Sample records for oxygen trim control

  1. An Advanced Oxygen Trim Control System 

    E-print Network

    Miller, J. G.

    1985-01-01

    Boiler trim control, when it has been used at all, has been accomplished by the use of oxygen sensors. However, the oxygen sensor has limitation because it provides a fixed point on the sensible heat loss curve. A better way is to measure the fuel...

  2. An Advanced Oxygen Trim Control System

    E-print Network

    Miller, J. G.

    Boiler trim control, when it has been used at all, has been accomplished by the use of oxygen sensors. However, the oxygen sensor has limitation because it provides a fixed point on the sensible heat loss curve. A better way is to measure the fuel...

  3. Application of Oxygen Trim Control to Small Packaged Boilers 

    E-print Network

    Nelson, R. L.

    1984-01-01

    controls and inexpensive oxygen sensors to measure excess oxygen in the boiler flue gas. The new developments make possible low cost, continuous, automatic optimization of boiler performance by direct control of air/fuel ratio using flue gas analysis trim...

  4. Flow Metering and Oxygen Trim Control Reduce Dairy Steam Plant Fuel Costs 

    E-print Network

    Foster, E. L.; Nelson, R. L.

    1985-01-01

    milk. Actual reductions in fuel costs of $1,000 to $1,500 per week were achieved by the addition of flue gas oxygen trim control and by altering the plant production schedule so that process steam demands were met by the largest boiler operating near...

  5. Moving mass trim control system design

    SciTech Connect

    Byrne, R.H.; Robinett, R.D.; Sturgis, B.R.

    1996-03-01

    This paper describes the design of a moving mass trim control system for maneuvering axisymmetric reentry vehicles. The moving mass trim controller is composed of three equal masses that are independently positioned in order to deliver a desired center of mass position. For a slowly spinning reentry vehicle, the mass offset creates a trim angle-of-attack to generate modest flight path corrections. The control system must maintain the desired position of each mass in the face of large disturbances. A novel algorithm for determining the desired mass positions is developed in conjunction with a preliminary controller design. The controller design is based on classical frequency domain techniques where a bound on the disturbance magnitude is used to formulate the disturbance rejection problem. Simulation results for the controller are presented for a typical reentry vehicle.

  6. Advanced control concepts. [trim solution for space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutton, M. F.; Friedland, B.

    1973-01-01

    The selection of a trim solution that provides the space shuttle with the highest level of performance and dynamic control in the presense of wind disturbances and bias torques due to misalignment of rocket engines is described. It was determined that engine gimballing is insufficient to provide control to trim the vehicle for headwind and sidewind disturbances, and that it is necessary to use aerodynamic surfaces in conjunction with engine gimballing to achieve trim. The algebraic equations for computing the trim solution were derived from the differential equations describing the motion of the vehicle by substituting the desired trim conditions. The general problem of showing how the trim equations are derived from the equations of motion and the mathematical forms of the performance criterion is discussed in detail, along with the general equations for studying the dynamic response of the trim solution.

  7. A closed-form trim solution yielding minimum trim drag for airplanes with multiple longitudinal-control effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, Kenneth H.; Sliwa, Steven M.; Lallman, Frederick J.

    1989-01-01

    Airplane designs are currently being proposed with a multitude of lifting and control devices. Because of the redundancy in ways to generate moments and forces, there are a variety of strategies for trimming each airplane. A linear optimum trim solution (LOTS) is derived using a Lagrange formulation. LOTS enables the rapid calculation of the longitudinal load distribution resulting in the minimum trim drag in level, steady-state flight for airplanes with a mixture of three or more aerodynamic surfaces and propulsive control effectors. Comparisons of the trim drags obtained using LOTS, a direct constrained optimization method, and several ad hoc methods are presented for vortex-lattice representations of a three-surface airplane and two-surface airplane with thrust vectoring. These comparisons show that LOTS accurately predicts the results obtained from the nonlinear optimization and that the optimum methods result in trim drag reductions of up to 80 percent compared to the ad hoc methods.

  8. Elsevier Science 1 Resist trimming etch process control using dynamic scatterometry

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Elsevier Science 1 Resist trimming etch process control using dynamic scatterometry M. El kodadia to monitor the resist etch process in an industrial etch chamber from Applied Materials equipped with an in, resist trimming process. The etching process chosen for this first validation consists in trimming 500nm

  9. Depth-trim mapping control of underwater vehicle with fins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ye; Pang, Yong-Jie; Huang, Shu-Ling; Wan, Lei

    2011-12-01

    Underwater vehicle plays an important role in ocean engineering. Depth control by fin is one of the difficulties for underwater vehicle in motion control. Depth control is indirect due to the freedom coupling between trim and axial motion. It includes the method of dynamic analysis and lift-resistance-coefficient experiment and theory algorithm. By considering the current speed and depth deviation, comprehensive interpretation is used in object-planning instruction. Expected depth is transformed into expected trim. Dynamic output fluctuation can be avoided, which is caused by linear mapping of deviation. It is steady and accurate for the motion of controlled underwater vehicles. The feasibility and efficiency of the control method are testified in the pool and natural area for experiments.

  10. Airplane automatic control force trimming device for asymmetric engine failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Eric C. (inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The difference in dynamic pressure in the propeller slipstreams as measured by sensors is divided by the freestream dynamic pressure generating a quantity proportional to the differential thrust coefficient. This quantity is used to command an electric trim motor to change the position of trim tab thereby retrimming the airplane to the new asymmetric power condition. The change in position of the trim tab produced by the electric trim motor is summed with the pilot's input to produce the actual trim tab position.

  11. 14 CFR 29.161 - Trim control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...any steady longitudinal, lateral, and collective control forces to zero in level flight at any appropriate speed; and (b) May not introduce any undesirable discontinuities in control force gradients. [Doc. No. 5084, 29 FR 16150,...

  12. 14 CFR 27.161 - Trim control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...any steady longitudinal, lateral, and collective control forces to zero in level flight at any appropriate speed; and (b) May not introduce any undesirable discontinuities in control force gradients. [Doc. No. 5074, 29 FR 15695,...

  13. Development and Operation of an Automatic Rotor Trim Control System for the UH-60 Individual Blade Control Wind Tunnel Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodore, Colin R.; Tischler, Mark B.

    2010-01-01

    An automatic rotor trim control system was developed and successfully used during a wind tunnel test of a full-scale UH-60 rotor system with Individual Blade Control (IBC) actuators. The trim control system allowed rotor trim to be set more quickly, precisely and repeatably than in previous wind tunnel tests. This control system also allowed the rotor trim state to be maintained during transients and drift in wind tunnel flow, and through changes in IBC actuation. The ability to maintain a consistent rotor trim state was key to quickly and accurately evaluating the effect of IBC on rotor performance, vibration, noise and loads. This paper presents details of the design and implementation of the trim control system including the rotor system hardware, trim control requirements, and trim control hardware and software implementation. Results are presented showing the effect of IBC on rotor trim and dynamic response, a validation of the rotor dynamic simulation used to calculate the initial control gains and tuning of the control system, and the overall performance of the trim control system during the wind tunnel test.

  14. MATLAB Stability and Control Toolbox Trim and Static Stability Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, Sean P.; Crespo, Luis

    2012-01-01

    MATLAB Stability and Control Toolbox (MASCOT) utilizes geometric, aerodynamic, and inertial inputs to calculate air vehicle stability in a variety of critical flight conditions. The code is based on fundamental, non-linear equations of motion and is able to translate results into a qualitative, graphical scale useful to the non-expert. MASCOT was created to provide the conceptual aircraft designer accurate predictions of air vehicle stability and control characteristics. The code takes as input mass property data in the form of an inertia tensor, aerodynamic loading data, and propulsion (i.e. thrust) loading data. Using fundamental nonlinear equations of motion, MASCOT then calculates vehicle trim and static stability data for the desired flight condition(s). Available flight conditions include six horizontal and six landing rotation conditions with varying options for engine out, crosswind, and sideslip, plus three take-off rotation conditions. Results are displayed through a unique graphical interface developed to provide the non-stability and control expert conceptual design engineer a qualitative scale indicating whether the vehicle has acceptable, marginal, or unacceptable static stability characteristics. If desired, the user can also examine the detailed, quantitative results.

  15. Flight Investigation of the Effectiveness of an Automatic Aileron Trim Control Device for Personal Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, William H; Kuehnel, Helmut A; Whitten, James B

    1957-01-01

    A flight investigation to determine the effectiveness of an automatic aileron trim control device installed in a personal airplane to augment the apparent spiral stability has been conducted. The device utilizes a rate-gyro sensing element in order to switch an on-off type of control that operates the ailerons at a fixed rate through control centering springs. An analytical study using phase-plane and analog-computer methods has been carried out to determine a desirable method of operation for the automatic trim control.

  16. Development and Operation of an Automatic Rotor Trim Control System for use During the UH-60 Individual Blade Control Wind Tunnel Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Theodore, Colin R.

    2010-01-01

    A full-scale wind tunnel test to evaluate the effects of Individual Blade Control (IBC) on the performance, vibration, noise and loads of a UH-60A rotor was recently completed in the National Full-Scale Aerodynamics Complex (NFAC) 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel [1]. A key component of this wind tunnel test was an automatic rotor trim control system that allowed the rotor trim state to be set more precisely, quickly and repeatably than was possible with the rotor operator setting the trim condition manually. The trim control system was also able to maintain the desired trim condition through changes in IBC actuation both in open- and closed-loop IBC modes, and through long-period transients in wind tunnel flow. This ability of the trim control system to automatically set and maintain a steady rotor trim enabled the effects of different IBC inputs to be compared at common trim conditions and to perform these tests quickly without requiring the rotor operator to re-trim the rotor. The trim control system described in this paper was developed specifically for use during the IBC wind tunnel test

  17. Rapid response missile pitch to trim flight control using sliding modes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darren A. Schumacher; Eglin AFB

    1994-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of designing a pitch autopilot for the EMRRAT missile system which achieves a high angle of attack trim condition in approximately minimum time. Tradeoffs between robust performance and minimum time requirements are discussed, as well as possible scheduling of the aerodynamic coefficients. A variable structure control algorithm is used because of its inherent

  18. On-line determination and control of fat content in batches of beef trimmings by NIR imaging spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wold, J P; O'Farrell, M; Høy, M; Tschudi, J

    2011-11-01

    An NIR imaging scanner was calibrated for on-line determination of the fat content of beef trimmings. A good calibration model was obtained for fat in intact beef (R=0.98, RMSECV=3.0%). The developed model could be used on single pixels to get an image of the fat distribution, or on the average spectrum from each trimming/portion of trimmings passing under the scanner. The fat model gave a rather high prediction error (RMSEP=8.7%) and a correlation of 0.84 when applied to 45 single trimmings with average fat content ranging from 1.6 to 49.3% fat. Test measurements on streams of trimmings making up batches varying from 10 to 24 kg gave a much lower prediction error (RMSEP=1.33%). Simulations based on true measurements indicate that the RMSEP decreases with increasing batch size and, for the present case, reached about 0.6% for 100 kg batches. The NIR scanner was tested on six batches of intact trimmings varying from 145 to 210 kg and gave similar fat estimates as an established microwave system obtained on the ground batches. The proven concept should be applicable to on-line estimation of fat in trimmings in order to determine the batch fat content and also to control the production of batches to different target fat levels. A possible requirement for the concept to work properly is that the trimming or layer of trimmings on the belt is not too thick. In this study maximum thickness was about 8 cm. Thicker trimmings might be measured, but careful hardware adjustments are then required. PMID:21636219

  19. Effect of early lactation foot trimming in lame and non-lame dairy heifers: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Maxwell, O J R; Hudson, C D; Huxley, J N

    2015-07-25

    Foot trimming is a common management intervention in prevention of lameness in dairy cattle. Despite this, there is surprisingly limited experimental evidence on its efficacy, especially in regard to primiparous heifers. A randomised, negatively controlled trial was conducted to investigate the association between an early lactation foot trim on primiparous animals and production outcomes. 282 heifers were enrolled from eight farms in the UK, and randomly assigned to treatment or control groups. Milk yield (305-day-adjusted whole-milk yield) was not significantly different between groups (trimmed 7727?litres, untrimmed 7646?litres). However, multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that this relationship was confounded by lameness state. Animals that were lame at the time of trimming gave significantly more milk (734?litres, P=0.02) than those that were non-lame and untrimmed. The present results suggest that, based on milk production alone, it would not have been cost beneficial to trim all heifers; however, a targeted intervention aimed at lame animals would have delivered a substantial return on investment. As a very minimum, the authors recommend heifers should be regularly assessed in early lactation, and treated as soon as they are identifiably lame. The high prevalence of lesions identified suggests routine trimming for all heifers may be justifiable on welfare grounds even if the milk-yield benefits are marginal. PMID:26116268

  20. Helicopter trimming and tracking control using direct neural dynamic programming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Russell Enns; Jennie Si

    2003-01-01

    This paper advances a neural-network-based approximate dynamic programming control mechanism that can be applied to complex control problems such as helicopter flight control design. Based on direct neural dynamic programming (DNDP), an approximate dynamic programming methodology, the control system is tailored to learn to maneuver a helicopter. The paper consists of a comprehensive treatise of this DNDP-based tracking control framework

  1. EXPERIMENTAL TREE TRIMMING TO CONTROL AN URBAN WINTER BLACKBIRD ROOST

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heidi B. Good; Dan M. Johnson

    1976-01-01

    Every fall millions of blackbirds come down the Mississippi Flyway to return to their winter roosts in Arkansas, Louisiana, and East Texas. When these roosts are located in urban areas, public pressure makes the more common chemical means of control impractical. A less destructive and more permanent method of control was sought. At Rice University, in Houston, Texas, there has

  2. Reducing Pointing Errors During Cassini Reaction Control System Orbit Trim Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizvi, Farheen

    2013-01-01

    The effect of altering a gain parameter in the Cassini reaction control system (RCS) delta-V controller on the maneuver execution errors during orbit trim maneuvers (OTMs) is explored. Cassini consists of two reaction control thruster branches (A & B) each with eight thrusters. Currently, the B-branch is operational while the A-branch serves as a back-up. The four Z-thrusters control the X and Y-axes, while the four Y-thrusters control the Z-axis. During an OTM, the Z-thrusters fire to maintain the X and Y-axes pointing within an attitude control dead-zone (-10 to 10 milliradians). The errors do not remain at zero due to pointing error sources such as spacecraft center of mass offset from the geometric center of the Z-facing thrusters, and variability in the thruster forces due to the thruster hardware differences. The delta-V reaction control system (RCS) controller ensures that the attitude error remains within this dead-zone. Gain parameters within the RCS delta-V controller affect the maneuver execution errors. Different parameter values are used to explore effect on these errors. It is found that pointing error decreases and magnitude error increases rapidly for gain parameters 10 times greater than the current parameter values used in the flight software.

  3. Fore-aft oxygen storage control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Fiengo; J. A. Cook; J. W. Grizzle

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes model-based, active control of an aftertreatment system for a spark ignition engine equipped with a three-way catalyst (TWC) and pre- and post-TWC oxygen sensors. A controller is designed to manage the oxygen storage level in the TWC in order to maximize the simultaneous conversion efficiencies of oxides of nitrogen, NOx, unburned hydrocarbons, HC, and carbon monoxide, CO.

  4. Maneuver Trim Optimization Techniques for Active Aeroelastic Wings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Scott Zink; Dimitri N. Mavris; Daniella E. Raveh

    2001-01-01

    A new method for performing trim optimization of Active Aeroelastic Wing (AAW) technology is presented. The method is based on posing the trim problem as a linear program and solving it with the simplex method. Trim optimization is then integrated with the structural design process in a sequential manner, such that new optimal deflections of the control surfaces are computed

  5. Development of decontamination procedures for beef trimmings 

    E-print Network

    Ebeling, Christine Suzanne

    2001-01-01

    Beef trimmings of 73/27 or 50/50 lean and fat content were obtained from a commercial plant. The trimmings were randomly assigned to four treatments: control, 4% lactic acid (LA), 4% lactic acid plus hot water (LA+HW), and 4% lactic acid plus 10...

  6. OXYGEN ENHANCED COMBUSTION FOR NOx CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    David R. Thompson; Lawrence E. Bool; Jack C. Chen

    2004-04-01

    Conventional wisdom says adding oxygen to a combustion system enhances product throughput, system efficiency, and, unless special care is taken, increases NOx emissions. This increase in NOx emissions is typically due to elevated flame temperatures associated with oxygen use leading to added thermal NOx formation. Innovative low flame temperature oxy-fuel burner designs have been developed and commercialized to minimize both thermal and fuel NOx formation for gas and oil fired industrial furnaces. To be effective these systems require close to 100% oxy-fuel combustion and the cost of oxygen is paid for by fuel savings and other benefits. For applications to coal-fired utility boilers at the current cost of oxygen, however, it is not economically feasible to use 100% oxygen for NOx control. In spite of this conventional wisdom, Praxair and its team members, in partnership with the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory, have developed a novel way to use oxygen to reduce NOx emissions without resorting to complete oxy-fuel conversion. In this concept oxygen is added to the combustion process to enhance operation of a low NOx combustion system. Only a small fraction of combustion air is replaced with oxygen in the process. By selectively adding oxygen to a low NOx combustion system it is possible to reduce NOx emissions from nitrogen-containing fuels, including pulverized coal, while improving combustion characteristics such as unburned carbon. A combination of experimental work and modeling was used to define how well oxygen enhanced combustion could reduce NOx emissions. The results of this work suggest that small amounts of oxygen replacement can reduce the NOx emissions as compared to the air-alone system. NOx emissions significantly below 0.15 lbs/MMBtu were measured. Oxygen addition was also shown to reduce carbon in ash. Comparison of the costs of using oxygen for NOx control against competing technologies, such as SCR, show that this concept offers substantial savings over SCR and is an economically attractive alternative to purchasing NOx credits or installing other conventional technologies. In conjunction with the development of oxygen based low NOx technology, Praxair also worked on developing the economically enhancing oxygen transport membrane (OTM) technology which is ideally suited for integration with combustion systems to achieve further significant cost reductions and efficiency improvements. This OTM oxygen production technology is based on ceramic mixed conductor membranes that operate at high temperatures and can be operated in a pressure driven mode to separate oxygen with infinite selectivity and high flux. An OTM material was selected and characterized. OTM elements were successfully fabricated. A single tube OTM reactor was designed and assembled. Testing of dense OTM elements was conducted with promising oxygen flux results of 100% of target flux. However, based on current natural gas prices and stand-alone air separation processes, ceramic membranes do not offer an economic advantage for this application. Under a different DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement, Praxair is continuing to develop oxygen transport membranes for the Advanced Boiler where the economics appear more attractive.

  7. Oxygen vacancy control of a ferroelectric memristor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santamaria, J.; Liu, Yaohua; Te Velthuis, S. G. E.; Hernandez-Martin, D.; Perez Munoz, A.; Cabero, M.; Sanchez-Santolino, G.; Tornos, J.; Varela, M.; Leon, C.; Sefrioui, Z.; Pennycook, S. J.

    2015-03-01

    The rich phenomenology exhibited by correlated oxide interfaces can be expanded by the control and manipulation of point defects. In particular oxygen vacancies can be induced by electro forming processes at redox active electrodes and, when ionized, can be manipulated by electric fields. We aim at using the strong electric fields building up in ultrathin tunnel barriers to generate and manipulate oxygen vacancies in Ag / BaTiO3/ La0.7Sr0.3MnO3(LSMO) micron-size structures defined by optical and electronic lithography techniques. Controlling accumulation of oxygen vacancies in the BTO barrier at either Ag or LSMO interfaces allows modification of the magnetic state of the LSMO at the interface, enabling independent variation of the width or the height of the tunnel barrier. This yields a controlled sign change of the electroresistance upon polarization switching. We show that clockwise and counter-clockwise memristors can be tailored on the same sample yielding multiple resistance states. The memristive response resulting from the controlled switching of polarization and-or oxygen vacancies may open new routes towards new computing architectures.

  8. Flow Metering and Oxygen Trim Control Reduce Dairy Steam Plant Fuel Costs

    E-print Network

    Foster, E. L.; Nelson, R. L.

    energy management procedures be implemented. This paper describes some of the steps taken at the Orrville Milk Division plant of Dairy Farm Products to significantly reduce the fuel requirements in the production of butter, powdered milk and condensed...

  9. Neural dynamic programming based online controller with a novel trim approach

    E-print Network

    Simões, Marcelo Godoy

    -state control problems and one of the most difficult problems in learning for control is balancing, on the other hand, update value functions strictly on the basis of the experience gained from executing some

  10. 114. WEST SIDE OF LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROL ROOM (205). LIQUID ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    114. WEST SIDE OF LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROL ROOM (205). LIQUID NITROGEN (LN2) SUBCOOLER ON LEFT; SKID 8, LIQUID OXYGEN CONTROLLER FOR SWITCHING BETWEEN RAPID-LOAD AND TOPPING ON RIGHT. LIQUID OXYGEN LINE FROM SKID 9A AT RIGHT EDGE OF PHOTO. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  11. Controlled release of singlet oxygen using diphenylanthracene functionalized polymer nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Martins, S; Farinha, J P S; Baleizão, C; Berberan-Santos, M N

    2014-03-28

    Functionalized polymer nanoparticles react and store molecular oxygen for several weeks in the form of endoperoxides. On-demand controlled release of singlet oxygen by the particles is achieved by thermolysis. PMID:24531381

  12. Trimming smart imagers for an image converter with a non-volatile analog memory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming Zhang; Francis Devos; Jean-François Pône

    1995-01-01

    Trimming of the pixels in an image converter is presented in this work. It is based on the tunnel effect and can be used simultaneously for many pixels with only one common trimming control for all the pixels. The charge injection control is done locally, automatically and independently in each pixel, so the trimming time is independent of the number

  13. Optimal aeroelastic trim for rotorcraft with constrained, non-unique trim solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Troy C. Schank

    2008-01-01

    New rotorcraft configurations are emerging, such as the optimal speed helicopter and slowed-rotor compound helicopter which, due to variable rotor speed and redundant lifting components, have non-unique trim solution spaces. The combination of controls and rotor speed that produce the best steady-flight condition is sought among all the possible solutions. This work develops the concept of optimal rotorcraft trim and

  14. INTEGRATED STRUCTURAL\\/TRIM OPTIMIZATION FOR ACTIVE AEROELASTIC WING TECHNOLOGY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Scott Zink; Dimitri N. Mavris; Daniella E. Raveh

    2000-01-01

    A new process for concurrent trim and structural optimization of Active Aeroelastic Wing technology is presented. The new process treats trim optimization and structural optimization as integrated problems in the same mathematical formulation, in which control surface gear ratios are added as design variables to a standard structural optimization algorithm. This new approach is in contrast to most of the

  15. Trimming of Microring Resonators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. Sparacin; J. P. Lock; C. Hong; K. K. Gleason; L. C. Kimerling; J. Michel

    Microring resonators are basic building blocks of photonic circuits, enabling complex functionality for optical systems. However, as micro-ring resonator diameters shrink to less than 10 µm, non-deterministic pattern-transfer errors limit dimensional precision and preclude the fabrication of identical devices across an entire wafer. Thus, the ability to precisely trim microring resonators becomes increasingly important. Microring trimming is typically done by

  16. Identification of anisoelasticity for electrostatic " trimming " of rate integrating gyroscopes

    E-print Network

    Tang, William C

    Identification of anisoelasticity for electrostatic " trimming " of rate integrating gyroscopes of anisoelasticities in rate integrating gyroscopes as part of a self- calibrative control architecture. In contrast imperfections is discussed. Keywords: Anisoelasticity, Rate Integrating Gyroscopes, Feedforward Control, Smart

  17. Role of Human TRIM5? in Intrinsic Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Emi E.; Shioda, Tatsuo

    2012-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has a very narrow host range. HIV type 1 (HIV-1) does not infect Old World monkeys, such as the rhesus monkey (Rh). Rh TRIM5? was identified as a factor that confers resistance, intrinsic immunity, to HIV-1 infection. Unfortunately, human TRIM5? is almost powerless to restrict HIV-1. However, human TRIM5? potently restricts N-tropic murine leukemia viruses (MLV) but not B-tropic MLV, indicating that human TRIM5? represents the restriction factor previously designated as Ref1. African green monkey TRIM5? represents another restriction factor previously designated as Lv1, which restricts both HIV-1 and simian immunodeficiency virus isolated from macaque (SIVmac) infection. TRIM5 is a member of the tripartite motif family containing RING, B-box2, and coiled-coil domains. The RING domain is frequently found in E3 ubiquitin ligase, and TRIM5? is thought to degrade viral core via ubiquitin–proteasome-dependent and -independent pathways. The alpha isoform of TRIM5 has an additional C-terminal PRYSPRY domain, which is a determinant of species-specific retrovirus restriction by TRIM5?. On the other hand, the target regions of viral capsid protein (CA) are scattered on the surface of core. A single amino acid difference in the surface-exposed loop between ?-helices 6 and 7 (L6/7) of HIV type 2 (HIV-2) CA affects viral sensitivity to human TRIM5? and was also shown to be associated with viral load in West African HIV-2 patients, indicating that human TRIM5? is a critical modulator of HIV-2 replication in vivo. Interestingly, L6/7 of CA corresponds to the MLV determinant of sensitivity to mouse factor Fv1, which potently restricts N-tropic MLV. In addition, human genetic polymorphisms also affect antiviral activity of human TRIM5?. Recently, human TRIM5? was shown to activate signaling pathways that lead to activation of NF-?B and AP-1 by interacting with TAK1 complex. TRIM5? is thus involved in control of viral infection in multiple ways. PMID:22435067

  18. A DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEM FOR OPTIMAL OXYGEN TRANSFER

    E-print Network

    A DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEM FOR OPTIMAL OXYGEN TRANSFER EFFICIENCY Arnold Schwarzenegger Governor.1 Summary of 1st PAC meeting After the presentation of literature background and state-of-the-art equipment

  19. Trim or Replace Impellers on Oversized Pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2006-09-01

    One in a series of tip sheets to help manufacturers optimize their industrial pumping systems. As a result of conservative engineering practices, pumps are often substantially larger than they need to be for an industrial plant's process requirements. Centrifugal pumps can often be oversized because of ''rounding up'', trying to accommodate gradual increases in pipe surface roughness and flow resistance over time, or anticipating future plant capacity expansions. In addition, the plant's pumping requirements might not have been clearly defined during the design phase. Because of this conservative approach, pumps can have operating points completely different from their design points. The pump head is often less than expected, while the flow rate is greater. This can cause cavitation and waste energy as the flow rate typically must be regulated with bypass or throttle control. Oversized and throttled pumps that produce excess pressure are excellent candidates for impeller replacement or ''trimming'', to save energy and reduce costs. Trimming involves machining the impeller to reduce its diameter. Trimming should be limited to about 75% of a pump's maximum impeller diameter, because excessive trimming can result in a mismatched impeller and casing. As the impeller diameter decreases, added clearance between the impeller and the fixed pump casing increases internal flow recirculation, causes head loss, and lowers pumping efficiency. For manufacturing standardization purposes, pump casings and shafts are designed to accommodate impellers in a range of sizes. Many pump manufacturers provide pump performance curves that indicate how various models will perform with different impeller diameters or trims. The impeller should not be trimmed any smaller than the minimum diameter shown on the curve. Net positive suction head requirements (NPSHR) usually decrease at lower flow rates and can increase at the higher end of the pump head curve. The NPSHR at a given flow rate will normally be greater with a smaller impeller, but engineers should consult with the pump manufacturer to determine variations in NPSHR before trimming the impeller. Manufacturers can often provide trim correction charts based on historical test data.

  20. Trim17, a novel E3 ubiquitin-ligase, initiates neuronal apoptosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I Lassot; I Robbins; M Kristiansen; R Rahmeh; F Jaudon; M M Magiera; S Mora; L Vanhille; A Lipkin; B Pettmann; J Ham; S Desagher

    2010-01-01

    Accumulating data indicate that the ubiquitin–proteasome system controls apoptosis by regulating the level and the function of key regulatory proteins. In this study, we identified Trim17, a member of the TRIM\\/RBCC protein family, as one of the critical E3 ubiquitin ligases involved in the control of neuronal apoptosis upstream of mitochondria. We show that expression of Trim17 is increased both

  1. 142. STANDBY PRESSURE CONTROL UNIT FOR FUEL AND LIQUID OXYGEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    142. STANDBY PRESSURE CONTROL UNIT FOR FUEL AND LIQUID OXYGEN IN SOUTHWEST PORTION OF CONTROL ROOM (214), LSB (BLDG. 751), FACING WEST - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  2. Effect of partial comb and wattle trim on pullet behavior and thermoregulation,1.

    PubMed

    Hester, P Y; Al-Ramamneh, D S; Makagon, M M; Cheng, H W

    2015-05-01

    The wattles and comb of chickens are important for thermoregulation allowing for heat exchange during high temperatures. These integumentary tissues are sometimes trimmed to prevent tears if caught on cage equipment and to also improve feed efficiency; however, the procedure itself could be painful to chicks. Our objective was to determine the effect of trimming the comb and wattles on behavior, BW, feed usage, and the surface temperature of pullets. The wattles and comb of Leghorns were partially trimmed at 21?d age (n = 6 cages, 13 chicks each) with another 6 cages serving as controls. Behaviors were recorded 3 times daily for 1?h starting at 0800, 1200, and 1500 using instantaneous scan sampling observations conducted every 5 min prior to, on the d of, and after the trim. Group BW at 21, 28, and 36?d age and the amount of feed used for 7?d beginning at 21 and 29?d age were measured per cage. At 1300?h on d before and after the trim, thermal images of the pullet's beak, comb, eye, wattle, and shank were randomly taken on 3 pullets/cage. Smaller proportions of trimmed chicks were eating and greater proportions were sitting on the d of the trim as compared to the controls with the opposite trend occurring on 4?d post-trim (treatment by age interaction, P = 0.03 and 0.0001, respectively). Standing behavior differed only on the d of the trim where smaller proportions of trimmed pullets stood as compared to intact controls (treatment by age interaction, P = 0.0002). Trimming the comb and wattles did not affect preening, running, BW, feed utilization, and the surface temperature of the pullet. The indices of behavior suggest that on the d of the trim, pullets may have experienced temporary distress, but they returned to normal behavior by 5?h post-trim with no long-term effect on BW, feed usage, or surface body temperature. PMID:25796274

  3. Oxygen controlled bipolar switching in NiO memristor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhong; Zhao, Yonggang; Zhao, Diyang; Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China Team

    2015-03-01

    As Leon Chua demonstrated, both unipolar and bipolar resistance switching devices are memristors. Over the past decade, metal/oxide/metal structure with NiO as a ReRAM functional layer has been investigated widely and in depth, due to its intrinsic unipolar resistance switching, which is attributed to the connection and rupture of nickel filament in NiO. Recently, several papers studying NiO nanowires or NiO films with C-AFM infer that bipolar switching mechanism may govern the NiO memristors on the nanoscale. However, a systematic research on the mechanism of bipolar switching in NiO memristor on the nanoscale is still lacking. Especially, the role of oxygen in a NiO memristor has never been explored. Here we carry out a comprehensive study of the mechanism of bipolar switching in NiO memristor, and uncover the dominant role of oxygen. NiO/Pt structures were measured by C-AFM equipped with 20 nm conductive tips. By controlling the inherent oxygen concentration of NiO film, film thickness, and chamber oxygen pressure, we demonstrate that it is the inner oxygen distribution, related to electric field-induced ion drift and oxygen exchange between NiO film and ambient, that acts as the state variable, whose response to applied bias results in the bipolar switching in NiO memristor.

  4. The TRIM-NHL protein LIN-41 and the OMA RNA-binding proteins antagonistically control the prophase-to-metaphase transition and growth of Caenorhabditis elegans oocytes.

    PubMed

    Spike, Caroline A; Coetzee, Donna; Eichten, Carly; Wang, Xin; Hansen, Dave; Greenstein, David

    2014-12-01

    In many animals, oocytes enter meiosis early in their development but arrest in meiotic prophase I. Oocyte growth, which occurs during this arrest period, enables the acquisition of meiotic competence and the capacity to produce healthy progeny. Meiotic resumption, or meiotic maturation, involves the transition to metaphase I (M phase) and is regulated by intercellular signaling and cyclin-dependent kinase activation. Premature meiotic maturation would be predicted to diminish fertility as the timing of this event, which normally occurs after oocyte growth is complete, is crucial. In the accompanying article in this issue, we identify the highly conserved TRIM-NHL protein LIN-41 as a translational repressor that copurifies with OMA-1 and OMA-2, RNA-binding proteins redundantly required for normal oocyte growth and meiotic maturation. In this article, we show that LIN-41 enables the production of high-quality oocytes and plays an essential role in controlling and coordinating oocyte growth and meiotic maturation. lin-41 null mutants display a striking defect that is specific to oogenesis: pachytene-stage cells cellularize prematurely and fail to progress to diplotene. Instead, these cells activate CDK-1, enter M phase, assemble spindles, and attempt to segregate chromosomes. Translational derepression of the CDK-1 activator CDC-25.3 appears to contribute to premature M-phase entry in lin-41 mutant oocytes. Genetic and phenotypic analyses indicate that LIN-41 and OMA-1/2 exhibit an antagonistic relationship, and we suggest that translational regulation by these proteins could be important for controlling and coordinating oocyte growth and meiotic maturation. PMID:25261698

  5. The TRIM-NHL Protein LIN-41 and the OMA RNA-Binding Proteins Antagonistically Control the Prophase-to-Metaphase Transition and Growth of Caenorhabditis elegans Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Spike, Caroline A.; Coetzee, Donna; Eichten, Carly; Wang, Xin; Hansen, Dave; Greenstein, David

    2014-01-01

    In many animals, oocytes enter meiosis early in their development but arrest in meiotic prophase I. Oocyte growth, which occurs during this arrest period, enables the acquisition of meiotic competence and the capacity to produce healthy progeny. Meiotic resumption, or meiotic maturation, involves the transition to metaphase I (M phase) and is regulated by intercellular signaling and cyclin-dependent kinase activation. Premature meiotic maturation would be predicted to diminish fertility as the timing of this event, which normally occurs after oocyte growth is complete, is crucial. In the accompanying article in this issue, we identify the highly conserved TRIM-NHL protein LIN-41 as a translational repressor that copurifies with OMA-1 and OMA-2, RNA-binding proteins redundantly required for normal oocyte growth and meiotic maturation. In this article, we show that LIN-41 enables the production of high-quality oocytes and plays an essential role in controlling and coordinating oocyte growth and meiotic maturation. lin-41 null mutants display a striking defect that is specific to oogenesis: pachytene-stage cells cellularize prematurely and fail to progress to diplotene. Instead, these cells activate CDK-1, enter M phase, assemble spindles, and attempt to segregate chromosomes. Translational derepression of the CDK-1 activator CDC-25.3 appears to contribute to premature M-phase entry in lin-41 mutant oocytes. Genetic and phenotypic analyses indicate that LIN-41 and OMA-1/2 exhibit an antagonistic relationship, and we suggest that translational regulation by these proteins could be important for controlling and coordinating oocyte growth and meiotic maturation. PMID:25261698

  6. Oxygen enhances phosphine toxicity for postharvest pest control.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Biao

    2011-10-01

    Phosphine fumigations under superatmospheric oxygen levels (oxygenated phosphine fumigations) were significantly more effective than the fumigations under the normal 20.9% atmospheric oxygen level against western flower thrips [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)] adults and larvae, leafminer Liriomyza langei Frick pupae, grape mealybug [Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn)] eggs, and Indianmeal moth [Plodia interpunctella (Hübner)] eggs and pupae. In 5-h fumigations with 1,000 ppm phosphine at 5 degrees C, mortalities of western flower thrips increased significantly from 79.5 to 97.7% when oxygen was increased from 20.9 to 40% and reached 99.3% under 80% O2. Survivorships of leafminer pupae decreased significantly from 71.2% under 20.9% O2 to 16.2% under 40% O2 and reached 1.1% under 80% O2 in 24-h fumigations with 500 ppm phosphine at 5 degrees C. Complete control of leafminer pupae was achieved in 24-h fumigations with 1,000 ppm phosphine at 5 degrees C under 60% O2 or higher. Survivorships of grape mealybug eggs also decreased significantly in 48-h fumigations with 1,000 ppm phosphine at 2 degrees C under 60% O2 compared with the fumigations under 20.9% O2. Indian meal moth egg survivorships decreased significantly from 17.4 to 0.5% in responses to an oxygen level increase from 20.9 to 40% in 48-h fumigations with 1,000 ppm phosphine at 10 degrees C and reached 0.2% in fumigations under 80% O2. When the oxygen level was reduced from 20.9 to 15 and 10% in fumigations, survivorships of Indianmeal moth eggs increased significantly from 17.4 to 32.9 and 39.9%, respectively. Increased O2 levels also resulted in significantly lower survival rates of Indianmeal moth pupae in response to 24-h fumigations with 500 and 1,000 ppm phosphine at 10 degrees C and a complete control was achieved in the 1,000 ppm phosphine fumigations under 60% O2. Oxygenated phosphine fumigations have marked potential to improve insecticidal efficacy. Advantages and limitations of oxygenated phosphine fumigation are discussed. PMID:22066172

  7. Integrated Trim and Structural Design Process for Active Aeroelastic Wing Technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Scott Zink; Daniella E. Raveh; Dimitri N. Mavris

    2003-01-01

    A new method for concurrent trim and structural optimization of Active Aeroelastic Wing technology is presented. The new process treats trim optimization and structural optimization as an integrated problem in the same mathematical formulation, in which control surface gear ratios are included as design variables in a standard structural optimization algorithm. This new approach is in contrast to most of

  8. Glycemic Control in Pediatric Patients on Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Wierer, Kathryn L.; Pagryzinski, Rachel A.; Xiang, Qun

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To determine whether glycemic control has an effect on outcomes for pediatric patients on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy, while controlling for multiple factors. METHODS A single-center retrospective chart review was performed on 82 patients who required ECMO from January 1, 2008, to December 31, 2010. All glucose concentrations collected while patients were on ECMO were analyzed; multiple other factors that may have affected mortality were also recorded. Primary outcome was mortality, and secondary outcomes were length of time on ECMO and length of time until death or discharge from the hospital. RESULTS Of 82 patients, 53 patients survived ECMO (64.6%). Glucose control had no effect on survival of patients on ECMO (p=0.56), even when controlling for multiple factors (p=0.48). Similarly, statistical evaluation showed no differences for hospital mortality in relationship to controlled serum glucose (p=0.50). Patients with controlled glucose spent an average of 31.5% more time on ECMO than non-controlled patients (p=0.048). CONCLUSIONS In this study, glycemic control, defined as serum glucose concentration between 60 mg/dL and 250 mg/dL for >95% of the time on ECMO, had no statistically significant effect on mortality for patients on ECMO. Future studies could focus on tighter glucose control or specific dextrose/glucose protocols to evaluate whether improved glucose control would have an effect on morbidity and mortality. PMID:24052786

  9. 7 CFR 51.571 - Well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION...CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.571 Well trimmed. Well trimmed means...

  10. Modeling, simulation, and control of an extraterrestrial oxygen production plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schooley, L.; Cellier, F.; Zeigler, B.; Doser, A.; Farrenkopf, G.

    1991-01-01

    The immediate objective is the development of a new methodology for simulation of process plants used to produce oxygen and/or other useful materials from local planetary resources. Computer communication, artificial intelligence, smart sensors, and distributed control algorithms are being developed and implemented so that the simulation or an actual plant can be controlled from a remote location. The ultimate result of this research will provide the capability for teleoperation of such process plants which may be located on Mars, Luna, an asteroid, or other objects in space. A very useful near-term result will be the creation of an interactive design tool, which can be used to create and optimize the process/plant design and the control strategy. This will also provide a vivid, graphic demonstration mechanism to convey the results of other researchers to the sponsor.

  11. Supersonic Aerodynamic Characteristics of Blunt Body Trim Tab Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korzun, Ashley M.; Murphy, Kelly J.; Edquist, Karl T.

    2013-01-01

    Trim tabs are aerodynamic control surfaces that can allow an entry vehicle to meet aerodynamic performance requirements while reducing or eliminating the use of ballast mass and providing a capability to modulate the lift-to-drag ratio during entry. Force and moment data were obtained on 38 unique, blunt body trim tab configurations in the NASA Langley Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. The data were used to parametrically assess the supersonic aerodynamic performance of trim tabs and to understand the influence of tab area, cant angle, and aspect ratio. Across the range of conditions tested (Mach numbers of 2.5, 3.5, and 4.5; angles of attack from -4deg to +20deg; angles of sideslip from 0deg to +8deg), the effects of varying tab area and tab cant angle were found to be much more significant than effects from varying tab aspect ratio. Aerodynamic characteristics exhibited variation with Mach number and forebody geometry over the range of conditions tested. Overall, the results demonstrate that trim tabs are a viable approach to satisfy aerodynamic performance requirements of blunt body entry vehicles with minimal ballast mass. For a 70deg sphere-cone, a tab with 3% area of the forebody and canted approximately 35deg with no ballast mass was found to give the same trim aerodynamics as a baseline model with ballast mass that was 5% of the total entry mass.

  12. Inhibition of nitrogenase by oxygen in marine cyanobacteria controls the global nitrogen and oxygen cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman-Frank, I.; Chen, Y.-B.; Gerchman, Y.; Dismukes, G. C.; Falkowski, P. G.

    2005-03-01

    Cyanobacterial N2-fixation supplies the vast majority of biologically accessible inorganic nitrogen to nutrient-poor aquatic ecosystems. The process, catalyzed by the heterodimeric protein complex, nitrogenase, is thought to predate that of oxygenic photosynthesis. Remarkably, while the enzyme plays such a critical role in Earth's biogeochemical cycles, the activity of nitrogenase in cyanobacteria is markedly inhibited in vivo at a post-translational level by the concentration of O2 in the contemporary atmosphere leading to metabolic and biogeochemical inefficiency in N2 fixation. We illustrate this crippling effect with data from Trichodesmium spp. an important contributor of "new nitrogen" to the world's subtropical and tropical oceans. The enzymatic inefficiency of nitrogenase imposes a major elemental taxation on diazotrophic cyanobacteria both in the costs of protein synthesis and for scarce trace elements, such as iron. This restriction has, in turn, led to a global limitation of fixed nitrogen in the contemporary oceans and provides a strong biological control on the upper bound of oxygen concentration in Earth's atmosphere.

  13. Trim11 modulates the function of neurogenic transcription factor Pax6 through ubiquitin-proteosome system.

    PubMed

    Tuoc, Tran Cong; Stoykova, Anastassia

    2008-07-15

    The transcription factor Pax6 is an important developmental regulator. Spatiotemporal control of Pax6 expression during embryogenesis is crucial for regulating distinct aspects of cortical development. Here, we report that Trim11, a member of the TRIM/RBCC protein family of E3 ubiquitin ligases, interacts with Pax6 and mediates Pax6 degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Trim11 overexpression decreases endogenous Pax6 protein levels and represses Pax6 functions, including Pax6-dependent transactivation and neurogenesis. Abrogation of endogenous Trim11 expression in the developing cortex increases the level of insoluble forms of Pax6 and enhances apoptosis. We provide evidence that the B30.2 domain of Trim11 is essential for the clearance of insoluble cell proteins. Furthermore, we show that the expression of Trim11 is directly regulated by Pax6 in developing cortex in vivo. Our findings indicate that an autoregulatory feedback loop between Trim11 and Pax6 maintains a balance between the levels of Pax6 and Trim11 proteins in cortical progenitors, having an essential role for the Pax6-dependent neurogenesis. PMID:18628401

  14. Oxygen Generation System Laptop Bus Controller Flight Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, Chad; Panter, Donna

    2009-01-01

    The Oxygen Generation System Laptop Bus Controller Flight Software was developed to allow the International Space Station (ISS) program to activate specific components of the Oxygen Generation System (OGS) to perform a checkout of key hardware operation in a microgravity environment, as well as to perform preventative maintenance operations of system valves during a long period of what would otherwise be hardware dormancy. The software provides direct connectivity to the OGS Firmware Controller with pre-programmed tasks operated by on-orbit astronauts to exercise OGS valves and motors. The software is used to manipulate the pump, separator, and valves to alleviate the concerns of hardware problems due to long-term inactivity and to allow for operational verification of microgravity-sensitive components early enough so that, if problems are found, they can be addressed before the hardware is required for operation on-orbit. The decision was made to use existing on-orbit IBM ThinkPad A31p laptops and MIL-STD-1553B interface cards as the hardware configuration. The software at the time of this reporting was developed and tested for use under the Windows 2000 Professional operating system to ensure compatibility with the existing on-orbit computer systems.

  15. Fuzzy logic assisted control of inspired oxygen in ventilated newborn infants.

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Y.; Kohane, I.; Stark, A. R.

    1994-01-01

    The control of oxygen delivery to mechanically ventilated newborn infants is a time intensive process that must balance adequate tissue oxygenation against possible toxic effects of oxygen exposure. Investigation in computer assisted control of mechanical ventilation is increasing, although very few studies involve newborn infants. We have implemented a fuzzy controller for the adjustment of inspired oxygen concentration (FIO2) in ventilated newborns. The controller utilizes rules produced by neonatologists, and operates in real-time. A clinical trial of this controller is currently taking place in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Children's Hospital, Boston, MA. PMID:7950026

  16. Oxygen pumping device for control of the air fuel ratio

    SciTech Connect

    Logothetis, E.M.; Hetrick, R.E.; Soltis, R.E.; Vassell, W.C.

    1989-06-27

    This patent describes a method operating a two cell oxygen pumping device to control the air fuel ratio of an engine, the oxygen pumping device having a pumping cell and sensing cell. The method includes the steps of: introducing exhaust gas from the engine to a region between the pumping cell and the sensing cell; applying a pumping current to the pumping cell; sensing an EMF across the sensing cell; comparing an adjustable reference voltage with the sensed EMF; generating an error signal from the comparison between the reference voltage and the sensed EMF: changing the air fuel ratio in response to the error signal so as to reduce the absolute magnitude of the error signal, including the step of decreasing the engine air fuel ratio in response to a positive error signal until the measured EMF becomes equal to the reference voltage, and the step of increasing the engine air fuel ratio in response to a negative error signal until the measured EMF becomes equal to the reference voltage; establishing a predetermined desired air fuel ratio from a range of possible operating air fuel ratio values.

  17. Dissolved Oxygen Monitoring and Control System based on the CDMA platform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuhua Ma; Jinkuan Wang; Yiding Zhao

    2010-01-01

    In aquiculture, the dissolved oxygen concentration in the water has great influence on the growth and development of fish. It is quite necessary to monitor the dissolved oxygen concentration in the fish pond. In this paper Dissolved Oxygen Monitoring and Control System is designed, which we present the system structure chart, circuit for communication, and the list of some program

  18. Oxygen diffusion: an enzyme-controlled variable parameter.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Wilhelm; Kunke, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Previous oxygen microelectrode studies have shown that the oxygen diffusion coefficient (DO?) increases during extracellular PO? decreases, while intracellular PO? remained unchanged and thus cell function (spike activity of neurons). Oxygen dependency of complex multicellular organisms requires a stable and adequate oxygen supply to the cells, while toxic concentrations have to be avoided. Oxygen brought to the tissue by convection diffuses through the intercellular and cell membranes, which are potential barriers to diffusion. In gerbil brain cortex, PO? and DO? were measured by membrane-covered and by bare gold microelectrodes, as were also spike potentials. Moderate respiratory hypoxia was followed by a primary sharp drop of tissue PO? that recovered to higher values concomitant with an increase of DO?. A drop in intracellular PO? recovered immediately. Studies on the abdominal ganglion of aplysia californica showed similar results.Heterogeneity is a feature of both normal oxygen supply to tissue and supply due to a wide range of disturbances in oxygen supply. Oxygen diffusion through membranes is variable thereby ensuring adequate intracellular PO?. Cell-derived glucosamine oxidase seems to regulate the polymerization/depolymerisation ratio of membrane mucopolysaccharides and thus oxygen diffusion.Variability of oxygen diffusion is a decisive parameter for regulating the supply/demand ratio of oxygen supply to the cell; this occurs in highly developed animals as well as in species of a less sophisticated nature. Autoregulation of oxygen diffusion is as important as the distribution/perfusion ratio of the capillary meshwork and as the oxygen extraction ratio in relation to oxygen consumption of the cell. Oxygen diffusion resistance is the cellular protection against luxury oxygen supply (which can result in toxic oxidative species leading to mutagenesis). PMID:24729212

  19. 16 CFR 303.12 - Trimmings of household textile articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 false Trimmings of household textile articles. 303.12 Section 303...CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.12 Trimmings of household textile articles. (a) Trimmings...

  20. A DCS supervisory control of a centrifugal compessor for oxygen consumption optimization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Silvia Maria Zanoli; Luca Barboni

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a supervisory control system for oxygen consumption optimization on a syngas manufacturing process plant is proposed. A grey-box multivariable parametric identification of the oxygen compressor system is first performed. Consequently, by means of dynamic simulations the structure of an optimal control system has been determined, also reflecting the implementation constraints linked with the use of a DCS.

  1. LQG based robust tracking control of blood gases during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Smith; Hemanth V. Porumamilla

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents three different types of LQG based controllers designed for tracking control of the arterial partial pressures of the blood gases; oxygen and carbon dioxide (O2 and CO2) during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). ECMO is a method of support for the heart and or lungs in severely ill patients. In this procedure, the blood is circulated out of

  2. Compartment A1, trim tanks viewed aft to forward from watertight ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Compartment A-1, trim tanks viewed aft to forward from watertight bulkhead no. 6. Using remotely controlled valves, the tanks could be flooded with water or pumped clear to compensate for variations in the ship's displacement and maintain the water line at the desired point. The trim tanks could also be used to counteract the effect of variations in sea water density. (02) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. Processes controlling mid-water column oxygen minima over the Texas-Louisiana shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wenxia; Hetland, Robert D.; DiMarco, Steven F.; Fennel, Katja

    2015-04-01

    We investigate distributions of dissolved oxygen over the Texas-Louisiana shelf using spatially highly resolved observations in combination with a regional circulation model with simple oxygen dynamics. The observations were collected using a towed, undulating CTD during the Mechanisms Controlling Hypoxia (MCH) program. Mid-water oxygen minimum layers (dissolved oxygen lower than 3.2 mL L-1) were detected in many transects. These oxygen minimum layers are connected with the bottom boundary layer and follow the pycnocline seaward as a tongue of low oxygen into the mid-water column. T-S diagrams highlighting the low oxygen minima in both observations and simulations imply direct connections between low-oxygen bottom water and the oxygen minimum layer. The dynamics of these oxygen minimum layers in the mid-water column are examined using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, based on the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS). Convergence within the bottom boundary layer relative to density surfaces is calculated, results show that there is a convergence in the bottom boundary layer at the location where the pycnocline intersects the bottom. Buoyancy advection forced by bottom Ekman transport creates this convergent flow, and the corresponding low-oxygen intrusion. Similar intrusions of near-bottom water into the pycnocline are observed in other regions. The presence of hypoxia within the bottom boundary layer in the northern Gulf of Mexico creates a unique situation in which these intrusions are also associated with low dissolved oxygen.

  4. TRIM24 Is a p53-Induced E3-Ubiquitin Ligase That Undergoes ATM-Mediated Phosphorylation and Autodegradation during DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Abhinav K.; Allton, Kendra; Duncan, Aundrietta D.

    2014-01-01

    Tumor suppressor p53 protects cells from genomic insults and is a target of mutation in more than 50% of human cancers. Stress-mediated modification and increased stability of p53 promote p53 interaction with chromatin, which results in transcription of target genes that are critical for the maintenance of genomic integrity. We recently discovered that TRIM24, an E3-ubiquitin ligase, ubiquitinates and promotes proteasome-mediated degradation of p53. Here, we show that TRIM24 is destabilized by ATM-mediated phosphorylation of TRIM24S768 in response to DNA damage, which disrupts TRIM24-p53 interactions and promotes the degradation of TRIM24. Transcription of TRIM24 is directly induced by damage-activated p53, which binds p53 response elements and activates expression of TRIM24. Newly synthesized TRIM24 interacts with phosphorylated p53 to target it for degradation and termination of the DNA damage response. These studies indicate that TRIM24, like MDM2, controls p53 levels in an autoregulatory feedback loop. However, unlike MDM2, TRIM24 also targets activated p53 to terminate p53-regulated response to DNA damage. PMID:24820418

  5. Fast-Response Oxygen-Monitoring and Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.; Davis, W. T.; Puster, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    Oxygen sensor is Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2 ceramic disk maintained at 843 degrees C. Overall system response time reduced to about 0.2 second, equal to or less than 1 percent of tunnel run time. When test gas oxygen concentration differs from normal air concentration by 25 percent or more, alarm sounds, and emergency tunnel shutdown signal operates. New ZrO2 sensors intended for hypersonic-vehicle testing.

  6. The Trimmed Iterative Closest Point Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dmitry Chetverikov; D. Svirko; Dmitry Stepanov; Pavel Krsek

    2002-01-01

    The problem of geometric alignment of two roughly pre- registered, partially overlapping, rigid, noisy 3D point sets is considered. A new natural and simple, robustified ex- tension of the popular Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algo- rithm (1) is presented, called the Trimmed ICP (TrICP). The new algorithm is based on the consistent use of the Least Trimmed Squares (LTS) approach

  7. Growth control of budding yeast cells by oxygen-radical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohta, Takayuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ito, Masafumi; Takeda, Keigo; Hori, Masaru

    2013-09-01

    Microorganisms respond to stimuli or stresses such as chemicals, nutrition, pressure, heat and so on. Those stimuli lead to cell activation, inactivation or cell death, such as apoptosis and necrosis. Reactive oxygen species possibly affect cell growth as well as inactivation depending on stimuli. In this study, we investigated effects of oxygen-radical treatment on not only inactivation but also promoted/repressed cell growth of budding yeast by varying dose of atomic oxygen produced from an atmospheric-pressure oxygen radical source. Dose of atomic oxygen was estimated based on treatment time and oxygen flux. Cell growth was promoted with atomic oxygen between 0 and 2.1 ×1019 cm-2 dose of atomic oxygen. The treated cells were grown about 10 percent more proliferously than the control cells. Moreover, 64 percent of the treated cells to the control ones were inactivated at more than 4.2 ×1020 cm-2. These results, therefore, suggested that atomic-oxygen dose had a potential to control mitotic promotion and repression, and inactivation of yeast cell growth.

  8. Spatial control of the energy metabolism of yeast cells through electrolytic generation of oxygen

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Warnke; Thomas Mair; Hartmut Witte; Antje Reiher; Marcus J. B. Hauser; Alois Krost

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic dynamics of yeast cells is controlled by electric pulses delivered through a spatially extended yeast cell\\/Au electrode interface. Concomitant with voltage pulses, oxygen is generated electrolytically at the electrode surface and delivered to the cells. The generation of oxygen was investigated in dependence of the applied voltage, width of the voltage pulses and temperature of the electrolytic solution.

  9. ULTRALOW OXYGEN TREATMENT FOR POSTHARVEST INSECT CONTROL ON LETTUCE AND BROCCOLI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Controlled atmosphere treatment with ultralow oxygen (ultralow oxygen treatment or ULO treatment) was studied to develop an alternative treatment to the current practice of chemical fumigation with methyl bromide. Lettuce aphid, western flower thrips, and leafminer, Liriomyza langei, were tested und...

  10. TRIM family proteins: retroviral restriction and antiviral defence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan P. Stoye; Ali Saïb; Sébastien Nisole

    2005-01-01

    Members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family are involved in various cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, development, oncogenesis and apoptosis. Some TRIM proteins display antiviral properties, targeting retroviruses in particular. The potential activity of TRIM19, better known as promyelocytic leukaemia protein, against several viruses has been well documented and, recently, TRIM5? has been identified as the factor responsible

  11. Characterization of bending CD errors induced by resist trimming in 65 nm node and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Yiming; Friedmann, James B.; Ukraintsev, Vladimir; Zhang, Gary; Wolf, Thomas; Lii, Tom; Jackson, Ricky

    2007-03-01

    Resist trimming is a technique that is often used to close the gap between line widths which can be repeatedly printed with currently available lithography tools and the desired transistor gate length. For the 65-nm node, the resist line width delivered at pattern is between 60 to 70 nm while the final transistor gate length is usually targeted between 35 to 45 nm. The 15 to 35 nm critical dimension (CD) difference can be bridged by resist trimming. Due to the stringent gate CD budget, a resist trimming process should ideally have the following characteristics: i) no degradation in CD uniformity; ii) no damage in pattern fidelity; iii) controllable CD trim rate with good linearity; and iv) no degradation in line edge roughness (LER) or line width roughness (LWR). Unfortunately, a realistic resist trimming process is never perfect. In particular, resist consumption and the resultant internal stress build-up during resist trimming can lead to resist line bending. The effect of bent resist lines is a higher post-etch CD and significantly degraded local CD uniformity (LCDU). In order to reduce resist bending CD errors (defined as the difference between the post-etch CD and the design CD due to resist bending after trimming) several useful procedures either in layout or in processes are presented. These procedures include: i) symmetrically aligning gates to contact pads and field connecting poly in the circuit layout; ii) enlarging the distance between contact pad (or field connecting poly) to active area within the limits of the design rules (DR) and silicon real estate; iii) adding assist features to the layout within the DR limits; iv) minimizing resist thickness; and v) applying special plasma cure before resist trim.

  12. Localization and activities of nitrogenase, glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthase in Azotobacter vinelandii grown in oxygen-controlled continuous culture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Riickel; J. J. Hernando; E. Vakalopoulou; E. Post; J. Oelze

    1983-01-01

    Azotobacter vinelandii was grown in oxygen-controlled continuous cultures under conditions of dinitrogen fixation. Different oxygen concentrations were adjusted with air. Cell-free extracts were employed to study the oxygen dependency of the intracellular distribution and activity of the following enzymes: nitrogenase, glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthase. Nitrogenase was localized exclusively in the soluble fraction. Its activity increased steeply when the oxygen

  13. Oxygen deficiency hazards associated with liquefied gas systems development of a program of controls

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, T.M.; Mazur, P.O.

    1983-01-01

    The use of liquefied gases in industry and research has become commonplace. Release into the atmosphere of these gases, whether intentional or not, will result in a displacement of air and a reduction in the oxygen concentration. Exposure to reduced levels of oxygen levels may cause reduced abilities, unconsciousness, or death. This paper describes the derivation of a novel program of controls for oxygen deficiency hazards. The key to this approach is a quantitative assessment of risk for each planned operation and the application of control measures to reduce that risk to an acceptable level. Five risk levels evolve which are based on the probability of fatality. Controls such as training, oxygen monitoring equipment, self-rescue respirators, and medical surveillance are required when the probability of fatality exceeds 10/sup -7/ per hour. The quantitative nature of this program ensures an appropriate level of control without undue burden or expense. 11 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  14. Method of controlled reduction of nitroaromatics by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes

    DOEpatents

    Shah, M.M.; Campbell, J.A.

    1998-07-07

    A method is described for the controlled reduction of nitroaromatic compounds such as nitrobenzene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes, such as ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase. 6 figs.

  15. Method of controlled reduction of nitroaromatics by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes

    DOEpatents

    Shah, Manish M. (Richland, WA); Campbell, James A. (Pasco, WA)

    1998-01-01

    A method for the controlled reduction of nitroaromatic compounds such as nitrobenzene and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by enzymatic reaction with oxygen sensitive nitroreductase enzymes, such as ferredoxin NADP oxidoreductase.

  16. Phase control of a perovskite transition-metal oxide through oxygen displacement at the heterointerface.

    PubMed

    Kan, Daisuke; Aso, Ryotaro; Kurata, Hiroki; Shimakawa, Yuichi

    2015-06-21

    Controlling structural distortions that are closely related to functional properties in transition-metal oxides is a key not only to exploring novel phenomena but also to developing novel oxide-based electronic devices. In this review article, we overview investigations revealing that oxygen displacement at the heterointerface is a key parameter characterizing structure-property relationships of heterostructures. We further demonstrate that the interface engineering of the oxygen displacement is useful to control structural and electronic properties of strained oxides. PMID:25848647

  17. TRIM28/KAP1 regulates senescence.

    PubMed

    Santos, Joana; Gil, Jesús

    2014-11-01

    Senescence is a highly stable cell cycle arrest which limits the replication of cells with damaged genomes. The senescence program is activated during aging or in response to insults like DNA damage or oncogenic signaling. Upon induction of senescence, cells undergo profound changes on their transcription program, chromatin organization, and they secrete a complex mixture of mainly pro-inflammatory components termed the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). The SASP mediates multiple effects, including reinforcing senescence and activating immune surveillance responses. Given the important role that senescence has in aging, cancer and other pathologies, identifying mechanisms regulating senescence has therapeutic potential. Here we describe a role for TRIM28 (also known as KRAB-associated protein 1, KAP1) on mediating oncogene-induced senescence (OIS). TRIM28 accumulates during OIS becoming phosphorylated on serine 824. To investigate the role of TRIM28, we knocked down its expression and observed that the depletion of TRIM28 partially prevented cell arrest during OIS. While induction of p53 and p21 during OIS, was not affected by TRIM28 depletion, p16(INK4a) induction was partially prevented. Finally, we observed that the induction of IL8, IL6 and other SASP components were strongly suppressed upon TRIM28 depletion. In conclusion, the above-described results show that TRIM28 regulates senescence and affects the induction of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype. PMID:25160591

  18. TRIM44 interacts with and stabilizes terf, a TRIM ubiquitin E3 ligase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tomohiko Urano; Takahiko Usui; Shizu Takeda; Kazuhiro Ikeda; Atsushi Okada; Yoshiko Ishida; Takao Iwayanagi; Jun Otomo; Yasuyoshi Ouchi; Satoshi Inoue

    2009-01-01

    Terf\\/TRIM17 is a member of the TRIM family of proteins, which is characterized by the RING finger, B-box, and coiled-coil domains. In the present study, we found that terf interacts with TRIM44. Terf underwent ubiquitination in vitro in the presence of the E2 enzyme UbcH6; this suggests that terf exhibits E3 ubiquitin ligase activity. It was also found that terf

  19. Regulation of Respiration and Fermentation to Control the Plant Internal Oxygen Concentration1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Zabalza, Ana; van Dongen, Joost T.; Froehlich, Anja; Oliver, Sandra N.; Faix, Benjamin; Gupta, Kapuganti Jagadis; Schmälzlin, Elmar; Igal, Maria; Orcaray, Luis; Royuela, Mercedes; Geigenberger, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Plant internal oxygen concentrations can drop well below ambient even when the plant grows under optimal conditions. Using pea (Pisum sativum) roots, we show how amenable respiration adapts to hypoxia to save oxygen when the oxygen availability decreases. The data cannot simply be explained by oxygen being limiting as substrate but indicate the existence of a regulatory mechanism, because the oxygen concentration at which the adaptive response is initiated is independent of the actual respiratory rate. Two phases can be discerned during the adaptive reaction: an initial linear decline of respiration is followed by a nonlinear inhibition in which the respiratory rate decreased progressively faster upon decreasing oxygen availability. In contrast to the cytochrome c pathway, the inhibition of the alternative oxidase pathway shows only the linear component of the adaptive response. Feeding pyruvate to the roots led to an increase of the oxygen consumption rate, which ultimately led to anoxia. The importance of balancing the in vivo pyruvate availability in the tissue was further investigated. Using various alcohol dehydrogenase knockout lines of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), it was shown that even under aerobic conditions, alcohol fermentation plays an important role in the control of the level of pyruvate in the tissue. Interestingly, alcohol fermentation appeared to be primarily induced by a drop in the energy status of the tissue rather than by a low oxygen concentration, indicating that sensing the energy status is an important component of optimizing plant metabolism to changes in the oxygen availability. PMID:19098094

  20. Regulation of respiration and fermentation to control the plant internal oxygen concentration.

    PubMed

    Zabalza, Ana; van Dongen, Joost T; Froehlich, Anja; Oliver, Sandra N; Faix, Benjamin; Gupta, Kapuganti Jagadis; Schmälzlin, Elmar; Igal, Maria; Orcaray, Luis; Royuela, Mercedes; Geigenberger, Peter

    2009-02-01

    Plant internal oxygen concentrations can drop well below ambient even when the plant grows under optimal conditions. Using pea (Pisum sativum) roots, we show how amenable respiration adapts to hypoxia to save oxygen when the oxygen availability decreases. The data cannot simply be explained by oxygen being limiting as substrate but indicate the existence of a regulatory mechanism, because the oxygen concentration at which the adaptive response is initiated is independent of the actual respiratory rate. Two phases can be discerned during the adaptive reaction: an initial linear decline of respiration is followed by a nonlinear inhibition in which the respiratory rate decreased progressively faster upon decreasing oxygen availability. In contrast to the cytochrome c pathway, the inhibition of the alternative oxidase pathway shows only the linear component of the adaptive response. Feeding pyruvate to the roots led to an increase of the oxygen consumption rate, which ultimately led to anoxia. The importance of balancing the in vivo pyruvate availability in the tissue was further investigated. Using various alcohol dehydrogenase knockout lines of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), it was shown that even under aerobic conditions, alcohol fermentation plays an important role in the control of the level of pyruvate in the tissue. Interestingly, alcohol fermentation appeared to be primarily induced by a drop in the energy status of the tissue rather than by a low oxygen concentration, indicating that sensing the energy status is an important component of optimizing plant metabolism to changes in the oxygen availability. PMID:19098094

  1. Single Cell Responses to Spatially-Controlled Photosensitized Production of Extracellular Singlet Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Brian Wett; Sinks, Louise E.; Breitenbach, Thomas; Schack, Nickolass B.; Vinogradov, Sergei A.; Ogilby, Peter R.

    2011-01-01

    The response of individual HeLa cells to extracellularly produced singlet oxygen was examined. The spatial domain of singlet oxygen production was controlled using the combination of a membrane-impermeable Pd porphyrin-dendrimer, which served as a photosensitizer, and a focused laser, which served to localize the sensitized production of singlet oxygen. Cells in close proximity to the domain of singlet oxygen production showed morphological changes commonly associated with necrotic cell death. The elapsed post-irradiation “waiting period” before necrosis became apparent depended on (a) the distance between the cell membrane and the domain irradiated, (b) the incident laser fluence and, as such, the initial concentration of singlet oxygen produced, and (c) the lifetime of singlet oxygen. The data imply that singlet oxygen plays a key role in this process of light-induced cell death. The approach of using extracellularly-generated singlet oxygen to induce cell death can provide a solution to a problem that often limits mechanistic studies of intracellularly photosensitized cell death: it can be difficult to quantify the effective light dose, and hence singlet oxygen concentration, when using an intracellular photosensitizer. PMID:21668871

  2. Microbial, instrumental color and sensory color and odor characteristics of ground beef produced from beef trimmings treated with ozone or chlorine dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R Stivarius; F. W Pohlman; K. S McElyea; J. K Apple

    2002-01-01

    The effects of beef trimming decontamination with ozone and chlorine dioxide on ground beef microbial, color and odor characteristics were studied. Beef trimmings were inoculated with Escherichia coli (EC) and Salmonella Typhimurium (ST), then treated with either 1% ozonated water for 7 min (7O) or 15 min (15O), or with 200 ppm chlorine dioxide (CLO) and compared with a control

  3. Infrared Beak Treatment: Part I, Comparative Effects of Infrared and 1/3 Hot-blade Trimming on Beak Topography, Focal Behavior and Growth.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examines the effects of beak trimming on production and well-being. Seventy-two layer chicks were assigned to hot-blade trimming (HB), infrared treatment (IR), or a control(C) untrimmed treatment at one-day-old. Chicks were pair housed by treatment and beak images, behavior and production...

  4. 7 CFR 51.3063 - Well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION, CERTIFICATION...Well trimmed means that the stem, when present, is cut off fairly smoothly at a point not more than...

  5. 3D modeling of edge trimming process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Hubert; M. Dubar; A. Dubois; L. Dubar

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with an original study on serration, supposed to be the result of residual stresses in the strip metal edge,\\u000a due to edge trimming and revealed during the cold rolling process. The aim of this research work is to predict the formation\\u000a of serration and the finite element methodology will be used to model edge trimming. The first

  6. Commercialization Development of Oxygen Fired CFB for Greenhouse Gas Control

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2007-03-31

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic (i.e., man-made) CO{sub 2} emissions. In 2001, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) began a two-phase program to investigate the feasibility of various carbon capture technologies. This program was sponsored under a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE). The first phase entailed a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen cases, representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated. Seven cases represented coal combustion in CFB type equipment. Four cases represented Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Two cases represented advanced Chemical Looping Combined Cycle systems. Marion, et al. reported the details of this work in 2003. One of the thirteen cases studied utilized an oxygen-fired circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. In this concept, the fuel is fired with a mixture of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (mainly CO{sub 2}). This combustion process yields a flue gas containing over 80 percent (by volume) CO{sub 2}. This flue gas can be processed relatively easily to enrich the CO{sub 2} content to over 96 percent for use in enhanced oil or gas recovery (EOR or EGR) or simply dried for sequestration. The Phase I study identified the O{sub 2}-fired CFB as having a near term development potential, because it uses conventional commercial CFB technology and commercially available CO{sub 2} capture enabling technologies such as cryogenic air separation and simple rectification or distillation gas processing systems. In the long term, air separation technology advancements offer significant reductions in power requirements, which would improve plant efficiency and economics for the oxygen-fired technology. The second phase consisted of pilot-scale testing followed by a refined performance and economic evaluation of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. As a part of this workscope, ALSTOM modified its 3 MW{sub th} (9.9 MMBtu/hr) Multiuse Test Facility (MTF) pilot plant to operate with O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures of up to 70 percent O{sub 2} by volume. Tests were conducted with coal and petroleum coke. The test objectives were to determine the impacts of oxygen firing on heat transfer, bed dynamics, potential agglomeration, and gaseous and particulate emissions. The test data results were used to refine the design, performance, costs, and economic models developed in Phase-I for the O{sub 2}-fired CFB with CO{sub 2} capture. Nsakala, Liljedahl, and Turek reported results from this study in 2004. ALSTOM identified several items needing further investigation in preparation for large scale demonstration of the oxygen-fired CFB concept, namely: (1) Operation and performance of the moving bed heat exchanger (MBHE) to avoid recarbonation and also for cost savings compared to the standard bubbling fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHE); (2) Performance of the back-end flash dryer absorber (FDA) for sulfur capture under high CO{sub 2}/high moisture flue gas environment using calcined limestone in the fly ash and using fresh commercial lime directly in the FDA; (3) Determination of the effect of recarbonation on fouling in the convective pass; (4) Assessment of the impact of oxygen firing on the mercury, other trace elements, and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions; and (5) Develop a proposal-level oxygen-fired retrofit design for a relatively small existing CFB steam power plant in preparation for a large-scale demonstration of the O{sub 2} fired CFB concept. Hence, ALSTOM responded to a DOE Solicitation to address all these issues with further O{sub 2} fired MTF pilot testing and a subsequent retrofit design study of oxygen firing and CO{s

  7. Antiretroviral Activity of Ancestral TRIM5??

    PubMed Central

    Goldschmidt, Valérie; Ciuffi, Angela; Ortiz, Millan; Brawand, David; Muñoz, Miguel; Kaessmann, Henrik; Telenti, Amalio

    2008-01-01

    The antiretroviral protein TRIM5? is known to have evolved different restriction capacities against various retroviruses, driven by positive Darwinian selection. However, how these different specificities have evolved in the primate lineages is not fully understood. Here we used ancestral protein resurrection to estimate the evolution of antiviral restriction specificities of TRIM5? on the primate lineage leading to humans. We used TRIM5? coding sequences from 24 primates for the reconstruction of ancestral TRIM5? sequences using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian approaches. Ancestral sequences were transduced into HeLa and CRFK cells. Stable cell lines were generated and used to test restriction of a panel of extant retroviruses (human immunodeficiency virus type 1 [HIV-1] and HIV-2, simian immunodeficiency virus [SIV] variants SIVmac and SIVagm, and murine leukemia virus [MLV] variants N-MLV and B-MLV). The resurrected TRIM5? variant from the common ancestor of Old World primates (Old World monkeys and apes, ?25 million years before present) was effective against present day HIV-1. In contrast to the HIV-1 restriction pattern, we show that the restriction efficacy against other retroviruses, such as a murine oncoretrovirus (N-MLV), is higher for more recent resurrected hominoid variants. Ancestral TRIM5? variants have generally limited efficacy against HIV-2, SIVagm, and SIVmac. Our study sheds new light on the evolution of the intrinsic antiviral defense machinery and illustrates the utility of functional evolutionary reconstruction for characterizing recently emerged protein differences. PMID:18077724

  8. Oxygen regulated gene expression in Escherichia coli: Control of anaerobic respiration by the FNR protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gottfried Unden; Martin Trageser

    1991-01-01

    Molecular oxygen is an important regulatory signal in facultative anaerobic bacteria and controles the expression of a great variety of genes positively or negatively. The expression of anaerobic respiration and of related functions of E. coli is controlled by the positive gene regulator FNR, which activates transcription in the absence of O2. The regulated genes carry a FNR consensus sequence

  9. Efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for control of Tribolium castaneum with reduced oxygen and increased carbon dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Lord

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of atmosphere modification, a widely adopted means of insect control in stored products, on the efficacy of Beauveria bassiana for one of the most difficult to control pests, Tribolium castaneum. Oxygen reduction to 5% (1%) as opposed to CO2 elevation to 40% (2%) for the first 72 h of fungus exposure resulted in signifi- cantly

  10. Methodology for determining elevon deflections to trim and maneuver the DAST vehicle with negative static margin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, B., III

    1982-01-01

    The relationships between elevon deflection and static margin using elements from static and dynamic stability and control and from classical control theory are emphasized. Expressions are derived and presented for calculating elevon deflections required to trim the vehicle in lg straight-and-level flight and to perform specified longitudinal and lateral maneuvers. Applications of this methodology are made at several flight conditions for the ARW-2 wing. On the basis of these applications, it appears possible to trim and maneuver the vehicle with the existing elevons at -15% static margin.

  11. Synthesis of colloidal microgels using oxygen-controlled flow lithography.

    PubMed

    An, Harry Z; Eral, H Burak; Chen, Lynna; Chen, Michelle B; Doyle, Patrick S

    2014-10-14

    We report a synthesis approach based on stop-flow lithography (SFL) for fabricating colloidal microparticles with any arbitrary 2D-extruded shape. By modulating the degree of oxygen inhibition during synthesis, we achieved previously unattainable particle sizes. Brownian diffusion of colloidal discs in bulk suggests the out-of-plane dimension can be as small as 0.8 ?m, which agrees with confocal microscopy measurements. We measured the hindered diffusion of microdiscs near a solid surface and compared our results to theoretical predictions. These colloidal particles can also flow through physiological microvascular networks formed by endothelial cells undergoing vasculogensis under minimal hydrostatic pressure (?5 mm H2O). This versatile platform creates future opportunities for on-chip parametric studies of particle geometry effects on particle passage properties, distribution and cellular interactions. PMID:25119975

  12. Dissolved oxygen control of mechanical aerators at the Rensselaer county wastewater treatment plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wurtenberger, F.J.; Biski, W.K.; Guagno, J.A.

    1994-02-01

    The report describes the results of testing dissolved oxygen analyzers to control operation of mechanical aerators at the Rensselaer County Sewer District Wastewater Treatment Plant and reduce the amount of energy uses while maintaining or enhancing biological treatment. Current electricity costs are more than $300,000 annually for aeration in the activated sludge process. Motors for the aerators are manually controlled between high and low speed. It is expected that energy consumption will be reduced by using automatic controllers that change the speed of the aerators in response to the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the aeration basins. The project had three objectives; to test several manufacturers` dissolved oxygen analyzers at various locations within the aeration basins at the Rensselaer County Sewer District Wastewater Treatment Plant for accuracy, reliability, response time, and maintenance requirements; to install one manufacturer`s equipment in the aeration basins and operate the aerators either automatically or manually in response to dissolved oxygen readings; and to record plant operating and energy use data to determine whether the dissolved oxygen analyzers and controls were cost-effective and saved energy.

  13. Factors Controlling Dissolved Oxygen Concentration in the Hyporheic Zone Induced by Fish Egg Nests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, A.; Cardenas, M. B.; Kaufman, M.; Zheng, L.; Kessler, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    There is currently limited research on the effects of bed depressions, such as those associated with fish nests, on hyporheic flow and biogeochemistry. A series of flume experiments are in progress, with the aim of understanding the effects of bed depressions on the hyporheic flow of oxygenated water. This study focuses on fish nests, also called redds, which represent a typical depression or scour feature. Previous research has shown that redd topography induces hyporheic circulation, but experiments regarding the oxygen concentration in and around the redds have not been conducted. We are determining the ways in which redds affect dissolved oxygen distribution and how this is controlled by hyporheic flow. The oxygen concentration across the cross-sectional plane of a fish nest is measured using a planar optode and microsensors. Hydraulic measurements include pressure measurements along the sediment-water interface and dye visualization. The redd design is based on a salmonid redd, which consists of a scour feature and a tailspin. The salmonid eggs are found in the tailspin. We hypothesize that the oxygen concentration will be greatest in close proximity to the gravel base of the redd and concentration will decrease with increasing depth and distance from the redd. Higher oxygen concentrations in the tailspin supports the placement of fish eggs within that area as opposed to a less oxygenated area of the streambed. Thus, fish nests are likely bio-engineered to optimize hyporheic flow and biogeochemistry to improve egg viability.

  14. Differential sympathetic neural control of oxygenation in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, J; Thomas, G D; Harris, S A; Parsons, W J; Victor, R G

    1996-01-01

    Metabolic products of skeletal muscle contraction activate metaboreceptor muscle afferents that reflexively increase sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) targeted to both resting and exercising skeletal muscle. To determine effects of the increased sympathetic vasoconstrictor drive on muscle oxygenation, we measured changes in tissue oxygen stores and mitochondrial cytochrome a,a3 redox state in rhythmically contracting human forearm muscles with near infrared spectroscopy while simultaneously measuring muscle SNA with microelectrodes. The major new finding is that the ability of reflex-sympathetic activation to decrease muscle oxygenation is abolished when the muscle is exercised at an intensity > 10% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). During high intensity handgrip, (45% MVC), contraction-induced decreases in muscle oxygenation remained stable despite progressive metaboreceptor-mediated reflex increases in SNA. During mild to moderate handgrips (20-33% MVC) that do not evoke reflex-sympathetic activation, experimentally induced increases in muscle SNA had no effect on oxygenation in exercising muscles but produced robust decreases in oxygenation in resting muscles. The latter decreases were evident even during maximal metabolic vasodilation accompanying reactive hyperemia. We conclude that in humans sympathetic neural control of skeletal muscle oxygenation is sensitive to modulation by metabolic events in the contracting muscles. These events are different from those involved in either metaboreceptor muscle afferent activation or reactive hyperemia. PMID:8755671

  15. April 5, 2013 11:30 WSPC -Proceedings Trim Size: 9in x 6in passivedampingprosthesisFINAL A Comparison of a Passive and Variable-Damping Controlled

    E-print Network

    Berns, Karsten

    , the magnetic field through the magnetorheological fluid is induced by an electric current, which is the control. Magnetorheological fluids alter its viscosity in the presence of a magnetic field. A piston, or damper, filled A Comparison of a Passive and Variable-Damping Controlled Leg Prosthesis in a Simulated Environment JIE ZHAO

  16. Modeling, simulation, and high-autonomy control of a Martian oxygen production plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schooley, L. C.; Cellier, F. E.; Wang, F.-Y.; Zeigler, B. P.

    1992-01-01

    Progress on a project for the development of a high-autonomy intelligent command and control architecture for process plants used to produce oxygen from local planetary resources is reported. A distributed command and control architecture is being developed and implemented so that an oxygen production plant, or other equipment, can be reliably commanded and controlled over an extended time period in a high-autonomy mode with high-level task-oriented teleoperation from one or several remote locations. During the reporting period, progress was made at all levels of the architecture. At the remote site, several remote observers can now participate in monitoring the plant. At the local site, a command and control center was introduced for increased flexibility, reliability, and robustness. The local control architecture was enhanced to control multiple tubes in parallel, and was refined for increased robustness. The simulation model was enhanced to full dynamics descriptions.

  17. Ship trim optimization: assessment of influence of trim on resistance of MOERI container ship.

    PubMed

    Sherbaz, Salma; Duan, Wenyang

    2014-01-01

    Environmental issues and rising fuel prices necessitate better energy efficiency in all sectors. Shipping industry is a stakeholder in environmental issues. Shipping industry is responsible for approximately 3% of global CO? emissions, 14-15% of global NO(X) emissions, and 16% of global SO(X) emissions. Ship trim optimization has gained enormous momentum in recent years being an effective operational measure for better energy efficiency to reduce emissions. Ship trim optimization analysis has traditionally been done through tow-tank testing for a specific hullform. Computational techniques are increasingly popular in ship hydrodynamics applications. The purpose of this study is to present MOERI container ship (KCS) hull trim optimization by employing computational methods. KCS hull total resistances and trim and sinkage computed values, in even keel condition, are compared with experimental values and found in reasonable agreement. The agreement validates that mesh, boundary conditions, and solution techniques are correct. The same mesh, boundary conditions, and solution techniques are used to obtain resistance values in different trim conditions at Fn = 0.2274. Based on attained results, optimum trim is suggested. This research serves as foundation for employing computational techniques for ship trim optimization. PMID:24578649

  18. October 6, 2005 18:8 Proceedings Trim Size: 9.75in x 6.5in boolcontrol ON THE COMPLEXITY OF FINDING CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR

    E-print Network

    Wong, Limsoon

    for probabilis- tic Boolean networks (PBNs), where a PBN12 is an extension of a BN (therefore, a BN is a special case of a PBN). In their approach, it is assumed that states of some nodes can be externally controlled

  19. The genetic control of avascular area in mouse oxygen-induced retinopathy

    E-print Network

    O'Bryhim, Bliss; Radel, Jeff; Macdonald, Stuart J.; Symons, R. C. Andrew

    2012-02-08

    Purpose: The C57BL/6ByJ and BALB/cByJ inbred strains of mice are, respectively, susceptible and resistant to oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). The purpose of this work was to investigate the genetic control of the retinal avascular area in mouse OIR...

  20. Crystalline structure of ceria particles controlled by the oxygen partial pressure and STI CMP performances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ye-Hwan Kim; Sang-Kyun Kim; Namsoo Kim; Jea-Gun Park; Ungyu Paik

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the crystalline structures of nano-sized ceria particles on shallow trench isolation (STI) chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) performance was investigated. The ceria particles were synthesized via a solid-state displacement reaction method, and their crystalline structure was controlled by regulating the oxygen partial pressure at the reaction site on the precursor. The crystalline structures of ceria particles were analyzed

  1. CONTROL OF TRANSIENT INCINERATOR EMISSIONS WITH AN OXYGEN BASED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The subject of this paper is the experience with a novel and field-proven method for the enhanced control of transient emissions from rotary kiln incinerators using oxygen enrichment. hen high-BTU content wastes are fed into rotary kiln incinerators in an intermittent mode (typic...

  2. Oxygen transfer rate control in the production of human-like collagen by recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoxuan; Fan, Daidi; Shang, Long-An; Cai, Qiang; Chi, Lei; Zhu, Chenhui; Mi, Yu; Luo, Yan-E

    2010-04-01

    The effects of different methods for elevating the OTR (oxygen transfer rate) during foreign gene expression and the cell growth of recombinant Escherichia coli BL21 were investigated. Two strategies were introduced to control DO (dissolved oxygen) levels in the fermentation broth: (i) increasing fermentor pressure and (ii) supplying oxygen-enriched air. These two methods were compared with the glucose feedback model, which acted as the control. By adopting a fed-batch method of cultivation, the cell yield coefficient (YX/S), accumulation of acetic acid and volumetric product yield (Yp) were measured or estimated. Adoption of these two methods led to an improvement in the OTR. The cell density and volumetric product yield in the cultivation controlled by increasing the fermentor pressure reached 77 g x l(-1) (dry cell weight) and 14 g x l(-1) respectively, which were much higher than those obtained with the strategy of supplying oxygen-enriched air (48 and 6 g x l(-1) respectively) and in the control (46 and 7 g x l(-1) respectively). The results indicate that increasing fermentor pressure is an effective way to enhance the OTR and recombinant protein (human-like collagen) productivity. PMID:20132095

  3. Oxygen consumption and development of volatile sulfur compounds during bottle aging of two Shiraz wines. Influence of pre- and postbottling controlled oxygen exposure.

    PubMed

    Ugliano, Maurizio; Dieval, Jean-Baptiste; Siebert, Tracey E; Kwiatkowski, Mariola; Aagaard, Olav; Vidal, Stéphane; Waters, Elizabeth J

    2012-09-01

    The evolution of different volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) during bottle maturation of two Shiraz wines submitted to controlled oxygen exposure prior to bottling (through micro-oxygenation, MOX) and postbottling (through the closure) was investigated. H(2)S, methyl mercaptan (MeSH), and dimethyl sulfide (DMS) were found to increase during aging. Lower postbottling oxygen exposure, as obtained by different degrees of oxygen ingress through the closure, resulted in increased H(2)S and methyl mercaptan. In one wine MOX increased the concentration of H(2)S and methyl mercaptan during maturation. Dimethyl disulfide and DMS were not affected by any form of oxygen exposure. Overall, postbottling oxygen had a stronger influence than MOX on the evolution of VSCs. Data suggest that dimethyl disulfide was not a precursor to methyl mercaptan during bottle maturation. For the two wines studied, a consumption of oxygen of 5 mg/L over 12 months was the most effective oxygen exposure regimen to decrease accumulation of MeSH and H(2)S during bottle aging. PMID:22900817

  4. Oxygen sensor feedback loop digital electronic signal integrator for internal combustion engine control

    SciTech Connect

    Hartford, T.W.; Kessler, J.A.

    1981-06-30

    A method and apparatus for controlling the various functions of an internal combustion engine are disclosed that uses a program-controlled microprocessor having a memory preprogrammed with various control laws and associated control schedules receives information concerning one or more engine-operating parameters such as manifold pressure, throttle position, engine coolant temperature, air temperature, and engine speed or period and the like. These parameters are sensed or measured and then the value thereof is supplied to input circuits for signal conditioning and conversion to digital words usable by the microprocessor. The microprocessor system computes digital control words indicative of particular computer-commanded engine control operations and output circuitry responds to predetermined computer-generated commands and to the computed digital command words for converting them into corresponding pulse-width control signals for controlling such engine operations as fuel-injection, ignition timing, proportional and/or on-off egr control, and the like. The engine control system further includes an oxygen sensor feedback system for providing reliable data to said microprocessor for command control purposes. In particular the oxygen sensor signal is sampled a predetermined number of times per each engine revolution and the totality of each sampling is determined per revolution. This generates a digital word representing the condition of the air/fuel ratio of the engine over each revolution.

  5. How to minimize power in dissolved oxygen control... DSM in action

    SciTech Connect

    Skrentner, R.G.; Lutman, C.G.

    1994-12-31

    As part of the EPRI Municipal Water and Sewage Project, Demand-Side Energy Management, EPRI retained EMA to evaluate the life cycle cost of three alternatives for controlling low-pressure centrifugal compressors to reduce power costs. The alternatives included: inlet guide vanes, inlet butterfly valves, and adjustable speed drives. This paper contains the findings and identifies actions that could benefit wastewater treatment facilities. Many wastewater treatment plants use an activated sludge process to remove organic pollutants. In this process, a large mass of microbes consumes the organic matter in the wastewater. The microbes require diffused oxygen to metabolize the organic material. The diffused air mixes with the contents of the aeration basin and provides oxygen to the microbes. The basic activated sludge process has the following features: (1) An aeration basin with provisions for oxygenation and mixing of the mixed liquor, (2) A settling tank or clarifier to separate mixed liquor solids and liquid, (3) A sludge recycling system to return settled activated sludge to the aeration basin, and (4) A sludge wasting system to remove solids at the rate that it grows, thus maintaining the desired mass of solids in the process. The operator has three main control variables: (1) Aeration rate to control the dissolved oxygen concentration in the aeration basin. The operator sets the aeration rate to maintain dissolved oxygen at 1-2 mg/l. (2) Sludge recycle rate to control the concentration of the return sludge and the mass of solids in the clarifier. The operator sets the return rate to maintain the sludge blanket level at some predetermined depth. (3) Sludge wasting rate to control the solids retention time and mass of solids in the process. The operator sets the waste rate usually once per day to remove a pre-determined mass.

  6. Singlet oxygen-dependent translational control in the tigrina-d.12 mutant of barley

    PubMed Central

    Khandal, Dhriti; Samol, Iga; Buhr, Frank; Pollmann, Stephan; Schmidt, Holger; Clemens, Stephan; Reinbothe, Steffen; Reinbothe, Christiane

    2009-01-01

    The tigrina (tig)-d.12 mutant of barley is impaired in the negative control limiting excess protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) accumulation in the dark. Upon illumination, Pchlide operates as photosensitizer and triggers singlet oxygen production and cell death. Here, we show that both Pchlide and singlet oxygen operate as signals that control gene expression and metabolite accumulation in tig-d.12 plants. In vivo labeling, Northern blotting, polysome profiling, and protein gel blot analyses revealed a selective suppression of synthesis of the small and large subunits of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RBCSs and RBCLs), the major light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein of photosystem II (LHCB2), as well as other chlorophyll-binding proteins, in response to singlet oxygen. In part, these effects were caused by an arrest in translation initiation of photosynthetic transcripts at 80S cytoplasmic ribosomes. The observed changes in translation correlated with a decline in the phosphorylation level of ribosomal protein S6. At later stages, ribosome dissociation occurred. Together, our results identify translation as a major target of singlet oxygen-dependent growth control and cell death in higher plants. PMID:19620736

  7. Foodservice industry market profile study: in-plant beef fat trim level survey and cutting yields.

    PubMed

    Neel, S W; Williams, S E; Johnson, L P; Gwartney, B L; Reagan, J O

    1993-07-01

    Fifty foodservice purveying companies were sampled in 12 U.S. cities evenly distributed across six geographical regions. Beef whole muscle cuts (WMC) and portion control items (PCI) from the primal rib and loin were evaluated for surface fat levels. Fat thicknesses were measured on WMC before and after fabrication, whereas additional PCI were measured for fat trim levels before distribution. The average initial fat thickness was 11.9 mm (174 Short Loin and 180A Strip Loin) and 15.6 mm (184 Top Sirloin Butt); maximum fat thicknesses ranged from 16.2 mm (strip loin) to 22.2 mm (top sirloin butt). After fabrication, average fat thicknesses were 6.2, 5.1, and 4.0 mm for resulting products from the short loin, strip loin, and top sirloin butt, respectively. The average initial fat thickness for the strip loin was greater (P < .05) in Southeast and Northeast regions than in Mountain/Desert, Midwest, and Southwest regions. In contrast, average trimmed fat thicknesses for products from the strip loin and top sirloin butt were lower (P < .05) in the Southeast and Northeast than in all other regions. Average fat trim levels for PCI were 3.0 (1112A Ribeye Roll steak, Lip-On), 5.3 (1173B/1174B T-Bone/Porterhouse steak), 5.0 (1180A Strip Loin steak), and 4.0 mm (1184B Top Sirloin steak). Maximum fat trim levels were 4.4 (IMPS 1112A), 7.4 (IMPS 1173B/1174B), 6.9 (IMPS 1180A), and 5.5 mm (IMPS 1184B). The PCI had average and maximum fat trim levels in compliance with USDA (1988) recommendations for fat trim specifications.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8349507

  8. Oxygen-induced diffusion-controlled intergranular cracking of structural alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfaendtner, Jeffrey A.

    The high-temperature cracking behavior of a nickel-base superalloy IN718, known to suffer time-dependent fatigue-crack growth in the presence of oxygen, and a precipitation-hardening copper-beryllium-cobalt alloy, as a potential model material for dynamic embrittlement, were explored in the presence of oxygen. Single-edge-notch specimens of the nickel-base alloy were loaded in pure bending to a fixed displacement, cracking was observed to occur by smooth intergranular decohesion at rates approaching 3×10sp{-5} m/sec, as computed via a compliance calibration, at 650sp°C and 1 atmosphere oxygen, with an apparent activation enthalpy of 69 kcal/mol. The rate of cracking in this alloy was also a strong function of the oxygen pressure with a several-orders-of-magnitude difference in cracking rate between 1 atmosphere and 10sp{-5} torr. At the low pressures, there appeared to be a transition in the cracking mechanism from one controlled by oxygen diffusion ahead of the crack to one of oxygen-supply control at the crack tip. This is based on fractographic observations of changes in grain boundary appearance from smooth facets to one showing prominent striations with periodic spacing. In this alloy the mechanism of crack advance is suggested to be one involving a highly localized crack-tip diffusion process zone thought to be on the order of nanometers. A crack growing in 1 atmosphere of oxygen was arrested by evacuating the test chamber to below {˜}10sp{-3} torr, the time of which took less than 30 seconds. When tested at 175sp°C in oxygen, the high-strength copper-beryllium-cobalt alloy failed by smooth intergranular cracking at rates several orders of magnitude lower than the nickel-base alloy at 650sp°C. Those grain boundaries containing weakly-bonded second-phase particles appeared to be especially prone to decohesion. As with the nickel alloy, crack growth rates in this alloy depended strongly on the ambient oxygen pressure. This material, however, exhibited low toughness in the presence of the sharp cracks produced by dynamic embrittlement. The observed high-temperature cracking began by intergranular decohesion at low stress intensities with a transition to transgranular ductile tearing at higher stress intensities.

  9. Examining the ability to detect change using the TRIM-Diabetes and TRIM-Diabetes Device measures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meryl Brod; Torsten Christensen; Mette Hammer; Anne K. Busk; Donald M. Bushnell

    Purpose  Responsiveness is defined as the ability of an instrument to accurately detect change when it has occurred and is an essential\\u000a psychometric property of a patient-reported outcomes (PRO) measure to understand and interpret study findings. This study\\u000a examined the responsiveness of 2 Treatment Related Impact Measures (TRIMs): The TRIM-Diabetes (TRIM-D) and TRIM-Diabetes Device\\u000a (TRIM-DD) as well as confirmed their measurement

  10. Spatial control of the energy metabolism of yeast cells through electrolytic generation of oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnke, Christian; Mair, Thomas; Witte, Hartmut; Reiher, Antje; Hauser, Marcus J. B.; Krost, Alois

    2009-12-01

    The metabolic dynamics of yeast cells is controlled by electric pulses delivered through a spatially extended yeast cell/Au electrode interface. Concomitant with voltage pulses, oxygen is generated electrolytically at the electrode surface and delivered to the cells. The generation of oxygen was investigated in dependence of the applied voltage, width of the voltage pulses and temperature of the electrolytic solution. The local oxygen pulses at the electrodes lead to a transient activation of the aerobic energy metabolism of the yeast cells causing a perturbation in their energy balance. The effect of these local perturbations on the temporal dynamics of glycolysis in yeast cells is quantified in dependence of the energy state of cells.

  11. An oxygen-sensing diguanylate cyclase and phosphodiesterase couple for c-di-GMP control.

    PubMed

    Tuckerman, Jason R; Gonzalez, Gonzalo; Sousa, Eduardo H S; Wan, Xuehua; Saito, Jennifer A; Alam, Maqsudul; Gilles-Gonzalez, Marie-Alda

    2009-10-20

    A commonly observed coupling of sensory domains to GGDEF-class diguanylate cyclases and EAL-class phosphodiesterases has long suggested that c-di-GMP synthesizing and degrading enzymes sense environmental signals. Nevertheless, relatively few signal ligands have been identified for these sensors, and even fewer instances of in vitro switching by ligand have been demonstrated. Here we describe an Escherichia coli two-gene operon, dosCP, for control of c-di-GMP by oxygen. In this operon, the gene encoding the oxygen-sensing c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase Ec Dos (here renamed Ec DosP) follows and is translationally coupled to a gene encoding a diguanylate cyclase, here designated DosC. We present the first characterizations of DosC and a detailed study of the ligand-dose response of DosP. Our results show that DosC is a globin-coupled sensor with an apolar but accessible heme pocket that binds oxygen with a K(d) of 20 microM. The response of DosP activation to increasing oxygen concentration is a complex function of its ligand saturation such that over 80% of the activation occurs in solutions that exceed 30% of air saturation (oxygen >75 microM). Finally, we find that DosP and DosC associate into a functional complex. We conclude that the dosCP operon encodes two oxygen sensors that cooperate in the controlled production and removal of c-di-GMP. PMID:19764732

  12. Prediction and innovative control strategies for oxygen and hazardous gases from diesel emission in underground mines.

    PubMed

    Kurnia, Jundika C; Sasmito, Agus P; Wong, Wai Yap; Mujumdar, Arun S

    2014-05-15

    Diesel engine is widely used in underground mining machines due to its efficiency, ease of maintenance, reliability and durability. However, it possesses significant danger to the miners and mining operations as it releases hazardous gases (CO, NO, CO2) and fine particles which can be easily inhaled by the miners. Moreover, the diesel engine consumes significant amount of oxygen which can lead to insufficient oxygen supply for miners. It is therefore critical to maintain sufficient oxygen supply while keeping hazardous gas concentrations from diesel emission below the maximum allowable level. The objective of this study is to propose and to examine various innovative ventilation strategies to control oxygen and hazardous gas concentrations in underground mine to ensure safety, productivity and cost related to energy consumption. Airflow distribution, oxygen and hazardous gas dispersion as well as ambient temperature within the mining area are evaluated by utilizing the well-established computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach. The results suggest that our newly proposed ventilation design performs better as compared to the conventional design to handle hazardous gases from diesel emission. PMID:24607396

  13. Effects of Beak Trimming on Pecking Force

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beak trimming in the production laying hen has come under great scrutiny by welfare and consumer advocacy groups as a potential source of acute and chronic pain as well as having the potential to inhibit the freedom to express normal behaviors such as feeding behaviors. Although several studies have...

  14. Adaptive trimming of cubic triangular BØzier patches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ruiz de Miras

    2006-01-01

    We present a method to handle cubic trimmed triangular BØzier patches. This scheme makes use of levels of detail and surface subdivision to achieve a fast and e xible hierarchical data structure that is specially useful to compute surface intersections in a robust and efcient way. The accuracy of the results can be adjusted by adding or subtracting elements to

  15. Downward laser trimming of thick film resistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Badri Narayana; K. Ramkumar; M. Satyam

    1991-01-01

    A method of laser trimming thick-film resistors to lower resistance is presented. It involves heating of certain regions of the resistor film in the form of tracks (to a temperature where a certain transformation in the structure of the film takes place, like segregation of the constituents of the resistor material, but not high enough to evaporate the material) by

  16. Compensation, Tuning, and Trimming of MEMS Resonators

    E-print Network

    Ayazi, Farrokh

    Compensation, Tuning, and Trimming of MEMS Resonators Farrokh Ayazi, Roozbeh Tabrizian, Logan Sorenson Center for MEMS and Microsystems Technologies Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, GA, USA ayazi@gatech.edu Abstract--Fundamental characteristics of MEMS resonators such as acoustic velocity

  17. Plant cysteine oxidases control the oxygen-dependent branch of the N-end-rule pathway.

    PubMed

    Weits, Daan A; Giuntoli, Beatrice; Kosmacz, Monika; Parlanti, Sandro; Hubberten, Hans-Michael; Riegler, Heike; Hoefgen, Rainer; Perata, Pierdomenico; van Dongen, Joost T; Licausi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    In plant and animal cells, amino-terminal cysteine oxidation controls selective proteolysis via an oxygen-dependent branch of the N-end rule pathway. It remains unknown how the N-terminal cysteine is specifically oxidized. Here we identify plant cysteine oxidase (PCO) enzymes that oxidize the penultimate cysteine of ERF-VII transcription factors by using oxygen as a co-substrate, thereby controlling the lifetime of these proteins. Consequently, ERF-VII proteins are stabilized under hypoxia and activate the molecular response to low oxygen while the expression of anaerobic genes is repressed in air. Members of the PCO family are themselves targets of ERF-VII transcription factors, generating a feedback loop that adapts the stress response according to the extent of the hypoxic condition. Our results reveal that PCOs act as sensor proteins for oxygen in plants and provide an example of how proactive regulation of the N-end rule pathway balances stress response to optimal growth and development in plants. PMID:24599061

  18. Control, monitor and alarm system for clinical application of a membrane oxygenator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Duffin; B. Martin; J. D. Cooper

    1976-01-01

    Summary  Membrane oxygenators, now commercially available, are undergoing clinical trials as long-term (days) respiratory support devices\\u000a for patients in potentially reversible respiratory failure. However, these devices must be used in an integrated system of\\u000a controls, monitors and alarms if they are to be reliable and easy to operate in the clinical environment. This paper describes\\u000a such a system.\\u000a \\u000a The tubing circuits

  19. Determination of oxygen to uranium ratio in irradiated uranium dioxide by controlled potential coulometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Sarkar; K. Une; Y. Tominaga

    1997-01-01

    This work reports the determination of oxygen to uranium (O\\/U) ratio in irradiated UO2+x\\u000a fuel pellet of burnup of ca. 34 GWd\\/t by controlled potential coulometry. The method is based on the dissolution of the nuclear fuel in strong phosphoric acid (SPA) at 180–190 °C under an inert atmosphere. After dissolution, 8% sulphuric acid is added in order to obtain

  20. Control of nitrogenase recovery from oxygen inactivation by ammonia in the cyanobacterium anabaena sp. strain CA (ATCC 33047)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, R.L.; Van Baalen, C. (Univ. of Texas Marine Science Institute, Port Aransas (USA)); Tabita, F.R. (Univ. of Texas, Austin (USA) Ohio State Univ., Columbus (USA))

    1990-05-01

    The control of nitrogenase recovery from inactivation by oxygen was studied in Anabaena sp. strain CA (ATCC 33047). Nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction) in cultures grown in 1% CO{sub 2} in air was inhibited by exposure to 1% CO{sub 2}-99% O{sub 2} and allowed to recover in the presence of high oxygen tensions. Cultures exposed to hyperbaric levels of oxygen in the presence of 10 mM NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} were incapable of regaining nitrogenase activity, whereas control cultures returned to 65 to 80% of their original activity within about 3 h after exposure to high oxygen tension. In contrast to the regulation of heterocyst differentiation and nitrogenase synthesis, recovery from oxygen inactivation in this organism was shown to be under the control of NH{sub 4}{sup +} rather than NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}.

  1. Using an oxygen content indicator in a coal-dust boiler fuel controller

    SciTech Connect

    Y.V. Artamonov; V.N. Barbakov; A.E. Zemlyanoi; K.V. Soldatenko; Y.G. Metal'nikov [Novocherkassk State Regional Electric Power Plant, Novocherkassk (Russian Federation)

    2008-03-15

    The results of installing a circuit for regulating the fuel input to the 300 MW coal-dust power plant at the Novocherkassk State Regional Electric Power Plant (Novocherkasskaya GRES) based on an indicator of the oxygen content in the flue gases are described. The goal is to improve the quality of the controller response to perturbations in the fuel channel. The system and its structure are described, as well as transient control processes in the original and new systems in response to standard perturbations. The regulation quality is at least twice as good in the new scheme.

  2. The 6670-Newton attitude-control thruster using hydrogen-oxygen propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, L. H.

    1977-01-01

    The development of a reusable, attitude-control propulsion system for the space transportation system is discussed. A flight weight, gaseous oxygen attitude control thruster assembly was tested to obtain data on cyclic life, thermal and hydraulic characteristics, pulse response, and performance. The basic thruster components were tested in excess of 51,000 pulses and 660 seconds, steady state, with no degradation of the 93 percent characteristic exhaust velocity efficiency level. Nominal operating conditions were a chamber pressure of 207 N sq cm (300 psia), a mixture ratio of 4.0, a pulse width of 100 ms, and a pulse frequency of 2 Hz.

  3. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoek, Pim (Minnetonka, MN); Aristidou, Aristos (Maple Grove, MN); Rush, Brian (Minneapolis, MN)

    2011-05-10

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  4. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoek, Pim; Aristidou, Aristos; Rush, Brian

    2014-09-09

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  5. Fermentation process using specific oxygen uptake rates as a process control

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoek; Pim (Minnetonka, MN), Aristidou; Aristos (Maple Grove, MN), Rush; Brian (Minneapolis, MN)

    2007-06-19

    Specific oxygen uptake (OUR) is used as a process control parameter in fermentation processes. OUR is determined during at least the production phase of a fermentation process, and process parameters are adjusted to maintain the OUR within desired ranges. The invention is particularly applicable when the fermentation is conducted using a microorganism having a natural PDC pathway that has been disrupted so that it no longer functions. Microorganisms of this sort often produce poorly under strictly anaerobic conditions. Microaeration controlled by monitoring OUR allows the performance of the microorganism to be optimized.

  6. High cell density induces spontaneous bifurcations of dissolved oxygen controllers during CHO cell fermentations.

    PubMed

    Chung, John D; Chang, Conway C; Groves, James Ashley

    2003-10-20

    High cell density cultures of CHO cells growing in a bioreactor under dissolved oxygen control were found to undergo spontaneous bifurcations and a subsequent loss of stability some time into the fermentation. This loss of stability was manifested by sustained and amplified oscillations in the bioreactor dissolved oxygen concentration and in the oxygen gas flow rate to the reactor. To identify potential biological and operational causes for the phenomenon, linear stability analysis was applied in a neighborhood of the experimentally observed bifurcation point. The analysis revealed that two steady state process gains, K(P1) and K(P2), regulated k(l)a and gas phase oxygen concentration inputs, respectively, and the magnitude of K(P1) was found to determine system stability about the bifurcation point. The magnitude of K(P1), and hence the corresponding open-loop steady state gain K(OL1), scaled linearly with the bioreactor cell density, increasing with increasing cell density. These results allowed the generation of a fermentation stability diagram, which partitioned K(C)-N operating space into stable and unstable regions separated by the loci of predicted critically stable controller constants, K(C,critical), as a function of bioreactor cell density. This consistency of this operating diagram with experimentally observed changes in system stability was demonstrated. We conclude that time-dependent increases in cell density are the cause of the observed instabilities and that cell density is the critical bifurcation parameter. The results of this study should be readily applicable to the design of a more robust controller. PMID:12966579

  7. Oxygen analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Benner, William H. (Danville, CA)

    1986-01-01

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  8. Computational aspects of helicopter trim analysis and damping levels from Floquet theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaonkar, Gopal H.; Achar, N. S.

    1992-01-01

    Helicopter trim settings of periodic initial state and control inputs are investigated for convergence of Newton iteration in computing the settings sequentially and in parallel. The trim analysis uses a shooting method and a weak version of two temporal finite element methods with displacement formulation and with mixed formulation of displacements and momenta. These three methods broadly represent two main approaches of trim analysis: adaptation of initial-value and finite element boundary-value codes to periodic boundary conditions, particularly for unstable and marginally stable systems. In each method, both the sequential and in-parallel schemes are used and the resulting nonlinear algebraic equations are solved by damped Newton iteration with an optimally selected damping parameter. The impact of damped Newton iteration, including earlier-observed divergence problems in trim analysis, is demonstrated by the maximum condition number of the Jacobian matrices of the iterative scheme and by virtual elimination of divergence. The advantages of the in-parallel scheme over the conventional sequential scheme are also demonstrated.

  9. Numerical Simulation of the Elastic and Trimmed Aircraft

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andreas Michler; Ralf Heinrich

    \\u000a A simulation environment has been developed enabling the computation of the elastic and trimmed aircraft. It consists of a\\u000a trim algorithm which is coupled with a procedure to account for the interaction between fluid and structure. The trim algorithm\\u000a is based on a Newton method with a discretized Jacobian. It incorporates the six degreesof- freedom (DoF) flight-mechanics\\u000a equations and thereby

  10. Retrovirus silencing by an epigenetic TRIM.

    PubMed

    Ellis, James; Hotta, Akitsu; Rastegar, Mojgan

    2007-10-01

    Embryonic cells silence transcription by retroviruses, but how do they recognize virus DNA? In this issue, Wolf and Goff (2007) report that a TRIM28 corepressor complex binds to the retrovirus primer binding site. Epigenetic silencing of retrovirus transcription is accomplished by "writing" a dimethyl mark on lysine 9 of histone H3 that is read by the heterochromatin protein HP1gamma. PMID:17923079

  11. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for control of Epiphyas postvittana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) eggs on lettuce.

    PubMed

    Liu, Samuel S; Liu, Yong-Biao; Simmons, Gregory S

    2014-08-01

    Light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), is a quarantined pest in most countries. Its establishment in California and potential spread to other parts of the state and beyond make it urgent to develop effective postharvest treatments to control the pest on fresh commodities. Fumigation with cylindered phosphine at low temperature has emerged to be a practical methyl bromide alternative treatment for postharvest pest control on fresh commodities. However, its use to control E. postvittana eggs on sensitive commodities such as lettuce is problematic. E. postvittana eggs are tolerant of phosphine and long phosphine treatment also injures lettuce. In the current study, E. postvittana eggs were subjected to oxygenated phosphine fumigations to develop an effective treatment at a low storage temperature of 2 degrees C. In addition, soda lime as a CO2 absorbent was tested to determine its effects in reducing and preventing injuries to lettuce associated with phosphine fumigations. Three-day fumigation with 1,000 ppm phosphine under 60% O2 achieved 100% mortality of E. postvittana eggs in small-scale laboratory tests. In the presence of the CO2 absorbent, a 3-d large-scale fumigation of lettuce with 1,700 ppm phosphine under 60% O2 resulted in a relative egg mortality of 99.96% without any negative effect on lettuce quality. The 3-d fumigation treatment without the CO2 absorbent, however, resulted in significant injuries to lettuce and consequential quality reductions. The study demonstrated that oxygenated phosphine fumigation has the potential to control E. postvittana eggs and the CO2 absorbent has the potential to prevent injuries and quality reductions of lettuce associated with long-term oxygenated phosphine fumigation. PMID:25195424

  12. Foxj3_prim_and_sec_combined_ic_trimmed Foxk1_prim_and_sec_combined_ic_trimmed

    E-print Network

    Bulyk, Martha L.

    Foxj3_prim_and_sec_combined_ic_trimmed 0.0 1.0 2.0 bits AAT CAC T AT AG A T CC AC T A AAT C Foxk1_prim_and_sec_combined_ic_trimmed 0.0 1.0 2.0 bits TC AAAT CAC T AT AT G AT CC AG AT C A Hnf4a_prim_and_sec_combined_ic_trimmed 0.0 1.0 2.0 bits GT GTCC AT G C AT AG AG AGTCCG A Mybl1_prim_and_sec_combined_ic_trimmed 0.0 1.0 2

  13. Salicylic acid and reactive oxygen species interplay in the transcriptional control of defense genes expression

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Vásquez, Ariel; Salinas, Paula; Holuigue, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that salicylic acid (SA) plays a critical role in the transcriptional reprograming that occurs during the plant defense response against biotic and abiotic stress. In the course of the defense response, the transcription of different sets of defense genes is controlled in a spatio-temporal manner via SA-mediated mechanisms. Interestingly, different lines of evidence indicate that SA interplays with reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH) in stressed plants. In this review we focus on the evidence that links SA, ROS, and GSH signals to the transcriptional control of defense genes. We discuss how redox modifications of regulators and co-regulators involved in SA-mediated transcriptional responses control the temporal patterns of gene expression in response to stress. Finally, we examine how these redox sensors are coordinated with the dynamics of cellular redox changes occurring in the defense response to biotic and abiotic stress. PMID:25852720

  14. Oxygen analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Benner, W.H.

    1984-05-08

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N/sub 2/), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135/sup 0/C, or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135/sup 0/C as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N/sub 2/, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  15. Crystalline structure of ceria particles controlled by the oxygen partial pressure and STI CMP performances.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ye-Hwan; Kim, Sang-Kyun; Kim, Namsoo; Park, Jea-Gun; Paik, Ungyu

    2008-09-01

    The effect of the crystalline structures of nano-sized ceria particles on shallow trench isolation (STI) chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) performance was investigated. The ceria particles were synthesized via a solid-state displacement reaction method, and their crystalline structure was controlled by regulating the oxygen partial pressure at the reaction site on the precursor. The crystalline structures of ceria particles were analyzed by the high-resolution TEM nano-beam diffraction pattern. In a calcination process with a high oxygen concentration, the synthesized ceria particles had a cubic fluorite structure (CeO(2)), because of the decarbonation of the cerium precursor. However, a low oxygen concentration results in a hexagonal phase cerium oxide (Ce(2)O(3)) rather than the cubic phase due to the insufficient oxidation of Ce(3+) to Ce(4+). In the STI CMP evaluation, the ceria slurry prepared with the cubic CeO(2) shows enhanced performances of the oxide-to-nitride removal selectivity. PMID:18562111

  16. Hydrodynamic controls on oxygen dynamics in a riverine salt wedge estuary, the Yarra River estuary, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruce, L. C.; Cook, P. L. M.; Teakle, I.; Hipsey, M. R.

    2014-04-01

    Oxygen depletion in coastal and estuarine waters has been increasing rapidly around the globe over the past several decades, leading to decline in water quality and ecological health. In this study we apply a numerical model to understand how salt wedge dynamics, changes in river flow and temperature together control oxygen depletion in a micro-tidal riverine estuary, the Yarra River estuary, Australia. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models have been previously applied to study how hydrodynamics impact upon seasonal hypoxia; however, their application to relatively shallow, narrow riverine estuaries with highly transient patterns of river inputs and sporadic periods of oxygen depletion has remained challenging, largely due to difficulty in accurately simulating salt wedge dynamics in morphologically complex areas. In this study we overcome this issue through application of a flexible mesh 3-D hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model in order to predict the extent of salt wedge intrusion and consequent patterns of oxygen depletion. The extent of the salt wedge responded quickly to the sporadic riverine flows, with the strength of stratification and vertical density gradients heavily influenced by morphological features corresponding to shallow points in regions of tight curvature ("horseshoe" bends). The spatiotemporal patterns of stratification led to the emergence of two "hot spots" of anoxia, the first downstream of a shallow region of tight curvature and the second downstream of a sill. Whilst these areas corresponded to regions of intense stratification, it was found that antecedent conditions related to the placement of the salt wedge played a major role in the recovery of anoxic regions following episodic high flow events. Furthermore, whilst a threshold salt wedge intrusion was a requirement for oxygen depletion, analysis of the results allowed us to quantify the effect of temperature in determining the overall severity and extent of hypoxia and anoxia. Climate warming scenarios highlighted that oxygen depletion is likely to be exacerbated through changes in flow regimes and warming temperatures; however, the increasing risk of hypoxia and anoxia can be mitigated through management of minimum flow allocations and targeted reductions in organic matter loading. A simple statistical model (R2 > 0.65) is suggested to relate riverine flow and temperature to the extent of estuary-wide anoxia.

  17. Control of oxygen octahedral rotations and physical properties in SrRuO3 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wenlai; Yang, Ping; Song, Wen Dong; Chow, Gan Moog; Chen, Jing Sheng

    2013-12-01

    Control of octahedral rotations in the ABO3 perovskite oxides has been of great interest due to its potential in rationally discovering and designing new multifunctional phases. In this study, we show that octahedral rotations of the SrRuO3 films can be controlled by oxygen vacancies as well as by interfacial coupling, which further determines the physical properties. Half-integer reflections using high-resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction were carried out to determine the octahedral rotation pattern of SrRuO3 films on SrTiO3 substrates. The transition of RuO6 rotation pattern accompanied by the structural change from monoclinic P21/m to tetragonal F4/mmc can be understood from the preference of oxygen vacancies in the SrO atomic plane and the coupling of octahedra across the interface between film and substrate. The field angle dependence of magnetoresistance further confirmed the structural phase transition with changes in octahedral rotations. The monoclinic phase has the uniaxial magnetic easy axis 30° away from the [001] direction towards the [010] direction while the tetragonal phase has uniaxial magnetic easy axis along the fourfold axis which is perpendicular to the film surface. This study demonstrates the ability to control the octahedral rotations in perovskite films and its importance when designing thin films and multilayers with desired functional property.

  18. TRIM29 suppresses TWIST1 and invasive breast cancer behavior.

    PubMed

    Ai, Lingbao; Kim, Wan-Ju; Alpay, Merve; Tang, Ming; Pardo, Carolina E; Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu; May, W Stratford; Kladde, Michael P; Heldermon, Coy D; Siegel, Erin M; Brown, Kevin D

    2014-09-01

    TRIM29 (ATDC) exhibits a contextual function in cancer, but seems to exert a tumor-suppressor role in breast cancer. Here, we show that TRIM29 is often silenced in primary breast tumors and cultured tumor cells as a result of aberrant gene hypermethylation. RNAi-mediated silencing of TRIM29 in breast tumor cells increased their motility, invasiveness, and proliferation in a manner associated with increased expression of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin and vimentin), decreased expression of epithelial markers (E-cadherin and EpCAM), and increased expression and activity of the oncogenic transcription factor TWIST1, an important driver of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Functional investigations revealed an inverse relationship in the expression of TRIM29 and TWIST1, suggesting the existence of a negative regulatory feedback loop. In support of this relationship, we found that TWIST1 inhibited TRIM29 promoter activity through direct binding to a region containing a cluster of consensus E-box elements, arguing that TWIST1 transcriptionally represses TRIM29 expression. Analysis of a public breast cancer gene-expression database indicated that reduced TRIM29 expression was associated with reduced relapse-free survival, increased tumor size, grade, and metastatic characteristics. Taken together, our results suggest that TRIM29 acts as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer through its ability to inhibit TWIST1 and suppress EMT. PMID:24950909

  19. Pain in Chickens and Effects of Beak Trimming

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beak trimming may cause pain (acute, chronic or both) in trimmed chickens due to tissue damage and nerve injury. The complexity and plasticity of the nervous system and the animal’s inability to communicate verbally make pain difficult to measure directly. However, pain in animals can be recognized...

  20. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2003-05-15

    Given that fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated several coal fired power plant configurations designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for use or sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB units results in significant Boiler Island cost savings. Additionally, ALSTOM has identified several advanced/novel plant configurations, which improve the efficiency and cost of the CO{sub 2} product cleanup and compression process. These advanced/novel concepts require long development efforts. An economic analysis indicates that the proposed oxygen-firing technology in circulating fluidized boilers could be developed and deployed economically in the near future in enhanced oil recovery (EOR) applications or enhanced gas recovery (EGR), such as coal bed methane recovery. ALSTOM received a Cooperative Agreement from the US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) in 2001 to carry out a project entitled ''Greenhouse Gas Emissions Control by Oxygen Firing in Circulating Fluidized Bed Boilers.'' This two-phased project is in effect from September 28, 2001, to October 27, 2004. (U.S. DOE NETL Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41146). Phase I consisted of an evaluation of the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants, and supporting bench-scale testing. And Phase II consists of pilot-scale testing, supporting a refined performance and economic evaluation of the oxygen-fired AFC concept. Phase I, detailed in this report, entails a comprehensive study evaluating the technical feasibility and economics of alternate CO{sub 2} capture technologies applied to Greenfield US coal-fired electric generation power plants. Thirteen separate but related cases (listed below), representing various levels of technology development, were evaluated as described herein. The first seven cases represent coal combustion cases in CFB type equipment. The next four cases represent Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The last two cases represent advanced Chemical Looping systems, which were completely paid for by ALSTOM and included herein for completeness.

  1. The optimal dissolved oxygen profile in a nitrifying activated sludge process - comparisons with ammonium feedback control.

    PubMed

    Amand, L; Carlsson, B

    2013-01-01

    Ammonium feedback control is increasingly used to determine the dissolved oxygen (DO) set-point in aerated activated sludge processes for nitrogen removal. This study compares proportional-integral (PI) ammonium feedback control with a DO profile created from a mathematical minimisation of the daily air flow rate. All simulated scenarios are set to reach the same treatment level of ammonium, based on a daily average concentration. The influent includes daily variations only and the model has three aerated zones. Comparisons are made at different plant loads and DO concentrations, and the placement of the ammonium sensor is investigated. The results show that ammonium PI control can achieve the best performance if the DO set-point is limited at a maximum value and with little integral action in the controller. Compared with constant DO control the best-performing ammonium controller can achieve 1-3.5% savings in the air flow rate, while the optimal solution can achieve a 3-7% saving. Energy savings are larger when operating at higher DO concentrations. PMID:23925193

  2. A new single-pole-type head trimmed by focused ion beam at wafer level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Ikegawa; S. Yamawaki; N. Ozaki; T. Hoshino; T. Kubomiya; K. Satoh; T. Koshikawa

    2004-01-01

    We newly fabricated a trapezoidal main pole by focused ion beam (FIB) trimming method at wafer level. A layer of the main pole (MP) is FeCo\\/Ru multilayer made by sputtering. The thickness of the MP is 0.28 ?m, and Ta protective layer is 0.17 ?m thick. The taper angle of the MP is 10°. It is very easy to control

  3. Oxygen-enable control of Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya Interaction in Fe/Ir(001) bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belabbes, Abderrezak; Bihlmayer, Gustav; Blügel, Stefan; Manchon, Aurelien

    2015-03-01

    Using relativistic first principles calculations, we demonstrate that the magnitude and sign of the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya inter action(DMI) of Fe/Ir(001) interface can be controlled by tuning the coverage of the oxygen capping layer, which changes the spin-wave length and the depth of the energy minimum. In addition, we explain how the magnetic interactions [Exchange inter action, DMI, and the magnetocrystalline anisotropy (MAE)]at such transition metal interface are modified in the presence of Oxygen, which might prevent any stable magnetic order due to the small energy scale. We observe a change sign of the DMI when the coverage exceeds 50%. In particular, we found that due to the C4 breaking symmetry and the large spin-orbit interaction of the Ir substrate the DMI exceeds a critical strength and competes with the exchange interaction and causes homochiral magnetic structures. This study reveals that in realistic systems capped by an oxide, such as HM/F/MOx (HM is a heavy metal, F a ferromagnet an MOx=MgOx, CoOx, TaOx etc., the DMI can be tuned by changing the oxidation conditions of the capping layer, offering a convenient way to control it. Therefore, understanding of the these phenomena may have impact in the context of facilitating applications in spintronics.

  4. Dynamic controlled atmosphere and ultralow oxygen storage on 'Gala' mutants quality maintenance.

    PubMed

    Thewes, Fabio Rodrigo; Both, Vanderlei; Brackmann, Auri; Weber, Anderson; de Oliveira Anese, Rogerio

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present work was to compare the effect of ultralow oxygen (ULO) with dynamic controlled atmosphere (DCA) and controlled atmosphere (CA) on the post storage quality of 'Royal Gala' and 'Galaxy' apples after long-term storage. Two experiments were carried out with 'Royal Gala' and 'Galaxy' apples, in the years 2012 and 2013, respectively. A higher internal ethylene concentration was observed in fruits stored under CA; intermediate concentration in fruits under ULO; and the lowest by fruits stored under DCA-CF (DCA based on chlorophyll fluorescence). Flesh firmness was higher in fruits stored under DCA-CF and ULO differing from CA, in the year 2012, but in 2013 fruits stored under ULO showed the highest flesh firmness, differing from CA fruits. DCA-CF is efficient in quality maintenance of 'Royal Gala' and 'Galaxy' apples. Both 'Gala' mutants stored under ULO show a similar quality maintenance to those stored under DCA-CF. PMID:26041165

  5. Friction coefficient investigation on IC dam-bar trimming process by inverse method with experimental trimmed geometric profiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zone-Ching Lin; Chang-Cheng Chen

    2007-01-01

    In the trimming process of integrated circuit (IC), the friction between punch and workpiece has been studied extensively. The value of the friction coefficient was usually assumed as a fixed value for the simplification of the investigations in most literature. It was seldom discussed that the values of the friction coefficient would actually increase as the trimming strokes increased. The

  6. A Note About HARP's State Trimming Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Johnson, Sally C.

    1998-01-01

    This short note provides some additional insight into how the HARP program works. In some cases, it is possible for HARP to tdm away too many states and obtain an optimistic result. The HARP Version 7.0 manual warns the user that 'Unlike the ALL model, the SAME model can automatically drop failure modes for certain system models. The user is cautioned to insure that no important failure modes are dropped; otherwise, a non-conservative result can be given.' This note provides an example of where this occurs and a pointer to further documentation that gives a means of bounding the error associated with trimming these states.

  7. Internal trim coils for CBA superconducting magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, P.A.; Aronson, S.; Cottingham, J.G.; Garber, M.; Hahn, H.; Sampson, W.B.

    1983-01-01

    In order to correct iron saturation effects and shape the beam working line, superconducting trim coils have been constructed, which operate inside the main coils. Detailed studies of mechanical properties, quench behavior, fields produced, and hysteresis have lead to the production of accelerator-quality coils generating the required-strength harmonics up to cos (7theta). These are routinely installed in CBA main magnets and operate at 80% of short sample with negligible training in an ambient field of more than 5.3T.

  8. Use of a micro programmable logic controller for oxygen monitoring and control in multiple tanks of a recirculating aquaculture system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In intensive recirculating aquaculture systems the use of supplemental oxygen, specifically pure liquid oxygen, increases the mass of fish that can be supported and eliminates oxygen as a major limiting factor to a system’s carrying capacity. The use of pure oxygen in a recirculating aquaculture sys...

  9. Enhanced expression of trim14 gene suppressed Sindbis virus reproduction and modulated the transcription of a large number of genes of innate immunity.

    PubMed

    Nenasheva, V V; Kovaleva, G V; Uryvaev, L V; Ionova, K S; Dedova, A V; Vorkunova, G K; Chernyshenko, S V; Khaidarova, N V; Tarantul, V Z

    2015-07-01

    In the present research, we have studied an influence of enhanced expression TRIM14 on alphavirus Sindbis (SINV, Togaviridae family) infection. In the HEK293 cells transfected with human trim14 gene (HEK-trim14), SINV yield after infection was decreased 1000-10,000 times (3-4 lg of TCD50/ml) at 24 h p.i. and considerably less (1-2 lg of TCD50/ml) at 48 h p.i. Analysis of the expression of 43 genes directly or indirectly involved in innate immune machine in HEK-trim14 non-infected cells comparing with the control (non-transfected) HEK293 cells revealed that stable trim14 transfection in HEK293 cells caused increased transcription of 18 genes (ifna, il6 (ifn?2), isg15, raf-1, NF-kB (nf-kb1, rela, nf-kb2, relb), grb2, grb3-3, traf3ip2, junB, c-myb, pu.1, akt1, tyk2, erk2, mek2) and lowered transcription of 3 genes (ifn?, gata1, il-17a). The similar patterns of genes expression observe in SINV-infected non-transfected HEK293 cells. However, SINV infection of HEK-trim14 cells caused inhibition of the most interferon cascade genes as well as subunits of transcription factor NF-?B. Thus, stable enhanced expression of trim14 gene in cells activates the transcription of many immunity genes and suppresses the SINV reproduction, but SINV infection of HEK-trim14 cells promotes inhibition of some genes involved in innate immune system. PMID:25948474

  10. The oxygen free radicals control MMP-9 and transcription factors expression in the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Duansak, Naphatsanan; Schmid-Schönbein, Geert W

    2013-11-01

    Oxygen free radical and matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9) play an important pathophysiological role in the development of chronic hypertension. MMP-9 activities are regulated at different levels. We hypothesize that as mediators of the expression of MMP-9 the transcription factors like nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B), c-fos and retinoic acid receptors-? (RAR-?) with binding sites to the MMP-9 promoter are overexpressed in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) in a process that is regulated by oxygen free radicals. Transcription factor NF-?B, c-fos and RAR-? expression levels were determined by immunohistochemistry in renal, cardiac and mesentery microcirculation of the SHR and its normotensive control, the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat. The animals were treated with a superoxide scavenger (Tempol) for eight weeks. The elevated plasma levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and MMP-9 levels in the SHR were significantly decreased by Tempol treatment (P<0.05). The NF-?B, c-fos and RAR-? expression levels in renal glomerular, heart and mesentery microvessels were enhanced in the SHR and could also be reduced by Tempol compared to untreated animals (P<0.05). The enhanced MMP-9 levels in SHR microvessels co-express with transcription factors. These results suggest that elevated NF-?B, c-fos and RAR-? expressions and MMP-9 activity in the SHR are superoxide-dependent. PMID:24060804

  11. Oxygen-controlled phase segregation in poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)/laponite nanocomposite hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Mauroy, Henrik; Rozynek, Zbigniew; Plivelic, Tomás S; Fossum, Jon Otto; Helgesen, Geir; Knudsen, Kenneth D

    2013-01-01

    The combination of nanoparticles and polymers into nanocomposite gels has been shown to be a promising route to creating soft materials with new or improved properties. In the present work, we have made use of Laponite nanoparticles in combination with a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAM) polymer and describe a phenomenon taking place during the polymerization and gelling of this system. The presence of small amounts of oxygen in the process induces two distinctly separated phases, one polymer-rich and one polymer-deficient water-clay phase. Complex interactions among clay, oxygen, and the polymer are found to govern the behavior of these phases. It is also observed that the initial clay concentration can be used to control the volume fraction of the polymer-deficient phase directly. The dynamics of the phase boundary is found to be dependent on water penetration and in general to exhibit non-Fickian behavior. An approach using video recording to monitor hydrogel swelling is also presented, and its advantages are addressed. PMID:23210524

  12. Control of Seed Respiration and Growth in Vicia faba by Oxygen and Temperature: No Evidence for an Oxygen Diffusion Barrier

    PubMed Central

    de Visser, Ries; Dekhuijzen, Harold M.; Verkerke, Dick R.

    1990-01-01

    The rate of dry matter accumulation by seeds of Vicia faba L. cv. Minica increases with temperature in the range of 16 to 26°C. The duration of dry matter accumulation decreases with temperature, resulting in a decrease of final seed dry weight. In this study we test the hypothesis that a diffusion barrier for O2, located in the seed coat, inhibits seed respiration and growth. The rate of O2 uptake of intact seeds and of excised embryos and seed coats (separated seeds) was measured in air and buffer at 16, 20, and/or 26°C at various O2 concentrations and developmental stages. Oxygen uptake rates of intact seeds in buffer were only 9 to 15% of those in air. In buffer, the respiration rate of intact seeds decreased at a pO2 below air saturation (21 kilopascals), whereas separated seeds showed a decline of O2 uptake only below 80% of air saturation. In air, embryo excision had no effect on the sensitivity of seed respiration to pO2, at both 20 and 26°C. In air at 20°C, separated and intact seeds showed similar rates of O2 uptake. Oxygen uptake by intact seeds, both halfway and beyond the linear growth phase, showed a temperature coefficient Q10 of 2.3 and was insensitive to pO2 in the range of 80 to 100% of ambient. These results indicate that V. faba seed respiration in air is not limited by the diffusion of O2 into the seed. PMID:16667521

  13. Orbital atomic oxygen effects on thermal control and optical materials - STS-8 results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F.; Little, S. A.; Harwell, R. J.; Griner, D. B.; Dehaye, R. F.; Fromhold, A. T., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of exposing 23 specimens of optical and thermal control materials to space at 120 km altitude for over 40 hrs during the STS-8 mission are discussed. Ten samples of paint targeted for the Space Telescope (ST) and the Tethered Satellite were exposed, and included polyurethane, oxide, silicone, and glossy black and white samples which were scanned for alterations in the optical properties after being retrieved. Nine mirror-type materials were also investigated, along with silver specimens typical of solar cell interconnects. The oxygen flow at the orbital altitude was 3.5 x 10 to the 20th atoms/cu cm. The exposures caused no degradation of the magnesium fluoride mirror coatings, while the Kapton coating for the ST solar cell panels showed evidence of losing thickness. The Ag solar cell contacts will require coatings to extend their lifetimes. Overcoatings were also proven necessary for inhibiting degradation of painted surfaces.

  14. PHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CONTROLS ON DISSOLVED OXYGEN DYNAMICS IN PENSACOLA BAY, FL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient enrichment of estuaries and coastal waters can contribute to hypoxia (low dissolved oxygen) by increasing primary production and biological oxygen demand. Other factors, however, contribute to hypoxia and affect the susceptibility of coastal waters to hypoxia. Hypoxia fo...

  15. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy as salvage treatment for sudden sensorineural hearing loss: a prospective controlled study.

    PubMed

    Pezzoli, M; Magnano, M; Maffi, L; Pezzoli, L; Marcato, P; Orione, M; Cupi, D; Bongioannini, G

    2015-07-01

    The most commonly used treatment for sensorineural sudden hearing loss (SSHL) in clinical practice is the administration of steroids; however, a favorable result is not always obtained. We studied 58 patients who failed to recover after primary treatment with IV steroids, 44 of these met our inclusion criteria (mean age 50.7, 27 males, range 30-74). We treated 23 patients (mean age 47.3, 16 males, age range 22-74) with hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) (2.5 ATA for 60 min for 15 treatments), while 21 (mean age 54.5, 11 males, age range 22-71) patients refused to be treated and served as a non-randomized control group. Patients treated with HBO had a mean improvement of 15.6 dB (SD ± 15.3), with 1 of them completely healed, 5 with a good recovery, 10 with a fair recovery and 7 unchanged. Patients who were not treated had a spontaneous mean improvement of 5.0 dB (SD ± 11.4) with 3 patients with a good recovery, 1 patient with a fair recovery and 17 patients unchanged. Mean improvement was significantly better in patients treated with HBO compared to controls (p = 0.0133). Patients with worst hearing had the greater degree of improvement whether or not they were treated in the first 10 days after the onset of the hearing loss or between 11 and 30 days. In conclusion, hyperbaric oxygen therapy can lead to significant improvement of pure tone hearing thresholds in patients with SSHL who failed primary corticosteroid treatment and are within 4 weeks of the onset of deafness. PMID:25318685

  16. Oxygen Profile. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooley, John F.

    The oxygen profile procedure is a means of measuring the oxygen concentration at various locations in a basin. By dividing the surface of a basin into sections and then establishing sample points on the surface, at mid-depth, and near the bottom, a waste water treatment plant operator can measure and plot dissolved oxygen data which can be plotted…

  17. A remote automated system for a case study of dissolved oxygen monitoring and control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hsiung-Cheng Lin; Liang-Tsung Huang; Lien-Fu Lai; Yin-Fan Chi

    2009-01-01

    The dissolved oxygen is one of important factors to evaluate the quality of water. Currently, various aeration and oxygenation devices have been developed for increasing its oxygen concentrations in water. However, the operations of those devices usually depend on the human operation with experience. In this study, we have developed a PC-based virtual instrument (VI) system using LabVIEW, which can

  18. Elevated Rate of Fixation of Endogenous Retroviral Elements in Haplorhini TRIM5 and TRIM22 Genomic Sequences: Impact on Transcriptional Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, William E.; Johnson, Welkin E.; Hunter, Eric

    2013-01-01

    All genes in the TRIM6/TRIM34/TRIM5/TRIM22 locus are type I interferon inducible, with TRIM5 and TRIM22 possessing antiviral properties. Evolutionary studies involving the TRIM6/34/5/22 locus have predominantly focused on the coding sequence of the genes, finding that TRIM5 and TRIM22 have undergone high rates of both non-synonymous nucleotide replacements and in-frame insertions and deletions. We sought to understand if divergent evolutionary pressures on TRIM6/34/5/22 coding regions have selected for modifications in the non-coding regions of these genes and explore whether such non-coding changes may influence the biological function of these genes. The transcribed genomic regions, including the introns, of TRIM6, TRIM34, TRIM5, and TRIM22 from ten Haplorhini primates and one prosimian species were analyzed for transposable element content. In Haplorhini species, TRIM5 displayed an exaggerated interspecies variability, predominantly resulting from changes in the composition of transposable elements in the large first and fourth introns. Multiple lineage-specific endogenous retroviral long terminal repeats (LTRs) were identified in the first intron of TRIM5 and TRIM22. In the prosimian genome, we identified a duplication of TRIM5 with a concomitant loss of TRIM22. The transposable element content of the prosimian TRIM5 genes appears to largely represent the shared Haplorhini/prosimian ancestral state for this gene. Furthermore, we demonstrated that one such differentially fixed LTR provides for species-specific transcriptional regulation of TRIM22 in response to p53 activation. Our results identify a previously unrecognized source of species-specific variation in the antiviral TRIM genes, which can lead to alterations in their transcriptional regulation. These observations suggest that there has existed long-term pressure for exaptation of retroviral LTRs in the non-coding regions of these genes. This likely resulted from serial viral challenges and provided a mechanism for rapid alteration of transcriptional regulation. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of persistent evolutionary pressure for the capture of retroviral LTR insertions. PMID:23516500

  19. Human Molecular Genetic and Functional Studies Identify TRIM63, Encoding Muscle RING Finger Protein 1, as a Novel Gene for Human Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Suet Nee; Czernuszewicz, Grazyna; Tan, Yanli; Lombardi, Raffaella; Jin, Jianping; Willerson, James T.; Marian, AJ

    2012-01-01

    Rationale A delicate balance between protein synthesis and degradation maintains cardiac size and function. TRIM63 encoding Muscle RING Finger 1 (MuRF1) maintains muscle protein homeostasis by tagging the sarcomere proteins with ubiquitin for subsequent degradation by the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System (UPS). Objectives To determine the pathogenic role of TRIM63 in human hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Methods and Results Sequencing of TRIM63 gene in 302 HCM probands (250 Caucasians) and 339 controls (262 Caucasians) led to identification of two missense (p.A48V and p.I130M) and a deletion (p.Q247*) variants exclusively in the HCM probands. These three variants were absent in 751 additional controls screened by TaqMan assays. Likewise, rare variants were enriched in the Caucasian HCM population (11/250, 4.4% vs. 3/262, 1.1%, respectively, p=0.024). Expression of the mutant TRIM63 was associated with mislocalization of TRIM63 to sarcomere Z disks, impaired auto-ubiquitination, reduced ubiquitination and UPS-mediated degradation of myosin heavy chain 6, cardiac myosin binding protein C, calcineurin (PPP3CB), and p-MTOR in adult cardiac myocytes. Induced expression of the mutant TRIM63 in the mouse heart was associated with cardiac hypertrophy, activation of the MTOR-S6K and calcineurin pathways and expression of the hypertrophic markers, which were normalized upon turning off expression of the mutant protein. Conclusions TRIM63 mutations, identified in patients with HCM, impart loss-of-function effects on E3 ligase activity and are likely causal mutations in HCM. The findings implicate impaired protein degradation in the pathogenesis of HCM. PMID:22821932

  20. Identification of TRIM22 as a RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase

    SciTech Connect

    Duan Zhijian; Gao Bo; Xu Wei [Institute for Immunobiology, Department of Immunology, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Xiong Sidong [Institute for Immunobiology, Department of Immunology, Shanghai Medical College of Fudan University, 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai 200032 (China) and Immunology Division, E-Institutes of Shanghai Universities (China)], E-mail: sdxiongfd@126.com

    2008-09-26

    TRIM22, a member of the TRIM family proteins which contain RING finger, B-box, and coiled-coil domains, has been reported as a transcriptional regulator and involved in various cellular processes. In this study, the E3 ubiquitin ligase activity, a novel property of TRIM22, was demonstrated. It was found that TRIM22 underwent self-ubiquitylation in vitro in combination with the E2 enzyme UbcH5B and the ubiquitylation was dependent on its RING finger domain. Further evidences showed that TRIM22 could also be self-ubiquitylated in vivo. Importantly, TRIM22 was conjugated with poly-ubiquitin chains and stabilized by the proteasome inhibitor in 293T cells, suggesting that TRIM22 targeted itself for proteasomal degradation through the poly-ubiquitylation. We also found that TRIM22 was located in the nucleus, indicating that TRIM22 might function as a nuclear E3 ubiquitin ligase.

  1. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30 Section 401.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30 Section 401.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  3. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30 Section 401.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  4. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30 Section 401.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 33 CFR 401.30 - Ballast water and trim.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast water and trim. 401.30 Section 401.30 Navigation and Navigable Waters SAINT LAWRENCE SEAWAY DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  6. 7 CFR 51.585 - Fairly well trimmed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 FRESH FRUITS, VEGETABLES AND OTHER PRODUCTS 1,2 (INSPECTION...CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.585 Fairly well trimmed. Fairly well...

  7. 21. First floor, west wall, detail of molding trim ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. First floor, west wall, detail of molding trim - Veterans Administration Center, Officers Duplex Quarters, 5302 East Kellogg (Legal Address); 5500 East Kellogg (Common Address), Wichita, Sedgwick County, KS

  8. Overcoming challenges in WAVE Bioreactors without feedback controls for pH and dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Yuk, Inn H; Baskar, Dinesh; Duffy, Philip H; Hsiung, Jenny; Leung, Susan; Lin, Andy A

    2011-01-01

    The biopharmaceutical industry is increasing its use of the WAVE Bioreactor for culturing cells. Although this disposable bioreactor can be equipped to provide real-time pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) monitoring and control, our goal was to develop a process for culturing CHO cells in this system without relying on pH and DO feedback controls. After identifying challenges in culturing cells without controlling for pH and DO in the WAVE Bioreactor, we characterized O(2) and CO(2) transfer in the system. From these cell-free studies, we identified rock rate and rock angle as key parameters affecting O(2) transfer. We also identified the concentration of CO(2) in the incoming gas and the rate of gas flow into the headspace as key parameters affecting CO(2) transfer--and therefore pH--in the disposable culture chamber. Using a full-factorial design to evaluate the rock rate, rock angle, and gas flow rate defined for this WAVE Bioreactor process, we found comparable cell growth and pH profiles in the ranges tested for these three parameters in two CHO cell lines. This process supported cell growth, and maintained pH and DO within our desired range--pH 6.8-7.2 and DO exceeding 20% of air saturation--for six CHO cell lines, and it also demonstrated comparable cell growth and viability with the stirred-tank bioreactor process with online pH and DO control. By eliminating the use of pH and DO probes, this process provides a simple and more cost-effective method for culturing cells in the WAVE Bioreactor. PMID:21987370

  9. Nuclear-cytoplasmatic shuttling of proteins in control of cellular oxygen sensing.

    PubMed

    Depping, Reinhard; Jelkmann, Wolfgang; Kosyna, Friederike Katharina

    2015-06-01

    In order to pass through the nuclear pore complex, proteins larger than ?40 kDa require specific nuclear transport receptors. Defects in nuclear-cytoplasmatic transport affect fundamental processes such as development, inflammation and oxygen sensing. The transcriptional response to O2 deficiency is controlled by hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). These are heterodimeric transcription factors of each ?100-120 kDa proteins, consisting of one out of three different O2-labile ? subunits (primarily HIF-1?) and a more constitutive 1? subunit. In the presence of O2, the ? subunits are hydroxylated by specific prolyl-4-hydroxylase domain proteins (PHD1, PHD2, and PHD3) and an asparaginyl hydroxylase (factor inhibiting HIF-1, FIH-1). The prolyl hydroxylation causes recognition by von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL), ubiquitination, and proteasomal degradation. The activity of the oxygen sensing machinery depends on dynamic intracellular trafficking. Nuclear import of HIF-1? and HIF-1? is mainly mediated by importins ? and ? (?/?). HIF-1? can shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm, while HIF-1? is permanently inside the nucleus. pVHL is localized to both compartments. Nuclear import of PHD1 relies on a nuclear localization signal (NLS) and uses the classical import pathway involving importin ?/? receptors. PHD2 shows an atypical NLS, and its nuclear import does not occur via the classical pathway. PHD2-mediated hydroxylation of HIF-1? occurs predominantly in the cell nucleus. Nuclear export of PHD2 involves a nuclear export signal (NES) in the N-terminus and depends on the export receptor chromosome region maintenance 1 (CRM1). Nuclear import of PHD3 is mediated by importin ?/? receptors and depends on a non-classical NLS. Specific modification of the nuclear translocation of the three PHD isoforms could provide a promising strategy for the development of new therapeutic substances to tackle major diseases. PMID:25809665

  10. Controllable generation of reactive oxygen species by femtosecond-laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wei; He, Hao; Wang, Yintao; Wang, Yisen; Hu, Minglie; Wang, Chingyue

    2014-02-01

    Femtosecond lasers have been advancing Biophotonics research in the past two decades with multiphoton microscopy, microsurgery, and photodynamic therapy. Nevertheless, laser irradiation is identified to bring photodamage to cells via reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation with unclear mechanism. Meanwhile, currently in biological researches, there is no effective method to provide controllable ROS production precisely, which originally is leaked from mitochondria during respiration and plays a key role in a lot of important cellular processes and cellular signaling pathways. In this study, we show the process of how the tightly focused femtosecond-laser induces ROS generation solely in mitochondria at the very beginning and then release to cytosol if the stimulus is intense enough. At certain weak power levels, the laser pulses induce merely moderate Ca2+ release but this is necessary for the laser to generate ROS in mitochondria. Cellular original ROS are also involved with a small contribution. When the power is above a threshold, ROS are then released to cytosol, indicating photodamage overwhelming cellular repair ability. The mechanisms in those two cases are quite different. Those results clarify parts of the mechanism in laser-induced ROS generation. Hence, it is possible to further this optical scheme to provide controllable ROS generation for ROS-related biological researches including mitochondrial diseases and aging.

  11. Room temperature alcohol sensing by oxygen vacancy controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotube array

    SciTech Connect

    Hazra, A.; Dutta, K.; Bhowmik, B.; Bhattacharyya, P., E-mail: pb-etc-besu@yahoo.com [Nano-Thin Films and Solid State Gas Sensor Devices Laboratory, Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology (IIEST), Shibpur, Howrah (India); Chattopadhyay, P. P. [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology (IIEST), Shibpur, Howrah (India)

    2014-08-25

    Oxygen vacancy (OV) controlled TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, having diameters of 50–70?nm and lengths of 200–250?nm, were synthesized by electrochemical anodization in the mixed electrolyte comprising NH{sub 4}F and ethylene glycol with selective H{sub 2}O content. The structural evolution of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Variation in the formation of OVs with the variation of the structure of TiO{sub 2} nanoforms has been evaluated by photoluminescence and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The sensor characteristics were correlated to the variation of the amount of induced OVs in the nanotubes. The efficient room temperature sensing achieved by the control of OVs of TiO{sub 2} nanotube array has paved the way for developing fast responding alcohol sensor with corresponding response magnitude of 60.2%, 45.3%, and 36.5% towards methanol, ethanol, and 2-propanol, respectively.

  12. SUMO E3 ligase activity of TRIM proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y Chu; X Yang

    2011-01-01

    SUMOylation governs numerous cellular processes and is essential to most eukaryotic life. Despite increasing recognition of the importance of this process, an extremely limited number of small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) protein ligases (E3s) have been identified. Here we show that at least some members of the functionally diverse tripartite motif (TRIM) superfamily are SUMO E3s. These TRIM proteins bind both

  13. Regulatory feedback loop between TP73 and TRIM32

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Cano, L; Hillje, A-L; Fuertes-Alvarez, S; Marques, M M; Blanch, A; Ian, R W; Irwin, M S; Schwamborn, J C; Marín, M C

    2013-01-01

    The p73 transcription factor is one of the members of the p53 family of tumor suppressors with unique biological functions in processes like neurogenesis, embryonic development and differentiation. For this reason, p73 activity is tightly regulated by multiple mechanisms, including transcription and post-translational modifications. Here, we identified a novel regulatory loop between TAp73 and the E3 ubiquitin ligase tripartite motif protein 32 (TRIM32). TRIM32, a new direct p73 transcriptional target in the context of neural progenitor cells, is differentially regulated by p73. Although TAp73 binds to the TRIM32 promoter and activates its expression, TAp73-induced TRIM32 expression is efficiently repressed by DNp73. TRIM32 in turn physically interacts with TAp73 and promotes its ubiquitination and degradation, impairing p73-dependent transcriptional activity. This mutual regulation between p73 and TRIM32 constitutes a novel feedback loop, which might have important implications in central nervous system development as well as relevance in oncogenesis, and thus emerges as a possible therapeutic target. PMID:23828567

  14. Effects of Contamination, UV Radiation, and Atomic Oxygen on ISS Thermal Control Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visentine, Jim; Finckenor, Miria; Zwiener, Jim; Munafo, Paul (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Thermal control surfaces on the International Space Station (ISS) have been tailored for optimum optical properties. The space environment, particularly contamination, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and atomic oxygen (AO) may have a detrimental effect on these optical properties. These effects must be quantified for modeling and planning. Also of interest was the effect of porosity on the reaction to simulated space environment. Five materials were chosen for this study based on their use on ISS. The thermal control materials were Z-93 white coating, silverized Teflon, chromic acid anodized aluminum, sulfuric acid anodized aluminum, and 7075-T6 aluminum. Some of the samples were exposed to RTV 560 silicone; others were exposed to Tefzel offgassing products. Two samples of Z-93 were not exposed to contamination as clean "controls". VUV radiation was used to photo-fix the contaminant to the material surface, then the samples were exposed to AO. All samples were exposed to 1000 equivalent sun-hours (ESH) of vacuum ultraviolet radiation (VUV) at the AZ Technology facility and a minimum of 1.5 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm of AO at Marshall Space Flight Center. Half of the samples were exposed to an additional 2000 ESH of VUV at Huntington Beach prior to sent to AZ Technology. Darkening of the Z-93 white coating was noted after VUV exposure. AO exposure did bleach the Z-93 but not back to its original brightness. Solar absorptance curves show the degradation due to contamination and VUV and the recovery with AO exposure. More bleaching was noted on the Tefzel-contaminated samples than with the RTV-contaminated samples.

  15. Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Architecture and Performance Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Jacob; Brown, Nelson A.

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control approach for real-time trim configuration optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control approach is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an F/A-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are controlled for optimization of fuel flow. This paper presents the design and integration of this peak-seeking controller on a modified NASA F/A-18 airplane with research flight control computers. A research flight was performed to collect data to build a realistic model of the performance function and characterize measurement noise. This model was then implemented into a nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom F/A-18 simulation along with the peak-seeking control algorithm. With the goal of eventual flight tests, the algorithm was first evaluated in the improved simulation environment. Results from the simulation predict good convergence on minimum fuel flow with a 2.5-percent reduction in fuel flow relative to the baseline trim of the aircraft.

  16. Peak-Seeking Optimization of Trim for Reduced Fuel Consumption: Architecture and Performance Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Jacob; Brown, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    A peak-seeking control approach for real-time trim configuration optimization for reduced fuel consumption has been developed by researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Dryden Flight Research Center to address the goals of the NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation project to reduce fuel burn and emissions. The peak-seeking control approach is based on a steepest-descent algorithm using a time-varying Kalman filter to estimate the gradient of a performance function of fuel flow versus control surface positions. In real-time operation, deflections of symmetric ailerons, trailing-edge flaps, and leading-edge flaps of an FA-18 airplane (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) are controlled for optimization of fuel flow. This presentation presents the design and integration of this peak-seeking controller on a modified NASA FA-18 airplane with research flight control computers. A research flight was performed to collect data to build a realistic model of the performance function and characterize measurement noise. This model was then implemented into a nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom FA-18 simulation along with the peak-seeking control algorithm. With the goal of eventual flight tests, the algorithm was first evaluated in the improved simulation environment. Results from the simulation predict good convergence on minimum fuel flow with a 2.5-percent reduction in fuel flow relative to the baseline trim of the aircraft.

  17. Magnetically remote-controlled optical sensor spheres for monitoring oxygen or pH.

    PubMed

    Mistlberger, Günter; Koren, Klaus; Borisov, Sergey M; Klimant, Ingo

    2010-03-01

    Magnetic sensor macrospheres (MagSeMacs), i.e., stainless steel spheres coated with optical chemical sensors, are presented as an alternative to existing optical sensor patches and fiber-optical dip-probes. Such spheres can either be reversibly attached to the tip of an optical fiber (dip-probe) or trapped inside a vessel for read-out through the side wall. Moving the magnetic separator at the exterior enables measurements at varying positions with a single sensor. Moreover, the sensor's replacement is rapid and contactless. We measured dissolved oxygen or pH in stirred liquids, rotating flasks, and 24-well plates with a SensorDish-reader device for parallel cell culture monitoring. In these applications, MagSeMacs proved to be advantageous over conventional sensor patches and magnetic optical sensor particles because of their magnetism, spherical shape, reflectance, and size. These properties resulted in strong but reversible fixation, magnetic remote-controllability, short response times, high signal intensities, and simplified handling. PMID:20121206

  18. MSP Hormonal Control of the Oocyte MAP Kinase Cascade and Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Youfeng; Han, Sung Min; Miller, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    The MSP domain is a conserved immunoglobulin-like structure that is important for C. elegans reproduction and human motor neuron survival. C. elegans MSPs are the most abundant proteins in sperm, where they function as intracellular cytoskeletal proteins and secreted hormones. Secreted MSPs bind to multiple receptors on oocyte and ovarian sheath cell surfaces to induce oocyte maturation and sheath contraction. MSP binding stimulates oocyte MPK-1 ERK MAP Kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation, but the function and mechanism are not well understood. Here we show that the Shp class protein-tyrosine phosphatase PTP-2 acts in oocytes downstream of sheath/oocyte gap junctions to promote MSP-induced MPK-1 phosphorylation. PTP-2 functions in the oocyte cytoplasm, not at the cell surface to inhibit multiple RasGAPs, resulting in sustained Ras activation. We also provide evidence that MSP promotes production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which act as second messengers to augment MPK-1 phosphorylation. The Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase SOD-1, an enzyme that catalyzes ROS breakdown in the cytoplasm, inhibits MPK-1 phosphorylation downstream of or in parallel to ptp-2. Our results support the model that MSP triggers PTP-2/Ras activation and ROS production to stimulate MPK-1 activity essential for oocyte maturation. We propose that secreted MSP domains and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutases function antagonistically to control ROS and MAPK signaling. PMID:20380830

  19. Phase and composition controllable synthesis of cobalt manganese spinel nanoparticles towards efficient oxygen electrocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun; Han, Xiaopeng; Cheng, Fangyi; Hu, Yuxiang; Chen, Chengcheng; Chen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Spinel-type oxides are technologically important in many fields, including electronics, magnetism, catalysis and electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Typically, these materials are prepared by conventional ceramic routes that are energy consuming and offer limited control over shape and size. Moreover, for mixed-metal oxide spinels (for example, CoxMn3-xO4), the crystallographic phase sensitively correlates with the metal ratio, posing great challenges to synthesize active product with simultaneously tuned phase and composition. Here we report a general synthesis of ultrasmall cobalt manganese spinels with tailored structural symmetry and composition through facile solution-based oxidation-precipitation and insertion-crystallization process at modest condition. As an example application, the nanocrystalline spinels catalyse the oxygen reduction/evolution reactions, showing phase and composition co-dependent performance. Furthermore, the mild synthetic strategy allows the formation of homogeneous and strongly coupled spinel/carbon nanocomposites, which exhibit comparable activity but superior durability to Pt/C and serve as efficient catalysts to build rechargeable Zn-air and Li-air batteries. PMID:26040417

  20. Phase and composition controllable synthesis of cobalt manganese spinel nanoparticles towards efficient oxygen electrocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun; Han, Xiaopeng; Cheng, Fangyi; Hu, Yuxiang; Chen, Chengcheng; Chen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Spinel-type oxides are technologically important in many fields, including electronics, magnetism, catalysis and electrochemical energy storage and conversion. Typically, these materials are prepared by conventional ceramic routes that are energy consuming and offer limited control over shape and size. Moreover, for mixed-metal oxide spinels (for example, CoxMn3?xO4), the crystallographic phase sensitively correlates with the metal ratio, posing great challenges to synthesize active product with simultaneously tuned phase and composition. Here we report a general synthesis of ultrasmall cobalt manganese spinels with tailored structural symmetry and composition through facile solution-based oxidation–precipitation and insertion–crystallization process at modest condition. As an example application, the nanocrystalline spinels catalyse the oxygen reduction/evolution reactions, showing phase and composition co-dependent performance. Furthermore, the mild synthetic strategy allows the formation of homogeneous and strongly coupled spinel/carbon nanocomposites, which exhibit comparable activity but superior durability to Pt/C and serve as efficient catalysts to build rechargeable Zn–air and Li–air batteries. PMID:26040417

  1. Ultralow Oxygen Treatment for Postharvest Control of Western Flower Thrips on Head Lettuce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), were subjected to ULO treatments with different combinations of oxygen level, temperature, and treatment duration in plastic jars. Oxygen levels used ranged from 0.0015% to 0.01%. Temperatures ranged from 1 to 10°C. Treatme...

  2. Oxygen Uptake. Operational Control Tests for Wastewater Treatment Facilities. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooley, John F.

    Biological waste treatment in the activated sludge process is based on the ability of microorganisms to use dissolved oxygen in breaking down soluble organic substances. The oxygen uptake test is a means of measuring the respiration rate of microorganisms in this process. Designed for individuals who have completed National Pollutant Discharge…

  3. Localized Oxygen Use of Healthy and Low Back Pain Individuals During Controlled Trunk Movements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kimberly M. Kovacs; William S. Marras; Alan S. Litsky; Purnendu Gupta; Sue A. Ferguson

    Summary: Individuals who have low back pain (LBP) have significantly different motion characteristics than healthy individuals. However, the cause of these differences is unknown. Oxygen use of the erector spinae muscle was examined while simulta- neously monitoring motion characteristics to determine whether oxygen use differed between healthy and LBP individuals. Thirty volunteers were classified as healthy, structural, or muscular-based LBP.

  4. Control of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production through histidine kinases in Aspergillus nidulans under different growth conditions?

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Saki; Yoshioka, Megumi; Matsui, Tetsuji; Kojima, Kensuke; Kato, Masashi; Kanamaru, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Sensor histidine kinases (HKs) are important factors that control cellular growth in response to environmental conditions. The expression of 15 HKs from Aspergillus nidulans was analyzed by quantitative real-time PCR under vegetative, asexual, and sexual growth conditions. Most HKs were highly expressed during asexual growth. All HK gene-disrupted strains produced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Three HKs are involved in the control of ROS: HysA was the most abundant under the restricted oxygen condition, NikA is involved in fungicide sensing, and FphA inhibits sexual development in response to red light. Phosphotransfer signal transduction via HysA is essential for ROS production control. PMID:24490133

  5. Melting of Bi-2212 under controlled oxygen partial pressures with silver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Th.; Buhl, D.; Gauckler, L. J.

    1997-02-01

    The solidus temperature Tsolidus of Bi 2Sr 2CaCu 2O x (Bi-2212) is decreased from 893°C to 880°C and further down to 834°C when the oxygen partial pressure of the atmosphere is changed from pO 2 = 1 atm to 0.21 atm and further to 0.001 atm. Silver additions to the superconductor exceeding 2 wt% lower Tsolidus by up to 25 K in a pure oxygen atmosphere. The weight loss during melting, which is related to oxygen release, is highest at low oxygen partial pressures and can be reduced by silver additions due to increased oxygen solubility of the Bi-2212 melt in presence of dissolved silver. The experimental results are compared with thermodynamic data of the Bi?Sr?Ca?Cu?O system.

  6. Nasal Sculpting: Calculated and Predictable Tip Elevation With Cephalic Trim

    PubMed Central

    Redstone, Jeremiah S.; Nguyen, Jonathan; North, Durham Alan; Hazani, Ron; Drury, Brad; Yoder, Eric M.; Cooperman, Ross D.; Yoder, Virginia; Little, Jarrod A.; Florman, Larry D.; Wilhelmi, Bradon J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rhinoplasty techniques to affect nasal tip rotation are well described. Cephalic alar trim is a powerful method for achieving tip elevation. Previous studies and texts provide aesthetic guidelines for nasolabial angles. Often, surgeon experience determines the degree of lower lateral cartilage resection to achieve optimal results. This study analyzes the change in tip elevation with measured resections of the lower lateral cartilages. This can aid the surgeon in accurately predicting the effect of cephalic alar trim on tip elevation. Methods: Ten fresh cadaveric dissections were performed to determine the change in nasolabial angles after cephalic trim of the lower lateral cartilage. Closed rhinoplasty technique was performed using marginal and intercartilaginous incisions to expose the lower lateral cartilage. Caliper measurements of the lower lateral cartilage were recorded. Serial cephalic trim was performed in 25% increments. True lateral photographs were obtained before and after each serial excision. Nasolabial angle measurements were obtained using a digital goniometer for digital photo analysis. Results: Four female and 6 male cadavers were evaluated. The mean initial nasolabial angle was 106° ± 2°. The mean lower lateral cartilage width was 9.45 ± 1.38 mm. Serial 25% reductions in lower lateral cartilage height resulted in a mean total nasolabial angle change of 7.4°, 12.9°, and 19.6°, respectively. The mean incremental change in the nasolabial angle was 6.47° ± 1.25°. Conclusion: The nasolabial angle is an essential aesthetic feature. Cephalic trim is a key maneuver in affecting the nasolabial angle. A 25% lower lateral cartilage cephalic trim correlates with an average change in the nasolabial angle of 6.47°. Knowledge of the cephalic trim to nasolabial angle relationship aids in achieving desired tip elevation. PMID:26171091

  7. Improving the Flavor of Ground Beef by Selecting Trimmings from Specific Locations 

    E-print Network

    Harbison, Amanda 1989-

    2012-08-17

    (>95% lean) to contain 80% lean trim and 20% fat trim. Patties (100 g) were evaluated for color, lipid oxidation, fatty acid composition and consumer evaluation. Flavor was analyzed using a Gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC...

  8. Quality of Trimming and its Effect on Stretch Flanging of Automotive Panels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovashchenko, Sergey F.

    2008-06-01

    Traditional trimming requires accurate alignment of the die shearing edges, typically 5 10% of the blank thickness. Increasing the clearance above the recommended value often leads to generation of burrs on the trimmed surface. These burrs may create difficulties for flanging and hemming operations. Details of trimming technology for panels made out of aluminum sheet AA6111-T4 with elastic offal support will be discussed, including such factors as die radii of the tooling, effect of tooling wear, and trimming angle on the quality of trimmed surface. Also, imperfections on the trimmed edge of the panel may result in reduced formability in stretched flanging and hemming operations. Experimental results quantifying the behavior of trimmed surface in stretching will be provided for both a conventional trimming process and a newly developed process.

  9. Stabilized Human TRIM5? Protects Human T Cells From HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Max W; Guo, Lili; Xin, Frances; Yang, Xiaolu; Riley, James L

    2014-01-01

    Rhesus (rh) but not human (hu) TRIM5? potently restricts human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection. It is not clear why huTRIM5? fails to effectively block HIV infection, but it is thought to have a lower affinity for the viral core. Using primary human CD4 T cells, we investigated the ability of huTRIM5?, rhTRIM5?, and the huTRIM5?R323–332 B30.2/SPRY patch-mutant to form cytoplasmic bodies, postulated as key components of the HIV-1 restriction apparatus. Both rhTRIM5? and huTRIM5?R323–332 formed pronounced cytoplasmic bodies, whereas cytoplasmic bodies in T cells overexpressing huTRIM5? were present but more difficult to detect. As expression of all three TRIM5? orthologs was similar at the RNA level, we next investigated the role of protein stability in conferring TRIM5?-mediated HIV-1 restriction. Both steady-state and pulse-chase experiments revealed that the huTRIM5? protein was much less stable than rhTRIM5?, and this difference correlated with higher self-ubiquitination activity. Using a stabilized form of huTRIM5? in which the steady-state expression level was more similar to rhTRIM5?, we observed comparable HIV-1 restriction activity in multi-round HIV-1 challenge assays. Lastly, primary human CD4 T cells expressing a stabilized huTRIM5? were protected from HIV-1-mediated destruction in vivo, indicating that efforts to stabilize huTRIM5? should have significant long-term therapeutic value. PMID:24662946

  10. Trimming the UCERF2 hazard logic tree

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Porter, Keith A.; Field, Edward H.; Milner, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The Uniform California Earthquake Rupture Forecast 2 (UCERF2) is a fully time?dependent earthquake rupture forecast developed with sponsorship of the California Earthquake Authority (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities [WGCEP], 2007; Field et al., 2009). UCERF2 contains 480 logic?tree branches reflecting choices among nine modeling uncertainties in the earthquake rate model shown in Figure 1. For seismic hazard analysis, it is also necessary to choose a ground?motion?prediction equation (GMPE) and set its parameters. Choosing among four next?generation attenuation (NGA) relationships results in a total of 1920 hazard calculations per site. The present work is motivated by a desire to reduce the computational effort involved in a hazard analysis without understating uncertainty. We set out to assess which branching points of the UCERF2 logic tree contribute most to overall uncertainty, and which might be safely ignored (set to only one branch) without significantly biasing results or affecting some useful measure of uncertainty. The trimmed logic tree will have all of the original choices from the branching points that contribute significantly to uncertainty, but only one arbitrarily selected choice from the branching points that do not.

  11. An assessment of the characteristics of yard trimmings and recirculated yard trimmings used in biowaste composting.

    PubMed

    López, Marga; Soliva, Montserrat; Martínez-Farré, F Xavier; Bonmatí, August; Huerta-Pujol, Oscar

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this research was to characterise samples of yard trimmings (YT) and recirculated yard trimmings (RYT) that are used to co-compost organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) taken from 18 composting facilities in Catalonia (NE Spain), to determine their contribution in the composting process, and to highlight the advantages and disadvantages of reusing RYT. We found significant differences between the characteristics of the two materials. RYT had higher pH levels, electrical conductivity, and organic and ammonium nitrogen content than YT. Nutrient content also shows an increment from YT to RYT, and in the case of P and K, this variation can be attributed to an exogenous source rather than the relative concentration during the composting process. We also found significant differences in particle size distribution and bulk density. From the results, it can be assumed that RYT could be reused in the composting process if OFMSW, YT, and RYT are used in the correct quantities to balance the mixture but they cannot totally replace the features of YT. PMID:19811908

  12. In Situ CO, Oxygen, and Opacity Measurement for Optimizing Combustion Control System Performance 

    E-print Network

    Molloy, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    detailed review of the latest state-of-the-art In Situ measurement techniques is provided, including: gas filter correlation spectroscopy (CO), zirconium oxide fuel cell (oxygen), and glass fiber optics based transmissometers (opacity). Recent...

  13. Effects of bill-trimming Muscovy ducks on behavior, body weight gain, and bill morphopathology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In commercial production facilities, ducks are often bill-trimmed to prevent feather pecking and cannibalism. Beak-trimming of chickens and turkeys has been criticized because of its potential to cause acute and chronic pain, but little is known about the effects of bill-trimming on the welfare of d...

  14. Trim Simulations of Thin Film Resistors by the Boundary Element Method (BEM)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klaus Schimmanz; Arnulf Kost

    ó The reliability of resistors in the modern hybrid integrated circuit production becomes more and more important. This paper discusses a method to evaluate post-trim drift behav- ior of laser trimmed thin lm resistors. Based on numerical ux eld computations a dynamic post-trim drift model is deduced and it will be shown how the Boundary Element Method (BEM) is used

  15. Material anisotropy and trimming method effects on total elongation in DP500 sheet steel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrey M. Ilinich; Sergey F. Golovashchenko; Lorenzo M. Smith

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the influence of material anisotropy and trimming method on the total elongation of the trimmed edge of DP500 sheet steel. For various orientations, experimental analysis is carried out on rectangular shaped tensile test specimens featuring a polished edge on one side and a trimmed edge on the other side. It is shown

  16. The Frequency Response of Some Trimmed Passive Distributed RC Low-Pass Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANTHONY J. WALTON; PETER L. MORAN; NORMAN G. BURROW

    1980-01-01

    An improved element, derived from the admittance parameters of a uniform distributed RC network, is proposed for use in a finite element simulation program. Its superiority over the simple RC element in the modeling of trimmed distributed RC structures is demonstrated. The improved element has been used to analyze the effects of single trim cuts, double trim cuts, and L-shaped

  17. Retinal venous oxygen saturation and cardiac output during controlled hemorrhage and resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Denninghoff, Kurt R; Smith, Matthew H; Lompado, Art; Hillman, Lloyd W

    2003-03-01

    The objective was to test calibration of an eye oximeter (EOX) in a vitiligo swine eye and correlate retinal venous oxygen saturation (Srv(O(2))), mixed venous oxygen saturation (Sv(O(2))), and cardiac output (CO) during robust changes in blood volume. Ten anesthetized adult Sinclair swine with retinal vitiligo were placed on stepwise decreasing amounts of oxygen. At each oxygen level, femoral artery oxygen saturation (Sa(O(2))) and retinal artery oxygen saturation (Sra(O(2))) were obtained. After equilibration on 100% O(2), subjects were bled at 1.4 ml. kg(-1). min(-1) for 20 min. Subsequently, anticoagulated shed blood was reinfused at the same rate. During graded hypoxia, exsanguination, and reinfusion, Sra(O(2)) and Srv(O(2)) were measured by using the EOX, and CO and Sv(O(2)) were measured by using a pulmonary artery catheter. During graded hypoxia, Sra(O(2)) correlated with Sa(O(2)) (r = 0.92). Srv(O(2)) correlated with Sv(O(2)) (r = 0.89) during exsanguination and reinfusion. Sv(O(2)) and Srv(O(2)) correlated with CO during blood removal and resuscitation (r = 0.92). Use of vitiligo retinas improved the calibration of EOX measurements. In this robust hemorrhage model, Srv(O(2)) correlates with CO and Sv(O(2)) across the range of exsanguination and resuscitation. PMID:12571124

  18. Hyperproduction of cordycepin by two-stage dissolved oxygen control in submerged cultivation of medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris in bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xian-Bing; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2004-01-01

    Effect of oxygen supply on cordycepin production was investigated in submerged cultivation of Cordyceps militaris, a famous traditional Chinese medicinal mushroom, in a 5-L turbine-agitated bioreactor (TAB). Initial volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient (kLa) within the range of 11.5-113.8 h(-1) had significant influence on cordycepin production. The highest cordycepin concentration of 167.5 mg/L was obtained at an initial kLa value of 54.5 h(-1), where a moderate dissolved oxygen (DO) pattern was observed throughout cultivation. The possible correlation between cordycepin production and DO level was explored by DO control experiments, and the results showed that DO within the range of 10-80% of air saturation greatly affected the cultivation process. To obtain a high specific cordycepin formation rate (rho) throughout cultivation, a two-stage DO control strategy was developed based on the analysis of the relationship of rho and DO. That is, DO was controlled at 60% from the beginning of cultivation and then shifted to a lower control level of 30% when rho started to decrease. As a result, a high cordycepin production of 201.1 mg/L and a high productivity of 15.5 mg/(L.d) were achieved, which was enhanced by about 15% and 30% compared to the highest titers obtained in conventional DO control experiments, respectively. The proposed DO control strategy was also applied to a recently developed 5-L centrifugal impeller bioreactor (CIB) with cordycepin production and productivity titers of 188.3 mg/L and 14.5 mg/(L.d). Furthermore, the scale-up of the two-stage DO control process from 5-L CIB to 30-L CIB was successfully demonstrated. The work is useful for the efficient large-scale production of bioactive metabolites by mushroom cultures. PMID:15458324

  19. Metabolic and energetic control of Pseudomonas mendocina growth during transitions from aerobic to oxygen-limited conditions in chemostat cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Verdoni, N; Aon, M A; Lebeault, J M

    1992-01-01

    Several metabolic fluxes were analyzed during gradual transitions from aerobic to oxygen-limited conditions in chemostat cultures of Pseudomonas mendocina growing in synthetic medium at a dilution rate of 0.25 h-1. P. mendocina growth was glucose limited at high oxygen partial pressures (70 and 20% pO2) and exhibited an oxidative type of metabolism characterized by respiratory quotient (RQ) values of 1.0. A similar RQ value was obtained at low pO2 (2%), and detectable levels of acetic, formic, and lactic acids were determined in the extracellular medium. RQs of 0.9 +/- 0.12 were found at 70% pO2 for growth rates ranging from 0.025 to 0.5 h-1. At high pO2, the control coefficients of oxygen on catabolic fluxes were 0.19 and 0.22 for O2 uptake and CO2 production, respectively. At low pO2 (2%), the catabolic and anabolic fluxes were highly controlled by oxygen. P. mendocina showed a mixed-type fermentative metabolism when nitrogen was flushed into chemostat cultures. Ethanol and acetic, lactic, and formic acids were excreted and represented 7.5% of the total carbon recovered. Approximately 50% of the carbon was found as uronic acids in the extracellular medium. Physiological studies were performed under microaerophilic conditions (nitrogen flushing) in continuous cultures for a wide range of growth rates (0.03 to 0.5 h-1). A cell population, able to exhibit a near-maximum theoretical yield of ATP (YmaxATP = 25 g/mol) with a number of ATP molecules formed during the transfer of an electron towards oxygen along the respiration chain (P/O ratio) of 3, appears to have adapted to microaerophilic conditions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1444429

  20. The genetic control of avascular area in mouse oxygen-induced retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    O’Bryhim, Bliss E.; Radel, Jeff; Macdonald, Stuart J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The C57BL/6ByJ and BALB/cByJ inbred strains of mice are, respectively, susceptible and resistant to oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). The purpose of this work was to investigate the genetic control of the retinal avascular area in mouse OIR using a mapping cross. Methods The central retinal avascular area was measured on postnatal day 16 (P16) in C57BL/6ByJ, BALB/cByJ, 101 (C57BL/6ByJ x BALB/cByJ)F2, and 116 (BALB/cByJ x C57BL/6ByJ)F2 mice that had been subjected to the OIR protocol. A genome-wide scan was performed of selected albino and non-albino mice to determine quantitative trait loci associated with weight and avascular area. Results C57BL/6ByJ mice had significantly larger avascular areas than BALB/cByJ ones. Albino mice of the F2 generation had smaller avascular areas than the non-albino mice. Genotyping was performed at 856 informative single nucleotide polymorphisms approximately evenly distributed across the genome from each of 85 selected F2 mice. Weight, sex, and the paternal grandmother were found to act as additive covariates associated with the avascular area on P16; mapping analyses that used a model incorporating these covariates found a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 7 related to avascular area. Mapping analyses that used a model that did not incorporate covariates found a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 9 related to avascular area. A quantitative trait locus for bodyweight on P16 was mapped to chromosome 5. Conclusions The retinal avascular area in the mouse OIR model is under genetic control. Revascularization in OIR is related to the weight, strain of paternal grandmother, sex, and albinism. Our data support the existence of a quantitative trait locus on chromosome 5 that influences weight after exposure to hyperoxia, as well as quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 7 and 9 that modify susceptibility to OIR. PMID:22355249

  1. What processes control the oxygen isotopes of soil bio-available phosphate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Avner; Angert, Alon

    2015-06-01

    The biological availability of phosphorus (P) is considered to be the limiting factor for plant growth in many natural and agricultural soils. Recent studies demonstrated that valuable information on soil P dynamics can be gained from the stable oxygen isotopes of soil phosphate (?18OP). However, to interpret this information correctly, our understanding of the processes that controls soil phosphate ?18OP values needs to be improved since most of the current data is based primarily on laboratory studies of pure microbial cultures and enzymatic assays and may not be relevant to soils. Here we designed a series of controlled soil incubation experiments to study the actual isotopic effects induced by abiotic reactions, biological uptake, microbial turnover and organic-P mineralization on soil phosphate ?18OP values. We used this data to estimate the role of these processes in mediating soil P availability. Our study was conducted on Mediterranean soils sampled from the same site during winter, spring and summer. The soils were incubated with various mineral and organic-P compounds and their bioavailable phosphate concentrations and ?18OP values were measured. We confirmed that the role of abiotic reactions on phosphate ?18OP values was negligible and that the ?18OP values of the added phosphate were rapidly driven towards isotopic equilibrium with soil water. We suggest this process was mediated by rapid microbial phosphate turnover. Yet, we did not detect the expected isotopic enrichment effect associated with phosphate biological uptake. In another set of incubation experiments we demonstrated that mineralization of phosphate from organic compounds, such as phospho-mono-ester (PME) and phosphor-di-ester (PDE), produced an offset from isotopic equilibrium, as a result of the strong isotopic fractionation associated with the mineralization process. However, the ?18OP values recorded by the mineralized phosphate were gradually driven back towards isotopic equilibrium, probably due to its rapid microbial turnover after its release. By identifying the isotopic effects of the different processes in soils we could use a simple isotopic calculation to estimate the extent of biological phosphate turnover in our experimental system.

  2. Trimming a Metallic Biliary Stent Using an Argon Plasma Coagulator

    SciTech Connect

    Rerknimitr, Rungsun, E-mail: Rungsun@pol.net; Naprasert, Pisit; Kongkam, Pradermchai; Kullavanijaya, Pinit [Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Internal Medicine (Thailand)

    2007-06-15

    Background. Distal migration is one of the common complications after insertion of a covered metallic stent. Stent repositioning or removal is not always possible in every patient. Therefore, trimming using an argon plasma coagulator (APC) may be a good alternative method to solve this problem. Methods. Metallic stent trimming by APC was performed in 2 patients with biliary Wallstent migration and in another patient with esophageal Ultraflex stent migration. The power setting was 60-100 watts with an argon flow of 0.8 l/min. Observations. The procedure was successfully performed and all distal parts of the stents were removed. No significant collateral damage to the nearby mucosa was observed. Conclusions. In a patient with a distally migrated metallic stent, trimming of the stent is possible by means of an APC. This new method may be applicable to other sites of metallic stent migration.

  3. Building the Palliative Care Evidence Base: Lessons from a Randomized Controlled Trial of Oxygen vs. Room Air for Refractory Dyspnea

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Thomas W.; Abernethy, Amy P.

    2014-01-01

    Palliative Care is increasingly seen as a standard component of high-quality comprehensive cancer care. However, there remain several challenges to its widespread integration into clinical oncology practice, including workforce problems, reimbursement concerns, and a fledgling evidence base. Here we discuss issues around evidence base development in palliative cancer care, using the example of a recently-published randomized controlled trial of oxygen vs. room air. The Oxygen Trial randomized patients with refractory dyspnea and adequate PaO2 to oxygen or room air, administered via nasal cannula. Both groups experienced improvements in self-rated dyspnea scores, but there were no statistical differences between intervention arms. These results suggest that supplementary oxygen is often unnecessary in the palliative setting, and that room air is similarly efficacious. This example highlights the importance and need for ongoing development of the evidence base in palliative medicine. The Palliative Care Research Cooperative Group (PCRC) is a novel National Institute of Nursing Research-funded research infrastructure that seeks to expand the palliative care evidence base. Its first multi-site trial was recently completed, assessing the pragmatic question of whether statin medications can be safely discontinued in end-of-life settings. The PCRC will be a vehicle through which a high-quality evidence base will continue to expand and develop. Such ongoing research efforts are needed to inform and improve palliative care practice. PMID:24994919

  4. Comparative effects of infrared and one-third hot-blade trimming on beak topography, behavior, and growth.

    PubMed

    Marchant-Forde, R M; Fahey, A G; Cheng, H W

    2008-08-01

    This research examined the effects of infrared beak treatment on layer chicks. Seventy-two layer chicks were assigned to hot-blade trimming (HB), infrared treatment (IR), or a control treatment. Day-old chicks were pair-housed by treatment. Beak photographs, behavior, and production indices were obtained at intervals for 9 wk posttreatment. All beaks were normally shaped at the onset of the study, and no perceptible treatment-related differences in shape occurred over time (P > 0.05). Posttreatment, HB birds had shorter beaks relative to the other 2 groups (P < 0.05). Control and IR beaks remained comparable in length until tissue eroded in IR beaks at 1 to 2 wk posttreatment. Thereafter, beak length increased in all treatments over time (P < 0.01). Two weeks posttreatment, beaks were longest in control birds, intermediate in HB birds (P < 0.001), and shortest in IR birds (P < 0.001). The HB birds had abnormal deviations from a normal upper-to-lower mandible length ratio than the IR or control birds (P < 0.05). Notable effects of treatment on production emerged by +2 d and persisted for 5 wk. Growth and feed intake were lower in HB and IR birds compared with control birds (P < 0.05), with IR birds performing least well until the fourth week of the study (P < 0.05). Thereafter, they performed similarly to the HB group. Feed waste was lowest in the IR group and was generally greatest in the control group (P < 0.05). There was an overall effect of trimming, irrespective of method, on behavior, particularly eating and drinking behaviors (P < 0.05). Specifically, IR birds were less active (P < 0.01) and spent less time eating (P < 0.01) and drinking (P < 0.05) than did control birds. Behavior in HB birds often ranked intermediate in duration and incidence, but was not significantly different compared with behavior measured in the control and IR groups. Effects of treatment on behavior were not present after 1 wk posttrimming. Results indicate that acute pain occurred with both trimming methods. Although the impact of trimming appeared to be greatest in the IR birds initially, these differences disappeared relatively quickly, and subsequent performance was similar in both trimmed groups. PMID:18648038

  5. Oxygen control of atomic structure and physical properties of SrRuO3 surfaces.

    PubMed

    Tselev, Alexander; Ganesh, P; Qiao, Liang; Siemons, Wolter; Gai, Zheng; Biegalski, Michael D; Baddorf, Arthur P; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2013-05-28

    Complex oxide thin films and heterostructures have become one of the foci for condensed matter physics research due to a broad variety of properties they exhibit. Similar to the bulk, properties of oxide surfaces can be expected to be strongly affected by oxygen stoichiometry. Here we explore the coupling between atomic structure and physical properties of SrRuO3 (SRO), one of the most well-studied oxide materials. We perform a detailed in situ and ex situ experimental investigation of the surfaces of SRO thin films using a combination of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, SQUID magnetometry, and magnetotransport measurements, as well as ab initio modeling. A number of remarkable linear surface reconstructions were observed by STM and interpreted as oxygen adatoms, favorably adsorbed in a regular rectangular or zigzag patterns. The degree of oxygen coverage and different surface patterns change the work function of the thin films, and modify local electronic and magnetic properties of the topmost atomic layer. The ab initio modeling reveals that oxygen adatoms possess frustrated local spin moments with possible spin-glass behavior of the surface covered by adsorbed oxygen. Additionally, the modeling indicates presence of a pseudo gap on the topmost SrO layer on pristine SrO-terminated surface, suggesting possibility for realization of a surface half-metallic film. PMID:23570268

  6. Physical and chemical analyses of separable lean of beef retail cuts with different external fat trim levels

    E-print Network

    Wahrmund, Jennifer Lyn

    1999-01-01

    of four treatments: (1) 0.3 cm external fat trim, raw; (2) 0.0 cm external fat trim, cooked; (3) 0.3 cm external fat trim, cooked; and (4) 0.6 cm external fat trim, cooked. Retail cuts assigned to the cooked treatment were either braised, broiled...

  7. Physical and chemical analyses of separable lean of beef retail cuts with different external fat trim levels 

    E-print Network

    Wahrmund, Jennifer Lyn

    1999-01-01

    of four treatments: (1) 0.3 cm external fat trim, raw; (2) 0.0 cm external fat trim, cooked; (3) 0.3 cm external fat trim, cooked; and (4) 0.6 cm external fat trim, cooked. Retail cuts assigned to the cooked treatment were either braised, broiled...

  8. April 10, 2012 18:1 WSPC -Proceedings Trim Size: 9in x 6in capbioctrl Integrating Capture Point into Biologically Motivated

    E-print Network

    Berns, Karsten

    : Capture Point; Biologically motivated control; iB2C; Biped robots; Inverted pendulum IntroductionApril 10, 2012 18:1 WSPC - Proceedings Trim Size: 9in x 6in capbioctrl 1 Integrating Capture Point or abrupt strong push. The Capture Point1,2 has been presented to compute the region on the ground where

  9. Oxygen sensing and signaling.

    PubMed

    van Dongen, Joost T; Licausi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is an indispensable substrate for many biochemical reactions in plants, including energy metabolism (respiration). Despite its importance, plants lack an active transport mechanism to distribute oxygen to all cells. Therefore, steep oxygen gradients occur within most plant tissues, which can be exacerbated by environmental perturbations that further reduce oxygen availability. Plants possess various responses to cope with spatial and temporal variations in oxygen availability, many of which involve metabolic adaptations to deal with energy crises induced by low oxygen. Responses are induced gradually when oxygen concentrations decrease and are rapidly reversed upon reoxygenation. A direct effect of the oxygen level can be observed in the stability, and thus activity, of various transcription factors that control the expression of hypoxia-induced genes. Additional signaling pathways are activated by the impact of oxygen deficiency on mitochondrial and chloroplast functioning. Here, we describe the molecular components of the oxygen-sensing pathway. PMID:25580837

  10. The Trauma Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research Network's Remote Damage Control Resuscitation Symposium.

    PubMed

    Spinella, Philip C; Strandenes, Geir

    2014-05-01

    This year, the Trauma Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research Network had its third annual conference from June 17 to 19 at the Solstrand Hotel, near Bergen, Norway. It was sponsored and organized by the Norwegian Naval Special Operation Commando together with the Norwegian Air Ambulance Foundation. The Trauma Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research Network is composed of more than 150 members from 16 countries who all have a common interest in the prevention and treatment of traumatic hemorrhagic shock. The network is multidisciplinary to include members from both the military and civilian medical community representing areas of surgery, critical care, emergency medicine, transfusion medicine, anesthesiology, hematology, and basic science. PMID:24089006

  11. TRIM16 inhibits proliferation and migration through regulation of interferon beta 1 in melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Selina K.; Koach, Jessica; Tan, Owen; Liu, Bing; Carter, Daniel R.; Wilmott, James S.; Yosufi, Benafsha; Haydu, Lauren E.; Mann, Graham J.; Thompson, John F.; Long, Georgina V.; Liu, Tao; McArthur, Grant; Zhang, Xu Dong; Scolyer, Richard A.; Cheung, Belamy B.; Marshall, Glenn M.

    2014-01-01

    High basal or induced expression of the tripartite motif protein, TRIM16, leads to reduce cell growth and migration of neuroblastoma and skin squamous cell carcinoma cells. However, the role of TRIM16 in melanoma is currently unknown. TRIM16 protein levels were markedly reduced in human melanoma cell lines, compared with normal human epidermal melanocytes due to both DNA methylation and reduced protein stability. TRIM16 knockdown strongly increased cell migration in normal human epidermal melanocytes, while TRIM16 overexpression reduced cell migration and proliferation of melanoma cells in an interferon beta 1 (IFN?1)-dependent manner. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed TRIM16 directly bound the IFN?1 gene promoter. Low level TRIM16 expression in 91 melanoma patient samples, strongly correlated with lymph node metastasis, and, predicted poor patient prognosis in a separate cohort of 170 melanoma patients with lymph node metastasis. The BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib, increased TRIM16 protein levels in melanoma cells in vitro, and induced growth arrest in BRAF-mutant melanoma cells in a TRIM16-dependent manner. High levels of TRIM16 in melanoma tissues from patients treated with Vemurafenib correlated with clinical response. Our data, for the first time, demonstrates TRIM16 is a marker of cell migration and metastasis, and a novel treatment target in melanoma. PMID:25333256

  12. TRIM5{alpha} association with cytoplasmic bodies is not required for antiretroviral activity

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Byeongwoon [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Diaz-Griffero, Felipe [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Park, Do Hyun [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Rogers, Thomas [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Stremlau, Matthew [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Sodroski, Joseph [Department of Cancer Immunology and AIDS, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Division of AIDS, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States) and Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)]. E-mail: joseph_sodroski@dfci.harvard.edu

    2005-12-20

    The tripartite motif (TRIM) protein, TRIM5{alpha}, restricts infection by particular retroviruses. Many TRIM proteins form cytoplasmic bodies of unknown function. We investigated the relationship between cytoplasmic body formation and the structure and antiretroviral activity of TRIM5{alpha}. In addition to diffuse cytoplasmic staining, the TRIM5{alpha} proteins from several primate species were located in cytoplasmic bodies of different sizes; by contrast, TRIM5{alpha} from spider monkeys did not form cytoplasmic bodies. Despite these differences, all of the TRIM5{alpha} proteins exhibited the ability to restrict infection by particular retroviruses. Treatment of cells with geldanamycin, an Hsp90 inhibitor, resulted in disappearance or reduction of the TRIM5{alpha}-associated cytoplasmic bodies, yet exerted little effect on the restriction of retroviral infection. Studies of green fluorescent protein-TRIM5{alpha} fusion proteins indicated that no TRIM5{alpha} domain is specifically required for association with cytoplasmic bodies. Apparently, the formation of cytoplasmic bodies is not required for the antiretroviral activity of TRIM5{alpha}.

  13. TRIM16 inhibits proliferation and migration through regulation of interferon beta 1 in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Selina K; Koach, Jessica; Tan, Owen; Liu, Bing; Carter, Daniel R; Wilmott, James S; Yosufi, Benafsha; Haydu, Lauren E; Mann, Graham J; Thompson, John F; Long, Georgina V; Liu, Tao; McArthur, Grant; Zhang, Xu Dong; Scolyer, Richard A; Cheung, Belamy B; Marshall, Glenn M

    2014-10-30

    High basal or induced expression of the tripartite motif protein, TRIM16, leads to reduce cell growth and migration of neuroblastoma and skin squamous cell carcinoma cells. However, the role of TRIM16 in melanoma is currently unknown. TRIM16 protein levels were markedly reduced in human melanoma cell lines, compared with normal human epidermal melanocytes due to both DNA methylation and reduced protein stability. TRIM16 knockdown strongly increased cell migration in normal human epidermal melanocytes, while TRIM16 overexpression reduced cell migration and proliferation of melanoma cells in an interferon beta 1 (IFN?1)-dependent manner. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays revealed TRIM16 directly bound the IFN?1 gene promoter. Low level TRIM16 expression in 91 melanoma patient samples, strongly correlated with lymph node metastasis, and, predicted poor patient prognosis in a separate cohort of 170 melanoma patients with lymph node metastasis. The BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib, increased TRIM16 protein levels in melanoma cells in vitro, and induced growth arrest in BRAF-mutant melanoma cells in a TRIM16-dependent manner. High levels of TRIM16 in melanoma tissues from patients treated with Vemurafenib correlated with clinical response. Our data, for the first time, demonstrates TRIM16 is a marker of cell migration and metastasis, and a novel treatment target in melanoma. PMID:25333256

  14. Intracellular antibody-bound pathogens stimulate immune signaling via the Fc receptor TRIM21.

    PubMed

    McEwan, William A; Tam, Jerry C H; Watkinson, Ruth E; Bidgood, Susanna R; Mallery, Donna L; James, Leo C

    2013-04-01

    During pathogen infection, antibodies can be carried into the infected cell, where they are detected by the ubiquitously expressed cytosolic antibody receptor TRIM21. Here we found that recognition of intracellular antibodies by TRIM21 activated immune signaling. TRIM21 catalyzed the formation of Lys63 (K63)-linked ubiquitin chains and stimulated the transcription factor pathways of NF-?B, AP-1, IRF3, IRF5 and IRF7. Activation resulted in the production of proinflammatory cytokines, modulation of natural killer stress ligands and induction of an antiviral state. Intracellular antibody signaling was abrogated by genetic deletion of TRIM21 and was restored by ectopic expression of TRIM21. The sensing of antibodies by TRIM21 was stimulated after infection by DNA or RNA nonenveloped viruses or intracellular bacteria. Thus, the antibody-TRIM21 detection system provides potent, comprehensive activation of the innate immune system independently of known pattern-recognition receptors. PMID:23455675

  15. CONTROL OF LASER RADIATION PARAMETERS: Enhancement of the efficiency and control of emission parameters of an unstable-resonator chemical oxygen—iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boreisho, A. S.; Lobachev, V. V.; Savin, A. V.; Strakhov, S. Yu; Trilis, A. V.

    2007-07-01

    The outlook is considered for the development of a high-power supersonic flowing chemical oxygen—iodine laser operating as an amplifier and controlled by radiation from a master oscillator by using an unstable resonator with a hole-coupled mirror. The influence of the seed radiation intensity, the coupling-hole diameter, the active-medium length, and the magnification factor on the parameters of laser radiation is analysed. It is shown that the use of such resonators is most advisable in medium-power oxygen—iodine lasers for which classical unstable resonators are inefficient because of their low magnification factors. The use of unstable resonators with a hole-coupled mirror and injection provides the control of radiation parameters and a considerable increase in the output power and brightness of laser radiation.

  16. Organic carbon, and not copper, controls denitrification in oxygen minimum zones of the ocean

    E-print Network

    Ward, Bess

    anaerobic, utilizing oxidized N compounds for respiration when oxygen becomes limiting in soils and aquatic to dinitrogen gas via the oxidation of ammonium by nitrite, termed anammox Contents lists available at Science, then to nitric oxide and nitrous oxide and finally to dinitrogen gas, has long been considered the main loss term

  17. Oxygenated phosphine fumigation for postharvest control of light brown apple moth on lettuce

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Postharvest treatment for light brown apple moth (LBAM), Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), is needed to safe guard domestic distribution and export of U.S. fresh fruits and vegetables including lettuce as the pest becomes established in California with risk of potential spread. Oxygenated phosphine fu...

  18. Osseointegrated implants in irradiated bone: A case-controlled study using adjunctive hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gösta Granström; Anders Tjellström; Per-Ingvar Brånemark

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: The current investigation was undertaken to study whether osseointegration of implants in irradiated tissues is subject to a higher failure rate than in nonirradiated tissues. It further aimed to study whether hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBO) can be used to reduce implant failure.Patients and Methods: Seventy-eight cancer patients who were rehabilitated using osseointegrated implants between 1981 and 1997 were investigated.

  19. Design and Control of Hot-Gas Desulfurization Systems with High Oxygen Regenerator Feed Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, C-K.; Luyben, W.L.

    2002-09-20

    This paper studies the use of regenerator feeds that have higher oxygen concentrations. Not only steady-state but also dynamic issues are examined. The key issue is identified to be heat-removal limitations which is confirmed by dynamic simulations.

  20. Quality Control of Reactive Oxygen Species Measurement by Luminol-Dependent Chemiluminescence Assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HIROSHI KOBAYASHI; ENRIQUE GIL-GUZMAN; AYMAN M. MAHRAN; RAKESH K. SHARMA; DAVID R. NELSON; ANTHONY J. THOMAS JR; ASHOK AGARWAL

    A total of 28 donor semen samples were used to eval- uate the characteristics of laboratory variability in measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS). The objectives of this study were to assess the interassay (same sample observed on different days by the same observers) variability; interdonor, intraobserver (replications of the same sample on the same day) variability; and interobserver (multiple observers

  1. Control of oxygen delamination in solid oxide electrolyzer cells via modifying operational regime

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sergey N. Rashkeev; Michael V. Glazoff

    2011-01-01

    Modifications of operational regimes for solid oxide electrolyzer cell (SOEC) devices for hydrogen production are discussed. It is shown that applying alternating current voltage pulses at a certain frequency range to SOECs could reduce oxygen delamination degradation in these devices and significantly increase their lifetime. This operational scheme provides possibility to increase longevity of SOEC devices required for their use

  2. Dissolved oxygen controller based on on-line measurements of ammonium combining feed-forward and feedback.

    PubMed

    Ingildsen, P; Jeppsson, U; Olsson, G

    2002-01-01

    As the largest single energy-consuming component in most biological wastewater treatment systems, control of aeration is of great interest seen from an energy savings point of view. This paper suggests a simple way of using on-line ammonium measurements to control aeration in a pre-denitrification plant by controlling the dissolved oxygen setpoint. The controller works primarily by feed-forward based on an ammonium sensor located at the head of the aerobic process part. Using online in-situ sensor measurements directly from the process have the important advantage over effluent measurements that there is no or very short time delay for information. The controller has been implemented in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant for a period of 35 days. During the experiment two identical activated sludge lines were used. The controller was implemented in one line, while the other line worked as a reference for comparison. The preliminary results indicate that the described control strategy leads to energy savings for the aeration in the region of 5-15%, while maintaining approximately the same effluent quality as in the reference line. Even higher energy savings can probably be achieved by optimising the controller. An automatic procedure for updating the controller parameters based on dynamic effluent ammonium measurement has been tested. PMID:11936667

  3. Correcting speleothem oxygen isotopic variations for growth-rate controlled kinetic fractionation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, Heather; Moreno, Ana; Cacho, Isabel; Mendez Vicence, Ana; Gonzalez Lemos, Saul; Pirla Casasayas, Gemma; Cheng, Hai; Wang, Xianfeng; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    2015-04-01

    The oxygen isotopic signature may be the most widely used climate indicator in stalagmites, but recent experimental and theoretical studies indicate the potential for kinetic fractionation effects which may be significant, especially in situations where the primary signal from rainfall isotopic composition and cave temperature is limited to a few permil. Here we use a natural set of stalagmites to illustrate the magnitude of such effects and the potential for deconvolving kinetic signals from the primary temperature and rainfall signals. We compare isotopic records from 6 coeval stalagmites covering the interval 140 to 70 ka, from two proximal caves in NW Spain which experienced the same primary variations in temperature and rainfall d18O, but exhibit a large range in growth rates and temporal trends in growth rate. Stalagmites growing at faster rates near 50 microns/year have oxygen isotopic ratios more than 1 permil more negative than coeval stalagmites with very slow (5 micron/year) growth rates. Because growth rate variations also occur over time within any given stalagmite, the measured oxygen isotopic time series for a given stalagmite includes both climatic and kinetic components. Removal of the kinetic component of variation in each stalagmite, based on the dependence of the kinetic component on growth rate, is effective at distilling a common temporal evolution among the oxygen isotopic records of the multiple stalagmites. However, this approach is limited by the quality of the age model. For time periods characterized by very slow growth and long durations between dates, the presence of crypto-hiatus may result in average growth rates which underestimate the instantaneous speleothem deposition rates and which therefore underestimate the magnitude of kinetic effects. We compare the composite corrected oxygen isotopic record with other records of the timing of glacial inception in the North Atlantic realm.

  4. Enhancing dissolved oxygen control using an on-line hybrid fuzzy-neural soft-sensing model-based control system in an anaerobic/anoxic/oxic process.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingzhi; Wan, Jinquan; Hu, Kang; Ma, Yongwen; Wang, Yan

    2013-12-01

    An on-line hybrid fuzzy-neural soft-sensing model-based control system was developed to optimize dissolved oxygen concentration in a bench-scale anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A(2)/O) process. In order to improve the performance of the control system, a self-adapted fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm and adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) models were employed. The proposed control system permits the on-line implementation of every operating strategy of the experimental system. A set of experiments involving variable hydraulic retention time (HRT), influent pH (pH), dissolved oxygen in the aerobic reactor (DO), and mixed-liquid return ratio (r) was carried out. Using the proposed system, the amount of COD in the effluent stabilized at the set-point and below. The improvement was achieved with optimum dissolved oxygen concentration because the performance of the treatment process was optimized using operating rules implemented in real time. The system allows various expert operational approaches to be deployed with the goal of minimizing organic substances in the outlet while using the minimum amount of energy. PMID:24052227

  5. Determination of resistance and trimming moment of planing water craft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroder, P

    1931-01-01

    This report presents a new theory which makes it possible to interpret the resistance and the trimming moment for any loading of a planing aircraft when these values are given for one load. This application of the new theory forms the basis of the present paper. Derivations of various conversion formulas are given as well as numerous examples.

  6. A study on solid modelling with surface trimming method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1993-01-01

    This paper proposes a Surface Trimming Method based on the intersection curves between free-form surfaces so that a complex solid model with several primitive surfaces can be constructed. These solid models will not only be used by the mechanical engineering industry to design and analyze conventional mechanical parts, but will also be used by the civil engineers to design and

  7. Topologically Reliable Approximation of Trimmed Polynomial Surface Patches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wonjoon Cho; Takashi Maekawa; Nicholas M. Patrikalakis; Jaime Peraire

    1999-01-01

    We present an unstructured triangular mesh generation algorithm that approximates a set of mu- tually nonintersecting simple trimmed polynomial parametric surface patches within a user specied geometric tolerance. The proposed method uses numerically robust interval geometric representa- tions\\/computations and also addresses the problem of topological consistency (homeomorphism) be- tween the exact geometry and its approximation. Those are among the most

  8. Interior view of the trimming and packing tables, ginaca machines ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior view of the trimming and packing tables, ginaca machines deliver pineapples from the left to the tables, view facing east - Kahului Cannery, Plant No. 28, Cannery Building and Dryer House/Feed Storage Building, 120 Kane Street, Kahului, Maui County, HI

  9. HAPTIC RENDERING OF TRIMMED NURBS MODELS WITHIN AN

    E-print Network

    Utah, University of

    the quality of a haptic algorithm is presented and applied to direct haptic rendering. #12;To my grandmothersHAPTIC RENDERING OF TRIMMED NURBS MODELS WITHIN AN ACTIVE PROTOTYPING ENVIRONMENT by Thomas V of The Graduate School #12;ABSTRACT This dissertation presents techniques for direct haptic rendering of complex

  10. A Note About HARP's State Trimming Method Ricky W. Butler

    E-print Network

    Butler, Ricky W.

    A Note About HARP's State Trimming Method by Ricky W. Butler Kelly J. Hayhurst Sally C. Johnson NASA Langley Research Center Hampton, VA 23681­001 Contents 1 Introduction 1 2 Overview of the Harp 2.2 Introduction to HARP User­Interface : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : 4 3

  11. MORPHOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES AND PAIN IN BEAK TRIMMED LAYING HENS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beak trimming is routinely practiced in the poultry industry to reduce the incidence of feather pecking, aggression, and cannibalism in egg layers. Feather pecking is painful to birds and potentially induces cannibalism. Cannibalism happens in all current housing environments, cage- and free-product...

  12. A One-Way Random Effects Model for Trimmed Means.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Rand R.

    1994-01-01

    A generalization of the usual random-effects model based on trimmed means is proposed. The resulting test of no differences among J randomly sampled groups has advantages in terms of Type I errors and can yield gains in power when distributions have heavy tails and outliers. (SLD)

  13. A NEXT GENERATION PROCESSING SYSTEM FOR EDGING AND TRIMMING

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Lynn Abbott; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a prototype scanning system that is being developed for the processing of rough hardwood lumber. The overall goal of the system is to automate the selection of cutting positions for the edges and ends of rough, green lumber. Such edge and trim cuts are typically performed at sawmills in an effort to increase board value prior to

  14. Antiviral TRIMs: friend or foe in autoimmune and autoinflammatory disease?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Claire Wynne; Rowan Higgs; Caroline Jefferies

    2011-01-01

    The concept that viral sensing systems, via their ability to drive pro-inflammatory cytokine and interferon production, contribute to the development of autoimmune and autoinflammatory disease is supported by a wide range of clinical and experimental observations. Recently, the tripartite motif-containing proteins (TRIMs) have emerged as having key roles in antiviral immunity — either as viral restriction factors or as regulators

  15. Atomic transport of oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Routbort, J.L.; Tomlins, G.W.

    1994-06-15

    Atomic transport of oxygen in nonstoichiometric oxides is an extremely important topic which overlaps science and technology. In many cases the diffusion of oxygen controls sintering, grain growth, and creep. High oxygen diffusivity is critical for efficient operation of many fuel cells. Additionally, oxygen diffusivities are an essential ingredient in any point defect model. Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) is the most accurate modern technique to measure oxygen tracer diffusion. This paper briefly reviews the principles and applications of SIMS for the measurement of oxygen transport. Case studies are taken from recent work on ZnO and some high-temperature superconductors.

  16. Microprocessor Based Combustion Monitoring and Control Systems Utilizing in Situ Opacity, Oxygen and CO Measurement 

    E-print Network

    Molloy, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    , smog, and gas phase reactions with Other air pollutants. 333 ESL-IE-81-04-58 Proceedings from the Third Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 26-29, 1981 Excess Air (Excess Oxygen) Sensible Heat Loss - The air (air is 20... or by simultaneously measuring CO as outlined below. Principle of Operation - Modern In Situ CO Analyzers uti lize an advanced infrared negative absorption gas filter correlation technique which takes into account the unique signature of the CO absorption band...

  17. Head louse control by suffocation due to blocking their oxygen uptake.

    PubMed

    Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Abdel-Ghaffar, Fathy; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2015-08-01

    The present study shows that head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) are killed by suffocation when submersed into the anti-louse shampoo Licener®, which contains a mild shampoo component and an extract of neem seeds after their oil components had been pressed off. It is shown that the inner tracheal system becomes completely filled by the very fluid product. Within 3-10 min, oxygen uptake is prohibited and death of all thus treated lice stages occurred. PMID:25990060

  18. Control of oxygen delamination in solid oxide electrolyzer cells via modifying operational regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashkeev, Sergey N.; Glazoff, Michael V.

    2011-10-01

    Modifications of operational regimes for solid oxide electrolyzer cell (SOEC) devices for hydrogen production are discussed. It is shown that applying alternating current voltage pulses at a certain frequency range to SOECs could reduce oxygen delamination degradation in these devices and significantly increase their lifetime. This operational scheme provides possibility to increase longevity of SOEC devices required for their use in commercial hydrogen production processes, without any significant modification of used materials and/or cell design.

  19. TRIM37 defective in mulibrey nanism is a novel RING finger ubiquitin E3 ligase

    SciTech Connect

    Kallijaervi, Jukka [Folkhaelsan Institute of Genetics, Department of Medical Genetics and Neuroscience Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Lahtinen, Ulla [Folkhaelsan Institute of Genetics, Department of Medical Genetics and Neuroscience Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Haemaelaeinen, Riikka [Folkhaelsan Institute of Genetics, Department of Medical Genetics and Neuroscience Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Lipsanen-Nyman, Marita [The Hospital for Children and Adolescents and Helsinki University Central Hospital (Finland); Palvimo, Jorma J. [Institute of Biomedicine, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland); Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Kuopio, 70211 Kuopio (Finland); Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina [Folkhaelsan Institute of Genetics, Department of Medical Genetics and Neuroscience Center, Biomedicum Helsinki, 00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)]. E-mail: anna-elina.lehesjoki@helsinki.fi

    2005-08-01

    Mulibrey nanism is an autosomal recessive prenatal-onset growth disorder characterized by dysmorphic features, cardiomyopathy, and hepatomegaly. Mutations in TRIM37 encoding a tripartite motif (TRIM, RING-B-box-coiled-coil)-family protein underlie mulibrey nanism. We investigated the ubiquitin ligase activity predicted for the RING domain of TRIM37 by analyzing its autoubiquitination. Full-length TRIM37 and its TRIM domain were highly polyubiquitinated when co-expressed with ubiquitin. Polyubiquitination was decreased in a mutant protein with disrupted RING domain (Cys35Ser;Cys36Ser) and in the Leu76Pro mutant protein, a disease-associated missense mutation affecting the TRIM domain of TRIM37. Bacterially produced GST-TRIM domain fusion protein, but not its Cys35Ser;Cys36Ser or Leu76Pro mutants, were polyubiquitinated in cell-free conditions, implying RING-dependent modification. Ubiquitin was also identified as an interaction partner for TRIM37 in a yeast two-hybrid screen. Ectopically expressed TRIM37 rapidly formed aggregates that were ubiquitin-, proteasome subunit-, and chaperone-positive in immunofluorescence analysis, defining them as aggresomes. The Cys35Ser;Cys36Ser mutant and the Leu76Pro and Gly322Val patient mutant proteins were markedly less prone to aggregation, implying that aggresomal targeting reflects a physiological function of TRIM37. These findings suggest that TRIM37 acts as a TRIM domain-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase and imply defective ubiquitin-dependent degradation of an as-yet-unidentified target protein in the pathogenesis of mulibrey nanism.

  20. Resistance to simian immunodeficiency virus low dose rectal challenge is associated with higher constitutive TRIM5? expression in PBMC

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background At least six host-encoded restriction factors (RFs), APOBEC3G, TRIM5?, tetherin, SAMHD1, schlafen 11, and Mx2 have now been shown to inhibit HIV and/or SIV replication in vitro. To determine their role in vivo in the resistance of macaques to mucosally-acquired SIV, we quantified both pre-exposure (basal) and post-exposure mRNA levels of these RFs, Mx1, and IFN? in PBMC, lymph nodes, and duodenum of rhesus macaques undergoing weekly low dose rectal exposures to the primary isolate, SIV/DeltaB670. Results Repetitive challenge divided the monkeys into two groups with respect to their susceptibility to infection: highly susceptible (2–3 challenges, 5 monkeys) and poorly susceptible (?6 challenges, 3 monkeys). Basal RF and Mx1 expression varied among the three tissues examined, with the lowest expression generally detected in duodenal tissues, and the highest observed in PBMC. The one exception was A3G whose basal expression was greatest in lymph nodes. Importantly, significantly higher basal expression of TRIM5? and Mx1 was observed in PBMC of animals more resistant to mucosal infection. Moreover, individual TRIM5? levels were stable throughout a year prior to infection. Post-exposure induction of these genes was also observed after virus appearance in plasma, with elevated levels in PBMC and duodenum transiently occurring 7–10 days post infection. They did not appear to have an effect on control of viremia. Interestingly, minimal to no induction was observed in the resistant animal that became an elite controller. Conclusions These results suggest that constitutively expressed TRIM5? appears to play a greater role in restricting mucosal transmission of SIV than that associated with type I interferon induction following virus entry. Surprisingly, this association was not observed with the other RFs. The higher basal expression of TRIM5? observed in PBMC than in duodenal tissues emphasizes the understated role of the second barrier to systemic infection involving the transport of virus from the mucosal compartment to the blood. Together, these observations provide a strong incentive for a more comprehensive examination of the intrinsic, variable control of constitutive expression of these genes in the sexual transmission of HIV. PMID:24884551

  1. Attenuation of wall disturbances in an electron cyclotron resonance oxygen–argon plasma using real time control

    SciTech Connect

    Keville, Bernard, E-mail: bernard.keville@dcu.ie; Gaman, Cezar; Turner, Miles M. [National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology (NCPST), Research and Engineering Building, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Ireland and School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Zhang, Yang; Daniels, Stephen [National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology (NCPST), Research and Engineering Building, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9, Ireland and School of Electronic Engineering, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Holohan, Anthony M. [School of Electronic Engineering, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2014-07-01

    Present practice in plasma-assisted semiconductor manufacturing specifies recipes in terms of inputs such as gas flow rates, power and pressure. However, ostensibly identical chambers running identical recipes may produce very different results. Extensive chamber matching, i.e., initial iterative, empirical tuning of the process recipe, which entails time-consuming, ex situ statistical analysis of process metrics such as etch depth, uniformity, anisotropy and selectivity, is required to ensure acceptable results. Once matched, chambers are run open loop and are thus sensitive to disturbances such as actuator drift, wall seasoning and substrate loading, which may impact negatively on process reproducibility. An alternative approach, which may obviate the need for chamber matching and reduce the sensitivity of process metrics to exogenous disturbances, would be to specify a recipe in terms of quantities such as active species densities, and to regulate these in real time by adjusting the inputs with a suitable control algorithm. In this work, real time control of an electron cyclotron resonance O{sub 2}/Ar plasma used for photoresist ashing has been implemented. The design of elementary, model-based algorithms for the control of the argon 750 and oxygen 844 line intensities measured by optical emission spectroscopy is described. Fluorination of the chamber walls by means of an SF{sub 6} plasma prior to ashing inhibits wall recombination of oxygen radicals resulting in an approximately 20% increase in ash rate in the open loop case. However, closed loop control almost completely attenuates the effect of fluorination, thus demonstrating the efficacy of the control algorithms in ensuring a reproducible ash rate in the face of a wall disturbance.

  2. Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a gas that your body needs to function. Normally, your lungs absorb ... in your home. A different kind of oxygen therapy is called hyperbaric oxygen therapy. It uses oxygen ...

  3. Oxygen-Dependent Control of Respiratory Nitrate Reduction in Mycelium of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2)

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Marco; Falke, Dörte; Pawlik, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Several members of the obligately aerobic genus Streptomyces are able to reduce nitrate, catalyzed by Nar-type respiratory nitrate reductases. A unique feature of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) compared with other streptomycetes is that it synthesizes three nonredundant Nar enzymes. In this study, we show that Nar2 is the main Nar enzyme active in mycelium and could characterize the conditions governing its synthesis. Nar2 was present at low levels in aerobically cultivated mycelium, but synthesis was induced when cultures were grown under oxygen limitation. Growth in the presence of high oxygen concentrations prevented the induction of Nar2 synthesis. Equally, an abrupt shift from aerobiosis to anaerobiosis did not result in the immediate induction of Nar2 synthesis. This suggests that the synthesis of Nar2 is induced during a hypoxic downshift, probably to allow maintenance of a proton gradient during the transition to anaerobiosis. Although no Nar2 could be detected in freshly harvested mature spores, synthesis of the enzyme could be induced after long-term (several days) incubation of these resting spores under anaerobic conditions. Induction of Nar2 synthesis in spores was linked to transcriptional control. Nar2 activity in whole mycelium was strictly dependent on the presence of a putative nitrate transporter, NarK2. The oxygen-dependent inhibition of nitrate reduction by Nar2 was mediated by NarK2-dependent nitrate:nitrite antiport. This antiport mechanism likely prevents the accumulation of toxic nitrite in the cytoplasm. A deletion of the narK2 gene had no effect on Nar1-dependent nitrate reduction in resting spores. Together, our results indicate redox-dependent transcriptional and posttranslational control of nitrate reduction by Nar2. PMID:25225271

  4. Hyperbaric Oxygen in Lower Limb Trauma (HOLLT); protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Millar, Ian L; McGinnes, Rosemary A; Williamson, Owen; Lind, Folke; Jansson, Karl-Åke; Hajek, Michal; Smart, David; Fernandes, Tiago; Miller, Russell; Myles, Paul; Cameron, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Open fractures with significant soft tissue injury are associated with high rates of complications, such as non-union, infection, chronic pain and disability. Complications often require further inpatient care, and in many cases, multiple operations and prolonged rehabilitation. Use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy as an adjunct to standard orthopaedic trauma care has the potential to reduce the complications of musculoskeletal injury and thus improve outcomes. Two previous randomised trials have suggested some positive effect, but neither functional measures nor long-term outcomes were reported. Methods and analysis An international, multicentre, randomised, open-label, clinical trial. Patients with trauma with an acute open fracture of the tibia with severe soft tissue injury (Gustilo grade 3) and high risk of injury-related complications were recruited from participating major trauma hospitals with hyperbaric facilities. Patients were enrolled with the expectation of commencing 12 sessions of hyperbaric oxygen therapy within 48?h of injury. The primary outcome measure is the incidence of acute complications of the open fracture wound at 14?days. Other short-term outcome measures include amputation, need for fasciotomy, time until wound closure, breakdown of closed wounds, time until definitive orthopaedic fixation, number of operative procedures, intensive care stay and hospital stay. Long-term follow-up will continue for 2?years postinjury. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was given by The Alfred Health Human Ethics Committee (206/04) and the Monash University Human Research Ethics Committee (CF07/4208). Approval was also obtained from the institutional research ethics committee at each participating site. This study will make a significant contribution to the trauma literature and should answer the question of whether hyperbaric oxygen therapy can significantly improve outcomes in severe lower limb trauma. Collective study results will be published in international journals and presented at relevant conferences. Trial registration number Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00264511; Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR): ACTRN12607000559415. PMID:26068515

  5. Supplemental Oxygen (Oxygen Therapy)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gas and is non-flammable, however, it supports combustion. Materials burn more readily in an oxygen-enriched ... avoid using lotions or creams containing petroleum. The combustion of flammable products containing petroleum can also be ...

  6. TRIM28 regulates RNA polymerase II promoter proximal pausing and pause release

    PubMed Central

    Bunch, Heeyoun; Zheng, Xiaofeng; Burkholder, Adam; Dillon, Simon T.; Motola, Shmulik; Birrane, Gabriel; Ebmeier, Christopher C.; Levine, Stuart; Fargo, David; Hu, Guang; Taatjes, Dylan J.; Calderwood, Stuart K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Promoter proximal pausing of RNA polymerase II (Pol II) is a major checkpoint in transcription. An unbiased search for novel human proteins that could regulate paused Pol II at the HSPA1B gene identified TRIM28. In vitro analyses indicated HSF1-dependent attenuation of Pol II pausing upon TRIM28 depletion, whereas in vivo data revealed de novo expression of HSPA1B and other known genes regulated by paused Pol II upon TRIM28 knockdown. These results were supported by genome-wide ChIP-sequencing analyses of Pol II occupancy that revealed a global role for TRIM28 in regulating Pol II pausing and pause release. Furthermore, in vivo and in vitro mechanistic studies suggest that transcription-coupled phosphorylation regulates Pol II pause release by TRIM28. Collectively, our findings identify TRIM28 as a novel factor that modulates Pol II pausing and transcriptional elongation at a large number of mammalian genes. PMID:25173174

  7. Gas carburizing of steel with furnace atmospheres formed In Situ from propane and air: Part III. Control of furnace atmosphere composition with a zirconia oxygen sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Stickels; C. M. Mack; J. A. Pieprzak

    1980-01-01

    Gas carburizing experiments were conducted in a batch-type sealed-quench furnace using furnace atmospheres produced by the reaction of propane and air within the furnace. The air-propane ratio of the inlet gases was automatically controlled to maintain a constant oxygen potential, as measured by a zirconia oxygen sensor, within the furnace. The results of carburizing trials at 843 and 927 °C

  8. Gas carburizing of steel with furnace atmospheres formed In Situ from propane and air: Part III. Control of furnace atmosphere composition with a zirconia oxygen sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Stickels; C. M. Mack; J. A. Pieprzak

    1980-01-01

    Gas carburizing experiments were conducted in a batch-type sealed-quench furnace using furnace atmospheres produced by the\\u000a reaction of propane and air within the furnace. The air-propane ratio of the inlet gases was automatically controlled to maintain\\u000a a constant oxygen potential, as measured by a zirconia oxygen sensor, within the furnace. The results of carburizing trials\\u000a at 843 and 927 ?C

  9. Wettability control on vertically-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube surfaces with oxygen pulsed DC plasma and CO 2 laser treatments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. C. Ramos; G. Vasconcelos; E. F. Antunes; A. O. Lobo; V. J. Trava-Airoldi; E. J. Corat

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a method to obtain control on wettability of vertically-aligned multi-walled carbon nanotube surfaces, using oxygen pulsed directly current plasma and CO2 laser irradiation. Superhydrophilic surfaces were obtained by the oxygen pulsed DC plasma treatment to incorporate polar groups on VACNT. The CO2 laser was used to irradiate the functionalized samples, at different power levels, in order to

  10. Trimming Line Design using New Development Method and One Step FEM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wan-Jin Chung; Choon-Dal Park; Dong-Yol Yang

    2005-01-01

    In most of automobile panel manufacturing, trimming is generally performed prior to flanging. To find feasible trimming line is crucial in obtaining accurate edge profile after flanging. Section-based method develops blank along section planes and find trimming line by generating loop of end points. This method suffers from inaccurate results for regions with out-of-section motion. On the other hand, simulation-based

  11. Contour-parallel offset machining for trimmed surfaces based on conformal mapping with free boundary

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuwen Sun; Fei Ren; Xinghua Zhu; Dongming Guo

    The parametric surfaces of some manufactured parts are often subjected to the Boolean operation of other objects; generating\\u000a suitable NC tool paths from such trimmed surface remains a challenge. This paper presents a new planar development-based method\\u000a to generate contour-parallel offset paths of trimmed surfaces. To avoid direct frequent identifications and removals of interferences\\u000a of offset curves on 3D-trimmed surface

  12. Evidence for Restriction of Ancient Primate Gammaretroviruses by APOBEC3 but Not TRIM5? Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Perez-Caballero; Steven J. Soll; Paul D. Bieniasz

    2008-01-01

    Because of evolutionary pressures imposed through episodic colonization by retroviruses, many mammals express factors, such as TRIM5? and APOBEC3 proteins, that directly restrict retroviral replication. TRIM5 and APOBEC restriction factors are most often studied in the context of modern primate lentiviruses, but it is likely that ancient retroviruses imposed the selective pressure that is evident in primate TRIM5 and APOBEC3

  13. Effects of human TRIM5? polymorphisms on antiretroviral function and susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hassan Javanbakht; Ping An; Bert Gold; Desiree C. Petersen; Colm O'Huigin; George W. Nelson; Stephen J. O'Brien; Gregory D. Kirk; Roger Detels; Susan Buchbinder; Sharyne Donfield; Sergey Shulenin; Byeongwoon Song; Michel J. Perron; Matthew Stremlau; Joseph Sodroski; Michael Dean; Cheryl Winkler

    2006-01-01

    TRIM5? acts on several retroviruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), to restrict cross-species transmission. Using natural history cohorts and tissue culture systems, we examined the effect of polymorphism in human TRIM5? on HIV-1 infection. In African Americans, the frequencies of two non-coding SNP variant alleles in exon 1 and intron 1 of TRIM5 were elevated in HIV-1-infected persons compared with

  14. Temperature controls oxidative phosphorylation and reactive oxygen species production through uncoupling in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa; Woyda-Ploszczyca, Andrzej; Koziel, Agnieszka; Majerczak, Joanna; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondrial respiratory and phosphorylation activities, mitochondrial uncoupling, and hydrogen peroxide formation were studied in isolated rat skeletal muscle mitochondria during experimentally induced hypothermia (25°C) and hyperthermia (42°C) compared to the physiological temperature of resting muscle (35°C). For nonphosphorylating mitochondria, increasing the temperature from 25 to 42°C led to a decrease in membrane potential, hydrogen peroxide production, and quinone reduction levels. For phosphorylating mitochondria, no temperature-dependent changes in these mitochondrial functions were observed. However, the efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation decreased, whereas the oxidation and phosphorylation rates and oxidative capacities of the mitochondria increased, with increasing assay temperature. An increase in proton leak, including uncoupling protein-mediated proton leak, was observed with increasing assay temperature, which could explain the reduced oxidative phosphorylation efficiency and reactive oxygen species production. PMID:25701433

  15. Reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced actin glutathionylation controls actin dynamics in neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Jiro; Li, Jingyu; Subramanian, Kulandayan K.; Mondal, Subhanjan; Bajrami, Besnik; Hattori, Hidenori; Jia, Yonghui; Dickinson, Bryan C.; Zhong, Jia; Ye, Keqiang; Chang, Christopher J; Ho, Ye-Shih; Zhou, Jun; Luo, Hongbo R.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The regulation of actin dynamics is pivotal for cellular processes such as cell adhesion, migration, and phagocytosis, and thus is crucial for neutrophils to fulfill their roles in innate immunity. Many factors have been implicated in signal-induced actin polymerization, however the essential nature of the potential negative modulators are still poorly understood. Here we report that NADPH oxidase-dependent physiologically generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) negatively regulate actin polymerization in stimulated neutrophils via driving reversible actin glutathionylation. Disruption of glutaredoxin 1 (Grx1), an enzyme that catalyzes actin deglutathionylation, increased actin glutathionylation, attenuated actin polymerization, and consequently impaired neutrophil polarization, chemotaxis, adhesion, and phagocytosis. Consistently, Grx1-deficient murine neutrophils showed impaired in vivo recruitment to sites of inflammation and reduced bactericidal capability. Together, these results present a physiological role for glutaredoxin and ROS- induced reversible actin glutathionylation in regulation of actin dynamics in neutrophils. PMID:23159440

  16. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for acute domestic carbon monoxide poisoning: two randomized controlled trials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Djillali Annane; Karim Chadda; Philippe Gajdos; Marie-Claude Jars-Guincestre; Sylvie Chevret; Jean-Claude Raphael

    2011-01-01

    Introduction  Although hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) is broadly used for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, its efficacy and practical modalities\\u000a remain controversial.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  To assess HBO in patients poisoned with CO.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Design  Two prospective randomized trial on two parallel groups.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Setting  Critical Care Unit, Raymond Poincaré Hospital, Garches, France.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Subjects  Three hundred eighty-five patients with acute domestic CO poisoning.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Intervention  Patients with transient loss of consciousness (trial

  17. TRIM32 Senses and Restricts Influenza A Virus by Ubiquitination of PB1 Polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Bishi; Wang, Lingyan; Ding, Hao; Schwamborn, Jens C.; Li, Shitao; Dorf, Martin E.

    2015-01-01

    Polymerase basic protein 1 (PB1) is the catalytic core of the influenza A virus (IAV) RNA polymerase complex essential for viral transcription and replication. Understanding the intrinsic mechanisms which block PB1 function could stimulate development of new anti-influenza therapeutics. Affinity purification coupled with mass spectrometry (AP-MS) was used to identify host factors interacting with PB1. Among PB1 interactors, the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM32 interacts with PB1 proteins derived from multiple IAV strains. TRIM32 senses IAV infection by interacting with PB1 and translocates with PB1 to the nucleus following influenza infection. Ectopic TRIM32 expression attenuates IAV infection. Conversely, RNAi depletion and knockout of TRIM32 increase susceptibility of tracheal and lung epithelial cells to IAV infection. Reconstitution of trim32-/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts with TRIM32, but not a catalytically inactive mutant, restores viral restriction. Furthermore, TRIM32 directly ubiquitinates PB1, leading to PB1 protein degradation and subsequent reduction of polymerase activity. Thus, TRIM32 is an intrinsic IAV restriction factor which senses and targets the PB1 polymerase for ubiquitination and protein degradation. TRIM32 represents a model of intrinsic immunity, in which a host protein directly senses and counters viral infection in a species specific fashion by directly limiting viral replication. PMID:26057645

  18. Viral attachment induces rapid recruitment of an innate immune sensor TRIM5? to the plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Ohmine, Seiga; Singh, Raman Deep; Marks, David L.; Meyer, Melissa A.; Pagano, Richard E.; Ikeda, Yasuhiro

    2013-01-01

    TRIM5? acts as a pattern recognition receptor specific for the retrovirus capsid lattice and blocks infection by HIV-1 immediately after post-entry. However, the precise mechanisms underlying this rapid recognition of viral components remain elusive. Here, we analyzed the influence of viral exposure on TRIM5?. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and lipid flotation assays revealed rapid recruitment of a TRIM5? subpopulation to the plasma membrane (PM) upon exposure to VSV-G-pseudotyped HIV-1 viral-like particles (VLPs), but not to Env-less HIV-1 VLPs. TRIM5? signals were frequently co-localized with those of HIV-1 capsid at the PM. Exposure to HIV-1 Env-pseudotyped HIV-1 vectors also triggered translocation of endogenous TRIM5? to lipid microdomains within human T cells. Similarly, clustering of lipid microdomains by a glycosphingolipid stereoisomer resulted in rapid TRIM5? recruitment to the PM. Of note, recruitment of endogenous rhesus TRIM5? to the PM prior to HIV-1 infection significantly increased the potency of viral restriction. Our data therefore suggest the importance of TRIM5? recruitment to the PM for TRIM5?-medaited innate immune sensing and restriction of retroviral infection. PMID:23548691

  19. Robust Tessellation of Trimmed Rational B-Spline Surface Patches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wonjoon Cho; Takashi Maekawa; Nicholas M. Patrikalakis; Jaime Peraire

    1997-01-01

    We present an unstructured triangular mesh gen- eration algorithm that approximates a set of mutually non-intersecting simple trimmed rational B-spline sur- face patches within a user specied geometric tolerance. The proposed method uses numerically robust interval geometric representations\\/computations and also ad- dresses the problem of topological consistency (homeo- morphism) between the exact geometry and its approx- imation. Those are among

  20. Flip-chip STW filters and frequency trimming method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Yatsuda; H. Iijima; K. Yabe; H. Tsukuda; S. Shinohara

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes 2.4 GHz and 3.5 GHz flip-chip narrow-band filters using surface transverse waves (STWs) on quartz for oscillator applications. A Q of about 1300 and insertion losses of 3 dB and 5 dB are achieved for 2.4 GHz and 3.5 GHz flip-chip STW filters, respectively. Also, oscillator characteristics using the flip-chip STW filters are presented. In addition, trimming

  1. Measurement of axial injection displacement with trim coil current unbalance.

    PubMed

    Kireeff Covo, Michel

    2014-08-01

    The Dee probe used for measuring internal radial beam intensity shows large losses inside the radius of 20 cm of the 88 in. cyclotron. The current of the top and bottom innermost trim coil 1 is unbalanced to study effects of the axial injection displacement. A beam profile monitor images the ion beam bunches, turn by turn. The experimental bunch center of mass position is compared with calculations of the magnetic mirror effect displacement and shows good agreement. PMID:25173318

  2. Adhesive fiber stratification in uropathogenic Escherichia coli biofilms unveils oxygen-mediated control of type 1 pili.

    PubMed

    Floyd, Kyle A; Moore, Jessica L; Eberly, Allison R; Good, James A D; Shaffer, Carrie L; Zaver, Himesh; Almqvist, Fredrik; Skaar, Eric P; Caprioli, Richard M; Hadjifrangiskou, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial biofilms account for a significant number of hospital-acquired infections and complicate treatment options, because bacteria within biofilms are generally more tolerant to antibiotic treatment. This resilience is attributed to transient bacterial subpopulations that arise in response to variations in the microenvironment surrounding the biofilm. Here, we probed the spatial proteome of surface-associated single-species biofilms formed by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the major causative agent of community-acquired and catheter-associated urinary tract infections. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) to analyze the spatial proteome of intact biofilms in situ. MALDI-TOF IMS revealed protein species exhibiting distinct localizations within surface-associated UPEC biofilms, including two adhesive fibers critical for UPEC biofilm formation and virulence: type 1 pili (Fim) localized exclusively to the air-exposed region, while curli amyloid fibers localized to the air-liquid interface. Comparison of cells grown aerobically, fermentatively, or utilizing an alternative terminal electron acceptor showed that the phase-variable fim promoter switched to the "OFF" orientation under oxygen-deplete conditions, leading to marked reduction of type 1 pili on the bacterial cell surface. Conversely, S pili whose expression is inversely related to fim expression were up-regulated under anoxic conditions. Tethering the fim promoter in the "ON" orientation in anaerobically grown cells only restored type 1 pili production in the presence of an alternative terminal electron acceptor beyond oxygen. Together these data support the presence of at least two regulatory mechanisms controlling fim expression in response to oxygen availability and may contribute to the stratification of extracellular matrix components within the biofilm. MALDI IMS facilitated the discovery of these mechanisms, and we have demonstrated that this technology can be used to interrogate subpopulations within bacterial biofilms. PMID:25738819

  3. Adhesive Fiber Stratification in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Biofilms Unveils Oxygen-Mediated Control of Type 1 Pili

    PubMed Central

    Floyd, Kyle A.; Moore, Jessica L.; Eberly, Allison R.; Good, James A. D.; Shaffer, Carrie L.; Zaver, Himesh; Almqvist, Fredrik; Skaar, Eric P.; Caprioli, Richard M.; Hadjifrangiskou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms account for a significant number of hospital-acquired infections and complicate treatment options, because bacteria within biofilms are generally more tolerant to antibiotic treatment. This resilience is attributed to transient bacterial subpopulations that arise in response to variations in the microenvironment surrounding the biofilm. Here, we probed the spatial proteome of surface-associated single-species biofilms formed by uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), the major causative agent of community-acquired and catheter-associated urinary tract infections. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) to analyze the spatial proteome of intact biofilms in situ. MALDI-TOF IMS revealed protein species exhibiting distinct localizations within surface-associated UPEC biofilms, including two adhesive fibers critical for UPEC biofilm formation and virulence: type 1 pili (Fim) localized exclusively to the air-exposed region, while curli amyloid fibers localized to the air-liquid interface. Comparison of cells grown aerobically, fermentatively, or utilizing an alternative terminal electron acceptor showed that the phase-variable fim promoter switched to the “OFF” orientation under oxygen-deplete conditions, leading to marked reduction of type 1 pili on the bacterial cell surface. Conversely, S pili whose expression is inversely related to fim expression were up-regulated under anoxic conditions. Tethering the fim promoter in the “ON” orientation in anaerobically grown cells only restored type 1 pili production in the presence of an alternative terminal electron acceptor beyond oxygen. Together these data support the presence of at least two regulatory mechanisms controlling fim expression in response to oxygen availability and may contribute to the stratification of extracellular matrix components within the biofilm. MALDI IMS facilitated the discovery of these mechanisms, and we have demonstrated that this technology can be used to interrogate subpopulations within bacterial biofilms. PMID:25738819

  4. Trimmed strategy for affine registration of point sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yaxin; Ying, Shihui; Qin, Jing; Zeng, Tieyong

    2013-01-01

    We propose a trimmed strategy for affine registration of point sets using the Lie group parameterization. All affine transformations form an affine Lie group, thus finding an optimal transformation in registration is reduced to finding an optimal element in the affine group. Given two point sets (with outliers) and an initial element in the transformation group, we seek the optimal group element iteratively by minimizing an energy functional. This is conducted by sequentially finding the closest correspondence of two point sets, estimating the overlap rate of two sets, and finding the optimal affine transformation via the exponential map of the affine group. This method improves the trimmed iterative closest point algorithm (TrICP) in two aspects: (1) We use the Lie group parameterization to implement TrICP. (2) We also extend TrICP to the case of affine transformations. The performance of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated by using the LiDAR data acquired in the Mount St. Helens area. Both visual inspections and evaluation index (root mean trimmed squared distance) indicate that our algorithm performs consistently better than TrICP and other related algorithms, especially in the presence of outliers and missing points.

  5. Resting-state glutamate level in the anterior cingulate predicts blood-oxygen level-dependent response to cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    Falkenberg, Liv E.; Westerhausen, René; Specht, Karsten; Hugdahl, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) is a core structure for the governing of cognitive control, and recent studies have shown that interindividual differences in dACC anatomy are associated with corresponding differences in the ability for cognitive control. However, individuals differ not only in anatomical features of dACC, but also exhibit substantial variability regarding the biochemical characteristics of the dACC. In this study, we combined magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), finding that interindividual differences of glutamate levels in the dACC during resting-state predict the strength of the blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response to a task requiring cognitive control. This relationship was observed in the retrosplenial cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, the inferior parietal lobe, and the basal ganglia. More specifically, individuals with low resting-state glutamate levels in the dACC showed an increased BOLD response when the task demands were high, whereas high-glutamate individuals showed the opposite pattern of an increased BOLD response when the task demands were low. Thus, we show here that individual variability of glutamate levels is directly related to how the brain implements cognitive control. PMID:22411802

  6. Development of a Self-calibrating Dissolved Oxygen Microsensor Array for the Monitoring and Control of Plant Growth in a Space Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Chang-Soo; Brown, Christopher S.; Nagle, H. Troy

    2004-01-01

    Plant experiments in space will require active nutrient delivery concepts in which water and nutrients are replenished on a continuous basis for long-term growth. The goal of this study is to develop a novel microsensor array to provide information on the dissolved oxygen environment in the plant root zone for the optimum control of plant cultivation systems in the space environment. Control of water and oxygen is limited by the current state-of-the-art in sensor technology. Two capabilities of the new microsensor array were tested. First, a novel in situ self-diagnosis/self-calibration capability for the microsensor was explored by dynamically controlling the oxygen microenvironment in close proximity to an amperometric dissolved oxygen microsensors. A pair of integrated electrochemical actuator electrodes provided the microenvironments based on water electrolysis. Miniaturized thin film dissolved oxygen microsensors on a flexible polyimide (Kapton(Registered Trademark)? substrate were fabricated and their performances were tested. Secondly, measurements of dissolved oxygen in two representative plant growth systems were made, which had not been performed previously due to lack of proper sensing technology. The responses of the oxygen microsensor array on a flexible polymer substrate properly reflected the oxygen contents on the surface of a porous tube nutrient delivery system and within a particulate substrate system. Additionally, we demonstrated the feasibility of using a 4-point thin film microprobe for water contents measurements for both plant growth systems. mechanical flexibility, and self-diagnosis. The proposed technology is anticipated to provide a reliable sensor feedback plant growth nutrient delivery systems in both terrestrial environment and the microgravity environment during long term space missions. The unique features of the sensor include small size and volume, multiple-point sensing,

  7. Controlled field study on the use of nitrate and oxygen for bioremediation of a gasoline source zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barbaro, J.R.; Barker, J.F.

    2000-01-01

    Controlled releases of unleaded gasoline were utilized to evaluate the biotransformation of the soluble aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene isomers, trimethylbenzene isomers, and naphthalene) within a source zone using nitrate and oxygen as electron acceptors. Experiments were conducted within two 2 m ?? 2 m ?? 3.5 m deep sheet-piling cells. In each treatment cell, a gasoline-contaminated zone was created below the water table. Groundwater amended with electron acceptors was then flushed continuously through the cells for 174 day. Electron-acceptor utilization and hydrocarbon-metabolite formation were noted in both cells, indicating that some microbial activity had been induced in response to flushing. Relative to the cell residence time, nitrate utilization was slow and aromatic-hydrocarbon mass losses in response to microaerophilic dissolved oxygen addition were not obvious under these in situ conditions. There was relatively little biotransformation of the aromatic hydrocarbons over the 2-m flow path monitored in this experiment. A large denitrifying population capable of aromatic hydrocarbon biotransformation failed to develop within the gasoline source zone over a 14-mo period of nitrate exposure.

  8. Electrocatalysis on shape-controlled titanium nitride nanocrystals for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Dong, Youzhen; Wu, Yongmin; Liu, Mengjia; Li, Jinghong

    2013-10-01

    The high price of platinum (Pt)-based cathode catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) have slowed down the practical application of fuel cells. Thanks to their low cost, and outstanding, stable catalytic properties, titanium nitrides (TiN) are among the most promising non-precious metal electrocatalysts for replacing Pt. However, the shape-activity relationships of TiN electrocatalysts have not been well-studied or understood up to now. In this work, by simply adjusting the shape of TiO2 precursor, we are able to tailor the morphology of the TiN catalysts from nanoparticles to nanotubes. We have synthetized uniform carbon-coated titanium nitride nanotubes (carbon-coated TiN NTs) through a nitridation reaction in NH3 flow using a TiO2 nanotubes/melamine mixture as precursor. The carbon-coated TiN NTs hybrids exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity for the ORR, coupled with superior methanol tolerance and long-term stability in comparison to commercial Pt/C, through an efficient four-electron-dominant ORR process. Compared with nanoparticles, the one-dimensional and hollow structure of the nanotubes result in greater diffusion of electrolyte and superior electrical conductivity, and contribute to the greatly improved electrocatalytic performance of the carbon-coated TiN NTs nanocomposites. PMID:24039153

  9. The Transcription Factor MEF2C Negatively Controls Angiogenic Sprouting of Endothelial Cells Depending on Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Sturtzel, Caterina; Testori, Julia; Schweighofer, Bernhard; Bilban, Martin; Hofer, Erhard

    2014-01-01

    The MADS box transcription factor MEF2C has been detected by us to be upregulated by the angiogenic factors VEGF-A and bFGF in endothelial cells. We have here investigated its potential role for angiogenesis. MEF2C was surprisingly found to strongly inhibit angiogenic sprouting, whereas a dominant negative mutant rather induced sprouting. The factor mainly affected migratory processes of endothelial cells, but not proliferation. In gene profiling experiments we delineated the alpha-2-macroglobulin gene to be highly upregulated by MEF2C. Further data confirmed that MEF2C in endothelial cells indeed induces alpha-2-macroglobulin mRNA as well as the secretion of alpha-2-macroglobulin and that conditioned supernatants of cells overexpressing MEF2C inhibit sprouting. Alpha-2-macroglobulin mediates, at least to a large extent, the inhibitory effects of MEF2C as is shown by knockdown of alpha-2-macroglobulin mRNA by lentiviral shRNA expression which reduces the inhibitory effect. However, under hypoxic conditions the VEGF-A/bFGF-mediated upregulation of MEF2C is reduced and the production of alpha-2-macroglobulin largely abolished. Taken together, this suggests that the MEF2C/alpha-2-macroglobulin axis functions in endothelial cells as a negative feed-back mechanism that adapts sprouting activity to the oxygen concentration thus diminishing inappropriate and excess angiogenesis. PMID:24988463

  10. Measurement and control of exhaust gas recirculation with an oxygen pumping device

    SciTech Connect

    Logothetis, E.M.; Soltis, R.E.

    1992-02-18

    This patent describes an electrochemical device for measuring the percentage of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in an intake air and exhaust gas mixture of an internal combustion engine. It comprises: a generally planar first electrochemical pump cell including a relatively dense ZrO{sub 2} platelet with porous platinum electrodes on two sides of the platelet; a first porous ZrO{sub 2} layer deposited on one electrode of the first pump cell; a generally planar second electrochemical pump cell including a first porous platinum electrode, a second porous ZrO{sub 2} layer and a second porous platinum electrode deposited successively on the first porous ZrO{sub 2} layer; a second cell external circuit means coupled to the second pump cell for passing a constant current through the second pump cell so that the second electrode is biased positively causing a portion of the oxygen molecules inside the first porous ZrO{sub 2} layer to be pumped out by the current flowing through the second pump cell; a first cell external circuit means coupled to the first pump cell so that the exposed electrode is biased positively; a third external circuit means coupled to the first pump cell for measuring the current flowing through the first pump cell.

  11. Apogossypolone induces reactive oxygen species accumulation and controls cell cycle progression in Raji Burkkit's lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhe-Yu; Xu, Fei; Sun, Rui; Chen, Yan-Feng; Zhang, Dong-Sheng; Fan, Yu-Hua; Sun, Jian

    2015-07-01

    Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) is a highly aggressive type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, with marked rates of proliferation and metabolism. The expression levels of the translocated cellular Myc (c-Myc) oncogene and Epstein-Barr virus infection have an oncogenic role in facilitating tumor progression and maintaining a malignant phenotype in BL Raji cells. The present study identified that more reactive oxygen species (ROS) were produced in Raji cells compared with other types of malignant B cells. Cells exhibiting higher ROS levels suggested facilitation of the induction of cell death by ROS-induction compounds. In the present study, apogossypolone (ApoG2) was observed to induce marked accumulation in the levels of ROS in the Raji cells, which damaged the cells and suppressed cell proliferation. Within 12 h following ApoG2 treatment, the Raji cells were prominently arrested in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Immunoblotting analysis indicated that the chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding protein 1, checkpoint kinase 1 and c-Myc proteins were significantly downregulated at 3, 6 and 12 h, respectively, following treatment. Following treatment with ApoG2 for 48 h, ApoG2 induced significant apoptosis in the Raji cells. This findings, together with our previous studies, which demonstrated ApoG2 as a potent inhibitor of anti-apoptotic B cell lymphoma 2 proteins, indicated that the ROS stimulatory effect of ApoG2 increased the antitumor activity of ApoG2. PMID:25738577

  12. A pilot prospective study on closed loop controlled ventilation and oxygenation in ventilated children during the weaning phase

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The present study is a pilot prospective safety evaluation of a new closed loop computerised protocol on ventilation and oxygenation in stable, spontaneously breathing children weighing more than 7 kg, during the weaning phase of mechanical ventilation. Methods Mechanically ventilated children ready to start the weaning process were ventilated for five periods of 60 minutes in the following order: pressure support ventilation, adaptive support ventilation (ASV), ASV plus a ventilation controller (ASV-CO2), ASV-CO2 plus an oxygenation controller (ASV-CO2-O2) and pressure support ventilation again. Based on breath-by-breath analysis, the percentage of time with normal ventilation as defined by a respiratory rate between 10 and 40 breaths/minute, tidal volume > 5 ml/kg predicted body weight and end-tidal CO2 between 25 and 55 mmHg was determined. The number of manipulations and changes on the ventilator were also recorded. Results Fifteen children, median aged 45 months, were investigated. No adverse event and no premature protocol termination were reported. ASV-CO2 and ASV-CO2-O2 kept the patients within normal ventilation for, respectively, 94% (91 to 96%) and 94% (87 to 96%) of the time. The tidal volume, respiratory rate, peak inspiratory airway pressure and minute ventilation were equivalent for all modalities, although there were more automatic setting changes in ASV-CO2 and ASV-CO2-O2. Positive end-expiratory pressure modifications by ASV-CO2-O2 require further investigation. Conclusion Over the short study period and in this specific population, ASV-CO2 and ASV-CO2-O2 were safe and kept the patient under normal ventilation most of the time. Further research is needed, especially for positive end-expiratory pressure modifications by ASV-CO2-O2. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01095406 PMID:22591622

  13. Technical Update: Johnson Space Center system using a solid electrolytic cell in a remote location to measure oxygen fugacities in CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurewicz, A. J. G.; Williams, R. J.; Le, L.; Wagstaff, J.; Lofgren, G.; Lanier, A.; Carter, W.; Roshko, A.

    1993-01-01

    Details are given for the design and application of a (one atmosphere) redox-control system. This system differs from that given in NASA Technical Memorandum 58234 in that it uses a single solid-electrolytic cell in a remote location to measure the oxygen fugacities of multiple CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces. This remote measurement extends the range of sample-furnace conditions that can be measured using a solid-electrolytic cell, and cuts costs by extending the life of the sensors and by minimizing the number of sensors in use. The system consists of a reference furnace and an exhaust-gas manifold. The reference furnace is designed according to the redox control system of NASA Technical Memorandum 58234, and any number of CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces can be attached to the exhaust-gas manifold. Using the manifold, the exhaust gas from individual CO/CO2 controlled atmosphere furnaces can be diverted through the reference furnace, where a solid-electrolyte cell is used to read the ambient oxygen fugacity. The oxygen fugacity measured in the reference furnace can then be used to calculate the oxygen fugacity in the individual CO/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnace. A BASIC computer program was developed to expedite this calculation.

  14. TRIM37 is a new histone H2A ubiquitin ligase and breast cancer oncoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Sanchita; Gazin, Claude; Chamberlain, Lynn; Ou, Jianhong; Zhu, Xiaochun; Tushir, Jogender S.; Virbasius, Ching-Man; Lin, Ling; Zhu, Lihua J.; Wajapeyee, Narendra; Green, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    The TRIM37 (or MUL) gene is located in the 17q23 chromosomal region, which is amplified in up to ~40% of breast cancers1. TRIM37 contains a RING finger domain, a hallmark of E3 ubiquitin ligases2, but its protein substrate(s) is unknown. Here we report that TRIM37 mono-ubiquitinates histone H2A, a chromatin modification associated with transcriptional repression3. We find that in human breast cancer cell lines containing amplified 17q23, TRIM37 is upregulated and, reciprocally, the major H2A ubiquitin ligase RNF23,4 (also called RING1B) is downregulated. Genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-chip experiments in 17q23-amplified breast cancer cells identified many genes, including multiple tumour suppressors, whose promoters were bound by TRIM37 and enriched for ubiquitinated H2A (H2A-ub). However, unlike RNF2, which is a subunit of Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1)3–5, we find that TRIM37 associates with Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). TRIM37, PRC2 and PRC1 are co-bound to specific target genes resulting in their transcriptional silencing. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated knockdown of TRIM37 results in loss of H2A-ub, dissociation of PRC1 and PRC2 from target promoters, and transcriptional reactivation of silenced genes. Knockdown of TRIM37 in human breast cancer cells containing amplified 17q23 substantially decreases tumour growth in mouse xenografts. Conversely, ectopic expression of TRIM37 renders non-transformed cells tumorigenic. Collectively, our results reveal TRIM37 as an oncogenic H2A ubiquitin ligase that is overexpressed in a subset of breast cancers and promotes transformation by facilitating silencing of tumour suppressors and other genes. PMID:25470042

  15. shuffled_Foxj3_prim_and_sec_combined_ic_trimmed shuffled_Foxk1_prim_and_sec_combined_ic_trimmed

    E-print Network

    Bulyk, Martha L.

    shuffled_Foxj3_prim_and_sec_combined_ic_trimmed 0.0 1.0 2.0 bits AAC T AT CC AAC T A AA T AG AT CT C shuffled_Foxk1_prim_and_sec_combined_ic_trimmed 0.0 1.0 2.0 bits T AC ATT C C T AAC AT CT G AAAAT CG A shuffled_Hnf4a_prim_and_sec_combined_ic_trimmed 0.0 1.0 2.0 bits CG ATTG AGCT G C AG AT GT AC

  16. Structural control over equilibrium silicon and oxygen isotopic fractionation: A first-principles density-functional theory study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Merlin Méheut; Michele Lazzeri; Etienne Balan; Francesco Mauri

    2009-01-01

    Isotopic fractionation factors for oxygen and silicon in selected silicates (quartz, enstatite, forsterite, lizardite, kaolinite) are calculated using first-principles methods based on density-functional theory. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found in the case of oxygen. In the case of silicon, agreement and differences with existing estimates of equilibrium fractionation factors are discussed. The relationship between silicon and oxygen

  17. Advanced control concepts. [for shuttle ascent vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, J. B.; Coppey, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The problems of excess control devices and insufficient trim control capability on shuttle ascent vehicles were investigated. The trim problem is solved at all time points of interest using Lagrangian multipliers and a Simplex based iterative algorithm developed as a result of the study. This algorithm has the capability to solve any bounded linear problem with physically realizable constraints, and to minimize any piecewise differentiable cost function. Both solution methods also automatically distribute the command torques to the control devices. It is shown that trim requirements are unrealizable if only the orbiter engines and the aerodynamic surfaces are used.

  18. Nifedipine improves blood flow and oxygen supply, but not steady-state oxygenation of tumours in perfusion pressure-controlled isolated limb perfusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O Thews; M Hummel; D K Kelleher; B Lecher; P Vaupel

    2002-01-01

    Isolated limb perfusion allows the direct application of therapeutic agents to a tumour-bearing extremity. The present study investigated whether the dihydropyridine-type Ca2+-channel blocker nifedipine could improve blood flow and oxygenation status of experimental tumours during isolated limb perfusion. Perfusion was performed by cannulation of the femoral artery and vein in rats bearing DS-sarcoma on the hind foot dorsum. Perfusion rate

  19. Orbital atomic oxygen effects on thermal control and optical materials - STS8 results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. F. Whitaker; S. A. Little

    1985-01-01

    The effects of exposing 23 specimens of optical and thermal control materials to space at 120 km altitude for over 40 hrs during the STS-8 mission are discussed. Ten samples of paint targeted for the Space Telescope (ST) and the Tethered Satellite were exposed, and included polyurethane, oxide, silicone, and glossy black and white samples which were scanned for alterations

  20. A large new subset of TRIM genes highly diversified by duplication and positive selection in teleost fish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lieke M van der Aa; Jean-Pierre Levraud; Malika Yahmi; Emilie Lauret; Valérie Briolat; Philippe Herbomel; Abdenour Benmansour; Pierre Boudinot

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In mammals, the members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) protein family are involved in various cellular processes including innate immunity against viral infection. Viruses exert strong selective pressures on the defense system. Accordingly, antiviral TRIMs have diversified highly through gene expansion, positive selection and alternative splicing. Characterizing immune TRIMs in other vertebrates may enlighten their complex evolution. RESULTS: We

  1. Dose dependent effects of nitrate supplementation on cardiovascular control and microvascular oxygenation dynamics in healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Scott K; Hirai, Daniel M; Copp, Steven W; Holdsworth, Clark T; Allen, Jason D; Jones, Andrew M; Musch, Timothy I; Poole, David C

    2014-05-30

    High dose nitrate (NO3(-)) supplementation via beetroot juice (BR, 1 mmol/kg/day) lowers mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and improves skeletal muscle blood flow and O2 delivery/utilization matching thereby raising microvascular O2 pressure (PO2mv). We tested the hypothesis that a low dose of NO3(-) supplementation, consistent with a diet containing NO3(-) rich vegetables (BRLD, 0.3 mmol/kg/day), would be sufficient to cause these effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a low dose of NO3(-) (0.3 mmol/kg/day; n=12), a high dose (1 mmol/kg/day; BRHD, n=6) or tap water (control, n=10) for 5 days. MAP, heart rate (HR), blood flow (radiolabeled microspheres) and vascular conductance (VC) were measured during submaximal treadmill exercise (20 m/min, 5% grade, equivalent to ~60% of maximal O2 uptake). Subsequently, PO2mv (phosphorescence quenching) was measured at rest and during 180 s of electrically-induced twitch contractions (1 Hz, ~6 V) of the surgically-exposed spinotrapezius muscle. BRLD and BRHD lowered resting (control: 139 ± 4, BRLD: 124 ± 5, BRHD: 128 ± 9 mmHg, P<0.05, BRLD vs. control) and exercising (control: 138 ± 3, BRLD: 126 ± 4, BRHD: 125 ± 5 mmHg, P<0.05) MAP to a similar extent. For BRLD this effect occurred in the absence of altered exercising hindlimb muscle(s) blood flow or spinotrapezius PO2mv (rest and across the transient response at the onset of contractions, all P>0.05), each of which increased significantly for the BRHD condition (all P<0.05). Whereas BRHD slowed the PO2mv kinetics significantly (i.e., >mean response time, MRT; control: 16.6 ± 2.1, BRHD: 23.3 ± 4.7s) following the onset of contractions compared to control, in the BRLD group this effect did not reach statistical significance (BRLD: 20.9 ± 1.9s, P=0.14). These data demonstrate that while low dose NO3(-) supplementation lowers MAP during exercise it does so in the absence of augmented muscle blood flow, VC and PO2mv; all of which are elevated at a higher dose. Thus, in healthy animals, a high dose of NO3(-) supplementation seems necessary to elicit significant changes in exercising skeletal muscle O2 delivery/utilization. PMID:24769046

  2. Trimming Aircraft on the Ground Based on the Hybrid Genetic Algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhang Lei; Huang Qitao; Jiang Hongzhou; Han Junwei

    2009-01-01

    Trimming aircraft on the ground is an absolutely necessary for flight simulators. In order to carry out this task, the aircraft-runway dynamic model is analyzed, and then an elite re-optimized hybrid genetic algorithm for trimming the model is designed, which combines the merits of a genetic algorithm and pattern search. It does not only avoid being trapped by a local

  3. Object Trimming: When Masking Dots Alter Rather than Replace Target Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahan, Todd A.; Enns, James T.

    2010-01-01

    Five experiments demonstrate that when dots appear beside a briefly presented target object, and persist on view longer than the target, the flanked object is perceptually altered by the dots. Three methods are used to explore this "object trimming effect". Experiments 1-3 assess participants' conscious reports of trimmed digits, Experiment 4 uses…

  4. Potential of Eisenia fetida for vermicomposting of garden trimmings spiked with cow dung

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K. Garg; Renuka Gupta

    2010-01-01

    The garden residues and trimmings were vermicomposted in order to mitigate environmental problems caused by them. The results of experiments indicated that the addition of Garden Trimmings (GT) up to 30% with cow dung (CD) produced good quality vermicompost in terms of increased NPK status as well as decrease in C : N and C : P ratio. A comparison

  5. GPU-based trimming and tessellation of NURBS and T-Spline surfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Guthe; Ákos Balázs; Reinhard Klein

    2005-01-01

    As there is no hardware support neither for rendering trimmed NURBS -- the standard surface representation in CAD -- nor for T-Spline surfaces the usability of existing rendering APIs like OpenGL, where a run-time tessellation is performed on the CPU, is limited to simple scenes. Due to the irregular mesh data structures required for trimming no algorithms exists that exploit

  6. Precision frequency trimming of SAW and STW resonators using Xe+ heavy ion bombardment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vladimir Shakirovich Aliev; I. D. Avramov

    1994-01-01

    A method for precision frequency trimming of surface acoustic wave (SAW) and surface transverse wave (STW) based resonant devices using a Xe+ heavy ion bombardment technique is described. The devices are downtrimmed in frequency in an in-situ monitoring process by means of a Kaufmann type ion source that allows first a rough and then a fine frequency trimming with an

  7. Robust Euclidean alignment of 3D point sets: the trimmed iterative closest point algorithm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dmitry Chetverikov; Dmitry Stepanov; Pavel Krsek

    2005-01-01

    The problem of geometric alignment of two roughly pre-registered, partially overlap- ping, rigid, noisy 3D point sets is considered. A new natural and simple, robustified extension of the popular Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm (1) is presented, called Trimmed ICP. The new algorithm is based on the consistent use of the Least Trimmed Squares approach in all phases of the

  8. Clean Photothermal Heating and Controlled Release from Near-Infrared Dye Doped Nanoparticles without Oxygen Photosensitization.

    PubMed

    Guha, Samit; Shaw, Scott K; Spence, Graeme T; Roland, Felicia M; Smith, Bradley D

    2015-07-21

    The photothermal heating and release properties of biocompatible organic nanoparticles, doped with a near-infrared croconaine (Croc) dye, were compared with analogous nanoparticles doped with the common near-infrared dyes ICG and IR780. Separate formulations of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles and liposomes, each containing Croc dye, absorbed strongly at 808 nm and generated clean laser-induced heating (no production of (1)O2 and no photobleaching of the dye). In contrast, laser-induced heating of nanoparticles containing ICG or IR780 produced reactive (1)O2, leading to bleaching of the dye and also decomposition of coencapsulated payload such as the drug doxorubicin. Croc dye was especially useful as a photothermal agent for laser-controlled release of chemically sensitive payload from nanoparticles. Solution state experiments demonstrated repetitive fractional release of water-soluble fluorescent dye from the interior of thermosensitive liposomes. Additional experiments used a focused laser beam to control leakage from immobilized liposomes with very high spatial and temporal precision. The results indicate that fractional photothermal leakage from nanoparticles doped with Croc dye is a promising method for a range of controlled release applications. PMID:26149326

  9. Dose dependent effects of nitrate supplementation on cardiovascular control and microvascular oxygenation dynamics in healthy rats

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Scott K.; Hirai, Daniel M.; Copp, Steven W.; Holdsworth, Clark T.; Allen, Jason D.; Jones, Andrew M.; Musch, Timothy I.; Poole, David C.

    2014-01-01

    High dose nitrate (NO3-) supplementation via beetroot juice (BR, 1 mmol/kg/day) lowers mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and improves skeletal muscle blood flow and O2 delivery/utilization matching thereby raising microvascular O2 pressure (PO2mv). We tested the hypothesis that a low dose of NO3- supplementation, consistent with a diet containing NO3- rich vegetables (BRLD, 0.3 mmol/kg/day), would be sufficient to cause these effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered a low dose of NO3- (0.3 mmol/kg/day; n=12), a high dose (1 mmol/kg/day; BRHD, n=6) or tap water (control, n=10) for 5 days. MAP, heart rate (HR), blood flow (radiolabeled microspheres) and vascular conductance (VC) were measured during submaximal treadmill exercise (20 m/min, 5% grade, equivalent to ?60% of maximal O2 uptake). Subsequently, PO2mv (phosphorescence quenching) was measured at rest and during 180 s of electrically-induced twitch contractions (1 Hz, ?6 volts) of the surgically-exposed spinotrapezius muscle. BRLD and BRHD lowered resting (control: 139±4, BRLD: 124±5, BRHD: 128±9 mmHg, P<0.05) and exercising (control: 138±3, BRLD: 126±4, BRHD: 125±5 mmHg, P<0.05) MAP to a similar extent. For BRLD this effect occurred in the absence of altered exercising hindlimb muscle(s) blood flow or spinotrapezius PO2mv (rest and across the transient response at the onset of contractions, all P>0.05), each of which increased significantly for the BRHD condition (all P<0.05). Whereas BRHD slowed the PO2mv kinetics significantly (i.e., >mean response time, MRT; control: 16.6±2.1, BRHD: 23.3±4.7 s) following the onset of contractions compared to control, in the BRLD group this effect did not reach statistical significance (BRLD: 20.9±1.9 s, P=0.14). These data demonstrate that while low dose NO3- supplementation lowers MAP it does so in the absence of augmented muscle blood flow, VC and PO2mv; all of which are elevated at a higher dose. Thus, in healthy animals, a high dose of NO3- supplementation seems necessary to elicit significant changes in exercising skeletal muscle O2 delivery/utilization. PMID:24769046

  10. Edge Fracture Prediction ofTraditional and Advanced Trimming Processes for AA6111-T4 Sheets

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Xiaohua; Choi, Kyoo Sil; Sun, Xin; Golovashchenko, Segey F.

    2014-02-15

    This work examines the traditional and advanced trimming of AA6111-T4 aluminum sheets with finite element simulations. The Rice-Tracy damage model is used for the simulation with damage parameters estimated from experimental observation of grain aspect ratio near the fracture surface of trimmed parts. Fine meshes at the shearing zone, adaptive meshing, and adaptive contact techniques are used to accurately capture the contact interactions between the sharp corner of the trimming tools and the blank to be trimmed. To the knowledge of the authors, these are the first trimming simulations that can predict the effects of shearing clearance on burr heights with quantitative accuracy for AA6111-T4 aluminum sheets. In addition, the models have also accurately reproduced the crack initiation site as well as burr and sliver formation mechanisms observed experimentally.

  11. Overlapping and Distinct Molecular Determinants Dictating the Antiviral Activities of TRIM56 against Flaviviruses and Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Baoming; Li, Nan L.; Wang, Jie; Shi, Pei-Yong; Wang, Tianyi; Miller, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) proteins have emerged as a new class of host antiviral restriction factors, with several demonstrating roles in regulating innate antiviral responses. Of >70 known TRIMs, TRIM56 inhibits replication of bovine viral diarrhea virus, a ruminant pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae, but has no appreciable effect on vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), a rhabdovirus. Yet the antiviral spectrum of TRIM56 remains undefined. In particular, how TRIM56 impacts human-pathogenic viruses is unknown. Also unclear are the molecular determinants governing the antiviral activities of TRIM56. Herein, we show that TRIM56 poses a barrier to infections by yellow fever virus (YFV), dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV2), and human coronavirus virus (HCoV) OC43 but not encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). Moreover, by engineering cell lines conditionally expressing various TRIM56 mutants, we demonstrated that TRIM56's antiflavivirus effects required both the E3 ligase activity that lies in the N-terminal RING domain and the integrity of its C-terminal portion, while the restriction of HCoV-OC43 relied upon the TRIM56 E3 ligase activity alone. Furthermore, TRIM56 was revealed to impair YFV and DENV2 propagation by suppressing intracellular viral RNA accumulation but to compromise HCoV-OC43 infection at a later step in the viral life cycle, suggesting that distinct TRIM56 domains accommodate differing antiviral mechanisms. Altogether, TRIM56 is a versatile antiviral host factor that confers resistance to YFV, DENV2, and HCoV-OC43 through overlapping and distinct molecular determinants. IMPORTANCE We previously reported tripartite motif protein 56 (TRIM56) as a host restriction factor of bovine viral diarrhea virus, a ruminant pathogen. However, the impact of TRIM56 on human-pathogenic RNA viruses is unknown. Herein, we demonstrate that TRIM56 restricts two medically important flaviviruses, yellow fever virus (YFV) and dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV2), and a human coronavirus, HCoV-OC43, but not encephalomyocarditis virus, a picornavirus. Further, we show that TRIM56-mediated inhibition of HCoV-OC43 multiplication depends solely on its E3 ligase activity, whereas its restriction of YFV and DENV2 requires both the E3 ligase activity and integrity of the C-terminal portion. The differing molecular determinants appear to accommodate distinct antiviral mechanisms TRIM56 adopts to target different families of viruses; while TRIM56 curbs intracellular YFV/DENV2 RNA replication, it acts at a later step in HCoV-OC43 life cycle. These novel findings illuminate the molecular basis of the versatility and specificity of TRIM56's antiviral activities against positive-strand RNA viruses. PMID:25253338

  12. Addition of trim coils to the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade (TMX-U) magnet system to improve the magnetic field mapping

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. L. Wong; L. R. Pedrotti; D. E. Baldwin; S. M. Hibbs; D. N. Hill; R. H. Hornady; M. C. Jackson

    1985-01-01

    The mapping of the magnetic flux bundle from the center cell to the Plasma Potential Control plates (PPC) on the end fan of the Tandem Mirror Experiment Upgrade (TMX-U), was improved by the addition of trim coils (12,000 amp-turns) on each side of each end fan next to the pump beam magnetic shields. The coils' axes are oriented perpendicular to

  13. Application of linear multiple model predictive control (MMPC) framework towards dynamic maximazation of oxygen yield in an elevated-pressure air separation unit

    SciTech Connect

    Mahapatra, P.; Zitney, S.; Bequette, B. Wayne

    2012-01-01

    In a typical air separation unit (ASU) utilizing either a simple gaseous oxygen (GOX) cycle or a pumped liquid oxygen (PLOX) cycle, the flowrate of liquid nitrogen (LN2) stream connecting high-pressure and low-pressure ASU columns plays an important role in the total oxygen yield. It has been observed that this yield reaches a maximum at a certain optimal flowrate of LN2 stream. At nominal full-load operation, the flowrate of LN2 stream is maintained near this optimum value, whereas at part-load conditions this flowrate is typically modified in proportion with the load-change (oxygen demand) through a ratio/feed-forward controller. Due to nonlinearity in the entire ASU process, the ratio-modified LN2 flowrate does not guarantee an optimal oxygen yield at part-load conditions. This is further exacerbated when process disturbances in form of “cold-box” heat-leaks enter the system. To address this problem of dynamically maximizing the oxygen yield while the ASU undergoes a load-change and/or a process disturbance, a multiple model predictive control (MMPC) algorithm is proposed. This approach has been used in previous studies to handle large ramp-rates of oxygen demand posed by the gasifier in an IGCC plant. In this study, the proposed algorithm uses linear step-response “blackbox” models surrounding the operating points corresponding to maximum oxygen yield points at different loads. It has been shown that at any operating point of the ASU, the MMPC algorithm, through model-weight calculation based on plant measurements, naturally and continuously selects the dominant model(s) corresponding to the current plant state, while making control-move decisions that approach the maximum oxygen yield point. This dynamically facilitates less energy consumption in form of compressed feed-air compared to a simple ratio control during load-swings. In addition, since a linear optimization problem is solved at each time step, the approach involves much less computational cost compared to a firstprinciple based nonlinear MPC. Introduction

  14. Fault-tolerant output tracking control for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongyi Li; Yulin Si; Ligang Wu; Xiaoxiang Hu; Zeguo Wang; Huijun Gao

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of guaranteed cost fault-tolerant output tracking control against actuator faults for a flexible air-breathing hypersonic vehicle. Firstly, using the parameters of the trim condition, a linearized model is established around the trim point for a nonlinear, dynamically coupled simulation model. Secondly, the control objective and models of actuator faults are presented. Thirdly, the performance analysis

  15. Testing of a Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Methane Reaction Control Thruster in a New Altitude Rocket Engine Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, Michael L.; Arrington, Lynn A.; Kleinhenz, Julie E.; Marshall, William M.

    2012-01-01

    A relocated rocket engine test facility, the Altitude Combustion Stand (ACS), was activated in 2009 at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This facility has the capability to test with a variety of propellants and up to a thrust level of 2000 lbf (8.9 kN) with precise measurement of propellant conditions, propellant flow rates, thrust and altitude conditions. These measurements enable accurate determination of a thruster and/or nozzle s altitude performance for both technology development and flight qualification purposes. In addition the facility was designed to enable efficient test operations to control costs for technology and advanced development projects. A liquid oxygen-liquid methane technology development test program was conducted in the ACS from the fall of 2009 to the fall of 2010. Three test phases were conducted investigating different operational modes and in addition, the project required the complexity of controlling propellant inlet temperatures over an extremely wide range. Despite the challenges of a unique propellant (liquid methane) and wide operating conditions, the facility performed well and delivered up to 24 hot fire tests in a single test day. The resulting data validated the feasibility of utilizing this propellant combination for future deep space applications.

  16. In silico analysis of functional single nucleotide polymorphisms in the human TRIM22 gene.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Jenna N; Barr, Stephen D

    2014-01-01

    Tripartite motif protein 22 (TRIM22) is an evolutionarily ancient protein that plays an integral role in the host innate immune response to viruses. The antiviral TRIM22 protein has been shown to inhibit the replication of a number of viruses, including HIV-1, hepatitis B, and influenza A. TRIM22 expression has also been associated with multiple sclerosis, cancer, and autoimmune disease. In this study, multiple in silico computational methods were used to identify non-synonymous or amino acid-changing SNPs (nsSNP) that are deleterious to TRIM22 structure and/or function. A sequence homology-based approach was adopted for screening nsSNPs in TRIM22, including six different in silico prediction algorithms and evolutionary conservation data from the ConSurf web server. In total, 14 high-risk nsSNPs were identified in TRIM22, most of which are located in a protein interaction module called the B30.2 domain. Additionally, 9 of the top high-risk nsSNPs altered the putative structure of TRIM22's B30.2 domain, particularly in the surface-exposed v2 and v3 regions. These same regions are critical for retroviral restriction by the closely-related TRIM5? protein. A number of putative structural and functional residues, including several sites that undergo post-translational modification, were also identified in TRIM22. This study is the first extensive in silico analysis of the highly polymorphic TRIM22 gene and will be a valuable resource for future targeted mechanistic and population-based studies. PMID:24983760

  17. A novel strategy of enhanced glutathione production in high cell density cultivation of Candida utilis—Cysteine addition combined with dissolved oxygen controlling

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guo-Bin Liang; Guo-Cheng Du; Jian Chen

    2008-01-01

    Effects of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration on glutathione (GSH) production and cysteine oxidation were investigated in high cell density cultivation of Candida utilis. Lower DO concentration favors cysteine absorption but retards GSH production. Higher DO promotes GSH production but accelerates cysteine oxidation in the broth. A two-step DO control strategy was developed and compared for the potential in enhancing GSH

  18. Isolated resonator gyroscope with isolation trimming using a secondary element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Challoner, A. Dorian (Inventor); Shcheglov, Kirill V. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    The present invention discloses a resonator gyroscope including an isolated resonator. One or more flexures support the isolated resonator and a baseplate is affixed to the resonator by the flexures. Drive and sense elements are affixed to the baseplate and used to excite the resonator and sense movement of the gyroscope. In addition, at least one secondary element (e.g., another electrode) is affixed to the baseplate and used for trimming isolation of the resonator. The resonator operates such that it transfers substantially no net momentum to the baseplate when the resonator is excited. Typically, the isolated resonator comprises a proof mass and a counterbalancing plate.

  19. Co-composting of alkaline tissue digester effluent with yard trimmings.

    PubMed

    Das, K C

    2008-01-01

    Alkaline digestion of animal carcasses is gaining popularity as a method of disposing of animals because of its very effective pathogen control and general ease of operation. Once completed, the resulting high-strength effluent can be released into the municipal sewer systems. In some cases where the municipal system is unable to handle this high-strength wastewater, alternate methods of treatment are required. Co-composting with a low-moisture substrate such as yard trimmings can be an effective option. This paper reports the results of absorption tests to determine the amount of digester effluent (from the Tissue Digestor process) that can be added to yard waste before leachate production begins. In addition, a low dosage of liquid effluent was added to yard trimmings and composted in laboratory bioreactors. Results show that leachate production begins when 0.6L-effluent is added per kg-unamended yard waste at an original moisture content of 55.6%. The amount of leachate produced increases exponentially following the empirical equation: leachate in mL/kg=0.145 e(6.007Effluent dosage in L/kg) (valid in the effluent addition range of 0-1.2L/kg). Composting of yard waste with effluent showed that the initial pH did not inhibit microbial activity up to 9.39 pH. Variability was high and there was no statistically significant difference in dry matter degradation between treatments (measured range was 1.3-6.0% of initial dry matter). Final compost had nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations of approximately 1% and 0.1%, respectively. The potassium concentration increased with increasing effluent addition and was 1.84% in the 0.2-L/kg treatment. All regulated heavy metals were several-fold below US EPA limits. PMID:18029168

  20. Fuel control system for an engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brogdon, James William (Inventor); Gill, David Keith (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    A fuel control system responsive to a power controller and controlling a fuel delivery system. The fuel control system includes a control arm connected to both the power controller and the fuel delivery system, a position sensor connected to the control arm, and a trim controller connected to the control arm at a pivot point and connected to the position sensor.

  1. Thyroid control of small intestinal oxygen consumption and the influence of sodium ions, oxyhen tension, glucose and anaesthesia.

    PubMed Central

    Levin, F J; Syme, G

    1975-01-01

    1. Oxygen consumption of jejunum removed from either killed or anaesthetized euthytoid, hypothyroid and triiodothyronine (T3)-treated rats was measured polarographically in vitro. 2. Hypothyroidism induced by drinking 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil depressed jejunal oxygen consumption. 3. Treatment of euthyroid rats with T3 stimulated jejunal oxygen consumption by 39% in the presence of 28 mM glucose and by 23% in its absence. 4. Sodium ions appear to play a major permissive role in the action of T3 on jejunal oxygen uptake. In the presence of sodium, T3 stimulated significantly the oxygen consumption by 23% while in the absence of sodium the stimulation was only 10% which was not significant. The sodium-sensitive oxygen uptake of the jejunum was expanded by 57% after T3 treatment. PMID:1127612

  2. Technical Update: Johnson Space Center system using a solid electrolytic cell in a remote location to measure oxygen fugacities in CO\\/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. G. Jurewicz; R. J. Williams; L. Le; J. Wagstaff; G. Lofgren; A. Lanier; W. Carter; A. Roshko

    1993-01-01

    Details are given for the design and application of a (one atmosphere) redox-control system. This system differs from that given in NASA Technical Memorandum 58234 in that it uses a single solid-electrolytic cell in a remote location to measure the oxygen fugacities of multiple CO\\/CO2 controlled-atmosphere furnaces. This remote measurement extends the range of sample-furnace conditions that can be measured

  3. Controls on the Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopic Composition (? 15N, ? 18O, ? 17O) of Atmospheric Nitrate in Princeton, NJ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, M. G.; Malcolm, E.; Kaiser, J.; Sigman, D. M.

    2004-12-01

    The oxygen isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrate reflects the oxidative mechanisms that convert NOx to HNO3, while the nitrogen isotopic composition of atmospheric nitrate may reflect different NOx source signatures and/or fractionations related to NOx chemistry [Michalski et al., 2003; Hastings et al., 2003; Freyer et al., 1993]. New analysis techniques are capable of determining the 15N/14N, 18O/16O and 17O/16O isotope ratios in samples at the nanomolar level [Sigman et al., 2001; Casciotti et al., 2002; see Kaiser et al., session H38]. This allows for the analysis of short-term variations in the isotopes of HNO3 with the potential to diagnose causal relationships by comparing the isotopic data with other features of atmospheric deposition. The 15N/14N, 18O/16O and 17O/16O of nitrate were analyzed from precipitation samples collected on an event-basis in Princeton, NJ between December 2002 and 2003. The nitrate concentration in Princeton rain ranges from 2.5 to 99.7 ? M (mean=21.1 ? M, n=61), similar to that found in other urban areas of New Jersey by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program. The isotopes of nitrate fall in the wide range reported for various environments with the ? 15N ranging from -4.0 to 9.5‰ (vs. air), and the ? 18O and ? 17O ranging from 57.2 to 90.5‰ and 50.7 to 77.8‰ (vs. VSMOW), respectively. The correlation between nitrate and sulfate concentration (R2=0.66) and the lack of a relationship between these major ions and the isotopes of nitrate supports the conclusion that below cloud scavenging is not the dominant control on the isotopic variations observed. Seasonal variations are observed in both the nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate. Overall the ? 15N is not correlated with either ? 18O or ? 17O, although both the ? 15N and ? 18O average lowest in the summer and highest in the winter. ? 18O is highly correlated with ? 17O of nitrate with anomalous enrichment in 17O relative to 18O (? 17O ranges from 19.7 to 30.8‰ ), as a result of the interaction of NOx and ozone in the atmosphere prior to HNO3 deposition. Comparison of ? 17O and ? 18O of nitrate show the data falling along a mixing line between the oxygen isotopic composition of tropospheric ozone and that of hydroxy/peroxy radicals (i.e. water), which has also been observed in nitrate aerosol samples collected in La Jolla, CA [Michalski et al., 2003]. Although there is considerable scatter in the isotopic time series, a distinctive increase in the oxygen isotope ratios occurs in mid-September and continues through the end of December 2003. This aspect of the time series will be discussed in the context of changes in atmospheric chemistry based on seasonal variations in atmospheric transport patterns, meteorology, and NOx and ozone concentrations. In addition to these parameters, the nitrogen isotopic variations will also be interpreted in the context of changes in source contributions, e.g. coal burning in the Midwest, based on multiple chemical analyses including trace metals, mercury, and major ion concentrations.

  4. Controllable synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanospheres and Fe-N/carbon nanospheres as efficient oxygen reduction electrocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Jing; Liang, Yan; Zhang, Xinyi; Simon, George P.; Zhao, Dongyuan; Zhang, Jin; Jiang, Sanping; Wang, Huanting

    2015-03-01

    The synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanospheres (MCNs), especially with diameters below 200 nm remains a great challenge due to weak interactions between the carbon precursors and soft templates, as well as the uncontrollable cross-linking rate of carbon precursors. Herein, we demonstrate a simple acid-assisted, hydrothermal synthesis approach to synthesizing such uniform MCNs with well controlled diameters ranging from 20 to 150 nm under highly acidic conditions (2 M HCl). Both the carbon precursor and the template are partly protonated under such conditions and show additional Coulombic interactions with chloride ions (acts as mediators). This kind of enhanced interaction is similar to that of the ``I+X-S+'' mechanism in the synthesis of mesoporous metal oxide, which can effectively retard the cross-linking rate of resol molecules and avoid macroscopic phase separation during the hydrothermal synthesis. Due to their uniform spherical morphology, small diameter, and high surface areas, MCNs can be modified with Fe and N species via impregnation of cheap precursors (ferric nitrate and dicyandiamide), which are further converted into nonprecious electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions. The resulting Fe-N/MCNs exhibit high catalytic activities, long-term stability and improved methanol tolerance under alkaline conditions, which can be potentially used in direct methanol fuel cells and metal-air batteries.The synthesis of mesoporous carbon nanospheres (MCNs), especially with diameters below 200 nm remains a great challenge due to weak interactions between the carbon precursors and soft templates, as well as the uncontrollable cross-linking rate of carbon precursors. Herein, we demonstrate a simple acid-assisted, hydrothermal synthesis approach to synthesizing such uniform MCNs with well controlled diameters ranging from 20 to 150 nm under highly acidic conditions (2 M HCl). Both the carbon precursor and the template are partly protonated under such conditions and show additional Coulombic interactions with chloride ions (acts as mediators). This kind of enhanced interaction is similar to that of the ``I+X-S+'' mechanism in the synthesis of mesoporous metal oxide, which can effectively retard the cross-linking rate of resol molecules and avoid macroscopic phase separation during the hydrothermal synthesis. Due to their uniform spherical morphology, small diameter, and high surface areas, MCNs can be modified with Fe and N species via impregnation of cheap precursors (ferric nitrate and dicyandiamide), which are further converted into nonprecious electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions. The resulting Fe-N/MCNs exhibit high catalytic activities, long-term stability and improved methanol tolerance under alkaline conditions, which can be potentially used in direct methanol fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00331h

  5. Identification of TRIM27 as a Novel Degradation Target of Herpes Simplex Virus 1 ICP0

    PubMed Central

    Conwell, Sara E.; White, Anne E.; Harper, J. Wade

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) immediate early protein ICP0 performs many functions during infection, including transactivation of viral gene expression, suppression of innate immune responses, and modification and eviction of histones from viral chromatin. Although these functions of ICP0 have been characterized, the detailed mechanisms underlying ICP0's complex role during infection warrant further investigation. We thus undertook an unbiased proteomic approach to identifying viral and cellular proteins that interact with ICP0 in the infected cell. Cellular candidates resulting from our analysis included the ubiquitin-specific protease USP7, the transcriptional repressor TRIM27, DNA repair proteins NBN and MRE11A, regulators of apoptosis, including BIRC6, and the proteasome. We also identified two HSV-1 early proteins involved in nucleotide metabolism, UL39 and UL50, as novel candidate interactors of ICP0. Because TRIM27 was the most statistically significant cellular candidate, we investigated the relationship between TRIM27 and ICP0. We observed rapid, ICP0-dependent loss of TRIM27 during HSV-1 infection. TRIM27 protein levels were restored by disrupting the RING domain of ICP0 or by inhibiting the proteasome, arguing that TRIM27 is a novel degradation target of ICP0. A mutant ICP0 lacking E3 ligase activity interacted with endogenous TRIM27 during infection as demonstrated by reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation and supported by immunofluorescence data. Surprisingly, ICP0-null mutant virus yields decreased upon TRIM27 depletion, arguing that TRIM27 has a positive effect on infection despite being targeted for degradation. These results illustrate a complex interaction between TRIM27 and viral infection with potential positive or negative effects of TRIM27 on HSV under different infection conditions. IMPORTANCE During productive infection, a virus must simultaneously redirect multiple cellular pathways to replicate itself while evading detection by the host's defenses. To orchestrate such complex regulation, viruses, including herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), rely on multifunctional proteins such as the E3 ubiquitin ligase ICP0. This protein regulates various cellular pathways concurrently by targeting a diverse set of cellular factors for degradation. While some of these targets have been previously identified and characterized, we undertook a proteomic screen to identify additional targets of this activity to further characterize ICP0's role during infection. We describe a set of candidate interacting proteins of ICP0 identified through this approach and our characterization of the most statistically significant result, the cellular transcriptional repressor TRIM27. We present TRIM27 as a novel degradation target of ICP0 and describe the relationship of these two proteins during infection. PMID:25320289

  6. A theoretical study of the application of jet flap circulation control for reduction of rotor vibratory forces, addendum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renka, A. R.

    1975-01-01

    The theoretical potential of a jet flap control system for reducing the vertical and horizontal non-cancelling helicopter rotor blade root shears was investigated. It was determined that the dominant contributor to the rotor power requirements is the requirement to maintain moment trim as well as force trim. It was also found that the requirement to maintain moment trim does not entail a power penalty.

  7. Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1 Counteracts Rhesus Macaque TRIM5?-Induced Inhibition of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Production

    PubMed Central

    Sukegawa, Sayaka; Sakuma, Ryuta; Ohmine, Seiga; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Yamaoka, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    Old world monkey TRIM5? is a host factor that restricts human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection. Previously, we reported that rhesus macaque TRIM5? (RhTRIM5?) restricts HIV-1 production by inducing degradation of precursor Gag. Since suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) is known to enhance HIV-1 production by rescuing Gag from lysosomal degradation, we examined if SOCS1 is involved in RhTRIM5?-mediated late restriction. Over-expression of SOCS1 restored HIV-1 production in the presence of RhTRIM5? to a level comparable to that in the absence of RhTRIM5? in terms of titer and viral protein expression. Co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed that SOCS1 physically interacted with RhTRIM5?. Over-expression of SOCS1 affected RhTRIM5? expression in a dose-dependent manner, which was not reversed by proteasome inhibitors. In addition, SOCS1 and RhTRIM5? were detected in virus-like particles. These results suggest that SOCS1 alleviates RhTRIM5?-mediated regulation in the late phase of HIV-1 life cycle probably due to the destabilization of RhTRIM5?. PMID:25310711

  8. TRIM26 functions as a novel tumor suppressor of hepatocellular carcinoma and its downregulation contributes to worse prognosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; He, Du; Yang, Liang; Wen, Bo; Dai, Jinfen; Zhang, Qian; Kang, Jian; He, Weiyang; Ding, Qianshan; He, De

    2015-07-31

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the one of the most common malignancies worldwide and its prognosis is extremely poor. Tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins play crucial roles in cancer cell biology but the function of tripartite motif 26 (TRIM26) has not been investigated. We demonstrated that low expression level of TRIM26 in tumor samples was significantly correlated with worse prognosis in HCC patients. We also demonstrated its expression level was associated with several clinicopathologic features such as AFP level and T stage of HCC patients. Furthermore, we validated that TRIM26 was significantly downregulated in HCC tissue compared with normal liver tissue. To further clarify the functional role of TRIM26 in HCC, We confirmed that TRIM26 silencing can promote cancer cell proliferation, colony forming, migration and invasion in vitro with HCC cell lines HepG2 and Bel-7402. Then we utilized bioinformatic tool to predict gene influenced by TRIM26, showing TRIM26 could modulate gene sets about cancer cell metabolism. In conclusion, we proved that TRIM26 is a novel tumor suppressor modulating multiple metabolism-related pathways in HCC. To our best knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the function of TRIM26 in cancer biology. Our findings provide useful insight into the mechanism of HCC origin and progression. Moreover, TRIM26 may represent a novel therapeutic target for HCC. PMID:26043685

  9. Controls on oxygen isotope variability in precipitation and drip water at eight caves in the monsoon regions of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Wuhui; Ruan, Jiaoyang; Luo, Weijun; Li, Tingyong; Tian, Lijun; Zeng, Guangneng; Zhang, Dezhong; Bai, Yijun; Li, Jilong; Tao, Tao; Zhang, Pingzhong; Tan, Ming

    2015-04-01

    Cave monitoring is important to fully understand the climatic significance of stalagmite ?18O records. Most previous studies focus on one cave, or several caves in one area. A large regional-scale investigation on the isotopic composition of precipitation and drip water is scarce. To investigate the regional-scale climate forcing on the oxygen isotopic composition of precipitation in the monsoon regions of China (MRC) and how the isotopic signals are transmitted to various drip sites, a three-year-long (2011-2014) on-site rainfall and drip water monitoring program has been carried out with approximately monthly sampling at 37 drip sites in eight caves in the MRC. Neither rainfall amount nor air temperature are the predominant controls on the oxygen isotopic composition of monthly precipitation. The rain in the wet season (May to October), with relatively low ?18O values, is sourced from tropical air masses, whereas the rainfall in the dry season (November to April), with relatively high ?18O values, is mostly sourced from continental air masses. Additionally, the weighted summer rainwater ?18O values decrease from coastal southwest China to inland northeast China, which suggests that the moisture of monsoon rainfall in China originates mainly from Indian Ocean, and transports to the north along the southwest-northeast path. 28 of the 37 drip sites are constant drips with little discernable variation in drip water ?18O through the whole study period. For most of the constant drips, the mean value of each drip water ?18O is nearly identical to or slightly higher than the three-year weighted mean value of the corresponding local rainwater ?18O, indicating these drips may be mainly recharged by none-evaporated or slightly evaporated, well-mixed older water stored in the vadose zone. 7 of all the 37 drip sites are seasonal drips, for which, although the amplitude of drip water ?18O is narrower than that of rainfall, the monthly response of drip water ?18O to local precipitation is not completely dampened. Specially, there are 3 sites in Shihua cave which can be classified not only as a seasonal drip but also as a constant drip. 2 of all the 37 drip sites are medium-variability drips, with constant and relatively negative drip water ?18O values in the wet season but with variable and relatively positive drip water ?18O values in the dry season. However, their essential recharge mode is different. For these drips, the drip water ?18O is not only unable to inherit the seasonal signals but also unable to inherit the long-term signals of the precipitation. Consequently, the factors controlling the oxygen isotopic composition of drip water and then the stalagmite is site-specific. In principle, though, for most of the stalagmites, the ?18O profile may record the annual or longer time-scale climatic signals of rainfall ?18O.

  10. Bacterial inactivation by a singlet oxygen bubbler: identifying factors controlling the toxicity of (1)O2 bubbles.

    PubMed

    Bartusik, Dorota; Aebisher, David; Lyons, Alan M; Greer, Alexander

    2012-11-01

    A microphotoreactor device was developed to generate bubbles (1.4 mm diameter, 90 ?L) containing singlet oxygen at levels toxic to bacteria and fungus. As singlet oxygen decays rapidly to triplet oxygen, the bubbles leave behind no waste or byproducts other than O(2). From a comparative study in deaerated, air saturated, and oxygenated solutions, it was reasoned that the singlet oxygen bubbles inactivate Escherichia coli and Aspergillus fumigatus, mainly by an oxygen gradient inside and outside of the bubble such that singlet oxygen is solvated and diffuses through the aqueous solution until it reacts with the target organism. Thus, singlet oxygen bubble toxicity was inversely proportional to the amount of dissolved oxygen in solution. In a second mechanism, singlet oxygen interacts directly with E. coli that accumulate at the gas-liquid interface although this mechanism operates at a rate approximately 10 times slower. Due to encapsulation in the gaseous core of the bubble and a 0.98 ms lifetime, the bubbles can traverse relatively long 0.39 mm distances carrying (1)O(2) far into the solution; by comparison the diffusion distance of (1)O(2) fully solvated in H(2)O is much shorter (~150 nm). Bubbles that reached the outer air-water interface contained no (1)O(2). The mechanism by which (1)O(2) deactivated organisms was explored through the addition of detergent molecules and Ca(2+) ions. Results indicate that the preferential accumulation of E. coli at the air-water interface of the bubble leads to enhanced toxicity of bubbles containing (1)O(2). The singlet oxygen device offers intriguing possibilities for creating new types of disinfection strategies based on photodynamic ((1)O(2)) bubble carriers. PMID:23075418

  11. Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics in Coastal Pacific Northwest Rivers: Biological Controls and Management Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobota, D. J.; Foster, E.; Michie, R.; Waltz, D.

    2014-12-01

    In Oregon's Central Coast Range (OCR), dissolved O2 concentrations in at least 10% of stream length frequently dip below state standards set to ensure survival and reproduction of native salmonids. We examined O2 dynamics on 12 OCR rivers during times of the year when standards had been violated. Continuous dissolved O2 data were collected 15 minutes apart over a 24-hour period during spring (May - June) or fall (September - November) 2008 on each river. We modeled O2 dynamics for each river with parameters describing O2 exchange with the atmosphere, production of O2 from gross primary production (GPP), and consumption of O2 by ecosystem respiration (ER) fit to observed data. Average nighttime atmospheric O2 exchange and ER were estimated by regressing interval changes in dissolved O2 concentrations between measurements with corresponding O2 saturation deficits. GPP for each daytime sampling interval was calculated as the difference between O2 saturation deficit and the sum of temperature-corrected reaeration and ecosystem respiration. All regression models developed for estimating night-time reaeration and ER were highly significant (p<0.03; adjusted r2=0.17 - 0.77). GPP ranged from 0.62 to 14.95 mg O2 L-1 d-1, ER ranged from -1.21 mg O2 L-1 d-1, and net daily metabolism (NDM; net O2 flux controlled by biological processes) ranged from -11.64 to 3.75 mg O2 L-1 d-1 across all rivers and seasons. Increased aquatic productivity resulting from adjacent and upstream human activities likely altered dissolved O2 dynamics in these rivers. Through scenario analysis, we found that at one river (Alsea), GPP and ER would need to be reduced by 85 and 73%, respectively, to meet the state standard (95% saturation). Our modeling approach can be connected with management actions across a variety of spatial and temporal scales, ranging from local, riparian-scale manipulations of shading and organic matter input to watershed and regional nutrient and temperature management.

  12. Oxygen scavengers - The chemistry of sulfite under hydrothermal conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1987-01-01

    Control of oxygen corrosion is critical to the reliability of steam generator systems. Mechanical deaeration and chemical oxygen scavenging effectively reduce oxygen levels in boiler feedwater systems. This paper reviews the use of sulfites to reduce oxygen and provide corrosion control throughout the boiler feedwater circuit as well as mechanical and operational oxygen reduction methods. The mechanism of oxygen pitting,

  13. Control of threshold voltage on the excimer laser annealed poly-Si TFT`s by oxygen plasma treatment on poly-Si surface

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, J.I.; Lee, S.G.; Moon, D.G.; Ha, Y.M.; Hong, C.H.; Soh, H.S. [LG Electronics Inc., Anyang, Kyongki (Korea, Republic of). LCD Research Lab.

    1996-12-31

    Oxygen plasma treatment was performed on the excimer laser annealed poly-Si surface, followed by gate oxide deposition with low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) in order to control the threshold voltage of excimer laser annealed poly-Si thin film transistors (TFTs). Threshold voltages of n-channel TFTs increase from 0.4 to 2.8 V by varying the treatment time from 0 to 7 min. It is shown the effective charge density increased toward negative direction with increase of the treatment time. In addition to the increase of threshold voltage, the oxygen plasma treatment on the Si surface led to an increase in the deposition rate of LPCVD oxide films with an apparent reduction of carbon around the interface between gate insulator and poly-Si film after oxygen plasma treatment.

  14. Controlled Evaluation of the Effects of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy on the Behavior of 16 Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jepson, Bryan; Granpeesheh, Doreen; Tarbox, Jonathan; Olive, Melissa L.; Stott, Carol; Braud, Scott; Yoo, J. Helen; Wakefield, Andrew; Allen, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) has been used to treat individuals with autism. However, few studies of its effectiveness have been completed. The current study examined the effects of 40 HBOT sessions at 24% oxygen at 1.3 ATA on 11 topographies of directly observed behavior. Five replications of multiple baselines were completed across a total…

  15. TRIM3 Regulates the Motility of the Kinesin Motor Protein KIF21B

    PubMed Central

    Labonté, Dorthe; Thies, Edda; Pechmann, Yvonne; Groffen, Alexander J.; Verhage, Matthijs; Smit, August B.; van Kesteren, Ronald E.; Kneussel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) are molecular motors that transport cellular cargo along the microtubule cytoskeleton. KIF21B is a neuronal kinesin that is highly enriched in dendrites. The regulation and specificity of microtubule transport involves the binding of motors to individual cargo adapters and accessory proteins. Moreover, posttranslational modifications of either the motor protein, their cargos or tubulin regulate motility, cargo recognition and the binding or unloading of cargos. Here we show that the ubiquitin E3 ligase TRIM3, also known as BERP, interacts with KIF21B via its RBCC domain. TRIM3 is found at intracellular and Golgi-derived vesicles and co-localizes with the KIF21B motor in neurons. Trim3 gene deletion in mice and TRIM3 overexpression in cultured neurons both suggested that the E3-ligase function of TRIM3 is not involved in KIF21B degradation, however TRIM3 depletion reduces the motility of the motor. Together, our data suggest that TRIM3 is a regulator in the modulation of KIF21B motor function. PMID:24086586

  16. TRIM8 anti-proliferative action against chemo-resistant renal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Caratozzolo, Mariano Francesco; Valletti, Alessio; Gigante, Margherita; Aiello, Italia; Mastropasqua, Francesca; Marzano, Flaviana; Ditonno, Pasquale; Carrieri, Giuseppe; Simonnet, Hélène; D'Erchia, Anna Maria; Ranieri, Elena; Pesole, Graziano; Sbisà, Elisabetta; Tullo, Apollonia

    2014-09-15

    In some tumours, despite a wild-type p53 gene, the p53 pathway is inactivated by alterations in its regulators or by unknown mechanisms, leading to resistance to cytotoxic therapies. Understanding the mechanisms of functional inactivation of wild-type p53 in these tumours may help to define prospective targets for treating cancer by restoring p53 activity. Recently, we identified TRIM8 as a new p53 modulator, which stabilizes p53 impairing its association with MDM2 and inducing the reduction of cell proliferation. In this paper we demonstrated that TRIM8 deficit dramatically impairs p53-mediated cellular responses to chemotherapeutic drugs and that TRIM8 is down regulated in patients affected by clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC), an aggressive drug-resistant cancer showing wild-type p53. These results suggest that down regulation of TRIM8 might be an alternative way to suppress p53 activity in RCC. Interestingly, we show that TRIM8 expression recovery in RCC cell lines renders these cells sensitive to chemotherapeutic treatments following p53 pathway re-activation. These findings provide the first mechanistic link between TRIM8 and the drug resistance of ccRCC and suggest more generally that TRIM8 could be used as enhancer of the chemotherapy efficacy in cancers where p53 is wild-type and its pathway is defective. PMID:25277184

  17. TRIM8 anti-proliferative action against chemo-resistant renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Gigante, Margherita; Aiello, Italia; Mastropasqua, Francesca; Marzano, Flaviana; Ditonno, Pasquale; Carrieri, Giuseppe; Simonnet, Hélène; D'Erchia, Anna Maria; Ranieri, Elena; Pesole, Graziano; Sbisà, Elisabetta; Tullo, Apollonia

    2014-01-01

    In some tumours, despite a wild-type p53 gene, the p53 pathway is inactivated by alterations in its regulators or by unknown mechanisms, leading to resistance to cytotoxic therapies. Understanding the mechanisms of functional inactivation of wild-type p53 in these tumours may help to define prospective targets for treating cancer by restoring p53 activity. Recently, we identified TRIM8 as a new p53 modulator, which stabilizes p53 impairing its association with MDM2 and inducing the reduction of cell proliferation. In this paper we demonstrated that TRIM8 deficit dramatically impairs p53-mediated cellular responses to chemotherapeutic drugs and that TRIM8 is down regulated in patients affected by clear cell Renal Cell Carcinoma (ccRCC), an aggressive drug-resistant cancer showing wild-type p53. These results suggest that down regulation of TRIM8 might be an alternative way to suppress p53 activity in RCC. Interestingly, we show that TRIM8 expression recovery in RCC cell lines renders these cells sensitive to chemotherapeutic treatments following p53 pathway re-activation. These findings provide the first mechanistic link between TRIM8 and the drug resistance of ccRCC and suggest more generally that TRIM8 could be used as enhancer of the chemotherapy efficacy in cancers where p53 is wild-type and its pathway is defective. PMID:25277184

  18. Co-expression of PKM2 and TRIM35 predicts survival and recurrence in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhichao; Jin, Guangzhi; Wang, Qifeng; Chen, Di; Chen, Taoyang; Li, Jinjun; Fan, Jia; Cong, Wenming; Gao, Qiang; He, Xianghuo

    2015-01-01

    The identification of prognostic markers for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is needed for clinical practice. Tripartite motif-containing 35 (TRIM35) is a tumor suppressor of HCC. TRIM35 inhibits phosphorylation of pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (PKM2), which is involved in aerobic glycolysis of cancer cells. We found that expression of PKM2 was significantly increased in HCC tissues. This overexpression of PKM2 was correlated with a high TNM stage and level of vascular invasion. Patients with HCC who were positive for PKM2 expression and negative for TRIM35 expression had shorter overall survival and time to recurrence than patients who were negative for PKM2 and positive for TRIM35. Furthermore, PKM2/TRIM35 combination was an independent and significant risk factor for recurrence and survival. In conclusion, PKM2 (+) and TRIM35 (?) contribute to the aggressiveness and poor prognosis of HCC. PKM2/TRIM35 expression could be a biomarker for the prognosis of HCC and target for cancer therapy.

  19. TRIM3 regulates the motility of the kinesin motor protein KIF21B.

    PubMed

    Labonté, Dorthe; Thies, Edda; Pechmann, Yvonne; Groffen, Alexander J; Verhage, Matthijs; Smit, August B; van Kesteren, Ronald E; Kneussel, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Kinesin superfamily proteins (KIFs) are molecular motors that transport cellular cargo along the microtubule cytoskeleton. KIF21B is a neuronal kinesin that is highly enriched in dendrites. The regulation and specificity of microtubule transport involves the binding of motors to individual cargo adapters and accessory proteins. Moreover, posttranslational modifications of either the motor protein, their cargos or tubulin regulate motility, cargo recognition and the binding or unloading of cargos. Here we show that the ubiquitin E3 ligase TRIM3, also known as BERP, interacts with KIF21B via its RBCC domain. TRIM3 is found at intracellular and Golgi-derived vesicles and co-localizes with the KIF21B motor in neurons. Trim3 gene deletion in mice and TRIM3 overexpression in cultured neurons both suggested that the E3-ligase function of TRIM3 is not involved in KIF21B degradation, however TRIM3 depletion reduces the motility of the motor. Together, our data suggest that TRIM3 is a regulator in the modulation of KIF21B motor function. PMID:24086586

  20. Online biochemical oxygen demand monitoring for wastewater process control--full-scale studies at Los Angeles Glendale wastewater plant, California.

    PubMed

    Iranpour, Reza; Zermeno, Miguel

    2008-04-01

    The main objective of this investigation is to determine whether or not it would be feasible to use the measured values of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) of wastewater obtained by an online instrument at the Los Angeles/Glendale Water Reclamation Plant (California) for controlling its activated sludge process. This investigation is part of a project to develop online BOD monitoring for process control in the City of Los Angeles wastewater treatment plants. Tests studied the Siepmann und Teutscher GmbH (ISCO-STIP Inc., Lincoln, Nebraska) BIOX-1010, which uses a bioreactor containing a culture of microbes from the wastewater to measure soluble BOD in 2 minutes. This rapid approximation to the operation of secondary treatment allows anticipation of system response. Calibration measurements allow the operators to find a conversion factor for the instrument's microprocessor to compute values of BOD that agree well with the standard 5-day BOD (BOD5) measurement, despite the differences in the details of the two testing methods. This instrument has recently been used at other wastewater treatment plants, at a number of airports in Europe and the United States to monitor runway runoff, and is also being used on waste streams at an increasing number of food processing plants. A comparison was made between the plant influent BOD values obtained by the BIOX-1010 online monitor from the end of August, 2000, to late January, 2001, and the individual and average values obtained for the same period using the standard BOD5, 20 degrees C test, to determine the effectiveness of the Biox-1010 to identify shock loads and their duration. Individual BOD estimates and averages over periods of overly high biological loads (shock loads) were compared, and the instrument readings were evaluated for their effectiveness in detecting shock loads. The results were highly satisfactory, so the instrument was used to trigger a shock-load warning alarm since late September, 2000. This allowed flow diversion and temporary storage to prevent process upsets. PMID:18536480

  1. Threshold voltage control of Pt-Ti-O gate Si-metal-insulator semiconductor field-effect transistors hydrogen gas sensors by using oxygen invasion into Ti layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usagawa, Toshiyuki; Kikuchi, Yota

    2011-10-01

    Although the threshold voltages (Vth) of the as-processed Pt(15 nm)/Ti(5 nm)-gate Si-MOSFETs under same channel ion dose conditions show a large variation such as 0.846 V among several wafers, the air-annealing and succeeding hydrogen post-annealing procedure for the FETs hydrogen gas sensors leads to excellent uniform Vth distributions and large sensing amplitude ?Vg. The oxygen invasion process through Pt grain boundaries to amorphous Ti layers at 400 °C air-annealing for two hours is not a simple dopant diffusion process but super-heavily oxygen-doped process partly to grow nano-crystalline TiOx. The oxygen-invaded Ti layers change to a kind of new materials; novel mixing layers of nano-crystalline TiOx and super-heavily oxygen-doped amorphous Ti formed on SiO2/Si substrates. The Ti mixing layers change from metals to semiconductors or insulators. As the Ti layers are so thin like 5 nm, the total amount of oxygen invaded into Ti layers will be saturated and stabilized. From the device operation point of view, it is crucial to control the Vth precisely that the Ti novel mixing layers are thin and fully depleted. This is supported by the fact that the Vth change before and after air-annealing procedures can be well explained by the difference of vacuum work function between Pt and Ti.

  2. TRIM11 negatively regulates IFN? production and antiviral activity by targeting TBK1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Younglang; Song, Byeongwoon; Park, Chankyu; Kwon, Ki-Sun

    2013-01-01

    The innate immune response is a host defense mechanism against infection by viruses and bacteria. Type I interferons (IFN?/?) play a crucial role in innate immunity. If not tightly regulated under normal conditions and during immune responses, IFN production can become aberrant, leading to inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In this study, we identified TRIM11 (tripartite motif containing 11) as a novel negative regulator of IFN? production. Ectopic expression of TRIM11 decreased IFN? promoter activity induced by poly (I:C) stimulation or overexpression of RIG-I (retinoic acid-inducible gene-I) signaling cascade components RIG-IN (constitutively active form of RIG-I), MAVS (mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein), or TBK1 (TANK-binding kinase-1). Conversely, TRIM11 knockdown enhanced IFN? promoter activity induced by these stimuli. Moreover, TRIM11 overexpression inhibited the phosphorylation and dimerization of IRF3 and expression of IFN? mRNA. By contrast, TRIM11 knockdown increased the IRF3 phosphorylation and IFN? mRNA expression. We also found that TRIM11 and TBK1, a key kinase that phosphorylates IRF3 in the RIG-I pathway, interacted with each other through CC and CC2 domain, respectively. This interaction was enhanced in the presence of the TBK1 adaptor proteins, NAP1 (NF-?B activating kinase-associated protein-1), SINTBAD (similar to NAP1 TBK1 adaptor) or TANK (TRAF family member-associated NF-?B activator). Consistent with its inhibitory role in RIG-I-mediated IFN? signaling, TRIM11 overexpression enhanced viral infectivity, whereas TRIM11 knockdown produced the opposite effect. Collectively, our results suggest that TRIM11 inhibits RIG-I-mediated IFN? production by targeting the TBK1 signaling complex. PMID:23675467

  3. Development of the SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) trim coil beam tube assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Skaritka, J.; Kelly, E.; Schneider, W.; Shutt, R.; Thompson, P.; Wanderer, P.; Willen, E.; Bintinger, D.; Coluccio, R.; Schieber, L.

    1987-01-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider uses approx. =9600 dipole magnets. The magnets have been carefully designed to exhibit minimal magnetic field harmonics. However, because of superconductor magnetization effects, iron saturation and conductor/coil positioning errors, certain harmonic errors are possible and must be corrected by use of multipole correctors called trim coils. For the most efficient use of axial space in the magnet, and lowest possible current, a distributed internal correction coil design is planned. The trim coil assembly is secured to the beam tube, a uhv tube with special strength, size, conductivity and vacuum. The report details the SSC trim coil/beam tube assembly specifications, history, and ongoing development.

  4. Modelling and control of a symmetric flapping wing vehicle: an optimal control approach 

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Justin Patrick

    2009-05-15

    and control rate. The objective maneuver is to achieve a flight condition similar to the trim of a conventional fixed wing aircraft. Gliding configurations of the vehicle are analyzed to better understand flight in minimal energy configurations as well...

  5. New controls spark boiler efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Engels, T. (Monsanto, University Park, IL (United States))

    1993-09-01

    Monsanto's NutraSweet plant in University Park, IL, produces aspartame, the patented NutraSweet artificial sweetener product. Until recently, boiler control was managed by a '60s-era Fireye jackshaft system in which air and natural gas were mechanically linked with an offset to compensate for oxygen trim. The interlocking devices on the Fireye system were becoming obsolete, and the boiler needed a new front end retrofitted for low emissions. In order to improve boiler control efficiency, we decided to modernize and automate the entire boiler control system. We replaced the original jackshaft system, and installed a Gordon-Piet burner system, including gas valves, air dampers, blowers, and burner. The upgrade challenges included developing a control strategy and selecting and implementing a process control system. Since our plant has standardized on the PROVOX process management information system from Fisher Controls (now Fisher-Rosemount Systems) to support most of our process, it was a natural and logical choice for boiler controls as well. 2 figs.

  6. Microbial, instrumental color and sensory color and odor characteristics of ground beef produced from beef trimmings treated with ozone or chlorine dioxide.

    PubMed

    Stivarius, M R; Pohlman, F W; McElyea, K S; Apple, J K

    2002-03-01

    The effects of beef trimming decontamination with ozone and chlorine dioxide on ground beef microbial, color and odor characteristics were studied. Beef trimmings were inoculated with Escherichia coli (EC) and Salmonella Typhimurium (ST), then treated with either 1% ozonated water for 7 min (7O) or 15 min (15O), or with 200 ppm chlorine dioxide (CLO) and compared with a control (C). Trimmings were ground, packaged and sampled at 0, 1, 2, 3 and 7 days of display for EC, ST, coliforms (CO), aerobic plate counts (APC), instrumental color, as well as sensory color and odor characteristics. The 15O and CLO treatments reduced (P<0.05) all bacterial types evaluated, whereas the 7O treatment reduced (P<0.05) APC and ST. All treatments caused ground beef to become lighter (L*) in color (P<0.05); however, the 15O treatment was similar (P>0.05) in redness (a*), percentage discoloration, beef odor and off odor intensities when compared to C. PMID:22063402

  7. Component-controlled synthesis and assembly of Cu-Pd nanocrystals on graphene for oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yulin; Zhao, Shulin; Liu, Suli; Yin, Huanhuan; Chen, Yu-Yun; Bao, Jianchun; Han, Min; Dai, Zhihui

    2015-03-11

    Exploring low-cost, high-activity, and long-durability hybrid electrocatalysts for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is vital to advance fuel cells technologies. In this paper, a series of graphene (G)-CuxPdy (Cu4Pd, Cu3Pd, CuPd, CuPd3, CuPd4) nanocomposites (G-CuxPdy NCPs) is obtained by assembly of CuxPdy alloy nanocrystals (NCs) with controlled component ratios on G nanosheets using the "dispersing-mixing-vaporizing solvent" strategy and used as electrocatalysts for ORR. Compared with pure CuxPdy NCs, greatly enhanced interfacial electron transfer dynamics are observed in G-CuxPdy NCPs, which show a strong correlation with the alloy compositions of the NCPs. The electrocatalytic experiments in alkaline solution reveal that the ORR activities of those G-CuxPdy NCPs are also strongly dependent on alloy components and exhibit a double-volcano feature with variations of alloy components. Among them, G-Cu3Pd NCPs possess the highest electrocatalytic activity, which is much better than some reported electrocatalysts and commercial Pd/C catalyst and close to Pt/C catalyst. By correlating the Pd 3d binding energies and the sizes of CuxPdy NCs with the mass-specific activities of G-CuxPdy NCPs and considering the interfacial electron transfer dynamics, the best catalytic activity of G-Cu3Pd NCPs may result from the unique electronic structure and the smallest size of Cu3Pd NCs as well as the strong synergistic effect between G and Cu3Pd NCs. Moreover, the durability of G-Cu3Pd NCPs is superior to that of Pt/C catalyst, indicating that they are promising cathodic electrocatalysts for using in alkaline fuel cells. PMID:25695756

  8. Impartial Trimmed Means for Functional Data Juan Antonio Cuesta-Albertos and Ricardo Fraiman

    E-print Network

    Cuesta, Juan Antonio

    , chemometrics, signal trans- mission, stock markets, meteorology and TV audience ratings. In this context a class of procedures based on "impartial trimming" to robustify k-means for clustering methods

  9. 82. Neg. No. F66A, Apr 13, 1930, INTERIORASSEMBLY BUILDING, TRIM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    82. Neg. No. F-66A, Apr 13, 1930, INTERIOR-ASSEMBLY BUILDING, TRIM LINE AND GLASS DEPARTMENTS - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  10. Use of ORP (oxidation-reduction potential) to control oxygen dosing for online sulfide oxidation in anaerobic treatment of high sulfate wastewater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. K. Khanal; C. Shang; J.-C. Huang

    2003-01-01

    In this study, oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) was used as a controlling parameter to regulate oxygen dosing to the recycled biogas for online sulfide oxidation in an upflow anaerobic filter (UAF) system. The UAF was operated with a constant influent COD of 18,000 mg\\/L, but with different influent sulfates of 1000, 3000 and 6000 mg\\/L. The reactor was initially operated under

  11. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy for Radionecrosis of the Jaw: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Trial From the ORN96 Study Group

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Djillali Annane; Joel Depondt; Philippe Aubert; Maryvonne Villart; Philippe Gajdos; Sylvie Chevret

    2004-01-01

    Purpose To determine the efficacy and safety of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) for overt mandibular osteoradionecrosis. Patients and Methods This prospective, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was con- ducted at 12 university hospitals. Ambulatory adults with overt osteoradionecrosis of the mandible were assigned to receive 30 HBO exposures preoperatively at 2.4 absolute atmosphere for 90 minutes or a placebo, and

  12. Oxygen pressure measurement using singlet oxygen emission

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, Gamal E.; Chang, Alvin; Gouterman, Martin; Callis, James B.; Dalton, Larry R.; Turro, Nicholas J.; Jockusch, Steffen [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2005-05-15

    Pressure sensitive paint (PSP) provides a visualization of two-dimensional pressure distributions on airfoil and model automobile surfaces. One type of PSP utilizes platinum tetra(pentafluorophenyl)porphine (PtTFPP) dissolved in a fluoro-polymer film. Since the intense 650 nm triplet emission of PtTFPP is quenched by ground state oxygen, it is possible to measure two-dimensional oxygen concentration from the 650 nm emission intensity using a Stern-Volmer-type relationship. This article reports an alternative luminescence method to measure oxygen concentration based on the porphyrin-sensitized 1270 nm singlet oxygen emission, which can be imaged with an InGaAs near infrared camera. This direct measurement of oxygen emission complements and further validates the oxygen measurement based on PtTFPP phosphorescence quenching. Initial success at obtaining a negative correlation between the 650 nm PtTFPP emission and the 1270 nm O{sub 2} emission in solution led us to additional two-dimensional film studies using surfaces coated with PtTFPP, MgTFPP, and H{sub 2}TFPP in polymers in a pressure and temperature controlled chamber.

  13. Terminal repeat retrotransposon in miniature (TRIM) as DNA markers in Brassica relatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Soo-Jin Kwon; Dong-Hyun Kim; Myung-Ho Lim; Yan Long; Jin-Ling Meng; Ki-Byung Lim; Jin-A Kim; Jung Sun Kim; Mina Jin; Ho-Il Kim; Sang-Nag Ahn; Susan R. Wessler; Tae-Jin Yang; Beom-Seok Park

    2007-01-01

    We have developed a display system using a unique sequence of terminal repeat retrotransposon in miniature (TRIM) elements,\\u000a which were recently identified from gene-rich regions of Brassica rapa. The technique, named TRIM display, is based on modification of the AFLP technique using an adapter primer for the restriction\\u000a fragments of BfaI and a primer derived from conserved terminal repeat sequences

  14. Investigation of conduction mechanism in thick film resistors trimmed by the pulse voltage method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Tobita; H. Takasago; K. Kariya

    1992-01-01

    The conduction mechanism of RuO2-based thick-film resistor (TFR) trimmed by the pulse voltage trimming (PVT) method is discussed. The surface temperature distribution barely changed when power was applied to the TFR, moreover, no current crowding was found by results of scanning electron microscopy-voltage contrast (SEM-VC). The existence of electron traps in the TFR could not be detected from the results

  15. Glucosidase trimming inhibitors preferentially perturb I cell activation induced by CD2 mAb

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. J. van Kemenade; F. T. M. Rotteveel; R. A. W. van Lier; F. Miedema

    1994-01-01

    Glycosidase trimming inhibitors may be used to study contribution of N-linked glycan moieties in T cell function. We have studied the effects of castano- spermine (Cas), swainsonine (Swain), 1-deoxynojirimycin (dNM), and 1-deoxymannojirimycin (dMM) on T cell activation and differentiation. Our analysis included a new dNM derivative, N-pentyl-1-deoxynojirimycin (pentyldNM). Previous reports showed inhibitory action of trimming inhibitors, such as Swain and

  16. Integrated circuit mask generation using a raster scanned laser trimming system 

    E-print Network

    Gourley, Kevin Dwayne

    1982-01-01

    INTEGRATED CIRCUIT MASK GENERATION USING A RASTER SCANNED LASER TRIMMING SYSTEM A Thesis by KEVIN DWAYNE GOURLEY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AA M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1982 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering INTEGRATED CIRCUIT MASK GENERATION USING A RASTER SCANNED LASER TRIMMING SYSTEM A Thesis by KEVIN DWAYNE GOURLEY Approved as to style and content by: hair ma ommittee Dr . Dou as M. Green 4...

  17. Bovine Claw and Limb Disorders at Claw Trimming Related to Milk Yield

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Sogstad; T. Fjeldaas; A. O. Refsdal; TINE BA; GENO Breeding

    As part of a cross-sectional study of Norwegian Red Cattle, associations of lameness, lesions at the tarsus, claw shapes, claw lesions, and claw trimming with milk yield were examined. Fifty-five tie-stall herds and 57 free-stall herds were sampled by computerized system- atic selection, and 2,665 cows were trimmed and limb and claw disorders recorded. After exclusions, 2,599 cows were included

  18. Comparison of decontamination methods to reduce microbial levels in fresh beef trimmings

    E-print Network

    Ellebracht, Emily Annette

    1999-01-01

    COMPARISON OF DECONTAMINATION METHODS TO REDUCE MICROBIAL LEVELS IN FRESH BEEF TRIMMINGS A Thesis EMILY ANNETTE ELLEBRACHT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ABcM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1999 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology COMPARISON OF DECONTAMINATION METHODS TO REDUCE MICROBIAL LEVELS IN FRESH BEEF TRIMMINGS A Thesis EMILY ANNETTE ELLEBRACHT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies...

  19. The WTX Tumor Suppressor Interacts with the Transcriptional Corepressor TRIM28.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woo Jae; Wittner, Ben S; Amzallag, Arnaud; Brannigan, Brian W; Ting, David T; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Haber, Daniel A

    2015-06-01

    WTX encodes a tumor suppressor implicated in the pediatric kidney cancer Wilms tumor and in mesenchymal differentiation with potentially distinct functions in the cytoplasm, at the plasma membrane, and in the nucleus. Although modulating components of the WNT signaling pathway is a proposed function for cytoplasmic and membrane-bound WTX, its nuclear properties are not well understood. Here we report that the transcriptional corepressor TRIM28 is the major binding partner for nuclear WTX. WTX interacted with the coiled coil domain of TRIM28 required for its binding to Krüppel-associated box domains of transcription factors and for its chromatin recruitment through its own coiled coil and proline-rich domains. Knockdown of endogenous WTX reduced the recruitment of TRIM28 to a chromatinized reporter sequence and its ability to repress a target transcript. In mouse embryonic stem cells where TRIM28 plays a major role in repressing endogenous retroviruses and long interspersed elements, knockdown of either TRIM28 or WTX combined with single molecule RNA sequencing revealed a highly significant shared set of differentially regulated transcripts, including derepression of non-coding repetitive sequences and their neighboring protein encoding genes (p < 1e-20). In mesenchymal precursor cells, depletion of WTX and TRIM28 resulted in analogous ?-catenin-independent defects in adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation, and knockdown of WTX reduced TRIM28 binding to Ppar? promoter. Together, the physical and functional interaction between WTX and TRIM28 suggests that the nuclear fraction of WTX plays a role in epigenetic silencing, an effect that may contribute to its function as a regulator of cellular differentiation and tumorigenesis. PMID:25882849

  20. Comparison of decontamination methods to reduce microbial levels in fresh beef trimmings 

    E-print Network

    Ellebracht, Emily Annette

    1999-01-01

    COMPARISON OF DECONTAMINATION METHODS TO REDUCE MICROBIAL LEVELS IN FRESH BEEF TRIMMINGS A Thesis EMILY ANNETTE ELLEBRACHT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ABcM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1999 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology COMPARISON OF DECONTAMINATION METHODS TO REDUCE MICROBIAL LEVELS IN FRESH BEEF TRIMMINGS A Thesis EMILY ANNETTE ELLEBRACHT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies...

  1. Macrobenthic assemblage structure and organismal stoichiometry control faunal processing of particulate organic carbon and nitrogen in oxygen minimum zone sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunter, W. R.; Levin, L. A.; Kitazato, H.; Witte, U.

    2012-03-01

    The Arabian Sea oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) impinges on the western Indian continental margin between 150 and 1500 m, causing gradients in oxygen availability and sediment geochemistry at the sea floor. Oxygen availability and sediment geochemistry are important factors structuring macrofaunal assemblages in marine sediments. However, relationships between macrofaunal assemblage structure and sea-floor carbon and nitrogen cycling are poorly understood. We conducted in situ 13C:15N tracer experiments in the OMZ core (540 m [O2] = 0.35 ?mol l-1) and lower OMZ boundary (800-1100 m, [O2] = 2.2-15.0 ?mol l-1) to investigate how macrofaunal assemblage structure, affected by different oxygen levels, and C:N coupling influence the fate of particulate organic matter. No macrofauna were present in the OMZ core. Within the OMZ boundary, relatively high abundance and biomass resulted in the highest macrofaunal assimilation of particulate organic carbon (POC) and nitrogen (PON) at the lower oxygen 800 m stations ([O2] = 2.2-2.36 ?mol l-1). At these stations the numerically dominant cirratulid polychaetes exhibited greatest POC and PON uptake. By contrast, at the higher oxygen 1100 m station ([O2] = 15.0 ?mol l-1) macrofaunal C and N assimilation was lower, with POC assimilation dominated by one large solitary ascidian. Macrofaunal POC and PON assimilation were influenced by changes in oxygen availability, and significantly correlated to differences in macrofaunal assemblage structure between stations. However, macrofaunal feeding responses were ultimately characterised by preferential organic nitrogen assimilation, relative to their internal C:N budgets.

  2. AISI/DOE Advanced Process Control Program Vol. 1 of 6: Optical Sensors and Controls for Improved Basic Oxygen Furnace Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Sarah Allendorf; David Ottesen; Donald Hardesty

    2002-01-31

    The development of an optical sensor for basic oxygen furnace (BOF) off-gas composition and temperature in this Advanced Process Control project has been a laboratory spectroscopic method evolve into a pre-commercialization prototype sensor system. The sensor simultaneously detects an infrared tunable diode laser ITDL beam transmitted through the process off-gas directly above the furnace mouth, and the infrared greybody emission from the particulate-laden off-gas stream. Following developmental laboratory and field-testing, the sensor prototype was successfully tested in four long-term field trials at Bethlehem Steel's Sparrows Point plant in Baltimore, MD> The resulting optical data were analyzed and reveal correlations with four important process variables: (1) bath turndown temperature; (2) carbon monoxide post-combustion control; (2) bath carbon concentration; and (4) furnace slopping behavior. The optical sensor measurement of the off-gas temperature is modestly correlated with bath turndown temperature. A detailed regression analysis of over 200 heats suggests that a dynamic control level of +25 Degree F can be attained with a stand-alone laser-based optical sensor. The ability to track off-gas temperatures to control post-combustion lance practice is also demonstrated, and may be of great use in optimizing post-combustion efficiency in electric furnace steelmaking operations. In addition to the laser-based absorption spectroscopy data collected by this sensor, a concurrent signal generated by greybody emission from the particle-laden off-gas was collected and analyzed. A detailed regression analysis shows an excellent correlation of a single variable with final bath turndown carbon concentration. Extended field trials in 1998 and early 1999 show a response range from below 0.03% to a least 0.15% carbon concentration with a precision of +0.0007%. Finally, a strong correlation between prolonged drops in the off-gas emission signal and furnace slopping events was observed. A simple computer algorithm was written that successfully predicts furnace slopping for 90% of the heats observed; over 80% are predicted with at least a 30-second warning prior to the initial slopping events,

  3. Diversity of TRIM5? and TRIMCyp sequences in cynomolgus macaques from different geographical origins.

    PubMed

    Berry, Neil J; Marzetta, Flavia; Towers, Greg J; Rose, Nicola J

    2012-04-01

    The TRIM5? restriction factor can protect some species of monkeys, but not humans, from HIV infection. It has also emerged that some monkeys have a cyclophilin A domain retrotransposed into the TRIM5 locus resulting in the expression of a TRIMCyp protein with anti-retroviral activity. A high degree of sequence variation in the primate TRIM5 gene has been reported that varies between populations of rhesus macaques, a widely used non-human primate model of HIV/AIDS, and recently shown to correlate with susceptibility to simian immunodeficiency viruses in this species. Cynomolgus macaques are also used widely in HIV research. A non-indigenous population on Mauritius has highly restricted genetic diversity compared with macaques from Indonesia. The relative allelic diversity of TRIM5? and TRIMCyp within these two sub-populations may impact on the susceptibility of the macaques to simian immunodeficiency virus thereby influencing the outcome of studies using these monkeys. We sought to establish the genetic diversity of these alleles in cynomolgus macaques. We identified seven TRIM5? alleles in Indonesian macaques, three of which are novel, but only three in the Mauritian-origin macaques. Strikingly, 87% of Indonesian, but none of the Mauritian macaques, possessed a retrotransposed Cyp domain. A splice acceptor site single-nucleotide polymorphism that allows formation of a TRIMCyp protein was absent for the TRIM5? alleles found in the Mauritian macaques. The level of allelic diversity reported here is greater than previously proposed for cynomolgus macaque species. PMID:22124667

  4. On the optimal trimming of high-throughput mRNA sequence data

    PubMed Central

    MacManes, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    The widespread and rapid adoption of high-throughput sequencing technologies has afforded researchers the opportunity to gain a deep understanding of genome level processes that underlie evolutionary change, and perhaps more importantly, the links between genotype and phenotype. In particular, researchers interested in functional biology and adaptation have used these technologies to sequence mRNA transcriptomes of specific tissues, which in turn are often compared to other tissues, or other individuals with different phenotypes. While these techniques are extremely powerful, careful attention to data quality is required. In particular, because high-throughput sequencing is more error-prone than traditional Sanger sequencing, quality trimming of sequence reads should be an important step in all data processing pipelines. While several software packages for quality trimming exist, no general guidelines for the specifics of trimming have been developed. Here, using empirically derived sequence data, I provide general recommendations regarding the optimal strength of trimming, specifically in mRNA-Seq studies. Although very aggressive quality trimming is common, this study suggests that a more gentle trimming, specifically of those nucleotides whose Phred score <2 or <5, is optimal for most studies across a wide variety of metrics. PMID:24567737

  5. Presence of digital dermatitis treponemes on cattle and sheep hoof trimming equipment.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, L E; Blowey, R W; Carter, S D; Duncan, J S; Grove-White, D H; Page, P; Iveson, T; Angell, J W; Evans, N J

    2014-08-30

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is an infectious foot disease causing severe lameness in dairy cattle (worldwide) and sheep (UK). This study investigated whether DD Treponema phylogroups can be present on equipment used to trim ruminant hooves and, therefore, consider this trimming equipment as a possible vector for the transmission of DD. Equipment was tested after being used to trim DD symptomatic and asymptomatic cattle and sheep hooves, and subsequently after disinfection of equipment. After trimming, 'Treponema medium/Treponema vincentii-like', 'Treponema phagedenis-like' and 'Treponema denticola/T putidum-like' DD spirochaetes, were shown to be present on 23/37 (62%), 21/37 (57%) and 20/37 (54%) of knives, respectively. After disinfection, detection rates for the DD treponemes were 9/37 (24%), 6/37 (16%) and 3/37 (8%), respectively. Following culture of a swab, an isolate belonging to the T phagedenis-like spirochaetes was identified from a knife sample after trimming a DD positive cow. No isolates were obtained from knife samples after disinfection. This new data has, for the first time, identified treponemes in the farm environment, and highlighted disinfection of hoof trimming equipment between animals and between farms, as a logical precaution to limit the spread of DD. PMID:24821857

  6. Identification and characterization of a nuclear localization signal of TRIM28 that overlaps with the HP1 box.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Tetsuji; Sangel, Percival; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Obuse, Chikashi; Miyamoto, Yoichi; Oka, Masahiro; Yoneda, Yoshihiro

    2015-07-01

    Tripartite motif-containing 28 (TRIM28) is a transcription regulator, which forms a repressor complex containing heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1). Here, we report identification of a nuclear localization signal (NLS) within the 462-494 amino acid region of TRIM28 that overlaps with its HP1 binding site, HP1 box. GST-pulldown experiments revealed the interaction of the arginine-rich TRIM28 NLS with various importin ? subtypes (?1, ?2 and ?4). In vitro transport assay demonstrated that nuclear localization of GFP-TRIM28 NLS is mediated by importin ?s, in conjunction with importin ?1 and Ran. Further, we demonstrated that HP1 and importin ?s compete for binding to TRIM28. Together, our findings suggest that importin ? has an essential role in the nuclear delivery and preferential HP1 interaction of TRIM28. PMID:25960296

  7. Stability scheme of ZnO-thin film resistive switching memory: influence of defects by controllable oxygen pressure ratio

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report a stability scheme of resistive switching devices based on ZnO films deposited by radio frequency (RF) sputtering process at different oxygen pressure ratios. I-V measurements and statistical results indicate that the operating stability of ZnO resistive random access memory (ReRAM) devices is highly dependent on oxygen conditions. Data indicates that the ZnO film ReRAM device fabricated at 10% O2 pressure ratio exhibits the best performance. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) of ZnO at different O2 pressure ratios were investigated to reflect influence of structure to the stable switching behaviors. In addition, PL and XPS results were measured to investigate the different charge states triggered in ZnO by oxygen vacancies, which affect the stability of the switching behavior. PMID:24237683

  8. The influence of quality grade, fat trim level and degree of doneness on the fatty acid composition of beef 

    E-print Network

    Harberson, Tish Joan

    1988-01-01

    fat trim level. Regardless of fat extraction method, the 0. 64 cm trimmed steaks tended to have higher (P & 0. 05) values than the 0. 0 cm trimmed steaks for each quality grade. Compared to the AOAC or gas chromatography method of fat extraction...THE INFLUENCE OF QUALITY GRADE, FAT TRIM LEVEL AND DEGREE OF DONENESS ON THE FATTY ACID COMPOSITION OF BEEF A Thesis by TISH JOAN HARBERSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8 M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  9. Evaluation and use of a diffusion-controlled sampler for determining chemical and dissolved oxygen gradients at the sediment-water interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Simon, N.S.; Kennedy, M.M.; Massoni, C.S.

    1985-01-01

    Field and laboratory evaluations were made of a simple, inexpensive diffusion-controlled sampler with ports on two sides at each interval which incorporates 0.2-??m polycarbonate membrane to filter samples in situ. Monovalent and divalent ions reached 90% of equilibrium between sampler contents and the external solution within 3 and 6 hours, respectively. Sediment interstitial water chemical gradients to depths of tens of centimeters were obtained within several days after placement. Gradients were consistent with those determined from interstitial water obtained by centrifugation of adjacent sediment. Ten milliliter sample volumes were collected at 1-cm intervals to determine chemical gradients and dissolved oxygen profiles at depth and at the interface between the sediment and water column. The flux of dissolved species, including oxygen, across the sediment-water interface can be assessed more accurately using this sampler than by using data collected from benthic cores. ?? 1985 Dr W. Junk Publishers.

  10. How does the character of oxygen demand control the structure of hypoxia on the Texas–Louisiana continental shelf?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Hetland; Steven F. DiMarco

    2008-01-01

    A realistic hydrodynamic model of the Texas–Louisiana shelf is configured with various simple oxygen respiration models to isolate the effects of stratification and circulation on the formation and maintenance of hypoxia. Biological activity is parameterized through various forms of respiration rather than using a complex biogeochemical model. The model domain covers the region that has historically been observed to be

  11. How the structure of the large subunit controls function in an oxygen-tolerant [NiFe]-hydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Lisa; Flanagan, Lindsey; Fyfe, Paul K.; Parkin, Alison; Hunter, William N.; Sargent, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica is an opportunistic pathogen that produces a [NiFe]-hydrogenase under aerobic conditions. In the present study, genetic engineering approaches were used to facilitate isolation of this enzyme, termed Hyd-5. The crystal structure was determined to a resolution of 3.2 Å and the hydro-genase was observed to comprise associated large and small subunits. The structure indicated that His229 from the large subunit was close to the proximal [4Fe–3S] cluster in the small subunit. In addition, His229 was observed to lie close to a buried glutamic acid (Glu73), which is conserved in oxygen-tolerant hydrogenases. His229 and Glu73 of the Hyd-5 large subunit were found to be important in both hydrogen oxidation activity and the oxygen-tolerance mechanism. Substitution of His229 or Glu73 with alanine led to a loss in the ability of Hyd-5 to oxidize hydrogen in air. Furthermore, the H229A variant was found to have lost the overpotential requirement for activity that is always observed with oxygen-tolerant [NiFe]-hydrogenases. It is possible that His229 has a role in stabilizing the super-oxidized form of the proximal cluster in the presence of oxygen, and it is proposed that Glu73could play a supporting role in fine-tuning the chemistry of His229 to enable this function. PMID:24428762

  12. Trimming and washing poultry carcass to reduce microbial contamination: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Stefani, Lenita Moura; Backes, Rodrigo Guilherme; Faria, Glaucia Amorim; Biffi, Claudia Pies; de Almeida, Juliana Maria; da Silva, Helen Krystine; das Neves, Gabriella Bassi; Langaro, Anaiara

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficiency of washing and trimming broiler carcasses to reduce bacterial contamination. At the postevisceration site, 100 broiler carcasses were collected during 4 visits to a slaughterhouse in Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Birds were from the same flock, age, and approximately 2.4 kg of weight. Groups were as follows: group 1, with fecal contamination; group 2, without fecal contamination; group 3, with fecal contamination and trimmed; group 4, with fecal contamination and washed; group 5, with fecal contamination, and washed and trimmed. Carcass washings were performed with at least 1.5 L/bird of potable water (0.5 to 1 mg/kg of residual chlorine) at room temperature (20-25°C) using spray cabinets with 44 spray nozzles distributed into 2 chambers (pressure of 2 kgf/cm(2) and 4 kgf/cm(2)). Washed carcasses (trimmed or not) showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower counts of aerobic mesophiles (plate count agar) on the third evaluation, and even lower (P < 0.01) counts for total coliforms (CT) and fecal coliforms (Escherichia coli). Trimmed carcasses showed significantly lower counts (P < 0.05) for plate count agar; however, we observed higher counts for E. coli (P < 0.05). The association of both treatments (washing and trimming) showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) counts for coliforms (CT and E. coli). We can conclude that the washing method is overall more efficient than the trimming method to decontaminate chicken carcasses at the postevisceration site. Hopefully, our findings can help poultry companies to minimize production costs by applying the washing method for carcass decontamination. PMID:25306453

  13. Gourlay, T.P. 2009 Sinkage and trim of two ships passing each other on parallel courses. Ocean Engineering Vol. 36, No. 14, pp. 1119 1127.

    E-print Network

    Gourlay, T.P. 2009 Sinkage and trim of two ships passing each other on parallel courses. Ocean Engineering Vol. 36, No. 14, pp. 1119 ­ 1127. Sinkage and trim of two ships passing each other on parallel

  14. Genetic parameters of natural antibody isotypes and survival analysis in beak-trimmed and non-beak-trimmed crossbred laying hens.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y; Ellen, E D; Parmentier, H K; van der Poel, J J

    2013-08-01

    Natural antibodies (NAb) are important humoral components of innate immunity. As the first line of defense, NAb provide protection against infection and support adaptive immunity. An earlier study indicated that serum levels of NAb isotypes IgM and IgG at a young age were predictive for survival in non-beak-trimmed purebred laying hens during the laying period. In the present study, genetic parameters of NAb isotypes were estimated and relationships between survival and NAb isotypes levels in crossbred laying hens were investigated. In total, 1,555 beak-trimmed and 1,169 non-beak-trimmed crossbred laying hens were used. Genetic parameters of IgM and IgG titers binding keyhole limpet hemocyanin at 24 wk of age were estimated with a linear animal model. The heritabilities of NAb isotypes IgG and IgM were 0.21 (SE = 0.04) and 0.26 (SE = 0.04), respectively. The genetic correlation between IgG and IgM isotypes was 0.43 (SE = 0.11). These results indicated that NAb isotype titers were heritable traits in the crossbred laying hens. Both NAb isotypes can be selected for simultaneously because the detected positive genetic correlation (0.43, SE = 0.11) between them is positive. Both row and level of the cage were indicated to be associated environmental factors for NAb isotype titers. Different from an earlier study with purebred hens, survival analysis showed no significant associations of survival with NAb isotype titers in beak-trimmed or non-beak-trimmed crossbred hens. Non-health-related causes of mortality, especially in birds with intact beaks, overruled the anticipated relationships between NAb isotype titers and survival. PMID:23873549

  15. The relationship between carbon monoxide breathing, tumour oxygenation and local tumour control in the C3H mammary carcinoma in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Grau, C.; Khalil, A. A.; Nordsmark, M.; Horsman, M. R.; Overgaard, J.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of acute carbon monoxide (CO) breathing on blood oxygenation and tumour hypoxia was related to the radiation response of the C3H/Tif mammary carcinoma. Blood gas analysis showed that CO breathing caused a time- and dose-dependent formation of carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO), a significant left shift of the oxygen dissociation curve and a reduction in tumour blood perfusion. These factors all contributed to a marked drop in tumour oxygen supply. In agreement with this, tumour hypoxia was found to be significantly increased: Microelectrode PO2 measurements showed a clear relationship between CO concentration and the proportion of low PO2 measurements (< or = 5 mmHg). The fraction of clonogenic hypoxic cells increased from 8% in air-breathing animals to 13%, 18% and 54% with 75,220 and 660 p.p.m. CO respectively. The tumour hypoxia resulted in significant radiation modification. The local tumour control after single-dose and fractionated irradiation gave TCD50 enhancement ratios (relative to air-breathing controls) of 0.90, 0.85 and 0.89 for single dose and five or ten fractions given in 5 days (P < 0.005 for all values). For 15 fractions in 5 days with 6- 6- and 12 h intervals, the TCD50 was similar in CO- and air-breathing mice, presumably as a consequence of insufficient reoxygenation during the short inter-fraction intervals. It is concluded that elevated HbCO levels to increased tumour hypoxia and that the induced hypoxia has a significant impact on the local tumour control also after fractionated irradiation. PMID:8286210

  16. The Role of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy in Ischaemic Diabetic Lower Extremity Ulcers: a Double-blind Randomised-controlled Trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Abidia; G. Laden; G. Kuhan; B. F. Johnson; A. R. Wilkinson; P. M. Renwick; E. A. Masson; P. T. McCollum

    2003-01-01

    Objective: ischaemic lower-extremity ulcers in the diabetic population are a source of major concern because of the associated high risk of limb-threatening complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of hyperbaric oxygen in the management of these ulcers.Method: eighteen diabetic patients with ischaemic, non-healing lower-extremity ulcers were recruited in a double-blind study. Patients were randomly assigned

  17. Control of selectivity in allylic alcohol oxidation on gold surfaces: the role of oxygen adatoms and hydroxyl species.

    PubMed

    Mullen, Gregory M; Zhang, Liang; Evans, Edward J; Yan, Ting; Henkelman, Graeme; Mullins, C Buddie

    2015-02-14

    Gold catalysts display high activity and good selectivity for partial oxidation of a number of alcohol species. In this work, we discuss the effects of oxygen adatoms and surface hydroxyls on the selectivity for oxidation of allylic alcohols (allyl alcohol and crotyl alcohol) on gold surfaces. Utilizing temperature programmed desorption (TPD), reactive molecular beam scattering (RMBS), and density functional theory (DFT) techniques, we provide evidence to suggest that the selectivity displayed towards partial oxidation versus combustion pathways is dependent on the type of oxidant species present on the gold surface. TPD and RMBS results suggest that surface hydroxyls promote partial oxidation of allylic alcohols to their corresponding aldehydes with very high selectivity, while oxygen adatoms promote both partial oxidation and combustion pathways. DFT calculations indicate that oxygen adatoms can react with acrolein to promote the formation of a bidentate surface intermediate, similar to structures that have been shown to decompose to generate combustion products over other transition metal surfaces. Surface hydroxyls do not readily promote such a process. Our results help explain phenomena observed in previous studies and may prove useful in the design of future catalysts for partial oxidation of alcohols. PMID:25588689

  18. Adaptive and automatic trimming in testing the equality of two group case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Suhaida; Yahaya, Sharipah Soaad Syed; Othman, Abdul Rahman

    2014-06-01

    In testing the equality of two independent groups, t-test plays a very important role for the purpose. This test is reliable when the data is normally distributed. Based on central limit theorem, the normality assumption is fulfilled with large data set, but getting large data set is not always feasible. Most of the time, the researchers have to make do with small sample sizes which are hardly normally distributed. There are many causes of non normality, and one of it is the presence of outliers. One way to handle outliers is by using robust estimator with trimming approach. In this study, robust estimators using different trimming approaches namely adaptive and automatic trimming were proposed as the center measures in Alexander-Govern (AG) test. The results of the Type I error rate was then compared with the original AG test and the classical t-test. The AG test with the adaptive and automatic trimming showed robustness across distributions. The two trimming approaches are comparable to each other in most conditions. As expected the original AG test and classical t-test cannot maintain their robustness especially under skewed distribution.

  19. TRIM24 Links a Non-canonical Histone Signature to Breast Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    W Tsai; Z Wang; T Yiu; K Akdemir; W Xia; S Winter; C Tsai; X Shi; D Schwarzer; et al.

    2011-12-31

    Recognition of modified histone species by distinct structural domains within 'reader' proteins plays a critical role in the regulation of gene expression. Readers that simultaneously recognize histones with multiple marks allow transduction of complex chromatin modification patterns into specific biological outcomes. Here we report that chromatin regulator tripartite motif-containing 24 (TRIM24) functions in humans as a reader of dual histone marks by means of tandem plant homeodomain (PHD) and bromodomain (Bromo) regions. The three-dimensional structure of the PHD-Bromo region of TRIM24 revealed a single functional unit for combinatorial recognition of unmodified H3K4 (that is, histone H3 unmodified at lysine 4, H3K4me0) and acetylated H3K23 (histone H3 acetylated at lysine 23, H3K23ac) within the same histone tail. TRIM24 binds chromatin and oestrogen receptor to activate oestrogen-dependent genes associated with cellular proliferation and tumour development. Aberrant expression of TRIM24 negatively correlates with survival of breast cancer patients. The PHD-Bromo of TRIM24 provides a structural rationale for chromatin activation through a non-canonical histone signature, establishing a new route by which chromatin readers may influence cancer pathogenesis.

  20. Bottom water oxygenation changes in the northern Okinawa Trough since the last 88ka: Controlled by local hydrology and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jianjun; Shi, Xuefa; Zhu, Aimei; Bai, Yazhi; Selvaraj, Kandasamy

    2014-05-01

    Dissolved oxygen content in oceanic bottom water is closely related to the surface organic carbon export and subsurface water stratification, regulating the biogeochemical cycles of some key nutrients and trace elements in intermediate and deep water columns. Further, the rate of organic carbon flux to sediments and bottom water oxygen concentration together determine the intensity of reducing conditions in sediments. In this study, we obtain high-resolution geochemical elements (TOC, TN, TS, CaCO3, Cd, U, Mn and Mo) in a radiocarbon (14C) and ?18O dated, sediment core CSH1 collected from the northern Okinawa Trough to reconstruct the history of bottom water redox conditions over 88 ka. Our data revealed the presence of hypoxic bottom water in the northern Okinawa Trough during late MIS5a-early MIS4, Last Glacial Maximum, and the early Last Deglacial intervals. During the Holocene and the early MIS5a, the dissolved oxygen content in bottom water has increased with decreasing water stratification, which was probably caused by the increased upwelling from the bottom in tandem with the climbing of Kuroshio Current and subdued freshwater effect in the northern Okinawa Trough. The reasons that caused the change of dissolved oxygen content in bottom water in the northern Okinawa Trough varied during different periods. The main factors are related to sea level, strengths of East Asian monsoon and the Kuroshio Current, and the shift of Westerly Jet Axis. The semi-closed topography in the northern Okinawa Trough provides a space framework for the presence of anoxia, while the sea level together with the Kuroshio Current, the East Asian monsoon and the Westerly Jet Axis seems to affect the strength of water stratification and the nutrient supply; thereby, regulating the dissolved oxygen exchange between surface and bottom waters. This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China(Grant No.:40906035,40710069004) and by basic scientific fund for National public reserch institutes of China (No.2012G31, 2010G24).

  1. Apparent effect of rabbit endogenous lentivirus type K acquisition on retrovirus restriction by lagomorph Trim5?s.

    PubMed

    Yap, Melvyn W; Stoye, Jonathan P

    2013-09-19

    To test the hypothesis that rabbit endogenous lentivirus type K (RELIK) could play a role in shaping the evolution of TRIM5?, the susceptibility of viruses containing the RELIK capsid (CA) to TRIM5 restriction was evaluated. RELIK CA-containing viruses were susceptible to the TRIM5?s from Old World monkeys but were unaffected by most ape or New World monkey factors. TRIM5?s from various lagomorph species were also isolated and tested for anti-retroviral activity. The TRIM5?s from both cottontail rabbit and pika restrict a range of retroviruses, including HIV-1, HIV-2, FIV, EIAV and N-MLV. TRIM5?s from the European and cottontail rabbit, which have previously been found to contain RELIK, also restricted RELIK CA-containing viruses, whereas a weaker restriction was observed with chimeric TRIM5? containing the B30.2 domain from the pika, which lacks RELIK. Taken together, these results could suggest that the pika had not been exposed to exogenous RELIK and that endogenized RELIK might exert a selective pressure on lagomorph TRIM5?. PMID:23938750

  2. Detection of TRIM32 deletions in LGMD patients analyzed by a combined strategy of CGH array and massively parallel sequencing.

    PubMed

    Nectoux, Juliette; de Cid, Rafael; Baulande, Sylvain; Leturcq, France; Urtizberea, Jon Andoni; Penisson-Besnier, Isabelle; Nadaj-Pakleza, Aleksandra; Roudaut, Carinne; Criqui, Audrey; Orhant, Lucie; Peyroulan, Delphine; Ben Yaou, Raba; Nelson, Isabelle; Cobo, Anna Maria; Arné-Bes, Marie-Christine; Uro-Coste, Emmanuelle; Nitschke, Patrick; Claustres, Mireille; Bonne, Gisèle; Lévy, Nicolas; Chelly, Jamel; Richard, Isabelle; Cossée, Mireille

    2015-07-01

    Defects in TRIM32 were reported in limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2H (LGMD2H), sarcotubular myopathies (STM) and in Bardet-Biedl syndrome. Few cases have been described to date in LGMD2H/STM, but this gene is not systematically analysed because of the absence of specific signs and difficulties in protein analysis. By using high-throughput variants screening techniques, we identified variants in TRIM32 in two patients presenting nonspecific LGMD. We report the first case of total inactivation by homozygous deletion of the entire TRIM32 gene. Of interest, the deletion removes part of the ASTN2 gene, a large gene in which TRIM32 is nested. Despite the total TRIM32 gene inactivation, the patient does not present a more severe phenotype. However, he developed a mild progressive cognitive impairment that may be related to the loss of function of ASTN2 because association between ASTN2 heterozygous deletions and neurobehavioral disorders was previously reported. Regarding genomic characteristics at breakpoint of the deleted regions of TRIM32, we found a high density of repeated elements, suggesting a possible hotspot. These observations illustrate the importance of high-throughput technologies for identifying molecular defects in LGMD, confirm that total loss of function of TRIM32 is not associated with a specific phenotype and that TRIM32/ASTN2 inactivation could be associated with cognitive impairment. PMID:25351777

  3. A study of tyre cavity resonance and noise reduction using inner trim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Zamri; Wang, Xu

    2015-01-01

    A study of tyre inner trim as a method for reducing tyre cavity resonance noise is presented. The tyre is modelled as a rectangular toroid where only the outside shell is flexible. A modal series solution of the sound pressure frequency response inside the tyre cavity is derived from the wave equation using modal superposition. In the solution with the rigid and flexible wall boundary condition, the effect of placing a trim layer onto the inner surface of the tyre tread plate wall is reflected by adding a damping loss term in the sound pressure frequency response function. The numerical simulation result was then compared with the result obtained from a roving impact test performed on a tyre. The results show that selective trim material may be effective for reducing the structure-borne noise magnitude resulting from the tyre cavity resonance.

  4. Precision frequency trimming of SAW and STW resonators using Xe(+) heavy ion bombardment.

    PubMed

    Aliev, V S; Avramov, I D

    1994-01-01

    A method for precision frequency trimming of surface acoustic wave (SAW) and surface transverse wave (STW) based resonant devices using a Xe(+) heavy ion bombardment technique is described. The devices are downtrimmed in frequency in an in-situ monitoring process by means of a Kaufmann type ion source that allows first a rough and then a fine frequency trimming with an accuracy of 1 ppm in a single continuous in-situ monitoring process. An improvement of the device insertion loss and unloaded Q as a result of the trimming process is achieved. Single mode 776 MHz STW resonators can be downtrimmed by more than 5000 ppm without deteriorating their parameters while SAW resonators allow a much lower frequency downshift. The method is simple and can cost effectively be applied to SAW and STW device fabrication. PMID:18263257

  5. Experimental trim drag values for conventional and supercritical wings. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, P. F.

    1981-01-01

    Supercritical wings were studied to determine whether they incur higher trim drag values at cruise conditions than wide body technology wings. Relative trim drag increments were measured in an experimental wind tunnel investigation. The tests utilized high aspect ratio supercritical wing and a wide body wing in conjunction with five different horizontal tail configurations, mounted on a representative wide body fuselage. The three low tail configurations and two T tail configurations were chosen to measure the effects on horizontal tail size, location, and camber on the trim drag increments for the two wings. The increase in performance (lift to drag ratio) for supercritical wing over the wide body wing was 11 percent for both the optimum low tail and T tail configurations.

  6. A technique using a nonlinear helicopter model for determining trims and derivatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostroff, A. J.; Downing, D. R.; Rood, W. J.

    1976-01-01

    A technique is described for determining the trims and quasi-static derivatives of a flight vehicle for use in a linear perturbation model; both the coupled and uncoupled forms of the linear perturbation model are included. Since this technique requires a nonlinear vehicle model, detailed equations with constants and nonlinear functions for the CH-47B tandem rotor helicopter are presented. Tables of trims and derivatives are included for airspeeds between -40 and 160 knots and rates of descent between + or - 10.16 m/sec (+ or - 200 ft/min). As a verification, the calculated and referenced values of comparable trims, derivatives, and linear model poles are shown to have acceptable agreement.

  7. TRIM28 represses transcription of endogenous retroviruses in neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Fasching, Liana; Kapopoulou, Adamandia; Sachdeva, Rohit; Petri, Rebecca; Jönsson, Marie E; Männe, Christian; Turelli, Priscilla; Jern, Patric; Cammas, Florence; Trono, Didier; Jakobsson, Johan

    2015-01-01

    TRIM28 is a corepressor that mediates transcriptional silencing by establishing local heterochromatin. Here, we show that deletion of TRIM28 in neural progenitor cells (NPCs) results in high-level expression of two groups of endogenous retroviruses (ERVs): IAP1 and MMERVK10C. We find that NPCs use TRIM28-mediated histone modifications to dynamically regulate transcription and silencing of ERVs, which is in contrast to other somatic cell types using DNA methylation. We also show that derepression of ERVs influences transcriptional dynamics in NPCs through the activation of nearby genes and the expression of long noncoding RNAs. These findings demonstrate a unique dynamic transcriptional regulation of ERVs in NPCs. Our results warrant future studies on the role of ERVs in the healthy and diseased brain. PMID:25543143

  8. Effect of routine claw trimming on claw temperature in dairy cows measured by infrared thermography.

    PubMed

    Alsaaod, M; Syring, C; Luternauer, M; Doherr, M G; Steiner, A

    2015-04-01

    Infrared thermography (IRT) was used to assess the effect of routine claw trimming on claw temperature. In total, 648 IRT observations each were collected from 81 cows housed in 6 tiestalls before and 3wk after claw trimming. The feet were classified as either healthy (nonlesion group, n=182) or affected with infectious foot disorders (group IFD, n=142). The maximal surface temperatures of the coronary band and skin and the difference of the maximal temperatures (?T) between the lateral and medial claws of the respective foot were assessed. Linear mixed models, correcting for the hierarchical structure of the data, ambient temperature, and infectious status of the claws, were developed to evaluate the effect of time in relation to the trimming event (d 0 versus d 21) and claw (medial versus lateral). Front feet and hind feet were analyzed separately. Ambient temperature and infectious foot status were identified as external and internal factors, respectively, that significantly affected claw temperature. Before claw trimming, the lateral claws of the hind feet were significantly warmer compared with the medial claws, whereas such a difference was not evident for the claws of the front feet. At d 21, ?T of the hind feet was reduced by ?0.25°C, whereas it was increased by ?0.13°C in the front feet compared with d 0. Therefore, trimming was associated with a remarkable decrease of ?T of the hind claws. Equalizing the weight bearing of the hind feet by routine claw trimming is associated with a measurable reduction of ?T between the paired hind claws. PMID:25660737

  9. The Ubiquitin-Specific Protease USP15 Promotes RIG-I–Mediated Antiviral Signaling by Deubiquitylating TRIM25

    PubMed Central

    Pauli, Eva-Katharina; Chan, Ying Kai; Davis, Meredith E.; Gableske, Sebastian; Wang, May K.; Feister, Katharina F.; Gack, Michaela U.

    2014-01-01

    Ubiquitylation is an important mechanism for regulating innate immune responses to viral infections. Attachment of lysine 63 (Lys63)–linked ubiquitin chains to the RNA sensor retinoic acid–inducible gene-I (RIG-I) by the ubiquitin E3 ligase tripartite motif protein 25 (TRIM25) leads to the activation of RIG-I and stimulates production of the antiviral cytokines interferon-? (IFN-?) and IFN-?. Conversely, Lys48-linked ubiquitylation of TRIM25 by the linear ubiquitin assembly complex (LUBAC) stimulates the proteasomal degradation of TRIM25, thereby inhibiting the RIG-I signaling pathway. Here, we report that ubiquitin-specific protease 15 (USP15) deubiquitylates TRIM25, preventing the LUBAC-dependent degradation of TRIM25. Through protein purification and mass spectrometry analysis, we identified USP15 as an interaction partner of TRIM25 in human cells. Knockdown of endogenous USP15 by specific small interfering RNA markedly enhanced the ubiquitylation of TRIM25. In contrast, expression of wild-type USP15, but not its catalytically inactive mutant, reduced the Lys48-linked ubiquitylation of TRIM25, leading to its stabilization. Furthermore, ectopic expression of USP15 enhanced the TRIM25- and RIG-I–dependent production of type I IFN and suppressed RNA virus replication. In contrast, depletion of USP15 resulted in decreased IFN production and markedly enhanced viral replication. Together, these data identify USP15 as a critical regulator of the TRIM25- and RIG-I–mediated antiviral immune response, thereby highlighting the intricate regulation of innate immune signaling. PMID:24399297

  10. Mars oxygen production system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cotton, Charles E.; Pillow, Linda K.; Perkinson, Robert C.; Brownlie, R. P.; Chwalowski, P.; Carmona, M. F.; Coopersmith, J. P.; Goff, J. C.; Harvey, L. L.; Kovacs, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    The design and construction phase is summarized of the Mars oxygen demonstration project. The basic hardware required to produce oxygen from simulated Mars atmosphere was assembled and tested. Some design problems still remain with the sample collection and storage system. In addition, design and development of computer compatible data acquisition and control instrumentation is ongoing.

  11. Control of MnO2 nanocrystal shape from tremella to nanobelt for ehancement of the oxygen reduction reaction activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yuanyuan; Wang, Rongfang; Wang, Hui; Key, Julian; Ji, Shan

    2015-04-01

    Tremella-like ?-MnO2 (T-MnO2), mixed tremella and short belt-like ?-MnO2 (M-MnO2), and long belt-like ?-MnO2 (B-MnO2) are prepared hydrothermally by varying the reaction ratios of KMnO4 to MnSO4. Of the three morphologies, B-MnO2 produces the highest oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity in alkaline media. Interestingly, the highest ORR activity do not correlate with the highest BET total surface area of M-MnO2, but rather with the lowest surface area of B-MnO2. XPS analysis shows that B-MnO2 contains the highest ratio of surface Mn(III):Mn(IV), followed by M-MnO2 and T-MnO2. The results suggest a corresponding higher oxygen vacancy density would exist on the ?-MnO2 crystal form of nanobelts, which thus provides a possible mechanistic basis for their higher ORR activity.

  12. Impact of different subcutaneous fat trim levels on the composition of beef retail cuts 

    E-print Network

    Jones, Darron Kirk

    1988-01-01

    from the top mund, bottom round, eye of mund, sirloin tip, top sirloin butt, strip loin, tenderloin, rib, arm and blade sections of the chuck, and brisket. The retail cuts were serially assigned to the following treatments: (A) trimmed to 0. 6 cm... external fat, raw; (B) ~ to 0. 6 cm external fat, cooked; (C) ~ to 0. 0 cm external fat, cooked. The samples that were treated as raw, trimmed to 0. 6 cm were dissected into separable lean, external fat, seam fat, and heavy connective tissue and bone...

  13. Aircraft interior noise models - Sidewall trim, stiffened structures, and cabin acoustics with floor partition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, L. D.; Wilby, E. G.; Willis, C. M.; Mayes, W. H.

    1983-01-01

    As part of the continuing development of an aircraft interior noise prediction model, in which a discrete modal representation and power flow analysis are used, theoretical results are considered for inclusion of sidewall trim, stiffened structures, and cabin acoustics with floor partition. For validation purposes, predictions of the noise reductions for three test articles (a bare ring-stringer stiffened cylinder, an unstiffened cylinder with floor and insulation, and a ring-stringer stiffened cylinder with floor and sidewall trim) are compared with measurements.

  14. Elucidating microbial processes in nitrate- and sulfate-reducing systems using sulfur and oxygen isotope ratios: The example of oil reservoir souring control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Casey; Voordouw, Gerrit; Mayer, Bernhard

    2009-07-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are ubiquitous in anoxic environments where they couple the oxidation of organic compounds to the production of hydrogen sulfide. This can be problematic for various industries including oil production where reservoir "souring" (the generation of H 2S) requires corrective actions. Nitrate or nitrite injection into sour oil fields can promote SRB control by stimulating organotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing bacteria (O-NRB) that out-compete SRB for electron donors (biocompetitive exclusion), and/or by lithotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing sulfide oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) that remove H 2S directly. Sulfur and oxygen isotope ratios of sulfide and sulfate were monitored in batch cultures and sulfidic bioreactors to evaluate mitigation of SRB activities by nitrate or nitrite injection. Sulfate reduction in batch cultures of Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac15 indicated typical Rayleigh-type fractionation of sulfur isotopes during bacterial sulfate reduction (BSR) with lactate, whereas oxygen isotope ratios in unreacted sulfate remained constant. Sulfur isotope fractionation in batch cultures of the NR-SOB Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO was minimal during the oxidation of sulfide to sulfate, which had ?18O SO4 values similar to that of the water-oxygen. Treating an up-flow bioreactor with increasing doses of nitrate to eliminate sulfide resulted in changes in sulfur isotope ratios of sulfate and sulfide but very little variation in oxygen isotope ratios of sulfate. These observations were similar to results obtained from SRB-only, but different from those of NR-SOB-only pure culture control experiments. This suggests that biocompetitive exclusion of SRB took place in the nitrate-injected bioreactor. In two replicate bioreactors treated with nitrite, less pronounced sulfur isotope fractionation and a slight decrease in ?18O SO4 were observed. This indicated that NR-SOB played a minor role during dosing with low nitrite and that biocompetitive exclusion was the major process. The results demonstrate that stable isotope data can contribute unique information for understanding complex microbial processes in nitrate- and sulfate-reducing systems, and offer important information for the management of H 2S problems in oil reservoirs and elsewhere.

  15. Control of a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas on SrTiO3 (111) by Atomic Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKeown Walker, Siobhan; de la Torre, A.; Bruno, F. Y.; Tamai, A.; Kim, T. K.; Hoesch, M.; Shi, M.; Bahramy, M. S.; King, P. D. C.; Baumberger, F.

    2015-03-01

    We report on the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the bare surface of (111) oriented SrTiO3. Angle resolved photoemission experiments reveal highly itinerant carriers with a 6-fold symmetric Fermi surface and strongly anisotropic effective masses. The electronic structure of the 2DEG is in good agreement with self-consistent tight-binding supercell calculations that incorporate a confinement potential due to surface band bending. Our measurements provide insight into the nontrivial consequences of quantum confinement along the [111] direction which is directly relevant to an understanding of electronic structure at (111) orientated interfaces. We further demonstrate that alternate exposure of the surface to ultraviolet light and atomic oxygen allows tuning of the carrier density and the complete suppression of the 2DEG.

  16. SU-E-T-326: The Oxygen Saturation (SO2) and Breath-Holding Time Variation Applied Active Breathing Control (ABC)

    SciTech Connect

    Gong, G; Yin, Y [Shandong Cancer Hospital, Jinan, Shandong (China)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To study the oxygen saturation (SO2) and breath-holding time variation applied active breathing control (ABC) in radiotherapy of tumor. Methods: 24 volunteers were involved in our trials, and they all did breath-holding motion assisted by ELEKTA Active Breathing Coordinator 2.0 for 10 times respectively. And the patient monitor was used to observe the oxygen saturation (SO2) variation. The variation of SO2, and length of breath-holding time and the time for recovering to the initial value of SO2 were recorded and analyzed. Results: (1) The volunteers were divided into two groups according to the SO2 variation in breath-holding: A group, 14 cases whose SO2 reduction were more than 2% (initial value was 97% to 99%, while termination value was 91% to 96%); B group, 10 cases were less than 2% in breath-holding without inhaling oxygen. (2) The interfraction breath holding time varied from 8 to 20s for A group compared to the first breath-holding time, and for B group varied from 4 to 14s. (3) The breathing holding time of B group prolonged mean 8s, compared to A group. (4) The time for restoring to the initial value of SO2 was from 10s to 30s. And the breath-holding time shortened obviously for patients whose SO2 did not recover to normal. Conclusion: It is very obvious that the SO2 reduction in breath-holding associated with ABC for partial people. It is necessary to check the SO2 variation in breath training, and enough time should be given to recover SO2.

  17. 14 CFR 23.779 - Motion and effect of cockpit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Secondary controls: Flaps (or auxiliary lift devices) Forward or up for flaps up or auxiliary device stowed; rearward or down for flaps down or auxiliary device deployed. Trim tabs (or equivalent) Switch motion or...

  18. 14 CFR 23.779 - Motion and effect of cockpit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Secondary controls: Flaps (or auxiliary lift devices) Forward or up for flaps up or auxiliary device stowed; rearward or down for flaps down or auxiliary device deployed. Trim tabs (or equivalent) Switch motion or...

  19. 14 CFR 23.779 - Motion and effect of cockpit controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Secondary controls: Flaps (or auxiliary lift devices) Forward or up for flaps up or auxiliary device stowed; rearward or down for flaps down or auxiliary device deployed. Trim tabs (or equivalent) Switch motion or...

  20. Interagency assessment of oxygenated fuels

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    Oxygenates have been used as octane enhancers in gasoline since the late 1970s, due to the phaseout of lead. During the 1980s, oxygenates came in to wider use as some States implemented oxygenated gasoline programs for the control of carbon monoxide (CO) pollution in cold weather. People with coronary artery disease are particularly sensitive to the adverse effects of this air pollutant. The first winter oxygenated gasoline program in the United States was implemented in Denver, Colorado in 1988. The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments required the use of oxygenated gasoline in several areas of the country that failed to attain the National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for CO. During the winter months of 1992-1993, many new oxygenated gasoline programs were implemented to increase combustion efficiency in cold weather and thereby reduce CO emissions. Methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) has become the most widely used motor vehicle oxygenate in the U.S., though in some areas, ethanol is the dominant oxygenate used in motor vehicle fuels. Other fuel oxygenates that are in use or may potentially be used include ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary-amyl methyl ether (TAME), diisopropyl ether (DIPE), tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA), and methanol. Because of limitations in available data, there is less emphasis in this report on these other oxygenates. The Clean Air Act requires at least 2.7% by weight oxygen content for gasoline sold in CO nonattainment areas, and about 15% by volume MTBE or about 7.5% by volume ethanol to achieve this requirement. The purpose of this report is to provide a review of the scientific literature on oxygenated fuels and to assess effects of the winter oxygenated fuels program on air quality, water quality, fuel economy and engine performance, and public health.

  1. Ultrafast laser trimming for reduced device leakage in high performance OTFT semiconductors for flexible displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnakis, Dimitris; Cooke, Michael D.; Chan, Y. F.; Ogier, Simon D.

    2013-03-01

    Organic semiconductors (OSC) are solution processable synthetic materials with high carrier mobility that promise to revolutionise flexible electronics manufacturing due to their low cost, lightweight and high volume low temperature printing in reel-to-reel (R2R) [1] for applications such as flexible display backplanes (Fig.1), RFID tags, and logic/memory devices. Despite several recent technological advances, organic thin film transistor (OTFT) printing is still not production-ready due to limitations mainly with printing resolution on dimensionally unstable substrates and device leakage that reduces dramatically electrical performance. OTFTs have the source-drain in ohmic contact with the OSC material to lower contact resistance. If they are unpatterned, a leakage pathway from source to drain develops which results in non-optimum on/off currents and not controllable device uniformity (Fig.2). DPSS lasers offer several key advantages for OTFT patterning including maskless, non-contact, dry patterning, scalable large area operation with precision registration, well-suited to R2R manufacturing at overall ?m size resolutions. But the thermal management of laser processing is very important as the devices are very sensitive to heat and thermomechanical damage [2]. This paper discusses 343nm picosecond laser ablation trimming of 50nm thick PTAA, TIPS pentacene and other semiconductor compounds on thin 50nm thick metal gold electrodes in a top gate configuration. It is shown that with careful optimisation, a suitable process window exists resulting in clean laser structuring without damage to the underlying layers while also containing laser debris. Several order of magnitude improvements were recorded in on/off currents up to 106 with OSC mobilities of 1 cm2/Vsec, albeit at slightly higher than optimum threshold voltages which support demanding flexible display backplane applications.

  2. TRIM35 Interacts with pyruvate kinase isoform M2 to suppress the Warburg effect and tumorigenicity in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z; Wang, Z; Guo, W; Zhang, Z; Zhao, F; Zhao, Y; Jia, D; Ding, J; Wang, H; Yao, M; He, X

    2015-07-23

    Tripartite motif-containing protein 35 (TRIM35) is a member of RBCC family, which has a highly conserved order consisting of a RING domain followed by one or two B-Box domains and then a coiled-coil domain. We previously identified TRIM35 as a novel tumor suppressor in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the molecular mechanism that TRIM35 uses to suppress tumorigenicity is largely unknown. Pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (PKM2) has been demonstrated to have a central role in metabolic reprogramming during cancer progression. Phosphorylation of PKM2 tyrosine residue 105 (Y105) regulates PKM2 to provide a metabolic advantage to tumor cells, thereby promoting tumor growth. In the present work, mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated an interaction between TRIM35 and PKM2. Co-IP experiments confirmed that TRIM35 interacts with PKM2 and that the coiled-coil domain is required for such an interaction. Furthermore, the coiled-coil domain mediates decreases in the Warburg effect and in the cell proliferation of HCC cells. In addition, TRIM35 suppresses the tumorigenicity of HCC cells through the blockade of PKM2 Y105 phosphorylation. Collectively, our data reveal a new function for TRIM35, which is to regulate the Warburg effect and tumorigenicity through interaction with PKM2 in HCC. PMID:25263439

  3. TRIM32 promotes retinoic acid receptor {alpha}-mediated differentiation in human promyelogenous leukemic cell line HL60

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Tomonobu [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan) [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Department of Pediatrics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Okumura, Fumihiko [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan); Iguchi, Akihiro; Ariga, Tadashi [Department of Pediatrics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan)] [Department of Pediatrics, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo 060-8638 (Japan); Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu, E-mail: hatas@med.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan)] [Department of Biochemistry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-8638 (Japan)

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM32 enhanced RAR{alpha}-mediated transcriptional activity even in the absence of RA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM32 stabilized RAR{alpha} in the human promyelogenous leukemic cell line HL60. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of TRIM32 in HL60 cells induced granulocytic differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TRIM32 may function as a coactivator for RAR{alpha}-mediated transcription in APL cells. -- Abstract: Ubiquitination, one of the posttranslational modifications, appears to be involved in the transcriptional activity of nuclear receptors including retinoic acid receptor {alpha} (RAR{alpha}). We previously reported that an E3 ubiquitin ligase, TRIM32, interacts with several important proteins including RAR{alpha} and enhances transcriptional activity of RAR{alpha} in mouse neuroblastoma cells and embryonal carcinoma cells. Retinoic acid (RA), which acts as a ligand to nuclear receptors including RAR{alpha}, plays crucial roles in development, differentiation, cell cycles and apoptosis. In this study, we found that TRIM32 enhances RAR{alpha}-mediated transcriptional activity even in the absence of RA and stabilizes RAR{alpha} in the human promyelogenous leukemic cell line HL60. Moreover, we found that overexpression of TRIM32 in HL60 cells suppresses cellular proliferation and induces granulocytic differentiation even in the absence of RA. These findings suggest that TRIM32 functions as one of the coactivators for RAR{alpha}-mediated transcription in acute promyelogenous leukemia (APL) cells, and thus TRIM32 may become a potentially therapeutic target for APL.

  4. Sample Size Determination for One- and Two-Sample Trimmed Mean Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luh, Wei-Ming; Olejnik, Stephen; Guo, Jiin-Huarng

    2008-01-01

    Formulas to determine the necessary sample sizes for parametric tests of group comparisons are available from several sources and appropriate when population distributions are normal. However, in the context of nonnormal population distributions, researchers recommend Yuen's trimmed mean test, but formulas to determine sample sizes have not been…

  5. INFERENCE ABOUT THE ED50 USING THE TRIMMED SPEARMAN-KARBER PROCEDURE - A MONTE CARLO INVESTIGATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Monte Carlo study was conducted to investigate the estimated standard errors of the estimate and the 95 percent confidence interval estimates associated with the trimmed Spearman-Karber (SK) estimators of the ED50 and the logistic model maximum likelihood estimator (MLE). The s...

  6. The influence of cooking and fat trimming on the actual nutrient intake from meat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Gerber; M. R. L. Scheeder; C. Wenk

    2009-01-01

    The effects of cooking and trimming of visible fatty tissue on the content of fat, fatty acids, minerals and vitamins was studied in six meat cuts (beef rib-eye and brisket, pork neck steak and belly, veal chop and rolled breast) in order to improve the estimates of the actual nutrient intake from meat. Cooking decreased the absolute fat content by

  7. Trimming Line Design Using AN Incremental Development Method and a Finite Element Inverse Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youn-Joon Song; Chun-Dal Park; Young-Ho Hahn; Wan-Jin Chung

    2008-01-01

    In automobile panel manufacturing, the design of a feasible trimming line is crucial in obtaining an accurate edge profile after flanging. In this study, an effective method which combines the robust incremental development method and finite element inverse method is presented. The finite element inverse method is used to analyze the flanging process. In using the finite element inverse method,

  8. The Dominant Poles of Trimmed Uniform Distributed RC Networks Obtained from Their Transient Response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANTHONY J. WALTON; PETER L. MORAN; NORMAN G. BURROW

    1982-01-01

    A method is proposed by which the dominant poles of trimmed uniform distributed networks may be found from their transient response. These poles are then used to obtain the frequency response of the structure and this is compared with that given by the steady-state analysis.

  9. MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF IMPORTED AND DOMESTIC BONELESS BEEF TRIM USED FOR GROUND BEEF

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States imports lean boneless beef trim from Australia (AUS), New Zealand (NZL), and Uruguay (URY) to meet demand for ground beef production. The reported incidence of, and etiological agents responsible for, foodborne disease differ between these countries and the United States. Therefo...

  10. A Novel Technique for Trimming the Frequency of a Sealed Surface Acoustic Wave Resonator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Greer; T. E. Parker; M. Rothschild; D. J. Ehrlich

    1987-01-01

    An important requirement in many applications is the need to accurately set a SAW oscillator's frequency to a predetermined value. In some cases the oscillator's frequency may have to be set to within ?l PPM of a specified frequency which usually requires considerable time in external circuit adjustment. Recently, a novel post- seal frequency trimming technique has been developed for

  11. Talking with John Trim (Part I): A Career in Phonetics, Applied Linguistics and the Public Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, David; King, Lid

    2013-01-01

    As this issue was in preparation, the journal learned with great regret of the passing of John Trim. John was a long-serving member of the "Language Teaching" Board and his insight and advice proved invaluable for this and previous editors. An expert in the field of phonetics, linguistics, language didactics and policy, John worked…

  12. Automotive Body Trim and Glass; Automotive Mechanics 2: 9045.05.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help students become employable with skills, knowledge, attitudes, and values necessary for performing the required service of the automotive trim and glass mechanic. The course of study includes an orientation to the course, service tools and bench skills development, and a study…

  13. Effects of beak trimming and cage design on laying hen performance and egg quality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Guesdon; A. M. H. Ahmed; S. Mallet; J. M. Faure; Y. Nys

    2006-01-01

    1.?Conventional cages are to be replaced by furnished cages or aviary systems to improve the welfare of hens. We compared the performance and egg quality of hens reared in two designs of furnished cages and of two standard cages. We also explored the consequences of the absence of beak trimming when using these designs.2.?Hens (2028) were housed from 18 to

  14. Flight Dynamics of High Aspect-Ratio Flying Wings: Effect of Large Trim Deformation

    E-print Network

    Patil, Mayuresh

    ) Aircraft configurations designed for high aspect ratio and low structural weight Composite material usedFlight Dynamics of High Aspect-Ratio Flying Wings: Effect of Large Trim Deformation Brijesh Raghavan Mayuresh Patil 1Department of Aerospace and Ocean Engineering, Virginia Tech. AIAA Atmospheric

  15. Characterization of bending CD errors induced by resist trimming in 65 nm node and beyond

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yiming Gu; James B. Friedmann; Vladimir Ukraintsev; Gary Zhang; Thomas Wolf; Tom Lii; Ricky Jackson

    2007-01-01

    Resist trimming is a technique that is often used to close the gap between line widths which can be repeatedly printed with currently available lithography tools and the desired transistor gate length. For the 65-nm node, the resist line width delivered at pattern is between 60 to 70 nm while the final transistor gate length is usually targeted between 35

  16. Using Trimmed Means To Compare "K" Measures Corresponding to Two Independent Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Rand R.; Keselman, H. J.

    2001-01-01

    Compared two bootstrap methods that use trimmed means, the percentile and percentile T methods and considered how these methods might be adapted to comparing "K" measures corresponding to two independent groups. Results from simulation studies lead to an extension of the percentile bootstrap approach that gives better results. (SLD)

  17. EDEM2 initiates mammalian glycoprotein ERAD by catalyzing the first mannose trimming step

    PubMed Central

    Ninagawa, Satoshi; Okada, Tetsuya; Sumitomo, Yoshiki; Kamiya, Yukiko; Kato, Koichi; Horimoto, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Tokiro; Takeda, Shunichi; Sakuma, Tetsushi; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    Glycoproteins misfolded in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are subjected to ER-associated glycoprotein degradation (gpERAD) in which Htm1-mediated mannose trimming from the oligosaccharide Man8GlcNAc2 to Man7GlcNAc2 is the rate-limiting step in yeast. In contrast, the roles of the three Htm1 homologues (EDEM1/2/3) in mammalian gpERAD have remained elusive, with a key controversy being whether EDEMs function as mannosidases or as lectins. We therefore conducted transcription activator-like effector nuclease–mediated gene knockout analysis in human cell line and found that all endogenous EDEMs possess mannosidase activity. Mannose trimming from Man8GlcNAc2 to Man7GlcNAc2 is performed mainly by EDEM3 and to a lesser extent by EDEM1. Most surprisingly, the upstream mannose trimming from Man9GlcNAc2 to Man8GlcNAc2 is conducted mainly by EDEM2, which was previously considered to lack enzymatic activity. Based on the presence of two rate-limiting steps in mammalian gpERAD, we propose that mammalian cells double check gpERAD substrates before destruction by evolving EDEM2, a novel-type Htm1 homologue that catalyzes the first mannose trimming step from Man9GlcNAc2. PMID:25092655

  18. Robust Euclidean alignment of 3D point sets: the Trimmed Iterative Closest Point

    E-print Network

    Chetverikov, Dmitry

    basic steps: 1. pair each point of P to the closest point in M; 2. compute the motion that minimisesRobust Euclidean alignment of 3D point sets: the Trimmed Iterative Closest Point algorithm Dmitry. A new natural and simple, robustified extension of the popular Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm

  19. Guide for Oxygen Compatibility Assessments on Oxygen Components and Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosales, Keisa R.; Shoffstall, Michael S.; Stoltzfus, Joel M.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding and preventing fire hazards is necessary when designing, maintaining, and operating oxygen systems. Ignition risks can be minimized by controlling heat sources and using materials that will not ignite or will not support burning in the end-use environment. Because certain materials are more susceptible to ignition in oxygen-enriched environments, a compatibility assessment should be performed before the component is introduced into an oxygen system. This document provides an overview of oxygen fire hazards and procedures that are consistent with the latest versions of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standards G63 (1999) and G94 (2005) to address fire hazards associated with oxygen systems. This document supersedes the previous edition, NASA Technical Memorandum 104823, Guide for Oxygen Hazards Analyses on Components and Systems (1996). The step-by-step oxygen compatibility assessment method described herein (see Section 4) enables oxygen-system designers, system engineers, and facility managers to determine areas of concern with respect to oxygen compatibility and, ultimately, prevent damage to a system or injury to personnel.

  20. Liquid and gaseous oxygen safety review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapin, A.

    1973-01-01

    Materials used in oxygen systems and allowable oxygen environments are specified for each material. Design criteria, cleaning procedures and quality control methods are covered. Guidelines for protection against hazards involved with production, transportation, storage and use of oxygen are presented. Study also lists extensive references.

  1. The neural stem cell fate determinant TRIM32 regulates complex behavioral traits.

    PubMed

    Hillje, Anna-Lena; Beckmann, Elisabeth; Pavlou, Maria A S; Jaeger, Christian; Pacheco, Maria P; Sauter, Thomas; Schwamborn, Jens C; Lewejohann, Lars

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, new neurons are generated throughout the entire lifespan in two restricted areas of the brain, the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and the subventricular zone (SVZ)-olfactory bulb (OB) system. In both regions newborn neurons display unique properties that clearly distinguish them from mature neurons. Enhanced excitability and increased synaptic plasticity enables them to add specific properties to information processing by modulating the existing local circuitry of already established mature neurons. Hippocampal neurogenesis has been suggested to play a role in spatial-navigation learning, spatial memory, and spatial pattern separation. Cumulative evidences implicate that adult-born OB neurons contribute to learning processes and odor memory. We recently demonstrated that the cell fate determinant TRIM32 is upregulated in differentiating neuroblasts of the SVZ-OB system in the adult mouse brain. The absence of TRIM32 leads to increased progenitor cell proliferation and less cell death. Both effects accumulate in an overproduction of adult-generated OB neurons. Here, we present novel data from behavioral studies showing that such an enhancement of OB neurogenesis not necessarily leads to increased olfactory performance but in contrast even results in impaired olfactory capabilities. In addition, we show at the cellular level that TRIM32 protein levels increase during differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs). At the molecular level, several metabolic intermediates that are connected to glycolysis, glycine, or cysteine metabolism are deregulated in TRIM32 knockout mice brain tissue. These metabolomics pathways are directly or indirectly linked to anxiety or depression like behavior. In summary, our study provides comprehensive data on how the impairment of neurogenesis caused by the loss of the cell fate determinant TRIM32 causes a decrease of olfactory performance as well as a deregulation of metabolomic pathways that are linked to mood disorders. PMID:25852471

  2. Linear Parameter Varying control of a quadrotor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samarathunga L. M. D. Rangajeeva; James F. Whidborne

    2011-01-01

    control has been lost [4]. In order to extend the flight envelope a common approach is gain scheduling. In which several linear models of the quadrotor are obtained for different trim points and then number of Liner Time Invariant (LTI) controllers are derived for each point. As operating conditions vary, the global controller is estimated by interpolating gains of the

  3. Ambulatory oxygen uptake measurement system.

    PubMed

    Tamura, T; Sato, K; Togawa, T

    1992-12-01

    An apparatus for monitoring prolonged measurement of oxygen uptake without discomfort has been developed. The system is based on the open flow-through principle. The subject wears a hood through which air is drawn by an exhaust blower. Oxygen concentration is kept constant by a servo-controlled blower, so that flow rate is essentially proportional to oxygen uptake. The flow rate of the main stream is measured by a time-of-flight flowmeter located in the exhaust hose. Oxygen concentration is measured by a limiting-current oxygen sensor. The signals representing flow rate and oxygen concentration are digitized and stored in a memory. All of the equipment is assembled in a small package (wt = 3 kg) which the subject carries on his back. The memory chip is removed from the portable device after each experiment. Data are transferred from the memory to a microcomputer and then an oxygen uptake trend is estimated. Response of the system to a step input is about 30 s. Compared with a commercially available oxygen monitoring system (Magna 88, P. K. Morgan Ltd., Rainham, UK), the maximum difference was 0.15 L/min within an oxygen uptake range of 0.25-2.3 L/min. Thus, the measurements made with our portable device agree with the results obtained using the conventional method. PMID:1487290

  4. Controlling the size and composition of nanosized Pt-Ni octahedra to optimize their catalytic activities toward the oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sang-Il; Xie, Shuifen; Shao, Minhua; Lu, Ning; Guerrero, Sandra; Odell, Jonathan H; Park, Jinho; Wang, Jinguo; Kim, Moon J; Xia, Younan

    2014-05-01

    Electrocatalysts based on Pt-Ni alloys have received considerable interest in recent years owing to their remarkable activities toward the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Here, we report the synthesis of nanosized Pt-Ni octahedra with a range of controlled sizes and compositions in an effort to optimize their ORR activities. If we employed benzyl ether as a solvent for the synthesis, we could readily control the edge lengths of the Pt-Ni octahedra in the range of 6-12?nm and keep the Pt/Ni atomic ratio at around 2.4 by varying the amount of oleylamine added into the reaction system. If we adjusted the amount of Ni precursor, the atomic ratio of Pt to Ni in the Pt-Ni octahedra could be controlled in the range of 1.4-3.7 and their edge lengths were kept at 9?nm. For the catalysts with a Pt/Ni atomic ratio around 2.4, their specific ORR activities (per unit surface area) increased monotonically as the edge length increased from 6 to 12?nm. However, the mass activities (per unit mass of Pt) of these Pt-Ni octahedra showed a maximum value at an edge length of 9?nm. The specific and mass activities for the Pt-Ni octahedra with an edge length of 9?nm but different compositions both showed peak values at a Pt/Ni atomic ratio of 2.4. PMID:24644079

  5. Biogeochemical controls on seasonal variations of the stable isotopes of dissolved oxygen and dissolved inorganic carbon in Castle Lake, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, J. M.; Poulson, S. R.

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this project is to perform a seasonal dissolved oxygen (DO) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) stable isotope (?18O, ?13C) study to assess the fluctuations in biogeochemical processes with depth in a lake. DO and DIC concentrations and stable isotope compositions (?18O-DO, ?13C-DIC) have been used as a technique to study the systematics of diurnal freshwater biogeochemical processes, primarily photosynthesis, respiration, and gas-exchange (e.g. Quay et al. 1995, Trojanowska et al. 2008). For example, photosynthesis produces DO isotopically identical to the host water, typically light relative to atmospheric oxygen (+23.5‰), while respiration preferentially consumes isotopically light DO. Diel ?18O-DO and ?13C-DIC studies in rivers (e.g. Parker et al. 2005, Parker et al. 2010, Poulson & Sullivan 2010) have been used to determine the rates of biogeochemical processes over a 24h time scale. However, similar studies in lakes are rare, for either diel or seasonal time scales. The focus of this project is Castle Lake, 12km southwest of Mt. Shasta, CA, at an elevation of 1660m. Castle Lake is an alpine, meso-oligotrophic lake with a 19ha surface area and a maximum depth of up to 35m. This project consists of sampling profiles, 2-3 weeks apart, throughout the 2010 field season for monitoring seasonal depth trends, with measurements of DO concentration, temperature, pH, alkalinity, specific conductivity, PAR, chlorophyll concentration, ?18O-DO, ?13C-DIC, ?18O-H2O, and ?D-H2O. Diel measurements of DO concentration, temperature, pH, specific conductivity, PAR, and chlorophyll concentration have also been performed at various depths. To date, the profile data collected at Castle Lake show various seasonal changes, starting after ice-out (late June 2010) through mid-August 2010. DO profiles display a positive heterograde trend with a maximum of 11.33mg/L at 12m in mid-August and minima of ?0.12mg/L near the lake bottom. DIC concentrations increase with depth and with time up to 2mmol/L at 30m by mid-August. pH ranges from 5.9-7.5 and consistently increases in the metalimnion (5-15m) with the season. ?18O-DO profiles show inverse trends relative to DO concentration, and range from +15.8 to +27.8‰ after ice-out and from +10.2 to +30.9‰ in mid-August. ?13C-DIC profiles also show inverse trends relative to DIC concentration, reach a maximum of -12 to -10‰, generally in the metalimnion, and a minimum of down to -18‰ near the bottom of the hypolimnion (28-30m sampling depth). DO concentration, ?18O-DO, DIC concentration, and ?13C-DIC data all suggest that: photosynthesis is the principal process affecting DO in the metalimnion; that respiration is the dominant process affecting DIC in the hypolimnion; and that both processes increase in magnitude over the course of the season. To date, no significant diel variations of DO or pH have been observed. The ?18O-DO and ?13C-DIC results thus far are consistent with systematic variations of photosynthesis and respiration rates during the course of a season, suggesting the analyses in this study provide a reliable means for the quantitative study of biogeochemical processes in lakes on a seasonal time scale.

  6. CDK2 differentially controls normal cell senescence and cancer cell proliferation upon exposure to reactive oxygen species

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Chae Young; Lee, Seung-Min; Park, Sung Sup [Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Aging Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 125 Gwahangno, Yusong, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)] [Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Aging Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 125 Gwahangno, Yusong, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Ki-Sun, E-mail: kwonks@kribb.re.kr [Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Aging Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 125 Gwahangno, Yusong, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)] [Laboratory of Cell Signaling, Aging Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 125 Gwahangno, Yusong, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-17

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} differently adjusted senescence and proliferation in normal and cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} exposure transiently decreased PCNA levels in normal cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer H{sub 2}O{sub 2} exposure transiently increased CDK2 activity in cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer p21{sup Cip1} is likely dispensable when H{sub 2}O{sub 2} induces senescence in normal cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suggestively, CDK2 and PCNA play critical roles in H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cell fate decision. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species modulate cell fate in a context-dependent manner. Sublethal doses of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} decreased the level of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in normal cells (including primary human dermal fibroblasts and IMR-90 cells) without affecting cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) activity, leading to cell cycle arrest and subsequent senescence. In contrast, exposure of cancer cells (such as HeLa and MCF7 cells) to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} increased CDK2 activity with no accompanying change in the PCNA level, leading to cell proliferation. A CDK2 inhibitor, CVT-313, prevented H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced cancer cell proliferation. These results support the notion that the cyclin/CDK2/p21{sup Cip1}/PCNA complex plays an important role as a regulator of cell fate decisions.

  7. Aeronautic Instruments. Section VI : Oxygen Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, F L

    1923-01-01

    This report contains statements as to amount of oxygen required at different altitudes and the methods of storing oxygen. The two types of control apparatus - the compressed oxygen type and the liquid oxygen type - are described. Ten different instruments of the compressed type are described, as well as the foreign instruments of the liquid types. The performance and specifications and the results of laboratory tests on all representative types conclude this report.

  8. Rhenium-Oxygen Interactions at High Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Myers, Dwight L.; Zhu, Dongming; Humphrey, Donald

    2000-01-01

    The reaction of pure rhenium metal with dilute oxygen/argon mixtures was studied from 600 to 1400 C. Temperature, oxygen pressure, and flow rates were systematically varied to determine the rate-controlling steps. At lower temperatures the oxygen/rhenium chemical reaction is rate limiting; at higher temperatures gas-phase diffusion of oxygen through the static boundary layer is rate limiting. At all temperatures post-reaction microstructures indicate preferential attack along certain crystallographic planes and defects.

  9. The effects of laser trimming on the tensile strength and fatigue resistance properties of titanium - 6Al-4V 

    E-print Network

    Whitesel, Dean Adam

    1994-01-01

    The effect of laser trimming on the tensile strength and fatigue resistance of titanium-6% aluminum-4% vanadium specimens was investigated. Due to the nature of laser processing, the microstructure of the titanium alloy ...

  10. Efficacy of Beef Carcass Surface Trimming to Reduce or Eliminate Escherichia coli O157:H7 Surrogates from Subsequent Subprimals

    E-print Network

    Laster, Brittany Anise

    2012-02-14

    This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of trimming the original external carcass surfaces from subprimals during fabrication on the reduction of surrogates for Escherichia coli O157:H7. Carcass sides from five cattle (n = 10 sides...

  11. The effects of laser trimming on the tensile strength and fatigue resistance properties of titanium - 6Al-4V

    E-print Network

    Whitesel, Dean Adam

    1994-01-01

    The effect of laser trimming on the tensile strength and fatigue resistance of titanium-6% aluminum-4% vanadium specimens was investigated. Due to the nature of laser processing, the microstructure of the titanium alloy was altered in an area local...

  12. The Corynebacterium glutamicum mycothiol peroxidase is a reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzyme that shows promiscuity in thiol redox control.

    PubMed

    Pedre, Brandán; Van Molle, Inge; Villadangos, Almudena F; Wahni, Khadija; Vertommen, Didier; Turell, Lucía; Erdogan, Huriye; Mateos, Luis M; Messens, Joris

    2015-06-01

    Cysteine glutathione peroxidases (CysGPxs) control oxidative stress levels by reducing hydroperoxides at the expense of cysteine thiol (-SH) oxidation, and the recovery of their peroxidatic activity is generally accomplished by thioredoxin (Trx). Corynebacterium glutamicum mycothiol peroxidase (Mpx) is a member of the CysGPx family. We discovered that its recycling is controlled by both the Trx and the mycothiol (MSH) pathway. After H2 O2 reduction, a sulfenic acid (-SOH) is formed on the peroxidatic cysteine (Cys36), which then reacts with the resolving cysteine (Cys79), forming an intramolecular disulfide (S-S), which is reduced by Trx. Alternatively, the sulfenic acid reacts with MSH and forms a mixed disulfide. Mycoredoxin 1 (Mrx1) reduces the mixed disulfide, in which Mrx1 acts in combination with MSH and mycothiol disulfide reductase as a biological relevant monothiol reducing system. Remarkably, Trx can also take over the role of Mrx1 and reduce the Mpx-MSH mixed disulfide using a dithiol mechanism. Furthermore, Mpx is important for cellular survival under H2 O2 stress, and its gene expression is clearly induced upon H2 O2 challenge. These findings add a new dimension to the redox control and the functioning of CysGPxs in general. PMID:25766783

  13. Enhanced room temperature ferromagnetism in electrodeposited Co-doped ZnO nanostructured thin films by controlling the oxygen vacancy defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simimol, A.; Anappara, Aji A.; Greulich-Weber, S.; Chowdhury, Prasanta; Barshilia, Harish C.

    2015-06-01

    We report the growth of un-doped and cobalt doped ZnO nanostructures fabricated on FTO coated glass substrates using electrodeposition method. A detailed study on the effects of dopant concentration on morphology, structural, optical, and magnetic properties of the ZnO nanostructures has been carried out systematically by varying the Co concentration (c.Co) from 0.01 to 1 mM. For c.Co ? 0.2 mM, h-wurtzite phase with no secondary phases of Co were present in the ZnO nanostructures. For c.Co ? 0.2 mM, the photoluminescence spectra exhibited a decrease in the intensity of ultraviolet emission as well as band-gap narrowing with an increase in dopant concentration. All the doped samples displayed a broad emission in the visible range and its intensity increased with an increase in Co concentration. It was found that the defect centers such as oxygen vacancies and zinc interstitials were the source of the visible emission. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies revealed, Co was primarily in the divalent state, replacing the Zn ion inside the tetrahedral crystal site of ZnO without forming any cluster or secondary phases of Co. The un-doped ZnO nanorods exhibited diamagnetic behavior and it remained up to a c.Co of 0.05 mM, while for c.Co > 0.05 mM, the ZnO nanostructures exhibited ferromagnetic behavior at room temperature. The coercivity increased to 695 G for 0.2 mM Co-doped sample and then it decreased for c.Co > 0.2 mM. Our results illustrate that up to a threshold concentration of 0.2 mM, the strong ferromagnetism is due to the oxygen vacancy defects centers, which exist in the Co-doped ZnO nanostructures. The origin of strong ferromagnetism at room temperature in Co-doped ZnO nanostructures is attributed to the s-d exchange interaction between the localized spin moments resulting from the oxygen vacancies and d electrons of Co2+ ions. Our findings provide a new insight for tuning the defect density by precisely controlling the dopant concentration in order to get the desired magnetic behavior at room temperature.

  14. Fatty acid composition of retail cuts trimmed to different external fat levels from choice, select, and standard beef grade carcasses 

    E-print Network

    Sullivan, Dana Renee

    1988-01-01

    by about 20 percent (Coleman et al. , 1988) . The effect of cooking on the composition of beef cuts that are closely or completely trimmed of fat is unknown. In addition, the effects of different cooking methods and different degrees of doneness... grade, fat trim level, ard degree of doneness on the fatty acid composition of retail cuts of beef. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to compare these effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS Texas Agricultural Experiment Station personnel were...

  15. Loading?associated expression of TRIM72 and caveolin?3 in antigravitational soleus muscle in mice

    PubMed Central

    Ohno, Yoshitaka; Sugiura, Takao; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Yoshioka, Toshitada; Goto, Katsumasa

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Effects of mechanical loading on the expression level of tripartite motif?containing 72 (TRIM72) and caveolin?3 (Cav?3) in mouse soleus muscle were investigated. Mice were subjected to (1) continuous hindlimb suspension (HS) for 2 weeks followed by 1?week ambulation recovery or (2) functional overloading (FO) on the soleus by cutting the distal tendons of the plantaris and gastrocnemius muscles. Soleus muscle atrophy was induced by 2?week hindlimb suspension (HS). Reloading?associated regrowth of atrophied soleus muscle was observed by 1?week reloading following HS. HS also depressed the expression level of insulin receptor substrate?1 (IRS?1) mRNA, TRIM72, Cav?3, and phosphorylated Akt (p?Akt)/total Akt (t?Akt), but increased the phosphorylated level of p38 mitogen?activated protein kinase (p?p38MAPK) in soleus muscle. Thereafter, the expression level of MyoD mRNA, TRIM72 (mRNA, and protein), and Cav?3 was significantly increased and recovered to the basal level during 1?week reloading after HS. Although IRS?1 expression was also upregulated by reloading, the expression level was significantly lower than that before HS. Significant increase in p?Akt and phosphorylated p70 S6 kinase (p?p70S6K) was observed by 1?day reloading. On the other hand, 1?week functional overloading (FO) induced soleus muscle hypertrophy. In FO?associated hypertrophied soleus muscle, the expression level of IRS?1 mRNA, MyoD mRNA, TRIM72 mRNA, p?Akt, and p?p70S6K was increased, but the expression of Cav?3 and p?p38MAPK was decreased. FO had no effect on the protein expression level of TRIM72. These observations suggest that the loading?associated upregulation of TRIM72 protein in skeletal muscle may depress the regrowth of atrophied muscle via a partial suppression of IRS?1. In addition, downregulation of Cav?3 in skeletal muscle may depress overloading?induced muscle hypertrophy. PMID:25539835

  16. Oxygen-Induced Membrane Depolarizations in Legume Root Nodules (Possible Evidence for an Osmoelectrical Mechanism Controlling Nodule Gas Permeability).

    PubMed Central

    Denison, R. F.; Kinraide, T. B.

    1995-01-01

    Various stresses trigger rapid and reversible decreases in the O2 permeability (PO) of legume root nodules. Several possible mechanisms have been proposed, but no supporting data have previously been presented that meet the requirements for both rapidity and reversibility. Stomatal regulation of gas permeability in leaves involves electrically driven fluxes of inorganic osmoticants, so we investigated the possibility of a somewhat similar mechanism in nodules. We used microelectrodes to monitor membrane potential in intact, attached nodules of Glycine max, Medicago sativa, Lotus corniculatus, and Trifolium repens while controlling external O2 concentration and, in the case of G. max, measuring PO with a nodule oximeter. A 1- to 2-min exposure to 100 kPa O2 was found to induce rapid and reversible membrane depolarizations in nodules of each species. This depolarization (which, to our knowledge, is unique to nodules) is accompanied by reversible decreases in PO in G. max nodules. An osmoelectrical mechanism for control of nodule gas permeability, consistent with these data, is presented. PMID:12228468

  17. Co-existence of intact stemness and priming of neural differentiation programs in mES cells lacking Trim71.

    PubMed

    Mitschka, Sibylle; Ulas, Thomas; Goller, Tobias; Schneider, Karin; Egert, Angela; Mertens, Jérôme; Brüstle, Oliver; Schorle, Hubert; Beyer, Marc; Klee, Kathrin; Xue, Jia; Günther, Patrick; Bassler, Kevin; Schultze, Joachim L; Kolanus, Waldemar

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory networks for differentiation and pluripotency in embryonic stem (ES) cells have long been suggested to be mutually exclusive. However, with the identification of many new components of these networks ranging from epigenetic, transcriptional, and translational to even post-translational mechanisms, the cellular states of pluripotency and early differentiation might not be strictly bi-modal, but differentiating stem cells appear to go through phases of simultaneous expression of stemness and differentiation genes. Translational regulators such as RNA binding proteins (RBPs) and micro RNAs (miRNAs) might be prime candidates for guiding a cell from pluripotency to differentiation. Using Trim71, one of two members of the Tripartite motif (Trim) protein family with RNA binding activity expressed in murine ES cells, we demonstrate that Trim71 is not involved in regulatory networks of pluripotency but regulates neural differentiation. Loss of Trim71 in mES cells leaves stemness and self-maintenance of these cells intact, but many genes required for neural development are up-regulated at the same time. Concordantly, Trim71(-/-) mES show increased neural marker expression following treatment with retinoic acid. Our findings strongly suggest that Trim71 keeps priming steps of differentiation in check, which do not pre-require a loss of the pluripotency network in ES cells. PMID:26057209

  18. Co-existence of intact stemness and priming of neural differentiation programs in mES cells lacking Trim71

    PubMed Central

    Mitschka, Sibylle; Ulas, Thomas; Goller, Tobias; Schneider, Karin; Egert, Angela; Mertens, Jérôme; Brüstle, Oliver; Schorle, Hubert; Beyer, Marc; Klee, Kathrin; Xue, Jia; Günther, Patrick; Bassler, Kevin; Schultze, Joachim L.; Kolanus, Waldemar

    2015-01-01

    Regulatory networks for differentiation and pluripotency in embryonic stem (ES) cells have long been suggested to be mutually exclusive. However, with the identification of many new components of these networks ranging from epigenetic, transcriptional, and translational to even post-translational mechanisms, the cellular states of pluripotency and early differentiation might not be strictly bi-modal, but differentiating stem cells appear to go through phases of simultaneous expression of stemness and differentiation genes. Translational regulators such as RNA binding proteins (RBPs) and micro RNAs (miRNAs) might be prime candidates for guiding a cell from pluripotency to differentiation. Using Trim71, one of two members of the Tripartite motif (Trim) protein family with RNA binding activity expressed in murine ES cells, we demonstrate that Trim71 is not involved in regulatory networks of pluripotency but regulates neural differentiation. Loss of Trim71 in mES cells leaves stemness and self-maintenance of these cells intact, but many genes required for neural development are up-regulated at the same time. Concordantly, Trim71?/? mES show increased neural marker expression following treatment with retinoic acid. Our findings strongly suggest that Trim71 keeps priming steps of differentiation in check, which do not pre-require a loss of the pluripotency network in ES cells. PMID:26057209

  19. Cockpit control system conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meholic, Greg; Brown, Rhonda; Hall, Melissa; Harvey, Robert; Singer, Michael; Tella, Gustavo

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to provide a means for operating the ailerons, elevator, elevator trim, rudder, nosewheel steering, and brakes in the Triton primary flight trainer. The main design goals under consideration were to illustrate system and subsystem integration, control function ability, and producibility. Weight and maintenance goals were addressed.

  20. Bloodless evaluation of blood oxygenators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjiv S. Shah; Edward F. Leonard

    1983-01-01

    Evaluation of blood oxygenators using whole blood is inconvenient and expensive, although it is the ultimate preclinical test.\\u000a Sodium sulfite solutions have advantages over blood for studying oxygen uptake: They are inexpensive, fewer variables need\\u000a control, and deoxygenation is unnecessary. Assays and interpretation of results are easy. The kinetics of sulfite oxidation\\u000a must be fast and the concentration of sulfite

  1. Modulation of Retroviral Restriction and Proteasome Inhibitor-Resistant Turnover by Changes in the TRIM5  B-Box 2 Domain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felipe Diaz-Griffero; Alak Kar; Michel Perron; Shi-Hua Xiang; Hassan Javanbakht; Xing Li; Joseph Sodroski

    2007-01-01

    An intact B-box 2 domain is essential for the antiretroviral activity of TRIM5. We modeled the structure of the B-box 2 domain of TRIM5 based on the existing three-dimensional structure of the B-box 2 domain of human TRIM29. Using this model, we altered the residues predicted to be exposed on the surface of this globular structure. Most of the alanine

  2. Mixing controls on nitrogen and oxygen concentrations and the relationship to mean residence time in a hyporheic zone of a riffle-pool sequence.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naranjo, R. C.; Niswonger, R. G.; Davis, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Flow paths and residence times in the hyporheic zone are known to control biogeochemical processes such as nitrification and denitrification. The exchange across the sediment-water interface involves mixing of surface water and groundwater through complex hyporheic flow paths that contribute highly variable biogeochemical active zones. The objectives of this study were to determine the fate of nitrate (NO3) and dissolved oxygen (DO) during temporally varying flow conditions and compare concentrations to residence times simulated along a longitudinal cross-section accounting for mixing behavior of vertical and horizontal flow paths. In this study, the spatial and temporal distribution of nutrients was monitored in the hyporheic zone beneath a riffle-pool sequence on the Truckee River, NV using in-stream piezometers and riparian monitoring wells. Time-varying river discharge, spatially-varying hyporheic flow, and the distribution and mixing of flow paths appear to control the nitrification and denitrification process, and result in biogeochemical hot spots and hot moments. Results indicate that dissolved organic nitrogen concentrations in the hyporheic zone are generally greater than surface water concentrations, especially in down-welling zones. Concentrations of NO3 and DO were greater beneath the riffle areas as compared to pool areas, as a result of mineralization and nitrification of down-welling surface water. Replenishment of DO appears to support nitrification over long flow paths (101 of meters) and residence times (days). Denitrification along longer horizontal flow paths is limited by the influx of DO into the riverbed and the reductions in mean residence times. It is important to consider the occurrence of rapid inflows of surface water into the hyporheic zones resulting from variability in stage and riverbed topography, that replenishes DO and controls reaction rates and solute residence times. Flow-tube conceptual models for simulating residence times and reactions do not appear to be appropriate for systems where mixing among short and long flow paths in the hyporheic zone is prevalent.

  3. AES, EELS and TRIM simulation method study of InP(100) subjected to Ar+, He+ and H+ ions bombardment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghaffour, M.; Abdellaoui, A.; Bouslama, M.; Ouerdane, A.; Abidri, B.

    2012-06-01

    Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) and Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) have been performed in order to investigate the InP(100) surface subjected to ions bombardment. The InP(100) surface is always contaminated by carbon and oxygen revealed by C-KLL and O-KLL AES spectra recorded just after introduction of the sample in the UHV spectrometer chamber. The usually cleaning process of the surface is the bombardment by argon ions. However, even at low energy of ions beam (300 eV) indium clusters and phosphorus vacancies are usually formed on the surface. The aim of our study is to compare the behaviour of the surface when submitted to He+ or H+ ions bombardment. The helium ions accelerated at 500V voltage and for 45 mn allow removing contaminants but induces damaged and no stoichiometric surface. The proton ions were accelerated at low energy of 500 eV to bombard the InP surface at room temperature. The proton ions broke the In-P chemical bonds to induce the formation of In metal islands. Such a chemical reactivity between hydrogen and phosphorus led to form chemical species such as PH and PH3, which desorbed from the surface. The chemical susceptibly and the small size of H+ advantaged their diffusion into bulk. Since the experimental methods alone were not able to give us with accuracy the disturbed depth of the target by these ions. We associate to the AES and EELS spectroscopies, the TRIM (Transport and Range of Ions in Matter) simulation method in order to show the mechanism of interaction between Ar+, He+ or H+ ions and InP and determine the disturbed depth of the target by argon, helium or proton ions.

  4. On the controls of leaf-water oxygen isotope ratios in the atmospheric Crassulacean acid metabolism epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides.

    PubMed

    Helliker, Brent R

    2011-04-01

    Previous theoretical work showed that leaf-water isotope ratio (?(18)O(L)) of Crassulacean acid metabolism epiphytes was controlled by the ?(18)O of atmospheric water vapor (?(18)O(a)), and observed ?(18)O(L) could be explained by both a non-steady-state model and a "maximum enrichment" steady-state model (?(18)O(L-M)), the latter requiring only ?(18)O(a) and relative humidity (h) as inputs. ?(18)O(L), therefore, should contain an extractable record of ?(18)O(a). Previous empirical work supported this hypothesis but raised many questions. How does changing ?(18)O(a) and h affect ?(18)O(L)? Do hygroscopic trichomes affect observed ?(18)O(L)? Are observations of changes in water content required for the prediction of ?(18)O(L)? Does the leaf need to be at full isotopic steady state for observed ?(18)O(L) to equal ?(18)O(L-M)? These questions were examined with a climate-controlled experimental system capable of holding ?(18)O(a) constant for several weeks. Water adsorbed to trichomes required a correction ranging from 0.5‰ to 1‰. ?(18)O(L) could be predicted using constant values of water content and even total conductance. Tissue rehydration caused a transitory change in ?(18)O(L), but the consequent increase in total conductance led to a tighter coupling with ?(18)O(a). The non-steady-state leaf water models explained observed ?(18)O(L) (y = 0.93*x - 0.07; r(2) = 0.98) over a wide range of ?(18)O(a) and h. Predictions of ?(18)O(L-M) agreed with observations of ?(18)O(L) (y = 0.87*x - 0.99; r(2) = 0.92), and when h > 0.9, the leaf did not need to be at isotopic steady state for the ?(18)O(L-M) model to predict ?(18)O(L) in the Crassulacean acid metabolism epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides. PMID:21300917

  5. Forward flight trim calculation and frequency response validation of a high-order helicopter simulation model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Frederick D.; Celi, Roberto; Tischler, Mark B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a new trim procedure, that includes the calculation of the steady-state response of the rotor blades, and that is applicable to straight flight and steady coordinated turns. This paper also describes the results of a validation study for a high order linearized model of helicopter flight dynamics, that includes rotor, inflow, and actuator dynamics. The model is obtained by numerical perturbations of a nonlinear, blade element type mathematical model. Predicted responses are compared with flight test data for two values of flight speed. The comparison is carried out in the frequency domain. Numerical simulations show that the trim algorithm is very accurate, and preserves the periodicity of the aircraft states. The results also indicate that the predictions of the linearized model are in good agreement with flight test data, especially at medium and high frequencies.

  6. Endoscopic trimming of an embedded distally migrated metallic rectal stent with argon plasma coagulation.

    PubMed

    Molina-Infante, Javier; Mateos-Rodriguez, Jose Maria; Fernandez-Bermejo, Miguel; Perez-Gallardo, Belen; Hernandez-Alonso, Moises

    2010-04-01

    There is little experience regarding the use of argon plasma coagulation (APC) to trim malpositioned or migrated, endoscopic, metallic, self-expanding, colorectal stents. We report a case of a distally migrated, uncovered rectal stent complicated with several ulcerations because of impaction against the rectal wall and embedment within the healthy mucosa distal to the neoplasm. Endoscopic en bloc removal was not possible because of diffuse tumoral ingrowth. By using a second generation APC device (60 W, 0.6 L/min), the stent was trimmed allowing access to the back wall, which was tailored after digging up the embedded wires with gentle traction of the stent. Complete extraction of the protruding end of the stent by a 2.5 cm, fully covered pseudoepithelization tissue, was carried out through a flexible overtube. This is the first report of APC endoscopic transection of a long embedded segment from a distally migrated colorectal stent. PMID:20393326

  7. Oncogenic MAGEA-TRIM28 ubiquitin ligase downregulates autophagy by ubiquitinating and degrading AMPK in cancer.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Carlos T; Potts, Patrick Ryan

    2015-05-01

    Autophagy is commonly altered in cancer and has a complicated, but important role in regulation of tumor growth. Autophagy is often tumor suppressive in the early stages of cancer development, but contributes to the late stages of tumor growth. Because of this, putative oncogenes that modulate autophagy signaling are especially interesting. Here we discuss our recent work detailing the function of the MAGEA-TRIM28 ubiquitin ligase as an oncogene product that targets PRKAA1/AMPK?1 for ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation. Degradation of AMPK, a master cellular energy sensor and regulator, by MAGEA-TRIM28 results in significantly reduced autophagy and changes in cellular metabolism, including upregulation of MTOR signaling. Overall, expression of MAGEA3 (or MAGEA6) and degradation of AMPK is sufficient to induce transformation of normal cells and promote multiple hallmarks of cancer. PMID:25945414

  8. Boundary Layer Induced Noise in Aircraft, Part II: the Trimmed Flat Plate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, W. R.

    1996-04-01

    The influence of the cabin interior treatment on boundary layer noise levels is known to be significant, and we thus extend the model of Part I '1' to include it. The extended model consists of the boundary layer excited flat plate, with its internal surface covered by two dissipative layers (representing insulation) and an elastic plate (the trim panel). By comparison with the bare plate, the trimmed plate has much higher modal damping, due to the ability of the insulation to absorb energy at the wavenumbers associated with resonant modes, and greatly reduced radiation efficiency, due to the insulation's attenuating effect on supersonic wavenumber disturbances. Most of the conclusions of Part I are essentially unaffected by this behavioural modification, but structural damping treatments are now expected to have a negligible effect on the sound radiated by the plate.

  9. Investigation Of Adhesion Formation In New Stainless Steel Trim Spring Operated Pressure Relief Valves

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, Robert E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); Bukowski, Julia V. [Villanova University, Villanova, PA (United States); Goble, William M. [exida, Sellersville, PA (United States)

    2013-04-16

    Examination of proof test data for new (not previously installed) stainless steel (SS) trim spring operated pressure relief valves (SOPRV) reveals that adhesions form between the seat and disc in about 46% of all such SOPRV. The forces needed to overcome these adhesions can be sufficiently large to cause the SOPRV to fail its proof test (FPT) prior to installation. Furthermore, a significant percentage of SOPRV which are found to FPT are also found to ''fail to open'' (FTO) meaning they would not relief excess pressure in the event of an overpressure event. The cases where adhesions result in FTO or FPT appear to be confined to SOPRV with diameters < 1 in and set pressures < 150 psig and the FTO are estimated to occur in 0.31% to 2.00% of this subpopulation of SS trim SOPRV. The reliability and safety implications of these finding for end-users who do not perform pre-installation testing of SOPRV are discussed.

  10. Controlled synthesis of mesoporous carbon modified by tungsten carbides as an improved electrocatalyst support for the oxygen reduction reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Sheng [ORNL; Wang, Xiqing [ORNL; Zhou, Shenghu [ORNL; Zhu, Qing [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Mesoporous carbon was modified with tungsten carbides by the carbothermal hydrogen reduction of a layer of chemisorbed 1:12 phosphotungstic anions (PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3-}) on carbon surfaces. Depending on the temperature of carbothermal treatment, different tungsten species, i.e., W, W{sub 2}C, WC, were formed on the carbon matrix. No significant changes in both surface areas and mesostructures were observed during the formation of various tungsten species on carbon surfaces under high-temperature conditions. A uniform dispersion of Pt nanoparticles (1-6 nm) can be achieved via nanoconfinement on the surfaces of both mesoporouscarbon and tungsten carbide-modified mesoporous carbon. Pt nanoparticles supported on mesoporous carbons modified with tungsten carbide (Pt/WC-C) exhibit enhanced electrocatalytic activities relative to the control, in which mesoporous carbons without carbide modification were directly used as a support (Pt/C). In addition, both enhanced thermal stability and good electrochemical stability were observed for the Pt/WC-C electrocatalyst.

  11. Temperature, Oxygen, and Salt-Sensing Neurons in C. elegans Are Carbon Dioxide Sensors that Control Avoidance Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Bretscher, Andrew Jonathan; Kodama-Namba, Eiji; Busch, Karl Emanuel; Murphy, Robin Joseph; Soltesz, Zoltan; Laurent, Patrick; de Bono, Mario

    2011-01-01

    Summary Homeostatic control of body fluid CO2 is essential in animals but is poorly understood. C. elegans relies on diffusion for gas exchange and avoids environments with elevated CO2. We show that C. elegans temperature, O2, and salt-sensing neurons are also CO2 sensors mediating CO2 avoidance. AFD thermosensors respond to increasing CO2 by a fall and then rise in Ca2+ and show a Ca2+ spike when CO2 decreases. BAG O2 sensors and ASE salt sensors are both activated by CO2 and remain tonically active while high CO2 persists. CO2-evoked Ca2+ responses in AFD and BAG neurons require cGMP-gated ion channels. Atypical soluble guanylate cyclases mediating O2 responses also contribute to BAG CO2 responses. AFD and BAG neurons together stimulate turning when CO2 rises and inhibit turning when CO2 falls. Our results show that C. elegans senses CO2 using functionally diverse sensory neurons acting homeostatically to minimize exposure to elevated CO2. PMID:21435556

  12. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS: PHASE II--PILOT SCALE TESTING AND UPDATED PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS FOR OXYGEN FIRED CFB WITH CO2 CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2004-10-27

    Because fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this Phase II study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated one promising near-term coal fired power plant configuration designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}, along with some moisture, nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB plants results in significant Boiler Island cost savings resulting from reduced component The overall objective of the Phase II workscope, which is the subject of this report, is to generate a refined technical and economic evaluation of the Oxygen fired CFB case (Case-2 from Phase I) utilizing the information learned from pilot-scale testing of this concept. The objective of the pilot-scale testing was to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and delayed petroleum coke in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} mixtures. Firing rates in the pilot test facility ranged from 2.2 to 7.9 MM-Btu/hr. Pilot-scale testing was performed at ALSTOM's Multi-use Test Facility (MTF), located in Windsor, Connecticut.

  13. Oxygen sensors: Materials, methods, designs and applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ramamoorthy; P. K. Dutta; S. A. Akbar

    2003-01-01

    Advancement of gas sensor technology over the past few decades has led to significant progress in pollution control and thereby, to environmental protection. An excellent example is the control of automobile exhaust emissions, made possible by the use of oxygen gas sensors. Since early 1970's there have been sustained studies on oxygen sensors and has led to development of sensors

  14. Generation of silicon nanowires using a new thinning and trimming method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hui Wang; Anirban Chakraborty; Xinchuan Liu; Hao Li; Cheng Luo

    2007-01-01

    A new thinning and trimming approach has been explored to produce silicon nanowires (SiNWs) from silicon microwires. One-dimensional nanostructures have attracted great attention recently because of their potential applications as excellent components in micro\\/nanodevices. SiNWs in particular have received much attention since silicon is the most widely used material in integrated-circuit and microfabrication processes and has unique mechanical and electrical

  15. Development and validation of the Treatment Related Impact Measure of Weight (TRIM-Weight)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meryl Brod; Mette Hammer; Nana Kragh; Suzanne Lessard; Donald M Bushnell

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of prescription anti-obesity medication (AOM) is becoming increasingly common as treatment options grow and become more accessible. However, AOM may not be without a wide range of potentially negative impacts on patient functioning and well being. The Treatment Related Impact Measure (TRIM-Weight) is an obesity treatment-specific patient reported outcomes (PRO) measure designed to assess the key impacts

  16. The effect of toe trimming on production characteristics of heavy turkey toms.

    PubMed

    Fournier, J; Schwean-Lardner, K; Knezacek, T D; Gomis, S; Classen, H L

    2014-09-01

    Trimming the 3 anterior toes on both feet at day of hatch to remove the claws, reduce bird scratching, and improve carcass grades is a common practice in the turkey industry. Changes in the method of trimming and the growth potential of turkeys since the majority of research on this topic was completed motivated this study with the objective of establishing the effects of microwave toe treatment on production characteristics of tom turkeys. Turkey toms (306 in total) were either toe trimmed at the hatchery using a microwave claw processor (T) or were sham treated only (NT). Poults were randomly assigned to 1 of 9 replicate pens for each treatment. Average BW, feed consumption, and feed efficiency were determined from BW and feed intake measured by pen on d 0, 7, 21, 42, 56, 70, 91, 126, and 140. On d 140, toms were sent to a commercial processing facility where 5 carcasses from each pen were examined for scratching and other externally visible damage. Average BW was higher for NT toms on d 91, 126, and 140, with final weights of 21.70 and 21.15 kg for NT and T birds, respectively. The T birds had lower feed consumption than their NT counterparts during the first and last week of production, but feed efficiency was unaffected. Carcass scratching (T, 13.33% of carcasses scratched vs. NT, 15.56%) and other carcass damages were not affected by treatment. Although overall mortality was not affected by treatment, the incidence of mortality due to skeletal causes, especially rotated tibia, was increased in T toms. Negative effects on performance and no effect on carcass quality suggest that toe trimming may not be required or recommended for heavy tom turkeys. PMID:25002552

  17. Integrated circuit mask generation using a raster scanned laser trimming system

    E-print Network

    Gourley, Kevin Dwayne

    1982-01-01

    use of existing hardware in producing masks. With only the development of computer 19 sof twar e, a conventional YAC laser tr immer was conver ted to a mask machining system. Resolution and reticle quality was comparable to the previously... were requir ed, the laser tr immer's functional versatility has been maintained. Use of the laser trimmer for mask artwork generation introduces no limitations on the use of the Model 44 for resistor and capacitor trimming, scribing of' silicon...

  18. A simple approach to the numerical simulation with trimmed CAD surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beer, G.; Marussig, B.; Zechner, J.

    2015-03-01

    In this work a novel method for the analysis with trimmed CAD surfaces is presented. The method involves an additional mapping step and the attraction stems from its sim- plicity and ease of implementation into existing Finite Element (FEM) or Boundary Element (BEM) software. The method is first verified with classical test examples in structural mechanics. Then two practical applications are presented one using the FEM, the other the BEM, that show the applicability of the method.

  19. Challenges and mitigation strategies for resist trim etch in resist-mandrel based SAQP integration scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Nihar; Franke, Elliott; Liu, Eric; Raley, Angelique; Smith, Jeffrey; Farrell, Richard; Wang, Mingmei; Ito, Kiyohito; Das, Sanjana; Ko, Akiteru; Kumar, Kaushik; Ranjan, Alok; O'Meara, David; Nawa, Kenjiro; Scheer, Steven; DeVillers, Anton; Biolsi, Peter

    2015-03-01

    Patterning the desired narrow pitch at 10nm technology node and beyond, necessitates employment of either extreme ultra violet (EUV) lithography or multi-patterning solutions based on 193nm-immersion lithography. With enormous challenges being faced in getting EUV lithography ready for production, multi-patterning solutions that leverage the already installed base of 193nm-immersion-lithography are poised to become the industry norm for 10 and 7nm technology nodes. For patterning sub-40nm pitch line/space features, self-aligned quadruple patterning (SAQP) with resist pattern as the first mandrel shows significant cost as well as design benefit, as compared to EUV lithography or other multi-patterning techniques. One of the most critical steps in this patterning scheme is the resist mandrel definition step which involves trimming / reformation of resist profile via plasma etch for achieving appropriate pitch after the final pattern. Being the first mandrel, the requirements for the Line Edge Roughness (LER) / Line Width Roughness (LWR); critical dimension uniformity (CDU); and profile in 3-dimensions for the resist trim / reformation etch is extremely aggressive. In this paper we highlight the unique challenges associated in developing resist trim / reformation plasma etch process for SAQP integration scheme and summarize our efforts in optimizing the trim etch chemistries, process steps and plasma etch parameters for meeting the mandrel definition targets. Finally, we have shown successful patterning of 30nm pitch patterns via the resist-mandrel SAQP scheme and its implementation for Si-fin formation at 7nm node.

  20. Innovative, High-Pressure, Cryogenic Control Valve: Short Face-to-Face, Reduced Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Karlin; Larsen, Ed; McCourt, Jackson

    2003-01-01

    A control valve that can throttle high-pressure cryogenic fluid embodies several design features that distinguish it over conventional valves designed for similar applications. Field and design engineers worked together to create a valve that would simplify installation, trim changes, and maintenance, thus reducing overall cost. The seals and plug stem packing were designed to perform optimally in cryogenic temperature ranges. Unlike conventional high-pressure cryogenic valves, the trim size can be changed independent of the body.

  1. Impact of pollution controls in Beijing on atmospheric oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) during the 2008 Olympic Games: observation and modeling implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Yuan, B.; Li, X.; Shao, M.; Lu, S.; Li, Y.; Chang, C.-C.; Zhu, T.

    2014-10-01

    Oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) are important products of the photo-oxidation of hydrocarbons. They influence the oxidizing capacity and the ozone forming potential of the atmosphere. In the summer of 2008 two months' emission restrictions were enforced in Beijing to improve air quality during the Olympic Games. Observation evidence has been reported in related studies that these control measures were efficient in reducing the concentrations of primary anthropogenic pollutants (CO, NOx and non-methane hydrocarbons, i.e. NMHCs) by 30-40%. In this study, the influence of the emission restrictions on ambient levels of OVOCs was explored using a neural network analysis with consideration of meteorological conditions. Statistically significant reductions in formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) and methanol were found to be 12.9, 15.8, 17.1 and 19.6%, respectively, when the restrictions were in place. The effect of emission control on acetone was not detected in neural network simulations, probably due to pollution transport from surrounding areas outside Beijing. Although the ambient levels of most NMHCs were decreased by ~35% during the full control period, the emission ratios of reactive hydrocarbons attributed to vehicular emissions did not present obvious difference. A zero-dimensional box model based on Master Chemical Mechanism version 3.2 (MCM3.2) was applied to evaluate how OVOCs productions respond to the reduced precursors during the emission controlled period. On average, secondary HCHO was produced from the oxidation of anthropogenic alkenes (54%), isoprene (30%) and aromatics (15%). The importance of biogenic source for the total HCHO formation was almost on a par with that of anthropogenic alkenes during the daytime. Anthropogenic alkenes and alkanes dominated the photochemical production of other OVOCs such as acetaldehyde, acetone and MEK. The relative changes of modelled aldehydes, methyl vinyl ketone and methacrolein (MVK + MACR) before and during the pollution controlled period were comparable to the estimated reductions in the neural network, reflecting that current mechanisms can largely explain secondary production of those species under urban conditions. However, it is worthy to notice that the box model overestimated the measured concentrations of aldehydes by a factor of 1.4-1.7, and simulated MEK was in good agreement with the measurements when primary sources were taken into consideration. These results suggest that the understanding of OVOCs budget in the box model remains incomplete, there is still considerable uncertainty in particular missing sinks (unknown chemical reactions and physical dilution processes) for aldehydes and absence of direct emissions for ketones.

  2. Micro-Oxygenation of Red Wine: Techniques, Applications, and Outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leigh M. Schmidtke; Andrew C. Clark; Geoff R. Scollary

    2011-01-01

    Wine micro-oxygenation (MOX) is the controlled addition of oxygen to wine in a manner designed to ensure that complete mass transfer of molecular oxygen from gaseous to dissolved state occurs. MOX was initially developed to improve the body, structure, and fruitfulness in red wines with high concentrations of tannins and anthocyanins, by replicating the ingress of oxygen thought to arise

  3. Transport versus on-farm slaughter of bison: physiological stress, animal welfare, and avoidable trim losses.

    PubMed

    McCorkell, Robert; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Galbraith, Jayson; Schaefer, Al; Caulkett, Nigel; Boysen, Soren; Pajor, Ed

    2013-08-01

    Ranched bison are typically less acclimated to handling than are domesticated livestock, suggesting that they might be more vulnerable to handling and transportation stressors. Grain-finished bison were slaughtered on-farm (n = 11), or held for 48 h, transported to a research abattoir, held in lairage for 18 h, and then slaughtered (n = 11). An additional group (n = 10) was sampled at a conventional fixed location abattoir. Measures included serum cortisol and corticosterone concentrations during on-farm handling and exsanguination, serum glucose, creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and trim losses. Transport was associated with an increase in trim loss. On-farm, glucose was elevated, CPK was positively associated with handling order over 12 h, and corticosterone concentration, although lower than cortisol concentration, showed a greater response to prolonged disturbance. With appropriate on-farm handling facilities, the use of on-farm slaughter and mobile abattoir could avoid muscle damage and trim losses, and mitigate injuries sustained during handling and transport of bison. PMID:24155478

  4. Transport versus on-farm slaughter of bison: Physiological stress, animal welfare, and avoidable trim losses

    PubMed Central

    McCorkell, Robert; Wynne-Edwards, Katherine; Galbraith, Jayson; Schaefer, Al; Caulkett, Nigel; Boysen, Soren; Pajor, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Ranched bison are typically less acclimated to handling than are domesticated livestock, suggesting that they might be more vulnerable to handling and transportation stressors. Grain-finished bison were slaughtered on-farm (n = 11), or held for 48 h, transported to a research abattoir, held in lairage for 18 h, and then slaughtered (n = 11). An additional group (n = 10) was sampled at a conventional fixed location abattoir. Measures included serum cortisol and corticosterone concentrations during on-farm handling and exsanguination, serum glucose, creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and trim losses. Transport was associated with an increase in trim loss. On-farm, glucose was elevated, CPK was positively associated with handling order over 12 h, and corticosterone concentration, although lower than cortisol concentration, showed a greater response to prolonged disturbance. With appropriate on-farm handling facilities, the use of on-farm slaughter and mobile abattoir could avoid muscle damage and trim losses, and mitigate injuries sustained during handling and transport of bison. PMID:24155478

  5. Holey fibre delivered radiation for laser curing and trimming of direct write components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmonte, T.; Raja, S.; McDonald, J.; Sidhu, J.; O'Driscoll, E. J.; Flanagan, J. C.; Hayes, J. R.; Petrovich, M. N.; Finazzi, V.; Polletti, F.; Richardson, D. J.; Hand, D. P.

    2006-09-01

    In this paper we demonstrate how Holey Fibre (HF) technology can positively impact the field of materials processing and fabrication, specifically Direct Write (DW). DW is the large scale, patterned deposition of functional materials onto both flat and conformal surfaces. Currently, DW techniques involve thermal post-processing whereby the entire structure is enclosed inside an oven, so limiting the DW technique to small, heat resistant surfaces. Selectively laser curing the ink would allow the ink to be brought up to the required temperature without heating the surrounding substrate material. In addition the ability to trim components would allow miniature circuits to be written and devices to be tuned by changing the capacitance or resistance. HF technology enables in-situ curing and trimming of direct write components using the same rig and length of fibre. HF's with mode areas in excess of 450?m2 can be routinely fabricated allowing high power transmission whilst retaining the high beam quality of the radiation source. We will present results of curing and trimming trials which demonstrate that HF's provide a distinct advantage over standard multimode fibres by allowing both curing and machining to be achieved through a single delivery fibre.

  6. PEAT: an intelligent and efficient paired-end sequencing adapter trimming algorithm

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background In modern paired-end sequencing protocols short DNA fragments lead to adapter-appended reads. Current paired-end adapter removal approaches trim adapter by scanning the fragment of adapter on the 3' end of the reads, which are not competent in some applications. Results Here, we propose a fast and highly accurate adapter-trimming algorithm, PEAT, designed specifically for paired-end sequencing. PEAT requires no a priori adaptor sequence, which is convenient for large-scale meta-analyses. We assessed the performance of PEAT with many adapter trimmers in both simulated and real life paired-end sequencing libraries. The importance of adapter trimming was exemplified by the influence of the downstream analyses on RNA-seq, ChIP-seq and MNase-seq. Several useful guidelines of applying adapter trimmers with aligners were suggested. Conclusions PEAT can be easily included in the routine paired-end sequencing pipeline. The executable binaries and the standalone C++ source code package of PEAT are freely available online. PMID:25707528

  7. Development of improved tree-trimming equipment and techniques: Phase I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, J.W.; Gillon, J.P.

    1982-09-01

    This Phase I report of an EPRI study, ''...to design and produce prototype equipment capable of lowering costs and improving efficiency, safety, and flexibility of tree-trimming operations,'' evaluates present techniques and tools, identifies possible improvements, and develops new concepts for cutting and positioning equipment. Guided by the scientific method, the problem of tree trimming is defined by a work measurement system identifying the day's total activity and operations required. Data was accumulated by a computer-based literature search of 29 databases, a United States and Foreign patent search, questionnaires sent to 40 contractors, and a tool and equipment improvement survey of 25 utilities, plus in-depth studies of work situations. Forty new concepts were developed by analysis of accumulated data and creativity workshops, then given an initial screening for potential. A decision analysis, supported by an evaluation of the influence of various concepts on a modeled work situation, formed the basis for empirically testing the concepts. Five concepts emerged from testing. Economic considerations of costs of development, benefit/cost ratios, and savings to average size electric utilities were summarized. It was concluded that development of equipment for tree trimming has the potential for high return on investment.

  8. Virus-induced gene silencing reveals control of reactive oxygen species accumulation and salt tolerance in tomato by ?-aminobutyric acid metabolic pathway.

    PubMed

    Bao, Hexigeduleng; Chen, Xianyang; Lv, Sulian; Jiang, Ping; Feng, Juanjuan; Fan, Pengxiang; Nie, Lingling; Li, Yinxin

    2015-03-01

    ?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) accumulates in many plant species in response to environmental stress. However, the physiological function of GABA or its metabolic pathway (GABA shunt) in plants remains largely unclear. Here, the genes, including glutamate decarboxylases (SlGADs), GABA?transaminases (SlGABA-Ts) and succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SlSSADH), controlling three steps of the metabolic pathway of GABA, were studied through virus-induced gene silencing approach in tomato. Silencing of SlGADs (GABA biosynthetic genes) and SlGABA-Ts (GABA catabolic genes) led to increased accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as salt sensitivity under 200?mm NaCl treatment. Targeted quantitative analysis of metabolites revealed that GABA decreased and increased in the SlGADs- and SlGABA-Ts-silenced plants, respectively, whereas succinate (the final product of GABA metabolism) decreased in both silenced plants. Contrarily, SlSSADH-silenced plants, also defective in GABA degradation process, showed dwarf phenotype, curled leaves and enhanced accumulation of ROS in normal conditions, suggesting the involvement of a bypath for succinic semialdehyde catabolism to ?-hydroxybutyrate as reported previously in Arabidopsis, were less sensitive to salt stress. These results suggest that GABA shunt is involved in salt tolerance of tomato, probably by affecting the homeostasis of metabolites such as succinate and ?-hydroxybutyrate and subsequent ROS accumulation under salt stress. PMID:25074245

  9. Corrosion rate of parent and weld materials of F82H and JPCA steels under LBE flow with active oxygen control at 450 and 500 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Kenji; Kamata, Kinya; Ono, Mikinori; Kitano, Teruaki; Hayashi, Kenichi; Oigawa, Hiroyuki

    2008-06-01

    Corrosion behavior of parent and weld materials of F82H and JPCA was studied in the circulating LBE loop under impinging flow. These are candidate materials for Japanese Accelerator Driven System (ADS) beam windows. Maximum temperatures were kept to 450 and 500 °C with 100 °C constant temperature difference. Main flow velocity was 0.4-0.6 m/s in every case. Oxygen concentration was controlled to 2-4 × 10 -5 mass% although there was one exception. Testing time durations were 500-3000 h. Round bar type specimens were put in the circular tube of the loop. An electron beam weld in the middle of specimens was also studied. Optical microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray element analyses and X-ray diffraction were used to investigate corrosion in these materials. Consequently corrosion depth and stability of those oxide layers were characterized based on the analyses. For a long-term behavior a linear law is recommended to predict corrosion in the ADS target design.

  10. A controlled test of the dual-isotope approach for the interpretation of stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratio variation in tree rings.

    PubMed

    Roden, John S; Farquhar, Graham D

    2012-04-01

    Seedlings of a conifer (Pinus radiata D. Don) and a broad leaf angiosperm (Eucalyptus globulus Labill.) were grown for 100 days in two growth cabinets at 45 or 65% relative humidity. The seedlings were exposed to treatments designed to modify carbon assimilation rates and capacities, stomatal conductance and transpiration to test conceptual models that attempt to clarify the interpretation of carbon isotope discrimination (?(13)C) by using oxygen isotope enrichment (?(18)O). Differences in relative humidity and within-cabinet treatments (including lower irradiance, lower nitrogen inputs, higher leaf temperature and lower moisture status than control seedlings) produced significant differences in assimilation rates, photosynthetic capacities, stomatal conductance, leaf transpiration rates and leaf evaporative enrichment. The dual-isotope approach accurately interpreted the cause of variation in wood cellulose ?(13)C for some of the treatments, but not for others. We also tested whether we could use ?(13)C variation to constrain the interpretation of ?(18)O variation. Carbon isotope discrimination appears to be influenced by transpiration (providing information on leaf evaporative enrichment), but the results did not provide a clear way to interpret such variation. The dual-isotope approach appears to be valid conceptually, but more work is needed to make it operational under different scenarios. PMID:22440882

  11. Electron flow to oxygen in higher plants and algae: rates and control of direct photoreduction (Mehler reaction) and rubisco oxygenase.

    PubMed Central

    Badger, M R; von Caemmerer, S; Ruuska, S; Nakano, H

    2000-01-01

    Linear electron transport in chloroplasts produces a number of reduced components associated with photosystem I (PS I) that may subsequently participate in reactions that reduce O2. The two primary reactions that have been extensively studied are: first, the direct reduction of O2 to superoxide by reduced donors associated with PS I (the Mehler reaction), and second, the rubisco oxygenase (ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase EC 4.1.1.39) reaction and associated peroxisomal and mitochondrial reactions of the photorespiratory pathway. This paper reviews a number of recent and past studies with higher plants, algae and cyanobacteria that have attempted to quantify O2 fluxes under various conditions and their contributions to a number of roles, including photon energy dissipation. In C3 and Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants, a Mehler O2 uptake reaction is unlikely to support a significant flow of electron transport (probably less than 10%). In addition, if it were present it would appear to scale with photosynthetic carbon oxidation cycle (PCO) and photosynthetic carbon reduction cycle (PCR) activity This is supported by studies with antisense tobacco plants with reduced rubisco at low and high temperatures and high light, as well as studies with potatoes, grapes and madrone during water stress. The lack of significant Mehler in these plants directly argues for a strong control of Mehler reaction in the absence of ATP consumption by the PCR and PCO cycles. The difference between C3 and C4 plants is primarily that the level of light-dependent O2 uptake is generally much lower in C4 plants and is relatively insensitive to the external CO2 concentration. Such a major difference is readily attributed to the operation of the C4 CO2 concentrating mechanism. Algae show a range of light-dependent O2 uptake rates, similar to C4 plants. As in C4 plants, the O2 uptake appears to be largely insensitive to CO2, even in species that lack a CO2 concentrating mechanism and under conditions that are clearly limiting with respect to inorganic carbon supply. A part explanation for this could be that many algal rubsicos have considerably different oxygenase kinetic properties and exhibit far less oxygenase activity in air. This would lead to the conclusion that perhaps a greater proportion of the observed O2 uptake may be due to a Mehler reaction and less to rubisco, compared with C3 plants. In contrast to algae and higher plants, cyanobacteria appear to have a high capacity for Mehler O2 uptake, which appears to be not well coupled or limited by ATP consumption. It is likely that in all higher plants and algae, which have a well-developed non-photochemical quenching mechanism, non-radiative energy dissipation is the major mechanism for dissipating excess photons absorbed by the light-harvesting complexes under stressful conditions. However, for cyanobacteria, with a lack of significant non-photochemical quenching, the situation may well be different. PMID:11127997

  12. The effect of toe trimming on behavior, mobility, toe length and other indicators of welfare in tom turkeys.

    PubMed

    Fournier, J; Schwean-Lardner, K; Knezacek, T D; Gomis, S; Classen, H L

    2015-07-01

    Society is increasingly concerned about the welfare of animals kept for food production, for this reason, invasive procedures such as toe trimming in turkeys must be studied to assess the corresponding welfare implications and to ensure such procedures are acceptable for continued use. To this end, research was conducted to evaluate the welfare effects of toe trimming on toms raised to 140?d. The study used 306 Hybrid Converter toms, half of which were toe trimmed using a Microwave Claw Processor (MCP) which group are denoted T, and half of which were sham treated but not trimmed, which group are denoted NT. Turkey behavior was observed on d 1, 3, 5, and 133. Toe cross sections were taken every second day for 14 d after treatment and were used to histologically examine the healing process. Toe length, gait score, and bird stance were assessed on d 55, 84, 119, and 139. For the first 5?d after treatment, T birds demonstrated less active behaviors such as feeding, standing, walking and running (P ? 0.05), indicative of pain with the effect diminishing with age. At d 133, T turkeys stood more and walked less than NT birds (P ? 0.05). Gait score and bird stance were not affected by treatment. Trimmed toes were on average 91.9% of the length of NT toes and toe length was more variable (P ? 0.05) as a result of the trimming process. Histological examination indicated T toes had complete epithelium closure over the healthy tissue by d 8 and were fully healed by d 14. Although bird mobility and stance were unaffected by treatment, turkey behavior both early and late in the production cycle were suggestive of pain and balance effects; both indicators of reduced welfare as a result of toe trimming. PMID:25881587

  13. Rapid fabrication and trimming of nanostructured backside reflectors for enhanced optical absorption in a-Si:H solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Yao-Chung; Søndergaard, Thomas; Kristensen, Peter Kjær; Rizzoli, Rita; Pedersen, Kjeld; Pedersen, Thomas Garm

    2015-06-01

    Nanostructured metallic backside reflectors (BSRs) are crucial for enhanced optical absorption in thin-film amorphous silicon solar cells. The structural fabrication based on rapid aluminum (Al) anodization has a potential for roll-to-roll processes, which are promising for low-cost and large-scale fabrication of BSRs. In this regard, the short fabrication time via appropriate choice of acid, acid concentration, temperature, and time-dependent voltage control is very important. In addition, we first demonstrate the trimming of structural height by using conventional Al anodization, so the best pore size of BSRs with the same structural height can be determined. According to integrated external quantum efficiency (IEQE) calculations, the nanostructured BSR with 430-nm pore size shows 51.6 % IEQE improvement compared with the value of the flat BSR. Moreover, it is interesting that the absorption spectra of a-Si:H on nanostructured Al BSRs with and without the 100-nm Ag coating are highly similar even if the optical properties of Al and Ag are different.

  14. Upregulation of TRIM5? gene expression after live-attenuated simian immunodeficiency virus vaccination in Mauritian cynomolgus macaques, but TRIM5? genotype has no impact on virus acquisition or vaccination outcome.

    PubMed

    Mattiuzzo, Giada; Rose, Nicola J; Almond, Neil; Towers, Greg J; Berry, Neil

    2013-03-01

    Polymorphism in the TRIM5?/TRIMcyp gene, which interacts with the lentiviral capsid, has been shown to impact on simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication in certain macaque species. Here, in the context of a live-attenuated SIV vaccine study conducted in Mauritian-origin cynomolgus macaques (MCM), we demonstrate upregulation of TRIM5? expression in multiple lymphoid tissues immediately following vaccination. Despite this, the restricted range of TRIM5? genotypes and lack of TRIMcyp variants had no or only limited impact on the replication kinetics in vivo of either the SIVmac viral vaccine or wild-type SIVsmE660 challenge. Additionally, there appeared to be no impact of TRIM5? genotype on the outcome of homologous or heterologous vaccination/challenge studies. The limited spectrum of TRIM5? polymorphism in MCM appears to minimize host bias to provide consistency of replication for SIVmac/SIVsm viruses in vivo, and therefore on vaccination and pathogenesis studies conducted in this species. PMID:23152371

  15. Living with Oxygen Therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With Oxygen Therapy Oxygen therapy helps many people function better and be ... chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) Although you may need oxygen therapy continuously or for long periods, it doesn' ...

  16. SUPERVISORY CONTROL THEORY: MODELS AND METHODS W.M. Wonham

    E-print Network

    Wonham, W. M.

    production cycle: 5 6 7 8 Deadlock sequence: 1 2 1 5 T(rimmed) FMS model state size: 15 NumberSUPERVISORY CONTROL THEORY: MODELS AND METHODS W.M. Wonham Systems Control Group ECE Department to others as well. About supervisory control theory, or SCT, the #12;rst thing to say is that quite a lot

  17. 14 CFR 23.255 - Out of trim characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...The stick force versus g curve must have a positive slope at any speed up to and including VFC /MFC ; and (2) At speeds between VFC /MFC and VDF /MDF , the direction of the primary longitudinal control force may not...

  18. 14 CFR 23.255 - Out of trim characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...The stick force versus g curve must have a positive slope at any speed up to and including VFC /MFC ; and (2) At speeds between VFC /MFC and VDF /MDF , the direction of the primary longitudinal control force may not...

  19. 14 CFR 23.255 - Out of trim characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...The stick force versus g curve must have a positive slope at any speed up to and including VFC /MFC ; and (2) At speeds between VFC /MFC and VDF /MDF , the direction of the primary longitudinal control force may not...

  20. Lafora disease E3-ubiquitin ligase malin is related to TRIM32 at both the phylogenetic and functional level

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malin is an E3-ubiquitin ligase that is mutated in Lafora disease, a fatal form of progressive myoclonus epilepsy. In order to perform its function, malin forms a functional complex with laforin, a glucan phosphatase that facilitates targeting of malin to its corresponding substrates. While laforin phylogeny has been studied, there are no data on the evolutionary lineage of malin. Results After an extensive search for malin orthologs, we found that malin is present in all vertebrate species and a cephalochordate, in contrast with the broader species distribution previously reported for laforin. These data suggest that in addition to forming a functional complex, laforin and perhaps malin may also have independent functions. In addition, we found that malin shares significant identity with the E3-ubiquitin ligase TRIM32, which belongs to the tripartite-motif containing family of proteins. We present experimental evidence that both malin and TRIM32 share some substrates for ubiquitination, although they produce ubiquitin chains with different topologies. However, TRIM32-specific substrates were not reciprocally ubiquitinated by the laforin-malin complex. Conclusions We found that malin and laforin are not conserved in the same genomes. In addition, we found that malin shares significant identity with the E3-ubiquitin ligase TRIM32. The latter result suggests a common origin for malin and TRIM32 and provides insights into possible functional relationships between both proteins. PMID:21798009

  1. Assessment of Myocardial Reactivity to Controlled Hypercapnia with Free-breathing T2-prepared Cardiac Blood Oxygen Level–Dependent MR Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hsin-Jung; Yumul, Roya; Tang, Richard; Cokic, Ivan; Klein, Michael; Kali, Avinash; Sobczyk, Olivia; Sharif, Behzad; Tang, Jun; Bi, Xiaoming; Tsaftaris, Sotirios A.; Li, Debiao; Conte, Antonio Hernandez; Fisher, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether controlled and tolerable levels of hypercapnia may be an alternative to adenosine, a routinely used coronary vasodilator, in healthy human subjects and animals. Materials and Methods Human studies were approved by the institutional review board and were HIPAA compliant. Eighteen subjects had end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PetCO2) increased by 10 mm Hg, and myocardial perfusion was monitored with myocardial blood oxygen level–dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Animal studies were approved by the institutional animal care and use committee. Anesthetized canines with (n = 7) and without (n = 7) induced stenosis of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) underwent vasodilator challenges with hypercapnia and adenosine. LAD coronary blood flow velocity and free-breathing myocardial BOLD MR responses were measured at each intervention. Appropriate statistical tests were performed to evaluate measured quantitative changes in all parameters of interest in response to changes in partial pressure of carbon dioxide. Results Changes in myocardial BOLD MR signal were equivalent to reported changes with adenosine (11.2% ± 10.6 [hypercapnia, 10 mm Hg] vs 12% ± 12.3 [adenosine]; P = .75). In intact canines, there was a sigmoidal relationship between BOLD MR response and PetCO2 with most of the response occurring over a 10 mm Hg span. BOLD MR (17% ± 14 [hypercapnia] vs 14% ± 24 [adenosine]; P = .80) and coronary blood flow velocity (21% ± 16 [hypercapnia] vs 26% ± 27 [adenosine]; P > .99) responses were similar to that of adenosine infusion. BOLD MR signal changes in canines with LAD stenosis during hypercapnia and adenosine infusion were not different (1% ± 4 [hypercapnia] vs 6% ± 4 [adenosine]; P = .12). Conclusion Free-breathing T2-prepared myocardial BOLD MR imaging showed that hypercapnia of 10 mm Hg may provide a cardiac hyperemic stimulus similar to adenosine. © RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:24749715

  2. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADPH oxidase 4 control STAT3 activity in melanoma cells through a pathway involving reactive oxygen species, c-SRC and SHP2

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Tianchi; Kuang, Yingmin; Zhang, Chunhua; Zhang, Zheng; Chen, Long; Li, Bo; Li, Yuqian; Wang, Yanling; Yang, Huixin; Han, Qiaoqiao; Zhu, Yuechun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) participates in glucose utilization by catalysing the first step of the pentose-phosphate pathway in mammalian cells. Previous studies have shown that changes in G6PD levels can promote tumor cell proliferation or apoptosis via the STAT3/5 pathway in a human melanoma xenograft model. G6PD cooperates with NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) in the cellular metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and in maintaining the intracellular redox state. Methods: In this study, the effect of G6PD or NOX4 silencing in the melanoma line A375 was examined in terms of redox state, proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src (c-Src) and the tyrosine-specific protein phosphatase SHP2 expression as well as cell cycle progression. Results: The results demonstrate that: (1) Downregulation of cyclin D1 and CDK4 and up-regulation of p53 and p21 occurred in response to silencing of G6PD and NOX4 thus resulting in G1/S cell cycle arrest and inhibition of A375 cell proliferation. (2) The blockade of cell proliferation is primarily due to a reduced DNA-binding activity of STAT3. (3) The DNA-binding activity of STAT3 was regulated by the upstream factors, c-SRC and SHP2. Silencing of NOX4 in A375 cells inhibited c-SRC and SHP2 regulated STAT3 activity. Conclusion: The data are consistent with a novel G6PD-NOX4-NADPH-ROS-c-SRC/SHP2 pathway controlling STAT3 activity in A375 melanoma cells.

  3. Microbial, instrumental color and sensory color and odor characteristics of ground beef produced from beef trimmings treated with ozone or chlorine dioxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. W. Pohlman; K. S. McElyea; J. K. Apple

    The effects of beef trimming decontamination with ozone and chlorine dioxide on ground beef microbial, color and odor char- acteristics were studied. Beef trimmings were inoculated with Escherichia coli (EC) and Salmonella Typhimurium (ST), then treated with either 1% ozonated water for 7 min (7O) or 15 min (15O), or with 200 ppm chlorine dioxide (CLO) and compared with a

  4. Localized measurements of optical thickness variations in femtosecond trimmed structures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Lereu; F. Lemarchand; M. Lequime

    2008-01-01

    Currently, the utilization of high power ultrafast lasers to induce optical changes in structures for the purpose of locally drawing patterns with dimensions inferior to the diffraction limit is well-established and controlled. Using this technique, we aim to modify the refractive index and\\/or the geometrical parameters of an optical interferential filter composed of successive thin layers. This local optimization will

  5. 14 CFR 25.255 - Out-of-trim characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...The stick force vs. g curve must have a positive slope at any speed up to and including VFC /MFC ; and (2) At speeds between VFC /MFC and VDF /MDF the direction of the primary longitudinal control force may not reverse....

  6. 14 CFR 25.255 - Out-of-trim characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...The stick force vs. g curve must have a positive slope at any speed up to and including VFC /MFC ; and (2) At speeds between VFC /MFC and VDF /MDF the direction of the primary longitudinal control force may not reverse....

  7. 14 CFR 25.255 - Out-of-trim characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...The stick force vs. g curve must have a positive slope at any speed up to and including VFC /MFC ; and (2) At speeds between VFC /MFC and VDF /MDF the direction of the primary longitudinal control force may not reverse....

  8. 14 CFR 25.255 - Out-of-trim characteristics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...The stick force vs. g curve must have a positive slope at any speed up to and including VFC /MFC ; and (2) At speeds between VFC /MFC and VDF /MDF the direction of the primary longitudinal control force may not reverse....

  9. The mitochondrial reactive oxygen species regulator p66Shc controls PDGF-induced signaling and migration through protein tyrosine phosphatase oxidation.

    PubMed

    Frijhoff, Jeroen; Dagnell, Markus; Augsten, Martin; Beltrami, Elena; Giorgio, Marco; Östman, Arne

    2014-03-01

    Growth factor receptors induce a transient increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels upon receptor binding to promote signaling through oxidation of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Most studies have focused on NADPH oxidases as the dominant source of ROS to induce PTP oxidation. A potential additional regulator of growth factor-induced PTP oxidation is p66Shc, which stimulates mitochondrial ROS production. This study explores the contribution of p66Shc-induced ROS to PTP oxidation and growth factor receptor-induced signaling and migration through analyses of p66Shc-KO fibroblasts and cells with siRNA-mediated p66Shc downregulation. Analyses of PDGF?R phosphorylation in two independent cell systems demonstrated a decrease in PDGF?R phosphorylation after p66Shc deletion or downregulation, which occurred in a partially site-selective and antioxidant-sensitive manner. Deletion of p66Shc also reduced PDGF-induced activation of downstream signaling of Erk, Akt, PLC?-1, and FAK. Importantly, reduced levels of p66Shc led to decreased oxidation of DEP1, PTP1B, and SHP2 after PDGF stimulation. The cell biological relevance of these findings was indicated by demonstration of a significantly reduced migratory response in PDGF-stimulated p66Shc-KO fibroblasts, consistent with reduced PDGF?R-Y1021 and PLC?-1 phosphorylation. Downregulation of p66Shc also reduced EGFR phosphorylation and signaling, indicating that the positive role of p66Shc in receptor tyrosine kinase signaling is potentially general. Moreover, downregulation of the mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide scavenger peroxiredoxin 3 increased PDGF?R phosphorylation, showing that mitochondrial ROS in general promote PDGF?R signaling. This study thus identifies a previously unrecognized role for p66Shc in the regulation of PTP oxidation controlling growth factor-induced signaling and migration. In more general terms, the study indicates a regulatory role for mitochondrial-derived ROS in the control of PTP oxidation influencing growth factor signaling. PMID:24378437

  10. Disruption of the ASTN2/TRIM32 locus at 9q33.1 is a risk factor in males for autism spectrum disorders, ADHD and other neurodevelopmental phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Lionel, Anath C.; Tammimies, Kristiina; Vaags, Andrea K.; Rosenfeld, Jill A.; Ahn, Joo Wook; Merico, Daniele; Noor, Abdul; Runke, Cassandra K.; Pillalamarri, Vamsee K.; Carter, Melissa T.; Gazzellone, Matthew J.; Thiruvahindrapuram, Bhooma; Fagerberg, Christina; Laulund, Lone W.; Pellecchia, Giovanna; Lamoureux, Sylvia; Deshpande, Charu; Clayton-Smith, Jill; White, Ann C.; Leather, Susan; Trounce, John; Melanie Bedford, H.; Hatchwell, Eli; Eis, Peggy S.; Yuen, Ryan K.C.; Walker, Susan; Uddin, Mohammed; Geraghty, Michael T.; Nikkel, Sarah M.; Tomiak, Eva M.; Fernandez, Bridget A.; Soreni, Noam; Crosbie, Jennifer; Arnold, Paul D.; Schachar, Russell J.; Roberts, Wendy; Paterson, Andrew D.; So, Joyce; Szatmari, Peter; Chrysler, Christina; Woodbury-Smith, Marc; Brian Lowry, R.; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Mandyam, Divya; Wei, John; MacDonald, Jeffrey R.; Howe, Jennifer L.; Nalpathamkalam, Thomas; Wang, Zhuozhi; Tolson, Daniel; Cobb, David S.; Wilks, Timothy M.; Sorensen, Mark J.; Bader, Patricia I.; An, Yu; Wu, Bai-Lin; Musumeci, Sebastiano Antonino; Romano, Corrado; Postorivo, Diana; Nardone, Anna M.; Monica, Matteo Della; Scarano, Gioacchino; Zoccante, Leonardo; Novara, Francesca; Zuffardi, Orsetta; Ciccone, Roberto; Antona, Vincenzo; Carella, Massimo; Zelante, Leopoldo; Cavalli, Pietro; Poggiani, Carlo; Cavallari, Ugo; Argiropoulos, Bob; Chernos, Judy; Brasch-Andersen, Charlotte; Speevak, Marsha; Fichera, Marco; Ogilvie, Caroline Mackie; Shen, Yiping; Hodge, Jennelle C.; Talkowski, Michael E.; Stavropoulos, Dimitri J.; Marshall, Christian R.; Scherer, Stephen W.

    2014-01-01

    Rare copy number variants (CNVs) disrupting ASTN2 or both ASTN2 and TRIM32 have been reported at 9q33.1 by genome-wide studies in a few individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). The vertebrate-specific astrotactins, ASTN2 and its paralog ASTN1, have key roles in glial-guided neuronal migration during brain development. To determine the prevalence of astrotactin mutations and delineate their associated phenotypic spectrum, we screened ASTN2/TRIM32 and ASTN1 (1q25.2) for exonic CNVs in clinical microarray data from 89 985 individuals across 10 sites, including 64 114 NDD subjects. In this clinical dataset, we identified 46 deletions and 12 duplications affecting ASTN2. Deletions of ASTN1 were much rarer. Deletions near the 3? terminus of ASTN2, which would disrupt all transcript isoforms (a subset of these deletions also included TRIM32), were significantly enriched in the NDD subjects (P = 0.002) compared with 44 085 population-based controls. Frequent phenotypes observed in individuals with such deletions include autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), speech delay, anxiety and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). The 3?-terminal ASTN2 deletions were significantly enriched compared with controls in males with NDDs, but not in females. Upon quantifying ASTN2 human brain RNA, we observed shorter isoforms expressed from an alternative transcription start site of recent evolutionary origin near the 3? end. Spatiotemporal expression profiling in the human brain revealed consistently high ASTN1 expression while ASTN2 expression peaked in the early embryonic neocortex and postnatal cerebellar cortex. Our findings shed new light on the role of the astrotactins in psychopathology and their interplay in human neurodevelopment. PMID:24381304

  11. New decision-based trimmed median filter for high-density salt-and-pepper noise removal in images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijaykumar, Vaithiyam Rengarajan; Santhanamari, Guru

    2014-05-01

    A new switching-based trimmed median filter to remove high-density salt-and-pepper noise in digital images is proposed. Initially, a 3×3 sliding window is applied on each pixel in the noisy image. The minimum- and maximum-intensity values are trimmed, and the noisy pixels are detected based on the predefined threshold value. In the filtering stage, the noisy pixels are replaced by median value of uncorrupted pixels in the trimmed array. At very high noise density, if all the pixels in the sliding window are corrupted, then the proposed algorithm replaces noisy pixels by the midpoint of recently processed pixels. The experimental results for various test images show that the performance of the proposed algorithm is superior to the existing algorithms, namely SMF, WMF, CWMF, AMF, DBA, and MDBUTMF in terms of visual quality and edge preservation, even at noise levels as high as 95%.

  12. ENEA experience in oxygen measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foletti, C.; Gessi, A.; Benamati, G.

    2008-06-01

    Impurity detection in liquid metals is one of the most important tasks in the development of Accelerator Driven Subcritical (ADS) system technologies. Dissolved oxygen and metal oxides are the most dangerous impurities that could affect the Pb(44.5%)-Bi(55.5%) eutectic alloy cooling/target system, especially in consideration of the potential for system plugging. Accurate measurement of oxygen concentration in heavy metal coolants or targets for nuclear applications, whether liquid lead-bismuth eutectic or pure lead, is a critical issue in defining the need for active oxygen control to first of all prevent contamination of the liquid system by lead and bismuth oxides, and, in addition, to ensure efficient corrosion protection of iron-based alloy structures in contact with the coolant/target if the self-healing oxide layer method of corrosion protection is chosen. Due to this twofold aspect of the management of dissolved oxygen, the monitoring of oxygen concentration becomes of primary importance. This paper will focus on the development of an on-line oxygen monitoring system and more particularly on the description of the test to define the reliability of the electrochemical sensors. In addition, it will address the question of how such systems can be improved.

  13. Different effects of infrared and one-half hot blade beak trimming on beak topography and growth.

    PubMed

    Marchant-Forde, R M; Cheng, H W

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the effects of infrared beak treatment (IR-BT) and hot blade beak trimming (HB-BT) on beak length and production in laying hen pullets. Seventy-two 1-d-old birds were randomly assigned to the HB-BT, IR-BT, or control group. Birds were pair housed by treatment, and beak images and production indices were obtained posttreatment at fixed intervals for 10 wk. Immediately after treatment, HB-BT beaks were shorter than control or IR-BT beaks (P < 0.01), whereas control and IR-BT beaks remained comparable in length until the onset of tissue degeneration and erosion of the IR-BT beaks at 1 to 2 wk posttreatment. At wk 2 posttreatment, beaks were longest in control birds, intermediate in IR-BT birds, and shortest in HB-BT birds (P < 0.01). Thereafter, an increase in beak length in all treatments was observed over time (P < 0.01), but HB-BT beaks had the greatest regrowth. The beak length of birds in the HB-BT group was similar to that of birds in the IR-BT group from wk 3 to 8, and then grew longer at wk 9 and 10 posttreatment (P < 0.01). The effects of treatments on BW emerged at d 5 posttreatment. The BW of birds in the HB-BT group was suppressed up to and including wk 9 posttreatment compared with that of control birds (P < 0.05) and was significantly lower than that of birds in the IR-BT group between 2 and 4 wk posttreatment (P < 0.05). Birds in the IR-BT group did not differ from control birds after wk 3 posttreatment (P < 0.05). By the final week of the study, differences in BW across treatments were no longer apparent (P > 0.05). For the most part, feed intake was higher in control birds, intermediate in birds in the IR-BT group, and lowest in birds in the HB-BT group until wk 9 posttreatment (P < 0.05). Similarly, feed waste was generally higher in control birds and least in birds in the HB-BT group (P < 0.05). The IR-BT treatment appeared to be more effective at inhibiting beak regrowth, with a less pronounced effect on feed intake than the HB-BT treatment in laying hen pullets. PMID:21076092

  14. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    MedlinePLUS

    Hyperbaric oxygen therapy uses a special pressure chamber to increase the amount of oxygen in the blood. ... Carnay AY. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy, an introduction. Crit Care Nurs Q . 2013;36:274-279. Rabinowitz RP, Caplan ES. Hyperbaric oxygen. In: Mandell ...

  15. Mutations in Four Glycosyl Hydrolases Reveal a Highly Coordinated Pathway for Rhodopsin Biosynthesis and N-Glycan Trimming in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, Erica E.; Vasiljevic, Eva; Brehm, Kimberley S.; Colley, Nansi Jo

    2014-01-01

    As newly synthesized glycoproteins move through the secretory pathway, the asparagine-linked glycan (N-glycan) undergoes extensive modifications involving the sequential removal and addition of sugar residues. These modifications are critical for the proper assembly, quality control and transport of glycoproteins during biosynthesis. The importance of N-glycosylation is illustrated by a growing list of diseases that result from defects in the biosynthesis and processing of N-linked glycans. The major rhodopsin in Drosophila melanogaster photoreceptors, Rh1, is highly unique among glycoproteins, as the N-glycan appears to be completely removed during Rh1 biosynthesis and maturation. However, much of the deglycosylation pathway for Rh1 remains unknown. To elucidate the key steps in Rh1 deglycosylation in vivo, we characterized mutant alleles of four Drosophila glycosyl hydrolases, namely ?-mannosidase-II (?-Man-II), ?-mannosidase-IIb (?-Man-IIb), a ?-N-acetylglucosaminidase called fused lobes (Fdl), and hexosaminidase 1 (Hexo1). We have demonstrated that these four enzymes play essential and unique roles in a highly coordinated pathway for oligosaccharide trimming during Rh1 biosynthesis. Our results reveal that ?-Man-II and ?-Man-IIb are not isozymes like their mammalian counterparts, but rather function at distinct stages in Rh1 maturation. Also of significance, our results indicate that Hexo1 has a biosynthetic role in N-glycan processing during Rh1 maturation. This is unexpected given that in humans, the hexosaminidases are typically lysosomal enzymes involved in N-glycan catabolism with no known roles in protein biosynthesis. Here, we present a genetic dissection of glycoprotein processing in Drosophila and unveil key steps in N-glycan trimming during Rh1 biosynthesis. Taken together, our results provide fundamental advances towards understanding the complex and highly regulated pathway of N-glycosylation in vivo and reveal novel insights into the functions of glycosyl hydrolases in the secretory pathway. PMID:24785692

  16. Mineral Surface Control of Organic Carbon Burial: Secular Rise of Clay Mineral Deposition in the Precambrian and the Rise of Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, M. J.; Droser, M. L.; Mayer, L.; Pevear, D.

    2004-12-01

    Accumulation of oxygen in the earth's atmosphere requires burial of organic matter in marine sediments. Today, the major mode of organic carbon burial is in association with detrital pedogenic clay minerals which serve to protect organic matter against biological oxidation during burial in marine sediments. The bulk of detrital clays that are ultimately deposited in marine sediments are formed in biologically active soils that require plant processes to retain water, concentrate weathering produced solutes, stablize soils, and provide an adsorptive media. At some point in Earth history before the colonization of land surfaces by plants and the formation of biotic soils, clay mineral surface limitation may have severely reduced the preservation potential of organic carbon during burial. An important consequence of this would have also been a reduced flux of oxygen to the atmosphere because organic carbon and oxygen release are coupled. Multiple independent lines of evidence indicate a significant change in continental weathering and pedogenic clay mineral formation and establishment of the `clay factory' that coincides with colonization of land surfaces by primitive plant like organisms in the late Precambrian. The enhanced burial efficiency that would have accompanied the shift to the modern mode of detrital pedogenic clay hosted carbon burial would have driven an increase in oxygen levels toward present values. Evidence suggests that this rise in oxygen occurred just prior to the advent of the first complex animals in the Ediacaran.

  17. Two phases of disulfide bond formation have differing requirements for oxygen.

    PubMed

    Koritzinsky, Marianne; Levitin, Fiana; van den Beucken, Twan; Rumantir, Ryan A; Harding, Nicholas J; Chu, Kenneth C; Boutros, Paul C; Braakman, Ineke; Wouters, Bradly G

    2013-11-25

    Most proteins destined for the extracellular space require disulfide bonds for folding and stability. Disulfide bonds are introduced co- and post-translationally in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) cargo in a redox relay that requires a terminal electron acceptor. Oxygen can serve as the electron acceptor in vitro, but its role in vivo remains unknown. Hypoxia causes ER stress, suggesting a role for oxygen in protein folding. Here we demonstrate the existence of two phases of disulfide bond formation in living mammalian cells, with differential requirements for oxygen. Disulfide bonds introduced rapidly during protein synthesis can occur without oxygen, whereas those introduced during post-translational folding or isomerization are oxygen dependent. Other protein maturation processes in the secretory pathway, including ER-localized N-linked glycosylation, glycan trimming, Golgi-localized complex glycosylation, and protein transport, occur independently of oxygen availability. These results suggest that an alternative electron acceptor is available transiently during an initial phase of disulfide bond formation and that post-translational oxygen-dependent disulfide bond formation causes hypoxia-induced ER stress. PMID:24247433

  18. Neural networks for aircraft control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linse, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    Current research in Artificial Neural Networks indicates that networks offer some potential advantages in adaptation and fault tolerance. This research is directed at determining the possible applicability of neural networks to aircraft control. The first application will be to aircraft trim. Neural network node characteristics, network topology and operation, neural network learning and example histories using neighboring optimal control with a neural net are discussed.

  19. Oxygen chemisorption cryogenic refrigerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (inventor)

    1987-01-01

    The present invention relates to a chemisorption compressor cryogenic refrigerator which employs oxygen to provide cooling at 60 to 100 K. The invention includes dual vessels containing an oxygen absorbent material, alternately heated and cooled to provide a continuous flow of high pressure oxygen, multiple heat exchangers for precooling the oxygen, a Joule-Thomson expansion valve system for expanding the oxygen to partially liquefy it and a liquid oxygen pressure vessel. The primary novelty is that, while it was believed that once oxygen combined with an element or compound the reaction could not reverse to release gaseous oxygen, in this case oxygen will indeed react in a reversible fashion with certain materials and will do so at temperatures and pressures which make it practical for incorporation into a cryogenic refrigeration system.

  20. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOEpatents

    Garzon, Fernando H. (Sante Fe, NM); Chung, Brandon W. (Los Alamos, NM); Raistrick, Ian D. (Los Alamos, NM); Brosha, Eric L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer.

  1. Glovebox oxygen monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Haggard, R.

    1993-08-01

    This system is located in the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) at the Savannah River Site of the US Department of Energy. The basic system consists of an oxygen sensor module located inside the glovebox and a wall mounted panel located outside the glovebox that contains an electronics package that displays the oxygen level, displays alarms, and sends signals to a facility Distributed Control System (DCS). RTF is a new facility that will be used primarily to load and unload tritium reservoirs, and recycle the tritium for use in existing or new reservoirs. Tritium, an oderless, colorless, gas is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen that is used in modern thermonuclear weapons. Once on-line, RTF will replace other tritium facilities that have been in existence since the 1950`s. Since the entire process at RTF is contained in nitrogen blanketed gloveboxes and features have been provided to recapture fugitive tritium, environmental releases and worker exposure to tritium will be reduced compared to the old facilities.

  2. Experimental trim drag values and flow-field measurements for a wide-body transport model with conventional and supercritical wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobs, P. F.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if advanced supercritical wings incur higher trim drag values at cruise conditions than current wide body technology wings. Relative trim drag increments were measured in an experimental wind tunnel investigation conducted in the Langley 8 Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel. The tests utilized a high aspect ratio supercritical wing and a wide body aircraft wing, in conjunction with five different horizontal tail configurations, mounted on a representative wide body fuselage. The three low tail and two T-tail configurations were designed to measure the effects of horizontal tail size, location, and camber on the trim drag increments for the two wings. Longitudinal force and moment data were taken at a Mach number of 0.82 and design cruise lift coefficients for the wide body and supercritical wings of 0.45 and 0.55, respectively. The data indicate that the supercritical wing does not have significantly higher trim drag than the wide body wing. A reduction in tail size, combined with relaxed static stability, produced trim drag reductions for both wings. The cambered tails had higher trim drag increments than the symmetrical tails for both wings, and the T-tail configurations had lower trim drag increments than the low tail configurations.

  3. Chromosome 11: TRIM genes and olfactory receptors, 3D animation with no audioSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-10-06

    DNAi location: Genome>Tour>flyover>TRIM and olfactory receptor clusters Next follows a cluster of four genes in the tripartite motif (TRIM) family. TRIM proteins contain three motifs, or structures, through which they bind to DNA to regulate gene activity. Averaging about 21,000 nucleotides and having about eight coding exons, the TRIM genes come very close to the average size of human genes. Different proteins can be produced by a single TRIM gene, by making different combinations of coding exons. TRIM 34 and 22 help mediate the antiviral activity of interferon and offer insight into the fight against HIV. Our tour ends with another cluster of nine olfactory receptor genes (LOC). Chromosome 11 contains about 40% the estimated 1,000 genes for olfactory receptors in the human genome. There is such a concentration of receptor genes at the tip of Chromosome 11 that this whole region could be called an olfactory supercluster, in which the beta globin, ubiquilin, and TRIM clusters are embedded.

  4. Coordinateendonucleolytic 5' and 3' trimming of terminally blocked blunt DNA double-strand break ends by Artemis nuclease and DNA-dependent protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Povirk, Lawrence; Yannone, Steven M.; Khan, Imran S.; Zhou, Rui-Zhe; Zhou, Tong; Valerie, Kristoffer; F., Lawrence

    2008-02-18

    Previous work showed that, in the presence of DNA-PK, Artemis slowly trims 3'-phosphoglycolate-terminated blunt ends. To examine the trimming reaction in more detail, long internally labeled DNA substrates were treated with Artemis. In the absence of DNA-PK, Artemis catalyzed extensive 5' {yields} 3' exonucleolytic resection of double-stranded DNA. This resection required a 5'-phosphate but did not require ATP, and was accompanied by endonucleolytic cleavage of the resulting 3' overhang. In the presence of DNA-PK, Artemis-mediated trimming was more limited, was ATP-dependent, and did not require a 5'-phosphate. For a blunt end with either a 3'-phosphoglycolate or 3'-hydroxyl terminus, endonucleolytic trimming of 2-4 nucleotides from the 3'-terminal strand was accompanied by trimming of 6 nucleotides from the 5'-terminal strand. The results suggest that autophosphorylated DNA-PK suppresses the exonuclease activity of Artemis toward blunt-ended DNA, and promotes slow and limited endonucleolytic trimming of the 5'-terminal strand, resulting in short 3' overhangs that are trimmed endonucleolytically. Thus, Artemis and DNA-PK can convert terminally blocked DNA ends of diverse geometry and chemical structure to a form suitable for polymerase mediated patching and ligation, with minimal loss of terminal sequence. Such processing could account for the very small deletions often found at DNA double-strand break repair sites.

  5. Crystal structure of TRIM20 C-terminal coiled-coil/B30.2 fragment: implications for the recognition of higher order oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Weinert, Christopher; Morger, Damien; Djekic, Aleksandra; Grütter, Markus G.; Mittl, Peer R. E.

    2015-01-01

    Many tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) proteins, comprising RING-finger, B-Box, and coiled-coil domains, carry additional B30.2 domains on the C-terminus of the TRIM motif and are considered to be pattern recognition receptors involved in the detection of higher order oligomers (e.g. viral capsid proteins). To investigate the spatial architecture of domains in TRIM proteins we determined the crystal structure of the TRIM20?413 fragment at 2.4?Å resolution. This structure comprises the central helical scaffold (CHS) and C-terminal B30.2 domains and reveals an anti-parallel arrangement of CHS domains placing the B-box domains 170?Å apart from each other. Small-angle X-ray scattering confirmed that the linker between CHS and B30.2 domains is flexible in solution. The crystal structure suggests an interaction between the B30.2 domain and an extended stretch in the CHS domain, which involves residues that are mutated in the inherited disease Familial Mediterranean Fever. Dimerization of B30.2 domains by means of the CHS domain is crucial for TRIM20 to bind pro-IL-1? in vitro. To exemplify how TRIM proteins could be involved in binding higher order oligomers we discuss three possible models for the TRIM5?/HIV-1 capsid interaction assuming different conformations of B30.2 domains. PMID:26043233

  6. Crystal structure of TRIM20 C-terminal coiled-coil/B30.2 fragment: implications for the recognition of higher order oligomers.

    PubMed

    Weinert, Christopher; Morger, Damien; Djekic, Aleksandra; Grütter, Markus G; Mittl, Peer R E

    2015-01-01

    Many tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) proteins, comprising RING-finger, B-Box, and coiled-coil domains, carry additional B30.2 domains on the C-terminus of the TRIM motif and are considered to be pattern recognition receptors involved in the detection of higher order oligomers (e.g. viral capsid proteins). To investigate the spatial architecture of domains in TRIM proteins we determined the crystal structure of the TRIM20?413 fragment at 2.4?Å resolution. This structure comprises the central helical scaffold (CHS) and C-terminal B30.2 domains and reveals an anti-parallel arrangement of CHS domains placing the B-box domains 170?Å apart from each other. Small-angle X-ray scattering confirmed that the linker between CHS and B30.2 domains is flexible in solution. The crystal structure suggests an interaction between the B30.2 domain and an extended stretch in the CHS domain, which involves residues that are mutated in the inherited disease Familial Mediterranean Fever. Dimerization of B30.2 domains by means of the CHS domain is crucial for TRIM20 to bind pro-IL-1? in vitro. To exemplify how TRIM proteins could be involved in binding higher order oligomers we discuss three possible models for the TRIM5?/HIV-1 capsid interaction assuming different conformations of B30.2 domains. PMID:26043233

  7. Living Without Oxygen: Oxygen Tolerance in Bacteria

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sharon Harris

    This activity focuses on chemical processes, such as nitrogen fixation and denitrification, which are carried out by bacteria. Often the efficacy of these processes is determined by the amount of oxygen present in the environment in which the bacteria live. Much of the time, these processes are carried out by facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the suboxic region of lakes, oceans, sediments, and leaf litter. Students will discover whether facultatively anaerobic photoautotrophs share the same tolerance for oxygen, how differences in oxygen tolerance can be tested, and of what significance the tolerance for oxygen is in the nitrogen cycle. They will practice aseptic technique, monitor the growth of bacterial cultures, display their results graphically, and propose environmental problems associated with the oxygen tolerance of nitrogen fixers and denitifiers.

  8. Correlation of the Trim Limits of Stability Obtained for a PB2Y-3 Flying Boat and a 1/8-Size Powered Dynamic Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, Charlie C.; Hacskaylo, Andrew

    1947-01-01

    Tests of a PB2Y-3 flying boat were made at the U.S> Naval Air Station, Patuxent River, Md., to determine its hydrodynamic trim limits of stability. Corresponding tests were also made of a 1/8-size powered dynamic model of the same flying boat in Langley tank no. 1. During the tank tests, the full-size testing procedure was reproduced as closely as possible in order to obtain data for a direct correlation of the results. As a nominal gross load of 66,000 pounds, the lower trim limits of the full-size and model were in good agreement above a speed of 80 feet per second. As the speed decreased below 80 feet per second, the difference between the model trim limits and full-scale trim limits gradually became larger. The upper trim limit of the model with flaps deflected 0 deg was higher than that of the full-size, but the difference was small over the speed range compared. At flap deflections greater than 0 deg, it was not possible to trim either the model of the airplane to the upper limit with the center of gravity at 28 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord. The decrease in the lower trim limits with increase in flap deflection showed good agreement for the airplane and model. The lower trim limits obtained at different gross loads for the full-size airplane were reduced to approximately a single curve by plotting trim against the square root of C(sub delta (sub o)) divided by C(sub V).

  9. USE OF BIFURCATION AND CONTINUATION METHODS FOR AIRCRAFT TRIM AND STABILITY ANALYSIS - A STATE-OF-THE-ART

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aditya Paranjape; Nandan Kumar Sinha; Narayan Ananthkrishnan

    2007-01-01

    The bifurcation and continuation methodology has evolved over the last two decades into a powerful tool for the analysis of trim and stability problems in aircraft flight dynamics. Over the years, bifurcation methods have been employed to deal with a variety of problems in aircraft dynamics, such as predicting high angle of attack behavior, especially spin, and studying instabilities in

  10. Dynamics of yard trimmings composting as determined by dehydrogenase activity, ATP content, arginine ammonification, and nitrification potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sonia M. Tiquia; Judy H. C. Wan; Nora F. Y. Tam

    2002-01-01

    Microbial activities, numbers, and biomass are key parameters that can be used to elucidate the dynamics of the composting process. In the present study, four different biochemical parameters (dehydrogenase activity, ATP content, arginine ammonification, and nitrification potential) were measured (1) to monitor the dynamics of yard trimmings composting; and (2) to relate these parameters to changes in microbial numbers, physico-chemical

  11. Stryphnodendron adstringens extract associated with the hooves trimming surgical procedure for the treatment of bovine digital dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luiz A F; de Moura, Maria I; Dambros, Carlos E; Freitas, Sabrina L R; Souza, Luiz A; Abreu, Morgana P

    2013-06-01

    Hoof care, lesion curettage, and application of 5 % Stryphnodendron adstringens bark extract (S. adstringens (Mart.) Coville) or 3 % copper sulfate on surgical wounds of cattle were carried out in this research. A total of 180 cattle with digital dermatitis were used. They were distributed into six groups of 30 animals each (GI, GII, GIII, GIV, GV, and GVI). In GI and GII, only the sick digit was trimmed; in GIII and GIV, both sick and healthy digits of the lesioned limb were trimmed; and in GV and GVI, all digits were trimmed. During the postoperative period, 5 % S. adstringens extract was applied in GI, GIII, and GV, and 3 % copper sulfate solution was applied in GII, GIV, and GVI. After 60 days of evaluation, the data were analyzed using the Chi-squared test (p? ? ?0.05). Both therapeutic protocols utilizing surgical curettage of the lesions were efficient for treating digital dermatitis. However, when the procedure is followed by the trimming of sick and healthy digits, the healing is optimized and a greater number of animals are rehabilitated. PMID:23443825

  12. The Effectiveness of the Component Impact Test Method for the Side Impact Injury Assessment of the Door Trim

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Younghan Youn; Jeong-Seo Koo

    2008-01-01

    The complete evaluation of the side vehicle structure and the occupant protection is only possible by means of the full scale side impact crash test. But, auto part manufacturers such as door trim makers can not conduct the test especially when the vehicle is under the developing process. The main objective of this study is to obtain the design guidelines

  13. Two-stage regression quantiles and two-stage trimmed least squares estimators for structural equation models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lin-An Chen; Stephen Portnoy

    1996-01-01

    We propose a two-stage trimmed least squares estimator for the parameters of structural equation model and provide the corresponding asymptotic distribution theory. The estimator is based on two-stage regression quan-tiles, which generalize the standard linear model regression quantiles introduced by Koenker and Bassett (1978) . The asymptotic theory is developed by means of \\

  14. Distribution and detection of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) during an industrial grinding process of beef trim

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the grinding and packaging processes, it is important to understand how Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) would be distributed and how well it could be detected in beef trim. This study is important because it shows what would happen if contaminated meat is allowed into a commerc...

  15. Static Aeroelastic and Longitudinal Trim Model of Flexible Wing Aircraft Using Finite-Element Vortex-Lattice Coupled Solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, Eric; Nguyen, Nhan; Trinh, Khanh

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a static aeroelastic model and longitudinal trim model for the analysis of a flexible wing transport aircraft. The static aeroelastic model is built using a structural model based on finite-element modeling and coupled to an aerodynamic model that uses vortex-lattice solution. An automatic geometry generation tool is used to close the loop between the structural and aerodynamic models. The aeroelastic model is extended for the development of a three degree-of-freedom longitudinal trim model for an aircraft with flexible wings. The resulting flexible aircraft longitudinal trim model is used to simultaneously compute the static aeroelastic shape for the aircraft model and the longitudinal state inputs to maintain an aircraft trim state. The framework is applied to an aircraft model based on the NASA Generic Transport Model (GTM) with wing structures allowed to flexibly deformed referred to as the Elastically Shaped Aircraft Concept (ESAC). The ESAC wing mass and stiffness properties are based on a baseline "stiff" values representative of current generation transport aircraft.

  16. Heteroscedastic Tests Statistics for One-Way Analysis of Variance: The Trimmed Means and Hall's Transformation Conjunction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luh, Wei-Ming; Guo, Jiin-Huarng

    2005-01-01

    To deal with nonnormal and heterogeneous data for the one-way fixed effect analysis of variance model, the authors adopted a trimmed means method in conjunction with Hall's invertible transformation into a heteroscedastic test statistic (Alexander-Govern test or Welch test). The results of simulation experiments showed that the proposed technique…

  17. PHA-4/FoxA cooperates with TAM-1/TRIM to regulate cell fate restriction in the C. elegans foregut

    E-print Network

    Mango, Susan

    PHA-4/FoxA cooperates with TAM-1/TRIM to regulate cell fate restriction in the C. elegans foregut blastomeres in C. elegans develop into foregut (pharynx) cells in response to the selector gene PHA-4/FoxA. When pha-4 is removed from pharyngeal precursors, they exhibit two alternative responses. Before late

  18. Gait pattern of heifers before and after claw trimming: a high-speed cinematographic study on a treadmill.

    PubMed

    Meyer, S W; Weishaupt, M A; Nuss, K A

    2007-02-01

    The manner in which the claws contacted the ground at the walk was evaluated in 18 healthy heifers. The animals were filmed before and after claw trimming while walking on a treadmill using high-speed cinematography (500 frames/s). For each limb, 4 consecutive steps were recorded from a side and a frontal plane. The objectives of the study were to evaluate 1) the order of claw contact with the treadmill surface, 2) the initial claw contact area, and 3) the effect of trimming on claw contact patterns. The heifers placed their front feet on the ground in a plane sagittal to the shoulders, whereas the hind feet were advanced more toward the median plane. Before trimming, the lateral claws contacted the ground before the medial in 83% of front and 100% of hind limbs. Trimming changed the percentage to 92% in the front and to 97% in the hind limbs. The percentage with which the heel of the lateral claws became the region of initial contact with the ground increased from 47 to 64% in the front feet and from 50 to 78% in the hind feet. In the medial claws of the forelimbs, claw trimming shifted the region of initial contact from the toe to the abaxial wall and heel. In the hind limbs, the main region of initial contact of the medial claws became the abaxial wall. Weight bearing by the medial claw became visibly apparent only during the midstance, propulsion, and push-off phases. "Heel first" contact of the lateral claws in the front and hind limbs may be the normal gait pattern in cattle. On hard surfaces, this pattern may lead to overload and predispose to disease, especially in the hind limbs. PMID:17235142

  19. Crystal Structure of Cytomegalovirus IE1 Protein Reveals Targeting of TRIM Family Member PML via Coiled-Coil Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sevvana, Madhumati; Otto, Victoria; Schilling, Eva-Maria; Stump, Joachim D.; Müller, Regina; Reuter, Nina; Sticht, Heinrich; Muller, Yves A.; Stamminger, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) are enigmatic structures of the cell nucleus that act as key mediators of intrinsic immunity against viral pathogens. PML itself is a member of the E3-ligase TRIM family of proteins that regulates a variety of innate immune signaling pathways. Consequently, viruses have evolved effector proteins to modify PML-NBs; however, little is known concerning structure-function relationships of viral antagonists. The herpesvirus human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) expresses the abundant immediate-early protein IE1 that colocalizes with PML-NBs and induces their dispersal, which correlates with the antagonization of NB-mediated intrinsic immunity. Here, we delineate the molecular basis for this antagonization by presenting the first crystal structure for the evolutionary conserved primate cytomegalovirus IE1 proteins. We show that IE1 consists of a globular core (IE1CORE) flanked by intrinsically disordered regions. The 2.3 Å crystal structure of IE1CORE displays an all ?-helical, femur-shaped fold, which lacks overall fold similarity with known protein structures, but shares secondary structure features recently observed in the coiled-coil domain of TRIM proteins. Yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that IE1CORE binds efficiently to the TRIM family member PML, and is able to induce PML deSUMOylation. Intriguingly, this results in the release of NB-associated proteins into the nucleoplasm, but not of PML itself. Importantly, we show that PML deSUMOylation by IE1CORE is sufficient to antagonize PML-NB-instituted intrinsic immunity. Moreover, co-immunoprecipitation experiments demonstrate that IE1CORE binds via the coiled-coil domain to PML and also interacts with TRIM5? We propose that IE1CORE sequesters PML and possibly other TRIM family members via structural mimicry using an extended binding surface formed by the coiled-coil region. This mode of interaction might render the antagonizing activity less susceptible to mutational escape. PMID:25412268

  20. Automatic Electronic Oxygen Supply

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Patricia; Hoodless, D. J.

    1971-01-01

    An automatic electronic oxygen system has been devised to supply an intensive care unit with a “fail-safe” supply of continuous oxygen. All parts of the system are fitted with alarms, as the oxygen powers gas-driven ventilators. Since the system is cheap it can be installed in hospitals where finance is limited. PMID:5278618