction of HIV-1 infection results from structural perturbation of the viral capsid leading to aberrant HIV-1 uncoating in target cells. PMID:20410272

  4. Oxygen Control For Bioreactors And In-vitro Cell Assays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nock, V.; Blaikie, R. J.; David, T.

    2009-07-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) is an important parameter in biomedical and cell-culture applications. Several studies have found cell survival and function to be intimately linked to oxygen concentration. Laminar flow, as observed in microfluidic devices, provides an ideal environment to manipulate and control concentration gradients. In this paper we demonstrate the first characterization of integrated fluorescence-based oxygen sensors for DO measurement within a cell-culture bioreactor device. Solid-state PtOEPK/PS sensor patterns were integrated into the PDMS-based bioreactor and calibrated for detection of DO concentration with a superimposed layer of collagen and Ishikawa human endometrial cancer cells. The sensor signal of the layer subjacent to the cells was found to follow a Stern-Volmer model and the intensity ratio was measured to I0/I100 = 3.9 after 3 days in culture. The device provides a novel tool for the control and spatially-resolved measurement of oxygen levels in cellular assays and cell-culture applications.

  5. Oxygen enhances phosphine toxicity for postharvest pest control.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Biao

    2011-10-01

    Phosphine fumigations under superatmospheric oxygen levels (oxygenated phosphine fumigations) were significantly more effective than the fumigations under the normal 20.9% atmospheric oxygen level against western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)] adults and larvae, leafminer Liriomyza langei Frick pupae, grape mealybug [Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn)] eggs, and Indianmeal moth [Plodia interpunctella (Hübner)] eggs and pupae. In 5-h fumigations with 1,000 ppm phosphine at 5 degrees C, mortalities of western flower thrips increased significantly from 79.5 to 97.7% when oxygen was increased from 20.9 to 40% and reached 99.3% under 80% O2. Survivorships of leafminer pupae decreased significantly from 71.2% under 20.9% O2 to 16.2% under 40% O2 and reached 1.1% under 80% O2 in 24-h fumigations with 500 ppm phosphine at 5 degrees C. Complete control of leafminer pupae was achieved in 24-h fumigations with 1,000 ppm phosphine at 5 degrees C under 60% O2 or higher. Survivorships of grape mealybug eggs also decreased significantly in 48-h fumigations with 1,000 ppm phosphine at 2 degrees C under 60% O2 compared with the fumigations under 20.9% O2. Indian meal moth egg survivorships decreased significantly from 17.4 to 0.5% in responses to an oxygen level increase from 20.9 to 40% in 48-h fumigations with 1,000 ppm phosphine at 10 degrees C and reached 0.2% in fumigations under 80% O2. When the oxygen level was reduced from 20.9 to 15 and 10% in fumigations, survivorships of Indianmeal moth eggs increased significantly from 17.4 to 32.9 and 39.9%, respectively. Increased O2 levels also resulted in significantly lower survival rates of Indianmeal moth pupae in response to 24-h fumigations with 500 and 1,000 ppm phosphine at 10 degrees C and a complete control was achieved in the 1,000 ppm phosphine fumigations under 60% O2. Oxygenated phosphine fumigations have marked potential to improve insecticidal efficacy. Advantages and limitations of oxygenated

  6. The ability of White Leghorn hens with trimmed comb and wattles to thermoregulate.

    PubMed

    Al-Ramamneh, D S; Makagon, M M; Hester, P Y

    2016-08-01

    It is estimated that each year over 19 million pullets in the United States have their combs partially trimmed at a young age to improve egg production and feed efficiency. A possible disadvantage of trimming is that the comb and wattles may be essential for thermoregulation during hot weather allowing for conductive cooling of the blood through vasodilation of superficial vessels in these integumentary tissues. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of partial comb and wattle removal, performed at 21 d of age, on the ability of White Leghorns to thermoregulate before, during, and after an imposed heating episode that averaged 34.6°C for 50.5 h. An increase in mortality at 20 h and body temperature at 48 h post initiation of the heating episode demonstrated that hens with trimmed comb and wattles were not able to cope with heat stress as effectively as controls. The increase in wattle temperature in controls as compared to trimmed hens during the heating episode and following heat stress provides supportive evidence that blood pools to the peripheral surface for conductive heat loss. During high temperatures typical of summer, trimmed hens attempted to compensate for their lack of ability to transfer heat from their comb and wattles to the environment through increased proportion of panting and wing spreading. Under less extreme conditions with lowered ambient temperatures, the trimming of the comb and wattles did not impair the ability of hens to thermoregulate, as body temperatures and behavior were similar to controls with no mortality. Egg weight was the only production parameter adversely affected by the trimming of the comb and wattles as compared to controls. The implication is that hens need their combs and wattles to thermoregulate effectively during periods of high environmental temperature. Pullets should not be subjected to a comb and wattle trim if they are housed in laying facilities that are not appropriately cooled during the

  7. Compartment A1, trim tanks viewed aft to forward from watertight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-1, trim tanks viewed aft to forward from watertight bulkhead no. 6. Using remotely controlled valves, the tanks could be flooded with water or pumped clear to compensate for variations in the ship's displacement and maintain the water line at the desired point. The trim tanks could also be used to counteract the effect of variations in sea water density. (02) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. A trimming technique for capacitive SAR ADC as sensor interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ke, Liu; Zhankun, Du; Li, Shao; Xiao, Ma

    2015-12-01

    This work presented a trimming technique and algorithm applied in a capacitive successive approximation register (SAR) analog to digital converter (ADC) for a sensor interface, which can be integrated with the preceding sensor and the following controlling circuit. Without spending a special calibration phase or adding complicated functions, this circuit keeps a 12-bit resolution by trimming the capacitor array. Its merits of low power and small area make it suitable to be embedded in a power and cost sensitive system such as a battery-supplied sensor network node. The prototype 12-bit ADC is implemented by 0.5 μm 2P3M CMOS technology, with the wide supply range of 2-5 V, its power consumption is only 300 μA at a sampling speed of 200 kHz. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61204034).

  9. Controlling the bond scission sequence of oxygenates for energy applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stottlemyer, Alan L.

    intermediates was observed on the Pt and Pt/WC surfaces. For CH3OH decomposition, DFT calculations suggested that the bond scission sequence could be controlled using monolayer coverage of Pt on WC. The Ni/Pt bimetallic system was studied as an example for using oxygenates as a hydrogen source. There are two well characterized surface structures for the Ni/Pt system: the surface configuration, in which the Ni atoms reside primarily on the surface of the Pt bulk, and the subsurface configuration, in which the second atomic layer is enriched in Ni atoms and the surface is enriched in Pt atoms. These configurations are denoted NiPtPt and PtNiPt, respectively. DFT results revealed that trends established for the Ni/Pt(111) system extend to the Ni/Pt(100) analogue. TPD studies revealed that the NiPtPt surface was more active for oxygenate reforming than the Pt or PtNiPt surfaces. HREELS confirmed the presence of strongly bound reaction intermediates, including aldehyde-like species, and suggested that the first decomposition step was likely O-H bond scission. Thus, the binding energies of the deprotonated reaction intermediates are important parameters in controlling the decomposition pathways of oxygenates. These studies have demonstrated that the bond scission sequence of oxygenate decomposition can be controlled using bimetallic and transition metal carbide catalysts. While this study has focused on oxygenate decomposition for energy applications, the principles and methodology applied herein are universally applicable to the development of novel and marketable value-added products. The value in such a methodology is in the combination of both calculations to predict catalytic and chemical properties, and experiments to fine-tune theoretical predictions.

  10. Control and monitoring of oxygen fugacity in piston cylinder experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matjuschkin, Vladimir; Brooker, Richard A.; Tattitch, Brian; Blundy, Jon D.; Stamper, Charlotte C.

    2015-01-01

    We present a newly developed capsule design that resolves some common problems associated with the monitoring and control of oxygen fugacity ( fO2) in high-pressure piston cylinder experiments. The new fO2 control assembly consists of an AuPd outer capsule enclosing two inner capsules: one of AuPd capsule containing the experimental charge (including some water), and the other of Pt containing a solid oxygen buffer plus water. The inner capsules are separated by crushable alumina. The outer capsule is surrounded by a Pyrex sleeve to simultaneously minimise hydrogen loss from the cell and carbon infiltration from the graphite furnace. Controlled fO2 experiments using this cell design were carried out at 1.0 GPa and 1,000 °C. We used NiPd, CoPd and (Ni, Mg)O fO2 sensors, whose pressure sensitivity is well calibrated, to monitor the redox states achieved in experiments buffered by Re-ReO2, Ni-NiO and Co-CoO, respectively. Results for the fO2 sensors are in good agreement with the intended fO2 established by the buffer, demonstrating excellent control for durations of 24-48 h, with uncertainties less than ± 0.3 log bar units of fO2.

  11. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Trim7 mediates c-Jun/AP-1 activation by Ras signalling

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Atanu; Diefenbacher, Markus E.; Mylona, Anastasia; Kassel, Olivier; Behrens, Axel

    2015-01-01

    The c-Jun/AP-1 transcription factor controls key cellular behaviours, including proliferation and apoptosis, in response to JNK and Ras/MAPK signalling. While the JNK pathway has been well characterised, the mechanism of activation by Ras was elusive. Here we identify the uncharacterised ubiquitin ligase Trim7 as a critical component of AP-1 activation via Ras. We found that MSK1 directly phosphorylates Trim7 in response to direct activation by the Ras–Raf–MEK–ERK pathway, and this modification stimulates Trim7 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Trim7 mediates Lys63-linked ubiquitination of the AP-1 coactivator RACO-1, leading to RACO-1 protein stabilisation. Consequently, Trim7 depletion reduces RACO-1 levels and AP-1-dependent gene expression. Moreover, transgenic overexpression of Trim7 increases lung tumour burden in a Ras-driven cancer model, and knockdown of Trim7 in established xenografts reduces tumour growth. Thus, phosphorylation-ubiquitination crosstalk between MSK1, Trim7 and RACO-1 completes the long sought-after mechanism linking growth factor signalling and AP-1 activation. PMID:25851810

  12. A novel TRIM family member, Trim69, regulates zebrafish development through p53-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Han, Ruiqin; Zhao, Qing; Zong, Shudong; Miao, Shiying; Song, Wei; Wang, Linfang

    2016-05-01

    Trim69 contains the hallmark domains of a tripartite motif (TRIM) protein, including a Ring-finger domain, B-box domain, and coiled-coil domain. Trim69 is structurally and evolutionarily conserved in zebrafish, mouse, rat, human, and chimpanzee. The role of this protein is unclear, however, so we investigated its function in zebrafish development. Trim69 is extensively expressed in zebrafish adults and developing embryos-particularly in the testis, brain, ovary, and heart-and its expression decreases in a time- and stage-dependent manner. Loss of trim69 in zebrafish induces apoptosis and activates apoptosis-related processes; indeed, the tp53 pathway was up-regulated in response to the knockdown. Expression of human trim69 rescued the apoptotic phenotype, while overexpression of trim69 does not increase cellular apoptosis. Taken together, our results suggest that trim69 participates in tp53-mediated apoptosis during zebrafish development. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 83: 442-454, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27031046

  13. TRIM31 promotes Atg5/Atg7-independent autophagy in intestinal cells

    PubMed Central

    Ra, Eun A.; Lee, Taeyun A.; Won Kim, Seung; Park, Areum; Choi, Hyun jin; Jang, Insook; Kang, Sujin; Hee Cheon, Jae; Cho, Jin Won; Eun Lee, Ji; Lee, Sungwook; Park, Boyoun

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is responsible for the bulk degradation of cytosolic constituents and plays an essential role in the intestinal epithelium by controlling beneficial host–bacterial relationships. Atg5 and Atg7 are thought to be critical for autophagy. However, Atg5- or Atg7-deficient cells still form autophagosomes and autolysosomes, and are capable of removing proteins or bacteria. Here, we report that human TRIM31 (tripartite motif), an intestine-specific protein localized in mitochondria, is essential for promoting lipopolysaccharide-induced Atg5/Atg7-independent autophagy. TRIM31 directly interacts with phosphatidylethanolamine in a palmitoylation-dependent manner, leading to induction of autolysosome formation. Depletion of endogenous TRIM31 significantly increases the number of intestinal epithelial cells containing invasive bacteria. Crohn's disease patients display TRIM31 downregulation. Human cytomegalovirus-infected intestinal cells show a decrease in TRIM31 expression as well as a significant increase in bacterial load, reversible by the introduction of wild-type TRIM31. We provide insight into an alternative autophagy pathway that protects against intestinal pathogenic bacterial infection. PMID:27216961

  14. Controllable positive exchange bias via redox-driven oxygen migration

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gilbert, Dustin A.; Olamit, Justin; Dumas, Randy K.; Kirby, B. J.; Grutter, Alexander J.; Maranville, Brian B.; Arenholz, Elke; Borchers, Julie A.; Liu, Kai

    2016-03-21

    We report that ionic transport in metal/oxide heterostructures offers a highly effective means to tailor material properties via modification of the interfacial characteristics. However, direct observation of ionic motion under buried interfaces and demonstration of its correlation with physical properties has been challenging. Using the strong oxygen affinity of gadolinium, we design a model system of GdxFe1-x/NiCoO bilayer films, where the oxygen migration is observed and manifested in a controlled positive exchange bias over a relatively small cooling field range. The exchange bias characteristics are shown to be the result of an interfacial layer of elemental nickel and cobalt, amore » few nanometres in thickness, whose moments are larger than expected from uncompensated NiCoO moments. This interface layer is attributed to a redox-driven oxygen migration from NiCoO to the gadolinium, during growth or soon after. Ultimately, these results demonstrate an effective path to tailoring the interfacial characteristics and interlayer exchange coupling in metal/oxide heterostructures.« less

  15. Controllable positive exchange bias via redox-driven oxygen migration

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Dustin A.; Olamit, Justin; Dumas, Randy K.; Kirby, B. J.; Grutter, Alexander J.; Maranville, Brian B.; Arenholz, Elke; Borchers, Julie A.; Liu, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Ionic transport in metal/oxide heterostructures offers a highly effective means to tailor material properties via modification of the interfacial characteristics. However, direct observation of ionic motion under buried interfaces and demonstration of its correlation with physical properties has been challenging. Using the strong oxygen affinity of gadolinium, we design a model system of GdxFe1−x/NiCoO bilayer films, where the oxygen migration is observed and manifested in a controlled positive exchange bias over a relatively small cooling field range. The exchange bias characteristics are shown to be the result of an interfacial layer of elemental nickel and cobalt, a few nanometres in thickness, whose moments are larger than expected from uncompensated NiCoO moments. This interface layer is attributed to a redox-driven oxygen migration from NiCoO to the gadolinium, during growth or soon after. These results demonstrate an effective path to tailoring the interfacial characteristics and interlayer exchange coupling in metal/oxide heterostructures. PMID:26996674

  16. Oxygen fugacity control in piston-cylinder experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, Sigurdur

    2012-09-01

    The main goal of this study was to develop and test a capsule assembly for use in piston-cylinder experiments where oxygen fugacity could be controlled in the vicinity of the QFM buffer without H2O loss or carbon contamination of the sample material. The assembly consists of an outer Pt-capsule containing a solid buffer (Ni-NiO or Co-CoO) plus H2O and an inner AuPd-capsule, containing the sample, H2O and a Pt-wire. No H2O loss is observed from the sample, even after 48 h, but a slight increase in H2O content is found in longer runs due to oxygen and hydrogen diffusion into the AuPd-capsule. Oxygen fugacity of runs in equilibrium with the Ni-NiO (NNO) and Co-CoO (CoCO) buffers was measured by analyzing Fe dissolved in the Pt-wire and in the AuPd-capsule. The second method gives values that are in good agreement with established buffer values, whereas results from the first method are one half to one log units higher than the established values.

  17. TRIM24 Is a p53-Induced E3-Ubiquitin Ligase That Undergoes ATM-Mediated Phosphorylation and Autodegradation during DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Abhinav K.; Allton, Kendra; Duncan, Aundrietta D.

    2014-01-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 protects cells from genomic insults and is a target of mutation in more than 50% of human cancers. Stress-mediated modification and increased stability of p53 promote p53 interaction with chromatin, which results in transcription of target genes that are critical for the maintenance of genomic integrity. We recently discovered that TRIM24, an E3-ubiquitin ligase, ubiquitinates and promotes proteasome-mediated degradation of p53. Here, we show that TRIM24 is destabilized by ATM-mediated phosphorylation of TRIM24S768 in response to DNA damage, which disrupts TRIM24-p53 interactions and promotes the degradation of TRIM24. Transcription of TRIM24 is directly induced by damage-activated p53, which binds p53 response elements and activates expression of TRIM24. Newly synthesized TRIM24 interacts with phosphorylated p53 to target it for degradation and termination of the DNA damage response. These studies indicate that TRIM24, like MDM2, controls p53 levels in an autoregulatory feedback loop. However, unlike MDM2, TRIM24 also targets activated p53 to terminate p53-regulated response to DNA damage. PMID:24820418

  18. Modeling, simulation, and control of an extraterrestrial oxygen production plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schooley, L.; Cellier, F.; Zeigler, B.; Doser, A.; Farrenkopf, G.

    1991-01-01

    The immediate objective is the development of a new methodology for simulation of process plants used to produce oxygen and/or other useful materials from local planetary resources. Computer communication, artificial intelligence, smart sensors, and distributed control algorithms are being developed and implemented so that the simulation or an actual plant can be controlled from a remote location. The ultimate result of this research will provide the capability for teleoperation of such process plants which may be located on Mars, Luna, an asteroid, or other objects in space. A very useful near-term result will be the creation of an interactive design tool, which can be used to create and optimize the process/plant design and the control strategy. This will also provide a vivid, graphic demonstration mechanism to convey the results of other researchers to the sponsor.

  19. Piloted simulation study of the effects of an automated trim system on flight characteristics of a light twin-engine airplane with one engine inoperative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, E. C.; Brown, P. W.; Yenni, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    A simulation study was conducted to investigate the piloting problems associated with failure of an engine on a generic light twin-engine airplane. A primary piloting problem for a light twin-engine airplane after an engine failure is maintaining precise control of the airplane in the presence of large steady control forces. To address this problem, a simulated automatic trim system which drives the trim tabs as an open-loop function of propeller slipstream measurements was developed. The simulated automatic trim system was found to greatly increase the controllability in asymmetric powered flight without having to resort to complex control laws or an irreversible control system. However, the trim-tab control rates needed to produce the dramatic increase in controllability may require special design consideration for automatic trim system failures. Limited measurements obtained in full-scale flight tests confirmed the fundamental validity of the proposed control law.

  20. Inhibition of nitrogenase by oxygen in marine cyanobacteria controls the global nitrogen and oxygen cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman-Frank, I.; Chen, Y.-B.; Gerchman, Y.; Dismukes, G. C.; Falkowski, P. G.

    2005-03-01

    Cyanobacterial N2-fixation supplies the vast majority of biologically accessible inorganic nitrogen to nutrient-poor aquatic ecosystems. The process, catalyzed by the heterodimeric protein complex, nitrogenase, is thought to predate that of oxygenic photosynthesis. Remarkably, while the enzyme plays such a critical role in Earth's biogeochemical cycles, the activity of nitrogenase in cyanobacteria is markedly inhibited in vivo at a post-translational level by the concentration of O2 in the contemporary atmosphere leading to metabolic and biogeochemical inefficiency in N2 fixation. We illustrate this crippling effect with data from Trichodesmium spp. an important contributor of "new nitrogen" to the world's subtropical and tropical oceans. The enzymatic inefficiency of nitrogenase imposes a major elemental taxation on diazotrophic cyanobacteria both in the costs of protein synthesis and for scarce trace elements, such as iron. This restriction has, in turn, led to a global limitation of fixed nitrogen in the contemporary oceans and provides a strong biological control on the upper bound of oxygen concentration in Earth's atmosphere.

  1. Oxygen Generation System Laptop Bus Controller Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, Chad; Panter, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The Oxygen Generation System Laptop Bus Controller Flight Software was developed to allow the International Space Station (ISS) program to activate specific components of the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) to perform a checkout of key hardware operation in a microgravity environment, as well as to perform preventative maintenance operations of system valves during a long period of what would otherwise be hardware dormancy. The software provides direct connectivity to the OGS Firmware Controller with pre-programmed tasks operated by on-orbit astronauts to exercise OGS valves and motors. The software is used to manipulate the pump, separator, and valves to alleviate the concerns of hardware problems due to long-term inactivity and to allow for operational verification of microgravity-sensitive components early enough so that, if problems are found, they can be addressed before the hardware is required for operation on-orbit. The decision was made to use existing on-orbit IBM ThinkPad A31p laptops and MIL-STD-1553B interface cards as the hardware configuration. The software at the time of this reporting was developed and tested for use under the Windows 2000 Professional operating system to ensure compatibility with the existing on-orbit computer systems.

  2. Development and wind tunnel evaluation of a shape memory alloy based trim tab actuator for a civil aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthilkumar, P.; Jayasankar, S.; Satisha; Sateesh, V. L.; Kamaleshaiah, M. S.; Dayananda, G. N.

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents the development and wind tunnel evaluation of a shape memory alloy (SMA) based smart trim tab for a typical two seater civil aircraft. The SMA actuator was housed in the port side of the elevator for the purpose of actuating the trim tab. Wind tunnel tests were conducted on a full scale horizontal tail model with elevator and trim tab at free stream speeds of 25, 35 and 45 m s-1, and also for a number of deflections of the elevator (30° up, 0° neutral and 25° down) and trim tab (11° and 21° up and 15° and 31° down). To measure the hinge moment experienced by the trim tab under various test conditions, two miniaturized balances were designed and fabricated. A gain scheduled proportional integral (GSPI) controller was developed to control the SMA actuated smart trim tab. It was confirmed during the tests that the trim tab could be controlled at the desired position against the aerodynamic loads acting on it for the various test conditions.

  3. TRIM65 negatively regulates p53 through ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Ma, Chengyuan; Zhou, Tong; Liu, Ying; Sun, Luyao; Yu, Zhenxiang

    2016-04-22

    Tripartite-motif protein family member 65 (TRIM65) is an important protein involved in white matter lesion. However, the role of TRIM65 in human cancer remains less understood. Through the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) gene alteration database, we found that TRIM65 is upregulated in a significant portion of non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients. Our cell growth assay revealed that TRIM65 overexpression promotes cell proliferation, while knockdown of TRIM65 displays opposite effect. Mechanistically, TRIM65 binds to p53, one of the most critical tumor suppressors, and serves as an E3 ligase toward p53. Consequently, TRIM65 inactivates p53 through facilitating p53 poly-ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation. Notably, chemotherapeutic reagent cisplatin induction of p53 is markedly attenuated in response to ectopic expression of TRIM65. Cell growth inhibition by TRIM65 knockdown is more significant in p53 positive H460 than p53 negative H1299 cells, and knockdown of p53 in H460 cells also shows compromised cell growth inhibition by TRIM65 knockdown, indicating that p53 is required, at least in part, for TRIM65 function. Our findings demonstrate TRIM65 as a potential oncogenic protein, highly likely through p53 inactivation, and provide insight into development of novel approaches targeting TRIM65 for NSCLC treatment, and also overcoming chemotherapy resistance. PMID:27012201

  4. Ship trim optimization: assessment of influence of trim on resistance of MOERI container ship.

    PubMed

    Sherbaz, Salma; Duan, Wenyang

    2014-01-01

    Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy efficiency in all sectors. Shipping industry is a stakeholder in environmental issues. Shipping industry is responsible for approximately 3% of global CO₂ emissions, 14-15% of global NO(X) emissions, and 16% of global SO(X) emissions. Ship trim optimization has gained enormous momentum in recent years being an effective operational measure for better energy efficiency to reduce emissions. Ship trim optimization analysis has traditionally been done through tow-tank testing for a specific hullform. Computational techniques are increasingly popular in ship hydrodynamics applications. The purpose of this study is to present MOERI container ship (KCS) hull trim optimization by employing computational methods. KCS hull total resistances and trim and sinkage computed values, in even keel condition, are compared with experimental values and found in reasonable agreement. The agreement validates that mesh, boundary conditions, and solution techniques are correct. The same mesh, boundary conditions, and solution techniques are used to obtain resistance values in different trim conditions at Fn = 0.2274. Based on attained results, optimum trim is suggested. This research serves as foundation for employing computational techniques for ship trim optimization. PMID:24578649

  5. Ship Trim Optimization: Assessment of Influence of Trim on Resistance of MOERI Container Ship

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Wenyang

    2014-01-01

    Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy efficiency in all sectors. Shipping industry is a stakeholder in environmental issues. Shipping industry is responsible for approximately 3% of global CO2 emissions, 14-15% of global NOX emissions, and 16% of global SOX emissions. Ship trim optimization has gained enormous momentum in recent years being an effective operational measure for better energy efficiency to reduce emissions. Ship trim optimization analysis has traditionally been done through tow-tank testing for a specific hullform. Computational techniques are increasingly popular in ship hydrodynamics applications. The purpose of this study is to present MOERI container ship (KCS) hull trim optimization by employing computational methods. KCS hull total resistances and trim and sinkage computed values, in even keel condition, are compared with experimental values and found in reasonable agreement. The agreement validates that mesh, boundary conditions, and solution techniques are correct. The same mesh, boundary conditions, and solution techniques are used to obtain resistance values in different trim conditions at Fn = 0.2274. Based on attained results, optimum trim is suggested. This research serves as foundation for employing computational techniques for ship trim optimization. PMID:24578649

  6. trimAl: a tool for automated alignment trimming in large-scale phylogenetic analyses

    PubMed Central

    Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Silla-Martínez, José M.; Gabaldón, Toni

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Multiple sequence alignments are central to many areas of bioinformatics. It has been shown that the removal of poorly aligned regions from an alignment increases the quality of subsequent analyses. Such an alignment trimming phase is complicated in large-scale phylogenetic analyses that deal with thousands of alignments. Here, we present trimAl, a tool for automated alignment trimming, which is especially suited for large-scale phylogenetic analyses. trimAl can consider several parameters, alone or in multiple combinations, for selecting the most reliable positions in the alignment. These include the proportion of sequences with a gap, the level of amino acid similarity and, if several alignments for the same set of sequences are provided, the level of consistency across different alignments. Moreover, trimAl can automatically select the parameters to be used in each specific alignment so that the signal-to-noise ratio is optimized. Availability: trimAl has been written in C++, it is portable to all platforms. trimAl is freely available for download (http://trimal.cgenomics.org) and can be used online through the Phylemon web server (http://phylemon2.bioinfo.cipf.es/). Supplementary Material is available at http://trimal.cgenomics.org/publications. Contact: tgabaldon@crg.es PMID:19505945

  7. TRIM32 — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    From NCBI Gene: The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family. The TRIM motif includes three zinc-binding domains, a RING, a B-box type 1 and a B-box type 2, and a coiled-coil region. The protein localizes to cytoplasmic bodies. The protein has also been localized to the nucleus, where it interacts with the activation domain of the HIV-1 Tat protein. The Tat protein activates transcription of HIV-1 genes. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008

  8. TRIM24 Is an Oncogenic Transcriptional Activator in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Groner, Anna C; Cato, Laura; de Tribolet-Hardy, Jonas; Bernasocchi, Tiziano; Janouskova, Hana; Melchers, Diana; Houtman, René; Cato, Andrew C B; Tschopp, Patrick; Gu, Lei; Corsinotti, Andrea; Zhong, Qing; Fankhauser, Christian; Fritz, Christine; Poyet, Cédric; Wagner, Ulrich; Guo, Tiannan; Aebersold, Ruedi; Garraway, Levi A; Wild, Peter J; Theurillat, Jean-Philippe; Brown, Myles

    2016-06-13

    Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is a key driver of prostate cancer (PC). While androgen-deprivation therapy is transiently effective in advanced disease, tumors often progress to a lethal castration-resistant state (CRPC). We show that recurrent PC-driver mutations in speckle-type POZ protein (SPOP) stabilize the TRIM24 protein, which promotes proliferation under low androgen conditions. TRIM24 augments AR signaling, and AR and TRIM24 co-activated genes are significantly upregulated in CRPC. Expression of TRIM24 protein increases from primary PC to CRPC, and both TRIM24 protein levels and the AR/TRIM24 gene signature predict disease recurrence. Analyses in CRPC cells reveal that the TRIM24 bromodomain and the AR-interacting motif are essential to support proliferation. These data provide a rationale for therapeutic TRIM24 targeting in SPOP mutant and CRPC patients. PMID:27238081

  9. A physiological model for extracorporeal oxygenation controller design.

    PubMed

    Walter, Marian; Weyer, Soren; Stollenwerk, Andre; Kopp, Rudger; Arens, Jutta; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2010-01-01

    Long term extracorporeal membrane oxygenation can be used in cases of severe lung failure to maintain sufficient gas exchange without the need to apply higher ventilation pressures which damage the lung additionally. The use of cardiopulmonary bypass devices is well established inside the operating room. The usage of such devices as long-term support in the intensive care unit is still experimental and limited to few cases. This is because neither machine architecture nor staff situation provides for the long term application scenario. In the joint research Project "smart ECLA" we target an advanced ECMO device featuring an automation system capable of maintaining gas concentrations automatically. One key requirement for systematic controller design is the availability of a process model, which will be presented in this article. PMID:21096765

  10. Controlling Oxygen Vacancy Creation In Ionic Liquid Gated Vanadate Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilcoyne, Colin; Singh, Sujay; Horrocks, Gregory; Marley, Peter; Banerjee, Sarbajit; Sambandamurthy, G.

    Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is a correlated material with a transition from a monoclinic insulator to a rutile metal at ~ 340 K. Through ionic liquid gating, oxygen vacancies can be electrochemically induced in VO2 and it is found that the vacancies formation is greatly facilitated in the rutile phase, leading to the suppression of the metal-insulator transition. The reversibility, the rate and kinetics of the electrochemical reaction can be readily controlled with the gate voltage sweeps suggesting a potential defect engineering route to tune the electrical and structural properties of VO2. Vanadium pentoxide (V2O5) is a related system with diverse structural and electronic phases that can be obtained by intercalation of various cations. The electrochemical role of ionic liquid gating in creating new phases and modulating conductance in exfoliated thin flakes of V2O5 will also be presented. This work is supported by NSF DMR 0847324.

  11. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303... household textile articles. (a) Trimmings incorporated in articles of wearing apparel and other household textile articles may, among other forms of trim, include: (1) Rick-rack, tape, belting, binding,...

  12. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303... household textile articles. (a) Trimmings incorporated in articles of wearing apparel and other household textile articles may, among other forms of trim, include: (1) Rick-rack, tape, belting, binding,...

  13. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303... household textile articles. (a) Trimmings incorporated in articles of wearing apparel and other household textile articles may, among other forms of trim, include: (1) Rick-rack, tape, belting, binding,...

  14. 7 CFR 51.585 - Fairly well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fairly well trimmed. 51.585 Section 51.585 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.585 Fairly well trimmed. Fairly well trimmed means that the main...

  15. 7 CFR 51.585 - Fairly well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fairly well trimmed. 51.585 Section 51.585 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.585 Fairly well trimmed. Fairly well trimmed means that the main...

  16. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles. (a) Trimmings incorporated in articles of wearing apparel and other...

  17. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303... household textile articles. (a) Trimmings incorporated in articles of wearing apparel and other household textile articles may, among other forms of trim, include: (1) Rick-rack, tape, belting, binding,...

  18. Effects of Beak Trimming on Pecking Force

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beak trimming in the production laying hen has come under great scrutiny by welfare and consumer advocacy groups as a potential source of acute and chronic pain as well as having the potential to inhibit the freedom to express normal behaviors such as feeding behaviors. Although several studies have...

  19. Building Trades. Block VIII. Interior Trim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

    This curriculum for interior trim provides instructional materials for 18 informational and manipulative lessons. A list of 11 references precedes the course materials. The instructor's plan for each informational lesson begins by providing this information: subject, aim, required teaching aids, required materials, references, and prerequisite…

  20. 14 CFR 23.161 - Trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... maintain lateral and directional trim in level flight with the landing gear and wing flaps retracted as... following conditions: (1) A climb with— (i) Takeoff power, landing gear retracted, wing flaps in the takeoff... appropriate), to 1.4 VS1, with the landing gear and flaps retracted. (3) A descent at VNO or...

  1. 14 CFR 23.161 - Trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... maintain lateral and directional trim in level flight with the landing gear and wing flaps retracted as... following conditions: (1) A climb with— (i) Takeoff power, landing gear retracted, wing flaps in the takeoff... continuous power; (3) The landing gear retracted; (4) Wing flaps retracted; and (5) An angle of bank of...

  2. 14 CFR 23.161 - Trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... maintain lateral and directional trim in level flight with the landing gear and wing flaps retracted as... following conditions: (1) A climb with— (i) Takeoff power, landing gear retracted, wing flaps in the takeoff... continuous power; (3) The landing gear retracted; (4) Wing flaps retracted; and (5) An angle of bank of...

  3. TRIM33 switches off Ifnb1 gene transcription during the late phase of macrophage activation

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Federica; Parcelier, Aude; Petit, Vanessa; Gallouet, Anne-Sophie; Lewandowski, Daniel; Dalloz, Marion; van den Heuvel, Anita; Kolovos, Petros; Soler, Eric; Squadrito, Mario Leonardo; De Palma, Michele; Davidson, Irwin; Rousselet, Germain; Romeo, Paul-Henri

    2015-01-01

    Despite its importance during viral or bacterial infections, transcriptional regulation of the interferon-β gene (Ifnb1) in activated macrophages is only partially understood. Here we report that TRIM33 deficiency results in high, sustained expression of Ifnb1 at late stages of toll-like receptor-mediated activation in macrophages but not in fibroblasts. In macrophages, TRIM33 is recruited by PU.1 to a conserved region, the Ifnb1 Control Element (ICE), located 15 kb upstream of the Ifnb1 transcription start site. ICE constitutively interacts with Ifnb1 through a TRIM33-independent chromatin loop. At late phases of lipopolysaccharide activation of macrophages, TRIM33 is bound to ICE, regulates Ifnb1 enhanceosome loading, controls Ifnb1 chromatin structure and represses Ifnb1 gene transcription by preventing recruitment of CBP/p300. These results characterize a previously unknown mechanism of macrophage-specific regulation of Ifnb1 transcription whereby TRIM33 is critical for Ifnb1 gene transcription shutdown. PMID:26592194

  4. Methodology for determining elevon deflections to trim and maneuver the DAST vehicle with negative static margin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, B., III

    1982-01-01

    The relationships between elevon deflection and static margin using elements from static and dynamic stability and control and from classical control theory are emphasized. Expressions are derived and presented for calculating elevon deflections required to trim the vehicle in lg straight-and-level flight and to perform specified longitudinal and lateral maneuvers. Applications of this methodology are made at several flight conditions for the ARW-2 wing. On the basis of these applications, it appears possible to trim and maneuver the vehicle with the existing elevons at -15% static margin.

  5. Ovine TRIM5α Can Restrict Visna/Maedi Virus

    PubMed Central

    Jáuregui, P.; Crespo, H.; Glaria, I.; Luján, L.; Contreras, A.; Rosati, S.; de Andrés, D.; Amorena, B.; Towers, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    The restrictive properties of tripartite motif-containing 5 alpha (TRIM5α) from small ruminant species have not been explored. Here, we identify highly similar TRIM5α sequences in sheep and goats. Cells transduced with ovine TRIM5α effectively restricted the lentivirus visna/maedi virus DNA synthesis. Proteasome inhibition in cells transduced with ovine TRIM5α restored restricted viral DNA synthesis, suggesting a conserved mechanism of restriction. Identification of TRIM5α active molecular species may open new prophylactic strategies against lentiviral infections. PMID:22696640

  6. A 3D-Printed Oxygen Control Insert for a 24-Well Plate

    PubMed Central

    Brennan, Martin D.; Rexius-Hall, Megan L.; Eddington, David T.

    2015-01-01

    3D printing has emerged as a method for directly printing complete microfluidic devices, although printing materials have been limited to oxygen-impermeable materials. We demonstrate the addition of gas permeable PDMS (Polydimethylsiloxane) membranes to 3D-printed microfluidic devices as a means to enable oxygen control cell culture studies. The incorporation of a 3D-printed device and gas-permeable membranes was demonstrated on a 24-well oxygen control device for standard multiwell plates. The direct printing allows integrated distribution channels and device geometries not possible with traditional planar lithography. With this device, four different oxygen conditions were able to be controlled, and six wells were maintained under each oxygen condition. We demonstrate enhanced transcription of the gene VEGFA (vascular endothelial growth factor A) with decreasing oxygen levels in human lung adenocarcinoma cells. This is the first 3D-printed device incorporating gas permeable membranes to facilitate oxygen control in cell culture. PMID:26360882

  7. Optimization of 2,3-butanediol production by Klebsiella oxytoca through oxygen transfer rate control

    SciTech Connect

    Beronio, P.B. Jr. . Amoco Research Center); Tsao, G.T. . Lab. of Renewable Resources Engineering)

    1993-12-01

    Production of 2,3-butanediol by Klebsiella oxytoca is influenced by the degree of oxygen limitation. During batch culture studies, two phases of growth are observed: energy-coupled growth, during which cell growth and oxygen supply are coupled; and, energy-uncoupled growth, which arises when the degree of oxygen limitation reaches a critical value. Optimal 2,3-butanediol productivity occurs during the energy-coupled growth phase. In this article, a control system which maintains the batch culture at a constant level of oxygen limitation in the energy-coupled growth regime has been designed. Control, which involves feedback control on the oxygen transfer coefficient, is achieved by continually increasing the partial pressure of oxygen in the feed gas, which in turn continually increases the oxygen transfer rate. Control has resulted in a balanced state of growth, a repression of ethanol formation, and an increase in 2,3-butanediol productivity of 18%.

  8. Infrared Beak Treatment: Part I, Comparative Effects of Infrared and 1/3 Hot-blade Trimming on Beak Topography, Focal Behavior and Growth.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examines the effects of beak trimming on production and well-being. Seventy-two layer chicks were assigned to hot-blade trimming (HB), infrared treatment (IR), or a control(C) untrimmed treatment at one-day-old. Chicks were pair housed by treatment and beak images, behavior and production...

  9. Trim69 regulates zebrafish brain development by ap-1 pathway

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ruiqin; Wang, Renxian; Zhao, Qing; Han, Yongqing; Zong, Shudong; Miao, Shiying; Song, Wei; Wang, Linfang

    2016-01-01

    Proteins belonging to the TRIM family have been implicated in a variety of cellular processes such as apoptosis, differentiation, neurogenesis, muscular physiology and innate immune responses. Trim69, previously identified as a novel gene cloned from a human testis cDNA library, has a homologous gene in zebrafish and this study focused on investigating the function of trim69 in zebrafish neurogenesis. Trim69 was found to be expressed in zebrafish embryo brain at the early stages. Knockdown of trim69 led to deformed brain development, obvious signs of apoptosis present in the head, and decreased expression of neuronal differentiation and stem cell markers. This phenotype was rescued upon co-injection of human mRNA together along with the trim69 knockdown. Results of this study also showed an interaction between TRIM69 and c-Jun in human cells, and upon TRIM69 knock down c-Jun expression subsequently increased, whereas the over-expression of TRIM69 led to the down-regulation of c-Jun. Additionally, knockdown both c-Jun and trim69 can rescue the deformed brain, evident cellular apoptosis in the head and decreased expression of neuronal differentiation and stem cell markers. Overall, our results support a role for trim69 in the development of the zebrafish brain through ap-1 pathway. PMID:27050765

  10. Measurement and Control of Oxygen Partial Pressure in an Electrostatic Levitator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.

    2014-01-01

    Recently the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center electrostatic levitation (ESL) laboratory has been upgraded to include an oxygen control system. This system allows the oxygen partial pressure within the vacuum chamber to be measured and controlled, at elevated temperatures, theoretically in the range from 10(exp -36) to 10(exp 0) bar. The role of active surface agents in liquid metals is fairly well known; however, published surface tension data typically has large scatter, which has been hypothesized to be caused by the presence of oxygen. The surface tension of metals is affected by even a small amount of adsorption of oxygen. It has even been shown that oxygen partial pressures may need to be as low as 10(exp -24) bar to avoid oxidation. While electrostatic levitation is done under high vacuum, oxide films or dissolved oxygen may have significant effects on materials properties, such as surface tension and viscosity. Therefore, the ability to measure and control the oxygen partial pressure within the chamber is highly desirable. The oxygen control system installed at MSFC contains a potentiometric sensor, which measures the oxygen partial pressure, and an oxygen ion pump. In the pump, a pulse-width modulated electric current is applied to yttrium-stabilized zirconia, resulting in oxygen transfer into or out of the system. Also part of the system is a control unit, which consists of temperature controllers for the sensor and pump, PID-based current loop for the ion pump, and a control algorithm. This system can be used to study the effects of oxygen on the thermophysical properties of metals, ceramics, glasses, and alloys. It can also be used to provide more accurate measurements by processing the samples at very low oxygen partial pressures. The oxygen control system will be explained in more detail and an overview of its use and limitations in an electrostatic levitator will be described. Some preliminary measurements have been made, and the results to date will

  11. An evaluation of a micro programmable logic controller for oxygen monitoring and control in tanks of a recirculating aquaculture system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Control of dissolved gases, especially oxygen is an essential component of recirculating aquaculture systems. The use of pure oxygen in a recirculating aquaculture system creates supersaturated concentrations of dissolved oxygen and can reduce fish production costs by supporting greater fish and fee...

  12. Molecular cloning and expression vector construction of bovine TRIM28.

    PubMed

    Ma, X; Zhai, Z C; Zhang, M L; Song, B H; Zhu, Y R; Yang, S B; Dong, X Q; Su, L Y; Wang, C F; Ma, H X; Luan, W M

    2016-01-01

    The bovine TRIM28 gene was amplified from ovary tissue by using RT-PCR. The TRIM28 gene was inserted into the eukaryotic expression vector pIRES2-EGFP and transfected into bovine fetal fibroblasts by using Lipofectamine 3000. TRIM28 mRNA and protein were detected by fluorescence microscope and western blotting. The results showed that the full length of TRIM28 was cloned and pIRES2-EGFP-TRIM28 was constructed successfully. EGFP expression was observed, and the pIRES2-EGFP-TRIM28 transfected group expressed more TRIM28 protein than that by the pIRES2-EGFP group. The TIMR28 gene has been successfully transferred into bovine fetal fibroblasts. PMID:27420979

  13. Predicting Tensile Stretchability of Trimmed AA6111-T4 Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Xiaohua; Sun, Xin; Golovashchenko, Sergey F.

    2014-02-15

    An integrated manufacturing process simulation framework has been developed to predict the trimmed edge tensile stretchability of AA6111-T4 sheets by incorporating the burr geometry, damage, and plastic strain from trimming simulations into subsequent tensile stretchability simulations. The influence of the trimming die clearances on the predicted tensile stretching ductility (stretchability) is studied and quantitatively compared with experimental measurements. Stretchability is found to decrease with increasing cutting clearances, and simulation results have successfully captured experimentally observed edge crack initiation and failure mode variations for different trimming clearances. Subsequent computational sensitivity studies reveal that while deburring of previously trimmed edges has little influence on tensile stretchability, removal of trimmed edge initial plastic strain may significantly enhance the subsequent trimmed edge stretchability.

  14. Recent advances in development of ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest pest control on perishable commodities.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several controlled atmosphere treatments with ultralow oxygen (ULO treatments) have been developed for postharvest pest control on different types of perishable products. Complete control of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia sp.), twopotted spider mite (Tetranychus u...

  15. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on grape benchgrafts.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlled atmosphere with ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments for control of vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus Signoret (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), on grape rootstocks were developed successfully. Two ULO treatments with 30 ppm oxygen, 3 days at 25'C and 4 days at 15'C, achieved complete control of a...

  16. TRIMCAT, a TRIM interface for GARFIELD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butterworth, J. E.; Barton, C. J.

    2009-04-01

    Garfield is a simulation code designed to model gaseous detectors and the properties of ionisation and electron drift. TRIM is a code designed to simulate the transport properties and ionisation effects of ions passing through matter. TRIMCAT is an extension module for Garfield which allows Garfield to interface with TRIM output files. Using this module, the two codes can be used in conjunction: TRIM simulates the ionisation properties of ions passing through detector components and Garfield simulates the electron cluster generation and transport properties in the detector gas volume. The TRIMCAT module has a considerably higher degree of accuracy than other methods of generating ionisation distributions in Garfield such as inputting an appropriate polynomial or using an existing interface with the SRIM stopping and range tables program. The results from the TRIMCAT module show a good correlation with existing data and it is foreseen that this software may be useful in many different situations. An example of the use of TRIMCAT, the design of the York Bragg Detector, is presented.

  17. Functional interactions between ubiquitin E2 enzymes and TRIM proteins.

    PubMed

    Napolitano, Luisa M; Jaffray, Ellis G; Hay, Ronald T; Meroni, Germana

    2011-03-01

    The TRIM (tripartite motif) family of proteins is characterized by the presence of the tripartite motif module, composed of a RING domain, one or two B-box domains and a coiled-coil region. TRIM proteins are involved in many cellular processes and represent the largest subfamily of RING-containing putative ubiquitin E3 ligases. Whereas their role as E3 ubiquitin ligases has been presumed, and in several cases established, little is known about their specific interactions with the ubiquitin-conjugating E2 enzymes or UBE2s. In the present paper, we report a thorough screening of interactions between the TRIM and UBE2 families. We found a general preference of the TRIM proteins for the D and E classes of UBE2 enzymes, but we also revealed very specific interactions between TRIM9 and UBE2G2, and TRIM32 and UBE2V1/2. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the TRIM E3 activity is only manifest with the UBE2 with which they interact. For most specific interactions, we could also observe subcellular co-localization of the TRIM involved and its cognate UBE2 enzyme, suggesting that the specific selection of TRIM-UBE2 pairs has physiological relevance. Our findings represent the basis for future studies on the specific reactions catalysed by the TRIM E3 ligases to determine the fate of their targets. PMID:21143188

  18. Proteasomal Degradation of TRIM5α during Retrovirus Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Rold, Christopher James; Aiken, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The host protein TRIM5α inhibits retroviral infection at an early post-penetration stage by targeting the incoming viral capsid. While the detailed mechanism of restriction remains unclear, recent studies have implicated the activity of cellular proteasomes in the restriction of retroviral reverse transcription imposed by TRIM5α. Here, we show that TRIM5α is rapidly degraded upon encounter of a restriction-susceptible retroviral core. Inoculation of TRIM5α-expressing human 293T cells with a saturating level of HIV-1 particles resulted in accelerated degradation of the HIV-1-restrictive rhesus macaque TRIM5α protein but not the nonrestrictive human TRIM5α protein. Exposure of cells to HIV-1 also destabilized the owl monkey restriction factor TRIMCyp; this was prevented by addition of the inhibitor cyclosporin A and was not observed with an HIV-1 virus containing a mutation in the capsid protein that relieves restriction by TRIMCyp IVHIV. Likewise, human TRIM5α was rapidly degraded upon encounter of the restriction-sensitive N-tropic murine leukemia virus (N-MLV) but not the unrestricted B-MLV. Pretreatment of cells with proteasome inhibitors prevented the HIV-1-induced loss of both rhesus macaque TRIM5α and TRIMCyp proteins. We also detected degradation of endogenous TRIM5α in rhesus macaque cells following HIV-1 infection. We conclude that engagement of a restriction-sensitive retrovirus core results in TRIM5α degradation by a proteasome-dependent mechanism. PMID:18497858

  19. Fast-Response Oxygen-Monitoring and Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Puster, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    Oxygen sensor is Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 ceramic disk maintained at 843 degrees C. Overall system response time reduced to about 0.2 second, equal to or less than 1 percent of tunnel run time. When test gas oxygen concentration differs from normal air concentration by 25 percent or more, alarm sounds, and emergency tunnel shutdown signal operates. New ZrO2 sensors intended for hypersonic-vehicle testing.

  20. Controlling energy transfer in ytterbium complexes: oxygen dependent lanthanide luminescence and singlet oxygen formation.

    PubMed

    Watkis, Andrew; Hueting, Rebekka; Sørensen, Thomas Just; Tropiano, Manuel; Faulkner, Stephen

    2015-11-01

    Pyrene-appended ytterbium complexes have been prepared using Ugi reactions to vary the chromophore-lanthanide separation. Formation of the ytterbium(iii) excited state is sensitised via both the singlet and triplet excited states of the chromophore. Energy transfer from the latter is relatively slow, and gives rise to oxygen-dependent luminescence. PMID:26346499

  1. Catalytic Synthesis of Oxygenates: Mechanisms, Catalysts and Controlling Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Klier, Kamil; Herman, Richard G

    2005-11-30

    This research focused on catalytic synthesis of unsymmetrical ethers as a part of a larger program involving oxygenated products in general, including alcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids and their derivatives that link together environmentally compliant fuels, monomers, and high-value chemicals. The catalysts studied here were solid acids possessing strong Brnsted acid functionalities. The design of these catalysts involved anchoring the acid groups onto inorganic oxides, e.g. surface-grafted acid groups on zirconia, and a new class of mesoporous solid acids, i.e. propylsulfonic acid-derivatized SBA-15. The former catalysts consisted of a high surface concentration of sulfate groups on stable zirconia catalysts. The latter catalyst consists of high surface area, large pore propylsulfonic acid-derivatized silicas, specifically SBA-15. In both cases, the catalyst design and synthesis yielded high concentrations of acid sites in close proximity to one another. These materials have been well-characterization in terms of physical and chemical properties, as well as in regard to surface and bulk characteristics. Both types of catalysts were shown to exhibit high catalytic performance with respect to both activity and selectivity for the bifunctional coupling of alcohols to form ethers, which proceeds via an efficient SN2 reaction mechanism on the proximal acid sites. This commonality of the dual-site SN2 reaction mechanism over acid catalysts provides for maximum reaction rates and control of selectivity by reaction conditions, i.e. pressure, temperature, and reactant concentrations. This research provides the scientific groundwork for synthesis of ethers for energy applications. The synthesized environmentally acceptable ethers, in part derived from natural gas via alcohol intermediates, exhibit high cetane properties, e.g. methylisobutylether with cetane No. of 53 and dimethylether with cetane No. of 55-60, or high octane properties, e.g. diisopropylether with

  2. TRIM family proteins: retroviral restriction and antiviral defence.

    PubMed

    Nisole, Sébastien; Stoye, Jonathan P; Saïb, Ali

    2005-10-01

    Members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family are involved in various cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, development, oncogenesis and apoptosis. Some TRIM proteins display antiviral properties, targeting retroviruses in particular. The potential activity of TRIM19, better known as promyelocytic leukaemia protein, against several viruses has been well documented and, recently, TRIM5alpha has been identified as the factor responsible for the previously described Lv1 and Ref1 antiretroviral activities. There is also evidence indicating that other TRIM proteins can influence viral replication. These findings are reviewed here, and the possibility that TRIMs represent a new and widespread class of antiviral proteins involved in innate immunity is also considered. PMID:16175175

  3. Implementing oxygen control in chip-based cell and tissue culture systems.

    PubMed

    Oomen, Pieter E; Skolimowski, Maciej D; Verpoorte, Elisabeth

    2016-09-21

    Oxygen is essential in the energy metabolism of cells, as well as being an important regulatory parameter influencing cell differentiation and function. Interest in precise oxygen control for in vitro cultures of tissues and cells continues to grow, especially with the emergence of the organ-on-a-chip and the desire to emulate in vivo conditions. This was recently discussed in this journal in a Critical Review by Brennan et al. (Lab Chip (2014). DOI: ). Microfluidics can be used to introduce flow to facilitate nutrient supply to and waste removal from in vitro culture systems. Well-defined oxygen gradients can also be established. However, cells can quickly alter the oxygen balance in their vicinity. In this Tutorial Review, we expand on the Brennan paper to focus on the implementation of oxygen analysis in these systems to achieve continuous monitoring. Both electrochemical and optical approaches for the integration of oxygen monitoring in microfluidic tissue and cell culture systems will be discussed. Differences in oxygen requirements from one organ to the next are a challenging problem, as oxygen delivery is limited by its uptake into medium. Hence, we discuss the factors determining oxygen concentrations in solutions and consider the possible use of artificial oxygen carriers to increase dissolved oxygen concentrations. The selection of device material for applications requiring precise oxygen control is discussed in detail, focusing on oxygen permeability. Lastly, a variety of devices is presented, showing the diversity of approaches that can be employed to control and monitor oxygen concentrations in in vitro experiments. PMID:27492338

  4. Processes controlling mid-water column oxygen minima over the Texas-Louisiana shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenxia; Hetland, Robert D.; DiMarco, Steven F.; Fennel, Katja

    2015-04-01

    We investigate distributions of dissolved oxygen over the Texas-Louisiana shelf using spatially highly resolved observations in combination with a regional circulation model with simple oxygen dynamics. The observations were collected using a towed, undulating CTD during the Mechanisms Controlling Hypoxia (MCH) program. Mid-water oxygen minimum layers (dissolved oxygen lower than 3.2 mL L-1) were detected in many transects. These oxygen minimum layers are connected with the bottom boundary layer and follow the pycnocline seaward as a tongue of low oxygen into the mid-water column. T-S diagrams highlighting the low oxygen minima in both observations and simulations imply direct connections between low-oxygen bottom water and the oxygen minimum layer. The dynamics of these oxygen minimum layers in the mid-water column are examined using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). Convergence within the bottom boundary layer relative to density surfaces is calculated, results show that there is a convergence in the bottom boundary layer at the location where the pycnocline intersects the bottom. Buoyancy advection forced by bottom Ekman transport creates this convergent flow, and the corresponding low-oxygen intrusion. Similar intrusions of near-bottom water into the pycnocline are observed in other regions. The presence of hypoxia within the bottom boundary layer in the northern Gulf of Mexico creates a unique situation in which these intrusions are also associated with low dissolved oxygen.

  5. Growth control of Saccharomyces cerevisiae through dose of oxygen atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ohta, Takayuki; Hori, Masaru; Ito, Masafumi

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the dose-dependent effects of neutral oxygen radicals on the proliferation as well as the inactivation of microorganisms, we treated suspensions of budding yeast cells with oxygen radicals using an atmospheric-pressure oxygen radical source, varying the fluxes of O(3Pj) from 1.3 × 1016 to 2.3 × 1017 cm-2 s-1. Proliferation was promoted at doses of O(3Pj) ranging from 6 × 1016 to 2 × 1017 cm-3, and suppressed at doses ranging from 3 × 1017 to 1 × 1018 cm-3; cells were inactivated by O(3Pj) doses exceeding 1 × 1018 cm-3, even when the flux was varied over the above flux range. These results showed that the growth of cells was regulated primarily in response to the total dose of O(3Pj).

  6. Origin and evolution of TRIM proteins: new insights from the complete TRIM repertoire of zebrafish and pufferfish.

    PubMed

    Boudinot, Pierre; van der Aa, Lieke M; Jouneau, Luc; Du Pasquier, Louis; Pontarotti, Pierre; Briolat, Valérie; Benmansour, Abdenour; Levraud, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Tripartite motif proteins (TRIM) constitute a large family of proteins containing a RING-Bbox-Coiled Coil motif followed by different C-terminal domains. Involved in ubiquitination, TRIM proteins participate in many cellular processes including antiviral immunity. The TRIM family is ancient and has been greatly diversified in vertebrates and especially in fish. We analyzed the complete sets of trim genes of the large zebrafish genome and of the compact pufferfish genome. Both contain three large multigene subsets--adding the hsl5/trim35-like genes (hltr) to the ftr and the btr that we previously described--all containing a B30.2 domain that evolved under positive selection. These subsets are conserved among teleosts. By contrast, most human trim genes of the other classes have only one or two orthologues in fish. Loss or gain of C-terminal exons generated proteins with different domain organizations; either by the deletion of the ancestral domain or, remarkably, by the acquisition of a new C-terminal domain. Our survey of fish trim genes in fish identifies subsets with different evolutionary dynamics. trims encoding RBCC-B30.2 proteins show the same evolutionary trends in fish and tetrapods: they evolve fast, often under positive selection, and they duplicate to create multigenic families. We could identify new combinations of domains, which epitomize how new trim classes appear by domain insertion or exon shuffling. Notably, we found that a cyclophilin-A domain replaces the B30.2 domain of a zebrafish fintrim gene, as reported in the macaque and owl monkey antiretroviral TRIM5α. Finally, trim genes encoding RBCC-B30.2 proteins are preferentially located in the vicinity of MHC or MHC gene paralogues, which suggests that such trim genes may have been part of the ancestral MHC. PMID:21789205

  7. Origin and Evolution of TRIM Proteins: New Insights from the Complete TRIM Repertoire of Zebrafish and Pufferfish

    PubMed Central

    Boudinot, Pierre; van der Aa, Lieke M.; Jouneau, Luc; Du Pasquier, Louis; Pontarotti, Pierre; Briolat, Valérie; Benmansour, Abdenour; Levraud, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Tripartite motif proteins (TRIM) constitute a large family of proteins containing a RING-Bbox-Coiled Coil motif followed by different C-terminal domains. Involved in ubiquitination, TRIM proteins participate in many cellular processes including antiviral immunity. The TRIM family is ancient and has been greatly diversified in vertebrates and especially in fish. We analyzed the complete sets of trim genes of the large zebrafish genome and of the compact pufferfish genome. Both contain three large multigene subsets - adding the hsl5/trim35-like genes (hltr) to the ftr and the btr that we previously described - all containing a B30.2 domain that evolved under positive selection. These subsets are conserved among teleosts. By contrast, most human trim genes of the other classes have only one or two orthologues in fish. Loss or gain of C-terminal exons generated proteins with different domain organizations; either by the deletion of the ancestral domain or, remarkably, by the acquisition of a new C-terminal domain. Our survey of fish trim genes in fish identifies subsets with different evolutionary dynamics. trims encoding RBCC-B30.2 proteins show the same evolutionary trends in fish and tetrapods: they evolve fast, often under positive selection, and they duplicate to create multigenic families. We could identify new combinations of domains, which epitomize how new trim classes appear by domain insertion or exon shuffling. Notably, we found that a cyclophilin-A domain replaces the B30.2 domain of a zebrafish fintrim gene, as reported in the macaque and owl monkey antiretroviral TRIM5α. Finally, trim genes encoding RBCC-B30.2 proteins are preferentially located in the vicinity of MHC or MHC gene paralogues, which suggests that such trim genes may have been part of the ancestral MHC. PMID:21789205

  8. A Note About HARP's State Trimming Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Johnson, Sally C.

    1998-01-01

    This short note provides some additional insight into how the HARP program works. In some cases, it is possible for HARP to tdm away too many states and obtain an optimistic result. The HARP Version 7.0 manual warns the user that 'Unlike the ALL model, the SAME model can automatically drop failure modes for certain system models. The user is cautioned to insure that no important failure modes are dropped; otherwise, a non-conservative result can be given.' This note provides an example of where this occurs and a pointer to further documentation that gives a means of bounding the error associated with trimming these states.

  9. Stress measurements on beak-trimmed and untrimmed pullets.

    PubMed

    Struwe, F J; Gleaves, E W; Douglas, J H

    1992-07-01

    Stress in poultry is difficult to define and measure. There is general agreement that some modern poultry production practices may exert a certain amount of stress on birds. Three experiments were conducted to explore possible measures of stress associated with beak trimming and rearing schemes. Experiments 1 and 2 examined different degrees of beak trimming and rearing schemes of wire floor versus litter floor in pullet production. Experiment 3 examined the effect of beak trimming on feed consumption for 14 days after trimming. Adrenal glands of untrimmed birds were heavier (P less than .05) than those of trimmed birds at the end of the pullet growing period in Experiments 1 and 2, evidence that beak trimming reduced overall chronic stress levels. Hearts of untrimmed birds were heavier (P less than .05) than those of trimmed birds in Experiment 1. Hearts and spleens were not affected in Experiment 2. In comparisons of rearing schemes (litter versus wire), birds grown on litter floors had heavier adrenal glands and a greater incidence of cannibalism in the later weeks of Experiments 1 and 2. This indicated that a stressful interaction among penmates had occurred. Birds grown on litter floors consumed more feed than those grown on wire, and the untrimmed birds from both floor types consumed more total feed than trimmed birds. By the end of the growing period, body weights were not different in either study, indicating compensation for any early beak trimming stress. Beak trimming produced a decrease in feed intake in Experiment 3, consumption was reduced (P less than .05) in 5 of the first 8 days after trimming. PMID:1641379

  10. Growth control of Saccharomyces cerevisiae through dose of oxygen atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ohta, Takayuki; Ito, Masafumi; Hori, Masaru

    2015-08-31

    To investigate the dose-dependent effects of neutral oxygen radicals on the proliferation as well as the inactivation of microorganisms, we treated suspensions of budding yeast cells with oxygen radicals using an atmospheric-pressure oxygen radical source, varying the fluxes of O({sup 3}P{sub j}) from 1.3 × 10{sup 16} to 2.3 × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. Proliferation was promoted at doses of O({sup 3}P{sub j}) ranging from 6 × 10{sup 16} to 2 × 10{sup 17 }cm{sup −3}, and suppressed at doses ranging from 3 × 10{sup 17} to 1 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}; cells were inactivated by O({sup 3}P{sub j}) doses exceeding 1 × 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}, even when the flux was varied over the above flux range. These results showed that the growth of cells was regulated primarily in response to the total dose of O({sup 3}P{sub j})

  11. Helicopter trim analysis by shooting and finite element methods with optimally damped Newton iterations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Achar, N. S.; Gaonkar, G. H.

    1993-01-01

    Helicopter trim settings of periodic initial state and control inputs are investigated for convergence of Newton iteration in computing the settings sequentially and in parallel. The trim analysis uses a shooting method and a weak version of two temporal finite element methods with displacement formulation and with mixed formulation of displacements and momenta. These three methods broadly represent two main approaches of trim analysis: adaptation of initial-value and finite element boundary-value codes to periodic boundary conditions, particularly for unstable and marginally stable systems. In each method, both the sequential and in-parallel schemes are used, and the resulting nonlinear algebraic equations are solved by damped Newton iteration with an optimally selected damping parameter. The impact of damped Newton iteration, including earlier-observed divergence problems in trim analysis, is demonstrated by the maximum condition number of the Jacobian matrices of the iterative scheme and by virtual elimination of divergence. The advantages of the in-parallel scheme over the conventional sequential scheme are also demonstrated.

  12. Computational aspects of helicopter trim analysis and damping levels from Floquet theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaonkar, Gopal H.; Achar, N. S.

    1992-01-01

    Helicopter trim settings of periodic initial state and control inputs are investigated for convergence of Newton iteration in computing the settings sequentially and in parallel. The trim analysis uses a shooting method and a weak version of two temporal finite element methods with displacement formulation and with mixed formulation of displacements and momenta. These three methods broadly represent two main approaches of trim analysis: adaptation of initial-value and finite element boundary-value codes to periodic boundary conditions, particularly for unstable and marginally stable systems. In each method, both the sequential and in-parallel schemes are used and the resulting nonlinear algebraic equations are solved by damped Newton iteration with an optimally selected damping parameter. The impact of damped Newton iteration, including earlier-observed divergence problems in trim analysis, is demonstrated by the maximum condition number of the Jacobian matrices of the iterative scheme and by virtual elimination of divergence. The advantages of the in-parallel scheme over the conventional sequential scheme are also demonstrated.

  13. Controlling factors of the oxygen balance in the Arabian Sea's OMZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resplandy, L.; Lévy, M.; Bopp, L.; Echevin, V.; Pous, S.; Sarma, V. V. S. S.; Kumar, D.

    2012-12-01

    The expansion of OMZs (oxygen minimum zones) due to climate change and their possible evolution and impacts on the ecosystems and the atmosphere are still debated, mostly because of the unability of global climate models to adequatly reproduce the processes governing OMZs. In this study, we examine the factors controlling the oxygen budget, i.e. the equilibrium between oxygen sources and sinks in the northern Arabian Sea OMZ using an eddy-resolving biophysical model. Our model confirms that the biological consumption of oxygen is most intense below the region of highest productivity in the western Arabian Sea. The oxygen drawdown in this region is counterbalanced by the large supply of oxygenated waters originated from the south and advected horizontally by the western boundary current. Although the biological sink and the dynamical sources of oxygen compensate on annual average, we find that the seasonality of the dynamical transport of oxygen is 3 to 5 times larger than the seasonality of the biological sink. In agreement with previous findings, the resulting seasonality of oxygen concentration in the OMZ is relatively weak, with a variability of the order of 15% of the annual mean oxygen concentration in the oxycline and 5% elsewhere. This seasonality primarily arises from the vertical displacement of the OMZ forced by the monsoonal reversal of Ekman pumping across the basin. In coastal areas, the oxygen concentration is also modulated seasonally by lateral advection. Along the western coast of the Arabian Sea, the Somali Current transports oxygen-rich waters originated from the south during summer and oxygen-poor waters from the northeast during winter. Along the eastern coast of the Arabian Sea, we find that the main contributor to lateral advection in the OMZ is the Indian coastal undercurrent that advects southern oxygenated waters during summer and northern low-oxygen waters during winter. In this region, our model indicates that oxygen concentrations are

  14. TRIM-NHL proteins take on miRNA regulation.

    PubMed

    Loedige, Inga; Filipowicz, Witold

    2009-03-01

    The TRIM-NHL family of proteins is conserved among metazoans and has been shown to regulate cell proliferation and development. In this issue, Hammell et al. (2009) and Schwamborn et al. (2009) identify two members of this protein family, NHL-2 in worms and TRIM32 in mice, as positive regulators of microRNA function. PMID:19269362

  15. TRIM32 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase for dysbindin.

    PubMed

    Locke, Matthew; Tinsley, Caroline L; Benson, Matthew A; Blake, Derek J

    2009-07-01

    Mutations in the gene encoding tripartite motif protein 32 (TRIM32) cause two seemingly diverse diseases: limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H (LGMD2H) or sarcotubular myopathy (STM) and Bardet-Biedl syndrome type 11(BBS11). Although TRIM32 is involved in protein ubiquitination, its substrates and the molecular consequences of disease-causing mutations are poorly understood. In this paper, we show that TRIM32 is a widely expressed ubiquitin ligase that is localized to the Z-line in skeletal muscle. Using the yeast two-hybrid system, we found that TRIM32 binds and ubiquitinates dysbindin, a protein implicated in the genetic aetiology of schizophrenia, augmenting its degradation. Small-interfering RNA-mediated knock-down of TRIM32 in myoblasts resulted in elevated levels of dysbindin. Importantly, the LGMD2H/STM-associated TRIM32 mutations, D487N and R394H impair ubiquitin ligase activity towards dysbindin and were mislocalized in heterologous cells. These mutants were able to self-associate and also co-immunoprecipitated with wild-type TRIM32 in transfected cells. Furthermore, the D487N mutant could bind to both dysbindin and its E2 enzyme but was defective in monoubiquitination. In contrast, the BBS11 mutant P130S did not show any biochemical differences compared with the wild-type protein. Our data identify TRIM32 as a regulator of dysbindin and demonstrate that the LGMD2H/STM mutations may impair substrate ubiquitination. PMID:19349376

  16. TRIM32 is a novel negative regulator of p53.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Zhu, Yu; Hu, Wenwei; Feng, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    To ensure proper function, the tumor suppressor p53 is tightly regulated through different post-translational modifications, particularly ubiquitination. Recently, TRIM32 was identified as a p53-regulated gene and an E3 ubiquitin ligase of p53. Thus, TRIM32 and p53 form a novel auto-regulatory negative feedback loop for p53 regulation in cells. PMID:27308422

  17. TRIM32 is a novel negative regulator of p53

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Zhu, Yu; Hu, Wenwei; Feng, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    To ensure proper function, the tumor suppressor p53 is tightly regulated through different post-translational modifications, particularly ubiquitination. Recently, TRIM32 was identified as a p53-regulated gene and an E3 ubiquitin ligase of p53. Thus, TRIM32 and p53 form a novel auto-regulatory negative feedback loop for p53 regulation in cells. PMID:27308422

  18. 30 CFR 56.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 56.9314 Section 56.9314 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 56.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. Stockpile and muckpile faces shall...

  19. 30 CFR 56.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 56.9314 Section 56.9314 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 56.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. Stockpile and muckpile faces shall...

  20. 30 CFR 56.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 56.9314 Section 56.9314 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 56.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. Stockpile and muckpile faces shall...

  1. 30 CFR 56.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 56.9314 Section 56.9314 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND... Dumping Sites § 56.9314 Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. Stockpile and muckpile faces shall...

  2. Pain in Chickens and Effects of Beak Trimming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beak trimming may cause pain (acute, chronic or both) in trimmed chickens due to tissue damage and nerve injury. The complexity and plasticity of the nervous system and the animal’s inability to communicate verbally make pain difficult to measure directly. However, pain in animals can be recognized...

  3. Grid generation on trimmed Bezier and NURBS quilted surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woan, Chung-Jin; Clever, Willard C.; Tam, Clement K.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents some recently added capabilities to RAGGS, Rockwell Automated Grid Generation System. Included are the trimmed surface handling and display capability and structures and unstructured grid generation on trimmed Bezier and NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces) quilted surfaces. Samples are given to demonstrate the new capabilities.

  4. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30 Section 401.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.30 Ballast water and trim. (a) Every vessel shall be...

  5. 14 CFR 25.407 - Trim tab effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Trim tab effects. 25.407 Section 25.407 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... in the direction that would assist the pilot, and the deflections are— (a) For elevator trim...

  6. 14 CFR 25.407 - Trim tab effects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Trim tab effects. 25.407 Section 25.407 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... in the direction that would assist the pilot, and the deflections are— (a) For elevator trim...

  7. Oxygen deficiency hazards associated with liquefied gas systems development of a program of controls

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.M.; Mazur, P.O.

    1983-01-01

    The use of liquefied gases in industry and research has become commonplace. Release into the atmosphere of these gases, whether intentional or not, will result in a displacement of air and a reduction in the oxygen concentration. Exposure to reduced levels of oxygen levels may cause reduced abilities, unconsciousness, or death. This paper describes the derivation of a novel program of controls for oxygen deficiency hazards. The key to this approach is a quantitative assessment of risk for each planned operation and the application of control measures to reduce that risk to an acceptable level. Five risk levels evolve which are based on the probability of fatality. Controls such as training, oxygen monitoring equipment, self-rescue respirators, and medical surveillance are required when the probability of fatality exceeds 10/sup -7/ per hour. The quantitative nature of this program ensures an appropriate level of control without undue burden or expense. 11 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  8. Method of controlled reduction of nitroaromatics by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes

    DOEpatents

    Shah, M.M.; Campbell, J.A.

    1998-07-07

    A method is described for the controlled reduction of nitroaromatic compounds such as nitrobenzene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes, such as ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase. 6 figs.

  9. Method of controlled reduction of nitroaromatics by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes

    DOEpatents

    Shah, Manish M.; Campbell, James A.

    1998-01-01

    A method for the controlled reduction of nitroaromatic compounds such as nitrobenzene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes, such as ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase.

  10. 76 FR 72978 - Premier Trim, LLC, Spectrum Trim, LLC and Grant Products International, Inc. D/B/A Spectrum Grant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... in the Federal Register on July 7, 2010 (75 FR 39047). At the request of the State agency, the... Employment and Training Administration Premier Trim, LLC, Spectrum Trim, LLC and Grant Products International, Inc. D/B/A Spectrum Grant De Mexico Including Workers Whose Unemployment Insurance (UI) Wages Are...

  11. Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2007-03-31

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic (i.e., man-made) CO{sub 2} emissions. In 2001, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) began a two-phase program to investigate the feasibility of various carbon capture technologies. This program was sponsored under a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE). The first phase entailed a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen cases, representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated. Seven cases represented coal combustion in CFB type equipment. Four cases represented Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Two cases represented advanced Chemical Looping Combined Cycle systems. Marion, et al. reported the details of this work in 2003. One of the thirteen cases studied utilized an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. In this concept, the fuel is fired with a mixture of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (mainly CO{sub 2}). This combustion process yields a flue gas containing over 80 percent (by volume) CO{sub 2}. This flue gas can be processed relatively easily to enrich the CO{sub 2} content to over 96 percent for use in enhanced oil or gas recovery (EOR or EGR) or simply dried for sequestration. The Phase I study identified the O{sub 2}-fired CFB as having a near term development potential, because it uses conventional commercial CFB technology and commercially available CO{sub 2} capture enabling technologies such as cryogenic air separation and simple rectification or distillation gas processing systems. In the long term, air separation technology

  12. TRIMe7-CypA, an alternative splicing isoform of TRIMCyp in rhesus macaque, negatively modulates TRIM5α activity

    SciTech Connect

    Na, Lei; Tang, Yan-Dong; Liu, Jian-Dong; Yu, Chang-Qing; Sun, Liu-Ke; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Wang, Xue-Feng; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • TRIMe7-CypA expresses in rhesus and pig-tailed, but not long-tailed macaques. • TRIMe7-CypA does not show the restriction to a HIV-GFP report virus in vitro. • It acts as a negative modulator to TRIM5α likely by competitive inhibition. - Abstract: The existence of innate, host-specific restriction factors is a major obstacle to the development of nonhuman primate models for AIDS studies, and TRIM5α is one of the most important of these restriction factors. In recent years, a TRIM5 chimeric gene that was retrotransposed by a cyclophilin A (CypA) cDNA was identified in certain macaque species. The TRIM5α-CypA fusion protein, TRIMCyp, which was expressed in these monkeys, had lost its restriction ability toward HIV-1. We previously found that TRIMe7-CypA, an alternative splicing isoform of the TRIMCyp transcripts, was expressed in pig-tailed and rhesus macaques but absent in long-tailed macaques. In this study, the anti-HIV-1 activity of TRIMe7-CypA in the rhesus macaque (RhTRIMe7-CypA) was investigated. The over-expression of RhTRIMe7-CypA in CrFK, HeLa and HEK293T cells did not restrict the infection or replication of an HIV-1-GFP reporter virus in these cells. As a positive control, rhesus (rh)TRIM5α strongly inhibited the reporter virus. Intriguingly, the anti-HIV-1 activity of RhTRIM5α was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the co-repression of RhTRIMe7-CypA. Our data indicate that although the RhTRIMe7-CypA isoform does not appear to restrict HIV-1, it may act as a negative modulator of TRIM family proteins, presumably by competitive inhibition.

  13. Mutations that impair interaction properties of TRIM32 associated with limb-girdle muscular dystrophy 2H.

    PubMed

    Saccone, Valentina; Palmieri, Michela; Passamano, Luigia; Piluso, Giulio; Meroni, Germana; Politano, Luisa; Nigro, Vincenzo

    2008-02-01

    TRIM32 belongs to a large family of proteins characterized by a tripartite motif, possibly involved in the ubiquitination process, acting as an E3 ligase. In addition, TRIM32 has six NHL repeats with putative interaction properties. A homozygous mutation at the third NHL repeat (D487N) has been found in patients with limb girdle muscular dystrophy 2H (LGMD2H). This mutation was only identified in the inbred Manitoba Hutterite or their descendants. Interestingly, a mutation in the B-box domain of TRIM32 cosegregates with Bardet-Biedl syndrome type 11 (BBS11). The signs of BBS11 include obesity, pigmentary and retinal malformations, diabetes, polydactyly, and no muscular dystrophy, suggesting an alternative disease mechanism. We aim to ascertain whether D487N is the only pathological LGMD2H allele, limited to Hutterites. We studied the TRIM32 gene in 310 LGMD patients with no mutations at the other known loci. We identified four patients with novel mutated alleles. Two mutations were homozygous and missing in controls. These mutations also clustered at the NHL domain, suggesting that a specific (interaction) property might be abolished in LGMD2H patients. No mutations were found at the B-box region where the BBS11 mutation is found. We tested TRIM32 and its mutants by yeast-two-hybrid assay, developing an interaction test to validate mutations. All LGMD2H mutants, but not the BBS11, lost their ability to self-interact. The interaction of TRIM32 mutants with E2N, a protein involved in the ubiquitination process, was similarly impaired. In conclusion, the mutations here reported may cause muscular dystrophy by affecting the interaction properties of TRIM32. PMID:17994549

  14. Trimming and procrastination as inversion techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backus, George E.

    1996-12-01

    By examining the processes of truncating and approximating the model space (trimming it), and by committing to neither the objectivist nor the subjectivist interpretation of probability (procrastinating), we construct a formal scheme for solving linear and non-linear geophysical inverse problems. The necessary prior information about the correct model xE can be either a collection of inequalities or a probability measure describing where xE was likely to be in the model space X before the data vector y0 was measured. The results of the inversion are (1) a vector z0 that estimates some numerical properties zE of xE; (2) an estimate of the error δz = z0 - zE. As y0 is finite dimensional, so is z0, and hence in principle inversion cannot describe all of xE. The error δz is studied under successively more specialized assumptions about the inverse problem, culminating in a complete analysis of the linear inverse problem with a prior quadratic bound on xE. Our formalism appears to encompass and provide error estimates for many of the inversion schemes current in geomagnetism, and would be equally applicable in geodesy and seismology if adequate prior information were available there. As an idealized example we study the magnetic field at the core-mantle boundary, using satellite measurements of field elements at sites assumed to be almost uniformly distributed on a single spherical surface. Magnetospheric currents are neglected and the crustal field is idealized as a random process with rotationally invariant statistics. We find that an appropriate data compression diagonalizes the variance matrix of the crustal signal and permits an analytic trimming of the idealized problem.

  15. TRIM5 acts as more than a retroviral restriction factor.

    PubMed

    de Silva, Suresh; Wu, Li

    2011-07-01

    The retrovirus restriction factor TRIM5α blocks post-entry infection of retroviruses in a species-specific manner. As a cellular E3 ubiquitin ligase, TRIM5α binds to the retroviral capsid lattice in the cytoplasm of an infected cell and accelerates the uncoating process of retroviral capsid, thus providing a potent restriction to HIV-1 and other retrovirus infections. The precise mechanism by which this restriction is imposed remains under scrutiny, and evidence is lacking to link the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of TRIM5α to its ability to restrict retrovirus infection. In a recent study, Pertel and colleagues have uncovered the link between the two, providing compelling evidence to suggest that following the interaction with the retroviral capsid, TRIM5 triggers an antiviral innate immune response by functioning as a pattern recognition receptor. This unique function of TRIM5 is dependent on its association with the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme complex UBC13-UEV1A and subsequent activation of the TAK1 kinase complex and downstream genes involved in innate immune responses. These findings have defined a novel function for TRIM5 as a pattern recognition receptor in innate immune recognition and provided valuable mechanistic insight into its role as a retroviral restriction factor. Here we discuss the significance of these new findings in understanding TRIM5-mediated HIV restriction. PMID:21866272

  16. Ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest control of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on iceberg lettuce.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Biao

    2005-12-01

    The aphid Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) is a common pest of lettuce in the United States. It hinders export of U.S. lettuce to the overseas market such as Japan where it is a quarantined pest. Ultralow oxygen treatments were studied for control of the insect on iceberg lettuce. Small-scale ultralow oxygen treatments in plastic jars were conducted at 1, 5, and 10 degrees C for different durations to determine effective treatment against nymphs and alates of N. ribisnigri. At oxygen levels of 0.015-0.025%, N. ribisnigri can be controlled in 3 d at 1 degrees C, 2 d at 5 degrees C, and 1 d at 10 degrees C. Large-scale ultralow oxygen treatments were conducted in bulk container treatment chambers with commercial iceberg lettuce heads for 2 d at 6 degrees C with oxygen levels of 0.015 and 0.025% and for 3 d at 3 degrees C with oxygen level of 0.015%. All treatments achieved complete control of N. ribisnigri. No negative impact on lettuce quality was detected after 2 wk of posttreatment storage. Therefore, the selected treatments have potential to be commercially developed for postharvest control of N. ribisnigri on iceberg lettuce. PMID:16539111

  17. DESIGN PROCEDURES FOR DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONTROL OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents design procedures and guidelines for the selection of aeration equipment and dissolved (DO) control systems for activated sludge treatment plants. Aeration methods, equipment and application techniques are examined and selection procedures offered. Various DO...

  18. Reactive oxygen species delay control of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus

    PubMed Central

    Lang, P A; Xu, H C; Grusdat, M; McIlwain, D R; Pandyra, A A; Harris, I S; Shaabani, N; Honke, N; Kumar Maney, S; Lang, E; Pozdeev, V I; Recher, M; Odermatt, B; Brenner, D; Häussinger, D; Ohashi, P S; Hengartner, H; Zinkernagel, R M; Mak, T W; Lang, K S

    2013-01-01

    Cluster of differentiation (CD)8+ T cells are like a double edged sword during chronic viral infections because they not only promote virus elimination but also induce virus-mediated immunopathology. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been reported during virus infections. However, the role of ROS in T-cell-mediated immunopathology remains unclear. Here we used the murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus to explore the role of ROS during the processes of virus elimination and induction of immunopathology. We found that virus infection led to elevated levels of ROS producing granulocytes and macrophages in virus-infected liver and spleen tissues that were triggered by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. Lack of the regulatory subunit p47phox of the NADPH oxidase diminished ROS production in these cells. While CD8+ T cells exhibited ROS production that was independent of NADPH oxidase expression, survival and T-cell function was elevated in p47phox-deficient (Ncf1−/−) mice. In the absence of p47phox, enhanced T-cell immunity promoted virus elimination and blunted corresponding immunopathology. In conclusion, we find that NADPH-mediated production of ROS critically impairs the immune response, impacting elimination of virus and outcome of liver cell damage. PMID:23328631

  19. CryoEM analysis of capsid assembly and structural changes upon interactions with a host restriction factor, TRIM5α.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gongpu; Zhang, Peijun

    2014-01-01

    After virus fusion with a target cell, the viral core is released into the host cell cytoplasm and undergoes a controlled disassembly process, termed uncoating, before or as reverse transcription takes place. The cellular protein TRIM5α is a host cell restriction factor that blocks HIV-1 infection in rhesus macaque cells by targeting the viral capsid and inducing premature uncoating. The molecular mechanism of the interaction between capsid and TRIM5α remains unclear. Here, we describe an approach that utilizes cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) to examine the structural changes exerted on HIV-1 capsid (CA) assembly by TRIM5α binding. The TRIM5α interaction sites on CA assembly were further dissected by combining cryoEM with pair-wise cysteine mutations that crosslink CA either within a CA hexamer or between CA hexamers. Based on the structural information from cryoEM and crosslinking results from in vitro CA assemblies and purified intact HIV-1 cores, we demonstrate that direct binding of TRIM5α CC-SPRY domains to the viral capsid results in disruption and fragmentation of the surface lattice of HIV-1 capsid, specifically at inter-hexamer interfaces. The method described here can be easily adopted to study other important interactions in multi-protein complexes. PMID:24158810

  20. Anoxygenic Photosynthesis Controls Oxygenic Photosynthesis in a Cyanobacterium from a Sulfidic Spring

    PubMed Central

    Al-Najjar, Mohammad A. A.; Yilmaz, Pelin; Lavik, Gaute; de Beer, Dirk; Polerecky, Lubos

    2015-01-01

    Before the Earth's complete oxygenation (0.58 to 0.55 billion years [Ga] ago), the photic zone of the Proterozoic oceans was probably redox stratified, with a slightly aerobic, nutrient-limited upper layer above a light-limited layer that tended toward euxinia. In such oceans, cyanobacteria capable of both oxygenic and sulfide-driven anoxygenic photosynthesis played a fundamental role in the global carbon, oxygen, and sulfur cycle. We have isolated a cyanobacterium, Pseudanabaena strain FS39, in which this versatility is still conserved, and we show that the transition between the two photosynthetic modes follows a surprisingly simple kinetic regulation controlled by this organism's affinity for H2S. Specifically, oxygenic photosynthesis is performed in addition to anoxygenic photosynthesis only when H2S becomes limiting and its concentration decreases below a threshold that increases predictably with the available ambient light. The carbon-based growth rates during oxygenic and anoxygenic photosynthesis were similar. However, Pseudanabaena FS39 additionally assimilated NO3− during anoxygenic photosynthesis. Thus, the transition between anoxygenic and oxygenic photosynthesis was accompanied by a shift of the C/N ratio of the total bulk biomass. These mechanisms offer new insights into the way in which, despite nutrient limitation in the oxic photic zone in the mid-Proterozoic oceans, versatile cyanobacteria might have promoted oxygenic photosynthesis and total primary productivity, a key step that enabled the complete oxygenation of our planet and the subsequent diversification of life. PMID:25576611

  1. Interfacial control of oxygen vacancy doping and electrical conduction in thin film oxide heterostructures

    PubMed Central

    Veal, Boyd W.; Kim, Seong Keun; Zapol, Peter; Iddir, Hakim; Baldo, Peter M.; Eastman, Jeffrey A.

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen vacancies in proximity to surfaces and heterointerfaces in oxide thin film heterostructures have major effects on properties, resulting, for example, in emergent conduction behaviour, large changes in metal-insulator transition temperatures or enhanced catalytic activity. Here we report the discovery of a means of reversibly controlling the oxygen vacancy concentration and distribution in oxide heterostructures consisting of electronically conducting In2O3 films grown on ionically conducting Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 substrates. Oxygen ion redistribution across the heterointerface is induced using an applied electric field oriented in the plane of the interface, resulting in controlled oxygen vacancy (and hence electron) doping of the film and possible orders-of-magnitude enhancement of the film's electrical conduction. The reversible modified behaviour is dependent on interface properties and is attained without cation doping or changes in the gas environment. PMID:27283250

  2. Interfacial control of oxygen vacancy doping and electrical conduction in thin film oxide heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Veal, Boyd W; Kim, Seong Keun; Zapol, Peter; Iddir, Hakim; Baldo, Peter M; Eastman, Jeffrey A

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen vacancies in proximity to surfaces and heterointerfaces in oxide thin film heterostructures have major effects on properties, resulting, for example, in emergent conduction behaviour, large changes in metal-insulator transition temperatures or enhanced catalytic activity. Here we report the discovery of a means of reversibly controlling the oxygen vacancy concentration and distribution in oxide heterostructures consisting of electronically conducting In2O3 films grown on ionically conducting Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 substrates. Oxygen ion redistribution across the heterointerface is induced using an applied electric field oriented in the plane of the interface, resulting in controlled oxygen vacancy (and hence electron) doping of the film and possible orders-of-magnitude enhancement of the film's electrical conduction. The reversible modified behaviour is dependent on interface properties and is attained without cation doping or changes in the gas environment. PMID:27283250

  3. Interfacial control of oxygen vacancy doping and electrical conduction in thin film oxide heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veal, Boyd W.; Kim, Seong Keun; Zapol, Peter; Iddir, Hakim; Baldo, Peter M.; Eastman, Jeffrey A.

    2016-06-01

    Oxygen vacancies in proximity to surfaces and heterointerfaces in oxide thin film heterostructures have major effects on properties, resulting, for example, in emergent conduction behaviour, large changes in metal-insulator transition temperatures or enhanced catalytic activity. Here we report the discovery of a means of reversibly controlling the oxygen vacancy concentration and distribution in oxide heterostructures consisting of electronically conducting In2O3 films grown on ionically conducting Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 substrates. Oxygen ion redistribution across the heterointerface is induced using an applied electric field oriented in the plane of the interface, resulting in controlled oxygen vacancy (and hence electron) doping of the film and possible orders-of-magnitude enhancement of the film's electrical conduction. The reversible modified behaviour is dependent on interface properties and is attained without cation doping or changes in the gas environment.

  4. THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT BILL-TRIMMING METHODS ON THE WELL-BEING OF PEKIN DUCKS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pekin ducks are often bill-trimmed to prevent feather pecking and cannibalism, but this practice has been criticized because of the resulting potential for acute and chronic pain. The goal of this experiment was to compare two different bill-trimming methods, hot blade trimming with cautery (TRIM) a...

  5. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on harvested lettuce.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Biao

    2012-06-01

    Low temperature regular phosphine fumigations under the normal oxygen level and oxygenated phosphine fumigations under superatmospheric oxygen levels were compared for efficacy against the aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley), and effects on postharvest quality of romaine and head lettuce. Low temperature regular phosphine fumigation was effective against the aphid. However, a 3 d treatment with high phosphine concentrations of > or = 2,000 ppm was needed for complete control of the aphid. Oxygen greatly increased phosphine toxicity and significantly reduced both treatment time and phosphine concentration for control of N. ribisnigri. At 1,000 ppm phosphine, 72 h regular fumigations at 6 degrees C did not achieve 100% mortality of the aphid. The 1,000 ppm phosphine fumigation under 60% O2 killed all aphids in 30 h. Both a 72 h regular fumigation with 2,200 ppm phosphine and a 48 h oxygenated fumigation with 1,000 ppm phosphine under 60% O2 were tested on romaine and head lettuce at 3 degrees C. Both treatments achieved complete control of N. ribisnigri. However, the 72 h regular fumigation resulted in significantly higher percentages of lettuce with injuries and significantly lower lettuce internal quality scores than the 48 h oxygenated phosphine fumigation. Although the oxygenated phosphine fumigation also caused injuries to some treated lettuce, lettuce quality remained very good and the treatment is not expected to have a significant impact on marketability of the lettuce. This study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation was more effective and less phytotoxic for controlling N. ribisnigri on harvested lettuce than regular phosphine fumigation and is promising for practical use. PMID:22812116

  6. Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Flight-test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Nelson Andrew; Schaefer, Jacob Robert

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control algorithm for real-time trim optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control algorithm is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are used for optimization of fuel flow. Results from six research flights are presented herein. The optimization algorithm found a trim configuration that required approximately 3 percent less fuel flow than the baseline trim at the same flight condition. The algorithm consistently rediscovered the solution from several initial conditions. These results show that the algorithm has good performance in a relevant environment.

  7. Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Flight-Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Nelson Andrew; Schaefer, Jacob Robert

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control algorithm for real-time trim optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control algorithm is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are used for optimization of fuel flow. Results from six research flights are presented herein. The optimization algorithm found a trim configuration that required approximately 3 percent less fuel flow than the baseline trim at the same flight condition. The algorithm consistently rediscovered the solution from several initial conditions. These results show that the algorithm has good performance in a relevant environment.

  8. Study on using a digital ride quality augmentation system to trim an engine-out in a Cessna 402B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donaldson, K. E.

    1986-01-01

    A linear model of the Cessna 402B was used to determine if the control power available to a Ride Quality Augmentation System was adequate to trim an engine-out. Two simulations were completed: one using a steady state model, and the other using a state matrix model. The amount of rudder available was not sufficient in all cases to completely trim the airplane, but it was enough to give the pilot valuable reaction time. The system would be an added measure of safety for only a relatively small amount of development.

  9. 32. TRIM SAWS IN BACKGROUND, VIEW FROM SOUTH WEST. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. TRIM SAWS IN BACKGROUND, VIEW FROM SOUTH WEST. NOTE WASTE CONVEYOR IN FOREGROUND, CANT ROLL CASE TO BEAM SAW, THEN ROLL CASE FROM EDGER IN MIDDLE GROUND. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

  10. 14. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF TRIMMED FLASH; FLASH IS EXCESS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF TRIMMED FLASH; FLASH IS EXCESS METAL EXTRUDED BETWEEN THE DIES USED TO FORGE THE BLADE END OF THE POST HOLE DIGGER - Warwood Tool Company, Foot of Nineteenth Street, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  11. 155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal after excavation by steam shovel. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 701). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

  12. 1. GENERAL VIEW. TRIM, ROOF AND STABLE DOORS ALL ARE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW. TRIM, ROOF AND STABLE DOORS ALL ARE PAINTED RED. HEX SIGNS ARE PAINTED OCHRE, BLACK, RED, WHITE AND BLUE. NOTE PAINTED FLAGS ON SHED - Decorated White Barn, (Maiden Creek Township), Maiden Creek, Berks County, PA

  13. Numerical analysis of the primary processes controlling oxygen dynamics on the Louisiana shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, L.; Fennel, K.; Laurent, A.; Murrell, M. C.; Lehrter, J. C.

    2015-04-01

    The Louisiana shelf, in the northern Gulf of Mexico, receives large amounts of freshwater and nutrients from the Mississippi-Atchafalaya river system. These river inputs contribute to widespread bottom-water hypoxia every summer. In this study, we use a physical-biogeochemical model that explicitly simulates oxygen sources and sinks on the Louisiana shelf to identify the key mechanisms controlling hypoxia development. First, we validate the model simulation against observed dissolved oxygen concentrations, primary production, water column respiration, and sediment oxygen consumption. In the model simulation, heterotrophy is prevalent in shelf waters throughout the year, except near the mouths of the Mississippi and Atchafalaya rivers, where primary production exceeds respiratory oxygen consumption during June and July. During this time, efflux of oxygen to the atmosphere, driven by photosynthesis and surface warming, becomes a significant oxygen sink. A substantial fraction of primary production occurs below the pycnocline in summer. We investigate whether this primary production below the pycnocline is mitigating the development of hypoxic conditions with the help of a sensitivity experiment where we disable biological processes in the water column (i.e., primary production and water column respiration). With this experiment we show that below-pycnocline primary production reduces the spatial extent of hypoxic bottom waters only slightly. Our results suggest that the combination of physical processes (advection and vertical diffusion) and sediment oxygen consumption largely determine the spatial extent and dynamics of hypoxia on the Louisiana shelf.

  14. Factors Controlling Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in the Hyporheic Zone Induced by Fish Egg Nests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, A.; Cardenas, M. B.; Kaufman, M.; Zheng, L.; Kessler, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    There is currently limited research on the effects of bed depressions, such as those associated with fish nests, on hyporheic flow and biogeochemistry. A series of flume experiments are in progress, with the aim of understanding the effects of bed depressions on the hyporheic flow of oxygenated water. This study focuses on fish nests, also called redds, which represent a typical depression or scour feature. Previous research has shown that redd topography induces hyporheic circulation, but experiments regarding the oxygen concentration in and around the redds have not been conducted. We are determining the ways in which redds affect dissolved oxygen distribution and how this is controlled by hyporheic flow. The oxygen concentration across the cross-sectional plane of a fish nest is measured using a planar optode and microsensors. Hydraulic measurements include pressure measurements along the sediment-water interface and dye visualization. The redd design is based on a salmonid redd, which consists of a scour feature and a tailspin. The salmonid eggs are found in the tailspin. We hypothesize that the oxygen concentration will be greatest in close proximity to the gravel base of the redd and concentration will decrease with increasing depth and distance from the redd. Higher oxygen concentrations in the tailspin supports the placement of fish eggs within that area as opposed to a less oxygenated area of the streambed. Thus, fish nests are likely bio-engineered to optimize hyporheic flow and biogeochemistry to improve egg viability.

  15. Dissolved oxygen control of mechanical aerators at the Rensselaer county wastewater treatment plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtenberger, F.J.; Biski, W.K.; Guagno, J.A.

    1994-02-01

    The report describes the results of testing dissolved oxygen analyzers to control operation of mechanical aerators at the Rensselaer County Sewer District Wastewater Treatment Plant and reduce the amount of energy uses while maintaining or enhancing biological treatment. Current electricity costs are more than $300,000 annually for aeration in the activated sludge process. Motors for the aerators are manually controlled between high and low speed. It is expected that energy consumption will be reduced by using automatic controllers that change the speed of the aerators in response to the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the aeration basins. The project had three objectives; to test several manufacturers` dissolved oxygen analyzers at various locations within the aeration basins at the Rensselaer County Sewer District Wastewater Treatment Plant for accuracy, reliability, response time, and maintenance requirements; to install one manufacturer`s equipment in the aeration basins and operate the aerators either automatically or manually in response to dissolved oxygen readings; and to record plant operating and energy use data to determine whether the dissolved oxygen analyzers and controls were cost-effective and saved energy.

  16. Designer Hydrogels for Precision Control of Oxygen Tension and Mechanical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Blatchley, Michael; Park, Kyung Min; Gerecht, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen levels and mechanical properties provide vital cues to regulate myriad cellular functions and stem cell fate decisions. Here, we present a hybrid hydrogel system in which we can control independently oxygen levels and mechanical properties. We designed, synthesized and analyzed a hybrid hydrogel system comprised of two polymer backbones, gelatin and dextran. Both polymers were crosslinked via a laccase-mediated, oxygen consuming reaction. By specifically controlling the concentration of phenolic molecules available to react in our hydrogel, we could precisely control the time in which the hydrogel remained hypoxic (TH). We were able to achieve a range of TH from the order of minutes to greater than 10 hours. Additionally, by incorporating a secondary crosslinker, transglutaminase, mechanical properties could be adjusted in a user-defined fashion, with dynamic elastic modulus (G′) values ranging from <20 Pa to >1 kPa. Importantly, oxygen levels and substrate mechanical properties could be individually tuned and decoupled in our hybrid hydrogels, while retaining the potential to study possible synergistic effects between the two parameters. By precisely controlling oxygen tension and mechanical properties, we expect that research utilizing the new hybrid hydrogels will enhance our understanding of the complex 3D cellular processes mediated by each parameter individually and may also hold clinical interest as acellular therapies. PMID:26693017

  17. Regulatory feedback loop between TP73 and TRIM32.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Cano, L; Hillje, A-L; Fuertes-Alvarez, S; Marques, M M; Blanch, A; Ian, R W; Irwin, M S; Schwamborn, J C; Marín, M C

    2013-01-01

    The p73 transcription factor is one of the members of the p53 family of tumor suppressors with unique biological functions in processes like neurogenesis, embryonic development and differentiation. For this reason, p73 activity is tightly regulated by multiple mechanisms, including transcription and post-translational modifications. Here, we identified a novel regulatory loop between TAp73 and the E3 ubiquitin ligase tripartite motif protein 32 (TRIM32). TRIM32, a new direct p73 transcriptional target in the context of neural progenitor cells, is differentially regulated by p73. Although TAp73 binds to the TRIM32 promoter and activates its expression, TAp73-induced TRIM32 expression is efficiently repressed by DNp73. TRIM32 in turn physically interacts with TAp73 and promotes its ubiquitination and degradation, impairing p73-dependent transcriptional activity. This mutual regulation between p73 and TRIM32 constitutes a novel feedback loop, which might have important implications in central nervous system development as well as relevance in oncogenesis, and thus emerges as a possible therapeutic target. PMID:23828567

  18. TRIM5 and the Regulation of HIV-1 Infectivity.

    PubMed

    Luban, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    The past ten years have seen an explosion of information concerning host restriction factors that inhibit the replication of HIV-1 and other retroviruses. Among these factors is TRIM5, an innate immune signaling molecule that recognizes the capsid lattice as soon as the retrovirion core is released into the cytoplasm of otherwise susceptible target cells. Recognition of the capsid lattice has several consequences that include multimerization of TRIM5 into a complementary lattice, premature uncoating of the virion core, and activation of TRIM5 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. Unattached, K63-linked ubiquitin chains are generated that activate the TAK1 kinase complex and downstream inflammatory mediators. Polymorphisms in the capsid recognition domain of TRIM5 explain the observed species-specific differences among orthologues and the relatively weak anti-HIV-1 activity of human TRIM5. Better understanding of the complex interaction between TRIM5 and the retrovirus capsid lattice may someday lead to exploitation of this interaction for the development of potent HIV-1 inhibitors. PMID:22701176

  19. Modeling, simulation, and high-autonomy control of a Martian oxygen production plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schooley, L. C.; Cellier, F. E.; Wang, F.-Y.; Zeigler, B. P.

    1992-01-01

    Progress on a project for the development of a high-autonomy intelligent command and control architecture for process plants used to produce oxygen from local planetary resources is reported. A distributed command and control architecture is being developed and implemented so that an oxygen production plant, or other equipment, can be reliably commanded and controlled over an extended time period in a high-autonomy mode with high-level task-oriented teleoperation from one or several remote locations. During the reporting period, progress was made at all levels of the architecture. At the remote site, several remote observers can now participate in monitoring the plant. At the local site, a command and control center was introduced for increased flexibility, reliability, and robustness. The local control architecture was enhanced to control multiple tubes in parallel, and was refined for increased robustness. The simulation model was enhanced to full dynamics descriptions.

  20. A study on a voloxidizer with an oxygen concentration controller for a scale-up DESIGN

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Young-Hwan; Yoon, Ji-Sup; Park, Byung-Suk; Jung, Jae-Hoo

    2007-07-01

    For a oxidation of UO{sub 2} pellets of tens/kg in a vol-oxidizer, the existing devices take a long time, also, for their scale-up to an engineering scale, we need the optimum oxygen concentration with an maximum oxidation efficiency. In this study, we attained the optimum oxygen concentration to shorten the oxidation time of a simulation fuel using a vol-oxidizer with an oxygen concentration controller and sensor. We compared the characteristics of a galvanic sensor with a zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) one. The simulation fuel was manufactured with 14 metallic oxides, and used at a mass of 500 g HM/batch. At 500 deg. C, the galvanic and zirconium oxide sensors measured the oxidation time for the simulation fuel. Also, the oxidation time of the simulation fuel was measured according to a change of the oxygen concentration with the selected sensor, and the sample was analyzed. (authors)

  1. Trimming the UCERF2 hazard logic tree

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, Keith A.; Field, Edward H.; Milner, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast 2 (UCERF2) is a fully time‐dependent earthquake rupture forecast developed with sponsorship of the California Earthquake Authority (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities [WGCEP], 2007; Field et al., 2009). UCERF2 contains 480 logic‐tree branches reflecting choices among nine modeling uncertainties in the earthquake rate model shown in Figure 1. For seismic hazard analysis, it is also necessary to choose a ground‐motion‐prediction equation (GMPE) and set its parameters. Choosing among four next‐generation attenuation (NGA) relationships results in a total of 1920 hazard calculations per site. The present work is motivated by a desire to reduce the computational effort involved in a hazard analysis without understating uncertainty. We set out to assess which branching points of the UCERF2 logic tree contribute most to overall uncertainty, and which might be safely ignored (set to only one branch) without significantly biasing results or affecting some useful measure of uncertainty. The trimmed logic tree will have all of the original choices from the branching points that contribute significantly to uncertainty, but only one arbitrarily selected choice from the branching points that do not.

  2. Data trimming, nuclear emissions, and climate change.

    PubMed

    Shrader-Frechette, Kristin Sharon

    2009-03-01

    Ethics requires good science. Many scientists, government leaders, and industry representatives support tripling of global-nuclear-energy capacity on the grounds that nuclear fission is "carbon free" and "releases no greenhouse gases." However, such claims are scientifically questionable (and thus likely to lead to ethically questionable energy choices) for at least 3 reasons. (i) They rely on trimming the data on nuclear greenhouse-gas emissions (GHGE), perhaps in part because flawed Kyoto Protocol conventions require no full nuclear-fuel-cycle assessment of carbon content. (ii) They underestimate nuclear-fuel-cycle releases by erroneously assuming that mostly high-grade uranium ore, with much lower emissions, is used. (iii) They inconsistently compare nuclear-related GHGE only to those from fossil fuels, rather than to those from the best GHG-avoiding energy technologies. Once scientists take account of (i)-(iii), it is possible to show that although the nuclear fuel cycle releases (per kWh) much fewer GHG than coal and oil, nevertheless it releases far more GHG than wind and solar-photovoltaic. Although there may be other, ethical, reasons to support nuclear tripling, reducing or avoiding GHG does not appear to be one of them. PMID:18937054

  3. Evaluation of the UnTRIM model for 3-D tidal circulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cheng, R.T.; Casulli, V.

    2001-01-01

    A family of numerical models, known as the TRIM models, shares the same modeling philosophy for solving the shallow water equations. A characteristic analysis of the shallow water equations points out that the numerical instability is controlled by the gravity wave terms in the momentum equations and by the transport terms in the continuity equation. A semi-implicit finite-difference scheme has been formulated so that these terms and the vertical diffusion terms are treated implicitly and the remaining terms explicitly to control the numerical stability and the computations are carried out over a uniform finite-difference computational mesh without invoking horizontal or vertical coordinate transformations. An unstructured grid version of TRIM model is introduced, or UnTRIM (pronounces as "you trim"), which preserves these basic numerical properties and modeling philosophy, only the computations are carried out over an unstructured orthogonal grid. The unstructured grid offers the flexibilities in representing complex study areas so that fine grid resolution can be placed in regions of interest, and coarse grids are used to cover the remaining domain. Thus, the computational efforts are concentrated in areas of importance, and an overall computational saving can be achieved because the total number of grid-points is dramatically reduced. To use this modeling approach, an unstructured grid mesh must be generated to properly reflect the properties of the domain of the investigation. The new modeling flexibility in grid structure is accompanied by new challenges associated with issues of grid generation. To take full advantage of this new model flexibility, the model grid generation should be guided by insights into the physics of the problems; and the insights needed may require a higher degree of modeling skill.

  4. Different effects of infrared and one-half hot-blade beak trimming on beak topography and growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the effects of infrared beak treatment (IR) and hot blade beak trimming (HB) on beak length and production in laying hens. Seventy-two day-old layer chicks were randomly assigned to HB, IR or a control (C) group. Chicks were pair housed by treatment, and beak images and productio...

  5. ISOLATION OF THE FIRST NON-PRIMATE TRIM5-ALPHA FROM CATTLE INDICATES THAT TRIM5-ALPHA MEDIATED INNATE IMMUNITY TO RETROVIRAL INFECTION MAY BE WIDESPREAD AMONG MAMMALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    TRIM5-alpha has recently emerged as an important factor influencing species-specific permissivity to retroviral infection in a range of primates including humans. Old World monkey TRIM5-alpha blocks HIV-1 infectivity and human or New World TRIM5-alpha proteins are inactive against HIV-1 but active a...

  6. An assessment of the characteristics of yard trimmings and recirculated yard trimmings used in biowaste composting.

    PubMed

    López, Marga; Soliva, Montserrat; Martínez-Farré, F Xavier; Bonmatí, August; Huerta-Pujol, Oscar

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this research was to characterise samples of yard trimmings (YT) and recirculated yard trimmings (RYT) that are used to co-compost organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) taken from 18 composting facilities in Catalonia (NE Spain), to determine their contribution in the composting process, and to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of reusing RYT. We found significant differences between the characteristics of the two materials. RYT had higher pH levels, electrical conductivity, and organic and ammonium nitrogen content than YT. Nutrient content also shows an increment from YT to RYT, and in the case of P and K, this variation can be attributed to an exogenous source rather than the relative concentration during the composting process. We also found significant differences in particle size distribution and bulk density. From the results, it can be assumed that RYT could be reused in the composting process if OFMSW, YT, and RYT are used in the correct quantities to balance the mixture but they cannot totally replace the features of YT. PMID:19811908

  7. Oxygen control of breathing by an olfactory receptor activated by lactate

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Andy J.; Ortega, Fabian E.; Riegler, Johannes; Madison, Daniel V.; Krasnow, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Animals have evolved homeostatic responses to changes in oxygen availability that act on different time scales. Although the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcriptional pathway that controls long term responses to low oxygen (hypoxia) has been established1, the pathway that mediates acute responses to hypoxia in mammals is not well understood. Here we show that the olfactory receptor Olfr78 is highly and selectively expressed in oxygen-sensitive glomus cells of the carotid body, a chemosensory organ at the carotid artery bifurcation that monitors blood oxygen and stimulates breathing within seconds when oxygen declines2. Olfr78 mutants fail to increase ventilation in hypoxia but respond normally to hypercapnia. Glomus cells are present in normal numbers and appear structurally intact, but hypoxia-induced carotid body activity is diminished. Lactate, a metabolite that rapidly accumulates in hypoxia and induces hyperventilation3–6, activates Olfr78 in heterologous expression experiments, induces calcium transients in glomus cells, and stimulates carotid sinus nerve activity through Olfr78. We propose that in addition to its role in olfaction, Olfr78 acts as a hypoxia sensor in the breathing circuit by sensing lactate produced when oxygen levels decline. PMID:26560302

  8. Enhanced expression of trim14 gene suppressed Sindbis virus reproduction and modulated the transcription of a large number of genes of innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Nenasheva, V V; Kovaleva, G V; Uryvaev, L V; Ionova, K S; Dedova, A V; Vorkunova, G K; Chernyshenko, S V; Khaidarova, N V; Tarantul, V Z

    2015-07-01

    In the present research, we have studied an influence of enhanced expression TRIM14 on alphavirus Sindbis (SINV, Togaviridae family) infection. In the HEK293 cells transfected with human trim14 gene (HEK-trim14), SINV yield after infection was decreased 1000-10,000 times (3-4 lg of TCD50/ml) at 24 h p.i. and considerably less (1-2 lg of TCD50/ml) at 48 h p.i. Analysis of the expression of 43 genes directly or indirectly involved in innate immune machine in HEK-trim14 non-infected cells comparing with the control (non-transfected) HEK293 cells revealed that stable trim14 transfection in HEK293 cells caused increased transcription of 18 genes (ifna, il6 (ifnβ2), isg15, raf-1, NF-kB (nf-kb1, rela, nf-kb2, relb), grb2, grb3-3, traf3ip2, junB, c-myb, pu.1, akt1, tyk2, erk2, mek2) and lowered transcription of 3 genes (ifnγ, gata1, il-17a). The similar patterns of genes expression observe in SINV-infected non-transfected HEK293 cells. However, SINV infection of HEK-trim14 cells caused inhibition of the most interferon cascade genes as well as subunits of transcription factor NF-κB. Thus, stable enhanced expression of trim14 gene in cells activates the transcription of many immunity genes and suppresses the SINV reproduction, but SINV infection of HEK-trim14 cells promotes inhibition of some genes involved in innate immune system. PMID:25948474

  9. Oxygen fugacity control in piston-cylinder experiments: a re-evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, Sigurdur; Blundy, Jon; Moore, Gordon

    2014-06-01

    Jakobsson (Contrib Miner Petrol 164(3):397-407, 2012) investigated a double capsule assembly for use in piston-cylinder experiments that would allow hydrous, high-temperature, and high-pressure experiments to be conducted under controlled oxygen fugacity conditions. Using a platinum outer capsule containing a metal oxide oxygen buffer (Ni-NiO or Co-CoO) and H2O, with an inner gold-palladium capsule containing hydrous melt, this study was able to compare the oxygen fugacity imposed by the outer capsule oxygen buffer with an oxygen fugacity estimated by the AuPdFe ternary system calibrated by Barr and Grove (Contrib Miner Petrol 160(5):631-643, 2010). H2O loss or gain, as well as iron loss to the capsule walls and carbon contamination, is often observed in piston-cylinder experiments and often go unexplained. Only a few have attempted to actually quantify various aspects of these changes (Brooker et al. in Am Miner 83(9-10):985-994, 1998; Truckenbrodt and Johannes in Am Miner 84:1333-1335, 1999). It was one of the goals of Jakobsson (Contrib Miner Petrol 164(3):397-407, 2012) to address these issues by using and testing the AuPdFe solution model of Barr and Grove (Contrib Miner Petrol 160(5):631-643, 2010), as well as to constrain the oxygen fugacity of the inner capsule. The oxygen fugacities of the analyzed melts were assumed to be equal to those of the solid Ni-NiO and Co-CoO buffers, which is incorrect since the melts are all undersaturated in H2O and the oxygen fugacities should therefore be lower than that of the buffer by 2 log.

  10. Nasal Sculpting: Calculated and Predictable Tip Elevation With Cephalic Trim

    PubMed Central

    Redstone, Jeremiah S.; Nguyen, Jonathan; North, Durham Alan; Hazani, Ron; Drury, Brad; Yoder, Eric M.; Cooperman, Ross D.; Yoder, Virginia; Little, Jarrod A.; Florman, Larry D.; Wilhelmi, Bradon J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rhinoplasty techniques to affect nasal tip rotation are well described. Cephalic alar trim is a powerful method for achieving tip elevation. Previous studies and texts provide aesthetic guidelines for nasolabial angles. Often, surgeon experience determines the degree of lower lateral cartilage resection to achieve optimal results. This study analyzes the change in tip elevation with measured resections of the lower lateral cartilages. This can aid the surgeon in accurately predicting the effect of cephalic alar trim on tip elevation. Methods: Ten fresh cadaveric dissections were performed to determine the change in nasolabial angles after cephalic trim of the lower lateral cartilage. Closed rhinoplasty technique was performed using marginal and intercartilaginous incisions to expose the lower lateral cartilage. Caliper measurements of the lower lateral cartilage were recorded. Serial cephalic trim was performed in 25% increments. True lateral photographs were obtained before and after each serial excision. Nasolabial angle measurements were obtained using a digital goniometer for digital photo analysis. Results: Four female and 6 male cadavers were evaluated. The mean initial nasolabial angle was 106° ± 2°. The mean lower lateral cartilage width was 9.45 ± 1.38 mm. Serial 25% reductions in lower lateral cartilage height resulted in a mean total nasolabial angle change of 7.4°, 12.9°, and 19.6°, respectively. The mean incremental change in the nasolabial angle was 6.47° ± 1.25°. Conclusion: The nasolabial angle is an essential aesthetic feature. Cephalic trim is a key maneuver in affecting the nasolabial angle. A 25% lower lateral cartilage cephalic trim correlates with an average change in the nasolabial angle of 6.47°. Knowledge of the cephalic trim to nasolabial angle relationship aids in achieving desired tip elevation. PMID:26171091

  11. Identification of TRIM22 as a RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase

    SciTech Connect

    Duan Zhijian; Gao Bo; Xu Wei; Xiong Sidong

    2008-09-26

    TRIM22, a member of the TRIM family proteins which contain RING finger, B-box, and coiled-coil domains, has been reported as a transcriptional regulator and involved in various cellular processes. In this study, the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, a novel property of TRIM22, was demonstrated. It was found that TRIM22 underwent self-ubiquitylation in vitro in combination with the E2 enzyme UbcH5B and the ubiquitylation was dependent on its RING finger domain. Further evidences showed that TRIM22 could also be self-ubiquitylated in vivo. Importantly, TRIM22 was conjugated with poly-ubiquitin chains and stabilized by the proteasome inhibitor in 293T cells, suggesting that TRIM22 targeted itself for proteasomal degradation through the poly-ubiquitylation. We also found that TRIM22 was located in the nucleus, indicating that TRIM22 might function as a nuclear E3 ubiquitin ligase.

  12. DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTROLLING BOP (BASIC OXYGEN PROCESS) CHARGING EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study of the basic oxygen process (BOP) hot metal charging emission control technology, conducted with a 900 kg pilot vessel designed for the experiments. Complete instrumentation was provided to measure the emissions, the effectiveness of the variou...

  13. CONTROL OF TRANSIENT INCINERATOR EMISSIONS WITH AN OXYGEN BASED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The subject of this paper is the experience with a novel and field-proven method for the enhanced control of transient emissions from rotary kiln incinerators using oxygen enrichment. hen high-BTU content wastes are fed into rotary kiln incinerators in an intermittent mode (typic...

  14. Trimming the threshold dispersion below 10 e-rms in a large area readout IC working in a single photon counting mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmon, P.; Maj, P.; Gryboś, P.; Szczygieł, R.

    2016-01-01

    We present a new method of an in-pixel threshold dispersion correction implemented in a prototype readout integrated circuit (IC) operating in a single photon counting mode. The new threshold correction method was implemented in a readout IC of area 9.6× 14.9 mm2 containing 23552 square pixels with the pitch of 75 μm designed and fabricated in CMOS 130 nm technology. Each pixel of the IC consists of a charge sensitive amplifier, a shaper, two discriminators, two 14-bit counters and a low-area trim DACs for threshold correction. The user can either control the range of the trim DAC globally for all the pixels in the integrated circuit or modify the trim DACs characteristics locally in each pixel independently. Using a simulation tool based on the Monte-Carlo methods, we estimated how much we could improve the offset trimming by increasing the number of bits in the trim DACs or implementing additional bits in a pixel to modify the characteristics of the trim DACs. The measurements of our IC prototype show that it is possible to reduce the effective threshold dispersion in large-area single-photon counting chips below 10 electrons rms.

  15. Systemic oxygen therapy versus oral enalapril for treatment of diabetic macular ischemia: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sharifipour, Farideh; Razzaghi, Mohammadreza; Ramezani, Alireza; Azarmina, Mohsen; Yaseri, Mehdi; Soheilian, Roham; Soheilian, Masoud

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the structural and functional effects of systemic oxygen therapy and enalapril in patients with diabetic macular ischemia (DMI). This randomized clinical trial consisted of 105 eyes with DMI divided into three groups. Group I received systemic oxygen by face mask at a flow rate of 10 L/min; Group II received 5 mg enalapril daily; and Group III received placebo tablets for 3 months. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), central macular thickness (CMT) measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT), extent of foveal avascular zone (FAZ) on fluorescein angiograms, and electroretinograms (ERG) were obtained at baseline and after 3 and 6 months. Overall, 102 patients completed the study. Baseline characteristics were not significantly different among groups. Significant improvement in BCVA and decrease in CMT and FAZ occurred at months 3 and 6 in oxygen group compared to deterioration in enalapril and control groups (All P values <0.001). ERG parameters were significantly better in oxygen group compared to enalapril group at months 3 and 6 and better than those in control group at month 3. Normobaric oxygen therapy for 3 months in DMI decreased CMT and FAZ and improved BCVA and ERG parameters. Enalapril did not show any favorable effect. PMID:26292645

  16. Controls on ostracod valve geochemistry: Part 2. Carbon and oxygen isotope compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decrouy, Laurent; Vennemann, Torsten Walter; Ariztegui, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    The stable carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of fossil ostracods are powerful tools to estimate past environmental and climatic conditions. The basis for such interpretations is that the calcite of the valves reflects the isotopic composition of water and its temperature of formation. However, calcite of ostracods is known not to form in isotopic equilibrium with water and different species may have different offsets from inorganic precipitates of calcite formed under the same conditions. To estimate the fractionation during ostracod valve calcification, the oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of 15 species living in Lake Geneva were related to their autoecology and the environmental parameters measured during their growth. The results indicate that: (1) Oxygen isotope fractionation is similar for all species of Candoninae with an enrichment in 18O of more than 3‰ relative to equilibrium values for inorganic calcite. Oxygen isotope fractionation for Cytheroidea is less discriminative relative to the heavy oxygen, with enrichments in 18O for these species of 1.7 to 2.3‰. Oxygen isotope fractionations for Cyprididae are in-between those of Candoninae and Cytheroidea. The difference in oxygen isotope fractionation between ostracods and inorganic calcite has been interpreted as resulting from a vital effect. (2) Comparison with previous work suggests that oxygen isotope fractionation may depend on the total and relative ion content of water. (3) Carbon isotope compositions of ostracod valves are generally in equilibrium with DIC. The specimens' δ 13C values are mainly controlled by seasonal variations in δ 13C DIC of bottom water or variation thereof in sediment pore water. (4) Incomplete valve calcification has an effect on carbon and oxygen isotope compositions of ostracod valves. Preferential incorporation of CO32- at the beginning of valve calcification may explain this effect. (5) Results presented here as well as results from synthetic carbonate

  17. How to minimize power in dissolved oxygen control... DSM in action

    SciTech Connect

    Skrentner, R.G.; Lutman, C.G.

    1994-12-31

    As part of the EPRI Municipal Water and Sewage Project, Demand-Side Energy Management, EPRI retained EMA to evaluate the life cycle cost of three alternatives for controlling low-pressure centrifugal compressors to reduce power costs. The alternatives included: inlet guide vanes, inlet butterfly valves, and adjustable speed drives. This paper contains the findings and identifies actions that could benefit wastewater treatment facilities. Many wastewater treatment plants use an activated sludge process to remove organic pollutants. In this process, a large mass of microbes consumes the organic matter in the wastewater. The microbes require diffused oxygen to metabolize the organic material. The diffused air mixes with the contents of the aeration basin and provides oxygen to the microbes. The basic activated sludge process has the following features: (1) An aeration basin with provisions for oxygenation and mixing of the mixed liquor, (2) A settling tank or clarifier to separate mixed liquor solids and liquid, (3) A sludge recycling system to return settled activated sludge to the aeration basin, and (4) A sludge wasting system to remove solids at the rate that it grows, thus maintaining the desired mass of solids in the process. The operator has three main control variables: (1) Aeration rate to control the dissolved oxygen concentration in the aeration basin. The operator sets the aeration rate to maintain dissolved oxygen at 1-2 mg/l. (2) Sludge recycle rate to control the concentration of the return sludge and the mass of solids in the clarifier. The operator sets the return rate to maintain the sludge blanket level at some predetermined depth. (3) Sludge wasting rate to control the solids retention time and mass of solids in the process. The operator sets the waste rate usually once per day to remove a pre-determined mass.

  18. Scaling-Free Electrochemical Production of Caustic and Oxygen for Sulfide Control in Sewers.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Wen; Rabaey, Korneel; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo; Pikaar, Ilje

    2015-10-01

    Caustic shock-loading and oxygen injection are commonly used by the water industry for biofilm and sulfide control in sewers. Caustic can be produced onsite from wastewater using a two-compartment electrochemical cell. This avoids the need for import and storage of caustic soda, which typically represents a cost and a hazard. An issue limiting the practical implementation of this approach is the occurrence of membrane scaling due to the almost universal presence of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) in wastewater. It results in a rapid increase in the cell voltage, thereby increasing the energy consumption of the system. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate an innovative solution for this problem involving the inclusion of a middle compartment between the anode and cathode compartments. Caustic was efficiently produced from wastewater over a period of 12 weeks and had an average Coulombic efficiency (CE) of 84.1 ± 1.1% at practically relevant caustic strengths (∼3 wt %). Neither membrane scaling nor an increase in the cell voltage was observed throughout the experiments. In addition, dissolved oxygen was produced in the anode, resulting in continuously oxygenated wastewater leaving the three-compartment cell. This membrane-scaling control strategy represents a major step forward toward practical implementation of on-site simultaneous electrochemical caustic and oxygen generation for sulfide control in sewers and also has the potential to be applied to other (bio)electrochemical systems receiving wastewater as source for product recovery. PMID:26377687

  19. Spatial control of the energy metabolism of yeast cells through electrolytic generation of oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnke, Christian; Mair, Thomas; Witte, Hartmut; Reiher, Antje; Hauser, Marcus J. B.; Krost, Alois

    2009-12-01

    The metabolic dynamics of yeast cells is controlled by electric pulses delivered through a spatially extended yeast cell/Au electrode interface. Concomitant with voltage pulses, oxygen is generated electrolytically at the electrode surface and delivered to the cells. The generation of oxygen was investigated in dependence of the applied voltage, width of the voltage pulses and temperature of the electrolytic solution. The local oxygen pulses at the electrodes lead to a transient activation of the aerobic energy metabolism of the yeast cells causing a perturbation in their energy balance. The effect of these local perturbations on the temporal dynamics of glycolysis in yeast cells is quantified in dependence of the energy state of cells.

  20. Structural and electronic response via oxygen vacancy control in SrFeO3 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krick, Alex; Moon, Eun Ju; Huon, Amanda; May, Steven

    The electronic and structural properties of complex perovskite oxide thin films are often directly influenced by their oxygen vacancy concentration. Here, we investigate epitaxial films of SrFeO3, which exhibits a variety of structural and electronic phases as a function of oxygen content. The ability to control these functional properties via temperature or external fields is not present in conventional semiconductors and is attractive from an application perspective. As-grown films are oxidized using a post-growth anneal in dilute ozone, yielding metallic behavior consistent with bulk SrFeO3. X-ray diffraction and temperature dependent resistivity collected at different stages of oxidation and reduction reveal minute structural transformations that yield large changes in electronic behavior due to oxygen loss.

  1. Quality Controlled Argo Profiling Float Oxygen Data: Open Source Sharing and Version Control Using IPython Notebooks on GitHub

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, C.; McCann, M. P.; Plant, J. N.; Johnson, K. S.

    2015-12-01

    Profiling floats equipped with biogeochemical sensors are an ideal platform for observing the seasonal evolution of physical and chemical processes from the surface to the deep interior. As of August 2015, there have reportedly been 765 floats equipped with oxygen sensors with 363 currently active. Although new insights into oceanic biogeochemical processes have come from these data, the profiling oxygen data set has not been fully utilized because the dissolved oxygen data does not undergo QC procedures at the Argo data centers. The oxygen sensors on profiling floats have been demonstrated to produce highly stable and precise data over many months and years but only a small percentage have been verified with discrete samples taken at deployment to determine the sensor accuracy. Takeshita et al (2013) presented a climatology based quality control procedure utilizing the World Ocean Atlas 2009 (WOA09). We used a straightforward approach mentioned in their paper to calculate the sensor gain by comparing the surface %Sat(float) to the surface %Sat(WOA09) using > 1 year of data. We have developed Python scripts to provide QC'd data that are freely available and easily shared using IPython Notebooks hosted on GitHub. We will examine the consistency of the corrected oxygen data set, relative to existing climatologies, and its use in oceanographic studies.

  2. Prediction and innovative control strategies for oxygen and hazardous gases from diesel emission in underground mines.

    PubMed

    Kurnia, Jundika C; Sasmito, Agus P; Wong, Wai Yap; Mujumdar, Arun S

    2014-05-15

    Diesel engine is widely used in underground mining machines due to its efficiency, ease of maintenance, reliability and durability. However, it possesses significant danger to the miners and mining operations as it releases hazardous gases (CO, NO, CO2) and fine particles which can be easily inhaled by the miners. Moreover, the diesel engine consumes significant amount of oxygen which can lead to insufficient oxygen supply for miners. It is therefore critical to maintain sufficient oxygen supply while keeping hazardous gas concentrations from diesel emission below the maximum allowable level. The objective of this study is to propose and to examine various innovative ventilation strategies to control oxygen and hazardous gas concentrations in underground mine to ensure safety, productivity and cost related to energy consumption. Airflow distribution, oxygen and hazardous gas dispersion as well as ambient temperature within the mining area are evaluated by utilizing the well-established computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. The results suggest that our newly proposed ventilation design performs better as compared to the conventional design to handle hazardous gases from diesel emission. PMID:24607396

  3. The interaction of Piasy with Trim32, an E3-ubiquitin ligase mutated in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H, promotes Piasy degradation and regulates UVB-induced keratinocyte apoptosis through NFkappaB.

    PubMed

    Albor, Amador; El-Hizawi, Sally; Horn, Elizabeth J; Laederich, Melanie; Frosk, Patrick; Wrogemann, Klaus; Kulesz-Martin, Molly

    2006-09-01

    Protein inhibitors of activated STATs (PIAS) family members are ubiquitin-protein isopeptide ligase-small ubiquitin-like modifier ligases for diverse transcription factors. However, the regulation of PIAS protein activity in cells is poorly understood. Previously, we reported that expression of Trim32, a RING domain ubiquitin-protein isopeptide ligase-ubiquitin ligase mutated in human limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H (LGMD2H) and Bardet-Biedl syndrome, is elevated during mouse skin carcinogenesis, protecting keratinocytes from apoptosis induced by UVB and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha). Here we report that Trim32 interacts with Piasy and promotes Piasy ubiquitination and degradation. Ubiquitination of Piasy by Trim32 could be reproduced in vitro using purified components. Their interaction was induced by treatment with UVB/TNFalpha and involved redistribution of Piasy from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it accumulated in cytoplasmic granules that colocalized with Trim32. Piasy destabilization and ubiquitination required an intact RING domain in Trim32. The LGMD2H-associated missense point mutation prevented Trim32 binding to Piasy, and human Piasy failed to colocalize with human Trim32 in fibroblasts isolated from an LGMD2H patient. Trim32 expression increased the transcriptional activity of NFkappaB in epidermal keratinocytes, both under basal treatment and after UVB/TNFalpha treatment. Conversely, Piasy inhibited NFkappaB activity under the same conditions and sensitized keratinocytes to apoptosis induced by TNFalpha and UVB. Our results indicate that, by controlling Piasy stability, Trim32 regulates UVB-induced keratinocyte apoptosis through induction of NFkappaB and suggests loss of function of Trim32 in LGMD2H. PMID:16816390

  4. Control of oxygen vacancies and their kinetic behaviours via reversible oxygen loss in BiFeO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Min, Kangli; Huang, Fengzhen; Jin, Yaming; Lu, Xiaomei; Wu, Huarui; Zhu, Jinsong

    2015-11-01

    Oxygen vacancies and their kinetic behaviours were systematically investigated in quenched BiFeO3 ceramics. Complex relaxation processes were observed and discussed based on the migration of V\\text{o}+ , V\\text{o}2+ and the transition in between them, where V\\text{o}+ , V\\text{o}2+ represent the oxygen vacancies with single and two positive charges, respectively. It is found that an oxygen-deficient environment promotes the transformation from V\\text{o}+ to V\\text{o}2+ , while oxygen treatment can reverse such a transformation. This work provides a feasible alternative method to modulate oxygen vacancies and their migration in favour of the applications of BiFeO3.

  5. Role of the Cephalic Trim in Modern Rhinoplasty.

    PubMed

    Nagarkar, Purushottam; Stark, Ran Y; Pezeshk, Ronnie A; Amirlak, Bardia; Rohrich, Rod J

    2016-01-01

    There have been a variety of techniques describing nasal tip refinement. The cephalic trim has long been accepted as a means for shaping the nasal tip, but it has been misinterpreted by many surgeons. The improper use of a cephalic trim poses potential long-term sequelae. During analysis of the nasal tip, several anatomic findings must be noted to ensure appropriate correction as well as to avoid pitfalls. These findings include the type of boxy tip or bulbous tip, cartilage strength, and the skin quality. The goal of this article is to describe five types of cephalic trim techniques to assist in refining the nasal tip and an algorithm for selection of the appropriate technique based on these anatomic findings. PMID:26710011

  6. Trimming a Metallic Biliary Stent Using an Argon Plasma Coagulator

    SciTech Connect

    Rerknimitr, Rungsun Naprasert, Pisit; Kongkam, Pradermchai; Kullavanijaya, Pinit

    2007-06-15

    Background. Distal migration is one of the common complications after insertion of a covered metallic stent. Stent repositioning or removal is not always possible in every patient. Therefore, trimming using an argon plasma coagulator (APC) may be a good alternative method to solve this problem. Methods. Metallic stent trimming by APC was performed in 2 patients with biliary Wallstent migration and in another patient with esophageal Ultraflex stent migration. The power setting was 60-100 watts with an argon flow of 0.8 l/min. Observations. The procedure was successfully performed and all distal parts of the stents were removed. No significant collateral damage to the nearby mucosa was observed. Conclusions. In a patient with a distally migrated metallic stent, trimming of the stent is possible by means of an APC. This new method may be applicable to other sites of metallic stent migration.

  7. Controlled lateral anisotropy in correlated manganite heterostructures by interface-engineered oxygen octahedral coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Z.; Huijben, M.; Zhong, Z.; Gauquelin, N.; Macke, S.; Green, R. J.; van Aert, S.; Verbeeck, J.; van Tendeloo, G.; Held, K.; Sawatzky, G. A.; Koster, G.; Rijnders, G.

    2016-04-01

    Controlled in-plane rotation of the magnetic easy axis in manganite heterostructures by tailoring the interface oxygen network could allow the development of correlated oxide-based magnetic tunnelling junctions with non-collinear magnetization, with possible practical applications as miniaturized high-switching-speed magnetic random access memory (MRAM) devices. Here, we demonstrate how to manipulate magnetic and electronic anisotropic properties in manganite heterostructures by engineering the oxygen network on the unit-cell level. The strong oxygen octahedral coupling is found to transfer the octahedral rotation, present in the NdGaO3 (NGO) substrate, to the La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LSMO) film in the interface region. This causes an unexpected realignment of the magnetic easy axis along the short axis of the LSMO unit cell as well as the presence of a giant anisotropic transport in these ultrathin LSMO films. As a result we possess control of the lateral magnetic and electronic anisotropies by atomic-scale design of the oxygen octahedral rotation.

  8. A method for controlling hydrogen sulfide in water by adding solid phase oxygen.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Jie; Chang, Yi-Tang; Chen, Hsi-Jien

    2007-01-01

    This work evaluates the addition of solid phase oxygen, a magnesium peroxide (MgO(2)) formulation manufactured by Regenesis (oxygen-releasing compounds, ORC), to inhibit the production of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) in an SRB-enriched environment. The initial rate of release of oxygen by the ORC was determined over a short period by adding sodium sulfite (Na(2)SO(3)), which was a novel approach developed for this study. The ability of ORCs to control H(2)S by releasing oxygen was evaluated in a bench-scale column containing cultured sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). After a series of batch tests, 0.4% ORC was found to be able to inhibit the formation of H(2)S for more than 40 days. In comparison, the concentration of H(2)S dropped from 20 mg S/L to 0.05 mg S/L immediately after 0.1% hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) was added, but began to recover just four days later. Thus, H(2)O(2) does not seem to be able to inhibit the production of sulfide for an extended period of time. By providing long-term inhibition of the SRB population, ORC provides a good alternative means of controlling the production of H(2)S in water. PMID:16439114

  9. Controlled lateral anisotropy in correlated manganite heterostructures by interface-engineered oxygen octahedral coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huijben, Mark

    Ultimate miniaturization of magnetic random access memory (MRAM) devices is expected by the utilization of spin-transfer torques, because they present an efficient means to switch elements with a very high magnetic anisotropy. To overcome the low switching speed in current collinearly magnetized devices, new routes are being explored to realize magnetic tunnel junction stacks with non-collinear magnetization between two magnetic electrodes. Controlled in-plane rotation of the magnetic easy axis in manganite heterostructures by tailoring the interface oxygen network would provide a promising direction for non-collinear magnetization in correlated oxide magnetic tunneling junctions. Here, we demonstrate how to manipulate magnetic and electronic anisotropic properties in manganite heterostructures by engineering the oxygen network on the unit-cell level. The strong oxygen octahedral coupling is found to transfer the octahedral rotation, present in the NdGaO3 (NGO) substrate, to the La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LSMO) film in the interface region. This causes an unexpected realignment of the magnetic easy axis along the short axis of the LSMO unit cell as well as the presence of a giant anisotropic transport in these ultrathin LSMO films. As a result we possess control of the lateral magnetic and electronic anisotropies by atomic scale design of the oxygen octahedral rotation. Membership Pending.

  10. Controlled lateral anisotropy in correlated manganite heterostructures by interface-engineered oxygen octahedral coupling.

    PubMed

    Liao, Z; Huijben, M; Zhong, Z; Gauquelin, N; Macke, S; Green, R J; Van Aert, S; Verbeeck, J; Van Tendeloo, G; Held, K; Sawatzky, G A; Koster, G; Rijnders, G

    2016-04-01

    Controlled in-plane rotation of the magnetic easy axis in manganite heterostructures by tailoring the interface oxygen network could allow the development of correlated oxide-based magnetic tunnelling junctions with non-collinear magnetization, with possible practical applications as miniaturized high-switching-speed magnetic random access memory (MRAM) devices. Here, we demonstrate how to manipulate magnetic and electronic anisotropic properties in manganite heterostructures by engineering the oxygen network on the unit-cell level. The strong oxygen octahedral coupling is found to transfer the octahedral rotation, present in the NdGaO3 (NGO) substrate, to the La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LSMO) film in the interface region. This causes an unexpected realignment of the magnetic easy axis along the short axis of the LSMO unit cell as well as the presence of a giant anisotropic transport in these ultrathin LSMO films. As a result we possess control of the lateral magnetic and electronic anisotropies by atomic-scale design of the oxygen octahedral rotation. PMID:26950593

  11. Control of nitratation in an oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification/denitrification rotating biological contactor through disc immersion level variation.

    PubMed

    Courtens, Emilie N P; Boon, Nico; De Clippeleir, Haydée; Berckmoes, Karla; Mosquera, Mariela; Seuntjens, Dries; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E

    2014-03-01

    With oxygen supply playing a crucial role in an oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification/denitrification (OLAND) rotating biological contactor (RBC), its controlling factors were investigated in this study. Disc rotation speeds (1.8 and 3.6rpm) showed no influence on the process performance of a lab-scale RBC, although abiotic experiments showed a significant effect on the oxygenation capacity. Estimations of the biological oxygen uptake rate revealed that 85-89% of the oxygen was absorbed by the microorganisms during the air exposure of the discs. Indeed, increasing the disc immersion (50 to 75-80%) could significantly suppress undesired nitratation, on the short and long term. The presented results demonstrated that nitratation could be controlled by the immersion level and revealed that oxygen control in an OLAND RBC should be predominantly based on the atmospheric exposure percentage of the discs. PMID:24457304

  12. Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Architecture and Performance Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Jacob; Brown, Nelson A.

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control approach for real-time trim configuration optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control approach is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are controlled for optimization of fuel flow. This paper presents the design and integration of this peak-seeking controller on a modified NASA F/A-18 airplane with research flight control computers. A research flight was performed to collect data to build a realistic model of the performance function and characterize measurement noise. This model was then implemented into a nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom F/A-18 simulation along with the peak-seeking control algorithm. With the goal of eventual flight tests, the algorithm was first evaluated in the improved simulation environment. Results from the simulation predict good convergence on minimum fuel flow with a 2.5-percent reduction in fuel flow relative to the baseline trim of the aircraft.

  13. Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Architecture and Performance Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Jacob; Brown, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control approach for real-time trim configuration optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control approach is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an FA-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are controlled for optimization of fuel flow. This presentation presents the design and integration of this peak-seeking controller on a modified NASA FA-18 airplane with research flight control computers. A research flight was performed to collect data to build a realistic model of the performance function and characterize measurement noise. This model was then implemented into a nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom FA-18 simulation along with the peak-seeking control algorithm. With the goal of eventual flight tests, the algorithm was first evaluated in the improved simulation environment. Results from the simulation predict good convergence on minimum fuel flow with a 2.5-percent reduction in fuel flow relative to the baseline trim of the aircraft.

  14. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Escherichia coli on Beef Trimmings Obtained from a Beef Packing Plant.

    PubMed

    Visvalingam, Jeyachchandran; Wang, Hui; Youssef, Mohamed K; Devos, Julia; Gill, Colin O; Yang, Xianqin

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the immediate source of Escherichia coli on beef trimmings produced at a large packing plant by analyzing the E. coli on trimmings at various locations of a combo bin filled on the same day and of bins filled on different days. Ten 2,000-lb (907-kg) combo bins (B1 through B10) of trimmings were obtained from a large plant on 6 days over a period of 5 weeks. Thin slices of beef with a total area of approximately 100 cm(2) were excised from five locations (four corners and the center) at each of four levels of the bins: the top surface and 30, 60, and 90 cm below the top. The samples were enriched for E. coli in modified tryptone soya broth supplemented with 20 mg/liter novobiocin. The positive enrichment cultures, as determined by PCR, were plated on E. coli/coliform count plates for recovery of E. coli. Selected E. coli isolates were genotyped using multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Of the 200 enrichment cultures, 43 were positive by PCR for E. coli, and 32 of these cultures yielded E. coli isolates. Two bins did not yield any positive enrichment cultures, and three PCR-positive bins did not yield any E. coli isolates. MLVA of 165 E. coli isolates (30, 62, 56, 5, and 12 from B6 through B10, respectively) revealed nine distinct genotypes. MLVA types 263 and 89 were most prevalent overall and on individual days, accounting for 49.1 and 37.6% of the total isolates, respectively. These two genotypes were also found at multiple locations within a bin. All nine genotypes belonged to the phylogenetic group A0 of E. coli, suggesting an animal origin. The finding that the trimmings carried very few E. coli indicates an overall effective control over contamination of beef with E. coli at this processing plant. The lack of strain diversity of the E. coli on trimmings suggests that most E. coli isolates may have come from common sources, most likely equipment used in the fabrication process. PMID:27497119

  15. TRIM-NHL proteins in development and disease.

    PubMed

    Tocchini, Cristina; Ciosk, Rafal

    2015-12-01

    TRIM-NHL proteins are key regulators of developmental transitions, for example promoting differentiation, while inhibiting cell growth and proliferation, in stem and progenitor cells. Abnormalities in these proteins have been also associated with human diseases, particularly affecting muscular and neuronal functions, making them potential targets for therapeutic intervention. The purpose of this review is to provide a systematic and comprehensive summary on the most studied TRIM-NHL proteins, highlighting examples where connections were established between structural features, molecular functions and biological outcomes. PMID:26514622

  16. Controls on aquatic carbon cycling in a carbonate dominated groundwater catchment using dissolved oxygen dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, A. P.; Parker, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon cycling in aquatic systems is increasingly seen as playing an important role in global carbon budgets and hence on potential impacts and controls on global warming. However, determining the partitioning within and transfer between different carbon stores is a major challenge, particularly where there are multiple sources and controls on carbon utilisation. Dissolved oxygen, DO, provides a proxy for investigating the dynamics of carbon utilisation in aquatic systems. High temporal resolution monitoring of DO at multiple site on the Hampshire Avon, a chalk dominated permeable catchment in southern England, UK, has been investigated using a dynamic DO model in order to investigate the biochemical cycling of carbon. Gross primary production, governed by photosynthetically active radiation, is determined through inverse modelling. Model simplification though parameter reduction is achieved through investigating controls on aeration (the transfer of oxygen across the atmosphere-river interface) and respiration. Seasonal changes in biomass affect long term oxygen dynamics, which are compounded by episodic hydrological events that control the partitioning of surface water and groundwater in the stream channel and consequently the sources of carbon and DO in the river channel. Using variations in surface geology across the catchment the impacts of varying baseflow characteristics on carbon cycling within the catchment is demonstrated.

  17. A prospective observational study of maternal oxygenation during remifentanil patient-controlled analgesia use in labour.

    PubMed

    Messmer, A A; Potts, J M; Orlikowski, C E

    2016-02-01

    Numerous studies of remifentanil patient-controlled analgesia during labour have shown high levels of maternal satisfaction, but concerns remain, especially over the side-effects of sedation and respiratory depression. We conducted a prospective observational study of maternal oxygen desaturation during remifentanil patient-controlled analgesia. Pulse oximetry values were recorded every eight s and later downloaded for analysis. A desaturation episode was defined as oxygen saturation < 90%. We collected 148 h of data in 61 women, during which we observed 176 desaturation episodes. These episodes occurred in 43 (70%) women. The median (IQR [range]) of the lowest saturation during each episode was 87 (85-89 [68-89])% with duration 16 (8-24 [8-104]) s. Supplementary oxygen reduced the time per hour spent with saturation < 90%, but not the depth or duration of individual episodes. Desaturation episodes were twice as common during the second stage of labour as compared with the first stage. Prior opioid administration, bolus size and use of nitrous oxide during patient-controlled analgesia use were not found to influence frequency, depth or duration of desaturation episodes. Although these findings suggest desaturation occurs more frequently during remifentanil patient-controlled analgesia than previously reported, the results are comparable with earlier oximetry studies of women who received nitrous oxide and pethidine during labour. PMID:26617275

  18. Dissolved oxygen regulation by logarithmic/antilogarithmic control to improve a wastewater treatment process.

    PubMed

    Flores, Victor R; Sanchez, Edgar N; Béteau, Jean-François; Hernandez, Salvador Carlos

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the automation of a real activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, which is located at San Antonio Ajijic in Jalisco, Mexico. The main objective is to create an on-line automatic supervision system, and to regulate the dissolved oxygen concentration in order to improve the performances of the process treating municipal wastewater. An approximate mathematical model is determined in order to evaluate via simulations different control strategies: proportional integral (PI), fuzzy PI and PI Logarithm/Antilogarithm (PI L/A). The controlled variable is dissolved oxygen and the control input is the injected oxygen. Based on this evaluation, the PI L/A controller is selected to be implemented in the real process. After that, the implementation, testing and fully operation of the plant automation are described. With this system, the considered wastewater treatment plant save energy and improves the effluent quality; also, the process monitoring is done online and it is easily operated by the plant users. PMID:24617069

  19. Gain-of-sensitivity mutations in a Trim5-resistant primary isolate of pathogenic SIV identify two independent conserved determinants of Trim5α specificity.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Kevin R; Schmidt, Aaron G; Kirmaier, Andrea; Wyand, Allison L; Newman, Ruchi M; Johnson, Welkin E

    2013-05-01

    Retroviral capsid recognition by Trim5 blocks productive infection. Rhesus macaques harbor three functionally distinct Trim5 alleles: Trim5α(Q) , Trim5α(TFP) and Trim5(CypA) . Despite the high degree of amino acid identity between Trim5α(Q) and Trim5α(TFP) alleles, the Q/TFP polymorphism results in the differential restriction of some primate lentiviruses, suggesting these alleles differ in how they engage these capsids. Simian immunodeficiency virus of rhesus macaques (SIVmac) evolved to resist all three alleles. Thus, SIVmac provides a unique opportunity to study a virus in the context of the Trim5 repertoire that drove its evolution in vivo. We exploited the evolved rhesus Trim5α resistance of this capsid to identify gain-of-sensitivity mutations that distinguish targets between the Trim5α(Q) and Trim5α(TFP) alleles. While both alleles recognize the capsid surface, Trim5α(Q) and Trim5α(TFP) alleles differed in their ability to restrict a panel of capsid chimeras and single amino acid substitutions. When mapped onto the structure of the SIVmac239 capsid N-terminal domain, single amino acid substitutions affecting both alleles mapped to the β-hairpin. Given that none of the substitutions affected Trim5α(Q) alone, and the fact that the β-hairpin is conserved among retroviral capsids, we propose that the β-hairpin is a molecular pattern widely exploited by Trim5α proteins. Mutations specifically affecting rhesus Trim5α(TFP) (without affecting Trim5α(Q) ) surround a site of conservation unique to primate lentiviruses, overlapping the CPSF6 binding site. We believe targeting this site is an evolutionary innovation driven specifically by the emergence of primate lentiviruses in Africa during the last 12 million years. This modularity in targeting may be a general feature of Trim5 evolution, permitting different regions of the PRYSPRY domain to evolve independent interactions with capsid. PMID:23675300

  20. Data acquisition and control system with a programmable logic controller (PLC) for a pulsed chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haijun; Li, Guofu; Duo, Liping; Jin, Yuqi; Wang, Jian; Sang, Fengting; Kang, Yuanfu; Li, Liucheng; Wang, Yuanhu; Tang, Shukai; Yu, Hongliang

    2015-02-01

    A user-friendly data acquisition and control system (DACS) for a pulsed chemical oxygen -iodine laser (PCOIL) has been developed. It is implemented by an industrial control computer,a PLC, and a distributed input/output (I/O) module, as well as the valve and transmitter. The system is capable of handling 200 analogue/digital channels for performing various operations such as on-line acquisition, display, safety measures and control of various valves. These operations are controlled either by control switches configured on a PC while not running or by a pre-determined sequence or timings during the run. The system is capable of real-time acquisition and on-line estimation of important diagnostic parameters for optimization of a PCOIL. The DACS system has been programmed using software programmable logic controller (PLC). Using this DACS, more than 200 runs were given performed successfully.

  1. Thermal expansion measurement of (U,Pu)O2-x in oxygen partial pressure-controlled atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Masato; Ikusawa, Yoshihisa; Sunaoshi, Takeo; Nelson, Andrew T.; McClellan, Kenneth J.

    2016-02-01

    Thermal expansion of U0.7Pu0.3O2-x (x = 0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.03) and U0.52Pu0.48O2.00 was investigated by a unique dilatometry which measured in an oxygen partial pressure-controlled atmosphere. The oxygen partial pressure was controlled to hold a constant oxygen-to-metal ratio in the (U,Pu)O2-x during the measurement. Thermal expansion slightly increased with the decrease in oxygen-to-metal ratio. We proposed a relationship to describe thermal expansion as a function of temperature, O/M and Pu content.

  2. TRIM5 Retroviral Restriction Activity Correlates with the Ability To Induce Innate Immune Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Lascano, Josefina; Uchil, Pradeep D.; Mothes, Walther

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Host restriction factor TRIM5 inhibits retroviral transduction in a species-specific manner by binding to and destabilizing the retroviral capsid lattice before reverse transcription is completed. However, the restriction mechanism may not be that simple since TRIM5 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, the proteasome, autophagy, and TAK1-dependent AP-1 signaling have been suggested to contribute to restriction. Here, we show that, among a panel of seven primate and Carnivora TRIM5 orthologues, each of which has potential for potent retroviral restriction activity, all activated AP-1 signaling. In contrast, TRIM family paralogues most closely related to TRIM5 did not. While each primate species has a single TRIM5 gene, mice have at least seven TRIM5 homologues that cluster into two groups, Trim12a, -b, and -c and Trim30a, -b, -c, and -d. The three Trim12 proteins activated innate immune signaling, while the Trim30 proteins did not, though none of the murine Trim5 homologues restricted any of a panel of cloned retroviruses. To determine if any mouse TRIM5 homologues had potential for restriction activity, each was fused to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) CA binding protein cyclophilin A (CypA). The three Trim12-CypA fusions all activated AP-1 and restricted HIV-1 transduction, whereas the Trim30-CypA fusions did neither. AP-1 activation and HIV-1 restriction by the Trim12-CypA fusions were inhibited by disruption of TAK1. Overall then, these experiments demonstrate that there is a strong correlation between TRIM5 retroviral restriction activity and the ability to activate TAK1-dependent innate immune signaling. IMPORTANCE The importance of retroviruses for the evolution of susceptible host organisms cannot be overestimated. Eight percent of the human genome is retrovirus sequence, fixed in the germ line during past infection. Understanding how metazoa protect their genomes from mutagenic retrovirus infection is therefore of fundamental importance to

  3. The use of oxygen scavengers to prevent the transient discolouration of ground beef packaged under controlled, oxygen-depleted atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Gill, C O; McGinnis, J C

    1995-01-01

    Rates of O(2) absorption from air were determined for a type of commercial O(2) scavenger that is formulated for rapid O(2) absorption at chiller temperatures. Rates of O(2) absorption from N(2) atmospheres containing 600 ppm O(2) were determined for trays that each contained 350 g of ground beef. Packs with controlled atmospheres of N(2) that contained ground beef and O(2) scavengers were prepared, to determine the conditions under which the scavengers could prevent the transient discolouration of the meat which arises from its reaction with the residual O(2) initially present in pack atmospheres. The rates of O(2) absorption by individual scavengers varied from the average by ±50%. The rate of O(2) absorption declined with decreasing oxygen concentration, from an average value per scavenger of about 12 ml h(-1) when O(2) concentrations were between 20 and 10%. At O(2) concentrations <1% (10,000 ppm) the rate of O(2) absorption was directly proportioned to the O(2) concentration so that the O(2) concentration in an atmosphere in a gas-impermeable pouch declined exponentially with time. The absorption of O(2) by ground beef was similarly dependent on the O(2) concentration. At 2 °C, the transient discolouration of beef in atmospheres initially containing about 50 ppm O(2) was prevented by the presence of 17.5 scavengers per l of atmosphere. At -15 °C, discolouration was prevented by 5 scavengers per l. The findings indicate that the O(2) concentration in pack atmospheres has to be reduced below 10 ppm within 30 min at 2 °C, or 2 h at -1.5 °C if ground beef is not to transiently discolour. It is unlikely that the required rates of O(2) absorption could be obtained economically with currently available, commercial O(2) scavengers. PMID:22060109

  4. Oxygen and an Extracellular Phase Transition Independently Control Central Regulatory Genes and Conidiogenesis in Aspergillus fumigatus

    PubMed Central

    Chi, Myoung-Hwan; Craven, Kelly D.

    2013-01-01

    Conidiogenesis is the primary process for asexual reproduction in filamentous fungi. As the conidia resulting from the conidiogenesis process are primarily disseminated via air currents and/or water, an outstanding question has been how fungi recognize aerial environments suitable for conidial development. In this study, we documented the somewhat complex development of the conidia-bearing structures, termed conidiophores, from several Aspergillus species in a subsurface (gel-phase) layer of solid media. A subset of the isolates studied was able to develop conidiophores in a gel-phase environment, but exposure to the aeriform environment was required for the terminal developmental transition from phialide cells to conidia. The remaining Aspergilli could not initiate the conidiogenesis process until they were exposed to the aeriform environment. Our observations of conidiophore development in high or low oxygen conditions in both aeriform and gel-phase environments revealed that oxygen and the aeriform state are positive environmental factors for inducing conidiogenesis in most of the aspergilli tested in this study. Transcriptional analysis using A. fumigatus strain AF293 confined to either the aeriform or gel-phase environments revealed that expression of a key regulatory gene for conidiophore development (AfubrlA) is facilitated by oxygen while expression of another regulatory gene controlling conidia formation from phialides (AfuabaA) was repressed regardless of oxygen levels in the gel-embedded environment. Furthermore, by comparing the developmental behavior of conidiation-defective mutants lacking genes controlling various regulatory checkpoints throughout the conidiogenesis pathway, we propose that this aerial response by the fungus requires both oxygen and the phase transition (solid to aeriform), with these environmental signals integrating into the upstream regulatory pathway and central regulatory pathway of conidiogenesis, respectively. Our findings

  5. Oxygen stoichiometry control of nanometric oxide compounds: The case of titanium ferrites

    SciTech Connect

    Millot, N.

    2011-10-15

    Three techniques have been coupled with an original device, based on H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O equilibrium, controlling oxygen partial pressure: XRD, TGA and DC conductivity in order to characterize very reactive compounds such as nanometric powders. From XRD, both the structure and the oxygen stoichiometry (thanks to their lattice parameter) were investigated in situ. From TGA, it was the oxygen stoichiometry (thanks to mass gain or loss) which was determined. From DC conductivity, it was both the structure and the oxygen stoichiometry (thanks to the activation energy) which were obtained. The advantages were to determine very rapidly and with a small amount of powder the equilibrium conditions (T, pO{sub 2}) necessary to obtain the desired phase and stoichiometry. These methods have been evaluated for nanometric titanium ferrites. Two phenomena have been observed during the reducing process: the precipitation of a rhombohedral phase and a significant grain growth linked together. - Graphical abstract: XRD patterns of Fe{sub 3(1-{delta})}O{sub 4} nanometric powders obtained in situ during a reducing treatment. The stoichiometric compound was obtained by a thermal annealing at 460 deg. C under pO{sub 2}=3x10{sup -26} Pa ({Phi}{sub DRX}=100 nm). In inset, data of the experimental lattice parameter compared to the theoretical one. {alpha} represents the rhomboedrical phase which precipitates during this thermal treatment, then disappeared. Highlights: > The control of the deviation from oxygen stoichiometry is rarely consider in literature. > At the nanometric scale, it is necessary to develop synthesis routes under appropriate atmosphere. > These synthesis must be coupled with in situ characterization tools. > It opens the door to fast and precise studies concerning the evolution of nanometric materials.

  6. Fundamental Role of Oxygen Stoichiometry in Controlling the Band Gap and Reactivity of Cupric Oxide Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Zachary S; Rudshteyn, Benjamin; He, Yulian; Liu, Bolun; Chaudhuri, Subhajyoti; Askerka, Mikhail; Haller, Gary L; Batista, Victor S; Pfefferle, Lisa D

    2016-08-31

    CuO is a nonhazardous, earth-abundant material that has exciting potential for use in solar cells, photocatalysis, and other optoelectronic applications. While progress has been made on the characterization of properties and reactivity of CuO, there remains significant controversy on how to control the precise band gap by tuning conditions of synthetic methods. Here, we combine experimental and theoretical methods to address the origin of the wide distribution of reported band gaps for CuO nanosheets. We establish reaction conditions to control the band gap and reactivity via a high-temperature treatment in an oxygen-rich environment. SEM, TEM, XRD, and BET physisorption reveals little to no change in nanostructure, crystal structure, or surface area. In contrast, UV-vis spectroscopy shows a modulation in the material band gap over a range of 330 meV. A similar trend is found in H2 temperature-programmed reduction where peak H2 consumption temperature decreases with treatment. Calculations of the density of states show that increasing the oxygen to copper coverage ratio of the surface accounts for most of the observed changes in the band gap. An oxygen exchange mechanism, supported by (18)O2 temperature-programmed oxidation, is proposed to be responsible for changes in the CuO nanosheet oxygen to copper stoichiometry. The changes induced by oxygen depletion/deposition serve to explain discrepancies in the band gap of CuO, as reported in the literature, as well as dramatic differences in catalytic performance. PMID:27454546

  7. Coordinated control of carbon and oxygen for ultra-low-carbon interstitial-free steel in a smelting process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Min; Bao, Yan-ping; Yang, Quan; Zhao, Li-hua; Lin, Lu

    2015-12-01

    Low residual-free-oxygen before final de-oxidation was beneficial to improving the cleanness of ultra-low-carbon steel. For ultra-low-carbon steel production, the coordinated control of carbon and oxygen is a precondition for achieving low residual oxygen during the Ruhrstahl Heraeus (RH) decarburization process. In this work, we studied the coordinated control of carbon and oxygen for ultra-low-carbon steel during the basic oxygen furnace (BOF) endpoint and RH process using data statistics, multiple linear regressions, and thermodynamics computations. The results showed that the aluminum yield decreased linearly with increasing residual oxygen in liquid steel. When the mass ratio of free oxygen and carbon ([O]/[C]) in liquid steel before RH decarburization was maintained between 1.5 and 2.0 and the carbon range was from 0.030wt% to 0.040wt%, the residual oxygen after RH natural decarburization was low and easily controlled. To satisfy the requirement for RH decarburization, the carbon and free oxygen at the BOF endpoint should be controlled to be between 297 × 10-6 and 400 × 10-6 and between 574 × 10-6 and 775 × 10-6, respectively, with a temperature of 1695 to 1715°C and a furnace campaign of 1000 to 5000 heats.

  8. TRIM66 overexpresssion contributes to osteosarcoma carcinogenesis and indicates poor survival outcome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Guo, Yongfei; Yang, Haisong; Shi, Guodong; Xu, Guohua; Shi, Jiangang; Na, Yin; Chen, Deyu

    2015-01-01

    TRIM66 belongs to the family of tripartite motif (TRIM)-containing proteins. Alterations in TRIM proteins have been implicated in several malignancies. This study was aimed at elucidating the expression and biological function of TRIM66 in osteosarcoma. Here, TRIM66 expression level was higher in osteosarcoma tissues than in normal tissues. High TRIM66 expression was correlated with high rate of local recurrence and lung metastasis, and short survival time. Then, we found that knockdown of TRIM66 in two osteosarcoma cell lines, MG63 and HOS, significantly inhibited cell proliferation and induced G1-phase arrest. Moreover, inhibition of TRIM66 in osteosarcoma cells significantly induced cell apoptosis, while remarkably inhibited cell migration, invasion as well as tumorigenicity in nude mice. Gene set enrichment analysis in Gene Expression Omnibus dataset revealed that apoptosis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling pathway-related genes were enriched in TRIM66 higher expression patients, which was confirmed by western blot analysis in osteosarcoma cells with TRIM66 silenced. In conclusion, TRIM66 may act as an oncogene through suppressing apoptosis pathway and promoting TGF-β signaling in osteosarcoma carcinogenesis. TRIM66 may be a prognostic factor and potential therapeutic target in osteosarcoma. PMID:26247633

  9. Tripartite motif containing 28 (TRIM28) promotes breast cancer metastasis by stabilizing TWIST1 protein.

    PubMed

    Wei, Chunli; Cheng, Jingliang; Zhou, Boxv; Zhu, Li; Khan, Md Asaduzzaman; He, Tao; Zhou, Sufang; He, Jian; Lu, Xiaoling; Chen, Hanchun; Zhang, Dianzheng; Zhao, Yongxiang; Fu, Junjiang

    2016-01-01

    TRIM28 regulates its target genes at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Here we report that a TRIM28-TWIST1-EMT axis exists in breast cancer cells and TRIM28 promotes breast cancer metastasis by stabilizing TWIST1 and subsequently enhancing EMT. We find that TRIM28 is highly expressed in both cancer cell lines and advanced breast cancer tissues, and the levels of TRIM28 and TWIST1 are positively correlated with the aggressiveness of breast carcinomas. Overexpression and depletion of TRIM28 up- and down-regulates the protein, but not the mRNA levels of TWIST1, respectively, suggesting that TRIM28 upregulates TWIST1 post-transcriptionally. Overexpression of TRIM28 in breast cancer cell line promotes cell migration and invasion. Knockdown of TRIM28 reduces the protein level of TWIST1 with concurrent upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin and consequently inhibits cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, Immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays demonstrated that TRIM28 interacts with TWIST1 directly and this interaction is presumed to protect TWIST1 from degradation. Our study revealed a novel mechanism in breast cancer cells that TRIM28 enhances metastasis by stabilizing TWIST1, suggesting that targeting TRIM28 could be an efficacious strategy in breast cancer treatment. PMID:27412325

  10. Tripartite motif containing 28 (TRIM28) promotes breast cancer metastasis by stabilizing TWIST1 protein

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Chunli; Cheng, Jingliang; Zhou, Boxv; Zhu, Li; Khan, Md. Asaduzzaman; He, Tao; Zhou, Sufang; He, Jian; Lu, Xiaoling; Chen, Hanchun; Zhang, Dianzheng; Zhao, Yongxiang; Fu, Junjiang

    2016-01-01

    TRIM28 regulates its target genes at both transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Here we report that a TRIM28-TWIST1-EMT axis exists in breast cancer cells and TRIM28 promotes breast cancer metastasis by stabilizing TWIST1 and subsequently enhancing EMT. We find that TRIM28 is highly expressed in both cancer cell lines and advanced breast cancer tissues, and the levels of TRIM28 and TWIST1 are positively correlated with the aggressiveness of breast carcinomas. Overexpression and depletion of TRIM28 up- and down-regulates the protein, but not the mRNA levels of TWIST1, respectively, suggesting that TRIM28 upregulates TWIST1 post-transcriptionally. Overexpression of TRIM28 in breast cancer cell line promotes cell migration and invasion. Knockdown of TRIM28 reduces the protein level of TWIST1 with concurrent upregulation of E-cadherin and downregulation of N-cadherin and consequently inhibits cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, Immunoprecipitation and GST pull-down assays demonstrated that TRIM28 interacts with TWIST1 directly and this interaction is presumed to protect TWIST1 from degradation. Our study revealed a novel mechanism in breast cancer cells that TRIM28 enhances metastasis by stabilizing TWIST1, suggesting that targeting TRIM28 could be an efficacious strategy in breast cancer treatment. PMID:27412325

  11. Ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on iceberg lettuce. II. Pre-treatment on lettuce tolerance and sequential controlled atmosphere

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-stored iceberg lettuce under normal atmosphere and controlled atmosphere (CA) with about 3% oxygen at low temperature for one week was compared with fresh lettuce for their response to 2-day ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment at 10 degrees C for control of western flower thrips. For both atmospheri...

  12. Oxygen control of ethylene biosynthesis during seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramonell, K. M.; McClure, G.; Musgrave, M. E.

    2002-01-01

    An unforeseen side-effect on plant growth in reduced oxygen is the loss of seed production at concentrations around 25% atmospheric (50 mmol mol-1 O2). In this study, the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. cv. 'Columbia' was used to investigate the effect of low oxygen on ethylene biosynthesis during seed development. Plants were grown in a range of oxygen concentrations (210 [equal to ambient], 160, 100, 50 and 25 mmol mol-1) with 0.35 mmol mol-1 CO2 in N2. Ethylene in full-sized siliques was sampled using gas chromatography, and viable seed production was determined at maturity. Molecular analysis of ethylene biosynthesis was accomplished using cDNAs encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase in ribonuclease protection assays and in situ hybridizations. No ethylene was detected in siliques from plants grown at 50 and 25 mmol mol-1 O2. At the same time, silique ACC oxidase mRNA increased three-fold comparing plants grown under the lowest oxygen with ambient controls, whereas ACC synthase mRNA was unaffected. As O2 decreased, tissue-specific patterning of ACC oxidase and ACC synthase gene expression shifted from the embryo to the silique wall. These data demonstrate how low O2 modulates the activity and expression of the ethylene biosynthetic pathway during seed development in Arabidopsis.

  13. Controlled oxygenated rewarming of cold stored liver grafts by thermally graduated machine perfusion prior to reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Minor, T; Efferz, P; Fox, M; Wohlschlaeger, J; Lüer, B

    2013-06-01

    The quality of cold-stored livers declines with the extension of ischemic time, increasing the risk of primary dys or nonfunction. A new concept to rescue preserved marginal liver grafts by gentle oxygenated warming-up prior to blood reperfusion was investigated. Porcine livers were preserved by cold storage (CS) in modified HTK-solution for 18 h. Some grafts were subsequently subjected to 90 min of controlled oxygenated rewarming (COR) by machine perfusion with gradual increase of perfusate temperature up to 20°C or simple oxygenated machine perfusion in hypothermia (HMP) or subnormothermia (SNP). Graft viability was assessed thereafter by 4 h of normothermic blood reperfusion ex vivo. Endischemic tissue energetics were significantly improved by COR or SNP and to a notably lesser extent by HMP. COR significantly reduced cellular enzyme loss, gene expression and perfusate activities of TNF-alpha, radical mediated lipid peroxidation (LPO) and increase of portal vascular perfusion resistance upon reperfusion, while HMP or SNP were less protective. Only COR resulted in significantly more bile production than after CS. Histological injury score and caspase 3-activation were significantly lower after COR than after CS. Oxygenated rewarming prior to reperfusion seems to be a promising technique to improve subsequent organ recovery upon reperfusion of long preserved liver grafts. PMID:23617781

  14. T-cell-intrinsic Tif1α/Trim24 regulates IL-1R expression on TH2 cells and TH2 cell-mediated airway allergy.

    PubMed

    Perez-Lloret, Jimena; Okoye, Isobel S; Guidi, Riccardo; Kannan, Yashaswini; Coomes, Stephanie M; Czieso, Stephanie; Mengus, Gabrielle; Davidson, Irwin; Wilson, Mark S

    2016-02-01

    There is a paucity of new therapeutic targets to control allergic reactions and forestall the rising trend of allergic diseases. Although a variety of immune cells contribute to allergy, cytokine-secreting αβ(+)CD4(+) T-helper 2 (TH2) cells orchestrate the type-2-driven immune response in a large proportion of atopic asthmatics. To identify previously unidentified putative targets in pathogenic TH2 cells, we performed in silico analyses of recently published transcriptional data from a wide variety of pathogenic TH cells [Okoye IS, et al. (2014) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 111(30):E3081-E3090] and identified that transcription intermediary factor 1 regulator-alpha (Tif1α)/tripartite motif-containing 24 (Trim24) was predicted to be active in house dust mite (HDM)- and helminth-elicited Il4(gfp+)αβ(+)CD4(+) TH2 cells but not in TH1, TH17, or Treg cells. Testing this prediction, we restricted Trim24 deficiency to T cells by using a mixed bone marrow chimera system and found that T-cell-intrinsic Trim24 is essential for HDM-mediated airway allergy and antihelminth immunity. Mechanistically, HDM-elicited Trim24(-/-) T cells have reduced expression of many TH2 cytokines and chemokines and were predicted to have compromised IL-1-regulated signaling. Following this prediction, we found that Trim24(-/-) T cells have reduced IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) expression, are refractory to IL-1β-mediated activation in vitro and in vivo, and fail to respond to IL-1β-exacerbated airway allergy. Collectively, these data identify a previously unappreciated Trim24-dependent requirement for IL-1R expression on TH2 cells and an important nonredundant role for T-cell-intrinsic Trim24 in TH2-mediated allergy and antihelminth immunity. PMID:26787865

  15. Methods for precisely trimming block faces for ultramicrotomy.

    PubMed

    Gorycki, M A

    1978-03-01

    Two devices are described to aid in trimming block faces of embedded tissue for ultramicrotomy. The first, a reticle to fit the ocular of a stereomicroscope, can be manufactured by the ultramicrotomist and is designed to outline the edges of the block face so that it can be trimmed to a standard size and shape with the area of interest centered in it. The second, a rectangular "trimalign" block mounted in the knife holder of the ultramicrotome, is, with the block face, aligned to the plane of sectioning, and aids in retrimming the top and bottom edges of the block face. This is the simplest trimming device yet described and the first which will, from any sort of embedded material, produce a block face with parallel top and bottom edges even if the block face is not perpendicular to the axis of the specimen holder. If the edge of the diamond knife used for sectioning is parallel to the axis of rotation of the knife holder, the block face has also been automatically aligned to the kinfe as a consequence of this aligning and trimming procedure. As a result, sectioning can begin immediately without further adjustments. PMID:694954

  16. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.30 Ballast water... exclusive economic zone must agree to comply with the “Code of Best Practices for Ballast Water...

  17. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30... OF TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.30 Ballast water... exclusive economic zone must agree to comply with the “Code of Best Practices for Ballast Water...

  18. 30 CFR 56.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 56.9314 Section 56.9314 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Loading, Hauling, and Dumping Safety...

  19. Infrared beak treatment: an alternative to conventional beak trimming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infrared lasers have been widely used in human medicine and its results are reliable, predictable and reproducible. Infrared lasers have recently been designed with the expressed purpose of providing a less painful, more precise beak treatment compared with conventional beak trimming. This study was...

  20. Astronaut Owen Garriott trims hair of Astronaut Alan Bean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, trims the hair of Astronaut Alan L. Bean, commander, in this on-board photograph from the Skylab Orbital Workshop (OWS). Bean holds a vacuum hose to gather in loose hair.

  1. Interior view of the trimming and packing tables, ginaca machines ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of the trimming and packing tables, ginaca machines deliver pineapples from the left to the tables, view facing east - Kahului Cannery, Plant No. 28, Cannery Building and Dryer House/Feed Storage Building, 120 Kane Street, Kahului, Maui County, HI

  2. The heading of a vehicle moving with roll and trim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilovich, L. N.

    1983-06-01

    A method is developed for deriving accurate formulas for calculating the heading errors of a vehicle moving with roll and trim. It is assumed that a two-degree-of-freedom gyroscope with gimbal suspension without correction is used, the main axis of the gyroscope being deflected from the horizon plane. Results obtained using the aforementioned formulas are presented.

  3. 30 CFR 57.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 57.9314 Section 57.9314 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  4. 30 CFR 57.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 57.9314 Section 57.9314 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  5. 30 CFR 57.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 57.9314 Section 57.9314 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  6. 30 CFR 57.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 57.9314 Section 57.9314 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  7. 30 CFR 57.9314 - Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Trimming stockpile and muckpile faces. 57.9314 Section 57.9314 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES...

  8. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoek, Pim; Aristidou, Aristos; Rush, Brian

    2011-05-10

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  9. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoek; Pim , Aristidou; Aristos , Rush; Brian

    2007-06-19

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  10. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoek, Pim; Aristidou, Aristos; Rush, Brian

    2014-09-09

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  11. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    DOEpatents

    Van Hoek, Pim; Aristidou, Aristos; Rush, Brian J.

    2016-08-30

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  12. The 6670-Newton attitude-control thruster using hydrogen-oxygen propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1977-01-01

    The development of a reusable, attitude-control propulsion system for the space transportation system is discussed. A flight weight, gaseous oxygen attitude control thruster assembly was tested to obtain data on cyclic life, thermal and hydraulic characteristics, pulse response, and performance. The basic thruster components were tested in excess of 51,000 pulses and 660 seconds, steady state, with no degradation of the 93 percent characteristic exhaust velocity efficiency level. Nominal operating conditions were a chamber pressure of 207 N sq cm (300 psia), a mixture ratio of 4.0, a pulse width of 100 ms, and a pulse frequency of 2 Hz.

  13. Trim and Structural Optimization of Subsonic Transport Wings Using Nonconventional Aeroelastic Tailoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, Bret K.; Jutte, Christine V.

    2014-01-01

    Several minimum-mass aeroelastic optimization problems are solved to evaluate the effectiveness of a variety of novel tailoring schemes for subsonic transport wings. Aeroelastic strength and panel buckling constraints are imposed across a variety of trimmed maneuver loads. Tailoring with metallic thickness variations, functionally graded materials, composite laminates, tow steering, and distributed trailing edge control effectors are all found to provide reductions in structural wing mass with varying degrees of success. The question as to whether this wing mass reduction will offset the increased manufacturing cost is left unresolved for each case.

  14. Instrument for stable high temperature Seebeck coefficient and resistivity measurements under controlled oxygen partial pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan James; Sharma, Peter Anand

    2015-04-28

    The transport properties of ceramic materials strongly depend on oxygen activity, which is tuned by changing the partial oxygen pressure (pO2) prior to and during measurement. Within, we describe an instrument for highly stable measurements of Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity at temperatures up to 1300 K with controlled oxygen partial pressure. An all platinum construction is used to avoid potential materials instabilities that can cause measurement drift. Two independent heaters are employed to establish a small temperature gradient for Seebeck measurements, while keeping the average temperature constant and avoiding errors associated with pO2-induced drifts in thermocouple readings. Oxygen equilibrium is monitored using both an O2 sensor and the transient behavior of the resistance as a proxy. A pO2 range of 10-25–100 atm can be established with appropriate gas mixtures. Seebeck measurements were calibrated against a high purity platinum wire, Pt/Pt–Rh thermocouple wire, and a Bi2Te3 Seebeck coefficient Standard Reference Material. To demonstrate the utility of this instrument for oxide materials we present measurements as a function of pO2 on a 1 % Nb-doped SrTiO3 single crystal, and show systematic changes in properties consistent with oxygen vacancy defect chemistry. Thus, an approximately 11% increase in power factor over a pO2 range of 10-19–10-8 atm at 973 K for the donor-doped single crystals is observed.

  15. Instrument for stable high temperature Seebeck coefficient and resistivity measurements under controlled oxygen partial pressure

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ihlefeld, Jon F.; Brown-Shaklee, Harlan James; Sharma, Peter Anand

    2015-04-28

    The transport properties of ceramic materials strongly depend on oxygen activity, which is tuned by changing the partial oxygen pressure (pO2) prior to and during measurement. Within, we describe an instrument for highly stable measurements of Seebeck coefficient and electrical resistivity at temperatures up to 1300 K with controlled oxygen partial pressure. An all platinum construction is used to avoid potential materials instabilities that can cause measurement drift. Two independent heaters are employed to establish a small temperature gradient for Seebeck measurements, while keeping the average temperature constant and avoiding errors associated with pO2-induced drifts in thermocouple readings. Oxygen equilibriummore » is monitored using both an O2 sensor and the transient behavior of the resistance as a proxy. A pO2 range of 10-25–100 atm can be established with appropriate gas mixtures. Seebeck measurements were calibrated against a high purity platinum wire, Pt/Pt–Rh thermocouple wire, and a Bi2Te3 Seebeck coefficient Standard Reference Material. To demonstrate the utility of this instrument for oxide materials we present measurements as a function of pO2 on a 1 % Nb-doped SrTiO3 single crystal, and show systematic changes in properties consistent with oxygen vacancy defect chemistry. Thus, an approximately 11% increase in power factor over a pO2 range of 10-19–10-8 atm at 973 K for the donor-doped single crystals is observed.« less

  16. Kinetics of gas phase oxygen control system (OCS) for stagnant and flowing Pb-Bi Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefhalm, C. H.; Knebel, J. U.; Mack, K. J.

    2001-07-01

    Pb and Pb-Bi are known to be very corrosive to structural materials at elevated temperatures. In recent studies, the necessity of measurement and control of the oxygen concentration in the liquid metal in order to safely operate a liquid Pb or Pb-Bi loop has been shown. The dynamic behaviour of the gas phase oxygen control system (OCS), which was developed at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK), is investigated with respect to diffusion as the limiting process of oxygen exchange between the gas phase and the liquid metal. In this paper the development of a physical model for this diffusion process is described and compared to experimental results of a stagnant liquid Pb-Bi system. The experimental findings are in very good agreement with the theoretical equations describing the thermodynamic and kinetic behaviour of such a system. Recent investigations in a Pb-Bi loop at the Karlsruhe Lead Laboratory (KALLA) indicate that this gas phase OCS is a promising candidate system for an accelerator-driven subcritical system (ADS).

  17. Control of nitrogenase recovery from oxygen inactivation by ammonia in the cyanobacterium Anabaena sp. strain CA (ATCC 33047).

    PubMed Central

    Smith, R L; Van Baalen, C; Tabita, F R

    1990-01-01

    The control of nitrogenase recovery from inactivation by oxygen was studied in Anabaena sp. strain CA (ATCC 33047). Nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction) in cultures grown in 1% CO2 in air was inhibited by exposure to 1% CO2-99% O2 and allowed to recover in the presence of high oxygen tensions. Cultures exposed to hyperbaric levels of oxygen in the presence of 10 mM NH4NO3 were incapable of regaining nitrogenase activity, whereas control cultures returned to 65 to 80% of their original activity within about 3 h after exposure to high oxygen tension. In contrast to the regulation of heterocyst differentiation and nitrogenase synthesis, recovery from oxygen inactivation in this organism was shown to be under the control of NH4+ rather than NO3-. PMID:2110151

  18. Advancements in oxygen generation and humidity control by water vapor electrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heppner, D. B.; Sudar, M.; Lee, M. C.

    1988-01-01

    Regenerative processes for the revitalization of manned spacecraft atmospheres or other manned habitats are essential for realization of long-term space missions. These processes include oxygen generation through water electrolysis. One promising technique of water electrolysis is the direct conversion of the water vapor contained in the cabin air to oxygen. This technique is the subject of the present program on water vapor electrolysis development. The objectives were to incorporate technology improvements developed under other similar electrochemical programs and add new ones; design and fabricate a mutli-cell electrochemical module and a testing facility; and demonstrate through testing the improvements. Each aspect of the water vapor electrolysis cell was reviewed. The materials of construction and sizing of each element were investigated analytically and sometime experimentally. In addition, operational considerations such as temperature control in response to inlet conditions were investigated. Three specific quantitative goals were established.

  19. Semi-commercial ultralow oxygen treatment for control of western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (thysanoptera: thripidae), on harvested iceberg lettuce.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pallet scale two day ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment with 30 ppm oxygen at 10°C ambient temperature was conducted on seven cultivars of vacuum cooled iceberg lettuce which had been stored for 1, 3, 4, and 6 days to develop a safe and effective treatment for control of western flower thrips, Franklin...

  20. Temperature, oxygen, and vegetation controls on decomposition in a James Bay peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philben, Michael; Holmquist, James; MacDonald, Glen; Duan, Dandan; Kaiser, Karl; Benner, Ronald

    2015-06-01

    The biochemical composition of a peat core from James Bay Lowland, Canada, was used to assess the extent of peat decomposition and diagenetic alteration. Our goal was to identify environmental controls on peat decomposition, particularly its sensitivity to naturally occurring changes in temperature, oxygen exposure time, and vegetation. All three varied substantially during the last 7000 years, providing a natural experiment for evaluating their effects on decomposition. The bottom 50 cm of the core formed during the Holocene Climatic Optimum (~7000-4000 years B.P.), when mean annual air temperature was likely 1-2°C warmer than present. A reconstruction of the water table level using testate amoebae indicated oxygen exposure time was highest in the subsequent upper portion of the core between 150 and 225 cm depth (from ~2560 to 4210 years B.P.) and the plant community shifted from mostly Sphagnum to vascular plant dominance. Several independent biochemical indices indicated that decomposition was greatest in this interval. Hydrolysable amino acid yields, hydroxyproline yields, and acid:aldehyde ratios of syringyl lignin phenols were higher, while hydrolysable neutral sugar yields and carbon:nitrogen ratios were lower in this zone of both vascular plant vegetation and elevated oxygen exposure time. Thus, peat formed during the Holocene Climatic Optimum did not appear to be more extensively decomposed than peat formed during subsequent cooler periods. Comparison with a core from the West Siberian Lowland, Russia, indicates that oxygen exposure time and vegetation are both important controls on decomposition, while temperature appears to be of secondary importance. The low apparent sensitivity of decomposition to temperature is consistent with recent observations of a positive correlation between peat accumulation rates and mean annual temperature, suggesting that contemporary warming could enhance peatland carbon sequestration, although this could be offset by an

  1. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs on lettuce.

    PubMed

    Liu, Samuel S; Liu, Yong-Biao; Simmons, Gregory S

    2014-08-01

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), is a quarantined pest in most countries. Its establishment in California and potential spread to other parts of the state and beyond make it urgent to develop effective postharvest treatments to control the pest on fresh commodities. Fumigation with cylindered phosphine at low temperature has emerged to be a practical methyl bromide alternative treatment for postharvest pest control on fresh commodities. However, its use to control E. postvittana eggs on sensitive commodities such as lettuce is problematic. E. postvittana eggs are tolerant of phosphine and long phosphine treatment also injures lettuce. In the current study, E. postvittana eggs were subjected to oxygenated phosphine fumigations to develop an effective treatment at a low storage temperature of 2 degrees C. In addition, soda lime as a CO2 absorbent was tested to determine its effects in reducing and preventing injuries to lettuce associated with phosphine fumigations. Three-day fumigation with 1,000 ppm phosphine under 60% O2 achieved 100% mortality of E. postvittana eggs in small-scale laboratory tests. In the presence of the CO2 absorbent, a 3-d large-scale fumigation of lettuce with 1,700 ppm phosphine under 60% O2 resulted in a relative egg mortality of 99.96% without any negative effect on lettuce quality. The 3-d fumigation treatment without the CO2 absorbent, however, resulted in significant injuries to lettuce and consequential quality reductions. The study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation has the potential to control E. postvittana eggs and the CO2 absorbent has the potential to prevent injuries and quality reductions of lettuce associated with long-term oxygenated phosphine fumigation. PMID:25195424

  2. TRIM5{alpha} association with cytoplasmic bodies is not required for antiretroviral activity

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Byeongwoon; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Park, Do Hyun; Rogers, Thomas; Stremlau, Matthew; Sodroski, Joseph . E-mail: joseph_sodroski@dfci.harvard.edu

    2005-12-20

    The tripartite motif (TRIM) protein, TRIM5{alpha}, restricts infection by particular retroviruses. Many TRIM proteins form cytoplasmic bodies of unknown function. We investigated the relationship between cytoplasmic body formation and the structure and antiretroviral activity of TRIM5{alpha}. In addition to diffuse cytoplasmic staining, the TRIM5{alpha} proteins from several primate species were located in cytoplasmic bodies of different sizes; by contrast, TRIM5{alpha} from spider monkeys did not form cytoplasmic bodies. Despite these differences, all of the TRIM5{alpha} proteins exhibited the ability to restrict infection by particular retroviruses. Treatment of cells with geldanamycin, an Hsp90 inhibitor, resulted in disappearance or reduction of the TRIM5{alpha}-associated cytoplasmic bodies, yet exerted little effect on the restriction of retroviral infection. Studies of green fluorescent protein-TRIM5{alpha} fusion proteins indicated that no TRIM5{alpha} domain is specifically required for association with cytoplasmic bodies. Apparently, the formation of cytoplasmic bodies is not required for the antiretroviral activity of TRIM5{alpha}.

  3. The Stroke Oxygen Pilot Study: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effects of Routine Oxygen Supplementation Early after Acute Stroke—Effect on Key Outcomes at Six Months

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Khalid; Warusevitane, Anushka; Lally, Frank; Sim, Julius; Sills, Sheila; Pountain, Sarah; Nevatte, Tracy; Allen, Martin; Roffe, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Post-stroke hypoxia is common, and may adversely affect outcome. We have recently shown that oxygen supplementation may improve early neurological recovery. Here, we report the six-month outcomes of this pilot study. Methods Patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute stroke were randomized within 24 h of admission to oxygen supplementation at 2 or 3 L/min for 72 h or to control treatment (room air). Outcomes (see below) were assessed by postal questionnaire at 6 months. Analysis was by intention-to-treat, and statistical significance was set at p≤0.05. Results Out of 301 patients randomized two refused/withdrew consent and 289 (148 in the oxygen and 141 in the control group) were included in the analysis: males 44%, 51%; mean (SD) age 73 (12), 71 (12); median (IQR) National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score 6 (3, 10), 5 (3, 10) for the two groups respectively. At six months 22 (15%) patients in the oxygen group and 20 (14%) in the control group had died; mean survival in both groups was 162 days (p = 0.99). Median (IQR) scores for the primary outcome, the modified Rankin Scale, were 3 (1, 5) and 3 (1, 4) for the oxygen and control groups respectively. The covariate-adjusted odds ratio was 1.04 (95% CI 0.67, 1.60), indicating that the odds of a lower (i.e. better) score were non-significantly higher in the oxygen group (p = 0.86). The mean differences in the ability to perform basic (Barthel Index) and extended activities of daily living (NEADL), and quality of life (EuroQol) were also non-significant. Conclusions None of the key outcomes differed at 6 months between the groups. Although not statistically significant and generally of small magnitude, the effects were predominantly in favour of the oxygen group; a larger trial, powered to show differences in longer-term functional outcomes, is now on-going. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN12362720; Eudract.ema.europa.eu 2004-001866-41 PMID:23755093

  4. Hydrodynamic controls on oxygen dynamics in a riverine salt wedge estuary, the Yarra River estuary, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, L. C.; Cook, P. L. M.; Teakle, I.; Hipsey, M. R.

    2014-04-01

    Oxygen depletion in coastal and estuarine waters has been increasing rapidly around the globe over the past several decades, leading to decline in water quality and ecological health. In this study we apply a numerical model to understand how salt wedge dynamics, changes in river flow and temperature together control oxygen depletion in a micro-tidal riverine estuary, the Yarra River estuary, Australia. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models have been previously applied to study how hydrodynamics impact upon seasonal hypoxia; however, their application to relatively shallow, narrow riverine estuaries with highly transient patterns of river inputs and sporadic periods of oxygen depletion has remained challenging, largely due to difficulty in accurately simulating salt wedge dynamics in morphologically complex areas. In this study we overcome this issue through application of a flexible mesh 3-D hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model in order to predict the extent of salt wedge intrusion and consequent patterns of oxygen depletion. The extent of the salt wedge responded quickly to the sporadic riverine flows, with the strength of stratification and vertical density gradients heavily influenced by morphological features corresponding to shallow points in regions of tight curvature ("horseshoe" bends). The spatiotemporal patterns of stratification led to the emergence of two "hot spots" of anoxia, the first downstream of a shallow region of tight curvature and the second downstream of a sill. Whilst these areas corresponded to regions of intense stratification, it was found that antecedent conditions related to the placement of the salt wedge played a major role in the recovery of anoxic regions following episodic high flow events. Furthermore, whilst a threshold salt wedge intrusion was a requirement for oxygen depletion, analysis of the results allowed us to quantify the effect of temperature in determining the overall severity and extent of hypoxia and anoxia. Climate

  5. CONTROLLED FIELD STUDY ON THE USE OF NITRATE AND OXYGEN FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF A GASOLINE SOURCE ZONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Controlled releases of unleaded gasoline were used to evaluate the biotransformation of the soluble aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene isomers, trimethylbenzene isomers, and naphthalene) within a source zone using nitrate and oxygen as electron accepto...

  6. Crystalline structure of ceria particles controlled by the oxygen partial pressure and STI CMP performances.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ye-Hwan; Kim, Sang-Kyun; Kim, Namsoo; Park, Jea-Gun; Paik, Ungyu

    2008-09-01

    The effect of the crystalline structures of nano-sized ceria particles on shallow trench isolation (STI) chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) performance was investigated. The ceria particles were synthesized via a solid-state displacement reaction method, and their crystalline structure was controlled by regulating the oxygen partial pressure at the reaction site on the precursor. The crystalline structures of ceria particles were analyzed by the high-resolution TEM nano-beam diffraction pattern. In a calcination process with a high oxygen concentration, the synthesized ceria particles had a cubic fluorite structure (CeO(2)), because of the decarbonation of the cerium precursor. However, a low oxygen concentration results in a hexagonal phase cerium oxide (Ce(2)O(3)) rather than the cubic phase due to the insufficient oxidation of Ce(3+) to Ce(4+). In the STI CMP evaluation, the ceria slurry prepared with the cubic CeO(2) shows enhanced performances of the oxide-to-nitride removal selectivity. PMID:18562111

  7. Control of discontinuous gas exchange in Samia cynthia: effects of atmospheric oxygen, carbon dioxide and moisture.

    PubMed

    Terblanche, John S; Marais, Elrike; Hetz, Stefan K; Chown, Steven L

    2008-10-01

    The evolution of discontinuous gas exchange (DGE) in insects is highly controversial. Adaptive hypotheses which have obtained experimental support include a water savings mechanism for living in dry environments (hygric hypothesis), a reduction in oxidative damage due to a high-performance oxygen delivery system (oxidative damage hypothesis), and the need for steep intratracheal partial pressure gradients to exchange gases under the hypercapnic and/or hypoxic conditions potentially encountered in subterranean environments (chthonic hypothesis). However, few experimental studies have simultaneously assessed multiple competing hypotheses within a strong inference framework. Here, we present such a study at the species level for a diapausing moth pupa, Samia cynthia. Switching gas conditions from controlled normoxic, normocapnic and intermediate humidity to either high or low oxygen, high or low moisture, elevated carbon dioxide, or some combination of these, revealed that DGE was abandoned under all conditions except high oxygen, and high or low gas moisture levels. Thus, support is found for the oxidative damage hypothesis when scored as maintenance of DGE. Modulation of DGE under either dry or hyperoxic conditions suggested strong support for the oxidative damage hypothesis and some limited support for the hygric hypothesis. Therefore, this study demonstrates that the DGE can be maintained and modulated in response to several environmental variables. Further investigation is required using a strong-inference, experimental approach across a range of species from different habitats to determine how widespread the support for the oxidative damage hypothesis might be. PMID:18840661

  8. Trim37-deficient mice recapitulate several features of the multi-organ disorder Mulibrey nanism.

    PubMed

    Kettunen, Kaisa M; Karikoski, Riitta; Hämäläinen, Riikka H; Toivonen, Teija T; Antonenkov, Vasily D; Kulesskaya, Natalia; Voikar, Vootele; Hölttä-Vuori, Maarit; Ikonen, Elina; Sainio, Kirsi; Jalanko, Anu; Karlberg, Susann; Karlberg, Niklas; Lipsanen-Nyman, Marita; Toppari, Jorma; Jauhiainen, Matti; Hiltunen, J Kalervo; Jalanko, Hannu; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina

    2016-01-01

    Mulibrey nanism (MUL) is a rare autosomal recessive multi-organ disorder characterized by severe prenatal-onset growth failure, infertility, cardiopathy, risk for tumors, fatty liver, and type 2 diabetes. MUL is caused by loss-of-function mutations in TRIM37, which encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase belonging to the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family and having both peroxisomal and nuclear localization. We describe a congenic Trim37 knock-out mouse (Trim37(-/-)) model for MUL. Trim37(-/-) mice were viable and had normal weight development until approximately 12 months of age, after which they started to manifest increasing problems in wellbeing and weight loss. Assessment of skeletal parameters with computer tomography revealed significantly smaller skull size, but no difference in the lengths of long bones in Trim37(-/-) mice as compared with wild-type. Both male and female Trim37(-/-) mice were infertile, the gonads showing germ cell aplasia, hilus and Leydig cell hyperplasia and accumulation of lipids in and around Leydig cells. Male Trim37(-/-) mice had elevated levels of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones, but maintained normal levels of testosterone. Six-month-old Trim37(-/-) mice had elevated fasting blood glucose and low fasting serum insulin levels. At 1.5 years Trim37(-/-) mice showed non-compaction cardiomyopathy, hepatomegaly, fatty liver and various tumors. The amount and morphology of liver peroxisomes seemed normal in Trim37(-/-) mice. The most consistently seen phenotypes in Trim37(-/-) mice were infertility and the associated hormonal findings, whereas there was more variability in the other phenotypes observed. Trim37(-/-) mice recapitulate several features of the human MUL disease and thus provide a good model to study disease pathogenesis related to TRIM37 deficiency, including infertility, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiomyopathy and tumorigenesis. PMID:27044324

  9. TRIM24 suppresses development of spontaneous hepatic lipid accumulation and hepatocellular carcinoma in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shiming; Minter, Lindsey Cauthen; Stratton, Sabrina A.; Yang, Peirong; Abbas, Hussein A.; Akdemir, Zeynep Coban; Pant, Vinod; Post, Sean; Gagea, Mihai; Lee, Richard G.; Lozano, Guillermina; Barton, Michelle Craig

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Aberrantly high expression of TRIM24 occurs in human cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma. In contrast, TRIM24 in the mouse is reportedly a liver-specific tumor suppressor. To address this dichotomy and uncover direct regulatory functions of TRIM24 in vivo, we developed a new mouse model that lacks expression of all Trim24 isoforms, as the previous model expresses normal levels of Trim24 lacking only exon 4. Methods To produce germline-deleted Trim24dlE1 mice, deletion of the promoter and exon 1 of Trim24 was induced in Trim24LoxP mice by crossing with a zona pellucida 3-Cre line for global deletion. Liver-specific deletion (Trim24hep) was achieved by crossing with an Albumin-Cre line. Phenotypic analyses were complemented by protein, gene-specific and global RNA expression analyses and quantitative chromatin immunoprecipitation. Results Global loss of Trim24 disrupted hepatic homeostasis in 100% of mice with highly significant, decreased expression of oxidation/reduction, steroid, fatty acid and lipid metabolism genes, as well as increased expression of genes in unfolded protein, endoplasmic reticulum stress and cell cycle pathways. Trim24dlE1/dlE1 mice have markedly depleted visceral fat and, like Trim24hep/hep mice, spontaneously develop hepatic lipid-filled lesions, steatosis, hepatic injury, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Conclusions TRIM24, an epigenetic co-regulator of transcription, directly and indirectly represses hepatic lipid accumulation, inflammation, fibrosis and damage in the murine liver. Complete loss of Trim24 offers a model of human nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, steatosis, fibrosis and development of hepatocellular carcinoma in the absence of high-fat diet or obesity. PMID:25281858

  10. Barley Seed Aging: Genetics behind the Dry Elevated Pressure of Oxygen Aging and Moist Controlled Deterioration.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Manuela; Kodde, Jan; Pistrick, Sibylle; Mascher, Martin; Börner, Andreas; Groot, Steven P C

    2016-01-01

    Experimental seed aging approaches intend to mimic seed deterioration processes to achieve a storage interval reduction. Common methods apply higher seed moisture levels and temperatures. In contrast, the "elevated partial pressure of oxygen" (EPPO) approach treats dry seed stored at ambient temperatures with high oxygen pressure. To analyse the genetic background of seed longevity and the effects of seed aging under dry conditions, the EPPO approach was applied to the progeny of the Oregon Wolfe Barley (OWB) mapping population. In comparison to a non-treated control and a control high-pressure nitrogen treatment, EPPO stored seeds showed typical symptoms of aging with a significant reduction of normal seedlings, slower germination, and less total germination. Thereby, the parent Dom ("OWB-D"), carrying dominant alleles, is more sensitive to aging in comparison to the population mean and in most cases to the parent Rec ("OWB-R"), carrying recessive alleles. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses using 2832 markers revealed 65 QTLs, including two major loci for seed vigor on 2H and 7H. QTLs for EPPO tolerance were detected on 3H, 4H, and 5H. An applied controlled deterioration (CD) treatment (aged at higher moisture level and temperature) revealed a tolerance QTL on 5H, indicating that the mechanism of seed deterioration differs in part between EPPO or CD conditions. PMID:27066038

  11. A System for Controlling the Oxygen Content of a Gas Produced by Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Puster, R. L. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A mixture of air, CH4 and OH(2) is burned in a combustion chamber to produce a product gas in the test section. The OH(2) content of the product gas is compared with the OH(2) content of reference air in an OH(2) sensor. If there is a difference an error signal is produced at the output of a control circuit which by the means of a solenoid valve, regulates the flow of OH(2) into the combustion chamber to make the error signal zero. The product gas in the test section has the same oxygen content as air.

  12. Controls on in situ oxygen and dissolved inorganic carbon dynamics in peats of a temperate fen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estop-AragonéS, Cristian; Knorr, Klaus-Holger; Blodau, Christian

    2012-06-01

    Changes in hydrological conditions are expected and may alter carbon cycling in peatlands. Peat aeration with water table change has not commonly been investigated, and the water table is often assumed to constitute the oxic-anoxic boundary in peat. We analyzed temperature, moisture, oxygen (O2), and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations in profiles of a temperate fen during two seasons. A drying-rewetting cycle and flooding were induced and compared to controls. The response of moisture and water table position varied greatly and was related to gradients of peat compaction and ash content. Background drought raised air-filled porosity (AFP) to a maximum of 15%-38% in shallow peat and experimental drought up to 50%. Decline in water table and soil moisture broadly led to O2 penetration and CO2 degassing, and rewetting and flooding led to anoxic conditions and CO2 accumulation in peat pore water. In dense peat with ≥20% ash content the unsaturated zone remained partly low in oxygen, however, and up to 5% AFP and 20 cm above water table O2 concentrations frequently remained below 50 μmol L-1. Moderately intense and short drying did not induce substantial oxygen penetration in the compacted soil profiles. The likelihood of the presence of oxygen in the peat was predicted by logistic regression using water table and ash content or bulk density as predictors (p < 0.0005). The model is potentially useful for predicting the position of the redoxcline in peat deposits and may assist in improving statistical models of trace gas emission from peatlands.

  13. The economic efficiency of sampling size: the case of beef trim revisited.

    PubMed

    Powell, Mark R

    2013-03-01

    A recent paper by Ferrier and Buzby provides a framework for selecting the sample size when testing a lot of beef trim for Escherichia coli O157:H7 that equates the averted costs of recalls and health damages from contaminated meats sold to consumers with the increased costs of testing while allowing for uncertainty about the underlying prevalence of contamination. Ferrier and Buzby conclude that the optimal sample size is larger than the current sample size. However, Ferrier and Buzby's optimization model has a number of errors, and their simulations failed to consider available evidence about the likelihood of the scenarios explored under the model. After correctly modeling microbial prevalence as dependent on portion size and selecting model inputs based on available evidence, the model suggests that the optimal sample size is zero under most plausible scenarios. It does not follow, however, that sampling beef trim for E. coli O157:H7, or food safety sampling more generally, should be abandoned. Sampling is not generally cost effective as a direct consumer safety control measure due to the extremely large sample sizes required to provide a high degree of confidence of detecting very low acceptable defect levels. Food safety verification sampling creates economic incentives for food producing firms to develop, implement, and maintain effective control measures that limit the probability and degree of noncompliance with regulatory limits or private contract specifications. PMID:23496435

  14. Oxygen analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Benner, William H.

    1986-01-01

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  15. Photo-induced trimming of chalcogenide-assisted silicon waveguides.

    PubMed

    Canciamilla, Antonio; Morichetti, Francesco; Grillanda, Stefano; Velha, Philippe; Sorel, Marc; Singh, Vivek; Agarwal, Anu; Kimerling, Lionel C; Melloni, Andrea

    2012-07-01

    A chalcogenide-assisted silicon waveguide is realized by depositing a thin layer of A(2)S(3) glass onto a conventional silicon on insulator optical waveguide. The photosensitivity of the chalcogenide is exploited to locally change the optical properties of the waveguide through exposure to visible light radiation. Waveguide trimming is experimentally demonstrated by permanently shifting the resonant wavelength of a microring resonator by 6.7 nm, corresponding to an effective index increase of 1.6·10(-2). Saturation effects, trimming range, velocity and temporal stability of the process are discussed in details. Results demonstrate that photo-induced treatments can be exploited for a post-fabrication compensation of fabrication tolerances, as well as to set and reconfigure the circuit response. PMID:22772270

  16. ERAP1-ERAP2 dimerization increases peptide-trimming efficiency.

    PubMed

    Evnouchidou, Irini; Weimershaus, Mirjana; Saveanu, Loredana; van Endert, Peter

    2014-07-15

    The endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidases (ERAP)1 and ERAP2 play a critical role in the production of final epitopes presented by MHC class I molecules. Formation of heterodimers by ERAP1 and ERAP2 has been proposed to facilitate trimming of epitope precursor peptides, but the effects of dimerization on ERAP function remain unknown. In this study, we produced stabilized ERAP1-ERAP2 heterodimers and found that they produced several mature epitopes more efficiently than a mix of the two enzymes unable to dimerize. Physical interaction with ERAP2 changes basic enzymatic parameters of ERAP1 and improves its substrate-binding affinity. Thus, by bringing the two enzymes in proximity and by producing allosteric effects on ERAP1, dimerization of ERAP1/2 creates complexes with superior peptide-trimming efficacy. Such complexes are likely to enhance Ag presentation by cells displaying coordinated expression of the two enzymes. PMID:24928998

  17. An analysis of the Space Shuttle hypersonic entry trim anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. C.; Findlay, J. T.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews a parameter identification methodology developed to investigate the hypersonic longitudinal trim misprediction apparent in the NASA Space Shuttle Orbiter entry flights. The method combines an analysis using a measured versus predicted technique in conjunction with a multilinear regression analysis to identify prediction deficiencies using quasi-static longitudinal data in the hypersonic flight regime (Mach 6 through 26). In general, the results of this extraction confirm results previously obtained by other Shuttle investigators with the exception of elevon effectiveness. Further analysis and/or flight data will be required to resolve the conflicting elevon results. A combination of this analytical tool and other flight data will enable flight data interpretation with the potential for identifying the sources of the Shuttle's hypersonic trim misprediction to an accuracy consistent with updating preflight prediction methodology for future spacecraft.

  18. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2003-05-15

    of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

  19. Free-Spinning, Longitudinal-Trim, and Tumbling Characteristics of a 1/20-Scale Model of the Consolidated Vultke MX-813 (Prototype of XP-92) Airplane as Determined in the Langley 20-Foot Free-Spinning Tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, Ralph W., Jr.; White, Richard P.

    1948-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel to evaluate the spin, longitudinal-trim, and tumbling characteristics of a 1/20-scale model of the Consolidated Vultee MX-813 airplane. The effects of control position were determined for the model ballasted to represent the airplane in its design gross weight loading. The model, in general, would not spin but demonstrated a tendency to trim at very high stalled angles of attack. Static tests substantiated the dynamic tests as regards the trim characteristics. Movement of the elevator, however, from up to slightly down was effective in pitching the model from stalled to normal trim attitudes. The model would not tumble.

  20. A study on solid modelling with surface trimming method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Ching-Yun; Chang, San-Cheng

    1993-07-01

    This paper proposes a Surface Trimming Method based on the intersection curves between free-form surfaces so that a complex solid model with several primitive surfaces can be constructed. These solid models will not only be used by the mechanical engineering industry to design and analyze conventional mechanical parts, but will also be used by the civil engineers to design and analyze structures of irregular shape. The scope of solid modelling application is thus enhanced.

  1. Measurement of axial injection displacement with trim coil current unbalance

    SciTech Connect

    Covo, Michel Kireeff

    2014-08-15

    The Dee probe used for measuring internal radial beam intensity shows large losses inside the radius of 20 cm of the 88 in. cyclotron. The current of the top and bottom innermost trim coil 1 is unbalanced to study effects of the axial injection displacement. A beam profile monitor images the ion beam bunches, turn by turn. The experimental bunch center of mass position is compared with calculations of the magnetic mirror effect displacement and shows good agreement.

  2. Astronaut Charles Conrad trims hair of Astronaut Paul Weitz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., Skylab 2 commander, trims the hair of Astronaut Paul J. Weitz, Skylab 2 pilot, during the 28-day Skylab 2 mission in Earth orbit. They are in the crew quarters wardroom of the Orbital Workshop of the Skylab 1 and 2 space station. Weitz is holding a vacuum hose in his right hand. This picture was taken by Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, Skylab 2 science pilot.

  3. Measurement of axial injection displacement with trim coil current unbalance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covo, Michel Kireeff

    2014-08-01

    The Dee probe used for measuring internal radial beam intensity shows large losses inside the radius of 20 cm of the 88 in. cyclotron. The current of the top and bottom innermost trim coil 1 is unbalanced to study effects of the axial injection displacement. A beam profile monitor images the ion beam bunches, turn by turn. The experimental bunch center of mass position is compared with calculations of the magnetic mirror effect displacement and shows good agreement.

  4. Use of a micro programmable logic controller for oxygen monitoring and control in multiple tanks of a recirculating aquaculture system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In intensive recirculating aquaculture systems the use of supplemental oxygen, specifically pure liquid oxygen, increases the mass of fish that can be supported and eliminates oxygen as a major limiting factor to a system’s carrying capacity. The use of pure oxygen in a recirculating aquaculture sys...

  5. Method of controlling injection of oxygen into hydrogen-rich fuel cell feed stream

    DOEpatents

    Meltser, Mark Alexander; Gutowski, Stanley; Weisbrod, Kirk

    2001-01-01

    A method of operating a H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 fuel cell fueled by hydrogen-rich fuel stream containing CO. The CO content is reduced to acceptable levels by injecting oxygen into the fuel gas stream. The amount of oxygen injected is controlled in relation to the CO content of the fuel gas, by a control strategy that involves (a) determining the CO content of the fuel stream at a first injection rate, (b) increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate, (c) determining the CO content of the stream at the higher injection rate, (d) further increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is lower than the first measured CO content or reducing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is greater than the first measured CO content, and (e) repeating steps a-d as needed to optimize CO consumption and minimize H.sub.2 consumption.

  6. Trim28 Haploinsufficiency Triggers Bi-stable Epigenetic Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Dalgaard, Kevin; Landgraf, Kathrin; Heyne, Steffen; Lempradl, Adelheid; Longinotto, John; Gossens, Klaus; Ruf, Marius; Orthofer, Michael; Strogantsev, Ruslan; Selvaraj, Madhan; Lu, Tess Tsai-Hsiu; Casas, Eduard; Teperino, Raffaele; Surani, M. Azim; Zvetkova, Ilona; Rimmington, Debra; Tung, Y.C. Loraine; Lam, Brian; Larder, Rachel; Yeo, Giles S.H.; O’Rahilly, Stephen; Vavouri, Tanya; Whitelaw, Emma; Penninger, Josef M.; Jenuwein, Thomas; Cheung, Ching-Lung; Ferguson-Smith, Anne C.; Coll, Anthony P.; Körner, Antje; Pospisilik, J. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Summary More than one-half billion people are obese, and despite progress in genetic research, much of the heritability of obesity remains enigmatic. Here, we identify a Trim28-dependent network capable of triggering obesity in a non-Mendelian, “on/off” manner. Trim28+/D9 mutant mice exhibit a bi-modal body-weight distribution, with isogenic animals randomly emerging as either normal or obese and few intermediates. We find that the obese-“on” state is characterized by reduced expression of an imprinted gene network including Nnat, Peg3, Cdkn1c, and Plagl1 and that independent targeting of these alleles recapitulates the stochastic bi-stable disease phenotype. Adipose tissue transcriptome analyses in children indicate that humans too cluster into distinct sub-populations, stratifying according to Trim28 expression, transcriptome organization, and obesity-associated imprinted gene dysregulation. These data provide evidence of discrete polyphenism in mouse and man and thus carry important implications for complex trait genetics, evolution, and medicine. Video Abstract PMID:26824653

  7. Trim28 Haploinsufficiency Triggers Bi-stable Epigenetic Obesity.

    PubMed

    Dalgaard, Kevin; Landgraf, Kathrin; Heyne, Steffen; Lempradl, Adelheid; Longinotto, John; Gossens, Klaus; Ruf, Marius; Orthofer, Michael; Strogantsev, Ruslan; Selvaraj, Madhan; Lu, Tess Tsai-Hsiu; Casas, Eduard; Teperino, Raffaele; Surani, M Azim; Zvetkova, Ilona; Rimmington, Debra; Tung, Y C Loraine; Lam, Brian; Larder, Rachel; Yeo, Giles S H; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Vavouri, Tanya; Whitelaw, Emma; Penninger, Josef M; Jenuwein, Thomas; Cheung, Ching-Lung; Ferguson-Smith, Anne C; Coll, Anthony P; Körner, Antje; Pospisilik, J Andrew

    2016-01-28

    More than one-half billion people are obese, and despite progress in genetic research, much of the heritability of obesity remains enigmatic. Here, we identify a Trim28-dependent network capable of triggering obesity in a non-Mendelian, "on/off" manner. Trim28(+/D9) mutant mice exhibit a bi-modal body-weight distribution, with isogenic animals randomly emerging as either normal or obese and few intermediates. We find that the obese-"on" state is characterized by reduced expression of an imprinted gene network including Nnat, Peg3, Cdkn1c, and Plagl1 and that independent targeting of these alleles recapitulates the stochastic bi-stable disease phenotype. Adipose tissue transcriptome analyses in children indicate that humans too cluster into distinct sub-populations, stratifying according to Trim28 expression, transcriptome organization, and obesity-associated imprinted gene dysregulation. These data provide evidence of discrete polyphenism in mouse and man and thus carry important implications for complex trait genetics, evolution, and medicine. PMID:26824653

  8. TRIM32 modulates pluripotency entry and exit by directly regulating Oct4 stability.

    PubMed

    Bahnassawy, Lamia'a; Perumal, Thanneer M; Gonzalez-Cano, Laura; Hillje, Anna-Lena; Taher, Leila; Makalowski, Wojciech; Suzuki, Yutaka; Fuellen, Georg; del Sol, Antonio; Schwamborn, Jens Christian

    2015-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have revolutionized the world of regenerative medicine; nevertheless, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying their generation and differentiation remain elusive. Here, we investigated the role of the cell fate determinant TRIM32 in modulating such processes. TRIM32 is essential for the induction of neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells by poly-ubiquitinating cMyc to target it for degradation resulting in inhibition of cell proliferation. To elucidate the role of TRIM32 in regulating somatic cell reprogramming we analysed the capacity of TRIM32-knock-out mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) in generating iPSC colonies. TRIM32 knock-out MEFs produced a higher number of iPSC colonies indicating a role for TRIM32 in inhibiting this cellular transition. Further characterization of the generated iPSCs indicated that the TRIM32 knock-out iPSCs show perturbed differentiation kinetics. Additionally, mathematical modelling of global gene expression data revealed that during differentiation an Oct4 centred network in the wild-type cells is replaced by an E2F1 centred network in the TRIM32 deficient cells. We show here that this might be caused by a TRIM32-dependent downregulation of Oct4. In summary, the data presented here reveal that TRIM32 directly regulates at least two of the four Yamanaka Factors (cMyc and Oct4), to modulate cell fate transitions. PMID:26307407

  9. Deletion of TRIM32 protects mice from anxiety- and depression-like behaviors under mild stress.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Chun-Sheng; Wang, Shu-Fen; Shen, Yan-Jun; Guo, Yi; Yang, Chun-Rui; Zhou, Fiona H; Tan, Li-Tao; Zhou, Li; Liu, Jian-Jun; Wang, Wen-Yue; Xiao, Zhi-Cheng; Zhou, Xin-Fu

    2014-08-01

    Chronic stress causes a variety of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression, but its mechanism is not well understood. Tripartite motif-containing protein 32 (TRIM32) was strongly associated with autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety and obsessive compulsive disorder based on a study of copy number variation, and deletion of TRIM32 increased neural proliferation and reduced apoptosis. Here, we propose that TRIM32 is involved in chronic stress-induced affective behaviors. Using a chronic unpredictable mild stress mouse depression model, we studied expression of TRIM32 in brain tissue samples and observed behavioral changes in Trim32 knockout mice. The results showed that TRIM32 protein but not its mRNA was significantly reduced in hippocampus in a time-dependent manner within 8 weeks of chronic stress. These stress-induced affective behaviors and reduction of TRIM32 protein expression were significantly reversed by antidepressant fluoxetine treatment. In addition, Trim32 knockout mice showed reduced anxiety and depressive behaviors and hyperactivities compared with Trim32 wild-type mice under normal and mild stress conditions. We conclude that TRIM32 plays important roles in regulation of hyperactivities and positively regulates the development of anxiety and depression disorders induced by chronic stress. PMID:24839933

  10. TRIM32 modulates pluripotency entry and exit by directly regulating Oct4 stability

    PubMed Central

    Bahnassawy, Lamia’a; Perumal, Thanneer M.; Gonzalez-Cano, Laura; Hillje, Anna-Lena; Taher, Leila; Makalowski, Wojciech; Suzuki, Yutaka; Fuellen, Georg; Sol, Antonio del; Schwamborn, Jens Christian

    2015-01-01

    Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have revolutionized the world of regenerative medicine; nevertheless, the exact molecular mechanisms underlying their generation and differentiation remain elusive. Here, we investigated the role of the cell fate determinant TRIM32 in modulating such processes. TRIM32 is essential for the induction of neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells by poly-ubiquitinating cMyc to target it for degradation resulting in inhibition of cell proliferation. To elucidate the role of TRIM32 in regulating somatic cell reprogramming we analysed the capacity of TRIM32-knock-out mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) in generating iPSC colonies. TRIM32 knock-out MEFs produced a higher number of iPSC colonies indicating a role for TRIM32 in inhibiting this cellular transition. Further characterization of the generated iPSCs indicated that the TRIM32 knock-out iPSCs show perturbed differentiation kinetics. Additionally, mathematical modelling of global gene expression data revealed that during differentiation an Oct4 centred network in the wild-type cells is replaced by an E2F1 centred network in the TRIM32 deficient cells. We show here that this might be caused by a TRIM32-dependent downregulation of Oct4. In summary, the data presented here reveal that TRIM32 directly regulates at least two of the four Yamanaka Factors (cMyc and Oct4), to modulate cell fate transitions. PMID:26307407

  11. Swine TRIM21 restricts FMDV infection via an intracellular neutralization mechanism.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wenchun; Zhang, Dong; Qian, Ping; Qian, Suhong; Wu, Mengge; Chen, Huanchun; Li, Xiangmin

    2016-03-01

    The tripartite motif protein 21 (TRIM21) is a ubiquitously expressed E3 ubiquitin ligase and an intracellular antibody receptor. TRIM21 mediates antibody-dependent intracellular neutralization (ADIN) in cytosol and provides an intracellular immune response to protect host defense against pathogen infection. In this study, swine TRIM21 (sTRIM21) was cloned and its role in ADIN was investigated. The expression of sTRIM21 is induced by type I interferon in PK-15 cells. sTRIM21 restricts FMDV infection in the presence of FMDV specific antibodies. Furthermore, sTRIM21 interacts with Fc fragment of swine immunoglobulin G (sFc) fused VP1 of FMDV and thereby causing its degradation. Both the RING and SPRY domains are essential for sTRIM21 to degrade sFc-fused VP1. These results suggest that the intracellular neutralization features of FMDV contribute to the antiviral activity of sTRIM21. sTRIM21 provide another intracellular mechanism to inhibit FMDV infection in infected cells. PMID:26777733

  12. RNA interference against TRIM29 inhibits migration and invasion of colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Weihong; Xu, Bin; Yao, Yiting; Yu, Xiaoling; Cao, Hua; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Jie; Sheng, Huiming

    2016-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Tripartite motif-containing 29 (TRIM29) is a member of TRIM proteins family, which plays diverse physiological and pathological roles in humans. Recent studies found that TRIM29 expressed highly in CRC and promoted cell growth in vitro. However, its function in the metastasis of CRC has not been studied. In the present study, we confirmed the previous report that TRIM29 was upregulated in CRC tissues and high levels of TRIM29 expression were associated with poor overall survival of patients. Moreover, TRIM29 knockdown significantly reduced cancer cell proliferation via notably inducing cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. Silencing of TRIM29 significantly inhibited the migration and invasion ability of CRC cells. The protein levels of apoptosis‑, migration‑ and invasion‑related proteins were also changed after TRIM29 knockdown. Furthermore, phosphorylation levels of JAK2 and STAT3 were clearly reduced in TRIM29 knockdown cells, indicating a possible mechanism underlying its effects on colorectal carcinogenesis. Collectively, TRIM29 may exert oncogenic effects in CRC cells via regulating JAK2/STAT3 signaling. PMID:27430345

  13. Contribution of SUMO-interacting motifs and SUMOylation to the antiretroviral properties of TRIM

    PubMed Central

    Brandariz-Nuñez, Alberto; Roa, Amanda; Valle-Casuso, Jose Carlos; Biris, Nikolaos; Ivanov, Dmitri; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Recent findings suggested that the SUMO-interacting motifs (SIMs) present in the human TRIM5α (TRIM5αhu) protein play an important role in the ability of TRIM5αhu to restrict N-MLV. Here we explored the role of SIMs in the ability of rhesus TRIM5α (TRIM5αrh) to restrict HIV-1, and found that TRIM5αrh SIM mutants IL376KK (SIM1mut) and VI405KK (SIM2mut) completely lost their ability to block HIV-1 infection. Interestingly, these mutants also lost the recently described property of TRIM5αrh to shuttle into the nucleus. Analysis of these variants revealed that they are unable to interact with the HIV-1 core, which might explain the reason that these variants are not active against HIV-1. Furthermore, NMR titration experiments to assay the binding between the PRYSPRY domain of TRIM5αrh and the small ubiquitin-like modifier 1(SUMO-1) revealed no interaction. In addition, we examined the role of SUMOylation in restriction, and find out that inhibition of SUMOylation by the adenoviral protein Gam1 did not altered the retroviral restriction ability of TRIM5α. Overall, our results do not support a role for SIMs or SUMOylation in the antiviral properties of TRIM5α. PMID:23084420

  14. Multilayer Resist Profile Control in Oxygen Reactive Ion Etching Using Ethanol Gas Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Yasuki; Aoyama, Ryouichi; Suzuki, Seki

    1994-07-01

    By adding ethanol gas to oxygen-based chemistry, the controllability of resist profile and the overetch characteristic, under the condition with nearly no areas of material to be etched (etchable area), are improved. A model for resist profile control in which the resist profile is determined by the ratio of the sum of the isotropic etching component and the isotropic deposition component to the anisotropic etching component, is examined by evaluating the dependence of the resist profile and the etching rate on gas composition, the product of ion energy and ion current density (ion impact), and line and space (L & S) width. Both the gas composition and L & S width affect the sum of isotropic components. Ion impact affects the anisotropic etching component. When the isotropic components are balanced, resist profile is independent of ion impact and L & S width.

  15. View of Mission Control Center during the Apollo 13 oxygen cell failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Several persons important to the Apollo 13 mission, at consoles in the Mission Operations Control Room of the Mission Control Center (MCC). Seated at consoles, from left to right, are Astronaut Donald K. Slayton, Director of Flight Crew Operations; Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Shift 3 spacecraft communicator; and Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 13 back-up crew. Standing, left to right, are Astronaut Tom K. Mattingly, who was replaced as Apollo 13 command module pilot after it was learned he may come down with measles, and Astronaut Vance D. Brand, Shift 2 spacecraft communicator. Several hours earlier crew members of the Apollo 13 mission reported to MCC that trouble had developed with an oxygen cell in their spacecraft.

  16. Dynamic controlled atmosphere and ultralow oxygen storage on 'Gala' mutants quality maintenance.

    PubMed

    Thewes, Fabio Rodrigo; Both, Vanderlei; Brackmann, Auri; Weber, Anderson; de Oliveira Anese, Rogerio

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present work was to compare the effect of ultralow oxygen (ULO) with dynamic controlled atmosphere (DCA) and controlled atmosphere (CA) on the post storage quality of 'Royal Gala' and 'Galaxy' apples after long-term storage. Two experiments were carried out with 'Royal Gala' and 'Galaxy' apples, in the years 2012 and 2013, respectively. A higher internal ethylene concentration was observed in fruits stored under CA; intermediate concentration in fruits under ULO; and the lowest by fruits stored under DCA-CF (DCA based on chlorophyll fluorescence). Flesh firmness was higher in fruits stored under DCA-CF and ULO differing from CA, in the year 2012, but in 2013 fruits stored under ULO showed the highest flesh firmness, differing from CA fruits. DCA-CF is efficient in quality maintenance of 'Royal Gala' and 'Galaxy' apples. Both 'Gala' mutants stored under ULO show a similar quality maintenance to those stored under DCA-CF. PMID:26041165

  17. Room temperature alcohol sensing by oxygen vacancy controlled TiO2 nanotube array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazra, A.; Dutta, K.; Bhowmik, B.; Chattopadhyay, P. P.; Bhattacharyya, P.

    2014-08-01

    Oxygen vacancy (OV) controlled TiO2 nanotubes, having diameters of 50-70 nm and lengths of 200-250 nm, were synthesized by electrochemical anodization in the mixed electrolyte comprising NH4F and ethylene glycol with selective H2O content. The structural evolution of TiO2 nanoforms has been studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Variation in the formation of OVs with the variation of the structure of TiO2 nanoforms has been evaluated by photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sensor characteristics were correlated to the variation of the amount of induced OVs in the nanotubes. The efficient room temperature sensing achieved by the control of OVs of TiO2 nanotube array has paved the way for developing fast responding alcohol sensor with corresponding response magnitude of 60.2%, 45.3%, and 36.5% towards methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, respectively.

  18. Controlling Solution-Mediated Reaction Mechanisms of Oxygen Reduction Using Potential and Solvent for Aprotic Lithium-Oxygen Batteries.

    PubMed

    Kwabi, David G; Tułodziecki, Michał; Pour, Nir; Itkis, Daniil M; Thompson, Carl V; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2016-04-01

    Fundamental understanding of growth mechanisms of Li2O2 in Li-O2 cells is critical for implementing batteries with high gravimetric energies. Li2O2 growth can occur first by 1e(-) transfer to O2, forming Li(+)-O2(-) and then either chemical disproportionation of Li(+)-O2(-), or a second electron transfer to Li(+)-O2(-). We demonstrate that Li2O2 growth is governed primarily by disproportionation of Li(+)-O2(-) at low overpotential, and surface-mediated electron transfer at high overpotential. We obtain evidence supporting this trend using the rotating ring disk electrode (RRDE) technique, which shows that the fraction of oxygen reduction reaction charge attributable to soluble Li(+)-O2(-)-based intermediates increases as the discharge overpotential reduces. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM) measurements of oxygen reduction support this picture, and show that the dependence of the reaction mechanism on the applied potential explains the difference in Li2O2 morphologies observed at different discharge overpotentials: formation of large (∼250 nm-1 μm) toroids, and conformal coatings (<50 nm) at higher overpotentials. These results highlight that RRDE and EQCM can be used as complementary tools to gain new insights into the role of soluble and solid reaction intermediates in the growth of reaction products in metal-O2 batteries. PMID:26949979

  19. (-)-Epicatechin administration and exercising skeletal muscle vascular control and microvascular oxygenation in healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Copp, Steven W; Inagaki, Tadakatsu; White, Michael J; Hirai, Daniel M; Ferguson, Scott K; Holdsworth, Clark T; Sims, Gabrielle E; Poole, David C; Musch, Timothy I

    2013-01-15

    Consumption of the dietary flavanol (-)-epicatechin (EPI) is associated with enhanced endothelial function and augmented skeletal muscle capillarity and mitochondrial volume density. The potential for EPI to improve peripheral vascular function and muscle oxygenation during exercise is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that EPI administration in healthy rats would improve treadmill exercise performance secondary to elevated skeletal muscle blood flow and vascular conductance [VC, blood flow/mean arterial pressure (MAP)] and improved skeletal muscle microvascular oxygenation. Rats received water (control, n = 12) or 4 mg/kg EPI (n = 12) via oral gavage daily for 24 days. Exercise endurance capacity and peak O(2) uptake (Vo(2) peak) were measured via treadmill runs to exhaustion. MAP (arterial catheter) and blood flow (radiolabeled microspheres) were measured and VC was calculated during submaximal treadmill exercise (25 m/min, 5% grade). Spinotrapezius muscle microvascular O(2) pressure (Po(2mv)) was measured (phosphorescence quenching) during electrically induced twitch (1 Hz) contractions. In conscious rats, EPI administration resulted in lower (↓~5%) resting (P = 0.03) and exercising (P = 0.04) MAP. There were no differences in exercise endurance capacity, Vo(2) peak, total exercising hindlimb blood flow (control, 154 ± 13; and EPI, 159 ± 8 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1), P = 0.68), or VC (control, 1.13 ± 0.10; and EPI, 1.24 ± 0.08 ml·min(-1)·100 g(-1)·mmHg(-1), P = 0.21) between groups. Following anesthesia, EPI resulted in lower MAP (↓~16%) but did not impact resting Po(2mv) or any kinetics parameters (P > 0.05 for all) during muscle contractions compared with control. EPI administration (4 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) improved modestly cardiovascular function (i.e., ↓MAP) with no impact on exercise performance, total exercising skeletal muscle blood flow and VC, or contracting muscle microvascular oxygenation in healthy rats. PMID:23144313

  20. Control of plasma properties in capacitively coupled oxygen discharges via the electrical asymmetry effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüngel, E.; Zhang, Q.-Z.; Iwashita, S.; Schulze, J.; Hou, L.-J.; Wang, Y.-N.; Czarnetzki, U.

    2011-07-01

    Using a combined experimental, numerical and analytical approach, we investigate the control of plasma properties via the electrical asymmetry effect (EAE) in a capacitively coupled oxygen discharge. In particular, we present the first experimental investigation of the EAE in electronegative discharges. A dual-frequency voltage source of 13.56 MHz and 27.12 MHz is applied to the powered electrode and the discharge symmetry is controlled by adjusting the phase angle θ between the two harmonics. It is found that the bulk position and density profiles of positive ions, negative ions, and electrons have a clear dependence on θ, while the peak densities and the electronegativity stay rather constant, largely due to the fact that the time-averaged power absorption by electrons is almost independent of θ. This indicates that the ion flux towards the powered electrode remains almost constant. Meanwhile, the dc self-bias and, consequently, the sheath widths and potential profile can be effectively tuned by varying θ. This enables a flexible control of the ion bombarding energy at the electrode. Therefore, our work proves the effectiveness of the EAE to realize separate control of ion flux and ion energy in electronegative discharges. At low pressure, the strength of resonance oscillations, which are found in the current of asymmetric discharges, can be controlled with θ.

  1. Identification of key parameters controlling dissolved oxygen migration and attenuation in fractured crystalline rocks.

    PubMed

    Spiessl, S M; MacQuarrie, K T B; Mayer, K U

    2008-01-28

    In the crystalline rocks of the Canadian Shield, geochemical conditions are currently reducing at depths of 500-1000 m. However, during future glacial periods, altered hydrologic conditions could potentially result in enhanced recharge of glacial melt water containing a relatively high concentration of dissolved oxygen (O2). It is therefore of interest to investigate the physical and geochemical processes, including naturally-occurring redox reactions, that may control O2 ingress. In this study, the reactive transport code MIN3P is used in combination with 2k factorial analyses to identify the most important parameters controlling oxygen migration and attenuation in fractured crystalline rocks. Scenarios considered are based on simplified conceptual models that include a single vertical fracture, or a fracture zone, contained within a rock matrix that extends from the ground surface to a depth of 500 m. Consistent with field observations, Fe(II)-bearing minerals are present in the fractures (i.e. chlorite) and the rock matrix (biotite and small quantities of pyrite). For the parameter ranges investigated, results indicate that for the single fracture case, the most influential factors controlling dissolved O2 ingress are flow velocity in the fracture, fracture aperture, and the biotite reaction rate in the rock matrix. The most important parameters for the fracture zone simulations are flow velocity in the individual fractures, pO2 in the recharge water, biotite reaction rate, and to a lesser degree the abundance and reactivity of chlorite in the fracture zone, and the fracture zone width. These parameters should therefore receive increased consideration during site characterization, and in the formulation of site-specific models intended to predict O2 behavior in crystalline rocks. PMID:17935829

  2. How do changes in dissolved oxygen concentration influence microbially-controlled phosphorus cycling in stream biofilms?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saia, S. M.; Locke, N. A.; Regan, J. M.; Carrick, H. J.; Buda, A. R.; Walter, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    Advances in molecular microbiology techniques (e.g. epi-fluorescent microscopy and PCR) are making it easier to study the influence of specific microorganisms on nutrient transport. Polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) are commonly used in wastewater treatment plants to remove excess phosphorus (P) from effluent water. PAOs have also been identified in natural settings but their ecological function is not well known. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that PAOs in natural environments would release and accumulate P during anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. We placed stream biofilms in sealed, covered tubs and subjected them to alternating air (aerobic conditions) and N2 gas (anaerobic condition) bubbling for 12 hours each. Four treatments investigated the influence of changing dissolved oxygen on micribially-controlled P cycling: (1) biofilms bubbled continuously with air, (2) biofilms bubbled alternatively with air and N2, (3) biocide treated biofilms bubbled continuously with air, and (4) biocide treated biofilms bubbled alternatively with air and N2. Treatments 3 and 4 serve as abiotic controls to treatments 1 and 2. We analyzed samples every 12 hours for soluble reactive P (SRP), temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH. We also used fluorescent microscopy (i.e. DAPI staining) and PCR to verify the presence of PAOs in the stream biofilms. SRP results over the course of the experiment support our hypothesis that anaerobic and aerobic stream conditions may impact PAO mediated P release and uptake, respectively in natural environments. The results of these experiments draw attention to the importance of microbiological controls on P mobility in freshwater ecosystems.

  3. Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, Donald C.

    1985-06-04

    A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power.

  4. TRIM32-dependent transcription in adult neural progenitor cells regulates neuronal differentiation.

    PubMed

    Hillje, A-L; Pavlou, M A S; Beckmann, E; Worlitzer, M M A; Bahnassawy, L; Lewejohann, L; Palm, T; Schwamborn, J C

    2013-01-01

    In the adult mammalian brain, neural stem cells in the subventricular zone continuously generate new neurons for the olfactory bulb. Cell fate commitment in these adult neural stem cells is regulated by cell fate-determining proteins. Here, we show that the cell fate-determinant TRIM32 is upregulated during differentiation of adult neural stem cells into olfactory bulb neurons. We further demonstrate that TRIM32 is necessary for the correct induction of neuronal differentiation in these cells. In the absence of TRIM32, neuroblasts differentiate slower and show gene expression profiles that are characteristic of immature cells. Interestingly, TRIM32 deficiency induces more neural progenitor cell proliferation and less cell death. Both effects accumulate in an overproduction of adult-generated olfactory bulb neurons of TRIM32 knockout mice. These results highlight the function of the cell fate-determinant TRIM32 for a balanced activity of the adult neurogenesis process. PMID:24357807

  5. TRIM29 regulates the p63-mediated pathway in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Yasushi; Takahashi, Hidehisa; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu

    2015-10-01

    Cell invasion and adhesion play an important role in cancer metastasis and are orchestrated by a complicated network of transcription factors including p63. Here, we show that a member of the tripartite motif protein family, TRIM29, is required for regulation of the p63-mediated pathway in cervical cancer cells. TRIM29 knockdown alters the adhesion and invasion activities of cervical cancer cells. TRIM29 knockdown and overexpression cause a significant decrease and increase of TAp63α expression, respectively. TRIM29 knockdown alters the expression pattern of integrins and increases ZEB1 expression. TRIM29 is required for suppression of an increase in the adhesion activity of cells by TAp63α. These findings suggest that TRIM29 regulates the p63-mediated pathway and the behavior of cervical cancer cells. PMID:26071105

  6. Combinatorial control of yeast FET4 gene expression by iron, zinc, and oxygen.

    PubMed

    Waters, Brian M; Eide, David J

    2002-09-13

    Acquisition of metals such as iron, copper, and zinc by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is tightly regulated. High affinity uptake systems are induced under metal-limiting conditions to maintain an adequate supply of these essential nutrients. Low affinity uptake systems function when their substrates are in greater supply. The FET4 gene encodes a low affinity iron and copper uptake transporter. FET4 expression is regulated by several environmental factors. In this report, we describe the molecular mechanisms underlying this regulation. First, we found that FET4 expression is induced in iron-limited cells by the Aft1 iron-responsive transcriptional activator. Second, FET4 is regulated by zinc status via the Zap1 transcription factor. We present evidence that FET4 is a physiologically relevant zinc transporter and this provides a rationale for its regulation by Zap1. Finally, FET4 expression is regulated in response to oxygen by the Rox1 repressor. Rox1 attenuates activation by Aft1 and Zap1 in aerobic cells. Derepression of FET4 may allow the Fet4 transporter to play an even greater role in metal acquisition under anaerobic conditions. Thus, Fet4 is a multisubstrate metal ion transporter under combinatorial control by iron, zinc, and oxygen. PMID:12095998

  7. Oxygen analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Benner, W.H.

    1984-05-08

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N/sub 2/), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135/sup 0/C, or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135/sup 0/C as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N/sub 2/, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  8. Closed-loop identification and control application for dissolved oxygen concentration in a full-scale coke wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Yoo, C K; Cho, J H; Kwak, H J; Choi, S K; Chun, H D; Lee, I

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to apply a closed-loop identification to actual dissolved oxygen control system in the coke wastewater treatment plant. It approximates the dissolved oxygen dynamics to a high order model using the integral transform method and reduces it to the first-order plus time delay (FOPTD) or second-order plus time delay (SOPTD) for the PID controller tuning. To experiment the process identification on the real plant, a simple set-point change of the speed of surface aerator under the closed-loop control without any mode change was used as an activation signal of the identification. The full-scale experimental results show a good identification performance and a good tracking ability for set-point change. As a result of improved control performance, the fluctuation of dissolved oxygen concentration variation has been decreased and the electric power saving has been accomplished. PMID:11385849

  9. Net-Shape Forging of Aerofoil Blade based on Flash Trimming and Compensation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, B.; Ou, H.; Armstrong, C. G.

    2011-05-04

    In this research, an automatic blade forging die shape optimisation system was developed by using direct compensation and flash trimming algorithms and integrating with the DEFORM 3D software package. To validate the developed system, a 3D blade forging case problem was simulated and optimised with and without the consideration of trimming simulation. The results were compared with actual measurement data of the forged aerofoil blade with excellent results obtained with the fast trimming simulation procedure used.

  10. Coordinated Neutralization and Immune Activation by the Cytosolic Antibody Receptor TRIM21.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Adam J; James, Leo C

    2016-05-15

    TRIM21 is a high-affinity antibody receptor uniquely expressed in the cytosol of mammalian cells. Here we summarize its role in extending antibody protection into the intracellular environment and allowing nonprofessional cells to benefit from adaptive immunity. We highlight recent work that has shed light on how TRIM21 acts as both an immune sensor and effector. We also review how TRIM21 synergizes with other innate immune receptors to promote an integrated antiviral response. PMID:26937031

  11. The E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM23 regulates adipocyte differentiation via stabilization of the adipogenic activator PPARγ

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Masashi; Takahashi, Hidehisa; Saeki, Yasushi; Ozaki, Takashi; Itoh, Shihori; Suzuki, Masanobu; Mizushima, Wataru; Tanaka, Keiji; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu

    2015-01-01

    Adipocyte differentiation is a strictly controlled process regulated by a series of transcriptional activators. Adipogenic signals activate early adipogenic activators and facilitate the transient formation of early enhanceosomes at target genes. These enhancer regions are subsequently inherited by late enhanceosomes. PPARγ is one of the late adipogenic activators and is known as a master regulator of adipogenesis. However, the factors that regulate PPARγ expression remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that a novel ubiquitin E3 ligase, tripartite motif protein 23 (TRIM23), stabilizes PPARγ protein and mediates atypical polyubiquitin conjugation. TRIM23 knockdown caused a marked decrease in PPARγ protein abundance during preadipocyte differentiation, resulting in a severe defect in late adipogenic differentiation, whereas it did not affect the formation of early enhanceosomes. Our results suggest that TRIM23 plays a critical role in the switching from early to late adipogenic enhanceosomes by stabilizing PPARγ protein possibly via atypical polyubiquitin conjugation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05615.001 PMID:25905670

  12. PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CONTROLS ON DISSOLVED OXYGEN DYNAMICS IN PENSACOLA BAY, FL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient enrichment of estuaries and coastal waters can contribute to hypoxia (low dissolved oxygen) by increasing primary production and biological oxygen demand. Other factors, however, contribute to hypoxia and affect the susceptibility of coastal waters to hypoxia. Hypoxia fo...

  13. Changes in controlling factors of dissolved oxygen in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific from the past to the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigemitsu, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Oka, A.; Yamanaka, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Variability of the volume of oceanic oxygen-deficient waters is critical for aerobic organisms. Several climate models consistently predict the decreasing oceanic oxygen inventory from the second half of the 20th to the 21st centuries. However, the projections about how the volume of oxygen-deficient waters in the future are not consistent with each other. In this study, we investigated the factors controlling the variability of volumes of oxygen-deficient waters in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (EEP) where the largest oxygen-deficient zone exists in the ocean. Hindcast (from years 1850 to 2005) and forecast (from years 2006 to 2100) experiments with an offline global ocean biogeochemical model were performed by using outputs of physical field by the Earth System Model, MIROC-ESM, under the RCP4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. The model results illustrated that the volume of oxygen-deficient waters in EEP remains relatively constant from years 1850 to 1950, rapidly increases from years 1950 to 2000, and gradually declines from years 2000 to 2100. Available observations are consistent with the change of oxygen concentration from years 1950 to 2000. The budget analysis in EEP shows the following: (1) During 1850 to 1950, the horizontal advection via the Equatorial Undercurrent (EUC) is the major source of dissolved oxygen to the oxygen-deficient waters in EEP and that is almost consumed by the regeneration of organic matter. (2) During 1950 to 2000, the horizontal advection decreases and the declilne is not compensated by the reduction of regeneration of organic matter, which results in the expanding volume of oxygen-deficient waters. (3) In the 21st century, the horizontal advection declines further but the decrease in the regeneration of organic matter and increase in vertical advective supply are in excess of the decrease, leading to the shrink of oxygen-deficient water volume. Our model suggests that the key mechanisms controlling the oxygen-deficient water volume in EEP

  14. Endothelial GRK2 regulates vascular homeostasis through the control of free radical oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Ciccarelli, Michele; Sorriento, Daniela; Franco, Antonietta; Fusco, Anna; Giudice, Carmine Del; Annunziata, Roberto; Cipolletta, Ersilia; Monti, Maria Gaia; Dorn, Gerald W; Trimarco, Bruno; Iaccarino, Guido

    2014-01-01

    Objective The role of endothelial GRK2 was investigated in mice with selective deletion of the kinase in the endothelium (Tie2-CRE/GRK2fl/fl). Approach and Results Aortas from Tie2-CRE/GRK2fl/fl presented functional and structural alterations as compared to control GRK2fl/fl mice. In particular, vasoconstriction was blunted to different agonists, and collagen and elastic rearrangement and macrophage infiltration were observed. In primary cultured endothelial cells deficient for GRK2, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased, leading to expression of cytokines. Chronic treatment with a ROS scavenger in mice corrected the vascular phenotype by recovering vasoconstriction, structural abnormalities and reducing macrophage infiltration. Conclusions These results demonstrate that GRK2 removal compromises vascular phenotype and integrity by increasing endothelial ROS production. PMID:23950144

  15. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy as salvage treatment for sudden sensorineural hearing loss: a prospective controlled study.

    PubMed

    Pezzoli, M; Magnano, M; Maffi, L; Pezzoli, L; Marcato, P; Orione, M; Cupi, D; Bongioannini, G

    2015-07-01

    The most commonly used treatment for sensorineural sudden hearing loss (SSHL) in clinical practice is the administration of steroids; however, a favorable result is not always obtained. We studied 58 patients who failed to recover after primary treatment with IV steroids, 44 of these met our inclusion criteria (mean age 50.7, 27 males, range 30-74). We treated 23 patients (mean age 47.3, 16 males, age range 22-74) with hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) (2.5 ATA for 60 min for 15 treatments), while 21 (mean age 54.5, 11 males, age range 22-71) patients refused to be treated and served as a non-randomized control group. Patients treated with HBO had a mean improvement of 15.6 dB (SD ± 15.3), with 1 of them completely healed, 5 with a good recovery, 10 with a fair recovery and 7 unchanged. Patients who were not treated had a spontaneous mean improvement of 5.0 dB (SD ± 11.4) with 3 patients with a good recovery, 1 patient with a fair recovery and 17 patients unchanged. Mean improvement was significantly better in patients treated with HBO compared to controls (p = 0.0133). Patients with worst hearing had the greater degree of improvement whether or not they were treated in the first 10 days after the onset of the hearing loss or between 11 and 30 days. In conclusion, hyperbaric oxygen therapy can lead to significant improvement of pure tone hearing thresholds in patients with SSHL who failed primary corticosteroid treatment and are within 4 weeks of the onset of deafness. PMID:25318685

  16. RING domain is essential for the antiviral activity of TRIM25 from orange spotted grouper.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ying; Huang, Youhua; Yu, Yepin; Yang, Min; Zhou, Sheng; Qin, Qiwei; Huang, Xiaohong

    2016-08-01

    Tripartite motif-containing 25 (TRIM25) has been demonstrated to exert crucial roles in the regulation of innate immune signaling. However, the roles of fish TRIM25 in antiviral immune response still remained uncertain. Here, a novel fish TRIM25 gene from orange spotted grouper (EcTRIM25) was cloned and its roles in grouper virus infection were elucidated. EcTRIM25 encoded a 734-aa protein which shared 68% identity to large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). Amino acid alignment showed that EcTRIM25 contained three conserved domains, including a RING-finger domain, a B box/coiled-coil domain and a SPRY domain. In healthy grouper, the transcript of EcTRIM25 was predominantly detected in skin, spleen and intestine. After stimulation with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) or poly I:C, the relative expression of EcTRIM25 in grouper spleen was significantly increased at the early stage of injection. Subcellular localization analysis showed that EcTRIM25 distributed throughout the cytoplasm in grouper cells. Notably, the deletion RING domain affected its accurate localization and displayed microtubule like structures or bright aggregates in GS cells. After incubation with SGIV or red spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), overexpression of full length of EcTRIM25 in vitro significantly decreased the viral gene transcription of SGIV and RGNNV. Consistently, the deletion of RING domain obviously affected the inhibitory effect of EcTRIM25. Furthermore, overexpression of EcTRIM25 significantly increased the expression level of interferon related signaling molecules, including interferon regulatory factor (IRF) 3, interferon-induced 35-kDa protein (IFP35), MXI, IRF7 and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), suggesting that the positive regulation of interferon immune response by EcTRIM25 might affected RGNNV replication directly. Meanwhile, the expression levels of pro-inflammation cytokines were differently regulated by the ectopic expression of EcTRIM25

  17. TRIM45 negatively regulates NF-{kappa}B-mediated transcription and suppresses cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Shibata, Mio; Sato, Tomonobu; Nukiwa, Ryota; Ariga, Tadashi; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NF-{kappa}B plays an important role in cell survival and carcinogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM45 negatively regulates TNF{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B-mediated transcription. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM45 overexpression suppresses cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM45 acts as a repressor for the NF-{kappa}B signal and regulates cell growth. -- Abstract: The NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway plays an important role in cell survival, immunity, inflammation, carcinogenesis, and organogenesis. Activation of NF-{kappa}B is regulated by several posttranslational modifications including phosphorylation, neddylation and ubiquitination. The NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway is activated by two distinct signaling mechanisms and is strictly modulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. It has been reported that overexpression of TRIM45, one of the TRIM family ubiquitin ligases, suppresses transcriptional activities of Elk-1 and AP-1, which are targets of the MAPK signaling pathway. In this study, we showed that TRIM45 also negatively regulates TNF{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B-mediated transcription by a luciferase reporter assay and that TRIM45 lacking a RING domain also has an activity to inhibit the NF-{kappa}B signal. Moreover, we found that TRIM45 overexpression suppresses cell growth. These findings suggest that TRIM45 acts as a repressor for the NF-{kappa}B signal and regulates cell growth.

  18. E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 negatively regulates tumor suppressor p53 to promote tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ju; Zhang, C; Wang, X L; Ly, P; Belyi, V; Xu-Monette, Z Y; Young, K H; Hu, W; Feng, Z

    2014-11-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 has a key role in maintaining genomic stability and preventing tumorigenesis through its regulation of cellular stress responses, including apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and senescence. To ensure its proper levels and functions in cells, p53 is tightly regulated mainly through post-translational modifications, such as ubiquitination. Here, we identified E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 as a novel p53 target gene and negative regulator to regulate p53-mediated stress responses. In response to stress, such as DNA damage, p53 binds to the p53 responsive element in the promoter of the TRIM32 gene and transcriptionally induces the expression of TRIM32 in cells. In turn, TRIM32 interacts with p53 and promotes p53 degradation through ubiquitination. Thus, TRIM32 negatively regulates p53-mediated apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and senescence in response to stress. TRIM32 is frequently overexpressed in different types of human tumors. TRIM32 overexpression promotes cell oncogenic transformation and tumorigenesis in mice in a largely p53-dependent manner. Taken together, our results demonstrated that as a novel p53 target and a novel negative regulator for p53, TRIM32 has an important role in regulation of p53 and p53-mediated cellular stress responses. Furthermore, our results also revealed that impairing p53 function is a novel mechanism for TRIM32 in tumorigenesis. PMID:25146927

  19. TRIM32 Senses and Restricts Influenza A Virus by Ubiquitination of PB1 Polymerase.

    PubMed

    Fu, Bishi; Wang, Lingyan; Ding, Hao; Schwamborn, Jens C; Li, Shitao; Dorf, Martin E

    2015-06-01

    Polymerase basic protein 1 (PB1) is the catalytic core of the influenza A virus (IAV) RNA polymerase complex essential for viral transcription and replication. Understanding the intrinsic mechanisms which block PB1 function could stimulate development of new anti-influenza therapeutics. Affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (AP-MS) was used to identify host factors interacting with PB1. Among PB1 interactors, the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 interacts with PB1 proteins derived from multiple IAV strains. TRIM32 senses IAV infection by interacting with PB1 and translocates with PB1 to the nucleus following influenza infection. Ectopic TRIM32 expression attenuates IAV infection. Conversely, RNAi depletion and knockout of TRIM32 increase susceptibility of tracheal and lung epithelial cells to IAV infection. Reconstitution of trim32-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts with TRIM32, but not a catalytically inactive mutant, restores viral restriction. Furthermore, TRIM32 directly ubiquitinates PB1, leading to PB1 protein degradation and subsequent reduction of polymerase activity. Thus, TRIM32 is an intrinsic IAV restriction factor which senses and targets the PB1 polymerase for ubiquitination and protein degradation. TRIM32 represents a model of intrinsic immunity, in which a host protein directly senses and counters viral infection in a species specific fashion by directly limiting viral replication. PMID:26057645

  20. TRIM32 Senses and Restricts Influenza A Virus by Ubiquitination of PB1 Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Bishi; Wang, Lingyan; Ding, Hao; Schwamborn, Jens C.; Li, Shitao; Dorf, Martin E.

    2015-01-01

    Polymerase basic protein 1 (PB1) is the catalytic core of the influenza A virus (IAV) RNA polymerase complex essential for viral transcription and replication. Understanding the intrinsic mechanisms which block PB1 function could stimulate development of new anti-influenza therapeutics. Affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (AP-MS) was used to identify host factors interacting with PB1. Among PB1 interactors, the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 interacts with PB1 proteins derived from multiple IAV strains. TRIM32 senses IAV infection by interacting with PB1 and translocates with PB1 to the nucleus following influenza infection. Ectopic TRIM32 expression attenuates IAV infection. Conversely, RNAi depletion and knockout of TRIM32 increase susceptibility of tracheal and lung epithelial cells to IAV infection. Reconstitution of trim32-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts with TRIM32, but not a catalytically inactive mutant, restores viral restriction. Furthermore, TRIM32 directly ubiquitinates PB1, leading to PB1 protein degradation and subsequent reduction of polymerase activity. Thus, TRIM32 is an intrinsic IAV restriction factor which senses and targets the PB1 polymerase for ubiquitination and protein degradation. TRIM32 represents a model of intrinsic immunity, in which a host protein directly senses and counters viral infection in a species specific fashion by directly limiting viral replication. PMID:26057645

  1. TRIM39 negatively regulates the NFκB-mediated signaling pathway through stabilization of Cactin.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masanobu; Watanabe, Masashi; Nakamaru, Yuji; Takagi, Dai; Takahashi, Hidehisa; Fukuda, Satoshi; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu

    2016-03-01

    NFκB is one of the central regulators of cell survival, immunity, inflammation, carcinogenesis and organogenesis. The activation of NFκB is strictly regulated by several posttranslational modifications including phosphorylation, neddylation and ubiquitination. Several types of ubiquitination play important roles in multi-step regulations of the NFκB pathway. Some of the tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) proteins functioning as E3 ubiquitin ligases are known to regulate various biological processes such as inflammatory signaling pathways. One of the TRIM family proteins, TRIM39, for which the gene has single nucleotide polymorphisms, has been identified as one of the genetic factors in Behcet's disease. However, the role of TRIM39 in inflammatory signaling had not been fully elucidated. In this study, to elucidate the function of TRIM39 in inflammatory signaling, we performed yeast two-hybrid screening using TRIM39 as a bait and identified Cactin, which has been reported to inhibit NFκB- and TLR-mediated transcriptions. We show that TRIM39 stabilizes Cactin protein and that Cactin is upregulated after TNFα stimulation. TRIM39 knockdown also causes activation of the NFκB signal. These findings suggest that TRIM39 negatively regulates the NFκB signal in collaboration with Cactin induced by inflammatory stimulants such as TNFα. PMID:26363554

  2. Grouper TRIM13 exerts negative regulation of antiviral immune response against nodavirus.

    PubMed

    Huang, Youhua; Yang, Min; Yu, Yepin; Yang, Ying; Zhou, Linli; Huang, Xiaohong; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-08-01

    The tripartite motif (TRIM)-containing proteins have attracted particular attention to their multiple functions in different biological processes. TRIM13, a member of the TRIM family, is a RING domain-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase which plays critical roles in diverse cellular processes including cell death, cancer and antiviral immunity. In this study, a TRIM13 homolog from orange spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides (EcTRIM13) was cloned and characterized. The full-length of EcTRIM13 cDNA encoded a polypeptide of 399 amino acids which shared 81% identity with TRIM13 homolog from large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). Amino acid alignment analysis showed that EcTRIM13 contained conserved RING finger and B-box domain. Expression patterns analysis indicated that EcTRIM13 was abundant in liver, spleen, kidney, intestine and gill. Moreover, the transcript of EcTRIM13 in grouper spleen was differently regulated after injection with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) or polyinosin-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). Under fluorescence microscopy, we observed the tubular structure in wild type EcTRIM13 transfected cells, but the RING domain mutant resulted in the fluorescence distribution was changed and the bright punctate fluorescence was evenly situated throughout the cytoplasm, suggesting that the RING domain was essential for its accurate localization. Overexpression of EcTRIM13 in vitro obviously increased the replication of red spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), and the enhancing effect of EcTRIM13 on virus replication was affected by the RING domain. Furthermore, the ectopic expression of EcTRIM13 not only negatively regulated the interferon promoter activity induced by interferon regulator factor (IRF) 3, IRF7, and melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5 (MDA5), but also decreased the expression of several interferon related factors. In addition, the overexpression of EcTRIM13 also differently regulated the transcription of pro

  3. Retroviral restriction factors TRIM5α: therapeutic strategy to inhibit HIV-1 replication.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Ge, Weiying; Zhan, Peng; De Clercq, Erik; Liu, Xinyong

    2011-01-01

    Tripartite motif protein 5-alpha (TRIM5α) is a cytoplasmic protein that efficiently recognizes the incoming capsid (CA) protein of retroviruses and potently inhibits virus infection in a species-specific manner. Through directly recognizing and interacting with HIV CA, TRIM5α is capable of disrupting the ordered process of viral uncoating, eventually interfering with HIV-1 reverse transcription and virus replication. TRIM5α protein contains four domains: RING domain, B-box 2 domain, coiled-coil domain, and B30.2 domain (SPRY) domain. All of the domains are necessary for efficient retrovirus restriction and the B30.2 domain has been shown to be the determinant of the specificity of restriction. Species-specific innate resistance against viral infections offers novel avenues for antiviral therapeutics. Various mutants of TRIM5α have been described which differently affect the HIV-1 reverse transcription process. This makes the establishment of new and improved models for HIV replication and AIDS pathogenesis by monitoring endogenous TRIM5α an attractive approach. TRIM5α-mediated restriction is modulated by the host protein Cyclophilin A (Cyp A) which could effectively interact with the CA of HIV-1. Here we will review the structure and roles of TRIM5α protein, the interaction between Cyp A and TRIM5α, as well as gene therapy strategies associated with TRIM5α to inhibit HIV-1 infection. PMID:21568899

  4. Photoexcited ZnO nanoparticles with controlled defects as a highly sensitive oxygen sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Taku; Shimizu, Yoshiki; Yasuda, Hidehiro; Ito, Tsuyohito

    2016-07-01

    Conductance of photoexcited ZnO nanoparticles with various defects has been investigated in oxygen. ZnO nanoparticles, which show strong photoluminescence peaks originating from interstitial zinc atom (Zni) and singly charged oxygen vacancy (VO+), show oxygen-pressure-dependent conductance changes caused by photoexcitation. Herein, a model is proposed to simulate the conductance changes.

  5. Oxygen Profile. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooley, John F.

    The oxygen profile procedure is a means of measuring the oxygen concentration at various locations in a basin. By dividing the surface of a basin into sections and then establishing sample points on the surface, at mid-depth, and near the bottom, a waste water treatment plant operator can measure and plot dissolved oxygen data which can be plotted…

  6. Resistance to simian immunodeficiency virus low dose rectal challenge is associated with higher constitutive TRIM5α expression in PBMC

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background At least six host-encoded restriction factors (RFs), APOBEC3G, TRIM5α, tetherin, SAMHD1, schlafen 11, and Mx2 have now been shown to inhibit HIV and/or SIV replication in vitro. To determine their role in vivo in the resistance of macaques to mucosally-acquired SIV, we quantified both pre-exposure (basal) and post-exposure mRNA levels of these RFs, Mx1, and IFNγ in PBMC, lymph nodes, and duodenum of rhesus macaques undergoing weekly low dose rectal exposures to the primary isolate, SIV/DeltaB670. Results Repetitive challenge divided the monkeys into two groups with respect to their susceptibility to infection: highly susceptible (2–3 challenges, 5 monkeys) and poorly susceptible (≥6 challenges, 3 monkeys). Basal RF and Mx1 expression varied among the three tissues examined, with the lowest expression generally detected in duodenal tissues, and the highest observed in PBMC. The one exception was A3G whose basal expression was greatest in lymph nodes. Importantly, significantly higher basal expression of TRIM5α and Mx1 was observed in PBMC of animals more resistant to mucosal infection. Moreover, individual TRIM5α levels were stable throughout a year prior to infection. Post-exposure induction of these genes was also observed after virus appearance in plasma, with elevated levels in PBMC and duodenum transiently occurring 7–10 days post infection. They did not appear to have an effect on control of viremia. Interestingly, minimal to no induction was observed in the resistant animal that became an elite controller. Conclusions These results suggest that constitutively expressed TRIM5α appears to play a greater role in restricting mucosal transmission of SIV than that associated with type I interferon induction following virus entry. Surprisingly, this association was not observed with the other RFs. The higher basal expression of TRIM5α observed in PBMC than in duodenal tissues emphasizes the understated role of the second barrier to systemic

  7. 14 CFR 25.145 - Longitudinal control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Longitudinal control. 25.145 Section 25.145... control. (a) It must be possible, at any point between the trim speed prescribed in § 25.103(b)(6) and..., no change in trim control, or exertion of more than 50 pounds control force (representative of...

  8. Autophagy proteins control goblet cell function by potentiating reactive oxygen species production

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Khushbu K; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Beatty, Wandy L; Head, Richard D; Malvin, Nicole P; Cadwell, Ken; Guan, Jun-Lin; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Akira, Shizuo; Seglen, Per O; Dinauer, Mary C; Virgin, Herbert W; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S

    2013-01-01

    Delivery of granule contents to epithelial surfaces by secretory cells is a critical physiologic process. In the intestine, goblet cells secrete mucus that is required for homeostasis. Autophagy proteins are required for secretion in some cases, though the mechanism and cell biological basis for this requirement remain unknown. We found that in colonic goblet cells, proteins involved in initiation and elongation of autophagosomes were required for efficient mucus secretion. The autophagy protein LC3 localized to intracellular multi-vesicular vacuoles that were consistent with a fusion of autophagosomes and endosomes. Using cultured intestinal epithelial cells, we found that NADPH oxidases localized to and enhanced the formation of these LC3-positive vacuoles. Both autophagy proteins and endosome formation were required for maximal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from NADPH oxidases. Importantly, generation of ROS was critical to control mucin granule accumulation in colonic goblet cells. Thus, autophagy proteins can control secretory function through ROS, which is in part generated by LC3-positive vacuole-associated NADPH oxidases. These findings provide a novel mechanism by which autophagy proteins can control secretion. PMID:24185898

  9. Barley Seed Aging: Genetics behind the Dry Elevated Pressure of Oxygen Aging and Moist Controlled Deterioration

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Manuela; Kodde, Jan; Pistrick, Sibylle; Mascher, Martin; Börner, Andreas; Groot, Steven P. C.

    2016-01-01

    Experimental seed aging approaches intend to mimic seed deterioration processes to achieve a storage interval reduction. Common methods apply higher seed moisture levels and temperatures. In contrast, the “elevated partial pressure of oxygen” (EPPO) approach treats dry seed stored at ambient temperatures with high oxygen pressure. To analyse the genetic background of seed longevity and the effects of seed aging under dry conditions, the EPPO approach was applied to the progeny of the Oregon Wolfe Barley (OWB) mapping population. In comparison to a non-treated control and a control high-pressure nitrogen treatment, EPPO stored seeds showed typical symptoms of aging with a significant reduction of normal seedlings, slower germination, and less total germination. Thereby, the parent Dom (“OWB-D”), carrying dominant alleles, is more sensitive to aging in comparison to the population mean and in most cases to the parent Rec (“OWB-R”), carrying recessive alleles. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses using 2832 markers revealed 65 QTLs, including two major loci for seed vigor on 2H and 7H. QTLs for EPPO tolerance were detected on 3H, 4H, and 5H. An applied controlled deterioration (CD) treatment (aged at higher moisture level and temperature) revealed a tolerance QTL on 5H, indicating that the mechanism of seed deterioration differs in part between EPPO or CD conditions. PMID:27066038

  10. Reactive oxygen species controllable non-thermal helium plasmas for evaluation of plasmid DNA strand breaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young Kim, Jae; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Ballato, John; Cao, Weiguo; Kim, Sung-O.

    2012-11-01

    Non-thermal, oxygen-rich helium plasmas were investigated to achieve an enhanced reactive oxygen species concentration at low voltage driving conditions. A non-thermal plasma device was fabricated based on a theta-shaped tube, and its potential was investigated for use in topological alteration of plasmid DNA. The optical emission spectra of the plasma showed that the oxygen flow affected the plasma properties, even though an oxygen plasma was not produced. The plasmid DNA strand breaks became more significant with the addition of oxygen flow to the helium in a single hollow, theta-shaped tube with other experimental conditions being unchanged.

  11. Growth control of oxygen stoichiometry in homoepitaxial SrTiO3 films by pulsed laser epitaxy in high vacuum

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lee, Ho Nyung; Ambrose Seo, Sung S.; Choi, Woo Seok; Rouleau, Christopher M.

    2016-01-29

    In many transition metal oxides, oxygen stoichiometry is one of the most critical parameters that plays a key role in determining the structural, physical, optical, and electrochemical properties of the material. However, controlling the growth to obtain high quality single crystal films having the right oxygen stoichiometry, especially in a high vacuum environment, has been viewed as a challenge. In this work, we show that, through proper control of the plume kinetic energy, stoichiometric crystalline films can be synthesized without generating oxygen defects even in high vacuum. We use a model homoepitaxial system of SrTiO3 (STO) thin films on singlemore » crystal STO substrates. Physical property measurements indicate that oxygen vacancy generation in high vacuum is strongly influenced by the energetics of the laser plume, and it can be controlled by proper laser beam delivery. Thus, our finding not only provides essential insight into oxygen stoichiometry control in high vacuum for understanding the fundamental properties of STO-based thin films and heterostructures, but it expands the utility of pulsed laser epitaxy of other materials as well.₃« less

  12. Growth control of oxygen stoichiometry in homoepitaxial SrTiO3 films by pulsed laser epitaxy in high vacuum

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho Nyung; Ambrose Seo, Sung S.; Choi, Woo Seok; Rouleau, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    In many transition metal oxides, oxygen stoichiometry is one of the most critical parameters that plays a key role in determining the structural, physical, optical, and electrochemical properties of the material. However, controlling the growth to obtain high quality single crystal films having the right oxygen stoichiometry, especially in a high vacuum environment, has been viewed as a challenge. In this work, we show that, through proper control of the plume kinetic energy, stoichiometric crystalline films can be synthesized without generating oxygen defects even in high vacuum. We use a model homoepitaxial system of SrTiO3 (STO) thin films on single crystal STO substrates. Physical property measurements indicate that oxygen vacancy generation in high vacuum is strongly influenced by the energetics of the laser plume, and it can be controlled by proper laser beam delivery. Therefore, our finding not only provides essential insight into oxygen stoichiometry control in high vacuum for understanding the fundamental properties of STO-based thin films and heterostructures, but expands the utility of pulsed laser epitaxy of other materials as well. PMID:26823119

  13. Uridylation prevents 3′ trimming of oligoadenylated mRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Sement, François Michaël; Ferrier, Emilie; Zuber, Hélène; Merret, Rémy; Alioua, Malek; Deragon, Jean-Marc; Bousquet-Antonelli, Cécile; Lange, Heike; Gagliardi, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    Degradation of mRNAs is usually initiated by deadenylation, the shortening of long poly(A) tails to oligo(A) tails of 12–15 As. Deadenylation leads to decapping and to subsequent 5′ to 3′ degradation by XRN proteins, or alternatively 3′ to 5′ degradation by the exosome. Decapping can also be induced by uridylation as shown for the non-polyadenylated histone mRNAs in humans and for several mRNAs in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Aspergillus nidulans. Here we report a novel role for uridylation in preventing 3′ trimming of oligoadenylated mRNAs in Arabidopsis. We show that oligo(A)-tailed mRNAs are uridylated by the cytosolic UTP:RNA uridylyltransferase URT1 and that URT1 has no major impact on mRNA degradation rates. However, in absence of uridylation, oligo(A) tails are trimmed, indicating that uridylation protects oligoadenylated mRNAs from 3′ ribonucleolytic attacks. This conclusion is further supported by an increase in 3′ truncated transcripts detected in urt1 mutants. We propose that preventing 3′ trimming of oligo(A)-tailed mRNAs by uridylation participates in establishing the 5′ to 3′ directionality of mRNA degradation. Importantly, uridylation prevents 3′ shortening of mRNAs associated with polysomes, suggesting that a key biological function of uridylation is to confer 5′ to 3′ polarity in case of co-translational mRNA decay. PMID:23748567

  14. Isolated resonator gyroscope with isolation trimming using a secondary element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention discloses a resonator gyroscope including an isolated resonator. One or more flexures support the isolated resonator and a baseplate is affixed to the resonator by the flexures. Drive and sense elements are affixed to the baseplate and used to excite the resonator and sense movement of the gyroscope. In addition, at least one secondary element (e.g., another electrode) is affixed to the baseplate and used for trimming isolation of the resonator. The resonator operates such that it transfers substantially no net momentum to the baseplate when the resonator is excited. Typically, the isolated resonator comprises a proof mass and a counterbalancing plate.

  15. Controlled intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species in human mesenchymal stem cells using porphyrin conjugated nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavado, Andrea S.; Chauhan, Veeren M.; Alhaj Zen, Amer; Giuntini, Francesca; Jones, D. Rhodri E.; Boyle, Ross W.; Beeby, Andrew; Chan, Weng C.; Aylott, Jonathan W.

    2015-08-01

    Nanoparticles capable of generating controlled amounts of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), that advance the study of oxidative stress and cellular communication, were synthesized by functionalizing polyacrylamide nanoparticles with zinc(ii) porphyrin photosensitisers. Controlled ROS production was demonstrated in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) through (1) production of nanoparticles functionalized with varying percentages of Zn(ii) porphyrin and (2) modulating the number of doses of excitation light to internalized nanoparticles. hMSCs challenged with nanoparticles functionalized with increasing percentages of Zn(ii) porphyrin and high numbers of irradiations of excitation light were found to generate greater amounts of ROS. A novel dye, which is transformed into fluorescent 7-hydroxy-4-trifluoromethyl-coumarin in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, provided an indirect indicator for cumulative ROS production. The mitochondrial membrane potential was monitored to investigate the destructive effect of increased intracellular ROS production. Flow cytometric analysis of nanoparticle treated hMSCs suggested irradiation with excitation light signalled controlled apoptotic cell death, rather than uncontrolled necrotic cell death. Increased intracellular ROS production did not induce phenotypic changes in hMSC subcultures.Nanoparticles capable of generating controlled amounts of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), that advance the study of oxidative stress and cellular communication, were synthesized by functionalizing polyacrylamide nanoparticles with zinc(ii) porphyrin photosensitisers. Controlled ROS production was demonstrated in human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) through (1) production of nanoparticles functionalized with varying percentages of Zn(ii) porphyrin and (2) modulating the number of doses of excitation light to internalized nanoparticles. hMSCs challenged with nanoparticles functionalized with increasing percentages of Zn

  16. TRIM37 is a new histone H2A ubiquitin ligase and breast cancer oncoprotein.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Sanchita; Gazin, Claude; Chamberlain, Lynn; Ou, Jianhong; Zhu, Xiaochun; Tushir, Jogender S; Virbasius, Ching-Man; Lin, Ling; Zhu, Lihua J; Wajapeyee, Narendra; Green, Michael R

    2014-12-01

    The TRIM37 (also known as MUL) gene is located in the 17q23 chromosomal region, which is amplified in up to ∼ 40% of breast cancers. TRIM37 contains a RING finger domain, a hallmark of E3 ubiquitin ligases, but its protein substrate(s) is unknown. Here we report that TRIM37 mono-ubiquitinates histone H2A, a chromatin modification associated with transcriptional repression. We find that in human breast cancer cell lines containing amplified 17q23, TRIM37 is upregulated and, reciprocally, the major H2A ubiquitin ligase RNF2 (also known as RING1B) is downregulated. Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-chip experiments in 17q23-amplified breast cancer cells identified many genes, including multiple tumour suppressors, whose promoters were bound by TRIM37 and enriched for ubiquitinated H2A. However, unlike RNF2, which is a subunit of polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1), we find that TRIM37 associates with polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). TRIM37, PRC2 and PRC1 are co-bound to specific target genes, resulting in their transcriptional silencing. RNA-interference-mediated knockdown of TRIM37 results in loss of ubiquitinated H2A, dissociation of PRC1 and PRC2 from target promoters, and transcriptional reactivation of silenced genes. Knockdown of TRIM37 in human breast cancer cells containing amplified 17q23 substantially decreases tumour growth in mouse xenografts. Conversely, ectopic expression of TRIM37 renders non-transformed cells tumorigenic. Collectively, our results reveal TRIM37 as an oncogenic H2A ubiquitin ligase that is overexpressed in a subset of breast cancers and promotes transformation by facilitating silencing of tumour suppressors and other genes. PMID:25470042

  17. Mitochondrial stress controls the radiosensitivity of the oxygen effect: Implications for radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Richard B.; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2016-01-01

    It has been more than 60 years since the discovery of the oxygen effect that empirically demonstrates the direct association between cell radiosensitivity and oxygen tension, important parameters in radiotherapy. Yet the mechanisms underlying this principal tenet of radiobiology are poorly understood. Better understanding of the oxygen effect may explain difficulty in eliminating hypoxic tumor cells, a major cause of regrowth after therapy. Our analysis utilizes the Howard-Flanders and Alper formula, which describes the relationship of radiosensitivity with oxygen tension. Here, we assign and qualitatively assess the relative contributions of two important mechanisms. The first mechanism involves the emission of reactive oxygen species from the mitochondrial electron transport chain, which increases with oxygen tension. The second mechanism is related to an energy and repair deficit, which increases with hypoxia. Following a radiation exposure, the uncoupling of the oxidative phosphorylation system (proton leak) in mitochondria lowers the emission of reactive oxygen species which has implications for fractionated radiotherapy, particularly of hypoxic tumors. Our analysis shows that, in oxygenated tumor and normal cells, mitochondria, rather than the nucleus, are the primary loci of radiotherapy effects, especially for low linear energy transfer radiation. Therefore, the oxygen effect can be explained by radiation-induced effects in mitochondria that generate reactive oxygen species, which in turn indirectly target nuclear DNA. PMID:26894978

  18. Controllable generation of reactive oxygen species by femtosecond-laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Wei; He, Hao Wang, Yintao; Wang, Yisen; Hu, Minglie; Wang, Chingyue

    2014-02-24

    Femtosecond lasers have been advancing Biophotonics research in the past two decades with multiphoton microscopy, microsurgery, and photodynamic therapy. Nevertheless, laser irradiation is identified to bring photodamage to cells via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation with unclear mechanism. Meanwhile, currently in biological researches, there is no effective method to provide controllable ROS production precisely, which originally is leaked from mitochondria during respiration and plays a key role in a lot of important cellular processes and cellular signaling pathways. In this study, we show the process of how the tightly focused femtosecond-laser induces ROS generation solely in mitochondria at the very beginning and then release to cytosol if the stimulus is intense enough. At certain weak power levels, the laser pulses induce merely moderate Ca{sup 2+} release but this is necessary for the laser to generate ROS in mitochondria. Cellular original ROS are also involved with a small contribution. When the power is above a threshold, ROS are then released to cytosol, indicating photodamage overwhelming cellular repair ability. The mechanisms in those two cases are quite different. Those results clarify parts of the mechanism in laser-induced ROS generation. Hence, it is possible to further this optical scheme to provide controllable ROS generation for ROS-related biological researches including mitochondrial diseases and aging.

  19. Oxygen-enabled control of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction in ultra-thin magnetic films

    PubMed Central

    Belabbes, Abderrezak; Bihlmayer, Gustav; Blügel, Stefan; Manchon, Aurélien

    2016-01-01

    The search for chiral magnetic textures in systems lacking spatial inversion symmetry has attracted a massive amount of interest in the recent years with the real space observation of novel exotic magnetic phases such as skyrmions lattices, but also domain walls and spin spirals with a defined chirality. The electrical control of these textures offers thrilling perspectives in terms of fast and robust ultrahigh density data manipulation. A powerful ingredient commonly used to stabilize chiral magnetic states is the so-called Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) arising from spin-orbit coupling in inversion asymmetric magnets. Such a large antisymmetric exchange has been obtained at interfaces between heavy metals and transition metal ferromagnets, resulting in spin spirals and nanoskyrmion lattices. Here, using relativistic first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that the magnitude and sign of DMI can be entirely controlled by tuning the oxygen coverage of the magnetic film, therefore enabling the smart design of chiral magnetism in ultra-thin films. We anticipate that these results extend to other electronegative ions and suggest the possibility of electrical tuning of exotic magnetic phases. PMID:27103448

  20. Room temperature alcohol sensing by oxygen vacancy controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotube array

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, A.; Dutta, K.; Bhowmik, B.; Bhattacharyya, P.; Chattopadhyay, P. P.

    2014-08-25

    Oxygen vacancy (OV) controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, having diameters of 50–70 nm and lengths of 200–250 nm, were synthesized by electrochemical anodization in the mixed electrolyte comprising NH{sub 4}F and ethylene glycol with selective H{sub 2}O content. The structural evolution of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Variation in the formation of OVs with the variation of the structure of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been evaluated by photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sensor characteristics were correlated to the variation of the amount of induced OVs in the nanotubes. The efficient room temperature sensing achieved by the control of OVs of TiO{sub 2} nanotube array has paved the way for developing fast responding alcohol sensor with corresponding response magnitude of 60.2%, 45.3%, and 36.5% towards methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, respectively.

  1. Controllable generation of reactive oxygen species by femtosecond-laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wei; He, Hao; Wang, Yintao; Wang, Yisen; Hu, Minglie; Wang, Chingyue

    2014-02-01

    Femtosecond lasers have been advancing Biophotonics research in the past two decades with multiphoton microscopy, microsurgery, and photodynamic therapy. Nevertheless, laser irradiation is identified to bring photodamage to cells via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation with unclear mechanism. Meanwhile, currently in biological researches, there is no effective method to provide controllable ROS production precisely, which originally is leaked from mitochondria during respiration and plays a key role in a lot of important cellular processes and cellular signaling pathways. In this study, we show the process of how the tightly focused femtosecond-laser induces ROS generation solely in mitochondria at the very beginning and then release to cytosol if the stimulus is intense enough. At certain weak power levels, the laser pulses induce merely moderate Ca2+ release but this is necessary for the laser to generate ROS in mitochondria. Cellular original ROS are also involved with a small contribution. When the power is above a threshold, ROS are then released to cytosol, indicating photodamage overwhelming cellular repair ability. The mechanisms in those two cases are quite different. Those results clarify parts of the mechanism in laser-induced ROS generation. Hence, it is possible to further this optical scheme to provide controllable ROS generation for ROS-related biological researches including mitochondrial diseases and aging.

  2. Raising and controlling study of dissolved oxygen concentration in closed-type aeration tank.

    PubMed

    Chen, C K; Lo, S L

    2005-07-01

    This study investigated the promotion and control of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of the closed-type aeration tank via practical experiments in the wastewater treatment system of a 5-star hotel in Taipei. As with limited and treasured space in Taiwan, before the completion of the sewer system construction in cities, to utilize the mat foundation under large buildings as the space of sewage treatment plant still has been one of the alternatives of those sewage treatments. However, aeration tanks constructed in the mat foundation of buildings have smaller effective water depth, which will cause a lower total transfer amount of DO. Controlling the total exhaust gas flow rate can increase the pressure on such closed-type aeration tanks. The DO concentration thus may increase according to Henry's Law. Furthermore, it may enable operators to adjust the DO concentration of the aeration tank more precisely and thus sustain optimal operating conditions in these treatment facilities. Practical experiments indicated that the DO concentration of aeration tank maintains an average of 3.8 mg l(-1), obtaining the optimum operating conditions. The efficiency of the biological treatment facilities in the mat foundation could be markedly improved. PMID:16080335

  3. Graphene functionalization with nitrogen and oxygen: controlled modification of the electronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brommer, Peter; Marsden, Alexander; Wilson, Neil; Bell, Gavin; Quigley, David

    2014-03-01

    For many applications it is essential to modify the electronic properties of graphene in a controlled fashion. This can be achieved via oxygen and nitrogen functionalization in ultra-high vacuum, leading to a system in which electronic and structural properties can be systematically studied. Here we present insights from DFT calculations on functionalized graphene systems, such as the low-energy configurations and simulated transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, binding energies and effective band structures (EBS) of the N and O decorated graphene sheets. We directly compare our results with experiments on CVD grown graphene. Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES - performed at the Antares beamline of Synchrotron SOLEIL, France) resolves the band structure changes on functionalization, whilst the simulated TEM images provide feedback for the interpretation of low-voltage aberration-corrected TEM measurements. Combined, the computational and experimental results have important implications for the manipulation of electronic properties in graphene by controlled functionalization. We acknowledge funding by the EPSRC through grant number EP/H00341X/1.

  4. Oxygen-enabled control of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction in ultra-thin magnetic films.

    PubMed

    Belabbes, Abderrezak; Bihlmayer, Gustav; Blügel, Stefan; Manchon, Aurélien

    2016-01-01

    The search for chiral magnetic textures in systems lacking spatial inversion symmetry has attracted a massive amount of interest in the recent years with the real space observation of novel exotic magnetic phases such as skyrmions lattices, but also domain walls and spin spirals with a defined chirality. The electrical control of these textures offers thrilling perspectives in terms of fast and robust ultrahigh density data manipulation. A powerful ingredient commonly used to stabilize chiral magnetic states is the so-called Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) arising from spin-orbit coupling in inversion asymmetric magnets. Such a large antisymmetric exchange has been obtained at interfaces between heavy metals and transition metal ferromagnets, resulting in spin spirals and nanoskyrmion lattices. Here, using relativistic first-principles calculations, we demonstrate that the magnitude and sign of DMI can be entirely controlled by tuning the oxygen coverage of the magnetic film, therefore enabling the smart design of chiral magnetism in ultra-thin films. We anticipate that these results extend to other electronegative ions and suggest the possibility of electrical tuning of exotic magnetic phases. PMID:27103448

  5. Attosecond Coherent Control of the Photo-Dissociation of Oxygen Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturm, Felix; Ray, Dipanwita; Wright, Travis; Shivaram, Niranjan; Bocharova, Irina; Slaughter, Daniel; Ranitovic, Predrag; Belkacem, Ali; Weber, Thorsten

    2016-05-01

    Attosecond Coherent Control has emerged in recent years as a technique to manipulate the absorption and ionization in atoms as well as the dissociation of molecules on an attosecond time scale. Single attosecond pulses and attosecond pulse trains (APTs) can coherently excite multiple electronic states. The electronic and nuclear wave packets can then be coupled with a second pulse forming multiple interfering quantum pathways. We have built a high flux extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light source delivering APTs based on HHG that allows to selectively excite neutral and ion states in molecules. Our beamline provides spectral selectivity and attosecond interferometric control of the pulses. In the study presented here, we use APTs, generated by High Harmonic Generation in a high flux extreme ultraviolet light source, to ionize highly excited states of oxygen molecules. We identify the ionization/dissociation pathways revealing vibrational structure with ultra-high resolution ion 3D-momentum imaging spectroscopy. Furthermore, we introduce a delay between IR pulses and XUV/IR pulses to constructively or destructively interfere the ionization and dissociation pathways, thus, enabling the manipulation of both the O2+and the O+ ion yields with attosecond precision. Supported by DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  6. Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts

    DOEpatents

    Erickson, D.C.

    1985-06-04

    A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power. 1 fig.

  7. Large deployable antenna reflector trimming mechanism (LDA-RTM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domingo, Miguel; Vázquez, Jorge

    2003-09-01

    Future projects dealing with radars or telecommunications require deployable antennas. ESA Contract no. 15230 for the "Development of Large Deployable Antenna Reflector for Advanced Mobile Communication" has the objective of developing this critical technology in Europe for the commercial market. The Reflector Trimming Mechanism (RTM) allows the fine adjustment of the huge Reflector Dish (12 meters projected aperture diameter) in such a way to recover the mispointing induced by all sources inclusive of the S/C, the Antenna Arm, the feed and the Reflector. The RTM design is modular and allows its implementation in different reflector types and dimensions changing the distance between movable and fixed points and the lateral stiffener. In each linear actuator, it is implemented a device which is able to decouple the top and the bottom part. This is required because of imposed displacements of the interfaces during launch. The decoupling device is latched before starting normal operating condition. It is actuated with the same stepper motor used for trimming. The RTM has been designed to be operated with the electronic box already developed for moving the Antenna Pointing Mechanism in Hispasat 1-C.

  8. Quasi-Linear Parameter Varying Representation of General Aircraft Dynamics Over Non-Trim Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jong-Yeob

    2007-01-01

    For applying linear parameter varying (LPV) control synthesis and analysis to a nonlinear system, it is required that a nonlinear system be represented in the form of an LPV model. In this paper, a new representation method is developed to construct an LPV model from a nonlinear mathematical model without the restriction that an operating point must be in the neighborhood of equilibrium points. An LPV model constructed by the new method preserves local stabilities of the original nonlinear system at "frozen" scheduling parameters and also represents the original nonlinear dynamics of a system over a non-trim region. An LPV model of the motion of FASER (Free-flying Aircraft for Subscale Experimental Research) is constructed by the new method.

  9. TRIM9 short isoform preferentially promotes DNA and RNA virus-induced production of type I interferon by recruiting GSK3β to TBK1.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yunfei; Liu, Qingxiang; Tian, Shuo; Xie, Weihong; Cui, Jun; Wang, Rong-Fu

    2016-05-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) is an important component of antiviral innate immune signaling mediated by viral DNA and RNA recognition by the DNA sensor cGAS and RNA sensors RIG-I and MDA5. Activation of these DNA and RNA sensors leads to the recruitment of STING and MAVS, respectively, and converges on TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) signaling for subsequent phosphorylation of IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). However, the mechanisms that control TBK1 activation are still poorly defined. Here, we identify tripartite motif 9 short isoform (TRIM9s) as a positive regulator in type I IFN signaling. Upon viral infection, TRIM9s undergoes Lys-63-linked auto-polyubiquitination and serves as a platform to bridge GSK3β to TBK1, leading to the activation of IRF3 signaling. Interestingly, we found that TRIM9s selectively inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but enhances the expression of type I IFNs as well as IFN-stimulated genes, in response to viral infection. Our findings reveal novel dual functions of TRIM9s in antiviral immunity, which serve to balance pro-inflammatory response and production of type I IFNs. PMID:26915459

  10. Effects of Contamination, UV Radiation, and Atomic Oxygen on ISS Thermal Control Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visentine, Jim; Finckenor, Miria; Zwiener, Jim; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Thermal control surfaces on the International Space Station (ISS) have been tailored for optimum optical properties. The space environment, particularly contamination, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and atomic oxygen (AO) may have a detrimental effect on these optical properties. These effects must be quantified for modeling and planning. Also of interest was the effect of porosity on the reaction to simulated space environment. Five materials were chosen for this study based on their use on ISS. The thermal control materials were Z-93 white coating, silverized Teflon, chromic acid anodized aluminum, sulfuric acid anodized aluminum, and 7075-T6 aluminum. Some of the samples were exposed to RTV 560 silicone; others were exposed to Tefzel offgassing products. Two samples of Z-93 were not exposed to contamination as clean "controls". VUV radiation was used to photo-fix the contaminant to the material surface, then the samples were exposed to AO. All samples were exposed to 1000 equivalent sun-hours (ESH) of vacuum ultraviolet radiation (VUV) at the AZ Technology facility and a minimum of 1.5 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm of AO at Marshall Space Flight Center. Half of the samples were exposed to an additional 2000 ESH of VUV at Huntington Beach prior to sent to AZ Technology. Darkening of the Z-93 white coating was noted after VUV exposure. AO exposure did bleach the Z-93 but not back to its original brightness. Solar absorptance curves show the degradation due to contamination and VUV and the recovery with AO exposure. More bleaching was noted on the Tefzel-contaminated samples than with the RTV-contaminated samples.

  11. Kinetic control of oxygen consumption during contractions in self-perfused skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Wüst, Rob C I; Grassi, Bruno; Hogan, Michael C; Howlett, Richard A; Gladden, L Bruce; Rossiter, Harry B

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Fast kinetics of muscle oxygen consumption () is characteristic of effective physiological systems integration. The mechanism of kinetic control in vivo is equivocal as measurements are complicated by the twin difficulties of making high-frequency direct measurements of and intramuscular metabolites, and in attaining high [ADP]; complexities that can be overcome utilising highly aerobic canine muscle for the investigation of the transition from rest to contractions at maximal . Isometric tetanic contractions of the gastrocnemius complex of six anaesthetised, ventilated dogs were elicited via sciatic nerve stimulation (50 Hz; 200 ms duration; 1 contraction s−1). Muscle and lactate efflux were determined from direct Fick measurements. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest and every ∼10 s during the transient and analysed for [phosphates], [lactate] and pH. The temporal vs.[PCr] and [ADP] relationships were not well fitted by linear or classical hyperbolic models (respectively), due to the high sensitivity of to metabolic perturbations early in the transient. The time course of this apparent sensitisation was closely aligned to that of ATP turnover, which was lower in the first ∼25 s of contractions compared to the steady state. These findings provide the first direct measurements of skeletal muscle and [PCr] in the non-steady state, and suggest that simple phosphate feedback models (which are adequate for steady-state observations in vitro) are not sufficient to explain the dynamic control of in situ. Rather an allosteric or ‘parallel activation’ mechanism of energy consuming and producing processes is required to explain the kinetic control of in mammalian skeletal muscle. PMID:21690197

  12. 46 CFR 116.422 - Ceilings, linings, trim, interior finish and decorations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ceilings, linings, trim, interior finish and decorations... PASSENGERS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Fire Protection § 116.422 Ceilings, linings, trim, interior finish... Commandant. (b) Bulkheads, linings and ceilings may be covered by a combustible interior finish provided...

  13. Object Trimming: When Masking Dots Alter Rather than Replace Target Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahan, Todd A.; Enns, James T.

    2010-01-01

    Five experiments demonstrate that when dots appear beside a briefly presented target object, and persist on view longer than the target, the flanked object is perceptually altered by the dots. Three methods are used to explore this "object trimming effect". Experiments 1-3 assess participants' conscious reports of trimmed digits, Experiment 4 uses…

  14. Primate TRIM5 proteins form hexagonal nets on HIV-1 capsids.

    PubMed

    Li, Yen-Li; Chandrasekaran, Viswanathan; Carter, Stephen D; Woodward, Cora L; Christensen, Devin E; Dryden, Kelly A; Pornillos, Owen; Yeager, Mark; Ganser-Pornillos, Barbie K; Jensen, Grant J; Sundquist, Wesley I

    2016-01-01

    TRIM5 proteins are restriction factors that block retroviral infections by binding viral capsids and preventing reverse transcription. Capsid recognition is mediated by C-terminal domains on TRIM5α (SPRY) or TRIMCyp (cyclophilin A), which interact weakly with capsids. Efficient capsid recognition also requires the conserved N-terminal tripartite motifs (TRIM), which mediate oligomerization and create avidity effects. To characterize how TRIM5 proteins recognize viral capsids, we developed methods for isolating native recombinant TRIM5 proteins and purifying stable HIV-1 capsids. Biochemical and EM analyses revealed that TRIM5 proteins assembled into hexagonal nets, both alone and on capsid surfaces. These nets comprised open hexameric rings, with the SPRY domains centered on the edges and the B-box and RING domains at the vertices. Thus, the principles of hexagonal TRIM5 assembly and capsid pattern recognition are conserved across primates, allowing TRIM5 assemblies to maintain the conformational plasticity necessary to recognize divergent and pleomorphic retroviral capsids. PMID:27253068

  15. Primate TRIM5 proteins form hexagonal nets on HIV-1 capsids

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yen-Li; Chandrasekaran, Viswanathan; Carter, Stephen D; Woodward, Cora L; Christensen, Devin E; Dryden, Kelly A; Pornillos, Owen; Yeager, Mark; Ganser-Pornillos, Barbie K; Jensen, Grant J; Sundquist, Wesley I

    2016-01-01

    TRIM5 proteins are restriction factors that block retroviral infections by binding viral capsids and preventing reverse transcription. Capsid recognition is mediated by C-terminal domains on TRIM5α (SPRY) or TRIMCyp (cyclophilin A), which interact weakly with capsids. Efficient capsid recognition also requires the conserved N-terminal tripartite motifs (TRIM), which mediate oligomerization and create avidity effects. To characterize how TRIM5 proteins recognize viral capsids, we developed methods for isolating native recombinant TRIM5 proteins and purifying stable HIV-1 capsids. Biochemical and EM analyses revealed that TRIM5 proteins assembled into hexagonal nets, both alone and on capsid surfaces. These nets comprised open hexameric rings, with the SPRY domains centered on the edges and the B-box and RING domains at the vertices. Thus, the principles of hexagonal TRIM5 assembly and capsid pattern recognition are conserved across primates, allowing TRIM5 assemblies to maintain the conformational plasticity necessary to recognize divergent and pleomorphic retroviral capsids. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16269.001 PMID:27253068

  16. TRIM59 is upregulated and promotes cell proliferation and migration in human osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinqian; Xing, Dan; Li, Zheng; Shen, Jianxiong; Zhao, Hong; Li, Shugang

    2016-06-01

    Osteosarcoma is a prevalent type of cancer and has a high metastatic ability, particularly for metastasis to the lungs. Effective treatment strategies have improved, however, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying the onset of this malignancy remains to be fully elucidated. The current study investigated the role of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family protein TRIM59 in osteosarcoma growth and metastasis. It was identified that TRIM59 was overexpressed in clinical osteosarcoma tissues and cultured osteosarcoma cell lines. In addition, the MTT assay demonstrated that in U2OS and MG63 cells, knockdown of TRIM59 by specific siRNA inhibited proliferation, whereas overexpression of TRIM59 promoted cell proliferation. Furthermore, overexpression of TRIM59 significantly increased the U2OS cell migrative and invasive abilities in a Transwell chamber assay. In addition, TRIM59 was able to negatively regulate the protein levels of P53 without significantly affecting the mRNA levels in U2OS and MG63 cells. These data suggest the oncogenic abilities of TRIM59 in osteosarcoma, which promote osteosarcoma cell proliferation, migration and invasion. PMID:27121462

  17. TRIM72 is required for effective repair of alveolar epithelial cell wounding

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong Chul; Kellett, Thomas; Wang, Shaohua; Nishi, Miyuki; Nagre, Nagaraja; Zhou, Beiyun; Flodby, Per; Shilo, Konstantin; Ghadiali, Samir N.; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Hubmayr, Rolf D.

    2014-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms for lung cell repair are largely unknown. Previous studies identified tripartite motif protein 72 (TRIM72) from striated muscle and linked its function to tissue repair. In this study, we characterized TRIM72 expression in lung tissues and investigated the role of TRIM72 in repair of alveolar epithelial cells. In vivo injury of lung cells was introduced by high tidal volume ventilation, and repair-defective cells were labeled with postinjury administration of propidium iodide. Primary alveolar epithelial cells were isolated and membrane wounding and repair were labeled separately. Our results show that absence of TRIM72 increases susceptibility to deformation-induced lung injury whereas TRIM72 overexpression is protective. In vitro cell wounding assay revealed that TRIM72 protects alveolar epithelial cells through promoting repair rather than increasing resistance to injury. The repair function of TRIM72 in lung cells is further linked to caveolin 1. These data suggest an essential role for TRIM72 in repair of alveolar epithelial cells under plasma membrane stress failure. PMID:25106429

  18. Structural insight into HIV-1 capsid recognition by rhesus TRIM

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Haitao; Ji, Xiaoyun; Zhao, Gongpu; Ning, Jiying; Zhao, Qi; Aiken, Christopher; Gronenborn, Angela M.; Zhang, Peijun; Xiong, Yong

    2012-01-01

    Tripartite motif protein isoform 5 alpha (TRIM5α) is a potent antiviral protein that restricts infection by HIV-1 and other retroviruses. TRIM5α recognizes the lattice of the retrovirus capsid through its B30.2 (PRY/SPRY) domain in a species-specific manner. Upon binding, TRIM5α induces premature disassembly of the viral capsid and activates the downstream innate immune response. We have determined the crystal structure of the rhesus TRIM5α PRY/SPRY domain that reveals essential features for capsid binding. Combined cryo-electron microscopy and biochemical data show that the monomeric rhesus TRIM5α PRY/SPRY, but not the human TRIM5α PRY/SPRY, can bind to HIV-1 capsid protein assemblies without causing disruption of the capsid. This suggests that the PRY/SPRY domain alone constitutes an important pattern-sensing component of TRIM5α that is capable of interacting with viral capsids of different curvatures. Our results provide molecular insights into the mechanisms of TRIM5α-mediated retroviral restriction. PMID:23091002

  19. 16 CFR 300.23 - Linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings and facings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings and facings. (a) In labeling or marking garments or articles of... facings of such garments or articles of apparel shall be given and shall be set forth separately and..., paddings, stiffening, trimmings or facings are customarily made. (b) In the case of garments which...

  20. 16 CFR 300.23 - Linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings and facings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings and facings. (a) In labeling or marking garments or articles of... facings of such garments or articles of apparel shall be given and shall be set forth separately and..., paddings, stiffening, trimmings or facings are customarily made. (b) In the case of garments which...

  1. 16 CFR 300.23 - Linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings and facings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings and facings. (a) In labeling or marking garments or articles of... facings of such garments or articles of apparel shall be given and shall be set forth separately and..., paddings, stiffening, trimmings or facings are customarily made. (b) In the case of garments which...

  2. 16 CFR 300.23 - Linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings and facings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings and facings. (a) In labeling or marking garments or articles of... facings of such garments or articles of apparel shall be given and shall be set forth separately and..., paddings, stiffening, trimmings or facings are customarily made. (b) In the case of garments which...

  3. 16 CFR 300.23 - Linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings and facings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Linings, paddings, stiffening, trimmings and facings. (a) In labeling or marking garments or articles of... facings of such garments or articles of apparel shall be given and shall be set forth separately and..., paddings, stiffening, trimmings or facings are customarily made. (b) In the case of garments which...

  4. HARD RED SPRING WHEAT / C-TRIM 20 BREAD: FORMULATION, PROCESSING AND TEXTURE ANALYSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    C-TRIM, a beta-glucan-rich fraction, was added to Hard Red Spring wheat (HRSW) flour in order to increase soluble fiber content of bread to a minimum of 0.75 g / bread serving, the minimum required for health claim as established by the FDA. Two blends FGT1 (flour, 25% gluten, and 17% C-TRIM) and F...

  5. Effect of supplemental oxygen 80 % on post-tonsillectomy nausea and vomiting: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Izadi, Poopak; Delavar, Parvin; Yarmohammadi, Mohammad Ebrahim; Daneshmandan, Naimeh; Sadrameli, Maryam

    2016-05-01

    Nausea and vomiting are two of the most common complications of tonsillectomy in children. Administration of supplemental 80 % oxygen during surgery reduces the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. We aimed to test the efficacy of supplemental 80 % oxygen during tonsillectomy on postoperative nausea and vomiting. In a randomized controlled trial in Shahid Mostafa Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, 102 children scheduled for tonsillectomy (±adenoidectomy) under general anesthesia were divided randomly in two groups according to percent of administered oxygen (group 1:30 % oxygen, group 2:80 % oxygen). The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting were assessed and compared in 0-2, 2-6 and 6-24 h after surgery. Incidence of post-tonsillectomy nausea and vomiting after 2, 2-6, and 6-24 h was 13.72, 1.96 and 1.96 % for group 1 and 3.92, 0 and 1.96 % in group 2, respectively. We found no statistically significant difference between two groups (P = 0.08) but 80 % oxygen was beneficial for reducing postoperative nausea and vomiting in the first 2 h after surgery in group 2. PMID:26677853

  6. TRIM31 is downregulated in non-small cell lung cancer and serves as a potential tumor suppressor.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Yue; Bai, Xue; Peng, Yang; He, Ping

    2014-06-01

    The present study aims to investigate expression pattern and biological roles of TRIM31 in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We examined TRIM31 expression in 116 NSCLC tissues and 20 corresponding normal lung tissues by immumohistochemistry. We found TRIM31 downregulation in 47 out of 116 (40.5 %) cancer samples, which correlated with tumor status (p=0.0132), advanced p-TNM stage (p=0.001), and nodal metastasis (p=0.0382). TRIM31 expression was lower in lung cancer cell lines than normal bronchial cell line HBE. Transfection of TRIM31 plasmid was performed in H157 and H1299 cells. TRIM31 overexpression inhibited cell growth rate and colony formation ability in both cell lines. In addition, expression of cell cycle regulator cyclin D1 and cyclin E were decreased after TRIM31 transfection. In conclusion, TRIM31 might serve as a tumor suppressor in non-small cell lung cancer. PMID:24566900

  7. Trim37-deficient mice recapitulate several features of the multi-organ disorder Mulibrey nanism

    PubMed Central

    Kettunen, Kaisa M.; Karikoski, Riitta; Hämäläinen, Riikka H.; Toivonen, Teija T.; Antonenkov, Vasily D.; Kulesskaya, Natalia; Voikar, Vootele; Hölttä-Vuori, Maarit; Ikonen, Elina; Sainio, Kirsi; Jalanko, Anu; Karlberg, Susann; Karlberg, Niklas; Lipsanen-Nyman, Marita; Toppari, Jorma; Jauhiainen, Matti; Hiltunen, J. Kalervo; Jalanko, Hannu; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mulibrey nanism (MUL) is a rare autosomal recessive multi-organ disorder characterized by severe prenatal-onset growth failure, infertility, cardiopathy, risk for tumors, fatty liver, and type 2 diabetes. MUL is caused by loss-of-function mutations in TRIM37, which encodes an E3 ubiquitin ligase belonging to the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family and having both peroxisomal and nuclear localization. We describe a congenic Trim37 knock-out mouse (Trim37−/−) model for MUL. Trim37−/− mice were viable and had normal weight development until approximately 12 months of age, after which they started to manifest increasing problems in wellbeing and weight loss. Assessment of skeletal parameters with computer tomography revealed significantly smaller skull size, but no difference in the lengths of long bones in Trim37−/− mice as compared with wild-type. Both male and female Trim37−/− mice were infertile, the gonads showing germ cell aplasia, hilus and Leydig cell hyperplasia and accumulation of lipids in and around Leydig cells. Male Trim37−/− mice had elevated levels of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones, but maintained normal levels of testosterone. Six-month-old Trim37−/− mice had elevated fasting blood glucose and low fasting serum insulin levels. At 1.5 years Trim37−/− mice showed non-compaction cardiomyopathy, hepatomegaly, fatty liver and various tumors. The amount and morphology of liver peroxisomes seemed normal in Trim37−/− mice. The most consistently seen phenotypes in Trim37−/− mice were infertility and the associated hormonal findings, whereas there was more variability in the other phenotypes observed. Trim37−/− mice recapitulate several features of the human MUL disease and thus provide a good model to study disease pathogenesis related to TRIM37 deficiency, including infertility, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cardiomyopathy and tumorigenesis. PMID:27044324

  8. Genetic parameters for claw disorders and the effect of preselecting cows for trimming.

    PubMed

    van der Spek, D; van Arendonk, J A M; Vallée, A A A; Bovenhuis, H

    2013-09-01

    Claw disorders are important traits relevant to dairy cattle breeding from an economical and welfare point of view. Selection for reduced claw disorders can be based on hoof trimmer records. Typically, not all cows in a herd are trimmed. Our objectives were to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations for claw disorders and investigate the effect of selecting cows for trimming. The data set contained 50,238 cows, of which 20,474 cows had at least one claw trimming record, with a total of 29,994 records. Six claw trimmers scored 14 different claw disorders: abscess (AB), corkscrew claw (CC), (inter-)digital dermatitis or heel erosion (DER), double sole (DS), hardship groove (HG), interdigital hyperplasia (IH), interdigital phlegmon (IP), sand crack (SC), super-foul (SF), sole hemorrhage (SH), sole injury (SI), sole ulcer (SU), white line separation (WLS), yellow discoloration of the sole (YD), and a combined claw disorder trait. Frequencies of the claw disorders for trimmed cows ranged from 0.1% (CC, YD, HG) to 23.8% (DER). More than half of the cows scored had at least one claw disorder. Heritability on the observed scale ranged from 0.02 (DS, SH) to 0.14 (IH) and on the underlying scale from 0.05 to 0.43 in trimmed cows. Genetic correlations between laminitis-related claw disorders were moderate to high, and the same was found for hygiene-related claw disorders. The effect of selecting cows for trimming was first investigated by including untrimmed cows in the analyses and assuming they were not affected by claw disorders. Heritabilities on the underlying scale showed only minor changes. Second, different subsets of the data were created based on the percentage of trimmed cows in the herd. Heritabilities for IH, DER, and SU tended to decrease when a higher percentage of cows in the herd were trimmed. Finally, a bivariate model with a claw disorder and the trait "trimming status" was used, but heritabilities were similar. Heritability for trimming status was

  9. Fish TRIM8 exerts antiviral roles through regulation of the proinflammatory factors and interferon signaling.

    PubMed

    Huang, Youhua; Yu, Yepin; Yang, Ying; Yang, Min; Zhou, Linli; Huang, Xiaohong; Qin, Qiwei

    2016-07-01

    The tripartite motif (TRIM)-containing proteins usually exert important regulatory roles during multiple biological processes. TRIM8 has been demonstrated to be a RING domain-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase which plays critical roles in inflammation and cancer. In this study, a TRIM8 homolog from grouper, Epinephelus coioides (EcTRIM8) was cloned, and its effects on fish virus replication were investigated. The full-length EcTRIM8 cDNA encoded a polypeptide of 568 amino acids with 92% identity to TRIM8 homolog from large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). Sequence alignment analysis indicated that EcTRIM8 contained conserved RING finger, B-box and coiled-coil domain. Expression patterns analysis showed that EcTRIM8 was predominant in kidney, gill, fin, liver, spleen and brain. After challenging with Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) or polyinosin-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C), the EcTRIM8 transcript was significantly increased at the early stage of injection. Under fluorescence microscopy, we observed different distribution patterns of EcTRIM8 in grouper spleen (GS) cells, including punctate fluorescence evenly situated throughout the cytoplasm and bright aggregates. The ectopic expression of EcTRIM8 in vitro significantly inhibited the replication of SGIV and red spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV), evidenced by the obvious reduction in the severity of cytopathic effect (CPE) and the significant decrease in viral gene transcription and protein synthesis. Moreover, the transcription of the proinflammatory factors and interferon related immune factors were differently regulated by EcTRIM8 during SGIV or RGNNV infection. In addition, overexpression of EcTRIM8 significantly increased the transcription of interferon regulator factor 3 (IRF3) and IRF7, and enhanced IRF3 or IRF7 induced interferon-stimulated response element (ISRE) promoter activity. Together, our results firstly demonstrated that fish TRIM8 could exert antiviral function through the

  10. Advances in postharvest pest control on perishable commodities using ultralow oxygen treatment and low temperature phosphine funigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent research in postharvest pest control on fresh fruits and vegetables for export to markets have resulted in promising ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments and low temperature phosphine fumigation treatments for a variety of pests on different commodities. Lettuce aphid (Nasonovia ribisnigri), wes...

  11. Tripartite Motif (TRIM) 12c, a Mouse Homolog of TRIM5, Is a Ubiquitin Ligase That Stimulates Type I IFN and NF-κB Pathways along with TNFR-Associated Factor 6.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tsung-Hsien; Yoshimi, Ryusuke; Ozato, Keiko

    2015-12-01

    Tripartite motif (TRIM) protein TRIM5 of the primate species restricts replication of HIV and other retroviruses. Whereas primates have a single TRIM5 gene, the corresponding locus in the mouse has expanded during evolution, now containing more than eight related genes. Owing to the complexity of the genomic organization, a mouse homolog of TRIM5 has not been fully studied thus far. In the present study, we report that Trim12c (formerly Trim12-2) encodes a TRIM5-like protein with a ubiquitin ligase activity. Similar to the primate TRIM5, TRIM12c is expressed in the cytoplasm as a punctate structure and induced upon IFN and pathogen stimulation in macrophages and dendritic cells. We show that TRIM12c interacts with TRAF6, a key protein in the pathogen recognition receptor signaling, and reciprocally enhances their ubiquitination, leading to cooperative activation of IFN and NF-κB pathways. This study identifies TRIM12c as a mouse TRIM5 equivalent, critical for host innate immunity. PMID:26503954

  12. Edge Fracture Prediction ofTraditional and Advanced Trimming Processes for AA6111-T4 Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Xiaohua; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Sun, Xin; Golovashchenko, Segey F.

    2014-02-15

    This work examines the traditional and advanced trimming of AA6111-T4 aluminum sheets with finite element simulations. The Rice-Tracy damage model is used for the simulation with damage parameters estimated from experimental observation of grain aspect ratio near the fracture surface of trimmed parts. Fine meshes at the shearing zone, adaptive meshing, and adaptive contact techniques are used to accurately capture the contact interactions between the sharp corner of the trimming tools and the blank to be trimmed. To the knowledge of the authors, these are the first trimming simulations that can predict the effects of shearing clearance on burr heights with quantitative accuracy for AA6111-T4 aluminum sheets. In addition, the models have also accurately reproduced the crack initiation site as well as burr and sliver formation mechanisms observed experimentally.

  13. Periodic trim solutions with HP-version finite elements in time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Finite Element in Time has been proven to be a powerful alternative solving strategy for the rotor craft trim problem. Additionally, Finite Element Method in Time has been developed in various versions like time-marching framework, Galerkin framework, Rayleigh-Ritz framework, and mixed formulation. Recently, this method was applied to the rotorcraft trim problem to obtain linearized solutions. The rotorcraft trim problem consists of trying to find a period solution for period-coefficient, differential equations subject to side constraints where certain force and momentum balance equations are forced to be equal to zero. There are free (or trim) parameters that are chosen to meet these side constraints. This project aims at expanding the application, in terms of the rotorcraft trim problem, from a linearized solution to nonlinear solution.

  14. A large new subset of TRIM genes highly diversified by duplication and positive selection in teleost fish

    PubMed Central

    van der Aa, Lieke M; Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Yahmi, Malika; Lauret, Emilie; Briolat, Valérie; Herbomel, Philippe; Benmansour, Abdenour; Boudinot, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Background In mammals, the members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family are involved in various cellular processes including innate immunity against viral infection. Viruses exert strong selective pressures on the defense system. Accordingly, antiviral TRIMs have diversified highly through gene expansion, positive selection and alternative splicing. Characterizing immune TRIMs in other vertebrates may enlighten their complex evolution. Results We describe here a large new subfamily of TRIMs in teleosts, called finTRIMs, identified in rainbow trout as virus-induced transcripts. FinTRIMs are formed of nearly identical RING/B-box regions and C-termini of variable length; the long variants include a B30.2 domain. The zebrafish genome harbors a striking diversity of finTRIMs, with 84 genes distributed in clusters on different chromosomes. A phylogenetic analysis revealed different subsets suggesting lineage-specific diversification events. Accordingly, the number of fintrim genes varies greatly among fish species. Conserved syntenies were observed only for the oldest fintrims. The closest mammalian relatives are trim16 and trim25, but they are not true orthologs. The B30.2 domain of zebrafish finTRIMs evolved under strong positive selection. The positions under positive selection are remarkably congruent in finTRIMs and in mammalian antiviral TRIM5α, concentrated within a viral recognition motif in mammals. The B30.2 domains most closely related to finTRIM are found among NOD-like receptors (NLR), indicating that the evolution of TRIMs and NLRs was intertwined by exon shuffling. Conclusion The diversity, evolution, and features of finTRIMs suggest an important role in fish innate immunity; this would make them the first TRIMs involved in immunity identified outside mammals. PMID:19196451

  15. Biochemical Characterization of a Recombinant TRIM5α Protein That Restricts Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Langelier, Charles R.; Sandrin, Virginie; Eckert, Debra M.; Christensen, Devin E.; Chandrasekaran, Viswanathan; Alam, Steven L.; Aiken, Christopher; Olsen, John C.; Kar, Alak Kanti; Sodroski, Joseph G.; Sundquist, Wesley I.

    2008-01-01

    The rhesus monkey intrinsic immunity factor TRIM5αrh recognizes incoming capsids from a variety of retroviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), and inhibits the accumulation of viral reverse transcripts. However, direct interactions between restricting TRIM5α proteins and retroviral capsids have not previously been demonstrated using pure recombinant proteins. To facilitate structural and mechanistic studies of retroviral restriction, we have developed methods for expressing and purifying an active chimeric TRIM5αrh protein containing the RING domain from the related human TRIM21 protein. This recombinant TRIM5-21R protein was expressed in SF-21 insect cells and purified through three chromatographic steps. Two distinct TRIM5-21R species were purified and shown to correspond to monomers and dimers, as analyzed by analytical ultracentrifugation. Chemically cross-linked recombinant TRIM5-21R dimers and mammalian-expressed TRIM5-21R and TRIM5α proteins exhibited similar sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis mobilities, indicating that mammalian TRIM5α proteins are predominantly dimeric. Purified TRIM5-21R had ubiquitin ligase activity and could autoubquitylate with different E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes in vitro. TRIM5-21R bound directly to synthetic capsids composed of recombinant HIV-1 CA-NC proteins and to authentic EIAV core particles. HIV-1 CA-NC assemblies bound dimeric TRIM5-21R better than either monomeric TRIM5-21R or TRIM5-21R constructs that lacked the SPRY domain or its V1 loop. Thus, our studies indicate that TRIM5α proteins are dimeric ubiquitin E3 ligases that recognize retroviral capsids through direct interactions mediated by the SPRY domain and demonstrate that these activities can be recapitulated in vitro using pure recombinant proteins. PMID:18799573

  16. Ultralow Oxygen Treatment for Postharvest Control of Western Flower Thrips on Head Lettuce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), were subjected to ULO treatments with different combinations of oxygen level, temperature, and treatment duration in plastic jars. Oxygen levels used ranged from 0.0015% to 0.01%. Temperatures ranged from 1 to 10°C. Treatme...

  17. Oxygen Uptake. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooley, John F.

    Biological waste treatment in the activated sludge process is based on the ability of microorganisms to use dissolved oxygen in breaking down soluble organic substances. The oxygen uptake test is a means of measuring the respiration rate of microorganisms in this process. Designed for individuals who have completed National Pollutant Discharge…

  18. Phase and composition controllable synthesis of cobalt manganese spinel nanoparticles towards efficient oxygen electrocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chun; Han, Xiaopeng; Cheng, Fangyi; Hu, Yuxiang; Chen, Chengcheng; Chen, Jun

    2015-06-01

    Spinel-type oxides are technologically important in many fields, including electronics, magnetism, catalysis and electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Typically, these materials are prepared by conventional ceramic routes that are energy consuming and offer limited control over shape and size. Moreover, for mixed-metal oxide spinels (for example, CoxMn3-xO4), the crystallographic phase sensitively correlates with the metal ratio, posing great challenges to synthesize active product with simultaneously tuned phase and composition. Here we report a general synthesis of ultrasmall cobalt manganese spinels with tailored structural symmetry and composition through facile solution-based oxidation-precipitation and insertion-crystallization process at modest condition. As an example application, the nanocrystalline spinels catalyse the oxygen reduction/evolution reactions, showing phase and composition co-dependent performance. Furthermore, the mild synthetic strategy allows the formation of homogeneous and strongly coupled spinel/carbon nanocomposites, which exhibit comparable activity but superior durability to Pt/C and serve as efficient catalysts to build rechargeable Zn-air and Li-air batteries.

  19. Phase and composition controllable synthesis of cobalt manganese spinel nanoparticles towards efficient oxygen electrocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun; Han, Xiaopeng; Cheng, Fangyi; Hu, Yuxiang; Chen, Chengcheng; Chen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Spinel-type oxides are technologically important in many fields, including electronics, magnetism, catalysis and electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Typically, these materials are prepared by conventional ceramic routes that are energy consuming and offer limited control over shape and size. Moreover, for mixed-metal oxide spinels (for example, CoxMn3−xO4), the crystallographic phase sensitively correlates with the metal ratio, posing great challenges to synthesize active product with simultaneously tuned phase and composition. Here we report a general synthesis of ultrasmall cobalt manganese spinels with tailored structural symmetry and composition through facile solution-based oxidation–precipitation and insertion–crystallization process at modest condition. As an example application, the nanocrystalline spinels catalyse the oxygen reduction/evolution reactions, showing phase and composition co-dependent performance. Furthermore, the mild synthetic strategy allows the formation of homogeneous and strongly coupled spinel/carbon nanocomposites, which exhibit comparable activity but superior durability to Pt/C and serve as efficient catalysts to build rechargeable Zn–air and Li–air batteries. PMID:26040417

  20. A Novel Solid Electrolyte Oxygen Sensor System for In-Situ Measurement and Process Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, Frank Uwe; Messerschmid, Ernst; Rogg, Markus

    2010-10-01

    In 1993 the oxygen partial pressure was firstly measured inside a plasma wind tunnel using conventional λ-probes. Since then, a considerable amount of knowledge has been gained in using these sensors in ground test facilities and space. However, these commercially available sensors were too large in scale and weight. Consequently, a new development of solid electrolyte sensors called FIPEX more feasible for space was initiated. Due to space driven benefits, interest arose to use FIPEX technique in terrestrial applications e.g. to monitor sputter plants for float glass coating. Therefore, the VacuSen® sensor was developed. The characterization of VacuSen® at nominal sensor temperature TS = 680° C resulted in a sensor current according to IS = bṡpO20ṡ8±0ṡ05 I[μA] in the operation range between ptot = 1ṡ10-3 to 5 Pa. From pulse width modulation (PWM) temperature control, additional information allows to measure ptot according to ptot = aṡRPWM0ṡ107±0ṡ005 thus enlarging the operation range to ptot = 1ṡ10-3 to 1ṡ105Pa. A one point calibration routine with air, ideally at ptot = 5 Pa in order to determine both calibration parameters a and b simultaneously, is proposed.

  1. Potential role of TRIM3 as a novel tumour suppressor in colorectal cancer (CRC) development.

    PubMed

    Piao, Mei-Yu; Cao, Hai-Long; He, Na-Na; Xu, Meng-Que; Dong, Wen-Xiao; Wang, Wei-Qiang; Wang, Bang-Mao; Zhou, Bing

    2016-05-01

    Objective Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the United States. Recent cancer genome-sequencing efforts and complementary functional studies have led to the identification of a collection of candidate 'driver' genes involved in CRC tumorigenesis. Tripartite motif (TRIM3) is recently identified as a tumour suppressor in glioblastoma but this tumour-suppressive function has not been investigated in CRC. Material and methods In this study, we investigated the potential role of TRIM3 as a tumour suppressor in CRC development by manipulating the expression of TRIM3 in two authentic CRC cell lines, HCT116 and DLD1, followed by various functional assays, including cell proliferation, colony formation, scratch wound healing, soft agar, and invasion assays. Xenograft experiment was performed to examine in vivo tumour-suppressive properties of TRIM3. Results Small-interfering RNA (siRNA) mediated knockdown of TRIM3 conferred growth advantage in CRC cells. In contrast, overexpression of TRIM3 affected cell survival, cell migration, anchorage independent growth and invasive potential in CRC cells. In addition, TRIM3 was found to be down-regulated in human colon cancer tissues compared with matched normal colon tissues. Overexpression of TRIM3 significantly inhibited tumour growth in vivo using xenograft mouse models. Mechanistic investigation revealed that TRIM3 can regulate p53 protein level through its stabilisation. Conclusions TRIM3 functions as a tumour suppressor in CRC progression. This tumour-suppressive function is exerted partially through regulation of p53 protein. Therefore, this protein may represent a novel therapeutic target for prevention or intervention of CRC. PMID:26691157

  2. Accurate control of oxygen level in cells during culture on silicone rubber membranes with application to stem cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Powers, Daryl E; Millman, Jeffrey R; Bonner-Weir, Susan; Rappel, Michael J; Colton, Clark K

    2010-01-01

    Oxygen level in mammalian cell culture is often controlled by placing culture vessels in humidified incubators with a defined gas phase partial pressure of oxygen (pO(2gas)). Because the cells are consuming oxygen supplied by diffusion, a difference between pO(2gas) and that experienced by the cells (pO(2cell)) arises, which is maximal when cells are cultured in vessels with little or no oxygen permeability. Here, we demonstrate theoretically that highly oxygen-permeable silicone rubber membranes can be used to control pO(2cell) during culture of cells in monolayers and aggregates much more accurately and can achieve more rapid transient response following a disturbance than on polystyrene and fluorinated ethylene-propylene copolymer membranes. Cell attachment on silicone rubber was achieved by physical adsorption of fibronectin or Matrigel. We use these membranes for the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells to cardiomyocytes and compare the results with culture on polystyrene or on silicone rubber on top of polystyrene. The fraction of cells that are cardiomyocyte-like increases with decreasing pO(2) only when using oxygen-permeable silicone membrane-based dishs, which contract on silicone rubber but not polystyrene. The high permeability of silicone rubber results in pO(2cell) being equal to pO(2gas) at the tissue-membrane interface. This, together with geometric information from histological sections, facilitates development of a model from which the pO(2) distribution within the resulting aggregates is computed. Silicone rubber membranes have significant advantages over polystyrene in controlling pO(2cell), and these results suggest they are a valuable tool for investigating pO(2) effects in many applications, such as stem cell differentiation. PMID:20039374

  3. Sanguinate's effect on pial arterioles in healthy rats and cerebral oxygen tension after controlled cortical impact.

    PubMed

    Mullah, Saad H; Abutarboush, Rania; Moon-Massat, Paula F; Saha, Biswajit K; Haque, Ashraful; Walker, Peter B; Auker, Charles R; Arnaud, Francoise G; McCarron, Richard M; Scultetus, Anke H

    2016-09-01

    Sanguinate, a polyethylene glycol-conjugated carboxyhemoglobin, was investigated for cerebral vasoactivity in healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats (Study 1) and for its ability to increase brain tissue oxygen pressure (PbtO2) after controlled cortical impact (CCI) - traumatic brain injury (TBI) (Study 2). In both studies ketamine-acepromazine anesthetized rats were ventilated with 40% O2. In Study 1, a cranial window was used to measure the diameters of medium - (50-100μm) and small-sized (<50μm) pial arterioles before and after four serial infusions of Sanguinate (8mL/kg/h, cumulative 16mL/kg IV), volume-matched Hextend, or normal saline. In Study 2, PbtO2 was measured using a phosphorescence quenching method before TBI, 15min after TBI (T15) and then every 10min thereafter for 155min. At T15, rats received either 8mL/kg IV Sanguinate (40mL/kg/h) or no treatment (saline, 4mL/kg/h). Results showed: 1) in healthy rats, percentage changes in pial arteriole diameter were the same among the groups, 2) in TBI rats, PbtO2 decreased from 36.5±3.9mmHg to 19.8±3.0mmHg at T15 in both groups after TBI and did not recover in either group for the rest of the study, and 3) MAP increased 16±4mmHg and 36±5mmHg after Sanguinate in healthy and TBI rats, respectively, while MAP was unchanged in control groups. In conclusion, Sanguinate did not cause vasoconstriction in the cerebral pial arterioles of healthy rats but it also did not acutely increase PbtO2 when administered after TBI. Sanguinate was associated with an increase in MAP in both studies. PMID:27287870

  4. The control of reactive oxygen species production by SHP-1 in oligodendrocytes.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Ross C; LaRocca, Daria; Minchenberg, Scott B; Christophi, George P; Hudson, Chad A; Ray, Alex K; Shafit-Zagardo, Bridget; Massa, Paul T

    2015-10-01

    We have previously described reduced myelination and corresponding myelin basic protein (MBP) expression in the central nervous system of Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) deficient motheaten (me/me) mice compared with normal littermate controls. Deficiency in myelin and MBP expression in both brains and spinal cords of motheaten mice correlated with reduced MBP mRNA expression levels in vivo and in purified oligodendrocytes in vitro. Therefore, SHP-1 activity seems to be a critical regulator of oligodendrocyte gene expression and function. Consistent with this role, this study demonstrates that oligodendrocytes of motheaten mice and SHP-1-depleted N20.1 cells produce higher levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and exhibit corresponding markers of increased oxidative stress. In agreement with these findings, we demonstrate that increased production of ROS coincides with ROS-induced signaling pathways known to affect myelin gene expression in oligodendrocytes. Antioxidant treatment of SHP-1-deficient oligodendrocytes reversed the pathological changes in these cells, with increased myelin protein gene expression and decreased expression of nuclear factor (erythroid-2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2) responsive gene, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Furthermore, we demonstrate that SHP-1 is expressed in human white matter oligodendrocytes, and there is a subset of multiple sclerosis subjects that demonstrate a deficiency of SHP-1 in normal-appearing white matter. These studies reveal critical pathways controlled by SHP-1 in oligodendrocytes that relate to susceptibility of SHP-1-deficient mice to both developmental defects in myelination and to inflammatory demyelinating diseases. PMID:25919645

  5. Clamping end-tidal carbon dioxide during graded exercise with control of inspired oxygen.

    PubMed

    Farra, Saro D; Kessler, Cathie; Duffin, James; Wells, Greg D; Jacobs, Ira

    2016-09-01

    Exercise- and hypoxia-induced hyperventilation decreases the partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2), which in turn exerts many physiological effects. Several breathing circuits that control PETCO2 have been previously described, but their designs are not satisfactory for exercise studies where changes in inspired oxygen (FIO2) may be desired. This study is the first report of a breathing system that can maintain PETCO2 constant within a single session of graded submaximal exercise and graded hypoxia. Thirteen fit and healthy subjects completed two bouts of exercise consisting of three 3min stages on a cycle ergometer with increasing exercise intensity in normoxia (Part A; 142±14, 167±14, 192±14W) or with decreasing FIO2 at a constant exercise intensity (Part B; 21, 18, and 14%). One bout was a control (CON) where PETCO2 was not manipulated, while during the other bout the investigator clamped PETCO2 within 2mmHg (CO2Clamp) using sequential gas delivery (SGD). During the final 30s of each exercise stage during CO2Clamp, PETCO2 was successfully maintained in Part A (43±4, 44±4, 44±3mmHg; P=0.44) and Part B (45±3, 46±3, 45±3mmHg; P=0.68) despite the increases in ventilation due to exercise. These findings demonstrate that this SGD circuit can be used to maintain isocapania in exercising humans during progressively increasing exercise intensities and changing FIO2. PMID:27236039

  6. pH control on oxygen isotopic composition of symbiotic corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rollion-Bard, Claire; Chaussidon, Marc; France-Lanord, Christian

    2003-10-01

    Boron, carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions were determined at the micrometre scale by high-resolution ion microprobe in a sample of modern coral (massive hermatypic coral, Porites lutea). The ion probe data show for B and O much larger isotopic variations at the micrometre scale than those measured at the millimetre scale by conventional techniques: δ 18O PDB values range from -10.6±0.9‰ to -0.2±0.5‰ and δ 11B values range from +18.6±1.5‰ to +30.6±1.6‰. By contrast, δ 13C values show the same range of variations, from -4.6±0.65‰ to -2.2±0.67‰ at the micrometre and millimetre scales. The range of δ 11B values indicates that significant pH variations, from ≈7.1 to ≈9.0, are present at the sites of calcification. The largest δ 18O variations correspond to the highest δ 11B values, i.e. to the highest pHs. This measurement of pH allows modelling the oxygen isotopic fractionation occurring during aragonite precipitation. Taking into account the rate of O isotopic equilibrium between dissolved carbonate species (H 2CO 3, HCO 3- and CO 32-) and water via the two reactions of hydration and hydroxylation, the full range of δ 18O values measured at the micrometre scale can be modelled for residence times of dissolved carbonates in the calcifying fluid ranging between ≈1 h and at maximum ≈12 h. The pH controls the δ 18O of the growing carbonate through the relative fractions of dissolved carbonate species and through the kinetics of their isotopic equilibration with water via hydration and hydroxylation. The so-called 'vital effect' systematically observed for δ 18O in corals can thus be understood as representing an average of rapid pH variations due to coral biology during coral growth. Selectively measuring δ 18O values in the zones of coral skeletons that have low δ 11B values (i.e. formed at low pH) should significantly improve the quality of palaeoclimatic reconstructions based on δ 18O values.

  7. A Comparison of the Long Term Effects of Infrared Beak Treatment and Hot Blade Beak Trimming in Laying Hens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The poultry industry is under intense pressure from the public and animal welfare advocates to eliminate the practice of beak trimming due to the potential for acute and chronic pain in the trimmed birds. However, elimination of beak trimming may have severe implications for animal welfare, as peck...

  8. Relationship between Body Weight and Beak Characteristics in One-Day-Old White Leghorn Chicks: its implications for beak trimming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beak trimming is a routine practice used in laying hens to prevent feather pecking and cannibalism. The effects of beak trimming on bird well-being depend on multiple factors, including the length of beak that is trimmed and the quality of the procedure. The aim of this work was to determine if a ...

  9. 77 FR 67399 - Trim Systems Operating Corp., a Subsidiary of Commercial Vehicle Group, Inc., Including On-Site...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... Employment and Training Administration Trim Systems Operating Corp., a Subsidiary of Commercial Vehicle Group... of Trim Systems Operating Corp., a subsidiary of Commercial Vehicle Group, Inc., Statesville, North... applicable to TA-W-81,393 is hereby issued as follows: All workers of Trim Systems Operating Corp.,...

  10. Processes controlling dissolved oxygen and pH in the upper Willamette River basin, Oregon, 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pogue, Ted R., Jr.; Anderson, Chauncey W.

    1995-01-01

    In July and August of 1994, the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (ODEQ) collected data to document the spatial extent and diel variability of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations and pH levels in selected reaches of streams in the upper Willamette River Basin. These data were also collected to identify primary factors that control DO concentrations downstream from major point sources as well as to provide ODEQ with data to refine calibration of their steady-state DO and nutrient models for the upper Willamette River Basin. All of the reaches studied had diel variations in DO and pH. The magnitude of the diel variations in DO ranged from 0.2 to 3.9 milligrams per liter (7 to 50 percent-saturation units based on ambient water temperature and barometric pressure) and in pH from 0.3 to 1.4 units. However, of the reaches studied, only the Coast Fork Willamette River from river mile (RM) 21.7 to 12.5 and the Willamette River from RM 151 to 141.6 had field measured violations of State standards for DO and pH. DO concentration and pH in water depend on many factors. Data were collected to examine several major factors, including BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), carbonaceous BOD, nitrogenous BOD, and measures of photosynthetic activity. Of the four study reaches, only a short stretch of the Coast Fork Willamette River has potential for important levels of oxygen consumption from BOD or nitrification. Additionally, water-column primary-productivity measurements indicated that respiration and photosynthesis by free-floating algae did not explain the observed diel variations in DO in the study reaches. Results from a simple mathematical model incorporating measures of community respiration and net primary productivities indicated that periphyton are capable of producing a diel variation of the order of magnitude observed during the August study period. In the Willamette River near Peoria, the combined periphyton DO

  11. TRIM5α Degradation via Autophagy Is Not Required for Retroviral Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Imam, Sabrina; Talley, Sarah; Nelson, Rachel S.; Dharan, Adarsh; O'Connor, Christopher; Hope, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT TRIM5α is an interferon-inducible retroviral restriction factor that prevents infection by inducing the abortive disassembly of capsid cores recognized by its C-terminal PRY/SPRY domain. The mechanism by which TRIM5α mediates the disassembly of viral cores is poorly understood. Previous studies demonstrated that proteasome inhibitors abrogate the ability of TRIM5α to induce premature core disassembly and prevent reverse transcription; however, viral infection is still inhibited, indicating that the proteasome is partially involved in the restriction process. Alternatively, we and others have observed that TRIM5α associates with proteins involved in autophagic degradation pathways, and one recent study found that autophagic degradation is required for the restriction of retroviruses by TRIM5α. Here, we show that TRIM5α is basally degraded via autophagy in the absence of restriction-sensitive virus. We observe that the autophagy markers LC3b and lysosome-associated membrane protein 2A (LAMP2A) localize to a subset of TRIM5α cytoplasmic bodies, and inhibition of lysosomal degradation with bafilomycin A1 increases this association. To test the requirement for macroautophagy in restriction, we examined the ability of TRIM5α to restrict retroviral infection in cells depleted of the autophagic mediators ATG5, Beclin1, and p62. In all cases, restriction of retroviruses by human TRIM5α, rhesus macaque TRIM5α, and owl monkey TRIM-Cyp remained potent in cells depleted of these autophagic effectors by small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown or clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas9 genome editing. Collectively, these results are consistent with observations that the turnover of TRIM5α proteins is sensitive to autophagy inhibition; however, the data presented here do not support observations that the inhibition of autophagy abrogates retroviral restriction by TRIM5 proteins. IMPORTANCE Restriction factors are a class of

  12. Validation comparing the effectiveness of a lactic acid dip with a lactic acid spray for reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and non-O157 Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli on beef trim and ground beef.

    PubMed

    Wolf, M J; Miller, M F; Parks, A R; Loneragan, G H; Garmyn, A J; Thompson, L D; Echeverry, A; Brashears, M M

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this research was to compare the effectiveness of two application methods (dip versus spray) of 4.4% lactic acid for reducing pathogens on inoculated beef trim and in ground beef. Beef trim inoculated with cocktail mixtures of E. coli O157:H7, non-O157 Shiga toxigenic E. coli (STEC), or Salmonella (10(5) to 10(6) CFU/g) at separate times was subjected to five treatments: lactic acid spray (LS), lactic acid dip (LD), water spray (WS), water dip (WD), and untreated control (CTL). Intervention effectiveness for pathogen reduction was measured at 1 and 20 h after treatment on beef trim. Trim was then ground and intervention effectiveness was measured 1 h, 24 h, 72 h, and 7 days after grinding. The LD treatment reduced all pathogens significantly (P < 0.05); E. coli O157:H7 was reduced by 0.91 to 1.41 log CFU/g on beef trim and ground beef, non-O157 STEC by 0.48 to 0.82 log CFU/g, and Salmonella by 0.51 to 0.81 log CFU/g. No other treatment significantly reduced any pathogen, although the WD treatment noticeably reduced (P > 0.05) both E. coli O157:H7 and non-O157 STEC populations compared with the CTL. The LS treatment reduced E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella by up to 0.5 log CFU/g on beef trim, but these reduced counts did not significantly differ (P > 0.05) from the CTL counts. Overall, the LD treatment was most effective for reducing all pathogens and is the best of these options for improving the safety of beef trim and subsequently produced ground beef. PMID:23127705

  13. Identification of TRIM27 as a Novel Degradation Target of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 ICP0

    PubMed Central

    Conwell, Sara E.; White, Anne E.; Harper, J. Wade

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) immediate early protein ICP0 performs many functions during infection, including transactivation of viral gene expression, suppression of innate immune responses, and modification and eviction of histones from viral chromatin. Although these functions of ICP0 have been characterized, the detailed mechanisms underlying ICP0's complex role during infection warrant further investigation. We thus undertook an unbiased proteomic approach to identifying viral and cellular proteins that interact with ICP0 in the infected cell. Cellular candidates resulting from our analysis included the ubiquitin-specific protease USP7, the transcriptional repressor TRIM27, DNA repair proteins NBN and MRE11A, regulators of apoptosis, including BIRC6, and the proteasome. We also identified two HSV-1 early proteins involved in nucleotide metabolism, UL39 and UL50, as novel candidate interactors of ICP0. Because TRIM27 was the most statistically significant cellular candidate, we investigated the relationship between TRIM27 and ICP0. We observed rapid, ICP0-dependent loss of TRIM27 during HSV-1 infection. TRIM27 protein levels were restored by disrupting the RING domain of ICP0 or by inhibiting the proteasome, arguing that TRIM27 is a novel degradation target of ICP0. A mutant ICP0 lacking E3 ligase activity interacted with endogenous TRIM27 during infection as demonstrated by reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation and supported by immunofluorescence data. Surprisingly, ICP0-null mutant virus yields decreased upon TRIM27 depletion, arguing that TRIM27 has a positive effect on infection despite being targeted for degradation. These results illustrate a complex interaction between TRIM27 and viral infection with potential positive or negative effects of TRIM27 on HSV under different infection conditions. IMPORTANCE During productive infection, a virus must simultaneously redirect multiple cellular pathways to replicate itself while evading detection by the

  14. Proposed fast-response oxygen monitoring and control system for the Langley 8-foot high-temperature tunnel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Puster, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    A fast-response oxygen monitoring and control system, based on a Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 sensor, was developed and tested in the laboratory. The system is capable of maintaining oxygen concentration in the CH4-O2-air combustion product gases at 20.9 + or - 1.0 percent. If the oxygen concentration in the exhaust stream differs from that in normal air by 25 percent or more, an alarm signal is provided for automatic tunnel shutdown. The overall prototype system response time was reduced from about 1 sec in the original configuration to about 0.2 sec. The basis of operation and the results of laboratory tests of the system are described.

  15. Proposed fast-response oxygen monitoring and control system for the Langley 8-foot high-temperature tunnel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Puster, R. L.

    1983-11-01

    A fast-response oxygen monitoring and control system, based on a Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 sensor, was developed and tested in the laboratory. The system is capable of maintaining oxygen concentration in the CH4-O2-air combustion product gases at 20.9 + or - 1.0 percent. If the oxygen concentration in the exhaust stream differs from that in normal air by 25 percent or more, an alarm signal is provided for automatic tunnel shutdown. The overall prototype system response time was reduced from about 1 sec in the original configuration to about 0.2 sec. The basis of operation and the results of laboratory tests of the system are described.

  16. Intercolony variability of skeletal oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of corals: temperature-controlled tank experiment and field observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, A.; Omata, T.; Kawahata, H.

    2005-12-01

    We conducted tank experiments in which we grew Porites spp. colonies in thermostated seawater at five temperature settings under moderate light intensity. A skeletal isotope microprofiling technique applied along the major growth axis of each colony revealed that the oxygen isotope ratios of newly deposited skeleton in most colonies remained almost constant during tank incubation. However, the oxygen isotope ratios displayed a surprisingly large intercolony variability (~1‰ at each temperature setting) although the mean slope obtained for the temperature - skeletal oxygen isotope ratio relationship was close to previous results. The variations in the oxygen isotope ratios were apparently caused by kinetic isotope effects related to variations in the skeletal growth rate rather than by species-specific variability or genetic differences within species. Carbon isotope ratios showed significantly inverse correlation with linear growth rates, suggesting a kinetic isotope control at low growth rates. We also examined oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of Porites corals collected from coral reefs of southern Ryukyu Islands, Japan. In shallow faster-growing corals, oxygen and carbon isotope ratios showed out-of-phase annual fluctuations. In contrast, in deep slower growing corals (mean annual linear extension < 4.8 mm yr1), oxygen and carbon isotope fluctuations were in phase, which has been identified as a pattern influenced by kinetic isotope effects. The slower growing corals were strongly influenced, and the faster growing corals weakly influenced, by kinetic isotope effects over metabolic isotope effects. Growth-rate-related kinetic isotope effects found in both the cultured corals and the deep slower-growing corals may be, at least partly, attributed to low light condition.

  17. Field testing of pressureless sintered silicon carbide for choke trim

    SciTech Connect

    Regitz, A.; Keene, K.

    1983-01-01

    Until recently, tungsten carbide has been the most erosion resistant material in use for choke stem tips and seats. An increase in the number of wells that produce sand has led to a need for an improved material that will maintain its integrity significantly longer, when exposed to high velocity sand. During the last two years, FMC Wellhead Equipment Division's R and D Engineering Department has been conducting field tests of pressureless sintered silicon carbide (herein called SiC) used as trim for chokes. The test results have been very encouraging. SiC appears to have wear resistance two to three times better than tungsten carbide. The main problems encountered have been the brittleness of the material and the difficulty in attaching a SiC tip to the steel choke stem.

  18. Trimming Surface Sugars Protects Histoplasma from Immune Attack

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dectin-1 is an essential innate immune receptor that recognizes β-glucans in fungal cell walls. Its importance is underscored by the mechanisms that fungal pathogens have evolved to avoid detection by this receptor. One such pathogen is Histoplasma capsulatum, and in a recent article in mBio, Rappleye’s group presented data showing that yeasts of this organism secrete a β-glucanase, Eng1, which acts to prune β-glucans that are exposed on the fungal cell surface [A. L. Garfoot et al., mBio 7(2):e01388-15, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01388-15]. The trimming of these sugars reduces immune recognition through Dectin-1 and subsequent inflammatory responses, enhancing the pathogenesis of H. capsulatum. PMID:27118584

  19. Trimming Surface Sugars Protects Histoplasma from Immune Attack.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gordon D

    2016-01-01

    Dectin-1 is an essential innate immune receptor that recognizes β-glucans in fungal cell walls. Its importance is underscored by the mechanisms that fungal pathogens have evolved to avoid detection by this receptor. One such pathogen is Histoplasma capsulatum, and in a recent article in mBio, Rappleye's group presented data showing that yeasts of this organism secrete a β-glucanase, Eng1, which acts to prune β-glucans that are exposed on the fungal cell surface [A. L. Garfoot et al., mBio 7(2):e01388-15, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01388-15]. The trimming of these sugars reduces immune recognition through Dectin-1 and subsequent inflammatory responses, enhancing the pathogenesis of H. capsulatum. PMID:27118584

  20. Maximizing biomass concentration in baker's yeast process by using a decoupled geometric controller for substrate and dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Chopda, Viki R; Rathore, Anurag S; Gomes, James

    2015-11-01

    Biomass production by baker's yeast in a fed-batch reactor depends on the metabolic regime determined by the concentration of glucose and dissolved oxygen in the reactor. Achieving high biomass concentration in turn is dependent on the dynamic interaction between the glucose and dissolved oxygen concentration. Taking this into account, we present in this paper the implementation of a decoupled input-output linearizing controller (DIOLC) for maximizing biomass in a fed-batch yeast process. The decoupling is based on the inversion of 2×2 input-output matrix resulting from global linearization. The DIOLC was implemented online using a platform created in LabVIEW employing a TCP/IP protocol via the reactor's built-in electronic system. An improvement in biomass yield by 23% was obtained compared to that using a PID controller. The results demonstrate superior capability of the DIOLC and that the cumulative effect of smoother control action contributes to biomass maximization. PMID:26233328

  1. Biogeochemical Control on the Flux of Trace Elements from Estuarine Sediments: Water Column Oxygen Concentrations and Benthic Infauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedel, Gerhardt F.; Sanders, James G.; Osman, Richard W.

    1997-01-01

    Trace element (arsenic, copper and manganese) fluxes between sediment and water were examined for approximately 2 months in replicated sediment/water microcosms. Treatments consisted of three oxygen levels in the water column (saturated, 10% saturation and anaerobic) and three different organism treatments (control, Macoma balthicaand Nereis succinea). Both arsenic and manganese were released from the sediment in the anoxic treatment, while copper was lost from the water. With the water column either saturated or at 10% oxygen saturation, both arsenic and manganese fluxes were negligible. In contrast, copper fluxes out of the sediment increased with increasing oxygen concentrations. The effect of organisms on the trace element fluxes were greatest immediately after their introduction to the microcosms, and declined substantially thereafter. Nereiscaused a substantial initial increase in manganese fluxes, but caused a negative flux (out of the water column) for arsenic. Macomahad a much smaller effect on flux than Nereis. Neither organism had a substantial effect on copper fluxes. Porewater profiles gave good predictions of arsenic and manganese fluxes in the anoxic treatment, but not in the 10% or saturated-oxygen treatments. Porewater profiles underestimated copper fluxes in the oxygenated treatments somewhat, and predicted copper flux in the opposite direction in the anoxic treatment. These results suggest that the annual cycle of anoxia in systems like Chesapeake Bay, and the resulting annual cycle of organism death and recruitment, can significantly alter the cycling of trace elements between the sediment and water column.

  2. TRIM26 functions as a novel tumor suppressor of hepatocellular carcinoma and its downregulation contributes to worse prognosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yi; He, Du; Yang, Liang; Wen, Bo; Dai, Jinfen; Zhang, Qian; Kang, Jian; He, Weiyang; Ding, Qianshan; He, De

    2015-07-31

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the one of the most common malignancies worldwide and its prognosis is extremely poor. Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins play crucial roles in cancer cell biology but the function of tripartite motif 26 (TRIM26) has not been investigated. We demonstrated that low expression level of TRIM26 in tumor samples was significantly correlated with worse prognosis in HCC patients. We also demonstrated its expression level was associated with several clinicopathologic features such as AFP level and T stage of HCC patients. Furthermore, we validated that TRIM26 was significantly downregulated in HCC tissue compared with normal liver tissue. To further clarify the functional role of TRIM26 in HCC, We confirmed that TRIM26 silencing can promote cancer cell proliferation, colony forming, migration and invasion in vitro with HCC cell lines HepG2 and Bel-7402. Then we utilized bioinformatic tool to predict gene influenced by TRIM26, showing TRIM26 could modulate gene sets about cancer cell metabolism. In conclusion, we proved that TRIM26 is a novel tumor suppressor modulating multiple metabolism-related pathways in HCC. To our best knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the function of TRIM26 in cancer biology. Our findings provide useful insight into the mechanism of HCC origin and progression. Moreover, TRIM26 may represent a novel therapeutic target for HCC. - Highlights: • TRIM26 is down-regulated in liver cancer samples and functions as a novel tumor suppressor. • Down-regulation of TRIM26 is associated with worse prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). • Knockdown of TRIM26 promotes the proliferation and metastasis of HCC cells. • TRIM26 may function in abnormal metabolic progress of HCC.

  3. Size-controlled large-diameter and few-walled carbon nanotube catalysts for oxygen reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianliang; Li, Qing; Pan, Hengyu; Lin, Ye; Ke, Yujie; Sheng, Haiyang; Swihart, Mark T.; Wu, Gang

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate a new strategy for tuning the size of large-diameter and few-walled nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) from 50 to 150 nm by varying the transition metal (TM = Fe, Co, Ni or Mn) used to catalyze graphitization of dicyandiamide. Fe yielded the largest tubes, followed by Co and Ni, while Mn produced a clot-like carbon morphology. We show that morphology is correlated with electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). A clear trend of Fe > Co > Ni > Mn for the ORR catalytic activity was observed, in both alkaline media and more demanding acidic media. The Fe-derived N-CNTs exhibited the highest BET (~870 m2 g-1) and electrochemically accessible (~450 m2 g-1) surface areas and, more importantly, the highest concentration of nitrogen incorporated into the carbon planes. Thus, in addition to the intrinsic high activity of Fe-derived catalysts, the high surface area and nitrogen doping contribute to high ORR activity. This work, for the first time, demonstrates size-controlled synthesis of large-diameter N-doped carbon tube electrocatalysts by varying the metal used in N-CNT generation. Electrocatalytic activity of the Fe-derived catalyst is already the best among studied metals, due to the high intrinsic activity of possible Fe-N coordination. This work further provides a promising route to advanced Fe-N-C nonprecious metal catalysts by generating favorable morphology with more active sites and improved mass transfer.We demonstrate a new strategy for tuning the size of large-diameter and few-walled nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs) from 50 to 150 nm by varying the transition metal (TM = Fe, Co, Ni or Mn) used to catalyze graphitization of dicyandiamide. Fe yielded the largest tubes, followed by Co and Ni, while Mn produced a clot-like carbon morphology. We show that morphology is correlated with electrocatalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). A clear trend of Fe > Co > Ni > Mn for the ORR catalytic

  4. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of the Aspergillus fumigatus hypoxia response using an oxygen-controlled fermenter

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Aspergillus fumigatus is a mold responsible for the majority of cases of aspergillosis in humans. To survive in the human body, A. fumigatus must adapt to microenvironments that are often characterized by low nutrient and oxygen availability. Recent research suggests that the ability of A. fumigatus and other pathogenic fungi to adapt to hypoxia contributes to their virulence. However, molecular mechanisms of A. fumigatus hypoxia adaptation are poorly understood. Thus, to better understand how A. fumigatus adapts to hypoxic microenvironments found in vivo during human fungal pathogenesis, the dynamic changes of the fungal transcriptome and proteome in hypoxia were investigated over a period of 24 hours utilizing an oxygen-controlled fermenter system. Results Significant increases in transcripts associated with iron and sterol metabolism, the cell wall, the GABA shunt, and transcriptional regulators were observed in response to hypoxia. A concomitant reduction in transcripts was observed with ribosome and terpenoid backbone biosynthesis, TCA cycle, amino acid metabolism and RNA degradation. Analysis of changes in transcription factor mRNA abundance shows that hypoxia induces significant positive and negative changes that may be important for regulating the hypoxia response in this pathogenic mold. Growth in hypoxia resulted in changes in the protein levels of several glycolytic enzymes, but these changes were not always reflected by the corresponding transcriptional profiling data. However, a good correlation overall (R2 = 0.2, p < 0.05) existed between the transcriptomic and proteomics datasets for all time points. The lack of correlation between some transcript levels and their subsequent protein levels suggests another regulatory layer of the hypoxia response in A. fumigatus. Conclusions Taken together, our data suggest a robust cellular response that is likely regulated both at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level in response to hypoxia

  5. Neonatal Whisker Trimming Impairs Fear/Anxiety-Related Emotional Systems of the Amygdala and Social Behaviors in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Soumiya, Hitomi; Godai, Ayumi; Araiso, Hiromi; Mori, Shingo; Furukawa, Shoei; Fukumitsu, Hidefumi

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in tactile perception, such as sensory defensiveness, are common features in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While not a diagnostic criterion for ASD, deficits in tactile perception contribute to the observed lack of social communication skills. However, the influence of tactile perception deficits on the development of social behaviors remains uncertain, as do the effects on neuronal circuits related to the emotional regulation of social interactions. In neonatal rodents, whiskers are the most important tactile apparatus, so bilateral whisker trimming is used as a model of early tactile deprivation. To address the influence of tactile deprivation on adult behavior, we performed bilateral whisker trimming in mice for 10 days after birth (BWT10 mice) and examined social behaviors, tactile discrimination, and c-Fos expression, a marker of neural activation, in adults after full whisker regrowth. Adult BWT10 mice exhibited significantly shorter crossable distances in the gap-crossing test than age-matched controls, indicating persistent deficits in whisker-dependent tactile perception. In contrast to controls, BWT10 mice exhibited no preference for the social compartment containing a conspecific in the three-chamber test. Furthermore, the development of amygdala circuitry was severely affected in BWT10 mice. Based on the c-Fos expression pattern, hyperactivity was found in BWT10 amygdala circuits for processing fear/anxiety-related responses to height stress but not in circuits for processing reward stimuli during whisker-dependent cued learning. These results demonstrate that neonatal whisker trimming and concomitant whisker-dependent tactile discrimination impairment severely disturbs the development of amygdala-dependent emotional regulation. PMID:27362655

  6. Neonatal Whisker Trimming Impairs Fear/Anxiety-Related Emotional Systems of the Amygdala and Social Behaviors in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Soumiya, Hitomi; Godai, Ayumi; Araiso, Hiromi; Mori, Shingo; Furukawa, Shoei; Fukumitsu, Hidefumi

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in tactile perception, such as sensory defensiveness, are common features in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). While not a diagnostic criterion for ASD, deficits in tactile perception contribute to the observed lack of social communication skills. However, the influence of tactile perception deficits on the development of social behaviors remains uncertain, as do the effects on neuronal circuits related to the emotional regulation of social interactions. In neonatal rodents, whiskers are the most important tactile apparatus, so bilateral whisker trimming is used as a model of early tactile deprivation. To address the influence of tactile deprivation on adult behavior, we performed bilateral whisker trimming in mice for 10 days after birth (BWT10 mice) and examined social behaviors, tactile discrimination, and c-Fos expression, a marker of neural activation, in adults after full whisker regrowth. Adult BWT10 mice exhibited significantly shorter crossable distances in the gap-crossing test than age-matched controls, indicating persistent deficits in whisker-dependent tactile perception. In contrast to controls, BWT10 mice exhibited no preference for the social compartment containing a conspecific in the three-chamber test. Furthermore, the development of amygdala circuitry was severely affected in BWT10 mice. Based on the c-Fos expression pattern, hyperactivity was found in BWT10 amygdala circuits for processing fear/anxiety-related responses to height stress but not in circuits for processing reward stimuli during whisker-dependent cued learning. These results demonstrate that neonatal whisker trimming and concomitant whisker-dependent tactile discrimination impairment severely disturbs the development of amygdala-dependent emotional regulation. PMID:27362655

  7. A Novel Solid Electrolyte Oxygen Sensor System for In-Situ Measurement and Process Control

    SciTech Connect

    Hammer, Frank Uwe; Messerschmid, Ernst; Rogg, Markus

    2010-10-13

    In 1993 the oxygen partial pressure was firstly measured inside a plasma wind tunnel using conventional {lambda}-probes. Since then, a considerable amount of knowledge has been gained in using these sensors in ground test facilities and space. However, these commercially available sensors were too large in scale and weight. Consequently, a new development of solid electrolyte sensors called FIPEX more feasible for space was initiated. Due to space driven benefits, interest arose to use FIPEX technique in terrestrial applications e.g. to monitor sputter plants for float glass coating. Therefore, the VacuSen registered sensor was developed. The characterization of VacuSen registered at nominal sensor temperature T{sub S} = 680 deg. C resulted in a sensor current according to I{sub S} = b{center_dot}p{sub O2}{sup 0{center_dot}8{+-}0{center_dot}05} I[{mu}A] in the operation range between p{sub tot} = 1{center_dot}10{sup -3} to 5 Pa. From pulse width modulation (PWM) temperature control, additional information allows to measure ptot according to p{sub tot} = a{center_dot}RPWM{sup 0{center_dot}107{+-}0{center_dot}005} thus enlarging the operation range to p{sub tot} = 1{center_dot}10{sup -3} to 1{center_dot}10{sup 5} Pa. A one point calibration routine with air, ideally at p{sub tot} = 5 Pa in order to determine both calibration parameters a and b simultaneously, is proposed.

  8. Peroxone mineralization of chemical oxygen demand for direct potable water reuse: Kinetics and process control.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tingting; Englehardt, James D

    2015-04-15

    Mineralization of organics in secondary effluent by the peroxone process was studied at a direct potable water reuse research treatment system serving an occupied four-bedroom, four bath university residence hall apartment. Organic concentrations were measured as chemical oxygen demand (COD) and kinetic runs were monitored at varying O3/H2O2 dosages and ratios. COD degradation could be accurately described as the parallel pseudo-1st order decay of rapidly and slowly-oxidizable fractions, and effluent COD was reduced to below the detection limit (<0.7 mg/L). At dosages ≥4.6 mg L(-1) h(-1), an O3/H2O2 mass ratio of 3.4-3.8, and initial COD <20 mg/L, a simple first order decay was indicated for both single-passed treated wastewater and recycled mineral water, and a relationship is proposed and demonstrated to estimate the pseudo-first order rate constant for design purposes. At this O3/H2O2 mass ratio, ORP and dissolved ozone were found to be useful process control indicators for monitoring COD mineralization in secondary effluent. Moreover, an average second order rate constant for OH oxidation of secondary effluent organics (measured as MCOD) was found to be 1.24 × 10(7) ± 0.64 × 10(7) M(-1) S(-1). The electric energy demand of the peroxone process is estimated at 1.73-2.49 kW h electric energy for removal of one log COD in 1 m(3) secondary effluent, comparable to the energy required for desalination of medium strength seawater. Advantages/disadvantages of the two processes for municipal wastewater reuse are discussed. PMID:25704155

  9. Monodisperse polyethylene glycol diacrylate hydrogel microsphere formation by oxygen-controlled photopolymerization in a microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Krutkramelis, K; Xia, B; Oakey, J

    2016-04-12

    PEG-based hydrogels have become widely used as drug delivery and tissue scaffolding materials. Common among PEG hydrogel-forming polymers are photopolymerizable acrylates such as polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA). Microfluidics and microfabrication technologies have recently enabled the miniaturization of PEGDA structures, thus enabling many possible applications for nano- and micro- structured hydrogels. The presence of oxygen, however, dramatically inhibits the photopolymerization of PEGDA, which in turn frustrates hydrogel formation in environments of persistently high oxygen concentration. Using PEGDA that has been emulsified in fluorocarbon oil via microfluidic flow focusing within polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) devices, we show that polymerization is completely inhibited below critical droplet diameters. By developing an integrated model incorporating reaction kinetics and oxygen diffusion, we demonstrate that the critical droplet diameter is largely determined by the oxygen transport rate, which is dictated by the oxygen saturation concentration of the continuous oil phase. To overcome this fundamental limitation, we present a nitrogen micro-jacketed microfluidic device to reduce oxygen within the droplet, enabling the continuous on-chip photopolymerization of microscale PEGDA particles. PMID:26987384

  10. Functional role of TRIM E3 ligase oligomerization and regulation of catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Koliopoulos, Marios G; Esposito, Diego; Christodoulou, Evangelos; Taylor, Ian A; Rittinger, Katrin

    2016-06-01

    TRIM E3 ubiquitin ligases regulate a wide variety of cellular processes and are particularly important during innate immune signalling events. They are characterized by a conserved tripartite motif in their N-terminal portion which comprises a canonical RING domain, one or two B-box domains and a coiled-coil region that mediates ligase dimerization. Self-association via the coiled-coil has been suggested to be crucial for catalytic activity of TRIMs; however, the precise molecular mechanism underlying this observation remains elusive. Here, we provide a detailed characterization of the TRIM ligases TRIM25 and TRIM32 and show how their oligomeric state is linked to catalytic activity. The crystal structure of a complex between the TRIM25 RING domain and an ubiquitin-loaded E2 identifies the structural and mechanistic features that promote a closed E2~Ub conformation to activate the thioester for ubiquitin transfer allowing us to propose a model for the regulation of activity in the full-length protein. Our data reveal an unexpected diversity in the self-association mechanism of TRIMs that might be crucial for their biological function. PMID:27154206

  11. TRIM21 Immune Signaling Is More Sensitive to Antibody Affinity Than Its Neutralization Activity.

    PubMed

    Foss, Stian; Watkinson, Ruth E; Grevys, Algirdas; McAdam, Martin B; Bern, Malin; Høydahl, Lene Stokken; Dalhus, Bjørn; Michaelsen, Terje E; Sandlie, Inger; James, Leo C; Andersen, Jan Terje

    2016-04-15

    Ab-coated viruses can be detected in the cytosol by the FcR tripartite motif-containing 21 (TRIM21), which rapidly recruits the proteasomal machinery and triggers induction of immune signaling. As such, TRIM21 plays a key role in intracellular protection by targeting invading viruses for destruction and alerting the immune system. A hallmark of immunity is elicitation of a balanced response that is proportionate to the threat, to avoid unnecessary inflammation. In this article, we show how Ab affinity modulates TRIM21 immune function. We constructed a humanized monoclonal IgG1 against human adenovirus type 5 (AdV5) and a panel of Fc-engineered variants with a wide range of affinities for TRIM21. We found that IgG1-coated viral particles were neutralized via TRIM21, even when affinity was reduced by as much as 100-fold. In contrast, induction of NF-κB signaling was more sensitive to reduced affinity between TRIM21 and the Ab variants. Thus, TRIM21 mediates neutralization under suboptimal conditions, whereas induction of immune signaling is balanced according to the functional affinity for the incoming immune stimuli. Our findings have implications for engineering of antiviral IgG therapeutics with tailored effector functions. PMID:26962230

  12. TRIM21 Ubiquitylates SQSTM1/p62 and Suppresses Protein Sequestration to Regulate Redox Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ji-An; Sun, Yu; Jiang, Ya-Ping; Bott, Alex J; Jaber, Nadia; Dou, Zhixun; Yang, Bin; Chen, Juei-Suei; Catanzaro, Joseph M; Du, Chunying; Ding, Wen-Xing; Diaz-Meco, Maria T; Moscat, Jorge; Ozato, Keiko; Lin, Richard Z; Zong, Wei-Xing

    2016-03-01

    TRIM21 is a RING finger domain-containing ubiquitin E3 ligase whose expression is elevated in autoimmune disease. While TRIM21 plays an important role in immune activation during pathogen infection, little is known about its inherent cellular function. Here we show that TRIM21 plays an essential role in redox regulation by directly interacting with SQSTM1/p62 and ubiquitylating p62 at lysine 7 (K7) via K63-linkage. As p62 oligomerizes and sequesters client proteins in inclusions, the TRIM21-mediated p62 ubiquitylation abrogates p62 oligomerization and sequestration of proteins including Keap1, a negative regulator of antioxidant response. TRIM21-deficient cells display an enhanced antioxidant response and reduced cell death in response to oxidative stress. Genetic ablation of TRIM21 in mice confers protection from oxidative damages caused by arsenic-induced liver insult and pressure overload heart injury. Therefore, TRIM21 plays an essential role in p62-regulated redox homeostasis and may be a viable target for treating pathological conditions resulting from oxidative damage. PMID:26942676

  13. TRIM8 anti-proliferative action against chemo-resistant renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gigante, Margherita; Aiello, Italia; Mastropasqua, Francesca; Marzano, Flaviana; Ditonno, Pasquale; Carrieri, Giuseppe; Simonnet, Hélène; D'Erchia, Anna Maria; Ranieri, Elena; Pesole, Graziano; Sbisà, Elisabetta; Tullo, Apollonia

    2014-01-01

    In some tumours, despite a wild-type p53 gene, the p53 pathway is inactivated by alterations in its regulators or by unknown mechanisms, leading to resistance to cytotoxic therapies. Understanding the mechanisms of functional inactivation of wild-type p53 in these tumours may help to define prospective targets for treating cancer by restoring p53 activity. Recently, we identified TRIM8 as a new p53 modulator, which stabilizes p53 impairing its association with MDM2 and inducing the reduction of cell proliferation. In this paper we demonstrated that TRIM8 deficit dramatically impairs p53-mediated cellular responses to chemotherapeutic drugs and that TRIM8 is down regulated in patients affected by clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC), an aggressive drug-resistant cancer showing wild-type p53. These results suggest that down regulation of TRIM8 might be an alternative way to suppress p53 activity in RCC. Interestingly, we show that TRIM8 expression recovery in RCC cell lines renders these cells sensitive to chemotherapeutic treatments following p53 pathway re-activation. These findings provide the first mechanistic link between TRIM8 and the drug resistance of ccRCC and suggest more generally that TRIM8 could be used as enhancer of the chemotherapy efficacy in cancers where p53 is wild-type and its pathway is defective. PMID:25277184

  14. Unique spectrum of activity of prosimian TRIM5alpha against exogenous and endogenous retroviruses.

    PubMed

    Rahm, Nadia; Yap, Melvyn; Snoeck, Joke; Zoete, Vincent; Muñoz, Miguel; Radespiel, Ute; Zimmermann, Elke; Michielin, Olivier; Stoye, Jonathan P; Ciuffi, Angela; Telenti, Amalio

    2011-05-01

    Lentiviruses, the genus of retrovirus that includes HIV-1, rarely endogenize. Some lemurs uniquely possess an endogenous lentivirus called PSIV ("prosimian immunodeficiency virus"). Thus, lemurs provide the opportunity to study the activity of host defense factors, such as TRIM5α, in the setting of germ line invasion. We characterized the activities of TRIM5α proteins from two distant lemurs against exogenous retroviruses and a chimeric PSIV. TRIM5α from gray mouse lemur, which carries PSIV in its genome, exhibited the narrowest restriction activity. One allelic variant of gray mouse lemur TRIM5α restricted only N-tropic murine leukemia virus (N-MLV), while a second variant restricted N-MLV and, uniquely, B-tropic MLV (B-MLV); both variants poorly blocked PSIV. In contrast, TRIM5α from ring-tailed lemur, which does not contain PSIV in its genome, revealed one of the broadest antiviral activities reported to date against lentiviruses, including PSIV. Investigation into the antiviral specificity of ring-tailed lemur TRIM5α demonstrated a major contribution of a 32-amino-acid expansion in variable region 2 (v2) of the B30.2/SPRY domain to the breadth of restriction. Data on lemur TRIM5α and the prediction of ancestral simian sequences hint at an evolutionary scenario where antiretroviral specificity is prominently defined by the lineage-specific expansion of the variable loops of B30.2/SPRY. PMID:21345948

  15. TRIM3 Regulates the Motility of the Kinesin Motor Protein KIF21B

    PubMed Central

    Labonté, Dorthe; Thies, Edda; Pechmann, Yvonne; Groffen, Alexander J.; Verhage, Matthijs; Smit, August B.; van Kesteren, Ronald E.; Kneussel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) are molecular motors that transport cellular cargo along the microtubule cytoskeleton. KIF21B is a neuronal kinesin that is highly enriched in dendrites. The regulation and specificity of microtubule transport involves the binding of motors to individual cargo adapters and accessory proteins. Moreover, posttranslational modifications of either the motor protein, their cargos or tubulin regulate motility, cargo recognition and the binding or unloading of cargos. Here we show that the ubiquitin E3 ligase TRIM3, also known as BERP, interacts with KIF21B via its RBCC domain. TRIM3 is found at intracellular and Golgi-derived vesicles and co-localizes with the KIF21B motor in neurons. Trim3 gene deletion in mice and TRIM3 overexpression in cultured neurons both suggested that the E3-ligase function of TRIM3 is not involved in KIF21B degradation, however TRIM3 depletion reduces the motility of the motor. Together, our data suggest that TRIM3 is a regulator in the modulation of KIF21B motor function. PMID:24086586

  16. TRIM3 regulates the motility of the kinesin motor protein KIF21B.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Dorthe; Thies, Edda; Pechmann, Yvonne; Groffen, Alexander J; Verhage, Matthijs; Smit, August B; van Kesteren, Ronald E; Kneussel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) are molecular motors that transport cellular cargo along the microtubule cytoskeleton. KIF21B is a neuronal kinesin that is highly enriched in dendrites. The regulation and specificity of microtubule transport involves the binding of motors to individual cargo adapters and accessory proteins. Moreover, posttranslational modifications of either the motor protein, their cargos or tubulin regulate motility, cargo recognition and the binding or unloading of cargos. Here we show that the ubiquitin E3 ligase TRIM3, also known as BERP, interacts with KIF21B via its RBCC domain. TRIM3 is found at intracellular and Golgi-derived vesicles and co-localizes with the KIF21B motor in neurons. Trim3 gene deletion in mice and TRIM3 overexpression in cultured neurons both suggested that the E3-ligase function of TRIM3 is not involved in KIF21B degradation, however TRIM3 depletion reduces the motility of the motor. Together, our data suggest that TRIM3 is a regulator in the modulation of KIF21B motor function. PMID:24086586

  17. Caging the beast: TRIM5α binding to the HIV-1 core.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Griffero, Felipe

    2011-05-01

    The potent HIV-1 inhibitor TRIM5α blocks HIV-1 infection by accelerating the uncoating of HIV-1. TRIM5α is known to form higher-order self-association complexes that contribute to the avidity of TRIM5α for the HIV-1 capsid, and are essential to inhibit infection; these higher-order self-association complexes are dependent upon an intact B-box 2 domain. Even though the ability to form higher-order self-association complexes resembles the clathrin triskelion that forms a protein array, or cage, around the endocytic vesicle, evidence for the ability of TRIM5α to assemble a similar type of structure surrounding the HIV-1 core has been lacking. Recent work by Ganser-Pornillos, Chandrasekaran and colleagues has now demonstrated the ability of the restriction factor TRIM5α to "cage" or "net" the HIV-1 core by forming an hexagonal array on the surface of the viral capsid. This hexagonal array is strikingly similar in design to the array formed by the clathrin triskelion on the surface of the clathrin-coated endocytic vesicle. This remarkable finding represents an important advance on our understanding of the restriction factor TRIM5α, and suggests that TRIM5α cages the HIV-1 core in order to terminate infection. The present note discusses the implications of this discovery. PMID:21994740

  18. Oxygenated Phosphine Fumigation for Control of Light Brown Apple Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Eggs on Cut-Flowers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Samuel S; Liu, Yong-Biao; Simmons, Gregory S

    2015-08-01

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), eggs were subjected to oxygenated phosphine fumigation treatments under 70% oxygen on cut flowers to determine efficacy and safety. Five cut flower species: roses, lilies, tulips, gerbera daisy, and pompon chrysanthemums, were fumigated in separate groups with 2,500 ppm phosphine for 72 h at 5°C. Egg mortality and postharvest quality of cut flowers were determined after fumigation. Egg mortalities of 99.7-100% were achieved among the cut flower species. The treatment was safe to all cut flowers except gerbera daisy. A 96-h fumigation treatment with 2,200 ppm phosphine of eggs on chrysanthemums cut flowers also did not achieve complete control of light brown apple moth eggs. A simulation of fumigation in hermetically sealed fumigation chambers with gerbera daisy showed significant accumulations of carbon dioxide and ethylene by the end of 72-h sealing. However, oxygenated phosphine fumigations with carbon dioxide and ethylene absorbents did not reduce the injury to gerbera daisy, indicating that it is likely that phosphine may directly cause the injury to gerbera daisy cut flowers. The study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation is effective against light brown apple moth eggs. However, it may not be able to achieve the probit9 quarantine level of control and the treatment was safe to most of the cut flower species. PMID:26470303

  19. Rhesus TRIM5α Disrupts the HIV-1 Capsid at the Inter­Hexamer Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Gongpu; Ke, Danxia; Vu, Thomas; Ahn, Jinwoo; Shah, Vaibhav B.; Yang, Ruifeng; Aiken, Christopher; Charlton, Lisa M.; Gronenborn, Angela M.; Zhang, Peijun

    2011-01-01

    TRIM proteins play important roles in the innate immune defense against retroviral infection, including human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Rhesus macaque TRIM5α (TRIM5αrh) targets the HIV-1 capsid and blocks infection at an early post-entry stage, prior to reverse transcription. Studies have shown that binding of TRIM5α to the assembled capsid is essential for restriction and requires the coiled-coil and B30.2/SPRY domains, but the molecular mechanism of restriction is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated, by cryoEM combined with mutagenesis and chemical cross-linking, the direct interactions between HIV-1 capsid protein (CA) assemblies and purified TRIM5αrh containing coiled-coil and SPRY domains (CC-SPRYrh). Concentration-dependent binding of CC-SPRYrh to CA assemblies was observed, while under equivalent conditions the human protein did not bind. Importantly, CC-SPRYrh, but not its human counterpart, disrupted CA tubes in a non-random fashion, releasing fragments of protofilaments consisting of CA hexamers without dissociation into monomers. Furthermore, such structural destruction was prevented by inter-hexamer crosslinking using P207C/T216C mutant CA with disulfide bonds at the CTD-CTD trimer interface of capsid assemblies, but not by intra-hexamer crosslinking via A14C/E45C at the NTD-NTD interface. The same disruption effect by TRIM5αrh on the inter-hexamer interfaces also occurred with purified intact HIV-1 cores. These results provide insights concerning how TRIM5α disrupts the virion core and demonstrate that structural damage of the viral capsid by TRIM5α is likely one of the important components of the mechanism of TRIM5α-mediated HIV-1 restriction. PMID:21455494

  20. Rhesus TRIM5α disrupts the HIV-1 capsid at the inter-hexamer interfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gongpu; Ke, Danxia; Vu, Thomas; Ahn, Jinwoo; Shah, Vaibhav B; Yang, Ruifeng; Aiken, Christopher; Charlton, Lisa M; Gronenborn, Angela M; Zhang, Peijun

    2011-03-01

    TRIM proteins play important roles in the innate immune defense against retroviral infection, including human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Rhesus macaque TRIM5α (TRIM5α(rh)) targets the HIV-1 capsid and blocks infection at an early post-entry stage, prior to reverse transcription. Studies have shown that binding of TRIM5α to the assembled capsid is essential for restriction and requires the coiled-coil and B30.2/SPRY domains, but the molecular mechanism of restriction is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated, by cryoEM combined with mutagenesis and chemical cross-linking, the direct interactions between HIV-1 capsid protein (CA) assemblies and purified TRIM5α(rh) containing coiled-coil and SPRY domains (CC-SPRY(rh)). Concentration-dependent binding of CC-SPRY(rh) to CA assemblies was observed, while under equivalent conditions the human protein did not bind. Importantly, CC-SPRY(rh), but not its human counterpart, disrupted CA tubes in a non-random fashion, releasing fragments of protofilaments consisting of CA hexamers without dissociation into monomers. Furthermore, such structural destruction was prevented by inter-hexamer crosslinking using P207C/T216C mutant CA with disulfide bonds at the CTD-CTD trimer interface of capsid assemblies, but not by intra-hexamer crosslinking via A14C/E45C at the NTD-NTD interface. The same disruption effect by TRIM5α(rh) on the inter-hexamer interfaces also occurred with purified intact HIV-1 cores. These results provide insights concerning how TRIM5α disrupts the virion core and demonstrate that structural damage of the viral capsid by TRIM5α is likely one of the important components of the mechanism of TRIM5α-mediated HIV-1 restriction. PMID:21455494

  1. What processes control the oxygen isotopes of soil bio-available phosphate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Avner; Angert, Alon

    2015-06-01

    The biological availability of phosphorus (P) is considered to be the limiting factor for plant growth in many natural and agricultural soils. Recent studies demonstrated that valuable information on soil P dynamics can be gained from the stable oxygen isotopes of soil phosphate (δ18OP). However, to interpret this information correctly, our understanding of the processes that controls soil phosphate δ18OP values needs to be improved since most of the current data is based primarily on laboratory studies of pure microbial cultures and enzymatic assays and may not be relevant to soils. Here we designed a series of controlled soil incubation experiments to study the actual isotopic effects induced by abiotic reactions, biological uptake, microbial turnover and organic-P mineralization on soil phosphate δ18OP values. We used this data to estimate the role of these processes in mediating soil P availability. Our study was conducted on Mediterranean soils sampled from the same site during winter, spring and summer. The soils were incubated with various mineral and organic-P compounds and their bioavailable phosphate concentrations and δ18OP values were measured. We confirmed that the role of abiotic reactions on phosphate δ18OP values was negligible and that the δ18OP values of the added phosphate were rapidly driven towards isotopic equilibrium with soil water. We suggest this process was mediated by rapid microbial phosphate turnover. Yet, we did not detect the expected isotopic enrichment effect associated with phosphate biological uptake. In another set of incubation experiments we demonstrated that mineralization of phosphate from organic compounds, such as phospho-mono-ester (PME) and phosphor-di-ester (PDE), produced an offset from isotopic equilibrium, as a result of the strong isotopic fractionation associated with the mineralization process. However, the δ18OP values recorded by the mineralized phosphate were gradually driven back towards isotopic

  2. The Stroke Oxygen Study (SO2S) - a multi-center, study to assess whether routine oxygen treatment in the first 72 hours after a stroke improves long-term outcome: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mild hypoxia is common in stroke patients and may have significant adverse effects on the ischemic brain after stroke. The use of oxygen treatment is rapidly increasing in European stroke units but is not without side effects. It impedes early mobilization, could pose an infection risk, and may encourage the formation of toxic free radicals, leading to further damage to the ischemic brain. In the Stroke Oxygen Pilot Study (2 or 3 L/min for 72 hours) neurological recovery at one week was better in the oxygen group than in controls, and after correction for difference in baseline stroke severity and prognostic factors, there was a trend to better outcome with oxygen at six months. Oxygen was as effective in mild as in severe strokes. Oxygen saturation is lower at night than during the day, and episodes of oxygen desaturation are common during sleep. Nocturnal oxygen supplementation is likely to reduce the burden of hypoxia without interfering with daytime mobilization and rehabilitation. Before wider use of oxygen supplementation becomes established it is important to obtain better evidence on which patients benefit from such treatment. Methods Participants will be randomized to one of three groups: the first will receive continuous oxygen for 72 hours (at a rate of 2 or 3 L/min depending on baseline oxygen saturation), the second group will receive nocturnal oxygen only (at a rate of 2 or 3 L/min depending on baseline oxygen saturation) and the third group will not receive any oxygen (control). A baseline assessment is performed at randomization and a one-week follow-up completed. Outcome data at three, six and twelve months will be obtained via a questionnaire sent to the patient by the trial center. Discussion This study will provide evidence on the effectiveness of oxygen supplementation for the treatment of stroke and whether nocturnal oxygen is a potentially beneficial therapy regimen. Trial registration This trial is registered with the ISRCTN

  3. Transdermal Wound Oxygen Therapy on Pressure Ulcer Healing: A Single-Blind Multi-Center Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Azimian, Jalil; Dehghan Nayeri, Nahid; Pourkhaleghi, Enis; Ansari, Monireh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although healthcare quality has considerably improved in many countries, pressure ulcer is still a major health challenge worldwide. Objectives: The current study aimed to evaluate the effects of TWOT on the healing of pressure ulcers. Patients and Methods: This study was a randomized controlled trial, and the convenient sample including 100 patients hospitalized in two university-affiliated medical-surgical intensive care units and one neurology unit located in Qazvin, Iran were studied. Patients with stage II-IV pressure ulcer on the sacral or ischial areas were randomly assigned to either the control or the experimental groups. The experimental group received a 12-day transdermal wound oxygen therapy. Wound status was assessed seven times before the intervention, as well as two, four, six, eight, ten, and twelve days after the intervention. Results: After 12 days of wound oxygen therapy, the number of patients with complete wound healing in the experimental group was significantly greater than that of the control group. Moreover, the total mean of wound area in the experimental group was significantly lower than that of the control group. Conclusions: Transdermal wound oxygen therapy can effectively promote wound healing in patients with pressure ulcers. PMID:26734476

  4. TRIM56 Is a Virus- and Interferon-Inducible E3 Ubiquitin Ligase That Restricts Pestivirus Infection ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Liu, Baoming; Wang, Nan; Lee, Young-Min; Liu, Chunming; Li, Kui

    2011-01-01

    The tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family comprises more than 60 members that have diverse functions in various biological processes. Although a small number of TRIM proteins have been shown to regulate innate immunity, much remains to be learned about the functions of the majority of the TRIM proteins. Here we identify TRIM56 as a cellular protein associated with the N-terminal protease (Npro) of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), a pestiviral interferon antagonist which degrades interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) through the proteasome. We found that TRIM56 was constitutively expressed in most tissues, and its abundance was further upregulated moderately by interferon or virus. The manipulation of TRIM56 abundance did not affect the protein turnover of Npro and IRF3. Rather, ectopic expression of TRIM56 substantially impaired, while knockdown of TRIM56 expression greatly enhanced, BVDV replication in cell culture. The antiviral activity of TRIM56 depended on its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity as well as the integrity of its C-terminal region but was not attributed to a general augmentation of the interferon antiviral response. Overexpression of TRIM56 did not inhibit the replication of vesicular stomatitis virus or hepatitis C virus, a virus closely related to BVDV. Together, our data demonstrate that TRIM56 is a novel antiviral host factor that restricts pestivirus infection. PMID:21289118

  5. TRIM13 Is a Negative Regulator of MDA5-Mediated Type I Interferon Production

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Kavitha; Waggoner, Lisa; Pham, Serena T.; Hendricks, Gabriel L.; Waggoner, Stephen N.; Conlon, Joseph; Wang, Jennifer P.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) are essential intracellular detectors of viral RNA. They contribute to the type I interferon (IFN) response that is crucial for host defense against viral infections. Given the potent antiviral and proinflammatory activities elicited by the type I IFNs, induction of the type I IFN response is tightly regulated. Members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family of proteins have recently emerged as key regulators of antiviral immunity. We show that TRIM13, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is expressed in immune cells and is upregulated in bone marrow-derived macrophages upon stimulation with inducers of type I IFN. TRIM13 interacts with MDA5 and negatively regulates MDA5-mediated type I IFN production in vitro, acting upstream of IFN regulatory factor 3. We generated Trim13−/− mice and show that upon lethal challenge with encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), which is sensed by MDA5, Trim13−/− mice produce increased amounts of type I IFNs and survive longer than wild-type mice. Trim13−/− murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) challenged with EMCV or poly(I·C) also show a significant increase in beta IFN (IFN-β) levels, but, in contrast, IFN-β responses to the RIG-I-detected Sendai virus were diminished, suggesting that TRIM13 may play a role in positively regulating RIG-I function. Together, these results demonstrate that TRIM13 regulates the type I IFN response through inhibition of MDA5 activity and that it functions nonredundantly to modulate MDA5 during EMCV infection. IMPORTANCE The type I interferon (IFN) response is crucial for host defense against viral infections, and proper regulation of this pathway contributes to maintaining immune homeostasis. Retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) and melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) are intracellular detectors of viral RNA that induce the type I IFN response. In this study, we show that expression of the

  6. Lower Restrictions for Sheet Metal Trimming Processes can Reduce Die Costs in The Automotive Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogg, Markus; Rohleder, Martin; Roll, Karl

    2011-05-01

    To reduce costs of trimming dies influencing parameters of the shearing process were identified, new technical approaches for a more cost efficient die design were developed, and comprehensive investigations on a sample tool were done. These approaches will be verified on a trimming die in series production. If this pilot application is successful, many sheet metal forming parts can be trimmed by less die investment in the future. In the automotive industry complex sheet metal forming parts are often trimmed by shearing. Ideally this shearing is done with a 90° angle between the cutting edge and the part surface. Because of complex part geometry different angles always occur. Often shearing angles and the effective sheet thickness increases so much that trimming in the working direction of the press machine is not possible anymore. In these cases sliding cams have to be used. That makes trimming dies expensive and maintenance intensive. For reliable trimming a good understanding of the process and its limitations is necessary. By not considering these limitations the tool can fail after a few operations or/and the resulting edge of the sheet metal part is no longer acceptable. In worst case a new tool has to be built or at least must be reworked. In operational practice so far only empirical values about limitations are known. The stability limit for trimming is not known for all shearing angles and for new high-strength materials. Therefore detailed investigations were done on a sample tool to determine these stability limits for different materials and shearing angles. The basis for starting these principle investigations was empirical values from operational practise. By using a high-quality material and a completely new shape for the trimming die elements both the reliable processable effective sheet thickness respectively the shearing angle as well as the acting forces could be optimized. In the basic investigations trimming in one direction was often still

  7. Development of the SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) trim coil beam tube assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Skaritka, J.; Kelly, E.; Schneider, W.; Shutt, R.; Thompson, P.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Bintinger, D.; Coluccio, R.; Schieber, L.

    1987-01-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider uses approx. =9600 dipole magnets. The magnets have been carefully designed to exhibit minimal magnetic field harmonics. However, because of superconductor magnetization effects, iron saturation and conductor/coil positioning errors, certain harmonic errors are possible and must be corrected by use of multipole correctors called trim coils. For the most efficient use of axial space in the magnet, and lowest possible current, a distributed internal correction coil design is planned. The trim coil assembly is secured to the beam tube, a uhv tube with special strength, size, conductivity and vacuum. The report details the SSC trim coil/beam tube assembly specifications, history, and ongoing development.

  8. Influence of perioperative oxygen fraction on pulmonary function after abdominal surgery: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A high perioperative inspiratory oxygen fraction (FiO2) may reduce the frequency of surgical site infection. Perioperative atelectasis is caused by absorption, compression and reduced function of surfactant. It is well accepted, that ventilation with 100% oxygen for only a few minutes is associated with significant formation of atelectasis. However, it is still not clear if a longer period of 80% oxygen results in more atelectasis compared to a low FiO2. Our aim was to assess if a high FiO2 is associated with impaired oxygenation and decreased pulmonary functional residual capacity (FRC). Methods Thirty-five patients scheduled for laparotomy for ovarian cancer were randomized to receive either 30% oxygen (n = 15) or 80% oxygen (n = 20) during and for 2 h after surgery. The oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2) was measured every 30 min during anesthesia and 90 min after extubation. FRC was measured the day before surgery and 2 h after extubation by a rebreathing method using the inert gas SF6. Results Five min after intubation, the median PaO2/FiO2 was 69 kPa [53-71] in the 30%-group vs. 60 kPa [47-69] in the 80%-group (P = 0.25). At the end of anesthesia, the PaO2/FiO2 was 58 kPa [40-70] vs. 57 kPa [46-67] in the 30%- and 80%-group, respectively (P = 0.10). The median FRC was 1993 mL [1610-2240] vs. 1875 mL [1545-2048] at baseline and 1615 mL [1375-2318] vs. 1633 mL [1343-1948] postoperatively in the 30%- and 80%-group, respectively (P = 0.70). Conclusion We found no significant difference in oxygenation index or functional residual capacity between patients given 80% and 30% oxygen for a period of approximately 5 hours. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00637936. PMID:22840231

  9. Control of Nano-Structure of Photocatalytic TiO2 Films by Oxygen Ion Assisted Glancing Angle Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshi, Yoichi; Yasuda, Yoji; Kitahara, Naoto

    2013-11-01

    Control of the nano-structure of TiO2 photocatalytic films by a glancing angle deposition was investigated using an oxygen ion assisted reactive evaporation (OARE) system. The porosity of the film was increased as the incidence angle of Ti vapor increased, and films with clearly separated columnar grains were obtained at an incident angle above 60°. The increase in the porosity led to a significant decrease in UV reflectance and the film deposited at 60° had a large UV absorptance above 80% at 300 nm. The photocatalytic performance of the film, however, did not improve remarkably, since the crystallinity of the film was degraded by the deposition at a high incidence angle above 60°. To improve the crystallinity of the film, control of energy of the incident oxygen ions was attempted. However, only a slight improvement of photocatalytic properties was observed.

  10. p62/Sequestosome-1 Associates with and Sustains the Expression of Retroviral Restriction Factor TRIM5α▿ †

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Christopher; Pertel, Thomas; Gray, Seth; Robia, Seth L.; Bakowska, Joanna C.; Luban, Jeremy; Campbell, Edward M.

    2010-01-01

    TRIM5 proteins mediate a potent block to the cross-species transmission of retroviruses, the most well known being the TRIM5α protein from rhesus macaques, which potently inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. This restriction occurs at an early stage in the replication cycle and is mediated by the binding of TRIM5 proteins to determinants present in the retroviral capsid. TRIM5α, as well as other TRIM family proteins, has been shown to be regulated by interferons (IFN). Here we show that TRIM5α associates with another IFN-induced gene, sequestosome-1/p62 (p62). p62 plays a role in several signal transduction cascades that are important for maintaining the antiviral state of cells. Here we demonstrate that p62 localizes to both human and rhesus macaque TRIM5α cytoplasmic bodies, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis demonstrates that these proteins closely associate in these structures. When p62 expression was knocked down via small interfering RNA (siRNA), the number of TRIM5α cytoplasmic bodies and the level of TRIM5α protein expression were reduced in cell lines stably expressing epitope-tagged versions of TRIM5α. In accordance with these data, p62 knockdown resulted in reduced TRIM5α-mediated retroviral restriction in cells expressing epitope-tagged TRIM5α or expressing endogenously expressed human TRIM5α. p62 may therefore operate to enhance TRIM5α-mediated retroviral restriction, contributing to the antiviral state of cells following IFN treatment. PMID:20357094

  11. Atomic oxygen effects on thermal control and mirror coatings: Evaluation of experiment A0034

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linton, Roger C.

    1992-01-01

    Evaluation of the degradation attributed to contamination of the collector mirrors in Experiment A0034, which were exposed to an earth orbital environment while on the leading and trailing edges of the LDEF, has provided some evidence for outgassing of coatings stimulated by atomic oxygen. Effects of the natural space environment on the coatings and mirrors, including the effects of incident and re-directed atomic oxygen flux, were investigated. The effects of exposure on the coatings and mirrors were evaluated by optical, surface profiling, chemical, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. Preliminary results of these analyses are discussed for application to both the issues of mirror and coating stability and the specific issue of atomic oxygen stimulated outgassing.

  12. Virulence Factor SenX3 Is the Oxygen-Controlled Replication Switch of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Nisha

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aim: Morphogenetic switching between the replicating and nonreplicating states of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is regulated by oxygen, nitric oxide, and carbon monoxide levels. The mechanisms by which M. tuberculosis senses these diatomic gases remain poorly understood. In this study, we have examined whether virulence factor SenX3 plays any role in oxygen sensing. Results: In this study, we demonstrate that the virulence factor SenX3 is a heme protein that acts as a three-way sensor with three levels of activity. The oxidation of SenX3 heme by oxygen leads to the activation of its kinase activity, whereas the deoxy-ferrous state confers a moderate kinase activity. The binding of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide inhibits kinase activity. Consistent with these biochemical properties, the SenX3 mutant of M. tuberculosis is capable of attaining a nonreplicating persistent state in response to hypoxic stress, but its regrowth on the restoration of ambient oxygen levels is significantly attenuated compared with the wild-type and the complemented mutant strains. Furthermore, the presence of signaling concentrations of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide was able to inhibit the regrowth of M. tuberculosis in response to ambient oxygen levels. Innovation and Conclusions: Evidence presented in this study delineates a plausible mechanism explaining the oxygen-induced reactivation of tuberculosis diseases in humans after many years of latent infection. Furthermore, this study implicates nitric oxide and carbon monoxide in the inhibition of mycobacterial growth from the nonreplicating state. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 22, 603–613. PMID:25333974

  13. Designing a Microfluidic Device with Integrated Ratiometric Oxygen Sensors for the Long-Term Control and Monitoring of Chronic and Cyclic Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Grist, Samantha M.; Schmok, Jonathan C.; Liu, Meng-Chi (Andy); Chrostowski, Lukas; Cheung, Karen C.

    2015-01-01

    Control of oxygen over cell cultures in vitro is a topic of considerable interest, as chronic and cyclic hypoxia can alter cell behaviour. Both static and transient hypoxic levels have been found to affect tumour cell behaviour; it is potentially valuable to include these effects in early, in vitro stages of drug screening. A barrier to their inclusion is that rates of transient hypoxia can be a few cycles/hour, which is difficult to reproduce in traditional in vitro cell culture environments due to long diffusion distances from control gases to the cells. We use a gas-permeable three-layer microfluidic device to achieve spatial and temporal oxygen control with biologically-relevant switching times. We measure the oxygen profiles with integrated, ratiometric optical oxygen sensors, demonstrate sensor and system stability over multi-day experiments, and characterize a pre-bleaching process to improve sensor stability. We show, with both finite-element modelling and experimental data, excellent control over the oxygen levels by the device, independent of fluid flow rate and oxygenation for the operating flow regime. We measure equilibration times of approximately 10 min, generate complex, time-varying oxygen profiles, and study the effects of oxygenated media flow rates on the measured oxygen levels. This device could form a useful tool for future long-term studies of cell behaviour under hypoxia. PMID:26287202

  14. Designing a Microfluidic Device with Integrated Ratiometric Oxygen Sensors for the Long-Term Control and Monitoring of Chronic and Cyclic Hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Grist, Samantha M; Schmok, Jonathan C; Liu, Meng-Chi Andy; Chrostowski, Lukas; Cheung, Karen C

    2015-01-01

    Control of oxygen over cell cultures in vitro is a topic of considerable interest, as chronic and cyclic hypoxia can alter cell behaviour. Both static and transient hypoxic levels have been found to affect tumour cell behaviour; it is potentially valuable to include these effects in early, in vitro stages of drug screening. A barrier to their inclusion is that rates of transient hypoxia can be a few cycles/hour, which is difficult to reproduce in traditional in vitro cell culture environments due to long diffusion distances from control gases to the cells. We use a gas-permeable three-layer microfluidic device to achieve spatial and temporal oxygen control with biologically-relevant switching times. We measure the oxygen profiles with integrated, ratiometric optical oxygen sensors, demonstrate sensor and system stability over multi-day experiments, and characterize a pre-bleaching process to improve sensor stability. We show, with both finite-element modelling and experimental data, excellent control over the oxygen levels by the device, independent of fluid flow rate and oxygenation for the operating flow regime. We measure equilibration times of approximately 10 min, generate complex, time-varying oxygen profiles, and study the effects of oxygenated media flow rates on the measured oxygen levels. This device could form a useful tool for future long-term studies of cell behaviour under hypoxia. PMID:26287202

  15. Sliding mode control of dissolved oxygen in an integrated nitrogen removal process in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR).

    PubMed

    Muñoz, C; Young, H; Antileo, C; Bornhardt, C

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a sliding mode controller (SMC) for dissolved oxygen (DO) in an integrated nitrogen removal process carried out in a suspended biomass sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The SMC performance was compared against an auto-tuning PI controller with parameters adjusted at the beginning of the batch cycle. A method for cancelling the slow DO sensor dynamics was implemented by using a first order model of the sensor. Tests in a lab-scale reactor showed that the SMC offers a better disturbance rejection capability than the auto-tuning PI controller, furthermore providing reasonable performance in a wide range of operation. Thus, SMC becomes an effective robust nonlinear tool to the DO control in this process, being also simple from a computational point of view, allowing its implementation in devices such as industrial programmable logic controllers (PLCs). PMID:19923760

  16. 82. Neg. No. F66A, Apr 13, 1930, INTERIORASSEMBLY BUILDING, TRIM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    82. Neg. No. F-66A, Apr 13, 1930, INTERIOR-ASSEMBLY BUILDING, TRIM LINE AND GLASS DEPARTMENTS - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. A multi-patch nonsingular isogeometric boundary element method using trimmed elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yingjun; Benson, David J.; Nagy, Attila P.

    2015-07-01

    One of the major goals of isogeometric analysis is direct design-to-analysis, i.e., using computer-aided design (CAD) files for analysis without the need for mesh generation. One of the primary obstacles to achieving this goal is CAD models are based on surfaces, and not volumes. The boundary element method (BEM) circumvents this difficulty by directly working with the surfaces. The standard basis functions in CAD are trimmed nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS). NURBS patches are the tensor product of one-dimensional NURBS, making the construction of arbitrary surfaces difficult. Trimmed NURBS use curves to trim away regions of the patch to obtain the desired shape. By coupling trimmed NURBS with a nonsingular BEM, the formulation proposed here comes close achieving the goal of direct design to analysis. Example calculations demonstrate its efficiency and accuracy.

  18. 16. DETAIL OF 34TH STREET OVERPASS, SHOWING TRIM AND TILE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. DETAIL OF 34TH STREET OVERPASS, SHOWING TRIM AND TILE WORK. - Connecting Railway, Schuylkill River Bridge, Spanning Schuylkill River, north of Girard Avenue Bridge, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. Periodic trim solutions with hp-version finite elements in time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, David A.; Hou, Lin-Jun

    1990-01-01

    Finite elements in time as an alternative strategy for rotorcraft trim problems are studied. The research treats linear flap and linearized flap-lag response both for quasi-trim and trim cases. The connection between Fourier series analysis and hp-finite elements for periodic a problem is also examined. It is proved that Fourier series is a special case of space-time finite elements in which one element is used with a strong displacement formulation. Comparisons are made with respect to accuracy among Fourier analysis, displacement methods, and mixed methods over a variety parameters. The hp trade-off is studied for the periodic trim problem to provide an optimum step size and order of polynomial for a given error criteria. It is found that finite elements in time can outperform Fourier analysis for periodic problems, and for some given error criteria. The mixed method provides better results than does the displacement method.

  20. Discovery of a Chemical Tool Inhibitor Targeting the Bromodomains of TRIM24 and BRPF

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    TRIM24 is a transcriptional regulator as well as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. It is overexpressed in diverse tumors, and high expression levels have been linked to poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. TRIM24 contains a PHD/bromodomain offering the opportunity to develop protein interaction inhibitors that target this protein interaction module. Here we identified potent acetyl-lysine mimetic benzimidazolones TRIM24 bromodomain inhibitors. The best compound of this series is a selective BRPF1B/TRIM24 dual inhibitor that bound with a KD of 137 and 222 nM, respectively, but exerted good selectivity over other bromodomains. Cellular activity of the inhibitor was demonstrated using FRAP assays as well as cell viability data. PMID:25974391

  1. Discovery of a Chemical Tool Inhibitor Targeting the Bromodomains of TRIM24 and BRPF.

    PubMed

    Bennett, James; Fedorov, Oleg; Tallant, Cynthia; Monteiro, Octovia; Meier, Julia; Gamble, Vicky; Savitsky, Pavel; Nunez-Alonso, Graciela A; Haendler, Bernard; Rogers, Catherine; Brennan, Paul E; Müller, Susanne; Knapp, Stefan

    2016-02-25

    TRIM24 is a transcriptional regulator as well as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. It is overexpressed in diverse tumors, and high expression levels have been linked to poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. TRIM24 contains a PHD/bromodomain offering the opportunity to develop protein interaction inhibitors that target this protein interaction module. Here we identified potent acetyl-lysine mimetic benzimidazolones TRIM24 bromodomain inhibitors. The best compound of this series is a selective BRPF1B/TRIM24 dual inhibitor that bound with a KD of 137 and 222 nM, respectively, but exerted good selectivity over other bromodomains. Cellular activity of the inhibitor was demonstrated using FRAP assays as well as cell viability data. PMID:25974391

  2. Feasibility of Supersonic Aircraft Concepts for Low-Boom and Flight Trim Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Wu

    2015-01-01

    This paper documents a process for analyzing whether a particular supersonic aircraft configuration layout and a given cruise condition are feasible to achieve a trimmed low-boom design. This process was motivated by the need to know whether a particular configuration at a given cruise condition could be reshaped to satisfy both low-boom and flight trim constraints. Without such a process, much effort could be wasted on shaping a configuration layout at a cruise condition that could never satisfy both low-boom and flight trim constraints simultaneously. The process helps to exclude infeasible configuration layouts with minimum effort and allows a designer to develop trimmed low-boom concepts more effectively. A notional low-boom supersonic demonstrator concept is used to illustrate the analysis/design process.

  3. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for postharvest control of light brown apple moth on lettuce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postharvest treatment for light brown apple moth (LBAM), Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), is needed to safe guard domestic distribution and export of U.S. fresh fruits and vegetables including lettuce as the pest becomes established in California with risk of potential spread. Oxygenated phosphine fu...

  4. Novel pattern trimming and shrink material (PTM (PTD) and PSM (NTI)) for ArF/EUV extension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishita, Tokio; Sakamoto, Rikimaru

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, as next-generation lithography, various exposure techniques have been studied such as Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL), Directed Self Assembly (DSA) and multiple patterning processes. In particular, EUVL is the most promising candidate for the high volume manufacturing below N7 node. However, there are many problems to be solved such as materials, through put of the exposure tool and mask defect. With respect to the DSA, the fine patterning with block copolymer has been studied. But the DSA process also has the several problems such as the complicated process flow in chemo process, quality of the block copolymer and defect. On the other hand, although the multiple patterning has been applied the device manufacturing for several years, there are some problems such as significant increase in cost due to increasing of the process steps and the overlay accuracy at the multiple process steps. Therefore, Pattern Trimming Materials (PTM) and Pattern Shrink Materials (PSM) were developed for miniaturization using the current exposure technology. The PTM is applied on a resist pattern produced in a Positive Tone Development (PTD) process and trim the resist pattern. It is possible to control the trimming amount by changing the formulation and the baking process. It has been confirmed that the effectiveness of PTM is not only for the L/S pattern, but also for the 2D pattern like pillar pattern. At the same time, it is confirmed that the PTM can improve the Line Width Roughness (LWR) and Local Critical Dimension Uniformity (LCDU). On the other hand, the PSM is applied on the pattern prepared in a Negative Tone Imaging (NTI) process and then it can shrink the resist pattern after baking. We adopted the new concept for pattern shrinkage process which dramatically improved LCDU with the hole shrinkage. In this paper, we demonstrated the L/S and pillar pattern trimming by PTM and the C/H shrink by PSM with ArF immersion (ArF im) condition and EUV condition

  5. Reversible Control of Magnetism in La0.67 Sr0.33 MnO3 through Chemically-Induced Oxygen Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grutter, Alexander; Gilbert, Dustin; Maranville, Brian; Borchers, Julie; Kirby, Brian; Arenholz, Elke; Alaan, Urusa; Suzuki, Yuri; Liu, Kai

    There has been a surge of interest in controlling magnetism through oxygen migration for applications in hybrid ionic/magnetoelectric device architectures. With a rich magnetic and electronic phase diagram, the colossal magnetoresistive perovskite (La,Sr)MnO3 (LSMO) is an ideal candidate for achieving large modulations in magnetic properties with small changes in oxygen content. We demonstrate reversible control of magnetism in LSMO films through interfacial oxygen migration. Gd metal capping layers deposited onto LSMO leach oxygen from the film to form porous Gd2O3. X-ray absorption and polarized neutron reflectometry measurements show Mn valence alterations consistent with high oxygen vacancy concentrations, resulting in suppressed magnetization and increased coercive fields. Oxygen migration is observed both at the interface and also throughout the majority of a 40 nm thick film, suggesting extensive oxygen vacancy diffusion. After Gd-capped LSMO is exposed to atmospheric oxygen for a prolonged period of time, oxygen diffuses through the Gd2O3 layer and the magnetization of the LSMO returns to the uncapped value. These findings showcase perovskite heterostructures as ideal candidates for developing functional interfaces through chemically-induced oxygen migration.

  6. Nonoperative Damage Control: The Use of Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in Traumatic Bronchial Avulsion as a Bridge to Definitive Operation.

    PubMed

    Schmoekel, Nathan H; O'Connor, James V; Scalea, Thomas M

    2016-06-01

    The conventional treatment for an avulsed bronchus is emergent thoracotomy and repair or lobectomy. The principles of damage control thoracic operations include initial hemorrhage control with delayed definite repair after physiologic resuscitation. We report a multiply injured patient with avulsion of the left lower lobe bronchus. Profound acidosis, hypercarbia, and hypoxia precluded an emergent operation, and venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO) was used for organ support during physiologic resuscitation. After the achievement of physiologic repletion, a thoracotomy and lobectomy were performed while the patient was supported by V-V ECMO. PMID:27211954

  7. Oxygen controlled product formation in CCl{sub 4} dechlorination using zero-valent iron

    SciTech Connect

    Helland, B.R.; Alvarez, P.J.J.; Schnoor, J.L.

    1995-12-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}) was abiotically dechlorinated using zero-valent iron powder (Fe{sup o}) to yield chloroform (CHCl{sub 3}) and methylene chloride (CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}), which did not undergo further dechlorination. Dechlorination was rapid and approximated first-order kinetics in the range of concentrations tested (CCl{sub 4}: 1.5 to 5.5 {mu}M; Fe{sup o}: 1 to 10 g per 265 mL distilled deionized water). Initial dechlorination rate coefficients for anoxic batch reactors (0.290 {plus_minus} 0.009 hr{sup -1} for 1 g Fe{sup o}; 1.723 {plus_minus} 0.078 hr{sup -1} for 10 g Fe{sup o}) increased with iron surface area (initially 2.4 {plus_minus} 0.2 m{sup 2}/g). Dechlorination also occurred under oxic conditions, although rates were significantly slower (e.g., 0.085 {plus_minus} 0.041 hr{sup -1} for 1 g Fe{sup o} and 7.4 mg/L initial dissolved oxygen). Rate coefficients increased with time, probably due to an increase in reactive surface area from pitting and dissolution of the iron surface. A rapid pH increase was synchronous to dissolved oxygen consumption, and the pH remained constant after oxygen depletion. This was attributed to the proton and oxygen consuming aerobic corrosion of the Fe{sup o} surface. Recalcitrant CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} was decreased in the presence of dissolved oxygen, which reacted with dechlorinated intermediates to yield less environmentally onerous products such as formic acid and carbon monoxide.

  8. The WTX Tumor Suppressor Interacts with the Transcriptional Corepressor TRIM28*

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woo Jae; Wittner, Ben S.; Amzallag, Arnaud; Brannigan, Brian W.; Ting, David T.; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Haber, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    WTX encodes a tumor suppressor implicated in the pediatric kidney cancer Wilms tumor and in mesenchymal differentiation with potentially distinct functions in the cytoplasm, at the plasma membrane, and in the nucleus. Although modulating components of the WNT signaling pathway is a proposed function for cytoplasmic and membrane-bound WTX, its nuclear properties are not well understood. Here we report that the transcriptional corepressor TRIM28 is the major binding partner for nuclear WTX. WTX interacted with the coiled coil domain of TRIM28 required for its binding to Krüppel-associated box domains of transcription factors and for its chromatin recruitment through its own coiled coil and proline-rich domains. Knockdown of endogenous WTX reduced the recruitment of TRIM28 to a chromatinized reporter sequence and its ability to repress a target transcript. In mouse embryonic stem cells where TRIM28 plays a major role in repressing endogenous retroviruses and long interspersed elements, knockdown of either TRIM28 or WTX combined with single molecule RNA sequencing revealed a highly significant shared set of differentially regulated transcripts, including derepression of non-coding repetitive sequences and their neighboring protein encoding genes (p < 1e−20). In mesenchymal precursor cells, depletion of WTX and TRIM28 resulted in analogous β-catenin-independent defects in adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation, and knockdown of WTX reduced TRIM28 binding to Pparγ promoter. Together, the physical and functional interaction between WTX and TRIM28 suggests that the nuclear fraction of WTX plays a role in epigenetic silencing, an effect that may contribute to its function as a regulator of cellular differentiation and tumorigenesis. PMID:25882849

  9. Neuroanatomy-based matrix-guided trimming protocol for the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Defazio, Rossella; Criado, Ana; Zantedeschi, Valentina; Scanziani, Eugenio

    2015-02-01

    Brain trimming through defined neuroanatomical landmarks is recommended to obtain consistent sections in rat toxicity studies. In this article, we describe a matrix-guided trimming protocol that uses channels to reproduce coronal levels of anatomical landmarks. Both setup phase and validation study were performed on Han Wistar male rats (Crl:WI(Han)), 10-week-old, with bodyweight of 298 ± 29 (SD) g, using a matrix (ASI-Instruments(®), Houston, TX) fitted for brains of rats with 200 to 400 g bodyweight. In the setup phase, we identified eight channels, that is, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 19, and 21, matching the recommended landmarks midway to the optic chiasm, frontal pole, optic chiasm, infundibulum, mamillary bodies, midbrain, middle cerebellum, and posterior cerebellum, respectively. In the validation study, we trimmed the immersion-fixed brains of 60 rats using the selected channels to determine how consistently the channels reproduced anatomical landmarks. Percentage of success (i.e., presence of expected targets for each level) ranged from 89 to 100%. Where 100% success was not achieved, it was noted that the shift in brain trimming was toward the caudal pole. In conclusion, we developed and validated a trimming protocol for the rat brain that allow comparable extensiveness, homology, and relevance of coronal sections as the landmark-guided trimming with the advantage of being quickly learned by technicians. PMID:24947989

  10. Comparison of regional skeletal muscle tissue oxygenation in college athletes and sedentary control subjects using quantitative BOLD MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Stacy, Mitchel R; Caracciolo, Christopher M; Qiu, Maolin; Pal, Prasanta; Varga, Tyler; Constable, Robert Todd; Sinusas, Albert J

    2016-08-01

    Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging permits noninvasive assessment of tissue oxygenation. We hypothesized that BOLD imaging would allow for regional evaluation of differences in skeletal muscle oxygenation between athletes and sedentary control subjects, and dynamic BOLD responses to ischemia (i.e., proximal cuff occlusion) and reactive hyperemia (i.e., rapid cuff deflation) would relate to lower extremity function, as assessed by jumping ability. College football athletes (linemen, defensive backs/wide receivers) were compared to sedentary healthy controls. BOLD signal of the gastrocnemius, soleus, anterior tibialis, and peroneus longus was assessed for peak hyperemic value (PHV), time to peak (TTP), minimum ischemic value (MIV), and time to recovery (TTR). Significantly higher PHVs were identified in athletes versus controls for the gastrocnemius (linemen, 15.8 ± 9.1%; defensive backs/wide receivers, 17.9 ± 5.1%; controls, 7.4 ± 3.5%), soleus (linemen, 25.9 ± 11.5%; backs/receivers, 22.0 ± 9.4%; controls, 12.9 ± 5.8%), and anterior tibialis (linemen, 12.8 ± 5.3%; backs/receivers, 12.6 ± 3.9%; controls, 7.7 ± 4.0%), whereas no differences in PHV were found for the peroneus longus (linemen, 14.1 ± 6.9%; backs/receivers, 11.7 ± 4.6%; controls, 9.0 ± 4.9%). In all subject groups, the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles exhibited the lowest MIVs during cuff occlusion. No differences in TTR were found between muscles for any subject group. PHV of the gastrocnemius muscle was significantly and positively related to maximal vertical (r = 0.56, P = 0.002) and broad jump (r = 0.47, P = 0.01). These results suggest that BOLD MR imaging is a useful noninvasive tool for evaluating differences in tissue oxygenation of specific muscles between active and sedentary individuals, and peak BOLD responses may relate to functional capacity. PMID:27535483

  11. Upregulated TRIM29 promotes proliferation and metastasis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma via PTEN/AKT/mTOR signal pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jian; Zhang, Mei-Yin; Wang, Meng-He; Yang, Yang; Wang, Hui-Yun; Mai, Shi-Juan

    2016-01-01

    Tripartite motif–containing 29 (TRIM29) has been reported to be dysregulated in human cancers. Up-regulation of TRIM29 was first observed in NPC cell lines by a genome-wide transcriptome analysis in our previous study. However, its expression biological function and clinical significance in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remain unclear. In this study, TRIM29 expression was validated by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in 69 NPC samples. Notably, TRIM29 protein expression was significantly and positively correlated with the tumor size, clinical stage and metastasis. TRIM29 was identified as the direct target of miR-335-5p and miR-15b-5p, both of which were down-regulated and negatively associated with TRIM29 expression in NPC cell lines and clinical samples. Ectopic TRIM29 expression promoted proliferation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), migration and invasion in NPC cells, while its depletion inhibited cell invasion and EMT phenotype. Mechanistically, TRIM29 overexpression reduced PTEN expression and increase phosphorylated protein level of AKT, p70S6K and 4E-BP1. Correspondingly, AKT inhibitor and Rapamycin blocked the effect of TRIM29 on cell invasion. In conclusion, our results suggest that miR-335-5p and miR-15b-5p down-regulation results in TRIM29 over-expression, which induces proliferation, EMT and metastasis of NPC through the PTEN/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. PMID:26872369

  12. Identification and characterization of a nuclear localization signal of TRIM28 that overlaps with the HP1 box

    SciTech Connect

    Moriyama, Tetsuji; Sangel, Percival; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Obuse, Chikashi; Miyamoto, Yoichi; Oka, Masahiro; Yoneda, Yoshihiro

    2015-07-03

    Tripartite motif-containing 28 (TRIM28) is a transcription regulator, which forms a repressor complex containing heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1). Here, we report identification of a nuclear localization signal (NLS) within the 462-494 amino acid region of TRIM28 that overlaps with its HP1 binding site, HP1 box. GST-pulldown experiments revealed the interaction of the arginine-rich TRIM28 NLS with various importin α subtypes (α1, α2 and α4). In vitro transport assay demonstrated that nuclear localization of GFP-TRIM28 NLS is mediated by importin αs, in conjunction with importin β1 and Ran. Further, we demonstrated that HP1 and importin αs compete for binding to TRIM28. Together, our findings suggest that importin α has an essential role in the nuclear delivery and preferential HP1 interaction of TRIM28. - Highlights: • TRIM28 contains an NLS within the 462-494 amino acid region. • The nuclear import of TRIM28 is mediated by importin α/importin β1. • TRIM28 NLS overlaps with HP1 Box. • HP1 and importin α compete for binding to TRIM28.

  13. Controlled synthesis of a highly dispersed BiPO4 photocatalyst with surface oxygen vacancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhen; Liu, Yanfang; Wang, Jun; Zong, Ruilong; Yao, Wenqing; Wang, Juan; Zhu, Yongfa

    2015-08-01

    Highly dispersed BiPO4 with surface oxygen vacancies was synthesized via a solvothermal-calcination method. It can disperse uniformly in water for more than three days and the optimum photocatalytic activity of this highly dispersed BiPO4 was more than twice as high as that of Degussa P25 due to the oxygen vacancies. The high dispersibility is attributed to a layer of organic matter formed on the surface of BiPO4via the solvothermal approach. Most of the organic matter can be removed by calcination at 450 °C, but a small amount remains, thus the calcined BiPO4 retained its high dispersibility. This high dispersibility maintains a good contact between BiPO4 and the pollutants, resulting in the efficient removal of the pollutants by BiPO4. Besides, calcination at 450 °C also induced the formation of oxygen defects in BiPO4, which promotes the separation of photogenerated charge carriers and thus improves the photocatalytic activity of BiPO4.Highly dispersed BiPO4 with surface oxygen vacancies was synthesized via a solvothermal-calcination method. It can disperse uniformly in water for more than three days and the optimum photocatalytic activity of this highly dispersed BiPO4 was more than twice as high as that of Degussa P25 due to the oxygen vacancies. The high dispersibility is attributed to a layer of organic matter formed on the surface of BiPO4via the solvothermal approach. Most of the organic matter can be removed by calcination at 450 °C, but a small amount remains, thus the calcined BiPO4 retained its high dispersibility. This high dispersibility maintains a good contact between BiPO4 and the pollutants, resulting in the efficient removal of the pollutants by BiPO4. Besides, calcination at 450 °C also induced the formation of oxygen defects in BiPO4, which promotes the separation of photogenerated charge carriers and thus improves the photocatalytic activity of BiPO4. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr02345a

  14. Experimental and Computational Analysis of Shuttle Orbiter Hypersonic Trim Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Paulson, John W., Jr.; Weilmuenster, K. James

    1995-01-01

    During the high-Mach-number, high-altitude portion of the first entry of the Shuttle Orbiter, the vehicle exhibited a nose-up pitching moment relative to preflight prediction of approximately Delta Cm = 0.03. This trim anomaly has been postulated to be due to compressibility, viscous, and/or real-gas (lowered specific heat ratio gamma) effects on basic body pitching moment, body-flap effectiveness, or both. In order to assess the relative contribution of each of these effects, an experimental study was undertaken to examine the effects of Mach number, Reynolds number, and ratio of specific heats. Complementary computational solutions were obtained for wind-tunnel and flight conditions. The primary cause of the anomaly was determined to be lower pressures on the aft windward surface of the Orbiter than deduced from hypersonic wind-tunnel tests with ideal- or near-ideal-gas test flow. The lower pressure levels are a result of the lowering of the flowfield gamma due to high-temperature effects. This phenomenon was accurately simulated in a hypersonic wind tunnel using a heavy gas, which provided a lower, gamma, and was correctly predicted by Navier-Stokes computations using nonequilibrium chemistry.

  15. Claw length recommendations for dairy cow foot trimming

    PubMed Central

    Archer, S. C.; Newsome, R.; Dibble, H.; Sturrock, C. J.; Chagunda, M. G. G.; Mason, C. S.; Huxley, J. N.

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to describe variation in length of the dorsal hoof wall in contact with the dermis for cows on a single farm, and hence, derive minimum appropriate claw lengths for routine foot trimming. The hind feet of 68 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were collected post mortem, and the internal structures were visualised using x-ray µCT. The internal distance from the proximal limit of the wall horn to the distal tip of the dermis was measured from cross-sectional sagittal images. A constant was added to allow for a minimum sole thickness of 5 mm and an average wall thickness of 8 mm. Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics and two-level linear regression models with claw nested within cow. Based on 219 claws, the recommended dorsal wall length from the proximal limit of hoof horn was up to 90 mm for 96 per cent of claws, and the median value was 83 mm. Dorsal wall length increased by 1 mm per year of age, yet 85 per cent of the null model variance remained unexplained. Overtrimming can have severe consequences; the authors propose that the minimum recommended claw length stated in training materials for all Holstein-Friesian cows should be increased to 90 mm. PMID:26220848

  16. Claw length recommendations for dairy cow foot trimming.

    PubMed

    Archer, S C; Newsome, R; Dibble, H; Sturrock, C J; Chagunda, M G G; Mason, C S; Huxley, J N

    2015-09-01

    The aim was to describe variation in length of the dorsal hoof wall in contact with the dermis for cows on a single farm, and hence, derive minimum appropriate claw lengths for routine foot trimming. The hind feet of 68 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were collected post mortem, and the internal structures were visualised using x-ray µCT. The internal distance from the proximal limit of the wall horn to the distal tip of the dermis was measured from cross-sectional sagittal images. A constant was added to allow for a minimum sole thickness of 5 mm and an average wall thickness of 8 mm. Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics and two-level linear regression models with claw nested within cow. Based on 219 claws, the recommended dorsal wall length from the proximal limit of hoof horn was up to 90 mm for 96 per cent of claws, and the median value was 83 mm. Dorsal wall length increased by 1 mm per year of age, yet 85 per cent of the null model variance remained unexplained. Overtrimming can have severe consequences; the authors propose that the minimum recommended claw length stated in training materials for all Holstein-Friesian cows should be increased to 90 mm. PMID:26220848

  17. Controlled evaluation of the effects of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on the behavior of 16 children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Jepson, Bryan; Granpeesheh, Doreen; Tarbox, Jonathan; Olive, Melissa L; Stott, Carol; Braud, Scott; Yoo, J Helen; Wakefield, Andrew; Allen, Michael S

    2011-05-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been used to treat individuals with autism. However, few studies of its effectiveness have been completed. The current study examined the effects of 40 HBOT sessions at 24% oxygen at 1.3 ATA on 11 topographies of directly observed behavior. Five replications of multiple baselines were completed across a total of 16 participants with autism spectrum disorders. No consistent effects were observed across any group or within any individual participant, demonstrating that HBOT was not an effective treatment for the participants in this study. This study represents the first relatively large-scale controlled study evaluating the effects of HBOT at the level of the individual participant, on a wide array of behaviors. PMID:20680427

  18. The Oxygen Sensor PHD2 Controls Dendritic Spines and Synapses via Modification of Filamin A

    PubMed Central

    Segura, Inmaculada; Lange, Christian; Knevels, Ellen; Moskalyuk, Anastasiya; Pulizzi, Rocco; Eelen, Guy; Chaze, Thibault; Tudor, Cicerone; Boulegue, Cyril; Holt, Matthew; Daelemans, Dirk; Matondo, Mariette; Ghesquière, Bart; Giugliano, Michele; Ruiz de Almodovar, Carmen; Dewerchin, Mieke; Carmeliet, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Summary Neuronal function is highly sensitive to changes in oxygen levels, but how hypoxia affects dendritic spine formation and synaptogenesis is unknown. Here we report that hypoxia, chemical inhibition of the oxygen-sensing prolyl hydroxylase domain proteins (PHDs), and silencing of Phd2 induce immature filopodium-like dendritic protrusions, promote spine regression, reduce synaptic density, and decrease the frequency of spontaneous action potentials independently of HIF signaling. We identified the actin cross-linker filamin A (FLNA) as a target of PHD2 mediating these effects. In normoxia, PHD2 hydroxylates the proline residues P2309 and P2316 in FLNA, leading to von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. In hypoxia, PHD2 inactivation rapidly upregulates FLNA protein levels because of blockage of its proteasomal degradation. FLNA upregulation induces more immature spines, whereas Flna silencing rescues the immature spine phenotype induced by PHD2 inhibition. PMID:26972007

  19. Effect of Oxygen and Redox Potential on Glucose Fermentation in Thermotoga maritima under Controlled Physicochemical Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Lakhal, Raja; Auria, Richard; Davidson, Sylvain; Ollivier, Bernard; Dolla, Alain; Hamdi, Moktar; Combet-Blanc, Yannick

    2010-01-01

    Batch cultures of Thermotoga maritima were performed in a bioreactor equipped with instruments adapted for experiments performed at 80°C to mimic the fluctuating oxidative conditions in the hot ecosystems it inhabits. When grown anaerobically on glucose, T. maritima was shown to significantly decrease the redox potential (Eh) of the culture medium down to about −480 mV, as long as glucose was available. Addition of oxygen into T. maritima cultures during the stationary growth phase led to a drastic reduction in glucose consumption rate. However, although oxygen was toxic, our experiment unambiguously proved that T. maritima was able to consume it during a 12-hour exposure period. Furthermore, a shift in glucose metabolism towards lactate production was observed under oxidative conditions. PMID:21461371

  20. Doped LaFeO3 as SOFC Catalysts: Control of Oxygen Mobility Oxidation Activity

    SciTech Connect

    N Lakshminarayanan; J Kuhn; S Rykov; J Millet; U Ozkan; T Rao; J Smedley; E Wang; E Muller; et al.

    2011-12-31

    The bulk structure and surface properties of Fe-based perovskite-type oxides with the formula La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}O{sub 3-{delta}} for y = 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 have been investigated. The properties were found to strongly depend upon Co content, temperature, and environment. The materials were selected due to their potential use as solid oxide fuel cell cathodes. The intermediate Co loading formed oxygen vacancies most easily and several other properties including oxidation activity and surface sites showed a similar non-linear trend. Trends are related to a possible transition in electronic structure. Activity for oxidation of methane, oxygen storage and chemical compatibility was shown to be superior to that of the La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}MnO{sub 3}.