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1

A closed-form trim solution yielding minimum trim drag for airplanes with multiple longitudinal-control effectors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Airplane designs are currently being proposed with a multitude of lifting and control devices. Because of the redundancy in ways to generate moments and forces, there are a variety of strategies for trimming each airplane. A linear optimum trim solution (LOTS) is derived using a Lagrange formulation. LOTS enables the rapid calculation of the longitudinal load distribution resulting in the minimum trim drag in level, steady-state flight for airplanes with a mixture of three or more aerodynamic surfaces and propulsive control effectors. Comparisons of the trim drags obtained using LOTS, a direct constrained optimization method, and several ad hoc methods are presented for vortex-lattice representations of a three-surface airplane and two-surface airplane with thrust vectoring. These comparisons show that LOTS accurately predicts the results obtained from the nonlinear optimization and that the optimum methods result in trim drag reductions of up to 80 percent compared to the ad hoc methods.

Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Sliwa, Steven M.; Lallman, Frederick J.

1989-01-01

2

Matlab Stability and Control Toolbox: Trim and Static Stability Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents the technical background of the Trim and Static module of the Matlab Stability and Control Toolbox. This module performs a low-fidelity stability and control assessment of an aircraft model for a set of flight critical conditions. This is attained by determining if the control authority available for trim is sufficient and if the static stability characteristics are adequate. These conditions can be selected from a prescribed set or can be specified to meet particular requirements. The prescribed set of conditions includes horizontal flight, take-off rotation, landing flare, steady roll, steady turn and pull-up/ push-over flight, for which several operating conditions can be specified. A mathematical model was developed allowing for six-dimensional trim, adjustable inertial properties, asymmetric vehicle layouts, arbitrary number of engines, multi-axial thrust vectoring, engine(s)-out conditions, crosswind and gyroscopic effects.

Crespo, Luis G.; Kenny, Sean P.

2006-01-01

3

Local Analysis of Flow Conditions within a Geometrically Complex Control Valve Trim using CFD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computational Fluid Dynamics software has been used to simulate the flow conditions within a geometrically complex control valve trim. The results of this simulation are then analysed to find velocity and static pressure profiles at critical points within the trim to investigate the trim's ability to limit erosion caused by high flow velocities and cavitation. The CFD analysis carried out showed that trim offers favourable features against these causes of erosion for this trim design.

Green, J.; Mishra, R.; Charlton, M.; Owen, R.

2012-05-01

4

Airplane automatic control force trimming device for asymmetric engine failures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The difference in dynamic pressure in the propeller slipstreams as measured by sensors is divided by the freestream dynamic pressure generating a quantity proportional to the differential thrust coefficient. This quantity is used to command an electric trim motor to change the position of trim tab thereby retrimming the airplane to the new asymmetric power condition. The change in position of the trim tab produced by the electric trim motor is summed with the pilot's input to produce the actual trim tab position.

Stewart, Eric C. (inventor)

1987-01-01

5

Development and Operation of an Automatic Rotor Trim Control System for the UH-60 Individual Blade Control Wind Tunnel Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An automatic rotor trim control system was developed and successfully used during a wind tunnel test of a full-scale UH-60 rotor system with Individual Blade Control (IBC) actuators. The trim control system allowed rotor trim to be set more quickly, precisely and repeatably than in previous wind tunnel tests. This control system also allowed the rotor trim state to be maintained during transients and drift in wind tunnel flow, and through changes in IBC actuation. The ability to maintain a consistent rotor trim state was key to quickly and accurately evaluating the effect of IBC on rotor performance, vibration, noise and loads. This paper presents details of the design and implementation of the trim control system including the rotor system hardware, trim control requirements, and trim control hardware and software implementation. Results are presented showing the effect of IBC on rotor trim and dynamic response, a validation of the rotor dynamic simulation used to calculate the initial control gains and tuning of the control system, and the overall performance of the trim control system during the wind tunnel test.

Theodore, Colin R.; Tischler, Mark B.

2010-01-01

6

TRIM5alpha Modulates Immunodeficiency Virus Control in Rhesus Monkeys.  

PubMed

The cytoplasmic TRIM5alpha proteins of certain mammalian lineages efficiently recognize the incoming capsids of particular retroviruses and potently restrict infection in a species-specific manner. Successful retroviruses have evolved capsids that are less efficiently recognized by the TRIM5alpha proteins of the natural hosts. To address whether TRIM5alpha contributes to the outcome of retroviral infection in a susceptible host species, we investigated the impact of TRIM5 polymorphisms in rhesus monkeys on the course of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection. Full-length TRIM5alpha cDNAs were derived from each of 79 outbred monkeys and sequenced. Associations were explored between the expression of particular TRIM5 alleles and both the permissiveness of cells to SIV infection in vitro and clinical sequelae of SIV infection in vivo. Natural variation in the TRIM5alpha B30.2(SPRY) domain influenced the efficiency of SIVmac capsid binding and the in vitro susceptibility of cells from the monkeys to SIVmac infection. We also show the importance in vivo of the interaction of SIVmac with different allelic forms of TRIM5, demonstrating that particular alleles are associated with as much as 1.3 median log difference in set-point viral loads in SIVmac-infected rhesus monkeys. Moreover, these allelic forms of TRIM5 were associated with the extent of loss of central memory (CM) CD4+ T cells and the rate of progression to AIDS in the infected monkeys. These findings demonstrate a central role for TRIM5alpha in limiting the replication of an immunodeficiency virus infection in a primate host. PMID:20107597

Lim, So-Yon; Rogers, Thomas; Chan, Tiffany; Whitney, James B; Kim, Jonghwa; Sodroski, Joseph; Letvin, Norman L

2010-01-01

7

MATLAB Stability and Control Toolbox Trim and Static Stability Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MATLAB Stability and Control Toolbox (MASCOT) utilizes geometric, aerodynamic, and inertial inputs to calculate air vehicle stability in a variety of critical flight conditions. The code is based on fundamental, non-linear equations of motion and is able to translate results into a qualitative, graphical scale useful to the non-expert. MASCOT was created to provide the conceptual aircraft designer accurate predictions of air vehicle stability and control characteristics. The code takes as input mass property data in the form of an inertia tensor, aerodynamic loading data, and propulsion (i.e. thrust) loading data. Using fundamental nonlinear equations of motion, MASCOT then calculates vehicle trim and static stability data for the desired flight condition(s). Available flight conditions include six horizontal and six landing rotation conditions with varying options for engine out, crosswind, and sideslip, plus three take-off rotation conditions. Results are displayed through a unique graphical interface developed to provide the non-stability and control expert conceptual design engineer a qualitative scale indicating whether the vehicle has acceptable, marginal, or unacceptable static stability characteristics. If desired, the user can also examine the detailed, quantitative results.

Kenny, Sean P.; Crespo, Luis

2012-01-01

8

Association of TRIM22 with the type 1 interferon response and viral control during primary HIV-1 infection.  

PubMed

Type 1 interferons (IFNs) induce the expression of the tripartite interaction motif (TRIM) family of E3 ligases, but the contribution of these antiviral factors to HIV pathogenesis is not completely understood. We hypothesized that the increased expression of select type 1 IFN and TRIM isoforms is associated with a significantly lower likelihood of HIV-1 acquisition and viral control during primary HIV-1 infection. We measured IFN-?, IFN-?, myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA), human TRIM5? (huTRIM5?), and TRIM22 mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of high-risk, HIV-1-uninfected participants and HIV-1-positive study participants. Samples were available for 32 uninfected subjects and 28 infected persons, all within 1 year of infection. HIV-1-positive participants had higher levels of IFN-? (P = 0.0005), MxA (P = 0.007), and TRIM22 (P = 0.01) and lower levels of huTRIM5? (P < 0.001) than did HIV-1-negative participants. TRIM22 but not huTRIM5? correlated positively with type 1 IFN (IFN-?, IFN-?, and MxA) (all P < 0.0001). In a multivariate model, increased MxA expression showed a significant positive association with viral load (P = 0.0418). Furthermore, TRIM22 but not huTRIM5?, IFN-?, IFN-?, or MxA showed a negative correlation with plasma viral load (P = 0.0307) and a positive correlation with CD4(+) T-cell counts (P = 0.0281). In vitro studies revealed that HIV infection induced TRIM22 expression in PBMCs obtained from HIV-negative donors. Stable TRIM22 knockdown resulted in increased HIV-1 particle release and replication in Jurkat reporter cells. Collectively, these data suggest concordance between type 1 IFN and TRIM22 but not huTRIM5? expression in PBMCs and that TRIM22 likely acts as an antiviral effector in vivo. PMID:20980524

Singh, Ravesh; Gaiha, Gaurav; Werner, Lise; McKim, Kevin; Mlisana, Koleka; Luban, Jeremy; Walker, Bruce D; Karim, Salim S Abdool; Brass, Abraham L; Ndung'u, Thumbi

2011-01-01

9

Flight investigation of the effectiveness of an automatic aileron trim control device for personal airplanes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A flight investigation to determine the effectiveness of an automatic aileron trim control device installed in a personal airplane to augment the apparent spiral stability has been conducted. The device utilizes a rate-gyro sensing element in order to switch an on-off type of control that operates the ailerons at a fixed rate through control centering springs. An analytical study using phase-plane and analog-computer methods has been carried out to determine a desirable method of operation for the automatic trim control.

Phillips, William H; Kuehnel, Helmut A; Whitten, James B

1957-01-01

10

Application of a Broadband Active Vibration Control System to a Helicopter Trim Panel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper discusses testing of a broadband active vibration control concept on an interior trim panel in a helicopter cabin mockup located at ONERA's Centre de Toulouse. The control system consisted of twelve diamond-shaped piezoelectric actuators distributed around a 1.2m x 1.2m trim panel. Accelerometers were mounted at the four vertices of each diamond. The aspect ratio of the diamond was based on the dielectric constants of the piezoelectric material in order to create an actuator-sensor pair that was collocated over a broad frequency range. This allowed robust control to be implemented using simple, low power analog electronics. Initial testing on a thick acrylic window demonstrated the capability of the controller, but actuator performance was less satisfactory when mounted on a composite sandwich trim panel. This may have been due to the orthotropic nature of the trim panel, or due to its much higher stiffness relative to the acrylic window. Insights gained from a finite element study of the actuator-sensor-structural system are discussed.

Cabell, Randolph H.; Schiller, Noah H.; Simon, Frank

2013-01-01

11

Development and Operation of an Automatic Rotor Trim Control System for use During the UH-60 Individual Blade Control Wind Tunnel Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A full-scale wind tunnel test to evaluate the effects of Individual Blade Control (IBC) on the performance, vibration, noise and loads of a UH-60A rotor was recently completed in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel [1]. A key component of this wind tunnel test was an automatic rotor trim control system that allowed the rotor trim state to be set more precisely, quickly and repeatably than was possible with the rotor operator setting the trim condition manually. The trim control system was also able to maintain the desired trim condition through changes in IBC actuation both in open- and closed-loop IBC modes, and through long-period transients in wind tunnel flow. This ability of the trim control system to automatically set and maintain a steady rotor trim enabled the effects of different IBC inputs to be compared at common trim conditions and to perform these tests quickly without requiring the rotor operator to re-trim the rotor. The trim control system described in this paper was developed specifically for use during the IBC wind tunnel test

Theodore, Colin R.

2010-01-01

12

Helicopter trimming and tracking control using direct neural dynamic programming  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper advances a neural-network-based approximate dynamic programming control mechanism that can be applied to complex control problems such as helicopter flight control design. Based on direct neural dynamic programming (DNDP), an approximate dynamic programming methodology, the control system is tailored to learn to maneuver a helicopter. The paper consists of a comprehensive treatise of this DNDP-based tracking control framework

Russell Enns; Jennie Si

2003-01-01

13

Pressure from TRIM5? Contributes to Control of HIV-1 Replication by Individuals Expressing Protective HLA-B Alleles  

PubMed Central

The expression of certain HLA class I alleles, including HLA-B*27 and HLA-B*57, is associated with better control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, but the mechanisms responsible are not fully understood. We sought evidence that pressure from the human restriction factor TRIM5? (hTRIM5?) could contribute to viral control. The hTRIM5? sensitivity of viruses from both HLA-B*57-positive (HLA-B*57+) and HLA-B*27+ patients who spontaneously controlled viral replication, but not viruses from viremic patients expressing these alleles, was significantly greater than that of viruses from patients not expressing these protective HLA-B alleles. Overall, a significant negative correlation between hTRIM5? sensitivity and viral load was observed. In HLA-B*57+ patients, the T242N mutation in the HLA-B*57-restricted TW10 CD8+ T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope was strongly associated with hTRIM5? sensitivity. In HLA-B*27+ controllers, hTRIM5? sensitivity was associated with a significant reduction in emergence of key CTL mutations. In several patients, viral evolution to avoid hTRIM5? sensitivity was observed but could be associated with reduced viral replicative capacity. Thus, in individuals expressing protective HLA-B alleles, the combined pressures exerted by CTL, hTRIM5?, and capsid structural constraints can prevent viral escape both by impeding the selection of necessary resistance/compensatory mutations and forcing the selection of escape mutations that increase hTRIM5? sensitivity or impair viral replicative capacity.

Granier, Clemence; Battivelli, Emilie; Lecuroux, Camille; Venet, Alain; Lambotte, Olivier; Schmitt-Boulanger, Marion; Delaugerre, Constance; Molina, Jean-Michel; Chakrabarti, Lisa A.; Clavel, Francois

2013-01-01

14

Effect of control parameters on emitted volatile compounds in municipal solid waste and pine trimmings composting.  

PubMed

To investigate the effect of control parameters (moisture, aeration and C/N ratio) on the composting evolution (temperature, pH, O2 and volatile compounds (VCs)) of municipal solid waste and pine trimmings, a central composite experimental design was used. The ANFIS modelling obtained shows that all the independent parameters were clearly influenced by the studied parameters. The relative influence of the other independent variables on temperature was C/N > moisture > aeration. However, for pH, O2 and VCs followed the order C/N > aeration > moisture. Moreover, the results were concordant, with a positive relation between temperature and VCs. In this way, lower VCs contents in ambient atmosphere have been found by using medium-to-high aeration (< 0.1 l(air) kg(-1) min(-1)), medium-to-high C/N (60-77) and high moisture (> 55%). PMID:20401778

Delgado-Rodríguez, M; Ruiz-Montoya, M; Giraldez, I; Cabeza, I O; López, R; Díaz, M J

2010-01-01

15

Maximising municipal solid waste--legume trimming residue mixture degradation in composting by control parameters optimization.  

PubMed

Composting is one of the most successful biological processes for the treatment of the residues enriched in putrescible materials. The optimization of parameters which have an influence on the stability of the products is necessary in order to maximize recycling and recovery of waste components. The influence of the composting process parameters (aeration, moisture, C/N ratio, and time) on the stability parameters (organic matter, N-losses, chemical oxygen demand, nitrate, biodegradability coefficient) of the compost was studied. The composting experiment was carried out using Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) and Legume Trimming Residues (LTR) in 200 L isolated acrylic barrels following a Box-Behnken central composite experimental design. Second-order polynomial models were found for each of the studied compost stability parameter, which accurately described the relationship between the parameters. The differences among the experimental values and those estimated by using the equations never exceeded 10% of the former. Results of the modelling showed that excluding the time, the C/N ratio is the strongest variable influencing almost all the stability parameters studied in this case, with the exception of N-losses which is strongly dependent on moisture. Moreover, an optimized ratio MSW/LTR of 1/1 (w/w), moisture content in the range of 40-55% and moderate to low aeration rate (0.05-0.175 Lair kg(-)(1) min(-1)) is recommended to maximise degradation and to obtain a stable product during co-composting of MSW and LTR. PMID:23764508

Cabeza, I O; López, R; Ruiz-Montoya, M; Díaz, M J

2013-10-15

16

14 CFR 25.407 - Trim tab effects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.407 Trim tab...For elevator trim tabs, those required to trim the airplane at any point within the positive portion of...

2014-01-01

17

Application of the concept of dynamic trim control to automatic landing of carrier aircraft. [utilizing digital feedforeward control  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of a simulation study of an alternative design concept for an automatic landing control system are presented. The alternative design concept for an automatic landing control system is described. The design concept is the total aircraft flight control system (TAFCOS). TAFCOS is an open loop, feed forward system that commands the proper instantaneous thrust, angle of attack, and roll angle to achieve the forces required to follow the desired trajector. These dynamic trim conditions are determined by an inversion of the aircraft nonlinear force characteristics. The concept was applied to an A-7E aircraft approaching an aircraft carrier. The implementation details with an airborne digital computer are discussed. The automatic carrier landing situation is described. The simulation results are presented for a carrier approach with atmospheric disturbances, an approach with no disturbances, and for tailwind and headwind gusts.

Smith, G. A.; Meyer, G.

1980-01-01

18

Predictions of Control Inputs, Periodic Responses and Damping Levels of an Isolated Experimental Rotor in Trimmed Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the early 1990s the Aeroflightdynamics Directorate at the Ames Research Center has been conducting tests on isolated hingeless rotors in hover and forward flight. The primary objective is to generate a database on aeroelastic stability in trimmed flight for torsionally soft rotors at realistic tip speeds. The rotor test model has four soft inplane blades of NACA 0012 airfoil section with low torsional stiffness. The collective pitch and shaft tilt are set prior to each test run, and then the rotor is trimmed in the following sense: the longitudinal and lateral cyclic pitch controls are adjusted through a swashplate to minimize the 1/rev flapping moment at the 12 percent radial station. In hover, the database comprises lag regressive-mode damping with pitch variations. In forward flight the database comprises cyclic pitch controls, root flap moment and lag regressive-mode damping with advance ratio, shaft angle and pitch variations. This report presents the predictions and their correlation with the database. A modal analysis is used, in which nonrotating modes in flap bending, lag bending and torsion are computed from the measured blade mass and stiffness distributions. The airfoil aerodynamics is represented by the ONERA dynamic stall models of lift, drag and pitching moment, and the wake dynamics is represented by a state-space wake model. The trim analysis of finding, the cyclic controls and the corresponding, periodic responses is based on periodic shooting with damped Newton iteration; the Floquet transition matrix (FTM) comes out as a byproduct. The stabillty analysis of finding the frequencies and damping levels is based on the eigenvalue-eigenvector analysis of the FTM. All the structural and aerodynamic states are included from modeling to trim analysis. A major finding is that dynamic wake dramatically improves the correlation for the lateral cyclic pitch control. Overall, the correlation is fairly good.

Gaonkar, G. H.; Subramanian, S.

1996-01-01

19

14 CFR 23.407 - Trim tab effects.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 23.407 Trim tab effects. The effects of trim tabs on the control surface design conditions must be accounted for...

2014-01-01

20

Trim Trajectories Characterization for an Unmanned Autonomous Airship  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose an algorithm allowing the calculation of the trim trajectories for the airship. These trajectories are suitable for control, by linearizing the dynamic equations around the trim conditions, and hence simplifying significantly the controller synthesis. Another advantage related to trim trajectories consists in the simplification of the development of the aerodynamic parameters estimation algorithms. To ensure

Salim Hima; Yasmina Bestaoui

2006-01-01

21

14 CFR 25.677 - Trim systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 25...motion, of the airplane. (b) There...adjacent to the trim control to indicate the direction of the control movement relative to the airplane...

2014-01-01

22

14 CFR 23.677 - Trim systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction Control Systems § 23...direction of trim control movement relative to airplane motion...For multiengine airplanes, the longitudinal... (c) Tab controls must be...

2014-01-01

23

Trimmed Mean X and R Charts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A modified approach to the computation of control limits for X and R charts is introduced. This procedure consists of replacing sample mean with the trimmed mean of the subgroup averages, and R with the trimmed mean of the subgroup ranges. Standard tables...

P. Langenberg B. Iglewicz

1986-01-01

24

Tracking control of trim trajectories of a blimp for ascent and descent flight manoeuvres  

Microsoft Academic Search

A blimp is a small airship that has no metal framework and collapses when deflated. It belongs to family of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). In this paper we address the problem of designing tracking feedback control of an underactuated autonomous UAV. The ascent and descent flight conditions as one in which the rate of change (of magnitude) of the airship's

L. Beji; A. Abichou

2005-01-01

25

14 CFR 23.677 - Trim systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...directional trimming devices. (c) Tab controls must be irreversible unless the tab is properly balanced and has no unsafe flutter characteristics. Irreversible tab systems must have adequate rigidity and reliability in the portion of the system from...

2009-01-01

26

NCSX Trim Coil Design  

SciTech Connect

The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) was being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory in partnership with Oak Ridge National Laboratory before work was stopped in 2008. The objective of this experiment was to develop the stellarator concept and evaluate it's potential as a model for future fusion power plants. Stellarator design requires very precisely positioned Modular Coils of complex shape to form 3D plasmas. In the design of NCSX, Trim Coils were required to compensate for both the positioning of the coils during assembly and the fabrication tolerances of the Modular Coils. Use of the Trim Coils allowed for larger tolerances increasing ease of assembly and decreasing overall cost. A set of Trim coils was developed to suppress the toroidal flux in island regions due to misalignment, magnetic materials, and eddy currents. The requirement imposed upon the design forced the toroidal flux in island regions below 10% of the total toroidal flux in the plasma. An analysis was first performed to evaluate candidate Trim Coil configurations iterating both the size, number, and position of the coils. The design was optimized considering both performance and cost while staying within the tight restraints presented by the space limited geometry. The final design of the Trim Coils incorporated a 48 Coil top bottom symmetric set. Fabrication costs were minimized by having only two coil types and using a planar conventional design with off the shelf commercial conductor. The Trim Coil design incorporated supports made from simple structural shapes assembled together in a way which allowed for adjustment as well as accommodation for the tolerance build up on the mating surfaces. This paper will summarize the analysis that led to the optimization of the Trim Coils set, the trim coil mechanical design, thermal and stress analysis, and the design of the supporting Trim Coil structure.

M. Kalish, A. Brooks, J. Rushinski, R. Upcavage

2009-05-29

27

TRIM5? and Species Tropism of HIV/SIV  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infects humans and chimpanzees but not old world monkeys (OWMs) such as the rhesus monkey (Rh) and cynomolgus monkey (CM). HIV-1 efficiently enters cells of OWMs but encounters a block before reverse transcription. This narrow host range is attributed to a barrier in the host cell. In 2004, the screening of a Rh cDNA library identified tripartite motif 5? (TRIM5?) as a cellular antiviral factor. TRIM5? is one of splicing variants produced by TRIM5 gene and TRIM5 proteins are members of the TRIM family containing RING, B-box 2, and coiled-coil domains. The RING domain is frequently found in E3 ubiquitin ligase and TRIM5? is degraded via the ubiquitin–proteasome-dependent pathway. Among TRIM5 splicing variants, TRIM5? alone has an additional C-terminal PRYSPRY (B30.2) domain. Previous studies have shown that sequence variation in variable regions of the PRYSPRY domain among different monkey species affects species-specific retrovirus infection, while amino acid sequence differences in the viral capsid protein determine viral sensitivity to restriction. TRIM5? recognizes the multimerized capsid proteins (viral core) of an incoming virus by its PRYSPRY domain and is thus believed to control retroviral infection. There are significant intraspecies variations in the Rh-TRIM5 gene. It has also been reported that some Rh and CM individuals have retrotransposed cyclophilin A open reading frame in the TRIM5 gene, which produces TRIM5–cyclophilin A fusion protein (TRIMCyp). TRIMCyp, which was originally identified as an anti-HIV-1 factor of New World owl monkeys, is an interesting example of the gain of a new function by retrotransposition. As different TRIM5 genotypes of Rh showed different levels of simian immunodeficiency virus replication in vivo, the TRIM5 genotyping is thought to be important in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome monkey models.

Nakayama, Emi E.; Shioda, Tatsuo

2011-01-01

28

TRIM proteins and cancer.  

PubMed

Emerging clinical evidence shows that the deregulation of ubiquitin-mediated degradation of oncogene products or tumour suppressors is likely to be involved in the aetiology of carcinomas and leukaemias. Recent studies have indicated that some members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins (one of the subfamilies of the RING type E3 ubiquitin ligases) function as important regulators for carcinogenesis. This Review focuses on TRIM proteins that are involved in tumour development and progression. PMID:21979307

Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu

2011-11-01

29

Transcription cofactors TRIM24, TRIM28, and TRIM33 associate to form regulatory complexes that suppress murine hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

TRIM24 (TIF1?), TRIM28 (TIF1?), and TRIM33 (TIF1?) are three related cofactors belonging to the tripartite motif superfamily that interact with distinct transcription factors. TRIM24 interacts with the liganded retinoic acid (RA) receptor to repress its transcriptional activity. Germ line inactivation of TRIM24 in mice deregulates RA-signaling in hepatocytes leading to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here we show that TRIM24 can be purified as at least two macromolecular complexes comprising either TRIM33 or TRIM33 and TRIM28. Somatic hepatocyte-specific inactivation of TRIM24, TRIM28, or TRIM33 all promote HCC in a cell-autonomous manner in mice. Moreover, HCC formation upon TRIM24 inactivation is strongly potentiated by further loss of TRIM33. These results demonstrate that the TIF1-related subfamily of TRIM proteins interact both physically and functionally to modulate HCC formation in mice. PMID:21531907

Herquel, Benjamin; Ouararhni, Khalid; Khetchoumian, Konstantin; Ignat, Mihaela; Teletin, Marius; Mark, Manuel; Béchade, Guillaume; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Sanglier-Cianférani, Sarah; Hamiche, Ali; Cammas, Florence; Davidson, Irwin; Losson, Régine

2011-05-17

30

Frequency Trimming for MEMS Resonator Oscillators  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents various frequency trimming methodologies with the focus on silicon based micromechanical resonators. The techniques include mechanical trimming and pure electronic trimming. The experimental results showed the frequency accuracy have reached 2.6 ppm for mechanical trimming and lppm for electronic trimming. Furthermore, the technique of digital electronic trimming resolved the temperature compensation issues for MEMS resonators at the

Wan-Thai Hsu; A. R. Brown

2007-01-01

31

TRIM proteins and cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging clinical evidence shows that the deregulation of ubiquitin-mediated degradation of oncogene products or tumour suppressors is likely to be involved in the aetiology of carcinomas and leukaemias. Recent studies have indicated that some members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins (one of the subfamilies of the RING type E3 ubiquitin ligases) function as important regulators for carcinogenesis. This Review

Shigetsugu Hatakeyama

2011-01-01

32

14 CFR 25.677 - Trim systems.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...creeping in flight. Trim tab controls must be irreversible unless the tab is appropriately balanced and shown to be free from flutter. (d) If an irreversible tab control system is used, the part from the tab to the attachment of the irreversible...

2009-01-01

33

Structural basis for PRYSPRY-mediated tripartite motif (TRIM) protein function  

PubMed Central

The human tripartite motif (TRIM) family comprises 70 members, including HIV restriction factor TRIM5? and disease-associated proteins TRIM20 (pyrin) and TRIM21. TRIM proteins have conserved domain architecture but diverse cellular roles. Here, we describe how the C-terminal PRYSPRY domain mediates diverse TRIM functions. The crystal structure of TRIM21 PRYSPRY in complex with its target IgG Fc reveals a canonical binding interface comprised of two discrete pockets formed by antibody-like variable loops. Alanine scanning of this interface has identified the hot-spot residues that control TRIM21 binding to Fc; the same hot-spots control HIV/murine leukemia virus restriction by TRIM5? and mediate severe familial Mediterranean fever in TRIM20/pyrin. Characterization of the IgG binding site for TRIM21 PRYSPRY reveals TRIM21 as a superantigen analogous to bacterial protein A and suggests that an antibody bipolar bridging mechanism may contribute to the pathogenic accumulation of anti-TRIM21 autoantibody immune complex in autoimmune disease.

James, Leo C.; Keeble, Anthony H.; Khan, Zahra; Rhodes, David A.; Trowsdale, John

2007-01-01

34

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2004-04-01

35

Trimmed L-moments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Classical estimation methods (least squares, the method of moments and maximum likelihood) work well in regular cases such as the exponential family, but outliers can have undue influence on these methods. We define population trimmed L-moments (TL-moments) and corresponding sample TL-moments as robust generalisations of population and sample L-moments. TL-moments assign zero weight to extreme observations, they are easy to

Elsayed A. H. Elamir; Allan H. Seheult

2003-01-01

36

Trim or Replace Impellers on Oversized Pumps  

SciTech Connect

One in a series of tip sheets to help manufacturers optimize their industrial pumping systems. As a result of conservative engineering practices, pumps are often substantially larger than they need to be for an industrial plant's process requirements. Centrifugal pumps can often be oversized because of ''rounding up'', trying to accommodate gradual increases in pipe surface roughness and flow resistance over time, or anticipating future plant capacity expansions. In addition, the plant's pumping requirements might not have been clearly defined during the design phase. Because of this conservative approach, pumps can have operating points completely different from their design points. The pump head is often less than expected, while the flow rate is greater. This can cause cavitation and waste energy as the flow rate typically must be regulated with bypass or throttle control. Oversized and throttled pumps that produce excess pressure are excellent candidates for impeller replacement or ''trimming'', to save energy and reduce costs. Trimming involves machining the impeller to reduce its diameter. Trimming should be limited to about 75% of a pump's maximum impeller diameter, because excessive trimming can result in a mismatched impeller and casing. As the impeller diameter decreases, added clearance between the impeller and the fixed pump casing increases internal flow recirculation, causes head loss, and lowers pumping efficiency. For manufacturing standardization purposes, pump casings and shafts are designed to accommodate impellers in a range of sizes. Many pump manufacturers provide pump performance curves that indicate how various models will perform with different impeller diameters or trims. The impeller should not be trimmed any smaller than the minimum diameter shown on the curve. Net positive suction head requirements (NPSHR) usually decrease at lower flow rates and can increase at the higher end of the pump head curve. The NPSHR at a given flow rate will normally be greater with a smaller impeller, but engineers should consult with the pump manufacturer to determine variations in NPSHR before trimming the impeller. Manufacturers can often provide trim correction charts based on historical test data.

Not Available

2006-09-01

37

MiRNA need a TRIM regulation of miRNA activity by Trim-NHL proteins.  

PubMed

Trim-NHL proteins are defined by RING, B-Box and Coiled-coil protein motifs (referred to collectively as the Trim domain) coupled to an NHL domain. The C. elegans, D. melanogaster, mouse and human Trim-NHL proteins are potential and in several cases confirmed, E3 ubiquitin ligases. Current research is focused on identifying targets and pathways for Trim-NHL-mediated ubiquitination and in assessing the contribution of the NHL protein-protein interactiondomain for function and specificity. Several Trim-NHL proteins were discovered in screens for developmental genes in model organisms; mutations in one of the family members, Trim32, cause developmental disturbances in humans. In most instances, mutations that alter protein function map to the NHL domain. The NHL domain is a scaffold for the assembly of a translational repressor complex by the Brat proto-oncogene, a well-studied family member in Drosophila. The link to translational control is common to at least four Trim-NHLs that associate with miRNA pathway proteins. So far, two have been shown to repress (Mei-P26 and Lin41) and two to promote (NHL-2, Trim32) miRNA-mediated gene silencing. In this chapter we will describe structure-function relations for each of the proteins and then focus on the lessons being learned from these proteins about miRNA functions in development and in stem cell biology. PMID:21627033

Wulczyn, F Gregory; Cuevas, Elisa; Franzoni, Eleonora; Rybak, Agnieszka

2010-01-01

38

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

Increased environmental regulations will require utility boilers to reduce NO{sub x} emissions to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu in the near term. Conventional technologies such as Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) and Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) are unable to achieve these lowered emission levels without substantially higher costs and major operating problems. Oxygen enhanced combustion is a novel technology that allows utilities to meet the NO{sub x} emission requirements without the operational problems that occur with SCR and SNCR. Furthermore, oxygen enhanced combustion can achieve these NO{sub x} limits at costs lower than conventional technologies. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the use of oxygen enhanced combustion as a technical and economical method of meeting the EPA State Implementation Plan for NO{sub x} reduction to less than 0.15lb/MMBtu for a wide range of boilers and coal. The oxygen enhanced coal combustion program (Task 1) focused this quarter on the specific objective of exploration of the impact of oxygen enrichment on NO{sub x} formation utilizing small-scale combustors for parametric testing. Research efforts toward understanding any limitations to the applicability of the technology to different burners and fuels such as different types of coal are underway. The objective of the oxygen transport membrane (OTM) materials development program (Task 2.1) is to ascertain a suitable material composition that can be fabricated into dense tubes capable of producing the target oxygen flux under the operating conditions. This requires that the material have sufficient oxygen permeation resulting from high oxygen ion conductivity, high electronic conductivity and high oxygen surface exchange rate. The OTM element development program (Task 2.2) objective is to develop, fabricate and characterize OTM elements for laboratory and pilot reactors utilizing quality control parameters to ensure reproducibility and superior performance. A specific goal is to achieve a material that will sinter to desired density without compromising other variables such as reaction to binder systems or phase purity. Oxygen-enhanced combustion requires a facility which is capable of supplying high purity oxygen (>99.5%) at low costs. This goal can be achieved through the thermal integration of high temperature air separation with ceramic OTM. The objective of the OTM process development program (Task 2.3) is to demonstrate successfully the program objectives on a lab-scale single OTM tube reactor under process conditions comparable to those of an optimum large-scale oxygen facility. This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the first quarter April--June 2000 in the following task areas: Task 1 Oxygen Enhanced Coal Combustion; Task 2 Oxygen Transport Membranes; and Task 4 Program Management.

Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen; David R. Thompson

2000-07-01

39

Role of Human TRIM5? in Intrinsic Immunity  

PubMed Central

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has a very narrow host range. HIV type 1 (HIV-1) does not infect Old World monkeys, such as the rhesus monkey (Rh). Rh TRIM5? was identified as a factor that confers resistance, intrinsic immunity, to HIV-1 infection. Unfortunately, human TRIM5? is almost powerless to restrict HIV-1. However, human TRIM5? potently restricts N-tropic murine leukemia viruses (MLV) but not B-tropic MLV, indicating that human TRIM5? represents the restriction factor previously designated as Ref1. African green monkey TRIM5? represents another restriction factor previously designated as Lv1, which restricts both HIV-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from macaque (SIVmac) infection. TRIM5 is a member of the tripartite motif family containing RING, B-box2, and coiled-coil domains. The RING domain is frequently found in E3 ubiquitin ligase, and TRIM5? is thought to degrade viral core via ubiquitin–proteasome-dependent and -independent pathways. The alpha isoform of TRIM5 has an additional C-terminal PRYSPRY domain, which is a determinant of species-specific retrovirus restriction by TRIM5?. On the other hand, the target regions of viral capsid protein (CA) are scattered on the surface of core. A single amino acid difference in the surface-exposed loop between ?-helices 6 and 7 (L6/7) of HIV type 2 (HIV-2) CA affects viral sensitivity to human TRIM5? and was also shown to be associated with viral load in West African HIV-2 patients, indicating that human TRIM5? is a critical modulator of HIV-2 replication in vivo. Interestingly, L6/7 of CA corresponds to the MLV determinant of sensitivity to mouse factor Fv1, which potently restricts N-tropic MLV. In addition, human genetic polymorphisms also affect antiviral activity of human TRIM5?. Recently, human TRIM5? was shown to activate signaling pathways that lead to activation of NF-?B and AP-1 by interacting with TAK1 complex. TRIM5? is thus involved in control of viral infection in multiple ways.

Nakayama, Emi E.; Shioda, Tatsuo

2012-01-01

40

TRIM38 Negatively Regulates TLR3-Mediated IFN-? Signaling by Targeting TRIF for Degradation  

PubMed Central

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) mediated immune response is crucial for combating pathogens and must be tightly controlled. Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins are a family of proteins that is involved in a variety of biological and physiological processes. Some members of the TRIM family are important in the regulation of innate immunity. Although it has been shown that TRIM38 negatively regulates innate immunity, the mechanisms by which it does so have not been fully addressed. In this study, we demonstrated that TRIM38 negatively regulates Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)-mediated type I interferon signaling by targeting TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing IFN-? (TRIF). We found that overexpression of TRIM38 inhibits TLR3-mediated type I interferon signaling, whereas knockdown of TRIM38 has the reverse effects. We further showed that TRIM38 targets TRIF, a critical adaptor protein downstream of TLR3. TRIF is co-immunoprecipitated with TRIM38, and domain mapping experiments show that PRYSPRY of TRIM38 interacts with the N-terminus of TRIF. Overexpression of TRIM38 decreased expression of overexpressed and endogenous TRIF. This effect could be inhibited by MG132 treatment. Furthermore, the RING/B-box domain of TRIM38 is critical for K48-linked polyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of TRIF. Collectively, our results suggest that TRIM38 may act as a novel negative regulator for TLR3-mediated type I interferon signaling by targeting TRIF for degradation.

Xue, Qinghua; Zhou, Zhuo; Lei, Xiaobo; Liu, Xinlei; He, Bin; Wang, Jianwei; Hung, Tao

2012-01-01

41

An automatic incubator oxygen monitor and control system  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system consisting of a temperature-compensated polarographic oxygen sensor, oxygen monitor, specially designed control adaptor,\\u000a solenoid valve, and oxygen flow control valve was evaluated for its ability to monitor and control ambient oxygen concentration\\u000a in an infant incubator.\\u000a \\u000a The response of the system to changes in environmental oxygen is linear, the life of the freshly charged sensor is satisfactory\\u000a and

A. V. Beran; T. Doniguian; W. F. Taylor; D. R. Sperling

1972-01-01

42

Microbial Degradation and Humification of the Lawn Care Pesticide 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid during the Composting of Yard Trimmings  

Microsoft Academic Search

14 C-ring-labeled 2,4-D (17 mg\\/kg of dry weight) and composted in a temperature-controlled laboratory scale compost system. During composting, thermophilic microbes were numerically dominant, reaching a maximum of 2 31011\\/g. At the end of composting, 46% of the organic matter (OM) present in the yard trimmings was lost and the compost was stable, with an oxygen uptake rate of 0.09

FREDERICK C. MICHEL; C. ADINARAYANA REDDY; ANDLARRY J. FORNEY

1995-01-01

43

TRIM8/GERP RING finger protein interacts with SOCS-1.  

PubMed

Members of the suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) family of signaling molecules regulate the activation of cytokine signaling. Experimental evidence indicates that SOCS expression is induced by cytokines and pro-inflammatory stimuli and is controlled at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. SOCS proteins are unstable and seem to be rapidly degraded by proteasomal pathways. However, the mechanisms by which SOCS protein levels are regulated remain unclear. Here, we show that TRIM8/GERP, a RING finger protein, interacts with SOCS-1 in vitro and in vivo. TRIM8/GERP, previously identified as a new member of the family of proteins containing a tripartite motif (TRIM), is a 551-amino acid RING finger protein conserved across species. TRIM8/GERP expression can be induced by interferon-gamma in epithelial and lymphoid cells. Coexpression of TRIM8/GERP with SOCS-1 decreases SOCS-1 protein stability and levels. Functionally, expression of TRIM8/GERP decreases the repression of interferon-gamma signaling mediated by SOCS-1. These data suggest that TRIM8/GERP may be a regulator of SOCS-1 function. PMID:12163497

Toniato, Elena; Chen, X Peter; Losman, Julie; Flati, Vincenzo; Donahue, Liz; Rothman, Paul

2002-10-01

44

Anti-retroviral activity of TRIM5 alpha.  

PubMed

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) shows a very narrow host range limited to humans and chimpanzees. Experimentally, HIV-1 does not infect Old World monkeys, such as rhesus (Rh) and cynomolgus (CM) monkeys, and fails to replicate in activated CD4 positive T lymphocytes obtained from these monkeys. In contrast, simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from a macaque monkey (SIVmac) can replicate well in both Rh and CM. In 2004, tripartite motif 5 alpha (TRIM5 alpha) was identified as a host factor which plays an important role in the restricted host range of HIV-1. Rh and CM TRIM5 alpha restrict HIV-1 infection but not SIVmac, while in comparison, anti-viral activity of human TRIM5 alpha against those viruses is very weak. TRIM5 alpha consists of the RING, B-box 2, coiled-coil and SPRY (B30.2) domains. The RING domain is frequently found in E3 ubiquitin ligase and TRIM5 alpha is degraded via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway during HIV-1 restriction. TRIM5 alpha recognises the multimerised capsid (viral core) of an incoming virus by its alpha-isoform specific SPRY domain and is believed to be involved in innate immunity to control retroviral infection. Differences in amino acid sequences in the SPRY domain of TRIM5 alpha of different monkey species were found to affect species-specific restriction of retrovirus infection, while differences in amino acid sequences in the viral capsid protein determine viral sensitivity to restriction. Accurate structural analysis of the binding surface between the viral capsid protein and TRIM5 alpha SPRY is thus required for the development of new antiretroviral drugs that enhance anti-HIV-1 activity of human TRIM5 alpha. PMID:20049904

Nakayama, Emi E; Shioda, Tatsuo

2010-03-01

45

114. WEST SIDE OF LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROL ROOM (205). LIQUID ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

114. WEST SIDE OF LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROL ROOM (205). LIQUID NITROGEN (LN2) SUBCOOLER ON LEFT; SKID 8, LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROLLER FOR SWITCHING BETWEEN RAPID-LOAD AND TOPPING ON RIGHT. LIQUID OXYGEN LINE FROM SKID 9A AT RIGHT EDGE OF PHOTO. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

46

Controlled release of singlet oxygen using diphenylanthracene functionalized polymer nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Functionalized polymer nanoparticles react and store molecular oxygen for several weeks in the form of endoperoxides. On-demand controlled release of singlet oxygen by the particles is achieved by thermolysis. PMID:24531381

Martins, S; Farinha, J P S; Baleizão, C; Berberan-Santos, M N

2014-03-28

47

Discordant evolution of the adjacent antiretroviral genes TRIM22 and TRIM5 in mammals.  

PubMed

TRIM5alpha provides a cytoplasmic block to retroviral infection, and orthologs encoded by some primates are active against HIV. Here, we present an evolutionary comparison of the TRIM5 gene to its closest human paralogs: TRIM22, TRIM34, and TRIM6. We show that TRIM5 and TRIM22 have a dynamic history of gene expansion and loss during the evolution of mammals. The cow genome contains an expanded cluster of TRIM5 genes and no TRIM22 gene, while the dog genome encodes TRIM22 but has lost TRIM5. In contrast, TRIM6 and TRIM34 have been strictly preserved as single gene orthologs in human, dog, and cow. A more focused analysis of primates reveals that, while TRIM6 and TRIM34 have evolved under purifying selection, TRIM22 has evolved under positive selection as was previously observed for TRIM5. Based on TRIM22 sequences obtained from 27 primate genomes, we find that the positive selection of TRIM22 has occurred episodically for approximately 23 million years, perhaps reflecting the changing pathogenic landscape. However, we find that the evolutionary episodes of positive selection that have acted on TRIM5 and TRIM22 are mutually exclusive, with generally only one of these genes being positively selected in any given primate lineage. We interpret this to mean that the positive selection of one gene has constrained the adaptive flexibility of its neighbor, probably due to genetic linkage. Finally, we find a striking congruence in the positions of amino acid residues found to be under positive selection in both TRIM5alpha and TRIM22, which in both proteins fall predominantly in the beta2-beta3 surface loop of the B30.2 domain. Astonishingly, this same loop is under positive selection in the multiple cow TRIM5 genes as well, indicating that this small structural loop may be a viral recognition motif spanning a hundred million years of mammalian evolution. PMID:18159944

Sawyer, Sara L; Emerman, Michael; Malik, Harmit S

2007-12-01

48

Discordant Evolution of the Adjacent Antiretroviral Genes TRIM22 and TRIM5 in Mammals  

PubMed Central

TRIM5? provides a cytoplasmic block to retroviral infection, and orthologs encoded by some primates are active against HIV. Here, we present an evolutionary comparison of the TRIM5 gene to its closest human paralogs: TRIM22, TRIM34, and TRIM6. We show that TRIM5 and TRIM22 have a dynamic history of gene expansion and loss during the evolution of mammals. The cow genome contains an expanded cluster of TRIM5 genes and no TRIM22 gene, while the dog genome encodes TRIM22 but has lost TRIM5. In contrast, TRIM6 and TRIM34 have been strictly preserved as single gene orthologs in human, dog, and cow. A more focused analysis of primates reveals that, while TRIM6 and TRIM34 have evolved under purifying selection, TRIM22 has evolved under positive selection as was previously observed for TRIM5. Based on TRIM22 sequences obtained from 27 primate genomes, we find that the positive selection of TRIM22 has occurred episodically for approximately 23 million years, perhaps reflecting the changing pathogenic landscape. However, we find that the evolutionary episodes of positive selection that have acted on TRIM5 and TRIM22 are mutually exclusive, with generally only one of these genes being positively selected in any given primate lineage. We interpret this to mean that the positive selection of one gene has constrained the adaptive flexibility of its neighbor, probably due to genetic linkage. Finally, we find a striking congruence in the positions of amino acid residues found to be under positive selection in both TRIM5? and TRIM22, which in both proteins fall predominantly in the ?2-?3 surface loop of the B30.2 domain. Astonishingly, this same loop is under positive selection in the multiple cow TRIM5 genes as well, indicating that this small structural loop may be a viral recognition motif spanning a hundred million years of mammalian evolution.

Sawyer, Sara L; Emerman, Michael; Malik, Harmit S

2007-01-01

49

Controlled addition of small amounts of oxygen with membranes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In some fermentations micro-aerobic conditions are desirable. The controlled addition of trace amounts of oxygen may be achieved by bubble free oxygen supply using silicon membrane tube, operated in dead-end mode. The small oxygen uptake rate is accurately determined with this self-constructable device.

D. R. J. Grootjen; R. G. J. M. van der Lans; K. Ch. A. M. Luyben

1990-01-01

50

Early postmortem carcass trim effects on the tenderness of broiler breast fillets.  

PubMed

Broiler carcasses are often trimmed during evisceration to remove damaged areas of the carcass. Because deboning before rigor mortis development can toughen meat, trimming during evisceration may toughen the meat. This study evaluated the effects of trimming on the tenderness of broiler breast meat. To evaluate the effect of wing removal on tenderness, breast halves from 2 flocks were collected after chilling at a commercial plant. One-third were untrimmed controls, one-third had small amounts of breast meat removed with wing (WMin), and one-third had large amounts of breast meat removed with wing (Wmax). Salvage fillets from the 2 flocks were also collected from the salvage table of the plant. Carcasses were also processed to evaluate the effect of breast blister trimming that removed a superficial amount of muscle tissue, half of which had breast blister trims, and half did not. All front halves or carcasses were aged until 24 h postmortem and deboned. Salvage fillets were held refrigerated until 24 h postmortem. Fillets were cooked and then sheared in 2 locations on the fillet, upper and lower, to determine if tenderness was more affected at areas close to the trim. Carcasses with wing trims had significantly higher shear values compared with the control, and shear values from the upper portion of the fillets from the WMax and WMin (nearer the trim) were significantly greater than for the lower portion. Location, however, did not affect shear values in the control carcasses. This finding indicated that tenderness of the areas nearest the trim might be affected more by the trim process. Salvage table deboning significantly increased shear values throughout the fillet. There was no significant difference in shear value due to breast blister trimming. The results of this study suggest that trimming carcasses by wing or breast fillet removal results in decreased meat tenderness. PMID:15971536

Castañeda, M P; Hirschler, E M; Sams, A R

2005-06-01

51

Compact Analyzer/Controller For Oxygen-Enrichment System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

System controls hypersonic air-breathing engine tests. Compact analyzer/controller developed, built, and tested in small-scale wind tunnel prototype of the 8' HTT (High-Temperature Tunnel). Monitors level of oxygen and controls addition of liquid oxygen to enrich atmosphere for combustion. Ensures meaningful ground tests of hypersonic engines in range of speeds from mach 4 to mach 7.

Puster, Richard L.; Singh, Jag J.; Sprinkle, Danny R.

1990-01-01

52

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2004-01-01

53

Oxygen-depleted zones inside reproductive structures of Brassicaceae: implications for oxygen control of seed development  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Growth of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. in decreasing oxygen partial pressures revealed a linear decrease in seed production below 15 kPa, with a complete absence of seed production at 2.5 kPa oxygen. This control of plant reproduction by oxygen had previously been attributed to an oxygen effect on the partitioning between vegetative and reproductive growth. However, plants grown in a series of decreasing oxygen concentrations produced progressively smaller embryos that had stopped developing at progressively younger stages, suggesting instead that their growth is limited by oxygen. Internal oxygen concentrations of buds, pistils, and developing siliques of Brassica rapa L. and siliques of Arabidopsis were measured using a small-diameter glass electrode that was moved into the structures using a micromanipulator. Oxygen partial pressures were found to be lowest in the developing perianth (11.1 kPa) and pistils (15.2 kPa) of the unopened buds. Pollination reduced oxygen concentration inside the pistils by 3 kPa after just 24 h. Inside Brassica silique locules, partial pressures of oxygen averaged 12.2 kPa in darkness, and increased linearly with increasing light levels to 16.2 kPa. Measurements inside Arabidopsis siliques averaged 6.1 kPa in the dark and rose to 12.2 kPa with light. Hypoxia in these microenvironments is postulated to be the point of control of plant reproduction by oxygen.

Porterfield, D. M.; Kuang, A.; Smith, P. J.; Crispi, M. L.; Musgrave, M. E.

1999-01-01

54

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the fourth quarter January-March 2001 in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes and Task 4 - Program Management. This report will also recap the results of the past year. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the first year. OTM material characterization was completed. 100% of commercial target flux was demonstrated with OTM disks. The design and assembly of Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility was completed. The production of oxygen with a purity of better than 99.5% was demonstrated. Coal combustion testing was conducted at the University of Arizona. Modest oxygen enhancement resulted in NOx emissions reduction. The injector for oxygen enhanced coal based reburning was conducted at Praxair. Combustion modeling with Keystone boiler was completed. Pilot-scale combustion test furnace simulations continued this quarter.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2001-04-01

55

NCI-Frederick PHL - Trimming and Embedding  

Cancer.gov

Trimming consists of cutting 3-4 mm thick representative sections of requested tissues following specialized trim protocols with detailed orientation instructions of each tissue. The trimmed tissues are then placed in uniquely identified cassettes for processing into paraffin blocks. An average of 3 different tissues or sections of one tissue are embedded per block.

56

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the fourth quarter January-March 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. This report will also recap the results of the past year. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the second year. The first round of pilot scale testing with 3 bituminous coals was completed at the University of Utah. Full-scale testing equipment is in place and experiments are underway. Coal combustion lab-scale testing was completed at the University of Arizona. Modest oxygen enhancement resulted in NOx emissions reduction. Combustion modeling activities continued with pilot-scale combustion test furnace simulations. 75% of target oxygen flux was demonstrated with small PSO1 tube in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility. The production of oxygen with a purity of better than 99.999% was demonstrated. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Two potential host sites have been identified.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2002-04-01

57

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the eleventh quarter, October-December 2002, in the following task areas: Task 1 - Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2 - Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3 - Economic Evaluation and Task 4 - Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Pilot scale experiments conducted at the University of Utah were aimed at confirming the importance of oxygen injection strategy for different types of burners. CFD modeling at REI was used to better understand the potential for increased corrosion under oxygen enhanced combustion conditions. Data from a full-scale demonstration test in Springfield, MO were analyzed. OTM element development continued with preliminary investigation of an alternative method of fabrication of PSO1d elements. OTM process development continued with long-term testing of a PSO1d element. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Proposals have been submitted for two additional beta test sites. A first commercial proposal has been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2003-02-01

58

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the twelfth quarter, January-March 2003, in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Pilot scale experiments conducted at the University of Utah explored both the effectiveness of oxygen addition and the best way to add oxygen with a scaled version of Riley Power's newest low NOx burner design. CFD modeling was done to compare the REI's modeling results for James River Unit 3 with the NOx and LOI results obtained during the demonstration program at that facility. Investigation of an alternative method of fabrication of PSO1d elements was conducted. OTM process development work has concluded with the completion of a long-term test of a PSO1d element Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Proposals have been submitted for two additional beta test sites. Commercial proposals have been submitted. Economic analysis of a beta site test performance was conducted.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2003-04-01

59

Polydopamine gradients by oxygen diffusion controlled autoxidation.  

PubMed

We report a simple and facile protocol to fabricate mussel-inspired polydopamine (PDA) gradients on different surfaces. An oxygen diffusion phenomenon was used for dopamine autoxidation to form thickness gradients of PDA on different substrates. These PDA gradients showed gradual changes in thickness, roughness, wettability and light transmittance. PMID:24088788

Yang, Hao-Cheng; Wu, Qing-Yun; Wan, Ling-Shu; Xu, Zhi-Kang

2013-11-18

60

Factors affecting laser-trim stability of thick film resistors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various factors affecting precision of trim and resistor stability were considered. The influence of machine operating parameters on resistor performance was examined and quantified through statistically designed experiments for a Q switched YAG laser system. Laser kerf quality was studied by scanning electron microscopy and related to kerf isolation resistance measurements. A relatively simple production oriented, quality control test is proposed for rapid determination of kerf electrical stability. In addition, the effect of cut design and extent of trim on precision and stability were discussed.

Cote, R. E.; Headley, R. C.

1977-01-01

61

Inhibition of retroviral replication by members of the TRIM protein family.  

PubMed

The TRIM protein family is emerging as a central component of mammalian antiviral innate immunity. Beginning with the identification of TRIM5? as a mammalian post-entry restriction factor against retroviruses, to the repeated observation that many TRIMs ubiquitinate and regulate signaling pathways, the past decade has witnessed an intense research effort to understand how TRIM proteins influence immunity. The list of viral families targeted directly or indirectly by TRIM proteins has grown to include adenoviruses, hepadnaviruses, picornaviruses, flaviviruses, orthomyxoviruses, paramyxoviruses, herpesviruses, rhabdoviruses and arenaviruses. We have come to appreciate how, through intense bouts of positive selection, some TRIM genes have been honed into species-specific restriction factors. Similarly, in the case of TRIMCyp, we are beginning to understand how viruses too have mutated to evade restriction, suggesting that TRIM and viruses have coevolved for millions of years of primate evolution. Recently, TRIM5? returned to the limelight when it was shown to trigger the expression of antiviral genes upon recognition of an incoming virus, a paradigm shift that demonstrated that restriction factors make excellent pathogen sensors. However, it remains unclear how many of ~100 human TRIM genes are antiviral, despite the expression of many of these genes being upregulated by interferon and upon viral infection. TRIM proteins do not conform to one type of antiviral mechanism, reflecting the diversity of viruses they target. Moreover, the cofactors of restriction remain largely enigmatic. The control of retroviral replication remains an important medical subject and provides a useful backdrop for reviewing how TRIM proteins act to repress viral replication. PMID:23686231

Fletcher, Adam J; Towers, Greg J

2013-01-01

62

Amplification of TRIM44: Pairing a Prognostic Target With Potential Therapeutic Strategy  

PubMed Central

Background Many prognostic biomarkers have been proposed recently. However, there is a lack of therapeutic strategies exploiting novel prognostic biomarkers. We aimed to propose therapeutic options in patients with overexpression of TRIM44, a recently identified prognostic gene. Methods Genomic and transcriptomic data of epithelial cancers (n = 1932), breast cancers (BCs; n = 1980) and esophago-gastric cancers (EGCs; n = 163) were used to identify genomic aberrations driving TRIM44 overexpression. The driver gene status of TRIM44 was determined using a small interfering RNA (siRNA) screen of the 11p13 amplicon. Integrative analysis was applied across multiple datasets to identify pathway activation and potential therapeutic strategies. Validation of the in silico findings were performed using in vitro assays, xenografts, and patient samples (n = 160). Results TRIM44 overexpression results from genomic amplification in 16.1% of epithelial cancers, including 8.1% of EGCs and 6.1% of BCs. This was confirmed using fluorescent in situ hybridization. The siRNA screen confirmed TRIM44 to be a driver of the amplicon. In silico analysis revealed an association between TRIM44 and mTOR signalling, supported by a decrease in mTOR signalling after siRNA knockdown of TRIM44 in cell lines and colocalization of TRIM44 and p-mTOR in patient samples. In vitro inhibition studies using an mTOR inhibitor (everolimus) decreased cell viability in two TRIM44-amplified cells lines by 88% and 70% compared with 35% in the control cell line. These findings were recapitulated in xenograft models. Conclusions Genomic amplification drives TRIM44 overexpression in EGCs and BCs. Targeting the mTOR pathway provides a potential therapeutic option for TRIM44-amplified tumors.

Ong, Chin-Ann Johnny; Shannon, Nicholas B.; Ross-Innes, Caryn S.; O'Donovan, Maria; Rueda, Oscar M.; Hu, De-en; Kettunen, Mikko I.; Walker, Christina Elaine; Noorani, Ayesha; Hardwick, Richard H.; Caldas, Carlos; Brindle, Kevin

2014-01-01

63

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the second quarter July--September 2000 in the following task areas: Task 1-Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2-Oxygen Transport Membranes and Task 4-Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the first year. OTM tube characterization is well underway, the design and assembly of the high pressure permeation test facility is complete and the facility will be in full operation during the next quarter. Combustion testing has been initiated at both the University of Arizona and Praxair. Testing at the University of Arizona has experienced some delays; steps have been take to get the test work back on schedule. Completion of the first phase of the testing is expected in next quarter. Combustion modeling has been started at both REI and Praxair, preliminary results are expected in the next quarter.

Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen; David R. Thompson

2000-10-01

64

OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL  

SciTech Connect

This quarterly technical progress report will summarize work accomplished for the Program through the ninth quarter April-June 2002 in the following task areas: Task 1--Oxygen Enhanced Combustion, Task 2--Oxygen Transport Membranes, Task 3--Economic Evaluation and Task 4--Program Management. The program is proceeding in accordance with the objectives for the third year. Full-scale testing using the Industrial Boiler Simulation Facility (ISBF) at Alstom Power was completed. The pilot scale experiments to evaluate the effect of air preheat and transport air stoichiometric ratio (SR) on NOx emissions were conducted at the University of Utah. Combustion modeling activities continued with full-scale combustion test furnace simulations. An OTM element was tested in Praxair's single tube high-pressure test facility and two thermal cycles were completed. PSO1d elements of new dimension were tested resulting in a lower flux than previous PSO1d elements of different dimensions, however, no element deformation was observed. Economic evaluation has confirmed the advantage of oxygen-enhanced combustion. Two potential host beta sites have been identified and proposals submitted.

David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

2002-08-01

65

Robust Nonorthogonal Analyses Revisited: An Update Based on Trimmed Means.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Three approaches to the analysis of main and interaction effect hypotheses in nonorthogonal designs were compared in a 2 x 2 design for data that was neither normal in form nor equal in variance. The Welch-James test with trimmed means and Winsorized variances provided excellent Type I error control. (SLD)

Keselman, H. J.; Kowalchuk, Rhonda K.; Lix, Lisa M.

1998-01-01

66

Adaptive dissolved oxygen control based on dynamic structure neural network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activated sludge wastewater treatment processes (WWTPs) are difficult to control because of their complex nonlinear behavior. In this paper, an adaptive controller based on a dynamic structure neural network (ACDSNN) is proposed to control the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration in a wastewater treatment process (WWTP). The proposed ACDSNN incorporates a structure variable feedforward neural network (FNN), where the FNN can

Hong-Gui Han; Jun-Fei Qiao

2011-01-01

67

Application of the concept of dynamic trim control and nonlinear system inverses to automatic control of a vertical attitude takeoff and landing aircraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A full envelope automatic flight control system based on nonlinear inverse systems concepts has been applied to a vertical attitude takeoff and landing (VATOL) fighter aircraft. A new method for using an airborne digital aircraft model to perform the inversion of a nonlinear aircraft model is presented together with the results of a simulation study of the nonlinear inverse system concept for the vertical-attitude hover mode. The system response to maneuver commands in the vertical attitude was found to be excellent; and recovery from large initial offsets and large disturbances was found to be very satisfactory.

Smith, G. A.; Meyer, G.

1981-01-01

68

Oxygen atom density and thermal energy control in an electric-oxygen iodine laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Experiments[1] with Electric Oxygen-Iodine Laser (ElectricOIL) heat exchanger technology have demonstrated improved control of oxygen atom density and thermal energy, with minimal quenching of O2(a1?), and increasing small signal gain from 0.26% cm-1 to 0.30% cm-1. Heat exchanger technological improvements were achieved through both experimental and modeling studies, including estimation of O2(a1?) surface quenching coefficients for select ElectricOIL materials downstream of a radio-frequency discharge-driven singlet oxygen generator. Estimation of O2(a1?) quenching coefficients is differentiated from previous studies by inclusion of oxygen atoms, historically scrubbed using HgO[2-4] or AgO[5]. High-fidelity, time-dependent and steady-state simulations are presented using the new BLAZE-VI multi-physics simulation suite[6] and compared to data.

Benavides, G. F.; Palla, A. D.; Zimmerman, J. W.; Woodard, B. S.; Carroll, D. L.; Solomon, W. C.

2014-02-01

69

16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303.12 Section 303...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles. (a) Trimmings...

2010-01-01

70

16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303.12 Section 303...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles. (a) Trimmings...

2009-01-01

71

142. STANDBY PRESSURE CONTROL UNIT FOR FUEL AND LIQUID OXYGEN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

142. STANDBY PRESSURE CONTROL UNIT FOR FUEL AND LIQUID OXYGEN IN SOUTHWEST PORTION OF CONTROL ROOM (214), LSB (BLDG. 751), FACING WEST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

72

Modeling, simulation, and control of an extraterrestrial oxygen production plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

The immediate objective is the development of a new methodology for simulation of process plants used to produce oxygen and\\/or other useful materials from local planetary resources. Computer communication, artificial intelligence, smart sensors, and distributed control algorithms are being developed and implemented so that the simulation or an actual plant can be controlled from a remote location. The ultimate result

L. Schooley; F. Cellier; B. Zeigler; A. Doser; G. Farrenkopf

1991-01-01

73

Phase Shifter Start/Stop Electronic Trimming.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The phase shifter start/stop electronic trimming circuit provides a means for electronically trimming phase shifters when stop/start two-axis steering is used. A time delay is incorporated into the start logic line of each phase shifter driver allowing th...

J. M. Loomis

1981-01-01

74

Optimum edging and trimming of hardwood lumber  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before the adoption of an automated system for optimizing edging and trimming in hardwood mills, the performance of present manual systems must be eval- uated to provide a basis for comparison. A study was made in which lumber values recovered in actual hard- wood operations were compared to the output of a computer-based procedure for edging and trimming optimization. The

Carmen Regalado; D. Earl Kline; Philip A. Araman

75

An Interview with John Trim at 80  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents an interview with Dr. John Trim, which was recorded at his home in Cambridge on January 21, 2005, not long after his 80th birthday in October 2004. Although he would not consider himself a language tester, Dr. Trim has followed the trends in language assessment since the 1960s and his own work, particularly as a coauthor of…

Saville, Nick

2005-01-01

76

Biochemical and Biophysical Characterization of a Chimeric TRIM21-TRIM5? Protein?  

PubMed Central

The tripartite motif (TRIM) protein, TRIM5?, is an endogenous factor in primates that recognizes the capsids of certain retroviruses after virus entry into the host cell. TRIM5? promotes premature uncoating of the capsid, thus blocking virus infection. Low levels of expression and tendencies to aggregate have hindered the biochemical, biophysical, and structural characterization of TRIM proteins. Here, a chimeric TRIM5? protein (TRIM5Rh-21R) with a RING domain derived from TRIM21 was expressed in baculovirus-infected insect cells and purified. Although a fraction of the TRIM5Rh-21R protein formed large aggregates, soluble fractions of the protein formed oligomers (mainly dimers), exhibited a protease-resistant core, and contained a high percentage of helical secondary structure. Cross-linking followed by negative staining and electron microscopy suggested a globular structure. The purified TRIM5Rh-21R protein displayed E3-ligase activity in vitro and also self-ubiquitylated in the presence of ubiquitin-activating and -conjugating enzymes. The purified TRIM5Rh-21R protein specifically associated with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 capsid-like complexes; a deletion within the V1 variable region of the B30.2(SPRY) domain decreased capsid binding. Thus, the TRIM5Rh-21R restriction factor can directly recognize retroviral capsid-like complexes in the absence of other mammalian proteins.

Kar, Alak Kanti; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Li, Yuan; Li, Xing; Sodroski, Joseph

2008-01-01

77

Atmospheric oxygen concentration controls the size history of foraminifers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Body size correlates with numerous physiological traits and thus influences organism fitness. However, long-term controls on size evolution remain poorly understood because few datasets spans sufficiently long intervals. One proposed controlling factor is variation in atmospheric oxygen, which is widely argued to have influenced size evolution in numerous taxa, notably gigantism in arthropods during the late Paleozoic. In this study, we compiled a comprehensive genus- and species-level size database of foraminifers (marine protists) to enable an extensive analysis of factors influencing size evolution. Foraminifers are an ideal study group because they are present in all Phanerozoic periods and have been diverse and abundant in shallow-marine habitats since Devonian time. We observe significant correlation between foraminiferan size and atmospheric oxygen concentration in foraminifers as a whole and in half of the major subclades. Larger size is associated with higher oxygen concentrations, as predicted by simple physiological models based on changes in the ratio of surface area to volume. Because the oxygen content ocean waters is controlled in part by atmospheric pO2, we interpret the association between foraminiferan size and pO2 to result from a direct physiological effect of oxygen availability. Atmospheric oxygen concentration predicts foraminiferan size better than six other Phanerozoic time series (pCO2, sea level, number of named geological formations, ?18O, ?13C, 87Sr/86Sr), further suggesting the correlation between oxygen and size does not occur simply through some common geological cause that influences many aspects of Earth system history. These findings support the hypothesis that widespread Permo-Carboniferous gigantism was enabled by high pO2 and suggest that oxygen availability has been among the most important influences on size evolution through Phanerozoic time.

Payne, J.; Jost, A. B.; Ouyang, X.; Skotheim, J. M.; Wang, S. C.

2010-12-01

78

Control of oxygenation in lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase catalysis  

PubMed Central

Lipoxygenases (LOX) and cyclooxygenases (COX) react an achiral polyunsaturated fatty acid with oxygen to form a chiral peroxide product of high regio- and stereochemical purity. Both enzymes employ free radical chemistry reminiscent of hydrocarbon autoxidation but execute efficient control during catalysis to form a specific product over the multitude of isomers found in the non-enzymatic reaction. Exactly how both dioxygenases achieve this positional and stereo control is far from clear. We present four mechanistic models, not mutually exclusive, that could account for the specific reactions of molecular oxygen with a fatty acid in the LOX or COX active site.

Schneider, Claus; Pratt, Derek A.; Porter, Ned A.; Brash, Alan R.

2009-01-01

79

Wavelength Trimming of Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers with High-Contrast Subwavelength Grating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We proposed a trimming technology for the precise control of the lasing wavelength and lasing performance of high-contrast subwavelength grating (HCG) loaded vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). The trimming is based on the postprocess surface etching of HCG. Our result obtained using rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) shows a possible precise wavelength tuning range of 3 nm for GaAs-based HCG-VCSELs. Our preliminary experiment reveals an expected smallest wavelength trimming of 0.07 nm.

Gu, Xiaodong; Imamura, Akihiro; Koyama, Fumio

2011-10-01

80

Behavioural and anatomical consequences of two beak trimming methods in 1? and 10?d?old domestic chicks  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. To examine the effects of beak trimming on behaviour, beak anatomy, weight gain, food intake and feather condition 360 ISA Brown chicks were trimmed by hot cut or cold cut at 1 d or 10 d of age or were sham?operated controls. The experiment was a 3 × 2 factorial design, with the chicks housed in littered pens in

M. J. Gentle; B. O. Hughes; A. Fox; D. Waddington

1997-01-01

81

Lentiviral Effector Pathways of TRIM Proteins.  

PubMed

The human tripartite motif (TRIM) family, composed of more than 77 members, encompasses an emerging group of innate antiviral factors. Most TRIM proteins are characterized by being E3 ubiquitin ligases, but also engage in specific interactions with a variety of cellular and viral partners. They are involved in many cellular processes, including cell differentiation, transcriptional regulation, cytoskeleton remodeling, intracellular trafficking, membrane repair, and oncogenesis. In regard to antiviral immunity, they restrict both retroviruses and lentiviruses as well as other DNA and RNA viruses. This review will focus on the TRIM members endowed with anti-retroviral and anti-lentiviral activities and, in particular, human immunodeficiency virus. PMID:24611907

Turrini, Filippo; Di Pietro, Andrea; Vicenzi, Elisa

2014-04-01

82

Molecular Controls of the Oxygenation and Redox Reactions of Hemoglobin  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: The broad classes of O2-binding proteins known as hemoglobins (Hbs) carry out oxygenation and redox functions that allow organisms with significantly different physiological demands to exist in a wide range of environments. This is aided by allosteric controls that modulate the protein's redox reactions as well as its O2-binding functions. Recent Advances: The controls of Hb's redox reactions can differ appreciably from the molecular controls for Hb oxygenation and come into play in elegant mechanisms for dealing with nitrosative stress, in the malarial resistance conferred by sickle cell Hb, and in the as-yet unsuccessful designs for safe and effective blood substitutes. Critical Issues: An important basic principle in consideration of Hb's redox reactions is the distinction between kinetic and thermodynamic reaction control. Clarification of these modes of control is critical to gaining an increased understanding of Hb-mediated oxidative processes and oxidative toxicity in vivo. Future Directions: This review addresses emerging concepts and some unresolved questions regarding the interplay between the oxygenation and oxidation reactions of structurally diverse Hbs, both within red blood cells and under acellular conditions. Developing methods that control Hb-mediated oxidative toxicity will be critical to the future development of Hb-based blood substitutes. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 2298–2313.

Henkens, Robert; Alayash, Abdu I.; Banerjee, Sambuddha; Crumbliss, Alvin L.

2013-01-01

83

Biological nitrification process simulation in groundwater with dissolved oxygen controller  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nowadays groundwater contamination by nitrogenous fertilizer is a globally growing problem, but groundwater always serves as an important water source, especially in rural area. In order to tackle this problem, biological nitrification and denitrification process has been widely used for removal of nitrogenous pollutants from polluted water. To improve removal efficiency, the dissolved oxygen (DO) controller is presented. And the control strategies for the activated sludge process have been developed and evaluated by simulation. The results also showed that the DO controller will be applied widely in the control and management of the decentralization water treatment.

Zuo, Jinlong

2009-07-01

84

Compartment A1, trim tanks viewed aft to forward from watertight ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Compartment A-1, trim tanks viewed aft to forward from watertight bulkhead no. 6. Using remotely controlled valves, the tanks could be flooded with water or pumped clear to compensate for variations in the ship's displacement and maintain the water line at the desired point. The trim tanks could also be used to counteract the effect of variations in sea water density. (02) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

85

Control of seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana by atmospheric oxygen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seed development is known to be inhibited completely when plants are grown in oxygen concentrations below 5.1 kPa, but apart from reports of decreased seed weight little is known about embryogenesis at subambient oxygen concentrations above this critical level. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. plants were grown full term under continuous light in premixed atmospheres with oxygen partial pressures of 2.5, 5.1, 10.1, 16.2 and 21.3 kPa O2, 0.035 kPa CO2 and the balance nitrogen. Seeds were harvested for germination tests and microscopy when siliques had yellowed. Seed germination was depressed in O2 treatments below 16.2 kPa, and seeds from plants grown in 2.5 kPa O2 did not germinate at all. Fewer than 25% of the seeds from plants grown in 5.1 kPa oxygen germinated and most of the seedlings appeared abnormal. Light and scanning electron microscopic observation of non-germinated seeds showed that these embryos had stopped growing at different developmental stages depending upon the prevailing oxygen level. Embryos stopped growing at the heart-shaped to linear cotyledon stage in 5.1 kPa O2, at around the curled cotyledon stage in 10.1 kPa O2, and at the premature stage in 16.2 kPa O2. Globular and heart-shaped embryos were observed in sectioned seeds from plants grown in 2.5 kPa O2. Tissue degeneration caused by cell autolysis and changes in cell structure were observed in cotyledons and radicles. Transmission electron microscopy of mature seeds showed that storage substances, such as protein bodies, were reduced in subambient oxygen treatments. The results demonstrate control of embryo development by oxygen in Arabidopsis.

Kuang, A.; Crispi, M.; Musgrave, M. E.

1998-01-01

86

Environmental Control and Life Support System, Oxygen Generation System  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Group of the Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for designing and building the life support systems that will provide the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) a comfortable environment in which to live and work. This is a close-up view of ECLSS Oxygen Generation System (OGS) rack. The ECLSS Group at the MSFC oversees the development of the OGS, which produces oxygen for breathing air for the crew and laboratory animals, as well as for replacing oxygen lost due to experiment use, airlock depressurization, module leakage, and carbon dioxide venting. The OGS consists primarily of the Oxygen Generator Assembly (OGA), provided by the prime contractor, the Hamilton Sundstrand Space Systems, International (HSSSI) in Windsor Locks, Cornecticut and a Power Supply Module (PSM), supplied by the MSFC. The OGA is comprised of a cell stack that electrolyzes (breaks apart the hydrogen and oxygen molecules) some of the clean water provided by the Water Recovery System and the separators that remove the gases from water after electrolysis. The PSM provides the high power to the OGA needed to electrolyze the water.

2000-01-01

87

Oxygen-controlled biosurfactant production in a bench scale bioreactor.  

PubMed

Rhamnolipids have been pointed out as promising biosurfactants. The most studied microorganisms for the aerobic production of these molecules are the bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. The aim of this work was to produce a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant in a bench-scale bioreactor by one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil environments. To study the microorganism growth and production dependency on oxygen, a nondispersive oxygenation device was developed, and a programmable logic controller (PLC) was used to set the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Using the data stored in a computer and the predetermined characteristics of the oxygenation device, it was possible to evaluate the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and the specific OUR (SOUR) of this microorganism. These rates, obtained for some different DO concentrations, were then compared to the bacterial growth, to the carbon source consumption, and to the rhamnolipid and other virulence factors production. The SOUR presented an initial value of about 60.0 mgO(2)/g(DW) h. Then, when the exponential growth phase begins, there is a rise in this rate. After that, the SOUR reduces to about 20.0 mgO(2)/g(DW) h. The carbon source consumption is linear during the whole process. PMID:18401751

Kronemberger, Frederico de Araujo; Santa Anna, Lidia Maria Melo; Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; Menezes, Reginaldo Ramos de; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

2008-03-01

88

Oxygen-controlled Biosurfactant Production in a Bench Scale Bioreactor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rhamnolipids have been pointed out as promising biosurfactants. The most studied microorganisms for the aerobic production of these molecules are the bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. The aim of this work was to produce a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant in a bench-scale bioreactor by one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil environments. To study the microorganism growth and production dependency on oxygen, a nondispersive oxygenation device was developed, and a programmable logic controller (PLC) was used to set the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Using the data stored in a computer and the predetermined characteristics of the oxygenation device, it was possible to evaluate the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and the specific OUR (SOUR) of this microorganism. These rates, obtained for some different DO concentrations, were then compared to the bacterial growth, to the carbon source consumption, and to the rhamnolipid and other virulence factors production. The SOUR presented an initial value of about 60.0 mg02/gdw h. Then, when the exponential growth phase begins, there is a rise in this rate. After that, the SOUR reduces to about 20.0 mg02/gdw h. The carbon source consumption is linear during the whole process.

de Kronemberger, Frederico Araujo; Anna, Lidia Maria Melo Santa; Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; de Menezes, Reginaldo Ramos; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

89

Ovine TRIM5? Can Restrict Visna/Maedi Virus  

PubMed Central

The restrictive properties of tripartite motif-containing 5 alpha (TRIM5?) from small ruminant species have not been explored. Here, we identify highly similar TRIM5? sequences in sheep and goats. Cells transduced with ovine TRIM5? effectively restricted the lentivirus visna/maedi virus DNA synthesis. Proteasome inhibition in cells transduced with ovine TRIM5? restored restricted viral DNA synthesis, suggesting a conserved mechanism of restriction. Identification of TRIM5? active molecular species may open new prophylactic strategies against lentiviral infections.

Jauregui, P.; Crespo, H.; Glaria, I.; Lujan, L.; Contreras, A.; Rosati, S.; de Andres, D.; Amorena, B.; Towers, G. J.

2012-01-01

90

Quality Control and Application of Oxygen Data from Profiling Floats  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Profiling floats provide a near-ideal platform for monitoring the seasonal evolution of both physical and chemical processes at the regional, basin, and global scale. Although temperature, salinity, and pressure data must pass well-defined Quality Control protocols at Global Data Assembly Centers, no such protocol exists for chemical data (oxygen and nitrate) now being measured on 348 “Argo Equivalents” (of which ~150 are still active) within the ~3200 float array. With the number of chemical measurements returned from the Argo array rapidly growing, it is important to develop and evaluate new QC procedures for these data in order to use the chemical Argo dataset for quantitative descriptions of oceanic biogeochemical processes. We initiated a preliminary assessment of quality control protocols for profiling float data, with the ultimate goal of using the QC'd dataset for biogeochemical studies, including use of float oxygen data to constrain a model that calculates rates of Net Community Production. Profiling float oxygen data prior to June 2010 were compared to the World Ocean Atlas 2009 monthly climatology. Large deviations from the climatology were observed for many floats, indicating the need for a QC protocol for float oxygen data, and possibly also indicating real processes not accounted for in the climatology. Approximately 100 floats were selected to calculate net community production in the euphotic zone. Here we discuss different QC methods that we have explored, and evaluate how each method affects the calculated NCP rates. Depending on which QC method is used, the sign of the NCP rates can change, thus further highlighting the importance of establishing a proper QC protocol for float oxygen data.

Takeshita, Y.; Martz, T. R.; Johnson, K. S.; Plant, J.; Riser, S.; Gilbert, D.

2010-12-01

91

Piloted simulation study of the effects of an automated trim system on flight characteristics of a light twin-engine airplane with one engine inoperative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A simulation study was conducted to investigate the piloting problems associated with failure of an engine on a generic light twin-engine airplane. A primary piloting problem for a light twin-engine airplane after an engine failure is maintaining precise control of the airplane in the presence of large steady control forces. To address this problem, a simulated automatic trim system which drives the trim tabs as an open-loop function of propeller slipstream measurements was developed. The simulated automatic trim system was found to greatly increase the controllability in asymmetric powered flight without having to resort to complex control laws or an irreversible control system. However, the trim-tab control rates needed to produce the dramatic increase in controllability may require special design consideration for automatic trim system failures. Limited measurements obtained in full-scale flight tests confirmed the fundamental validity of the proposed control law.

Stewart, E. C.; Brown, P. W.; Yenni, K. R.

1986-01-01

92

Glycemic Control in Pediatric Patients on Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES To determine whether glycemic control has an effect on outcomes for pediatric patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy, while controlling for multiple factors. METHODS A single-center retrospective chart review was performed on 82 patients who required ECMO from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2010. All glucose concentrations collected while patients were on ECMO were analyzed; multiple other factors that may have affected mortality were also recorded. Primary outcome was mortality, and secondary outcomes were length of time on ECMO and length of time until death or discharge from the hospital. RESULTS Of 82 patients, 53 patients survived ECMO (64.6%). Glucose control had no effect on survival of patients on ECMO (p=0.56), even when controlling for multiple factors (p=0.48). Similarly, statistical evaluation showed no differences for hospital mortality in relationship to controlled serum glucose (p=0.50). Patients with controlled glucose spent an average of 31.5% more time on ECMO than non-controlled patients (p=0.048). CONCLUSIONS In this study, glycemic control, defined as serum glucose concentration between 60 mg/dL and 250 mg/dL for >95% of the time on ECMO, had no statistically significant effect on mortality for patients on ECMO. Future studies could focus on tighter glucose control or specific dextrose/glucose protocols to evaluate whether improved glucose control would have an effect on morbidity and mortality.

Wierer, Kathryn L.; Pagryzinski, Rachel A.; Xiang, Qun

2013-01-01

93

Glycemic control in pediatric patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVES To determine whether glycemic control has an effect on outcomes for pediatric patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy, while controlling for multiple factors. METHODS A single-center retrospective chart review was performed on 82 patients who required ECMO from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2010. All glucose concentrations collected while patients were on ECMO were analyzed; multiple other factors that may have affected mortality were also recorded. Primary outcome was mortality, and secondary outcomes were length of time on ECMO and length of time until death or discharge from the hospital. RESULTS Of 82 patients, 53 patients survived ECMO (64.6%). Glucose control had no effect on survival of patients on ECMO (p=0.56), even when controlling for multiple factors (p=0.48). Similarly, statistical evaluation showed no differences for hospital mortality in relationship to controlled serum glucose (p=0.50). Patients with controlled glucose spent an average of 31.5% more time on ECMO than non-controlled patients (p=0.048). CONCLUSIONS In this study, glycemic control, defined as serum glucose concentration between 60 mg/dL and 250 mg/dL for >95% of the time on ECMO, had no statistically significant effect on mortality for patients on ECMO. Future studies could focus on tighter glucose control or specific dextrose/glucose protocols to evaluate whether improved glucose control would have an effect on morbidity and mortality. PMID:24052786

Wierer, Kathryn L; Pagryzinski, Rachel A; Xiang, Qun

2013-07-01

94

Development and wind tunnel evaluation of a shape memory alloy based trim tab actuator for a civil aircraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the development and wind tunnel evaluation of a shape memory alloy (SMA) based smart trim tab for a typical two seater civil aircraft. The SMA actuator was housed in the port side of the elevator for the purpose of actuating the trim tab. Wind tunnel tests were conducted on a full scale horizontal tail model with elevator and trim tab at free stream speeds of 25, 35 and 45 m s-1, and also for a number of deflections of the elevator (30° up, 0° neutral and 25° down) and trim tab (11° and 21° up and 15° and 31° down). To measure the hinge moment experienced by the trim tab under various test conditions, two miniaturized balances were designed and fabricated. A gain scheduled proportional integral (GSPI) controller was developed to control the SMA actuated smart trim tab. It was confirmed during the tests that the trim tab could be controlled at the desired position against the aerodynamic loads acting on it for the various test conditions.

Senthilkumar, P.; Jayasankar, S.; Satisha; Sateesh, V. L.; Kamaleshaiah, M. S.; Dayananda, G. N.

2013-09-01

95

p300, but not PCAF, collaborates with IRF-1 in stimulating TRIM22 expression independently of its histone acetyltransferase activity.  

PubMed

Tripartite motif (TRIM) 22 plays an important role in IFN-mediated antiviral activity. We previously demonstrated that IFN regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) was crucial for constitutive and IFN-induced TRIM22 expression via binding to a special cis-element named 5' extended IFN-stimulating response element. Here, we further investigate the molecular mechanisms of TRIM22 with a focus on the co-activators of IRF-1. Using an in vitro DNA affinity binding assay and an in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we found that IFN-? stimulation significantly enhanced the binding of p300 and p300/CBP-associated factor, but not other co-activators such as general control nondepressible 5, steroid receptor co-activator-1, and activator of thyroid and retinoic, to the 5' extended IFN-stimulating response element containing TRIM22 promoter region together with IRF-1. Overexpression and knockdown analysis demonstrated that it was p300, but not p300/CBP-associated factor, that functioned as a transcriptional co-activator of IRF-1 in IFN-? induction of TRIM22. We further show that p300 contributed to both IFN-?- and IRF-1-mediated TRIM22 transcription independent of its histone acetyltransferase activity, however, it was required for the recruitment of RNA polymerase II to TRIM22 promoter region. These data indicate that p300 plays a critical role in IFN-?-induced TRIM22 expression via recruiting RNA polymerase II to the TRIM22 promoter, and might serve as a bridge between IRF-1 and the basal transcriptional apparatus in TRIM22 induction. PMID:23670564

Gao, Bo; Xu, Wei; Zhong, Linmao; Zhang, Qilin; Su, Ya; Xiong, Sidong

2013-08-01

96

Oxygen fugacity control in piston-cylinder experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main goal of this study was to develop and test a capsule assembly for use in piston-cylinder experiments where oxygen fugacity could be controlled in the vicinity of the QFM buffer without H2O loss or carbon contamination of the sample material. The assembly consists of an outer Pt-capsule containing a solid buffer (Ni-NiO or Co-CoO) plus H2O and an inner AuPd-capsule, containing the sample, H2O and a Pt-wire. No H2O loss is observed from the sample, even after 48 h, but a slight increase in H2O content is found in longer runs due to oxygen and hydrogen diffusion into the AuPd-capsule. Oxygen fugacity of runs in equilibrium with the Ni-NiO (NNO) and Co-CoO (CoCO) buffers was measured by analyzing Fe dissolved in the Pt-wire and in the AuPd-capsule. The second method gives values that are in good agreement with established buffer values, whereas results from the first method are one half to one log units higher than the established values.

Jakobsson, Sigurdur

2012-09-01

97

A variably trimmed mean CFAR radar detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper describes a variably trimmed mean (VTM) constant false-alarm-rate (CFAR) detector which is a modification of the trimmed mean (TM) detector. In the CFAR detector, the threshold is determined by processing a linear combination of a group of ordered samples in each window. Unlike in the case of the TM detectors, however, the number of ordered samples that require further processing is allowed to vary according to a data-dependent rule. It is shown that a VTM CFAR detector with a judicious choice for its parameters yields an improved performance compared to the order-statistic and TM CFAR detectors.

Ozgunes, Inci; Gandhi, Prashant P.; Kassam, Saleem A.

1992-10-01

98

TRIM16 Acts as an E3 Ubiquitin Ligase and Can Heterodimerize with Other TRIM Family Members  

PubMed Central

The TRIM family of proteins is distinguished by its tripartite motif (TRIM). Typically, TRIM proteins contain a RING finger domain, one or two B-box domains, a coiled-coil domain and the more variable C-terminal domains. TRIM16 does not have a RING domain but does harbour two B-box domains. Here we showed that TRIM16 homodimerized through its coiled-coil domain and heterodimerized with other TRIM family members; TRIM24, Promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) protein and Midline-1 (MID1). Although, TRIM16 has no classic RING domain, three-dimensional modelling of TRIM16 suggested that its B-box domains adopts RING-like folds leading to the hypothesis that TRIM16 acts as an ubiquitin ligase. Consistent with this hypothesis, we demonstrated that TRIM16, devoid of a classical RING domain had auto-polyubiquitination activity and acted as an E3 ubiquitin ligase in vivo and in vitro assays. Thus via its unique structure, TRIM16 possesses both heterodimerization function with other TRIM proteins and also has E3 ubiquitin ligase activity.

Holien, Jessica K.; Koach, Jessica; Parker, Michael W.; Kavallaris, Maria; Marshall, Glenn M.; Cheung, Belamy B.

2012-01-01

99

Dissolved oxygen control of the activated sludge wastewater treatment process using stable adaptive fuzzy control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the operation of wastewater treatment plants a key variable is dissolved oxygen (DO) content in the bioreactors. The paper describes the development of an adaptive fuzzy control strategy for tracking the DO reference trajectory applied to the Benchmark Simulation Model n.1. The design methodology of this data-driven controller uses the Lyapunov synthesis approach with a parameter projection algorithm to

Carlos Alberto Coelho Belchior; Rui Alexandre Matos Araújo; Jorge Afonso Cardoso Landeck

100

Molecular evolution of the antiretroviral TRIM5 gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2004, the first report of TRIM5? as a cellular antiretroviral factor triggered intense interest among virologists, particularly\\u000a because some primate orthologs of TRIM5? have activity against HIV. Since that time, a complex and eventful evolutionary history\\u000a of the TRIM5 locus has emerged. A review of the TRIM5 literature constitutes a veritable compendium of evolutionary phenomena, including elevated rates of

Welkin E. Johnson; Sara L. Sawyer

2009-01-01

101

Oxygen Generation System Laptop Bus Controller Flight Software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Oxygen Generation System Laptop Bus Controller Flight Software was developed to allow the International Space Station (ISS) program to activate specific components of the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) to perform a checkout of key hardware operation in a microgravity environment, as well as to perform preventative maintenance operations of system valves during a long period of what would otherwise be hardware dormancy. The software provides direct connectivity to the OGS Firmware Controller with pre-programmed tasks operated by on-orbit astronauts to exercise OGS valves and motors. The software is used to manipulate the pump, separator, and valves to alleviate the concerns of hardware problems due to long-term inactivity and to allow for operational verification of microgravity-sensitive components early enough so that, if problems are found, they can be addressed before the hardware is required for operation on-orbit. The decision was made to use existing on-orbit IBM ThinkPad A31p laptops and MIL-STD-1553B interface cards as the hardware configuration. The software at the time of this reporting was developed and tested for use under the Windows 2000 Professional operating system to ensure compatibility with the existing on-orbit computer systems.

Rowe, Chad; Panter, Donna

2009-01-01

102

Gate-Voltage Control of Oxygen Diffusion on Graphene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the diffusion of oxygen atoms on graphene and its dependence on the carrier density controlled by a gate voltage. We use density functional theory to determine the equilibrium adsorption sites, the transition state, and the attempt frequency for different carrier densities. The ease of diffusion is strongly dependent on carrier density. For neutral graphene, we calculate a barrier of 0.73 eV; however, upon electron doping the barrier decreases almost linearly to reach values as low as 0.15 eV for densities of -7.6×1013cm-2. This implies an increase of more than 9 orders of magnitude in the diffusion coefficient at room temperature. This dramatic change is due to a combined effect of bonding reduction in the equilibrium state and bonding increase at the transition state and can be used to control the patterning of oxidized regions by an adequate variation of the gate voltage.

Suarez, Alejandro M.; Radovic, Ljubisa R.; Bar-Ziv, Ezra; Sofo, Jorge O.

2011-04-01

103

Gate-voltage control of oxygen diffusion on graphene.  

PubMed

We analyze the diffusion of oxygen atoms on graphene and its dependence on the carrier density controlled by a gate voltage. We use density functional theory to determine the equilibrium adsorption sites, the transition state, and the attempt frequency for different carrier densities. The ease of diffusion is strongly dependent on carrier density. For neutral graphene, we calculate a barrier of 0.73 eV; however, upon electron doping the barrier decreases almost linearly to reach values as low as 0.15 eV for densities of -7.6×10(13)??cm(-2). This implies an increase of more than 9 orders of magnitude in the diffusion coefficient at room temperature. This dramatic change is due to a combined effect of bonding reduction in the equilibrium state and bonding increase at the transition state and can be used to control the patterning of oxidized regions by an adequate variation of the gate voltage. PMID:21561210

Suarez, Alejandro M; Radovic, Ljubisa R; Bar-Ziv, Ezra; Sofo, Jorge O

2011-04-01

104

Alpha-trimmed means and their relationship to median filters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppose that X is a finite set of N numbers, The ?-trimmed mean of X is obtained by sorting X into ascending order, removing (trimming) a fixed fractionalpha(0 leq alpha leq 0.5)from the high and low ends of the sorted set, and computing the average of the remaining values. When applied to a sliding window of length LW, the ?-trimming

J. BEE BEDNAR; TERRY L. WATT

1984-01-01

105

Computing least trimmed squares regression with the forward search  

Microsoft Academic Search

Least trimmed squares (LTS) provides a parametric family of high breakdown estimators in regression with better asymptotic properties than least median of squares (LMS) estimators. We adapt the forward search algorithm of Atkinson (1994) to LTS and provide methods for determining the amount of data to be trimmed. We examine the efficiency of different trimming proportions by simulation and demonstrate

A. C. Atkinson; T.-C. Cheng

1999-01-01

106

Building Trades. Block VIII. Interior Trim.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This curriculum for interior trim provides instructional materials for 18 informational and manipulative lessons. A list of 11 references precedes the course materials. The instructor's plan for each informational lesson begins by providing this information: subject, aim, required teaching aids, required materials, references, and prerequisite…

Texas A and M Univ., College Station. Vocational Instructional Services.

107

Oxygen pumping device for control of the air fuel ratio  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a method operating a two cell oxygen pumping device to control the air fuel ratio of an engine, the oxygen pumping device having a pumping cell and sensing cell. The method includes the steps of: introducing exhaust gas from the engine to a region between the pumping cell and the sensing cell; applying a pumping current to the pumping cell; sensing an EMF across the sensing cell; comparing an adjustable reference voltage with the sensed EMF; generating an error signal from the comparison between the reference voltage and the sensed EMF: changing the air fuel ratio in response to the error signal so as to reduce the absolute magnitude of the error signal, including the step of decreasing the engine air fuel ratio in response to a positive error signal until the measured EMF becomes equal to the reference voltage, and the step of increasing the engine air fuel ratio in response to a negative error signal until the measured EMF becomes equal to the reference voltage; establishing a predetermined desired air fuel ratio from a range of possible operating air fuel ratio values.

Logothetis, E.M.; Hetrick, R.E.; Soltis, R.E.; Vassell, W.C.

1989-06-27

108

Oxygen diffusion: an enzyme-controlled variable parameter.  

PubMed

Previous oxygen microelectrode studies have shown that the oxygen diffusion coefficient (DO2) increases during extracellular PO2 decreases, while intracellular PO2 remained unchanged and thus cell function (spike activity of neurons). Oxygen dependency of complex multicellular organisms requires a stable and adequate oxygen supply to the cells, while toxic concentrations have to be avoided. Oxygen brought to the tissue by convection diffuses through the intercellular and cell membranes, which are potential barriers to diffusion. In gerbil brain cortex, PO2 and DO2 were measured by membrane-covered and by bare gold microelectrodes, as were also spike potentials. Moderate respiratory hypoxia was followed by a primary sharp drop of tissue PO2 that recovered to higher values concomitant with an increase of DO2. A drop in intracellular PO2 recovered immediately. Studies on the abdominal ganglion of aplysia californica showed similar results.Heterogeneity is a feature of both normal oxygen supply to tissue and supply due to a wide range of disturbances in oxygen supply. Oxygen diffusion through membranes is variable thereby ensuring adequate intracellular PO2. Cell-derived glucosamine oxidase seems to regulate the polymerization/depolymerisation ratio of membrane mucopolysaccharides and thus oxygen diffusion.Variability of oxygen diffusion is a decisive parameter for regulating the supply/demand ratio of oxygen supply to the cell; this occurs in highly developed animals as well as in species of a less sophisticated nature. Autoregulation of oxygen diffusion is as important as the distribution/perfusion ratio of the capillary meshwork and as the oxygen extraction ratio in relation to oxygen consumption of the cell. Oxygen diffusion resistance is the cellular protection against luxury oxygen supply (which can result in toxic oxidative species leading to mutagenesis). PMID:24729212

Erdmann, Wilhelm; Kunke, Stefan

2014-01-01

109

Simian TRIM5? Proteins Reduce Replication of Herpes Simplex Virus  

PubMed Central

Old World monkey TRIM5? proteins are known to block the replication of human immunodeficiency virus and other retroviruses in a species-specific fashion. In this report, we show that specific forms of simian TRIM5? proteins can restrict herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection. To define the effect of TRIM5? on HSV replication, we examined HSV infection in HeLa cell lines that stably express simian and human orthologs of TRIM5? proteins. We demonstrated that several simian TRIM5? proteins can restrict HSV replication, with the TRIM5? protein of rhesus macaques showing the strongest inhibition of HSV infection. We also found that the level of the inhibition of virus replication was viral strain-specific. TRIM5? is likely to inhibit HSV at the early stage of infection; however, at later times of infection, the levels of TRIM5? are significantly decreased. Thus, some TRIM5? proteins exhibit antiviral effects that extend beyond retroviral infections, but HSV may be able to reduce this restriction by reducing TRIM5? levels during the later phases of virus replication. Our results also argue that TRIM5? is only part of the reduced level of HSV replication in rhesus macaques, which are known to be less susceptible to HSV infection than other primates.

Reszka, Natalia; Zhou, Changhong; Song, Byeongwoon; Sodroski, Joseph G.; Knipe, David M.

2010-01-01

110

Hare TRIM5? Restricts Divergent Retroviruses and Exhibits Significant Sequence Variation from Closely Related Lagomorpha TRIM5 Genes?  

PubMed Central

TRIM5? proteins recruit and restrict incoming cytoplasmic retroviruses. Primate TRIM5? sequence diversity underlies species-specific restriction and is likely caused by selective pressure from ancient pathogenic infections. Here we show that TRIM5? from the European brown hare restricts diverse retroviruses. Furthermore, it differs significantly in sequence from TRIM5? from the closely related rabbit, suggesting evolutionary changes in the last 12 million years since these species diverged. We propose that, like primates, lagomorphs have been subject to selective pressure from TRIM5-sensitive viruses, possibly related to the endogenous lentivirus RELIK found in both rabbits and hares.

Fletcher, Adam J.; Hue, Stephane; Schaller, Torsten; Pillay, Deenan; Towers, Greg J.

2010-01-01

111

TRIM22 inhibits HIV-1 transcription independently of its E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, Tat, and NF-kappaB-responsive long terminal repeat elements.  

PubMed

Previous studies identified clones of the U937 promonocytic cell line that were either permissive or nonpermissive for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. These clones were investigated further in the search for host restriction factors that could explain their differential capacity to support HIV-1 replication. Among known HIV-1 restriction factors screened, tripartite motif-containing protein 22 (TRIM22) was the only factor constitutively expressed in nonpermissive and absent in permissive U937 cells. Stable TRIM22 knockdown (KD) rescued HIV-1 long-terminal-repeat (LTR)-driven transcription in KD-nonpermissive cells to the levels observed in permissive cells. Conversely, transduction-mediated expression of TRIM22 in permissive cells reduced LTR-driven luciferase expression by ?7-fold, supporting a negative role of TRIM22 in HIV-1 transcription. This finding was further confirmed in the human T cell line A3.01 expressing TRIM22. Moreover, overexpression of TRIM22 in 293T cells significantly impaired basal and phorbol myristate acetate-ionomycin-induced HIV-1 LTR-driven gene expression, whereas inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced viral transcription was a consequence of lower basal expression. In agreement, TRIM22 equally inhibited an LTR construct lacking the tandem NF-?B binding sites. In addition, TRIM22 did not affect Tat-mediated LTR transactivation. Finally, these effects were independent of TRIM22 E3 ubiquitin-ligase activity. In the context of replication-competent virus, significantly higher levels of HIV-1 production were observed in KD-nonpermissive versus control nonpermissive U937 cells after infection. In contrast, lower peak levels of HIV-1 replication characterized U937 and A3.01 cells expressing TRIM22 versus their control transduced counterpart. Thus, nuclear TRIM22 significantly impairs HIV-1 replication, likely by interfering with Tat- and NF-?B-independent LTR-driven transcription. PMID:21345949

Kajaste-Rudnitski, Anna; Marelli, Sara S; Pultrone, Cinzia; Pertel, Thomas; Uchil, Pradeep D; Mechti, Nadir; Mothes, Walther; Poli, Guido; Luban, Jeremy; Vicenzi, Elisa

2011-05-01

112

TRIM22 Inhibits HIV-1 Transcription Independently of Its E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Activity, Tat, and NF-?B-Responsive Long Terminal Repeat Elements?  

PubMed Central

Previous studies identified clones of the U937 promonocytic cell line that were either permissive or nonpermissive for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication. These clones were investigated further in the search for host restriction factors that could explain their differential capacity to support HIV-1 replication. Among known HIV-1 restriction factors screened, tripartite motif-containing protein 22 (TRIM22) was the only factor constitutively expressed in nonpermissive and absent in permissive U937 cells. Stable TRIM22 knockdown (KD) rescued HIV-1 long-terminal-repeat (LTR)-driven transcription in KD-nonpermissive cells to the levels observed in permissive cells. Conversely, transduction-mediated expression of TRIM22 in permissive cells reduced LTR-driven luciferase expression by ?7-fold, supporting a negative role of TRIM22 in HIV-1 transcription. This finding was further confirmed in the human T cell line A3.01 expressing TRIM22. Moreover, overexpression of TRIM22 in 293T cells significantly impaired basal and phorbol myristate acetate-ionomycin-induced HIV-1 LTR-driven gene expression, whereas inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced viral transcription was a consequence of lower basal expression. In agreement, TRIM22 equally inhibited an LTR construct lacking the tandem NF-?B binding sites. In addition, TRIM22 did not affect Tat-mediated LTR transactivation. Finally, these effects were independent of TRIM22 E3 ubiquitin-ligase activity. In the context of replication-competent virus, significantly higher levels of HIV-1 production were observed in KD-nonpermissive versus control nonpermissive U937 cells after infection. In contrast, lower peak levels of HIV-1 replication characterized U937 and A3.01 cells expressing TRIM22 versus their control transduced counterpart. Thus, nuclear TRIM22 significantly impairs HIV-1 replication, likely by interfering with Tat- and NF-?B-independent LTR-driven transcription.

Kajaste-Rudnitski, Anna; Marelli, Sara S.; Pultrone, Cinzia; Pertel, Thomas; Uchil, Pradeep D.; Mechti, Nadir; Mothes, Walther; Poli, Guido; Luban, Jeremy; Vicenzi, Elisa

2011-01-01

113

Novel TRIM5 isoforms expressed by Macaca nemestrina.  

PubMed

The TRIM5 family of proteins contains a RING domain, one or two B boxes, and a coiled-coil domain. The TRIM5alpha isoform also encodes a C-terminal B30.2(SPRY) domain, differences within which define the breadth and potency of TRIM5alpha-mediated retroviral restriction. Because Macaca nemestrina animals are susceptible to some human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) isolates, we sought to determine if differences exist in the TRIM5 gene and transcripts of these animals. We identified a two-nucleotide deletion (Delta2) in the transcript at the 5' terminus of exon 7 in all M. nemestrina TRIM5 cDNA clones examined. This frameshift results in a truncated protein of 300 amino acids lacking the B30.2(SPRY) domain, which we have named TRIM5theta. This deletion is likely due to a single nucleotide polymorphism that alters the 3' splice site between intron 6 and exon 7. In some clones, a deletion of the entire 27-nucleotide exon 7 (Deltaexon7) resulted in the restoration of the TRIM5 open reading frame and the generation of another novel isoform, TRIM5eta. There are 18 amino acid differences between M. nemestrina TRIM5eta and Macaca mulatta TRIM5alpha, some of which are at or near locations previously shown to affect the breadth and potency of TRIM5alpha-mediated restriction. Infectivity assays performed on permissive CrFK cells stably transduced with TRIM5eta or TRIM5theta show that these isoforms are incapable of restricting either HIV type 1 (HIV-1) or simian immunodeficiency virus infection. The expression of TRIM5 alleles incapable of restricting HIV-1 infection may contribute to the previously reported increased susceptibility of M. nemestrina to HIV-1 infection in vivo. PMID:17804491

Brennan, Greg; Kozyrev, Yury; Kodama, Toshiaki; Hu, Shiu-Lok

2007-11-01

114

Adaptive controller based on flexi-structure neural network for dissolved oxygen control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the design of an adaptive controller based on flexi-structure neural network (FSNN) for dissolved oxygen (DO) in an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The proposed FSNN incorporates a structure variable feedforward neural network (FNN), where the FNN can determine its structure on-line automatically. The structure of the FNN is adapted to cope with operating character

Zhaozhao Zhang; Wei Guo

2010-01-01

115

Reactive Oxygen Species Regulate Protrusion Efficiency by Controlling Actin Dynamics  

PubMed Central

Productive protrusions allowing motile cells to sense and migrate toward a chemotactic gradient of reactive oxygen species (ROS) require a tight control of the actin cytoskeleton. However, the mechanisms of how ROS affect cell protrusion and actin dynamics are not well elucidated yet. We show here that ROS induce the formation of a persistent protrusion. In migrating epithelial cells, protrusion of the leading edge requires the precise regulation of the lamellipodium and lamella F-actin networks. Using fluorescent speckle microscopy, we showed that, upon ROS stimulation, the F-actin retrograde flow is enhanced in the lamellipodium. This event coincides with an increase of cofilin activity, free barbed ends formation, Arp2/3 recruitment, and ERK activity at the cell edge. In addition, we observed an acceleration of the F-actin flow in the lamella of ROS-stimulated cells, which correlates with an enhancement of the cell contractility. Thus, this study demonstrates that ROS modulate both the lamellipodium and the lamella networks to control protrusion efficiency.

Taulet, Nicolas; Delorme-Walker, Violaine D.; DerMardirossian, Celine

2012-01-01

116

Peptidases trimming MHC class I ligands.  

PubMed

Peptides presented by MHC class I molecules are typically produced through antigen degradation by the proteasome followed by trimming by exopeptidases. According to recent results, these include both aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases in the cytosol and the endoplasmic reticulum. While cytosolic peptidases have a net neutral or destructive effect on MHC ligands, endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidases are required for efficient class I loading and have a strong effect on the repertoire of peptide/MHC complexes. Cells lacking these enzymes can be eliminated both by NK cells and by CD8+ T cells recognizing complexes formed between an MHC class Ib molecule and a conserved peptide. Cross-presented peptides derived from internalized antigens can be processed by insulin-regulated aminopeptidase, the only endosomal trimming peptidase. PMID:23089230

Weimershaus, Mirjana; Evnouchidou, Irini; Saveanu, Loredana; van Endert, Peter

2013-02-01

117

TRIM29 as a Novel Biomarker in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background and Aim. Tripartite motif-containing 29 (TRIM29) is structurally a member of the tripartite motif family of proteins and is involved in diverse human cancers. However, its role in pancreatic cancer remains unclear. Methods. The expression pattern of TRIM29 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma was assessed by immunocytochemistry. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association between TRIM29 and clinical characteristics. In vitro analyses by scratch wound healing assay and invasion assays were performed using the pancreatic cancer cell lines. Results. Immunohistochemical analysis showed TRIM29 expression in pancreatic cancer tissues was significantly higher??(n = 186) than that in matched adjacent nontumor tissues. TRIM29 protein expression was significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.019). Patients with positive TRIM29 expression showed both shorter overall survival and shorter recurrence-free survival than those with negative TRIM29 expression. Multivariate analysis revealed that TRIM29 was an independent factor for pancreatic cancer over survival (HR = 2.180, 95% CI: 1.324–4.198, P = 0.011). In vitro, TRIM29 knockdown resulted in inhibition of pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Conclusions. Our results indicate that TRIM29 promotes tumor progression and may be a novel prognostic marker for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Sun, Hongli; Han, Bing

2014-01-01

118

Characterization of OPC masks for thin-film head pole trimming applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The storage space of hard disk drives more than doubles every 18 months. In order to maintain this growth rate, thin film head (TFH) manufacturers continue to seek new technologies to increase the areal density on the magnetic media. The trimming of the track at the rowbar level known as 'pole trimming' has proven itself to be very effective at increasing the number of tracks per inch (TPI) during the inductive head generation. However, the transition to magneto-resistive (MR) head technologies with ever smaller form factors has continued to push the trackwidth (TW) requirements of the industry. Optical proximity correction (OPC) enhanced masks have been used in the semiconductor industry for controlling the shape of contacts and eliminating line shortening effects for submicron features. The TFH industry is facing a similar challenge as TWs dip below 1 micrometer. In an attempt to transition the pole trimming process technology from inductive to MR heads, the issue of magnetic performance versus pattern fidelity of the feature becomes critical. OPC masks can be used to minimize the corner rounding effects of trimmed shared magnetic poles, which are ultimately responsible for the track width. This paper evaluates OPC mask technology on rowbar level pole trimming using a 1X stepper to identify the extendibility of minimum TWs for the MR head generation. Various combinations of serifs were experimentally evaluated at different track widths. Multiple photoresists and photoresist thicknesses were selected to represent the range of processes used in the industry. The experimental results were then compared with photoresist simulation studies of the same OPC reticle features. The validation of the simulation results allowed a wider range of conditions to be studied. The results show that OPC is an effective technique for enhancing pole trimming and extending the areal density of modern head designs.

Flack, Warren W.; White, Sylvia; Ho, Calvin; Schurz, Dan L.; Consentino, Fabio

1998-12-01

119

The mammalian TRIM-NHL protein TRIM71/LIN-41 is a repressor of mRNA function.  

PubMed

TRIM-NHL proteins are conserved regulators of development and differentiation but their molecular function has remained largely elusive. Here, we report an as yet unrecognized activity for the mammalian TRIM-NHL protein TRIM71 as a repressor of mRNAs. We show that TRIM71 is associated with mRNAs and that it promotes translational repression and mRNA decay. We have identified Rbl1 and Rbl2, two transcription factors whose down-regulation is important for stem cell function, as TRIM71 targets in mouse embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, one of the defining features of TRIM-NHL proteins, the NHL domain, is necessary and sufficient to target TRIM71 to RNA, while the RING domain that confers ubiquitin ligase activity is dispensable for repression. Our results reveal strong similarities between TRIM71 and Drosophila BRAT, the best-studied TRIM-NHL protein and a well-documented translational repressor, suggesting that BRAT and TRIM71 are part of a family of mRNA repressors regulating proliferation and differentiation. PMID:23125361

Loedige, Inga; Gaidatzis, Dimos; Sack, Ragna; Meister, Gunter; Filipowicz, Witold

2013-01-01

120

TRIM family proteins: retroviral restriction and antiviral defence.  

PubMed

Members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family are involved in various cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, development, oncogenesis and apoptosis. Some TRIM proteins display antiviral properties, targeting retroviruses in particular. The potential activity of TRIM19, better known as promyelocytic leukaemia protein, against several viruses has been well documented and, recently, TRIM5alpha has been identified as the factor responsible for the previously described Lv1 and Ref1 antiretroviral activities. There is also evidence indicating that other TRIM proteins can influence viral replication. These findings are reviewed here, and the possibility that TRIMs represent a new and widespread class of antiviral proteins involved in innate immunity is also considered. PMID:16175175

Nisole, Sébastien; Stoye, Jonathan P; Saïb, Ali

2005-10-01

121

The E3-ubiquitin ligase TRIM2 regulates neuronal polarization.  

PubMed

The establishment of a polarized morphology with a single axon and multiple dendrites is an essential step during neuronal differentiation. This cellular polarization is largely depending on changes in the dynamics of the neuronal cytoskeleton. Here, we show that the tripartite motif (TRIM)-NHL protein TRIM2 is regulating axon specification in cultured mouse hippocampal neurons, where one of several initially indistinguishable neurites is selected to become the axon. Suppression of TRIM2 by RNA interference results in the loss of neuronal polarity while over-expression of TRIM2 induces the specification of multiple axons. TRIM2 conducts its function during neuronal polarization by ubiquitination of the neurofilament light chain. Together, our results imply an important function of TRIM2 for axon outgrowth during development. PMID:20796172

Khazaei, Mohammad R; Bunk, Eva C; Hillje, Anna-Lena; Jahn, Hannah M; Riegler, Eva M; Knoblich, Jürgen A; Young, Peter; Schwamborn, Jens C

2011-04-01

122

Control of oxygen concentration in liquid lead and lead–bismuth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditions for control of the oxygen concentration in liquid lead alloys are described using the gas phase as a control medium. Calculation of the Gibbs energy of oxygen in liquid Pb45Bi55 is conducted using the data for the binary Pb–O and Bi–O systems. The data obtained are employed to estimate the solubility of oxygen in the Pb45Bi55 melt between 200

G. Muller; A. Heinzel; G. Schumacher; A. Weisenburger

2003-01-01

123

Contact treatment algorithm for the trimmed NURBS surface  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a kind of surface description, the trimmed non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surface is widely employed in CAD\\/CAM. The trimmed NURBS surface has many advantages in describing tool surfaces because of its simplicity in data preparation and the small amount of surface data compared to that of other surfaces. Despite its inherent advantages, the trimmed NURBS surface is rarely employed

Hyunbo Shim; Euikwon Suh

2000-01-01

124

Catalytic Synthesis of Oxygenates: Mechanisms, Catalysts and Controlling Characteristics  

SciTech Connect

This research focused on catalytic synthesis of unsymmetrical ethers as a part of a larger program involving oxygenated products in general, including alcohols, ethers, esters, carboxylic acids and their derivatives that link together environmentally compliant fuels, monomers, and high-value chemicals. The catalysts studied here were solid acids possessing strong Br�������¸nsted acid functionalities. The design of these catalysts involved anchoring the acid groups onto inorganic oxides, e.g. surface-grafted acid groups on zirconia, and a new class of mesoporous solid acids, i.e. propylsulfonic acid-derivatized SBA-15. The former catalysts consisted of a high surface concentration of sulfate groups on stable zirconia catalysts. The latter catalyst consists of high surface area, large pore propylsulfonic acid-derivatized silicas, specifically SBA-15. In both cases, the catalyst design and synthesis yielded high concentrations of acid sites in close proximity to one another. These materials have been well-characterization in terms of physical and chemical properties, as well as in regard to surface and bulk characteristics. Both types of catalysts were shown to exhibit high catalytic performance with respect to both activity and selectivity for the bifunctional coupling of alcohols to form ethers, which proceeds via an efficient SN2 reaction mechanism on the proximal acid sites. This commonality of the dual-site SN2 reaction mechanism over acid catalysts provides for maximum reaction rates and control of selectivity by reaction conditions, i.e. pressure, temperature, and reactant concentrations. This research provides the scientific groundwork for synthesis of ethers for energy applications. The synthesized environmentally acceptable ethers, in part derived from natural gas via alcohol intermediates, exhibit high cetane properties, e.g. methylisobutylether with cetane No. of 53 and dimethylether with cetane No. of 55-60, or high octane properties, e.g. diisopropylether with blending octane No. of 105, and can replace aromatics in liquid fuels.

Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman

2005-11-30

125

Electrically controlled adsorption of oxygen in bilayer graphene devices.  

PubMed

We investigate the chemisorptions of oxygen molecules on bilayer graphene (BLG) and its electrically modified charge-doping effect using conductivity measurement of the field effect transistor channeled with BLG. We demonstrate that the change of the Fermi level by manipulating the gate electric field significantly affects not only the rate of molecular adsorption but also the carrier-scattering strength of adsorbed molecules. Exploration of the charge transfer kinetics reveals the electrochemical nature of the oxygen adsorption on BLG. PMID:21766857

Sato, Yoshiaki; Takai, Kazuyuki; Enoki, Toshiaki

2011-08-10

126

Internal trim coils for CBA superconducting magnets  

SciTech Connect

In order to correct iron saturation effects and shape the beam working line, superconducting trim coils have been constructed, which operate inside the main coils. Detailed studies of mechanical properties, quench behavior, fields produced, and hysteresis have lead to the production of accelerator-quality coils generating the required-strength harmonics up to cos (7theta). These are routinely installed in CBA main magnets and operate at 80% of short sample with negligible training in an ambient field of more than 5.3T.

Thompson, P.A.; Aronson, S.; Cottingham, J.G.; Garber, M.; Hahn, H.; Sampson, W.B.

1983-01-01

127

A Note About HARP's State Trimming Method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This short note provides some additional insight into how the HARP program works. In some cases, it is possible for HARP to tdm away too many states and obtain an optimistic result. The HARP Version 7.0 manual warns the user that 'Unlike the ALL model, the SAME model can automatically drop failure modes for certain system models. The user is cautioned to insure that no important failure modes are dropped; otherwise, a non-conservative result can be given.' This note provides an example of where this occurs and a pointer to further documentation that gives a means of bounding the error associated with trimming these states.

Butler, Ricky W.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Johnson, Sally C.

1998-01-01

128

Trim-to-Coherence Fourier Transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a discrete Fourier transform technique which extracts more spectral information from a given time series data set than conventional discrete Fourier transform (DFT). Valid information is obtained between the spectral bins of conventional DFT, scalloping error is greatly reduced, and amplitude and phase of Fourier components are more true to the process under study as with conventional DFT. We call the general idea Trim-to-Coherence Fourier Transform, and its particular embodiment 'Phase-Rotation Fourier Transform'. Treatment of the raw data is minimally invasive; e.g. there is no zero padding.

Böhm, M.; Tasche, M.; Seifert, B.; Mitschke, F.

2009-05-01

129

Silencing of tripartite motif protein (TRIM) 5alpha mediated anti-HIV-1 activity by truncated mutant of TRIM5alpha.  

PubMed

Tripartite motif protein (TRIM) 5alpha is a restriction factor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 in Old World monkey cell. It was found that both naturally occurring and artificial TRIM5alpha variants lacking the SPRY domain could silence TRIM5alpha activity. Specifically, the artificial TRIM5alpha mutant could suppress TRIM5alpha activity of various primate species with even higher efficiency than could small interfering RNAs. The findings indicate that TRIM5alpha variants lacking the SPRY domain are useful for silencing TRIM5alpha activity. PMID:18524394

Maegawa, Hikoichiro; Nakayama, Emi E; Kuroishi, Ayumu; Shioda, Tatsuo

2008-08-01

130

Computational aspects of helicopter trim analysis and damping levels from Floquet theory  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Helicopter trim settings of periodic initial state and control inputs are investigated for convergence of Newton iteration in computing the settings sequentially and in parallel. The trim analysis uses a shooting method and a weak version of two temporal finite element methods with displacement formulation and with mixed formulation of displacements and momenta. These three methods broadly represent two main approaches of trim analysis: adaptation of initial-value and finite element boundary-value codes to periodic boundary conditions, particularly for unstable and marginally stable systems. In each method, both the sequential and in-parallel schemes are used and the resulting nonlinear algebraic equations are solved by damped Newton iteration with an optimally selected damping parameter. The impact of damped Newton iteration, including earlier-observed divergence problems in trim analysis, is demonstrated by the maximum condition number of the Jacobian matrices of the iterative scheme and by virtual elimination of divergence. The advantages of the in-parallel scheme over the conventional sequential scheme are also demonstrated.

Gaonkar, Gopal H.; Achar, N. S.

1992-01-01

131

Evaluation of oxygen injection as a means of controlling sulfide production in a sewer system.  

PubMed

Oxygen injection is often used to control biogenic production of hydrogen sulfide in sewers. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory system mimicking a rising main to investigate the impact of oxygen injection on anaerobic sewer biofilm activities. Oxygen injection (15-25mg O(2)/L per pump event) to the inlet of the system decreased the overall sulfide discharge levels by 65%. Oxygen was an effective chemical and biological oxidant of sulfide but did not cause a cessation in sulfide production, which continued in the deeper layers of the biofilm irrespective of the oxygen concentration in the bulk. Sulfide accumulation resumed instantaneously on depletion of the oxygen. Oxygen did not exhibit any toxic effect on sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) in the biofilm. It further stimulated SRB growth and increased SRB activity in downstream biofilms due to increased availability of sulfate at these locations as the result of oxic conditions upstream. The oxygen uptake rate of the system increased with repeated exposure to oxygen, with concomitant consumption of organic carbon in the wastewater. These results suggest that optimization of oxygen injection is necessary for maximum effectiveness in controlling sulfide concentrations in sewers. PMID:18760816

Gutierrez, Oriol; Mohanakrishnan, Janani; Sharma, Keshab Raj; Meyer, Rikke Louise; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo

2008-11-01

132

Grid generation on trimmed Bezier and NURBS quilted surfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents some recently added capabilities to RAGGS, Rockwell Automated Grid Generation System. Included are the trimmed surface handling and display capability and structures and unstructured grid generation on trimmed Bezier and NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces) quilted surfaces. Samples are given to demonstrate the new capabilities.

Woan, Chung-Jin; Clever, Willard C.; Tam, Clement K.

1995-01-01

133

Nano-structure control in ODS martensitic steels by means of selecting titanium and oxygen contents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of mechanical alloying (MA) conditions on oxygen contamination were investigated to establish the manufacturing technology of oxygen-controlled oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) martensitic steel. High-temperature mechanical tests and microstructure observations were performed in oxygen-and-titanium-controlled steels in order to demonstrate high-temperature strength improvement using oxygen control. Oxygen content was drastically reduced by the purification of MA atmosphere, Ar gas. It was shown that the lower speed agitation at the beginning of MA was effective for the reduction of oxygen contamination because oxygen was mixed mainly at the beginning of mechanical alloying due to the imperfect replacement of Ar gas. Dense distribution of oxide particle and significant improvement in high-temperature strength were achieved by applying 99.9999 wt% Ar in MA atmosphere and reducing oxygen contents. It was revealed that the merely increasing Y2O3 and titanium addition cannot improve the high-temperature strength. The excess oxygen is an important parameter for making oxide particles finely and densely distributed as well as improving high-temperature strength.

Ohtsuka, S.; Ukai, S.; Fujiwara, M.; Kaito, T.; Narita, T.

2005-02-01

134

TRIM22: A Diverse and Dynamic Antiviral Protein  

PubMed Central

The tripartite motif (TRIM) family of proteins is an evolutionarily ancient group of proteins with homologues identified in both invertebrate and vertebrate species. Human TRIM22 is one such protein that has a dynamic evolutionary history that includes gene expansion, gene loss, and strong signatures of positive selection. To date, TRIM22 has been shown to restrict the replication of a number of viruses, including encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In addition, TRIM22 has also been implicated in cellular differentiation and proliferation and may play a role in certain cancers and autoimmune diseases. This comprehensive paper summarizes our current understanding of TRIM22 structure and function.

Hattlmann, Clayton J.; Kelly, Jenna N.; Barr, Stephen D.

2012-01-01

135

TRIM22: A Diverse and Dynamic Antiviral Protein.  

PubMed

The tripartite motif (TRIM) family of proteins is an evolutionarily ancient group of proteins with homologues identified in both invertebrate and vertebrate species. Human TRIM22 is one such protein that has a dynamic evolutionary history that includes gene expansion, gene loss, and strong signatures of positive selection. To date, TRIM22 has been shown to restrict the replication of a number of viruses, including encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In addition, TRIM22 has also been implicated in cellular differentiation and proliferation and may play a role in certain cancers and autoimmune diseases. This comprehensive paper summarizes our current understanding of TRIM22 structure and function. PMID:22649727

Hattlmann, Clayton J; Kelly, Jenna N; Barr, Stephen D

2012-01-01

136

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon photonic device trimming by UV-irradiation.  

PubMed

A method to compensate for fabrication tolerances and to fine-tune individual photonic circuit components is inevitable for wafer-scale photonic systems even with most-advanced CMOS-fabrication tools. We report a cost-effective and highly accurate method for the permanent trimming of hydrogenated amorphous silicon photonic devices by UV-irradiation. Microring resonators and Mach-Zehnder-interferometers were utilized as photonic test devices. The MZIs were tuned forth and back over their complete free spectral range of 5.5 nm by locally trimming the two MZI-arms. The trimming range exceeds 8 nm for compact ring resonators with trimming accuracies of 20 pm. Trimming speeds of ? 10 GHz/s were achieved. The components did not show any substantial device degradation. PMID:24921332

Lipka, Timo; Kiepsch, Melanie; Trieu, Hoc Khiem; Müller, Jörg

2014-05-19

137

Principles of solid state oxygen sensors for lean combustion gas control  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper gives an overview about oxygen sensors for automotive applications to control the air–fuel ratio in order to reduce emissions and fuel consumption. The three-way catalyst system (TWC) using the potentiometric sensors based on zirconia represents the most effective system for the emission control at this time. New control strategies with linear lambda control at ?=1, for direct injection

E. Ivers-Tiffée; K. H. Härdtl; W. Menesklou; J. Riegel

2001-01-01

138

Reversible photochemical control of singlet oxygen generation using diarylethene photochromic switches.  

PubMed

Reversible noninvasive control over the generation of singlet oxygen is demonstrated in a bicomponent system comprising a diarylethene photochromic switch and a porphyrin photosensitizer by selective irradiation at distinct wavelengths. The efficient generation of singlet oxygen by the photosensitizer is observed when the diarylethene unit is in the colorless open form. Singlet oxygen generation is not observed when the diarylethene is converted to the closed form. Irradiation of the closed form with visible light (>470 nm) leads to full recovery of the singlet oxygen generating ability of the porphyrin sensitizer. PMID:24392882

Hou, Lili; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Pijper, Thomas C; Browne, Wesley R; Feringa, Ben L

2014-01-22

139

Method of controlled reduction of nitroaromatics by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes  

DOEpatents

A method is described for the controlled reduction of nitroaromatic compounds such as nitrobenzene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes, such as ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase. 6 figs.

Shah, M.M.; Campbell, J.A.

1998-07-07

140

Method of controlled reduction of nitroaromatics by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes  

DOEpatents

A method for the controlled reduction of nitroaromatic compounds such as nitrobenzene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes, such as ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase.

Shah, Manish M. (Richland, WA); Campbell, James A. (Pasco, WA)

1998-01-01

141

Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control  

SciTech Connect

Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic (i.e., man-made) CO{sub 2} emissions. In 2001, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) began a two-phase program to investigate the feasibility of various carbon capture technologies. This program was sponsored under a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE). The first phase entailed a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen cases, representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated. Seven cases represented coal combustion in CFB type equipment. Four cases represented Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Two cases represented advanced Chemical Looping Combined Cycle systems. Marion, et al. reported the details of this work in 2003. One of the thirteen cases studied utilized an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. In this concept, the fuel is fired with a mixture of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (mainly CO{sub 2}). This combustion process yields a flue gas containing over 80 percent (by volume) CO{sub 2}. This flue gas can be processed relatively easily to enrich the CO{sub 2} content to over 96 percent for use in enhanced oil or gas recovery (EOR or EGR) or simply dried for sequestration. The Phase I study identified the O{sub 2}-fired CFB as having a near term development potential, because it uses conventional commercial CFB technology and commercially available CO{sub 2} capture enabling technologies such as cryogenic air separation and simple rectification or distillation gas processing systems. In the long term, air separation technology advancements offer significant reductions in power requirements, which would improve plant efficiency and economics for the oxygen-fired technology. The second phase consisted of pilot-scale testing followed by a refined performance and economic evaluation of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. As a part of this workscope, ALSTOM modified its 3 MW{sub th} (9.9 MMBtu/hr) Multiuse Test Facility (MTF) pilot plant to operate with O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures of up to 70 percent O{sub 2} by volume. Tests were conducted with coal and petroleum coke. The test objectives were to determine the impacts of oxygen firing on heat transfer, bed dynamics, potential agglomeration, and gaseous and particulate emissions. The test data results were used to refine the design, performance, costs, and economic models developed in Phase-I for the O{sub 2}-fired CFB with CO{sub 2} capture. Nsakala, Liljedahl, and Turek reported results from this study in 2004. ALSTOM identified several items needing further investigation in preparation for large scale demonstration of the oxygen-fired CFB concept, namely: (1) Operation and performance of the moving bed heat exchanger (MBHE) to avoid recarbonation and also for cost savings compared to the standard bubbling fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHE); (2) Performance of the back-end flash dryer absorber (FDA) for sulfur capture under high CO{sub 2}/high moisture flue gas environment using calcined limestone in the fly ash and using fresh commercial lime directly in the FDA; (3) Determination of the effect of recarbonation on fouling in the convective pass; (4) Assessment of the impact of oxygen firing on the mercury, other trace elements, and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions; and (5) Develop a proposal-level oxygen-fired retrofit design for a relatively small existing CFB steam power plant in preparation for a large-scale demonstration of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. Hence, ALSTOM responded to a DOE Solicitation to address all these issues with further O{sub 2} fired MTF pilot testing and a subsequent retrofit design study of oxygen firing and CO{s

Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

2007-03-31

142

Single Cell Responses to Spatially-Controlled Photosensitized Production of Extracellular Singlet Oxygen  

PubMed Central

The response of individual HeLa cells to extracellularly produced singlet oxygen was examined. The spatial domain of singlet oxygen production was controlled using the combination of a membrane-impermeable Pd porphyrin-dendrimer, which served as a photosensitizer, and a focused laser, which served to localize the sensitized production of singlet oxygen. Cells in close proximity to the domain of singlet oxygen production showed morphological changes commonly associated with necrotic cell death. The elapsed post-irradiation “waiting period” before necrosis became apparent depended on (a) the distance between the cell membrane and the domain irradiated, (b) the incident laser fluence and, as such, the initial concentration of singlet oxygen produced, and (c) the lifetime of singlet oxygen. The data imply that singlet oxygen plays a key role in this process of light-induced cell death. The approach of using extracellularly-generated singlet oxygen to induce cell death can provide a solution to a problem that often limits mechanistic studies of intracellularly photosensitized cell death: it can be difficult to quantify the effective light dose, and hence singlet oxygen concentration, when using an intracellular photosensitizer.

Pedersen, Brian Wett; Sinks, Louise E.; Breitenbach, Thomas; Schack, Nickolass B.; Vinogradov, Sergei A.; Ogilby, Peter R.

2011-01-01

143

CryoEM analysis of capsid assembly and structural changes upon interactions with a host restriction factor, TRIM5?.  

PubMed

After virus fusion with a target cell, the viral core is released into the host cell cytoplasm and undergoes a controlled disassembly process, termed uncoating, before or as reverse transcription takes place. The cellular protein TRIM5? is a host cell restriction factor that blocks HIV-1 infection in rhesus macaque cells by targeting the viral capsid and inducing premature uncoating. The molecular mechanism of the interaction between capsid and TRIM5? remains unclear. Here, we describe an approach that utilizes cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM) to examine the structural changes exerted on HIV-1 capsid (CA) assembly by TRIM5? binding. The TRIM5? interaction sites on CA assembly were further dissected by combining cryoEM with pair-wise cysteine mutations that crosslink CA either within a CA hexamer or between CA hexamers. Based on the structural information from cryoEM and crosslinking results from in vitro CA assemblies and purified intact HIV-1 cores, we demonstrate that direct binding of TRIM5? CC-SPRY domains to the viral capsid results in disruption and fragmentation of the surface lattice of HIV-1 capsid, specifically at inter-hexamer interfaces. The method described here can be easily adopted to study other important interactions in multi-protein complexes. PMID:24158810

Zhao, Gongpu; Zhang, Peijun

2014-01-01

144

Evolution of a cytoplasmic tripartite motif (TRIM) protein in cows that restricts retroviral infection.  

PubMed

Primate tripartite motif 5alpha (TRIM5alpha) proteins mediate innate intracellular resistance to retroviruses. In humans, TRIM5 is located in a paralogous cluster that includes TRIM6, TRIM34, and TRIM22. Although TRIM6 and TRIM34 orthologs are found in other mammals, TRIM5 has to date been identified only in primates. Cow cells exhibit early blocks to infection by several retroviruses. We identify a cytoplasmic TRIM protein encoded by LOC505265 that is responsible for the restriction of infection by several lentiviruses and N-tropic murine leukemia virus in cow cells. Susceptibility of N-tropic murine leukemia virus to 505265-mediated restriction is determined primarily by residue 110 of the viral capsid protein. Phylogenetically, cow LOC505265 segregates with the TRIM5/TRIM6/TRIM34 group, but is not an ortholog of known TRIM genes. The B30.2/SPRY domain of 505265 exhibits long variable regions, a characteristic of the proteins encoded by this paralogous group, and shows evidence of positive selection. Apparently, cows have independently evolved a retroviral restriction factor from the same TRIM family that spawned TRIM5 in primates. Particular features of this subset of cytoplasmic TRIM proteins may be conducive to the convergent evolution of virus-restricting factors. PMID:16648259

Si, Zhihai; Vandegraaff, Nick; O'huigin, Colm; Song, Byeongwoon; Yuan, Wen; Xu, Chen; Perron, Michel; Li, Xing; Marasco, Wayne A; Engelman, Alan; Dean, Michael; Sodroski, Joseph

2006-05-01

145

A Comparison of Murine Leukemia Viruses That Escape from Human and Rhesus Macaque TRIM5?s  

PubMed Central

To better understand the binding mechanism of TRIM5? to retrovirus capsid, we had previously selected N-tropic murine leukemia virus (N-MLV) mutants escaping from rhesus macaque TRIM5? (rhTRIM5?) by passaging the virus in rhTRIM5?-expressing cells and selecting for nonrestricted variants. To test the commonality of the findings from the rhTRIM5? study, we have now employed a similar genetic approach using human TRIM5? (huTRIM5?). Consistent with the rhTRIM5? study, the mapped huTRIM5? escape mutations were distributed across the capsid exterior, confirming the extended binding surface between virus and restriction factor. Compared to the results of the previous study, fewer escape mutations were identified, with particular mutants being repeatedly selected. Three out four huTRIM5? escape variants showed resistance to all primate TRIM5?s tested, but two of them sacrificed viral fitness, observations that were not made in the rhTRIM5? study. Moreover, differences in amino acid changes associated with escape from hu- and rhTRIM5?s suggested a charge dependence of the restriction by different TRIM5?s. Taken together, these results suggest that the recognition of the entire capsid surface is a general strategy for TRIM5? to restrict MLV but that significantly different specific interactions are involved in the binding of TRIM5? from different species to the MLV capsid core.

Ohkura, Sadayuki

2013-01-01

146

Instrumentation amplifier with digital gain programming and common-mode rejection trim  

Microsoft Academic Search

A design for an instrumentation amplifier with digitally programmable gain and common-mode rejection (CMR) trim is presented. A standard multiplying D\\/A converter (DAC) is used as the differential feedback control element, and the common-mode rejection is provided by four resistors in a configuration equivalent to a balanced bridge. Digital CMR adjustment is established after another bridge-balancing DAC has been added

D. Vyroubal

1990-01-01

147

What Controls the Temporal Variability of Oxygen in the Gulf of Alaska?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved oxygen in the ocean is a widely observed chemical quantity along with temperature and salinity. Changes in the dissolved oxygen over the world ocean have been interpreted as the response of ocean circulation and biology to climate variability. Observed oxygen at Station P exhibits strong variability in interannual and decadal timescales. However, the mechanisms driving the observed variability are not yet fully understood, and the irregular sampling frequency and relatively short record length make it difficult to detect the low-frequency variability. The purpose of this study is to 1) evaluate the robustness of the observed low-frequency variability of dissolved oxygen and 2) investigate the mechanisms driving the observed variability using statistical data analysis and numerical simulations. To answer the first question, we conducted spectral analyses on the observed oxygen concentration at Station P. To address the irregular sampling frequency we randomly sampled the raw data to form 500 ensemble members with a regular time interval, and then performed spectral analysis. The resulting power spectrum of oxygen exhibits robust low-frequency variability and a statistically significant spectral peak at a timescale of 15-20 years. We hypothesize that the observed low-frequency variability is primarily driven by the variability of ocean circulation in the North Pacific. Three-dimensional distribution of oxygen anomaly is simulated using the data-constrained circulation fields from Estimating Climate and the Circulation of Oceans project. The simulated oxygen anomaly shows outstanding variability in the Gulf of Alaska, showing that this region is a hotspot of oxygen fluctuation. Anomalous advection acting on the climatological mean oxygen gradient is the source of oxygen variability in this simulation. Statistical analyses using atmospheric and oceanic variables indicate that the wintertime subtropical high and associated wind stress pattern is significantly correlated to the interannual variability of dissolved oxygen with a 5-10 year lag. This connection is explained by the fluctuation of the basin-scale, wind-driven circulation. The barotropic streamfunction is significantly correlated with the oxygen anomaly at station P with a 5-10 year lag, showing a north-south dipole structure over the North Pacific (positive anomaly around the Kuroshio extension region and negative anomaly in the south of that). The enhanced eastward transport of waters with high oxygen concentration from the western Pacific is a precursor of the enhanced oxygen concentrations in the Station P. Our result implies the important role of basin-scale ocean transport in controlling the observed oxygen variability in the Gulf of Alaska.

Takano, Y.; Ito, T.; Deutsch, C. A.

2010-12-01

148

Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Flight-Test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A peak-seeking control algorithm for real-time trim optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control algorithm is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are used for optimization of fuel flow. Results from six research flights are presented herein. The optimization algorithm found a trim configuration that required approximately 3 percent less fuel flow than the baseline trim at the same flight condition. The algorithm consistently rediscovered the solution from several initial conditions. These results show that the algorithm has good performance in a relevant environment.

Brown, Nelson Andrew; Schaefer, Jacob Robert

2013-01-01

149

Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Flight-test Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A peak-seeking control algorithm for real-time trim optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control algorithm is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are used for optimization of fuel flow. Results from six research flights are presented herein. The optimization algorithm found a trim configuration that required approximately 3 percent less fuel flow than the baseline trim at the same flight condition. The algorithm consistently rediscovered the solution from several initial conditions. These results show that the algorithm has good performance in a relevant environment.

Brown, Nelson Andrew; Schaefer, Jacob Robert

2013-01-01

150

Ultralow oxygen treatment for postharvest control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on iceberg lettuce  

Microsoft Academic Search

Iceberg lettuce stored under normal atmosphere and controlled atmosphere (CA) with about 3% oxygen at low temperature for 1 week was compared with fresh lettuce for their response to 2d ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment with 0.003% oxygen at 10°C for control of western flower thrips. Lettuce which had been stored for 1 week under normal or CA tolerated ULO treatment

Yong-Biao Liu

2008-01-01

151

32. TRIM SAWS IN BACKGROUND, VIEW FROM SOUTH WEST. NOTE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

32. TRIM SAWS IN BACKGROUND, VIEW FROM SOUTH WEST. NOTE WASTE CONVEYOR IN FOREGROUND, CANT ROLL CASE TO BEAM SAW, THEN ROLL CASE FROM EDGER IN MIDDLE GROUND. - Hull-Oakes Lumber Company, 23837 Dawson Road, Monroe, Benton County, OR

152

33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30 Section 401.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

2013-07-01

153

155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

155. Credit ER. Hand cleaning and trimming of Coleman canal after excavation by steam shovel. (ER, v. 64 1911 p. 701). - Battle Creek Hydroelectric System, Battle Creek & Tributaries, Red Bluff, Tehama County, CA

154

1. GENERAL VIEW. TRIM, ROOF AND STABLE DOORS ALL ARE ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. GENERAL VIEW. TRIM, ROOF AND STABLE DOORS ALL ARE PAINTED RED. HEX SIGNS ARE PAINTED OCHRE, BLACK, RED, WHITE AND BLUE. NOTE PAINTED FLAGS ON SHED - Decorated White Barn, (Maiden Creek Township), Maiden Creek, Berks County, PA

155

33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30 Section 401.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

2012-07-01

156

33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30 Section 401.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

2011-07-01

157

DESIGN PROCEDURES FOR DISSOLVED OXYGEN CONTROL OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESSES  

EPA Science Inventory

This report presents design procedures and guidelines for the selection of aeration equipment and dissolved (DO) control systems for activated sludge treatment plants. Aeration methods, equipment and application techniques are examined and selection procedures offered. Various DO...

158

Precise spatial and temporal control of oxygen within in vitro brain slices via microfluidic gas channels.  

PubMed

The acute brain slice preparation is an excellent model for studying the details of how neurons and neuronal tissue respond to a variety of different physiological conditions. But open slice chambers ideal for electrophysiological and imaging access have not allowed the precise spatiotemporal control of oxygen in a way that might realistically model stroke conditions. To address this problem, we have developed a microfluidic add-on to a commercially available perfusion chamber that diffuses oxygen throughout a thin membrane and directly to the brain slice. A microchannel enables rapid and efficient control of oxygen and can be modified to allow different regions of the slice to experience different oxygen conditions. Using this novel device, we show that we can obtain a stable and homogeneous oxygen environment throughout the brain slice and rapidly alter the oxygen tension in a hippocampal slice. We also show that we can impose different oxygen tensions on different regions of the slice preparation and measure two independent responses, which is not easily obtainable with current techniques. PMID:22905255

Mauleon, Gerardo; Fall, Christopher P; Eddington, David T

2012-01-01

159

Online oxygen control for sulfide oxidation in anaerobic treatment of high-sulfate wastewater.  

PubMed

A new technique for sulfide control was investigated in an upflow-anaerobic filter (UAF) treating high-strength, sulfate-rich wastewater. The technique used periodic oxygen injection using oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) as a controlling parameter to regulate oxygen injection. The UAF was operated at a constant influent total-organic carbon of 6740 mg/L but with different influent sulfates of 1000, 3000, and 6000 mg/L. At 1000 and 3000 mg/L influent sulfates, the produced sulfide did not impose any inhibition to methane-producing bacteria (MPB). However, at 6000 mg/L influent sulfate, the produced dissolved sulfide of 804 mg S/L (free sulfide = 280 mg S/L) severely inhibited the methanogenesis, but not the sulfidogenesis. Upon oxygen injection at elevated ORP of -265 mV, sulfides were almost completely eliminated with a concomitant improvement in methane yield by 46%. If oxygenation was excessive because of an oversetting of ORP, the excess oxygen could be used rapidly by facultative heterotrophs, thereby protecting the MPB from oxygen stress. Regarding online sulfide oxidation, it was found that the biogas and injected oxygen needed to pass through an aqueous layer containing trace metals, which were found to have a significant catalytic effect on abiotic sulfide oxidation. PMID:16749308

Khanal, Samir Kumar; Huang, Ju-Chang

2006-04-01

160

Precise Spatial and Temporal Control of Oxygen within In Vitro Brain Slices via Microfluidic Gas Channels  

PubMed Central

The acute brain slice preparation is an excellent model for studying the details of how neurons and neuronal tissue respond to a variety of different physiological conditions. But open slice chambers ideal for electrophysiological and imaging access have not allowed the precise spatiotemporal control of oxygen in a way that might realistically model stroke conditions. To address this problem, we have developed a microfluidic add-on to a commercially available perfusion chamber that diffuses oxygen throughout a thin membrane and directly to the brain slice. A microchannel enables rapid and efficient control of oxygen and can be modified to allow different regions of the slice to experience different oxygen conditions. Using this novel device, we show that we can obtain a stable and homogeneous oxygen environment throughout the brain slice and rapidly alter the oxygen tension in a hippocampal slice. We also show that we can impose different oxygen tensions on different regions of the slice preparation and measure two independent responses, which is not easily obtainable with current techniques.

Mauleon, Gerardo

2012-01-01

161

Trimming analog circuits using floating-gate analog MOS memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The author presents an analog trim-voltage memory (ATVM) which employs a floating-gate MOS structure similar to that used in digital electrically erasable and programmable read-only memories (EEPROMs). The ATVM is suitable for trimming the offset voltages and currents resulting from threshold mismatches in analog circuits such as operational amplifiers and comparators. It can be incorporated into a standard digital CMOS

L. Richard Carley

1989-01-01

162

Development of a New Technology for Trimming of Dual Phase Steels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the development and investigation of a new technology for trimming of dual phase steels and provides a comparison with other trimming processes. This technology utilizes an elastic support of the offal, sharp upper trim knife and angled lower trim knife. Such a configuration allows for a high quality trimmed surface with little or no burr and without slivers over a wide range of cutting clearances.

Ilinich, Andrey M.; Golovashchenko, Sergey F.; Smith, Lorenzo M.

2011-08-01

163

Reactive oxygen species delay control of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus  

PubMed Central

Cluster of differentiation (CD)8+ T cells are like a double edged sword during chronic viral infections because they not only promote virus elimination but also induce virus-mediated immunopathology. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been reported during virus infections. However, the role of ROS in T-cell-mediated immunopathology remains unclear. Here we used the murine lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus to explore the role of ROS during the processes of virus elimination and induction of immunopathology. We found that virus infection led to elevated levels of ROS producing granulocytes and macrophages in virus-infected liver and spleen tissues that were triggered by the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. Lack of the regulatory subunit p47phox of the NADPH oxidase diminished ROS production in these cells. While CD8+ T cells exhibited ROS production that was independent of NADPH oxidase expression, survival and T-cell function was elevated in p47phox-deficient (Ncf1?/?) mice. In the absence of p47phox, enhanced T-cell immunity promoted virus elimination and blunted corresponding immunopathology. In conclusion, we find that NADPH-mediated production of ROS critically impairs the immune response, impacting elimination of virus and outcome of liver cell damage.

Lang, P A; Xu, H C; Grusdat, M; McIlwain, D R; Pandyra, A A; Harris, I S; Shaabani, N; Honke, N; Kumar Maney, S; Lang, E; Pozdeev, V I; Recher, M; Odermatt, B; Brenner, D; Haussinger, D; Ohashi, P S; Hengartner, H; Zinkernagel, R M; Mak, T W; Lang, K S

2013-01-01

164

Reactive oxygen species-mediated therapeutic control of bladder cancer.  

PubMed

Urinary bladder cancer is the fifth most common cancer in the US and the most costly cancer to manage because it requires life-long surveillance to monitor for recurrence and advanced progression. Urothelial carcinomas account for more than 90% of urinary bladder cancer cases. Transurethral resection and intravesical chemotherapy or immunotherapy are effective short-term treatments of urothelial carcinoma, but long-term management has not yet been optimized. Recent therapeutic strategies emphasize the targeted interference with aberrantly-regulated signaling modulators that result from genomic alterations. However, targeted therapeutic agents might not distinguish cancer cells from their normal counterparts, resulting in undesirable adverse effects. Thus, a new approach for the treatment of urothelial carcinoma has been suggested that differentially augments cancer-associated events, leading to selective death of cancer cells but not normal cells. Many aberrantly-regulated signaling modulators are associated with the elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and an increasing number of studies report agents with the ability to induce ROS in cancer cells. Accordingly, therapeutic augmentation of ROS to a lethal level in cancer cells only would induce selective death of tumor cells but not normal cells, leading to a highly effective chemotherapy strategy for urothelial carcinoma. PMID:21971316

Wang, Hwa-Chain R; Choudhary, Shambhunath

2011-11-01

165

Dissolved oxygen control of mechanical aerators at the Rensselaer county wastewater treatment plant. Final report  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report describes the results of testing dissolved oxygen analyzers to control operation of mechanical aerators at the Rensselaer County Sewer District Wastewater Treatment Plant and reduce the amount of energy uses while maintaining or enhancing biological treatment. Current electricity costs are more than $300,000 annually for aeration in the activated sludge process. Motors for the aerators are manually controlled

F. J. Wurtenberger; W. K. Biski; J. A. Guagno

1994-01-01

166

Elevated rate of fixation of endogenous retroviral elements in Haplorhini TRIM5 and TRIM22 genomic sequences: impact on transcriptional regulation.  

PubMed

All genes in the TRIM6/TRIM34/TRIM5/TRIM22 locus are type I interferon inducible, with TRIM5 and TRIM22 possessing antiviral properties. Evolutionary studies involving the TRIM6/34/5/22 locus have predominantly focused on the coding sequence of the genes, finding that TRIM5 and TRIM22 have undergone high rates of both non-synonymous nucleotide replacements and in-frame insertions and deletions. We sought to understand if divergent evolutionary pressures on TRIM6/34/5/22 coding regions have selected for modifications in the non-coding regions of these genes and explore whether such non-coding changes may influence the biological function of these genes. The transcribed genomic regions, including the introns, of TRIM6, TRIM34, TRIM5, and TRIM22 from ten Haplorhini primates and one prosimian species were analyzed for transposable element content. In Haplorhini species, TRIM5 displayed an exaggerated interspecies variability, predominantly resulting from changes in the composition of transposable elements in the large first and fourth introns. Multiple lineage-specific endogenous retroviral long terminal repeats (LTRs) were identified in the first intron of TRIM5 and TRIM22. In the prosimian genome, we identified a duplication of TRIM5 with a concomitant loss of TRIM22. The transposable element content of the prosimian TRIM5 genes appears to largely represent the shared Haplorhini/prosimian ancestral state for this gene. Furthermore, we demonstrated that one such differentially fixed LTR provides for species-specific transcriptional regulation of TRIM22 in response to p53 activation. Our results identify a previously unrecognized source of species-specific variation in the antiviral TRIM genes, which can lead to alterations in their transcriptional regulation. These observations suggest that there has existed long-term pressure for exaptation of retroviral LTRs in the non-coding regions of these genes. This likely resulted from serial viral challenges and provided a mechanism for rapid alteration of transcriptional regulation. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of persistent evolutionary pressure for the capture of retroviral LTR insertions. PMID:23516500

Diehl, William E; Johnson, Welkin E; Hunter, Eric

2013-01-01

167

Novel trimming technique for tunable HTS microstrip filters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a method using additional electric pads for trimming tunable high-temperature superconducting (HTS) microstrip filters. These filters are generally tuned by adjusting the gap between a dielectric floating plate above the filter. When the floating plate approached the filter, the center frequency was shifted to a lower frequency. However, the insertion loss increases due to variation in the external quality factors varying from the design parameter. The external quality factors are usually controlled by adjusting the length of the input/output (I/O) coupled-line elements and the gap between the elements and the resonator. In our method, additional electric pads are distributed at the open-end of the I/O coupled-line elements of a 3-pole hairpin bandpass filter to enable adjustment of the external quality factors so as to reduce insertion loss. The electric pads consist of line-and-space patterns. They are eclectically connected to the coupled-line elements to adjust the line length and gap width and thereby control the external quality factors. An electromagnetic simulator was used for the design and analysis. The simulation results showed that the additional electric pads are effective in improving the insertion loss of the HTS bandpass filter after tuning.

Sekiya, N.; Nakagawa, Y.; Saito, A.; Ohshima, S.

2008-09-01

168

Study on control of oxygen concentration in lead bismuth flow using lead oxide particles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Performance of mass exchanger type oxygen control system for the control of oxygen concentration in a flowing lead-bismuth (Pb-Bi) was investigated in a low temperature region of a Pb-Bi circulation loop. Oxygen dissolved and diffused from lead oxide (PbO) particles into the melt or oxide precipitated in the mass exchanger. The electromotive force (EMF) of an oxygen sensor installed in a high temperature region of the loop indicated the changes of oxygen concentration in the loop with the temperature changes of the PbO particles reasonably. The measured EMF agreed well with theoretical result obtained using ?GPb-Bi-O equation 0 in the Nernst equation. The expression of oxygen solubility in the melt in the mass exchanger, Cs, was derived from the data as log Cs = A + B/ T, where the constant A ranged from -4000 to -4600, and the constant B ranged from 1 to 3.5 depending on the temperature of the melt.

Kondo, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Minoru; Miura, Kuniaki; Onizawa, Tatsuya

2006-10-01

169

Identification of TRIM22 as a RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase.  

PubMed

TRIM22, a member of the TRIM family proteins which contain RING finger, B-box, and coiled-coil domains, has been reported as a transcriptional regulator and involved in various cellular processes. In this study, the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, a novel property of TRIM22, was demonstrated. It was found that TRIM22 underwent self-ubiquitylation in vitro in combination with the E2 enzyme UbcH5B and the ubiquitylation was dependent on its RING finger domain. Further evidences showed that TRIM22 could also be self-ubiquitylated in vivo. Importantly, TRIM22 was conjugated with poly-ubiquitin chains and stabilized by the proteasome inhibitor in 293T cells, suggesting that TRIM22 targeted itself for proteasomal degradation through the poly-ubiquitylation. We also found that TRIM22 was located in the nucleus, indicating that TRIM22 might function as a nuclear E3 ubiquitin ligase. PMID:18656448

Duan, Zhijian; Gao, Bo; Xu, Wei; Xiong, Sidong

2008-09-26

170

Identification of TRIM22 as a RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase  

SciTech Connect

TRIM22, a member of the TRIM family proteins which contain RING finger, B-box, and coiled-coil domains, has been reported as a transcriptional regulator and involved in various cellular processes. In this study, the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, a novel property of TRIM22, was demonstrated. It was found that TRIM22 underwent self-ubiquitylation in vitro in combination with the E2 enzyme UbcH5B and the ubiquitylation was dependent on its RING finger domain. Further evidences showed that TRIM22 could also be self-ubiquitylated in vivo. Importantly, TRIM22 was conjugated with poly-ubiquitin chains and stabilized by the proteasome inhibitor in 293T cells, suggesting that TRIM22 targeted itself for proteasomal degradation through the poly-ubiquitylation. We also found that TRIM22 was located in the nucleus, indicating that TRIM22 might function as a nuclear E3 ubiquitin ligase.

Duan Zhijian; Gao Bo; Xu Wei [Institute for Immunobiology, Department of Immunology, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Xiong Sidong [Institute for Immunobiology, Department of Immunology, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai 200032 (China) and Immunology Division, E-Institutes of Shanghai Universities (China)], E-mail: sdxiongfd@126.com

2008-09-26

171

The influence of different beak trimming age on performance, H-L ratio and antibody production to SRBC in laying hens.  

PubMed

The objectives of this study were to examine the effects of beak trimming age on performance criteria, H-L ratio, antibody production, the percentage of spleen and liver and external appearance. The chicks (Barred Rock) were randomly divided into 4 beak-trimming groups (non-trimmed (control), a trim at 1 d (1D), at 10 d (10D) and at 10 wk (10W)), each of 132 chicks. There were 6 replicate cages at beak trimming groups at rearing period. At 18 wk of age a total of 144 pullets were transferred to the layer house, and the pullets were housed at 323 and 646 cm(2)/hen with 8 and 4 birds per cage in three-deck layer cages. There were a total of 24 replications with 12 replications equally divided between the high and low density cages, and the beak trimmed treatments were randomly and equally divided within each density. As a result of this experiment differences among groups in body weight in rearing phase were disappear in the laying phase. Low feather condition was found in untrimmed hens. H-L ratio in both pullet and laying phase was higher in hens of untrimmed groups. Cage area affected all examined parameters except that body weight, mortality rate, cracked, broken and unshell egg rates, shell breaking, shape index, shell thickness, meat-blood spot rates, spleen and liver percentages, throat injures and antibody production to SRBC. PMID:18484189

Onba?ilar, E Ebru; Demirta?, Sahnur E; Kahraman, Züleyha; Karademir, Ender; Demir, Sunay

2009-02-01

172

Trim angle measurements in free-flight facilities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aerodynamic cofficients and trim angle for an aerobrake at Mach 9.2 and 11.8 were found using a combination of experiment and computation. Free-flight tests were performed at NASA Ames Research Center's Hypervelocity Free-Flight Aerodynamic Facility, and the forebody pressure distribution was calculated using a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code with an effective specific heat ratio. Using the computed drag, lift, and moments to prescribe the number of terms in the aerodynamic coefficient expansions and to specify the values of the higher order terms, the experimental aerodynamic coefficients and trim angle were found using a six-degree-of-freedom, weighted, least-squares analysis. The experimental and computed aerodynamic coefficients and trim angles are in good agreement. The trim angle obtained from the free-flight tests, 14.7 deg, differs from the design trim angle, 17 deg, and from the Langley wind tunnel results, 12 deg in air and 17 deg in CF4. These differences are attributable to real-gas effects.

Yates, Leslie A.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

1991-01-01

173

Novel OPC flow for the trim-mask lithography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Novel Optical Proximity Correction (OPC) flow using the new compact lithography model which predicts wafer patterns formed by the trim-mask lithography has been developed. The trim-mask lithography has been indispensable to manufacture the random-logic devices using the leading-edge processes which require double patterning technology (DPT) and/or restricted/reduced design rule (RDR). It is the litho-etch-litho-etch (LELE) DPT in which a trim process, a litho-etch (LE) process, follows one or several LE processes. The trim process is used to remove redundant patterns in order to achieve the final patterns corresponding to design intent after forming periodic and lithography-friendly patterns by the preceding LE processes. In addition, it is used to form the narrow gaps between line ends1. Since the influence of both the preceding processes and the trim process on the final wafer patterns should be considered through the OPC development, it is necessary to moderate the interference between the OPC developments for the masks and to reduce the increase of required computational resources. The concept of the compact lithography model has been proposed, the results applied to random-logic designs have been shown, and effectiveness of the OPC flow has been discussed.

Kojima, Yasushi; Moniwa, Akemi; Maruyama, Tatsuya; Ishibashi, Manabu; Taoka, Hironobu

2012-06-01

174

Vascular Smooth Muscle Modulates Endothelial Control of Vasoreactivity via Reactive Oxygen Species Production through Myoendothelial Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundEndothelial control of vascular smooth muscle plays a major role in the resulting vasoreactivity implicated in physiological or pathological circulatory processes. However, a comprehensive understanding of endothelial (EC)\\/smooth muscle cells (SMC) crosstalk is far from complete. Here, we have examined the role of gap junctions and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in this crosstalk and we demonstrate an active contribution of

Marie Billaud; Roger Marthan; Jean-Pierre Savineau; Christelle Guibert; Neeraj Vij

2009-01-01

175

Alteration by mutation of the control by oxygen of the nar operon in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nar-lac operon fusion was used to isolate a mutant in which the expression of the nar operon was no longer repressed by oxygen. The nardmutation, located upstream of the nar structural genes, was found to be cis dominant; it led to independence from the Fnr protein which, in the wild-type strain, exerts a strict positive control on the nar

Violaine Bonnefoy; Marie-Claire Pascal; Jeannine Ratouchniak; Marc Chippaux

1986-01-01

176

Fuzzy logic control of inspired isoflurane and oxygen concentrations using minimal flow anaesthesia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary In order to evaluate the performance of feedback fuzzy logic control of inspired oxygen and isoflurane concentrations, we studied 30 patients undergoing discectomy for lumbar (n ? 26) or cervical (n ? 4) disc herniation. Patients were allocated random to one of two groups: a standard group (n ? 15) with low flow anaesthesia (1.2-1.3 litre min ? 1

M. CURATOLO; M. DERIGHETTI; S. PETERSEN-FELIX; P. FEIGENWINTER; M. FISCHER; A. M. ZBINDEN

1996-01-01

177

DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY FOR CONTROLLING BOP (BASIC OXYGEN PROCESS) CHARGING EMISSIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The report gives results of a study of the basic oxygen process (BOP) hot metal charging emission control technology, conducted with a 900 kg pilot vessel designed for the experiments. Complete instrumentation was provided to measure the emissions, the effectiveness of the variou...

178

EXPERIMENTAL EVALUATION OF OXYGEN AND AIR ACTIVATED SLUDGE NITRIFICATION SYSTEMS WITH AND WITHOUT PH CONTROL  

EPA Science Inventory

The nitrification capabilities of two oxygen activated sludge systems receiving District of Columbia secondary effluent at a steady state flow of 190 cu m/day (50,000 gpd) were evaluated. The pH of one system was controlled to maintain a pH of 7.0 in the last reactor pass of the ...

179

Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Latrodectus hesperus (Araneae: Theridiidae) on harvested table grapes.  

PubMed

The spider Latrodectus hesperus Chamberlin & Ivie (Araneae: Theridiidae) was subjected to low and ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatments at different temperatures. Complete control of the spiders was achieved in 24-h ULO treatments with 0.5% O2 or lower at 1 degrees C and in a 24-h low oxygen (2%) treatment at 15 degrees C. Oxygen level and temperature greatly affected spider mortality. At 1 degrees C, as oxygen level was decreased from 2 to 0.5%, spider mortality increased from 0 to 100%. At 2% O2, as temperature was increased from 1 to 15 degrees C, spider mortality increased from 0 to 100%. Grape clusters from two table grape (Vitis spp.) cultivars, 'Thompson Seedless' and 'Flame Seedless', were subjected to the 24-h ULO treatment with 0.5% O2 at 1 degrees C. The ULO treatment had no negative effects on grape quality. Because of the relatively short treatment time, effectiveness at low storage temperature and the easily attained oxygen level, we conclude that the ULO treatment have good potential to be implemented commercially for control of black widow spiders on harvested table grapes. PMID:18950031

Liu, Yong-Biao; Daane, Kent M; Tebbets, J Steve; Bettiga, Larry J

2008-10-01

180

Total Risk Integrated Methodology. TRIM.FaTE Technical Support Document. Volume II: Description of Chemical Transport and Transformation Algorithms.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This document, the TRIM.FaTE Technical Support Document, is part of a series of documentation for the overall Total Risk Integrated Methodology (TRIM) modeling system. The detailed documentation of TRIM's logic, assumptions, algorithms, equations, and inp...

2002-01-01

181

Trim coils and magnet alignment in MFTF-B  

SciTech Connect

Performance of the MFTF-B tandem mirror reactor is critically dependent upon precise alignment of the superconducting magnets in the transition region. Given the size and nature of these magnets, mechanical alignment under operating conditions to the tolerances required is an impossible task, as placement must anticipate deflections due to vacuum conditions, cooling to cryogenic temperatures, and magnetic forces. A cost-effective solution to the alignment problem is presented here. In each transition region, a set of eight trimming magnets capable of introducing dipole- and quadrupole-field components allows the field curvatures to be finely tuned to offset the effects of mechanical alignment errors. Trimming current values for correcting representative single- and multiple-coil misalignments, as well as an analytic method for determining them are given. Finally, design considerations that will minimize the need for trim coils in future tandem mirror devices are suggested.

Yamaguchi, G.T.; Baldwin, D.E.

1983-11-23

182

Trimming a Metallic Biliary Stent Using an Argon Plasma Coagulator  

SciTech Connect

Background. Distal migration is one of the common complications after insertion of a covered metallic stent. Stent repositioning or removal is not always possible in every patient. Therefore, trimming using an argon plasma coagulator (APC) may be a good alternative method to solve this problem. Methods. Metallic stent trimming by APC was performed in 2 patients with biliary Wallstent migration and in another patient with esophageal Ultraflex stent migration. The power setting was 60-100 watts with an argon flow of 0.8 l/min. Observations. The procedure was successfully performed and all distal parts of the stents were removed. No significant collateral damage to the nearby mucosa was observed. Conclusions. In a patient with a distally migrated metallic stent, trimming of the stent is possible by means of an APC. This new method may be applicable to other sites of metallic stent migration.

Rerknimitr, Rungsun, E-mail: Rungsun@pol.net; Naprasert, Pisit; Kongkam, Pradermchai; Kullavanijaya, Pinit [Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine (Thailand)

2007-06-15

183

Aeroelastic Analysis of a Trimmed Generic Hypersonic Vehicle  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aeroelastic equations of motion governing a hypersonic vehicle in free flight are derived. The equations of motion for a translating and rotating flexible body using Lagrange's equations in terms of quasi-coordinates are presented. These equations are simplified for the case of a vehicle with pitch and plunge rigid body degrees of freedom and small elastic displacements. The displacements are approximated by a truncated series of the unrestrained mode shapes, which are obtained using equivalent plate theory. Subsequently, the nonlinear equations of motion are linearized about the trim state, which is obtained using a rigid body trim model and steady hypersonic aerodynamics. The appropriate flutter derivatives are calculated from piston theory. Results describing mode shapes, trim behavior, and aeroelastic stability of a generic hypersonic vehicle are presented.

Nydick, I.; Friedmann, P. P.

1999-01-01

184

Insulating ferromagnetic oxide films: the controlling role of oxygen vacancy ordering  

SciTech Connect

The origin of ferromagnetism in strained epitaxial LaCoO3 films has been a long-standing mystery. Here, we combine atomically resolved Z-contrast imaging, electron-energy-loss spectroscopy, and density-functional calculations to demonstrate that, in epitaxial LaCoO3 films, oxygen-vacancy superstructures release strain, control the film s electronic properties, and produce the observed ferromagnetism via the excess electrons in the Co d states. Although oxygen vacancies typically dope a material n-type, we find that ordered vacancies induce Peierls-like minigaps which, combined with strain relaxation, trigger a nonlinear rupture of the energy bands, resulting in insulating behavior.

Salafranca Laforga, Juan I [ORNL] [ORNL; Salafranca, Juan [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain] [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain; Biskup, Nevenko [ORNL] [ORNL; Mehta, Virat [University of California, Berkeley] [University of California, Berkeley; Oxley, Mark P [ORNL] [ORNL; Suzuki, Yuri [Stanford University] [Stanford University; Pennycook, Stephen J [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Pantelides, Sokrates T. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville] [Vanderbilt University, Nashville; Varela del Arco, Maria [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01

185

Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Architecture and Performance Predictions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A peak-seeking control approach for real-time trim configuration optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control approach is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are controlled for optimization of fuel flow. This paper presents the design and integration of this peak-seeking controller on a modified NASA F/A-18 airplane with research flight control computers. A research flight was performed to collect data to build a realistic model of the performance function and characterize measurement noise. This model was then implemented into a nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom F/A-18 simulation along with the peak-seeking control algorithm. With the goal of eventual flight tests, the algorithm was first evaluated in the improved simulation environment. Results from the simulation predict good convergence on minimum fuel flow with a 2.5-percent reduction in fuel flow relative to the baseline trim of the aircraft.

Schaefer, Jacob; Brown, Nelson A.

2013-01-01

186

Effects of Supplemental Oxygen on Maternal and Neonatal Oxygenation in Elective Cesarean Section under Spinal Anesthesia: A Randomized Controlled Trial  

PubMed Central

The use of supplemental oxygen in uncomplicated cesarean deliveries under spinal anesthesia has been thoroughly investigated during recent decades. The aim of this study was to determine the benefits for both mother and infant of administering supplemental, low-dose oxygen via a nasal cannula versus having no supplement (i.e., room air only). Healthy parturients at term undergoing elective cesarean section under spinal anesthesia were randomly allocated into two groups: an oxygen group (n = 170), who received 3 LPM oxygen via a nasal cannula; and a room-air group (n = 170), who were assigned to breathe room air. Maternal oxygen saturation was measured continuously by using pulse oximeter. The desaturation was determined by oxygen saturation <94% over 30 seconds. Umbilical cord gases and Apgar scores were collected followed delivery of the infant. All maternal desaturation events occurred in 12 parturients assigned to the room-air group. Most events were concurrent with hypotension. The umbilical venous partial pressure of oxygen was significantly higher in the oxygen group. The other blood gas measurements and Apgar scores were not significantly different between the two groups. Based on our findings, the use of supplemental oxygen could prevent maternal desaturation resulting from receiving sedation and intraoperative hypotension.

Siriussawakul, Arunotai; Triyasunant, Namtip; Nimmannit, Akarin; Ngerncham, Sopapan; Hirunkanokpan, Promphon; Luang-Aram, Sasiwalai; Pechpaisit, Nusaroch; Wangdee, Aungsumat; Ruangvutilert, Pornpimol

2014-01-01

187

Singlet oxygen-dependent translational control in the tigrina-d.12 mutant of barley.  

PubMed

The tigrina (tig)-d.12 mutant of barley is impaired in the negative control limiting excess protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) accumulation in the dark. Upon illumination, Pchlide operates as photosensitizer and triggers singlet oxygen production and cell death. Here, we show that both Pchlide and singlet oxygen operate as signals that control gene expression and metabolite accumulation in tig-d.12 plants. In vivo labeling, Northern blotting, polysome profiling, and protein gel blot analyses revealed a selective suppression of synthesis of the small and large subunits of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RBCSs and RBCLs), the major light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein of photosystem II (LHCB2), as well as other chlorophyll-binding proteins, in response to singlet oxygen. In part, these effects were caused by an arrest in translation initiation of photosynthetic transcripts at 80S cytoplasmic ribosomes. The observed changes in translation correlated with a decline in the phosphorylation level of ribosomal protein S6. At later stages, ribosome dissociation occurred. Together, our results identify translation as a major target of singlet oxygen-dependent growth control and cell death in higher plants. PMID:19620736

Khandal, Dhriti; Samol, Iga; Buhr, Frank; Pollmann, Stephan; Schmidt, Holger; Clemens, Stephan; Reinbothe, Steffen; Reinbothe, Christiane

2009-08-01

188

Antiviral TRIMs: friend or foe in autoimmune and autoinflammatory disease?  

PubMed

The concept that viral sensing systems, via their ability to drive pro-inflammatory cytokine and interferon production, contribute to the development of autoimmune and autoinflammatory disease is supported by a wide range of clinical and experimental observations. Recently, the tripartite motif-containing proteins (TRIMs) have emerged as having key roles in antiviral immunity - either as viral restriction factors or as regulators of pathways downstream of viral RNA and DNA sensors, and the inflammasome. Given their involvement in these pathways, we propose that TRIM proteins contribute to the development and pathology of autoimmune and autoinflammatory conditions, thus making them potential novel targets for therapeutic manipulation. PMID:21866173

Jefferies, Caroline; Wynne, Claire; Higgs, Rowan

2011-09-01

189

Trimming a Metallic Biliary Stent Using an Argon Plasma Coagulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Distal migration is one of the common complications after insertion of a covered metallic stent. Stent repositioning or removal\\u000a is not always possible in every patient. Therefore, trimming using an argon plasma coagulator (APC) may be a good alternative\\u000a method to solve this problem.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Metallic stent trimming by APC was performed in 2 patients with biliary Wallstent migration and in

Rungsun Rerknimitr; Pisit Naprasert; Pradermchai Kongkam; Pinit Kullavanijaya

2007-01-01

190

Control of apple superficial scald and ripening—a comparison between 1-methylcyclopropene and diphenylamine postharvest treatments, initial low oxygen stress and ultra low oxygen storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Granny Smith’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruit were treated with 1 ?l l?1 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) at room temperature for 12 h. Quality of fruit stored 4 and 6 months in air, under different controlled atmospheres (CA) at low oxygen concentration (1.5, 1.0 and 0.7 kPa O2), with initial low oxygen stress (ILOS) at 0.4 kPa O2 for 2 weeks, and

A Zanella

2003-01-01

191

Effect of nitroimidazoles on the oxygen consumption rate and respiratory control ratio of beef heart mitochondria  

SciTech Connect

The neurotoxic effect of the nitroimidazole radiosensitizers misonidazole (MISO) and desmethylmisonidazole (DMM) has seriously compromised their clinical effectiveness. The authors compare here the effect of MISO and DMM on oxygen consumption in purified beef heart mitochondria. MISO has been found to significantly increase the oxygen consumption rate and decrease the respiratory control ratio in isolated mitochondria when incubated in the presence of the NAD+ dependent substrate, ..beta..-hydroxybutyrate. DMM has a similar but less pronounced effect than MISO on these respiratory parameters. When mitochondria were incubated in the presence of these radiosensitizers for 8, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes, the oxygen consumption rate was decreased when succinate, a FAD dependent substrate, was added following the incubation. This decrease, which is both time and dosage dependent, is equivalent for MISO and DMM.

Chao, C.F.; Ting, L.; Subjeck, J.R.; Johnson, R.J.

1984-08-01

192

Quality of Trimming and its Effect on Stretch Flanging of Automotive Panels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional trimming requires accurate alignment of the die shearing edges, typically 5 10% of the blank thickness. Increasing the clearance above the recommended value often leads to generation of burrs on the trimmed surface. These burrs may create difficulties for flanging and hemming operations. Details of trimming technology for panels made out of aluminum sheet AA6111-T4 with elastic offal support will be discussed, including such factors as die radii of the tooling, effect of tooling wear, and trimming angle on the quality of trimmed surface. Also, imperfections on the trimmed edge of the panel may result in reduced formability in stretched flanging and hemming operations. Experimental results quantifying the behavior of trimmed surface in stretching will be provided for both a conventional trimming process and a newly developed process.

Golovashchenko, Sergey F.

2008-06-01

193

An aeration control strategy for oxidation ditch processes based on online oxygen requirement estimation.  

PubMed

A feedforward-feedback aeration control strategy based on online oxygen requirements (OR) estimation is proposed for oxidation ditch (OD) processes, and it is further developed for intermittent aeration OD processes, which are the most popular type in Japan. For calculating OR, concentrations of influent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) are estimated online by the measurement of suspended solids (SS) and sometimes TKN is estimated by NH4-N. Mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) and temperature are used to estimate the required oxygen for endogenous respiration. A straightforward parameter named aeration coefficient, Ka, is introduced as the only parameter that can be tuned automatically by feedback control or manually by the operators. Simulation with an activated sludge model was performed in comparison to fixed-interval aeration and satisfying result of OR control strategy was obtained. The OR control strategy has been implemented at seven full-scale OD plants and improvements in nitrogen removal are obtained in all these plants. Among them, the results obtained in Yumoto wastewater treatment plant were presented, in which continuous aeration was applied previously. After implementing intermittent OR control, the total nitrogen concentration was reduced from more than 5 mg/L to under 2 mg/L, and the electricity consumption was reduced by 61.2% for aeration or 21.5% for the whole plant. PMID:23823542

Zhan, J X; Ikehata, M; Mayuzumi, M; Koizumi, E; Kawaguchi, Y; Hashimoto, T

2013-01-01

194

Prediction and innovative control strategies for oxygen and hazardous gases from diesel emission in underground mines.  

PubMed

Diesel engine is widely used in underground mining machines due to its efficiency, ease of maintenance, reliability and durability. However, it possesses significant danger to the miners and mining operations as it releases hazardous gases (CO, NO, CO2) and fine particles which can be easily inhaled by the miners. Moreover, the diesel engine consumes significant amount of oxygen which can lead to insufficient oxygen supply for miners. It is therefore critical to maintain sufficient oxygen supply while keeping hazardous gas concentrations from diesel emission below the maximum allowable level. The objective of this study is to propose and to examine various innovative ventilation strategies to control oxygen and hazardous gas concentrations in underground mine to ensure safety, productivity and cost related to energy consumption. Airflow distribution, oxygen and hazardous gas dispersion as well as ambient temperature within the mining area are evaluated by utilizing the well-established computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. The results suggest that our newly proposed ventilation design performs better as compared to the conventional design to handle hazardous gases from diesel emission. PMID:24607396

Kurnia, Jundika C; Sasmito, Agus P; Wong, Wai Yap; Mujumdar, Arun S

2014-05-15

195

Insect eggs exert rapid control over an oxygen-water tradeoff  

PubMed Central

In terrestrial environments, the exchange of respiratory gases exacts a water cost: obtaining oxygen or carbon dioxide requires losing water. Insect eggs should be especially sensitive to this tradeoff—because they are unable to forage for water, have high surface area-to-volume ratios, and experience large temperature-driven changes in oxygen demand. Previous work from our laboratory, on eggs of a common hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, has shown that, during development, metabolic rate and water loss rates rise in parallel. These correlative data suggest that eggshell conductance increases to accommodate increasing metabolic demand. Here, we test this idea experimentally by subjecting eggs of M. sexta to 15, 21 (normoxia) and 35% oxygen for 24?h, while measuring rates of metabolism (as carbon dioxide emission) and water loss. Hypoxia depressed egg metabolic rates, but led to pronounced, rapid increases in water loss. By contrast, hyperoxia had no significant effect on metabolism or water loss. These data demonstrate that insect eggs actively participate in balancing oxygen gain and water loss, and that they use tissue oxygen status, or some correlate of it, as a cue for increasing eggshell conductance. Rapid control over conductance may allow eggs to conserve water during an initial period of low metabolic demand, thereby deferring water costs of respiratory gas exchange until late in development.

Zrubek, Brandy; Woods, H. Arthur

2005-01-01

196

Biochemical Characterization of a Recombinant TRIM5? Protein That Restricts Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Replication? †  

PubMed Central

The rhesus monkey intrinsic immunity factor TRIM5?rh recognizes incoming capsids from a variety of retroviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), and inhibits the accumulation of viral reverse transcripts. However, direct interactions between restricting TRIM5? proteins and retroviral capsids have not previously been demonstrated using pure recombinant proteins. To facilitate structural and mechanistic studies of retroviral restriction, we have developed methods for expressing and purifying an active chimeric TRIM5?rh protein containing the RING domain from the related human TRIM21 protein. This recombinant TRIM5-21R protein was expressed in SF-21 insect cells and purified through three chromatographic steps. Two distinct TRIM5-21R species were purified and shown to correspond to monomers and dimers, as analyzed by analytical ultracentrifugation. Chemically cross-linked recombinant TRIM5-21R dimers and mammalian-expressed TRIM5-21R and TRIM5? proteins exhibited similar sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis mobilities, indicating that mammalian TRIM5? proteins are predominantly dimeric. Purified TRIM5-21R had ubiquitin ligase activity and could autoubquitylate with different E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzymes in vitro. TRIM5-21R bound directly to synthetic capsids composed of recombinant HIV-1 CA-NC proteins and to authentic EIAV core particles. HIV-1 CA-NC assemblies bound dimeric TRIM5-21R better than either monomeric TRIM5-21R or TRIM5-21R constructs that lacked the SPRY domain or its V1 loop. Thus, our studies indicate that TRIM5? proteins are dimeric ubiquitin E3 ligases that recognize retroviral capsids through direct interactions mediated by the SPRY domain and demonstrate that these activities can be recapitulated in vitro using pure recombinant proteins.

Langelier, Charles R.; Sandrin, Virginie; Eckert, Debra M.; Christensen, Devin E.; Chandrasekaran, Viswanathan; Alam, Steven L.; Aiken, Christopher; Olsen, John C.; Kar, Alak Kanti; Sodroski, Joseph G.; Sundquist, Wesley I.

2008-01-01

197

The interferon response inhibits HIV particle production by induction of TRIM22.  

PubMed

Treatment of human cells with Type 1 interferons restricts HIV replication. Here we report that the tripartite motif protein TRIM22 is a key mediator. We used transcriptional profiling to identify cellular genes that were induced by interferon treatment and identified TRIM22 as one of the most strongly up-regulated genes. We confirmed, as in previous studies, that TRIM22 over-expression inhibited HIV replication. To assess the role of TRIM22 expressed under natural inducing conditions, we compared the effects of interferon in cells depleted for TRIM22 using RNAi and found that HIV particle release was significantly increased in the knockdown, implying that TRIM22 acts as a natural antiviral effector. Further studies showed that TRIM22 inhibited budding of virus-like particles containing Gag only, indicating that Gag was the target of TRIM22. TRIM22 did not block the release of MLV or EIAV Gag particles. Inhibition was associated with diffuse cytoplasmic staining of HIV Gag rather than accumulation at the plasma membrane, suggesting TRIM22 disrupts proper trafficking. Mutational analyses of TRIM22 showed that the catalytic amino acids Cys15 and Cys18 of the RING domain are required for TRIM22 antiviral activity. These data disclose a pathway by which Type 1 interferons obstruct HIV replication. PMID:18389079

Barr, Stephen D; Smiley, James R; Bushman, Frederic D

2008-02-01

198

A Comparison of Robust Estimators Based on Two Types of Trimming  

Microsoft Academic Search

The least trimmed squares (LTS) estimator and the trimmed mean are two well known trimming based estimators. Both estimates are popular in practice, and they are implemented in standard statistical softwares. In this paper, we compare the asymptotic variances of these two estimators in a location model, when the two location estimates have the highest breakdown point (i.e., 50%). Some

SUBHRA SANKAR DHAR; PROBAL CHAUDHURI

2007-01-01

199

Recent Insights into the Mechanism and Consequences of TRIM5? Retroviral Restriction  

PubMed Central

Abstract The cellular factor TRIM5? inhibits infection by numerous retroviruses in a species-specific manner. The TRIM5? protein from rhesus macaques (rhTRIM5?) restricts infection by HIV-1 while human TRIM5? (huTRIM5?) restricts infection by murine leukemia virus (MLV). In owl monkeys a related protein TRIM-Cyp restricts HIV-1 infection. Several models have been proposed for retroviral restriction by TRIM5 proteins (TRIM5? and TRIM-Cyp). These models collectively suggest that TRIM5 proteins mediate restriction by directly binding to specific determinants in the viral capsid. Through their ability to self-associate TRIM5 proteins compartmentalize the viral capsid core and mediate its abortive disassembly via a poorly understood mechanism that is sensitive to proteasome inhibitors. In this review, we discuss TRIM5-mediated restriction in detail. We also discuss how polymorphisms within human and rhesus macaque populations have been demonstrated to affect disease progression of immunodeficiency viruses in these species.

Sastri, Jaya

2011-01-01

200

Immunolocalization of the oligosaccharide trimming enzyme glucosidase II  

Microsoft Academic Search

We used immunoelectron microscopy to lo- calize glucosidase II in pig hepatocytes. The enzyme trims the two inner al,3-1inked glucoses from N- linked oligosaccharide precursor chains ofglycopro- teins. Immunoreactive enzyme was concentrated in rough (RER) and smooth (SER) endoplasmic reticu- lum but not detectable in Golgi apparatus cisternae. Transitional elements of RER and smooth mem- braned structures close to Golgi

John M. Lucocq; Daniela Brada; Jiirgen Roth

1986-01-01

201

Postfabrication Electrical Trimming of Silicon Micromechanical Resonators via Joule Heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a method to electrically trim the resonance frequency of a silicon bulk acoustic resonator (SiBAR) after its fabrication is completed. The small volume of the mi- croresonator can be Joule heated to a sufficiently high temperature to allow for diffusion of deposited metals from its surface onto its bulk. Such high temperatures also facilitate the formation of

Ashwin K. Samarao; Farrokh Ayazi

2011-01-01

202

Trimming silica planar lightwave circuits using deep ultraviolet ultrafast lasers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trimming phase and birefringence errors in hydrogen-free Mach-Zehnder planar waveguide circuits have been demonstrated with a deep ultraviolet femtosecond laser (258nm, 150fs) achieving refractive index change of gt;3.8×10-4 and complete compensation of the intrinsic birefringence.

K. P. Chen; Q. Chen; M. Buric; S. Nikumb

2005-01-01

203

Trimming of a Migrated Biliary Nitinol Stent Using Argon Plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Metallic stent migration is a well-known complication which cannot always be managed by removal or repositioning, especially in case of uncovered stent. We report a patient who developed obstructive jaundice due to migration of an expandable metallic stent (EMS) inserted in the lower bile duct. Trimming of the EMS using argon plasma was performed, with the power setting of 60

Hiroyuki Matsubayashi; Noriaki Hasuike; Masaki Tanaka; Kohei Takizawa; Yuichiro Yamaguchi; Hiroyuki Ono

2009-01-01

204

Astronaut Owen Garriott trims hair of Astronaut Alan Bean  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientist-Astronaut Owen K. Garriott, Skylab 3 science pilot, trims the hair of Astronaut Alan L. Bean, commander, in this on-board photograph from the Skylab Orbital Workshop (OWS). Bean holds a vacuum hose to gather in loose hair.

1973-01-01

205

Trimmed Means in Split-Plot Repeated Measurement Designs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Welch-James (WJ) and Improved General Approximation (IGA) tests for the within-subjects main and interaction effects in a split-plot repeated measurement design were investigated when least squares estimates and robust estimates based on trimmed means were used. Variables manipulated in the Monte Carlo study included the degree of multivariate…

Lix, Lisa M.; And Others

206

Maturity and Stability Evaluation of Composted Yard Trimmings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this research was to evaluate a variety of stability and maturity in- dices for yard trimmings compost produced in the Puget Sound region of western Washington State. Compost samples were collected periodically during a 133-d com- posting cycle at a commercial composting facility, showing that indices of compost respiration rate were sensitive indicators of compost quality. All

Linda J. Brewer; Dan M. Sullivan; Oregon Corvallis

2003-01-01

207

Modifications to the TRIM Monte Carlo simulation program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extensive modifications were made to the TRIM (TRansport of Ions in Matter) Monte Carlo computer code which simulates the ion irradiation of amorphous solids. The original FORTRAN code was translated into BASIC for use on minicomputers with 32 K words of memory. Versions have been written to simulate very low-energy irradiations and the irradiation of binary alloys. Furthermore, a version

Macrander

1979-01-01

208

Comparison of Control Strategies for Dissolved Oxygen Control in Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six control strategies; PID control, Model Predictive Control (MPC) with linear model, MPC with non-linear model, Nonlinear Autoregressive-Moving Average (NARMA-L2) control, Neural Network Model Predictive Control (NN-MPC) and optimal control with sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm were evaluated via simulation of activated sludge wastewater treatment process. Controller performance assessment was based on rise time, overshoot, Integral Absolute Error (IAE) and

Evrim Akyurek; Mehmet Yuceer; Ilknur Atasoy; Ridvan Berber

2009-01-01

209

N-glycan trimming by glucosidase II is essential for Arabidopsis development  

PubMed Central

Glucosidase II, one of the early N-glycan processing enzymes and a major player in the glycoprotein folding quality control, has been described as a soluble heterodimer composed of ? and ? subunits. Here we present the first characterization of a plant glucosidase II ? subunit at the molecular level. Expression of the Arabidopsis ? subunit restored N-glycan maturation capacity in Schizosaccharomyces pombe ?— or ??—deficient mutants, but with a lower efficiency in the last case. Inactivation of the ? subunit in a temperature sensitive Arabidopsis mutant blocked N-glycan processing after a first trimming by glucosidase I and strongly affected seedling development.

Soussillane, Pravina; Alessio, Cecilia D'; Paccalet, Thomas; Fitchette, Anne-Catherine; Parodi, Armando J.; Williamson, Richard; Plasson, Carole; Faye, Loic; Gomord, Veronique

2009-01-01

210

Unique metered combustion controller replaces traditional jack shaft control  

SciTech Connect

Traditional jack shaft controls attempt to proportion a burner's air and fuel valves. There is much potential for improvement. The largest of boilers (over 600 hp) can cost justify the first cost and maintenance expense of oxygen trim systems with oxygen sensors. The majority of fire-tube boilers and many of the small and medium water tubed boilers, however, often cannot get an ample payback on oxygen sensor investment. An industrial combustion control system has been adapted for use on boilers and fired heaters. An investment in a single computer can be used to independently control up to 4 boilers. The efficiency of most boiler and multi-zone heaters and furnaces can now be increased with a good ROI. The results of 4 representative installations are presented. 2 figures.

West, J.

1986-03-01

211

Quantitative measurement and control of oxygen levels in microfluidic poly(dimethylsiloxane) bioreactors during cell culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microfluidic bioreactors fabricated from highly gas-permeable poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) materials have been observed,\\u000a somewhat unexpectedly, to give rise to heterogeneous long term responses along the length of a perfused mammalian cell culture\\u000a channel, reminiscent of physiologic tissue zonation that arises at least in part due to oxygen gradients. To develop a more\\u000a quantitative understanding and enable better control of the physical-chemical

Geeta Mehta; Khamir Mehta; Dhruv Sud; Jonathan W. Song; Tommaso Bersano-Begey; Nobuyuki Futai; Yun Seok Heo; Mary-Ann Mycek; Jennifer J. Linderman; Shuichi Takayama

2007-01-01

212

Oxygen stoichiometry control of nanometric oxide compounds: The case of titanium ferrites  

SciTech Connect

Three techniques have been coupled with an original device, based on H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O equilibrium, controlling oxygen partial pressure: XRD, TGA and DC conductivity in order to characterize very reactive compounds such as nanometric powders. From XRD, both the structure and the oxygen stoichiometry (thanks to their lattice parameter) were investigated in situ. From TGA, it was the oxygen stoichiometry (thanks to mass gain or loss) which was determined. From DC conductivity, it was both the structure and the oxygen stoichiometry (thanks to the activation energy) which were obtained. The advantages were to determine very rapidly and with a small amount of powder the equilibrium conditions (T, pO{sub 2}) necessary to obtain the desired phase and stoichiometry. These methods have been evaluated for nanometric titanium ferrites. Two phenomena have been observed during the reducing process: the precipitation of a rhombohedral phase and a significant grain growth linked together. - Graphical abstract: XRD patterns of Fe{sub 3(1-{delta})}O{sub 4} nanometric powders obtained in situ during a reducing treatment. The stoichiometric compound was obtained by a thermal annealing at 460 deg. C under pO{sub 2}=3x10{sup -26} Pa ({Phi}{sub DRX}=100 nm). In inset, data of the experimental lattice parameter compared to the theoretical one. {alpha} represents the rhomboedrical phase which precipitates during this thermal treatment, then disappeared. Highlights: > The control of the deviation from oxygen stoichiometry is rarely consider in literature. > At the nanometric scale, it is necessary to develop synthesis routes under appropriate atmosphere. > These synthesis must be coupled with in situ characterization tools. > It opens the door to fast and precise studies concerning the evolution of nanometric materials.

Millot, N., E-mail: nmillot@u-bourgogne.fr [Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, U.M.R. 5209 C.N.R.S./Universite de Bourgogne, BP 47 870, 21078 Dijon Cedex (France); Perriat, P. [Materiaux, Ingenierie et Sciences, CNRS UMR 5510, INSA de Lyon, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

2011-10-15

213

Oxygen fugacity control in piston-cylinder experiments: a re-evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Jakobsson (Contrib Miner Petrol 164(3):397-407, 2012) investigated a double capsule assembly for use in piston-cylinder experiments that would allow hydrous, high-temperature, and high-pressure experiments to be conducted under controlled oxygen fugacity conditions. Using a platinum outer capsule containing a metal oxide oxygen buffer (Ni-NiO or Co-CoO) and H2O, with an inner gold-palladium capsule containing hydrous melt, this study was able to compare the oxygen fugacity imposed by the outer capsule oxygen buffer with an oxygen fugacity estimated by the AuPdFe ternary system calibrated by Barr and Grove (Contrib Miner Petrol 160(5):631-643, 2010). H2O loss or gain, as well as iron loss to the capsule walls and carbon contamination, is often observed in piston-cylinder experiments and often go unexplained. Only a few have attempted to actually quantify various aspects of these changes (Brooker et al. in Am Miner 83(9-10):985-994, 1998; Truckenbrodt and Johannes in Am Miner 84:1333-1335, 1999). It was one of the goals of Jakobsson (Contrib Miner Petrol 164(3):397-407, 2012) to address these issues by using and testing the AuPdFe solution model of Barr and Grove (Contrib Miner Petrol 160(5):631-643, 2010), as well as to constrain the oxygen fugacity of the inner capsule. The oxygen fugacities of the analyzed melts were assumed to be equal to those of the solid Ni-NiO and Co-CoO buffers, which is incorrect since the melts are all undersaturated in H2O and the oxygen fugacities should therefore be lower than that of the buffer by 2 log.

Jakobsson, Sigurdur; Blundy, Jon; Moore, Gordon

2014-06-01

214

A climatology-based quality control procedure for profiling float oxygen data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Over 450 Argo profiling floats equipped with oxygen sensors have been deployed, but no quality control (QC) protocols have been adopted by the oceanographic community for use by Argo data centers. As a consequence, the growing float oxygen data set as a whole is not readily utilized for many types of biogeochemical studies. Here we present a simple procedure that can be used to correct first-order errors (offset and drift) in profiling float oxygen data by comparing float data to a monthly climatology (World Ocean Atlas 2009). Float specific correction terms for the entire array were calculated. This QC procedure was evaluated by (1) comparing the climatology-derived correction coefficients to those derived from discrete samples for 14 floats and (2) comparing correction coefficients for seven floats that had been calibrated twice prior to deployment (once in the factory and once in-house), with the second calibration ostensibly more accurate than the first. The corrections presented here constrain most float oxygen measurements to better than 3% at the surface.

Takeshita, Yuichiro; Martz, Todd R.; Johnson, Kenneth S.; Plant, Josh N.; Gilbert, Denis; Riser, Stephen C.; Neill, Craig; Tilbrook, Bronte

2013-10-01

215

Oxygen binding and its allosteric control in hemoglobin of the pulmonate snail, Biomphalaria glabrata.  

PubMed

Pulmonate snails that experience extreme variations in gas tensions and temperatures possess extracellular, high-molecular mass ( approximately 1.7 x 10(6) Da) hemoglobins (Hbs) that are little known as regards oxygenation and allosteric characteristics. Biomphalaria glabrata hemolymph exhibits a high O2 affinity (half-saturation O2 tension = 6.1 mmHg; pH 7.7, 25 degreesC), pronounced Bohr effect (Bohr factor = -0.5), and pH-dependent cooperativity (Hill's cooperativity coefficient at half-saturation = 1.1-2.0). Divalent cations increase O2 affinity, Ca2+ exerting greater effect than Mg2+. Analyses in terms of the Monod-Wyman-Changeux model indicate novel O2 affinity control mechanisms. In contrast to vertebrate Hb, where organic phosphates and protons lower affinity via decreased O2 association equilibrium constant of Hb in low-affinity state (KT), and to extracellular annelid Hbs, where protons and cations primarily modulate O2 association equilibrium constant of Hb in high-affinity state (KR), in B. glabrata Hb, the Bohr effect is mediated predominantly via KR and the cation effect via KT, reflecting preferential, oxygenation-linked proton binding to oxygenated Hb and cation binding to deoxygenated Hb. CO2 has no specific (pH independent) effect. Nonlinear van't Hoff plots show temperature dependence of the overall heats of oxygenation, indicating oxy-deoxy heat capacity differences. The findings are related to possible physiological significance in pond habitats. PMID:9950911

Bugge, J; Weber, R E

1999-02-01

216

Oxygen-tension controlled matrices for enhanced osteogenic cell survival and performance.  

PubMed

The success of a clinically-applicable bone tissue engineering construct for large area bone defects depends on its ability to allow for homogeneous bone regeneration throughout the construct. Insufficient vascularization, and consequently inadequate oxygen tension, throughout constructs has been largely cited as the most significant obstacle facing successful bone regeneration in large area defects. The development of constructs that support bone and vessel-forming cell growth and function throughout the scaffold structure are desired for large-area bone defect repair. Here, we developed oxygen tension-controlled matrices that support more homogenous oxygen levels throughout the constructs. Specifically, we examined polylactic co-glycolic acid (PLGA) scaffolds with optimized pore distribution and the percent pore volumes, and demonstrated significantly decreased oxygen and pH gradient from the exterior of the construct to the interior after long-term cell culture in vitro. We confirmed the ability of these optimized constructs to support the cellular survival via live/dead assay. In addition, we examined their ability to support the maintenance of two clinically relevant progenitor cell populations for bone tissue engineering and vascularization, namely mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), and confirmed the expression of key bone and vascular markers via immunofluorescence. PMID:24570389

Amini, A R; Nukavarapu, S P

2014-06-01

217

Oxygen control of ethylene biosynthesis during seed development in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An unforeseen side-effect on plant growth in reduced oxygen is the loss of seed production at concentrations around 25% atmospheric (50 mmol mol-1 O2). In this study, the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. cv. 'Columbia' was used to investigate the effect of low oxygen on ethylene biosynthesis during seed development. Plants were grown in a range of oxygen concentrations (210 [equal to ambient], 160, 100, 50 and 25 mmol mol-1) with 0.35 mmol mol-1 CO2 in N2. Ethylene in full-sized siliques was sampled using gas chromatography, and viable seed production was determined at maturity. Molecular analysis of ethylene biosynthesis was accomplished using cDNAs encoding 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase and ACC oxidase in ribonuclease protection assays and in situ hybridizations. No ethylene was detected in siliques from plants grown at 50 and 25 mmol mol-1 O2. At the same time, silique ACC oxidase mRNA increased three-fold comparing plants grown under the lowest oxygen with ambient controls, whereas ACC synthase mRNA was unaffected. As O2 decreased, tissue-specific patterning of ACC oxidase and ACC synthase gene expression shifted from the embryo to the silique wall. These data demonstrate how low O2 modulates the activity and expression of the ethylene biosynthetic pathway during seed development in Arabidopsis.

Ramonell, K. M.; McClure, G.; Musgrave, M. E.

2002-01-01

218

High cell density induces spontaneous bifurcations of dissolved oxygen controllers during CHO cell fermentations.  

PubMed

High cell density cultures of CHO cells growing in a bioreactor under dissolved oxygen control were found to undergo spontaneous bifurcations and a subsequent loss of stability some time into the fermentation. This loss of stability was manifested by sustained and amplified oscillations in the bioreactor dissolved oxygen concentration and in the oxygen gas flow rate to the reactor. To identify potential biological and operational causes for the phenomenon, linear stability analysis was applied in a neighborhood of the experimentally observed bifurcation point. The analysis revealed that two steady state process gains, K(P1) and K(P2), regulated k(l)a and gas phase oxygen concentration inputs, respectively, and the magnitude of K(P1) was found to determine system stability about the bifurcation point. The magnitude of K(P1), and hence the corresponding open-loop steady state gain K(OL1), scaled linearly with the bioreactor cell density, increasing with increasing cell density. These results allowed the generation of a fermentation stability diagram, which partitioned K(C)-N operating space into stable and unstable regions separated by the loci of predicted critically stable controller constants, K(C,critical), as a function of bioreactor cell density. This consistency of this operating diagram with experimentally observed changes in system stability was demonstrated. We conclude that time-dependent increases in cell density are the cause of the observed instabilities and that cell density is the critical bifurcation parameter. The results of this study should be readily applicable to the design of a more robust controller. PMID:12966579

Chung, John D; Chang, Conway C; Groves, James Ashley

2003-10-20

219

Comparative Requirements for the Restriction of Retrovirus Infection by TRIM5? and TRIMCyp  

PubMed Central

The restriction factors, TRIM5? in most primates and TRIMCyp in owl monkeys, block infection of various retroviruses soon after virus entry into the host cell. Rhesus monkey TRIM5? (TRIM5?rh) inhibits human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) more potently than human TRIM5? (TRIM5?hu). TRIMCyp restricts infection of HIV-1, simian immunodeficiency virus of African green monkeys (SIVagm) and FIV. Early after infection, TRIMCyp, like TRIM5?rh and TRIM5?hu, decreased the amount of particulate viral capsid in the cytosol of infected cells. The requirements for the TRIMCyp and TRIM5? domains in restricting different retroviruses were investigated. Potent restriction of FIV by TRIMCyp occurred in the complete absence of RING and B-box 2 domains; by contrast, efficient FIV restriction by TRIM5?rh required these domains. Variable region 1 of the TRIM5?rh B30.2 domain contributed to the potency of HIV-1, FIV and equine infectious anemia virus restriction. Thus, although differences exist in the requirements of TRIMCyp and TRIM5? for RING/B-box 2 domains, both restriction factors exhibit mechanistic similarities.

Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Kar, Alak; Lee, Mark; Stremlau, Matthew; Poeschla, Eric; Sodroski, Joseph

2007-01-01

220

TRIM5{alpha} association with cytoplasmic bodies is not required for antiretroviral activity  

SciTech Connect

The tripartite motif (TRIM) protein, TRIM5{alpha}, restricts infection by particular retroviruses. Many TRIM proteins form cytoplasmic bodies of unknown function. We investigated the relationship between cytoplasmic body formation and the structure and antiretroviral activity of TRIM5{alpha}. In addition to diffuse cytoplasmic staining, the TRIM5{alpha} proteins from several primate species were located in cytoplasmic bodies of different sizes; by contrast, TRIM5{alpha} from spider monkeys did not form cytoplasmic bodies. Despite these differences, all of the TRIM5{alpha} proteins exhibited the ability to restrict infection by particular retroviruses. Treatment of cells with geldanamycin, an Hsp90 inhibitor, resulted in disappearance or reduction of the TRIM5{alpha}-associated cytoplasmic bodies, yet exerted little effect on the restriction of retroviral infection. Studies of green fluorescent protein-TRIM5{alpha} fusion proteins indicated that no TRIM5{alpha} domain is specifically required for association with cytoplasmic bodies. Apparently, the formation of cytoplasmic bodies is not required for the antiretroviral activity of TRIM5{alpha}.

Song, Byeongwoon [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Diaz-Griffero, Felipe [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Park, Do Hyun [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Rogers, Thomas [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Stremlau, Matthew [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Sodroski, Joseph [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States) and Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)]. E-mail: joseph_sodroski@dfci.harvard.edu

2005-12-20

221

Deficiency in ubiquitin ligase TRIM2 causes accumulation of neurofilament light chain and neurodegeneration  

PubMed Central

TRIM RING finger proteins have been shown to play an important role in cancerogenesis, in the pathogenesis of some human hereditary disorders, and in the defense against viral infection, but the function of the majority of TRIM proteins remains unknown. Here, we show that TRIM RING finger protein TRIM2, highly expressed in the nervous system, is an UbcH5a-dependent ubiquitin ligase. We further demonstrate that TRIM2 binds to neurofilament light subunit (NF-L) and regulates NF-L ubiquitination. Additionally, we show that mice deficient in TRIM2 have increased NF-L level in axons and NF-L-filled axonal swellings in cerebellum, retina, spinal cord, and cerebral cortex. The axonopathy is followed by progressive neurodegeneration accompanied by juvenile-onset tremor and ataxia. Our results demonstrate that TRIM2 is an ubiquitin ligase and point to a mechanism regulating NF-L metabolism through an ubiquitination pathway that, if deregulated, triggers neurodegeneration.

Balastik, Martin; Ferraguti, Francesco; Pires-da Silva, Andre; Lee, Tae Ho; Alvarez-Bolado, Gonzalo; Lu, Kun Ping; Gruss, Peter

2008-01-01

222

TRIMmunity: the roles of the TRIM E3-ubiquitin ligase family in innate antiviral immunity.  

PubMed

Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins have been implicated in multiple cellular functions, including antiviral activity. Research efforts so far indicate that the antiviral activity of TRIMs relies, for the most part, on their function as E3-ubiquitin ligases. A substantial number of the TRIM family members have been demonstrated to mediate innate immune cell signal transduction and subsequent cytokine induction. In addition, a subset of TRIMs has been shown to restrict viral replication by directly targeting viral proteins. Although the body of work on the cellular roles of TRIM E3-ubiquitin ligases has rapidly grown over the last years, many aspects of their molecular workings and multi-functionality remain unclear. The antiviral function of many TRIMs seems to be conferred by specific isoforms, by sub-cellular localization and in cell-type-specific contexts. Here we review recent findings on TRIM antiviral functions, current limitations and an outlook for future research. PMID:24333484

Rajsbaum, Ricardo; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Versteeg, Gijs A

2014-03-20

223

Control of nitrogenase recovery from oxygen inactivation by ammonia in the cyanobacterium anabaena sp. strain CA (ATCC 33047)  

SciTech Connect

The control of nitrogenase recovery from inactivation by oxygen was studied in Anabaena sp. strain CA (ATCC 33047). Nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction) in cultures grown in 1% CO{sub 2} in air was inhibited by exposure to 1% CO{sub 2}-99% O{sub 2} and allowed to recover in the presence of high oxygen tensions. Cultures exposed to hyperbaric levels of oxygen in the presence of 10 mM NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} were incapable of regaining nitrogenase activity, whereas control cultures returned to 65 to 80% of their original activity within about 3 h after exposure to high oxygen tension. In contrast to the regulation of heterocyst differentiation and nitrogenase synthesis, recovery from oxygen inactivation in this organism was shown to be under the control of NH{sub 4}{sup +} rather than NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}.

Smith, R.L.; Van Baalen, C. (Univ. of Texas Marine Science Institute, Port Aransas (USA)); Tabita, F.R. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA) Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA))

1990-05-01

224

Acute hemodynamic effects of controlled oxygen therapy in decompensated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.  

PubMed

The acute effects of controlled O2 therapy on hemodynamics and blood gases were investigated in 22 patients with decompensated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). An inspired O2 fraction (FIO2) of 0.24 and 0.28 given to the first 12 patients markedly improved arterial and mixed-venous blood oxygenation with no (FIO2 0.24) or slight (FIO2 0.28) aggravation of hypercapnia, but did not change O2 delivery to the tissues. Higher FIO2 values of 0.35 and 0.40 in the next ten patients improved blood oxygenation even more, together with an increase in O2 delivery to the tissues and a significant aggravation of hypercapnia. All four FIO2 values reduced cardiac output without changing pulmonary vascular resistance. These results suggest that in patients with decompensated COPD, low-flow O2 improves oxygenation by diffusion rather than convection. On the other hand, controlled O2 therapy does not appear to be an immediately effective pulmonary vasodilating treatment in these patients. PMID:6510000

Lejeune, P; Mols, P; Naeije, R; Hallemans, R; Melot, C

1984-12-01

225

Regulation of the Sre1 hypoxic transcription factor by oxygen-dependent control of DNA binding  

PubMed Central

Summary Regulation of gene expression plays an integral role in adaptation of cells to hypoxic stress. In mammals, prolyl hydroxylases control levels of the central transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) through regulation of HIF? subunit stability. Here, we report that the hydroxylase Ofd1 regulates the Sre1 hypoxic transcription factor in fission yeast by controlling DNA binding. Prolyl hydroxylases require oxygen as a substrate and the activity of Ofd1 regulates Sre1-dependent transcription. In the presence of oxygen, Ofd1 binds the Sre1 N-terminal transcription factor domain (Sre1N) and inhibits Sre1-dependent transcription by blocking DNA binding. In the absence of oxygen, the inhibitor Nro1 binds Ofd1, thereby releasing Sre1N and leading to activation of genes required for hypoxic growth. In contrast to the HIF system where proline hydroxylation is essential for regulation, Ofd1 inhibition of Sre1N does not require hydroxylation, and thus defines a new mechanism for hypoxic gene regulation.

Lee, Chih-Yung S.; Yeh, Tzu-Lan; Hughes, Bridget T.; Espenshade, Peter J.

2011-01-01

226

Randomized controlled trial of high concentration oxygen in suspected community-acquired pneumonia  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether high concentration oxygen increases the PaCO2 in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. Design Randomized controlled clinical trial in which patients received high concentration oxygen (8 L/min via medium concentration mask) or titrated oxygen (to achieve oxygen saturations between 93 and 95%) for 60 minutes. Transcutaneous CO2 (PtCO2) was measured at 0, 20, 40 and 60 minutes. Setting The Emergency Departments at Wellington, Hutt and Kenepuru Hospitals. Participants 150 patients with suspected community-acquired pneumonia presenting to the Emergency Department. Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or disorders associated with hypercapnic respiratory failure were excluded. Main outcome variables The primary outcome variable was the proportion of patients with a rise in PtCO2 ?4 mmHg at 60 minutes. Secondary outcome variables included the proportion of patients with a rise in PtCO2 ?8 mmHg at 60 minutes. Results The proportion of patients with a rise in PtCO2 ?4 mmHg at 60 minutes was greater in the high concentration oxygen group, 36/72 (50.0%) vs 11/75 (14.7%), relative risk (RR) 3.4 (95% CI 1.9 to 6.2), P < 0.001. The high concentration group had a greater proportion of patients with a rise in PtCO2 ?8 mmHg, 11/72 (15.3%) vs 2/75 (2.7%), RR 5.7 (95% CI 1.3 to 25.0), P = 0.007. Amongst the 74 patients with radiological confirmation of pneumonia, the high concentration group had a greater proportion with a rise in PtCO2 ?4 mmHg, 20/35 (57.1%) vs 5/39 (12.8%), RR 4.5 (95% CI 1.9 to 10.6) P < 0.001. Conclusions We conclude that high concentration oxygen therapy increases the PtCO2 in patients presenting with suspected community-acquired pneumonia. This suggests that the potential increase in PaCO2 with high concentration oxygen therapy is not limited to COPD, but may also occur in other respiratory disorders with abnormal gas exchange.

Wijesinghe, Meme; Perrin, Kyle; Healy, Bridget; Weatherall, Mark; Beasley, Richard

2012-01-01

227

Role of SUMO-1 and SUMO interacting motifs in rhesus TRIM5?-mediated restriction  

PubMed Central

Background TRIM5? is a member of the tripartite motif family of proteins that restricts retroviral infection in a species-specific manner. The restriction requires an interaction between the viral capsid lattice and the B30.2/SPRY domain of TRIM5?. Previously, we determined that two SUMO interacting motifs (SIMs) present in the B30.2/SPRY domain of human TRIM5? (huTRIM5?) were important for the restriction of N-tropic Murine Leukemia Virus. Here, we examined whether SUMO expression and the SIM1 and SIM2 motifs in rhesus monkey TRIM5? (rhTRIM5?) are similarly important for Human Immunodeficiency Type 1 (HIV-) restriction. Results We found that mutation of SIM1 and SIM2 of rhTRIM5? abolished the restriction of HIV-1 virus. Further, knockdown of SUMO-1 in rhTRIM5? expressing cells abolished restriction of HIV-1. These results may be due, in part, to the ability of SUMO-1 to stabilize rhTRIM5? protein expression, as SUMO-1 knockdown increased rhTRIM5? turnover and the mutations in SIM1 and SIM2 led to more rapid degradation than the wild type protein. The NF-?B signaling ability of rhTRIM5? was also attenuated by SUMO-1 knockdown. Finally, upon inhibition of CRM1-dependent nuclear export with Leptomycin B (LMB), wild type rhTRIM5? localized to SUMO-1 bodies in the nucleus, while the SIM1 and SIM2 mutants did not localize to SUMO-1. Conclusions Our results suggest that the rhTRIM5? B30.2/SPRY domain is not only important for the recognition of the HIV-1 CA, but it is also important for its association with SUMO-1 or SUMO-1 modified proteins. These interactions help to maintain TRIM5? protein levels and its nuclear localization into specific nuclear bodies.

2013-01-01

228

Real-time data acquisition and control system for a chemical oxygen iodine laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A user-friendly data acquisition and control system (DACS) for a chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) has been developed. The system is capable of handling 117 analogue/digital channels for performing various operations such as on-line acquisition, control, display, safety measures and status indication of various subsystems. These operations are controlled either by control switches configured on a PC while not running or by a pre-determined sequence or timings during the run. The system is capable of real-time acquisition and on-line estimation of important diagnostic parameters for optimization of a COIL. The DACS system has been programmed using Advantech-GeniDAQ software. This software has also been used to convert the acquired data into graphical form. Using this DACS, more than 200 runs were given performed successfully.

Mainuddin; Tyagi, R. K.; Rajesh, R.; Singhal, Gaurav; Dawar, A. L.

2003-08-01

229

mAKAP compartmentalizes oxygen-dependent control of HIF-1?  

PubMed Central

Induction of the hypoxia inducible transcription factor 1? (HIF-1?) pathway occurs during ischemic insult as an adaptation to reduced intracellular oxygen. Enzymes of the protein ubiquitin machinery that signal the destruction or stabilization of HIF-1? tightly control this transcriptional response. We now show that the A-Kinase Anchoring Protein mAKAP organizes ubiquitin E3 ligases that manage HIF-1? stability and optimally positions the transcription factor close to its site of action inside the nucleus. Functional experiments in cardiomyocytes demonstrate that depletion of mAKAP or disruption of its targeting to perinuclear regions alters HIF-1? stability and the transcriptional activation of hypoxia marker genes. Thus we propose that compartmentalization of oxygen sensitive signaling components may influence the fidelity and magnitude of the hypoxic response.

Wong, Wei; Goehring, April S.; Kapiloff, Michael S.; Langeberg, Lorene K.

2009-01-01

230

The oxygen sensor MgFnr controls magnetite biomineralization by regulation of denitrification in Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense  

PubMed Central

Background Magnetotactic bacteria are capable of synthesizing magnetosomes only under oxygen-limited conditions. However, the mechanism of the aerobic repression on magnetite biomineralization has remained unknown. In Escherichia coli and other bacteria, Fnr (fumarate and nitrate reduction regulator) proteins are known to be involved in controlling the switch between microaerobic and aerobic metabolism. Here, we report on an Fnr-like protein (MgFnr) and its role in growth metabolism and magnetite biomineralization in the alphaproteobacterium Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense. Results Deletion of Mgfnr not only resulted in decreased N2 production due to reduced N2O reductase activity, but also impaired magnetite biomineralization under microaerobic conditions in the presence of nitrate. Overexpression of MgFnr in the WT also caused the synthesis of smaller magnetite particles under anaerobic and microaerobic conditions in the presence of nitrate. These data suggest that proper expression of MgFnr is required for WT-like magnetosome synthesis, which is regulated by oxygen. Analyses of transcriptional gusA reporter fusions revealed that besides showing similar properties to Fnr proteins reported in other bacteria, MgFnr is involved in the repression of the expression of denitrification genes nor and nosZ under aerobic conditions, possibly owing to several unique amino acid residues specific to MTB-Fnr. Conclusions We have identified and thoroughly characterized the first regulatory protein mediating denitrification growth and magnetite biomineralization in response to different oxygen conditions in a magnetotactic bacterium. Our findings reveal that the global oxygen regulator MgFnr is a genuine O2 sensor. It is involved in controlling expression of denitrification genes and thereby plays an indirect role in maintaining proper redox conditions required for magnetite biomineralization.

2014-01-01

231

(-)-Epicatechin administration and exercising skeletal muscle vascular control and microvascular oxygenation in healthy rats  

PubMed Central

Consumption of the dietary flavanol (?)-epicatechin (EPI) is associated with enhanced endothelial function and augmented skeletal muscle capillarity and mitochondrial volume density. The potential for EPI to improve peripheral vascular function and muscle oxygenation during exercise is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that EPI administration in healthy rats would improve treadmill exercise performance secondary to elevated skeletal muscle blood flow and vascular conductance [VC, blood flow/mean arterial pressure (MAP)] and improved skeletal muscle microvascular oxygenation. Rats received water (control, n = 12) or 4 mg/kg EPI (n = 12) via oral gavage daily for 24 days. Exercise endurance capacity and peak O2 uptake (V?o2 peak) were measured via treadmill runs to exhaustion. MAP (arterial catheter) and blood flow (radiolabeled microspheres) were measured and VC was calculated during submaximal treadmill exercise (25 m/min, 5% grade). Spinotrapezius muscle microvascular O2 pressure (Po2mv) was measured (phosphorescence quenching) during electrically induced twitch (1 Hz) contractions. In conscious rats, EPI administration resulted in lower (??5%) resting (P = 0.03) and exercising (P = 0.04) MAP. There were no differences in exercise endurance capacity, V?o2 peak, total exercising hindlimb blood flow (control, 154 ± 13; and EPI, 159 ± 8 ml·min?1·100 g?1, P = 0.68), or VC (control, 1.13 ± 0.10; and EPI, 1.24 ± 0.08 ml·min?1·100 g?1·mmHg?1, P = 0.21) between groups. Following anesthesia, EPI resulted in lower MAP (??16%) but did not impact resting Po2mv or any kinetics parameters (P > 0.05 for all) during muscle contractions compared with control. EPI administration (4 mg·kg?1·day?1) improved modestly cardiovascular function (i.e., ?MAP) with no impact on exercise performance, total exercising skeletal muscle blood flow and VC, or contracting muscle microvascular oxygenation in healthy rats.

Copp, Steven W.; Inagaki, Tadakatsu; White, Michael J.; Hirai, Daniel M.; Ferguson, Scott K.; Holdsworth, Clark T.; Sims, Gabrielle E.; Poole, David C.

2013-01-01

232

Composting Yard Trimmings and Municipal Solid Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Planning; Basic Composting Principles; Collection Methods; Processing Methods, Technologies, and Odor Control; Facility Design and Siting; The Composting Process: Environmental, Health, and Safety Concerns; State Legislation and Incentives; Pote...

1994-01-01

233

Genomic organization and cytokine-mediated inducibility of the human TRIM-8/Gerp gene.  

PubMed

Cytokine signaling is negatively regulated by a set of SH2 domain-containing proteins, the Suppressors of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS) acting as intracellular modulators. Experimental evidence indicates that SOCS gene expression is induced by cytokines and pro-inflammatory stimuli and is highly controlled both at transcription and translation level. Furthermore, SOCS proteins appear rapidly degraded inside the cells, mostly controlling their stability by interacting with specific molecules such as elongin B and C. It has been shown that SOCS-1/JAB, a member of the SOCS family, interacts with TRIM-8/Gerp, a new ring protein specifically binding SOCS-1 recombitant polypeptide in-vitro and in-vivo. Trim-8/Gerp, transcribes IFN-gamma in epithelial and lymphoid cells and is expressed mostly ubiquitously in murine and human tissues. Here in this report we present the genomic organization of this new SOCS-1 interactor, and we add new tools for extending investigation of the complex mechanism that undergoes negatively regulation of cytokine signaling. PMID:15345195

Toniato, E; Flati, V; Laglia, E; Mincione, G; Martinotti, S

2004-01-01

234

ERAP1-ERAP2 Dimerization Increases Peptide-Trimming Efficiency.  

PubMed

The endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidases (ERAP)1 and ERAP2 play a critical role in the production of final epitopes presented by MHC class I molecules. Formation of heterodimers by ERAP1 and ERAP2 has been proposed to facilitate trimming of epitope precursor peptides, but the effects of dimerization on ERAP function remain unknown. In this study, we produced stabilized ERAP1-ERAP2 heterodimers and found that they produced several mature epitopes more efficiently than a mix of the two enzymes unable to dimerize. Physical interaction with ERAP2 changes basic enzymatic parameters of ERAP1 and improves its substrate-binding affinity. Thus, by bringing the two enzymes in proximity and by producing allosteric effects on ERAP1, dimerization of ERAP1/2 creates complexes with superior peptide-trimming efficacy. Such complexes are likely to enhance Ag presentation by cells displaying coordinated expression of the two enzymes. PMID:24928998

Evnouchidou, Irini; Weimershaus, Mirjana; Saveanu, Loredana; van Endert, Peter

2014-07-15

235

CONTROLLED FIELD STUDY ON THE USE OF NITRATE AND OXYGEN FOR BIOREMEDIATION OF A GASOLINE SOURCE ZONE  

EPA Science Inventory

Controlled releases of unleaded gasoline were used to evaluate the biotransformation of the soluble aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene isomers, trimethylbenzene isomers, and naphthalene) within a source zone using nitrate and oxygen as electron accepto...

236

Species-Specific Variation in the B30.2(SPRY) Domain of TRIM5  Determines the Potency of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Restriction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Retroviruses encounter dominant postentry restrictions in cells of particular species. Human immunodefi- ciency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is blocked in the cells of Old World monkeys by TRIM5, a tripartite motif (TRIM) protein composed of RING, B-box 2, coiled-coil, and B30.2(SPRY) domains. Rhesus monkey TRIM5 (TRIM5rh) more potently blocks HIV-1 infection than human TRIM5 (TRIM5hu). Here, by studying chimeric TRIM5

Matthew Stremlau; Michel Perron; Sohanya Welikala; Joseph Sodroski

2005-01-01

237

The Stroke Oxygen Pilot Study: A Randomized Controlled Trial of the Effects of Routine Oxygen Supplementation Early after Acute Stroke--Effect on Key Outcomes at Six Months  

PubMed Central

Introduction Post-stroke hypoxia is common, and may adversely affect outcome. We have recently shown that oxygen supplementation may improve early neurological recovery. Here, we report the six-month outcomes of this pilot study. Methods Patients with a clinical diagnosis of acute stroke were randomized within 24 h of admission to oxygen supplementation at 2 or 3 L/min for 72 h or to control treatment (room air). Outcomes (see below) were assessed by postal questionnaire at 6 months. Analysis was by intention-to-treat, and statistical significance was set at p?0.05. Results Out of 301 patients randomized two refused/withdrew consent and 289 (148 in the oxygen and 141 in the control group) were included in the analysis: males 44%, 51%; mean (SD) age 73 (12), 71 (12); median (IQR) National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score 6 (3, 10), 5 (3, 10) for the two groups respectively. At six months 22 (15%) patients in the oxygen group and 20 (14%) in the control group had died; mean survival in both groups was 162 days (p?=?0.99). Median (IQR) scores for the primary outcome, the modified Rankin Scale, were 3 (1, 5) and 3 (1, 4) for the oxygen and control groups respectively. The covariate-adjusted odds ratio was 1.04 (95% CI 0.67, 1.60), indicating that the odds of a lower (i.e. better) score were non-significantly higher in the oxygen group (p?=?0.86). The mean differences in the ability to perform basic (Barthel Index) and extended activities of daily living (NEADL), and quality of life (EuroQol) were also non-significant. Conclusions None of the key outcomes differed at 6 months between the groups. Although not statistically significant and generally of small magnitude, the effects were predominantly in favour of the oxygen group; a larger trial, powered to show differences in longer-term functional outcomes, is now on-going. Trial Registration Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN12362720; Eudract.ema.europa.eu 2004-001866-41

Ali, Khalid; Warusevitane, Anushka; Lally, Frank; Sim, Julius; Sills, Sheila; Pountain, Sarah; Nevatte, Tracy; Allen, Martin; Roffe, Christine

2013-01-01

238

Side fringing of thin film heads with pole trimming  

Microsoft Academic Search

A technique for measuring write and erase widths using a narrow-track MR (magnetoresistive) probe to acquire the dual-track profiles of write\\/overwrite tracks has been developed. This technique was used to reveal the distinct features of shoulder effects on the side-writing and side-erasing behavior of pole-tip trimmed heads. Another technique, using the microtrack profile, was utilized to demonstrate the impact of

J. L. Su; K. Ju; J. Lo; G. Countryman

1990-01-01

239

Astronaut Charles Conrad trims hair of Astronaut Paul Weitz  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., Skylab 2 commander, trims the hair of Astronaut Paul J. Weitz, Skylab 2 pilot, during the 28-day Skylab 2 mission in Earth orbit. They are in the crew quarters wardroom of the Orbital Workshop of the Skylab 1 and 2 space station. Weitz is holding a vacuum hose in his right hand. This picture was taken by Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, Skylab 2 science pilot.

1973-01-01

240

Topologically consistent trimmed surface approximations based on triangular patches  

Microsoft Academic Search

Topologically consistent algorithms for the intersection and trimming of free-form parametric surfaces are of fundamental importance in computer-aided design, analysis, and manufactur- ing. Since the intersection of (for example) two bicubic tensor-product surface patches is not a rational curve, it is usually described by approximations in the parameter domain of each sur- face. If these approximations are employed as \\

Rida T. Farouki; Chang Yong Han; Joel Hass; Thomas W. Sederberg

2004-01-01

241

Hydrodynamic controls on oxygen dynamics in a riverine salt wedge estuary, the Yarra River estuary, Australia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen depletion in coastal and estuarine waters has been increasing rapidly around the globe over the past several decades, leading to decline in water quality and ecological health. In this study we apply a numerical model to understand how salt wedge dynamics, changes in river flow and temperature together control oxygen depletion in a micro-tidal riverine estuary, the Yarra River estuary, Australia. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models have been previously applied to study how hydrodynamics impact upon seasonal hypoxia; however, their application to relatively shallow, narrow riverine estuaries with highly transient patterns of river inputs and sporadic periods of oxygen depletion has remained challenging, largely due to difficulty in accurately simulating salt wedge dynamics in morphologically complex areas. In this study we overcome this issue through application of a flexible mesh 3-D hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model in order to predict the extent of salt wedge intrusion and consequent patterns of oxygen depletion. The extent of the salt wedge responded quickly to the sporadic riverine flows, with the strength of stratification and vertical density gradients heavily influenced by morphological features corresponding to shallow points in regions of tight curvature ("horseshoe" bends). The spatiotemporal patterns of stratification led to the emergence of two "hot spots" of anoxia, the first downstream of a shallow region of tight curvature and the second downstream of a sill. Whilst these areas corresponded to regions of intense stratification, it was found that antecedent conditions related to the placement of the salt wedge played a major role in the recovery of anoxic regions following episodic high flow events. Furthermore, whilst a threshold salt wedge intrusion was a requirement for oxygen depletion, analysis of the results allowed us to quantify the effect of temperature in determining the overall severity and extent of hypoxia and anoxia. Climate warming scenarios highlighted that oxygen depletion is likely to be exacerbated through changes in flow regimes and warming temperatures; however, the increasing risk of hypoxia and anoxia can be mitigated through management of minimum flow allocations and targeted reductions in organic matter loading. A simple statistical model (R2 > 0.65) is suggested to relate riverine flow and temperature to the extent of estuary-wide anoxia.

Bruce, L. C.; Cook, P. L. M.; Teakle, I.; Hipsey, M. R.

2014-04-01

242

Uridylation prevents 3? trimming of oligoadenylated mRNAs  

PubMed Central

Degradation of mRNAs is usually initiated by deadenylation, the shortening of long poly(A) tails to oligo(A) tails of 12–15 As. Deadenylation leads to decapping and to subsequent 5? to 3? degradation by XRN proteins, or alternatively 3? to 5? degradation by the exosome. Decapping can also be induced by uridylation as shown for the non-polyadenylated histone mRNAs in humans and for several mRNAs in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Aspergillus nidulans. Here we report a novel role for uridylation in preventing 3? trimming of oligoadenylated mRNAs in Arabidopsis. We show that oligo(A)-tailed mRNAs are uridylated by the cytosolic UTP:RNA uridylyltransferase URT1 and that URT1 has no major impact on mRNA degradation rates. However, in absence of uridylation, oligo(A) tails are trimmed, indicating that uridylation protects oligoadenylated mRNAs from 3? ribonucleolytic attacks. This conclusion is further supported by an increase in 3? truncated transcripts detected in urt1 mutants. We propose that preventing 3? trimming of oligo(A)-tailed mRNAs by uridylation participates in establishing the 5? to 3? directionality of mRNA degradation. Importantly, uridylation prevents 3? shortening of mRNAs associated with polysomes, suggesting that a key biological function of uridylation is to confer 5? to 3? polarity in case of co-translational mRNA decay.

Sement, Francois Michael; Ferrier, Emilie; Zuber, Helene; Merret, Remy; Alioua, Malek; Deragon, Jean-Marc; Bousquet-Antonelli, Cecile; Lange, Heike; Gagliardi, Dominique

2013-01-01

243

Feasibility and reliability of an automated controller of inspired oxygen concentration during mechanical ventilation  

PubMed Central

Introduction Hypoxemia and high fractions of inspired oxygen (FiO2) are concerns in critically ill patients. An automated FiO2 controller based on continuous oxygen saturation (SpO2) measurement was tested. Two different SpO2-FiO2 feedback open loops, designed to react differently based on the level of hypoxemia, were compared. The results of the FiO2 controller were also compared with a historical control group. Methods The system measures SpO2, compares with a target range (92% to 96%), and proposes in real time FiO2 settings to maintain SpO2 within target. In 20 patients under mechanical ventilation, two different FiO2-SpO2 open loops were applied by a dedicated research nurse during 3 hours, each in random order. The times spent in and outside the target SpO2 values were measured. The results of the automatic controller were then compared with a retrospective control group of 30 ICU patients. SpO2-FiO2 values of the control group were collected over three different periods of 6 hours. Results Time in the target range was higher than 95% with the controller. When the 20 patients were separated according to the median PaO2/FiO2 (160(133-176) mm Hg versus 239(201-285)), the loop with the highest slope was slightly better (P?=?0.047) for the more-hypoxemic patients. Hyperoxemia and hypoxemia durations were significantly shorter with the controller compared with usual care: SpO2 target range was reached 90% versus 24%, 27% and 32% (P?controller, compared with three historical control-group periods. Conclusion A specific FiO2 controller is able to maintain SpO2 reliably within a predefined target range. Two different feedback loops can be used, depending on the initial PaO2/FiO2; with both, the automatic controller showed excellent performance when compared with usual care.

2014-01-01

244

Effect of high flow oxygen on mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in prehospital setting: randomised controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare standard high flow oxygen treatment with titrated oxygen treatment for patients with an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the prehospital setting. Design Cluster randomised controlled parallel group trial. Setting Ambulance service in Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. Participants 405 patients with a presumed acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who were treated by paramedics, transported, and admitted to the Royal Hobart Hospital during the trial period; 214 had a diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease confirmed by lung function tests in the previous five years. Interventions High flow oxygen treatment compared with titrated oxygen treatment in the prehospital (ambulance/paramedic) setting. Main outcome measure Prehospital or in-hospital mortality. Results In an intention to treat analysis, the risk of death was significantly lower in the titrated oxygen arm compared with the high flow oxygen arm for all patients (high flow oxygen n=226; titrated oxygen n=179) and for the subgroup of patients with confirmed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (high flow n=117; titrated n=97). Overall mortality was 9% (21 deaths) in the high flow oxygen arm compared with 4% (7 deaths) in the titrated oxygen arm; mortality in the subgroup with confirmed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was 9% (11 deaths) in the high flow arm compared with 2% (2 deaths) in the titrated oxygen arm. Titrated oxygen treatment reduced mortality compared with high flow oxygen by 58% for all patients (relative risk 0.42, 95% confidence interval 0.20 to 0.89; P=0.02) and by 78% for the patients with confirmed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (0.22, 0.05 to 0.91; P=0.04). Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who received titrated oxygen according to the protocol were significantly less likely to have respiratory acidosis (mean difference in pH 0.12 (SE 0.05); P=0.01; n=28) or hypercapnia (mean difference in arterial carbon dioxide pressure ?33.6 (16.3) mm Hg; P=0.02; n=29) than were patients who received high flow oxygen. Conclusions Titrated oxygen treatment significantly reduced mortality, hypercapnia, and respiratory acidosis compared with high flow oxygen in acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. These results provide strong evidence to recommend the routine use of titrated oxygen treatment in patients with breathlessness and a history or clinical likelihood of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in the prehospital setting. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Register ACTRN12609000236291.

2010-01-01

245

TRIM22 inhibits influenza A virus infection by targeting the viral nucleoprotein for degradation.  

PubMed

Tripartite motif (TRIM) protein superfamily members are emerging as important effectors of the innate immune response against viral infections. In particular, TRIM22 was reported to exert antiviral activity against RNA viruses, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), encephalomyocarditis virus (ECMV), and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). We demonstrate here, for the first time, that TRIM22 is upregulated by influenza A virus (IAV) infection at both mRNA and protein levels in human alveolar epithelial A549 cells. Conversely, TRIM22 potently restricted IAV replication, in that prevention of TRIM22 expression by means of short hairpin RNA led to a 10-fold enhancement of IAV replication in these cells. Depletion of TRIM22 also reduced the anti-IAV activity of alpha interferon (IFN-?), suggesting that TRIM22 is an important IFN-stimulated gene that is required for maximal suppression of IAV by type I IFN. Furthermore, the IAV infectious titer decreased up to 100-fold in MDCK cells expressing exogenous human TRIM22. Restriction of IAV replication was accounted for by the interaction between TRIM22 and the viral nucleoprotein (NP), resulting in its polyubiquitination and degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner. Thus, TRIM22 represents a novel restriction factor upregulated upon IAV infection that curtails its replicative capacity in epithelial cells. PMID:23408607

Di Pietro, Andrea; Kajaste-Rudnitski, Anna; Oteiza, Alexandra; Nicora, Lucia; Towers, Greg J; Mechti, Nadir; Vicenzi, Elisa

2013-04-01

246

Associations between polymorphisms in the antiviral TRIM genes and measles vaccine immunity.  

PubMed

The role of polymorphisms within the antiviral tripartite motif (TRIM) genes in measles vaccine adaptive immune responses was examined. A limited association was found between TRIM5 (rs7122620) and TRIM25 (rs205499) gene polymorphisms and measles-specific antibody levels. However, many associations were found between TRIM gene SNPs and variations in cellular responses (IFN-? Elispot and secreted cytokines IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-?, and TNF-?). TRIM22 rs2291841 was significantly associated with an increased IFN-? Elispot response (35 vs. 102 SFC per 2×10(5)PBMC, p=0.009, q=0.71) in Caucasians. A non-synonymous TRIM25 rs205498 (in LD with other SNPs, r(2)?0.56), as well as the TRIM25 AAAGGAAAGGAGT haplotype, was associated with a decreased IFN-? Elispot response (t-statistic -2.32, p=0.02) in African-Americans. We also identified polymorphisms in the TRIM5, TRIM22, and TRIM25 genes that were associated with significant differences in cytokine responses. Additional studies are necessary to replicate our findings and to examine the functional consequences of these associations. PMID:23416095

Ovsyannikova, Inna G; Haralambieva, Iana H; Vierkant, Robert A; O'Byrne, Megan M; Poland, Gregory A

2013-06-01

247

Associations between Polymorphisms in the Antiviral TRIM Genes and Measles Vaccine Immunity  

PubMed Central

The role of polymorphisms within the antiviral tripartite motif (TRIM) genes in measles vaccine adaptive immune responses was examined. A limited association was found between TRIM5 (rs7122620) and TRIM25 (rs205499) gene polymorphisms and measles-specific antibody levels. However, many associations were found between TRIM gene SNPs and variations in cellular responses (IFN-? Elispot and secreted cytokines IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IFN-?, and TNF-?). TRIM22 rs2291841 was significantly associated with an increased IFN-? Elispot response (35 vs. 102 SFC per 2×105 PBMC, p=0.009, q=0.71) in Caucasians. A non-synonymous TRIM25 rs205498 (in LD with other SNPs, r2?0.56), as well as the TRIM25 AAAGGAAAGGAGT haplotype, was associated with a decreased IFN-? Elispot response (t-statistic ?2.32, p=0.02) in African-Americans. We also identified polymorphisms in the TRIM5, TRIM22, and TRIM25 genes that were associated with significant differences in cytokine responses. Additional studies are necessary to replicate our findings and to examine the functional consequences of these associations.

Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Haralambieva, Iana H.; Vierkant, Robert A.; O'Byrne, Megan M.; Poland, Gregory A.

2013-01-01

248

TRIM22 Inhibits Influenza A Virus Infection by Targeting the Viral Nucleoprotein for Degradation  

PubMed Central

Tripartite motif (TRIM) protein superfamily members are emerging as important effectors of the innate immune response against viral infections. In particular, TRIM22 was reported to exert antiviral activity against RNA viruses, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), encephalomyocarditis virus (ECMV), and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). We demonstrate here, for the first time, that TRIM22 is upregulated by influenza A virus (IAV) infection at both mRNA and protein levels in human alveolar epithelial A549 cells. Conversely, TRIM22 potently restricted IAV replication, in that prevention of TRIM22 expression by means of short hairpin RNA led to a 10-fold enhancement of IAV replication in these cells. Depletion of TRIM22 also reduced the anti-IAV activity of alpha interferon (IFN-?), suggesting that TRIM22 is an important IFN-stimulated gene that is required for maximal suppression of IAV by type I IFN. Furthermore, the IAV infectious titer decreased up to 100-fold in MDCK cells expressing exogenous human TRIM22. Restriction of IAV replication was accounted for by the interaction between TRIM22 and the viral nucleoprotein (NP), resulting in its polyubiquitination and degradation in a proteasome-dependent manner. Thus, TRIM22 represents a novel restriction factor upregulated upon IAV infection that curtails its replicative capacity in epithelial cells.

Di Pietro, Andrea; Kajaste-Rudnitski, Anna; Oteiza, Alexandra; Nicora, Lucia; Towers, Greg J.; Mechti, Nadir

2013-01-01

249

TRIM16 inhibits neuroblastoma cell proliferation through cell cycle regulation and dynamic nuclear localization.  

PubMed

Neuroblastoma is the most common solid tumor in childhood and represents 15% of all children's cancer deaths. We have previously demonstrated that tripartite motif 16 (TRIM16), a member of the RING B-box coiled-coil (RBCC)/tripartite totif (TRIM) protein family, has significant effects on neuroblastoma proliferation and migration in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. However, the mechanism by which this putative tumor suppressor influences cell proliferation and tumorigenicity was undetermined. Here we show, for the first time, TRIM16's striking pattern of expression and dynamic localization during cell cycle progression and neuroblastoma tumor development. In a tyrosine hydroxylase MYCN (TH-MYCN) neuroblastoma mouse model, immunohistochemical staining revealed strong nuclear TRIM16 expression in differentiating ganglia cells but not in the tumor-initiating cells. Furthermore in vitro studies clearly demonstrated that during G 1 cell cycle phase, TRIM16 protein expression is upregulated and shifts to the nucleus of cells. TRIM16 also plays a role in cell cycle progression through changes in Cyclin D1 and p27 expression. Importantly, using TRIM16 deletion mutants, an uncharacterized protein domain of TRIM16 was found to be required for both TRIM16's growth inhibitory effects and its nuclear localization. Taken together, our data suggest that TRIM16 acts as a novel regulator of both neuroblastoma G 1/S progression and cell differentiation. PMID:23422002

Bell, Jessica L; Malyukova, Alena; Kavallaris, Maria; Marshall, Glenn M; Cheung, Belamy B

2013-03-15

250

Contribution of SUMO-interacting motifs and SUMOylation to the antiretroviral properties of TRIM5?  

PubMed Central

Recent findings suggested that the SUMO-interacting motifs (SIMs) present in the human TRIM5? (TRIM5?hu) protein play an important role in the ability of TRIM5?hu to restrict N-MLV. Here we explored the role of SIMs in the ability of rhesus TRIM5? (TRIM5?rh) to restrict HIV-1, and found that TRIM5?rh SIM mutants IL376KK (SIM1mut) and VI405KK (SIM2mut) completely lost their ability to block HIV-1 infection. Interestingly, these mutants also lost the recently described property of TRIM5?rh to shuttle into the nucleus. Analysis of these variants revealed that they are unable to interact with the HIV-1 core, which might explain the reason that these variants are not active against HIV-1. Furthermore, NMR titration experiments to assay the binding between the PRYSPRY domain of TRIM5?rh and the small ubiquitin-like modifier 1(SUMO-1) revealed no interaction. In addition, we examined the role of SUMOylation in restriction, and find out that inhibition of SUMOylation by the adenoviral protein Gam1 did not altered the retroviral restriction ability of TRIM5?. Overall, our results do not support a role for SIMs or SUMOylation in the antiviral properties of TRIM5?.

Brandariz-Nunez, Alberto; Roa, Amanda; Valle-Casuso, Jose Carlos; Biris, Nikolaos; Ivanov, Dmitri; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe

2012-01-01

251

Stable p-ZnO thin films by oxygen control using reverse spray dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Semiconducting ZnO thin films were deposited on glass substrates by a modified CVD method using reverse spray of the precursor solutions. The films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Hall effect measurements at room temperature. The results of XRD analysis revealed polycrystalline nature of the grown films with different crystallographic orientations. The type of conductivity and the carrier concentration as determined from Hall effect measurements were dependent on the deposition temperature and annealing conditions. Oxygen control at 220 °C produced p-ZnO film with high hole mobility (193 cm 2/V s). The electrical conductivity was correlated to the stoichiometry of the grown films.

Hazra, S. K.; Basu, S.

2005-01-01

252

A System for Controlling the Oxygen Content of a Gas Produced by Combustion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mixture of air, CH4 and OH(2) is burned in a combustion chamber to produce a product gas in the test section. The OH(2) content of the product gas is compared with the OH(2) content of reference air in an OH(2) sensor. If there is a difference an error signal is produced at the output of a control circuit which by the means of a solenoid valve, regulates the flow of OH(2) into the combustion chamber to make the error signal zero. The product gas in the test section has the same oxygen content as air.

Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Puster, R. L. (inventors)

1984-01-01

253

Identification and characterization of multiple TRIM proteins that inhibit hepatitis B virus transcription.  

PubMed

Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins constitute a family of over 100 members that share conserved tripartite motifs and exhibit diverse biological functions. Several TRIM proteins have been shown to restrict viral infections and regulate host cellular innate immune responses. In order to identify TRIM proteins that modulate the infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV), we tested 38 human TRIMs for their effects on HBV gene expression, capsid assembly and DNA synthesis in human hepatoma cells (HepG2). The study revealed that ectopic expression of 8 TRIM proteins in HepG2 cells potently reduced the amounts of secreted HBV surface and e antigens as well as intracellular capsid and capsid DNA. Mechanistic analyses further demonstrated that the 8 TRIMs not only reduced the expression of HBV mRNAs, but also inhibited HBV enhancer I and enhancer II activities. Studies focused on TRIM41 revealed that a HBV DNA segment spanning nucleotide 1638 to nucleotide 1763 was essential for TRIM41-mediated inhibition of HBV enhancer II activity and the inhibitory effect depended on the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of TRIM41 as well as the integrity of TRIM41 C-terminal domain. Moreover, knockdown of endogenous TRIM41 in a HepG2-derived stable cell line significantly increased the level of HBV preC/C RNA, leading to an increase in viral core protein, capsid and capsid DNA. Our studies have thus identified eight TRIM proteins that are able to inhibit HBV transcription and provided strong evidences suggesting the endogenous role of TRIM41 in regulating HBV transcription in human hepatoma cells. PMID:23936368

Zhang, Shijian; Guo, Ju-Tao; Wu, Jim Z; Yang, Guang

2013-01-01

254

Identification and Characterization of Multiple TRIM Proteins That Inhibit Hepatitis B Virus Transcription  

PubMed Central

Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins constitute a family of over 100 members that share conserved tripartite motifs and exhibit diverse biological functions. Several TRIM proteins have been shown to restrict viral infections and regulate host cellular innate immune responses. In order to identify TRIM proteins that modulate the infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV), we tested 38 human TRIMs for their effects on HBV gene expression, capsid assembly and DNA synthesis in human hepatoma cells (HepG2). The study revealed that ectopic expression of 8 TRIM proteins in HepG2 cells potently reduced the amounts of secreted HBV surface and e antigens as well as intracellular capsid and capsid DNA. Mechanistic analyses further demonstrated that the 8 TRIMs not only reduced the expression of HBV mRNAs, but also inhibited HBV enhancer I and enhancer II activities. Studies focused on TRIM41 revealed that a HBV DNA segment spanning nucleotide 1638 to nucleotide 1763 was essential for TRIM41-mediated inhibition of HBV enhancer II activity and the inhibitory effect depended on the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity of TRIM41 as well as the integrity of TRIM41 C-terminal domain. Moreover, knockdown of endogenous TRIM41 in a HepG2-derived stable cell line significantly increased the level of HBV preC/C RNA, leading to an increase in viral core protein, capsid and capsid DNA. Our studies have thus identified eight TRIM proteins that are able to inhibit HBV transcription and provided strong evidences suggesting the endogenous role of TRIM41 in regulating HBV transcription in human hepatoma cells.

Zhang, Shijian; Guo, Ju-Tao; Wu, Jim Z.; Yang, Guang

2013-01-01

255

TRIM37 defective in mulibrey nanism is a novel RING finger ubiquitin E3 ligase  

SciTech Connect

Mulibrey nanism is an autosomal recessive prenatal-onset growth disorder characterized by dysmorphic features, cardiomyopathy, and hepatomegaly. Mutations in TRIM37 encoding a tripartite motif (TRIM, RING-B-box-coiled-coil)-family protein underlie mulibrey nanism. We investigated the ubiquitin ligase activity predicted for the RING domain of TRIM37 by analyzing its autoubiquitination. Full-length TRIM37 and its TRIM domain were highly polyubiquitinated when co-expressed with ubiquitin. Polyubiquitination was decreased in a mutant protein with disrupted RING domain (Cys35Ser;Cys36Ser) and in the Leu76Pro mutant protein, a disease-associated missense mutation affecting the TRIM domain of TRIM37. Bacterially produced GST-TRIM domain fusion protein, but not its Cys35Ser;Cys36Ser or Leu76Pro mutants, were polyubiquitinated in cell-free conditions, implying RING-dependent modification. Ubiquitin was also identified as an interaction partner for TRIM37 in a yeast two-hybrid screen. Ectopically expressed TRIM37 rapidly formed aggregates that were ubiquitin-, proteasome subunit-, and chaperone-positive in immunofluorescence analysis, defining them as aggresomes. The Cys35Ser;Cys36Ser mutant and the Leu76Pro and Gly322Val patient mutant proteins were markedly less prone to aggregation, implying that aggresomal targeting reflects a physiological function of TRIM37. These findings suggest that TRIM37 acts as a TRIM domain-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase and imply defective ubiquitin-dependent degradation of an as-yet-unidentified target protein in the pathogenesis of mulibrey nanism.

Kallijaervi, Jukka [Folkhaelsan Institute of Genetics, Department of Medical Genetics and Neuroscience Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Lahtinen, Ulla [Folkhaelsan Institute of Genetics, Department of Medical Genetics and Neuroscience Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Haemaelaeinen, Riikka [Folkhaelsan Institute of Genetics, Department of Medical Genetics and Neuroscience Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Lipsanen-Nyman, Marita [The Hospital for Children and Adolescents and Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland); Palvimo, Jorma J. [Institute of Biomedicine, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Kuopio, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina [Folkhaelsan Institute of Genetics, Department of Medical Genetics and Neuroscience Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: anna-elina.lehesjoki@helsinki.fi

2005-08-01

256

Trimming of glucosylated N-glycans by human ER ?1,2-mannosidase I.  

PubMed

In the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), folding of proteins modified by asparagine-linked (N-linked) glycosylation is precisely monitored by quality control machinery. Upon exit from the calnexin/calreticulin cycle, glycoproteins are digested by ?-mannosidases in the ER, especially ?1,2-mannosidase I (ERManI). ERManI removes the ?1,2-linked mannose of the B-chain from properly folded ER glycoproteins, whereas two or more ?1,2-linked mannose residues are sequentially trimmed from improperly folded glycoproteins so they are recognized by a complex that mediates ER-associated degradation (ERAD). We have shown that the efficiency of Man9GlcNAc2 de-mannosylation in model glycoproteins by recombinant human ERManI (hERManI) is dependent on folding status (Aikawa et al. (In vitro mannose trimming property of human ER ?-1,2 mannosidase I. Glycoconj. J 2012;29: 35-45.)). In this study, we revealed that this enzyme also accepts N-linked sugar chains with glucose moieties as substrates with nearly identical reactivity. The ability of hERManI to remove mannose residues from GlcMan9GlcNAc2 in model glycoproteins, such as Aspergillus oryzae ?-galactosidase and chicken immunoglobulin Y (IgY), was markedly augmented when glycoproteins were denatured. The properties of hERManI enable rapid selection of ERAD substrates in the ER and may help maintain homeostasis of sugar metabolism in living organisms. PMID:24519966

Aikawa, Jun-Ichi; Takeda, Yoichi; Matsuo, Ichiro; Ito, Yukishige

2014-06-01

257

GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS  

SciTech Connect

Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

2003-05-15

258

Circadian Clock Control of Nox4 and Reactive Oxygen Species in the Vasculature  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have shown that circadian clock disruption is associated with pathological remodeling in the arterial structure and vascular stiffness. Moreover, chronic circadian disruption is associated with dysfunction in endothelial responses and signaling. Reactive oxygen species have emerged as key regulators in vascular pathology. Previously, we have demonstrated that circadian clock dysfunction exacerbates superoxide production through eNOS uncoupling. To date, the impact of circadian clock mutation on vascular NADPH oxidase expression and function is not known. The goal in the current study was to determine if the circadian clock controls vascular Nox4 expression and hydrogen peroxide formation in arteries, particularly in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. In aorta, there was an increase in hydrogen peroxide and Nox4 expression in mice with a dysfunctional circadian rhythm (Bmal1-KO mice). In addition, the Nox4 gene promoter is activated by the core circadian transcription factors. Lastly, in synchronized cultured human endothelial cells, Nox4 gene expression exhibited rhythmic oscillations. These data reveal that the circadian clock plays an important role in the control of Nox4 and disruption of the clock leads to subsequent production of reaction oxygen species.

Chen, Feng; Ali, M. Irfan; Hart, C. Michael M.; Stepp, David W.; Kovalenkov, Yevgeniy O.; Merloiu, Ana-Maria; Pati, Paramita; Fulton, David; Rudic, R. Daniel

2013-01-01

259

Method of controlling injection of oxygen into hydrogen-rich fuel cell feed stream  

DOEpatents

A method of operating a H.sub.2 --O.sub.2 fuel cell fueled by hydrogen-rich fuel stream containing CO. The CO content is reduced to acceptable levels by injecting oxygen into the fuel gas stream. The amount of oxygen injected is controlled in relation to the CO content of the fuel gas, by a control strategy that involves (a) determining the CO content of the fuel stream at a first injection rate, (b) increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate, (c) determining the CO content of the stream at the higher injection rate, (d) further increasing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is lower than the first measured CO content or reducing the O.sub.2 injection rate if the second measured CO content is greater than the first measured CO content, and (e) repeating steps a-d as needed to optimize CO consumption and minimize H.sub.2 consumption.

Meltser, Mark Alexander (Pittsford, NY); Gutowski, Stanley (Pittsford, NY); Weisbrod, Kirk (Los Alamos, NM)

2001-01-01

260

Antioxidant-photosensitizer dual-loaded polymeric micelles with controllable production of reactive oxygen species.  

PubMed

Poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(caprolactone) (PEG-b-PCL) micelles dually loaded with both pheophorbide a (PhA) as a photosensitizer and ?-carotene (CAR) as a singlet oxygen ((1)O2) scavenger were designed to control photodynamic therapy (PDT) activity in cancer treatment. The CAR in the PhA/CAR micelles significantly diminished PhA-generated (1)O2 through direct (1)O2 scavenging, whereas the CAR molecules lost their (1)O2 scavenging activity when the PhA and CAR were spatially isolated by the disintegration of the PEG-b-PCL micelles. In cell-culture systems, light irradiation at a post-treatment time that corresponded to the presence of the micelles in the blood environment induced negligible phototoxicity, whereas light irradiation at a post-treatment time that corresponded to the presence of the micelles in the intracellular environment induced remarkable phototoxicity. In addition, a longer post-treatment time induced greater internalization of PhA/CAR micelles, which resulted in higher phototoxicity, suggesting an increase in photo killing activity against the tumor cells of interest. Thus, the co-loading of a (1)O2 generator and a (1)O2 scavenger into a single micelle is a potential strategy that may be useful in facilitating more accurate and reliable PDT with site-specific controllable production of singlet oxygen species for cancer treatment. PMID:24939615

Li, Li; Cho, Hana; Yoon, Kwon Hyeok; Kang, Han Chang; Huh, Kang Moo

2014-08-25

261

Different subcellular localisations of TRIM22 suggest species-specific function.  

PubMed

The B30.2/SPRY domain is present in many proteins, including various members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family such as TRIM5alpha, which mediates innate intracellular resistance to retroviruses in several primate species. This resistance is dependent on the integrity of the B30.2 domain that evolves rapidly in primates and exhibits species-specific anti-viral activity. TRIM22 is another positively selected TRIM gene. Particularly, the B30.2 domain shows rapid evolution in the primate lineage and recently published data indicate an anti-viral function of TRIM22. We show here that human and rhesus TRIM22 localise to different subcellular compartments and that this difference can be assigned to the positively selected B30.2 domain. Moreover, we could demonstrate that amino acid changes in two variable loops (VL1 and VL3) are responsible for the different subcellular localisations. PMID:19212762

Herr, Anna-Maria; Dressel, Ralf; Walter, Lutz

2009-04-01

262

Identification of tripartite motif-containing 22 (TRIM22) as a novel NF-?B activator.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence suggests that TRIM family proteins may play important roles in the regulation of innate immune signaling pathways. Here we report TRIM22 is involved in the activation of NF-?B. It was found that overexpression of TRIM22 could dose-dependently activate NF-?B as demonstrated by reporter gene assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay, but had no effect on the activity of other transcription factors, including NF-AT, AP-1, C/EBP and IRFs. Further study showed that both the N-terminal RING domain and C-terminal SPRY domain were crucial for TRIM22-mediated NF-?B activation. Moreover, our results revealed that TRIM22 overexpression could significantly induce the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines by human macrophage cell line U937 in an NF-?B-dependent manner. These data suggested that TRIM22 was a positive regulator of NF-?B-mediated transcription. PMID:21651891

Yu, Shanshan; Gao, Bo; Duan, Zhijian; Xu, Wei; Xiong, Sidong

2011-07-01

263

Specific recognition and accelerated uncoating of retroviral capsids by the TRIM5? restriction factor  

PubMed Central

The host restriction factor TRIM5? mediates species-specific, early blocks to retrovirus infection; susceptibility to these blocks is determined by viral capsid sequences. Here we demonstrate that TRIM5? variants from Old World monkeys specifically associate with the HIV type 1 (HIV-1) capsid and that this interaction depends on the TRIM5? B30.2 domain. Human and New World monkey TRIM5? proteins associated less efficiently with the HIV-1 capsid, accounting for the lack of restriction in cells of these species. After infection, the expression of a restricting TRIM5? in the target cells correlated with a decrease in the amount of particulate capsid in the cytosol. In some cases, this loss of particulate capsid was accompanied by a detectable increase in soluble capsid protein. Inhibiting the proteasome did not abrogate restriction. Thus, TRIM5? restricts retroviral infection by specifically recognizing the capsid and promoting its rapid, premature disassembly.

Stremlau, Matthew; Perron, Michel; Lee, Mark; Li, Yuan; Song, Byeongwoon; Javanbakht, Hassan; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Anderson, Donovan J.; Sundquist, Wesley I.; Sodroski, Joseph

2006-01-01

264

Decreased expression of TRIM3 is associated with poor prognosis in patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

Tripartite motif-containing 3 (TRIM3) is a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family and is reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of various cancers. The role of TRIM3 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unknown; thus, the goal of this study was to explore the expression level and prognostic value of TRIM3 in HCC. The expression level of TRIM3 in HCC surgically resected tumors and corresponding nontumorous samples was detected by real-time quantitative RT-PCR, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. The correlation between TRIM3 expression level and the clinicopathological features and prognosis of HCC patients was also analyzed. We observed that TRIM3 expression was remarkably decreased in tumor tissue samples from HCC patients, relative to matched nontumorous tissue samples, at the mRNA (p = 0.018) and protein level (p = 0.02). Similarly, immunohistochemical analysis showed that 53.4 % of samples had low TRIM3 protein expression. Clinicopathological analysis revealed that low TRIM3 expression was significantly correlated with tumor size (p = 0.034), histological grade (p < 0.001), serum AFP (p = 0.025), and TNM stage (p = 0.021). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that low TRIM3 expression was associated with poor survival in HCC patients. Finally, our multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that TRIM3 expression was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival of HCC patients. In conclusion, this study suggests that TRIM3 may play a significant role in HCC progression and acts as a valuable prognostic marker and potential therapeutic target for HCC. PMID:24994609

Chao, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Pan, Qiu-Zhong; Zhao, Jing-Jing; Jiang, Shan-Shan; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Xia, Jian-Chuan

2014-08-01

265

Extracellular enzyme profiles during co-composting of poultry manure and yard trimmings  

Microsoft Academic Search

APYZYM™ assays were used to detect the presence of enzyme activity from 19 different enzymes, including three phosphatases, three esterases, three amino-peptidases, and eight glycosyl-hydrolases during co-composting of poultry manure and yard trimmings (poultry+yard trimmings). Results of this study have shown that the poultry+yard trimmings compost went through physico-chemical and biochemical changes during composting. These changes included self-heating of the

Sonia M. Tiquia; Judy H. C. Wan; Nora F. Y. Tam

2001-01-01

266

Net-Shape Forging of Aerofoil Blade based on Flash Trimming and Compensation methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research, an automatic blade forging die shape optimisation system was developed by using direct compensation and flash trimming algorithms and integrating with the DEFORM 3D software package. To validate the developed system, a 3D blade forging case problem was simulated and optimised with and without the consideration of trimming simulation. The results were compared with actual measurement data of the forged aerofoil blade with excellent results obtained with the fast trimming simulation procedure used.

Lu, B.; Ou, H.; Armstrong, C. G.

2011-05-01

267

Arabidopsis glucosidase I mutants reveal a critical role of N-glycan trimming in seed development  

PubMed Central

Glycoproteins with asparagine-linked (N-linked) glycans occur in all eukaryotic cells. The function of their glycan moieties is one of the central problems in contemporary cell biology. N-glycosylation may modify physicochemical and biological protein properties such as conformation, degradation, intracellular sorting or secretion. We have isolated and characterized two allelic Arabidopsis mutants, gcs1-1 and gcs1-2, which produce abnormal shrunken seeds, blocked at the heart stage of development. The mutant seeds accumulate a low level of storage proteins, have no typical protein bodies, display abnormal cell enlargement and show occasional cell wall disruptions. The mutated gene has been cloned by T-DNA tagging. It codes for a protein homologous to animal and yeast ?-glucosidase I, an enzyme that controls the first committed step for N-glycan trimming. Biochemical analyses have confirmed that trimming of the ?1,2- linked glucosyl residue constitutive of the N-glycan precursor is blocked in this mutant. These results demonstrate the importance of N-glycan trimming for the accumulation of seed storage proteins, the formation of protein bodies, cell differentiation and embryo development.

Boisson, Murielle; Gomord, Veronique; Audran, Corinne; Berger, Nathalie; Dubreucq, Bertrand; Granier, Fabienne; Lerouge, Patrice; Faye, Loic; Caboche, Michel; Lepiniec, Loic

2001-01-01

268

Resistance to simian immunodeficiency virus low dose rectal challenge is associated with higher constitutive TRIM5? expression in PBMC  

PubMed Central

Background At least six host-encoded restriction factors (RFs), APOBEC3G, TRIM5?, tetherin, SAMHD1, schlafen 11, and Mx2 have now been shown to inhibit HIV and/or SIV replication in vitro. To determine their role in vivo in the resistance of macaques to mucosally-acquired SIV, we quantified both pre-exposure (basal) and post-exposure mRNA levels of these RFs, Mx1, and IFN? in PBMC, lymph nodes, and duodenum of rhesus macaques undergoing weekly low dose rectal exposures to the primary isolate, SIV/DeltaB670. Results Repetitive challenge divided the monkeys into two groups with respect to their susceptibility to infection: highly susceptible (2–3 challenges, 5 monkeys) and poorly susceptible (?6 challenges, 3 monkeys). Basal RF and Mx1 expression varied among the three tissues examined, with the lowest expression generally detected in duodenal tissues, and the highest observed in PBMC. The one exception was A3G whose basal expression was greatest in lymph nodes. Importantly, significantly higher basal expression of TRIM5? and Mx1 was observed in PBMC of animals more resistant to mucosal infection. Moreover, individual TRIM5? levels were stable throughout a year prior to infection. Post-exposure induction of these genes was also observed after virus appearance in plasma, with elevated levels in PBMC and duodenum transiently occurring 7–10 days post infection. They did not appear to have an effect on control of viremia. Interestingly, minimal to no induction was observed in the resistant animal that became an elite controller. Conclusions These results suggest that constitutively expressed TRIM5? appears to play a greater role in restricting mucosal transmission of SIV than that associated with type I interferon induction following virus entry. Surprisingly, this association was not observed with the other RFs. The higher basal expression of TRIM5? observed in PBMC than in duodenal tissues emphasizes the understated role of the second barrier to systemic infection involving the transport of virus from the mucosal compartment to the blood. Together, these observations provide a strong incentive for a more comprehensive examination of the intrinsic, variable control of constitutive expression of these genes in the sexual transmission of HIV.

2014-01-01

269

TRIM45 negatively regulates NF-{kappa}B-mediated transcription and suppresses cell proliferation  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NF-{kappa}B plays an important role in cell survival and carcinogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM45 negatively regulates TNF{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B-mediated transcription. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM45 overexpression suppresses cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM45 acts as a repressor for the NF-{kappa}B signal and regulates cell growth. -- Abstract: The NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway plays an important role in cell survival, immunity, inflammation, carcinogenesis, and organogenesis. Activation of NF-{kappa}B is regulated by several posttranslational modifications including phosphorylation, neddylation and ubiquitination. The NF-{kappa}B signaling pathway is activated by two distinct signaling mechanisms and is strictly modulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. It has been reported that overexpression of TRIM45, one of the TRIM family ubiquitin ligases, suppresses transcriptional activities of Elk-1 and AP-1, which are targets of the MAPK signaling pathway. In this study, we showed that TRIM45 also negatively regulates TNF{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B-mediated transcription by a luciferase reporter assay and that TRIM45 lacking a RING domain also has an activity to inhibit the NF-{kappa}B signal. Moreover, we found that TRIM45 overexpression suppresses cell growth. These findings suggest that TRIM45 acts as a repressor for the NF-{kappa}B signal and regulates cell growth.

Shibata, Mio [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Sato, Tomonobu [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan) [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Nukiwa, Ryota [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Ariga, Tadashi [Department of Pediatrics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan)] [Department of Pediatrics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu, E-mail: hatas@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan)

2012-06-22

270

Overexpression of TRIM24 is associated with the onset and progress of human hepatocellular carcinoma.  

PubMed

The survival and colonization of tumor cells at new locations involve a variety of complex genetic, epigenetic, and microenvironmental factors. TRIM24 was originally named transcription intermediary factor 1-alpha (TIF1?), which was associated with cellular proliferation and was an oncogene in tumor development. Here we provide the first evidence of the expression profile and clinicopathological significance of TRIM24 in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Immunohistochemistry was employed to determine the expression level of TRIM24 in HCC tissues and noncancerous liver tissues. Elevated TRIM24 level was found in 61.4% HCC samples (51/83) correlating with AFP (P?=?0.036), poor differentiation (P?=?0.004), intrahepatic metastasis (P?=?0.004), recurrence (P?=?0.000006), and shorter tumor-free survival time (P?=?0.002). Small interfering RNA induced down-regulation of TRIM24 promoted apoptosis in HCC cell line HepG2. Moreover, western blotting analysis revealed that knockdown of TRIM24 increased the protein levels of p53, Bax, and Caspase-8, and decreased Bcl-2, Survivin, Cyclin D1, and CDK4. Depletion of TRIM24 decreased Snail, Slug, ?-catenin, and Vimentin, and increased E-cadherin expression, which suggested the involvement of TRIM24 in EMT. These results indicated that TRIM24 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of human HCC. PMID:24409330

Liu, Xiao; Huang, Yu; Yang, Dinghua; Li, Xianghong; Liang, Jiankun; Lin, Liang; Zhang, Meng; Zhong, Kebo; Liang, Bo; Li, Jialu

2014-01-01

271

Tyrosine phosphorylation of the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM21 positively regulates interaction with IRF3 and hence TRIM21 activity.  

PubMed

Patients suffering from Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE) have elevated type I interferon (IFN) levels which correlate with disease activity and severity. TRIM21, an autoantigen associated with SLE, has been identified as an ubiquitin E3 ligase that targets the transcription factor IRF3 in order to turn off and limit type I IFN production following detection of viral and bacterial infection by Toll Like Receptors (TLRs). However, how the activity of TRIM21 is regulated downstream of TLRs is unknown. In this study we demonstrate that TRIM21 is tyrosine phosphorylated following TLR3 and TLR4 stimulation, suggesting that its activity is potentially regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation. Using Netphos, we have identified three key tyrosines that are strongly predicted to be phosphorylated, two of which are conserved between the human and murine forms of TRIM21, at residues 343, 388, and 393, all of which have been mutated from tyrosine to phenylalanine (Y343F, Y388F, and Y393F). We have observed that tyrosine phosphorylation of TRIM21 only occurs in the substrate binding PRY/SPRY domain, and that Y393, and to a lesser extent, Y388 are required for TRIM21 to function as a negative regulator of IFN-? promoter activity. Further studies revealed that mutating Y393 to phenylalanine inhibits the ability of TRIM21 to interact with its substrate, IRF3, thus providing a molecular explanation for the lack of activity of Y393 on the IFN-? promoter. Our data demonstrates a novel role for tyrosine phosphorylation in regulating the activity of TRIM21 downstream of TLR3 and TLR4. Given the pathogenic role of TRIM21 in systemic autoimmunity, these findings have important implications for the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:22479513

Stacey, Kevin B; Breen, Eamon; Jefferies, Caroline A

2012-01-01

272

Control of silica cap properties by oxygen plasma treatment for single-cap selective impurity free vacancy disordering  

Microsoft Academic Search

By exposing the SiO2 films used as annealing caps in the process of impurity free vacancy disordering (IFVD) to an oxygen plasma, which is produced in a reactive ion etching machine, the effect of the exposed caps on quantum well intermixing can be substantially controlled. The effect of the oxygen treatment is manifested in inhibiting the Ga outdiffusion from GaAs\\/AlGaAs

A. Saher Helmy; S. K. Murad; A. C. Bryce; J. S. Aitchison; J. H. Marsh; S. E. Hicks; C. D. W. Wilkinson

1999-01-01

273

Controlling the oxygen potential to improve the densification and the solid solution formation of uranium–plutonium mixed oxides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion mechanisms occurring during the sintering of oxide ceramics are affected by the oxygen content of the atmosphere, as it imposes the nature and the concentration of structural defects in the material. Thus, the oxygen partial pressure, p(O2), of the sintering gas has to be precisely controlled, otherwise a large dispersion in various parameters, critical for the manufacturing of ceramics such as nuclear oxides fuels, is likely to occur.

Berzati, Ségolène; Vaudez, Stéphane; Belin, Renaud C.; Léchelle, Jacques; Marc, Yves; Richaud, Jean-Christophe; Heintz, Jean-Marc

2014-04-01

274

Control of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production through histidine kinases in Aspergillus nidulans under different growth conditions?  

PubMed Central

Sensor histidine kinases (HKs) are important factors that control cellular growth in response to environmental conditions. The expression of 15 HKs from Aspergillus nidulans was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR under vegetative, asexual, and sexual growth conditions. Most HKs were highly expressed during asexual growth. All HK gene-disrupted strains produced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Three HKs are involved in the control of ROS: HysA was the most abundant under the restricted oxygen condition, NikA is involved in fungicide sensing, and FphA inhibits sexual development in response to red light. Phosphotransfer signal transduction via HysA is essential for ROS production control.

Hayashi, Saki; Yoshioka, Megumi; Matsui, Tetsuji; Kojima, Kensuke; Kato, Masashi; Kanamaru, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

2014-01-01

275

Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts  

DOEpatents

A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power.

Erickson, Donald C. (Annapolis)

1985-06-04

276

Synthesis of HgBa 2CuO 4+? under controlled mercury and oxygen pressures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A three-temperature synthesis technique to obtain pure HgBa 2CuO 4+? under controlled mercury and oxygen partial pressures was developed. Mixtures of Co 3O 4/CoO (or CuO/Cu 2O) oxides and HgBa 2CuO 4+?/Ba 2CuO 3+ x heated at different temperatures were used to adjust P(O 2) and P(Hg), respectively. At equilibrium conditions for the reaction: HgBa 2CuO 4+ ? ? Ba 2CuO 3+ x + Hg(g) + (1 + ? - x)/2 O 2, 0.09 < P(O 2) < 0.62 bar and 1009 < T < 1153 K, the mercury partial pressure was found to vary from 1.7 to 6.5 bar. With these conditions, the lower boundary of HgBa 2CuO 4+? formation as a function of P(Hg), P(O 2) and T was determined as: log P(Hg) + 6040/ T + 0.266 log P(O 2) > 5.959. It was also found, that slow cooling down to 600°C under fixed oxygen pressure is required to prepare pure HgBa 2CuO 4+?.

Alyoshin, V. A.; Mikhailova, D. A.; Antipov, E. V.

1996-02-01

277

Control of the oxygen dependence of an implantable polymer/enzyme composite biosensor for glutamate.  

PubMed

Biosensors for glutamate (Glu) were fabricated from Teflon-coated Pt wire (cylinders and disks), modified with the enzyme glutamate oxidase (GluOx) and electrosynthesized polymer PPD, poly(o-phenylenediamine). The polymer/enzyme layer was deposited in two configurations: enzyme before polymer (GluOx/PPD) and enzyme after polymer (PPD/GluOx). These four biosensor designs were characterized in terms of response time, limit of detection, Michaelis-Menten parameters for Glu (J max and K(M)(Glu)), sensitivity to Glu in the linear response region, and dependence on oxygen concentration, K(M)(O2). Analysis showed that the two polymer/enzyme configurations behaved similarly on both cylinders and disks. Although the two geometries showed different behaviors, these differences could be explained in terms of higher enzyme loading density on the disks; in many analyses, the four designs behaved like a single population with a range of GluOx loading. Enzyme loading was the key to controlling the K(M)(O2) values of these first generation biosensors. The counterintuitive, and beneficial, behavior that biosensors with higher GluOx loading displayed a lower oxygen dependence was explained in terms of the effects of enzyme loading on the affinity of GluOx for its anionic substrate. Some differences between the properties of surface immobilized GluOx and glucose oxidase are highlighted. PMID:16579619

McMahon, Colm P; Rocchitta, Gaia; Serra, Pier A; Kirwan, Sarah M; Lowry, John P; O'Neill, Robert D

2006-04-01

278

Delaying Reverse Transcription Does Not Increase Sensitivity of HIV-1 to Human TRIM5?  

PubMed Central

Background Because uncoating of the capsid is linked to reverse transcription, modifications that delay this process lead to the persistence in the cytoplasm of capsids susceptible to recognition by the human restriction factor TRIM5? (hTRIM5?). It is unknown, however, if increasing the time available for capsid-hTRIM5? interactions would actually render viruses more sensitive to hTRIM5?. Results Viral sensitivity to hTRIM5? was evaluated by comparing their replication in human U373-X4 cells in which hTRIM5? activity had or had not been inhibited by overexpression of human TRIM5?. No differences were observed comparing wild-type HIV-1 and variants carrying mutations in reverse transcriptase or the central polypurine tract that delayed the completion of reverse transcription. In addition, the effect of delaying the onset of reverse transcription for several hours by treating target cells with nevirapine was evaluated using viral isolates with different sensitivities to hTRIM5?. Delaying reverse transcription led to a time-dependent loss in viral infectivity that was increased by inhibiting capsid-cyclophilin A interactions, but did not result in increased viral sensitivity to hTRIM5?, regardless of their intrinsic sensitivity to this restriction factor. Conclusions Consistent with prior studies, the HIV-1 capsid can be targeted for destruction by hTRIM5?, but different strains display considerable variability in their sensitivity to this restriction factor. Capsids can also be lost more slowly through a TRIM5?-independent process that is accelerated when capsid-cyclophilin A interactions are inhibited, an effect that may reflect changes in the intrinsic stability of the capsid. Blocking the onset or delaying reverse transcription does not, however, increase viral sensitivity to hTRIM5?, indicating that the recognition of the capsids by hTRIM5? is completed rapidly following entry into the cytoplasm, as previously observed for the simian restriction factors TRIM-Cyp and rhesus TRIM5?.

Battivelli, Emilie; Lecossier, Denise; Clavel, Francois; Hance, Allan J.

2013-01-01

279

The conserved sumoylation consensus site in TRIM5? modulates its immune activation functions.  

PubMed

TRIM5? is a type I interferon-stimulated anti-retroviral restriction factor expressed in most primates and homologous proteins are expressed in other mammals. Through its C-terminal PRYSPRY (B30.2) domain, TRIM5? binds to incoming and intact post-fusion retroviral cores in the cytoplasm. Following this direct interaction, the retroviral capsid core is destabilized and progression of the virus life cycle is interrupted. Specific recognition of its viral target by TRIM5? also triggers the induction of an antiviral state involving the activation of transcription factors NF-?B- and AP-1. In addition to PRYSPRY, several other TRIM5? domains are important for anti-retroviral function, including a RING zinc-binding motif. This domain has "E3" ubiquitin ligase activity and is involved in both the direct inhibition of incoming retroviruses and innate immune activation. A highly conserved sumoylation consensus site is present between the RING motif and the N-terminal extremity of TRIM5?. No clear role in restriction has been mapped to this sumoylation site, and no sumoylated forms of TRIM5? have been observed. Here we confirm that mutating the putatively sumoylated lysine (K10) of the Rhesus macaque TRIM5? (TRIM5?Rh) to an arginine has only a small effect on restriction. However, we show that the mutation significantly decreases the TRIM5?-induced generation of free K63-linked ubiquitin chains, an intermediate in the activation of innate immunity pathways. Accordingly, K10R decreases TRIM5?-mediated activation of both NF-?B and AP-1. Concomitantly, we find that K10R causes a large increase in the levels of ubiquitylated TRIM5?. Finally, treatment with the nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B shows that K10R enhances the nuclear localization of TRIM5?Rh, while at the same time reducing its level of association with nuclear SUMO bodies. In conclusion, the TRIM5? sumoylation site appears to modulate the E3 ubiquitin ligase activities of the adjacent RING domain, promoting K63-linked ubiquitin chains at the expense of auto-ubiquitylation which is probably K48-linked. Consistently, we find this sumoylation site to be important for innate immune activation by TRIM5?. In addition, lysine 10 regulates TRIM5? nuclear shuttling and nuclear localization, which may also be related to its role in innate immunity activation. PMID:24583231

Nepveu-Traversy, Marie-Édith; Berthoux, Lionel

2014-05-01

280

Evolution of a TRIM5-CypA splice isoform in old world monkeys.  

PubMed

The TRIM family proteins share a conserved arrangement of three adjacent domains, an N-terminal RING domain, followed by one or two B-boxes and a coiled-coil, which constitutes the tripartite-motif for which the family is named. However, the C-termini of TRIM proteins vary, and include at least nine evolutionarily distinct, unrelated protein domains. Antiviral restriction factor TRIM5alpha has a C-terminal B30.2/SPRY domain, which is the major determinant of viral target specificity. Here, we describe the evolution of a cyclophilin-A encoding exon downstream of the TRIM5 locus of Asian macaques. Alternative splicing gives rise to chimeric transcripts encoding the TRIM motif fused to a C-terminal CypA domain (TRIM5-CypA). We detected TRIM5-CypA chimeric transcripts in primary lymphocytes from two macaque species. These were derived in part from a CypA pseudogene in the TRIM5 locus, which is distinct from the previously described CypA insertion in TRIM5 of owl monkeys. The CypA insertion is linked to a mutation in the 3' splice site upstream of exon 7, which may prevent or reduce expression of the alpha-isoform. All pig-tailed macaques (M. nemestrina) screened were homozygous for the CypA insertion. In contrast, the CypA-containing allele was present in 17% (17/101) of rhesus macaques (M. mulatta). The block to HIV-1 infection in lymphocytes from animals bearing the TRIM5-CypA allele was weaker than that in cells from wild type animals. HIV-1 infectivity remained significantly lower than SIV infectivity, but was not rescued by treatment with cyclosporine A. Thus, unlike owl monkey TRIMCyp, expression of the macaque TRIM5-CypA isoform does not result in increased restriction of HIV-1. Despite its distinct evolutionary origin, Macaca TRIM5-CypA has a similar domain arrangement and shares approximately 80% amino-acid identity with the TRIMCyp protein of owl monkeys. The independent appearance of TRIM5-CypA chimeras in two primate lineages constitutes a remarkable example of convergent evolution. Based on the presence of the CypA insertion in separate macaque lineages, and its absence from sooty mangabeys, we estimate that the Macaca TRIM5-CypA variant appeared 5-10 million years ago in a common ancestor of the Asian macaques. Whether the formation of novel genes through alternative splicing has played a wider role in the evolution of the TRIM family remains to be investigated. PMID:18389077

Newman, Ruchi M; Hall, Laura; Kirmaier, Andrea; Pozzi, Lu-Ann; Pery, Erez; Farzan, Michael; O'Neil, Shawn P; Johnson, Welkin

2008-02-01

281

Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B and Nuclease Production Under Controlled Dissolved Oxygen Conditions  

PubMed Central

Enterotoxin B, nuclease, and total exoprotein production by Staphylococcus aureus strain S-6 was studied in a 0.5-liter fermentor system. While these extracellular products were elaborated over a wide range of aeration rates, maximal production occurred within the very narrow range of 125 to 150 cm3 of air per min. The levels attained at the optimal aeration rate were not increased by maintaining a constant pH, although yield of enterotoxin:cell mass was highest at a constant pH of 7.0. During the growth cycle of the cultures, when aeration rate alone or aeration rate and pH were held constant, the dissolved oxygen (DO) levels, initially set at 100% of saturation, decreased to 5 to 10% 4 to 5 h after inoculation. The oxygen demand of the culture then maintained this level for an additional 4 to 6 h. This interval of low DO was characterized by maximal growth and exoprotein production. When the DO was controlled at a constant value throughout growth (by increasing or decreasing the airflow rate as appropriate), the culture demonstrated different optima for maximal growth and exoprotein production. A constant DO of 100% stimulated growth to extremely high densities, but the accumulation of toxin and nuclease was not observed. On the other hand, maintaining constant DO levels at 50 or 10% raised exoprotein levels higher than those achieved in a culture grown at the optimal aeration rate. Compared to the optimal aeration rate culture, the 10% DO culture yielded 20% more nuclease, 25% more toxin, and 40 to 50% more total exoprotein. These results indicate that it is the DO and not the aeration rate, per se, that is influential in controlling growth, toxin, nuclease, and total exoprotein production.

Carpenter, David F.; Silverman, Gerald J.

1974-01-01

282

Terminal repeat retrotransposon in miniature (TRIM) as DNA markers in Brassica relatives.  

PubMed

We have developed a display system using a unique sequence of terminal repeat retrotransposon in miniature (TRIM) elements, which were recently identified from gene-rich regions of Brassica rapa. The technique, named TRIM display, is based on modification of the AFLP technique using an adapter primer for the restriction fragments of BfaI and a primer derived from conserved terminal repeat sequences of TRIM elements, Br1 and Br2. TRIM display using genomic DNA produced 50-70 bands ranging from 100 to 700 bp in all the species of the family Brassicaceae. TRIM display using B. rapa cDNA produced about 20 bands. Sequences of 11 randomly selected bands, 7 from genomic DNA and 4 from cDNA, begin with about 104 bp of the terminal repeat sequences of TRIM elements Br1 or Br2 and end with unique sequences indicating that all bands are derived from unique insertion sites of TRIM elements. Furthermore, 7 of the 11 unique sequences showed significant similarity with expressed gene. Most of the TRIM display bands were polymorphic between genera and about 55% (132 of 239 bands) are polymorphic among 19 commercial F1 hybrid cultivars. Analysis of phylogenetic relationships shows clear-cut lineage among the 19 cultivars. Furthermore, a combination of 11 polymorphic bands derived from only one primer combination can clearly distinguish one cultivar from the others. TRIM display bands were reproducible and inheritable through successive generations that is revealed by genetic mapping of 6 out of 27 polymorphic TRIM markers on the genetic map of Brassica napus. Collective data provide evidence that TRIM display can provide useful DNA markers in Brassica relatives because these markers are distributed in gene-rich regions, and are sometimes involved in the restructuring of genes. PMID:17690909

Kwon, Soo-Jin; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lim, Myung-Ho; Long, Yan; Meng, Jin-Ling; Lim, Ki-Byung; Kim, Jin-A; Kim, Jung Sun; Jin, Mina; Kim, Ho-Il; Ahn, Sang-Nag; Wessler, Susan R; Yang, Tae-Jin; Park, Beom-Seok

2007-10-01

283

Autophagy proteins control goblet cell function by potentiating reactive oxygen species production.  

PubMed

Delivery of granule contents to epithelial surfaces by secretory cells is a critical physiologic process. In the intestine, goblet cells secrete mucus that is required for homeostasis. Autophagy proteins are required for secretion in some cases, though the mechanism and cell biological basis for this requirement remain unknown. We found that in colonic goblet cells, proteins involved in initiation and elongation of autophagosomes were required for efficient mucus secretion. The autophagy protein LC3 localized to intracellular multi-vesicular vacuoles that were consistent with a fusion of autophagosomes and endosomes. Using cultured intestinal epithelial cells, we found that NADPH oxidases localized to and enhanced the formation of these LC3-positive vacuoles. Both autophagy proteins and endosome formation were required for maximal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) derived from NADPH oxidases. Importantly, generation of ROS was critical to control mucin granule accumulation in colonic goblet cells. Thus, autophagy proteins can control secretory function through ROS, which is in part generated by LC3-positive vacuole-associated NADPH oxidases. These findings provide a novel mechanism by which autophagy proteins can control secretion. PMID:24185898

Patel, Khushbu K; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Beatty, Wandy L; Head, Richard D; Malvin, Nicole P; Cadwell, Ken; Guan, Jun-Lin; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Akira, Shizuo; Seglen, Per O; Dinauer, Mary C; Virgin, Herbert W; Stappenbeck, Thaddeus S

2013-12-11

284

Quasi-Linear Parameter Varying Representation of General Aircraft Dynamics Over Non-Trim Region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For applying linear parameter varying (LPV) control synthesis and analysis to a nonlinear system, it is required that a nonlinear system be represented in the form of an LPV model. In this paper, a new representation method is developed to construct an LPV model from a nonlinear mathematical model without the restriction that an operating point must be in the neighborhood of equilibrium points. An LPV model constructed by the new method preserves local stabilities of the original nonlinear system at "frozen" scheduling parameters and also represents the original nonlinear dynamics of a system over a non-trim region. An LPV model of the motion of FASER (Free-flying Aircraft for Subscale Experimental Research) is constructed by the new method.

Shin, Jong-Yeob

2007-01-01

285

High resolution micro ultrasonic machining for trimming 3D microstructures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reports on the evaluation of a high resolution micro ultrasonic machining (HR-µUSM) process suitable for post fabrication trimming of complex 3D microstructures made from fused silica. Unlike conventional USM, the HR-µUSM process aims for low machining rates, providing high resolution and high surface quality. The machining rate is reduced by keeping the micro-tool tip at a fixed distance from the workpiece and vibrating it at a small amplitude. The surface roughness is improved by an appropriate selection of abrasive particles. Fluidic modeling is performed to study interaction among the vibrating micro-tool tip, workpiece, and the slurry. Using 304 stainless steel (SS304) tool tips of 50 µm diameter, the machining performance of the HR-µUSM process is characterized on flat fused silica substrates. The depths and surface finish of machined features are evaluated as functions of slurry concentrations, separation between the micro-tool and workpiece, and machining time. Under the selected conditions, the HR-µUSM process achieves machining rates as low as 10 nm s?1 averaged over the first minute of machining of a flat virgin sample. This corresponds to a mass removal rate of ?20 ng min?1. The average surface roughness, Sa, achieved is as low as 30 nm. Analytical and numerical modeling are used to explain the typical profile of the machined features as well as machining rates. The process is used to demonstrate trimming of hemispherical 3D shells made of fused silica.

Viswanath, Anupam; Li, Tao; Gianchandani, Yogesh

2014-06-01

286

Crystal Structure and Physical Properties of Oxygen Composition Controlled La1-xSrxMnO3+? Single Crystals.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The La1-xSrxMnO3+? is known to have various magnetic and crystal structures as functions of x. Although this system has relatively large oxygen nonstoichiometry, the effects of excess oxygen on the crystal structure and physical properties have not been well understood. In the present study, the crystal structure and physical properties of excess oxygen controlled La1-xSrxMnO3+? single crystals were systematically studied. Single crystals with nominal compositions of La1-xSrxMnO3+? (0.05 <= x <= 0.2) were grown by the floating zone method. Thin plate-like crystals were obtained from the grown boules and controlled the oxygen content by post-annealing in various atmospheres. With increasing ?, the orthorhombic of the as-grown La0.95Sr0.05MnO3+?crystal changed to the rhombohedral through pseudo-cubic orthorhombic. In addition, ferromagnetic behaviors appeared accompanying the CMR effect and TC increased as a function of ?. These are attributable to an increase of valence of Mn by excess oxygen. Relationships among the Sr substitution level, excess oxygen content, crystal structure and magnetic behaviors of La1-xSrxMnO3+? will be discussed.

Yokota, Yuui; Shimoyama, Jun-Ichi; Ogata, Tetsuro; Nakamura, Atsushi; Ogino, Hiraku; Horii, Shigeru; Kishio, Kohji

2008-03-01

287

TRAUMA RISK MANAGEMENT (TRiM) IN THE UK ARMED FORCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Trauma Risk Management (TRiM) is a novel system of post incident management which intend to allow commanders to provide appropriate support to their subordinates in the aftermath of traumatic events. Given the current very considerable operational tempo being experienced by the majority of the UK Armed Forces, it is perhaps not surprising that TRiM has been in use in both

N Greenberg; V Langston; N Jones

288

Magnetic design of trim excitations for the Advanced Light Source storage ring sextupole  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring sextupole is a unique multi-purpose magnet. It is designed to operate as a sextupole with three auxiliary trim modes: horizontal steering, vertical steering, and skew quadrupole. A perturbation theory for iron-dominated magnets developed by Klaus Halbach (1969) provides the basis for this design. The three trim excitations are produced by violating sextupole symmetry

S. Marks

1996-01-01

289

Magnetic design of trim excitations for the Advanced Light Source storage ring sextupole  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring sextupole is a unique multi-purpose magnet. It is designed to operate as a sextupole with three auxiliary trim modes: horizontal steering, vertical steering, and skew quadrupole. A perturbation theory for iron-dominated magnets developed by Klaus Halbach provides the basis for this design. The three trim excitations are produced by violating sextupole symmetry and

S Marks

1995-01-01

290

Manufacturing system for the integrated hydroforming, trimming and welding of sheet metal pairs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the presented work is to shorten the process chain for the manufacturing of complex hollow bodies made of sheet metal by developing a manufacturing system that integrates the process steps: hydroforming, mechanical trimming, laser beam welding and hydrocalibrating. For the hydroforming process, a special tool is developed that integrates a trimming device. After the preforming and cutting,

O. Kreis; P. Hein

2001-01-01

291

77 FR 60103 - Approval of Subzone Status; TST NA TRIM, LLC; Hidalgo, TX  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...S-90-2012] Approval of Subzone Status; TST NA TRIM, LLC; Hidalgo, TX On August 3, 2012, the Executive Secretary of the Foreign-Trade...activation limit of FTZ 12, on behalf of TST NA TRIM, LLC, in Hidalgo, Texas. The application was processed in accordance...

2012-10-02

292

Genetic parameters for claw disorders and the effect of preselecting cows for trimming.  

PubMed

Claw disorders are important traits relevant to dairy cattle breeding from an economical and welfare point of view. Selection for reduced claw disorders can be based on hoof trimmer records. Typically, not all cows in a herd are trimmed. Our objectives were to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations for claw disorders and investigate the effect of selecting cows for trimming. The data set contained 50,238 cows, of which 20,474 cows had at least one claw trimming record, with a total of 29,994 records. Six claw trimmers scored 14 different claw disorders: abscess (AB), corkscrew claw (CC), (inter-)digital dermatitis or heel erosion (DER), double sole (DS), hardship groove (HG), interdigital hyperplasia (IH), interdigital phlegmon (IP), sand crack (SC), super-foul (SF), sole hemorrhage (SH), sole injury (SI), sole ulcer (SU), white line separation (WLS), yellow discoloration of the sole (YD), and a combined claw disorder trait. Frequencies of the claw disorders for trimmed cows ranged from 0.1% (CC, YD, HG) to 23.8% (DER). More than half of the cows scored had at least one claw disorder. Heritability on the observed scale ranged from 0.02 (DS, SH) to 0.14 (IH) and on the underlying scale from 0.05 to 0.43 in trimmed cows. Genetic correlations between laminitis-related claw disorders were moderate to high, and the same was found for hygiene-related claw disorders. The effect of selecting cows for trimming was first investigated by including untrimmed cows in the analyses and assuming they were not affected by claw disorders. Heritabilities on the underlying scale showed only minor changes. Second, different subsets of the data were created based on the percentage of trimmed cows in the herd. Heritabilities for IH, DER, and SU tended to decrease when a higher percentage of cows in the herd were trimmed. Finally, a bivariate model with a claw disorder and the trait "trimming status" was used, but heritabilities were similar. Heritability for trimming status was relatively high (0.09). Genetic correlations of trimming status with claw disorders were generally moderate to high. To conclude, the effect of selecting cows for trimming on the heritability for claw disorders is negligible. Selecting herds with a high fraction of cows being trimmed tended to decrease heritability. Trimming status, as such, is a heritable trait and correlated with claw disorders and is therefore an interesting trait to include in the genetic evaluation. PMID:23849633

van der Spek, D; van Arendonk, J A M; Vallée, A A A; Bovenhuis, H

2013-09-01

293

Does oxygen exposure time control the extent of organic matter decomposition in peatlands?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

extent of peat decomposition was investigated in four cores collected along a latitudinal gradient from 56°N to 66°N in the West Siberian Lowland. The acid:aldehyde ratios of lignin phenols were significantly higher in the two northern cores compared with the two southern cores, indicating peats at the northern sites were more highly decomposed. Yields of hydroxyproline, an amino acid found in plant structural glycoproteins, were also significantly higher in northern cores compared with southern cores. Hydroxyproline-rich glycoproteins are not synthesized by microbes and are generally less reactive than bulk plant carbon, so elevated yields indicated that northern cores were more extensively decomposed than the southern cores. The southern cores experienced warmer temperatures, but were less decomposed, indicating that temperature was not the primary control of peat decomposition. The plant community oscillated between Sphagnum and vascular plant dominance in the southern cores, but vegetation type did not appear to affect the extent of decomposition. Oxygen exposure time appeared to be the strongest control of the extent of peat decomposition. The northern cores had lower accumulation rates and drier conditions, so these peats were exposed to oxic conditions for a longer time before burial in the catotelm, where anoxic conditions prevail and rates of decomposition are generally lower by an order of magnitude.

Philben, Michael; Kaiser, Karl; Benner, Ronald

2014-05-01

294

A large new subset of TRIM genes highly diversified by duplication and positive selection in teleost fish  

PubMed Central

Background In mammals, the members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family are involved in various cellular processes including innate immunity against viral infection. Viruses exert strong selective pressures on the defense system. Accordingly, antiviral TRIMs have diversified highly through gene expansion, positive selection and alternative splicing. Characterizing immune TRIMs in other vertebrates may enlighten their complex evolution. Results We describe here a large new subfamily of TRIMs in teleosts, called finTRIMs, identified in rainbow trout as virus-induced transcripts. FinTRIMs are formed of nearly identical RING/B-box regions and C-termini of variable length; the long variants include a B30.2 domain. The zebrafish genome harbors a striking diversity of finTRIMs, with 84 genes distributed in clusters on different chromosomes. A phylogenetic analysis revealed different subsets suggesting lineage-specific diversification events. Accordingly, the number of fintrim genes varies greatly among fish species. Conserved syntenies were observed only for the oldest fintrims. The closest mammalian relatives are trim16 and trim25, but they are not true orthologs. The B30.2 domain of zebrafish finTRIMs evolved under strong positive selection. The positions under positive selection are remarkably congruent in finTRIMs and in mammalian antiviral TRIM5?, concentrated within a viral recognition motif in mammals. The B30.2 domains most closely related to finTRIM are found among NOD-like receptors (NLR), indicating that the evolution of TRIMs and NLRs was intertwined by exon shuffling. Conclusion The diversity, evolution, and features of finTRIMs suggest an important role in fish innate immunity; this would make them the first TRIMs involved in immunity identified outside mammals.

van der Aa, Lieke M; Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Yahmi, Malika; Lauret, Emilie; Briolat, Valerie; Herbomel, Philippe; Benmansour, Abdenour; Boudinot, Pierre

2009-01-01

295

From the Cover: Specific recognition and accelerated uncoating of retroviral capsids by the TRIM5 restriction factor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The host restriction factor TRIM5 mediates species-specific, early blocks to retrovirus infection; susceptibility to these blocks is determined by viral capsid sequences. Here we demonstrate that TRIM5 variants from Old World monkeys specifically associate with the HIV type 1 (HIV-1) capsid and that this interaction depends on the TRIM5 B30.2 domain. Human and New World monkey TRIM5 proteins associated less

Matthew Stremlau; Michel Perron; Mark Lee; Yuan Li; Byeongwoon Song; Hassan Javanbakht; Felipe Diaz-Griffero; Donovan J. Anderson; Wesley I. Sundquist; Joseph Sodroski

2006-01-01

296

In Silico Analysis of Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Human TRIM22 Gene.  

PubMed

Tripartite motif protein 22 (TRIM22) is an evolutionarily ancient protein that plays an integral role in the host innate immune response to viruses. The antiviral TRIM22 protein has been shown to inhibit the replication of a number of viruses, including HIV-1, hepatitis B, and influenza A. TRIM22 expression has also been associated with multiple sclerosis, cancer, and autoimmune disease. In this study, multiple in silico computational methods were used to identify non-synonymous or amino acid-changing SNPs (nsSNP) that are deleterious to TRIM22 structure and/or function. A sequence homology-based approach was adopted for screening nsSNPs in TRIM22, including six different in silico prediction algorithms and evolutionary conservation data from the ConSurf web server. In total, 14 high-risk nsSNPs were identified in TRIM22, most of which are located in a protein interaction module called the B30.2 domain. Additionally, 9 of the top high-risk nsSNPs altered the putative structure of TRIM22's B30.2 domain, particularly in the surface-exposed v2 and v3 regions. These same regions are critical for retroviral restriction by the closely-related TRIM5? protein. A number of putative structural and functional residues, including several sites that undergo post-translational modification, were also identified in TRIM22. This study is the first extensive in silico analysis of the highly polymorphic TRIM22 gene and will be a valuable resource for future targeted mechanistic and population-based studies. PMID:24983760

Kelly, Jenna N; Barr, Stephen D

2014-01-01

297

In Silico Analysis of Functional Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the Human TRIM22 Gene  

PubMed Central

Tripartite motif protein 22 (TRIM22) is an evolutionarily ancient protein that plays an integral role in the host innate immune response to viruses. The antiviral TRIM22 protein has been shown to inhibit the replication of a number of viruses, including HIV-1, hepatitis B, and influenza A. TRIM22 expression has also been associated with multiple sclerosis, cancer, and autoimmune disease. In this study, multiple in silico computational methods were used to identify non-synonymous or amino acid-changing SNPs (nsSNP) that are deleterious to TRIM22 structure and/or function. A sequence homology-based approach was adopted for screening nsSNPs in TRIM22, including six different in silico prediction algorithms and evolutionary conservation data from the ConSurf web server. In total, 14 high-risk nsSNPs were identified in TRIM22, most of which are located in a protein interaction module called the B30.2 domain. Additionally, 9 of the top high-risk nsSNPs altered the putative structure of TRIM22's B30.2 domain, particularly in the surface-exposed v2 and v3 regions. These same regions are critical for retroviral restriction by the closely-related TRIM5? protein. A number of putative structural and functional residues, including several sites that undergo post-translational modification, were also identified in TRIM22. This study is the first extensive in silico analysis of the highly polymorphic TRIM22 gene and will be a valuable resource for future targeted mechanistic and population-based studies.

Kelly, Jenna N.; Barr, Stephen D.

2014-01-01

298

Fates of retroviral core components during unrestricted and TRIM5-restricted infection.  

PubMed

TRIM5 proteins can restrict retroviral infection soon after delivery of the viral core into the cytoplasm. However, the molecular mechanisms by which TRIM5? inhibits infection have been elusive, in part due to the difficulty of developing and executing biochemical assays that examine this stage of the retroviral life cycle. Prevailing models suggest that TRIM5? causes premature disassembly of retroviral capsids and/or degradation of capsids by proteasomes, but whether one of these events leads to the other is unclear. Furthermore, how TRIM5? affects the essential components of the viral core, other than capsid, is unknown. To address these questions, we devised a biochemical assay in which the fate of multiple components of retroviral cores during infection can be determined. We utilized cells that can be efficiently infected by VSV-G-pseudotyped retroviruses, and fractionated the cytosolic proteins on linear gradients following synchronized infection. The fates of capsid and integrase proteins, as well as viral genomic RNA and reverse transcription products were then monitored. We found that components of MLV and HIV-1 cores formed a large complex under non-restrictive conditions. In contrast, when MLV infection was restricted by human TRIM5?, the integrase protein and reverse transcription products were lost from infected cells, while capsid and viral RNA were both solubilized. Similarly, when HIV-1 infection was restricted by rhesus TRIM5? or owl monkey TRIMCyp, the integrase protein and reverse transcription products were lost. However, viral RNA was also lost, and high levels of preexisting soluble CA prevented the determination of whether CA was solubilized. Notably, proteasome inhibition blocked all of the aforementioned biochemical consequences of TRIM5?-mediated restriction but had no effect on its antiviral potency. Together, our results show how TRIM5? affects various retroviral core components and indicate that proteasomes are required for TRIM5?-induced core disruption but not for TRIM5?-induced restriction. PMID:23505372

Kutluay, Sebla B; Perez-Caballero, David; Bieniasz, Paul D

2013-03-01

299

Controlled temperature expansion in oxygen production by molten alkali metal salts  

DOEpatents

A continuous process is set forth for the production of oxygen from an oxygen containing gas stream, such as air, by contacting a feed gas stream with a molten solution of an oxygen acceptor to oxidize the acceptor and cyclically regenerating the oxidized acceptor by releasing oxygen from the acceptor wherein the oxygen-depleted gas stream from the contact zone is treated sequentially to temperature reduction by heat exchange against the feed stream so as to condense out entrained oxygen acceptor for recycle to the process, combustion of the gas stream with fuel to elevate its temperature and expansion of the combusted high temperature gas stream in a turbine to recover power. 1 fig.

Erickson, D.C.

1985-06-04

300

A large new subset of TRIM genes highly diversified by duplication and positive selection in teleost fish  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In mammals, the members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family are involved in various cellular processes including innate immunity against viral infection. Viruses exert strong selective pressures on the defense system. Accordingly, antiviral TRIMs have diversified highly through gene expansion, positive selection and alternative splicing. Characterizing immune TRIMs in other vertebrates may enlighten their complex evolution. RESULTS: We

Lieke M van der Aa; Jean-Pierre Levraud; Malika Yahmi; Emilie Lauret; Valérie Briolat; Philippe Herbomel; Abdenour Benmansour; Pierre Boudinot

2009-01-01

301

Effects of Contamination, UV Radiation, and Atomic Oxygen on ISS Thermal Control Materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Thermal control surfaces on the International Space Station (ISS) have been tailored for optimum optical properties. The space environment, particularly contamination, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and atomic oxygen (AO) may have a detrimental effect on these optical properties. These effects must be quantified for modeling and planning. Also of interest was the effect of porosity on the reaction to simulated space environment. Five materials were chosen for this study based on their use on ISS. The thermal control materials were Z-93 white coating, silverized Teflon, chromic acid anodized aluminum, sulfuric acid anodized aluminum, and 7075-T6 aluminum. Some of the samples were exposed to RTV 560 silicone; others were exposed to Tefzel offgassing products. Two samples of Z-93 were not exposed to contamination as clean "controls". VUV radiation was used to photo-fix the contaminant to the material surface, then the samples were exposed to AO. All samples were exposed to 1000 equivalent sun-hours (ESH) of vacuum ultraviolet radiation (VUV) at the AZ Technology facility and a minimum of 1.5 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm of AO at Marshall Space Flight Center. Half of the samples were exposed to an additional 2000 ESH of VUV at Huntington Beach prior to sent to AZ Technology. Darkening of the Z-93 white coating was noted after VUV exposure. AO exposure did bleach the Z-93 but not back to its original brightness. Solar absorptance curves show the degradation due to contamination and VUV and the recovery with AO exposure. More bleaching was noted on the Tefzel-contaminated samples than with the RTV-contaminated samples.

Visentine, Jim; Finckenor, Miria; Zwiener, Jim; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

302

Kinetic control of oxygen consumption during contractions in self-perfused skeletal muscle  

PubMed Central

Abstract Fast kinetics of muscle oxygen consumption () is characteristic of effective physiological systems integration. The mechanism of kinetic control in vivo is equivocal as measurements are complicated by the twin difficulties of making high-frequency direct measurements of and intramuscular metabolites, and in attaining high [ADP]; complexities that can be overcome utilising highly aerobic canine muscle for the investigation of the transition from rest to contractions at maximal . Isometric tetanic contractions of the gastrocnemius complex of six anaesthetised, ventilated dogs were elicited via sciatic nerve stimulation (50 Hz; 200 ms duration; 1 contraction s?1). Muscle and lactate efflux were determined from direct Fick measurements. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest and every ?10 s during the transient and analysed for [phosphates], [lactate] and pH. The temporal vs.[PCr] and [ADP] relationships were not well fitted by linear or classical hyperbolic models (respectively), due to the high sensitivity of to metabolic perturbations early in the transient. The time course of this apparent sensitisation was closely aligned to that of ATP turnover, which was lower in the first ?25 s of contractions compared to the steady state. These findings provide the first direct measurements of skeletal muscle and [PCr] in the non-steady state, and suggest that simple phosphate feedback models (which are adequate for steady-state observations in vitro) are not sufficient to explain the dynamic control of in situ. Rather an allosteric or ‘parallel activation’ mechanism of energy consuming and producing processes is required to explain the kinetic control of in mammalian skeletal muscle.

Wust, Rob C I; Grassi, Bruno; Hogan, Michael C; Howlett, Richard A; Gladden, L Bruce; Rossiter, Harry B

2011-01-01

303

Control of body size by oxygen supply reveals size-dependent and size-independent mechanisms of molting and metamorphosis  

PubMed Central

Body size profoundly affects many aspects of animal biology, including metamorphosis, allometry, size-dependent alternative pathways of gene expression, and the social and ecological roles of individuals. However, regulation of body size is one of the fundamental unsolved problems in developmental biology. The control of body size requires a mechanism that assesses size and stops growth within a characteristic range of sizes. Under normal growth conditions in Manduca sexta, the endocrine cascade that causes the brain to initiate metamorphosis starts when the larva reaches a critical weight. Metamorphosis is initiated by a size-sensing mechanism, but the nature of this mechanism has remained elusive. Here we show that this size-sensing mechanism depends on the limited ability of a fixed tracheal system to sustain the oxygen supply to a growing individual. As body mass increases, the demand for oxygen also increases, but the fixed tracheal system does not allow a corresponding increase in oxygen supply. We show that interinstar molting has the same size-related oxygen-dependent mechanism of regulation as metamorphosis. We show that low oxygen tension induces molting at smaller body size, consistent with the hypothesis that under normal growth conditions, body size is regulated by a mechanism that senses oxygen limitation. We also found that under poor growth conditions, larvae may never attain the critical weight but eventually molt regardless. We show that under these conditions, larvae do not use the critical weight mechanism, but instead use a size-independent mechanism that is independent of the brain.

Callier, Viviane; Nijhout, H. Frederik

2011-01-01

304

What controls the variability of oxygen in the subpolar North Pacific?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dissolved oxygen is a widely observed chemical quantity in the oceans along with temperature and salinity. Changes in the dissolved oxygen have been observed over the world oceans. Observed oxygen in the Ocean Station Papa (OSP, 50°N, 145°W) in the Gulf of Alaska exhibits strong variability over interannual and decadal timescales, however, the mechanisms driving the observed variability are not yet fully understood. Furthermore, irregular sampling frequency and relatively short record length make it difficult to detect a low-frequency variability. Motivated by these observations, we investigate the mechanisms driving the low-frequency variability of oxygen in the subpolar North Pacific. The specific purposes of this study are (1) to evaluate the robustness of the observed low-frequency variability of dissolved oxygen and (2) to determine the mechanisms driving the observed variability using statistical data analysis and numerical simulations. To evaluate the robustness of the low-frequency variability, we conducted spectral analyses on the observed oxygen at OSP. To address the irregular sampling frequency we randomly sub-sampled the raw data to form 500 ensemble members with a regular time interval, and then performed spectral analyses. The resulting power spectrum of oxygen exhibits a robust low-frequency variability and a statistically significant spectral peak is identified at a timescale of 15--20 years. The wintertime oceanic barotropic streamfunction is significantly correlated with the observed oxygen anomaly at OSP with a north-south dipole structure over the North Pacific. We hypothesize that the observed low-frequency variability is primarily driven by the variability of large-scale ocean circulation in the North Pacific. To test this hypothesis, we simulate the three-dimensional distribution of oxygen anomaly between 1952 to 2001 using data-constrained circulation fields. The simulated oxygen anomaly shows an outstanding variability in the Gulf of Alaska, showing that this region is a hotspot of oxygen fluctuation. Anomalous advection acting on the climatological mean oxygen gradient is the source of oxygen variability in this simulation. Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analyses of the simulated oxygen show that the two dominant modes of the oxygen anomaly explains more than 50% of oxygen variance over the North Pacific, that are closely related to the dominant modes of climate variability in the North Pacific (Pacific Decadal Oscillation and North Pacific Oscillation). Our results imply the important link between large-scale climate fluctuations, ocean circulation and biogeochemical tracers in the North Pacific.

Takano, Yohei

305

Fnr Is Involved in Oxygen Control of Herbaspirillum seropedicae N-Truncated NifA Protein Activity in Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Herbaspirillum seropedicae is an endophytic diazotroph belonging to the -subclass of the class Proteobacteria, which colonizes many members of the Gramineae. The activity of the NifA protein, a transcriptional activator of nif genes in H. seropedicae, is controlled by ammonium ions through its N-terminal domain and by oxygen through mechanisms that are not well understood. Here we report that the

Rose A. Monteiro; Emanuel M. de Souza; M. Geoffrey Yates; Fabio O. Pedrosa; Leda S. Chubatsu

2003-01-01

306

Two useful dimensionless parameters that combine physiological, operational and bioreactor design parameters for improved control of dissolved oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new dimensionless parameters (F and O) are proposed for calculating the proportional, integral, and derivative constants of a dissolved oxygen proportional integral-derivative (PID) feed-back control algorithm from knowledge of the growth rate, bioreactor design and operation variables. The values of F and O were determined for a broad range of Reynolds numbers (between 1000 to 40 000) during the

A. De León; A. P. Barba-de la Rosa; H. Mayani; E. Galindo; O. T. Ramírez

2001-01-01

307

Trimming of a Migrated Biliary Nitinol Stent Using Argon Plasma  

PubMed Central

Metallic stent migration is a well-known complication which cannot always be managed by removal or repositioning, especially in case of uncovered stent. We report a patient who developed obstructive jaundice due to migration of an expandable metallic stent (EMS) inserted in the lower bile duct. Trimming of the EMS using argon plasma was performed, with the power setting of 60 W and 2.0 l/min of argon flow. The distal part of the EMS was removed and mechanical cleaning using balloon catheter was performed for remnant EMS. Without additional stent insertion, jaundice was relieved in a few days. No complication was recognized during the procedure and no recurrence of jaundice in the rest of his life.

Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Hasuike, Noriaki; Tanaka, Masaki; Takizawa, Kohei; Yamaguchi, Yuichiro; Ono, Hiroyuki

2009-01-01

308

Trimming of a Migrated Biliary Nitinol Stent Using Argon Plasma.  

PubMed

Metallic stent migration is a well-known complication which cannot always be managed by removal or repositioning, especially in case of uncovered stent. We report a patient who developed obstructive jaundice due to migration of an expandable metallic stent (EMS) inserted in the lower bile duct. Trimming of the EMS using argon plasma was performed, with the power setting of 60 W and 2.0 l/min of argon flow. The distal part of the EMS was removed and mechanical cleaning using balloon catheter was performed for remnant EMS. Without additional stent insertion, jaundice was relieved in a few days. No complication was recognized during the procedure and no recurrence of jaundice in the rest of his life. PMID:21103276

Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Hasuike, Noriaki; Tanaka, Masaki; Takizawa, Kohei; Yamaguchi, Yuichiro; Ono, Hiroyuki

2009-01-01

309

MSP Hormonal Control of the Oocyte MAP Kinase Cascade and Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling  

PubMed Central

The MSP domain is a conserved immunoglobulin-like structure that is important for C. elegans reproduction and human motor neuron survival. C. elegans MSPs are the most abundant proteins in sperm, where they function as intracellular cytoskeletal proteins and secreted hormones. Secreted MSPs bind to multiple receptors on oocyte and ovarian sheath cell surfaces to induce oocyte maturation and sheath contraction. MSP binding stimulates oocyte MPK-1 ERK MAP Kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation, but the function and mechanism are not well understood. Here we show that the Shp class protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTP-2 acts in oocytes downstream of sheath/oocyte gap junctions to promote MSP-induced MPK-1 phosphorylation. PTP-2 functions in the oocyte cytoplasm, not at the cell surface to inhibit multiple RasGAPs, resulting in sustained Ras activation. We also provide evidence that MSP promotes production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which act as second messengers to augment MPK-1 phosphorylation. The Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase SOD-1, an enzyme that catalyzes ROS breakdown in the cytoplasm, inhibits MPK-1 phosphorylation downstream of or in parallel to ptp-2. Our results support the model that MSP triggers PTP-2/Ras activation and ROS production to stimulate MPK-1 activity essential for oocyte maturation. We propose that secreted MSP domains and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutases function antagonistically to control ROS and MAPK signaling.

Yang, Youfeng; Han, Sung Min; Miller, Michael A.

2014-01-01

310

Controllable shrinking of inverted-pyramid silicon nanopore arrays by dry-oxygen oxidation.  

PubMed

A novel and simple technique for the controllable shrinkage of inverted-pyramid silicon (Si) nanopore arrays is reported. The Si nanopore arrays with sizes from 60 to 150 nm, made using a combination of dry and wet etching, were shrunk to sub 10 nm, or even closed, using direct dry-oxygen oxidation at 900?° C. The shrinkage process of the pyramidal nanopore induced by oxidation was carefully modeled and simulated. The simulation was found to be in good agreement with the experimental data within most of the oxidation time range. Using this method, square nanopore arrays with an average size of 30 nm, and rectangular nanopores and nanoslits with feature sizes as small as 8 nm, have been obtained. Furthermore, focused ion beam cutting experiments revealed that the inner structure of the nanopore after the shrinkage kept its typical inverted-pyramid shape, which is of importance in many fields such as biomolecular sensors and ionic analogs of electronic devices, as well as nanostencils for surface nano-patterning. PMID:24285505

Deng, Tao; Chen, Jian; Li, Mengwei; Wang, Yifan; Zhao, Chenxu; Zhang, Zhonghui; Liu, Zewen

2013-12-20

311

Controllable shrinking of inverted-pyramid silicon nanopore arrays by dry-oxygen oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel and simple technique for the controllable shrinkage of inverted-pyramid silicon (Si) nanopore arrays is reported. The Si nanopore arrays with sizes from 60 to 150 nm, made using a combination of dry and wet etching, were shrunk to sub 10 nm, or even closed, using direct dry-oxygen oxidation at 900?° C. The shrinkage process of the pyramidal nanopore induced by oxidation was carefully modeled and simulated. The simulation was found to be in good agreement with the experimental data within most of the oxidation time range. Using this method, square nanopore arrays with an average size of 30 nm, and rectangular nanopores and nanoslits with feature sizes as small as 8 nm, have been obtained. Furthermore, focused ion beam cutting experiments revealed that the inner structure of the nanopore after the shrinkage kept its typical inverted-pyramid shape, which is of importance in many fields such as biomolecular sensors and ionic analogs of electronic devices, as well as nanostencils for surface nano-patterning.

Deng, Tao; Chen, Jian; Li, Mengwei; Wang, Yifan; Zhao, Chenxu; Zhang, Zhonghui; Liu, Zewen

2013-12-01

312

Magnetically remote-controlled optical sensor spheres for monitoring oxygen or pH.  

PubMed

Magnetic sensor macrospheres (MagSeMacs), i.e., stainless steel spheres coated with optical chemical sensors, are presented as an alternative to existing optical sensor patches and fiber-optical dip-probes. Such spheres can either be reversibly attached to the tip of an optical fiber (dip-probe) or trapped inside a vessel for read-out through the side wall. Moving the magnetic separator at the exterior enables measurements at varying positions with a single sensor. Moreover, the sensor's replacement is rapid and contactless. We measured dissolved oxygen or pH in stirred liquids, rotating flasks, and 24-well plates with a SensorDish-reader device for parallel cell culture monitoring. In these applications, MagSeMacs proved to be advantageous over conventional sensor patches and magnetic optical sensor particles because of their magnetism, spherical shape, reflectance, and size. These properties resulted in strong but reversible fixation, magnetic remote-controllability, short response times, high signal intensities, and simplified handling. PMID:20121206

Mistlberger, Günter; Koren, Klaus; Borisov, Sergey M; Klimant, Ingo

2010-03-01

313

The control of root growth by reactive oxygen species in Salix nigra Marsh. seedlings.  

PubMed

The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in specific regions of Salix seedlings roots seems essential for the normal growth of this organ. We examined the role of different ROS in the control of root development in Salix nigra seedlings, and explored possible mechanisms involved in the regulation of ROS generation and action. Root growth was not significantly affected by OH quenchers, while it was either partially or completely inhibited in the presence of H?O? or O?·? scavengers, respectively. O?·? production was elevated in the root apex, particularly in the subapical meristem and protodermal zones. Apical O?·? generation activity was correlated to a high level of either Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase protein as well as carbonylated proteins. While NADPH-oxidase (NOX) was probably the main source of O?·? generation, the existence of other sources should not be discarded. O?·? production was also high in root hairs during budding, but it markedly decreased when the hair began to actively elongate. Root hair formation increased in the presence of H?O? scavengers, and was suppressed when H?O? or peroxidase inhibitors were supplied. The negative effect of H?O? was partially counteracted by a MAPKK inhibitor. Possible mechanisms of action of the different ROS in comparison with other plant model systems are discussed. PMID:22195594

Causin, Humberto F; Roqueiro, Gonzalo; Petrillo, Ezequiel; Láinez, Verónica; Pena, Liliana B; Marchetti, Cintia F; Gallego, Susana M; Maldonado, Sara I

2012-02-01

314

Whole cell respiration and nitrogenase activities in Azotobacter vinelandii growing in oxygen controlled continuous culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Azotobacter vinelandii strain OP was grown in continuous culture at various dissolved oxygen concentrations of air (100% air saturation of the medium=225 ±14 µM O2). Sucrose was added as carbon source and either dinitrogen or ammonia as nitrogen sources. Irrespective of the nitrogen source steady state cultures showed the following general responses with dissolved oxygen concentrations increasing from about 1%

E. Post; D. Kleiner; J. Oelze

1983-01-01

315

StreamingTrim 1.0: a Java software for dynamic trimming of 16S rRNA sequence data from metagenetic studies.  

PubMed

Next-generation sequencing technologies are extensively used in the field of molecular microbial ecology to describe taxonomic composition and to infer functionality of microbial communities. In particular, the so-called barcode or metagenetic applications that are based on PCR amplicon library sequencing are very popular at present. One of the problems, related to the utilization of the data of these libraries, is the analysis of reads quality and removal (trimming) of low-quality segments, while retaining sufficient information for subsequent analyses (e.g. taxonomic assignment). Here, we present StreamingTrim, a DNA reads trimming software, written in Java, with which researchers are able to analyse the quality of DNA sequences in fastq files and to search for low-quality zones in a very conservative way. This software has been developed with the aim to provide a tool capable of trimming amplicon library data, retaining as much as taxonomic information as possible. This software is equipped with a graphical user interface for a user-friendly usage. Moreover, from a computational point of view, StreamingTrim reads and analyses sequences one by one from an input fastq file, without keeping anything in memory, permitting to run the computation on a normal desktop PC or even a laptop. Trimmed sequences are saved in an output file, and a statistics summary is displayed that contains the mean and standard deviation of the length and quality of the whole sequence file. Compiled software, a manual and example data sets are available under the BSD-2-Clause License at the GitHub repository at https://github.com/GiBacci/StreamingTrim/. PMID:24128146

Bacci, G; Bazzicalupo, M; Benedetti, A; Mengoni, A

2014-03-01

316

A novel role for Gtb1p in glucose trimming of N-linked glycans  

PubMed Central

Glucosidase II (GluII) is a glycan-trimming enzyme active on nascent glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). It trims the middle and innermost glucose residues (Glc2 and Glc1) from N-linked glycans. The monoglucosylated glycan produced by the first GluII trimming reaction is recognized by calnexin/calreticulin and serves as the signal for entry into this folding pathway. GluII is a heterodimer of ? and ? subunits corresponding to yeast Gls2p and Gtb1p, respectively. While Gls2p contains the glucosyl hydrolase active site, the Gtb1p subunit has previously been shown to be essential for the Glc1 trimming event. Here we demonstrate that Gtb1p also determines the rate of Glc2 trimming. In order to further dissect these activities we mutagenized a number of conserved residues across the protein. Our data demonstrate that both the MRH and G2B domains of Gtb1p contribute to the Glc2 trimming event but that the MRH domain is essential for Glc1 trimming.

Quinn, Robert P; Mahoney, Sarah J; Wilkinson, Barrie M; Thornton, David J; Stirling, Colin J

2009-01-01

317

Autoantigen TRIM21/Ro52 as a Possible Target for Treatment of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus  

PubMed Central

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic, systemic, and autoimmune disease, whose etiology is still unknown. Although there has been progress in the treatment of SLE through the use of glucocorticoid and immunosuppressive drugs, these drugs have limited efficacy and pose significant risks of toxicity. Moreover, prognosis of patients with SLE has remained difficult to assess. TRIM21/Ro52/SS-A1, a 52-kDa protein, is an autoantigen recognized by antibodies in sera of patients with SLE and Sjögren's syndrome (SS), another systemic autoimmune disease, and anti-TRIM21 antibodies have been used as a diagnostic marker for decades. TRIM21 belongs to the tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) super family, which has been found to play important roles in innate and acquired immunity. Recently, TRIM21 has been shown to be involved in both physiological immune responses and pathological autoimmune processes. For example, TRIM21 ubiquitylates proteins of the interferon-regulatory factor (IRF) family and regulates type I interferon and proinflammatory cytokines. In this paper, we summarize molecular features of TRIM21 revealed so far and discuss its potential as an attractive therapeutic target for SLE.

Yoshimi, Ryusuke; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki; Ozato, Keiko

2012-01-01

318

Rhesus monkey TRIM5? has distinct HIV-1 restriction activity among different mammalian cell lines.  

PubMed

Rhesus monkey TRIM5? (TRIM5?(rh)), a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family, was identified as the main restriction factor responsible for resistance of old world monkey cells to HIV-1 infection. However, the precise mechanism of HIV-1 infection inhibition by TRIM5? remains elusive and appears to be related to some cellular cofactors. Here we reported that TRIM5?(rh) can significantly reduce the infection efficiency of VSV-G pseudotyped HIV-1/MA-YFP virus in human epithelial carcinoma (HeLa) cells, moderately reduce in porcine kidney (PK-15) cells and have no effect on the pseudotyped virus infection in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. Furthermore, we found that the different HIV-1 restriction activities have no relation with the intracellular localization of TRIM5?(rh). These results indicate that the cellular environment is very important for the efficient anti-HIV-1 activity of TRIM5?(rh). We speculate that some unknown factors required for HIV-1 infection inhibition activity are adequately expressed in HeLa cells, inadequately expressed in PK-15 cells and absent in MDCK cells. PMID:21947260

Gong, Jian; Shen, Xi-Hui; Qiu, Hui; Chen, Chao; Yang, Rong-Ge

2011-12-01

319

Trim11 increases expression of dopamine beta-hydroxylase gene by interacting with Phox2b.  

PubMed

The homeodomain transcription factor Phox2b is one of the key determinants involved in the development of noradrenergic (NA) neurons in both the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Using yeast two-hybrid screening, we isolated a Phox2b interacting protein, Trim11, which belongs to TRIM (Tripartite motif) or RBCC proteins family, and contains a RING domain, B-boxes, a coiled-coil domain, and the B30.2/SPRY domain. Protein-protein interaction assays showed that Phox2b was able to physically interact with Trim11. The B30.2/SPRY domain of Trim11 was required for the interaction with Phox2b. Expression of Phox2b and Trim11 was detected in the sympathetic ganglia (SG) of mouse embryos. Forced expression of Trim11 with Phox2b further increased mRNA levels of dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) gene in primary avian neural crest stem cell (NCSC) culture. This study suggests a potential role for Trim11 in the specification of NA phenotype by interaction with Phox2b. PMID:18275850

Hong, Seok Jong; Chae, Han; Lardaro, Thomas; Hong, Sunghoi; Kim, Kwang-Soo

2008-04-11

320

TRIM11 negatively regulates IFN? production and antiviral activity by targeting TBK1.  

PubMed

The innate immune response is a host defense mechanism against infection by viruses and bacteria. Type I interferons (IFN?/?) play a crucial role in innate immunity. If not tightly regulated under normal conditions and during immune responses, IFN production can become aberrant, leading to inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In this study, we identified TRIM11 (tripartite motif containing 11) as a novel negative regulator of IFN? production. Ectopic expression of TRIM11 decreased IFN? promoter activity induced by poly (I:C) stimulation or overexpression of RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I) signaling cascade components RIG-IN (constitutively active form of RIG-I), MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein), or TBK1 (TANK-binding kinase-1). Conversely, TRIM11 knockdown enhanced IFN? promoter activity induced by these stimuli. Moreover, TRIM11 overexpression inhibited the phosphorylation and dimerization of IRF3 and expression of IFN? mRNA. By contrast, TRIM11 knockdown increased the IRF3 phosphorylation and IFN? mRNA expression. We also found that TRIM11 and TBK1, a key kinase that phosphorylates IRF3 in the RIG-I pathway, interacted with each other through CC and CC2 domain, respectively. This interaction was enhanced in the presence of the TBK1 adaptor proteins, NAP1 (NF-?B activating kinase-associated protein-1), SINTBAD (similar to NAP1 TBK1 adaptor) or TANK (TRAF family member-associated NF-?B activator). Consistent with its inhibitory role in RIG-I-mediated IFN? signaling, TRIM11 overexpression enhanced viral infectivity, whereas TRIM11 knockdown produced the opposite effect. Collectively, our results suggest that TRIM11 inhibits RIG-I-mediated IFN? production by targeting the TBK1 signaling complex. PMID:23675467

Lee, Younglang; Song, Byeongwoon; Park, Chankyu; Kwon, Ki-Sun

2013-01-01

321

Rhesus TRIM5? disrupts the HIV-1 capsid at the inter-hexamer interfaces.  

PubMed

TRIM proteins play important roles in the innate immune defense against retroviral infection, including human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). Rhesus macaque TRIM5? (TRIM5?(rh)) targets the HIV-1 capsid and blocks infection at an early post-entry stage, prior to reverse transcription. Studies have shown that binding of TRIM5? to the assembled capsid is essential for restriction and requires the coiled-coil and B30.2/SPRY domains, but the molecular mechanism of restriction is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated, by cryoEM combined with mutagenesis and chemical cross-linking, the direct interactions between HIV-1 capsid protein (CA) assemblies and purified TRIM5?(rh) containing coiled-coil and SPRY domains (CC-SPRY(rh)). Concentration-dependent binding of CC-SPRY(rh) to CA assemblies was observed, while under equivalent conditions the human protein did not bind. Importantly, CC-SPRY(rh), but not its human counterpart, disrupted CA tubes in a non-random fashion, releasing fragments of protofilaments consisting of CA hexamers without dissociation into monomers. Furthermore, such structural destruction was prevented by inter-hexamer crosslinking using P207C/T216C mutant CA with disulfide bonds at the CTD-CTD trimer interface of capsid assemblies, but not by intra-hexamer crosslinking via A14C/E45C at the NTD-NTD interface. The same disruption effect by TRIM5?(rh) on the inter-hexamer interfaces also occurred with purified intact HIV-1 cores. These results provide insights concerning how TRIM5? disrupts the virion core and demonstrate that structural damage of the viral capsid by TRIM5? is likely one of the important components of the mechanism of TRIM5?-mediated HIV-1 restriction. PMID:21455494

Zhao, Gongpu; Ke, Danxia; Vu, Thomas; Ahn, Jinwoo; Shah, Vaibhav B; Yang, Ruifeng; Aiken, Christopher; Charlton, Lisa M; Gronenborn, Angela M; Zhang, Peijun

2011-03-01

322

Proposed fast-response oxygen monitoring and control system for the Langley 8-foot high-temperature tunnel  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fast-response oxygen monitoring and control system, based on a Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 sensor, was developed and tested in the laboratory. The system is capable of maintaining oxygen concentration in the CH4-O2-air combustion product gases at 20.9 + or - 1.0 percent. If the oxygen concentration in the exhaust stream differs from that in normal air by 25 percent or more, an alarm signal is provided for automatic tunnel shutdown. The overall prototype system response time was reduced from about 1 sec in the original configuration to about 0.2 sec. The basis of operation and the results of laboratory tests of the system are described.

Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Puster, R. L.

1983-01-01

323

Fnr is involved in oxygen control of Herbaspirillum seropedicae N-truncated NifA protein activity in Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

Herbaspirillum seropedicae is an endophytic diazotroph belonging to the beta-subclass of the class Proteobacteria, which colonizes many members of the Gramineae. The activity of the NifA protein, a transcriptional activator of nif genes in H. seropedicae, is controlled by ammonium ions through its N-terminal domain and by oxygen through mechanisms that are not well understood. Here we report that the NifA protein of H. seropedicae is inactive and more susceptible to degradation in an fnr Escherichia coli background. Both effects correlate with oxygen exposure and iron deprivation. Our results suggest that the oxygen sensitivity and iron requirement for H. seropedicae NifA activity involve the Fnr protein. PMID:12620839

Monteiro, Rose A; de Souza, Emanuel M; Yates, M Geoffrey; Pedrosa, Fabio O; Chubatsu, Leda S

2003-03-01

324

Proposed fast-response oxygen monitoring and control system for the Langley 8-foot high-temperature tunnel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fast-response oxygen monitoring and control system, based on a Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 sensor, was developed and tested in the laboratory. The system is capable of maintaining oxygen concentration in the CH4-O2-air combustion product gases at 20.9 + or - 1.0 percent. If the oxygen concentration in the exhaust stream differs from that in normal air by 25 percent or more, an alarm signal is provided for automatic tunnel shutdown. The overall prototype system response time was reduced from about 1 sec in the original configuration to about 0.2 sec. The basis of operation and the results of laboratory tests of the system are described.

Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Puster, R. L.

1983-11-01

325

Nifedipine improves blood flow and oxygen supply, but not steady-state oxygenation of tumours in perfusion pressure-controlled isolated limb perfusion  

PubMed Central

Isolated limb perfusion allows the direct application of therapeutic agents to a tumour-bearing extremity. The present study investigated whether the dihydropyridine-type Ca2+-channel blocker nifedipine could improve blood flow and oxygenation status of experimental tumours during isolated limb perfusion. Perfusion was performed by cannulation of the femoral artery and vein in rats bearing DS-sarcoma on the hind foot dorsum. Perfusion rate was adjusted to maintain a perfusion pressure of 100–140?mmHg throughout the experiment. Following equilibration, nifedipine was continuously infused for 30?min (8.3??g min?1?kg?1 BW). During constant-pressure isolated limb perfusion, nifedipine can significantly increase perfusion rate (+100%) and RBC flux (+60%) through experimental leg tumours. ‘Steal phenomena’ in favour of the surrounding normal tissue and oedema formation were not observed. Despite the increased oxygen availability (+63%) seen upon application of this calcium channel blocker, nifedipine does not result in a substantial reduction of tumour hypoxia, most probably due to an increase in O2 uptake with rising O2 supply to the tumour-bearing hind limb. Nifedipine application during isolated limb perfusion can enhance tumour microcirculation and may therefore promote the delivery (pharmacokinetics) of anti-cancer drugs to the tumour and by this improve the efficacy of pressure-controlled isolated limb perfusion. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 1462–1469. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600611 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK

Thews, O; Hummel, M; Kelleher, D K; Lecher, B; Vaupel, P

2002-01-01

326

Nifedipine improves blood flow and oxygen supply, but not steady-state oxygenation of tumours in perfusion pressure-controlled isolated limb perfusion.  

PubMed

Isolated limb perfusion allows the direct application of therapeutic agents to a tumour-bearing extremity. The present study investigated whether the dihydropyridine-type Ca(2+)-channel blocker nifedipine could improve blood flow and oxygenation status of experimental tumours during isolated limb perfusion. Perfusion was performed by cannulation of the femoral artery and vein in rats bearing DS-sarcoma on the hind foot dorsum. Perfusion rate was adjusted to maintain a perfusion pressure of 100-140 mmHg throughout the experiment. Following equilibration, nifedipine was continuously infused for 30 min (8.3 microg min(-1) kg(-1) BW). During constant-pressure isolated limb perfusion, nifedipine can significantly increase perfusion rate (+100%) and RBC flux (+60%) through experimental leg tumours. "Steal phenomena" in favour of the surrounding normal tissue and oedema formation were not observed. Despite the increased oxygen availability (+63%) seen upon application of this calcium channel blocker, nifedipine does not result in a substantial reduction of tumour hypoxia, most probably due to an increase in O(2) uptake with rising O(2) supply to the tumour-bearing hind limb. Nifedipine application during isolated limb perfusion can enhance tumour microcirculation and may therefore promote the delivery (pharmacokinetics) of anti-cancer drugs to the tumour and by this improve the efficacy of pressure-controlled isolated limb perfusion. PMID:12454778

Thews, O; Hummel, M; Kelleher, D K; Lecher, B; Vaupel, P

2002-12-01

327

Effects of temperature and molecular oxygen on the use of atmospheric pressure plasma as a novel method for insect control.  

PubMed

Helium atmospheric pressure plasma discharge (APPD) was previously shown to have insecticidal activity with a possible site of action on the insect nervous, neuromuscular system, or both. In the current study, methods to increase the insecticidal activity of plasma by using increased APPD temperature and the introduction of molecular oxygen were investigated for the first time. An increase in the helium plasma temperature from 37 to 50 degrees C increased the insecticidal activity of plasma for the control of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.); western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande); and citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso). This increase in activity could not be explained by the increase in air temperature alone, and it suggests that the enhanced insecticidal activity resulted from increased ionization of the APPD and ion bombardment of the insect. Emission spectroscopy showed that the introduction of 0.5% oxygen into helium plasma produced ionic molecular oxygen at 559.7 and 597.3 nm. The introduction of oxygen to the APPD greatly increased the insecticidal activity of plasma for the citrus mealybug but not the German cockroach or western flower thrips. For the mealybug as an example, the mortality of a 60-s exposure of 37 degrees C helium plasma was 0% at 1 h after exposure and 100% under the same conditions after the introduction of oxygen. It seems that increases in temperature and the introduction of oxygen even at low levels can increase the insecticidal activity of plasma to varying degrees depending on the insect species. The symptomology of cockroach death for both hot plasma and plasma containing trace amounts of molecular oxygen continued to suggest that the site of action of APPD is the insect nervous system, neuromuscular system, or both. PMID:18459392

Donohue, Kevin V; Bures, Brian L; Bourham, Mohamed A; Roe, R Michael

2008-04-01

328

Enhancement of the efficiency and control of emission parameters of an unstable-resonator chemical oxygen-iodine laser  

SciTech Connect

The outlook is considered for the development of a high-power supersonic flowing chemical oxygen-iodine laser operating as an amplifier and controlled by radiation from a master oscillator by using an unstable resonator with a hole-coupled mirror. The influence of the seed radiation intensity, the coupling-hole diameter, the active-medium length, and the magnification factor on the parameters of laser radiation is analysed. It is shown that the use of such resonators is most advisable in medium-power oxygen-iodine lasers for which classical unstable resonators are inefficient because of their low magnification factors. The use of unstable resonators with a hole-coupled mirror and injection provides the control of radiation parameters and a considerable increase in the output power and brightness of laser radiation. (control of laser radiation parameters)

Boreisho, A S; Lobachev, V V; Savin, A V; Strakhov, S Yu; Trilis, A V [Institute of Laser Instruments and Technologies, D F Ustinov 'VOENMEKh' Baltic State Technical University, St Petersburg (Russian Federation)

2007-07-31

329

Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of the Aspergillus fumigatus hypoxia response using an oxygen-controlled fermenter  

PubMed Central

Background Aspergillus fumigatus is a mold responsible for the majority of cases of aspergillosis in humans. To survive in the human body, A. fumigatus must adapt to microenvironments that are often characterized by low nutrient and oxygen availability. Recent research suggests that the ability of A. fumigatus and other pathogenic fungi to adapt to hypoxia contributes to their virulence. However, molecular mechanisms of A. fumigatus hypoxia adaptation are poorly understood. Thus, to better understand how A. fumigatus adapts to hypoxic microenvironments found in vivo during human fungal pathogenesis, the dynamic changes of the fungal transcriptome and proteome in hypoxia were investigated over a period of 24 hours utilizing an oxygen-controlled fermenter system. Results Significant increases in transcripts associated with iron and sterol metabolism, the cell wall, the GABA shunt, and transcriptional regulators were observed in response to hypoxia. A concomitant reduction in transcripts was observed with ribosome and terpenoid backbone biosynthesis, TCA cycle, amino acid metabolism and RNA degradation. Analysis of changes in transcription factor mRNA abundance shows that hypoxia induces significant positive and negative changes that may be important for regulating the hypoxia response in this pathogenic mold. Growth in hypoxia resulted in changes in the protein levels of several glycolytic enzymes, but these changes were not always reflected by the corresponding transcriptional profiling data. However, a good correlation overall (R2 = 0.2, p < 0.05) existed between the transcriptomic and proteomics datasets for all time points. The lack of correlation between some transcript levels and their subsequent protein levels suggests another regulatory layer of the hypoxia response in A. fumigatus. Conclusions Taken together, our data suggest a robust cellular response that is likely regulated both at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level in response to hypoxia by the human pathogenic mold A. fumigatus. As with other pathogenic fungi, the induction of glycolysis and transcriptional down-regulation of the TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation appear to major components of the hypoxia response in this pathogenic mold. In addition, a significant induction of the transcripts involved in ergosterol biosynthesis is consistent with previous observations in the pathogenic yeasts Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans indicating conservation of this response to hypoxia in pathogenic fungi. Because ergosterol biosynthesis enzymes also require iron as a co-factor, the increase in iron uptake transcripts is consistent with an increased need for iron under hypoxia. However, unlike C. albicans and C. neoformans, the GABA shunt appears to play an important role in reducing NADH levels in response to hypoxia in A. fumigatus and it will be intriguing to determine whether this is critical for fungal virulence. Overall, regulatory mechanisms of the A. fumigatus hypoxia response appear to involve both transcriptional and post-transcriptional control of transcript and protein levels and thus provide candidate genes for future analysis of their role in hypoxia adaptation and fungal virulence.

2012-01-01

330

Two-year experience with rate-modulated pacing controlled by mixed venous oxygen saturation.  

PubMed

Mixed venous oxy-hemoglobin saturation (MVO2) is a physiological variable with several features that might be desirable as a control parameter for rate adaptive pacing. Despite these desirable characteristics, the long-term reliability of the MVO2 sensor in vivo is uncertain. We, therefore, designed a study to prospectively evaluate the long-term performance of a permanently implanted MVO2 saturation sensor in patients requiring VVIR pacing. Under an FDA approved feasibility study, eight patients were implanted with a VVIR pulse generator and a right ventricular pacing lead incorporating an MVO2 sensor. In order to accurately assess long-term stability of the sensor, patients underwent submaximal treadmill exercise using the Chronotropic Assessment Exercise Protocol (CAEP) at 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, and 24 months following pacemaker implantation. Paired maximal exercise testing using the CAEP was also performed with the pacing system programmed to the VVI and VVIR modes in randomized sequence with measurement of expired gas exchange after 6 weeks and 12 months of follow-up. During maximal treadmill exercise the peak exercise heart rate (132 +/- 9 vs 71.5 +/- 5 beats/min, P < 0.00001) and maximal rate of oxygen consumption (1,704 +/- 633 vs 1382 +/- 407 mL/min, P = 0.01) were significantly greater in the VVIR than in the VVI pacing mode. Similarly, the duration of exercise was greater in the VVIR than the VVI pacing mode (8.9 +/- 3.6 min vs 7.6 +/- 3.7 min, P = 0.04). The resting MVO2 and the MVO2 at peak exercise were similar in the VVI and VVIR pacing modes (P = NS). However, the MVO2 at each comparable treadmill exercise stage was significantly higher in the VVIR mode than in the VVI mode (CAEP stage 1 (P = 0.005), stage 2 (P = 0.04), stage 3 (P = 0.008), and stage 4 (P = 0.04). The correlation between MVO2 and oxygen consumption (VO2) was excellent (r = -0.93). Telemetry of the reflectance of red and infrared light and MVO2 in the right ventricle during identical exercise workloads revealed no significant change over the first 12 months of follow-up (ANOVA, P = NS). The chronotropic response to exercise remained proportional to VO2 in all patients over the first 12 months of follow-up. The time course of change in MVO2 during maximal exercise was significantly faster than for VO2. At the 18- and 24-month follow-up exercise tests, a significant deterioration of the sensor signal with attenuation of chronotropic response was noted for 4 of the 8 subjects with replacement of the pacing system required in one patient because of lack of appropriate rate modulation. Rate modulated VVIR pacing controlled by right ventricular MVO2 provides a chronotropic response that is highly correlated with VO2. This parameter responds rapidly to changes in workload with kinetics that are more rapid than those of VO2. Appropriate rate modulation provides a higher MVO2 at identical workloads than does VVI pacing. Although the MVO2 sensor remains stable and accurate over the first year following implantation, significant deterioration of the signal occurs by 18-24 months in many patients. PMID:9670183

Windecker, S; Bubien, R S; Halperin, L; Moore, A; Kay, G N

1998-07-01

331

Electrochemical tuning of oxygen-containing groups on graphene oxides: towards control of the performance for the analysis of biomarkers.  

PubMed

Graphene materials are very popular in the field of biosensing owing to their distinctive characteristics. However, oxygen-containing groups are known to exist intrinsically in graphene-related materials. These groups influence the electrochemical properties of graphene materials and therefore affect the sensing performance of graphene-based electrodes when used to detect redox active biomarkers. A well-defined carbon/oxygen (C/O) ratio can be obtained upon applying different reduction potentials to graphene oxide (GO) films for a controlled removal of redox active oxygen functionalities. Here, we show that a precise control of the oxygen functionalities on the graphene oxide films allows the tuning of the biosensing capabilities of the electrodes for the analysis of two significant biomarkers, uric acid and ascorbic acid, as well as two DNA bases, guanine and adenine. Both the catalytic properties and the sensitivity of the reduced GO film electrodes (ERGOs) are evaluated by measuring the oxidation potential and the peak current, respectively. We demonstrate that each biomarker requires different optimal conditions which can be easily matched by varying the electrochemical pre-treatment of the sensing GO film. PMID:24817612

Lim, Chee Shan; Ambrosi, Adriano; Pumera, Martin

2014-05-28

332

Oxygen Isotope in Phosphate an Indicator of Phosphorous Cycling in the Ocean - Controls, and Applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to better constrain the parameters affecting oxygen isotope exchange between water and phosphate via biochemical reactions a set of culture experiments were conducted. Different species of phytoplankton were grown in seawater at various temperatures, light levels, and phosphate concentrations. The oxygen isotopic composition in the phosphate source, algal cells, and the isotopic composition oxygen in the dissolved inorganic phosphate (DIP) were measured. Results showing the effect of species, temperature, light and P availability on intracellular oxygen isotope exchange between phosphorus compounds and water will be presented. The effect of these parameters on the utility of the oxygen isotopic composition of phosphate as a tracer of phosphate utilization rate in the ocean will be discussed. This information is fundamental to any application of isotopic composition of oxygen of dissolved inorganic or organic phosphate to quantify the dynamics of phosphorus cycling in aquatic systems. The data will be utilized to investigate seasonal changes in phosphate sources and cycling in the open ocean and how these relate to phytoplankton abundance, hydrography, and nutrient concentrations.

Paytan, A.; Roberts, K.; Defforey, D.; McLaughlin, K.; Lomas, M. W.; Church, M. J.; Mackey, K. R.

2012-12-01

333

The genetic control of avascular area in mouse oxygen-induced retinopathy  

PubMed Central

Purpose The C57BL/6ByJ and BALB/cByJ inbred strains of mice are, respectively, susceptible and resistant to oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). The purpose of this work was to investigate the genetic control of the retinal avascular area in mouse OIR using a mapping cross. Methods The central retinal avascular area was measured on postnatal day 16 (P16) in C57BL/6ByJ, BALB/cByJ, 101 (C57BL/6ByJ x BALB/cByJ)F2, and 116 (BALB/cByJ x C57BL/6ByJ)F2 mice that had been subjected to the OIR protocol. A genome-wide scan was performed of selected albino and non-albino mice to determine quantitative trait loci associated with weight and avascular area. Results C57BL/6ByJ mice had significantly larger avascular areas than BALB/cByJ ones. Albino mice of the F2 generation had smaller avascular areas than the non-albino mice. Genotyping was performed at 856 informative single nucleotide polymorphisms approximately evenly distributed across the genome from each of 85 selected F2 mice. Weight, sex, and the paternal grandmother were found to act as additive covariates associated with the avascular area on P16; mapping analyses that used a model incorporating these covariates found a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 7 related to avascular area. Mapping analyses that used a model that did not incorporate covariates found a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 9 related to avascular area. A quantitative trait locus for bodyweight on P16 was mapped to chromosome 5. Conclusions The retinal avascular area in the mouse OIR model is under genetic control. Revascularization in OIR is related to the weight, strain of paternal grandmother, sex, and albinism. Our data support the existence of a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 5 that influences weight after exposure to hyperoxia, as well as quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 7 and 9 that modify susceptibility to OIR.

O'Bryhim, Bliss E.; Radel, Jeff; Macdonald, Stuart J.

2012-01-01

334

Magnetic design of trim excitations for the advanced light source storage ring sextupole.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring sextupole is a unique multi-purpose magnet. It is designed to operate as a sextupole with three auxiliary trim modes: horizontal steering, vertical steering, and skew quadrupole. A perturbation theory for iron-...

S. Marks

1995-01-01

335

Restriction factors of retroviral replication: the example of Tripartite Motif (TRIM) protein 5 alpha and 22.  

PubMed

Viral tropism, replication, and pathogenesis are determined by multiple interactions between the pathogen and the host. In the case of retroviruses, and in particular, the human immunodeficiency virus, the specific interaction of the envelope protein with the host receptors and co-receptors is essential to gain entry in the cells. After entry, the success of retroviruses to complete their life cycle depends on a complex interplay between the virus and host proteins. Indeed, the cell environment is endowed with a number of factors that actively block distinct stage(s) in the microbial life cycle. Among these restriction factors, Tripartite Motif-5 alpha (TRIM5 alpha) has been extensively studied; however, other TRIM family members have been demonstrated to be anti-retroviral effector proteins. This article reviews, in particular, the current knowledge on the anti-retroviral effects of TRIM5 alpha and TRIM22. PMID:19943174

Kajaste-Rudnitski, Anna; Pultrone, Cinzia; Marzetta, Flavia; Ghezzi, Silvia; Coradin, Tiziana; Vicenzi, Elisa

2010-06-01

336

Concerted peptide trimming by human ERAP1 and ERAP2 aminopeptidase complexes in the endoplasmic reticulum.  

PubMed

The generation of many HLA class I peptides entails a final trimming step in the endoplasmic reticulum that, in humans, is accomplished by two 'candidate' aminopeptidases. We show here that one of these, ERAP1, was unable to remove several N-terminal amino acids that were trimmed efficiently by the second enzyme, ERAP2. This trimming of a longer peptide required the concerted action of both ERAP1 and ERAP2, both for in vitro digestion and in vivo for cellular antigen presentation. ERAP1 and ERAP2 localized together in vivo and associated physically in complexes that were most likely heterodimeric. Thus, the human endoplasmic reticulum is equipped with a pair of trimming aminopeptidases that have complementary functions in HLA class I peptide presentation. PMID:15908954

Saveanu, Loredana; Carroll, Oliver; Lindo, Vivian; Del Val, Margarita; Lopez, Daniel; Lepelletier, Yves; Greer, Fiona; Schomburg, Lutz; Fruci, Doriana; Niedermann, Gabriele; van Endert, Peter M

2005-07-01

337

Modelling of feather pecking behavior in beak-trimmed and non-beak-trimmed crossbred laying hens: variance component and trait-based approach.  

PubMed

Because of a ban on the use of beak trimming in some European countries, feather pecking is becoming a substantial problem in the layer industry, both from animal welfare and economic points of view. The feather condition score (FCS) as a measure of feather damage has been shown to be closely related to feather pecking behavior in laying hens housed in groups. To obtain a better understanding of genetic and other biological mechanisms underlying feather pecking behavior, data on FCS of a population of 2,724 female offspring from crossing 50 male W1 and 907 female WB purebred lines were used. The offspring of 25 sires were beak-trimmed, and the offspring of another 25 sires were non-beak-trimmed. Titers of plasma natural antibody (NAb) isotypes IgM and IgG binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin at 24 wk of age were measured. Feather condition was scored at 53 wk of age. In the first part of the present study, we estimated genetic parameters for FCS with 2 variance components models: a traditional linear animal model and a model combining direct and associative genetic effects. In the second part of the present study, a trait-based analysis for FCS was conducted to investigate whether NAb isotype titers can explain variation in FCS among individuals, by fitting a linear mixed model. Though the estimated associative genetic variance was substantial, associative effects for FCS were not statistically significant in both populations (P = 0.09 in beak-trimmed birds, and P = 0.08 in non-beak-trimmed birds). This suggests an insufficient number of records on FCS. Individual's NAb isotypes titers did not show direct effect for FCS of itself, but individual's IgG titers showed a suggestive effect on the FCS of cage mates (associative effect) in beak-trimmed laying hens, which need further confirmation. PMID:24706953

Sun, Y; Ellen, E D; van der Poel, J J; Parmentier, H K; Bijma, P

2014-04-01

338

High level of susceptibility to human TRIM5? conferred by HIV-2 capsid sequences  

PubMed Central

Background HIV-2, which was transmitted to humans from a distant primate species (sooty mangabey), differs remarkably from HIV-1 in its infectivity, transmissibility and pathogenicity. We have tested the possibility that a greater susceptibility of HIV-2 capsid (CA) to the human restriction factor TRIM5? (hTRIM5?) could contribute to these differences. Results We constructed recombinant clones expressing CA from a variety of HIV-2 viruses in the context of HIV-1 NL4-3-luciferase. CA sequences were amplified from the plasma of HIV-2 infected patients, including 8 subtype A and 7 subtype B viruses. CA from 6 non-epidemic HIV-2 subtypes, 3 HIV-2 CRF01_AB recombinants and 4 SIVsmm viruses were also tested. Susceptibility to hTRIM5? was measured by comparing single-cycle infectivity in human target cells expressing hTRIM5? to that measured in cells in which hTRIM5? activity was inhibited by overexpression of hTRIM5?. The insertion of HIV-2 CA sequences in the context of HIV-1 did not affect expression and maturation of the HIV-2 CA protein. The level of susceptibility hTRIM5? expressed by viruses carrying HIV-2 CA sequences was up to 9-fold higher than that of HIV-1 NL4-3 and markedly higher than a panel of primary HIV-1 CA sequences. This phenotype was found both for viruses carrying CA from primary HIV-2 sequences and viruses carrying CA from laboratory-adapted HIV-2 clones. High hTRIM5? susceptibility was found in all HIV-2 subtypes. In this series of viruses, susceptibility to hTRIM5? was not significantly affected by the presence of a proline at position 119 or by the number of prolines at positions 119, 159 or 178 in HIV-2 CA. No significant correlation was found between HIV-2 viremia and sensitivity to hTRIM5?. Conclusions HIV-2 capsid sequences expressed high levels of susceptibility to hTRIM5?. This property, common to all HIV-2 sequences tested, may contribute in part to the lower replication and pathogenicity of this virus in humans.

2013-01-01

339

Terminal repeat retrotransposon in miniature (TRIM) as DNA markers in Brassica relatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a display system using a unique sequence of terminal repeat retrotransposon in miniature (TRIM) elements,\\u000a which were recently identified from gene-rich regions of Brassica rapa. The technique, named TRIM display, is based on modification of the AFLP technique using an adapter primer for the restriction\\u000a fragments of BfaI and a primer derived from conserved terminal repeat sequences

Soo-Jin Kwon; Dong-Hyun Kim; Myung-Ho Lim; Yan Long; Jin-Ling Meng; Ki-Byung Lim; Jin-A Kim; Jung Sun Kim; Mina Jin; Ho-Il Kim; Sang-Nag Ahn; Susan R. Wessler; Tae-Jin Yang; Beom-Seok Park

2007-01-01

340

Integrated Circuit Trimming Technique for Offset Reduction in a Precision CMOS Amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an application of a recently reported IC trimming technique using laser diffused resistors to reduce the input referred offset voltage of a precision amplifier. A three stage precision CMOS operational amplifier topology is proposed utilizing laser-trimmable diffused resistors for post-fabrication trimming. The amplifier is designed to operate over an industrial temperature range (-40degC to +85degC) including process

Rahul Singh; Yves Audet; Yves Gagnon; Yvon Savaria

2007-01-01

341

Uniform CLT, WLLN, LIL and bootstrapping in a data analytic approach to trimmed L-statistics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Suppose the score function J and its approximation Jn satisfy very mild conditions, and let dK = J dF?1 define K. Then a necessary and sufficient condition for asymptotic normality of the normalized trimmed L-statistic Tn, which places no other restriction on the numbers kn and k?n of trimmed observations, is given. In the untrimmed case the condition reduces to

Galen R. Shorack

1997-01-01

342

Influence of perioperative oxygen fraction on pulmonary function after abdominal surgery: a randomized controlled trial  

PubMed Central

Background A high perioperative inspiratory oxygen fraction (FiO2) may reduce the frequency of surgical site infection. Perioperative atelectasis is caused by absorption, compression and reduced function of surfactant. It is well accepted, that ventilation with 100% oxygen for only a few minutes is associated with significant formation of atelectasis. However, it is still not clear if a longer period of 80% oxygen results in more atelectasis compared to a low FiO2. Our aim was to assess if a high FiO2 is associated with impaired oxygenation and decreased pulmonary functional residual capacity (FRC). Methods Thirty-five patients scheduled for laparotomy for ovarian cancer were randomized to receive either 30% oxygen (n?=?15) or 80% oxygen (n?=?20) during and for 2?h after surgery. The oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2) was measured every 30?min during anesthesia and 90?min after extubation. FRC was measured the day before surgery and 2?h after extubation by a rebreathing method using the inert gas SF6. Results Five min after intubation, the median PaO2/FiO2 was 69 kPa [53-71] in the 30%-group vs. 60 kPa [47-69] in the 80%-group (P?=?0.25). At the end of anesthesia, the PaO2/FiO2 was 58 kPa [40-70] vs. 57 kPa [46-67] in the 30%- and 80%-group, respectively (P?=?0.10). The median FRC was 1993?mL [1610-2240] vs. 1875?mL [1545-2048] at baseline and 1615?mL [1375-2318] vs. 1633?mL [1343-1948] postoperatively in the 30%- and 80%-group, respectively (P?=?0.70). Conclusion We found no significant difference in oxygenation index or functional residual capacity between patients given 80% and 30% oxygen for a period of approximately 5 hours. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00637936.

2012-01-01

343

Oxygen control of atomic structure and physical properties of SrRuO3 surfaces.  

PubMed

Complex oxide thin films and heterostructures have become one of the foci for condensed matter physics research due to a broad variety of properties they exhibit. Similar to the bulk, properties of oxide surfaces can be expected to be strongly affected by oxygen stoichiometry. Here we explore the coupling between atomic structure and physical properties of SrRuO3 (SRO), one of the most well-studied oxide materials. We perform a detailed in situ and ex situ experimental investigation of the surfaces of SRO thin films using a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, SQUID magnetometry, and magnetotransport measurements, as well as ab initio modeling. A number of remarkable linear surface reconstructions were observed by STM and interpreted as oxygen adatoms, favorably adsorbed in a regular rectangular or zigzag patterns. The degree of oxygen coverage and different surface patterns change the work function of the thin films, and modify local electronic and magnetic properties of the topmost atomic layer. The ab initio modeling reveals that oxygen adatoms possess frustrated local spin moments with possible spin-glass behavior of the surface covered by adsorbed oxygen. Additionally, the modeling indicates presence of a pseudo gap on the topmost SrO layer on pristine SrO-terminated surface, suggesting possibility for realization of a surface half-metallic film. PMID:23570268

Tselev, Alexander; Ganesh, P; Qiao, Liang; Siemons, Wolter; Gai, Zheng; Biegalski, Michael D; Baddorf, Arthur P; Kalinin, Sergei V

2013-05-28

344

Semi-commercial ultralow oxygen treatment for control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on harvested iceberg lettuce  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pallet-scale ultralow oxygen (ULO) treatment was applied to iceberg lettuce after various lengths of postharvest storage to determine the effects of pre-treatment storage on lettuce tolerance to ULO treatment for control of western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Lettuce from seven cultivars was vacuum cooled and stored at 2°C after harvest for 0, 2, 3, and 5d before

Yong-Biao Liu

2011-01-01

345

Changed activation, oxygenation, and pain response of chronically painful muscles to repetitive work after training interventions: a randomized controlled trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to assess changes in myalgic trapezius activation, muscle oxygenation, and\\u000a pain intensity during repetitive and stressful work tasks in response to 10 weeks of training. In total, 39 women with a clinical\\u000a diagnosis of trapezius myalgia were randomly assigned to: (1) general fitness training performed as leg-bicycling (GFT); (2)\\u000a specific strength training of

Karen Søgaard; Anne Katrine Blangsted; Pernille Kofoed Nielsen; Lone Hansen; Lars L. Andersen; Pernille Vedsted; Gisela Sjøgaard

346

TRIM22 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity is required to mediate antiviral activity against encephalomyocarditis virus.  

PubMed

The interferon (IFN) system is a major effector of the innate immunity that allows time for the subsequent establishment of an adaptive immune response against a wide-range of pathogens. Their diverse biological actions are thought to be mediated by the products of specific but usually overlapping sets of cellular genes induced in the target cells. Ubiquitin ligase members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family have emerged as IFN-induced proteins involved in both innate and adaptive immunity. In this report, we provide evidence that TRIM22 is a functional E3 ubiquitin ligase that is also ubiquitinated itself. We demonstrate that TRIM22 expression leads to a viral protection of HeLa cells against encephalomyocarditis virus infections. This effect is dependent upon its E3 ubiquitinating activity, since no antiviral effect was observed in cells expressing a TRIM22-deletion mutant defective in ubiquitinating activity. Consistent with this, TRIM22 interacts with the viral 3C protease (3C(PRO)) and mediates its ubiquitination. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that TRIM22 E3 ubiquitin ligase activity represents a new antiviral pathway induced by IFN against picornaviruses. PMID:19218198

Eldin, Patrick; Papon, Laura; Oteiza, Alexandra; Brocchi, Emiliana; Lawson, T Glen; Mechti, Nadir

2009-03-01

347

Polyubiquitylation of AMF requires cooperation between the gp78 and TRIM25 ubiquitin ligases  

PubMed Central

gp78 is a ubiquitin ligase that plays a vital role in endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD). Here we report that autocrine motility factor (AMF), also known as phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), is a novel substrate of gp78. We show that polyubiquitylation of AMF requires cooperative interaction between gp78 and the ubiquitin ligase TRIM25 (tripartite motif-containing protein 25). While TRIM25 mediates the initial round of ubiquitylation, gp78 catalyzes polyubiquitylation of AMF. The E4-like activity of gp78 was illustrated by an in vitro polyubiquitylation assay using Ub-DHFR as a model substrate. We further demonstrate that TRIM25 ubiquitylates gp78 and that overexpression of TRIM25 accelerates the degradation of gp78. Our data suggest that TRIM25 not only cooperates with gp78 in polyubiquitylation of AMF but also gauges the steady-state level of gp78. This study uncovers a previously unknown functional link between gp78 and TRIM25 and provides mechanistic insight into gp78-mediated protein ubiquitylation.

Kho, Dhong-Hyo; Raz, Avraham; Xie, Youming

2014-01-01

348

Characterization of a core fragment of the rhesus monkey TRIM5? protein  

PubMed Central

Background Like all tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins, the retroviral restriction factor TRIM5? consists of RING, B-box 2 and coiled-coil domains, with a C-terminal B30.2(SPRY) domain. Although structures have been determined for some individual TRIM domains, the structure of an intact TRIM protein is unknown. Results Here, we express and characterize a protease-resistant 29-kD core fragment containing the B-box 2, coiled coil and adjacent linker (L2) region of TRIM5?. This BCCL2 protein formed dimers and higher-order oligomers in solution. Approximately 40% of the BCCL2 secondary structure consisted of alpha helices. Partial loss of alpha-helical content and dissociation of dimers occurred at 42°C, with the residual alpha helices remaining stable up to 80°C. Conclusions These results indicate that the B-box 2, coiled-coil and linker 2 regions of TRIM5? form a core dimerization motif that exhibits a high level of alpha-helical content.

2011-01-01

349

Susceptibility to Repeated, Low-Dose, Rectal SHIVSF162P3 Challenge Is Independent of TRIM5 Genotype in Rhesus Macaques  

PubMed Central

Abstract Infections following repeated, low-dose (RLD), mucal S(H)IV exposures of macaques are used to model sexual HIV exposures for biomedical prevention testing. Different susceptibilities among animals can complicate study designs. In rhesus macaques, TRIM5 alleles Q, CypA, and TFP are resistance factors for infection with some S(H)IV strains, but not for SIVmac239 due to its capsid properties. SIVmac239-derived SHIVSF162P3 has been demonstrated to reproducibly infect mucosally in vaginal and rectal RLD models. To further test the suitability of SHIVSF162P3 for RLD models, we studied the influence of the TRIM5 genotype on susceptibility to rectal RLD infection and on plasma viremia by analyzing 43 male Indian rhesus macaques from control arms of completed studies. The median number of exposures required for infection was three (Q/Q, n=4) (TRIM5 alleles, number of macaques, respectively), four (Q/CypA, n=7), three (TFP/Q, n=15), three (TFP/TFP, n=15), and two (TFP/CypA, n=2); TRIM5CypA/CypA was not represented in our study. Median peak viremia (log10 viral copies/ml) in infected animals was 7.4 (Q/Q, n=4), 7.2 (Q/CypA, n=6), 7.3 (TFP/Q, n=13), 7.1 (TFP/TFP, n=15), and 6.5 (TFP/CypA; n=2). Neither susceptibility nor peak viremia was significantly different (log rank test, Kruskal–Wallis test, respectively). Rhesus macaques' susceptibility to RLD SHIVSF162P3 is independent of the TRIM5 TFP, CypA, and Q alleles, with the limitation that the power to detect any impact of CypA/CypA and TFP/CypA genotypes was nonexistent or low, due to absence or infrequency, respectively. The finding that TRIM5 alleles do not restrict mucosal infection or ensuing replication rates suggests that SHIVSF162P3 is indeed suitable for RLD experimentation.

Butler, Katherine; Morgan, Jennifer S.; Hanson, Debra L.; Adams, Debra; Garcia-Lerma, J. Gerardo; Heneine, Walid; Ellenberger, Dennis; Hendry, R. Michael; McNicholl, Janet; Johnson, Welkin E.

2013-01-01

350

Strain-controlled oxygen vacancy formation and ordering in CaMnO3  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use first-principles calculations to investigate the stability of biaxially strained Pnma perovskite CaMnO3 towards the formation of oxygen vacancies. Our motivation is provided by promising indications that novel material properties can be engineered by application of strain through coherent heteroepitaxy in thin films. While it is usually assumed that such epitaxial strain is accommodated primarily by changes in intrinsic lattice constants, point defect formation is also a likely strain-relaxation mechanism. Our first-principles calculations of oxygen vacancy defect formation energy indeed show a strong strain dependence: We find that tensile strain lowers the formation energy, consistent with the established chemical expansion concept that oxygen deficiency increases the molar volume in oxides. In addition, we find that strain differentiates the formation energy for different lattice sites, suggesting its use as a route to engineering vacancy ordering in epitaxial thin films.

Aschauer, Ulrich; Pfenninger, Reto; Selbach, Sverre M.; Grande, Tor; Spaldin, Nicola A.

2013-08-01

351

Spectroscopic study on resistive switching property of perovskite manganite film with controlled oxygen deficient state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 thin films were prepared on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates using a radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique under various Ar : O2 flow rates at a substrate temperature of 450 °C. X-ray diffraction results showed that the growth orientation and crystallinity of film were affected by Ar : O2 ratio. Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and near edge x-ray absorption fine structure, the chemical state of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 film was revealed to have reduced oxygen deficiencies with increasing O2 flow during deposition. The valence band maximum was also shifted to the Fermi edge, and resistive switching properties were decreased with reduced oxygen vacancies from increased oxygen flow rate.

Choi, Sun Gyu; Lee, Hong-Sub; Choi, Hyejung; Chung, Sung-Woong; Park, Hyung-Ho

2011-10-01

352

An Invariant Surface Patch on the TRIM5? PRYSPRY Domain Is Required for Retroviral Restriction but Dispensable for Capsid Binding?  

PubMed Central

TRIM5? is a retrovirus restriction factor in the host cell cytoplasm that blocks infection before provirus establishment. Restriction activity requires capsid (CA)-specific recognition by the PRYSPRY domain of TRIM5?. To better understand the restriction mechanism, nine charge-cluster-to-triple-alanine mutants in the TRIM5? PRYSPRY domain were assessed for CA-specific restriction activity. Five mutants distributed along the TRIM5? PRYSPRY primary sequence disrupted restriction activity against N-tropic murine leukemia virus and equine infectious anemia virus. Modeling of the TRIM5? PRYSPRY domain based on the crystal structures of PRYSPRY-19q13.4.1, GUSTAVUS, and TRIM21 identified a surface patch where disruptive mutants clustered. All mutants in this patch retained CA-binding activity, a reticular distribution in the cytoplasm, and steady-state protein levels comparable to those of the wild type. Residues in the essential patch are conserved in TRIM5? orthologues and in closely related paralogues. The same surface patch in the TRIM18 and TRIM20 PRYSPRY domains is the site of mutants causing Opitz syndrome and familial Mediterranean fever. These results indicate that, in addition to CA-specific binding, the PRYSPRY domain possesses a second function, possibly binding of a cofactor, that is essential for retroviral restriction activity by TRIM5?.

Sebastian, Sarah; Grutter, Christian; de Castillia, Caterina Strambio; Pertel, Thomas; Olivari, Silvia; Grutter, Markus G.; Luban, Jeremy

2009-01-01

353

Trim28 Contributes to EMT via Regulation of E-Cadherin and N-Cadherin in Lung Cancer Cell Lines  

PubMed Central

In previous work, we demonstrated that transcription factor Trim28 (Tripartite motif containing 28) plays a tumor-suppressor role in early-staged adenocarcinoma of the lung due to its ability to restrain transcription of cell cycle-regulating genes. Herein we examine Trim28's role in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) which is strongly implicated in cancer metastasis. We found that Trim28 plays a role in TGF-?-induced EMT in non-small cell lung cancer cells. Silencing Trim28 with inhibitory RNAs alters the expression of numerous EMT markers, such as E-cadherin and N-cadherin, whereas overexpression of Trim28 has an opposite effect. Trim28 expression is induced following TGF-? treatment at both protein and mRNA levels. Trim28 deficiency impairs TGF-?-induced EMT and decreases cell migration and invasion. Finally, we demonstrate that the expression of Trim28 affects the acetylation and methylation of histones on E-cadherin and N-cadherin promoters. These results suggest that Trim28 contributes to EMT and might be important for tumor metastasis in lung cancer. Taken together with our previous work these results suggest a model in which Trim28 is a tumor suppressor early in the transformation process in lung cancer, but in later stages it functions as an oncogene.

Chen, Lu; Munoz-Antonia, Teresita; Cress, W. Douglas

2014-01-01

354

Experimental and Computational Analysis of Shuttle Orbiter Hypersonic Trim Anomaly  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the high-Mach-number, high-altitude portion of the first entry of the Shuttle Orbiter, the vehicle exhibited a nose-up pitching moment relative to preflight prediction of approximately Delta Cm = 0.03. This trim anomaly has been postulated to be due to compressibility, viscous, and/or real-gas (lowered specific heat ratio gamma) effects on basic body pitching moment, body-flap effectiveness, or both. In order to assess the relative contribution of each of these effects, an experimental study was undertaken to examine the effects of Mach number, Reynolds number, and ratio of specific heats. Complementary computational solutions were obtained for wind-tunnel and flight conditions. The primary cause of the anomaly was determined to be lower pressures on the aft windward surface of the Orbiter than deduced from hypersonic wind-tunnel tests with ideal- or near-ideal-gas test flow. The lower pressure levels are a result of the lowering of the flowfield gamma due to high-temperature effects. This phenomenon was accurately simulated in a hypersonic wind tunnel using a heavy gas, which provided a lower, gamma, and was correctly predicted by Navier-Stokes computations using nonequilibrium chemistry.

Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Paulson, John W., Jr.; Weilmuenster, K. James

1995-01-01

355

Hexadecane mineralization in oxygen-controlled sediment-seawater cultivations with autochthonous microorganisms.  

PubMed Central

Laboratory studies investigated the influence of dissolved oxygen tension (DOT) on microbial degradation of hexadecane in cultures with sediment-seawater suspensions. With a fermentor system, it was possible to adjust and regulate different oxic conditions (DOTs between 0.4 and 80% of oxygen saturation) as well as anoxia. The effects of DOT reduction on the amount and rate of hexadecane degraded and on the degree of mineralization and on the production of biomass were investigated. When the DOT was reduced from 80% to 5%, no dependence of the investigated parameters on the oxygen concentration was found. The amount of hexadecane degraded was constant, with an average value of 86% of the initially applied amount. The degradation rate was constant even down to 1% DOT, with an average value of 0.15 mg of hexadecane per g of sediment per h (16.2 mg liter-1 h-1). The mean degree of mineralization was 70% of the initially applied hexadecane, and biomass production reached a value of about 1.5 g per g of hexadecane consumed. A significant influence on the degradation process was detected only with DOTs below 1%. The degree of mineralization and the amount of degraded hexadecane decreased, whereas the degradation rate was still unaffected. Under anoxic conditions, no hexadecane degradation occurred within 190 h. The fact that the hexadecane biodegradation rate was constant down to at least 0.04% DOT shows that the actual oxygen concentration is of minor importance as long as the oxygen supply is high enough to guarantee the oxygen-dependent degradation step.

Michaelsen, M; Hulsch, R; Hopner, T; Berthe-Corti, L

1992-01-01

356

TRIM Protein-Mediated Regulation of Inflammatory and Innate Immune Signaling and Its Association with Antiretroviral Activity  

PubMed Central

Members of the tripartite interaction motif (TRIM) family of E3 ligases are emerging as critical regulators of innate immunity. To identify new regulators, we carried out a screen of 43 human TRIM proteins for the ability to activate NF-?B, AP-1, and interferon, hallmarks of many innate immune signaling pathways. We identified 16 TRIM proteins that induced NF-?B and/or AP-1. We found that one of these, TRIM62, functions in the TRIF branch of the TLR4 signaling pathway. Knockdown of TRIM62 in primary macrophages led to a defect in TRIF-mediated late NF-?B, AP-1, and interferon production after lipopolysaccharide challenge. We also discovered a role for TRIM15 in the RIG-I-mediated interferon pathway upstream of MAVS. Knockdown of TRIM15 limited virus/RIG-I ligand-induced interferon production and enhanced vesicular stomatitis virus replication. In addition, most TRIM proteins previously identified to inhibit murine leukemia virus (MLV) demonstrated an ability to induce NF-?B/AP-1. Interfering with the NF-?B and AP-1 signaling induced by the antiretroviral TRIM1 and TRIM62 proteins rescued MLV release. In contrast, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gene expression was increased by TRIM proteins that induce NF-?B. HIV-1 resistance to inflammatory TRIM proteins mapped to the NF-?B sites in the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) U3 and could be transferred to MLV. Thus, our work identifies new TRIM proteins involved in innate immune signaling and reinforces the striking ability of HIV-1 to exploit innate immune signaling for the purpose of viral replication.

Hinz, Angelika; Siegel, Steven; Coenen-Stass, Anna; Pertel, Thomas; Luban, Jeremy

2013-01-01

357

Regulation of the interferon-inducible p53 target gene TRIM22 (Staf50) in human T lymphocyte activation.  

PubMed

TRIM22 (Staf50) is an interferon (IFN)-inducible protein with unknown function. Recently, we identified TRIM22 as a novel p53 target gene and showed that overexpression of TRIM22 inhibits the clonogenic growth of monoblastic U937 cells. Moreover, expression of TRIM22 is high in lymphoid tissue, and levels decrease during T lymphocyte activation with CD3/CD2/CD28, suggesting that TRIM22 could exert antiproliferative effects. Here, a prominent increase in TRIM22 levels is observed during activation with interleukin-2 (IL-2) or IL-15 in contrast to the decrease observed during CD3/CD2/CD28-induced activation. However, stimulation of cells in these experiments was performed on crude T lymphocytes, allowing indirect regulation between different lymphocyte subtypes to take place. Therefore, to prevent interaction between different lymphocyte subtypes, expression of TRIM22 was examined during activation of sorted T lymphocyte subpopulations. In contrast to the marked changes of TRIM22 during activation of crude T lymphocytes, in isolated subpopulations, TRIM22 expression was not significantly affected in spite of IL-2-induced or CD3/CD2/CD28-induced activation. In addition, in contrast to the TRIM22 mouse ortholog Rpt-1, TRIM22 did not affect levels of CD25 (IL-2Ralpha) mRNA. Our data suggest a more complex role for TRIM22 during T lymphocyte activation than merely as an antiproliferative factor. TRIM22 probably has an activation stage-specific role connected to the paracrine crosstalk during T lymphocyte activation. PMID:17970695

Obad, Susanna; Olofsson, Tor; Mechti, Nadir; Gullberg, Urban; Drott, Kristina

2007-10-01

358

Trim14 overexpression causes the same transcriptional changes in mouse embryonic stem cells and human HEK293 cells.  

PubMed

The trim14 (pub, KIAA0129) gene encodes the TRIM14 protein which is a member of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family. Previously, we revealed high expression levels of trim14 in HIV- or SIV-associated lymphomas and demonstrated the influence of trim14 on mesodermal differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESC). In the present work, to elucidate the role of trim14 in normal and pathological processes in the cell, we used two different types of cells transfected with trim14: mESC and human HEK293. Using subtractive hybridization and real-time PCR, we found a number of genes which expression was elevated in trim14-transfected mESC: hsp90ab1, prr13, pu.1, tnfrsf13c (baff-r), tnfrsf13b (taci), hlx1, hbp1, junb, and pdgfrb. A further analysis of the trim14-transfected mESC at the initial stage of differentiation (embryoid bodies (EB) formation) showed essential changes in the expression of these upregulated genes. The transfection of trim14 into HEK293 also induced an enhanced expression of the several genes upregulated in trim14-transfected mESC (hsp90ab1, prr13, pu.1, tnfrsf13c (baff-r), tnfrsf13b (taci), and hlx1). Summarizing, we found similar genes that participated in trim14-directed processes both in mESC and in HEK293. These results demonstrate the presence of the similar mechanism of trim14 gene action in different types of mammalian cells. PMID:24092016

Nenasheva, Valentina V; Kovaleva, Galina V; Khaidarova, Nella V; Novosadova, Ekaterina V; Manuilova, Ekaterina S; Antonov, Stanislav A; Tarantul, Vyacheslav Z

2014-02-01

359

TRIM protein-mediated regulation of inflammatory and innate immune signaling and its association with antiretroviral activity.  

PubMed

Members of the tripartite interaction motif (TRIM) family of E3 ligases are emerging as critical regulators of innate immunity. To identify new regulators, we carried out a screen of 43 human TRIM proteins for the ability to activate NF-?B, AP-1, and interferon, hallmarks of many innate immune signaling pathways. We identified 16 TRIM proteins that induced NF-?B and/or AP-1. We found that one of these, TRIM62, functions in the TRIF branch of the TLR4 signaling pathway. Knockdown of TRIM62 in primary macrophages led to a defect in TRIF-mediated late NF-?B, AP-1, and interferon production after lipopolysaccharide challenge. We also discovered a role for TRIM15 in the RIG-I-mediated interferon pathway upstream of MAVS. Knockdown of TRIM15 limited virus/RIG-I ligand-induced interferon production and enhanced vesicular stomatitis virus replication. In addition, most TRIM proteins previously identified to inhibit murine leukemia virus (MLV) demonstrated an ability to induce NF-?B/AP-1. Interfering with the NF-?B and AP-1 signaling induced by the antiretroviral TRIM1 and TRIM62 proteins rescued MLV release. In contrast, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) gene expression was increased by TRIM proteins that induce NF-?B. HIV-1 resistance to inflammatory TRIM proteins mapped to the NF-?B sites in the HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) U3 and could be transferred to MLV. Thus, our work identifies new TRIM proteins involved in innate immune signaling and reinforces the striking ability of HIV-1 to exploit innate immune signaling for the purpose of viral replication. PMID:23077300

Uchil, Pradeep D; Hinz, Angelika; Siegel, Steven; Coenen-Stass, Anna; Pertel, Thomas; Luban, Jeremy; Mothes, Walther

2013-01-01

360

The Trauma Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research Network's Remote Damage Control Resuscitation Symposium.  

PubMed

This year, the Trauma Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research Network had its third annual conference from June 17 to 19 at the Solstrand Hotel, near Bergen, Norway. It was sponsored and organized by the Norwegian Naval Special Operation Commando together with the Norwegian Air Ambulance Foundation. The Trauma Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research Network is composed of more than 150 members from 16 countries who all have a common interest in the prevention and treatment of traumatic hemorrhagic shock. The network is multidisciplinary to include members from both the military and civilian medical community representing areas of surgery, critical care, emergency medicine, transfusion medicine, anesthesiology, hematology, and basic science. PMID:24089006

Spinella, Philip C; Strandenes, Geir

2014-05-01

361

Building the Palliative Care Evidence Base: Lessons From a Randomized Controlled Trial of Oxygen vs Room Air for Refractory Dyspnea.  

PubMed

Palliative care is increasingly seen as a standard component of high-quality comprehensive cancer care. However, several challenges remain to its widespread integration into clinical oncology practice, including workforce problems, reimbursement concerns, and a fledgling evidence base. This article discusses issues surrounding evidence base development in palliative cancer care, using the example of a recently published randomized controlled trial of oxygen versus room air. The Oxygen Trial randomized patients with refractory dyspnea and adequate Pao2 to oxygen or room air, administered via nasal cannula. Both groups experienced improvements in self-rated dyspnea scores, but no statistical differences were seen between intervention arms. These results suggest that supplementary oxygen is often unnecessary in the palliative setting, and that room air is similarly efficacious. This example highlights the importance and need for ongoing development of the evidence base in palliative medicine. The Palliative Care Research Cooperative (PCRC) is a novel National Institute of Nursing Research-funded research infrastructure that seeks to expand the palliative care evidence base. Its first multisite trial was recently completed, assessing the pragmatic question of whether statin medications can be safely discontinued in end-of-life settings. The PCRC will be a vehicle through which a high-quality evidence base will continue to expand and develop. Such ongoing research efforts are needed to inform and improve palliative care practice. PMID:24994919

LeBlanc, Thomas W; Abernethy, Amy P

2014-07-01

362

Sliding mode control of dissolved oxygen in an integrated nitrogen removal process in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR).  

PubMed

This paper presents a sliding mode controller (SMC) for dissolved oxygen (DO) in an integrated nitrogen removal process carried out in a suspended biomass sequencing batch reactor (SBR). The SMC performance was compared against an auto-tuning PI controller with parameters adjusted at the beginning of the batch cycle. A method for cancelling the slow DO sensor dynamics was implemented by using a first order model of the sensor. Tests in a lab-scale reactor showed that the SMC offers a better disturbance rejection capability than the auto-tuning PI controller, furthermore providing reasonable performance in a wide range of operation. Thus, SMC becomes an effective robust nonlinear tool to the DO control in this process, being also simple from a computational point of view, allowing its implementation in devices such as industrial programmable logic controllers (PLCs). PMID:19923760

Muñoz, C; Young, H; Antileo, C; Bornhardt, C

2009-01-01

363

Osseointegrated implants in irradiated bone: A case-controlled study using adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The current investigation was undertaken to study whether osseointegration of implants in irradiated tissues is subject to a higher failure rate than in nonirradiated tissues. It further aimed to study whether hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBO) can be used to reduce implant failure.Patients and Methods: Seventy-eight cancer patients who were rehabilitated using osseointegrated implants between 1981 and 1997 were investigated.

Gösta Granström; Anders Tjellström; Per-Ingvar Brånemark

1999-01-01

364

Control of oxygen delamination in solid oxide electrolyzer cells via modifying operational regime  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modifications of operational regimes for solid oxide electrolyzer cell (SOEC) devices for hydrogen production are discussed. It is shown that applying alternating current voltage pulses at a certain frequency range to SOECs could reduce oxygen delamination degradation in these devices and significantly increase their lifetime. This operational scheme provides possibility to increase longevity of SOEC devices required for their use

Sergey N. Rashkeev; Michael V. Glazoff

2011-01-01

365

Controlling Tumor Growth by Modulating Endogenous Production of Reactive Oxygen Species  

Microsoft Academic Search

Paradoxically, reactive oxygen species (ROS) can promote normal cellular proliferation and carcinogenesis, and can also induce apoptosis of tumor cells. In this report, we study the contribution of ROS to various cellular signals depending on the nature and the level of ROS produced. In nontransformed NIH 3T3 cells, ROS are at low levels and originate from NADPH oxidase. Hydrogen peroxide

Alexis Laurent; Carole Nicco; Christiane Chereau; Claire Goulvestre; Jerome Alexandre; Arnaud Alves; Eva Levy; Francois Goldwasser; Yves Panis; Olivier Soubrane; Bernard Weill; Frederic Batteux

2005-01-01

366

Design and Control of Hot-Gas Desulfurization Systems with High Oxygen Regenerator Feed Gas  

SciTech Connect

This paper studies the use of regenerator feeds that have higher oxygen concentrations. Not only steady-state but also dynamic issues are examined. The key issue is identified to be heat-removal limitations which is confirmed by dynamic simulations.

Yi, C-K.; Luyben, W.L.

2002-09-20

367

A Novel Solid Electrolyte Oxygen Sensor System for In-Situ Measurement and Process Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1993 the oxygen partial pressure was firstly measured inside a plasma wind tunnel using conventional lambda-probes. Since then, a considerable amount of knowledge has been gained in using these sensors in ground test facilities and space. However, these commercially available sensors were too large in scale and weight. Consequently, a new development of solid electrolyte sensors called FIPEX more

Frank Uwe Hammer; Ernst Messerschmid; Markus Rogg

2010-01-01

368

Validation of the use of organic acids and acidified sodium chlorite to reduce Escherichia coli O157 and Salmonella typhimurium in beef trim and ground beef in a simulated processing environment.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine if acidified sodium chlorite (1,200 ppm) and acetic and lactic acids (2 and 4%) were effective in reducing foodborne pathogens in beef trim prior to grinding in a simulated processing environment. The reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium and Escherichia coli O157:H7 at high (4.0 log CFU/g) and low (1.0 log CFU/g) inoculation doses was evaluated at various processing steps, including the following: (i) in trim just after treatment application, (ii) in ground beef just after grinding, (iii) in ground beef 24 h after refrigerated storage, (iv) in ground beef 5 days after refrigerated storage, and (v) in ground beef 30 days after frozen storage. All antimicrobial treatments reduced the pathogens on the trim inoculated with the lower inoculation dose to nondetectable numbers in the trim and in the ground beef. There were significant reductions of both pathogens in the trim and in the ground beef inoculated with the high inoculation doses. On the trim itself, E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium were reduced by 1.5 to 2.0 log cycles, with no differences among all treatments. In the ground beef, the organic acids were more effective in reducing both pathogens than the acidified sodium chlorite immediately after grinding, but after 1 day of storage, there were no differences among treatments. Overall, in the ground beef, there was a 2.5-log reduction of E. coli O157:H7 and a 1.5-log reduction of Salmonella Typhimurium that was sustained over time in refrigerated and frozen storage. Very few sensory differences between the control samples and the treated samples were detected by a consumer panel. Thus, antimicrobial treatments did not cause serious adverse sensory changes. Use of these antimicrobial treatments can be a promising intervention available to ground beef processors who currently have few interventions in their process. PMID:16924902

Harris, K; Miller, M F; Loneragan, G H; Brashears, M M

2006-08-01

369

CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Enhancement of the efficiency and control of emission parameters of an unstable-resonator chemical oxygen—iodine laser  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The outlook is considered for the development of a high-power supersonic flowing chemical oxygen—iodine laser operating as an amplifier and controlled by radiation from a master oscillator by using an unstable resonator with a hole-coupled mirror. The influence of the seed radiation intensity, the coupling-hole diameter, the active-medium length, and the magnification factor on the parameters of laser radiation is analysed. It is shown that the use of such resonators is most advisable in medium-power oxygen—iodine lasers for which classical unstable resonators are inefficient because of their low magnification factors. The use of unstable resonators with a hole-coupled mirror and injection provides the control of radiation parameters and a considerable increase in the output power and brightness of laser radiation.

Boreisho, A. S.; Lobachev, V. V.; Savin, A. V.; Strakhov, S. Yu; Trilis, A. V.

2007-07-01

370

Influenza A virus NS1 targets the ubiquitin ligase TRIM25 to evade recognition by RIG-I  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY TRIM25 mediates Lys 63-linked ubiquitination of the N-terminal CARDs of the viral RNA sensor RIG-I, leading to type I interferon (IFN) production. Here, we report that the influenza A virus non-structural protein 1 (NS1) specifically inhibits TRIM25-mediated RIG-I CARD ubiquitination, thereby suppressing RIG-I signal transduction. A novel domain in NS1 comprising E96/E97 residues mediates its interaction with the coiled-coil domain of TRIM25, thus blocking TRIM25 multimerization and RIG-I CARD ubiquitination. Furthermore, a recombinant influenza A virus expressing an E96A/E97A NS1 mutant is defective in blocking TRIM25-mediated anti-viral IFN response and loses virulence in mice. Our findings reveal a novel mechanism of influenza virus to inhibit host IFN response and also emphasize the vital role of TRIM25 in modulating viral infections.

Gack, Michaela Ulrike; Albrecht, Randy Allen; Urano, Tomohiko; Inn, Kyung-Soo; Huang, I-Chueh; Carnero, Elena; Farzan, Michael; Inoue, Satoshi; Jung, Jae Ung; Garcia-Sastre, Adolfo

2009-01-01

371

Ubiquitination-Deubiquitination by the TRIM27-USP7 Complex Regulates Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha-Induced Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) plays a role in apoptosis and proliferation in multiple types of cells, and defects in TNF-?-induced apoptosis are associated with various autoimmune diseases. Here, we show that TRIM27, a tripartite motif (TRIM) protein containing RING finger, B-box, and coiled-coil domains, positively regulates TNF-?-induced apoptosis. Trim27-deficient mice are resistant to TNF-?–d-galactosamine-induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Trim27-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) are also resistant to TNF-?–cycloheximide-induced apoptosis. TRIM27 forms a complex with and ubiquitinates the ubiquitin-specific protease USP7, which deubiquitinates receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1), resulting in the positive regulation of TNF-?-induced apoptosis. Our findings indicate that the ubiquitination-deubiquitination cascade mediated by the TRIM27-USP7 complex plays an important role in TNF-?-induced apoptosis.

Zaman, Mohammad Mahabub-Uz; Nomura, Teruaki; Takagi, Tsuyoshi; Okamura, Tomoo; Jin, Wanzhu; Shinagawa, Toshie; Tanaka, Yasunori

2013-01-01

372

AISI\\/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 1 of 6: Optical Sensors and Controls for Improved Basic Oxygen Furnace Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of an optical sensor for basic oxygen furnace (BOF) off-gas composition and temperature in this Advanced Process Control project has been a laboratory spectroscopic method evolve into a pre-commercialization prototype sensor system. The sensor simultaneously detects an infrared tunable diode laser ITDL beam transmitted through the process off-gas directly above the furnace mouth, and the infrared greybody emission

Sarah Allendorf; David Ottesen; Donald Hardesty

2002-01-01

373

Enhancing dissolved oxygen control using an on-line hybrid fuzzy-neural soft-sensing model-based control system in an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic process.  

PubMed

An on-line hybrid fuzzy-neural soft-sensing model-based control system was developed to optimize dissolved oxygen concentration in a bench-scale anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A(2)/O) process. In order to improve the performance of the control system, a self-adapted fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm and adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) models were employed. The proposed control system permits the on-line implementation of every operating strategy of the experimental system. A set of experiments involving variable hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent pH (pH), dissolved oxygen in the aerobic reactor (DO), and mixed-liquid return ratio (r) was carried out. Using the proposed system, the amount of COD in the effluent stabilized at the set-point and below. The improvement was achieved with optimum dissolved oxygen concentration because the performance of the treatment process was optimized using operating rules implemented in real time. The system allows various expert operational approaches to be deployed with the goal of minimizing organic substances in the outlet while using the minimum amount of energy. PMID:24052227

Huang, Mingzhi; Wan, Jinquan; Hu, Kang; Ma, Yongwen; Wang, Yan

2013-12-01

374

Effect of Oxygen and Redox Potential on Glucose Fermentation in Thermotoga maritima under Controlled Physicochemical Conditions  

PubMed Central

Batch cultures of Thermotoga maritima were performed in a bioreactor equipped with instruments adapted for experiments performed at 80°C to mimic the fluctuating oxidative conditions in the hot ecosystems it inhabits. When grown anaerobically on glucose, T. maritima was shown to significantly decrease the redox potential (Eh) of the culture medium down to about ?480?mV, as long as glucose was available. Addition of oxygen into T. maritima cultures during the stationary growth phase led to a drastic reduction in glucose consumption rate. However, although oxygen was toxic, our experiment unambiguously proved that T. maritima was able to consume it during a 12-hour exposure period. Furthermore, a shift in glucose metabolism towards lactate production was observed under oxidative conditions.

Lakhal, Raja; Auria, Richard; Davidson, Sylvain; Ollivier, Bernard; Dolla, Alain; Hamdi, Moktar; Combet-Blanc, Yannick

2010-01-01

375

Gene disruption study reveals a non-redundant role for TRIM21/Ro52 in NF-?B-dependent cytokine expression in fibroblasts1  

PubMed Central

The tripartite motif (TRIM) family member, TRIM21, is an E3 ubiquitin ligase for IRF3 and IRF8 that functions in both innate and acquired immunity. It is also an autoantigen known as Ro52/SS-A. The function of TRIM21 in vivo, however, has remained elusive. We generated Trim21?/? mice with the Trim21 gene replaced by an EGFP reporter. EGFP expression analyses showed that Trim21 was widely expressed in many tissues, with the highest levels in immune cells. Studies of Trim21?/? embryonic fibroblasts demonstrated that TLR-mediated induction of proinflammatory cytokines, including IL-1?, IL-6, TNF? and CXCL10, was consistently upregulated relative to wild-type cells. Reporter analyses demonstrated that TLR-mediated NF-?B activation was higher in Trim21?/? cells than in wild-type cells, likely accounting for their enhanced cytokine expression. In contrast, functional analyses of immune cells from Trim21?/? mice revealed no abnormalities in their composition or function, even though ubiquitylation of IRF3 and IRF8 was impaired. These results suggested possible redundancies in activities mediated by TRIM21. In keeping with this concept, we found that a number of TRIM family members were upregulated in Trim21?/? cells. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that TRIM21 plays a previously unrecognized role in the negative regulation of NF-?B-dependent proinflammatory cytokine responses, and suggest that multiple TRIM proteins contribute to the maintenance of functional equilibrium in inflammatory responses, in part through functional redundancy.

Yoshimi, Ryusuke; Chang, Tsung-Hsien; Wang, Hongsheng; Atsumi, Toru; Morse, Herbert C.; Ozato, Keiko

2009-01-01

376

Reactive Oxygen Species in Molecular Pathways Controlling Aging in the Filamentous Fungus Podospora anserina  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a To generate ATP via different types of respiration, the impact of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as by-products generated at\\u000a the inner mitochondrial membrane is well analyzed and documented. Moreover, other pathways of ROS generation seem to be of\\u000a relevance, but they are currently less explored. It now seems that ROS not only play a key role in the age-related damaging

Heinz D. Osiewacz; Christian Q. Scheckhuber

377

Control of oxygen delamination in solid oxide electrolyzer cells via modifying operational regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modifications of operational regimes for solid oxide electrolyzer cell (SOEC) devices for hydrogen production are discussed. It is shown that applying alternating current voltage pulses at a certain frequency range to SOECs could reduce oxygen delamination degradation in these devices and significantly increase their lifetime. This operational scheme provides possibility to increase longevity of SOEC devices required for their use in commercial hydrogen production processes, without any significant modification of used materials and/or cell design.

Rashkeev, Sergey N.; Glazoff, Michael V.

2011-10-01

378

Control of oxygen contamination during the growth of optical calcium fluoride and calcium strontium fluoride crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The progress, current state, and prognosis for CaF2 as an optical material with wide applicability are reviewed by outlining the basic issues: technology, demand, supply, and metrology. To achieve perfect quality for all application grades of CaF2 grown using a natural fluorite, investigations of the effect of PbF2 and ZnF2 scavengers for removal of oxygen contaminants from the starting material,

J. T. Mouhovski

2007-01-01

379

Evaluation and improvement of PWR secondary-system oxygen control measures. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The phenomenon of denting that has occurred in some PWR steam generators has been attributed to the formation of corrosion products in the crevice region between the tubes and the tube support plates in the steam generator. This corrosion product has been identified as principally magnetite (Fe/sub 3/O/sub 4/) which forms through reaction between iron in the carbon steel tube support plates and oxygen either dissolved in the feedwater or carried by reducible metal oxides in the feedwater. Dissolved oxygen enters the feedwater through leaks in the condenser and other components of the secondary system, particularly valves and pumps. Reducible metal oxides enter after forming as corrosion products in the condenser and other components. This report provides recommendations for equipment and design options, along with associated costs, for making plant modifications that would correct the air-inleakage in most plants. The report also provides an evaluation of the use of hydrazine to scavenge oxygen in secondary systems, and provides recommendations for operating and maintenance practices.

MacArthur, A.D.

1983-07-01

380

TRIM5 allelic polymorphism in macaque species/populations of different geographic origins: its impact on SIV vaccine studies.  

PubMed

Tripartite motif 5? (TRIM5?) is a potent antiretroviral immune factor present in the cytoplasm of cells of most tissue types. The rhesus macaque TRIM5 gene has been shown to display polymorphism, with different variants being divided into three groups (TRIM5(TFP), TRIM5(Q), and TRIM5(CypA)), which may have divergent retroviral effects on infection. Along with rhesus macaques, cynomolgus macaques are also used in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection studies. As a consequence, TRIM5 genotyping of these animals will contribute to interpreting the outcome of such studies. The present communication covers Burmese, Chinese, and a large cohort of Indian-origin rhesus macaques, and describes the first large cohort study on TRIM5 polymorphism in outbred cynomolgus macaques. We demonstrate the presence of the TRIM5(TFP) group in cynomolgus macaques. In addition, we have re-evaluated historical samples of rhesus macaques challenged with SIV(mac251), a virus that has been reported to be partially suppressed by particular rhesus macaque TRIM5 variants. PMID:21929574

de Groot, N G; Heijmans, C M C; Koopman, G; Verschoor, E J; Bogers, W M; Bontrop, R E

2011-10-01

381

The human IFN-inducible p53 target gene TRIM22 colocalizes with the centrosome independently of cell cycle phase.  

PubMed

TRIM22 (Staf50), a member of the TRIM protein family, is an interferon (IFN)-inducible protein as well as a p53 target gene. The function of TRIM22 is largely unknown, but TRIM22 is suggested to play a role in viral defense by restriction of viral replication. In addition, TRIM22 may function as a ubiquitin E3 ligase. In contrast to previous reports showing solely cytoplasmic localization of exogenous TRIM22, we report here that endogenous TRIM22 is localized to both nucleus and cytosol in primary human mononuclear cells, as well as in the human osteosarcoma cell line U2OS. Moreover, we demonstrate a colocalization of TRIM22 with the centrosomes in primary cells as well as in U2OS cells, and show that this colocalization is independent of cell cycle phase. Additionally, our data suggest the colocalization with centrosomes to be independent on the microtubule network. Given that some viral protein assembly takes place in the close vicinity of the centrosome, our data suggest that important functions of TRIM22 such as regulation of viral replication and protein degradation may take place in the centrosome. However, further studies are warranted to certify this notion. PMID:20006605

Petersson, Jessica; Lönnbro, Per; Herr, Anna-Maria; Mörgelin, Matthias; Gullberg, Urban; Drott, Kristina

2010-02-15

382

A B-Box 2 Surface Patch Important for TRIM5? Self-Association, Capsid Binding Avidity, and Retrovirus Restriction ? †  

PubMed Central

TRIM5? is a tripartite motif (TRIM) protein that consists of RING, B-box 2, coiled-coil, and B30.2(SPRY) domains. The TRIM5?rh protein from rhesus monkeys recognizes the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) capsid as it enters the host cell and blocks virus infection prior to reverse transcription. HIV-1-restricting ability can be eliminated by disruption of the B-box 2 domain. Changes in the TRIM5?rh B-box 2 domain have been associated with alterations in TRIM5?rh turnover, the formation of cytoplasmic bodies and higher-order oligomerization. We present here the nuclear magnetic resonance structure of the TRIM5 B-box 2 domain and identify an unusual hydrophobic patch (cluster 1) on the domain surface. Alteration of cluster 1 or the flanking arginine 121 resulted in various degrees of inactivation of HIV-1 restriction, in some cases depending on compensatory changes in other nearby charged residues. For this panel of TRIM5?rh B-box 2 mutants, inhibition of HIV-1 infection was strongly correlated with higher-order self-association and binding affinity for capsid complexes but not with TRIM5?rh half-life or the formation of cytoplasmic bodies. Thus, promoting cooperative TRIM5?rh interactions with the HIV-1 capsid represents a major mechanism whereby the B-box 2 domain potentiates HIV-1 restriction.

Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Qin, Xu-rong; Hayashi, Fumiaki; Kigawa, Takanori; Finzi, Andres; Sarnak, Zoe; Lienlaf, Maritza; Yokoyama, Shigeyuki; Sodroski, Joseph

2009-01-01

383

Species-Specific Variation in the B30.2(SPRY) Domain of TRIM5? Determines the Potency of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Restriction  

PubMed Central

Retroviruses encounter dominant postentry restrictions in cells of particular species. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is blocked in the cells of Old World monkeys by TRIM5?, a tripartite motif (TRIM) protein composed of RING, B-box 2, coiled-coil, and B30.2(SPRY) domains. Rhesus monkey TRIM5? (TRIM5?rh) more potently blocks HIV-1 infection than human TRIM5? (TRIM5?hu). Here, by studying chimeric TRIM5? proteins, we demonstrate that the major determinant of anti-HIV-1 potency is the B30.2(SPRY) domain. Analysis of species-specific variation in TRIM5? has identified three variable regions (v1, v2, and v3) within the B30.2 domain. The TRIM5? proteins of Old World primates exhibit expansion, duplication, and residue variation specifically in the v1 region. Replacement of three amino acids in the N terminus of the TRIM5?hu B30.2 v1 region with the corresponding TRIM5?rh residues resulted in a TRIM5? molecule that restricted HIV-1 nearly as efficiently as wild-type TRIM5?rh. Surprisingly, a single-amino-acid change in this region of TRIM5?hu allowed potent restriction of simian immunodeficiency virus, a phenotype not observed for either wild-type TRIM5?hu or TRIM5?rh. Some of the chimeric TRIM5? proteins that are >98% identical to the human protein yet mediate a strong restriction of HIV-1 infection may have therapeutic utility. These observations implicate the v1 variable region of the B30.2(SPRY) domain in TRIM5?rh antiviral potency.

Stremlau, Matthew; Perron, Michel; Welikala, Sohanya; Sodroski, Joseph

2005-01-01

384

Statistical analysis plan for the Stroke Oxygen Study (SO2S): a multi-center randomized controlled trial to assess whether routine oxygen supplementation in the first 72 hours after a stroke improves long-term outcome  

PubMed Central

Background The Stroke Oxygen Study (SO2S) is a multi-center randomized controlled trial of oxygen supplementation in patients with acute stroke. The main hypothesis for the trial is that fixed-dose oxygen treatment during the first 3 days after an acute stroke improves outcome. The secondary hypothesis is that restricting oxygen supplementation to night time only is more effective than continuous supplementation. This paper describes the statistical analysis plan for the study. Methods and design Patients (n?=?8000) are randomized to three groups: (1) continuous oxygen supplementation for 72 hours; (2) nocturnal oxygen supplementation for three nights; and (3) no routine oxygen supplementation. Outcomes are recorded at 7 days, 90 days, 6 months, and 12 months. The primary outcome measure is the modified Rankin scale at 90 days. Data will be analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Methods of statistical analysis are described, including the handling of missing data, the covariates used in adjusted analyses, planned subgroups analyses, and planned sensitivity analyses. Trial registration This trial is registered with the ISRCTN register, number ISRCTN52416964 (30 September 2005).

2014-01-01

385

Evaluation of Thermal Control Coatings and Polymeric Materials Exposed to Ground Simulated Atomic Oxygen and Vacuum Ultraviolet Radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerous thermal control and polymeric samples with potential International Space Station applications were evaluated for atomic oxygen and vacuum ultraviolet radiation effects in the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory 5 eV Neutral Atomic Oxygen Facility and in the MSFC Atomic Oxygen Drift Tube System. Included in this study were samples of various anodized aluminum samples, ceramic paints, polymeric materials, and beta cloth, a Teflon-impregnated fiberglass cloth. Aluminum anodizations tested were black duranodic, chromic acid anodize, and sulfuric acid anodize. Paint samples consisted of an inorganic glassy black paint and Z-93 white paint made with the original PS7 binder and the new K2130 binder. Polymeric samples evaluated included bulk Halar, bulk PEEK, and silverized FEP Teflon. Aluminized and nonaluminized Chemfab 250 beta cloth were also exposed. Samples were evaluated for changes in mass, thickness, solar absorptance, and infrared emittance. In addition to material effects, an investigation was made comparing diffuse reflectance/solar absorptance measurements made using a Beckman DK2 spectroreflectometer and like measurements made using an AZ Technology-developed laboratory portable spectroreflectometer.

Kamenetzky, R. R.; Vaughn, J. A.; Finckenor, M. M.; Linton, R. C.

1995-01-01

386

Adaptive and automatic trimming in testing the equality of two group case  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In testing the equality of two independent groups, t-test plays a very important role for the purpose. This test is reliable when the data is normally distributed. Based on central limit theorem, the normality assumption is fulfilled with large data set, but getting large data set is not always feasible. Most of the time, the researchers have to make do with small sample sizes which are hardly normally distributed. There are many causes of non normality, and one of it is the presence of outliers. One way to handle outliers is by using robust estimator with trimming approach. In this study, robust estimators using different trimming approaches namely adaptive and automatic trimming were proposed as the center measures in Alexander-Govern (AG) test. The results of the Type I error rate was then compared with the original AG test and the classical t-test. The AG test with the adaptive and automatic trimming showed robustness across distributions. The two trimming approaches are comparable to each other in most conditions. As expected the original AG test and classical t-test cannot maintain their robustness especially under skewed distribution.

Abdullah, Suhaida; Yahaya, Sharipah Soaad Syed; Othman, Abdul Rahman

2014-06-01

387

TRIM24 Links a Non-canonical Histone Signature to Breast Cancer  

SciTech Connect

Recognition of modified histone species by distinct structural domains within 'reader' proteins plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression. Readers that simultaneously recognize histones with multiple marks allow transduction of complex chromatin modification patterns into specific biological outcomes. Here we report that chromatin regulator tripartite motif-containing 24 (TRIM24) functions in humans as a reader of dual histone marks by means of tandem plant homeodomain (PHD) and bromodomain (Bromo) regions. The three-dimensional structure of the PHD-Bromo region of TRIM24 revealed a single functional unit for combinatorial recognition of unmodified H3K4 (that is, histone H3 unmodified at lysine 4, H3K4me0) and acetylated H3K23 (histone H3 acetylated at lysine 23, H3K23ac) within the same histone tail. TRIM24 binds chromatin and oestrogen receptor to activate oestrogen-dependent genes associated with cellular proliferation and tumour development. Aberrant expression of TRIM24 negatively correlates with survival of breast cancer patients. The PHD-Bromo of TRIM24 provides a structural rationale for chromatin activation through a non-canonical histone signature, establishing a new route by which chromatin readers may influence cancer pathogenesis.

W Tsai; Z Wang; T Yiu; K Akdemir; W Xia; S Winter; C Tsai; X Shi; D Schwarzer; et al.

2011-12-31

388

The Specificity of Trimming of MHC Class I-Presented Peptides in the Endoplasmic Reticulum1  

PubMed Central

Aminopeptidases in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) can cleave antigenic peptides and in so doing either create or destroy MHC class I-presented epitopes. However the specificity of this trimming process overall and of the major ER aminopeptidase ERAP1 in particular is not well understood. This issue is important because peptide trimming influences the magnitude and specificity of CD8 T cell responses. By systematically varying the N-terminal flanking sequences of peptides in a cell free biochemical system and in intact cells, we elucidated the specificity of ERAP1 and of ER trimming overall. ERAP1 can cleave after many amino acids on the N-terminus of epitope precursors but does so at markedly different rates. The specificity seen with purified ERAP1 is similar to that observed for trimming and presentation of epitopes in the ER of intact cells. We define N-terminal sequences that are favorable or unfavorable for antigen presentation in ways that are independent from the epitopes core sequence. When databases of known presented peptides were analyzed, the residues that were preferred for the trimming of model peptide precursors were found to be overrepresented in N-terminal flanking sequences of epitopes generally. These data define key determinants in the specificity of antigen processing.

Hearn, Arron; York, Ian A.; Rock, Kenneth L.

2010-01-01

389

Fungal pretreatment of unsterilized yard trimmings for enhanced methane production by solid-state anaerobic digestion.  

PubMed

Fungal pretreatment is an environmentally friendly process that has been widely studied to improve the digestibility of lignocellulosic biomass. However, sterilization of feedstocks, a costly process, is generally required prior to the fungal pretreatment. In this study, fungal pretreatment of unsterilized yard trimmings using yard trimmings pre-colonized with Ceriporiopsis subvermispora as an inoculum was investigated. Degradation of lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, and dry matter in yard trimmings during 30days of fungal pretreatment using different inoculum/substrate ratios (1:19, 1:9 and 1:4) was 14.8-20.2%, 8.1-15.4%, 20.7-27.8%, and 9.8-16.2%, respectively. Methane yields of 34.9-44.6L/kg volatile solids were achieved during solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) of the pretreated yard trimmings, which were comparable to those obtained by using the traditional method requiring feedstock sterilization. The technology developed in this study can save about 501-789kJ/kg of dry yard trimmings processed, which is about half of the total biogas energy produced by SS-AD. PMID:24607461

Zhao, Jia; Ge, Xumeng; Vasco-Correa, Juliana; Li, Yebo

2014-04-01

390

Interfering Residues Narrow the Spectrum of MLV Restriction by Human TRIM5?  

PubMed Central

TRIM5? is a restriction factor that limits infection of human cells by so-called N- but not B- or NB-tropic strains of murine leukemia virus (MLV). Here, we performed a mutation-based functional analysis of TRIM5?-mediated MLV restriction. Our results reveal that changes at tyrosine336 of human TRIM5?, within the variable region 1 of its C-terminal PRYSPRY domain, can expand its activity to B-MLV and to the NB-tropic Moloney MLV. Conversely, we demonstrate that the escape of MLV from restriction by wild-type or mutant forms of huTRIM5? can be achieved through interdependent changes at positions 82, 109, 110, and 117 of the viral capsid. Together, our results support a model in which TRIM5?-mediated retroviral restriction results from the direct binding of the antiviral PRYSPRY domain to the viral capsid, and can be prevented by interferences exerted by critical residues on either one of these two partners.

Maillard, Pierre V; Reynard, Severine; Serhan, Fatima; Turelli, Priscilla; Trono, Didier

2007-01-01

391

Endoscopic removal and trimming of distal self-expandable metallic biliary stents  

PubMed Central

AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic removal and trimming of self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS). METHODS: All SEMS had been placed for distal biliary strictures. Twenty-seven endoscopic procedures were performed in 19 patients in whom SEMS (one uncovered and 18 covered) removal had been attempted, and 8 patients in whom stent trimming using argon plasma coagulation (APC) had been attempted at Tokyo Medical University Hospital. The APC settings were: voltage 60-80 W and gas flow at 1.5 L/min. RESULTS: The mean stent indwelling period for all patients in whom stent removal had been attempted was 113.7 ± 77.6 d (range, 8-280 d). Of the 19 patients in whom removal of the SEMS had been attempted, the procedure was successful in 14 (73.7%) without procedure-related adverse events. The indwelling period in the stent removable group was shorter than that in the unremovable group (94.9 ± 71.5 d vs 166.2 ± 76.2 d, P = 0.08). Stent trimming was successful for all patients with one minor adverse event consisting of self-limited hemorrhage. Trimming time ranged from 11 to 16 min. CONCLUSION: Although further investigations on larger numbers of cases are necessary to accumulate evidence, the present data suggested that stent removal and stent trimming is feasible and effective for stent-related complications.

Ishii, Kentaro; Itoi, Takao; Sofuni, Atsushi; Itokawa, Fumihide; Tsuchiya, Takayoshi; Kurihara, Toshio; Tsuji, Shujiro; Ikeuchi, Nobuhito; Umeda, Junko; Moriyasu, Fuminori; Tsuchida, Akihiko

2011-01-01

392

Halloysite nanotube with fluorinated lumen: non-foaming nanocontainer for storage and controlled release of oxygen in aqueous media.  

PubMed

Halloysite clay nanotubes were selectivity modified by adsorbing perfluoroalkylated anionic surfactants at the inner surface. The modified nanotubes formed kinetically stable dispersions due to the enhanced electrostatic repulsions exercised between the particles. We proved that the modified nanotubes can be used as non-foaming oxygen nanocontainers in aqueous media. The gas release from supersaturated dispersions can be controlled by external stimuli and system composition. In conclusion, we managed to put forward an easy strategy to develop smart materials from natural nanoclays, which can endow important applications like the storage and delivery of gas. PMID:24407660

Cavallaro, Giuseppe; Lazzara, Giuseppe; Milioto, Stefana; Palmisano, Giovanni; Parisi, Filippo

2014-03-01

393

Autonomic control of cardiac function and myocardial oxygen consumption during hypoxic hypoxia.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigation in 19 conscious dogs of the importance of the sympathetic nervous system in the coronary and cardiac response to altitude (hypoxic) hypoxia. Beta-adrenergic blockade was used to minimize the cardiac effect associated with sympathetic receptors. It is shown that the autonomic nervous system, and particularly the sympathetic nervous system, is responsible for the increase in ventricular function and myocardial oxygen consumption that occurs during hypoxia. Minimizing this response through appropriate conditioning and training may improve the operating efficiency of the heart and reduce the hazard of hypoxia and other environmental stresses, such as acceleration, which are encountered in advanced aircraft systems.

Erickson, H. H.; Stone, H. L.

1972-01-01

394

Flammability control in the oxygen environment of the Apollo guidance and navigation equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo guidance and navigation (G&N) equipment test program, the redesign philosophy, and the actual equipment modifications that were used to limit burn rates in an environment of 100 percent oxygen at pressures of 6.2 and 16 psia are described. The major approach was a serious basic review of the real function of the nonmetallic materials of concern. The result of this review was that the materials could be replaced, eliminated, or covered by nonflammable metallic materials. Although several low-flammability nonmetallic materials were investigated, the direct approach of cover, eliminate, or replace generally proved to be quicker and more effective.

Holley, M. D.; Bachman, S.

1971-01-01

395

Control of Oxygen Delamination in Solid Oxide Electrolyzer Cells via Modifying Operational Regime  

SciTech Connect

Possible modifications of operational regimes for solid oxide fuel cell (SOEC) devices for hydrogen production are discussed. It is shown that applying alternating current (AC) voltage pulses at a certain frequency range to SOECs could reduce oxygen delamination degradation in these devices and significantly increase their lifetime. This operational scheme provides wide possibilities to increase longevity of SOEC devices required for their use in commercial hydrogen production processes, without any significant modification of used materials and/or cell design. Developed simulation method possesses a broad generality and be employed in a number of other industrial processes.

Sergey N. Rashkeev; Michael V. Glazoff

2011-10-01

396

In situ surface characterization and oxygen reduction reaction on shape-controlled gold nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Gold nanoparticles of different shapes/surface structures were synthesized and electrochemically characterized. An in-situ surface characterization of the Au nanoparticles, which was able to obtain qualitative information about the type and relative sizes of the different facets present in the surface of the Au nanoparticles, was carried out by using Pb Under Potential Deposition (UPD) in alkaline solutions as a surface sensitive tool. The results obtained show that the final atomic arrangement on the surface can be different from that expected from the bulk structure of the well-defined shape Au nanoparticles. In this way, the development of precise in-situ methods to measure the distribution of the different sites on the nanoparticle surface, as lead UPD on gold surfaces, is highlighted. Oxygen Reduction Reaction (ORR) was performed on the different Au nanoparticles. In agreement with the particular sensitivity of the oxygen reduction to the presence of Au(100) surface domains, cubic Au nanoparticles show much better electrocatalytic activity for ORR than small spherical particles and long nanorods, in agreement with the presence of a great fraction of (100) terrace sites on the surface of cubic gold nanoparticles. PMID:19437963

Hernández, J; Solla-Gullón, J; Herrero, E; Feliu, J M; Aldaz, A

2009-04-01

397

The effect of routine hoof trimming on locomotion score, ruminating time, activity, and milk yield of dairy cows.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of hoof trimming on cow behavior (ruminating time, activity, and locomotion score) and performance (milk yield) over time. Data were gathered from a commercial dairy farm in Israel where routine hoof trimming is done by a trained hoof trimmer twice per year on the entire herd. In total, 288 cows spread over 6 groups with varying production levels were used for the analysis. Cow behavior was measured continuously with a commercial neck activity logger and a ruminating time logger (HR-Tag, SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel). Milk yield was recorded during each milking session with a commercial milk flow sensor (Free Flow, SCR Engineers Ltd.). A trained observer assigned on the spot 5-point locomotion scores during 19 nighttime milking occasions between 22 October 2012 and 4 February 2013. Behavioral and performance data were gathered from 1wk before hoof trimming until 1wk after hoof trimming. A generalized linear mixed model was used to statistically test all main and interactive effects of hoof trimming, parity, lactation stage, and hoof lesion presence on ruminating time, neck activity, milk yield, and locomotion score. The results on locomotion scores show that the proportional distribution of cows in the different locomotion score classes changes significantly after trimming. The proportion of cows with a locomotion score ?3 increases from 14% before to 34% directly after the hoof trimming. Two months after the trimming, the number of cows with a locomotion score ?3 reduced to 20%, which was still higher than the baseline values 2wk before the trimming. The neck activity level was significantly reduced 1d after trimming (380±6 bits/d) compared with before trimming (389±6 bits/d). Each one-unit increase in locomotion score reduced cow activity level by 4.488 bits/d. The effect of hoof trimming on ruminating time was affected by an interaction effect with parity. The effect of hoof trimming on locomotion scores was affected by an interaction effect with lactation stage and tended to be affected by interaction effects with hoof lesion presence, indicating that cows with a lesion reacted different to the trimming than cows without a lesion did. The results show that the routine hoof trimming affected dairy cow behavior and performance in this farm. PMID:24931530

Van Hertem, T; Parmet, Y; Steensels, M; Maltz, E; Antler, A; Schlageter-Tello, A A; Lokhorst, C; Romanini, C E B; Viazzi, S; Bahr, C; Berckmans, D; Halachmi, I

2014-08-01

398

TRIM11 is overexpressed in high-grade gliomas and promotes proliferation, invasion, migration and glial tumor growth.  

PubMed

TRIM11 (tripartite motif-containing protein 11), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, is known to be involved in the development of the central nervous system. However, very little is known regarding the role of TRIM11 in cancer biology. Here, we examined the expression profile of TRIM11, along with two stem cell markers CD133 and nestin, in multiple glioma patient specimens, glioma primary cultures derived from tumors taken at surgery and normal neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs). The oncogenic function of TRIM11 in glioma biology was investigated by knockdown and/or overexpression in vitro and in vivo experiments. Our results showed that TRIM11 expression levels were upregulated in malignant glioma specimens and in high-grade glioma-derived primary cultures, whereas remaining low in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) stable cell lines, low-grade glioma-derived primary cultures and NSCs. The expression pattern of TRIM11 strongly correlated with that of CD133 and nestin and differentiation status of malignant glioma cells. Knock down of TRIM11 inhibited proliferation, migration and invasion of GBM cells, significantly decreased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) levels and mitogen-activated protein kinase activity, and downregulated HB-EGF (heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor) mRNA levels. Meanwhile, TRIM11 overexpression promoted a stem-like phenotype in vitro (tumorsphere formation) and enhanced glial tumor growth in immunocompromised mice. These findings suggest that TRIM11 might be an indicator of glioma malignancy and has an oncogenic function mediated through the EGFR signaling pathway. TRIM11 overexpression potentially leads to a more aggressive glioma phenotype, along with increased malignant tumor growth and poor survival. Taken together, clarification of the biological function of TRIM11 and pathways it affects may provide novel therapeutic strategies for treating malignant glioma patients. PMID:23178488

Di, K; Linskey, M E; Bota, D A

2013-10-17

399

A technique using a nonlinear helicopter model for determining trims and derivatives  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique is described for determining the trims and quasi-static derivatives of a flight vehicle for use in a linear perturbation model; both the coupled and uncoupled forms of the linear perturbation model are included. Since this technique requires a nonlinear vehicle model, detailed equations with constants and nonlinear functions for the CH-47B tandem rotor helicopter are presented. Tables of trims and derivatives are included for airspeeds between -40 and 160 knots and rates of descent between + or - 10.16 m/sec (+ or - 200 ft/min). As a verification, the calculated and referenced values of comparable trims, derivatives, and linear model poles are shown to have acceptable agreement.

Ostroff, A. J.; Downing, D. R.; Rood, W. J.

1976-01-01

400

Experimental trim drag values for conventional and supercritical wings. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Supercritical wings were studied to determine whether they incur higher trim drag values at cruise conditions than wide body technology wings. Relative trim drag increments were measured in an experimental wind tunnel investigation. The tests utilized high aspect ratio supercritical wing and a wide body wing in conjunction with five different horizontal tail configurations, mounted on a representative wide body fuselage. The three low tail configurations and two T tail configurations were chosen to measure the effects on horizontal tail size, location, and camber on the trim drag increments for the two wings. The increase in performance (lift to drag ratio) for supercritical wing over the wide body wing was 11 percent for both the optimum low tail and T tail configurations.

Jacobs, P. F.

1981-01-01