These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Application of Oxygen Trim Control to Small Packaged Boilers  

E-print Network

controls and inexpensive oxygen sensors to measure excess oxygen in the boiler flue gas. The new developments make possible low cost, continuous, automatic optimization of boiler performance by direct control of air/fuel ratio using flue gas analysis trim...

Nelson, R. L.

1984-01-01

2

An Advanced Oxygen Trim Control System  

E-print Network

of the zirconium tively simple to reset the air/fuel ratio so as oxide cell and two of these are related to to maintain safe operation and to compensate for boiler characteristics. (It is interesting to many of the conditions that would tend to upset note... in perspective. Thus, if the sensor is in error by 1% oxygen, the efficiency wi 11 be aoout 1% less than it could be. 1% of a million dollar fuel bill is a lot of money. In addition to the problems associated with the combustion process, the zirconium oxide...

Miller, J. G.

3

Flow Metering and Oxygen Trim Control Reduce Dairy Steam Plant Fuel Costs  

E-print Network

cooperative enterprise, it is the customers who wi11 benefit from the lower monthly billings resulting from the installation of oxygen trim control and the implementation of improved production scheduling. - Daily #STM/MCF --Week Average... 6 8 9 _ Daily #STM/MCF __ Week Average ........... Average for Peroid ___ Average for Last 3 Weeks FIGURE 11 347 ESL-IE-85-05-64 Proceedings from the Seventh National Industrial Energy Technology Conference, Houston, TX, May 12-15, 1985 ...

Foster, E. L.; Nelson, R. L.

4

Matlab Stability and Control Toolbox: Trim and Static Stability Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the technical background of the Trim and Static module of the Matlab Stability and Control Toolbox. This module performs a low-fidelity stability and control assessment of an aircraft model for a set of flight critical conditions. This is attained by determining if the control authority available for trim is sufficient and if the static stability characteristics are adequate. These conditions can be selected from a prescribed set or can be specified to meet particular requirements. The prescribed set of conditions includes horizontal flight, take-off rotation, landing flare, steady roll, steady turn and pull-up/ push-over flight, for which several operating conditions can be specified. A mathematical model was developed allowing for six-dimensional trim, adjustable inertial properties, asymmetric vehicle layouts, arbitrary number of engines, multi-axial thrust vectoring, engine(s)-out conditions, crosswind and gyroscopic effects.

Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.

2006-01-01

5

Interplay of TRIM28 and DNA methylation in controlling human endogenous retroelements  

PubMed Central

Reverse transcription-derived sequences account for at least half of the human genome. Although these retroelements are formidable motors of evolution, they can occasionally cause disease, and accordingly are inactivated during early embryogenesis through epigenetic mechanisms. In the mouse, at least for endogenous retroviruses, important mediators of this process are the tetrapod-specific KRAB-containing zinc finger proteins (KRAB-ZFPs) and their cofactor TRIM28. The present study demonstrates that KRAB/TRIM28-mediated regulation is responsible for controlling a very broad range of human-specific endogenous retroelements (EREs) in human embryonic stem (ES) cells and that it exerts, as a consequence, a marked effect on the transcriptional dynamics of these cells. It further reveals reciprocal dependence between TRIM28 recruitment at specific families of EREs and DNA methylation. It finally points to the importance of persistent TRIM28-mediated control of ERE transcriptional impact beyond their presumed inactivation by DNA methylation. PMID:24879559

Turelli, Priscilla; Castro-Diaz, Nathaly; Marzetta, Flavia; Kapopoulou, Adamandia; Raclot, Charlène; Duc, Julien; Tieng, Vannary; Quenneville, Simon

2014-01-01

6

Control of neuronal apoptosis by reciprocal regulation of NFATc3 and Trim17.  

PubMed

Neuronal apoptosis induced by survival factor deprivation is strongly regulated at the transcriptional level. Notably, the nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT) transcription factors have an important role in the control of the survival/death fate of neurons. However, the mechanisms that regulate NFAT activity in response to apoptotic stimuli and the target genes that mediate their effect on neuronal apoptosis are mostly unknown. In a previous study, we identified Trim17 as a crucial E3 ubiquitin ligase that is necessary and sufficient for neuronal apoptosis. Here, we show that Trim17 binds preferentially SUMOylated forms of NFATc3. Nonetheless, Trim17 does not promote the ubiquitination/degradation of NFATc3. NFAT transcription factors are regulated by calcium/calcineurin-dependent nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling. Interestingly, Trim17 reduced by twofold the calcium-mediated nuclear localization of NFATc3 and, consistent with this, halved NFATc3 activity, as estimated by luciferase assays and by measurement of target gene expression. Trim17 also inhibited NFATc4 nuclear translocation and activity. NFATc4 is known to induce the expression of survival factors and, as expected, overexpression of NFATc4 protected cerebellar granule neurons from serum/KCl deprivation-induced apoptosis. Inhibition of NFATc4 by Trim17 may thus partially mediate the proapoptotic effect of Trim17. In contrast, overexpression of NFATc3 aggravated neuronal death, whereas knockdown of NFATc3 protected neurons from apoptosis. This proapoptotic effect of NFATc3 might be due to a feedback loop in which NFATc3, but not NFATc4, induces the transcription of the proapoptotic gene Trim17. Indeed, we found that overexpression or silencing of NFATc3, respectively, increased or decreased Trim17 levels, whereas NFATc4 had no significant effect on Trim17 expression. Moreover, we showed that NFATc3 binds to the promoter of the Trim17 gene together with c-Jun. Therefore, our results describe a novel mechanism regulating NFAT transcription factors beyond the calcium/calcineurin-dependent pathway and provide a possible explanation for the opposite effects of NFATc3 and NFATc4 on neuronal apoptosis. PMID:25215946

Mojsa, B; Mora, S; Bossowski, J P; Lassot, I; Desagher, S

2015-02-01

7

Application of a Broadband Active Vibration Control System to a Helicopter Trim Panel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses testing of a broadband active vibration control concept on an interior trim panel in a helicopter cabin mockup located at ONERA's Centre de Toulouse. The control system consisted of twelve diamond-shaped piezoelectric actuators distributed around a 1.2m x 1.2m trim panel. Accelerometers were mounted at the four vertices of each diamond. The aspect ratio of the diamond was based on the dielectric constants of the piezoelectric material in order to create an actuator-sensor pair that was collocated over a broad frequency range. This allowed robust control to be implemented using simple, low power analog electronics. Initial testing on a thick acrylic window demonstrated the capability of the controller, but actuator performance was less satisfactory when mounted on a composite sandwich trim panel. This may have been due to the orthotropic nature of the trim panel, or due to its much higher stiffness relative to the acrylic window. Insights gained from a finite element study of the actuator-sensor-structural system are discussed.

Cabell, Randolph H.; Schiller, Noah H.; Simon, Frank

2013-01-01

8

EXPERIMENTAL TREE TRIMMING TO CONTROL AN URBAN WINTER BLACKBIRD ROOST  

Microsoft Academic Search

Every fall millions of blackbirds come down the Mississippi Flyway to return to their winter roosts in Arkansas, Louisiana, and East Texas. When these roosts are located in urban areas, public pressure makes the more common chemical means of control impractical. A less destructive and more permanent method of control was sought. At Rice University, in Houston, Texas, there has

Heidi B. Good; Dan M. Johnson

1976-01-01

9

14 CFR 25.407 - Trim tab effects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.407...effects. The effects of trim tabs on the control surface design conditions must be...and the deflections are— (a) For elevator trim tabs, those required to trim...

2010-01-01

10

14 CFR 25.407 - Trim tab effects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.407...effects. The effects of trim tabs on the control surface design conditions must be...and the deflections are— (a) For elevator trim tabs, those required to trim...

2011-01-01

11

14 CFR 25.407 - Trim tab effects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.407...effects. The effects of trim tabs on the control surface design conditions must be...and the deflections are— (a) For elevator trim tabs, those required to trim...

2012-01-01

12

14 CFR 25.407 - Trim tab effects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.407...effects. The effects of trim tabs on the control surface design conditions must be...and the deflections are— (a) For elevator trim tabs, those required to trim...

2013-01-01

13

14 CFR 25.407 - Trim tab effects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.407...effects. The effects of trim tabs on the control surface design conditions must be...and the deflections are— (a) For elevator trim tabs, those required to trim...

2014-01-01

14

Maximising municipal solid waste--legume trimming residue mixture degradation in composting by control parameters optimization.  

PubMed

Composting is one of the most successful biological processes for the treatment of the residues enriched in putrescible materials. The optimization of parameters which have an influence on the stability of the products is necessary in order to maximize recycling and recovery of waste components. The influence of the composting process parameters (aeration, moisture, C/N ratio, and time) on the stability parameters (organic matter, N-losses, chemical oxygen demand, nitrate, biodegradability coefficient) of the compost was studied. The composting experiment was carried out using Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and Legume Trimming Residues (LTR) in 200 L isolated acrylic barrels following a Box-Behnken central composite experimental design. Second-order polynomial models were found for each of the studied compost stability parameter, which accurately described the relationship between the parameters. The differences among the experimental values and those estimated by using the equations never exceeded 10% of the former. Results of the modelling showed that excluding the time, the C/N ratio is the strongest variable influencing almost all the stability parameters studied in this case, with the exception of N-losses which is strongly dependent on moisture. Moreover, an optimized ratio MSW/LTR of 1/1 (w/w), moisture content in the range of 40-55% and moderate to low aeration rate (0.05-0.175 Lair kg(-)(1) min(-1)) is recommended to maximise degradation and to obtain a stable product during co-composting of MSW and LTR. PMID:23764508

Cabeza, I O; López, R; Ruiz-Montoya, M; Díaz, M J

2013-10-15

15

Predictions of Control Inputs, Periodic Responses and Damping Levels of an Isolated Experimental Rotor in Trimmed Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the early 1990s the Aeroflightdynamics Directorate at the Ames Research Center has been conducting tests on isolated hingeless rotors in hover and forward flight. The primary objective is to generate a database on aeroelastic stability in trimmed flight for torsionally soft rotors at realistic tip speeds. The rotor test model has four soft inplane blades of NACA 0012 airfoil section with low torsional stiffness. The collective pitch and shaft tilt are set prior to each test run, and then the rotor is trimmed in the following sense: the longitudinal and lateral cyclic pitch controls are adjusted through a swashplate to minimize the 1/rev flapping moment at the 12 percent radial station. In hover, the database comprises lag regressive-mode damping with pitch variations. In forward flight the database comprises cyclic pitch controls, root flap moment and lag regressive-mode damping with advance ratio, shaft angle and pitch variations. This report presents the predictions and their correlation with the database. A modal analysis is used, in which nonrotating modes in flap bending, lag bending and torsion are computed from the measured blade mass and stiffness distributions. The airfoil aerodynamics is represented by the ONERA dynamic stall models of lift, drag and pitching moment, and the wake dynamics is represented by a state-space wake model. The trim analysis of finding, the cyclic controls and the corresponding, periodic responses is based on periodic shooting with damped Newton iteration; the Floquet transition matrix (FTM) comes out as a byproduct. The stabillty analysis of finding the frequencies and damping levels is based on the eigenvalue-eigenvector analysis of the FTM. All the structural and aerodynamic states are included from modeling to trim analysis. A major finding is that dynamic wake dramatically improves the correlation for the lateral cyclic pitch control. Overall, the correlation is fairly good.

Gaonkar, G. H.; Subramanian, S.

1996-01-01

16

Jefferson Lab's Trim Card II  

SciTech Connect

Jefferson Lab's Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) uses Trim Card I power supplies to drive approximately 1900 correction magnets. These trim cards have had a long and illustrious service record. However, some of the employed technology is now obsolete, making it difficult to maintain the system and retain adequate spares. The Trim Card II is being developed to act as a transparent replacement for its aging predecessor. A modular approach has been taken in its development to facilitate the substitution of sections for future improvements and maintenance. The resulting design has been divided into a motherboard and 7 daughter cards which has also allowed for parallel development. The Trim Card II utilizes modern technologies such as a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and a microprocessor to embed trim card controls and diagnostics. These reprogrammable devices also provide the versatility to incorporate future requirements.

Trent Allison; Sarin Philip; C. Higgins; Edward Martin; William Merz

2005-05-01

17

Trim Trajectories Characterization for an Unmanned Autonomous Airship  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose an algorithm allowing the calculation of the trim trajectories for the airship. These trajectories are suitable for control, by linearizing the dynamic equations around the trim conditions, and hence simplifying significantly the controller synthesis. Another advantage related to trim trajectories consists in the simplification of the development of the aerodynamic parameters estimation algorithms. To ensure

Salim Hima; Yasmina Bestaoui

2006-01-01

18

Trimming for subdivision surfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trimming is an important primitive operation in geometric modeling. It is also the root of many numerical and topological problems in modern NURBS based CAGD systems. In this paper we introduce a new method for trimming subdivision surfaces. It is based on the use of combined subdivision schemes to guarantee exact interpolation of trim curves. The latter ensures, for example,

Nathan Litke; Adi Levin; Peter Schröder

2001-01-01

19

System Controls and Measures Oxygen Fugacity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System developed at Johnson Space Center controls and measures oxygen fugacity in high-temperature chemical research. A ceramic-electrolyte cell is the sensing element. All hardware needed to control gas flow and temperature and to measure cell electromotive force is included. An analytic balance allows in situ thermogravimetric sample analysis.

Williams, R. J.

1982-01-01

20

14 CFR 23.677 - Trim systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...directional trimming devices. (c) Tab controls must be irreversible unless the tab is properly balanced and has no unsafe flutter characteristics. Irreversible tab systems must have adequate rigidity and reliability in the portion of the system from...

2012-01-01

21

14 CFR 23.677 - Trim systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...directional trimming devices. (c) Tab controls must be irreversible unless the tab is properly balanced and has no unsafe flutter characteristics. Irreversible tab systems must have adequate rigidity and reliability in the portion of the system from...

2011-01-01

22

14 CFR 23.677 - Trim systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...directional trimming devices. (c) Tab controls must be irreversible unless the tab is properly balanced and has no unsafe flutter characteristics. Irreversible tab systems must have adequate rigidity and reliability in the portion of the system from...

2010-01-01

23

14 CFR 23.677 - Trim systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...directional trimming devices. (c) Tab controls must be irreversible unless the tab is properly balanced and has no unsafe flutter characteristics. Irreversible tab systems must have adequate rigidity and reliability in the portion of the system from...

2013-01-01

24

14 CFR 23.677 - Trim systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...directional trimming devices. (c) Tab controls must be irreversible unless the tab is properly balanced and has no unsafe flutter characteristics. Irreversible tab systems must have adequate rigidity and reliability in the portion of the system from...

2014-01-01

25

Thermal trim for luminaire  

DOEpatents

A luminaire with a thermal pathway to reduce the junction temperature of the luminaire's light source, and methods for so doing, are disclosed. The luminaire includes a can, a light engine, and a trim, that define a substantially continuous thermal pathway from the light engine to a surrounding environment. The can defines a can cavity and includes a can end region. The light engine is within the can cavity and includes a light source and a heat sink, including a heat sink end region, coupled thereto. The trim is at least partially disposed within the can cavity and includes a first trim end region coupled to the heat sink end region and a second trim end region coupled to the can end region. Thermal interface material may be located between: the heat sink and the trim, the trim and the can, and/or the heat sink and the light source.

Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel; Harrison, Robert; Jeswani, Anil

2013-11-19

26

An Automatic Control System For Oxygen Therapy Of Newborn Infants  

Microsoft Academic Search

A microcomputer-based control system is developed to adjust the concentration of inspired oxygen of neonates under incubator treatment. The proposed method uses a proportional, integral, derivative (PID) controller and the feedback of arterial oxygen saturation to control the arterial partial pressure of oxygen of newborn infants. The concentration of oxygen in the inspired gas of the neonate is adjusted to

Fleur T. Tehrani; Andy R. Bazar

1991-01-01

27

TRIM5? and Species Tropism of HIV/SIV  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infects humans and chimpanzees but not old world monkeys (OWMs) such as the rhesus monkey (Rh) and cynomolgus monkey (CM). HIV-1 efficiently enters cells of OWMs but encounters a block before reverse transcription. This narrow host range is attributed to a barrier in the host cell. In 2004, the screening of a Rh cDNA library identified tripartite motif 5? (TRIM5?) as a cellular antiviral factor. TRIM5? is one of splicing variants produced by TRIM5 gene and TRIM5 proteins are members of the TRIM family containing RING, B-box 2, and coiled-coil domains. The RING domain is frequently found in E3 ubiquitin ligase and TRIM5? is degraded via the ubiquitin–proteasome-dependent pathway. Among TRIM5 splicing variants, TRIM5? alone has an additional C-terminal PRYSPRY (B30.2) domain. Previous studies have shown that sequence variation in variable regions of the PRYSPRY domain among different monkey species affects species-specific retrovirus infection, while amino acid sequence differences in the viral capsid protein determine viral sensitivity to restriction. TRIM5? recognizes the multimerized capsid proteins (viral core) of an incoming virus by its PRYSPRY domain and is thus believed to control retroviral infection. There are significant intraspecies variations in the Rh-TRIM5 gene. It has also been reported that some Rh and CM individuals have retrotransposed cyclophilin A open reading frame in the TRIM5 gene, which produces TRIM5–cyclophilin A fusion protein (TRIMCyp). TRIMCyp, which was originally identified as an anti-HIV-1 factor of New World owl monkeys, is an interesting example of the gain of a new function by retrotransposition. As different TRIM5 genotypes of Rh showed different levels of simian immunodeficiency virus replication in vivo, the TRIM5 genotyping is thought to be important in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome monkey models. PMID:22291694

Nakayama, Emi E.; Shioda, Tatsuo

2011-01-01

28

Tracking control of trim trajectories of a blimp for ascent and descent flight manoeuvres  

Microsoft Academic Search

A blimp is a small airship that has no metal framework and collapses when deflated. It belongs to family of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). In this paper we address the problem of designing tracking feedback control of an underactuated autonomous UAV. The ascent and descent flight conditions as one in which the rate of change (of magnitude) of the airship's

L. Beji; A. Abichou

2005-01-01

29

Optimal aeroelastic trim for rotorcraft with constrained, non-unique trim solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New rotorcraft configurations are emerging, such as the optimal speed helicopter and slowed-rotor compound helicopter which, due to variable rotor speed and redundant lifting components, have non-unique trim solution spaces. The combination of controls and rotor speed that produce the best steady-flight condition is sought among all the possible solutions. This work develops the concept of optimal rotorcraft trim and explores its application to advanced rotorcraft configurations with non-unique, constrained trim solutions. The optimal trim work is based on the nonlinear programming method of the generalized reduced gradient (GRG) and is integrated into a multi-body, comprehensive aeroelastic rotorcraft code. In addition to the concept of optimal trim, two further developments are presented that allow the extension of optimal trim to rotorcraft with rotors that operate over a wide range of rotor speeds. The first is the concept of variable rotor speed trim with special application to rotors operating in steady autorotation. The technique developed herein treats rotor speed as a trim variable and uses a Newton-Raphson iterative method to drive the rotor speed to zero average torque simultaneously with other dependent trim variables. The second additional contribution of this thesis is a novel way to rapidly approximate elastic rotor blade stresses and strains in the aeroelastic trim analysis for structural constraints. For rotors that operate over large angular velocity ranges, rotor resonance and increased flapping conditions are encountered that can drive the maximum cross-sectional stress and strain to levels beyond endurance limits; such conditions must be avoided. The method developed herein captures the maximum cross-sectional stress/strain based on the trained response of an artificial neural network (ANN) surrogate as a function of 1-D beam forces and moments. The stresses/strains are computed simultaneously with the optimal trim and are used as constraints in the optimal trim solution. Finally, an optimal trim analysis is applied to a high-speed compound gyroplane configuration, which has two distinct rotor speed control methods, with the purpose of maximizing the vehicle cruise efficiency while maintaining rotor blade strain below endurance limit values.

Schank, Troy C.

30

NCSX Trim Coil Design  

SciTech Connect

The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) was being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory before work was stopped in 2008. The objective of this experiment was to develop the stellarator concept and evaluate it's potential as a model for future fusion power plants. Stellarator design requires very precisely positioned Modular Coils of complex shape to form 3D plasmas. In the design of NCSX, Trim Coils were required to compensate for both the positioning of the coils during assembly and the fabrication tolerances of the Modular Coils. Use of the Trim Coils allowed for larger tolerances increasing ease of assembly and decreasing overall cost. A set of Trim coils was developed to suppress the toroidal flux in island regions due to misalignment, magnetic materials, and eddy currents. The requirement imposed upon the design forced the toroidal flux in island regions below 10% of the total toroidal flux in the plasma. An analysis was first performed to evaluate candidate Trim Coil configurations iterating both the size, number, and position of the coils. The design was optimized considering both performance and cost while staying within the tight restraints presented by the space limited geometry. The final design of the Trim Coils incorporated a 48 Coil top bottom symmetric set. Fabrication costs were minimized by having only two coil types and using a planar conventional design with off the shelf commercial conductor. The Trim Coil design incorporated supports made from simple structural shapes assembled together in a way which allowed for adjustment as well as accommodation for the tolerance build up on the mating surfaces. This paper will summarize the analysis that led to the optimization of the Trim Coils set, the trim coil mechanical design, thermal and stress analysis, and the design of the supporting Trim Coil structure.

M. Kalish, A. Brooks, J. Rushinski, R. Upcavage

2009-05-29

31

Control of mitochondrial and cellular respiration by oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Control and regulation of mitochondrial and cellular respiration by oxygen is discussed with three aims: (1) A review of intracellular oxygen levels and gradients, particularly in heart, emphasizes the dominance of extracellular oxygen gradients. Intracellular oxygen pressure,\\u000a

Erich Gnaiger; Rosmarie Steinlechner-Maran; Gabriela Méndez; Thomas Eberl; Raimund Margreiter

1995-01-01

32

114. WEST SIDE OF LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROL ROOM (205). LIQUID ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

114. WEST SIDE OF LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROL ROOM (205). LIQUID NITROGEN (LN2) SUBCOOLER ON LEFT; SKID 8, LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROLLER FOR SWITCHING BETWEEN RAPID-LOAD AND TOPPING ON RIGHT. LIQUID OXYGEN LINE FROM SKID 9A AT RIGHT EDGE OF PHOTO. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

33

Control of nitrogen fixation by oxygen in purple nonsulfur bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some members of the facultatively phototrophic bacteria are able to grow diazotrophically in the presence of oxygen. As in\\u000a other diazotrophs, the nitrogenase of the phototrophic bacteria is highly sensitive to oxygen; therefore, both the function\\u000a and the expression of nitrogenase are strictly controlled by oxygen. This review focuses on the different levels of oxygen\\u000a control in the two most

Jürgen Oelze; Gesine Klein

1996-01-01

34

14 CFR 25.677 - Trim systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...creeping in flight. Trim tab controls must be irreversible unless the tab is appropriately balanced and shown to be free from flutter. (d) If an irreversible tab control system is used, the part from the tab to the attachment of the irreversible...

2013-01-01

35

14 CFR 25.677 - Trim systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...creeping in flight. Trim tab controls must be irreversible unless the tab is appropriately balanced and shown to be free from flutter. (d) If an irreversible tab control system is used, the part from the tab to the attachment of the irreversible...

2011-01-01

36

14 CFR 25.677 - Trim systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...creeping in flight. Trim tab controls must be irreversible unless the tab is appropriately balanced and shown to be free from flutter. (d) If an irreversible tab control system is used, the part from the tab to the attachment of the irreversible...

2010-01-01

37

14 CFR 25.677 - Trim systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...creeping in flight. Trim tab controls must be irreversible unless the tab is appropriately balanced and shown to be free from flutter. (d) If an irreversible tab control system is used, the part from the tab to the attachment of the irreversible...

2014-01-01

38

14 CFR 25.677 - Trim systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...creeping in flight. Trim tab controls must be irreversible unless the tab is appropriately balanced and shown to be free from flutter. (d) If an irreversible tab control system is used, the part from the tab to the attachment of the irreversible...

2012-01-01

39

Compensation of the AKT signaling by ERK signaling in transgenic mice hearts overexpressing TRIM72  

SciTech Connect

The AKT and ERK signaling pathways are known to be involved in cell hypertrophy, proliferation, survival and differentiation. Although there is evidence for crosstalk between these two signaling pathways in cellulo, there is less evidence for cross talk in vivo. Here, we show that crosstalk between AKT and ERK signaling in the hearts of TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice (TRIM72-Tg) with alpha-MHC promoter regulates and maintains their heart size. TRIM72, a heart- and skeletal muscle-specific protein, downregulates AKT-mTOR signaling via IRS-1 degradation and reduces the size of rat cardiomyocytes and the size of postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts. TRIM72 expression was upregulated by hypertrophic inducers in cardiomyocytes, while IRS-1 was downregulated by IGF-1. TRIM72 specifically regulated IGF-1-dependent AKT-mTOR signaling, resulting in a reduction of the size of cardiomyocytes. Postnatal TRIM72-Tg hearts were smaller than control-treated hearts with inhibition of AKT-mTOR signaling. However, adult TRIM72-Tg hearts were larger than of control despite the suppression of AKT-mTOR signaling. Activation of ERK, PKC-?, and JNK were observed to be elevated in adult TRIM72-Tg, and these signals were mediated by ET-1 via the ET receptors A and B. Altogether, these results suggest that AKT signaling regulates cardiac hypertrophy in physiological conditions, and ERK signaling compensates for the absence of AKT signaling during TRIM72 overexpression, leading to pathological hypertrophy. -- Highlights: • TRIM72 inhibits AKT signaling through ubiquitination of IRS-1 in cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates the size of cardiac cells. • TRIM72 regulates size of postnatal TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts. • Adult TRIM72-overexpressing transgenic mice hearts showed cardiac dysfunction. • Adult TRIM72 transgenic mice hearts showed higher expression of endothelin receptors.

Ham, Young-Mi, E-mail: youngmi_ham@hms.harvard.edu [College of Life Science and Biotechnology, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Mahoney, Sarah Jane [Department of Cell Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

2013-06-10

40

Identification of anisoelasticity for electrostatic " trimming " of rate integrating gyroscopes  

E-print Network

Identification of anisoelasticity for electrostatic " trimming " of rate integrating gyroscopes of anisoelasticities in rate integrating gyroscopes as part of a self- calibrative control architecture. In contrast imperfections is discussed. Keywords: Anisoelasticity, Rate Integrating Gyroscopes, Feedforward Control, Smart

Tang, William C

41

Role of Human TRIM5? in Intrinsic Immunity  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has a very narrow host range. HIV type 1 (HIV-1) does not infect Old World monkeys, such as the rhesus monkey (Rh). Rh TRIM5? was identified as a factor that confers resistance, intrinsic immunity, to HIV-1 infection. Unfortunately, human TRIM5? is almost powerless to restrict HIV-1. However, human TRIM5? potently restricts N-tropic murine leukemia viruses (MLV) but not B-tropic MLV, indicating that human TRIM5? represents the restriction factor previously designated as Ref1. African green monkey TRIM5? represents another restriction factor previously designated as Lv1, which restricts both HIV-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from macaque (SIVmac) infection. TRIM5 is a member of the tripartite motif family containing RING, B-box2, and coiled-coil domains. The RING domain is frequently found in E3 ubiquitin ligase, and TRIM5? is thought to degrade viral core via ubiquitin–proteasome-dependent and -independent pathways. The alpha isoform of TRIM5 has an additional C-terminal PRYSPRY domain, which is a determinant of species-specific retrovirus restriction by TRIM5?. On the other hand, the target regions of viral capsid protein (CA) are scattered on the surface of core. A single amino acid difference in the surface-exposed loop between ?-helices 6 and 7 (L6/7) of HIV type 2 (HIV-2) CA affects viral sensitivity to human TRIM5? and was also shown to be associated with viral load in West African HIV-2 patients, indicating that human TRIM5? is a critical modulator of HIV-2 replication in vivo. Interestingly, L6/7 of CA corresponds to the MLV determinant of sensitivity to mouse factor Fv1, which potently restricts N-tropic MLV. In addition, human genetic polymorphisms also affect antiviral activity of human TRIM5?. Recently, human TRIM5? was shown to activate signaling pathways that lead to activation of NF-?B and AP-1 by interacting with TAK1 complex. TRIM5? is thus involved in control of viral infection in multiple ways. PMID:22435067

Nakayama, Emi E.; Shioda, Tatsuo

2012-01-01

42

Trim or Replace Impellers on Oversized Pumps  

SciTech Connect

One in a series of tip sheets to help manufacturers optimize their industrial pumping systems. As a result of conservative engineering practices, pumps are often substantially larger than they need to be for an industrial plant's process requirements. Centrifugal pumps can often be oversized because of ''rounding up'', trying to accommodate gradual increases in pipe surface roughness and flow resistance over time, or anticipating future plant capacity expansions. In addition, the plant's pumping requirements might not have been clearly defined during the design phase. Because of this conservative approach, pumps can have operating points completely different from their design points. The pump head is often less than expected, while the flow rate is greater. This can cause cavitation and waste energy as the flow rate typically must be regulated with bypass or throttle control. Oversized and throttled pumps that produce excess pressure are excellent candidates for impeller replacement or ''trimming'', to save energy and reduce costs. Trimming involves machining the impeller to reduce its diameter. Trimming should be limited to about 75% of a pump's maximum impeller diameter, because excessive trimming can result in a mismatched impeller and casing. As the impeller diameter decreases, added clearance between the impeller and the fixed pump casing increases internal flow recirculation, causes head loss, and lowers pumping efficiency. For manufacturing standardization purposes, pump casings and shafts are designed to accommodate impellers in a range of sizes. Many pump manufacturers provide pump performance curves that indicate how various models will perform with different impeller diameters or trims. The impeller should not be trimmed any smaller than the minimum diameter shown on the curve. Net positive suction head requirements (NPSHR) usually decrease at lower flow rates and can increase at the higher end of the pump head curve. The NPSHR at a given flow rate will normally be greater with a smaller impeller, but engineers should consult with the pump manufacturer to determine variations in NPSHR before trimming the impeller. Manufacturers can often provide trim correction charts based on historical test data.

Not Available

2006-09-01

43

JWBS121-c02 JWBS121-Razeghifard Printer: Yet to Come July 30, 2013 8:16 Trim: 6.125in 9.25in Oxygenic Photosynthesis  

E-print Network

CHAPTER 2 Oxygenic Photosynthesis DMITRIY SHEVELA, LARS OLOF BJ ¨ORN, and GOVINDJEE 2.1 INTRODUCTION 2.1.1 Importance of Photosynthesis: Why Study Photosynthesis? In a general sense the term photosynthesis energy to chemical forms of energy. Most photosynthesis is coupled to assimilation of carbon in the form

Govindjee

44

Discordant Evolution of the Adjacent Antiretroviral Genes TRIM22 and TRIM5 in Mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

TRIM5a provides a cytoplasmic block to retroviral infection, and orthologs encoded by some primates are active against HIV. Here, we present an evolutionary comparison of the TRIM5 gene to its closest human paralogs: TRIM22, TRIM34, and TRIM6. We show that TRIM5 and TRIM22 have a dynamic history of gene expansion and loss during the evolution of mammals. The cow genome

Sara L. Sawyer; Michael Emerman; Harmit S. Malik

2007-01-01

45

AUTOMATIC CONTROL OF THE INSPIRED OXYGEN FRACTION IN PRETERM INFANTS. A RANDOMIZED CROSS-OVER TRIAL  

Microsoft Academic Search

In preterm infants receiving supplemental oxygen, manual control of the inspired oxygen fraction is often time-consuming and inap- propriate. We developed a system for automatic oxygen control and hypothesized that this system is more effective than routine manual oxygen control in maintaining target arterial oxygen satura- tion levels. We performed a randomized controlled crossover clini- cal trial in 12 preterm

Michael S. Urschitz; Werner Horn; Andreas Seyfang; Antonella Hallenberger; Tina Herberts; Silvia Miksch; Christian Popow; Ingo Müller-Hansen; Christian F. Poets

46

Mechanisms controlling summertime oxygen depletion in western Long Island Sound  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical profile data (salinity, temperature, oxygen, and downwelling irradiance) and in situ incubations of light and dark\\u000a bottles were used to characterize vertical structure and elucidate mechanisms controlling summertime hypoxia in western Long\\u000a Island Sound. The period of oxygen depletion corresponded with the period of thermally-controlled stratification. Bulk density\\u000a differences between surface and bottom waters were only 1.2 to 2.7

Barbara L. Welsh; F. Craig Eller

1991-01-01

47

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the second quarter July--September 2000 in the following task areas: Task 1-Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2-Oxygen Transport Membranes and Task 4-Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the first year. OTM tube characterization is well underway, the design and assembly of the high pressure permeation test facility is complete and the facility will be in full operation during the next quarter. Combustion testing has been initiated at both the University of Arizona and Praxair. Testing at the University of Arizona has experienced some delays; steps have been take to get the test work back on schedule. Completion of the first phase of the testing is expected in next quarter. Combustion modeling has been started at both REI and Praxair, preliminary results are expected in the next quarter.

Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen; David R. Thompson

2000-10-01

48

Fault Tolerant Oxygen Control of a Diesel Engine Air System  

E-print Network

Fault Tolerant Oxygen Control of a Diesel Engine Air System Rainer Nitsche Matthias Bitzer control problem of a Diesel engine air system having a jammed Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) valve of the air system. Keywords: Fault tolerant control, Diesel engine, Air system, Model-based trajectory

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

49

Control of electrical conduction in DNA using oxygen hole doping  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using oxygen adsorption experiments on poly (dG)-poly (dC) DNA molecules, we found that their conductance can be easily controlled by several orders of magnitudes using oxygen hole doping, which is a characteristic behavior of a p-type semiconductor. It also suggests that the conductance of the DNA under doping results from charge carrier transport, not from an ionic conduction. On the

Hea-Yeon Lee; Hidekazu Tanaka; Yoichi Otsuka; Kyung-Hwa Yoo; Jeong-O. Lee; Tomoji Kawai

2002-01-01

50

Use of mild irradiation doses to control pathogenic bacteria on meat trimmings for production of patties aiming at provoking minimal changes in quality attributes.  

PubMed

The objectives of the present work were to assess the use of moderate doses of gamma irradiation (2 to 5 kGy) and to reduce the risk of pathogen presence without altering the quality attributes of bovine trimmings and of patties made of irradiated trimmings. Microbiological indicators (coliforms, Pseudomonas spp and mesophilic aerobic counts), physicochemical indicators (pH, color and tiobarbituric acid) and sensory changes were evaluated during storage. 5 kGy irradiation doses slightly increased off flavors in patties. Two pathogenic markers (Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli O157:H7) were inoculated at high or low loads to trimming samples which were subsequently irradiated and lethality curves were obtained. Provided that using irradiation doses ?2.5 kGy are used, reductions of 2 log CFU/g of L. monocytogenes and 5 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 are expected. It seems reasonable to suppose that irradiation can be successfully employed to improve the safety of frozen trimmings when initial pathogenic bacteria burdens are not extremely high. PMID:25042241

Xavier, Ma de la Paz; Dauber, Cecilia; Mussio, Paula; Delgado, Enrique; Maquieira, Ana; Soria, Alejandra; Curuchet, Ana; Márquez, Rosa; Méndez, Carlos; López, Tomás

2014-11-01

51

Control of oxygenation in lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase catalysis  

PubMed Central

Lipoxygenases (LOX) and cyclooxygenases (COX) react an achiral polyunsaturated fatty acid with oxygen to form a chiral peroxide product of high regio- and stereochemical purity. Both enzymes employ free radical chemistry reminiscent of hydrocarbon autoxidation but execute efficient control during catalysis to form a specific product over the multitude of isomers found in the non-enzymatic reaction. Exactly how both dioxygenases achieve this positional and stereo control is far from clear. We present four mechanistic models, not mutually exclusive, that could account for the specific reactions of molecular oxygen with a fatty acid in the LOX or COX active site. PMID:17524979

Schneider, Claus; Pratt, Derek A.; Porter, Ned A.; Brash, Alan R.

2009-01-01

52

A cluster randomized controlled trial to determine the efficacy of Trauma Risk Management (TRiM) in a military population.  

PubMed

Trauma Risk Management is a peer-support program that aims to promote help-seeking in the aftermath of traumatic events. Prior to its implementation, the British military conducted a randomized controlled trial of Trauma Risk Management against standard care in 12 warships; 6 were randomized to use Trauma Risk Management after collecting baseline measurements. Follow up after 12-18 months found no significant change in psychological health or stigma scores in either group; however, the studied vessels only encountered low numbers of critical incidents. Additionally, measurements of organizational functioning were modestly better in the Trauma Risk Management ships. The authors conclude that within organizations using Trauma Risk Management may be beneficial and may, in time, lead to a valuable cultural shift. PMID:20690168

Greenberg, Neil; Langston, Victoria; Everitt, Brian; Iversen, Amy; Fear, Nicola T; Jones, Norman; Wessely, Simon

2010-08-01

53

COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF INFRARED AND HOT-BLADE TRIMMING ON FEEDING BEHAVIOR AND PRODUCTIVITY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this research was to examine the impact of a relatively new method of beak trimming on poultry welfare. Seventy-two layer chicks were assigned to hot-blade trimming (HB), infrared treatment (IR) or a control (C) group at 1d of age. Chicks were pair housed by treatment and body weight ...

54

INFRARED BEAK TREATMENT: PART III, COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF INFRARED AND 1/2 HOT-BLADE TRIMMING ON BEAK TOPOGRAPHY AND GROWTH.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effects of infrared beak trimming (IR) and hot-blade beak trimming (HB) on beak length and production were examined in chickens beak trimmed at 1 day of age. Seventy-two chicks were randomly assigned to HB (1/2 beak), IR at 60 watt (1/3-1/2 reduction in length), or a control (C) group at 1 d old...

55

Molecular Controls of the Oxygenation and Redox Reactions of Hemoglobin  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: The broad classes of O2-binding proteins known as hemoglobins (Hbs) carry out oxygenation and redox functions that allow organisms with significantly different physiological demands to exist in a wide range of environments. This is aided by allosteric controls that modulate the protein's redox reactions as well as its O2-binding functions. Recent Advances: The controls of Hb's redox reactions can differ appreciably from the molecular controls for Hb oxygenation and come into play in elegant mechanisms for dealing with nitrosative stress, in the malarial resistance conferred by sickle cell Hb, and in the as-yet unsuccessful designs for safe and effective blood substitutes. Critical Issues: An important basic principle in consideration of Hb's redox reactions is the distinction between kinetic and thermodynamic reaction control. Clarification of these modes of control is critical to gaining an increased understanding of Hb-mediated oxidative processes and oxidative toxicity in vivo. Future Directions: This review addresses emerging concepts and some unresolved questions regarding the interplay between the oxygenation and oxidation reactions of structurally diverse Hbs, both within red blood cells and under acellular conditions. Developing methods that control Hb-mediated oxidative toxicity will be critical to the future development of Hb-based blood substitutes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 2298–2313. PMID:23198874

Henkens, Robert; Alayash, Abdu I.; Banerjee, Sambuddha; Crumbliss, Alvin L.

2013-01-01

56

Control of seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana by atmospheric oxygen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seed development is known to be inhibited completely when plants are grown in oxygen concentrations below 5.1 kPa, but apart from reports of decreased seed weight little is known about embryogenesis at subambient oxygen concentrations above this critical level. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants were grown full term under continuous light in premixed atmospheres with oxygen partial pressures of 2.5, 5.1, 10.1, 16.2 and 21.3 kPa O2, 0.035 kPa CO2 and the balance nitrogen. Seeds were harvested for germination tests and microscopy when siliques had yellowed. Seed germination was depressed in O2 treatments below 16.2 kPa, and seeds from plants grown in 2.5 kPa O2 did not germinate at all. Fewer than 25% of the seeds from plants grown in 5.1 kPa oxygen germinated and most of the seedlings appeared abnormal. Light and scanning electron microscopic observation of non-germinated seeds showed that these embryos had stopped growing at different developmental stages depending upon the prevailing oxygen level. Embryos stopped growing at the heart-shaped to linear cotyledon stage in 5.1 kPa O2, at around the curled cotyledon stage in 10.1 kPa O2, and at the premature stage in 16.2 kPa O2. Globular and heart-shaped embryos were observed in sectioned seeds from plants grown in 2.5 kPa O2. Tissue degeneration caused by cell autolysis and changes in cell structure were observed in cotyledons and radicles. Transmission electron microscopy of mature seeds showed that storage substances, such as protein bodies, were reduced in subambient oxygen treatments. The results demonstrate control of embryo development by oxygen in Arabidopsis.

Kuang, A.; Crispi, M.; Musgrave, M. E.

1998-01-01

57

Oxygen-controlled Biosurfactant Production in a Bench Scale Bioreactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rhamnolipids have been pointed out as promising biosurfactants. The most studied microorganisms for the aerobic production of these molecules are the bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. The aim of this work was to produce a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant in a bench-scale bioreactor by one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil environments. To study the microorganism growth and production dependency on oxygen, a nondispersive oxygenation device was developed, and a programmable logic controller (PLC) was used to set the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Using the data stored in a computer and the predetermined characteristics of the oxygenation device, it was possible to evaluate the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and the specific OUR (SOUR) of this microorganism. These rates, obtained for some different DO concentrations, were then compared to the bacterial growth, to the carbon source consumption, and to the rhamnolipid and other virulence factors production. The SOUR presented an initial value of about 60.0 mg02/gdw h. Then, when the exponential growth phase begins, there is a rise in this rate. After that, the SOUR reduces to about 20.0 mg02/gdw h. The carbon source consumption is linear during the whole process.

de Kronemberger, Frederico Araujo; Anna, Lidia Maria Melo Santa; Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; de Menezes, Reginaldo Ramos; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

58

Automatic control of the inspired oxygen fraction in preterm infants: a randomized crossover trial.  

PubMed

In preterm infants receiving supplemental oxygen, manual control of the inspired oxygen fraction is often time-consuming and inappropriate. We developed a system for automatic oxygen control and hypothesized that this system is more effective than routine manual oxygen control in maintaining target arterial oxygen saturation levels. We performed a randomized controlled crossover clinical trial in 12 preterm infants receiving nasal continuous positive airway pressure and supplemental oxygen. Periods with automatic and routine manual oxygen control were compared with periods of optimal control by a fully dedicated person. The median (range) percentage of time with arterial oxygen saturation levels within target range (87-96%) was 81.7% (39.0-99.8) for routine manual oxygen control, 91.0% (41.4-99.3) for optimal control, and 90.5% (59.0-99.4) for automatic control (ANOVA: p = 0.01). Pairwise post hoc comparisons revealed a statistically significant difference between automatic and routine manual oxygen control (Dunnett's test: p = 0.02). The frequency of manual oxygen adjustments was lowest in automatic control (Friedman's test: p < 0.001). Automatic oxygen control may optimize oxygen administration to preterm infants receiving nasal continuous positive airway pressure and reduce nursing time spent with oxygen control. PMID:15347564

Urschitz, Michael S; Horn, Werner; Seyfang, Andreas; Hallenberger, Antonella; Herberts, Tina; Miksch, Silvia; Popow, Christian; Müller-Hansen, Ingo; Poets, Christian F

2004-11-15

59

Oxygen Control For Bioreactors And In-vitro Cell Assays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved oxygen (DO) is an important parameter in biomedical and cell-culture applications. Several studies have found cell survival and function to be intimately linked to oxygen concentration. Laminar flow, as observed in microfluidic devices, provides an ideal environment to manipulate and control concentration gradients. In this paper we demonstrate the first characterization of integrated fluorescence-based oxygen sensors for DO measurement within a cell-culture bioreactor device. Solid-state PtOEPK/PS sensor patterns were integrated into the PDMS-based bioreactor and calibrated for detection of DO concentration with a superimposed layer of collagen and Ishikawa human endometrial cancer cells. The sensor signal of the layer subjacent to the cells was found to follow a Stern-Volmer model and the intensity ratio was measured to I0/I100 = 3.9 after 3 days in culture. The device provides a novel tool for the control and spatially-resolved measurement of oxygen levels in cellular assays and cell-culture applications.

Nock, V.; Blaikie, R. J.; David, T.

2009-07-01

60

Amplification of TRIM44: Pairing a Prognostic Target With Potential Therapeutic Strategy  

PubMed Central

Background Many prognostic biomarkers have been proposed recently. However, there is a lack of therapeutic strategies exploiting novel prognostic biomarkers. We aimed to propose therapeutic options in patients with overexpression of TRIM44, a recently identified prognostic gene. Methods Genomic and transcriptomic data of epithelial cancers (n = 1932), breast cancers (BCs; n = 1980) and esophago-gastric cancers (EGCs; n = 163) were used to identify genomic aberrations driving TRIM44 overexpression. The driver gene status of TRIM44 was determined using a small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen of the 11p13 amplicon. Integrative analysis was applied across multiple datasets to identify pathway activation and potential therapeutic strategies. Validation of the in silico findings were performed using in vitro assays, xenografts, and patient samples (n = 160). Results TRIM44 overexpression results from genomic amplification in 16.1% of epithelial cancers, including 8.1% of EGCs and 6.1% of BCs. This was confirmed using fluorescent in situ hybridization. The siRNA screen confirmed TRIM44 to be a driver of the amplicon. In silico analysis revealed an association between TRIM44 and mTOR signalling, supported by a decrease in mTOR signalling after siRNA knockdown of TRIM44 in cell lines and colocalization of TRIM44 and p-mTOR in patient samples. In vitro inhibition studies using an mTOR inhibitor (everolimus) decreased cell viability in two TRIM44-amplified cells lines by 88% and 70% compared with 35% in the control cell line. These findings were recapitulated in xenograft models. Conclusions Genomic amplification drives TRIM44 overexpression in EGCs and BCs. Targeting the mTOR pathway provides a potential therapeutic option for TRIM44-amplified tumors. PMID:24777112

Ong, Chin-Ann Johnny; Shannon, Nicholas B.; Ross-Innes, Caryn S.; O’Donovan, Maria; Rueda, Oscar M.; Hu, De-en; Kettunen, Mikko I.; Walker, Christina Elaine; Noorani, Ayesha; Hardwick, Richard H.; Caldas, Carlos; Brindle, Kevin

2014-01-01

61

Tinning/Trimming Robot System  

SciTech Connect

In a new surface mount assembly area at AlliedSignal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD), a tinning/trimming robot system tins and trims the gold-plated leads of surface mount technology (SMT) transistors. The KCD-designed system uses a Unimation PUMA 260 robot, a General Production Devices SP-2000 solder pot; water-soluble Blackstone No. 2508 flux; and a Virtual Industries high-temperature, ESD-conductive, miniature suction cup. After the manual cleaning operation, the processed SMT transistors go to the QUADSTAR Automated Component Placement System for a Radar Logic Assembly. The benefits are reductions in the cost of nonconformance, worker fatigue, and standard hours.

Fureigh, M.L.

1993-02-01

62

Controlling the bond scission sequence of oxygenates for energy applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The so called "Holy Grail" of heterogeneous catalysis is a fundamental understanding of catalyzed chemical transformations which span multidimensional scales of both length and time, enabling rational catalyst design. Such an undertaking is realizable only with an atomic level understanding of bond formation and destruction with respect to intrinsic properties of the metal catalyst. In this study, we investigate the bond scission sequence of small oxygenates (methanol, ethanol, ethylene glycol) on bimetallic transition metal catalysts and transition metal carbide catalysts. Oxygenates are of interest both as hydrogen carriers for reforming to H2 and CO and as fuels in direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFC). To address the so-called "materials gap" and "pressure gap" this work adopted three parallel research approaches: (1) ultra high vacuum (UHV) studies including temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) on polycrystalline surfaces; (2) DFT studies including thermodynamic and kinetic calculations; (3) electrochemical studies including cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometry (CA). Recent studies have suggested that tungsten monocarbide (WC) may behave similarly to Pt for the electrooxidation of oxygenates. TPD was used to quantify the activity and selectivity of oxygenate decomposition for WC and Pt-modifiedWC (Pt/WC) as compared to Pt. While decomposition activity was generally higher on WC than on Pt, scission of the C-O bond resulted in alkane/alkene formation on WC, an undesired product for DAFC. When Pt was added to WC by physical vapor deposition C-O bond scission was limited, suggesting that Pt synergistically modifies WC to improve the selectivity toward C-H bond scission to produce H2 and CO. Additionally, TPD confirmed WC and Pt/WC to be more CO tolerant than Pt. HREELS results verified that surface intermediates were different on Pt/WC as compared to Pt or WC and evidence of aldehyde intermediates was observed on the Pt and Pt/WC surfaces. For CH3OH decomposition, DFT calculations suggested that the bond scission sequence could be controlled using monolayer coverage of Pt on WC. The Ni/Pt bimetallic system was studied as an example for using oxygenates as a hydrogen source. There are two well characterized surface structures for the Ni/Pt system: the surface configuration, in which the Ni atoms reside primarily on the surface of the Pt bulk, and the subsurface configuration, in which the second atomic layer is enriched in Ni atoms and the surface is enriched in Pt atoms. These configurations are denoted NiPtPt and PtNiPt, respectively. DFT results revealed that trends established for the Ni/Pt(111) system extend to the Ni/Pt(100) analogue. TPD studies revealed that the NiPtPt surface was more active for oxygenate reforming than the Pt or PtNiPt surfaces. HREELS confirmed the presence of strongly bound reaction intermediates, including aldehyde-like species, and suggested that the first decomposition step was likely O-H bond scission. Thus, the binding energies of the deprotonated reaction intermediates are important parameters in controlling the decomposition pathways of oxygenates. These studies have demonstrated that the bond scission sequence of oxygenate decomposition can be controlled using bimetallic and transition metal carbide catalysts. While this study has focused on oxygenate decomposition for energy applications, the principles and methodology applied herein are universally applicable to the development of novel and marketable value-added products. The value in such a methodology is in the combination of both calculations to predict catalytic and chemical properties, and experiments to fine-tune theoretical predictions.

Stottlemyer, Alan L.

63

Control and monitoring of oxygen fugacity in piston cylinder experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a newly developed capsule design that resolves some common problems associated with the monitoring and control of oxygen fugacity ( fO2) in high-pressure piston cylinder experiments. The new fO2 control assembly consists of an AuPd outer capsule enclosing two inner capsules: one of AuPd capsule containing the experimental charge (including some water), and the other of Pt containing a solid oxygen buffer plus water. The inner capsules are separated by crushable alumina. The outer capsule is surrounded by a Pyrex sleeve to simultaneously minimise hydrogen loss from the cell and carbon infiltration from the graphite furnace. Controlled fO2 experiments using this cell design were carried out at 1.0 GPa and 1,000 °C. We used NiPd, CoPd and (Ni, Mg)O fO2 sensors, whose pressure sensitivity is well calibrated, to monitor the redox states achieved in experiments buffered by Re-ReO2, Ni-NiO and Co-CoO, respectively. Results for the fO2 sensors are in good agreement with the intended fO2 established by the buffer, demonstrating excellent control for durations of 24-48 h, with uncertainties less than ± 0.3 log bar units of fO2.

Matjuschkin, Vladimir; Brooker, Richard A.; Tattitch, Brian; Blundy, Jon D.; Stamper, Charlotte C.

2015-01-01

64

ULTRALOW OXYGEN TREATMENT FOR POSTHARVEST CONTROL OF WESTERN FLOWER THRIPS, FRANKLINIELLA OCCIDENTALIS, ON BROCCOLI  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Laboratory study was conducted to develop ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment for control of western flower thrips on broccoli at a low temperature of 1'C. Total mortality of the insect was achieved in 5 days at 0.003 percent oxygen. Oxygen level affected efficacy of ULO treatment. At a higher oxygen le...

65

Controlled oxygen doping of GaN using plasma assisted molecular-beam epitaxy  

E-print Network

Controlled oxygen doping of GaN using plasma assisted molecular-beam epitaxy A. J. Ptak, L. J-assisted molecular-beam epitaxy to study the dependence of oxygen incorporation on polarity and oxygen partial pressure. Oxygen incorporates at a rate ten times faster on nitrogen-polar GaN than on the Ga polarity

Myers, Tom

66

Modeling, simulation, and control of an extraterrestrial oxygen production plant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The immediate objective is the development of a new methodology for simulation of process plants used to produce oxygen and/or other useful materials from local planetary resources. Computer communication, artificial intelligence, smart sensors, and distributed control algorithms are being developed and implemented so that the simulation or an actual plant can be controlled from a remote location. The ultimate result of this research will provide the capability for teleoperation of such process plants which may be located on Mars, Luna, an asteroid, or other objects in space. A very useful near-term result will be the creation of an interactive design tool, which can be used to create and optimize the process/plant design and the control strategy. This will also provide a vivid, graphic demonstration mechanism to convey the results of other researchers to the sponsor.

Schooley, L.; Cellier, F.; Zeigler, B.; Doser, A.; Farrenkopf, G.

1991-01-01

67

Oxygen Generation System Laptop Bus Controller Flight Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Oxygen Generation System Laptop Bus Controller Flight Software was developed to allow the International Space Station (ISS) program to activate specific components of the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) to perform a checkout of key hardware operation in a microgravity environment, as well as to perform preventative maintenance operations of system valves during a long period of what would otherwise be hardware dormancy. The software provides direct connectivity to the OGS Firmware Controller with pre-programmed tasks operated by on-orbit astronauts to exercise OGS valves and motors. The software is used to manipulate the pump, separator, and valves to alleviate the concerns of hardware problems due to long-term inactivity and to allow for operational verification of microgravity-sensitive components early enough so that, if problems are found, they can be addressed before the hardware is required for operation on-orbit. The decision was made to use existing on-orbit IBM ThinkPad A31p laptops and MIL-STD-1553B interface cards as the hardware configuration. The software at the time of this reporting was developed and tested for use under the Windows 2000 Professional operating system to ensure compatibility with the existing on-orbit computer systems.

Rowe, Chad; Panter, Donna

2009-01-01

68

16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303.12 Section 303...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles. (a) Trimmings...

2011-01-01

69

16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303.12 Section 303...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles. (a) Trimmings...

2010-01-01

70

Improving oxygen concentration control in activated sludge process with estimation of respiration and scheduling control.  

PubMed

The paper presents an efficient and simple model-based method of on-line estimation of respiration from the current values of dissolved oxygen concentration and airflow signals. Fast estimation of respiration is important because respiration appears as the most important disturbance signal in the control of dissolved oxygen concentration, and could therefore be used for improving control efficiency. A parameter scheduling PI (proportional and integral) control scheme is proposed, where the estimated respiration signal is used for scheduling of the PI controller parameters, by using local linearization of the process dynamics. The performance of the scheduling controller is compared to a conventional PI controller in simulation using the COST simulation benchmark, and experimentally on an activated sludge process pilot plant. PMID:16722079

Gerksic, S; Vrecko, D; Hvala, N

2006-01-01

71

A physiological model for extracorporeal oxygenation controller design.  

PubMed

Long term extracorporeal membrane oxygenation can be used in cases of severe lung failure to maintain sufficient gas exchange without the need to apply higher ventilation pressures which damage the lung additionally. The use of cardiopulmonary bypass devices is well established inside the operating room. The usage of such devices as long-term support in the intensive care unit is still experimental and limited to few cases. This is because neither machine architecture nor staff situation provides for the long term application scenario. In the joint research Project "smart ECLA" we target an advanced ECMO device featuring an automation system capable of maintaining gas concentrations automatically. One key requirement for systematic controller design is the availability of a process model, which will be presented in this article. PMID:21096765

Walter, Marian; Weyer, Soren; Stollenwerk, Andre; Kopp, Rudger; Arens, Jutta; Leonhardt, Steffen

2010-01-01

72

Application of the concept of dynamic trim control and nonlinear system inverses to automatic control of a vertical attitude takeoff and landing aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A full envelope automatic flight control system based on nonlinear inverse systems concepts has been applied to a vertical attitude takeoff and landing (VATOL) fighter aircraft. A new method for using an airborne digital aircraft model to perform the inversion of a nonlinear aircraft model is presented together with the results of a simulation study of the nonlinear inverse system concept for the vertical-attitude hover mode. The system response to maneuver commands in the vertical attitude was found to be excellent; and recovery from large initial offsets and large disturbances was found to be very satisfactory.

Smith, G. A.; Meyer, G.

1981-01-01

73

Compartment A1, trim tanks viewed aft to forward from watertight ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Compartment A-1, trim tanks viewed aft to forward from watertight bulkhead no. 6. Using remotely controlled valves, the tanks could be flooded with water or pumped clear to compensate for variations in the ship's displacement and maintain the water line at the desired point. The trim tanks could also be used to counteract the effect of variations in sea water density. (02) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

74

Trimming an aircraft model for flight simulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Real-time piloted aircraft simulations with digital computers have been performed at Ames Research Center (ARC) for over two decades. For the simulation of conventional aircraft models, the establishment of initial vehicle and control orientations at various operational flight regimes has been adequately handled by either analog techniques or simple inversion processes. However, exotic helicopter configurations have been introduced recently that require more sophisticated techniques because of their expanded degrees of freedom and environmental vibration levels. At ARC, these techniques are used for the backward solutions to real-time simulation models as required for the generation of trim points. These techniques are presented in this paper with examples from a blade-element helicopter simulation model.

Mcfarland, Richard E.

1987-01-01

75

Measurement and Control of Oxygen Partial Pressure in an Electrostatic Levitator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recently the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center electrostatic levitation (ESL) laboratory has been upgraded to include an oxygen control system. This system allows the oxygen partial pressure within the vacuum chamber to be measured and controlled, at elevated temperatures, theoretically in the range from 10(exp -36) to 10(exp 0) bar. The role of active surface agents in liquid metals is fairly well known; however, published surface tension data typically has large scatter, which has been hypothesized to be caused by the presence of oxygen. The surface tension of metals is affected by even a small amount of adsorption of oxygen. It has even been shown that oxygen partial pressures may need to be as low as 10(exp -24) bar to avoid oxidation. While electrostatic levitation is done under high vacuum, oxide films or dissolved oxygen may have significant effects on materials properties, such as surface tension and viscosity. Therefore, the ability to measure and control the oxygen partial pressure within the chamber is highly desirable. The oxygen control system installed at MSFC contains a potentiometric sensor, which measures the oxygen partial pressure, and an oxygen ion pump. In the pump, a pulse-width modulated electric current is applied to yttrium-stabilized zirconia, resulting in oxygen transfer into or out of the system. Also part of the system is a control unit, which consists of temperature controllers for the sensor and pump, PID-based current loop for the ion pump, and a control algorithm. This system can be used to study the effects of oxygen on the thermophysical properties of metals, ceramics, glasses, and alloys. It can also be used to provide more accurate measurements by processing the samples at very low oxygen partial pressures. The oxygen control system will be explained in more detail and an overview of its use and limitations in an electrostatic levitator will be described. Some preliminary measurements have been made, and the results to date will be provided.

SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.

2014-01-01

76

Organic carbon, and not copper, controls denitrification in oxygen minimum zones of the ocean  

E-print Network

Organic carbon, and not copper, controls denitrification in oxygen minimum zones of the ocean Bess Oxygen minimum zone Carbon limitation a b s t r a c t Incubation experiments under trace metal clean in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) to additions of organic carbon and copper, two factors that might be expected

Ward, Bess

77

Oxygen as a control on seafloor biological communities and their roles in sedimentary carbon cycling  

E-print Network

Oxygen as a control on seafloor biological communities and their roles in sedimentary carbon experiments were conducted at sites spanning the steep oxygen, organic matter, and biological community gradients across the Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone, in order to quantify the role that fauna play

78

Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Planococcus ficus (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) on grape rootstocks  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Controlled atmosphere with ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments for control of vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus Signoret (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), on grape rootstocks were developed successfully. Two ULO treatments with 30 ppm oxygen, 3 days at 25'C and 4 days at 15'C, achieved complete control of a...

79

Multiresolution Rendering By Sewing Trimmed NURBS Surfaces  

E-print Network

, sewing 1. INTRODUCTION Industrial machine parts are usually designed utilizing CAD (Computer Aided DesignMultiresolution Rendering By Sewing Trimmed NURBS Surfaces Ferenc Kahlesz fecu@cs.uni-bonn.de Ákos- ed. To create such models without artifacts at the trimming curves, one needs to sew parts together

Behnke, Sven

80

Examination of a microwave receiving system combining the superconducting filter and trimming  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examined the differences in frequency response between a fabricated filter and a designed filter, and we improved the frequency response of the fabricated filter using trimming. The cable probes approached the respective resonator in a 5-pole Chebyshev superconducting filter, and the resonant frequencies were measured. For the differences in the respective resonant frequencies of the resonators, improvement areas in the filter were found. The filter’s response was controlled by trimming of the sapphire and nickel rods. As a result of measuring the resonant frequency in the resonators, one resonator was found to have a 10 MHz lower than the other resonators. Therefore, we adjusted the resonant frequency of the resonator to obtain similar frequencies to the other resonators by trimming the sapphire and nickel rods. After trimming, the passband ripple reduced approximately 3.2 dB and the frequency response of the filter improved.

Aita, F.; Takezawa, M.; Aizawa, K.; Saito, A.; Ohshima, S.

2005-10-01

81

Piloted simulation study of the effects of an automated trim system on flight characteristics of a light twin-engine airplane with one engine inoperative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simulation study was conducted to investigate the piloting problems associated with failure of an engine on a generic light twin-engine airplane. A primary piloting problem for a light twin-engine airplane after an engine failure is maintaining precise control of the airplane in the presence of large steady control forces. To address this problem, a simulated automatic trim system which drives the trim tabs as an open-loop function of propeller slipstream measurements was developed. The simulated automatic trim system was found to greatly increase the controllability in asymmetric powered flight without having to resort to complex control laws or an irreversible control system. However, the trim-tab control rates needed to produce the dramatic increase in controllability may require special design consideration for automatic trim system failures. Limited measurements obtained in full-scale flight tests confirmed the fundamental validity of the proposed control law.

Stewart, E. C.; Brown, P. W.; Yenni, K. R.

1986-01-01

82

Reversible and irreversible inactivation of cellular nitrogenase upon oxygen stress in Azotobacter vinelandii growing in oxygen controlled continuous culture.  

PubMed

Azotobacter vinelandii growing in oxygen controlled chemostat culture was subjected to sudden increases of ambient oxygen concentrations (oxygen stress) after adaptation to different oxygen concentrations adjustable with air (100% air saturation corresponds to 225 +/- 14 microM O2). Inactivations of cellular nitrogenase during stress (switch off) as well as after release of stress (switch on) were evaluated in vivo as depending on stress duration and stress height (delta pO2). Switch off was at its final extent within 1 min of stress. The extent of switch off, however, increased with stress height and was complete at delta pO2 between 8-10% air saturation irrespective of different oxygen concentrations the organisms were adapted to before stress, indicating that switch off is adaptable. Inactivation of nitrogenase measureable after switch on represents irreversible loss of activity. Irreversible inactivation was at its characteristic level within less than 3 min of stress and at a delta pO2 of less than 1% air saturation. The level of irreversible inactivation increased linearly with the oxygen concentration the organisms were adapted to before stress. Thus adaptation of cells to increased oxygen concentrations did not prevent increased susceptibility of nitrogenase to irreversible inhibition during oxygen stress. The fast response of irreversible inactivation at low stress heights suggests that it takes place already during stress. Thus switch off comprised both a reversible and an irreversible phase. The data showed that reversible inactivation of nitrogenase was less susceptible to oxygen stress than irreversible inactivation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3857879

Dingler, C; Oelze, J

1985-02-01

83

Origin and Diversification of TRIM Ubiquitin Ligases  

PubMed Central

Most proteins of the TRIM family (also known as RBCC family) are ubiquitin ligases that share a peculiar protein structure, characterized by including an N-terminal RING finger domain closely followed by one or two B-boxes. Additional protein domains found at their C termini have been used to classify TRIM proteins into classes. TRIMs are involved in multiple cellular processes and many of them are essential components of the innate immunity system of animal species. In humans, it has been shown that mutations in several TRIM-encoding genes lead to diverse genetic diseases and contribute to several types of cancer. They had been hitherto detected only in animals. In this work, by comprehensively analyzing the available diversity of TRIM and TRIM-like protein sequences and evaluating their evolutionary patterns, an improved classification of the TRIM family is obtained. Members of one of the TRIM subfamilies defined, called Subfamily A, turn to be present not only in animals, but also in many other eukaryotes, such as fungi, apusozoans, alveolates, excavates and plants. The rest of subfamilies are animal-specific and several of them originated only recently. Subfamily A proteins are characterized by containing a MATH domain, suggesting a potential evolutionary connection between TRIM proteins and a different type of ubiquitin ligases, known as TRAFs, which contain quite similar MATH domains. These results indicate that the TRIM family emerged much earlier than so far thought and contribute to our understanding of its origin and diversification. The structural and evolutionary links with the TRAF family of ubiquitin ligases can be experimentally explored to determine whether functional connections also exist. PMID:23185523

Marín, Ignacio

2012-01-01

84

TRIM24 Is a p53-Induced E3-Ubiquitin Ligase That Undergoes ATM-Mediated Phosphorylation and Autodegradation during DNA Damage  

PubMed Central

Tumor suppressor p53 protects cells from genomic insults and is a target of mutation in more than 50% of human cancers. Stress-mediated modification and increased stability of p53 promote p53 interaction with chromatin, which results in transcription of target genes that are critical for the maintenance of genomic integrity. We recently discovered that TRIM24, an E3-ubiquitin ligase, ubiquitinates and promotes proteasome-mediated degradation of p53. Here, we show that TRIM24 is destabilized by ATM-mediated phosphorylation of TRIM24S768 in response to DNA damage, which disrupts TRIM24-p53 interactions and promotes the degradation of TRIM24. Transcription of TRIM24 is directly induced by damage-activated p53, which binds p53 response elements and activates expression of TRIM24. Newly synthesized TRIM24 interacts with phosphorylated p53 to target it for degradation and termination of the DNA damage response. These studies indicate that TRIM24, like MDM2, controls p53 levels in an autoregulatory feedback loop. However, unlike MDM2, TRIM24 also targets activated p53 to terminate p53-regulated response to DNA damage. PMID:24820418

Jain, Abhinav K.; Allton, Kendra; Duncan, Aundrietta D.

2014-01-01

85

Catalytic Synthesis of Oxygenates: Mechanisms, Catalysts and Controlling Characteristics  

SciTech Connect

This research focused on catalytic synthesis of unsymmetrical ethers as a part of a larger program involving oxygenated products in general, including alcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids and their derivatives that link together environmentally compliant fuels, monomers, and high-value chemicals. The catalysts studied here were solid acids possessing strong Br�������¸nsted acid functionalities. The design of these catalysts involved anchoring the acid groups onto inorganic oxides, e.g. surface-grafted acid groups on zirconia, and a new class of mesoporous solid acids, i.e. propylsulfonic acid-derivatized SBA-15. The former catalysts consisted of a high surface concentration of sulfate groups on stable zirconia catalysts. The latter catalyst consists of high surface area, large pore propylsulfonic acid-derivatized silicas, specifically SBA-15. In both cases, the catalyst design and synthesis yielded high concentrations of acid sites in close proximity to one another. These materials have been well-characterization in terms of physical and chemical properties, as well as in regard to surface and bulk characteristics. Both types of catalysts were shown to exhibit high catalytic performance with respect to both activity and selectivity for the bifunctional coupling of alcohols to form ethers, which proceeds via an efficient SN2 reaction mechanism on the proximal acid sites. This commonality of the dual-site SN2 reaction mechanism over acid catalysts provides for maximum reaction rates and control of selectivity by reaction conditions, i.e. pressure, temperature, and reactant concentrations. This research provides the scientific groundwork for synthesis of ethers for energy applications. The synthesized environmentally acceptable ethers, in part derived from natural gas via alcohol intermediates, exhibit high cetane properties, e.g. methylisobutylether with cetane No. of 53 and dimethylether with cetane No. of 55-60, or high octane properties, e.g. diisopropylether with blending octane No. of 105, and can replace aromatics in liquid fuels.

Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman

2005-11-30

86

Oxygen control of intracellular distribution of mitochondria in muscle fibers.  

PubMed

Mitochondrial density in skeletal muscle fibers is governed by the demand for aerobic ATP production, but the heterogeneous distribution of these mitochondria appears to be governed by constraints associated with oxygen diffusion. We propose that each muscle fiber has an optimal mitochondrial distribution at which it attains a near maximal rate of ATP consumption (RATPase ) while mitochondria are exposed to a minimal oxygen concentration, thus minimizing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. We developed a coupled reaction-diffusion/cellular automata (CA) mathematical model of mitochondrial function and considered four fiber types in mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus (SOL) muscle. The developed mathematical model uses a reaction-diffusion analysis of metabolites including oxygen, ATP, ADP, phosphate, and phosphocreatine (PCr) involved in energy metabolism and mitochondrial function. A CA approach governing mitochondrial life cycles in response to the metabolic state of the fiber was superimposed and coupled to the reaction-diffusion approach. The model results show the sensitivity of important model outputs such as the RATPase , effectiveness factor (?) and average oxygen concentration available at each mitochondrion to local oxygen concentration in the fibers through variation in the CA model parameter ?det , which defines the sensitivity of mitochondrial death to the oxygen concentration. The predicted optimal mitochondrial distributions matched previous experimental findings. Deviations from this optimal distribution corresponding to higher CA model parameter values (a more uniform mitochondrial distribution) lead to lower aerobic rates. In contrast, distributions corresponding to lower CA model parameter values (a more asymmetric distribution) lead to an increased exposure of mitochondria to oxygen, usually without substantial increases in aerobic rates, which would presumably result in increased ROS production and thus increased risks of cytotoxicity. PMID:23568454

Pathi, B; Kinsey, S T; Locke, B R

2013-09-01

87

Controls on soil oxygen variation across aquatic-terrestrial interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Soil oxygen (O2) is a fundamental control on terrestrial biogeochemical cycles including processes producing and consuming greenhouse gases (GHG), yet it is rarely measured. Instead, soil O2 is assumed to be proportional to soil moisture and physical soil properties. For example, soil O2 is often inferred from a 25-year old steady-state diffusion model; however, few data exist to test this model in stochastic systems. The variability of soil O2 may be particularly important to GHG emissions from aquatic-terrestrial interface zones because of the convergence of variable hydrology and rapid biogeochemical processing. Our objective is to gain a better understanding of soil O2 variation and its role in controlling GHG emissions across aquatic-terrestrial interface zones. Specifically, we hypothesize that in aquatic-terrestrial interface ecosystems, soil moisture predicts O2 concentration under stable conditions where diffusion dominates, but fails under dynamic conditions (e.g., water table fluctuations or precipitation) due to advective flux during soil drainage and lags in biological O2 consumption. Furthermore, we hypothesize that GHG emissions will correspond to variation in soil O2. Twenty-four near-continuous (hourly readings) soil O2 and moisture sensors were installed across an aquatic-terrestrial interface zone of a constructed wetland in April 2012. Drought conditions (2012) resulted in minimal soil O2 variation. Despite dry conditions a diurnal pattern of lower soil O2 during the day was observed. When precipitation increased in September (due to the remnants of Hurricane Isaac), soil O2 variation increased substantially with 20 of the 24 sensors recording soil O2 concentrations below 5%. The relationship between soil moisture and soil O2 was non-linear during periods of soil drainage and precipitation. A rapid (change of 10% over <24 hours) increase in soil O2 occurs at ~ 40% water filled soil volume during soil drainage. This rapid increase appears related to drainage of soil macropores ahead of changes in bulk soil moisture. As soil moisture increased due to precipitation, soil O2 decreased slower than predicted by simple diffusion models. A lag in O2 consumption is hypothesized to explain this divergence from the diffusion model. Weekly methane and nitrous oxide emissions corresponded to variation in soil O2. Future research will explore the importance of temporal soil O2 and moisture variation in driving GHG emissions.

Loecke, T.; Burgin, A. J.

2013-12-01

88

Development of decontamination procedures for beef trimmings  

E-print Network

evaluation. 2-thiobarbituric acid test. . . . . Fat and moisture pH. Color 22 25 26 27 28 . . . . . 28 . . 29 30 30 Sensory evaluation. . Statistical analysis. 3l 32 CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Page 34 Preliminary results... Least squares means of the interaction between trimming type and storage day of color measurements for ground beef. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 2 Least squares means of the interaction between trimming type...

Ebeling, Christine Suzanne

2001-01-01

89

3D modeling of edge trimming process  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with an original study on serration, supposed to be the result of residual stresses in the strip metal edge,\\u000a due to edge trimming and revealed during the cold rolling process. The aim of this research work is to predict the formation\\u000a of serration and the finite element methodology will be used to model edge trimming. The first

C. Hubert; M. Dubar; A. Dubois; L. Dubar

2009-01-01

90

Ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest control of western flower thrips on broccoli.  

PubMed

Laboratory studies were conducted to develop ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment for controlling western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on broccoli at a low temperature of 1 degree C. Complete control was achieved in 5 d at 0.003% oxygen. Oxygen level affected efficacy of ULO treatment. At a higher oxygen level of 0.03%, 6-d treatment killed -85% of thrips, and 10-d treatment killed all thrips. The 5-d ULO treatment with 0.003% oxygen was successfully tested on iced commercial broccoli of several cultivars without any noticeable negative effects on shelf-life and postharvest quality. The ULO treatment provided a safe and effective alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for postharvest control of western flower thrips on exported broccoli for industrial development. PMID:17598530

Liu, Yong-Biao

2007-06-01

91

TRIM5? and TRIM22 Are Differentially Regulated According to HIV-1 Infection Phase and Compartment  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The antiviral role of TRIM E3 ligases in vivo is not fully understood. To test the hypothesis that TRIM5? and TRIM22 have differential transcriptional regulation and distinct anti-HIV roles according to infection phase and compartment, we measured TRIM5?, TRIM22, and type I interferon (IFN-I)-inducible myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) during primary and chronic HIV-1 infection, with chronic infection samples being matched PBMCs and central nervous system (CNS)-derived cells. Associations with biomarkers of disease progression were explored. The impact of IFN-I, select proinflammatory cytokines, and HIV on TRIM E3 ligase-specific expression was investigated. PBMCs from individuals with primary and chronic HIV-1 infection had significantly higher levels of MxA and TRIM22 than did PBMCs from HIV-1-negative individuals (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). PBMCs from chronic infection had lower levels of TRIM5? than did PBMCs from primary infection or HIV-1-uninfected PBMCs (P = 0.0001 for both). In matched CNS-derived samples and PBMCs, higher levels of MxA (P = 0.001) and TRIM5? (P = 0.0001) in the CNS were noted. There was a negative correlation between TRIM22 levels in PBMCs and plasma viral load (r = ?0.40; P = 0.04). In vitro, IFN-I and, rarely, proinflammatory cytokines induced TRIM5? and TRIM22 in a cell type-dependent manner, and the knockdown of either protein in CD4+ lymphocytes resulted in increased HIV-1 infection. These data suggest that there are infection-phase-specific and anatomically compartmentalized differences in TRIM5? and TRIM22 regulation involving primarily IFN-I and specific cell types and indicate subtle differences in the antiviral roles and transcriptional regulation of TRIM E3 ligases in vivo. IMPORTANCE Type I interferon-inducible TRIM E3 ligases are a family of intracellular proteins with potent antiviral activities mediated through diverse mechanisms. However, little is known about the contribution of these proteins to antiviral immunity in vivo and how their expression is regulated. We show here that TRIM5? and TRIM22, two prominent members of the family, have different expression patterns in vivo and that the expression pattern depends on HIV-1 infection status and phase. Furthermore, expression differs in peripheral blood versus central nervous system anatomical sites of infection. Only TRIM22 expression correlated negatively with HIV-1 viral load, but gene silencing of both proteins enhances HIV-1 infection of target cells. We report subtle differences in TRIM5? and TRIM22 gene induction by IFN-I and proinflammatory cytokines in CD4+ lymphocytes, monocytes, and neuronal cells. This study enhances our understanding of antiviral immunity by intrinsic antiviral factors and how their expression is determined. PMID:24478420

Singh, Ravesh; Patel, Vinod; Mureithi, Marianne W.; Naranbhai, Vivek; Ramsuran, Duran; Tulsi, Sahil; Hiramen, Keshni; Werner, Lise; Mlisana, Koleka; Altfeld, Marcus; Luban, Jeremy; Kasprowicz, Victoria; Dheda, Keertan; Abdool Karim, Salim S.

2014-01-01

92

Infrared Beak Treatment: Part I, Comparative Effects of Infrared and 1/3 Hot-blade Trimming on Beak Topography, Focal Behavior and Growth.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study examines the effects of beak trimming on production and well-being. Seventy-two layer chicks were assigned to hot-blade trimming (HB), infrared treatment (IR), or a control(C) untrimmed treatment at one-day-old. Chicks were pair housed by treatment and beak images, behavior and production...

93

CATION CONTROLLED SINGLET OXYGEN MEDIATED OXIDATION OF OLEFINS WITHIN ZEOLITES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Oxidation of trialkyl olefins has been performed within zeolites employing thionin as the singlet oxygen sensitizer. Unusual selectivity in favor of secondary hydroperoxides is observed within zeolites. In light of the fact that in solution such a selectivity is never observed the selectivity report...

94

Zinc-aminomethylenephosphonate for control of oxygen corrosion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aminomethylenephosphonates will provide protection against oxygen corrosion. This action is markedly enhanced when these phosphonates are used in conjunction with zinc salts. Inhibition is somewhat analogous to that by the polyphosphates, but differs in several significant respects. The pronounced hydrolytic stability of the aminomethylenephosphonates renders them particularily attractive for applications where prolonged exposure to high water temperatures are involved. It

G. B. Hatch; P. H. Ralston

1970-01-01

95

Controlling factors of the oxygen balance in the Arabian Sea's OMZ  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The expansion of OMZs (oxygen minimum zones) due to climate change and their possible evolution and impacts on the ecosystems and the atmosphere are still debated, mostly because of the unability of global climate models to adequatly reproduce the processes governing OMZs. In this study, we examine the factors controlling the oxygen budget, i.e. the equilibrium between oxygen sources and sinks in the northern Arabian Sea OMZ using an eddy-resolving biophysical model. Our model confirms that the biological consumption of oxygen is most intense below the region of highest productivity in the western Arabian Sea. The oxygen drawdown in this region is counterbalanced by the large supply of oxygenated waters originated from the south and advected horizontally by the western boundary current. Although the biological sink and the dynamical sources of oxygen compensate on annual average, we find that the seasonality of the dynamical transport of oxygen is 3 to 5 times larger than the seasonality of the biological sink. In agreement with previous findings, the resulting seasonality of oxygen concentration in the OMZ is relatively weak, with a variability of the order of 15% of the annual mean oxygen concentration in the oxycline and 5% elsewhere. This seasonality primarily arises from the vertical displacement of the OMZ forced by the monsoonal reversal of Ekman pumping across the basin. In coastal areas, the oxygen concentration is also modulated seasonally by lateral advection. Along the western coast of the Arabian Sea, the Somali Current transports oxygen-rich waters originated from the south during summer and oxygen-poor waters from the northeast during winter. Along the eastern coast of the Arabian Sea, we find that the main contributor to lateral advection in the OMZ is the Indian coastal undercurrent that advects southern oxygenated waters during summer and northern low-oxygen waters during winter. In this region, our model indicates that oxygen concentrations are modulated seasonally by coastal Kelvin waves and westward-propagating Rossby waves. Whereas on seasonal time scales the sources and sinks of oxygen are dominated by the mean vertical and lateral advection (Ekman pumping and monsoonal currents), on annual time scales we find that the biological sink is counterbalanced by the supply of oxygen sustained by mesoscale structures (eddies and filaments). Eddy-driven advection hence promotes the vertical supply of oxygen along the western coast of the Arabian Sea and the lateral transport of ventilated waters offshore the coast of Oman and southwest India.

Resplandy, L.; Lévy, M.; Bopp, L.; Echevin, V.; Pous, S.; Sarma, V. V. S. S.; Kumar, D.

2012-12-01

96

Method of controlled reduction of nitroaromatics by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes  

DOEpatents

A method is described for the controlled reduction of nitroaromatic compounds such as nitrobenzene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes, such as ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase. 6 figs.

Shah, M.M.; Campbell, J.A.

1998-07-07

97

Method of controlled reduction of nitroaromatics by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes  

DOEpatents

A method for the controlled reduction of nitroaromatic compounds such as nitrobenzene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes, such as ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase.

Shah, Manish M. (Richland, WA); Campbell, James A. (Pasco, WA)

1998-01-01

98

Mathematical model for nitrogen control in oxygen steelmaking  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mathematical model was developed to quantify the effects of different operational parameters on the nitrogen content of\\u000a steel produced during oxygen steelmaking. The model predicts nitrogen removal by the CO produced during decarburization and\\u000a how the final nitrogen content is affected by different process variables. These variables include the type of coolants used\\u000a (scrap, direct reduced iron (DRI), etc.),

D. A. Goldstein; R. J. Fruehan

1999-01-01

99

EPR oxygen images predict tumor control by a 50 percent tumor control radiation dose  

PubMed Central

Clinical trials to ameliorate hypoxia as a strategy to relieve the radiation resistance it causes have prompted a need to assay the precise extent and location of hypoxia in tumors. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance oxygen imaging (EPR O2 imaging) provides a non-invasive means to address this need. To obtain a preclinical proof of principle that EPR O2 images could predict radiation control, we treated mouse tumors at or near doses required to achieve 50 percent control (TCD50). Mice with FSa fibrosarcoma or MCa4 carcinoma were subjected to EPR O2 imaging and immediately radiated to a TCD50 or TCD50 ±10 Gy.. Statistical analysis was permitted by collection of ~ 1300 tumor pO2 image voxels, including the fraction of tumor voxels with pO2 less than 10 mm Hg (HF10). Tumors were followed for 90 days (FSa) or 120 days (MCa4) to determine local control or failure. HF10 obtained from EPR images showed statistically significant differences between tumors that were controlled by the TCD50 and those that were not controlled for both FSa and MCa4. Kaplan-Meier analysis of both types of tumors showed ~90% of mildly hypoxic tumors were controlled (HF10<10%), and only 37% (FSA) and 23% (MCa4) tumors controlled if hypoxic. EPR pO2 image voxel distributions in these ~0.5 ml tumors provide a prediction of radiation curability independent of radiation dose. These data confirm the significance of EPR pO2 hypoxic fractions. The ~90% control of low HF10 tumors argue that ½ ml subvolumes of tumors may be more sensitive to radiation and may need less radiation for high tumor control rates. PMID:23861469

Elas, Martyna; Magwood, Jessica M.; Butler, Brandi; Li, Chanel; Wardak, Rona; Barth, Eugene D.; Epel, Boris; Rubinstein, Samuel; Pelizzari, Charles A.; Weichselbaum, Ralph R.; Halpern, Howard J.

2013-01-01

100

TRIM16 Acts as an E3 Ubiquitin Ligase and Can Heterodimerize with Other TRIM Family Members  

PubMed Central

The TRIM family of proteins is distinguished by its tripartite motif (TRIM). Typically, TRIM proteins contain a RING finger domain, one or two B-box domains, a coiled-coil domain and the more variable C-terminal domains. TRIM16 does not have a RING domain but does harbour two B-box domains. Here we showed that TRIM16 homodimerized through its coiled-coil domain and heterodimerized with other TRIM family members; TRIM24, Promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) protein and Midline-1 (MID1). Although, TRIM16 has no classic RING domain, three-dimensional modelling of TRIM16 suggested that its B-box domains adopts RING-like folds leading to the hypothesis that TRIM16 acts as an ubiquitin ligase. Consistent with this hypothesis, we demonstrated that TRIM16, devoid of a classical RING domain had auto-polyubiquitination activity and acted as an E3 ubiquitin ligase in vivo and in vitro assays. Thus via its unique structure, TRIM16 possesses both heterodimerization function with other TRIM proteins and also has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. PMID:22629402

Holien, Jessica K.; Koach, Jessica; Parker, Michael W.; Kavallaris, Maria; Marshall, Glenn M.; Cheung, Belamy B.

2012-01-01

101

Regulation of Respiration and Fermentation to Control the Plant Internal Oxygen Concentration1[OA  

PubMed Central

Plant internal oxygen concentrations can drop well below ambient even when the plant grows under optimal conditions. Using pea (Pisum sativum) roots, we show how amenable respiration adapts to hypoxia to save oxygen when the oxygen availability decreases. The data cannot simply be explained by oxygen being limiting as substrate but indicate the existence of a regulatory mechanism, because the oxygen concentration at which the adaptive response is initiated is independent of the actual respiratory rate. Two phases can be discerned during the adaptive reaction: an initial linear decline of respiration is followed by a nonlinear inhibition in which the respiratory rate decreased progressively faster upon decreasing oxygen availability. In contrast to the cytochrome c pathway, the inhibition of the alternative oxidase pathway shows only the linear component of the adaptive response. Feeding pyruvate to the roots led to an increase of the oxygen consumption rate, which ultimately led to anoxia. The importance of balancing the in vivo pyruvate availability in the tissue was further investigated. Using various alcohol dehydrogenase knockout lines of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), it was shown that even under aerobic conditions, alcohol fermentation plays an important role in the control of the level of pyruvate in the tissue. Interestingly, alcohol fermentation appeared to be primarily induced by a drop in the energy status of the tissue rather than by a low oxygen concentration, indicating that sensing the energy status is an important component of optimizing plant metabolism to changes in the oxygen availability. PMID:19098094

Zabalza, Ana; van Dongen, Joost T.; Froehlich, Anja; Oliver, Sandra N.; Faix, Benjamin; Gupta, Kapuganti Jagadis; Schmälzlin, Elmar; Igal, Maria; Orcaray, Luis; Royuela, Mercedes; Geigenberger, Peter

2009-01-01

102

May 30, 2012 9:56 WSPC -Proceedings Trim Size: 9in x 6in CLAWAR-2012-Full SWING LEG CONTROL FOR ACTUATED  

E-print Network

phase. Keywords: Actuated SLIP model, Running robot. 1. Introduction The planar spring loaded inverted with the spring to control the leg length during the flight phase. We keep the motor locked during the stance. The motor inertia and maximum motor torque are considered for the leg actuator to model a realistic electric

Hurst, Jonathan

103

Ship Trim Optimization: Assessment of Influence of Trim on Resistance of MOERI Container Ship  

PubMed Central

Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy efficiency in all sectors. Shipping industry is a stakeholder in environmental issues. Shipping industry is responsible for approximately 3% of global CO2 emissions, 14-15% of global NOX emissions, and 16% of global SOX emissions. Ship trim optimization has gained enormous momentum in recent years being an effective operational measure for better energy efficiency to reduce emissions. Ship trim optimization analysis has traditionally been done through tow-tank testing for a specific hullform. Computational techniques are increasingly popular in ship hydrodynamics applications. The purpose of this study is to present MOERI container ship (KCS) hull trim optimization by employing computational methods. KCS hull total resistances and trim and sinkage computed values, in even keel condition, are compared with experimental values and found in reasonable agreement. The agreement validates that mesh, boundary conditions, and solution techniques are correct. The same mesh, boundary conditions, and solution techniques are used to obtain resistance values in different trim conditions at Fn = 0.2274. Based on attained results, optimum trim is suggested. This research serves as foundation for employing computational techniques for ship trim optimization. PMID:24578649

Duan, Wenyang

2014-01-01

104

trimAl: a tool for automated alignment trimming in large-scale phylogenetic analyses  

PubMed Central

Summary: Multiple sequence alignments are central to many areas of bioinformatics. It has been shown that the removal of poorly aligned regions from an alignment increases the quality of subsequent analyses. Such an alignment trimming phase is complicated in large-scale phylogenetic analyses that deal with thousands of alignments. Here, we present trimAl, a tool for automated alignment trimming, which is especially suited for large-scale phylogenetic analyses. trimAl can consider several parameters, alone or in multiple combinations, for selecting the most reliable positions in the alignment. These include the proportion of sequences with a gap, the level of amino acid similarity and, if several alignments for the same set of sequences are provided, the level of consistency across different alignments. Moreover, trimAl can automatically select the parameters to be used in each specific alignment so that the signal-to-noise ratio is optimized. Availability: trimAl has been written in C++, it is portable to all platforms. trimAl is freely available for download (http://trimal.cgenomics.org) and can be used online through the Phylemon web server (http://phylemon2.bioinfo.cipf.es/). Supplementary Material is available at http://trimal.cgenomics.org/publications. Contact: tgabaldon@crg.es PMID:19505945

Capella-Gutiérrez, Salvador; Silla-Martínez, José M.; Gabaldón, Toni

2009-01-01

105

Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control  

SciTech Connect

Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic (i.e., man-made) CO{sub 2} emissions. In 2001, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) began a two-phase program to investigate the feasibility of various carbon capture technologies. This program was sponsored under a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE). The first phase entailed a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen cases, representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated. Seven cases represented coal combustion in CFB type equipment. Four cases represented Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Two cases represented advanced Chemical Looping Combined Cycle systems. Marion, et al. reported the details of this work in 2003. One of the thirteen cases studied utilized an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. In this concept, the fuel is fired with a mixture of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (mainly CO{sub 2}). This combustion process yields a flue gas containing over 80 percent (by volume) CO{sub 2}. This flue gas can be processed relatively easily to enrich the CO{sub 2} content to over 96 percent for use in enhanced oil or gas recovery (EOR or EGR) or simply dried for sequestration. The Phase I study identified the O{sub 2}-fired CFB as having a near term development potential, because it uses conventional commercial CFB technology and commercially available CO{sub 2} capture enabling technologies such as cryogenic air separation and simple rectification or distillation gas processing systems. In the long term, air separation technology advancements offer significant reductions in power requirements, which would improve plant efficiency and economics for the oxygen-fired technology. The second phase consisted of pilot-scale testing followed by a refined performance and economic evaluation of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. As a part of this workscope, ALSTOM modified its 3 MW{sub th} (9.9 MMBtu/hr) Multiuse Test Facility (MTF) pilot plant to operate with O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures of up to 70 percent O{sub 2} by volume. Tests were conducted with coal and petroleum coke. The test objectives were to determine the impacts of oxygen firing on heat transfer, bed dynamics, potential agglomeration, and gaseous and particulate emissions. The test data results were used to refine the design, performance, costs, and economic models developed in Phase-I for the O{sub 2}-fired CFB with CO{sub 2} capture. Nsakala, Liljedahl, and Turek reported results from this study in 2004. ALSTOM identified several items needing further investigation in preparation for large scale demonstration of the oxygen-fired CFB concept, namely: (1) Operation and performance of the moving bed heat exchanger (MBHE) to avoid recarbonation and also for cost savings compared to the standard bubbling fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHE); (2) Performance of the back-end flash dryer absorber (FDA) for sulfur capture under high CO{sub 2}/high moisture flue gas environment using calcined limestone in the fly ash and using fresh commercial lime directly in the FDA; (3) Determination of the effect of recarbonation on fouling in the convective pass; (4) Assessment of the impact of oxygen firing on the mercury, other trace elements, and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions; and (5) Develop a proposal-level oxygen-fired retrofit design for a relatively small existing CFB steam power plant in preparation for a large-scale demonstration of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. Hence, ALSTOM responded to a DOE Solicitation to address all these issues with further O{sub 2} fired MTF pilot testing and a subsequent retrofit design study of oxygen firing and CO{s

Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

2007-03-31

106

Control of oxygen uptake, microcirculation and glucose release by circulating noradrenaline in perfused rat liver.  

PubMed

The effect of noradrenaline on oxygen uptake, on periportal and perivenous oxygen tension at surface acini, on microcirculation and on glucose output were studied in isolated rat livers perfused at constant flow with Krebs-Henseleit-hydrogen carbonate buffer containing 5mM glucose and 2mM lactate. Noradrenaline at 1 microM concentration caused a decrease in oxygen uptake, while at 0.1 microM it led to an increase. Both high and low doses of noradrenaline decreased the tissue surface oxygen tension in periportal and - after a transient rise - in perivenous areas. Noradrenaline at an overall constant flow caused an increase of portal pressure and an alteration of the intrahepatic distribution of the perfusate: at the surface of the liver and in cross sections infused trypan blue led to only a slightly heterogeneous staining after a low dose of noradrenaline but to a clearly heterogeneous staining after a high dose. Both high and low doses of noradrenaline stimulated glucose release. All effects could be inhibited by the alpha-blocking agent phentolamine. In conclusion, control of hepatic oxygen consumption by circulating noradrenaline is a complex result of opposing hemodynamic and metabolic components: the microcirculatory changes inhibit oxygen uptake; they dominate after high catecholamine doses. The metabolic effects include a stimulation of oxygen utilization; they prevail at low catecholamine levels. The noradrenergic control of glucose release is also very complex, involving direct, metabolic and indirect, hemodynamic components. PMID:2994691

Beckh, K; Otto, R; Ji, S; Jungermann, K

1985-07-01

107

Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on harvested lettuce.  

PubMed

Low temperature regular phosphine fumigations under the normal oxygen level and oxygenated phosphine fumigations under superatmospheric oxygen levels were compared for efficacy against the aphid, Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley), and effects on postharvest quality of romaine and head lettuce. Low temperature regular phosphine fumigation was effective against the aphid. However, a 3 d treatment with high phosphine concentrations of > or = 2,000 ppm was needed for complete control of the aphid. Oxygen greatly increased phosphine toxicity and significantly reduced both treatment time and phosphine concentration for control of N. ribisnigri. At 1,000 ppm phosphine, 72 h regular fumigations at 6 degrees C did not achieve 100% mortality of the aphid. The 1,000 ppm phosphine fumigation under 60% O2 killed all aphids in 30 h. Both a 72 h regular fumigation with 2,200 ppm phosphine and a 48 h oxygenated fumigation with 1,000 ppm phosphine under 60% O2 were tested on romaine and head lettuce at 3 degrees C. Both treatments achieved complete control of N. ribisnigri. However, the 72 h regular fumigation resulted in significantly higher percentages of lettuce with injuries and significantly lower lettuce internal quality scores than the 48 h oxygenated phosphine fumigation. Although the oxygenated phosphine fumigation also caused injuries to some treated lettuce, lettuce quality remained very good and the treatment is not expected to have a significant impact on marketability of the lettuce. This study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation was more effective and less phytotoxic for controlling N. ribisnigri on harvested lettuce than regular phosphine fumigation and is promising for practical use. PMID:22812116

Liu, Yong-Biao

2012-06-01

108

Oxygen regulated gene expression in Escherichia coli: Control of anaerobic respiration by the FNR protein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molecular oxygen is an important regulatory signal in facultative anaerobic bacteria and controles the expression of a great variety of genes positively or negatively. The expression of anaerobic respiration and of related functions of E. coli is controlled by the positive gene regulator FNR, which activates transcription in the absence of O2. The regulated genes carry a FNR consensus sequence

Gottfried Unden; Martin Trageser

1991-01-01

109

Reactive oxygen species delay control of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus.  

PubMed

Cluster of differentiation (CD)8(+) T cells are like a double edged sword during chronic viral infections because they not only promote virus elimination but also induce virus-mediated immunopathology. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been reported during virus infections. However, the role of ROS in T-cell-mediated immunopathology remains unclear. Here we used the murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus to explore the role of ROS during the processes of virus elimination and induction of immunopathology. We found that virus infection led to elevated levels of ROS producing granulocytes and macrophages in virus-infected liver and spleen tissues that were triggered by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. Lack of the regulatory subunit p47phox of the NADPH oxidase diminished ROS production in these cells. While CD8(+) T cells exhibited ROS production that was independent of NADPH oxidase expression, survival and T-cell function was elevated in p47phox-deficient (Ncf1(-/-)) mice. In the absence of p47phox, enhanced T-cell immunity promoted virus elimination and blunted corresponding immunopathology. In conclusion, we find that NADPH-mediated production of ROS critically impairs the immune response, impacting elimination of virus and outcome of liver cell damage. PMID:23328631

Lang, P A; Xu, H C; Grusdat, M; McIlwain, D R; Pandyra, A A; Harris, I S; Shaabani, N; Honke, N; Maney, S Kumar; Lang, E; Pozdeev, V I; Recher, M; Odermatt, B; Brenner, D; Häussinger, D; Ohashi, P S; Hengartner, H; Zinkernagel, R M; Mak, T W; Lang, K S

2013-04-01

110

Predicting Tensile Stretchability of Trimmed AA6111-T4 Sheets  

SciTech Connect

An integrated manufacturing process simulation framework has been developed to predict the trimmed edge tensile stretchability of AA6111-T4 sheets by incorporating the burr geometry, damage, and plastic strain from trimming simulations into subsequent tensile stretchability simulations. The influence of the trimming die clearances on the predicted tensile stretching ductility (stretchability) is studied and quantitatively compared with experimental measurements. Stretchability is found to decrease with increasing cutting clearances, and simulation results have successfully captured experimentally observed edge crack initiation and failure mode variations for different trimming clearances. Subsequent computational sensitivity studies reveal that while deburring of previously trimmed edges has little influence on tensile stretchability, removal of trimmed edge initial plastic strain may significantly enhance the subsequent trimmed edge stretchability.

Hu, Xiaohua; Sun, Xin; Golovashchenko, Sergey F.

2014-02-15

111

Building Trades. Block VIII. Interior Trim.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum for interior trim provides instructional materials for 18 informational and manipulative lessons. A list of 11 references precedes the course materials. The instructor's plan for each informational lesson begins by providing this information: subject, aim, required teaching aids, required materials, references, and prerequisite…

Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

112

14 CFR 23.161 - Trim.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...directional trim in level flight with the landing gear and wing flaps retracted as follows...with— (i) Takeoff power, landing gear retracted, wing flaps in the...appropriate), to 1.4 VS1 , with the landing gear and flaps retracted. (3)...

2011-01-01

113

14 CFR 23.161 - Trim.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...directional trim in level flight with the landing gear and wing flaps retracted as follows...with— (i) Takeoff power, landing gear retracted, wing flaps in the...appropriate), to 1.4 VS1 , with the landing gear and flaps retracted. (3)...

2010-01-01

114

Differential sympathetic neural control of oxygenation in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle.  

PubMed Central

Metabolic products of skeletal muscle contraction activate metaboreceptor muscle afferents that reflexively increase sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) targeted to both resting and exercising skeletal muscle. To determine effects of the increased sympathetic vasoconstrictor drive on muscle oxygenation, we measured changes in tissue oxygen stores and mitochondrial cytochrome a,a3 redox state in rhythmically contracting human forearm muscles with near infrared spectroscopy while simultaneously measuring muscle SNA with microelectrodes. The major new finding is that the ability of reflex-sympathetic activation to decrease muscle oxygenation is abolished when the muscle is exercised at an intensity > 10% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). During high intensity handgrip, (45% MVC), contraction-induced decreases in muscle oxygenation remained stable despite progressive metaboreceptor-mediated reflex increases in SNA. During mild to moderate handgrips (20-33% MVC) that do not evoke reflex-sympathetic activation, experimentally induced increases in muscle SNA had no effect on oxygenation in exercising muscles but produced robust decreases in oxygenation in resting muscles. The latter decreases were evident even during maximal metabolic vasodilation accompanying reactive hyperemia. We conclude that in humans sympathetic neural control of skeletal muscle oxygenation is sensitive to modulation by metabolic events in the contracting muscles. These events are different from those involved in either metaboreceptor muscle afferent activation or reactive hyperemia. PMID:8755671

Hansen, J; Thomas, G D; Harris, S A; Parsons, W J; Victor, R G

1996-01-01

115

Numerical analysis of the primary processes controlling oxygen dynamics on the Louisiana Shelf  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Louisiana shelf in the northern Gulf of Mexico receives large amounts of freshwater and nutrients from the Mississippi/Atchafalaya River system. These river inputs contribute to widespread bottom-water hypoxia every summer. In this study, we use a physical-biogeochemical model that explicitly simulates oxygen sources and sinks on the Louisiana shelf to identify the key mechanisms controlling hypoxia development. First, we validate the model simulation against observed dissolved oxygen concentrations, primary production, water column respiration, and sediment oxygen consumption. In the model simulation, heterotrophy is prevalent in shelf waters throughout the year except near the mouths of the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers where primary production exceeds respiratory oxygen consumption during June and July. During this time, efflux of oxygen to the atmosphere, driven by photosynthesis and surface warming, becomes a significant oxygen sink while the well-developed pycnocline isolates autotrophic surface waters from the heterotrophic and hypoxic waters below. A substantial fraction of primary production occurs below the pycnocline in summer. We investigate whether this primary production below the pycnocline is mitigating the development of hypoxic conditions with the help of a sensitivity experiment where we disable biological processes in the water column (i.e. primary production and water column respiration). In this experiment below-pycnocline primary production reduces the spatial extent of hypoxic bottom waters only slightly. Our results suggest that the combination of physical processes and sediment oxygen consumption largely determine the spatial extent and dynamics of hypoxia on the Louisiana shelf.

Yu, L.; Fennel, K.; Laurent, A.; Murrell, M. C.; Lehrter, J. C.

2014-10-01

116

Characterization of OPC masks for thin-film head pole trimming applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The storage space of hard disk drives more than doubles every 18 months. In order to maintain this growth rate, thin film head (TFH) manufacturers continue to seek new technologies to increase the areal density on the magnetic media. The trimming of the track at the rowbar level known as 'pole trimming' has proven itself to be very effective at increasing the number of tracks per inch (TPI) during the inductive head generation. However, the transition to magneto-resistive (MR) head technologies with ever smaller form factors has continued to push the trackwidth (TW) requirements of the industry. Optical proximity correction (OPC) enhanced masks have been used in the semiconductor industry for controlling the shape of contacts and eliminating line shortening effects for submicron features. The TFH industry is facing a similar challenge as TWs dip below 1 micrometer. In an attempt to transition the pole trimming process technology from inductive to MR heads, the issue of magnetic performance versus pattern fidelity of the feature becomes critical. OPC masks can be used to minimize the corner rounding effects of trimmed shared magnetic poles, which are ultimately responsible for the track width. This paper evaluates OPC mask technology on rowbar level pole trimming using a 1X stepper to identify the extendibility of minimum TWs for the MR head generation. Various combinations of serifs were experimentally evaluated at different track widths. Multiple photoresists and photoresist thicknesses were selected to represent the range of processes used in the industry. The experimental results were then compared with photoresist simulation studies of the same OPC reticle features. The validation of the simulation results allowed a wider range of conditions to be studied. The results show that OPC is an effective technique for enhancing pole trimming and extending the areal density of modern head designs.

Flack, Warren W.; White, Sylvia; Ho, Calvin; Schurz, Dan L.; Consentino, Fabio

1998-12-01

117

Decoupled adaptive control of glucose and dissolved oxygen for fed-batch methionine production using linear reference model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, the design of a decoupled adaptive controller for controlling the dissolved oxygen and glucose feeding simultaneously in fed-batch fermentation of methionine production is proposed. The synthesis of methionine at the cellular level is strictly regulated and its process dynamics shows a nonlinear interaction between dissolved oxygen and glucose concentration. The adaptive controller developed using a linear reference

Amalendu P. Ranjan; James Gomes

2010-01-01

118

Oxygen control of nitrogen oxide respiration, focusing on ?-proteobacteria.  

PubMed

Denitrification is generally considered to occur under micro-oxic or anoxic conditions. With this in mind, the physiological function and regulation of several steps in the denitrification of model ?-proteobacteria are compared in the present review. Expression of the periplasmic nitrate reductase is quite variable, with this enzyme being maximally expressed under oxic conditions in some bacteria, but under micro-oxic conditions in others. Expression of nitrite and NO reductases in most denitrifiers is more tightly controlled, with expression only occurring under micro-oxic conditions. A possible exception to this may be Roseobacter denitrificans, but the physiological role of these enzymes under oxic conditions is uncertain. PMID:21265769

Shapleigh, James P

2011-01-01

119

Active control of oxygen in molten lead–bismuth eutectic systems to prevent steel corrosion and coolant contamination  

Microsoft Academic Search

The thermodynamic basis for controlling oxygen level in lead–bismuth to prevent steel corrosion and coolant contamination is examined. The operational conditions, including the thermodynamic activity of oxygen, cover gas oxygen partial pressure, mixtures of H2 and H2O (steam) to obtain such low oxygen partial pressure (<10?24 atm or around 10?6 wt% in lead–bismuth), and the voltage signals of one type

Ning Li

2002-01-01

120

Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on grape benchgrafts.  

PubMed

Controlled atmosphere treatments with ultralow oxygen (ULO treatments) were developed successfully for control of vine mealybug, Planococcusflcus Signoret (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on dormant grape (Vitis spp.) benchgrafts. At 30 ppm oxygen, 3-d ULO treatment at 25 degrees C and 4-d ULO treatment at 150C achieved complete control of all life stages of P. ficus. At a much lower oxygen level (<1 ppm), the two ULO treatments with the same exposure periods of 3 d at 25 degrees C and 4 d at 15 degrees C were tested on six table and wine grape cultivars grafted on rootstocks along with P. ficus. The benchgrafts were then potted in a greenhouse, together with untreated controls, to determine treatment effects on rootstock viability. Both ULO treatments achieved complete control of P. ficus and did not have any negative effects on vine growth, compared with the control. Results indicate that ULO treatments can be used to control P. ficus on dormant grape benchgrafts. The advantages of the ULO treatments are also discussed with respect to hot water treatments. PMID:20429438

Liu, Yong-Biao; Bettiga, Larry J; Daane, Kent M

2010-04-01

121

DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTROLLING BOP (BASIC OXYGEN PROCESS) CHARGING EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of the basic oxygen process (BOP) hot metal charging emission control technology, conducted with a 900 kg pilot vessel designed for the experiments. Complete instrumentation was provided to measure the emissions, the effectiveness of the variou...

122

CONTROL OF TRANSIENT INCINERATOR EMISSIONS WITH AN OXYGEN BASED COMBUSTION SYSTEM  

EPA Science Inventory

The subject of this paper is the experience with a novel and field-proven method for the enhanced control of transient emissions from rotary kiln incinerators using oxygen enrichment. hen high-BTU content wastes are fed into rotary kiln incinerators in an intermittent mode (typic...

123

Gate Voltage Control of Oxygen Diffusion on Graphene Dr. Jorge O. Sofo  

E-print Network

to making other interesting 2D crystals such as graphene fluoride, graphene oxide, and graphane[3,4]. Its interesting adsorbed geometry (see Figure 1) and its role in catalysis and graphene oxide production. UsingGate Voltage Control of Oxygen Diffusion on Graphene Dr. Jorge O. Sofo Associate Professor

Bjørnstad, Ottar Nordal

124

Controlling soluble iron and manganese in a water-supply reservoir using hypolimnetic oxygenation.  

PubMed

Soluble metals such as iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) often reach problematic levels in water-supply reservoirs during summer stratification following the onset of hypolimnetic hypoxia. The behavior of soluble and particulate Fe and Mn was studied following the installation of a hypolimnetic oxygenation system in Carvins Cove Reservoir, a water-supply impoundment managed by the Western Virginia Water Authority. During oxygenation, manganese concentrations were very low in the bulk hypolimnion (<0.05 mg l(-1)), but high concentrations (>2.0 mg l(-1)) were still observed in the benthic region close to the sediment, despite near-sediment dissolved oxygen concentrations in excess of 5.0 mg l(-1). Oxygenation appears to affect the location of the oxic/anoxic boundary sufficiently to restrict substantial transport of soluble Mn to the bulk water of the hypolimnion. However, the position of the oxic/anoxic boundary was not uniformly affected along the reservoir bottom, allowing horizontal transport of soluble Mn from higher elevations in contact with hypoxic sediments. During one summer, when the oxygen system was turned off for a month, the soluble Mn in the bulk hypolimnion increased substantially. Oxygen concentrations were quickly restored after the system was turned back on, but elevated levels of soluble Mn persisted until the sedimentation rate of detritus through the hypolimnion increased. When operated without interruption, the oxygenation system was able to reduce the bulk average hypolimnion soluble Mn concentration by up to 97%, indicating that source water control of soluble Mn and Fe can be accomplished with hypolimnetic oxygenation in water-supply reservoirs. PMID:19157483

Gantzer, Paul A; Bryant, Lee D; Little, John C

2009-03-01

125

The mammalian TRIM-NHL protein TRIM71/LIN-41 is a repressor of mRNA function  

PubMed Central

TRIM-NHL proteins are conserved regulators of development and differentiation but their molecular function has remained largely elusive. Here, we report an as yet unrecognized activity for the mammalian TRIM-NHL protein TRIM71 as a repressor of mRNAs. We show that TRIM71 is associated with mRNAs and that it promotes translational repression and mRNA decay. We have identified Rbl1 and Rbl2, two transcription factors whose down-regulation is important for stem cell function, as TRIM71 targets in mouse embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, one of the defining features of TRIM-NHL proteins, the NHL domain, is necessary and sufficient to target TRIM71 to RNA, while the RING domain that confers ubiquitin ligase activity is dispensable for repression. Our results reveal strong similarities between TRIM71 and Drosophila BRAT, the best-studied TRIM-NHL protein and a well-documented translational repressor, suggesting that BRAT and TRIM71 are part of a family of mRNA repressors regulating proliferation and differentiation. PMID:23125361

Loedige, Inga; Gaidatzis, Dimos; Sack, Ragna; Meister, Gunter; Filipowicz, Witold

2013-01-01

126

Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Latrodectus hesperus (Araneae: Theridiidae) on harvested table grapes.  

PubMed

The spider Latrodectus hesperus Chamberlin & Ivie (Araneae: Theridiidae) was subjected to low and ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments at different temperatures. Complete control of the spiders was achieved in 24-h ULO treatments with 0.5% O2 or lower at 1 degrees C and in a 24-h low oxygen (2%) treatment at 15 degrees C. Oxygen level and temperature greatly affected spider mortality. At 1 degrees C, as oxygen level was decreased from 2 to 0.5%, spider mortality increased from 0 to 100%. At 2% O2, as temperature was increased from 1 to 15 degrees C, spider mortality increased from 0 to 100%. Grape clusters from two table grape (Vitis spp.) cultivars, 'Thompson Seedless' and 'Flame Seedless', were subjected to the 24-h ULO treatment with 0.5% O2 at 1 degrees C. The ULO treatment had no negative effects on grape quality. Because of the relatively short treatment time, effectiveness at low storage temperature and the easily attained oxygen level, we conclude that the ULO treatment have good potential to be implemented commercially for control of black widow spiders on harvested table grapes. PMID:18950031

Liu, Yong-Biao; Daane, Kent M; Tebbets, J Steve; Bettiga, Larry J

2008-10-01

127

How to minimize power in dissolved oxygen control... DSM in action  

SciTech Connect

As part of the EPRI Municipal Water and Sewage Project, Demand-Side Energy Management, EPRI retained EMA to evaluate the life cycle cost of three alternatives for controlling low-pressure centrifugal compressors to reduce power costs. The alternatives included: inlet guide vanes, inlet butterfly valves, and adjustable speed drives. This paper contains the findings and identifies actions that could benefit wastewater treatment facilities. Many wastewater treatment plants use an activated sludge process to remove organic pollutants. In this process, a large mass of microbes consumes the organic matter in the wastewater. The microbes require diffused oxygen to metabolize the organic material. The diffused air mixes with the contents of the aeration basin and provides oxygen to the microbes. The basic activated sludge process has the following features: (1) An aeration basin with provisions for oxygenation and mixing of the mixed liquor, (2) A settling tank or clarifier to separate mixed liquor solids and liquid, (3) A sludge recycling system to return settled activated sludge to the aeration basin, and (4) A sludge wasting system to remove solids at the rate that it grows, thus maintaining the desired mass of solids in the process. The operator has three main control variables: (1) Aeration rate to control the dissolved oxygen concentration in the aeration basin. The operator sets the aeration rate to maintain dissolved oxygen at 1-2 mg/l. (2) Sludge recycle rate to control the concentration of the return sludge and the mass of solids in the clarifier. The operator sets the return rate to maintain the sludge blanket level at some predetermined depth. (3) Sludge wasting rate to control the solids retention time and mass of solids in the process. The operator sets the waste rate usually once per day to remove a pre-determined mass.

Skrentner, R.G.; Lutman, C.G.

1994-12-31

128

Insulating ferromagnetic oxide films: the controlling role of oxygen vacancy ordering  

SciTech Connect

The origin of ferromagnetism in strained epitaxial LaCoO3 films has been a long-standing mystery. Here, we combine atomically resolved Z-contrast imaging, electron-energy-loss spectroscopy, and density-functional calculations to demonstrate that, in epitaxial LaCoO3 films, oxygen-vacancy superstructures release strain, control the film s electronic properties, and produce the observed ferromagnetism via the excess electrons in the Co d states. Although oxygen vacancies typically dope a material n-type, we find that ordered vacancies induce Peierls-like minigaps which, combined with strain relaxation, trigger a nonlinear rupture of the energy bands, resulting in insulating behavior.

Salafranca Laforga, Juan I [ORNL] [ORNL; Salafranca, Juan [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain] [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain; Biskup, Nevenko [ORNL] [ORNL; Mehta, Virat [University of California, Berkeley] [University of California, Berkeley; Oxley, Mark P [ORNL] [ORNL; Suzuki, Yuri [Stanford University] [Stanford University; Pennycook, Stephen J [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Pantelides, Sokrates T. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville] [Vanderbilt University, Nashville; Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

129

Physical and biological controls on oxygen saturation variability in the upper Arctic Ocean  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

continuous in situ measurements of dissolved O2/Ar and O2 in the Arctic Ocean, we investigate the mechanisms controlling the physical (abiotic) and biological oxygen saturation state variability in the surface ocean beneath sea ice. O2/Ar measurements were made underway using Equilibrator Inlet Mass Spectrometry (EIMS) during an icebreaker survey transiting the upper Arctic Ocean across the North Pole in late summer 2011. Using concurrently collected measurements of total oxygen, we devolve biological oxygen saturation and physical oxygen (Ar) saturation signals at unprecedented horizontal resolution in the surface ocean. In the Nansen Basin, Ar is undersaturated up to -7% while biological oxygen supersaturation peaks at 18.4%. We attribute this to ice melt, Atlantic Water influence and/or cooling. In the Canadian Basin, Ar is supersaturated up to 3%, likely because of Ar injection from freezing processes and long residence times of gas under ice cover. The overall Canadian Basin to Eurasian Basin gradient of Ar supersaturation to undersaturation may reflect net freezing in the Canadian Basin and net melting in the Eurasian Basin over several seasons, either by Pacific to Atlantic sector ice transport or local changes over time. Ar saturation could thereby provide large-scale high-resolution estimates of current and future changes in these processes. O2/Ar supersaturation averages 4.9% with peaks up to 9.8% where first year ice and abundant melt ponds likely allow sufficient light for blooms in ice-covered regions.

Eveleth, Rachel; Timmermans, Mary-Louise; Cassar, Nicolas

2014-11-01

130

Prediction and innovative control strategies for oxygen and hazardous gases from diesel emission in underground mines.  

PubMed

Diesel engine is widely used in underground mining machines due to its efficiency, ease of maintenance, reliability and durability. However, it possesses significant danger to the miners and mining operations as it releases hazardous gases (CO, NO, CO2) and fine particles which can be easily inhaled by the miners. Moreover, the diesel engine consumes significant amount of oxygen which can lead to insufficient oxygen supply for miners. It is therefore critical to maintain sufficient oxygen supply while keeping hazardous gas concentrations from diesel emission below the maximum allowable level. The objective of this study is to propose and to examine various innovative ventilation strategies to control oxygen and hazardous gas concentrations in underground mine to ensure safety, productivity and cost related to energy consumption. Airflow distribution, oxygen and hazardous gas dispersion as well as ambient temperature within the mining area are evaluated by utilizing the well-established computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. The results suggest that our newly proposed ventilation design performs better as compared to the conventional design to handle hazardous gases from diesel emission. PMID:24607396

Kurnia, Jundika C; Sasmito, Agus P; Wong, Wai Yap; Mujumdar, Arun S

2014-05-15

131

Plant cysteine oxidases control the oxygen-dependent branch of the N-end-rule pathway.  

PubMed

In plant and animal cells, amino-terminal cysteine oxidation controls selective proteolysis via an oxygen-dependent branch of the N-end rule pathway. It remains unknown how the N-terminal cysteine is specifically oxidized. Here we identify plant cysteine oxidase (PCO) enzymes that oxidize the penultimate cysteine of ERF-VII transcription factors by using oxygen as a co-substrate, thereby controlling the lifetime of these proteins. Consequently, ERF-VII proteins are stabilized under hypoxia and activate the molecular response to low oxygen while the expression of anaerobic genes is repressed in air. Members of the PCO family are themselves targets of ERF-VII transcription factors, generating a feedback loop that adapts the stress response according to the extent of the hypoxic condition. Our results reveal that PCOs act as sensor proteins for oxygen in plants and provide an example of how proactive regulation of the N-end rule pathway balances stress response to optimal growth and development in plants. PMID:24599061

Weits, Daan A; Giuntoli, Beatrice; Kosmacz, Monika; Parlanti, Sandro; Hubberten, Hans-Michael; Riegler, Heike; Hoefgen, Rainer; Perata, Pierdomenico; van Dongen, Joost T; Licausi, Francesco

2014-01-01

132

Plant cysteine oxidases control the oxygen-dependent branch of the N-end-rule pathway  

PubMed Central

In plant and animal cells, amino-terminal cysteine oxidation controls selective proteolysis via an oxygen-dependent branch of the N-end rule pathway. It remains unknown how the N-terminal cysteine is specifically oxidized. Here we identify plant cysteine oxidase (PCO) enzymes that oxidize the penultimate cysteine of ERF-VII transcription factors by using oxygen as a co-substrate, thereby controlling the lifetime of these proteins. Consequently, ERF-VII proteins are stabilized under hypoxia and activate the molecular response to low oxygen while the expression of anaerobic genes is repressed in air. Members of the PCO family are themselves targets of ERF-VII transcription factors, generating a feedback loop that adapts the stress response according to the extent of the hypoxic condition. Our results reveal that PCOs act as sensor proteins for oxygen in plants and provide an example of how proactive regulation of the N-end rule pathway balances stress response to optimal growth and development in plants. PMID:24599061

Weits, Daan A.; Giuntoli, Beatrice; Kosmacz, Monika; Parlanti, Sandro; Hubberten, Hans-Michael; Riegler, Heike; Hoefgen, Rainer; Perata, Pierdomenico; van Dongen, Joost T.; Licausi, Francesco

2014-01-01

133

Dissolved oxygen regulation by logarithmic/antilogarithmic control to improve a wastewater treatment process.  

PubMed

This paper presents the automation of a real activated sludge wastewater treatment plant, which is located at San Antonio Ajijic in Jalisco, Mexico. The main objective is to create an on-line automatic supervision system, and to regulate the dissolved oxygen concentration in order to improve the performances of the process treating municipal wastewater. An approximate mathematical model is determined in order to evaluate via simulations different control strategies: proportional integral (PI), fuzzy PI and PI Logarithm/Antilogarithm (PI L/A). The controlled variable is dissolved oxygen and the control input is the injected oxygen. Based on this evaluation, the PI L/A controller is selected to be implemented in the real process. After that, the implementation, testing and fully operation of the plant automation are described. With this system, the considered wastewater treatment plant save energy and improves the effluent quality; also, the process monitoring is done online and it is easily operated by the plant users. PMID:24617069

Flores, Victor R; Sanchez, Edgar N; Béteau, Jean-François; Hernandez, Salvador Carlos

2013-01-01

134

Ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on iceberg lettuce. II. Pre-treatment on lettuce tolerance and sequential controlled atmosphere  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pre-stored iceberg lettuce under normal atmosphere and controlled atmosphere (CA) with about 3% oxygen at low temperature for one week was compared with fresh lettuce for their response to 2-day ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment at 10 degrees C for control of western flower thrips. For both atmospheri...

135

Oxygen transfer in solid-state cultivation under controlled moisture conditions.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to study oxygen transfer as a function of the initial moisture content in solid-state cultivation under controlled moisture conditions. The use of controlled moisture conditions prevents drastic changes in the medium during cultivation, allowing the use of a pseudo-steady-state model to estimate the overall oxygen mass transfer coefficient (K L a) in the biofilm around the solid particles. Drechslera (Helminthosporium) monoceras, an aerobic mold that produces allergenic proteins, was cultured on wheat bran in a packed bed column bioreactor. The bed height (30 mm) and air flow rate (0.4 L/min) were selected to implement moisture control. The results show that there is an optimal moisture content (35 %) at which a lower biofilm thickness and packing of the bed improves K L a. However, a higher biomass growth was obtained at 45 % moisture. The different patterns of biomass growth demonstrate the importance of the balance between aerial and film growth in solid-state cultivation. These results contribute to the understanding of oxygen transfer in solid fermentation, optimization of processes, and production of allergen extracts from D. (Helminthosporium) monoceras biomass. PMID:25086924

Bastos, R G; Motta, F L; Santana, M H A

2014-09-01

136

Grid generation on trimmed Bezier and NURBS quilted surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents some recently added capabilities to RAGGS, Rockwell Automated Grid Generation System. Included are the trimmed surface handling and display capability and structures and unstructured grid generation on trimmed Bezier and NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces) quilted surfaces. Samples are given to demonstrate the new capabilities.

Woan, Chung-Jin; Clever, Willard C.; Tam, Clement K.

1995-01-01

137

TRIM29 suppresses TWIST1 and invasive breast cancer behavior.  

PubMed

TRIM29 (ATDC) exhibits a contextual function in cancer, but seems to exert a tumor-suppressor role in breast cancer. Here, we show that TRIM29 is often silenced in primary breast tumors and cultured tumor cells as a result of aberrant gene hypermethylation. RNAi-mediated silencing of TRIM29 in breast tumor cells increased their motility, invasiveness, and proliferation in a manner associated with increased expression of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin and vimentin), decreased expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin and EpCAM), and increased expression and activity of the oncogenic transcription factor TWIST1, an important driver of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Functional investigations revealed an inverse relationship in the expression of TRIM29 and TWIST1, suggesting the existence of a negative regulatory feedback loop. In support of this relationship, we found that TWIST1 inhibited TRIM29 promoter activity through direct binding to a region containing a cluster of consensus E-box elements, arguing that TWIST1 transcriptionally represses TRIM29 expression. Analysis of a public breast cancer gene-expression database indicated that reduced TRIM29 expression was associated with reduced relapse-free survival, increased tumor size, grade, and metastatic characteristics. Taken together, our results suggest that TRIM29 acts as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer through its ability to inhibit TWIST1 and suppress EMT. PMID:24950909

Ai, Lingbao; Kim, Wan-Ju; Alpay, Merve; Tang, Ming; Pardo, Carolina E; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu; May, W Stratford; Kladde, Michael P; Heldermon, Coy D; Siegel, Erin M; Brown, Kevin D

2014-09-01

138

Trim Power Supplies for the Duke Booster and Storage Ring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The on-going Duke storage ring upgrades and the development of a new booster synchrotron injector require more than 100 units of high performance unipolar and bipolar trim power supplies in the current range of - 15 A to + 15 A. However, most of the trim power supplies on the market do not deliver two critical performance features simultaneously: a

V. G. Popov; S. M. Hartman; S. F. Mikhailov; O. Oakeley; P. Wallace; Y. K. Wu

2005-01-01

139

Internal trim coils for CBA superconducting magnets  

SciTech Connect

In order to correct iron saturation effects and shape the beam working line, superconducting trim coils have been constructed, which operate inside the main coils. Detailed studies of mechanical properties, quench behavior, fields produced, and hysteresis have lead to the production of accelerator-quality coils generating the required-strength harmonics up to cos (7theta). These are routinely installed in CBA main magnets and operate at 80% of short sample with negligible training in an ambient field of more than 5.3T.

Thompson, P.A.; Aronson, S.; Cottingham, J.G.; Garber, M.; Hahn, H.; Sampson, W.B.

1983-01-01

140

The 6670-Newton attitude-control thruster using hydrogen-oxygen propellant  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a reusable, attitude-control propulsion system for the space transportation system is discussed. A flight weight, gaseous oxygen attitude control thruster assembly was tested to obtain data on cyclic life, thermal and hydraulic characteristics, pulse response, and performance. The basic thruster components were tested in excess of 51,000 pulses and 660 seconds, steady state, with no degradation of the 93 percent characteristic exhaust velocity efficiency level. Nominal operating conditions were a chamber pressure of 207 N sq cm (300 psia), a mixture ratio of 4.0, a pulse width of 100 ms, and a pulse frequency of 2 Hz.

Gordon, L. H.

1977-01-01

141

Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control  

DOEpatents

Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

Van Hoek, Pim; Aristidou, Aristos; Rush, Brian

2014-09-09

142

Adaptive predictive control of dissolved oxygen concentration in a laboratory-scale bioreactor.  

PubMed

We present an algorithm for the adaptive control of dissolved oxygen concentration in a bioreactor, based on the agitation rate. The dynamics are represented by an incremental first-order model with variable dead-time and parameters. These are estimated on-line by a recursive least-squares identification method with a forgetting factor and a constant sensitivity. The model is employed to predict the behaviour of the dissolved oxygen concentration over a finite horizon, using an original method which requires little computation. Then, a Generalized Predictive Control optimisation strategy computes the agitation rate from the predictions and the desired set point, while gradually updating the controller smoothness. This algorithm, which requires little preliminary knowledge, has been implemented on a laboratory-scale fed-batch bioreactor for which the use of conventional controllers showed limited performance, due to the unpredictable and evolutive nature of the dynamics. The new controller proved to be robust and effective over a wide range of operating conditions, while requiring no operator adjustments. PMID:8573319

Diaz, C; Dieu, P; Feuillerat, C; Lelong, P; Salomé, M

1995-11-21

143

Semi-commercial ultralow oxygen treatment for control of western flower thrips, frankliniella occidentalis (thysanoptera: thripidae), on harvested iceberg lettuce.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Pallet scale two day ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment with 30 ppm oxygen at 10°C ambient temperature was conducted on seven cultivars of vacuum cooled iceberg lettuce which had been stored for 1, 3, 4, and 6 days to develop a safe and effective treatment for control of western flower thrips, Franklin...

144

Gain-of-Sensitivity Mutations in a Trim5-Resistant Primary Isolate of Pathogenic SIV Identify Two Independent Conserved Determinants of Trim5? Specificity  

PubMed Central

Retroviral capsid recognition by Trim5 blocks productive infection. Rhesus macaques harbor three functionally distinct Trim5 alleles: Trim5?Q, Trim5?TFP and Trim5CypA. Despite the high degree of amino acid identity between Trim5?Q and Trim5?TFP alleles, the Q/TFP polymorphism results in the differential restriction of some primate lentiviruses, suggesting these alleles differ in how they engage these capsids. Simian immunodeficiency virus of rhesus macaques (SIVmac) evolved to resist all three alleles. Thus, SIVmac provides a unique opportunity to study a virus in the context of the Trim5 repertoire that drove its evolution in vivo. We exploited the evolved rhesus Trim5? resistance of this capsid to identify gain-of-sensitivity mutations that distinguish targets between the Trim5?Q and Trim5?TFP alleles. While both alleles recognize the capsid surface, Trim5?Q and Trim5?TFP alleles differed in their ability to restrict a panel of capsid chimeras and single amino acid substitutions. When mapped onto the structure of the SIVmac239 capsid N-terminal domain, single amino acid substitutions affecting both alleles mapped to the ?-hairpin. Given that none of the substitutions affected Trim5?Q alone, and the fact that the ?-hairpin is conserved among retroviral capsids, we propose that the ?-hairpin is a molecular pattern widely exploited by Trim5? proteins. Mutations specifically affecting rhesus Trim5?TFP (without affecting Trim5?Q) surround a site of conservation unique to primate lentiviruses, overlapping the CPSF6 binding site. We believe targeting this site is an evolutionary innovation driven specifically by the emergence of primate lentiviruses in Africa during the last 12 million years. This modularity in targeting may be a general feature of Trim5 evolution, permitting different regions of the PRYSPRY domain to evolve independent interactions with capsid. PMID:23675300

McCarthy, Kevin R.; Schmidt, Aaron G.; Kirmaier, Andrea; Wyand, Allison L.; Newman, Ruchi M.; Johnson, Welkin E.

2013-01-01

145

Real-time data acquisition and control system for a chemical oxygen iodine laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A user-friendly data acquisition and control system (DACS) for a chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) has been developed. The system is capable of handling 117 analogue/digital channels for performing various operations such as on-line acquisition, control, display, safety measures and status indication of various subsystems. These operations are controlled either by control switches configured on a PC while not running or by a pre-determined sequence or timings during the run. The system is capable of real-time acquisition and on-line estimation of important diagnostic parameters for optimization of a COIL. The DACS system has been programmed using Advantech-GeniDAQ software. This software has also been used to convert the acquired data into graphical form. Using this DACS, more than 200 runs were given performed successfully.

Mainuddin; Tyagi, R. K.; Rajesh, R.; Singhal, Gaurav; Dawar, A. L.

2003-08-01

146

Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Flight-Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A peak-seeking control algorithm for real-time trim optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control algorithm is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are used for optimization of fuel flow. Results from six research flights are presented herein. The optimization algorithm found a trim configuration that required approximately 3 percent less fuel flow than the baseline trim at the same flight condition. The algorithm consistently rediscovered the solution from several initial conditions. These results show that the algorithm has good performance in a relevant environment.

Brown, Nelson Andrew; Schaefer, Jacob Robert

2013-01-01

147

A randomised controlled trial of an automated oxygen delivery algorithm for preterm neonates receiving supplemental oxygen without mechanical ventilation  

PubMed Central

Aim Providing consistent levels of oxygen saturation (SpO2) for infants in neonatal intensive care units is not easy. This study explored how effectively the Auto-Mixer® algorithm automatically adjusted fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) levels to maintain SpO2 within an intended range in extremely low birth weight infants receiving supplemental oxygen without mechanical ventilation. Methods Twenty extremely low birth weight infants were randomly assigned to the Auto-Mixer® group or the manual intervention group and studied for 12 h. The SpO2 target was 85–93%, and the outcomes were the percentage of time SpO2 was within target, SpO2 variability, SpO2 >95%, oxygen received and manual interventions. Results The percentage of time within intended SpO2 was 58 ± 4% in the Auto-Mixer® group and 33.7 ± 4.7% in the manual group, SpO2 >95% was 26.5% vs 54.8%, average SpO2 and FiO2 were 89.8% vs 92.2% and 37% vs 44.1%, and manual interventions were 0 vs 80 (p < 0.05). Brief periods of SpO2 < 85% occurred more frequently in the Auto-Mixer® group. Conclusion The Auto-Mixer® effectively increased the percentage of time that SpO2 was within the intended target range and decreased the time with high SpO2 in spontaneously breathing extremely low birth weight infants receiving supplemental oxygen. PMID:24813808

Zapata, James; Gómez, John Jairo; Araque Campo, Robinson; Matiz Rubio, Alejandro; Sola, Augusto

2014-01-01

148

TRIMe7-CypA, an alternative splicing isoform of TRIMCyp in rhesus macaque, negatively modulates TRIM5? activity.  

PubMed

The existence of innate, host-specific restriction factors is a major obstacle to the development of nonhuman primate models for AIDS studies, and TRIM5? is one of the most important of these restriction factors. In recent years, a TRIM5 chimeric gene that was retrotransposed by a cyclophilin A (CypA) cDNA was identified in certain macaque species. The TRIM5?-CypA fusion protein, TRIMCyp, which was expressed in these monkeys, had lost its restriction ability toward HIV-1. We previously found that TRIMe7-CypA, an alternative splicing isoform of the TRIMCyp transcripts, was expressed in pig-tailed and rhesus macaques but absent in long-tailed macaques. In this study, the anti-HIV-1 activity of TRIMe7-CypA in the rhesus macaque (RhTRIMe7-CypA) was investigated. The over-expression of RhTRIMe7-CypA in CrFK, HeLa and HEK293T cells did not restrict the infection or replication of an HIV-1-GFP reporter virus in these cells. As a positive control, rhesus (rh)TRIM5? strongly inhibited the reporter virus. Intriguingly, the anti-HIV-1 activity of RhTRIM5? was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the co-repression of RhTRIMe7-CypA. Our data indicate that although the RhTRIMe7-CypA isoform does not appear to restrict HIV-1, it may act as a negative modulator of TRIM family proteins, presumably by competitive inhibition. PMID:24613845

Na, Lei; Tang, Yan-Dong; Liu, Jian-Dong; Yu, Chang-Qing; Sun, Liu-Ke; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Wang, Xue-Feng; Wang, Xiaojun; Zhou, Jian-Hua

2014-04-01

149

Size control of Cu nanorods through oxygen-mediated growth and low temperature sintering.  

PubMed

Control of the size of Cu nanorods vapor-deposited at an oblique angle (approximately 85 degrees) by oxygen-mediated growth was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). It was observed that exposure of Cu nanorods to the oxygen ambient periodically resulted in a reduction in the diameter of the nanorods as well as an increase in the areal density of the nanorods. This oxygen-induced modification to the nanorod growth is attributed to the higher energy barrier for Cu adatom migration on the oxide surface at room temperature; this reduces the rod diameter. At a low annealing temperature of approximately 300 degrees C, the SEM images show that the nanorods have densified and formed a continuous film structure, which is consistent with the sintering phenomenon. The XRD and SEM analyses show that the coalescent/grain growth rate for Cu nanorods with smaller diameters is enhanced due to the size effect. This low temperature sintering characteristic of the Cu nanorod array has great potential for being utilized in wafer bonding for three-dimensional integration of devices. PMID:19417453

Wang, Pei-I; Parker, Thomas C; Karabacak, Tansel; Wang, G-C; Lu, T-M

2009-02-25

150

Efficient single-stage autotrophic nitrogen removal with dilute wastewater through oxygen supply control.  

PubMed

Autotrophic nitrogen removal via ammonia oxidizing (AOB) and anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria was evaluated for treatment of a dilute 50mg/L ammonia-containing solution in a single-stage nitrogen-removal filter at 25°C. Important was an external oxygenation system that permitted close control and measurement of oxygen supply, a difficulty with the generally used diffused air systems. Hydraulic retention time (HRT) was reduced in steps from 15 to 1h. At 1h HRT, total nitrogen (TN) removals varied between 73% and 94%, the maximum being obtained with a benchmark oxygenation ratio of 0.75mol O(2)/mol ammonia fed. At higher ratios, nitrate was formed causing TN removal efficiency to decrease. With lower ratios, TN and ammonia removals decreased in proportion to the decrease in BOR. When operating at or below the BOR, nitrate formation equaled no more than 2% of the ammonia removed, a value much less than has previously been reported. PMID:22940348

Kwak, Wonji; McCarty, Perry L; Bae, Jaeho; Huang, Yu-Tzu; Lee, Po-Heng

2012-11-01

151

Evaluation of the UnTRIM model for 3-D tidal circulation  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A family of numerical models, known as the TRIM models, shares the same modeling philosophy for solving the shallow water equations. A characteristic analysis of the shallow water equations points out that the numerical instability is controlled by the gravity wave terms in the momentum equations and by the transport terms in the continuity equation. A semi-implicit finite-difference scheme has been formulated so that these terms and the vertical diffusion terms are treated implicitly and the remaining terms explicitly to control the numerical stability and the computations are carried out over a uniform finite-difference computational mesh without invoking horizontal or vertical coordinate transformations. An unstructured grid version of TRIM model is introduced, or UnTRIM (pronounces as "you trim"), which preserves these basic numerical properties and modeling philosophy, only the computations are carried out over an unstructured orthogonal grid. The unstructured grid offers the flexibilities in representing complex study areas so that fine grid resolution can be placed in regions of interest, and coarse grids are used to cover the remaining domain. Thus, the computational efforts are concentrated in areas of importance, and an overall computational saving can be achieved because the total number of grid-points is dramatically reduced. To use this modeling approach, an unstructured grid mesh must be generated to properly reflect the properties of the domain of the investigation. The new modeling flexibility in grid structure is accompanied by new challenges associated with issues of grid generation. To take full advantage of this new model flexibility, the model grid generation should be guided by insights into the physics of the problems; and the insights needed may require a higher degree of modeling skill.

Cheng, R.T.; Casulli, V.

2001-01-01

152

Microbioreactor arrays with integrated mixers and fluid injectors for high-throughput experimentation with pH and dissolved oxygen control{  

E-print Network

experimentation with pH and dissolved oxygen control{ Harry L. T. Lee,a Paolo Boccazzi,b Rajeev J. Ram21 ) without introducing bubbles, and closed loop control over dissolved oxygen and pH (¡0, with 100 mL working volume, comprising a peristaltic oxygenating mixer and microfluidic injectors

Sinskey, Anthony J.

153

Antioxidant-photosensitizer dual-loaded polymeric micelles with controllable production of reactive oxygen species.  

PubMed

Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(caprolactone) (PEG-b-PCL) micelles dually loaded with both pheophorbide a (PhA) as a photosensitizer and ?-carotene (CAR) as a singlet oxygen ((1)O2) scavenger were designed to control photodynamic therapy (PDT) activity in cancer treatment. The CAR in the PhA/CAR micelles significantly diminished PhA-generated (1)O2 through direct (1)O2 scavenging, whereas the CAR molecules lost their (1)O2 scavenging activity when the PhA and CAR were spatially isolated by the disintegration of the PEG-b-PCL micelles. In cell-culture systems, light irradiation at a post-treatment time that corresponded to the presence of the micelles in the blood environment induced negligible phototoxicity, whereas light irradiation at a post-treatment time that corresponded to the presence of the micelles in the intracellular environment induced remarkable phototoxicity. In addition, a longer post-treatment time induced greater internalization of PhA/CAR micelles, which resulted in higher phototoxicity, suggesting an increase in photo killing activity against the tumor cells of interest. Thus, the co-loading of a (1)O2 generator and a (1)O2 scavenger into a single micelle is a potential strategy that may be useful in facilitating more accurate and reliable PDT with site-specific controllable production of singlet oxygen species for cancer treatment. PMID:24939615

Li, Li; Cho, Hana; Yoon, Kwon Hyeok; Kang, Han Chang; Huh, Kang Moo

2014-08-25

154

View of Mission Control Center during the Apollo 13 oxygen cell failure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several persons important to the Apollo 13 mission, at consoles in the Mission Operations Control Room of the Mission Control Center (MCC). Seated at consoles, from left to right, are Astronaut Donald K. Slayton, Director of Flight Crew Operations; Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Shift 3 spacecraft communicator; and Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 13 back-up crew. Standing, left to right, are Astronaut Tom K. Mattingly, who was replaced as Apollo 13 command module pilot after it was learned he may come down with measles, and Astronaut Vance D. Brand, Shift 2 spacecraft communicator. Several hours earlier crew members of the Apollo 13 mission reported to MCC that trouble had developed with an oxygen cell in their spacecraft.

1970-01-01

155

32. TRIM SAWS IN BACKGROUND, VIEW FROM SOUTH WEST. NOTE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. TRIM SAWS IN BACKGROUND, VIEW FROM SOUTH WEST. NOTE WASTE CONVEYOR IN FOREGROUND, CANT ROLL CASE TO BEAM SAW, THEN ROLL CASE FROM EDGER IN MIDDLE GROUND. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

156

155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal after excavation by steam shovel. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 701). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

157

1. GENERAL VIEW. TRIM, ROOF AND STABLE DOORS ALL ARE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW. TRIM, ROOF AND STABLE DOORS ALL ARE PAINTED RED. HEX SIGNS ARE PAINTED OCHRE, BLACK, RED, WHITE AND BLUE. NOTE PAINTED FLAGS ON SHED - Decorated White Barn, (Maiden Creek Township), Maiden Creek, Berks County, PA

158

Identification of TRIM22 as a RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase  

SciTech Connect

TRIM22, a member of the TRIM family proteins which contain RING finger, B-box, and coiled-coil domains, has been reported as a transcriptional regulator and involved in various cellular processes. In this study, the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, a novel property of TRIM22, was demonstrated. It was found that TRIM22 underwent self-ubiquitylation in vitro in combination with the E2 enzyme UbcH5B and the ubiquitylation was dependent on its RING finger domain. Further evidences showed that TRIM22 could also be self-ubiquitylated in vivo. Importantly, TRIM22 was conjugated with poly-ubiquitin chains and stabilized by the proteasome inhibitor in 293T cells, suggesting that TRIM22 targeted itself for proteasomal degradation through the poly-ubiquitylation. We also found that TRIM22 was located in the nucleus, indicating that TRIM22 might function as a nuclear E3 ubiquitin ligase.

Duan Zhijian; Gao Bo; Xu Wei [Institute for Immunobiology, Department of Immunology, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Xiong Sidong [Institute for Immunobiology, Department of Immunology, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai 200032 (China) and Immunology Division, E-Institutes of Shanghai Universities (China)], E-mail: sdxiongfd@126.com

2008-09-26

159

Tuning of magnetic and electronic states by control of oxygen content in lanthanum strontium cobaltites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on the magnetic, resistive, and structural studies of perovskite La1/3Sr2/3CoO3-? . By using the relation of synthesis temperature and oxygen partial pressure to oxygen stoichiometry obtained from thermogravimetric analysis, we have synthesized a series of samples with precisely controlled ?=0.00-0.49 . These samples show three structural phases at ?=0.00-0.15 , ?0.25 , ?0.5 , and two-phase behavior for other oxygen contents. The stoichiometric material with ?=0.00 is a cubic ferromagnetic metal with the Curie temperature TC=274K . The increase of ? to 0.15 is followed by a linear decrease of TC to ?160K and a metal-insulator transition near the boundary of the cubic structure range. A further increase of ? results in the formation of a tetragonal 2ap×2ap×4ap phase for ??0.25 and a brownmillerite phase for ??0.5 . At low temperatures, these are weak ferromagnetic insulators (canted antiferromagnets) with magnetic transitions at Tm?230 and 120K , respectively. At higher temperatures, the 2ap×2ap×4ap phase is G -type antiferromagnetic between 230K and ?360K . Low temperature magnetic properties of this system for ?<1/3 can be described in terms of a mixture of Co3+ ions in the low-spin state and Co4+ ions in the intermediate-spin state and a possible spin transition of Co3+ to the intermediate-spin state above TC . For ?>1/3 , there appears to be a combination of Co2+ and Co3+ ions, both in the high-spin state with dominating antiferromagnetic interactions.

Kolesnik, S.; Dabrowski, B.; Mais, J.; Majjiga, M.; Chmaissem, O.; Baszczuk, A.; Jorgensen, J. D.

2006-06-01

160

Synthesis of shape-controlled La2NiO(4+?) nanostructures and their anisotropic properties for oxygen diffusion.  

PubMed

This study highlights the synthesis of shape-controlled La2NiO(4+?) nanostructures using a reverse microemulsion method. We report that surfactant to water mass ratio plays a key role in controlling the shape of the nanostructures. These nanostructures show a strong dependence of their oxygen transport properties on their geometries. PMID:25385161

Ma, X; Wang, B; Xhafa, E; Sun, K; Nikolla, E

2015-01-01

161

Quantitative and temporal control of oxygen microenvironment at the single islet level  

PubMed Central

Simultaneous oxygenation and monitoring of glucose stimulus-secretion coupling factors in a single technique is critical for modeling pathophysiological states of islet hypoxia, especially in transplant environments. Standard hypoxic chamber techniques cannot modulate both stimulations at the same time nor provide real-time monitoring of glucose stimulus-secretion coupling factors. To address these difficulties, we applied a multilayered microfluidic technique to integrate both aqueous and gas phase modulations via a diffusion membrane. This creates a stimulation sandwich around the microscaled islets within the transparent polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) device, enabling monitoring of the aforementioned coupling factors via fluorescence microscopy. Additionally, the gas input is controlled by a pair of microdispensers, providing quantitative, sub-minute modulations of oxygen between 0 and 21%. This intermittent hypoxia is applied to investigate a new phenomenon of islet preconditioning. Moreover, armed with multimodal microscopy, we were able to look at detailed calcium and KATP channel dynamics during these hypoxic events. We envision microfluidic hypoxia, especially this simultaneous dual phase technique, as a valuable tool in studying islets as well as many ex vivo tissues. PMID:24299958

Lo, Joe F.; Wang, Yong; Eddington, David T.; Oberholzer, Jose

2014-01-01

162

Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Architecture and Performance Predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A peak-seeking control approach for real-time trim configuration optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control approach is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are controlled for optimization of fuel flow. This paper presents the design and integration of this peak-seeking controller on a modified NASA F/A-18 airplane with research flight control computers. A research flight was performed to collect data to build a realistic model of the performance function and characterize measurement noise. This model was then implemented into a nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom F/A-18 simulation along with the peak-seeking control algorithm. With the goal of eventual flight tests, the algorithm was first evaluated in the improved simulation environment. Results from the simulation predict good convergence on minimum fuel flow with a 2.5-percent reduction in fuel flow relative to the baseline trim of the aircraft.

Schaefer, Jacob; Brown, Nelson A.

2013-01-01

163

System for feedback control of air/fuel ratio in IC engine with means to control current supply to oxygen sensor  

SciTech Connect

An air/fuel ratio control system is disclosed including an oxygen sensor disposed in the exhaust gas to provide a feedback signal. The oxygen sensor is of the solid electrolyte concentration cell type having a heater and is operated with supply of a DC current to the concentration cell to maintain a reference oxygen partial pressure therein. A fuel feed control circuit in this system shifts its closed-looped control function to open-loop aiming at a lower air/fuel ratio if the output of the oxygen sensor continues to indicate that actual air/fuel ratio remains on one side of the intended air/fuel ratio due to breaking of the heater. To prevent the engine from stalling or operating unstably due to excessive increase in the air/fuel ratio before the shift to open-loop control, the system includes means for detecting breaking of the heater and immediately interrupting the current supply to the concentration cell in the oxygen sensor thereby forcing the sensor to put out an output which is indicative of a very high air/fuel ratio and, hence, causes the control circuit to lower the air/fuel ratio before the interruption of the closed-loop control.

Sone, K.; Kitahara, T.

1984-02-07

164

Autophagy proteins control goblet cell function by potentiating reactive oxygen species production  

PubMed Central

Delivery of granule contents to epithelial surfaces by secretory cells is a critical physiologic process. In the intestine, goblet cells secrete mucus that is required for homeostasis. Autophagy proteins are required for secretion in some cases, though the mechanism and cell biological basis for this requirement remain unknown. We found that in colonic goblet cells, proteins involved in initiation and elongation of autophagosomes were required for efficient mucus secretion. The autophagy protein LC3 localized to intracellular multi-vesicular vacuoles that were consistent with a fusion of autophagosomes and endosomes. Using cultured intestinal epithelial cells, we found that NADPH oxidases localized to and enhanced the formation of these LC3-positive vacuoles. Both autophagy proteins and endosome formation were required for maximal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from NADPH oxidases. Importantly, generation of ROS was critical to control mucin granule accumulation in colonic goblet cells. Thus, autophagy proteins can control secretory function through ROS, which is in part generated by LC3-positive vacuole-associated NADPH oxidases. These findings provide a novel mechanism by which autophagy proteins can control secretion. PMID:24185898

Patel, Khushbu K; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Beatty, Wandy L; Head, Richard D; Malvin, Nicole P; Cadwell, Ken; Guan, Jun-Lin; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Akira, Shizuo; Seglen, Per O; Dinauer, Mary C; Virgin, Herbert W; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S

2013-01-01

165

Oxygen Profile. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The oxygen profile procedure is a means of measuring the oxygen concentration at various locations in a basin. By dividing the surface of a basin into sections and then establishing sample points on the surface, at mid-depth, and near the bottom, a waste water treatment plant operator can measure and plot dissolved oxygen data which can be plotted…

Wooley, John F.

166

Data trimming, nuclear emissions, and climate change.  

PubMed

Ethics requires good science. Many scientists, government leaders, and industry representatives support tripling of global-nuclear-energy capacity on the grounds that nuclear fission is "carbon free" and "releases no greenhouse gases." However, such claims are scientifically questionable (and thus likely to lead to ethically questionable energy choices) for at least 3 reasons. (i) They rely on trimming the data on nuclear greenhouse-gas emissions (GHGE), perhaps in part because flawed Kyoto Protocol conventions require no full nuclear-fuel-cycle assessment of carbon content. (ii) They underestimate nuclear-fuel-cycle releases by erroneously assuming that mostly high-grade uranium ore, with much lower emissions, is used. (iii) They inconsistently compare nuclear-related GHGE only to those from fossil fuels, rather than to those from the best GHG-avoiding energy technologies. Once scientists take account of (i)-(iii), it is possible to show that although the nuclear fuel cycle releases (per kWh) much fewer GHG than coal and oil, nevertheless it releases far more GHG than wind and solar-photovoltaic. Although there may be other, ethical, reasons to support nuclear tripling, reducing or avoiding GHG does not appear to be one of them. PMID:18937054

Shrader-Frechette, Kristin Sharon

2009-03-01

167

Recovery and recrystallization behavior of vanadium at various controlled nitrogen and oxygen levels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of nitrogen and oxygen on recovery and recrystallization of vanadium were investigated using high-purity metal vanadium singly doped with nitrogen or oxygen. Nitrogen and oxygen contents ranged from 10 to 500 weight ppm (wppm) and 50 to 1000 wppm, respectively. The hardening coefficient, (? H/? C), for nitrogen is estimated to be almost twice that of oxygen. Additional hardening due to annealing at 200-400°C after rolling was observed. The anneal hardening was significantly decreased by restricting nitrogen contents below 100 wppm. On the other hand, oxygen up to 1000 wppm did not strongly affect the anneal hardening.

Nagasaka, T.; Takahashi, H.; Muroga, T.; Tanabe, T.; Matsui, H.

2000-12-01

168

Microprocessor Based Combustion Monitoring and Control Systems Utilizing in Situ Opacity, Oxygen and CO Measurement  

E-print Network

by detecting variations in the output of a zirconium oxide fuel cell oxygen sensor. As the oxygen concentration varies, an output signal is generated which can be directly related to the oxygen content of the flue gas. An In Situ Oxygen Analyzer is mounted... conditioning systems while providing a more representative sample of the gas to be measured. Fuel cell oxygen sensor consists of a ceramic tU!;le made of yttria-stabilized zirconium oxide. When this c~1t is heated above I 100 degrees F (600 degrees C...

Molloy, R. C.

1981-01-01

169

TRIM24 links a noncanonical histone signature to breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Recognition of modified histone species by distinct structural domains within “reader” proteins plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression. Readers that simultaneously recognize histones with multiple marks allow transduction of complex chromatin modification patterns into specific biological outcomes. Here, we report that chromatin regulator TRIM24 functions as a reader of dual histone marks via tandem Plant Homeodomain (PHD) and Bromodomain (Bromo). The three-dimensional structure of TRIM24 PHD-Bromo revealed a single functional unit for combinatorial recognition of unmodified H3K4 (H3K4me0) and acetylated H3K23 (H3K23ac) within the same histone tail. TRIM24 binds chromatin and estrogen receptor to activate estrogen-dependent genes associated with cellular proliferation and tumor development. Aberrant expression of TRIM24 negatively correlates with survival of breast cancer patients. The PHD-Bromo of TRIM24 provides a structural rationale for chromatin activation via a noncanonical histone signature, establishing a new paradigm by which chromatin readers may influence cancer pathogenesis. PMID:21164480

Tsai, Wen-Wei; Wang, Zhanxin; Yiu, Teresa T.; Akdemir, Kadir C.; Xia, Weiya; Winter, Stefan; Tsai, Cheng-Yu; Shi, Xiaobing; Schwarzer, Dirk; Plunkett, William; Aronow, Bruce; Gozani, Or; Fischle, Wolfgang; Hung, Mien-Chie; Patel, Dinshaw J.; Barton, Michelle Craig

2010-01-01

170

Comparison of Trimming Techniques for Sub-Lithographic Silicon Structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The trimming of electron beam features is investigated to explore the limits of this scaling technique for the fabrication of nano-scale devices. The semiconductor industry, in particular, needs features below 50 nm, e.g., for extremely small gates for future technology nodes. In addition, sub-lithographic structures are required for other device concepts, such as the fin-type field effect transistor (FinFET). The trimming of very thin layers of calixarene, an organic resist material, as well as an oxide-like resist (hydrogen-silesquioxane) were investigated and extremely small feature sizes, well below 10 nm, were achieved. Resist structures down to 4 nm in width and silicon features of about 8 nm have been successfully fabricated. Different trimming procedures utilizing plasma resist trimming, etching of Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) hard-masks in hydrofluoric acid (HF) and sacrificial oxidation were compared and, for the first time, a comprehensive study of these techniques applied to sub-10 nm-structuring is presented. In summary, results prove the potential of the trimming procedures investigated here, each of which has specific applications.

Dreeskornfeld, L.; Graham, A. P.; Hartwich, J.; Kretz, J.; Landgraf, E.; Lutz, T.; Rösner, W.; Specht, M.; Risch, L.

2006-06-01

171

Controllable generation of reactive oxygen species by femtosecond-laser irradiation  

SciTech Connect

Femtosecond lasers have been advancing Biophotonics research in the past two decades with multiphoton microscopy, microsurgery, and photodynamic therapy. Nevertheless, laser irradiation is identified to bring photodamage to cells via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation with unclear mechanism. Meanwhile, currently in biological researches, there is no effective method to provide controllable ROS production precisely, which originally is leaked from mitochondria during respiration and plays a key role in a lot of important cellular processes and cellular signaling pathways. In this study, we show the process of how the tightly focused femtosecond-laser induces ROS generation solely in mitochondria at the very beginning and then release to cytosol if the stimulus is intense enough. At certain weak power levels, the laser pulses induce merely moderate Ca{sup 2+} release but this is necessary for the laser to generate ROS in mitochondria. Cellular original ROS are also involved with a small contribution. When the power is above a threshold, ROS are then released to cytosol, indicating photodamage overwhelming cellular repair ability. The mechanisms in those two cases are quite different. Those results clarify parts of the mechanism in laser-induced ROS generation. Hence, it is possible to further this optical scheme to provide controllable ROS generation for ROS-related biological researches including mitochondrial diseases and aging.

Yan, Wei; He, Hao, E-mail: haohe@tju.edu.cn; Wang, Yintao; Wang, Yisen; Hu, Minglie; Wang, Chingyue [Ultrafast Laser Laboratory, Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Information Technology (Ministry of Education), College of Precision Instrument and Optoelectronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin (China)

2014-02-24

172

Raising and controlling study of dissolved oxygen concentration in closed-type aeration tank.  

PubMed

This study investigated the promotion and control of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of the closed-type aeration tank via practical experiments in the wastewater treatment system of a 5-star hotel in Taipei. As with limited and treasured space in Taiwan, before the completion of the sewer system construction in cities, to utilize the mat foundation under large buildings as the space of sewage treatment plant still has been one of the alternatives of those sewage treatments. However, aeration tanks constructed in the mat foundation of buildings have smaller effective water depth, which will cause a lower total transfer amount of DO. Controlling the total exhaust gas flow rate can increase the pressure on such closed-type aeration tanks. The DO concentration thus may increase according to Henry's Law. Furthermore, it may enable operators to adjust the DO concentration of the aeration tank more precisely and thus sustain optimal operating conditions in these treatment facilities. Practical experiments indicated that the DO concentration of aeration tank maintains an average of 3.8 mg l(-1), obtaining the optimum operating conditions. The efficiency of the biological treatment facilities in the mat foundation could be markedly improved. PMID:16080335

Chen, C K; Lo, S L

2005-07-01

173

Does oxygen exposure time control the extent of organic matter decomposition in peatlands?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

extent of peat decomposition was investigated in four cores collected along a latitudinal gradient from 56°N to 66°N in the West Siberian Lowland. The acid:aldehyde ratios of lignin phenols were significantly higher in the two northern cores compared with the two southern cores, indicating peats at the northern sites were more highly decomposed. Yields of hydroxyproline, an amino acid found in plant structural glycoproteins, were also significantly higher in northern cores compared with southern cores. Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins are not synthesized by microbes and are generally less reactive than bulk plant carbon, so elevated yields indicated that northern cores were more extensively decomposed than the southern cores. The southern cores experienced warmer temperatures, but were less decomposed, indicating that temperature was not the primary control of peat decomposition. The plant community oscillated between Sphagnum and vascular plant dominance in the southern cores, but vegetation type did not appear to affect the extent of decomposition. Oxygen exposure time appeared to be the strongest control of the extent of peat decomposition. The northern cores had lower accumulation rates and drier conditions, so these peats were exposed to oxic conditions for a longer time before burial in the catotelm, where anoxic conditions prevail and rates of decomposition are generally lower by an order of magnitude.

Philben, Michael; Kaiser, Karl; Benner, Ronald

2014-05-01

174

Effects of bill-trimming Muscovy ducks on behavior, body weight gain, and bill morphopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In commercial production facilities, ducks are often bill-trimmed to prevent feather pecking and cannibalism. Beak-trimming of chickens and turkeys has been criticized because of its potential to cause acute and chronic pain, but little is known about the effects of bill-trimming on the welfare of ducks. We conducted a study to determine the effects of a commercial bill-trimming method, cutting

Leslie A. Gustafson; Heng-Wei Cheng; Joseph P. Garner; Edmond A. Pajor; Joy A. Mench

2007-01-01

175

Enterovirus 71 induces degradation of TRIM38, a potential E3 ubiquitin ligase  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins are a family of more than 70 members in human. However, only a few of them have been\\u000a well studied. The TRIM proteins contain the conserved RING, B-box, coiled-coil, and SPRY domains, most of which are involved\\u000a in protein ubiquitination. TRIM38 is a member of the TRIM protein family, which we studied in more detail

Xinlei Liu; Xiaobo Lei; Zhuo Zhou; Zhenmin Sun; Qinghua Xue; Jianwei Wang; Tao Hung

2011-01-01

176

Effects of bill-trimming Muscovy ducks on behavior, body weight gain, and bill morphopathology  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

In commercial production facilities, ducks are often bill-trimmed to prevent feather pecking and cannibalism. Beak-trimming of chickens and turkeys has been criticized because of its potential to cause acute and chronic pain, but little is known about the effects of bill-trimming on the welfare of d...

177

The Interferon Response Inhibits HIV Particle Production by Induction of TRIM22  

PubMed Central

Treatment of human cells with Type 1 interferons restricts HIV replication. Here we report that the tripartite motif protein TRIM22 is a key mediator. We used transcriptional profiling to identify cellular genes that were induced by interferon treatment and identified TRIM22 as one of the most strongly up-regulated genes. We confirmed, as in previous studies, that TRIM22 over-expression inhibited HIV replication. To assess the role of TRIM22 expressed under natural inducing conditions, we compared the effects of interferon in cells depleted for TRIM22 using RNAi and found that HIV particle release was significantly increased in the knockdown, implying that TRIM22 acts as a natural antiviral effector. Further studies showed that TRIM22 inhibited budding of virus-like particles containing Gag only, indicating that Gag was the target of TRIM22. TRIM22 did not block the release of MLV or EIAV Gag particles. Inhibition was associated with diffuse cytoplasmic staining of HIV Gag rather than accumulation at the plasma membrane, suggesting TRIM22 disrupts proper trafficking. Mutational analyses of TRIM22 showed that the catalytic amino acids Cys15 and Cys18 of the RING domain are required for TRIM22 antiviral activity. These data disclose a pathway by which Type 1 interferons obstruct HIV replication. PMID:18389079

Barr, Stephen D.; Smiley, James R.; Bushman, Frederic D.

2008-01-01

178

Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts  

DOEpatents

A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power. 1 fig.

Erickson, D.C.

1985-06-04

179

Distinct Roles of Reactive Nitrogen and Oxygen Species To Control Infection with the Facultative Intracellular Bacterium Francisella tularensis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important mediators of the bacte- ricidal host response. We investigated the contribution of these two mediators to the control of infection with the facultative intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis. When intradermally infected with the live vaccine strain F. tularensis LVS, mice deficient in production of RNS (iNOS\\/ mice) or in production

Helena Lindgren; Stephan Stenmark; Wangxue Chen; Arne Tarnvik; Anders Sjostedt

2004-01-01

180

Trimming a Metallic Biliary Stent Using an Argon Plasma Coagulator  

SciTech Connect

Background. Distal migration is one of the common complications after insertion of a covered metallic stent. Stent repositioning or removal is not always possible in every patient. Therefore, trimming using an argon plasma coagulator (APC) may be a good alternative method to solve this problem. Methods. Metallic stent trimming by APC was performed in 2 patients with biliary Wallstent migration and in another patient with esophageal Ultraflex stent migration. The power setting was 60-100 watts with an argon flow of 0.8 l/min. Observations. The procedure was successfully performed and all distal parts of the stents were removed. No significant collateral damage to the nearby mucosa was observed. Conclusions. In a patient with a distally migrated metallic stent, trimming of the stent is possible by means of an APC. This new method may be applicable to other sites of metallic stent migration.

Rerknimitr, Rungsun, E-mail: Rungsun@pol.net; Naprasert, Pisit; Kongkam, Pradermchai; Kullavanijaya, Pinit [Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine (Thailand)

2007-06-15

181

Aeroelastic Analysis of a Trimmed Generic Hypersonic Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aeroelastic equations of motion governing a hypersonic vehicle in free flight are derived. The equations of motion for a translating and rotating flexible body using Lagrange's equations in terms of quasi-coordinates are presented. These equations are simplified for the case of a vehicle with pitch and plunge rigid body degrees of freedom and small elastic displacements. The displacements are approximated by a truncated series of the unrestrained mode shapes, which are obtained using equivalent plate theory. Subsequently, the nonlinear equations of motion are linearized about the trim state, which is obtained using a rigid body trim model and steady hypersonic aerodynamics. The appropriate flutter derivatives are calculated from piston theory. Results describing mode shapes, trim behavior, and aeroelastic stability of a generic hypersonic vehicle are presented.

Nydick, I.; Friedmann, P. P.

1999-01-01

182

Muscle Oxygen Supply Impairment during Exercise in Poorly Controlled Type 1 Diabetes  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Purpose Aerobic fitness, as reflected by maximal oxygen (O2) uptake (V?O2max), is impaired in poorly controlled patients with type 1 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying this impairment remain to be explored. This study sought to investigate whether type 1 diabetes and high levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) influence O2 supply including O2 delivery and release to active muscles during maximal exercise. Methods Two groups of patients with uncomplicated type 1 diabetes (T1D-A, n = 11, with adequate glycemic control, HbA1c <7.0%; T1D-I, n = 12 with inadequate glycemic control, HbA1c >8%) were compared with healthy controls (CON-A, n = 11; CON-I, n = 12, respectively) matched for physical activity and body composition. Subjects performed exhaustive incremental exercise to determine V?O2max. Throughout the exercise, near-infrared spectroscopy allowed investigation of changes in oxyhemoglobin, deoxyhemoglobin, and total hemoglobin in the vastus lateralis. Venous and arterialized capillary blood was sampled during exercise to assess arterial O2 transport and factors able to shift the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve. Results Arterial O2 content was comparable between groups. However, changes in total hemoglobin (i.e., muscle blood volume) was significantly lower in T1D-I compared with that in CON-I. T1D-I also had impaired changes in deoxyhemoglobin levels and increase during high-intensity exercise despite normal erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels. Finally, V?O2max was lower in T1D-I compared with that in CON-I. No differences were observed between T1D-A and CON-A. Conclusions Poorly controlled patients displayed lower V?O2max and blunted muscle deoxyhemoglobin increase. The latter supports the hypotheses of increase in O2 affinity induced by hemoglobin glycation and/or of a disturbed balance between nutritive and nonnutritive muscle blood flow. Furthermore, reduced exercise muscle blood volume in poorly controlled patients may warn clinicians of microvascular dysfunction occurring even before overt microangiopathy. PMID:24983346

TAGOUGUI, SEMAH; LECLAIR, ERWAN; FONTAINE, PIERRE; MATRAN, RÉGIS; MARAIS, GAELLE; AUCOUTURIER, JULIEN; DESCATOIRE, AURÉLIEN; VAMBERGUE, ANNE; OUSSAIDENE, KAHINA; BAQUET, GEORGES; HEYMAN, ELSA

2015-01-01

183

Effects of Contamination, UV Radiation, and Atomic Oxygen on ISS Thermal Control Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal control surfaces on the International Space Station (ISS) have been tailored for optimum optical properties. The space environment, particularly contamination, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and atomic oxygen (AO) may have a detrimental effect on these optical properties. These effects must be quantified for modeling and planning. Also of interest was the effect of porosity on the reaction to simulated space environment. Five materials were chosen for this study based on their use on ISS. The thermal control materials were Z-93 white coating, silverized Teflon, chromic acid anodized aluminum, sulfuric acid anodized aluminum, and 7075-T6 aluminum. Some of the samples were exposed to RTV 560 silicone; others were exposed to Tefzel offgassing products. Two samples of Z-93 were not exposed to contamination as clean "controls". VUV radiation was used to photo-fix the contaminant to the material surface, then the samples were exposed to AO. All samples were exposed to 1000 equivalent sun-hours (ESH) of vacuum ultraviolet radiation (VUV) at the AZ Technology facility and a minimum of 1.5 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm of AO at Marshall Space Flight Center. Half of the samples were exposed to an additional 2000 ESH of VUV at Huntington Beach prior to sent to AZ Technology. Darkening of the Z-93 white coating was noted after VUV exposure. AO exposure did bleach the Z-93 but not back to its original brightness. Solar absorptance curves show the degradation due to contamination and VUV and the recovery with AO exposure. More bleaching was noted on the Tefzel-contaminated samples than with the RTV-contaminated samples.

Visentine, Jim; Finckenor, Miria; Zwiener, Jim; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

184

Control of oxygen, hydrogen, and tritium in sodium systems at Experimental Breeder Reactor II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The source rates and steady-state concentrations have been measured for oxygen, hydrogen, and tritium impurities in EBR-II sodium systems. An analytical approach is used to determine the effectiveness of the cold traps for removing oxygen, hydrogen, and tritium. The cold-trap effectiveness data accumulated to date for removal of oxygen, hydrogen, and tritium indicate that EBR-II cold traps are highly effective

Osterhout

1978-01-01

185

What controls the variability of oxygen in the subpolar North Pacific?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved oxygen is a widely observed chemical quantity in the oceans along with temperature and salinity. Changes in the dissolved oxygen have been observed over the world oceans. Observed oxygen in the Ocean Station Papa (OSP, 50°N, 145°W) in the Gulf of Alaska exhibits strong variability over interannual and decadal timescales, however, the mechanisms driving the observed variability are not yet fully understood. Furthermore, irregular sampling frequency and relatively short record length make it difficult to detect a low-frequency variability. Motivated by these observations, we investigate the mechanisms driving the low-frequency variability of oxygen in the subpolar North Pacific. The specific purposes of this study are (1) to evaluate the robustness of the observed low-frequency variability of dissolved oxygen and (2) to determine the mechanisms driving the observed variability using statistical data analysis and numerical simulations. To evaluate the robustness of the low-frequency variability, we conducted spectral analyses on the observed oxygen at OSP. To address the irregular sampling frequency we randomly sub-sampled the raw data to form 500 ensemble members with a regular time interval, and then performed spectral analyses. The resulting power spectrum of oxygen exhibits a robust low-frequency variability and a statistically significant spectral peak is identified at a timescale of 15--20 years. The wintertime oceanic barotropic streamfunction is significantly correlated with the observed oxygen anomaly at OSP with a north-south dipole structure over the North Pacific. We hypothesize that the observed low-frequency variability is primarily driven by the variability of large-scale ocean circulation in the North Pacific. To test this hypothesis, we simulate the three-dimensional distribution of oxygen anomaly between 1952 to 2001 using data-constrained circulation fields. The simulated oxygen anomaly shows an outstanding variability in the Gulf of Alaska, showing that this region is a hotspot of oxygen fluctuation. Anomalous advection acting on the climatological mean oxygen gradient is the source of oxygen variability in this simulation. Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analyses of the simulated oxygen show that the two dominant modes of the oxygen anomaly explains more than 50% of oxygen variance over the North Pacific, that are closely related to the dominant modes of climate variability in the North Pacific (Pacific Decadal Oscillation and North Pacific Oscillation). Our results imply the important link between large-scale climate fluctuations, ocean circulation and biogeochemical tracers in the North Pacific.

Takano, Yohei

186

Randomized controlled trial of ambulatory oxygen and an ambulatory ventilator on endurance exercise in COPD.  

PubMed

In a prospective, randomized study we examined the effect of (i) ambulatory oxygen and (ii) a portable, inspiratory pressure support (IPS) device on the endurance shuttle walk test (ESWT) in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Ten outpatients [median (range) FEV1 0.60 l(0.35, 1.45)] performed the ESWT under five test conditions: baseline walk (no assistance), IPS at 14 cmH2O from a portable ventilator (the HIPPY, Friday Medical, U.K.), sham IPS (< 8 cmH2O), ambulatory oxygen at 2 l min(-1), and sham oxygen (carrying the portable oxygen cylinder and breathing air). There were significant improvements in the ESWT with ambulatory oxygen, but a negative effect with the HIPPY device [mean (SD) time: baseline 172 (48) sec; oxygen 242 (62) sec; HIPPY 84 (35) sec]. The ESWT appeared sensitive to the effect of cylinder weight although differences in endurance capacity were not significant [sham oxygen 151 (45) sec]. The ESWT was sensitive to the acute application of oxygen, demonstrating a beneficial effect on endurance performance in patients with severe COPD. The ESWT could form the basis of a standardized assessment for ambulatory oxygen. PMID:10955754

Revill, S M; Singh, S J; Morgan, M D

2000-08-01

187

To trim or not to trim: progression and control of DSB end resection.  

PubMed

DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are the most cytotoxic form of DNA damage, since they can lead to genome instability and chromosome rearrangements, which are hallmarks of cancer cells. To face this kind of lesion, eukaryotic cells developed two alternative repair pathways, homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Repair pathway choice is influenced by the cell cycle phase and depends upon the 5'-3' nucleolytic processing of the break ends, since the generation of ssDNA tails strongly stimulates HR and inhibits NHEJ. A large amount of work has elucidated the key components of the DSBs repair machinery and how this crucial process is finely regulated. The emerging view suggests that besides endo/exonucleases and helicases activities required for end resection, molecular barrier factors are specifically loaded in the proximity of the break, where they physically or functionally limit DNA degradation, preventing excessive accumulation of ssDNA, which could be threatening for cell survival. PMID:23708517

Granata, Magda; Panigada, Davide; Galati, Elena; Lazzaro, Federico; Pellicioli, Achille; Plevani, Paolo; Muzi-Falconi, Marco

2013-06-15

188

System for feedback control of air/fuel ratio in ic engine having means for supplying controlled current to oxygen sensor  

SciTech Connect

A system for feedback control of air/fuel ratio in an internal combustion engine, utilizing an oxygen-sensitive air/fuel ratio detector disposed in an exhaust gas to provide a feedback signal is disclosed. The detector has a flat and microscopically porous solid electrolyte layer with a measurement electrode layer on one side and a reference electrode layer on the other side facing a substrate. The control system includes a current supplying circuit to force a dc current to flow in the solid electrolyte layer between the two electrode layers to cause migration of oxygen ions through the solid electrolyte layer from the measurement electrode toward the reference electrode to thereby establish a reference oxygen partial pressure at the interface between the reference electrode layer and the solid electrolyte layer. To preclude an undesirably great rise of this reference oxygen partial pressure in the case of a large increase in the amount of oxygen in the exhaust gas resulting from interruption, or great reduction, of the feed of fuel to the operating engine, the control system comprises sensor means to detect the existence of such a condition and means for temporarily decreasing the intensity of the current being supplied to the air/fuel ratio detector.

Nakagawa, T.; Okamura, K.; Sone, K.

1982-12-14

189

Oxygen Uptake. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Biological waste treatment in the activated sludge process is based on the ability of microorganisms to use dissolved oxygen in breaking down soluble organic substances. The oxygen uptake test is a means of measuring the respiration rate of microorganisms in this process. Designed for individuals who have completed National Pollutant Discharge…

Wooley, John F.

190

Melting of Bi-2212 under controlled oxygen partial pressures with silver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The solidus temperature Tsolidus of Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O x (Bi-2212) is decreased from 893°C to 880°C and further down to 834°C when the oxygen partial pressure of the atmosphere is changed from pO 2 = 1 atm to 0.21 atm and further to 0.001 atm. Silver additions to the superconductor exceeding 2 wt% lower Tsolidus by up to 25 K in a pure oxygen atmosphere. The weight loss during melting, which is related to oxygen release, is highest at low oxygen partial pressures and can be reduced by silver additions due to increased oxygen solubility of the Bi-2212 melt in presence of dissolved silver. The experimental results are compared with thermodynamic data of the Bi?Sr?Ca?Cu?O system.

Lang, Th.; Buhl, D.; Gauckler, L. J.

1997-02-01

191

Adaptive haemoglobin gene control in Daphnia pulex at different oxygen and temperature conditions.  

PubMed

Hypoxia-induced haemoglobin (Hb) expression is a central regulatory mechanism in Daphnia in response to environmental hypoxia or warm temperatures. Changes in Hb concentration as well as Hb subunit composition, which modulate Hb oxygen affinity, guarantee the oxygen supply of tissues under these environmental conditions. Based on the sequenced D. pulex genome, Hb genes were related to the properties of haemolymph Hb, which included its concentration and oxygen affinity (both measured by spectrophotometry) as well as the Hb subunit composition (determined by 2-D gel electrophoresis and ESI-MS analysis). Permanent cultures of D. pulex acclimated to different oxygen conditions (normoxia and hypoxia) and temperatures (10°C, 20°C, and 24°C), showed characteristic changes in Hb concentration, subunit composition and oxygen affinity. Several subunits (Hb4, Hb7, Hb8, and Hb10) were obviously responsible for changes in oxygen affinity including those, which carry a number of hypoxia-responsive elements (HREs) upstream of the respective gene (hb4 and hb10). Analysing the effects of different oxygen- or temperature-acclimations on Hb subunit expression in D. pulex and D. magna on a common basis (Hb concentration or oxygen affinity) revealed a general pattern of oxygen and temperature effects on Hb, which implies that Hb quantity and quality are mostly influenced by the degree of tissue hypoxia. Differences between both species in the onset of hypoxia-induced differential Hb expression and Hb oxygen affinity, which are probably related to different HRE patterns and functionally important differences in the amino acid sequence of only a few subunits, cause a reduced ability of D. pulex to adjust Hb function to temperature changes in comparison to D. magna. PMID:21281731

Gerke, Peter; Börding, Christina; Zeis, Bettina; Paul, Rüdiger J

2011-05-01

192

Fnr Is Involved in Oxygen Control of Herbaspirillum seropedicae N-Truncated NifA Protein Activity in Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Herbaspirillum seropedicae is an endophytic diazotroph belonging to the ?-subclass of the class Proteobacteria, which colonizes many members of the Gramineae. The activity of the NifA protein, a transcriptional activator of nif genes in H. seropedicae, is controlled by ammonium ions through its N-terminal domain and by oxygen through mechanisms that are not well understood. Here we report that the NifA protein of H. seropedicae is inactive and more susceptible to degradation in an fnr Escherichia coli background. Both effects correlate with oxygen exposure and iron deprivation. Our results suggest that the oxygen sensitivity and iron requirement for H. seropedicae NifA activity involve the Fnr protein. PMID:12620839

Monteiro, Rose A.; de Souza, Emanuel M.; Yates, M. Geoffrey; Pedrosa, Fabio O.; Chubatsu, Leda S.

2003-01-01

193

Processes controlling dissolved oxygen and pH in the upper Willamette River basin, Oregon, 1994  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In July and August of 1994, the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (ODEQ) collected data to document the spatial extent and diel variability of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations and pH levels in selected reaches of streams in the upper Willamette River Basin. These data were also collected to identify primary factors that control DO concentrations downstream from major point sources as well as to provide ODEQ with data to refine calibration of their steady-state DO and nutrient models for the upper Willamette River Basin. All of the reaches studied had diel variations in DO and pH. The magnitude of the diel variations in DO ranged from 0.2 to 3.9 milligrams per liter (7 to 50 percent-saturation units based on ambient water temperature and barometric pressure) and in pH from 0.3 to 1.4 units. However, of the reaches studied, only the Coast Fork Willamette River from river mile (RM) 21.7 to 12.5 and the Willamette River from RM 151 to 141.6 had field measured violations of State standards for DO and pH. DO concentration and pH in water depend on many factors. Data were collected to examine several major factors, including BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), carbonaceous BOD, nitrogenous BOD, and measures of photosynthetic activity. Of the four study reaches, only a short stretch of the Coast Fork Willamette River has potential for important levels of oxygen consumption from BOD or nitrification. Additionally, water-column primary-productivity measurements indicated that respiration and photosynthesis by free-floating algae did not explain the observed diel variations in DO in the study reaches. Results from a simple mathematical model incorporating measures of community respiration and net primary productivities indicated that periphyton are capable of producing a diel variation of the order of magnitude observed during the August study period. In the Willamette River near Peoria, the combined periphyton DO consumption and production estimate at RM 151 (2.4 mg/L) and RM 144.6 (1.7 mg/L) would account for 90 and 63 percent, respectively, of the observed diel fluctuation. The estimates for the Corvallis reach at RM 132.6 (0.4 mg/L) and RM 130.7 (2.9 mg/L) had a considerably larger range of 36 to 264 percent of DO saturation, respectively. Therefore, because BOD and phytoplankton do not appear to be important contributors to diel DO fluctuations, periphyton are likely the primary contributor to diel fluctuations in the upper Willamette River Basin during July and August.

Pogue, T.R.; Anderson, C.W.

1995-01-01

194

TRIM27 Negatively Regulates NOD2 by Ubiquitination and Proteasomal Degradation  

PubMed Central

NOD2, the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing gene family (NLR) member 2 is involved in mediating antimicrobial responses. Dysfunctional NOD2 activity can lead to severe inflammatory disorders, but the regulation of NOD2 is still poorly understood. Recently, proteins of the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family have emerged as regulators of innate immune responses by acting as E3 ubiquitin ligases. We identified TRIM27 as a new specific binding partner for NOD2. We show that NOD2 physically interacts with TRIM27 via the nucleotide-binding domain, and that NOD2 activation enhances this interaction. Dependent on functional TRIM27, ectopically expressed NOD2 is ubiquitinated with K48-linked ubiquitin chains followed by proteasomal degradation. Accordingly, TRIM27 affects NOD2-mediated pro-inflammatory responses. NOD2 mutations are linked to susceptibility to Crohn's disease. We found that TRIM27 expression is increased in Crohn's disease patients, underscoring a physiological role of TRIM27 in regulating NOD2 signaling. In HeLa cells, TRIM27 is partially localized in the nucleus. We revealed that ectopically expressed NOD2 can shuttle to the nucleus in a Walker A dependent manner, suggesting that NOD2 and TRIM27 might functionally cooperate in the nucleus. We conclude that TRIM27 negatively regulates NOD2-mediated signaling by degradation of NOD2 and suggest that TRIM27 could be a new target for therapeutic intervention in NOD2-associated diseases. PMID:22829933

Zurek, Birte; Schoultz, Ida; Neerincx, Andreas; Napolitano, Luisa M.; Birkner, Katharina; Bennek, Eveline; Sellge, Gernot; Lerm, Maria; Meroni, Germana; Söderholm, Johan D.; Kufer, Thomas A.

2012-01-01

195

Comparative Requirements for the Restriction of Retrovirus Infection by TRIM5? and TRIMCyp  

PubMed Central

The restriction factors, TRIM5? in most primates and TRIMCyp in owl monkeys, block infection of various retroviruses soon after virus entry into the host cell. Rhesus monkey TRIM5? (TRIM5?rh) inhibits human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) more potently than human TRIM5? (TRIM5?hu). TRIMCyp restricts infection of HIV-1, simian immunodeficiency virus of African green monkeys (SIVagm) and FIV. Early after infection, TRIMCyp, like TRIM5?rh and TRIM5?hu, decreased the amount of particulate viral capsid in the cytosol of infected cells. The requirements for the TRIMCyp and TRIM5? domains in restricting different retroviruses were investigated. Potent restriction of FIV by TRIMCyp occurred in the complete absence of RING and B-box 2 domains; by contrast, efficient FIV restriction by TRIM5?rh required these domains. Variable region 1 of the TRIM5?rh B30.2 domain contributed to the potency of HIV-1, FIV and equine infectious anemia virus restriction. Thus, although differences exist in the requirements of TRIMCyp and TRIM5? for RING/B-box 2 domains, both restriction factors exhibit mechanistic similarities. PMID:17920096

Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Kar, Alak; Lee, Mark; Stremlau, Matthew; Poeschla, Eric; Sodroski, Joseph

2007-01-01

196

Intracellular antibody-bound pathogens stimulate immune signaling via Fc-receptor TRIM21  

PubMed Central

Antibodies can be carried into the cell during pathogen infection where they are detected by the ubiquitously expressed cytosolic antibody receptor TRIM21. Here we show that TRIM21 recognition of intracellular antibodies activates immune signaling. TRIM21 catalyses K63-ubiquitin chain formation, stimulating transcription factor pathways NF-?B, AP-1 and IRF3, IRF5, IRF7. Activation results in proinflammatory cytokine production, modulation of natural killer (NK) stress ligands and the induction of an antiviral state. Intracellular antibody signaling is abrogated by genetic deletion of TRIM21 and is recovered by ectopic TRIM21 expression. Antibody sensing by TRIM21 can be stimulated upon infection by DNA or RNA non-enveloped viruses or intracellular bacteria. The antibody-TRIM21 detection system provides potent, comprehensive innate immune activation, independent of known pattern recognition receptors. PMID:23455675

McEwan, W.A; Tam, J.C.H; Watkinson, R.E; Bidgood, S.R; Mallery, D.L; James, L.C

2013-01-01

197

System for feedback control of air/fuel ratio in ic engine with means to control current supply to oxygen sensor  

SciTech Connect

A system for feedback control of air/fuel ratio in an ic engine, utilizing an oxygen-sensitive device which is provided with a heater and disposed in exhaust gas to provide a feedback signal. This device has a porous solid electrolyte layer with a measurement electrode layer on the outside and a reference electrode layer on the inside facing a substrate. The control system includes a sub-system to apply a voltage to the heater and force a dc current to flow through the solid electrolyte layer to cause migration of oxygen ions therethrough to thereby establish a reference oxygen partial pressure on the inner side of the solid electrolyte layer. To prevent great changes in the reference oxygen partial pressure by the influence of the exhaust gas temperature, the sub-system comprises sensors to detect the engine operating condition and control means for gradually varying both said voltage and said current according as the detected operating condition varies. For example, the voltage and current may be varied each by using a combination of a variable resistor and a stepping motor or a combination of fixed resistances and electrically controllable switches connected respectively in parallel with the resistances.

Sone, K.

1982-12-28

198

MORPHOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES AND PAIN IN BEAK TRIMMED LAYING HENS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Beak trimming is routinely practiced in the poultry industry to reduce the incidence of feather pecking, aggression, and cannibalism in egg layers. Feather pecking is painful to birds and potentially induces cannibalism. Cannibalism happens in all current housing environments, cage- and free-product...

199

GRASS: Trimming Stragglers in Approximation Analytics Ganesh Ananthanarayanan1  

E-print Network

GRASS: Trimming Stragglers in Approximation Analytics Ganesh Ananthanarayanan1 , Michael Chien. In this paper, we present GRASS, which carefully uses speculation to mitigate the impact of stragglers in approximation jobs. GRASS's design is based on first principles analysis of the impact of speculation. GRASS

Govindan, Ramesh

200

Trimming for Subdivision Surfaces Nathan Litke a,1  

E-print Network

end animation production (e.g., Pixar [1]), game engines, and are provided as primitives in many to the appearance of kinks and cracks, especially when such patch complexes are animated. Trimming is an important machinery to avoid topological inconsistencies such as cracks (see Section 1.1 for a more de- tailed

Desbrun, Mathieu

201

Interior view of the trimming and packing tables, ginaca machines ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Interior view of the trimming and packing tables, ginaca machines deliver pineapples from the left to the tables, view facing east - Kahului Cannery, Plant No. 28, Cannery Building and Dryer House/Feed Storage Building, 120 Kane Street, Kahului, Maui County, HI

202

Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of the Aspergillus fumigatus hypoxia response using an oxygen-controlled fermenter  

PubMed Central

Background Aspergillus fumigatus is a mold responsible for the majority of cases of aspergillosis in humans. To survive in the human body, A. fumigatus must adapt to microenvironments that are often characterized by low nutrient and oxygen availability. Recent research suggests that the ability of A. fumigatus and other pathogenic fungi to adapt to hypoxia contributes to their virulence. However, molecular mechanisms of A. fumigatus hypoxia adaptation are poorly understood. Thus, to better understand how A. fumigatus adapts to hypoxic microenvironments found in vivo during human fungal pathogenesis, the dynamic changes of the fungal transcriptome and proteome in hypoxia were investigated over a period of 24 hours utilizing an oxygen-controlled fermenter system. Results Significant increases in transcripts associated with iron and sterol metabolism, the cell wall, the GABA shunt, and transcriptional regulators were observed in response to hypoxia. A concomitant reduction in transcripts was observed with ribosome and terpenoid backbone biosynthesis, TCA cycle, amino acid metabolism and RNA degradation. Analysis of changes in transcription factor mRNA abundance shows that hypoxia induces significant positive and negative changes that may be important for regulating the hypoxia response in this pathogenic mold. Growth in hypoxia resulted in changes in the protein levels of several glycolytic enzymes, but these changes were not always reflected by the corresponding transcriptional profiling data. However, a good correlation overall (R2 = 0.2, p < 0.05) existed between the transcriptomic and proteomics datasets for all time points. The lack of correlation between some transcript levels and their subsequent protein levels suggests another regulatory layer of the hypoxia response in A. fumigatus. Conclusions Taken together, our data suggest a robust cellular response that is likely regulated both at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level in response to hypoxia by the human pathogenic mold A. fumigatus. As with other pathogenic fungi, the induction of glycolysis and transcriptional down-regulation of the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation appear to major components of the hypoxia response in this pathogenic mold. In addition, a significant induction of the transcripts involved in ergosterol biosynthesis is consistent with previous observations in the pathogenic yeasts Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans indicating conservation of this response to hypoxia in pathogenic fungi. Because ergosterol biosynthesis enzymes also require iron as a co-factor, the increase in iron uptake transcripts is consistent with an increased need for iron under hypoxia. However, unlike C. albicans and C. neoformans, the GABA shunt appears to play an important role in reducing NADH levels in response to hypoxia in A. fumigatus and it will be intriguing to determine whether this is critical for fungal virulence. Overall, regulatory mechanisms of the A. fumigatus hypoxia response appear to involve both transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of transcript and protein levels and thus provide candidate genes for future analysis of their role in hypoxia adaptation and fungal virulence. PMID:22309491

2012-01-01

203

Hypothalamic Apelin/Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling Controls Hepatic Glucose Metabolism in the Onset of Diabetes  

PubMed Central

Abstract Aims: We have previously demonstrated that central apelin is implicated in the control of peripheral glycemia, and its action depends on nutritional (fast versus fed) and physiological (normal versus diabetic) states. An intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of a high dose of apelin, similar to that observed in obese/diabetic mice, increase fasted glycemia, suggesting (i) that apelin contributes to the establishment of a diabetic state, and (ii) the existence of a hypothalamic to liver axis. Using pharmacological, genetic, and nutritional approaches, we aim at unraveling this system of regulation by identifying the hypothalamic molecular actors that trigger the apelin effect on liver glucose metabolism and glycemia. Results: We show that icv apelin injection stimulates liver glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis via an over-activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), leading to fasted hyperglycemia. The effect of central apelin on liver function is dependent of an increased production of hypothalamic reactive oxygen species (ROS). These data are strengthened by experiments using lentiviral vector-mediated over-expression of apelin in hypothalamus of mice that present over-activation of SNS associated to an increase in hepatic glucose production. Finally, we report that mice fed a high-fat diet present major alterations of hypothalamic apelin/ROS signaling, leading to activation of glycogenolysis. Innovation/Conclusion: These data bring compelling evidence that hypothalamic apelin is one master switch that participates in the onset of diabetes by directly acting on liver function. Our data support the idea that hypothalamic apelin is a new potential therapeutic target to treat diabetes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 20, 557–573. PMID:23879244

Drougard, Anne; Duparc, Thibaut; Brenachot, Xavier; Carneiro, Lionel; Gouazé, Alexandra; Fournel, Audren; Geurts, Lucie; Cadoudal, Thomas; Prats, Anne-Catherine; Pénicaud, Luc; Vieau, Didier; Lesage, Jean; Leloup, Corinne; Benani, Alexandre; Cani, Patrice D.; Valet, Philippe

2014-01-01

204

System for feedback control of air/fuel ratio in IC engine with subsystem to control current supply to oxygen sensor  

SciTech Connect

A system for feedback control of air/fuel ratio in an IC engine is disclosed, utilizing a recently developed oxygen-sensitive device which is provided with a heater and disposed in exhaust gas to provide a feedback signal. This device has a porous solid electrolyte layer with a measurement electrode layer on one side and a reference electrode on the other side facing a substrate. There is a circuit to supply a heating current to the heater and force a dc current to flow in the solid electrolyte layer to cause migration of oxygen ions through the solid electrolyte toward the reference electrode to thereby establish a reference oxygen partial pressure on the reference side of the solid electrolyte layer. To prevent lowering of this oxygen partial pressure while the engine is operated under a high-load condition and the feedback control is discontinued to feed the engine with a fuel-enriched mixture, the control system includes operating condition sensor means and switching means to interrupt the supply of the current to the heater in response to a command signal from the sensor means and, optionally, current regulating means to increase the intensity of current flowing in the solid electrolyte also in response to the command signal.

Kenji, O.; Sone, K.

1982-10-19

205

Hyperproduction of cordycepin by two-stage dissolved oxygen control in submerged cultivation of medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris in bioreactors.  

PubMed

Effect of oxygen supply on cordycepin production was investigated in submerged cultivation of Cordyceps militaris, a famous traditional Chinese medicinal mushroom, in a 5-L turbine-agitated bioreactor (TAB). Initial volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa) within the range of 11.5-113.8 h(-1) had significant influence on cordycepin production. The highest cordycepin concentration of 167.5 mg/L was obtained at an initial kLa value of 54.5 h(-1), where a moderate dissolved oxygen (DO) pattern was observed throughout cultivation. The possible correlation between cordycepin production and DO level was explored by DO control experiments, and the results showed that DO within the range of 10-80% of air saturation greatly affected the cultivation process. To obtain a high specific cordycepin formation rate (rho) throughout cultivation, a two-stage DO control strategy was developed based on the analysis of the relationship of rho and DO. That is, DO was controlled at 60% from the beginning of cultivation and then shifted to a lower control level of 30% when rho started to decrease. As a result, a high cordycepin production of 201.1 mg/L and a high productivity of 15.5 mg/(L.d) were achieved, which was enhanced by about 15% and 30% compared to the highest titers obtained in conventional DO control experiments, respectively. The proposed DO control strategy was also applied to a recently developed 5-L centrifugal impeller bioreactor (CIB) with cordycepin production and productivity titers of 188.3 mg/L and 14.5 mg/(L.d). Furthermore, the scale-up of the two-stage DO control process from 5-L CIB to 30-L CIB was successfully demonstrated. The work is useful for the efficient large-scale production of bioactive metabolites by mushroom cultures. PMID:15458324

Mao, Xian-Bing; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

2004-01-01

206

Production of YBa2Cu3O(7-x) thick films on Ag metal substrate controlled by oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

YBa2Cu3O(7-x) superconducting thick films were formed on Ag substrate using the sol prepared from pertinent metal alkoxides. The firing conditions which cause incongruent melting and a peritectic reaction in the film were investigated. We call this the IMPERCO (incongruent melting and peritectic reaction controlled by oxygen) method. It has been found that films which undergo both reactions have excellent superconducting

Yoshio Masuda; Kazuo Matsubara; Rikuro Ogawa; Yoshio Kawate

1992-01-01

207

Metabolic and energetic control of Pseudomonas mendocina growth during transitions from aerobic to oxygen-limited conditions in chemostat cultures.  

PubMed Central

Several metabolic fluxes were analyzed during gradual transitions from aerobic to oxygen-limited conditions in chemostat cultures of Pseudomonas mendocina growing in synthetic medium at a dilution rate of 0.25 h-1. P. mendocina growth was glucose limited at high oxygen partial pressures (70 and 20% pO2) and exhibited an oxidative type of metabolism characterized by respiratory quotient (RQ) values of 1.0. A similar RQ value was obtained at low pO2 (2%), and detectable levels of acetic, formic, and lactic acids were determined in the extracellular medium. RQs of 0.9 +/- 0.12 were found at 70% pO2 for growth rates ranging from 0.025 to 0.5 h-1. At high pO2, the control coefficients of oxygen on catabolic fluxes were 0.19 and 0.22 for O2 uptake and CO2 production, respectively. At low pO2 (2%), the catabolic and anabolic fluxes were highly controlled by oxygen. P. mendocina showed a mixed-type fermentative metabolism when nitrogen was flushed into chemostat cultures. Ethanol and acetic, lactic, and formic acids were excreted and represented 7.5% of the total carbon recovered. Approximately 50% of the carbon was found as uronic acids in the extracellular medium. Physiological studies were performed under microaerophilic conditions (nitrogen flushing) in continuous cultures for a wide range of growth rates (0.03 to 0.5 h-1). A cell population, able to exhibit a near-maximum theoretical yield of ATP (YmaxATP = 25 g/mol) with a number of ATP molecules formed during the transfer of an electron towards oxygen along the respiration chain (P/O ratio) of 3, appears to have adapted to microaerophilic conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1444429

Verdoni, N; Aon, M A; Lebeault, J M

1992-01-01

208

System for feedback control of air/fuel ratio in ic engine with means to control supply of current to oxygen sensor  

SciTech Connect

A system for feedback control of air/fuel ratio in an ic engine, utilizing an oxygen-sensitive device which is provided with a heater and disposed in exhaust gas to provide a feedback signal. This device has a porous solid electrolyte layer with an outer electrode layer on one side and an inner electrode on the other side facing a substrate. There is a circuit to supply a heating current to the heater and also force a dc current to flow in the solid electrolyte layer to cause migration of oxygen ions therethrough toward the inner electrode to thereby establish a reference oxygen partial pressure on the inner side of the solid electrolyte layer. This circuit is provided with current intensity regulation means to temporarily decrease the intensity of the current flowing in the solid electrolyte layer by a predetermined value while the oxygen-sensitive device is not sufficiently heated to thereby preclude undesirable rise of the basic level of the output voltage of the oxygen-sensitive device by the effect of an increased internal resistance of the not sufficiently heated element.

Okamura, K.; Sone, K.

1982-11-16

209

TRIM5? associates with proteasomal subunits in cells while in complex with HIV-1 virions  

PubMed Central

Background The TRIM5 proteins are cellular restriction factors that prevent retroviral infection in a species-specific manner. Multiple experiments indicate that restriction activity requires accessory host factors, including E2-enzymes. To better understand the mechanism of restriction, we conducted yeast-two hybrid screens to identify proteins that bind to two TRIM5 orthologues. Results The only cDNAs that scored on repeat testing with both TRIM5 orthologues were the proteasome subunit PSMC2 and ubiquitin. Using co-immunoprecipitation assays, we demonstrated an interaction between TRIM5? and PSMC2, as well as numerous other proteasome subunits. Fluorescence microscopy revealed co-localization of proteasomes and TRIM5? cytoplasmic bodies. Forster resonance energy transfer (FRET) analysis indicated that the interaction between TRIM5 and PSMC2 was direct. Previous imaging experiments demonstrated that, when cells are challenged with fluorescently-labeled HIV-1 virions, restrictive TRIM5? orthologues assemble cytoplasmic bodies around incoming virion particles. Following virus challenge, we observed localization of proteasome subunits to rhTRIM5? cytoplasmic bodies that contained fluorescently labeled HIV-1 virions. Conclusions Taken together, the results presented here suggest that localization of the proteasome to TRIM5? cytoplasmic bodies makes an important contribution to TRIM5?-mediated restriction. PMID:22078707

2011-01-01

210

TRIM22 Inhibits Influenza A Virus Infection by Targeting the Viral Nucleoprotein for Degradation  

PubMed Central

Tripartite motif (TRIM) protein superfamily members are emerging as important effectors of the innate immune response against viral infections. In particular, TRIM22 was reported to exert antiviral activity against RNA viruses, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), encephalomyocarditis virus (ECMV), and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). We demonstrate here, for the first time, that TRIM22 is upregulated by influenza A virus (IAV) infection at both mRNA and protein levels in human alveolar epithelial A549 cells. Conversely, TRIM22 potently restricted IAV replication, in that prevention of TRIM22 expression by means of short hairpin RNA led to a 10-fold enhancement of IAV replication in these cells. Depletion of TRIM22 also reduced the anti-IAV activity of alpha interferon (IFN-?), suggesting that TRIM22 is an important IFN-stimulated gene that is required for maximal suppression of IAV by type I IFN. Furthermore, the IAV infectious titer decreased up to 100-fold in MDCK cells expressing exogenous human TRIM22. Restriction of IAV replication was accounted for by the interaction between TRIM22 and the viral nucleoprotein (NP), resulting in its polyubiquitination and degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner. Thus, TRIM22 represents a novel restriction factor upregulated upon IAV infection that curtails its replicative capacity in epithelial cells. PMID:23408607

Di Pietro, Andrea; Kajaste-Rudnitski, Anna; Oteiza, Alexandra; Nicora, Lucia; Towers, Greg J.; Mechti, Nadir

2013-01-01

211

TRIM50 Protein Regulates Vesicular Trafficking for Acid Secretion in Gastric Parietal Cells*  

PubMed Central

Of the TRIM/RBCC family proteins taking part in a variety of cellular processes, TRIM50 is a stomach-specific member with no defined biological function. Our biochemical data demonstrated that TRIM50 is specifically expressed in gastric parietal cells and is predominantly localized in the tubulovesicular and canalicular membranes. In cultured cells ectopically expressing GFP-TRIM50, confocal microscopic imaging revealed dynamic movement of TRIM50-associated vesicles in a phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent manner. A protein overlay assay detected preferential binding of the PRY-SPRY domain from the TRIM50 C-terminal region to phosphatidylinositol species, suggesting that TRIM50 is involved in vesicular dynamics by sensing the phosphorylated state of phosphoinositol lipids. Trim50 knock-out mice retained normal histology in the gastric mucosa but exhibited impaired secretion of gastric acid. In response to histamine, Trim50 knock-out parietal cells generated deranged canaliculi, swollen microvilli lacking actin filaments, and excess multilamellar membrane complexes. Therefore, TRIM50 seems to play an essential role in tubulovesicular dynamics, promoting the formation of sophisticated canaliculi and microvilli during acid secretion in parietal cells. PMID:22872646

Nishi, Miyuki; Aoyama, Fumiyo; Kisa, Fumihiko; Zhu, Hua; Sun, Mingzhai; Lin, Peihui; Ohta, Hiroya; Van, Bo; Yamamoto, Shinichiro; Kakizawa, Sho; Sakai, Hideki; Ma, Jianjie; Sawaguchi, Akira; Takeshima, Hiroshi

2012-01-01

212

Deletion of TRIM32 protects mice from anxiety- and depression-like behaviors under mild stress.  

PubMed

Chronic stress causes a variety of psychiatric disorders such as anxiety and depression, but its mechanism is not well understood. Tripartite motif-containing protein 32 (TRIM32) was strongly associated with autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety and obsessive compulsive disorder based on a study of copy number variation, and deletion of TRIM32 increased neural proliferation and reduced apoptosis. Here, we propose that TRIM32 is involved in chronic stress-induced affective behaviors. Using a chronic unpredictable mild stress mouse depression model, we studied expression of TRIM32 in brain tissue samples and observed behavioral changes in Trim32 knockout mice. The results showed that TRIM32 protein but not its mRNA was significantly reduced in hippocampus in a time-dependent manner within 8 weeks of chronic stress. These stress-induced affective behaviors and reduction of TRIM32 protein expression were significantly reversed by antidepressant fluoxetine treatment. In addition, Trim32 knockout mice showed reduced anxiety and depressive behaviors and hyperactivities compared with Trim32 wild-type mice under normal and mild stress conditions. We conclude that TRIM32 plays important roles in regulation of hyperactivities and positively regulates the development of anxiety and depression disorders induced by chronic stress. PMID:24839933

Ruan, Chun-Sheng; Wang, Shu-Fen; Shen, Yan-Jun; Guo, Yi; Yang, Chun-Rui; Zhou, Fiona H; Tan, Li-Tao; Zhou, Li; Liu, Jian-Jun; Wang, Wen-Yue; Xiao, Zhi-Cheng; Zhou, Xin-Fu

2014-08-01

213

Sliding mode control of dissolved oxygen in an integrated nitrogen removal process in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR).  

PubMed

This paper presents a sliding mode controller (SMC) for dissolved oxygen (DO) in an integrated nitrogen removal process carried out in a suspended biomass sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The SMC performance was compared against an auto-tuning PI controller with parameters adjusted at the beginning of the batch cycle. A method for cancelling the slow DO sensor dynamics was implemented by using a first order model of the sensor. Tests in a lab-scale reactor showed that the SMC offers a better disturbance rejection capability than the auto-tuning PI controller, furthermore providing reasonable performance in a wide range of operation. Thus, SMC becomes an effective robust nonlinear tool to the DO control in this process, being also simple from a computational point of view, allowing its implementation in devices such as industrial programmable logic controllers (PLCs). PMID:19923760

Muñoz, C; Young, H; Antileo, C; Bornhardt, C

2009-01-01

214

Identification and Characterization of Multiple TRIM Proteins That Inhibit Hepatitis B Virus Transcription  

PubMed Central

Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins constitute a family of over 100 members that share conserved tripartite motifs and exhibit diverse biological functions. Several TRIM proteins have been shown to restrict viral infections and regulate host cellular innate immune responses. In order to identify TRIM proteins that modulate the infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV), we tested 38 human TRIMs for their effects on HBV gene expression, capsid assembly and DNA synthesis in human hepatoma cells (HepG2). The study revealed that ectopic expression of 8 TRIM proteins in HepG2 cells potently reduced the amounts of secreted HBV surface and e antigens as well as intracellular capsid and capsid DNA. Mechanistic analyses further demonstrated that the 8 TRIMs not only reduced the expression of HBV mRNAs, but also inhibited HBV enhancer I and enhancer II activities. Studies focused on TRIM41 revealed that a HBV DNA segment spanning nucleotide 1638 to nucleotide 1763 was essential for TRIM41-mediated inhibition of HBV enhancer II activity and the inhibitory effect depended on the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of TRIM41 as well as the integrity of TRIM41 C-terminal domain. Moreover, knockdown of endogenous TRIM41 in a HepG2-derived stable cell line significantly increased the level of HBV preC/C RNA, leading to an increase in viral core protein, capsid and capsid DNA. Our studies have thus identified eight TRIM proteins that are able to inhibit HBV transcription and provided strong evidences suggesting the endogenous role of TRIM41 in regulating HBV transcription in human hepatoma cells. PMID:23936368

Zhang, Shijian; Guo, Ju-Tao; Wu, Jim Z.; Yang, Guang

2013-01-01

215

Strain-controlled oxygen vacancy formation and ordering in CaMnO3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use first-principles calculations to investigate the stability of biaxially strained Pnma perovskite CaMnO3 towards the formation of oxygen vacancies. Our motivation is provided by promising indications that novel material properties can be engineered by application of strain through coherent heteroepitaxy in thin films. While it is usually assumed that such epitaxial strain is accommodated primarily by changes in intrinsic lattice constants, point defect formation is also a likely strain-relaxation mechanism. Our first-principles calculations of oxygen vacancy defect formation energy indeed show a strong strain dependence: We find that tensile strain lowers the formation energy, consistent with the established chemical expansion concept that oxygen deficiency increases the molar volume in oxides. In addition, we find that strain differentiates the formation energy for different lattice sites, suggesting its use as a route to engineering vacancy ordering in epitaxial thin films.

Aschauer, Ulrich; Pfenninger, Reto; Selbach, Sverre M.; Grande, Tor; Spaldin, Nicola A.

2013-08-01

216

Hexadecane mineralization in oxygen-controlled sediment-seawater cultivations with autochthonous microorganisms.  

PubMed Central

Laboratory studies investigated the influence of dissolved oxygen tension (DOT) on microbial degradation of hexadecane in cultures with sediment-seawater suspensions. With a fermentor system, it was possible to adjust and regulate different oxic conditions (DOTs between 0.4 and 80% of oxygen saturation) as well as anoxia. The effects of DOT reduction on the amount and rate of hexadecane degraded and on the degree of mineralization and on the production of biomass were investigated. When the DOT was reduced from 80% to 5%, no dependence of the investigated parameters on the oxygen concentration was found. The amount of hexadecane degraded was constant, with an average value of 86% of the initially applied amount. The degradation rate was constant even down to 1% DOT, with an average value of 0.15 mg of hexadecane per g of sediment per h (16.2 mg liter-1 h-1). The mean degree of mineralization was 70% of the initially applied hexadecane, and biomass production reached a value of about 1.5 g per g of hexadecane consumed. A significant influence on the degradation process was detected only with DOTs below 1%. The degree of mineralization and the amount of degraded hexadecane decreased, whereas the degradation rate was still unaffected. Under anoxic conditions, no hexadecane degradation occurred within 190 h. The fact that the hexadecane biodegradation rate was constant down to at least 0.04% DOT shows that the actual oxygen concentration is of minor importance as long as the oxygen supply is high enough to guarantee the oxygen-dependent degradation step. PMID:1444421

Michaelsen, M; Hulsch, R; Höpner, T; Berthe-Corti, L

1992-01-01

217

Effect of irradiation of frozen meat/fat trimmings on microbiological and physicochemical quality attributes of dry fermented sausages.  

PubMed

Changes in microbiological and physicochemical quality attributes resulting from the use of irradiation in the production of Greek dry fermented sausage were investigated as a function of fermentation/ripening time. Results showed that irradiating meat/fat trimmings at 2 or 4kGy prior to sausage production eliminated natural contamination with Listeria spp., and reduced pseudomonads, enterococci and pathogenic staphylococci, and enterobacteria, to less than 2 and 1logcfug(-1), respectively. Pseudomonads were very sensitive (>3.4 log reduction) to either radiation dose. Yeasts were the most resistant followed by inherent lactic acid bacteria; their reductions on the trimmings were radiation dose-dependent. Residual effects of irradiation were noted against enterococci, but not against gram-negatives which died off fast during fermentation even in non-irradiated samples. Growth of the starter bacteria, Lactobacillus pentosus and Staphylococcus carnosus, inoculated in the sausage batters post-irradiation was unaffected by the 2 or 4kGy pre-treatment of the trimmings. Irradiation had little or no effect at the end of ripening period (28 days) on pH, moisture content and color (parameters L(?), a(?), and b(?)). Changes in TBA values were small but statistically significant with irradiated samples having higher TBA values than control samples. PMID:22062840

Chouliara, I; Samelis, J; Kakouri, A; Badeka, A; Savvaidis, I N; Riganakos, K; Kontominas, M G

2006-10-01

218

Arabidopsis glucosidase I mutants reveal a critical role of N-glycan trimming in seed development  

PubMed Central

Glycoproteins with asparagine-linked (N-linked) glycans occur in all eukaryotic cells. The function of their glycan moieties is one of the central problems in contemporary cell biology. N-glycosylation may modify physicochemical and biological protein properties such as conformation, degradation, intracellular sorting or secretion. We have isolated and characterized two allelic Arabidopsis mutants, gcs1-1 and gcs1-2, which produce abnormal shrunken seeds, blocked at the heart stage of development. The mutant seeds accumulate a low level of storage proteins, have no typical protein bodies, display abnormal cell enlargement and show occasional cell wall disruptions. The mutated gene has been cloned by T-DNA tagging. It codes for a protein homologous to animal and yeast ?-glucosidase I, an enzyme that controls the first committed step for N-glycan trimming. Biochemical analyses have confirmed that trimming of the ?1,2- linked glucosyl residue constitutive of the N-glycan precursor is blocked in this mutant. These results demonstrate the importance of N-glycan trimming for the accumulation of seed storage proteins, the formation of protein bodies, cell differentiation and embryo development. PMID:11230125

Boisson, Murielle; Gomord, Véronique; Audran, Corinne; Berger, Nathalie; Dubreucq, Bertrand; Granier, Fabienne; Lerouge, Patrice; Faye, Loïc; Caboche, Michel; Lepiniec, Loïc

2001-01-01

219

Resistance to simian immunodeficiency virus low dose rectal challenge is associated with higher constitutive TRIM5? expression in PBMC  

PubMed Central

Background At least six host-encoded restriction factors (RFs), APOBEC3G, TRIM5?, tetherin, SAMHD1, schlafen 11, and Mx2 have now been shown to inhibit HIV and/or SIV replication in vitro. To determine their role in vivo in the resistance of macaques to mucosally-acquired SIV, we quantified both pre-exposure (basal) and post-exposure mRNA levels of these RFs, Mx1, and IFN? in PBMC, lymph nodes, and duodenum of rhesus macaques undergoing weekly low dose rectal exposures to the primary isolate, SIV/DeltaB670. Results Repetitive challenge divided the monkeys into two groups with respect to their susceptibility to infection: highly susceptible (2–3 challenges, 5 monkeys) and poorly susceptible (?6 challenges, 3 monkeys). Basal RF and Mx1 expression varied among the three tissues examined, with the lowest expression generally detected in duodenal tissues, and the highest observed in PBMC. The one exception was A3G whose basal expression was greatest in lymph nodes. Importantly, significantly higher basal expression of TRIM5? and Mx1 was observed in PBMC of animals more resistant to mucosal infection. Moreover, individual TRIM5? levels were stable throughout a year prior to infection. Post-exposure induction of these genes was also observed after virus appearance in plasma, with elevated levels in PBMC and duodenum transiently occurring 7–10 days post infection. They did not appear to have an effect on control of viremia. Interestingly, minimal to no induction was observed in the resistant animal that became an elite controller. Conclusions These results suggest that constitutively expressed TRIM5? appears to play a greater role in restricting mucosal transmission of SIV than that associated with type I interferon induction following virus entry. Surprisingly, this association was not observed with the other RFs. The higher basal expression of TRIM5? observed in PBMC than in duodenal tissues emphasizes the understated role of the second barrier to systemic infection involving the transport of virus from the mucosal compartment to the blood. Together, these observations provide a strong incentive for a more comprehensive examination of the intrinsic, variable control of constitutive expression of these genes in the sexual transmission of HIV. PMID:24884551

2014-01-01

220

Design and Control of Hot-Gas Desulfurization Systems with High Oxygen Regenerator Feed Gas  

SciTech Connect

This paper studies the use of regenerator feeds that have higher oxygen concentrations. Not only steady-state but also dynamic issues are examined. The key issue is identified to be heat-removal limitations which is confirmed by dynamic simulations.

Yi, C-K.; Luyben, W.L.

2002-09-20

221

Effects of antioxidant enzymes in the molecular control of reactive oxygen species toxicology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are produced during normal cellular function. ROS include hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide. They are very transient species due to their high chemical reactivity that leads to lipid peroxidation and oxidation of DNA and proteins. Under normal conditions, antioxidant systems of the cell minimize the perturbations caused by ROS. When ROS generation

2000-01-01

222

Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of Nasonovia ribisnigri (Homoptera: Aphididae) on harvested lettuce  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

A laboratory study was conducted to compare phosphine fumigations under the normal and superatmospheric oxygen levels on toxicity against Nasonovia ribisnigri (Mosley) and effects on postharvest quality of romaine and head lettuce. Low temperature phosphine fumigation was effective against the aphi...

223

Primary processes controlling oxygen dynamics on the Texas-Louisiana Shelf  

E-print Network

#12;Air-sea gas exchange O2 Photosynthetic production Advection & diffusion Water column respiration (WR); Sediment oxygen consumption (SOC) Physical processes: Air-sea gas exchange; Advection-shelfD BottomDO(mmolO 2 m-3 ) IR H&D Observations Bottom DO Hypoxic criterion #12;0-18 18-27 27-32 >32 -500 -400

Fennel, Katja

224

Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for postharvest control of light brown apple moth on lettuce  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Postharvest treatment for light brown apple moth (LBAM), Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), is needed to safe guard domestic distribution and export of U.S. fresh fruits and vegetables including lettuce as the pest becomes established in California with risk of potential spread. Oxygenated phosphine fu...

225

Control of oxygen, hydrogen, and tritium in sodium systems at Experimental Breeder Reactor II  

Microsoft Academic Search

The source rates and steady-state concentrations have been measured for oxygen, hydrogen, and tritium impurities in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) sodium systems. Source rate data, steady-state impurity levels, and cold trap effectiveness are reported in this paper. 9 refs.

Osterhout

1980-01-01

226

TRIM28 regulates RNA polymerase II promoter-proximal pausing and pause release.  

PubMed

Promoter-proximal pausing of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is a major checkpoint in transcription. An unbiased search for new human proteins that could regulate paused Pol II at the HSPA1B gene identified TRIM28. In vitro analyses indicated HSF1-dependent attenuation of Pol II pausing upon TRIM28 depletion, whereas in vivo data revealed de novo expression of HSPA1B and other known genes regulated by paused Pol II upon TRIM28 knockdown. These results were supported by genome-wide ChIP-sequencing analyses of Pol II occupancy that revealed a global role for TRIM28 in regulating Pol II pausing and pause release. Furthermore, in vivo and in vitro mechanistic studies suggest that transcription-coupled phosphorylation regulates Pol II pause release by TRIM28. Collectively, our findings identify TRIM28 as a new factor that modulates Pol II pausing and transcriptional elongation at a large number of mammalian genes. PMID:25173174

Bunch, Heeyoun; Zheng, Xiaofeng; Burkholder, Adam; Dillon, Simon T; Motola, Shmulik; Birrane, Gabriel; Ebmeier, Christopher C; Levine, Stuart; Fargo, David; Hu, Guang; Taatjes, Dylan J; Calderwood, Stuart K

2014-10-01

227

Trim24-repressed VL30 retrotransposons regulate gene expression by producing noncoding RNA.  

PubMed

Trim24 (Tif1?) and Trim33 (Tif1?) interact to form a co-repressor complex that suppresses murine hepatocellular carcinoma. Here we show that Trim24 and Trim33 cooperatively repress retinoic acid receptor-dependent activity of VL30-class endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) in liver. In Trim24-knockout hepatocytes, VL30 derepression leads to accumulation of reverse-transcribed VL30 cDNA in the cytoplasm that correlates with activation of the viral-defense interferon responses mimicking the preneoplastic inflammatory state seen in human liver following exogenous viral infection. Furthermore, upon derepression, VL30 long terminal repeats (LTRs) act as promoter and enhancer elements deregulating expression of neighboring genes and generating enhancer RNAs that are required for LTR enhancer activity in hepatocytes in vivo. These data reinforce the role of the TRIM family of proteins in retroviral restriction and antiviral defense and provide an example of an ERV-derived oncogenic regulatory network. PMID:23377542

Herquel, Benjamin; Ouararhni, Khalid; Martianov, Igor; Le Gras, Stéphanie; Ye, Tao; Keime, Céline; Lerouge, Thierry; Jost, Bernard; Cammas, Florence; Losson, Régine; Davidson, Irwin

2013-03-01

228

Regulation of Virus Neutralization and the Persistent Fraction by TRIM21  

PubMed Central

Despite a central role in immunity, antibody neutralization of virus infection is poorly understood. Here we show how the neutralization and persistence of adenovirus type 5, a prevalent nonenveloped human virus, are dependent upon the intracellular antibody receptor TRIM21. Cells with insufficient amounts of TRIM21 are readily infected, even at saturating concentrations of neutralizing antibody. Conversely, high TRIM21 expression levels decrease the persistent fraction of the infecting virus and allows neutralization by as few as 1.6 antibody molecules per virus. The direct interaction between TRIM21 and neutralizing antibody is essential, as single-point mutations within the TRIM21-binding site in the Fc region of a potently neutralizing antibody impair neutralization. However, infection at high multiplicity can saturate TRIM21 and overcome neutralization. These results provide insight into the mechanism and importance of a newly discovered, effector-driven process of antibody neutralization of nonenveloped viruses. PMID:22647693

McEwan, W. A.; Hauler, F.; Williams, C. R.; Bidgood, S. R.; Mallery, D. L.; Crowther, R. A.

2012-01-01

229

TRIM32-dependent transcription in adult neural progenitor cells regulates neuronal differentiation  

PubMed Central

In the adult mammalian brain, neural stem cells in the subventricular zone continuously generate new neurons for the olfactory bulb. Cell fate commitment in these adult neural stem cells is regulated by cell fate-determining proteins. Here, we show that the cell fate-determinant TRIM32 is upregulated during differentiation of adult neural stem cells into olfactory bulb neurons. We further demonstrate that TRIM32 is necessary for the correct induction of neuronal differentiation in these cells. In the absence of TRIM32, neuroblasts differentiate slower and show gene expression profiles that are characteristic of immature cells. Interestingly, TRIM32 deficiency induces more neural progenitor cell proliferation and less cell death. Both effects accumulate in an overproduction of adult-generated olfactory bulb neurons of TRIM32 knockout mice. These results highlight the function of the cell fate-determinant TRIM32 for a balanced activity of the adult neurogenesis process. PMID:24357807

Hillje, A-L; Pavlou, M A S; Beckmann, E; Worlitzer, M M A; Bahnassawy, L; Lewejohann, L; Palm, T; Schwamborn, J C

2013-01-01

230

Control of the surface electronic structure of SrTiO3(001) by modulation of the density of oxygen vacancies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of electron irradiation and the subsequent oxygen adsorption on the electronic structure of an SrTiO3(001) surface was investigated by ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS). Electron irradiation induced an in-gap state (IGS) as observed by UPS keeping the surface 1 × 1, which is considered to originate from oxygen vacancies on the topmost surface due to the electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) of oxygen. Electron irradiation also caused a downward shift of the valence band maximum, indicating downward band bending and the formation of a conductive layer on the surface. Adsorption of oxygen on the electron-irradiated surface, on the other hand, reduced the intensity of the IGS along with yielding upward band bending, which points to disappearance of the conductive layer. The results show that ESD and oxygen adsorption can be used to control the surface electronic structure switching between semiconducting and metallic regimes by changing the density of the oxygen vacancies.

Takeyasu, Kotaro; Fukada, Keisuke; Matsumoto, Masuaki; Fukutani, Katsuyuki

2013-04-01

231

Gas holdup, power consumption, and oxygen absorption coefficient in a stirred-tank fermentor under foam control.  

PubMed

For a laboratory stirred-tank fermentor (STF) with foaming system of 0.5M sulfite solution containing an anionic soft detergent, the performing of a foam-breaking apparatus with a rotating disk (FARD)fitted to the STF was evaluated. The gas holdup in a mechanical foam-control system (MFS), i.e., the stirred-tank fermentor with the rotating disk foambreaker, was confirmed to be larger than that in a nonfoaming system (NS), i.e., the STF with an antifoam agent added. The agitation power in the mechanical foam control system was found to be smaller compared with the agitation power in the nonfoaming system, due to the increased gas holdup. Comparison of the oxygen absorption coefficient between the mechanical foam control system and the nonfoaming system in terms of the specific power input also demonstrated the superiority of the mechanical foam control system, not only in oxygen transfer performance but also in power input economy. PMID:18604881

Yasukawa, M; Onodera, M; Yamagiwa, K; Ohkawa, A

1991-09-01

232

Ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on iceberg lettuce. I. Temperature, time & oxygen level on insect mortality & lettuce quality  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments with different oxygen levels, treatment times, and temperatures were studied to determine responses of western flower thrips and effects on postharvest quality of iceberg lettuce. Over 99.6% mortality rates of thrips were achieved in three ULO treatments of 2, 3, and...

233

Enhancing dissolved oxygen control using an on-line hybrid fuzzy-neural soft-sensing model-based control system in an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic process.  

PubMed

An on-line hybrid fuzzy-neural soft-sensing model-based control system was developed to optimize dissolved oxygen concentration in a bench-scale anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A(2)/O) process. In order to improve the performance of the control system, a self-adapted fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm and adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) models were employed. The proposed control system permits the on-line implementation of every operating strategy of the experimental system. A set of experiments involving variable hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent pH (pH), dissolved oxygen in the aerobic reactor (DO), and mixed-liquid return ratio (r) was carried out. Using the proposed system, the amount of COD in the effluent stabilized at the set-point and below. The improvement was achieved with optimum dissolved oxygen concentration because the performance of the treatment process was optimized using operating rules implemented in real time. The system allows various expert operational approaches to be deployed with the goal of minimizing organic substances in the outlet while using the minimum amount of energy. PMID:24052227

Huang, Mingzhi; Wan, Jinquan; Hu, Kang; Ma, Yongwen; Wang, Yan

2013-12-01

234

Net-Shape Forging of Aerofoil Blade based on Flash Trimming and Compensation methods  

SciTech Connect

In this research, an automatic blade forging die shape optimisation system was developed by using direct compensation and flash trimming algorithms and integrating with the DEFORM 3D software package. To validate the developed system, a 3D blade forging case problem was simulated and optimised with and without the consideration of trimming simulation. The results were compared with actual measurement data of the forged aerofoil blade with excellent results obtained with the fast trimming simulation procedure used.

Lu, B. [Department of Plasticity Forming Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, 200030 (China); Ou, H. [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Armstrong, C. G. [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, BT9 5AH (United Kingdom)

2011-05-04

235

Role of the focal adhesion protein TRIM15 in colon cancer development.  

PubMed

The tripartite motif containing (TRIM) proteins are a large family of proteins that have been implicated in many biological processes including cell differentiation, apoptosis, transcriptional regulation, and signaling pathways. Here, we show that TRIM15 co-localized to focal adhesions through homo-dimerization and significantly suppressed cell migration. Domain mapping analysis indicated that B-box2 and PRY domains were essential for TRIM15 localization to focal adhesions and inhibition of cell migration. Our protein-protein interaction screen of TRIM15 with the integrin adhesome identified several TRIM15 interacting proteins including coronin 1B, cortactin, filamin binding LIM protein1, and vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, which are involved in actin cytoskeleton dynamics. TRIM15 expression was tissue-restricted and downregulated in colon cancer. Level of TRIM15 expression was associated with colon cancer cell migration, as well as both in vitro and in vivo tumor growth. These data provide novel insights into the role of TRIM15 as an additional component of the integrin adhesome, regulating cell migration, and suggest that TRIM15 may function as a tumor suppressor of colon cancer. PMID:25450970

Lee, Ok-Hee; Lee, Jinkyoung; Lee, Keun Ho; Woo, Yun Mi; Kang, Ju-Hee; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Bae, Soo-Kyung; Songyang, Zhou; Oh, Seung Hyun; Choi, Youngsok

2015-02-01

236

TRIM45 negatively regulates NF-{kappa}B-mediated transcription and suppresses cell proliferation  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NF-{kappa}B plays an important role in cell survival and carcinogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM45 negatively regulates TNF{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B-mediated transcription. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM45 overexpression suppresses cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM45 acts as a repressor for the NF-{kappa}B signal and regulates cell growth. -- Abstract: The NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway plays an important role in cell survival, immunity, inflammation, carcinogenesis, and organogenesis. Activation of NF-{kappa}B is regulated by several posttranslational modifications including phosphorylation, neddylation and ubiquitination. The NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway is activated by two distinct signaling mechanisms and is strictly modulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. It has been reported that overexpression of TRIM45, one of the TRIM family ubiquitin ligases, suppresses transcriptional activities of Elk-1 and AP-1, which are targets of the MAPK signaling pathway. In this study, we showed that TRIM45 also negatively regulates TNF{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B-mediated transcription by a luciferase reporter assay and that TRIM45 lacking a RING domain also has an activity to inhibit the NF-{kappa}B signal. Moreover, we found that TRIM45 overexpression suppresses cell growth. These findings suggest that TRIM45 acts as a repressor for the NF-{kappa}B signal and regulates cell growth.

Shibata, Mio [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Sato, Tomonobu [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan) [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Nukiwa, Ryota [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Ariga, Tadashi [Department of Pediatrics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan)] [Department of Pediatrics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu, E-mail: hatas@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan)

2012-06-22

237

Doped LaFeO3 as SOFC Catalysts: Control of Oxygen Mobility Oxidation Activity  

SciTech Connect

The bulk structure and surface properties of Fe-based perovskite-type oxides with the formula La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}Co{sub y}Fe{sub 1-y}O{sub 3-{delta}} for y = 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 have been investigated. The properties were found to strongly depend upon Co content, temperature, and environment. The materials were selected due to their potential use as solid oxide fuel cell cathodes. The intermediate Co loading formed oxygen vacancies most easily and several other properties including oxidation activity and surface sites showed a similar non-linear trend. Trends are related to a possible transition in electronic structure. Activity for oxidation of methane, oxygen storage and chemical compatibility was shown to be superior to that of the La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}MnO{sub 3}.

N Lakshminarayanan; J Kuhn; S Rykov; J Millet; U Ozkan; T Rao; J Smedley; E Wang; E Muller; et al.

2011-12-31

238

Effect of Oxygen and Redox Potential on Glucose Fermentation in Thermotoga maritima under Controlled Physicochemical Conditions  

PubMed Central

Batch cultures of Thermotoga maritima were performed in a bioreactor equipped with instruments adapted for experiments performed at 80°C to mimic the fluctuating oxidative conditions in the hot ecosystems it inhabits. When grown anaerobically on glucose, T. maritima was shown to significantly decrease the redox potential (Eh) of the culture medium down to about ?480?mV, as long as glucose was available. Addition of oxygen into T. maritima cultures during the stationary growth phase led to a drastic reduction in glucose consumption rate. However, although oxygen was toxic, our experiment unambiguously proved that T. maritima was able to consume it during a 12-hour exposure period. Furthermore, a shift in glucose metabolism towards lactate production was observed under oxidative conditions. PMID:21461371

Lakhal, Raja; Auria, Richard; Davidson, Sylvain; Ollivier, Bernard; Dolla, Alain; Hamdi, Moktar; Combet-Blanc, Yannick

2010-01-01

239

Evaluation of Thermal Control Coatings and Polymeric Materials Exposed to Ground Simulated Atomic Oxygen and Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous thermal control and polymeric samples with potential International Space Station applications were evaluated for atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet radiation effects in the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory 5 eV Neutral Atomic Oxygen Facility and in the MSFC Atomic Oxygen Drift Tube System. Included in this study were samples of various anodized aluminum samples, ceramic paints, polymeric materials, and beta cloth, a Teflon-impregnated fiberglass cloth. Aluminum anodizations tested were black duranodic, chromic acid anodize, and sulfuric acid anodize. Paint samples consisted of an inorganic glassy black paint and Z-93 white paint made with the original PS7 binder and the new K2130 binder. Polymeric samples evaluated included bulk Halar, bulk PEEK, and silverized FEP Teflon. Aluminized and nonaluminized Chemfab 250 beta cloth were also exposed. Samples were evaluated for changes in mass, thickness, solar absorptance, and infrared emittance. In addition to material effects, an investigation was made comparing diffuse reflectance/solar absorptance measurements made using a Beckman DK2 spectroreflectometer and like measurements made using an AZ Technology-developed laboratory portable spectroreflectometer.

Kamenetzky, R. R.; Vaughn, J. A.; Finckenor, M. M.; Linton, R. C.

1995-01-01

240

A bench-scale assessment for phosphorus release control of sediment by an oxygen-releasing compound (ORC).  

PubMed

The effects of oxygen-releasing compound (ORC) on the control of phosphorus (P) release as well as the spatial and temporal distribution of P fractions in sediment were studied through a bench-scale test. An ORC with an extended oxygen-releasing capacity was prepared. The results of the oxygen-releasing test showed that the ORC provided a prolonged period of oxygen release with a highly effective oxygen content of 60.6% when compared with powdery CaO2. In the bench-scale test, an ORC dose of 180 g·m(-2) provided a higher inhibition efficiency for P release within 50 days. With the application of the ORC, the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and redox potential (ORP) of the overlying water were notably improved, and the dissolved total phosphorus (DTP) was maintained below 0.689 mg·L(-1) compared to 2.906 mg·L(-1) without the ORC treatment. According to the P fractions distribution, the summation of all detectable P fractions in each sediment layer exhibited an enhanced accumulation tendency with the application of ORC. Higher phosphorus retention efficiencies were observed in the second and third layers of sediment from days 10 to 20 with the ORC. Phosphorus was trapped mainly in the form of iron bound P (Fe-P) and organically bound P (O-P) in sediment with the ORC, whereas the effects of the ORC on exchangeable P (EX-P), apatite-associated P (A-P) and detrital P (De-P) in the sediment sample were not significant. The microbial activities of the sediment samples demonstrated that both the dehydrogenase activity (DHA) and alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) in the upper sediment layer increased with the ORC treatment, which indicated that the mineralization of P was accelerated and the microbial biomass was increased. As the accumulation of P suppressed the release of P, the sediment exhibited an increased P retention efficiency with the application of the ORC. PMID:25438131

Yang, Jie; Lin, Feng K; Yang, Lei; Hua, Dan Y

2015-01-01

241

Measurement of surface tension in an atmosphere with controlled oxygen partial pressure under microgravity using a parabolic flight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Use of a levitation technique is an elegant way to determine thermophysical properties of high temperature melts, because this containerless technique can avoid contamination from a container and assures measurement in a wide temperature range including superheated and undercooled conditions. In particular, electromagnetic levitation is suitable for electrically conductive materials, such as molten metals, alloys and semiconductors. For surface tension measurement, the Rayleigh equation can be applicable only under microgravity condition [1]. However, when this technique is applied on earth, the l = 2 mode frequency is split into five frequencies, because a droplet is deformed from a spherical shape into an egg shape due to gravitational force and the Lorentz force. Surface tension must be calculated taking account of correction term [2]. Therefore, measurement under microgravity is required to minimize uncertainty. Furthermore, surface tension is sensitive to oxygen partial pressure of an ambient atmosphere. However, there has been less report on surface tension measurement under microgravity in an atmosphere with controlled oxygen partial pressure. We are going to measure surface tension of high temperature metallic melts under microgravity using a parabolic flight of a jet aircraft, the Gulf Stream II, operated by Diamond Air Service in Japan. In September of 2007, through parabolic flight experiments we confirmed that droplets of Cu and Ag were successfully levitated using a newly designed coil under the 1G and 10-2G conditions. Droplets were also assured to be levitated in the pull-up period (1.5G); we can melt samples before entering microgravity condition, so that we can use 20 second microgravity only for measurement. On earth, surface tension of molten silicon was successfully measured using electromagnetic levitation in an ambient atmosphere with various oxygen partial pressures; surface tension of molten silicon showed a marked dependence of oxygen partial pressure. Oxygen partial pressure control system has been designed and installed within an electromagnetic levitation facility for parabolic flight experiments. References [1] Lord Rayleigh: Proc. Royal Soc. London, 29, 71 (1879). [2] D. L. Cummings and D. A. Blackburn: J. Fluid Mech. 224, 395 (1991).

Hibiya, Taketoshi; Watanabe, Masahito; Ozawa, Shumpei; Adachi, Masayoshi; Takenaga, Noriaki; Aoyagai, Tomowo; Mizuno, Akitoshi; Higuchi, Kensuke

242

Peak Oxygen Uptake after Cardiac Rehabilitation: A Randomized Controlled Trial of a 12-Month Maintenance Program versus Usual Care  

PubMed Central

Background Exercise capacity is a strong predictor of survival in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Exercise capacity improves after cardiac rehabilitation exercise training, but previous studies have demonstrated a decline in peak oxygen uptake after ending a formal rehabilitation program. There is a lack of knowledge on how long-term exercise adherence can be achieved in CAD patients. We therefore assessed if a 12-month maintenance program following cardiac rehabilitation would lead to increased adherence to exercise and increased exercise capacity compared to usual care. Materials and Methods Two-centre, open, parallel randomized controlled trial with 12 months follow-up comparing usual care to a maintenance program. The maintenance program consisted of one monthly supervised high intensity interval training session, a written exercise program and exercise diary, and a maximum exercise test every third month during follow-up. Forty-nine patients (15 women) on optimal medical treatment were included following discharge from cardiac rehabilitation. The primary endpoint was change in peak oxygen uptake at follow-up; secondary endpoints were physical activity level, quality of life and blood markers of cardiovascular risk. Results There was no change in peak oxygen uptake from baseline to follow-up in either group (intervention group 27.9 (±4.7) to 28.8 (±5.6) mL·kg (-1) min (?1), control group 32.0 (±6.2) to 32.8 (±5.8) mL·kg (?1) min (?1), with no between-group difference, p?=?0.22). Quality of life and blood biomarkers remained essentially unchanged, and both self-reported and measured physical activity levels were similar between groups after 12 months. Conclusions A maintenance exercise program for 12 months did not improve adherence to exercise or peak oxygen uptake in CAD patients after discharge from cardiac rehabilitation compared to usual care. This suggests that infrequent supervised high intensity interval training sessions are inadequate to improve peak oxygen uptake in this patient group. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01246570 PMID:25247991

Madssen, Erik; Arbo, Ingerid; Granøien, Ingrid; Walderhaug, Liv; Moholdt, Trine

2014-01-01

243

SUMO-Interacting Motifs of Human TRIM5? are Important for Antiviral Activity  

PubMed Central

Human TRIM5? potently restricts particular strains of murine leukemia viruses (the so-called N-tropic strains) but not others (the B- or NB-tropic strains) during early stages of infection. We show that overexpression of SUMO-1 in human 293T cells, but not in mouse MDTF cells, profoundly blocks N-MLV infection. This block is dependent on the tropism of the incoming virus, as neither B-, NB-, nor the mutant R110E of N-MLV CA (a B-tropic switch) are affected by SUMO-1 overexpression. The block occurred prior to reverse transcription and could be abrogated by large amounts of restricted virus. Knockdown of TRIM5? in 293T SUMO-1-overexpressing cells resulted in ablation of the SUMO-1 antiviral effects, and this loss of restriction could be restored by expression of a human TRIM5? shRNA-resistant plasmid. Amino acid sequence analysis of human TRIM5? revealed a consensus SUMO conjugation site at the N-terminus and three putative SUMO interacting motifs (SIMs) in the B30.2 domain. Mutations of the TRIM5? consensus SUMO conjugation site did not affect the antiviral activity of TRIM5? in any of the cell types tested. Mutation of the SIM consensus sequences, however, abolished TRIM5? antiviral activity against N-MLV. Mutation of lysines at a potential site of SUMOylation in the CA region of the Gag gene reduced the SUMO-1 block and the TRIM5? restriction of N-MLV. Our data suggest a novel aspect of TRIM5?-mediated restriction, in which the presence of intact SIMs in TRIM5?, and also the SUMO conjugation of CA, are required for restriction. We propose that at least a portion of the antiviral activity of TRIM5? is mediated through the binding of its SIMs to SUMO-conjugated CA. PMID:21490953

Goff, Stephen P.

2011-01-01

244

Control of Oxygen Delamination in Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cells via Modifying Operational Regime  

SciTech Connect

Possible modifications of operational regimes for solid oxide fuel cell (SOEC) devices for hydrogen production are discussed. It is shown that applying alternating current (AC) voltage pulses at a certain frequency range to SOECs could reduce oxygen delamination degradation in these devices and significantly increase their lifetime. This operational scheme provides wide possibilities to increase longevity of SOEC devices required for their use in commercial hydrogen production processes, without any significant modification of used materials and/or cell design. Developed simulation method possesses a broad generality and be employed in a number of other industrial processes.

Sergey N. Rashkeev; Michael V. Glazoff

2011-10-01

245

Quasi-Linear Parameter Varying Representation of General Aircraft Dynamics Over Non-Trim Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For applying linear parameter varying (LPV) control synthesis and analysis to a nonlinear system, it is required that a nonlinear system be represented in the form of an LPV model. In this paper, a new representation method is developed to construct an LPV model from a nonlinear mathematical model without the restriction that an operating point must be in the neighborhood of equilibrium points. An LPV model constructed by the new method preserves local stabilities of the original nonlinear system at "frozen" scheduling parameters and also represents the original nonlinear dynamics of a system over a non-trim region. An LPV model of the motion of FASER (Free-flying Aircraft for Subscale Experimental Research) is constructed by the new method.

Shin, Jong-Yeob

2007-01-01

246

Trauma hemostasis and oxygenation research position paper on remote damage control resuscitation: definitions, current practice, and knowledge gaps.  

PubMed

The Trauma Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research Network held its third annual Remote Damage Control Resuscitation Symposium in June 2013 in Bergen, Norway. The Trauma Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research Network is a multidisciplinary group of investigators with a common interest in improving outcomes and safety in patients with severe traumatic injury. The network's mission is to reduce the risk of morbidity and mortality from traumatic hemorrhagic shock, in the prehospital phase of resuscitation through research, education, and training. The concept of remote damage control resuscitation is in its infancy, and there is a significant amount of work that needs to be done to improve outcomes for patients with life-threatening bleeding secondary to injury. The prehospital phase of resuscitation is critical in these patients. If shock and coagulopathy can be rapidly identified and minimized before hospital admission, this will very likely reduce morbidity and mortality. This position statement begins to standardize the terms used, provides an acceptable range of therapeutic options, and identifies the major knowledge gaps in the field. PMID:24430539

Jenkins, Donald H; Rappold, Joseph F; Badloe, John F; Berséus, Olle; Blackbourne, Lorne; Brohi, Karim H; Butler, Frank K; Cap, Andrew P; Cohen, Mitchell Jay; Davenport, Ross; DePasquale, Marc; Doughty, Heidi; Glassberg, Elon; Hervig, Tor; Hooper, Timothy J; Kozar, Rosemary; Maegele, Marc; Moore, Ernest E; Murdock, Alan; Ness, Paul M; Pati, Shibani; Rasmussen, Todd; Sailliol, Anne; Schreiber, Martin A; Sunde, Geir Arne; van de Watering, Leo M G; Ward, Kevin R; Weiskopf, Richard B; White, Nathan J; Strandenes, Geir; Spinella, Philip C

2014-05-01

247

Emissions of parent, nitrated, and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from indoor corn straw burning in normal and controlled combustion conditions  

PubMed Central

Emission factors (EFs) of parent polycyclic aromatic (pPAHs), nitrated PAHs (nPAHs), and oxygenated PAHs (oPAHs) were measured for indoor corn straw burned in a cooking brick stove in both normal and controlled burning conditions. EFs of total 28 pPAHs, 6 nPAHs and 4 oPAHs were 7.9±3.4, 6.5±1.6×10-3, and 6.1±1.4×10-1 mg/kg, respectively. By controlling the burning conditions, it was found that the influence of fuel charge size on EFs of the pPAHs and derivatives was insignificant. Measured EFs increased significantly in a fast burning mainly because of the oxygen deficient atmosphere formed in the stove chamber with a small volume. In both restricted and enhance air supply conditions, EFs of pPAHs, nPAHs and oPAHs were significantly higher than those measured in normal burning conditions. Though EFs varied in different burning conditions, the composition profiles and calculated isomer ratios were similar without significant differences. The results from the stepwise regression model showed that fuel burning rate, air supply amount, and modified combustion efficiency were three most significant influencing factors, explaining 72-85% of the total variations. PMID:24494494

Shen, Guofeng; Xue, Miao; Wei, Siye; Chen, Yuanchen; Wang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Lv, Yan; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yanyan; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Wei, Wen; Zhao, Qiuyue; Li, Bin; Wu, Haisuo; Tao, Shu

2014-01-01

248

Object Trimming: When Masking Dots Alter Rather than Replace Target Representations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five experiments demonstrate that when dots appear beside a briefly presented target object, and persist on view longer than the target, the flanked object is perceptually altered by the dots. Three methods are used to explore this "object trimming effect". Experiments 1-3 assess participants' conscious reports of trimmed digits, Experiment 4 uses…

Kahan, Todd A.; Enns, James T.

2010-01-01

249

Process Biochemistry 37 (2002) 10571065 Dynamics of yard trimmings composting as determined by  

E-print Network

Process Biochemistry 37 (2002) 1057­1065 Dynamics of yard trimmings composting as determined of the composting process. In the present study, four different biochemical parameters (dehydrogenase activity, ATP of yard trimmings composting; and (2) to relate these parameters to changes in microbial numbers, physico

Tiquia-Arashiro, Sonia M.

250

Lower Restrictions for Sheet Metal Trimming Processes can Reduce Die Costs in The Automotive Industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

To reduce costs of trimming dies influencing parameters of the shearing process were identified, new technical approaches for a more cost efficient die design were developed, and comprehensive investigations on a sample tool were done. These approaches will be verified on a trimming die in series production. If this pilot application is successful, many sheet metal forming parts can be

Markus Hogg; Martin Rohleder; Karl Roll

2011-01-01

251

Control of Herbaspirillum seropedicae NifA Activity by Ammonium Ions and Oxygen  

PubMed Central

The activity of a truncated form of Herbaspirillum seropedicae NifA in different genetic backgrounds showed that its regulatory domain is involved in nitrogen control but not in O2 sensitivity or Fe dependence. The model for nitrogen control involving PII could thus apply to the proteobacteria at large. NifA may have a role in controlling ADP-ribosylation of nitrogenase in Azospirillum brasilense. PMID:9882688

Souza, E. M.; Pedrosa, F. O.; Drummond, M.; Rigo, L. U.; Yates, M. G.

1999-01-01

252

Mult-Pollutant Control Through Novel Approaches to Oxygen Enhanced Combustion  

SciTech Connect

Growing concerns about global climate change have focused effortss on identifying approaches to stabilizing carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. One approach utilizes oxy-fuel combustion to produce a concentrated flue gas that will enable economical CO{sub 2} capture by direct methods. Oxy-fuel combustion rewuires an Air Separation Unit (ASU) to provide a high-purity stream of oxygen as well as a Compression and Purification Unit (CPU) to clean and compress the CO{sub 2} for long term storage. Overall plant efficiency will suffer from the parasitic load of both the ASU and CPU and researchers are investigating techniques to enhance other aspects of the combustion and gas cleanup proceses to improve the benefit-to-cost ratio. This work examines the influence of oxy-fuel combustion and non-carbon based sorbents on the formation and fate of multiple combustion pollutants both numerically and experimentally.

Richard Axelbaum; Pratim Biswas

2009-02-28

253

Genetic parameters for claw disorders and the effect of preselecting cows for trimming.  

PubMed

Claw disorders are important traits relevant to dairy cattle breeding from an economical and welfare point of view. Selection for reduced claw disorders can be based on hoof trimmer records. Typically, not all cows in a herd are trimmed. Our objectives were to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations for claw disorders and investigate the effect of selecting cows for trimming. The data set contained 50,238 cows, of which 20,474 cows had at least one claw trimming record, with a total of 29,994 records. Six claw trimmers scored 14 different claw disorders: abscess (AB), corkscrew claw (CC), (inter-)digital dermatitis or heel erosion (DER), double sole (DS), hardship groove (HG), interdigital hyperplasia (IH), interdigital phlegmon (IP), sand crack (SC), super-foul (SF), sole hemorrhage (SH), sole injury (SI), sole ulcer (SU), white line separation (WLS), yellow discoloration of the sole (YD), and a combined claw disorder trait. Frequencies of the claw disorders for trimmed cows ranged from 0.1% (CC, YD, HG) to 23.8% (DER). More than half of the cows scored had at least one claw disorder. Heritability on the observed scale ranged from 0.02 (DS, SH) to 0.14 (IH) and on the underlying scale from 0.05 to 0.43 in trimmed cows. Genetic correlations between laminitis-related claw disorders were moderate to high, and the same was found for hygiene-related claw disorders. The effect of selecting cows for trimming was first investigated by including untrimmed cows in the analyses and assuming they were not affected by claw disorders. Heritabilities on the underlying scale showed only minor changes. Second, different subsets of the data were created based on the percentage of trimmed cows in the herd. Heritabilities for IH, DER, and SU tended to decrease when a higher percentage of cows in the herd were trimmed. Finally, a bivariate model with a claw disorder and the trait "trimming status" was used, but heritabilities were similar. Heritability for trimming status was relatively high (0.09). Genetic correlations of trimming status with claw disorders were generally moderate to high. To conclude, the effect of selecting cows for trimming on the heritability for claw disorders is negligible. Selecting herds with a high fraction of cows being trimmed tended to decrease heritability. Trimming status, as such, is a heritable trait and correlated with claw disorders and is therefore an interesting trait to include in the genetic evaluation. PMID:23849633

van der Spek, D; van Arendonk, J A M; Vallée, A A A; Bovenhuis, H

2013-09-01

254

Contribution of E3-Ubiquitin Ligase Activity to HIV-1 Restriction by TRIM5?rh: Structure of the RING Domain of TRIM5??†  

PubMed Central

TRIM5?rh is a cytosolic protein that potently restricts HIV-1 before reverse transcription. TRIM5?rh is composed of four different domains: RING, B-box 2, coiled coil, and B30.2(SPRY). The contribution of each of these domains to restriction has been extensively studied, with the exception of the RING domain. The RING domain of TRIM5? exhibits E3-ubiquitin ligase activity, but the contribution of this activity to the restriction of HIV-1 is not known. To test the hypothesis that the E3-ubiquitin ligase activity of the RING domain modulates TRIM5?rh restriction of HIV-1, we correlated the E3-ubiquitin ligase activity of a panel of TRIM5?rh RING domain variants with the ability of these mutant proteins to restrict HIV-1. For this purpose, we first solved the nuclear magnetic resonance structure of the RING domain of TRIM5? and defined potential functional regions of the RING domain by homology to other RING domains. With this structural information, we performed a systematic mutagenesis of the RING domain regions and tested the TRIM5? RING domain variants for the ability to undergo self-ubiquitylation. Several residues, particularly the ones on the E2-binding region of the RING domain, were defective in their self-ubiquitylation ability. To correlate HIV-1 restriction to self-ubiquitylation, we used RING domain mutant proteins that were defective in self-ubiquitylation but preserve important properties required for potent restriction by TRIM5?rh, such as capsid binding and higher-order self-association. From these investigations, we found a set of residues that when mutated results in TRIM5? molecules that lost both the ability to potently restrict HIV-1 and their self-ubiquitylation activity. Remarkably, all of these changes were in residues located in the E2-binding region of the RING domain. Overall, these results demonstrate a role for TRIM5? self-ubiquitylation in the ability of TRIM5? to restrict HIV-1. PMID:21734049

Lienlaf, Maritza; Hayashi, Fumiaki; Di Nunzio, Francesca; Tochio, Naoya; Kigawa, Takanori; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe

2011-01-01

255

Edge Fracture Prediction ofTraditional and Advanced Trimming Processes for AA6111-T4 Sheets  

SciTech Connect

This work examines the traditional and advanced trimming of AA6111-T4 aluminum sheets with finite element simulations. The Rice-Tracy damage model is used for the simulation with damage parameters estimated from experimental observation of grain aspect ratio near the fracture surface of trimmed parts. Fine meshes at the shearing zone, adaptive meshing, and adaptive contact techniques are used to accurately capture the contact interactions between the sharp corner of the trimming tools and the blank to be trimmed. To the knowledge of the authors, these are the first trimming simulations that can predict the effects of shearing clearance on burr heights with quantitative accuracy for AA6111-T4 aluminum sheets. In addition, the models have also accurately reproduced the crack initiation site as well as burr and sliver formation mechanisms observed experimentally.

Hu, Xiaohua; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Sun, Xin; Golovashchenko, Segey F.

2014-02-15

256

Periodic trim solutions with HP-version finite elements in time  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Finite Element in Time has been proven to be a powerful alternative solving strategy for the rotor craft trim problem. Additionally, Finite Element Method in Time has been developed in various versions like time-marching framework, Galerkin framework, Rayleigh-Ritz framework, and mixed formulation. Recently, this method was applied to the rotorcraft trim problem to obtain linearized solutions. The rotorcraft trim problem consists of trying to find a period solution for period-coefficient, differential equations subject to side constraints where certain force and momentum balance equations are forced to be equal to zero. There are free (or trim) parameters that are chosen to meet these side constraints. This project aims at expanding the application, in terms of the rotorcraft trim problem, from a linearized solution to nonlinear solution.

1991-01-01

257

Rotor Flapping Response to Active Control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rotor active control using higher harmonic blade pitch has been proposed as a means to reduce both rotor radiated noise and airframe vibration and to enhance rotor performance. The higher harmonic input, however, can affect rotor thrust and cyclic flapping - the basic trim characteristics of the rotor. Some of the trim changes can negate the active control benefits. For example, wind tunnel test results of a full scale BO-105 rotor with individual-blade control indicate some rotor performance improvements, accompanied with changes in rotor trim, using two-per-rev blade pitch input. The observed performance benefits could therefore be a simple manifestation of the trim change rather than an efficient redistribution of the rotor airloads. More recently, the flight test of the BO-105 helicopter equip,ped with individual-blade-control actuators also reported trim changes whenever the two-per-rev blade pitch for noise reduction was activated. The pilot had to adjust the trim control to maintain the aircraft under a constant flight path. These two cases highlight the, importance of trim considerations in the application of active control to rotorcraft.

Nguyen, Khanh; Johnson, Wayne

2004-01-01

258

Oxygen Consumption of a Pneumatically Controlled Ventilator in a Field Anesthesia Machine  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Field anesthesia machines (FAM) have been developed for remote locations where reliable supplies of compressed medical gases or electricity may be absent. In place of electricity, pneumatically controlled ventilators use compressed gas to power timing circuitry and actuate valves. We sought to determine the total O2 consumption and ventilator gas consumption (drive gas (DG) plus pneumatic control (PC) gas)

Dale F. Szpisjak; Elizabeth N. Javernick; Richard R. Kyle; Paul N. Austin

2008-01-01

259

Pilot study to visualise and measure skin tissue oxygenation, erythema, total haemoglobin and melanin content using index maps in healthy controls  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on a method for analysing multispectral images of skin in vivo for the measurement and visualisation of skin characteristics. Four different indices were used to characterise skin tissue oxygenation, erythema, total haemoglobin and melanin content. Index values were calculated pixel-wise and combined to create index maps to visualise skin properties. Quantitative measurement of tissue oxygenation saturation was possible by calibrating the oxygenation index using a commercial, calibrated oximeter. Index maps were tested by arterial occlusion of the index finger with multispectral images taken before, during and after occlusion in a pilot study with 10 healthy controls.

Poxon, Ian; Wilkinson, Jack; Herrick, Ariane; Dickinson, Mark; Murray, Andrea

2014-02-01

260

Isolated resonator gyroscope with isolation trimming using a secondary element  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present invention discloses a resonator gyroscope including an isolated resonator. One or more flexures support the isolated resonator and a baseplate is affixed to the resonator by the flexures. Drive and sense elements are affixed to the baseplate and used to excite the resonator and sense movement of the gyroscope. In addition, at least one secondary element (e.g., another electrode) is affixed to the baseplate and used for trimming isolation of the resonator. The resonator operates such that it transfers substantially no net momentum to the baseplate when the resonator is excited. Typically, the isolated resonator comprises a proof mass and a counterbalancing plate.

Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor)

2006-01-01

261

Kinetically-controlled growth of cubic and octahedral Rh-Pd alloy oxygen reduction electrocatalysts with high activity and durability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rh is a promising candidate as an indispensible component in bimetallic catalysts due to its unique capability to resist against the aggressive corrosion from the reaction medium. However, Rh has a very strong oxygen binding ability and is generally not suitable for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Here, we have demonstrated shape-controlled synthesis of Rh-Pd alloy nanocrystals with high activity and durability for ORR by retarding the reaction kinetics at an ultra-slow injection rate of metal salts using a syringe pump. Under precise control of sluggish reaction kinetics, Pd followed a preferential overgrowth along the <100> direction, whereas the growth behavior of Rh was dominant along the <111> direction. These different kinetically-controlled growth behaviors associated with Rh and Pd were essential for achieving the shape transition between the cube and the octahedron of their alloys. The Rh8Pd92 alloy octahedra exhibited the highest mass activity with a value of 0.18 mA ?g-1 in terms of the equivalent Pt cost, and were two-fold higher than that of commercial Pt/C. Significantly, all Rh-Pd alloy nanocrystals were highly stable with only less than 25% loss in mass activity after 30 000 CV cycles in O2 saturated acid solution compared to ~56% loss of the commercial Pt/C (E-TEK). Indeed, the mass activity of Rh8Pd92 was 3.3 times higher than that of commercial Pt/C after the accelerated stability test (ADT). This improvement in activity and durability may arise possibly from synergistic effects between the facet and the surface composition.Rh is a promising candidate as an indispensible component in bimetallic catalysts due to its unique capability to resist against the aggressive corrosion from the reaction medium. However, Rh has a very strong oxygen binding ability and is generally not suitable for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Here, we have demonstrated shape-controlled synthesis of Rh-Pd alloy nanocrystals with high activity and durability for ORR by retarding the reaction kinetics at an ultra-slow injection rate of metal salts using a syringe pump. Under precise control of sluggish reaction kinetics, Pd followed a preferential overgrowth along the <100> direction, whereas the growth behavior of Rh was dominant along the <111> direction. These different kinetically-controlled growth behaviors associated with Rh and Pd were essential for achieving the shape transition between the cube and the octahedron of their alloys. The Rh8Pd92 alloy octahedra exhibited the highest mass activity with a value of 0.18 mA ?g-1 in terms of the equivalent Pt cost, and were two-fold higher than that of commercial Pt/C. Significantly, all Rh-Pd alloy nanocrystals were highly stable with only less than 25% loss in mass activity after 30 000 CV cycles in O2 saturated acid solution compared to ~56% loss of the commercial Pt/C (E-TEK). Indeed, the mass activity of Rh8Pd92 was 3.3 times higher than that of commercial Pt/C after the accelerated stability test (ADT). This improvement in activity and durability may arise possibly from synergistic effects between the facet and the surface composition. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04942j

Yan, Yucong; Zhan, Fangwei; Du, Jingshan; Jiang, Yingying; Jin, Chuanhong; Fu, Maoshen; Zhang, Hui; Yang, Deren

2014-11-01

262

Controlling factors on a paleo-lake oxygen isotope record (Yammoûneh, Lebanon) since the Last Glacial Maximum  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Late Quaternary paleoclimatic changes in the Levant are difficult to extract from carbonate oxygen isotope records partly because the factors controlling the terrestrial ? 18O signals are not fully understood in this region characterized by sharp climatic gradients. Here, we address this purpose by presenting the first 14C-dated isotope record from the northern Levant. The record is based on oxygen isotopes from ostracod shells from lacustrine-palustrine deposits accumulated in a small karstic, hydrologically open basin (Yammoûneh), located on the eastern flank of Mount Lebanon. We have first constructed a composite isotopic record obtained from three different ostracod taxa. This yields an oxygen isotope record of ostracods (? ost) related to the most widespread species ( Ilyocypris inermis), and converted to ? 18O values coeval with calcite precipitated in equilibrium (? C) with the lake water (? L). As with other records from the Mediterranean region, the Yammoûneh profile shows maximum and minimum ? C values during the LGM and the early Holocene, respectively, and a slight late Holocene increase. In order to discuss the potential causes of the observed ? 18O values fluctuations (e.g., changes in the isotopic composition of the moisture source, temperature, precipitation minus evaporation (P-E) balance, or atmospheric circulation), we tentatively reconstruct the lake water isotope composition by correcting the ? C values for lake water temperature using regional paleotemperature estimates. Inferred ? L values were then corrected for the isotopic composition of the Eastern Mediterranean sea surface water (the moisture source) derived from planktonic foraminifera ? 18O values corrected for alkenone-based sea surface temperature. Our study suggests that Holocene ? L fluctuations are primarily linked to changes in the sea surface water composition (source effect) amplified by enhanced inland rainfall during the early Holocene. During the LGM, low ? L values at Yammoûneh are likely due to the ground-temperature effect on the rainfall isotope composition, possibly associated with a steeper altitudinal thermal gradient inland, and with changes in air mass trajectories over the Mediterranean Sea.

Develle, Anne-Lise; Herreros, Julien; Vidal, Laurence; Sursock, Alexandre; Gasse, Françoise

2010-04-01

263

In Silico Analysis of Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Human TRIM22 Gene  

PubMed Central

Tripartite motif protein 22 (TRIM22) is an evolutionarily ancient protein that plays an integral role in the host innate immune response to viruses. The antiviral TRIM22 protein has been shown to inhibit the replication of a number of viruses, including HIV-1, hepatitis B, and influenza A. TRIM22 expression has also been associated with multiple sclerosis, cancer, and autoimmune disease. In this study, multiple in silico computational methods were used to identify non-synonymous or amino acid-changing SNPs (nsSNP) that are deleterious to TRIM22 structure and/or function. A sequence homology-based approach was adopted for screening nsSNPs in TRIM22, including six different in silico prediction algorithms and evolutionary conservation data from the ConSurf web server. In total, 14 high-risk nsSNPs were identified in TRIM22, most of which are located in a protein interaction module called the B30.2 domain. Additionally, 9 of the top high-risk nsSNPs altered the putative structure of TRIM22's B30.2 domain, particularly in the surface-exposed v2 and v3 regions. These same regions are critical for retroviral restriction by the closely-related TRIM5? protein. A number of putative structural and functional residues, including several sites that undergo post-translational modification, were also identified in TRIM22. This study is the first extensive in silico analysis of the highly polymorphic TRIM22 gene and will be a valuable resource for future targeted mechanistic and population-based studies. PMID:24983760

Kelly, Jenna N.; Barr, Stephen D.

2014-01-01

264

In silico analysis of functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human TRIM22 gene.  

PubMed

Tripartite motif protein 22 (TRIM22) is an evolutionarily ancient protein that plays an integral role in the host innate immune response to viruses. The antiviral TRIM22 protein has been shown to inhibit the replication of a number of viruses, including HIV-1, hepatitis B, and influenza A. TRIM22 expression has also been associated with multiple sclerosis, cancer, and autoimmune disease. In this study, multiple in silico computational methods were used to identify non-synonymous or amino acid-changing SNPs (nsSNP) that are deleterious to TRIM22 structure and/or function. A sequence homology-based approach was adopted for screening nsSNPs in TRIM22, including six different in silico prediction algorithms and evolutionary conservation data from the ConSurf web server. In total, 14 high-risk nsSNPs were identified in TRIM22, most of which are located in a protein interaction module called the B30.2 domain. Additionally, 9 of the top high-risk nsSNPs altered the putative structure of TRIM22's B30.2 domain, particularly in the surface-exposed v2 and v3 regions. These same regions are critical for retroviral restriction by the closely-related TRIM5? protein. A number of putative structural and functional residues, including several sites that undergo post-translational modification, were also identified in TRIM22. This study is the first extensive in silico analysis of the highly polymorphic TRIM22 gene and will be a valuable resource for future targeted mechanistic and population-based studies. PMID:24983760

Kelly, Jenna N; Barr, Stephen D

2014-01-01

265

Gynecological tumors in Mulibrey nanism and role for RING finger protein TRIM37 in the pathogenesis of ovarian fibrothecomas.  

PubMed

Mulibrey nanism is an autosomal recessive growth disorder caused by mutations in the TRIM37 gene encoding a protein of unknown function. More than half of female patients with Mulibrey nanism develop benign mesenchymal tumors of ovarian sex cord-stromal origin. In this work, we characterize the gynecological tumors of female patients with Mulibrey nanism in detail. In addition to tumors of the fibrothecoma group, 18% (4/22) of the patients were observed with epithelial neoplasias, including 2 ovarian adenofibromas, 1 ovarian poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma and 1 endometrial adenocarcinoma. To investigate the possible involvement of TRIM37 alterations in the pathogenesis of sporadic fibrothecomas, we analyzed the TRIM37 cDNA for mutations and alternatively spliced transcripts and TRIM37 expression in fibrothecomas of women without Mulibrey nanism. No mutations in the open-reading frame of TRIM37 were detected. Two alternatively spliced variants were found, one lacking exon 23 and one exon 2. TRIM37del2 was also found in normal ovary but in a proportion of sporadic fibrothecomas, the TRIM37del2:TRIM37 ratio was increased. In normal ovary, TRIM37 was localized in the cytoplasm of stromal cells, especially theca cells surrounding developing follicles. TRIM37 transcript was found in all sporadic fibrothecomas examined, but 80% (20/25) of the tumors showed reduced or absent expression of TRIM37 protein. Allelic loss at the TRIM37 locus (17q22-23) was observed in 6% of sporadic fibrothecomas. Nearly half of the sporadic fibrothecomas showed evidence of CpG promoter methylation, suggesting promoter downregulation as one mechanism of reduced TRIM37 expression. In conclusion, inherited biallelic inactivation of TRIM37 (Mulibrey nanism) predisposes to both mesenchymal and epithelial ovarian tumors and dysregulation of TRIM37 may also be involved in the pathogenesis of sporadic fibrothecomas. PMID:19329943

Karlberg, Susann; Lipsanen-Nyman, Marita; Lassus, Heini; Kallijärvi, Jukka; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Butzow, Ralf

2009-04-01

266

Advanced control concepts. [for shuttle ascent vehicles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problems of excess control devices and insufficient trim control capability on shuttle ascent vehicles were investigated. The trim problem is solved at all time points of interest using Lagrangian multipliers and a Simplex based iterative algorithm developed as a result of the study. This algorithm has the capability to solve any bounded linear problem with physically realizable constraints, and to minimize any piecewise differentiable cost function. Both solution methods also automatically distribute the command torques to the control devices. It is shown that trim requirements are unrealizable if only the orbiter engines and the aerodynamic surfaces are used.

Sharp, J. B.; Coppey, J. M.

1973-01-01

267

A comparison between volume-controlled ventilation and pressure-controlled ventilation in providing better oxygenation in obese patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy  

PubMed Central

Background: The maintenance of oxygenation is a commonly encountered problem in obese patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. There is no specific guideline on the ventilation modes for this group of patients. Although several studies have been performed to determine the optimal ventilatory settings in these patients, the answer is yet to be found. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of pressure-controlled ventilation (PCV) in comparison with volume-controlled ventilation (VCV) for maintaining oxygenation during laparoscopic cholecystectomy in obese patients. Methods: One hundred and two adult patients of ASA physical status I and II, Body Mass Index of 30–40 kg/m2, scheduled for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were included in this prospective randomized open-label parallel group study. To start with, all patients received VCV. Fifteen minutes after creation of pneumoperitoneum, they were randomized to receive either VCV (Group V) or PCV (Group P). The ventilatory parameters were adjusted accordingly to maintain the end-tidal CO2 between 35 and 40 mmHg. Respiratory rate, tidal volume, minute ventilation and peak airway pressure were noted. Arterial blood gas analyses were done 15 min after creation of pneumoperitoneum and at 20-min intervals thereafter till the end of the surgery. All data were analysed statistically. Results: Patients in Group P showed a statistically significant (P < 0.05) higher level of PaO2 and lower value of PAO2–PaO2 than those in Group V. Conclusion: PCV is a more effective mode of ventilation in comparison with VCV regarding oxygenation in obese patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy. PMID:22923828

Gupta, Sampa Dutta; Kundu, Sudeshna Bhar; Ghose, Tapas; Maji, Sunanda; Mitra, Koel; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Mandal, Sripurna; Sarbapalli, Debabrata; Bhattacharya, Sulagna; Bhattacharya, Saikat

2012-01-01

268

Electrocatalysis on shape-controlled titanium nitride nanocrystals for the oxygen reduction reaction.  

PubMed

The high price of platinum (Pt)-based cathode catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) have slowed down the practical application of fuel cells. Thanks to their low cost, and outstanding, stable catalytic properties, titanium nitrides (TiN) are among the most promising non-precious metal electrocatalysts for replacing Pt. However, the shape-activity relationships of TiN electrocatalysts have not been well-studied or understood up to now. In this work, by simply adjusting the shape of TiO2 precursor, we are able to tailor the morphology of the TiN catalysts from nanoparticles to nanotubes. We have synthetized uniform carbon-coated titanium nitride nanotubes (carbon-coated TiN NTs) through a nitridation reaction in NH3 flow using a TiO2 nanotubes/melamine mixture as precursor. The carbon-coated TiN NTs hybrids exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity for the ORR, coupled with superior methanol tolerance and long-term stability in comparison to commercial Pt/C, through an efficient four-electron-dominant ORR process. Compared with nanoparticles, the one-dimensional and hollow structure of the nanotubes result in greater diffusion of electrolyte and superior electrical conductivity, and contribute to the greatly improved electrocatalytic performance of the carbon-coated TiN NTs nanocomposites. PMID:24039153

Dong, Youzhen; Wu, Yongmin; Liu, Mengjia; Li, Jinghong

2013-10-01

269

The Transcription Factor MEF2C Negatively Controls Angiogenic Sprouting of Endothelial Cells Depending on Oxygen  

PubMed Central

The MADS box transcription factor MEF2C has been detected by us to be upregulated by the angiogenic factors VEGF-A and bFGF in endothelial cells. We have here investigated its potential role for angiogenesis. MEF2C was surprisingly found to strongly inhibit angiogenic sprouting, whereas a dominant negative mutant rather induced sprouting. The factor mainly affected migratory processes of endothelial cells, but not proliferation. In gene profiling experiments we delineated the alpha-2-macroglobulin gene to be highly upregulated by MEF2C. Further data confirmed that MEF2C in endothelial cells indeed induces alpha-2-macroglobulin mRNA as well as the secretion of alpha-2-macroglobulin and that conditioned supernatants of cells overexpressing MEF2C inhibit sprouting. Alpha-2-macroglobulin mediates, at least to a large extent, the inhibitory effects of MEF2C as is shown by knockdown of alpha-2-macroglobulin mRNA by lentiviral shRNA expression which reduces the inhibitory effect. However, under hypoxic conditions the VEGF-A/bFGF-mediated upregulation of MEF2C is reduced and the production of alpha-2-macroglobulin largely abolished. Taken together, this suggests that the MEF2C/alpha-2-macroglobulin axis functions in endothelial cells as a negative feed-back mechanism that adapts sprouting activity to the oxygen concentration thus diminishing inappropriate and excess angiogenesis. PMID:24988463

Sturtzel, Caterina; Testori, Julia; Schweighofer, Bernhard; Bilban, Martin; Hofer, Erhard

2014-01-01

270

Development of a Self-calibrating Dissolved Oxygen Microsensor Array for the Monitoring and Control of Plant Growth in a Space Environment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Plant experiments in space will require active nutrient delivery concepts in which water and nutrients are replenished on a continuous basis for long-term growth. The goal of this study is to develop a novel microsensor array to provide information on the dissolved oxygen environment in the plant root zone for the optimum control of plant cultivation systems in the space environment. Control of water and oxygen is limited by the current state-of-the-art in sensor technology. Two capabilities of the new microsensor array were tested. First, a novel in situ self-diagnosis/self-calibration capability for the microsensor was explored by dynamically controlling the oxygen microenvironment in close proximity to an amperometric dissolved oxygen microsensors. A pair of integrated electrochemical actuator electrodes provided the microenvironments based on water electrolysis. Miniaturized thin film dissolved oxygen microsensors on a flexible polyimide (Kapton(Registered Trademark)? substrate were fabricated and their performances were tested. Secondly, measurements of dissolved oxygen in two representative plant growth systems were made, which had not been performed previously due to lack of proper sensing technology. The responses of the oxygen microsensor array on a flexible polymer substrate properly reflected the oxygen contents on the surface of a porous tube nutrient delivery system and within a particulate substrate system. Additionally, we demonstrated the feasibility of using a 4-point thin film microprobe for water contents measurements for both plant growth systems. mechanical flexibility, and self-diagnosis. The proposed technology is anticipated to provide a reliable sensor feedback plant growth nutrient delivery systems in both terrestrial environment and the microgravity environment during long term space missions. The unique features of the sensor include small size and volume, multiple-point sensing,

Kim, Chang-Soo; Brown, Christopher S.; Nagle, H. Troy

2004-01-01

271

Spatially variant incoherence trimming for improved SAR CCD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional synthetic aperture radar (SAR) Coherent Change Detection (CCD) has been found to be of great utility in detecting changes that occur on the ground. The CCD procedure involves performing repeat pass radar collections to form a coherence product, where ground disturbances can induce detectable incoherence. However there is always a difference in the radar collection geometry which can lead to incoherent energy noise entering the CCD. When sensing flat terrain in a far-field regime, the incoherence due to collection geometry difference can be removed through a conventional global Fourier image support trimming process. However, it has been found that when the terrain is either in a near-field regime or contains non-flat topography, the optimal trimming process is substantially more involved, so much so that a new per-pixel SAR back-projection imaging algorithm has been developed. The new algorithm removes incoherent energy from the SAR CCD collection pair on a per-pixel basis according to the local radar geometry and topography, leaving a higher coherence CCD product. In order to validate the approach, change detection measurements were conducted with GB-SAR, a ground-based indoor radar measurement facility.

André, Daniel B.; Blacknell, David; Morrison, Keith

2013-05-01

272

Scoparone attenuates RANKL-induced osteoclastic differentiation through controlling reactive oxygen species production and scavenging.  

PubMed

Scoparone, one of the bioactive components of Artemisia capillaris Thunb, has various biological properties including immunosuppressive, hepatoprotective, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. This study aims at evaluating the anti-osteoporotic effect of scoparone and its underlying mechanism in vitro. Scoparone demonstrated potent cellular antioxidant capacity. It was also found that scoparone inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and suppressed cathepsin K and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) expression via c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/p38-mediated c-Fos-nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) signaling pathway. During osteoclast differentiation, the production of general reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide anions was dose-dependently attenuated by scoparone. In addition, scoparone diminished NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase 1 (Nox1) expression and activation via the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6)-cSrc-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3k) signaling pathway and prevented the disruption of mitochondrial electron transport chain system. Furthermore, scoparone augmented the expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and catalase (CAT). The overall results indicate that the inhibitory effect of scoparone on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation is attributed to the suppressive effect on ROS and superoxide anion production by inhibiting Nox1 expression and activation and protecting the mitochondrial electron transport chain system and the scavenging effect of ROS resulting from elevated SOD1 and CAT expression. PMID:25576385

Lee, Sang-Hyun; Jang, Hae-Dong

2015-02-15

273

The Human Antiviral Factor TRIM11 Is under the Regulation of HIV-1 Vpr  

PubMed Central

TRIM11 has been reported to be able to restrict HIV-1 replication, but the detailed aspects of the interfering mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrated that TRIM11 mainly suppressed the early steps of HIV-1 transduction, resulting in decreased reverse transcripts. Additionally, we found that TRIM11 could inhibit HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) activity, which may be related to its inhibitory effects on NF-?B. Deletion mutant experiments showed that the RING domain of TRIM11 was indispensable in inhibiting the early steps of HIV-1 transduction but was dispensable in decreasing NF-?B and LTR activities. Moreover, we found that low levels of Vpr decreased TRIM11 protein levels, while high levels increased them, and these regulations were independent of the VprBP-associated proteasome machinery. These results suggest that the antiviral factor TRIM11 is indirectly regulated by HIV-1 Vpr through unknown mechanisms and that the concentration of Vpr is essential to these processes. Thus, our work confirms TRIM11 as a host cellular factor that interferes with the early steps of HIV-1 replication and provides a connection between viral protein and host antiviral factors. PMID:25105968

Yuan, Ting; Yao, Weitong; Huang, Fang; Sun, Binlian; Yang, Rongge

2014-01-01

274

TRIM3 Regulates the Motility of the Kinesin Motor Protein KIF21B  

PubMed Central

Kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) are molecular motors that transport cellular cargo along the microtubule cytoskeleton. KIF21B is a neuronal kinesin that is highly enriched in dendrites. The regulation and specificity of microtubule transport involves the binding of motors to individual cargo adapters and accessory proteins. Moreover, posttranslational modifications of either the motor protein, their cargos or tubulin regulate motility, cargo recognition and the binding or unloading of cargos. Here we show that the ubiquitin E3 ligase TRIM3, also known as BERP, interacts with KIF21B via its RBCC domain. TRIM3 is found at intracellular and Golgi-derived vesicles and co-localizes with the KIF21B motor in neurons. Trim3 gene deletion in mice and TRIM3 overexpression in cultured neurons both suggested that the E3-ligase function of TRIM3 is not involved in KIF21B degradation, however TRIM3 depletion reduces the motility of the motor. Together, our data suggest that TRIM3 is a regulator in the modulation of KIF21B motor function. PMID:24086586

Labonté, Dorthe; Thies, Edda; Pechmann, Yvonne; Groffen, Alexander J.; Verhage, Matthijs; Smit, August B.; van Kesteren, Ronald E.; Kneussel, Matthias

2013-01-01

275

TRIM8 anti-proliferative action against chemo-resistant renal cell carcinoma  

PubMed Central

In some tumours, despite a wild-type p53 gene, the p53 pathway is inactivated by alterations in its regulators or by unknown mechanisms, leading to resistance to cytotoxic therapies. Understanding the mechanisms of functional inactivation of wild-type p53 in these tumours may help to define prospective targets for treating cancer by restoring p53 activity. Recently, we identified TRIM8 as a new p53 modulator, which stabilizes p53 impairing its association with MDM2 and inducing the reduction of cell proliferation. In this paper we demonstrated that TRIM8 deficit dramatically impairs p53-mediated cellular responses to chemotherapeutic drugs and that TRIM8 is down regulated in patients affected by clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC), an aggressive drug-resistant cancer showing wild-type p53. These results suggest that down regulation of TRIM8 might be an alternative way to suppress p53 activity in RCC. Interestingly, we show that TRIM8 expression recovery in RCC cell lines renders these cells sensitive to chemotherapeutic treatments following p53 pathway re-activation. These findings provide the first mechanistic link between TRIM8 and the drug resistance of ccRCC and suggest more generally that TRIM8 could be used as enhancer of the chemotherapy efficacy in cancers where p53 is wild-type and its pathway is defective. PMID:25277184

Gigante, Margherita; Aiello, Italia; Mastropasqua, Francesca; Marzano, Flaviana; Ditonno, Pasquale; Carrieri, Giuseppe; Simonnet, Hélène; D'Erchia, Anna Maria; Ranieri, Elena; Pesole, Graziano; Sbisà, Elisabetta; Tullo, Apollonia

2014-01-01

276

StreamingTrim 1.0: a Java software for dynamic trimming of 16S rRNA sequence data from metagenetic studies.  

PubMed

Next-generation sequencing technologies are extensively used in the field of molecular microbial ecology to describe taxonomic composition and to infer functionality of microbial communities. In particular, the so-called barcode or metagenetic applications that are based on PCR amplicon library sequencing are very popular at present. One of the problems, related to the utilization of the data of these libraries, is the analysis of reads quality and removal (trimming) of low-quality segments, while retaining sufficient information for subsequent analyses (e.g. taxonomic assignment). Here, we present StreamingTrim, a DNA reads trimming software, written in Java, with which researchers are able to analyse the quality of DNA sequences in fastq files and to search for low-quality zones in a very conservative way. This software has been developed with the aim to provide a tool capable of trimming amplicon library data, retaining as much as taxonomic information as possible. This software is equipped with a graphical user interface for a user-friendly usage. Moreover, from a computational point of view, StreamingTrim reads and analyses sequences one by one from an input fastq file, without keeping anything in memory, permitting to run the computation on a normal desktop PC or even a laptop. Trimmed sequences are saved in an output file, and a statistics summary is displayed that contains the mean and standard deviation of the length and quality of the whole sequence file. Compiled software, a manual and example data sets are available under the BSD-2-Clause License at the GitHub repository at https://github.com/GiBacci/StreamingTrim/. PMID:24128146

Bacci, G; Bazzicalupo, M; Benedetti, A; Mengoni, A

2014-03-01

277

Control of nitrogen fixation by oxygen depletion in surface-associated microzones  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic deficiencies in biologically utilizable nitrogen control primary production in vast segments of the world's oceans1-3. A priori, it would appear that these conditions offer selective advantages to N2-fixing microorganisms (eubacteria and cyanobacteria). Most studies, however, concur that ecologically insignificant rates of N2 fixation are found in such waters4-6. We have addressed this paradox by identifying some environmental factors that

Hans W. Paerl; Richard G. Carlton

1988-01-01

278

Susceptibility to repeated, low-dose, rectal SHIVSF162P3 challenge is independent of TRIM5 genotype in rhesus macaques.  

PubMed

Infections following repeated, low-dose (RLD), mucal S(H)IV exposures of macaques are used to model sexual HIV exposures for biomedical prevention testing. Different susceptibilities among animals can complicate study designs. In rhesus macaques, TRIM5 alleles Q, CypA, and TFP are resistance factors for infection with some S(H)IV strains, but not for SIVmac239 due to its capsid properties. SIVmac239-derived SHIVSF162P3 has been demonstrated to reproducibly infect mucosally in vaginal and rectal RLD models. To further test the suitability of SHIVSF162P3 for RLD models, we studied the influence of the TRIM5 genotype on susceptibility to rectal RLD infection and on plasma viremia by analyzing 43 male Indian rhesus macaques from control arms of completed studies. The median number of exposures required for infection was three (Q/Q, n=4) (TRIM5 alleles, number of macaques, respectively), four (Q/CypA, n=7), three (TFP/Q, n=15), three (TFP/TFP, n=15), and two (TFP/CypA, n=2); TRIM5(CypA/CypA) was not represented in our study. Median peak viremia (log10 viral copies/ml) in infected animals was 7.4 (Q/Q, n=4), 7.2 (Q/CypA, n=6), 7.3 (TFP/Q, n=13), 7.1 (TFP/TFP, n=15), and 6.5 (TFP/CypA; n=2). Neither susceptibility nor peak viremia was significantly different (log rank test, Kruskal-Wallis test, respectively). Rhesus macaques' susceptibility to RLD SHIVSF162P3 is independent of the TRIM5 TFP, CypA, and Q alleles, with the limitation that the power to detect any impact of CypA/CypA and TFP/CypA genotypes was nonexistent or low, due to absence or infrequency, respectively. The finding that TRIM5 alleles do not restrict mucosal infection or ensuing replication rates suggests that SHIVSF162P3 is indeed suitable for RLD experimentation. PMID:23461569

Butler, Katherine; Morgan, Jennifer S; Hanson, Debra L; Adams, Debra; Garcia-Lerma, J Gerardo; Heneine, Walid; Ellenberger, Dennis; Hendry, R Michael; McNicholl, Janet; Johnson, Welkin E; Kersh, Ellen N

2013-07-01

279

P-method post hoc test for adaptive trimmed mean, HQ  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Adaptive trimmed mean, HQ, which is one of the latest additions in robust estimators, had been proven to be good in controlling Type I error in omnibus test. However, post hoc (pairwise multiple comparison) procedure for HQ was yet to be developed then. Thus, we have taken the initiative to develop post hoc procedure for HQ. Percentile bootstrap method or P-Method was proposed as it was proven to be effective in controlling Type I error rate even when the sample size was small. This paper deliberates on the effectiveness of P-Method on HQ, denoted as P-HQ. The strength and weakness of the proposed method were put to test on various conditions created by manipulating several variables such as shape of distributions, number of groups, sample sizes, degree of variance heterogeneity and pairing of sample sizes and group variances. For such, a simulation study on 2000 datasets was conducted using SAS/IML Version 9.2. The performance of the method on various conditions was based on its ability in controlling Type I error which was benchmarked using Bradley's criterion of robustness. The finding revealed that P-HQ could effectively control Type I error for almost all the conditions investigated.

Low, Joon Khim; Yahaya, Sharipah Soaad Syed; Abdullah, Suhaida; Yusof, Zahayu Md; Othman, Abdul Rahman

2014-12-01

280

Thermal conductivity control by oxygen defect concentration modification in reducible oxides: The case of Pr0.1Ce0.9O2-? thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate the impact on thermal conductivity of varying the concentration of oxygen vacancies and reduced cations in Pr0.1Ce0.9O2-? thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition. The oxygen vacancy concentration is controlled by varying the oxygen partial pressure between 1 × 10-4 and 1 atm at 650 °C. Corresponding changes in the oxygen non-stoichiometry (?) are monitored by detecting the lattice parameters of the films with high-resolution X-ray diffraction, while the thermal properties are characterized by time-domain thermoreflectance measurements. The films are shown to exhibit a variation in oxygen vacancy content, and in the Pr3+/Pr4+ ratio, corresponding to changes in ? from 0.0027 to 0.0364, leading to a reduction in the thermal conductivity from k = 6.62 ± 0.61 to 3.82 ± 0.51 W/m-K, respectively. These values agree well with those predicted by the Callaway and von Baeyer model for thermal conductivity in the presence of point imperfections. These results demonstrate the capability of controlling thermal conductivity via control of anion and cation defect concentrations in a given reducible oxide.

Luckyanova, Maria N.; Chen, Di; Ma, Wen; Tuller, Harry L.; Chen, Gang; Yildiz, Bilge

2014-02-01

281

Lower Restrictions for Sheet Metal Trimming Processes can Reduce Die Costs in The Automotive Industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To reduce costs of trimming dies influencing parameters of the shearing process were identified, new technical approaches for a more cost efficient die design were developed, and comprehensive investigations on a sample tool were done. These approaches will be verified on a trimming die in series production. If this pilot application is successful, many sheet metal forming parts can be trimmed by less die investment in the future. In the automotive industry complex sheet metal forming parts are often trimmed by shearing. Ideally this shearing is done with a 90° angle between the cutting edge and the part surface. Because of complex part geometry different angles always occur. Often shearing angles and the effective sheet thickness increases so much that trimming in the working direction of the press machine is not possible anymore. In these cases sliding cams have to be used. That makes trimming dies expensive and maintenance intensive. For reliable trimming a good understanding of the process and its limitations is necessary. By not considering these limitations the tool can fail after a few operations or/and the resulting edge of the sheet metal part is no longer acceptable. In worst case a new tool has to be built or at least must be reworked. In operational practice so far only empirical values about limitations are known. The stability limit for trimming is not known for all shearing angles and for new high-strength materials. Therefore detailed investigations were done on a sample tool to determine these stability limits for different materials and shearing angles. The basis for starting these principle investigations was empirical values from operational practise. By using a high-quality material and a completely new shape for the trimming die elements both the reliable processable effective sheet thickness respectively the shearing angle as well as the acting forces could be optimized. In the basic investigations trimming in one direction was often still possible although from operational practice point of view the stability limit is already exceeded. These optimistic results are being validated in series production right now. The sheet metal car body parts consist of steel grades up to high-strength steel material. They are mostly completely trimmed in the working direction of the press. If these tests are successful, the results will be used in the design of future trimming dies. Less sliding cams are necessary and costs can be reduced.

Hogg, Markus; Rohleder, Martin; Roll, Karl

2011-05-01

282

Efficacy of oxygen-supplying capacity of Azolla in a controlled life support system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Azolla shows high growth and propagation rates, strong photosynthetic O2-releasing ability and high nutritional value. It is suitable as a salad vegetable and can be cultured on a multi-layered wet bed. Hence, it possesses potential as a fresh vegetable, and to release O2 and absorb CO2 in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System in space. In this study, we investigated the O2-providing characteristics of Azolla in a closed chamber under manned, controlled conditions to lay a foundation for use of Azolla as a biological component in ground simulation experiments for space applications. A closed test chamber, representing a Controlled Ecological Life Support System including an Azolla wet-culture device, was built to measure the changes in atmospheric O2 and CO2 concentrations inside the chamber in the presence of coexisting Azolla, fish and men. The amount of O2 consumed by fish was 0.0805-0.0831 L kg-1 h-1 and the level of CO2 emission was 0.0705-0.0736 L kg-1 h-1; O2 consumption by the two trial volunteers was 19.71 L h-1 and the volume of respiration-released CO2 was 18.90 L h-1. Under 7000-8000 Lx artificial light and Azolla wet-culture conditions, human and fish respiration and Azolla photosynthesis were complementary, thus the atmospheric O2 and CO2 concentrations inside chamber were maintained in equilibrium. The increase in atmospheric CO2 concentration in the closed chamber enhanced the net photosynthesis efficiency of the Azolla colony. This study showed that Azolla has strong photosynthetic O2-releasing ability, which equilibrates the O2 and CO2 concentrations inside the chamber in favor of human survival and verifies the potential of Azolla for space applications.

Chen, Min; Deng, Sufang; Yang, Youquan; Huang, Yibing; Liu, Chongchu

2012-02-01

283

Fuel control system for an engine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fuel control system responsive to a power controller and controlling a fuel delivery system. The fuel control system includes a control arm connected to both the power controller and the fuel delivery system, a position sensor connected to the control arm, and a trim controller connected to the control arm at a pivot point and connected to the position sensor.

Brogdon, James William (Inventor); Gill, David Keith (Inventor)

1999-01-01

284

Testing of a Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Reaction Control Thruster in a New Altitude Rocket Engine Test Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A relocated rocket engine test facility, the Altitude Combustion Stand (ACS), was activated in 2009 at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This facility has the capability to test with a variety of propellants and up to a thrust level of 2000 lbf (8.9 kN) with precise measurement of propellant conditions, propellant flow rates, thrust and altitude conditions. These measurements enable accurate determination of a thruster and/or nozzle s altitude performance for both technology development and flight qualification purposes. In addition the facility was designed to enable efficient test operations to control costs for technology and advanced development projects. A liquid oxygen-liquid methane technology development test program was conducted in the ACS from the fall of 2009 to the fall of 2010. Three test phases were conducted investigating different operational modes and in addition, the project required the complexity of controlling propellant inlet temperatures over an extremely wide range. Despite the challenges of a unique propellant (liquid methane) and wide operating conditions, the facility performed well and delivered up to 24 hot fire tests in a single test day. The resulting data validated the feasibility of utilizing this propellant combination for future deep space applications.

Meyer, Michael L.; Arrington, Lynn A.; Kleinhenz, Julie E.; Marshall, William M.

2012-01-01

285

A theoretical study of the application of jet flap circulation control for reduction of rotor vibratory forces, addendum  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theoretical potential of a jet flap control system for reducing the vertical and horizontal non-cancelling helicopter rotor blade root shears was investigated. It was determined that the dominant contributor to the rotor power requirements is the requirement to maintain moment trim as well as force trim. It was also found that the requirement to maintain moment trim does not entail a power penalty.

Renka, A. R.

1975-01-01

286

Organic matter stoichiometry, flux, and oxygen control nitrogen loss in the ocean.  

PubMed

Biologically available nitrogen limits photosynthesis in much of the world ocean. Organic matter (OM) stoichiometry had been thought to control the balance between the two major nitrogen removal pathways-denitrification and anammox-but the expected proportion of 30% anammox derived from mean oceanic OM is rarely observed in the environment. With incubations designed to directly test the effects of stoichiometry, however, we showed that the ratio of anammox to denitrification depends on the stoichiometry of OM supply, as predicted. Furthermore, observed rates of nitrogen loss increase with the magnitude of OM supply. The variable ratios between denitrification and anammox previously observed in the ocean are thus attributable to localized variations in OM quality and quantity and do not necessitate a revision to the global nitrogen cycle. PMID:24763588

Babbin, Andrew R; Keil, Richard G; Devol, Allan H; Ward, Bess B

2014-04-25

287

Effect of dissolved oxygen on nitrogen removal and process control in aerobic granular sludge reactor.  

PubMed

A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with aerobic granular sludge was operated to determine the effect of different DO concentrations on biological nitrogen removal process and to investigate the spatial profiles of DO, ORP and pH as online control parameters in such systems. The results showed that DO concentration had a significant effect on nitrification efficiencies and the profiles of DO, ORP and pH. The specific nitrification rate was decreased from 0.0595 mgNH(4)(+)-N/(gMLSS min) to 0.0251 mgNH(4)(+)-N/(gMLSS min) after DO concentration was dropped off from 4.5mg/L to 1.0mg/L. High DO concentration improved the nitrification and increased the volumetric NH(4)(+)-N removal. Low DO concentration enhanced TIN removal, while prolonged the nitrification duration. Also there existed a good correlation between online control parameters (ORP, pH) and nutrient (COD, NH(4)(+)-N, NO(2)(-)-N, NO(3)(-)-N) variations in aerobic granular sludge reactor when DO was 2.5mg/L, 3.5mg/L and 4.5mg/L. However it was difficult to identify the end of nitrification and denitrification when DO was 1.0mg/L, due to no apparent bending points on ORP and pH curves. In conclusion, the optimal DO concentration was suggested at 2.5mg/L as it not only achieved high nitrogen removal efficiency and decreased the reaction duration, but also saved operation cost by aeration and mixing. PMID:20219282

Yuan, Xiangjuan; Gao, Dawen

2010-06-15

288

Application of linear multiple model predictive control (MMPC) framework towards dynamic maximazation of oxygen yield in an elevated-pressure air separation unit  

SciTech Connect

In a typical air separation unit (ASU) utilizing either a simple gaseous oxygen (GOX) cycle or a pumped liquid oxygen (PLOX) cycle, the flowrate of liquid nitrogen (LN2) stream connecting high-pressure and low-pressure ASU columns plays an important role in the total oxygen yield. It has been observed that this yield reaches a maximum at a certain optimal flowrate of LN2 stream. At nominal full-load operation, the flowrate of LN2 stream is maintained near this optimum value, whereas at part-load conditions this flowrate is typically modified in proportion with the load-change (oxygen demand) through a ratio/feed-forward controller. Due to nonlinearity in the entire ASU process, the ratio-modified LN2 flowrate does not guarantee an optimal oxygen yield at part-load conditions. This is further exacerbated when process disturbances in form of “cold-box” heat-leaks enter the system. To address this problem of dynamically maximizing the oxygen yield while the ASU undergoes a load-change and/or a process disturbance, a multiple model predictive control (MMPC) algorithm is proposed. This approach has been used in previous studies to handle large ramp-rates of oxygen demand posed by the gasifier in an IGCC plant. In this study, the proposed algorithm uses linear step-response “blackbox” models surrounding the operating points corresponding to maximum oxygen yield points at different loads. It has been shown that at any operating point of the ASU, the MMPC algorithm, through model-weight calculation based on plant measurements, naturally and continuously selects the dominant model(s) corresponding to the current plant state, while making control-move decisions that approach the maximum oxygen yield point. This dynamically facilitates less energy consumption in form of compressed feed-air compared to a simple ratio control during load-swings. In addition, since a linear optimization problem is solved at each time step, the approach involves much less computational cost compared to a firstprinciple based nonlinear MPC. Introduction

Mahapatra, P.; Zitney, S.; Bequette, B. Wayne

2012-01-01

289

Control of the surface electronic structure of SrTiO3(001) by modulation of the density of oxygen vacancies.  

PubMed

The influence of electron irradiation and the subsequent oxygen adsorption on the electronic structure of an SrTiO3(001) surface was investigated by ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS). Electron irradiation induced an in-gap state (IGS) as observed by UPS keeping the surface 1 × 1, which is considered to originate from oxygen vacancies on the topmost surface due to the electron-stimulated desorption (ESD) of oxygen. Electron irradiation also caused a downward shift of the valence band maximum, indicating downward band bending and the formation of a conductive layer on the surface. Adsorption of oxygen on the electron-irradiated surface, on the other hand, reduced the intensity of the IGS along with yielding upward band bending, which points to disappearance of the conductive layer. The results show that ESD and oxygen adsorption can be used to control the surface electronic structure switching between semiconducting and metallic regimes by changing the density of the oxygen vacancies. PMID:23503170

Takeyasu, Kotaro; Fukada, Keisuke; Matsumoto, Masuaki; Fukutani, Katsuyuki

2013-04-24

290

Trim28 Contributes to EMT via Regulation of E-Cadherin and N-Cadherin in Lung Cancer Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

In previous work, we demonstrated that transcription factor Trim28 (Tripartite motif containing 28) plays a tumor-suppressor role in early-staged adenocarcinoma of the lung due to its ability to restrain transcription of cell cycle-regulating genes. Herein we examine Trim28's role in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) which is strongly implicated in cancer metastasis. We found that Trim28 plays a role in TGF-?-induced EMT in non-small cell lung cancer cells. Silencing Trim28 with inhibitory RNAs alters the expression of numerous EMT markers, such as E-cadherin and N-cadherin, whereas overexpression of Trim28 has an opposite effect. Trim28 expression is induced following TGF-? treatment at both protein and mRNA levels. Trim28 deficiency impairs TGF-?-induced EMT and decreases cell migration and invasion. Finally, we demonstrate that the expression of Trim28 affects the acetylation and methylation of histones on E-cadherin and N-cadherin promoters. These results suggest that Trim28 contributes to EMT and might be important for tumor metastasis in lung cancer. Taken together with our previous work these results suggest a model in which Trim28 is a tumor suppressor early in the transformation process in lung cancer, but in later stages it functions as an oncogene. PMID:24983967

Chen, Lu; Muñoz-Antonia, Teresita; Cress, W. Douglas

2014-01-01

291

Reactive Oxygen Species and Epidermal Growth Factor Are Antagonistic Cues Controlling SHP-2 Dimerization  

PubMed Central

The SHP-2 tyrosine phosphatase plays key regulatory roles in the modulation of the cell response to growth factors and cytokines. Over the past decade, the integration of genetic, biochemical, and structural data has helped in interpreting the pathological consequences of altered SHP-2 function. Using complementary approaches, we provide evidence here that endogenous SHP-2 can dimerize through the formation of disulfide bonds that may also involve the catalytic cysteine. We show that the fraction of dimeric SHP-2 is modulated by growth factor stimulation and by the cell redox state. Comparison of the phosphatase activities of the monomeric self-inhibited and dimeric forms indicated that the latter is 3-fold less active, thus pointing to the dimerization process as an additional mechanism for controlling SHP-2 activity. Remarkably, dimers formed by different SHP-2 mutants displaying diverse biochemical properties were found to respond differently to epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation. Although this differential behavior cannot be rationalized mechanistically yet, these findings suggest a possible regulatory role of dimerization in SHP-2 function. PMID:22411627

Nardozza, Aurelio Pio; D'Orazio, Melania; Trapannone, Riccardo; Corallino, Salvatore; Filomeni, Giuseppe; Tartaglia, Marco; Battistoni, Andrea

2012-01-01

292

Novel photocatalyst-based colourimetric indicator for oxygen: Use of a platinum catalyst for controlling response times  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparation and characterisation of a novel, UV-activated, solvent-based, colourimetric indicator for oxygen is described, comprising a redox dye (methylene blue, MB), semiconductor photocatalyst (Pt-TiO2), and a sacrificial electron donor (SED=glycerol), all dispersed\\/dissolved in a polymer medium (sulfonated polystyrene, SPS). Upon exposure to UVA light, the Pt-TiO2\\/MB\\/glycerol\\/SPS oxygen indicator is readily photobleached as the MB is converted into its oxygen-sensitive,

Andrew Mills; Katherine Lawrie

2011-01-01

293

Periodic trim solutions with hp-version finite elements in time  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Finite elements in time as an alternative strategy for rotorcraft trim problems are studied. The research treats linear flap and linearized flap-lag response both for quasi-trim and trim cases. The connection between Fourier series analysis and hp-finite elements for periodic a problem is also examined. It is proved that Fourier series is a special case of space-time finite elements in which one element is used with a strong displacement formulation. Comparisons are made with respect to accuracy among Fourier analysis, displacement methods, and mixed methods over a variety parameters. The hp trade-off is studied for the periodic trim problem to provide an optimum step size and order of polynomial for a given error criteria. It is found that finite elements in time can outperform Fourier analysis for periodic problems, and for some given error criteria. The mixed method provides better results than does the displacement method.

Peters, David A.; Hou, Lin-Jun

1990-01-01

294

High level of susceptibility to human TRIM5? conferred by HIV-2 capsid sequences  

PubMed Central

Background HIV-2, which was transmitted to humans from a distant primate species (sooty mangabey), differs remarkably from HIV-1 in its infectivity, transmissibility and pathogenicity. We have tested the possibility that a greater susceptibility of HIV-2 capsid (CA) to the human restriction factor TRIM5? (hTRIM5?) could contribute to these differences. Results We constructed recombinant clones expressing CA from a variety of HIV-2 viruses in the context of HIV-1 NL4-3-luciferase. CA sequences were amplified from the plasma of HIV-2 infected patients, including 8 subtype A and 7 subtype B viruses. CA from 6 non-epidemic HIV-2 subtypes, 3 HIV-2 CRF01_AB recombinants and 4 SIVsmm viruses were also tested. Susceptibility to hTRIM5? was measured by comparing single-cycle infectivity in human target cells expressing hTRIM5? to that measured in cells in which hTRIM5? activity was inhibited by overexpression of hTRIM5?. The insertion of HIV-2 CA sequences in the context of HIV-1 did not affect expression and maturation of the HIV-2 CA protein. The level of susceptibility hTRIM5? expressed by viruses carrying HIV-2 CA sequences was up to 9-fold higher than that of HIV-1 NL4-3 and markedly higher than a panel of primary HIV-1 CA sequences. This phenotype was found both for viruses carrying CA from primary HIV-2 sequences and viruses carrying CA from laboratory-adapted HIV-2 clones. High hTRIM5? susceptibility was found in all HIV-2 subtypes. In this series of viruses, susceptibility to hTRIM5? was not significantly affected by the presence of a proline at position 119 or by the number of prolines at positions 119, 159 or 178 in HIV-2 CA. No significant correlation was found between HIV-2 viremia and sensitivity to hTRIM5?. Conclusions HIV-2 capsid sequences expressed high levels of susceptibility to hTRIM5?. This property, common to all HIV-2 sequences tested, may contribute in part to the lower replication and pathogenicity of this virus in humans. PMID:23647667

2013-01-01

295

Bacterial Inactivation by a Singlet Oxygen Bubbler: Identifying Factors Controlling the Toxicity of 1O2 Bubbles  

PubMed Central

A microphotoreactor device was developed to generate bubbles (sized: 1.4 mm diameter, 90 ?L) containing singlet oxygen at levels toxic to bacteria and fungus. As singlet oxygen decays rapidly to triplet oxygen, the bubbles leave behind no waste or by-products other than O2. From a comparative study in deaerated, air saturated, and oxygenated solutions, it was reasoned that the singlet oxygen bubbles inactivate Escherichia coli and Aspergillus fumigatus, mainly by an oxygen gradient inside and outside of the bubble such that singlet oxygen is solvated and diffuses through the aqueous solution until it reacts with the target organism. Thus, singlet oxygen bubble toxicity was inversely proportional to the amount of dissolved oxygen in solution. In a second mechanism, singlet oxygen interacts directly with E. coli that accumulate at the gas-liquid interface although this mechanism operates at a rate approximately 10 times slower. Due to encapsulation in the gaseous core of the bubble and a 0.98 ms lifetime, the bubbles can traverse relatively long 0.39 mm distances carrying 1O2 far into the solution; by comparison the diffusion distance of 1O2 fully solvated in H2O is much shorter (~150 nm). Bubbles that reached the outer air/water interface contained no 1O2. The mechanism by which 1O2 deactivated organisms was explored through the addition of detergent molecules and Ca2+ ions. Results indicate that the preferential accumulation of E. coli at the air-water interface of the bubble leads to enhanced toxicity of bubbles containing 1O2. The singlet oxygen device offers intriguing possibilities for creating new types of disinfection strategies based on photodynamic (1O2) bubble carriers. PMID:23075418

Bartusik, Dorota; Aebisher, David; Lyons, Alan

2013-01-01

296

Simultaneous neutralization and innate immune detection of a replicating virus by TRIM21.  

PubMed

Tripartite motif-containing 21 (TRIM21) is a cytosolic immunoglobulin receptor that mediates antibody-dependent intracellular neutralization (ADIN). Here we show that TRIM21 potently inhibits the spreading infection of a replicating cytopathic virus and activates innate immunity. We used a quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based assay to measure in vitro replication of mouse adenovirus type 1 (MAV-1), a virus that causes dose-dependent hemorrhagic encephalitis in mice. Using this assay, we show that genetic ablation of TRIM21 or chemical inhibition of either the AAA ATPase p97/valosin-containing protein (VCP) or the proteasome results in a >1,000-fold increase in the relative level of infection in the presence of immune serum. Moreover, the TRIM21-mediated ability of antisera to block replication was a consistent feature of the humoral immune response in immunized mice. In the presence of immune sera and upon infection, TRIM21 also activates a proinflammatory response, resulting in secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). These results demonstrate that TRIM21 provides a potent block to spreading infection and induces an antiviral state. PMID:23596308

Watkinson, R E; Tam, J C H; Vaysburd, M J; James, L C

2013-07-01

297

Functional Evidence for the Involvement of Microtubules and Dynein Motor Complexes in TRIM5?-Mediated Restriction of Retroviruses  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The tripartite motif (TRIM) family of proteins includes the TRIM5? antiretroviral restriction factor. TRIM5? from many Old World and some New World monkeys can restrict the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), while human TRIM5? restricts N-tropic murine leukemia virus (N-MLV). TRIM5? forms highly dynamic cytoplasmic bodies (CBs) that associate with and translocate on microtubules. However, the functional involvement of microtubules or other cytoskeleton-associated factors in the viral restriction process had not been shown. Here, we demonstrate the dependency of TRIM5?-mediated restriction on microtubule-mediated transport. Pharmacological disruption of the microtubule network using nocodazole or disabling it using paclitaxel (originally named taxol) decreased the restriction of N-MLV and HIV-1 by human or simian alleles of TRIM5?, respectively. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of dynein motor complexes using erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine (EHNA) and small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of the dynein heavy chain (DHC) similarly decreased TRIM5?-mediated restriction. The loss in restriction resulting from either the disassembly of microtubules or the disruption of dynein motor activity was seen for both endogenous and overexpressed TRIM5? and was not due to differences in protein stability or cell viability. Both nocodazole treatment and DHC depletion interfered with the dynamics of TRIM5? CBs, increasing their size and altering their intracellular localization. In addition, nocodazole, paclitaxel, and DHC depletion were all found to increase the stability of HIV-1 cores in infected cells, providing an alternative explanation for the decreased restriction. In conclusion, association with microtubules and the translocation activity of dynein motor complexes are required to achieve efficient restriction by TRIM5?. IMPORTANCE The primate innate cellular defenses against infection by retroviruses include a protein named TRIM5?, belonging to the family of restriction factors. TRIM5? is present in the cytoplasm, where it can intercept incoming retroviruses shortly after their entry. How TRIM5? manages to be present at the appropriate subcytoplasmic location to interact with its target is unknown. We hypothesized that TRIM5?, either as a soluble protein or a high-molecular-weight complex (the cytoplasmic body), is transported within the cytoplasm by a molecular motor called the dynein complex, which is known to interact with and move along microtubules. Our results show that destructuring microtubules or crippling their function decreased the capacity of human or simian TRIM5? to restrict their retroviral targets. Inhibiting dynein motor activity, or reducing the expression of a key component of this complex, similarly affected TRIM5?-mediated restriction. Thus, we have identified specific cytoskeleton structures involved in innate antiretroviral defenses. PMID:24600008

Pawlica, Paulina; Le Sage, Valerie; Poccardi, Nolwenn; Tremblay, Michel J.; Mouland, Andrew J.

2014-01-01

298

Moving-bed gasification - combined-cycle control study. Volume 2. Results and conclusions, Case 2 - oxygen-blown, slagging-ash operation  

SciTech Connect

A computer simulation study has been conducted to investigate the process dynamics and control strategies required for operation of an oxygen-blown, slagging, moving-bed gasifier combined cycle (GCC) power plant in a utility power system. The gasifier modeled is of the modified Lurgi type as developed by the British Gas Corporation. This study is a continuation of a study on moving-bed GCC control analysis. Work reported on previously (EPRI report AP-1740) was for an air-blown, dry-ash Lurgi GCC power plant and results are compared to this study. The simulated GCC plant configuration is similar to that developed in earlier EPRI economic studies (EPRI report AF-642). The computer model used in the air-blown, dry-ash GCC study was re-configured to represent the oxygen-blown slagging GCC cleanup process and a new gasifier model included. Gas turbine-lead and gasifier-lead control modes were evaluated with respect to power system dynamic requirements. The effect of gasifier output fluctuations, as observed in actual gasifier process development unit operation, was modeled and investigated. In comparison to the air-blown GCC power plant, the oxygen-blown fuel process and power generation process are not as integrated, resulting in less system interaction and reduced difficulty of control. As concluded in the air-blown GCC system study, the turbine-lead control mode is the preferred control strategy because it can effectively meet power system requirements. The large storage volume of the cleanup system is used to advantage and control of the combined cycle is maintained close to that of a conventional-fueled combined cycle. The oxygen-blown system is more responsive than the air-blown system and can successfully meet power system requirements.

Priestley, R.R.

1982-10-01

299

Ubiquitination-Deubiquitination by the TRIM27-USP7 Complex Regulates Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) plays a role in apoptosis and proliferation in multiple types of cells, and defects in TNF-?-induced apoptosis are associated with various autoimmune diseases. Here, we show that TRIM27, a tripartite motif (TRIM) protein containing RING finger, B-box, and coiled-coil domains, positively regulates TNF-?-induced apoptosis. Trim27-deficient mice are resistant to TNF-?–d-galactosamine-induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Trim27-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are also resistant to TNF-?–cycloheximide-induced apoptosis. TRIM27 forms a complex with and ubiquitinates the ubiquitin-specific protease USP7, which deubiquitinates receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1), resulting in the positive regulation of TNF-?-induced apoptosis. Our findings indicate that the ubiquitination-deubiquitination cascade mediated by the TRIM27-USP7 complex plays an important role in TNF-?-induced apoptosis. PMID:24144979

Zaman, Mohammad Mahabub-Uz; Nomura, Teruaki; Takagi, Tsuyoshi; Okamura, Tomoo; Jin, Wanzhu; Shinagawa, Toshie; Tanaka, Yasunori

2013-01-01

300

Synthesis of mixed-valent [alpha]- and [beta]-NaFe[subscript 2]O[subscript 3] polymorphs under controlled partial oxygen pressure  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis of mixed valent compounds, especially when multiple polymorphs exist, requires careful control of the preparation conditions. {alpha}- and {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} polymorphs were synthesized under controlled partial oxygen pressure (pO{sub 2}). pO{sub 2} regions of stability at 850 C were determined for both phases for the first time. A modified oxygen buffer method was developed for the facile preparation of mixed valent oxides under controlled pO{sub 2}. {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is the only known n = 2 member of the AM{sub n}O{sub n+1} (A = alkali metal, M = 3d metal) rock-salt related homolog series with layered cation ordering. The possibility of new members of the homolog series with other 3d metals is considered.

Bruno, Shaun R.; Blakely, Colin K.; Poltavets, Viktor V. (MSU)

2012-09-05

301

TRIM24 promotes glioma progression and enhances chemoresistance through activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.  

PubMed

The tripartite motif protein TRIM24 (tripartite motif-containing 24) has been found to play distinct roles in tumor development and progression, according to different tumor contexts. However, it remains elusive whether TRIM24 plays a role in malignant gliomas that are the most common and deadly primary brain tumors in adults. We report here that TRIM24 expression is positively correlated with glioma malignancy and is negatively associated with prognosis of patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma, which is the most malignant form of gliomas but displays highly heterogeneous clinical outcome. The multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrates the independent predictive value of TRIM24 expression level for overall and progression-free survival. Knockdown of TRIM24 suppresses cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, clone formation and in vivo tumor development, whereas overexpression of TRIM24 promotes cell growth. Chromatin immunoprecipitation, real-time reverse transcription-PCR and mutation analyses demonstrate that TRIM24 binds to the PIK3CA promoter via its PHD-Bromo domain to activate the transcription of PIK3CA gene, thus enhancing phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling. The pan-PI3K inhibitor LY294002 and small interfering RNA targeting PIK3CA both abrogate the growth-promoting effect of TRIM24. Moreover, TRIM24 regulates the expression of DNA repair enzyme O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) through PI3K/Akt/nuclear factor-?B signaling transduction and enhances resistance to temozolomide, the standard chemotherapeutic agent for glioblastoma. Finally, glioblastoma patients with low TRIM24 expression benefit from chemotherapy, whereas those with high TRIM24 expression do not have such benefit. Our results suggest that TRIM24 might serve as a potential prognostic marker and therapeutic target for the management of malignant gliomas. PMID:24469053

Zhang, L-H; Yin, A-A; Cheng, J-X; Huang, H-Y; Li, X-M; Zhang, Y-Q; Han, N; Zhang, X

2015-01-29

302

A B-Box 2 Surface Patch Important for TRIM5? Self-Association, Capsid Binding Avidity, and Retrovirus Restriction ? †  

PubMed Central

TRIM5? is a tripartite motif (TRIM) protein that consists of RING, B-box 2, coiled-coil, and B30.2(SPRY) domains. The TRIM5?rh protein from rhesus monkeys recognizes the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) capsid as it enters the host cell and blocks virus infection prior to reverse transcription. HIV-1-restricting ability can be eliminated by disruption of the B-box 2 domain. Changes in the TRIM5?rh B-box 2 domain have been associated with alterations in TRIM5?rh turnover, the formation of cytoplasmic bodies and higher-order oligomerization. We present here the nuclear magnetic resonance structure of the TRIM5 B-box 2 domain and identify an unusual hydrophobic patch (cluster 1) on the domain surface. Alteration of cluster 1 or the flanking arginine 121 resulted in various degrees of inactivation of HIV-1 restriction, in some cases depending on compensatory changes in other nearby charged residues. For this panel of TRIM5?rh B-box 2 mutants, inhibition of HIV-1 infection was strongly correlated with higher-order self-association and binding affinity for capsid complexes but not with TRIM5?rh half-life or the formation of cytoplasmic bodies. Thus, promoting cooperative TRIM5?rh interactions with the HIV-1 capsid represents a major mechanism whereby the B-box 2 domain potentiates HIV-1 restriction. PMID:19656869

Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Qin, Xu-rong; Hayashi, Fumiaki; Kigawa, Takanori; Finzi, Andres; Sarnak, Zoe; Lienlaf, Maritza; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Sodroski, Joseph

2009-01-01

303

New controls spark boiler efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Monsanto's NutraSweet plant in University Park, IL, produces aspartame, the patented NutraSweet artificial sweetener product. Until recently, boiler control was managed by a '60s-era Fireye jackshaft system in which air and natural gas were mechanically linked with an offset to compensate for oxygen trim. The interlocking devices on the Fireye system were becoming obsolete, and the boiler needed a new front end retrofitted for low emissions. In order to improve boiler control efficiency, we decided to modernize and automate the entire boiler control system. We replaced the original jackshaft system, and installed a Gordon-Piet burner system, including gas valves, air dampers, blowers, and burner. The upgrade challenges included developing a control strategy and selecting and implementing a process control system. Since our plant has standardized on the PROVOX process management information system from Fisher Controls (now Fisher-Rosemount Systems) to support most of our process, it was a natural and logical choice for boiler controls as well. 2 figs.

Engels, T. (Monsanto, University Park, IL (United States))

1993-09-01

304

Atmospheric Oxygen  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this feature, adapted from Interactive NOVA: Earth, students explore the relationship between oxygen concentration and the well-being of various organisms by simulating a change in oxygen levels and observing what happens.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2003-09-26

305

Design, fabrication, and testing of a multichannel microfluidic device to dynamically control oxygen concentration conditions in-vitro  

E-print Network

Multilayer microfluidic devices were designed and fabricated such that an array of different oxygen concentrations could be applied to a testing area in any desired sequence and with unconstraint application times. The ...

Rodriguez, Rosa H

2008-01-01

306

Trimming and washing poultry carcass to reduce microbial contamination: A comparative study.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of washing and trimming broiler carcasses to reduce bacterial contamination. At the postevisceration site, 100 broiler carcasses were collected during 4 visits to a slaughterhouse in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Birds were from the same flock, age, and approximately 2.4 kg of weight. Groups were as follows: group 1, with fecal contamination; group 2, without fecal contamination; group 3, with fecal contamination and trimmed; group 4, with fecal contamination and washed; group 5, with fecal contamination, and washed and trimmed. Carcass washings were performed with at least 1.5 L/bird of potable water (0.5 to 1 mg/kg of residual chlorine) at room temperature (20-25°C) using spray cabinets with 44 spray nozzles distributed into 2 chambers (pressure of 2 kgf/cm(2) and 4 kgf/cm(2)). Washed carcasses (trimmed or not) showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower counts of aerobic mesophiles (plate count agar) on the third evaluation, and even lower (P < 0.01) counts for total coliforms (CT) and fecal coliforms (Escherichia coli). Trimmed carcasses showed significantly lower counts (P < 0.05) for plate count agar; however, we observed higher counts for E. coli (P < 0.05). The association of both treatments (washing and trimming) showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) counts for coliforms (CT and E. coli). We can conclude that the washing method is overall more efficient than the trimming method to decontaminate chicken carcasses at the postevisceration site. Hopefully, our findings can help poultry companies to minimize production costs by applying the washing method for carcass decontamination. PMID:25306453

Stefani, Lenita Moura; Backes, Rodrigo Guilherme; Faria, Glaucia Amorim; Biffi, Claudia Pies; de Almeida, Juliana Maria; da Silva, Helen Krystine; das Neves, Gabriella Bassi; Langaro, Anaiara

2014-12-01

307

Distinct Roles of Reactive Nitrogen and Oxygen Species To Control Infection with the Facultative Intracellular Bacterium Francisella tularensis  

PubMed Central

Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important mediators of the bactericidal host response. We investigated the contribution of these two mediators to the control of infection with the facultative intracellular bacterium Francisella tularensis. When intradermally infected with the live vaccine strain F. tularensis LVS, mice deficient in production of RNS (iNOS?/? mice) or in production of ROS by the phagocyte oxidase (p47phox?/? mice) showed compromised resistance to infection. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) for iNOS?/? mice was <20 CFU, and the LD50 for p47phox?/? mice was 4,400 CFU, compared to an LD50 of >500,000 CFU for wild-type mice. The iNOS?/? mice survived for 26.4 ± 1.8 days, and the p47phox?/? mice survived for 10.1 ± 1.3 days. During the course of infection, the serum levels of gamma interferon (IFN-?) and interleukin-6 were higher in iNOS?/? and p47phox?/? mice than in wild-type mice. Histological examination of livers of iNOS?/? mice revealed severe liver pathology. Splenocytes obtained 5 weeks after primary infection from antibiotic-treated iNOS?/? mice showed an in vitro recall response that was similar in magnitude and greater secretion of IFN-? compared to cells obtained from wild-type mice. In summary, mice lacking expression of RNS or ROS showed extreme susceptibility to infection with F. tularensis LVS. The roles of RNS and ROS seemed to be distinct since mice deficient in production of ROS showed dissemination of infection and died during the early phase of infection, whereas RNS deficiency led to severe liver pathology and a contracted course of infection. PMID:15557642

Lindgren, Helena; Stenmark, Stephan; Chen, Wangxue; Tärnvik, Arne; Sjöstedt, Anders

2004-01-01

308

Controlled Evaluation of the Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy on the Behavior of 16 Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been used to treat individuals with autism. However, few studies of its effectiveness\\u000a have been completed. The current study examined the effects of 40 HBOT sessions at 24% oxygen at 1.3 ATA on 11 topographies\\u000a of directly observed behavior. Five replications of multiple baselines were completed across a total of 16 participants with\\u000a autism spectrum

Bryan Jepson; Doreen Granpeesheh; Jonathan Tarbox; Melissa L. Olive; Carol Stott; Scott Braud; J. Helen Yoo; Andrew Wakefield; Michael S. Allen

2011-01-01

309

Mechanical Analysis of the Effects of Cephalic Trim on Lower Lateral Cartilage Stability  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine how mechanical stability changes in the lower lateral cartilage (LLC) after varying degrees of cephalic resection in a porcine cartilage nasal tip model. Methods Alar cartilage was harvested from fresh porcine crania (n=14) and sectioned to precisely emulate a human LLC in size and dimension. Flexural mechanical analysis was performed both before and after cephalic trims of 0 (control), 4, and 6 mm. Cantilever deformation tests were performed on the LLC models at 3 locations (4, 6, and 8 mm from the midline), and the integrated reaction force was measured. An equivalent elastic modulus of the crura was calculated assuming that the geometry of the LLC model approximated a modified single cantilever beam. A 3-dimensional finite element model was used to model the stress distribution of the prescribed loading conditions for each of the 3 types of LLC widths. Results A statistically significant decrease (P=.02) in the equivalent elastic modulus of the LLC model was noted at the most lateral point at 8 mm and only when 4 mm of the strut remained (P=05). The finite element model revealed that the greatest internal stresses was at the tip of the nose when tissue was flexed 8 mm from the midline. Conclusion Our results provide the mechanical basis for suggested clinical guidelines stating that a residual strut of less than 6 mm can lead to suboptimal cosmetic results owing to poor structural support of the overlying skin soft-tissue envelope by an overly resected LLC. PMID:22250265

Oliaei, Sepehr; Manuel, Cyrus; Protsenko, Dmitriy; Hamamoto, Ashley; Chark, Davin; Wong, Brian

2014-01-01

310

Experimental and Computational Analysis of Shuttle Orbiter Hypersonic Trim Anomaly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the high-Mach-number, high-altitude portion of the first entry of the Shuttle Orbiter, the vehicle exhibited a nose-up pitching moment relative to preflight prediction of approximately Delta Cm = 0.03. This trim anomaly has been postulated to be due to compressibility, viscous, and/or real-gas (lowered specific heat ratio gamma) effects on basic body pitching moment, body-flap effectiveness, or both. In order to assess the relative contribution of each of these effects, an experimental study was undertaken to examine the effects of Mach number, Reynolds number, and ratio of specific heats. Complementary computational solutions were obtained for wind-tunnel and flight conditions. The primary cause of the anomaly was determined to be lower pressures on the aft windward surface of the Orbiter than deduced from hypersonic wind-tunnel tests with ideal- or near-ideal-gas test flow. The lower pressure levels are a result of the lowering of the flowfield gamma due to high-temperature effects. This phenomenon was accurately simulated in a hypersonic wind tunnel using a heavy gas, which provided a lower, gamma, and was correctly predicted by Navier-Stokes computations using nonequilibrium chemistry.

Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Paulson, John W., Jr.; Weilmuenster, K. James

1995-01-01

311

Electrolyte cells measure oxygen fugacities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System that uses calcia-stabilized zirconia-ceramic electrolyte in oxygen concentration cell can directly measure oxygen fugacity in vertical-quench furnace, redox-control system. System can independently vary temperature and oxygen fugacity during experiments, and can record these parameters as function of time.

Williams, R. J.; Mullins, O.

1977-01-01

312

TRIM11 is overexpressed in high-grade gliomas and promotes proliferation, invasion, migration and glial tumor growth.  

PubMed

TRIM11 (tripartite motif-containing protein 11), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is known to be involved in the development of the central nervous system. However, very little is known regarding the role of TRIM11 in cancer biology. Here, we examined the expression profile of TRIM11, along with two stem cell markers CD133 and nestin, in multiple glioma patient specimens, glioma primary cultures derived from tumors taken at surgery and normal neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs). The oncogenic function of TRIM11 in glioma biology was investigated by knockdown and/or overexpression in vitro and in vivo experiments. Our results showed that TRIM11 expression levels were upregulated in malignant glioma specimens and in high-grade glioma-derived primary cultures, whereas remaining low in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) stable cell lines, low-grade glioma-derived primary cultures and NSCs. The expression pattern of TRIM11 strongly correlated with that of CD133 and nestin and differentiation status of malignant glioma cells. Knock down of TRIM11 inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of GBM cells, significantly decreased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) levels and mitogen-activated protein kinase activity, and downregulated HB-EGF (heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor) mRNA levels. Meanwhile, TRIM11 overexpression promoted a stem-like phenotype in vitro (tumorsphere formation) and enhanced glial tumor growth in immunocompromised mice. These findings suggest that TRIM11 might be an indicator of glioma malignancy and has an oncogenic function mediated through the EGFR signaling pathway. TRIM11 overexpression potentially leads to a more aggressive glioma phenotype, along with increased malignant tumor growth and poor survival. Taken together, clarification of the biological function of TRIM11 and pathways it affects may provide novel therapeutic strategies for treating malignant glioma patients. PMID:23178488

Di, K; Linskey, M E; Bota, D A

2013-10-17

313

Reactive nitrogen and oxygen species, and iron sequestration contribute to macrophage-mediated control of Encephalitozoon cuniculi (Phylum Microsporidia) infection in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Encephalitozoon cuniculi (Phylum Microsporidia) infects a wide range of mammals, and replicates within resting macrophages. Activated macrophages, conversely, inhibit replication and destroy intracellular organisms. These studies were performed to assess mechanisms of innate immune responses expressed by macrophages to control E. cuniculi infection. Addition of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species inhibitors to activated murine peritoneal macrophages statistically significantly, rescued E. cuniculi infection ex vivo. Mice deficient in reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, or both survived ip inoculation of E. cuniculi, but carried significantly higher peritoneal parasite burdens than wild-type mice at 1 and 2 weeks post inoculation. Infected peritoneal macrophages could still be identified 4 weeks post inoculation in mice deficient in reactive nitrogen species. L-tryptophan supplementation of activated murine peritoneal macrophage cultures ex vivo failed to rescue microsporidia infection. Addition of ferric citrate to supplement iron, however, did significantly rescue E. cuniculi infection in activated macrophages and further increased parasite replication in non-activated macrophages over non-treated resting control macrophages. These results demonstrate the contribution of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, as well as iron sequestration, to innate immune responses expressed by macrophages to control E. cuniculi infection. PMID:20888426

Didier, Elizabeth S; Bowers, Lisa C; Martin, Aaron D; Kuroda, Marcelo J; Khan, Imtiaz A; Didier, Peter J

2010-12-01

314

Reactive nitrogen and oxygen species, and iron sequestration contribute to macrophage-mediated control of Encephalitozoon cuniculi (Phylum Microsporidia) infection in vitro and in vivo  

PubMed Central

Encephalitozoon cuniculi (Phylum Microsporidia) infects a wide range of mammals, and replicates within resting macrophages. Activated macrophages, conversely, inhibit replication and destroy intracellular organisms. These studies were performed to assess mechanisms of innate immune responses expressed by macrophages to control E. cuniculi infection. Addition of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species inhibitors to activated murine peritoneal macrophages statistically significantly, rescued E. cuniculi infection ex vivo. Mice deficient in reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, or both survived ip inoculation of E. cuniculi, but carried significantly higher peritoneal parasite burdens than wild-type mice at 1 and 2 weeks post inoculation. Infected peritoneal macrophages could still be identified 4 weeks post inoculation in mice deficient in reactive nitrogen species. L-tryptophan supplementation of activated murine peritoneal macrophage cultures ex vivo failed to rescue microsporidia infection. Addition of ferric citrate to supplement iron, however, did significantly rescue E. cuniculi infection in activated macrophages and further increased parasite replication in non-activated macrophages over non-treated resting control macrophages. These results demonstrate the contribution of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, as well as iron sequestration, to innate immune responses expressed by macrophages to control E. cuniculi infection. PMID:20888426

Didier, Elizabeth S.; Bowers, Lisa C.; Martin, Aaron D.; Kuroda, Marcelo J.; Khan, Imtiaz A.; Didier, Peter J.

2010-01-01

315

TRIM24 Links a Non-canonical Histone Signature to Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Recognition of modified histone species by distinct structural domains within 'reader' proteins plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression. Readers that simultaneously recognize histones with multiple marks allow transduction of complex chromatin modification patterns into specific biological outcomes. Here we report that chromatin regulator tripartite motif-containing 24 (TRIM24) functions in humans as a reader of dual histone marks by means of tandem plant homeodomain (PHD) and bromodomain (Bromo) regions. The three-dimensional structure of the PHD-Bromo region of TRIM24 revealed a single functional unit for combinatorial recognition of unmodified H3K4 (that is, histone H3 unmodified at lysine 4, H3K4me0) and acetylated H3K23 (histone H3 acetylated at lysine 23, H3K23ac) within the same histone tail. TRIM24 binds chromatin and oestrogen receptor to activate oestrogen-dependent genes associated with cellular proliferation and tumour development. Aberrant expression of TRIM24 negatively correlates with survival of breast cancer patients. The PHD-Bromo of TRIM24 provides a structural rationale for chromatin activation through a non-canonical histone signature, establishing a new route by which chromatin readers may influence cancer pathogenesis.

W Tsai; Z Wang; T Yiu; K Akdemir; W Xia; S Winter; C Tsai; X Shi; D Schwarzer; et al.

2011-12-31

316

Stability scheme of ZnO-thin film resistive switching memory: influence of defects by controllable oxygen pressure ratio  

PubMed Central

We report a stability scheme of resistive switching devices based on ZnO films deposited by radio frequency (RF) sputtering process at different oxygen pressure ratios. I-V measurements and statistical results indicate that the operating stability of ZnO resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices is highly dependent on oxygen conditions. Data indicates that the ZnO film ReRAM device fabricated at 10% O2 pressure ratio exhibits the best performance. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) of ZnO at different O2 pressure ratios were investigated to reflect influence of structure to the stable switching behaviors. In addition, PL and XPS results were measured to investigate the different charge states triggered in ZnO by oxygen vacancies, which affect the stability of the switching behavior. PMID:24237683

2013-01-01

317

Retrovirus restriction by TRIM5 proteins requires recognition of only a small fraction of viral capsid subunits.  

PubMed

The host restriction factors TRIM5? and TRIMCyp potently inhibit retrovirus infection by binding to the incoming retrovirus capsid. TRIM5 proteins are dimeric, and their association with the viral capsid appears to be enhanced by avidity effects owing to formation of higher-order oligomeric complexes. We examined the stoichiometric requirement for TRIM5 functional recognition by quantifying the efficiencies of restriction of HIV-1 and murine leukemia virus (MLV) particles containing various proportions of restriction-sensitive and -insensitive CA subunits. Both TRIMCyp and TRIM5? inhibited infection of retrovirus particles containing as little as 25% of the restriction-sensitive CA protein. Accordingly, we also observed efficient binding of TRIMCyp in vitro to capsid assemblies containing as little as one-fourth wild-type CA protein. Paradoxically, the ability of HIV-1 particles to abrogate TRIMCyp restriction in trans was more strongly dependent on the fraction of wild-type CA than was restriction of infection. Collectively, our results indicate that TRIM5 restriction factors bind to retroviral capsids in a highly cooperative manner and suggest that TRIM5 can engage a capsid lattice containing a minimum of three or fewer recognizable subunits per hexamer. Our study supports a model in which localized binding of TRIM5 to the viral capsid nucleates rapid polymerization of a TRIM5 lattice on the capsid surface. PMID:23785198

Shi, Jiong; Friedman, David B; Aiken, Christopher

2013-08-01

318

Recruitment and dynamics of proteasome association with rhTRIM5? cytoplasmic complexes during HIV-1 infection.  

PubMed

A variety of proteins have been identified that restrict infection by different viruses. One such restriction factor is the rhesus macaque variant of TRIM5? (rhTRIM5?), which potently blocks infection by HIV-1. The block to infection mediated by rhTRIM5? occurs early after entry into the host cell, generally prior to reverse transcription. However, proteasome inhibitors reveal an intermediate step of restriction in which virus can complete reverse transcription, but still fails to infect the cell. While proteasome inhibitors have been a useful tool in understanding how restriction takes place, the role of the proteasome itself during restriction has not yet been examined. Here, we characterize the interaction of rhTRIM5? and incoming virions with the proteasome. We show that proteasomes localize to rhTRIM5? cytoplasmic bodies, and this localization is more evident when the activity of the proteasome is inhibited pharmacologically. We also show that restricted virus associates with complexes of proteasomes and rhTRIM5?, suggesting that rhTRIM5? utilizes the proteasome during restriction. Finally, live cell imaging experiments reveal that virus associates with proteasomes, and proteasome inhibition affects the duration of association. Taken together, these studies implicate the proteasome as playing a functional role during rhTRIM5? restriction of incoming virions. PMID:22624877

Danielson, Cindy M; Cianci, Gianguido C; Hope, Thomas J

2012-09-01

319

Apparent effect of rabbit endogenous lentivirus type K acquisition on retrovirus restriction by lagomorph Trim5?s  

PubMed Central

To test the hypothesis that rabbit endogenous lentivirus type K (RELIK) could play a role in shaping the evolution of TRIM5?, the susceptibility of viruses containing the RELIK capsid (CA) to TRIM5 restriction was evaluated. RELIK CA-containing viruses were susceptible to the TRIM5?s from Old World monkeys but were unaffected by most ape or New World monkey factors. TRIM5?s from various lagomorph species were also isolated and tested for anti-retroviral activity. The TRIM5?s from both cottontail rabbit and pika restrict a range of retroviruses, including HIV-1, HIV-2, FIV, EIAV and N-MLV. TRIM5?s from the European and cottontail rabbit, which have previously been found to contain RELIK, also restricted RELIK CA-containing viruses, whereas a weaker restriction was observed with chimeric TRIM5? containing the B30.2 domain from the pika, which lacks RELIK. Taken together, these results could suggest that the pika had not been exposed to exogenous RELIK and that endogenized RELIK might exert a selective pressure on lagomorph TRIM5?. PMID:23938750

Yap, Melvyn W.; Stoye, Jonathan P.

2013-01-01

320

The human and African green monkey TRIM5? genes encode Ref1 and Lv1 retroviral restriction factor activities  

PubMed Central

The rhesus macaque tripartite motif containing protein TRIM5? specifically restricts HIV-1 infection at an early post-entry step before reverse transcription [Stremlau, M., Owens, C. M., Perron, M. J., Kiessling, M., Autissier, P. & Sodroski, J. (2004) Nature 427, 848–853]. Here, we show that the human and African green monkey (AGM) TRIM5? genes encode Ref1 and Lv1 antiretroviral activities, respectively. Expression of TRIM5? in permissive cat cells renders them resistant to restriction-sensitive murine leukemia virus but not closely related insensitive virus. Disruption of TRIM5? expression in human and AGM cells with small interfering RNA rescues infectivity of restricted virus without affecting unrestricted virus. We also demonstrate that the activity of the murine restriction factor Fv1 depends on TRIM5? expression when Fv1 is expressed in human cells. Furthermore, a drug that modifies the behavior of the related promyelocytic leukemia protein PML specifically rescues infection by viruses restricted by human TRIM5?. Alignment of the TRIM5? proteins from rhesus macaque and AGM indicates an 18-aa insertion. We speculate that this insertion may contribute to the broader specificity of the AGM TRIM5? restriction as compared with the human and rhesus macaque proteins. PMID:15249687

Keckesova, Zuzana; Ylinen, Laura M. J.; Towers, Greg J.

2004-01-01

321

The human and African green monkey TRIM5alpha genes encode Ref1 and Lv1 retroviral restriction factor activities.  

PubMed

The rhesus macaque tripartite motif containing protein TRIM5alpha specifically restricts HIV-1 infection at an early post-entry step before reverse transcription [Stremlau, M., Owens, C. M., Perron, M. J., Kiessling, M., Autissier, P. & Sodroski, J. (2004) Nature 427, 848-853]. Here, we show that the human and African green monkey (AGM) TRIM5alpha genes encode Ref1 and Lv1 antiretroviral activities, respectively. Expression of TRIM5alpha in permissive cat cells renders them resistant to restriction-sensitive murine leukemia virus but not closely related insensitive virus. Disruption of TRIM5alpha expression in human and AGM cells with small interfering RNA rescues infectivity of restricted virus without affecting unrestricted virus. We also demonstrate that the activity of the murine restriction factor Fv1 depends on TRIM5alpha expression when Fv1 is expressed in human cells. Furthermore, a drug that modifies the behavior of the related promyelocytic leukemia protein PML specifically rescues infection by viruses restricted by human TRIM5alpha. Alignment of the TRIM5alpha proteins from rhesus macaque and AGM indicates an 18-aa insertion. We speculate that this insertion may contribute to the broader specificity of the AGM TRIM5alpha restriction as compared with the human and rhesus macaque proteins. PMID:15249687

Keckesova, Zuzana; Ylinen, Laura M J; Towers, Greg J

2004-07-20

322

TRIM28 Represses Transcription of Endogenous Retroviruses in Neural Progenitor Cells.  

PubMed

TRIM28 is a corepressor that mediates transcriptional silencing by establishing local heterochromatin. Here, we show that deletion of TRIM28 in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) results in high-level expression of two groups of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs): IAP1 and MMERVK10C. We find that NPCs use TRIM28-mediated histone modifications to dynamically regulate transcription and silencing of ERVs, which is in contrast to other somatic cell types using DNA methylation. We also show that derepression of ERVs influences transcriptional dynamics in NPCs through the activation of nearby genes and the expression of long noncoding RNAs. These findings demonstrate a unique dynamic transcriptional regulation of ERVs in NPCs. Our results warrant future studies on the role of ERVs in the healthy and diseased brain. PMID:25543143

Fasching, Liana; Kapopoulou, Adamandia; Sachdeva, Rohit; Petri, Rebecca; Jönsson, Marie E; Männe, Christian; Turelli, Priscilla; Jern, Patric; Cammas, Florence; Trono, Didier; Jakobsson, Johan

2015-01-01

323

An Extensive Evaluation of Read Trimming Effects on Illumina NGS Data Analysis  

PubMed Central

Next Generation Sequencing is having an extremely strong impact in biological and medical research and diagnostics, with applications ranging from gene expression quantification to genotyping and genome reconstruction. Sequencing data is often provided as raw reads which are processed prior to analysis 1 of the most used preprocessing procedures is read trimming, which aims at removing low quality portions while preserving the longest high quality part of a NGS read. In the current work, we evaluate nine different trimming algorithms in four datasets and three common NGS-based applications (RNA-Seq, SNP calling and genome assembly). Trimming is shown to increase the quality and reliability of the analysis, with concurrent gains in terms of execution time and computational resources needed. PMID:24376861

Morgante, Michele; Giorgi, Federico M.

2013-01-01

324

A study of tyre cavity resonance and noise reduction using inner trim  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of tyre inner trim as a method for reducing tyre cavity resonance noise is presented. The tyre is modelled as a rectangular toroid where only the outside shell is flexible. A modal series solution of the sound pressure frequency response inside the tyre cavity is derived from the wave equation using modal superposition. In the solution with the rigid and flexible wall boundary condition, the effect of placing a trim layer onto the inner surface of the tyre tread plate wall is reflected by adding a damping loss term in the sound pressure frequency response function. The numerical simulation result was then compared with the result obtained from a roving impact test performed on a tyre. The results show that selective trim material may be effective for reducing the structure-borne noise magnitude resulting from the tyre cavity resonance.

Mohamed, Zamri; Wang, Xu

2015-01-01

325

Restriction of HIV-1 by Rhesus TRIM5? Is Governed by Alpha Helices in the Linker2 Region  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT TRIM5? proteins are a potent barrier to the cross-species transmission of retroviruses. TRIM5? proteins exhibit an ability to self-associate at many levels, ultimately leading to the formation of protein assemblies with hexagonal symmetry in vitro and cytoplasmic assemblies when expressed in cells. However, the role of these assemblies in restriction, the determinants that mediate their formation, and the organization of TRIM5? molecules within these assemblies have remained unclear. Here we show that ?-helical elements within the Linker2 region of rhesus macaque TRIM5? govern the ability to form cytoplasmic assemblies in cells and restrict HIV-1 infection. Mutations that reduce ?-helix formation by the Linker2 region disrupt assembly and restriction. More importantly, mutations that enhance the ?-helical content of the Linker2 region, relative to the wild-type protein, also exhibit an increased ability to form cytoplasmic assemblies and restrict HIV-1 infection. Molecular modeling of the TRIM5? dimer suggests a model in which ?-helical elements within the Linker2 region dock to ?-helices of the coiled-coil domain, likely establishing proper orientation and spacing of protein domains necessary for assembly and restriction. Collectively, these studies provide critical insight into the determinants governing TRIM5? assembly and restriction and demonstrate that the antiviral potency of TRIM5? proteins can be significantly increased without altering the affinity of SPRY/capsid binding. IMPORTANCE Many members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family of proteins act as restriction factors that directly inhibit viral infection and activate innate immune signaling pathways. Another common feature of TRIM proteins is the ability to form protein assemblies in the nucleus or the cytoplasm. However, the determinants in TRIM proteins required for assembly and the degree to which assembly affects TRIM protein function have been poorly understood. Here we show that alpha helices in the Linker2 (L2) region of rhesus TRIM5? govern assembly and restriction of HIV-1 infection. Helix-disrupting mutations disrupt the assembly and restriction of HIV-1, while helix-stabilizing mutations enhance assembly and restriction relative to the wild-type protein. Circular dichroism analysis suggests that that the formation of this helical structure is supported by intermolecular interactions with the coiled-coil (CC) domain in the CCL2 dimer. These studies reveal a novel mechanism by which the antiviral activity of TRIM5? proteins can be regulated and provide detailed insight into the assembly determinants of TRIM family proteins. PMID:24872590

Sastri, Jaya; Johnsen, Laura; Smolin, Nikolai; Imam, Sabrina; Mukherjee, Santanu; Lukic, Zana; Brandariz-Nuñez, Alberto; Robia, Seth L.; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Wiethoff, Christopher

2014-01-01

326

Randomized, Sham-Controlled, Feasibility Trial of Hyperbaric Oxygen for Service Members With Postconcussion Syndrome: Cognitive and Psychomotor Outcomes 1 Week Postintervention.  

PubMed

Background. Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and residual postconcussion syndrome (PCS) are common among combatants of the recent military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) is a proposed treatment but has not been rigorously studied for this condition. Objectives. In a secondary analysis, examine for possible effects on psychomotor (balance and fine motor) and cognitive performance 1 week after an HBO2 intervention in service members with PCS after mTBI. Methods. A randomized, double-blind, sham control, feasibility trial comparing pretreatment and posttreatment was conducted in 60 male active-duty marines with combat-related mTBI and PCS persisting for 3 to 36 months. Participants were randomized to 1 of 3 preassigned oxygen fractions (10.5%, 75%, or 100%) at 2.0 atmospheres absolute (ATA), resulting in respective groups with an oxygen exposure equivalent to (1) breathing surface air (Sham Air), (2) 100% oxygen at 1.5 ATA (1.5 ATAO2), and (3) 100% oxygen at 2.0 ATA (2.0 ATAO2). Over a 10-week period, participants received 40 hyperbaric chamber sessions of 60 minutes each. Outcome measures, including computerized posturography (balance), grooved pegboard (fine motor speed/dexterity), and multiple neuropsychological tests of cognitive performance, were collected preintervention and 1-week postintervention. Results. Despite the multiple sensitive cognitive and psychomotor measures analyzed at an unadjusted 5% significance level, this study demonstrated no immediate postintervention beneficial effect of exposure to either 1.5 ATAO2 or 2.0 ATAO2 compared with the Sham Air intervention. Conclusions. These results do not support the use of HBO2 to treat cognitive, balance, or fine motor deficits associated with mTBI and PCS. PMID:24370568

Walker, William C; Franke, Laura Manning; Cifu, David X; Hart, Brett B

2013-12-26

327

How the structure of the large subunit controls function in an oxygen-tolerant [NiFe]-hydrogenase  

PubMed Central

Salmonella enterica is an opportunistic pathogen that produces a [NiFe]-hydrogenase under aerobic conditions. In the present study, genetic engineering approaches were used to facilitate isolation of this enzyme, termed Hyd-5. The crystal structure was determined to a resolution of 3.2 Å and the hydro-genase was observed to comprise associated large and small subunits. The structure indicated that His229 from the large subunit was close to the proximal [4Fe–3S] cluster in the small subunit. In addition, His229 was observed to lie close to a buried glutamic acid (Glu73), which is conserved in oxygen-tolerant hydrogenases. His229 and Glu73 of the Hyd-5 large subunit were found to be important in both hydrogen oxidation activity and the oxygen-tolerance mechanism. Substitution of His229 or Glu73 with alanine led to a loss in the ability of Hyd-5 to oxidize hydrogen in air. Furthermore, the H229A variant was found to have lost the overpotential requirement for activity that is always observed with oxygen-tolerant [NiFe]-hydrogenases. It is possible that His229 has a role in stabilizing the super-oxidized form of the proximal cluster in the presence of oxygen, and it is proposed that Glu73could play a supporting role in fine-tuning the chemistry of His229 to enable this function. PMID:24428762

Bowman, Lisa; Flanagan, Lindsey; Fyfe, Paul K.; Parkin, Alison; Hunter, William N.; Sargent, Frank

2014-01-01

328

Control of misses in oxygen evolution by the oxido-reduction state of plastoquinone in Dunaliella tertiolecta  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way misses happen in oxygen evolution is subject to debate (Govindjee et al. 1985). We recently observed a linear lowering of the miss probability with the flash number (Meunier and Popovic 1989). Therefore, we investigated in Dunaliella tertiolecta the link between the average miss probability and the redox state of plastoquinone after n flashes. The effect of flashes was

Pascal Charles Meunier; Radovan Popovic

1990-01-01

329

Aeration recirculation in air and high purity oxygen systems for control of VOC emissions from wastewater aeration basins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A steady state circulating aeration system (CAS) model has been used to study the effects of volatility and degradability on the fate of VOCs in both air and high purity oxygen (HPO) systems. With an increase of the circulating ratio in an air CAS, air emissions by stripping can be significantly reduced for compounds of low degradability and high volatility.

H. Zhu; T. C. Keener; P. L. Bishop; T. L. Orton; M. Wang; K. F. Siddiqui

2009-01-01

330

Proximal ligand control of heme iron coordination structure and reactivity with hydrogen peroxide: investigations of the myoglobin cavity mutant H93G with unnatural oxygen donor proximal ligands.  

PubMed

The role of the proximal heme iron ligand in activation of hydrogen peroxide and control of spin state and coordination number in heme proteins is not yet well understood. Although there are several examples of amino acid sidechains with oxygen atoms which can act as potential heme iron ligands, the occurrence of protein-derived oxygen donor ligation in natural protein systems is quite rare. The sperm whale myoglobin cavity mutant H93G Mb (D. Barrick, Biochemistry 33 (1994) 6546) has its proximal histidine ligand replaced by glycine, a mutation which leaves an open cavity capable of accommodation of a variety of unnatural potential proximal ligands. This provides a convenient system for studying ligand-protein interactions. Molecular modeling of the proximal cavity in the active site of H93G Mb indicates that the cavity is of sufficient size to accommodate benzoate and phenolate in conformations that allow their oxygen atoms to come within binding distance of the heme iron. In addition, benzoate may occupy the cavity in an orientation which allows one carboxylate oxygen atom to ligate to the heme iron while the other carboxylate oxygen is within hydrogen bonding distance of serine 92. The ferric phenolate and benzoate complexes have been prepared and characterized by UV-visible and MCD spectroscopies. The benzoate adduct shows characteristics of a six-coordinate high-spin complex. To our knowledge, this is the first known example of a six-coordinate high-spin heme complex with an anionic oxygen donor proximal ligand. The benzoate ligand is displaced at alkaline pH and upon reaction with hydrogen peroxide. The phenolate adduct of H93G Mb is a five-coordinate high-spin complex whose UV-visible and MCD spectra are distinct from those of the histidine 93 to tyrosine (H93Y Mb) mutant of sperm whale myoglobin. The phenolate adduct is stable at alkaline pH and exhibits a reduced reactivity with hydrogen peroxide relative to that of both native ferric myoglobin, and the exogenous ligand-free derivative of ferric H93G Mb. These observations indicate that the identity of the proximal oxygen donor ligand has an important influence on both the heme iron coordination number and the reactivity of the complex with hydrogen peroxide. PMID:11051562

Roach, M P; Puspita, W J; Watanabe, Y

2000-08-31

331

The Ubiquitin-Specific Protease USP15 Promotes RIG-I–Mediated Antiviral Signaling by Deubiquitylating TRIM25  

PubMed Central

Ubiquitylation is an important mechanism for regulating innate immune responses to viral infections. Attachment of lysine 63 (Lys63)–linked ubiquitin chains to the RNA sensor retinoic acid–inducible gene-I (RIG-I) by the ubiquitin E3 ligase tripartite motif protein 25 (TRIM25) leads to the activation of RIG-I and stimulates production of the antiviral cytokines interferon-? (IFN-?) and IFN-?. Conversely, Lys48-linked ubiquitylation of TRIM25 by the linear ubiquitin assembly complex (LUBAC) stimulates the proteasomal degradation of TRIM25, thereby inhibiting the RIG-I signaling pathway. Here, we report that ubiquitin-specific protease 15 (USP15) deubiquitylates TRIM25, preventing the LUBAC-dependent degradation of TRIM25. Through protein purification and mass spectrometry analysis, we identified USP15 as an interaction partner of TRIM25 in human cells. Knockdown of endogenous USP15 by specific small interfering RNA markedly enhanced the ubiquitylation of TRIM25. In contrast, expression of wild-type USP15, but not its catalytically inactive mutant, reduced the Lys48-linked ubiquitylation of TRIM25, leading to its stabilization. Furthermore, ectopic expression of USP15 enhanced the TRIM25- and RIG-I–dependent production of type I IFN and suppressed RNA virus replication. In contrast, depletion of USP15 resulted in decreased IFN production and markedly enhanced viral replication. Together, these data identify USP15 as a critical regulator of the TRIM25- and RIG-I–mediated antiviral immune response, thereby highlighting the intricate regulation of innate immune signaling. PMID:24399297

Pauli, Eva-Katharina; Chan, Ying Kai; Davis, Meredith E.; Gableske, Sebastian; Wang, May K.; Feister, Katharina F.; Gack, Michaela U.

2014-01-01

332

Laser Trimming of CuAlMo Thin-Film Resistors: Effect of Laser Processing Parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports the effect of varying laser trimming process parameters on the electrical performance of a novel CuAlMo thin-film resistor material. The films were prepared on Al2O3 substrates by direct-current (DC) magnetron sputtering, before being laser trimmed to target resistance value. The effect of varying key laser parameters of power, Q-rate, and bite size on the resistor stability and tolerance accuracy were systematically investigated. By reducing laser power and bite size and balancing this with Q-rate setting, significant improvements in resistor stability and resistor tolerance accuracies of less than ±0.5% were achieved.

Birkett, Martin; Penlington, Roger

2012-08-01

333

Study of Sylvilagus rabbit TRIM5? species-specific domain: how ancient endoviruses could have shaped the antiviral repertoire in Lagomorpha  

PubMed Central

Background Since the first report of the antiretroviral restriction factor TRIM5? in primates, several orthologs in other mammals have been described. Recent studies suggest that leporid retroviruses like RELIK, the first reported endogenous lentivirus ever, may have imposed positive selection in TRIM5? orthologs of the European rabbit and European brown hare. Considering that RELIK must already have been present in a common ancestor of the leporid genera Lepus, Sylvilagus and Oryctolagus, we extended the study of evolutionary patterns of TRIM5? to other members of the Leporidae family, particularly to the genus Sylvilagus. Therefore, we obtained the TRIM5? nucleotide sequences of additional subspecies and species of the three leporid genera. We also compared lagomorph TRIM5? deduced protein sequences and established TRIM5? gene and TRIM5? protein phylogenies. Results The deduced protein sequence of Iberian hare TRIM5? was 89% identical to European rabbit TRIM5?, although high divergence was observed at the PRYSPRY v1 region between rabbit and the identified alleles from this hare species (allele 1: 50% divergence; allele 2: 53% divergence). A high identity was expected between the Sylvilagus and Oryctolagus TRIM5? proteins and, in fact, the Sylvilagus TRIM5? was 91% identical to the Oryctolagus protein. Nevertheless, the PRYSPRY v1 region was only 50% similar between these genera. Selection analysis of Lagomorpha TRIM5? proteins identified 25 positively-selected codons, 11 of which are located in the PRYSPRY v1 region, responsible for species specific differences in viral capsid recognition. Conclusions By extending Lagomorpha TRIM5? studies to an additional genus known to bear RELIK, we verified that the divergent species-specific pattern observed between the Oryctolagus and Lepus PRYSPRY-domains is also present in Sylvilagus TRIM5?. This work is one of the first known studies that compare the evolution of the antiretroviral restriction factor TRIM5? in different mammalian groups, Lagomorpha and Primates. PMID:21982459

2011-01-01

334

Synthesis of mixed-valent {alpha}- and {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} polymorphs under controlled partial oxygen pressure  

SciTech Connect

Synthesis of mixed valent compounds, especially when multiple polymorphs exist, requires careful control of the preparation conditions. {alpha}- and {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} polymorphs were synthesized under controlled partial oxygen pressure (pO{sub 2}). pO{sub 2} regions of stability at 850 Degree-Sign C were determined for both phases for the first time. A modified oxygen buffer method was developed for the facile preparation of mixed valent oxides under controlled pO{sub 2}. {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is the only known n=2 member of the AM{sub n}O{sub n+1} (A=alkali metal, M=3d metal) rock-salt related homolog series with layered cation ordering. The possibility of new members of the homolog series with other 3d metals is considered. - Graphical abstract: Schematic section of phase composition vs. partial O{sub 2} pressure diagram at 850 Degree-Sign C for Na/Fe=1/2 and structure models of {alpha}- and {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {alpha}- and {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} polymorphs were synthesized under controlled oxygen pressure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {beta}-NaFe{sub 2}O{sub 3} has rock-salt related structure with layered cation ordering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Existence of the rock-salt related homolog series AM{sub n}O{sub n+1} is discussed.

Bruno, Shaun R.; Blakely, Colin K. [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Poltavets, Viktor V., E-mail: poltavets@chemistry.msu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

2012-08-15

335

Appreciating Oxygen  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Photosynthetic flora and microfauna utilize light from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and oxygen. While these carbohydrates and their derivative hydrocarbons are generally considered to be fuels, it is the thermodynamically energetic oxygen molecule that traps, stores, and provides almost all of the energy that…

Weiss, Hilton M.

2008-01-01

336

Assisted Evolution Enables HIV-1 to Overcome a High TRIM5?-Imposed Genetic Barrier to Rhesus Macaque Tropism  

PubMed Central

Diversification of antiretroviral factors during host evolution has erected formidable barriers to cross-species retrovirus transmission. This phenomenon likely protects humans from infection by many modern retroviruses, but it has also impaired the development of primate models of HIV-1 infection. Indeed, rhesus macaques are resistant to HIV-1, in part due to restriction imposed by the TRIM5? protein (rhTRIM5?). Initially, we attempted to derive rhTRIM5?-resistant HIV-1 strains using two strategies. First, HIV-1 was passaged in engineered human cells expressing rhTRIM5?. Second, a library of randomly mutagenized capsid protein (CA) sequences was screened for mutations that reduced rhTRIM5? sensitivity. Both approaches identified several individual mutations in CA that reduced rhTRIM5? sensitivity. However, neither approach yielded mutants that were fully resistant, perhaps because the locations of the mutations suggested that TRIM5? recognizes multiple determinants on the capsid surface. Moreover, even though additive effects of various CA mutations on HIV-1 resistance to rhTRIM5? were observed, combinations that gave full resistance were highly detrimental to fitness. Therefore, we employed an ‘assisted evolution’ approach in which individual CA mutations that reduced rhTRIM5? sensitivity without fitness penalties were randomly assorted in a library of viral clones containing synthetic CA sequences. Subsequent passage of the viral library in rhTRIM5?-expressing cells resulted in the selection of individual viral species that were fully fit and resistant to rhTRIM5?. These viruses encoded combinations of five mutations in CA that conferred complete or near complete resistance to the disruptive effects of rhTRIM5? on incoming viral cores, by abolishing recognition of the viral capsid. Importantly, HIV-1 variants encoding these CA substitutions and SIVmac239 Vif replicated efficiently in primary rhesus macaque lymphocytes. These findings demonstrate that rhTRIM5? is difficult to but not impossible to evade, and doing so should facilitate the development of primate models of HIV-1 infection. PMID:24086139

Soll, Steven J.; Wilson, Sam J.; Kutluay, Sebla B.; Hatziioannou, Theodora; Bieniasz, Paul D.

2013-01-01

337

Assisted evolution enables HIV-1 to overcome a high TRIM5?-imposed genetic barrier to rhesus macaque tropism.  

PubMed

Diversification of antiretroviral factors during host evolution has erected formidable barriers to cross-species retrovirus transmission. This phenomenon likely protects humans from infection by many modern retroviruses, but it has also impaired the development of primate models of HIV-1 infection. Indeed, rhesus macaques are resistant to HIV-1, in part due to restriction imposed by the TRIM5? protein (rhTRIM5?). Initially, we attempted to derive rhTRIM5?-resistant HIV-1 strains using two strategies. First, HIV-1 was passaged in engineered human cells expressing rhTRIM5?. Second, a library of randomly mutagenized capsid protein (CA) sequences was screened for mutations that reduced rhTRIM5? sensitivity. Both approaches identified several individual mutations in CA that reduced rhTRIM5? sensitivity. However, neither approach yielded mutants that were fully resistant, perhaps because the locations of the mutations suggested that TRIM5? recognizes multiple determinants on the capsid surface. Moreover, even though additive effects of various CA mutations on HIV-1 resistance to rhTRIM5? were observed, combinations that gave full resistance were highly detrimental to fitness. Therefore, we employed an 'assisted evolution' approach in which individual CA mutations that reduced rhTRIM5? sensitivity without fitness penalties were randomly assorted in a library of viral clones containing synthetic CA sequences. Subsequent passage of the viral library in rhTRIM5?-expressing cells resulted in the selection of individual viral species that were fully fit and resistant to rhTRIM5?. These viruses encoded combinations of five mutations in CA that conferred complete or near complete resistance to the disruptive effects of rhTRIM5? on incoming viral cores, by abolishing recognition of the viral capsid. Importantly, HIV-1 variants encoding these CA substitutions and SIV(mac239) Vif replicated efficiently in primary rhesus macaque lymphocytes. These findings demonstrate that rhTRIM5? is difficult to but not impossible to evade, and doing so should facilitate the development of primate models of HIV-1 infection. PMID:24086139

Soll, Steven J; Wilson, Sam J; Kutluay, Sebla B; Hatziioannou, Theodora; Bieniasz, Paul D

2013-01-01

338

Recognition of the HIV Capsid by the TRIM5? Restriction Factor Is Mediated by a Subset of Pre-Existing Conformations of the TRIM5? SPRY Domain  

PubMed Central

The binding of the TRIM5? restriction factor to the HIV capsid is mediated by the C-terminal SPRY domain of TRIM5?. Atomic-level details of this host-pathogen interaction, which involves mobile variable loops of the SPRY domain, remain unclear. Some of the key determinants of restriction are encompassed by the long and disordered v1 loop of the SPRY domain. We applied molecular modeling to elucidate the conformational repertoire of the v1 loop and its role in the interaction with the capsid. All-atom replica exchange molecular dynamics revealed multiple transient, interconverting states of the v1 loop consistent with the intrinsic disorder observed experimentally. The docking of the SPRY conformations representing 10 most populated states onto the high-resolution model of the assembled HIV-1 capsid revealed that a subset of v1 conformations produced plausible binding poses, in which the SPRY domain binds close to the pseudo-2-fold symmetry axis and the v1 loop spans the interhexamer gap. Such binding mode is well supported by the NMR binding data and known escape mutants. We speculate that the binding mode that involves interaction of the capsid with a subset of preexisting SPRY conformations arising from the intrinsic disorder of the v1 loop may explain the remarkable ability of TRIM5? to resist viral evasion by mutagenesis and to restrict divergent retroviruses. PMID:24506064

Kovalskyy, Dmytro B.; Ivanov, Dmitri N.

2014-01-01

339

The TRIM37 Gene Encodes a Peroxisomal RING-B-Box-Coiled-Coil Protein: Classification of Mulibrey Nanism as a New Peroxisomal Disorder  

PubMed Central

Mulibrey nanism is a rare growth disorder of prenatal onset caused by mutations in the TRIM37 gene, which encodes a RING-B-box-coiled-coil protein. The pathogenetic mechanisms of mulibrey nanism are unknown. We have used transiently transfected cells and antibodies raised against the predicted TRIM37 protein to characterize the TRIM37 gene product and to determine its intracellular localization. We show that the human TRIM37 cDNA encodes a peroxisomal protein with an apparent molecular weight of 130 kD. Peroxisomal localization is compromised in mutant protein representing the major Finnish TRIM37 mutation but is retained in the protein representing the minor Finnish mutation. Colocalization of endogenous TRIM37 with peroxisomal markers was observed by double immunofluorescence staining in HepG2 and human intestinal smooth muscle cell lines. In human tissue sections, TRIM37 shows a granular cytoplasmic pattern. Endogenous TRIM37 is not imported into peroxisomes in peroxin 1 (PEX1?/?) and peroxin 5 (PEX5?/?) mutant fibroblasts but is imported normally in peroxin 7 (PEX7?/?) deficient fibroblasts, giving further evidence for a peroxisomal localization of TRIM37. Fibroblasts derived from patients with mulibrey nanism lack C-terminal TRIM37 immunoreactivity but stain normally for both peroxisomal matrix and membrane markers, suggesting apparently normal peroxisome biogenesis in patient fibroblasts. Taken together, this molecular evidence unequivocally indicates that TRIM37 is located in the peroxisomes, and Mulibrey nanism thus can be classified as a new peroxisomal disorder. PMID:11938494

Kallijärvi, Jukka; Avela, Kristiina; Lipsanen-Nyman, Marita; Ulmanen, Ismo; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina

2002-01-01

340

Sources of Weld Metal Oxygen Contamination During  

E-print Network

) Sources of Weld Metal Oxygen Contamination During Submerged Arc Welding The oxygen level of submerged arc weld metal is controlled by Si02 decomposition in most acidic fluxes whereas the oxygen level of weld metal oxygen contamination and pro- vide guidelines for design and selec- tion of welding

Eagar, Thomas W.

341

Ultrafast laser trimming for reduced device leakage in high performance OTFT semiconductors for flexible displays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic semiconductors (OSC) are solution processable synthetic materials with high carrier mobility that promise to revolutionise flexible electronics manufacturing due to their low cost, lightweight and high volume low temperature printing in reel-to-reel (R2R) [1] for applications such as flexible display backplanes (Fig.1), RFID tags, and logic/memory devices. Despite several recent technological advances, organic thin film transistor (OTFT) printing is still not production-ready due to limitations mainly with printing resolution on dimensionally unstable substrates and device leakage that reduces dramatically electrical performance. OTFTs have the source-drain in ohmic contact with the OSC material to lower contact resistance. If they are unpatterned, a leakage pathway from source to drain develops which results in non-optimum on/off currents and not controllable device uniformity (Fig.2). DPSS lasers offer several key advantages for OTFT patterning including maskless, non-contact, dry patterning, scalable large area operation with precision registration, well-suited to R2R manufacturing at overall ?m size resolutions. But the thermal management of laser processing is very important as the devices are very sensitive to heat and thermomechanical damage [2]. This paper discusses 343nm picosecond laser ablation trimming of 50nm thick PTAA, TIPS pentacene and other semiconductor compounds on thin 50nm thick metal gold electrodes in a top gate configuration. It is shown that with careful optimisation, a suitable process window exists resulting in clean laser structuring without damage to the underlying layers while also containing laser debris. Several order of magnitude improvements were recorded in on/off currents up to 106 with OSC mobilities of 1 cm2/Vsec, albeit at slightly higher than optimum threshold voltages which support demanding flexible display backplane applications.

Karnakis, Dimitris; Cooke, Michael D.; Chan, Y. F.; Ogier, Simon D.

2013-03-01

342

INFERENCE ABOUT THE ED50 USING THE TRIMMED SPEARMAN-KARBER PROCEDURE - A MONTE CARLO INVESTIGATION  

EPA Science Inventory

A Monte Carlo study was conducted to investigate the estimated standard errors of the estimate and the 95 percent confidence interval estimates associated with the trimmed Spearman-Karber (SK) estimators of the ED50 and the logistic model maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). The s...

343

NASA/TM-1998-208427 A Note About HARPs State Trimming  

E-print Network

May 1998 NASA/TM-1998-208427 A Note About HARPÃ?s State Trimming Method Ricky W. Butler, Kelly J. Hayhurst, and Sally C. Johnson Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia #12;The NASA STI Program Office ... in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement of aeronautics and space science

Butler, Ricky W.

344

TRIM65 regulates microRNA activity by ubiquitination of TNRC6  

PubMed Central

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small evolutionarily conserved regulatory RNAs that modulate mRNA stability and translation in a wide range of cell types. MiRNAs are involved in a broad array of biological processes, including cellular proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. To identify previously unidentified regulators of miRNA, we initiated a systematic discovery-type proteomic analysis of the miRNA pathway interactome in human cells. Six of 66 genes identified in our proteomic screen were capable of regulating lethal-7a (let-7a) miRNA reporter activity. Tripartite motif 65 (TRIM65) was identified as a repressor of miRNA activity. Detailed analysis indicates that TRIM65 interacts and colocalizes with trinucleotide repeat containing six (TNRC6) proteins in processing body-like structures. Ubiquitination assays demonstrate that TRIM65 is an ubiquitin E3 ligase for TNRC6 proteins. The combination of overexpression and knockdown studies establishes that TRIM65 relieves miRNA-driven suppression of mRNA expression through ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of TNRC6. PMID:24778252

Li, Shitao; Wang, Lingyan; Fu, Bishi; Berman, Michael A.; Diallo, Alos; Dorf, Martin E.

2014-01-01

345

MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF IMPORTED AND DOMESTIC BONELESS BEEF TRIM USED FOR GROUND BEEF  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The United States imports lean boneless beef trim from Australia (AUS), New Zealand (NZL), and Uruguay (URY) to meet demand for ground beef production. The reported incidence of, and etiological agents responsible for, foodborne disease differ between these countries and the United States. Therefo...

346

EDEM2 initiates mammalian glycoprotein ERAD by catalyzing the first mannose trimming step.  

PubMed

Glycoproteins misfolded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are subjected to ER-associated glycoprotein degradation (gpERAD) in which Htm1-mediated mannose trimming from the oligosaccharide Man8GlcNAc2 to Man7GlcNAc2 is the rate-limiting step in yeast. In contrast, the roles of the three Htm1 homologues (EDEM1/2/3) in mammalian gpERAD have remained elusive, with a key controversy being whether EDEMs function as mannosidases or as lectins. We therefore conducted transcription activator-like effector nuclease-mediated gene knockout analysis in human cell line and found that all endogenous EDEMs possess mannosidase activity. Mannose trimming from Man8GlcNAc2 to Man7GlcNAc2 is performed mainly by EDEM3 and to a lesser extent by EDEM1. Most surprisingly, the upstream mannose trimming from Man9GlcNAc2 to Man8GlcNAc2 is conducted mainly by EDEM2, which was previously considered to lack enzymatic activity. Based on the presence of two rate-limiting steps in mammalian gpERAD, we propose that mammalian cells double check gpERAD substrates before destruction by evolving EDEM2, a novel-type Htm1 homologue that catalyzes the first mannose trimming step from Man9GlcNAc2. PMID:25092655

Ninagawa, Satoshi; Okada, Tetsuya; Sumitomo, Yoshiki; Kamiya, Yukiko; Kato, Koichi; Horimoto, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Tokiro; Takeda, Shunichi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi; Mori, Kazutoshi

2014-08-01

347

TRIM32 promotes retinoic acid receptor {alpha}-mediated differentiation in human promyelogenous leukemic cell line HL60  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM32 enhanced RAR{alpha}-mediated transcriptional activity even in the absence of RA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM32 stabilized RAR{alpha} in the human promyelogenous leukemic cell line HL60. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of TRIM32 in HL60 cells induced granulocytic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM32 may function as a coactivator for RAR{alpha}-mediated transcription in APL cells. -- Abstract: Ubiquitination, one of the posttranslational modifications, appears to be involved in the transcriptional activity of nuclear receptors including retinoic acid receptor {alpha} (RAR{alpha}). We previously reported that an E3 ubiquitin ligase, TRIM32, interacts with several important proteins including RAR{alpha} and enhances transcriptional activity of RAR{alpha} in mouse neuroblastoma cells and embryonal carcinoma cells. Retinoic acid (RA), which acts as a ligand to nuclear receptors including RAR{alpha}, plays crucial roles in development, differentiation, cell cycles and apoptosis. In this study, we found that TRIM32 enhances RAR{alpha}-mediated transcriptional activity even in the absence of RA and stabilizes RAR{alpha} in the human promyelogenous leukemic cell line HL60. Moreover, we found that overexpression of TRIM32 in HL60 cells suppresses cellular proliferation and induces granulocytic differentiation even in the absence of RA. These findings suggest that TRIM32 functions as one of the coactivators for RAR{alpha}-mediated transcription in acute promyelogenous leukemia (APL) cells, and thus TRIM32 may become a potentially therapeutic target for APL.

Sato, Tomonobu [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan) [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Okumura, Fumihiko [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Iguchi, Akihiro; Ariga, Tadashi [Department of Pediatrics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan)] [Department of Pediatrics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu, E-mail: hatas@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan)

2012-01-06

348

Increase in water column denitrification during the deglaciation controlled by oxygen demand in the eastern equatorial Pacific  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here we present organic export production and isotopic nitrogen results over the last 30 000 years from one core localized off Costa Rica (ODP Site 1242) on the leading edge of the oxygen minimum zone of the Eastern Tropical North Pacific. Marine export production reveals glacial-interglacial variations with low organic matter (total organic carbon and total nitrogen) contents during warm intervals, twice more during cold episodes and double peaked maximum during the deglaciation, between ~15.5-18.5 and 11-13 ka BP. When this new export production record is compared with four nearby cores localized within the Eastern Pacific along the Equatorial divergence, a good agreement between all the cores is observed, with the major feature being a maximum of export during the early deglaciation. As for export production, water-column denitrification represented by sedimentary ?15N records along the Eastern tropical North and South Pacific between 15° N and 36° S is coherent as well over the last deglaciation period. The whole isotopic nitrogen profiles indicate that denitrification increased abruptly at 19 ka BP to a maximum during the early deglaciation, confirming a typical Antarctic timing. It is proposed that the increase in export production and then in subsurface oxygen demand lead to an intensification of water-column denitrification within the oxygen minimum zones in the easternmost Pacific at the time of the last deglaciation. The triggering mechanism would have been primarily linked to an increase in preformed nutrients contents feeding the Equatorial Undercurrent driven by the resumption of overturning in the Southern Ocean and the return of nutrients from the deep ocean to the sea-surface. An increase in equatorial wind-driven upwelling of sub-surface nutrient-rich waters could have played the role of an amplifier.

Martinez, P.; Robinson, R. S.

2009-05-01

349

Control of a two-dimensional electron gas on SrTiO?(111) by atomic oxygen.  

PubMed

We report on the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the bare surface of (111) oriented SrTiO3. Angle resolved photoemission experiments reveal highly itinerant carriers with a sixfold symmetric Fermi surface and strongly anisotropic effective masses. The electronic structure of the 2DEG is in good agreement with self-consistent tight-binding supercell calculations that incorporate a confinement potential due to surface band bending. We further demonstrate that alternate exposure of the surface to ultraviolet light and atomic oxygen allows tuning of the carrier density and the complete suppression of the 2DEG. PMID:25379937

Walker, S McKeown; de la Torre, A; Bruno, F Y; Tamai, A; Kim, T K; Hoesch, M; Shi, M; Bahramy, M S; King, P D C; Baumberger, F

2014-10-24

350

TRIM5? polymorphism identification in cynomolgus macaques of Vietnamese origin and Chinese rhesus macaques.  

PubMed

TRIM5? is a retroviral restriction factor, in which the B30.2 (SPRY) and coiled-coil domains cooperate to determine the specificity of TRIM5?-mediated capture of retroviral capsids. Here, all exons of TRIM5? were analyzed in 39 Vietnamese cynomolgus macaques (VCE) and 29 Chinese rhesus macaques (CR). Our results revealed the presence of 22 alleles using the PHASE 2.0 software package (PHylogenetics And Sequence Evolution), including two novel species-specific alleles with a low frequency in VCE in exons 4 and 8, which encoded the coiled-coil and B30.2 (SPRY) domains, respectively. Nine alleles were detected in both VCE and CR, while four alleles were likely shared between the species. Of these alleles, the highest frequencies of 38% and 26% occurred in VCE and CR, respectively. Importantly, we found that some alleles encoded the same coiled-coil domain, but not the SPRY domain. In contrast, other alleles encoded the same SPRY domain, but not the coiled-coil domain. Our findings will contribute to the understanding of the interaction between the two domains and the determination of the specificity of TRIM5?-mediated capture of retroviral capsids. Our results from the phylogenetic trees constructed for VCE and CR suggested that the macaques' ability to inhibit SIV replication became gradually stronger if they carried corresponding alleles in four clades (clades4-7). More interesting, in clade3, both novel allele pairs (4E100a, 10E147a) and allele pairs (7R17b and 13R11b), which had the strong ability to inhibit SIV replication, originated from the same ancestral allele, suggesting that the novel alleles might play a key role to determine an animal's ability to inhibit SIV/HIV replication. However, further studies are needed to increase our understanding of the genetic background of TRIM5? in these two macaque species. PMID:23775985

Zhang, Guiqing; Qiu, Wei; Xiang, Ruirui; Ling, Fei; Zhuo, Min; Du, Hongli; Wang, Jufang; Wang, Xiaoning

2013-09-01

351

Using Antiubiquitin Antibodies to Probe the Ubiquitination State Within rhTRIM5? Cytoplasmic Bodies  

PubMed Central

Abstract The first line of defense protecting rhesus macaques from HIV-1 is the restriction factor rhTRIM5?, which recognizes the capsid core of the virus early after entry and normally blocks infection prior to reverse transcription. Cytoplasmic bodies containing rhTRIM5? have been implicated in the ubiquitin–proteasome pathway, but the specific roles these structures play remain uncharacterized. Here, we examine the ubiquitination status of cytoplasmic body proteins. Using antibodies specific for different forms of ubiquitin, we show that ubiquitinated proteins are present in cytoplasmic bodies, and that this localization is altered after proteasome inhibition. A decrease in polyubiquitinated proteins localizing to cytoplasmic bodies was apparent after 1?h of proteasome inhibition, and greater differences were seen after extended proteasome inhibition. The decrease in polyubiquitin conjugates within cytoplasmic bodies was also observed when deubiquitinating enzymes were inhibited, suggesting that the removal of ubiquitin moieties from polyubiquitinated cytoplasmic body proteins after extended proteasome inhibition is not responsible for this phenomenon. Superresolution structured illumination microscopy revealed finer details of rhTRIM5? cytoplasmic bodies and the polyubiquitin conjugates that localize to these structures. Finally, linkage-specific polyubiquitin antibodies revealed that K48-linked ubiquitin chains localize to rhTRIM5? cytoplasmic bodies, implicating these structures in proteasomal degradation. Differential staining of cytoplasmic bodies seen with different polyubiquitin antibodies suggests that structural changes occur during proteasome inhibition that alter epitope availability. Taken together, it is likely that rhTRIM5? cytoplasmic bodies are involved in recruiting components of the ubiquitin–proteasome system to coordinate proteasomal destruction of a viral or cellular protein(s) during restriction of HIV-1. PMID:23799296

Danielson, Cindy M.

2013-01-01

352

Elucidating microbial processes in nitrate- and sulfate-reducing systems using sulfur and oxygen isotope ratios: The example of oil reservoir souring control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are ubiquitous in anoxic environments where they couple the oxidation of organic compounds to the production of hydrogen sulfide. This can be problematic for various industries including oil production where reservoir "souring" (the generation of H 2S) requires corrective actions. Nitrate or nitrite injection into sour oil fields can promote SRB control by stimulating organotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing bacteria (O-NRB) that out-compete SRB for electron donors (biocompetitive exclusion), and/or by lithotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing sulfide oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) that remove H 2S directly. Sulfur and oxygen isotope ratios of sulfide and sulfate were monitored in batch cultures and sulfidic bioreactors to evaluate mitigation of SRB activities by nitrate or nitrite injection. Sulfate reduction in batch cultures of Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac15 indicated typical Rayleigh-type fractionation of sulfur isotopes during bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) with lactate, whereas oxygen isotope ratios in unreacted sulfate remained constant. Sulfur isotope fractionation in batch cultures of the NR-SOB Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO was minimal during the oxidation of sulfide to sulfate, which had ?18O SO4 values similar to that of the water-oxygen. Treating an up-flow bioreactor with increasing doses of nitrate to eliminate sulfide resulted in changes in sulfur isotope ratios of sulfate and sulfide but very little variation in oxygen isotope ratios of sulfate. These observations were similar to results obtained from SRB-only, but different from those of NR-SOB-only pure culture control experiments. This suggests that biocompetitive exclusion of SRB took place in the nitrate-injected bioreactor. In two replicate bioreactors treated with nitrite, less pronounced sulfur isotope fractionation and a slight decrease in ?18O SO4 were observed. This indicated that NR-SOB played a minor role during dosing with low nitrite and that biocompetitive exclusion was the major process. The results demonstrate that stable isotope data can contribute unique information for understanding complex microbial processes in nitrate- and sulfate-reducing systems, and offer important information for the management of H 2S problems in oil reservoirs and elsewhere.

Hubert, Casey; Voordouw, Gerrit; Mayer, Bernhard

2009-07-01

353

Molecular characterization of tripartite motif protein 25 (TRIM25) involved in ER?-mediated transcription in the Korean rose bitterling Rhodeus uyekii.  

PubMed

Tripartite motif-containing 25 (TRIM25), also known as estrogen-responsive finger protein (EFP), plays an essential role in cell proliferation and innate immunity. In the present study, we isolated and characterized the TRIM25 cDNA of the Korean rose bitterling Rhodeus uyekii, designated RuTRIM25. It encodes an open reading frame of 669 amino acids containing an N-terminal RBCC motif composed of a RING domain, two B boxes, and a coiled-coil domain and a C-terminal B30.2 (PRY/SPRY) domain. RuTRIM25 shows strong homology (79.7%) to zebrafish TRIM25 and shared 32.4-28.8% homology with TRIM25 from other species, including mammals. RuTRIM25 mRNA was expressed ubiquitously. It was highly expressed in the ovary, spleen, and liver and moderately in the stomach and intestine of normal Korean rose bitterling. The intracellular localization of RuTRIM25 in HEK293T cells was diffusely localized in the cytoplasm and its RING domain deletion mutant (RuTRIM25?R) was detected diffusely with some aggregates in the cytoplasm. RuTRIM25, but not RuTRIM25?R, is ubiquitinated in vivo. Ectopic expression of RuTRIM25 synergistically activated the estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated luciferase reporter activity in a dose-dependent manner in HEK293T cells. Together, these results suggest that the RuTRIM25 regulates the ER-mediated transcription in fish similarly to its mammalian counterpart. PMID:22642868

Kong, Hee Jeong; Lee, Ye Ji; Shin, Jihye; Cho, Hyun Kook; Kim, Woo-Jin; Kim, Hyung Soo; Cheong, Jaehun; Sohn, Young Chang; Lee, Sang-Jun; Kim, Bong-Seok

2012-09-01

354

Genome-wide association study for claw disorders and trimming status in dairy cattle.  

PubMed

Performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS) might add to a better understanding of the development of claw disorders and the need for trimming. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to perform a GWAS on claw disorders and trimming status and to validate the results for claw disorders based on an independent data set. Data consisted of 20,474 cows with phenotypes for claw disorders and 50,238 cows with phenotypes for trimming status. Recorded claw disorders used in the current study were double sole (DS), interdigital hyperplasia (IH), sole hemorrhage (SH), sole ulcer (SU), white line separation (WLS), a combination of infectious claw disorders consisting of (inter-)digital dermatitis and heel erosion, and a combination of laminitis-related claw disorders (DS, SH, SU, and WLS). Of the cows with phenotypes for claw disorders, 1,771 cows were genotyped and these cow data were used for the GWAS on claw disorders. A SNP was considered significant when the false discovery rate?0.05 and suggestive when the false discovery rate?0.20. An independent data set of 185 genotyped bulls having at least 5 daughters with phenotypes (6,824 daughters in total) for claw disorders was used to validate significant and suggestive SNP detected based on the cow data. To analyze the trait "trimming status" (i.e., the need for claw trimming), a data set with 327 genotyped bulls having at least 5 daughters with phenotypes (18,525 daughters in total) was used. Based on the cow data, in total 10 significant and 45 suggestive SNP were detected for claw disorders. The 10 significant SNP were associated with SU, and mainly located on BTA8. The suggestive SNP were associated with DS, IH, SU, and laminitis-related claw disorders. Three of the suggestive SNP were validated in the data set of 185 bulls, and were located on BTA13, BTA14, and BTA17. For infectious claw disorders, SH, and WLS, no significant or suggestive SNP associations were detected. For trimming status, 1 significant and 1 suggestive SNP were detected, both located close to each other on BTA15. Some significant and suggestive SNP were located close to SNP detected in studies on feet and leg conformation traits. Genes with major effects could not be detected and SNP associations were spread across the genome, indicating that many SNP, each explaining a small proportion of the genetic variance, influence claw disorders. Therefore, to reduce the incidence of claw disorders by breeding, genomic selection is a promising approach. PMID:25497826

van der Spek, D; van Arendonk, J A M; Bovenhuis, H

2015-02-01

355

The Effectiveness of the Component Impact Test Method for the Side Impact Injury Assessment of the Door Trim  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The complete evaluation of the side vehicle structure and the occupant protection is only possible by means of the full scale side impact crash test. But, auto part manufacturers such as door trim makers can not conduct the test especially when the vehicle is under the developing process. The main objective of this study is to obtain the design guidelines by a simple component level impact test. The relationship between the target absorption energy and impactor speed were examined using the energy absorbed by the door trim. Since each different vehicle type required different energy levels on the door trim. A simple impact test method was developed to estimate abdominal injury by measuring reaction force of the impactor. The reaction force will be converted to a certain level of the energy by the proposed formula. The target of absorption energy for door trim only and the impact speed of simple impactor are derived theoretically based on the conservation of energy. With calculated speed of dummy and the effective mass of abdomen, the energy allocated in the abdomen area of door trim was calculated. The impactor speed can be calculated based on the equivalent energy of door trim absorbed during the full crash test. With the proposed design procedure for the door trim by a simple impact test method was demonstrated to evaluate the abdominal injury. This paper describes a study that was conducted to determine sensitivity of several design factors for reducing abdominal injury values using the matrix of orthogonal array method. In conclusion, with theoretical considerations and empirical test data, the main objective, standardization of door trim design using the simple impact test method was established.

Youn, Younghan; Koo, Jeong-Seo

356

Association of the testis-specific TRIM/RBCC protein RNF33/TRIM60 with the cytoplasmic motor proteins KIF3A and KIF3B.  

PubMed

The Rnf33/Trim60 gene is temporally transcribed in the preimplantation embryo before being silenced at the blastocyst stage but Rnf33 expression is detected in adult testis of the mouse. The putative RNF33 protein is a tripartite motif (TRIM)/RBCC protein composed of a typical RING zinc finger, a B-box 2, two ?-helical coiled-coil segments, and a B30.2 domain. As a first step towards the elucidation of the biologic function of RNF33, we aimed in this study to elucidate proteins that associate with RNF33. RNF33-interacting proteins were first derived by the yeast two-hybrid system followed by co-immunoprecipitation assays. Interacting domains were determined by deletion mapping in genetic and biochemical analyzes. RNF33 was shown to interact with the kinesin-2 family members 3A (KIF3A) and 3B (KIF3B) motor proteins in the heterodimeric form known to transport cargos along the microtubule. Domain mapping showed that the RB and B30.2 domains of RNF33 interacted with the respective carboxyl non-motor domains of KIF3A and KIF3B. Since RNF33 interacted with the carboxyl-terminal tail of the KIF3A-KIF3B heterodimer, the motor head section of KIF3A-KIF3B was free and available for association with designated cargo(s) and movement along the microtubule. Data also suggest that RNF33 most likely interacted with KIF3A-KIF3B independent of the adaptor kinesin-associated protein KAP3. This study is a first demonstration of a TRIM protein, namely RNF33, that interacts with the kinesin molecular motors possibly contributing to kinesin-dependent mobilization of specific cargo(s) along the microtubule in the testis of the mouse. PMID:21909995

Huang, Chiu-Jung; Huang, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Chih-Chun

2012-01-01

357

Influence of aeration-homogenization system in stirred tank bioreactors, dissolved oxygen concentration and pH control mode on BHK-21 cell growth and metabolism.  

PubMed

This work focused on determining the effect of dissolved oxygen concentration (DO) on growth and metabolism of BHK-21 cell line (host cell for recombinant proteins manufacturing and viral vaccines) cultured in two stirred tank bioreactors with different aeration-homogenization systems, as well as pH control mode. BHK-21 cell line adapted to single-cell suspension was cultured in Celligen without aeration cage (rotating gas-sparger) and Bioflo 110, at 10, 30 and 50 % air saturation (impeller for gas dispersion from sparger-ring). The pH was controlled at 7.2 as far as it was possible with gas mixtures. In other runs, at 30 and 50 % (DO) in Bioflo 110, the cells grew at pH controlled with CO2 and NaHCO3 solution. Glucose, lactate, glutamine, and ammonium were quantified by enzymatic methods. Cell concentration, size and specific oxygen consumption were also determined. When NaHCO3 solution was not used, the optimal DOs were 10 and 50 % air saturation for Celligen and Bioflo 110, respectively. In this condition maximum cell concentrations were higher than 4 × 10(6) cell/mL. An increase in maximum cell concentration of 36 % was observed in batch carried out at 30 % air saturation in a classical stirred tank bioreactor (Bioflo 110) with base solution addition. The optimal parameters defined in this work allow for bioprocess developing of viral vaccines, transient protein expression and viral vector for gene therapy based on BHK-21 cell line in two stirred tank bioreactors with different agitation-aeration systems. PMID:23846480

Núñez, Eutimio Gustavo Fernández; Leme, Jaci; de Almeida Parizotto, Letícia; Chagas, Wagner Antonio; de Rezende, Alexandre Gonçalves; da Costa, Bruno Labate Vale; Monteiro, Daniela Cristina Ventini; Boldorini, Vera Lucia Lopes; Jorge, Soraia Attie Calil; Astray, Renato Mancini; Pereira, Carlos Augusto; Caricati, Celso Pereira; Tonso, Aldo

2014-08-01

358

Mars oxygen production system design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The design and construction phase is summarized of the Mars oxygen demonstration project. The basic hardware required to produce oxygen from simulated Mars atmosphere was assembled and tested. Some design problems still remain with the sample collection and storage system. In addition, design and development of computer compatible data acquisition and control instrumentation is ongoing.

Cotton, Charles E.; Pillow, Linda K.; Perkinson, Robert C.; Brownlie, R. P.; Chwalowski, P.; Carmona, M. F.; Coopersmith, J. P.; Goff, J. C.; Harvey, L. L.; Kovacs, L. A.

1989-01-01

359

Crystal structure of the TRIM25 B30.2 (PRYSPRY) domain: a key component of antiviral signalling  

PubMed Central

TRIM (tripartite motif) proteins primarily function as ubiquitin E3 ligases that regulate the innate immune response to infection. TRIM25 [also known as Efp (oestrogen-responsive finger protein)] has been implicated in the regulation of oestrogen receptor ? signalling and in the regulation of innate immune signalling via RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I). RIG-I senses cytosolic viral RNA and is subsequently ubiquitinated by TRIM25 at its N-terminal CARDs (caspase recruitment domains), leading to type I interferon production. The interaction with RIG-I is dependent on the TRIM25 B30.2 domain, a protein-interaction domain composed of the PRY and SPRY tandem sequence motifs. In the present study we describe the 1.8 Å crystal structure of the TRIM25 B30.2 domain, which exhibits a typical B30.2/SPRY domain fold comprising two N-terminal ?-helices, thirteen ?-strands arranged into two ?-sheets and loop regions of varying lengths. A comparison with other B30.2/SPRY structures and an analysis of the loop regions identified a putative binding pocket, which is likely to be involved in binding target proteins. This was supported by mutagenesis and functional analyses, which identified two key residues (Asp488 and Trp621) in the TRIM25 B30.2 domain as being critical for binding to the RIG-I CARDs. PMID:24015671

D'Cruz, Akshay A.; Kershaw, Nadia J.; Chiang, Jessica J.; Wang, May K.; Nicola, Nicos A.; Babon, Jeffrey J.; Gack, Michaela U.; Nicholson, Sandra E.

2014-01-01

360

Crystal structure of the TRIM25 B30.2 (PRYSPRY) domain: a key component of antiviral signalling.  

PubMed

TRIM (tripartite motif) proteins primarily function as ubiquitin E3 ligases that regulate the innate immune response to infection. TRIM25 [also known as Efp (oestrogen-responsive finger protein)] has been implicated in the regulation of oestrogen receptor ? signalling and in the regulation of innate immune signalling via RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I). RIG-I senses cytosolic viral RNA and is subsequently ubiquitinated by TRIM25 at its N-terminal CARDs (caspase recruitment domains), leading to type I interferon production. The interaction with RIG-I is dependent on the TRIM25 B30.2 domain, a protein-interaction domain composed of the PRY and SPRY tandem sequence motifs. In the present study we describe the 1.8 Å crystal structure of the TRIM25 B30.2 domain, which exhibits a typical B30.2/SPRY domain fold comprising two N-terminal ?-helices, thirteen ?-strands arranged into two ?-sheets and loop regions of varying lengths. A comparison with other B30.2/SPRY structures and an analysis of the loop regions identified a putative binding pocket, which is likely to be involved in binding target proteins. This was supported by mutagenesis and functional analyses, which identified two key residues (Asp(488) and Trp(621)) in the TRIM25 B30.2 domain as being critical for binding to the RIG-I CARDs. PMID:24015671

D'Cruz, Akshay A; Kershaw, Nadia J; Chiang, Jessica J; Wang, May K; Nicola, Nicos A; Babon, Jeffrey J; Gack, Michaela U; Nicholson, Sandra E

2013-12-01

361

Double panel with skyhook active damping control units for control of sound radiation.  

PubMed

This paper presents an experimental study on decentralized velocity feedback control on a double panel consisting of an external aluminum panel and a honeycomb trim panel. The decentralized feedback loops are formed by a 3x3 array of coil-magnet electrodynamic actuators that react off the trim panel and a lightweight stiff frame structure located in the air gap between the two panels. Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) accelerometers are located on the opposite side of the trim panel in correspondence to the electrodynamic actuators. The grid structure is designed to provide an inertial reference to the actuators. In this way the velocity feedback control loops produce skyhook active damping on the double panel, which minimizes the vibrational response and sound radiation of the trim panel at low audio frequencies. Two configurations are considered where the grid structure is either weakly coupled or strongly coupled to the external panel. Both stability and control performance of the two configurations are analyzed experimentally. The study shows that the control configuration with the weakly coupled grid structure enables the implementation of larger stable feedback control gains, which lead to reductions of the sound radiated by the trim panel between 10 and 30 dB for the first seven resonance peaks. PMID:20815447

Gardonio, Paolo; Alujevi?, Neven

2010-09-01

362

Arrays of microplasmas for the controlled production of tunable high fluxes of reactive oxygen species at atmospheric pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmospheric-pressure generation of singlet delta oxygen (O2(a 1?g)) by microplasmas was experimentally studied. The remarkable stability of microcathode sustained discharges (MCSDs) allowed the operation of dc glow discharges, free from the glow-to-arc transition, in He/O2/NO mixtures at atmospheric pressure. From optical diagnostics measurements we deduced the yield of O2(a 1?g). By operating arrays of several MCSDs in series, O2(a 1?g) densities higher than 1.0 × 1017 cm-3 were efficiently produced and transported over distances longer than 50 cm, corresponding to O2(a 1?g) partial pressures and production yields greater than 5 mbar and 6%, respectively. At such high O2(a 1?g) densities, the fluorescence of the so-called O2(a 1?g) dimol was observed as a red glow at 634 nm up to 1 m downstream. Parallel operation of arrays of MCSDs was also implemented, generating O2(a 1?g) fluxes as high as 100 mmol h-1. In addition, ozone (O3) densities up to 1016 cm-3 were obtained. Finally, the density ratio of O2(a 1?g) to O3 was finely and easily tuned in the range [10-3-10+5], through the values of the discharge current and NO concentration. This opens up opportunities for a large spectrum of new applications, making this plasma source notably very useful for biomedicine.

Sousa, J. S.; Bauville, G.; Puech, V.

2013-06-01

363

Blood oxygenation during hyperpressure intraperitoneal fluid administration in a rabbit model of severe liver injury: Evaluation of a novel concept for control of pre-hospital liver bleeding  

PubMed Central

Oxygen is an essential part of the most important metabolic pathways in aerobic organisms. Oxygen delivery is merely dependent on blood, rendering blood loss a devastating event. Traumatic pre-hospital liver bleeding is a major cause of early trauma deaths in human and animals, with no established therapeutic method yet. Increasing intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) has been shown to reduce liver bleeding by half. Although reduction of blood loss could be in favor of blood oxygen delivery, however, the complex interaction between increased IAP and respiratory mechanics during severe hemorrhagic shock remained unclear. We used a novel model of liver trauma in 16 rabbits and randomly assigned them to either normotensive abdomen group or increased IAP by fluid infusion (HA) groups (n=8 each). Liver size and the amount of liver injury were evaluated. Various blood oxygenation parameters were recorded. Both groups were identical in terms of the liver size and injury. The HA group had significantly lower shock index. Arterial oxygen capacity and oxygen content were higher in the HA group. No significant statistical difference was seen between groups in terms of abdominal perfusion pressure; alveolar pressure of oxygen; dissolved oxygen in blood plasma; alveolar to arterial oxygen tension gradient; arterial to alveolar oxygen pressure ratio; the ratio between partial pressure of arterial oxygen and fraction of inspired oxygen; and respiratory index. In conclusion, the novel therapeutic method of increasing IAP by fluid infusion in a rabbit model of liver hemorrhage preserved blood oxygenation better than the classic therapeutic method.

Ahmadi-Noorbakhsh, Siavash; Azizi, Saeed; Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram; Maham, Masoud

2012-01-01

364

Gene Therapy Strategies to Exploit TRIM Derived Restriction Factors against HIV-1  

PubMed Central

Restriction factors are a collection of antiviral proteins that form an important aspect of the innate immune system. Their constitutive expression allows immediate response to viral infection, ahead of other innate or adaptive immune responses. We review the molecular mechanism of restriction for four categories of restriction factors; TRIM5, tetherin, APOBEC3G and SAMHD1 and go on to consider how the TRIM5 and TRIMCyp proteins in particular, show promise for exploitation using gene therapy strategies. Such approaches could form an important alternative to current anti-HIV-1 drug regimens, especially if combined with strategies to eradicate HIV reservoirs. Autologous CD4+ T cells or their haematopoietic stem cell precursors engineered to express TRIMCyp restriction factors, and provided in a single therapeutic intervention could then be used to restore functional immunity with a pool of cells protected against HIV. We consider the challenges ahead and consider how early clinical phase testing may best be achieved. PMID:24424502

Chan, Emma; Towers, Greg J.; Qasim, Waseem

2014-01-01

365

AAA ATPase p97/VCP is essential for TRIM21-mediated virus neutralization.  

PubMed

Tripartite motif-containing 21 (TRIM21) is a cytosolic IgG receptor that mediates intracellular virus neutralization by antibody. TRIM21 targets virions for destruction in the proteasome, but it is unclear how a substrate as large as a viral capsid is degraded. Here, we identify the ATPase p97/valosin-containing protein (VCP), an enzyme with segregase and unfoldase activity, as a key player in this process. Depletion or catalytic inhibition of VCP prevents capsid degradation and reduces neutralization. VCP is required concurrently with the proteasome, as addition of inhibitor after proteasomal degradation has no effect. Moreover, our results suggest that it is the challenging nature of virus as a substrate that necessitates involvement of VCP, since intracellularly expressed IgG Fc is degraded in a VCP-independent manner. These results implicate VCP as an important host factor in antiviral immunity. PMID:23091005

Hauler, Felix; Mallery, Donna L; McEwan, William A; Bidgood, Susanna R; James, Leo C

2012-11-27

366

Investigation Of Adhesion Formation In New Stainless Steel Trim Spring Operated Pressure Relief Valves  

SciTech Connect

Examination of proof test data for new (not previously installed) stainless steel (SS) trim spring operated pressure relief valves (SOPRV) reveals that adhesions form between the seat and disc in about 46% of all such SOPRV. The forces needed to overcome these adhesions can be sufficiently large to cause the SOPRV to fail its proof test (FPT) prior to installation. Furthermore, a significant percentage of SOPRV which are found to FPT are also found to ''fail to open'' (FTO) meaning they would not relief excess pressure in the event of an overpressure event. The cases where adhesions result in FTO or FPT appear to be confined to SOPRV with diameters < 1 in and set pressures < 150 psig and the FTO are estimated to occur in 0.31% to 2.00% of this subpopulation of SS trim SOPRV. The reliability and safety implications of these finding for end-users who do not perform pre-installation testing of SOPRV are discussed.

Gross, Robert E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Bukowski, Julia V. [Villanova University, Villanova, PA (United States); Goble, William M. [exida, Sellersville, PA (United States)

2013-04-16

367

Gene therapy strategies to exploit TRIM derived restriction factors against HIV-1.  

PubMed

Restriction factors are a collection of antiviral proteins that form an important aspect of the innate immune system. Their constitutive expression allows immediate response to viral infection, ahead of other innate or adaptive immune responses. We review the molecular mechanism of restriction for four categories of restriction factors; TRIM5, tetherin, APOBEC3G and SAMHD1 and go on to consider how the TRIM5 and TRIMCyp proteins in particular, show promise for exploitation using gene therapy strategies. Such approaches could form an important alternative to current anti-HIV-1 drug regimens, especially if combined with strategies to eradicate HIV reservoirs. Autologous CD4+ T cells or their haematopoietic stem cell precursors engineered to express TRIMCyp restriction factors, and provided in a single therapeutic intervention could then be used to restore functional immunity with a pool of cells protected against HIV. We consider the challenges ahead and consider how early clinical phase testing may best be achieved. PMID:24424502

Chan, Emma; Towers, Greg J; Qasim, Waseem

2014-01-01

368

Potent inhibition of HIV-1 by TRIM5-cyclophilin fusion proteins engineered from human components.  

PubMed

New World monkeys of the genus Aotus synthesize a fusion protein (AoT5Cyp) containing tripartite motif-containing 5 (TRIM5) and cyclophilin A (CypA) that potently blocks HIV-1 infection. We attempted to generate a human HIV-1 inhibitor modeled after AoT5Cyp, by fusing human CypA to human TRIM5 (hT5Cyp). Of 13 constructs, 3 showed substantial HIV-1-inhibitory activity when expressed in human cell lines. This activity required capsid binding by CypA and correlated with CypA linkage to the TRIM5a capsid-specificity determinant and the ability to form cytoplasmic bodies. CXCR4- and CCR5-tropic HIV-1 clones and primary isolates were inhibited from infecting multiple human macrophage and T cell lines and primary cells by hT5Cyp, as were HIV-2ROD, SIVAGMtan, FIVPET, and a circulating HIV-1 isolate previously reported to be AoT5Cyp resistant. The anti-HIV-1 activity of hT5Cyp was surprisingly more effective than that of the well-characterized rhesus TRIM5alpha, especially in T cells. hT5Cyp also blocked HIV-1 infection of primary CD4+ T cells and macrophages and conferred a survival advantage to these cells without disrupting their function. Extensive attempts to elicit HIV-1 resistance to hT5Cyp were unsuccessful. Finally, Rag2-/-gammac-/- mice were engrafted with human CD4+ T cells that had been transduced by optimized lentiviral vectors bearing hT5Cyp. Upon challenge with HIV-1, these mice showed decreased viremia and productive infection in lymphoid organs and preserved numbers of human CD4+ T cells. We conclude that hT5Cyp is an extraordinarily robust inhibitor of HIV-1 replication and a promising anti-HIV-1 gene therapy candidate. PMID:19741300

Neagu, Martha R; Ziegler, Patrick; Pertel, Thomas; Strambio-De-Castillia, Caterina; Grütter, Christian; Martinetti, Gladys; Mazzucchelli, Luca; Grütter, Markus; Manz, Markus G; Luban, Jeremy

2009-10-01

369

High-accuracy post-fabrication trimming of surface acoustic wave devices by laser photochemical processing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser direct writing reactions for molybdenum etching and Cr\\/Cr2O3 cermet conductivity transformation have been developed for concurrent phase and amplitude trimming of surface acoustic wave devices on LiNbO3. The molybdenum etching reaction utilizes photolytic decomposition of Cl2 with 488 nm light as a means to achieve low process temperature and avoid substrate damage. The cermet reaction utilizes a solid-state transformation

V. S. Dolat; J. H. C. Sedlacek; D. J. Ehrlich

1988-01-01

370

The effect of toe trimming on production characteristics of heavy turkey toms.  

PubMed

Trimming the 3 anterior toes on both feet at day of hatch to remove the claws, reduce bird scratching, and improve carcass grades is a common practice in the turkey industry. Changes in the method of trimming and the growth potential of turkeys since the majority of research on this topic was completed motivated this study with the objective of establishing the effects of microwave toe treatment on production characteristics of tom turkeys. Turkey toms (306 in total) were either toe trimmed at the hatchery using a microwave claw processor (T) or were sham treated only (NT). Poults were randomly assigned to 1 of 9 replicate pens for each treatment. Average BW, feed consumption, and feed efficiency were determined from BW and feed intake measured by pen on d 0, 7, 21, 42, 56, 70, 91, 126, and 140. On d 140, toms were sent to a commercial processing facility where 5 carcasses from each pen were examined for scratching and other externally visible damage. Average BW was higher for NT toms on d 91, 126, and 140, with final weights of 21.70 and 21.15 kg for NT and T birds, respectively. The T birds had lower feed consumption than their NT counterparts during the first and last week of production, but feed efficiency was unaffected. Carcass scratching (T, 13.33% of carcasses scratched vs. NT, 15.56%) and other carcass damages were not affected by treatment. Although overall mortality was not affected by treatment, the incidence of mortality due to skeletal causes, especially rotated tibia, was increased in T toms. Negative effects on performance and no effect on carcass quality suggest that toe trimming may not be required or recommended for heavy tom turkeys. PMID:25002552

Fournier, J; Schwean-Lardner, K; Knezacek, T D; Gomis, S; Classen, H L

2014-09-01

371

A visual servoing system for edge trimming of fabric embroideries by laser  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a position-based visual servoing system for edge trimming of fabric embroideries by laser. The high-speed vision system, based on a 220 Hz digital camera and the TMS320C40 parallel DSP processor is presented, and the novel image processing algorithm developed for seam tracking applications is briefly explained. Two methods for seam trajectory generation are discussed. In the first

S Amin-Nejad; J. S Smith; J Lucas

2003-01-01

372

Performance of focused ion beam trimmed yoke-type magnetoresistive heads for magnetic microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin-film yoke-type magnetoresistive (MR) tape heads with eight channels have been used for scanning magnetoresistance microscopy. The NiFe read flux guides of the channels have been trimmed down from 12 ?m to widths varying between 5 ?m and 100 nm by focused ion-beam milling with Ga+ ions. The tape-bearing surface of the milled regions has been reconstructed in situ by

Gavin N. Phillips; Martin Eisenberg; Eddie A. Draaisma; Leon Abelmann; J. Cock Lodder

2002-01-01

373

Tak1, Smad4 and Trim33 redundantly mediate TGF-?3 signaling during palate development.  

PubMed

Transforming growth factor-beta3 (TGF-?3) plays a critical role in palatal epithelial cells by inducing palatal epithelial fusion, failure of which results in cleft palate, one of the most common birth defects in humans. Recent studies have shown that Smad-dependent and Smad-independent pathways work redundantly to transduce TGF-?3 signaling in palatal epithelial cells. However, detailed mechanisms by which this signaling is mediated still remain to be elucidated. Here we show that TGF-? activated kinase-1 (Tak1) and Smad4 interact genetically in palatal epithelial fusion. While simultaneous abrogation of both Tak1 and Smad4 in palatal epithelial cells resulted in characteristic defects in the anterior and posterior secondary palate, these phenotypes were less severe than those seen in the corresponding Tgfb3 mutants. Moreover, our results demonstrate that Trim33, a novel chromatin reader and regulator of TGF-? signaling, cooperates with Smad4 during palatogenesis. Unlike the epithelium-specific Smad4 mutants, epithelium-specific Tak1:Smad4- and Trim33:Smad4-double mutants display reduced expression of Mmp13 in palatal medial edge epithelial cells, suggesting that both of these redundant mechanisms are required for appropriate TGF-? signal transduction. Moreover, we show that inactivation of Tak1 in Trim33:Smad4 double conditional knockouts leads to the palatal phenotypes which are identical to those seen in epithelium-specific Tgfb3 mutants. To conclude, our data reveal added complexity in TGF-? signaling during palatogenesis and demonstrate that functionally redundant pathways involving Smad4, Tak1 and Trim33 regulate palatal epithelial fusion. PMID:25523394

Lane, Jamie; Yumoto, Kenji; Azhar, Mohamad; Ninomiya-Tsuji, Jun; Inagaki, Maiko; Hu, Yingling; Deng, Chu-Xia; Kim, Jieun; Mishina, Yuji; Kaartinen, Vesa

2015-02-15

374

Leaf-Level Controls Over Emissions of Methanol and 2-Methyl-3-buten-2-ol, Oxygenated VOC With Different Production Mechanisms and Solubilities.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygenated VOC fluxes were investigated in leaves of deciduous trees and grasses, and needles of conifers, using a temperature-controlled leaf cuvette and a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer. Two alcohols, 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol (MBO) and methanol, emitted by these plants, illustrate two contrasting patterns of oxygenated VOC emissions. MBO is restricted to a small section of the genus Pinus, and is maximal in mature needles. Methanol production appears to be ubiquitous among higher plants, associated with demethylation of pectin during cell wall maturation, and emissions are therefore maximal during rapid leaf growth, decreasing in mature leaves. Although emissions of both compounds respond to variation in leaf temperature and incident light, the nature of the control is quite different. Production and emission of MBO are tightly coupled, and leaf pools are small. Light and temperature affect emissions directly through their effect on production which ceases rapidly in the dark. Effects of light and temperature on production of methanol are unknown, although emissions, and presumably production, continue through the night at reduced rates. Effects of light and temperature on methanol emission are indirect, through their effects on stomatal conductance and evapotranspiration. Data will be presented to justify a conceptual model in which methanol released in the demethylation of pectin partitions into the gas and liquid phase according to Henry's Law. Gas phase methanol is then emitted through the stomata. However, methanol emissions correlate more strongly with rates of evapotranspiration than with stomatal conductance, suggesting that much of the methanol is released from the dissolved pool along with the transpiration stream. At night, when stomatal conductance is low, and assuming constant production, gas phase concentrations increase, and the size of the aqueous pool increases in response. This aqueous pool then empties rapidly upon stomatal opening, correlating strongly with rates of transpiration. Following depletion of the pool, lower methanol emissions reflect a dynamic balance between rates of production, phase partitioning, stomatal conductance and transpiration.

Harley, P. C.; Greenberg, J. P.; Guenther, A. B.

2002-12-01

375

Transport versus on-farm slaughter of bison: Physiological stress, animal welfare, and avoidable trim losses  

PubMed Central

Ranched bison are typically less acclimated to handling than are domesticated livestock, suggesting that they might be more vulnerable to handling and transportation stressors. Grain-finished bison were slaughtered on-farm (n = 11), or held for 48 h, transported to a research abattoir, held in lairage for 18 h, and then slaughtered (n = 11). An additional group (n = 10) was sampled at a conventional fixed location abattoir. Measures included serum cortisol and corticosterone concentrations during on-farm handling and exsanguination, serum glucose, creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and trim losses. Transport was associated with an increase in trim loss. On-farm, glucose was elevated, CPK was positively associated with handling order over 12 h, and corticosterone concentration, although lower than cortisol concentration, showed a greater response to prolonged disturbance. With appropriate on-farm handling facilities, the use of on-farm slaughter and mobile abattoir could avoid muscle damage and trim losses, and mitigate injuries sustained during handling and transport of bison. PMID:24155478

McCorkell, Robert; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Galbraith, Jayson; Schaefer, Al; Caulkett, Nigel; Boysen, Soren; Pajor, Ed

2013-01-01

376

Development of improved tree-trimming equipment and techniques: Phase I. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This Phase I report of an EPRI study, ''...to design and produce prototype equipment capable of lowering costs and improving efficiency, safety, and flexibility of tree-trimming operations,'' evaluates present techniques and tools, identifies possible improvements, and develops new concepts for cutting and positioning equipment. Guided by the scientific method, the problem of tree trimming is defined by a work measurement system identifying the day's total activity and operations required. Data was accumulated by a computer-based literature search of 29 databases, a United States and Foreign patent search, questionnaires sent to 40 contractors, and a tool and equipment improvement survey of 25 utilities, plus in-depth studies of work situations. Forty new concepts were developed by analysis of accumulated data and creativity workshops, then given an initial screening for potential. A decision analysis, supported by an evaluation of the influence of various concepts on a modeled work situation, formed the basis for empirically testing the concepts. Five concepts emerged from testing. Economic considerations of costs of development, benefit/cost ratios, and savings to average size electric utilities were summarized. It was concluded that development of equipment for tree trimming has the potential for high return on investment.

Orr, J.W.; Gillon, J.P.

1982-09-01

377

Comparison of nerve trimming with the Er:YAG laser and steel knife  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Best outcome in nerve repair requires precise alignment and minimization of scar at the repair interface. Surgeons attempt to create the sharpest cut surface at the nerve edge prior to approximation. Pulsed laser modalities are being investigated in several medical applications which require precise atraumatic cutting. We compared nerve trimming with the Er:YAG laser (1375 J/cm2) to conventional steel knife trimming prior to neurorrhaphy. Sprague- Dawley rats were anesthetized with ketamine and xylazine. Under operating microscope magnification the sciatic nerve was dissected and transected using one of the test techniques. In the laser group, the pulses were directed axially across the nerve using a stage which fixed laser fiber/nerve distance and orientation. Specimens were sent for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at time zero. Epineurial repairs were performed with 10 - 0 nylon simple interrupted sutures. At intervals to 90 days, specimens were harvested and sectioned longitudinally and axially for histologic examination. Time zero SEM revealed clean cuts in both groups but individual axons were clearly visible in all laser specimens. Small pits were also visible on the cut surface of laser treated nerves. No significant differences in nerve morphology were seen during healing. Further studies to quantify axon counts, and functional outcome will be needed to assess this technique of nerve trimming. Delivery system improvements will also be required, to make the technique clinically practical.

Josephson, G. D.; Bass, Lawrence S.; Kasabian, A. K.

1995-05-01

378

Holey fibre delivered radiation for laser curing and trimming of direct write components  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we demonstrate how Holey Fibre (HF) technology can positively impact the field of materials processing and fabrication, specifically Direct Write (DW). DW is the large scale, patterned deposition of functional materials onto both flat and conformal surfaces. Currently, DW techniques involve thermal post-processing whereby the entire structure is enclosed inside an oven, so limiting the DW technique to small, heat resistant surfaces. Selectively laser curing the ink would allow the ink to be brought up to the required temperature without heating the surrounding substrate material. In addition the ability to trim components would allow miniature circuits to be written and devices to be tuned by changing the capacitance or resistance. HF technology enables in-situ curing and trimming of direct write components using the same rig and length of fibre. HF's with mode areas in excess of 450?m2 can be routinely fabricated allowing high power transmission whilst retaining the high beam quality of the radiation source. We will present results of curing and trimming trials which demonstrate that HF's provide a distinct advantage over standard multimode fibres by allowing both curing and machining to be achieved through a single delivery fibre.

Delmonte, T.; Raja, S.; McDonald, J.; Sidhu, J.; O'Driscoll, E. J.; Flanagan, J. C.; Hayes, J. R.; Petrovich, M. N.; Finazzi, V.; Polletti, F.; Richardson, D. J.; Hand, D. P.

2006-09-01

379

Conceptual Design of Low-Boom Aircraft with Flight Trim Requirement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new low-boom target generation approach is presented which allows the introduction of a trim requirement during the early conceptual design of supersonic aircraft. The formulation provides an approximation of the center of pressure for a presumed aircraft configuration with a reversed equivalent area matching a low-boom equivalent area target. The center of pressure is approximated from a surrogate lift distribution that is based on the lift component of the classical equivalent area. The assumptions of the formulation are verified to be sufficiently accurate for a supersonic aircraft of high fineness ratio through three case studies. The first two quantify and verify the accuracy and the sensitivity of the surrogate center of pressure corresponding to shape deformation of lifting components. The third verification case shows the capability of the approach to achieve a trim state while maintaining the low-boom characteristics of a previously untrimmed configuration. Finally, the new low-boom target generation approach is demonstrated through the early conceptual design of a demonstrator concept that is low-boom feasible, trimmed, and stable in cruise.

Ordaz, Irian; Geiselhart, Karl A.; Fenbert, James W.

2014-01-01

380

Testing of the Trim Tab Parametric Model in NASA Langley's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of NASA's Entry, Descent, and Landing technology development efforts, testing of Langley's Trim Tab Parametric Models was conducted in Test Section 2 of NASA Langley's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The objectives of these tests were to generate quantitative aerodynamic data and qualitative surface pressure data for experimental and computational validation and aerodynamic database development. Six component force-and-moment data were measured on 38 unique, blunt body trim tab configurations at Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5, angles of attack from -4deg to +20deg, and angles of sideslip from 0deg to +8deg. Configuration parameters investigated in this study were forebody shape, tab area, tab cant angle, and tab aspect ratio. Pressure Sensitive Paint was used to provide qualitative surface pressure mapping for a subset of these flow and configuration variables. Over the range of parameters tested, the effects of varying tab area and tab cant angle were found to be much more significant than varying tab aspect ratio relative to key aerodynamic performance requirements. Qualitative surface pressure data supported the integrated aerodynamic data and provided information to aid in future analyses of localized phenomena for trim tab configurations.

Murphy, Kelly J.; Watkins, Anthony N.; Korzun, Ashley M.; Edquist, Karl T.

2013-01-01

381

Transport versus on-farm slaughter of bison: physiological stress, animal welfare, and avoidable trim losses.  

PubMed

Ranched bison are typically less acclimated to handling than are domesticated livestock, suggesting that they might be more vulnerable to handling and transportation stressors. Grain-finished bison were slaughtered on-farm (n = 11), or held for 48 h, transported to a research abattoir, held in lairage for 18 h, and then slaughtered (n = 11). An additional group (n = 10) was sampled at a conventional fixed location abattoir. Measures included serum cortisol and corticosterone concentrations during on-farm handling and exsanguination, serum glucose, creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and trim losses. Transport was associated with an increase in trim loss. On-farm, glucose was elevated, CPK was positively associated with handling order over 12 h, and corticosterone concentration, although lower than cortisol concentration, showed a greater response to prolonged disturbance. With appropriate on-farm handling facilities, the use of on-farm slaughter and mobile abattoir could avoid muscle damage and trim losses, and mitigate injuries sustained during handling and transport of bison. PMID:24155478

McCorkell, Robert; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Galbraith, Jayson; Schaefer, Al; Caulkett, Nigel; Boysen, Soren; Pajor, Ed

2013-08-01

382

AES, EELS and TRIM simulation method study of InP(100) subjected to Ar+, He+ and H+ ions bombardment.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) have been performed in order to investigate the InP(100) surface subjected to ions bombardment. The InP(100) surface is always contaminated by carbon and oxygen revealed by C-KLL and O-KLL AES spectra recorded just after introduction of the sample in the UHV spectrometer chamber. The usually cleaning process of the surface is the bombardment by argon ions. However, even at low energy of ions beam (300 eV) indium clusters and phosphorus vacancies are usually formed on the surface. The aim of our study is to compare the behaviour of the surface when submitted to He+ or H+ ions bombardment. The helium ions accelerated at 500V voltage and for 45 mn allow removing contaminants but induces damaged and no stoichiometric surface. The proton ions were accelerated at low energy of 500 eV to bombard the InP surface at room temperature. The proton ions broke the In-P chemical bonds to induce the formation of In metal islands. Such a chemical reactivity between hydrogen and phosphorus led to form chemical species such as PH and PH3, which desorbed from the surface. The chemical susceptibly and the small size of H+ advantaged their diffusion into bulk. Since the experimental methods alone were not able to give us with accuracy the disturbed depth of the target by these ions. We associate to the AES and EELS spectroscopies, the TRIM (Transport and Range of Ions in Matter) simulation method in order to show the mechanism of interaction between Ar+, He+ or H+ ions and InP and determine the disturbed depth of the target by argon, helium or proton ions.

Ghaffour, M.; Abdellaoui, A.; Bouslama, M.; Ouerdane, A.; Abidri, B.

2012-06-01

383

A Simplified Assessment of Factors Controlling Phosphorus Loading from Oxygenated Sediments in a Very Shallow Eutrophic Lake  

Microsoft Academic Search

Factors controlling the release of bioavailable soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) from sediments in very shallow lakes are not fully understood. Our approach involved relatively simple measurements of four factors affecting the calculation of internal phosphorus load: the number of sampling sites, sediment freezing, incubation temperature and oxic state in Cootes Paradise Marsh, now a very shallow (Z = 70 cm)

Nadia Kelton; Patricia Chow-Fraser

2005-01-01

384

Controlling the size and composition of nanosized Pt-Ni octahedra to optimize their catalytic activities toward the oxygen reduction reaction.  

PubMed

Electrocatalysts based on Pt-Ni alloys have received considerable interest in recent years owing to their remarkable activities toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Here, we report the synthesis of nanosized Pt-Ni octahedra with a range of controlled sizes and compositions in an effort to optimize their ORR activities. If we employed benzyl ether as a solvent for the synthesis, we could readily control the edge lengths of the Pt-Ni octahedra in the range of 6-12?nm and keep the Pt/Ni atomic ratio at around 2.4 by varying the amount of oleylamine added into the reaction system. If we adjusted the amount of Ni precursor, the atomic ratio of Pt to Ni in the Pt-Ni octahedra could be controlled in the range of 1.4-3.7 and their edge lengths were kept at 9?nm. For the catalysts with a Pt/Ni atomic ratio around 2.4, their specific ORR activities (per unit surface area) increased monotonically as the edge length increased from 6 to 12?nm. However, the mass activities (per unit mass of Pt) of these Pt-Ni octahedra showed a maximum value at an edge length of 9?nm. The specific and mass activities for the Pt-Ni octahedra with an edge length of 9?nm but different compositions both showed peak values at a Pt/Ni atomic ratio of 2.4. PMID:24644079

Choi, Sang-Il; Xie, Shuifen; Shao, Minhua; Lu, Ning; Guerrero, Sandra; Odell, Jonathan H; Park, Jinho; Wang, Jinguo; Kim, Moon J; Xia, Younan

2014-05-01

385

Nucleo-Cytoplasmic Trafficking of TRIM8, a Novel Oncogene, Is Involved in Positive Regulation of TNF Induced NF-?B Pathway  

PubMed Central

TNF induced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) is one of the central signaling pathways that plays a critical role in carcinogenesis and inflammatory diseases. Post-translational modification through ubiquitin plays important role in the regulation of this pathway. In the current study, we investigated the role of TRIM8, member of RING family ubiquitin ligase in regulation of NF-?B pathway. We observed that TRIM8 positively regulates TNF induced NF-?B pathway. Different domains of TRIM8 showed discrete functions at the different steps in regulation of TNF induced NF-?B pathway. Ubiquitin ligase activity of TRIM8 is essential for regulation of NF-?B activation in both cytoplasm as well as nucleus. TRIM8 negates PIAS3 mediated negative repression of NF-?B at p65 by inducing translocation of PIAS3 from nucleus to cytoplasm as well as its turnover. TNF induces translocation of TRIM8 from nucleus to cytoplasm, which positively regulates NF-?B. The cytoplasmic translocation of TRIM8 is essential for TNF induced NF-?B but not for p65 mediated NF-?B regulation. TRIM8 also enhanced the clonogenic and migration ability of cells by modulating NF-?B. The further study will help to understand the role of TRIM8 in inflammation and cancer. PMID:23152791

Tomar, Dhanendra; Sripada, Lakshmi; Prajapati, Paresh; Singh, Rochika; Singh, Arun Kumar; Singh, Rajesh

2012-01-01

386

Cockpit control system conceptual design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this project was to provide a means for operating the ailerons, elevator, elevator trim, rudder, nosewheel steering, and brakes in the Triton primary flight trainer. The main design goals under consideration were to illustrate system and subsystem integration, control function ability, and producibility. Weight and maintenance goals were addressed.

Meholic, Greg; Brown, Rhonda; Hall, Melissa; Harvey, Robert; Singer, Michael; Tella, Gustavo

1993-01-01

387

33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...to eliminate fresh and or brackish water residuals in ballast tanks; and...30(f) shall retain any ballast water until it exits the Seaway. ...forces, as defined in the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, or that are owned...

2012-07-01

388

33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...to eliminate fresh and or brackish water residuals in ballast tanks; and...30(f) shall retain any ballast water until it exits the Seaway. ...forces, as defined in the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, or that are owned...

2014-07-01

389

33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...to eliminate fresh and or brackish water residuals in ballast tanks; and...30(f) shall retain any ballast water until it exits the Seaway. ...forces, as defined in the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, or that are owned...

2013-07-01

390

33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...to eliminate fresh and or brackish water residuals in ballast tanks; and...30(f) shall retain any ballast water until it exits the Seaway. ...forces, as defined in the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, or that are owned...

2011-07-01

391

33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...to eliminate fresh and or brackish water residuals in ballast tanks; and...30(f) shall retain any ballast water until it exits the Seaway. ...forces, as defined in the Federal Water Pollution Control Act, or that are owned...

2010-07-01

392

Thermal conductivity control by oxygen defect concentration modification in reducible oxides: The case of Pr{sub 0.1}Ce{sub 0.9}O{sub 2??} thin films  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate the impact on thermal conductivity of varying the concentration of oxygen vacancies and reduced cations in Pr{sub 0.1}Ce{sub 0.9}O{sub 2??} thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition. The oxygen vacancy concentration is controlled by varying the oxygen partial pressure between 1?×?10{sup ?4} and 1?atm at 650??°C. Corresponding changes in the oxygen non-stoichiometry (?) are monitored by detecting the lattice parameters of the films with high-resolution X-ray diffraction, while the thermal properties are characterized by time-domain thermoreflectance measurements. The films are shown to exhibit a variation in oxygen vacancy content, and in the Pr{sup 3+}/Pr{sup 4+} ratio, corresponding to changes in ? from 0.0027 to 0.0364, leading to a reduction in the thermal conductivity from k?=?6.62?±?0.61 to 3.82?±?0.51?W/m-K, respectively. These values agree well with those predicted by the Callaway and von Baeyer model for thermal conductivity in the presence of point imperfections. These results demonstrate the capability of controlling thermal conductivity via control of anion and cation defect concentrations in a given reducible oxide.

Luckyanova, Maria N.; Chen, Gang, E-mail: gchen2@mit.edu, E-mail: byildiz@mit.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Chen, Di; Tuller, Harry L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Ma, Wen; Yildiz, Bilge, E-mail: gchen2@mit.edu, E-mail: byildiz@mit.edu [Department of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2014-02-10

393

The use of a deflectable nose on a missile as a control device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wind tunnel tests have been carried out on a blunted ogive-cylinder with a deflectable nose at Mach numbers between 0.8 and 2.0. Although the results are subject to scale effects, it appears that the deflectable nose could find use as a missile control method. The results have been applied to two missile configurations. For a long slender missile the deflectable nose produces non-linear trim curves at subsonic speeds, approaching linearity at supersonic Mach numbers. Nevertheless, worth-while trimmed incidences can be achieved. Although a deflectable nose on a 105 mm shell at subsonic speeds produces only relatively small normal force coefficients at trim, the trim curves are linear. Furthermore, it appears that when used for terminal control significant deviations in shell impact point are attainable.

Thompson, K. D.

1981-05-01

394

Glycemic control influences lung membrane diffusion and oxygen saturation in exercise-trained subjects with type 1 diabetes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lung diffusing capacity (DLCO) is influenced by alveolar-capillary membrane conductance (D\\u000a M) and pulmonary capillary blood volume (V\\u000a C), both of which can be impaired in sedentary type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) subjects due to hyperglycemia. We sought to\\u000a determine if T1DM, and glycemic control, affected DLNO, DLCO, D\\u000a M, V\\u000a C and SaO2 during maximal exercise in aerobically fit

Courtney M. Wheatley; James C. Baldi; Nicholas A. Cassuto; William T. Foxx-Lupo; Eric M. Snyder

2011-01-01

395

CSN-associated USP48 confers stability to nuclear NF-?B/RelA by trimming K48-linked Ub-chains.  

PubMed

Diligent balance of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) activity is essential owing to NF-?B's decisive role in cellular processes including inflammation, immunity and cell survival. Ubiquitin/proteasome-system (UPS)-dependent degradation of activated NF-?B/RelA involves the cullin-RING-ubiquitin-ligase (CRL) ECS(SOCS1). The COP9 signalosome (CSN) controls ubiquitin (Ub) ligation by CRLs through the removal of the CRL-activating Ub-like modifier NEDD8 from their cullin subunits and through deubiquitinase (DUB) activity of associated DUBs. However, knowledge about DUBs involved in the regulation of NF-?B activity within the nucleus is scarce. In this study we observed that USP48, a DUB of hitherto ill-defined function identified through a siRNA screen, associates with the CSN and RelA in the nucleus. We show that USP48 trims rather than completely disassembles long K48-linked free and substrate-anchored Ub-chains, a catalytic property only shared with ataxin-3 (Atx3) and otubain-1 (OTU1), and that USP48 Ub-chain-trimming activity is regulated by casein-kinase-2 (CK2)-mediated phosphorylation in response to cytokine-stimulation. Functionally, we demonstrate for the first time the CSN and USP48 to cooperatively stabilize the nuclear pool of RelA, thereby facilitating timely induction and shutoff of NF-?B target genes. In summary, this study demonstrates that USP48, a nuclear DUB regulated by CK2, controls the UPS-dependent turnover of activated NF-?B/RelA in the nucleus together with the CSN. Thereby USP48 contributes to a timely control of immune responses. PMID:25486460

Schweitzer, Katrin; Naumann, Michael

2015-02-01

396

Soil mercury and CO2 emissions and their relationship under controlled laboratory conditions: Effects of oxygen depletion and soil sterilization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial carbon (C) pools play an important role in uptake, deposition, sequestration, and emission of atmospheric mercury (Hg). Thus, we investigated the fate of Hg during C mineralization processes using a laboratory flux set-up to evaluate to what degree decomposition of organic matter leads to emission and re- emission of Hg to the atmosphere, increased mobilization within terrestrial ecosystems, or long-term sequestration. Our laboratory system was supplied by air from pressurized tanks and allowed concurrent measurements of Hg and CO2 fluxes from 6 replicate soils chambers under controlled environmental conditions. Experimental treatments of flux samples included manipulations of C mineralization rates (by means of O2 depletion, sterilization, etc.). Results showed an excellent control on soil fluxes and highly accurate and replicable measurements of soil Hg and CO2 (i.e., mineralization) fluxes and little direct relationships between soil mineralization and Hg emission rates. Surprisingly though, soil Hg emissions increased in soils under anaerobic conditions (depletion of O2) indicating that low soil redox potential and/or anaerobic microbes might enhance Hg emission from terrestrial soils.

Berger, C.; Fain, X.; Obrist, D.

2008-12-01

397

RpoHII Activates Oxidative-Stress Defense Systems and Is Controlled by RpoE in the Singlet Oxygen-Dependent Response in Rhodobacter sphaeroides? †  

PubMed Central

Photosynthetic organisms need defense systems against photooxidative stress caused by the generation of highly reactive singlet oxygen (1O2). Here we show that the alternative sigma factor RpoHII is required for the expression of important defense factors and that deletion of rpoHII leads to increased sensitivity against exposure to 1O2 and methylglyoxal in Rhodobacter sphaeroides. The gene encoding RpoHII is controlled by RpoE, and thereby a sigma factor cascade is constituted. We provide the first in vivo study that identifies genes controlled by an RpoHII-type sigma factor, which is widely distributed in the Alphaproteobacteria. RpoHII-dependent genes encode oxidative-stress defense systems, including proteins for the degradation of methylglyoxal, detoxification of peroxides, 1O2 scavenging, and redox and iron homeostasis. Our experiments indicate that glutathione (GSH)-dependent mechanisms are involved in the defense against photooxidative stress in photosynthetic bacteria. Therefore, we conclude that systems pivotal for the organism's defense against photooxidative stress are strongly dependent on GSH and are specifically recognized by RpoHII in R. sphaeroides. PMID:18978062

Nuss, Aaron M.; Glaeser, Jens; Klug, Gabriele

2009-01-01

398

Innovative, High-Pressure, Cryogenic Control Valve: Short Face-to-Face, Reduced Cost  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A control valve that can throttle high-pressure cryogenic fluid embodies several design features that distinguish it over conventional valves designed for similar applications. Field and design engineers worked together to create a valve that would simplify installation, trim changes, and maintenance, thus reducing overall cost. The seals and plug stem packing were designed to perform optimally in cryogenic temperature ranges. Unlike conventional high-pressure cryogenic valves, the trim size can be changed independent of the body.

Wilkes, Karlin; Larsen, Ed; McCourt, Jackson

2003-01-01

399

Rhenium-Oxygen Interactions at High Temperatures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The reaction of pure rhenium metal with dilute oxygen/argon mixtures was studied from 600 to 1400 C. Temperature, oxygen pressure, and flow rates were systematically varied to determine the rate-controlling steps. At lower temperatures the oxygen/rhenium chemical reaction is rate limiting; at higher temperatures gas-phase diffusion of oxygen through the static boundary layer is rate limiting. At all temperatures post-reaction microstructures indicate preferential attack along certain crystallographic planes and defects.

Jacobson, Nathan S.; Myers, Dwight L.; Zhu, Dongming; Humphrey, Donald

2000-01-01

400

Aeronautic Instruments. Section VI : Oxygen Instruments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report contains statements as to amount of oxygen required at different altitudes and the methods of storing oxygen. The two types of control apparatus - the compressed oxygen type and the liquid oxygen type - are described. Ten different instruments of the compressed type are described, as well as the foreign instruments of the liquid types. The performance and specifications and the results of laboratory tests on all representative types conclude this report.

Hunt, F L

1923-01-01

401

Traveling with Portable Oxygen  

MedlinePLUS

... cient to meet their needs. Will I Need Oxygen on My Trip? If you use oxygen on ... airplane cabin at cruising altitude. Types of Portable Oxygen Several types of portable oxygen equipment are available ...

402

TRIM family proteins: emerging class of RING E3 ligases as regulator of NF-?B pathway.  

PubMed

The nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) transcription factor family plays a key role in regulation of the inflammatory pathway in response to different physiological stimuli starting from development to ageing. The dysregulation of NF-?B has been associated with many pathological conditions like inflammatory diseases, neurodegeneration, metabolic diseases and various kinds of malignancies. The NF-?B pathway is regulated by number of post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation and ubiquitination. Ubiquitin (Ub) E3 ligases are key regulators of the process of ubiquitination and provide specificity to the pathway as they recognise the substrate and determine the topology of ubiquitination. TRIMs, members of RING family of Ub E3 ligases, are characterised by the presence of three conserved domains, RING, B-Box and coiled-coil (RBCC). Emerging evidence suggests that TRIMs regulate innate immune signalling during infection and different pathological conditions. The studies have demonstrated the role of TRIMs in regulation of inflammatory pathways including NF-?B. Recent reports suggest that TRIMs play a critical role in regulation of the NF-?B pathway by ubiquitinating proteins at different steps. In the current review, we discuss the role of TRIMs as novel NF-?B regulators and their role in different pathophysiological conditions. PMID:25319221

Tomar, Dhanendra; Singh, Rajesh

2014-10-16

403

Controlled synthesis of mesoporous carbon modified by tungsten carbides as an improved electrocatalyst support for the oxygen reduction reaction  

SciTech Connect

Mesoporous carbon was modified with tungsten carbides by the carbothermal hydrogen reduction of a layer of chemisorbed 1:12 phosphotungstic anions (PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3-}) on carbon surfaces. Depending on the temperature of carbothermal treatment, different tungsten species, i.e., W, W{sub 2}C, WC, were formed on the carbon matrix. No significant changes in both surface areas and mesostructures were observed during the formation of various tungsten species on carbon surfaces under high-temperature conditions. A uniform dispersion of Pt nanoparticles (1-6 nm) can be achieved via nanoconfinement on the surfaces of both mesoporouscarbon and tungsten carbide-modified mesoporous carbon. Pt nanoparticles supported on mesoporous carbons modified with tungsten carbide (Pt/WC-C) exhibit enhanced electrocatalytic activities relative to the control, in which mesoporous carbons without carbide modification were directly used as a support (Pt/C). In addition, both enhanced thermal stability and good electrochemical stability were observed for the Pt/WC-C electrocatalyst.

Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Wang, Xiqing [ORNL; Zhou, Shenghu [ORNL; Zhu, Qing [ORNL

2009-01-01

404

A feasibility study regarding the addition of a fifth control to a rotorcraft in-flight simulator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The addition of a large movable horizontal tail surface to the control system of a rotorcraft in-flight simulator being developed from a Sikorsky UH-60A Black Hawk Helicopter is evaluated. The capabilities of the control surface as a trim control and as an active control are explored. The helicopter dynamics are modeled using the Generic Helicopter simulation program developed by Sikorsky Aircraft. The effect of the horizontal tail on the helicopter trim envelope is examined by plotting trim maps of the aircraft attitude and controls as a function of the flight speed and horizontal tail incidence. The control power of the tail surface relative to that of the other controls is examined by comparing control derivatives extracted from the simulation program over the flight speed envelope. The horizontal tail's contribution as an active control is evaluated using an explicit model following control synthesis involving a linear model of the helicopter in steady, level flight at a flight speed of eighty knots. The horizontal tail is found to provide additional control flexibility in the longitudinal axis. As a trim control, it provides effective control of the trim pitch attitude at mid to high forward speeds. As an active control, the horizontal tail provides useful pitching moment generating capabilities at mid to high forward speeds.

Turner, Simon; Andrisani, Dominick, II

1992-01-01

405

Multifunctional Co0.85Se/graphene hybrid nanosheets: controlled synthesis and enhanced performances for the oxygen reduction reaction and decomposition of hydrazine hydrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ultrathin nanosheets possess novel electronic structures and physical properties as compared with their corresponding bulk samples. However, the controlled synthesis of ultrathin monolayer nanosheets still remains a great challenge due to the lack of an intrinsic driving force for anisotropic growth of two-dimensional (2D) structures. Here we demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, the in situ synthesis of large-scale ultrathin single-crystalline Co0.85Se nanosheets on graphene oxide (GO) sheets, with a thickness of 3 nm. Owing to the synergetic chemical coupling effects between GO and Co0.85Se, the Co0.85Se/graphene hybrid nanosheets exhibit the highest catalytic performance among the available cobalt chalcogenide-based catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Moreover, Co0.85Se/graphene hybrid nanosheets can catalyze the decomposition of hydrazine hydrate rapidly, with 97% of hydrazine hydrate being degraded in 12 min and the degradation rate remaining constant over 10 consecutive cycles, thus having great potential as long-term catalysts in wastewater treatment.Ultrathin nanosheets possess novel electronic structures and physical properties as compared with their corresponding bulk samples. However, the controlled synthesis of ultrathin monolayer nanosheets still remains a great challenge due to the lack of an intrinsic driving force for anisotropic growth of two-dimensional (2D) structures. Here we demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, the in situ synthesis of large-scale ultrathin single-crystalline Co0.85Se nanosheets on graphene oxide (GO) sheets, with a thickness of 3 nm. Owing to the synergetic chemical coupling effects between GO and Co0.85Se, the Co0.85Se/graphene hybrid nanosheets exhibit the highest catalytic performance among the available cobalt chalcogenide-based catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Moreover, Co0.85Se/graphene hybrid nanosheets can catalyze the decomposition of hydrazine hydrate rapidly, with 97% of hydrazine hydrate being degraded in 12 min and the degradation rate remaining constant over 10 consecutive cycles, thus having great potential as long-term catalysts in wastewater treatment. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: SEM images, TEM images, XRD and UV/vis spectra, EDS and relevant theoretical calculation. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr05509d

Zhang, Lin-Fei; Zhang, Chun-Yang

2014-01-01

406

Limb-Girdle Muscular Dystrophy Type 2H Associated with Mutation in TRIM32, a Putative E3-Ubiquitin–Ligase Gene  

PubMed Central

Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H (LGMD2H) is a mild autosomal recessive myopathy that was first described in the Manitoba Hutterite population. Previous studies in our laboratory mapped the causative gene for this disease to a 6.5-Mb region in chromosomal region 9q31-33, flanked by D9S302 and D9S1850. We have now used additional families and a panel of 26 microsatellite markers to construct haplotypes. Twelve recombination events that reduced the size of the candidate region to 560 kb were identified or inferred. This region is flanked by D9S1126 and D9S737 and contains at least four genes. Exons of these genes were sequenced in one affected individual, and four sequence variations were identified. The families included in our study and 100 control individuals were tested for these variations. On the basis of our results, the mutation in the tripartite-motif–containing gene (TRIM32) that replaces aspartate with asparagine at position 487 appears to be the causative mutation of LGMD2H. All affected individuals were found to be homozygous for D487N, and this mutation was not found in any of the controls. This mutation occurs in an NHL (named after the proteins NCL1, HT2A, and LIN-41) domain at a position that is highly conserved. NHL domains are known to be involved in protein-protein interactions. Although the function of TRIM32 is unknown, current knowledge of the domain structure of this protein suggests that it may be an E3-ubiquitin ligase. If proven, this represents a new pathogenic mechanism leading to muscular dystrophy. PMID:11822024

Frosk, Patrick; Weiler, Tracey; Nylen, Edward; Sudha, Thangirala; Greenberg, Cheryl R.; Morgan, Kenneth; Fujiwara, T. Mary; Wrogemann, Klaus

2002-01-01

407

May 19, 2006 18:32 WSPC/Trim Size: 11in x 8.5in for Proceedings camera IDENTIFICATION OF -HELICES FROM  

E-print Network

May 19, 2006 18:32 WSPC/Trim Size: 11in x 8.5in for Proceedings camera 1 IDENTIFICATION OF -HELICES is Corresponding author. #12;May 19, 2006 18:32 WSPC/Trim Size: 11in x 8.5in for Proceedings camera 2 a continuous

Dal Palù, Alessandro

408

INFRARED BEAK TREATMENT: PART I, COMPARATIVE EFFECTS OF INFRARED AND 1/3 HOT-BLADE TRIMMING ON BEAK TOPOGRAPHY AND GROWTH.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This work is the first in a series of studies examining the effects of infrared beak trimming on production and well-being. Seventy-two 1-day-old layer chicks were randomly assigned to three groups: hot-blade trimming (HB) (reducing 1/3 beak length), infrared treatment (IR) at 60 watt (reducing 1/3-...

409

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS: PHASE II--PILOT SCALE TESTING AND UPDATED PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS FOR OXYGEN FIRED CFB WITH CO2 CAPTURE  

SciTech Connect

Because fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this Phase II study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated one promising near-term coal fired power plant configuration designed to capture CO{sub 2}