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Sample records for p-aminobenzoic acid propyl

  1. Thermodynamics of the complexation of arabinogalactan with salicylic and p-aminobenzoic acids in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudarisova, R. Kh.; Badykova, L. A.

    2016-03-01

    The thermodynamics of complexation of arabinogalactan with salicylic and p-aminobenzoic acids in aqueous solutions is studied by means spectroscopy. The standard thermodynamic characteristics (Δ H°; Δ G°; Δ S°) of complexation are calculated.

  2. Synthesis, characterization and cation adsorption of p-aminobenzoic acid intercalated on calcium phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, Camila F.N.; Lazarin, Angélica M.; Sernaglia, Rosana L.; Andreotti, Elza I.S.

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Scanning electron microscopy photographs of calcium phosphate (a) and intercalated with p-aminobenzoic acid (b). Highlights: ► Calcium phosphate was intercalated with p-aminobenzoic acid. ► Guest molecule contains nitrogen and oxygen atoms from amine and carboxylic groups. ► These basic centers are potentially useful for cation coordination in ethanol solution. ► Crystal morphology of compounds is lamellar, it agrees with expected structural characteristics. -- Abstract: Crystalline lamellar calcium phosphate retained 4-aminobenzoic acid inside its cavity without leaching. The intense infrared bands in the 1033 and 1010 cm{sup −1} interval confirmed the presence of the phosphonate groups attached to the inorganic layer, with sharp and intense peaks in X-ray diffraction patterns, which gave basal distances of 712 and 1578 pm for the original and the intercalated compounds, respectively. Solid-state {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance spectra presented only one peak for the phosphate groups attached to the main inorganic polymeric structure near −2.4 ppm. The adsorption isotherms from ethanol gave the maximum adsorption capacities of 6.44 and 3.34 mmol g{sup −1} for nickel and cobalt, respectively, which stability constant and distribution coefficient followed Co > Ni.

  3. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Biological Activity of 2-Hydroxyethylammonium Salt of p-Aminobenzoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Crisan, Manuela E.; Bourosh, Paulina; Maffei, Massimo E.; Forni, Alessandra; Pieraccini, Stefano; Sironi, Maurizio; Chumakov, Yurii M.

    2014-01-01

    p-Aminobenzoic acid (pABA) plays important roles in a wide variety of metabolic processes. Herein we report the synthesis, theoretical calculations, crystallographic investigation, and in vitro determination of the biological activity and phytotoxicity of the pABA salt, 2-hydroxyethylammonium p-aminobenzoate (HEA-pABA). The ability of neutral and anionic forms of pABA to interact with TIR1 pocket was investigated by calculation of molecular electrostatic potential maps on the accessible surface area, docking experiments, Molecular Dynamics and Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics calculations. The docking study of the folate precursor pABA, its anionic form and natural auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) with the auxin receptor TIR1 revealed a similar binding mode in the active site. The phytotoxic evaluation of HEA-pABA, pABA and 2-hydroxyethylamine (HEA) was performed on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Col 0 at five different concentrations. HEA-pABA and pABA acted as potential auxin-like regulators of root development in Arabidopsis thaliana (0.1 and 0.2 mM) and displayed an agravitropic root response at high concentration (2 mM). This study suggests that HEA-pABA and pABA might be considered as potential new regulators of plant growth. PMID:25054237

  4. Effects of temperature on the solid-surface luminescence properties of p-aminobenzoic acid adsorbed on sodium acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasamy, S.M.; Hurtubise, R.J.

    1987-02-01

    Solid-surface fluorescence and phosphorescence quantum yield values were obtained from +23 to -180/sup 0/C for the anion of p-aminobenzoic acid adsorbed on sodium acetate. Phosphorescence lifetime values were also acquired for the adsorbed anion from +23 to -196/sup 0/C. The fluorescence quantum yield values remained essentially constant as a function of temperature; however, the phosphorescence quantum yield values changed substantially with temperature. The phosphorescence lifetime experiments indicated two decaying components, and each component showed a gradual increase in phosphorescence lifetime and then appeared to level off at lower temperatures. The results support a rigidly held mechanism for the room-temperature phosphorescence of the anion of p-aminobenzoic acid adsorbed on sodium acetate.

  5. Syntheses and luminescent properties of a copolymer of terbium-p-aminobenzoic acid-methacrylic acid and styrene.

    PubMed

    Zhang, A Q; Yang, Y M; Li, L P; Zhai, G M; Jia, H S; Liu, X G; Xu, B S

    2015-11-01

    A reactive Tb(III) complex with p-aminobenzoic acid (p-ABA) and methacrylic acid (MAA) as ligands was synthesized. A novel copolymer was synthesized by free radical copolymerization of styrene and the reactive Tb(III) complex in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) with 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionitrile) (AIBN) as the initiator. IR and UV/Vis spectra indicate that the copolymer exhibited absorption from polystyrene and the complex. Thermogravimetric analysis indicates that the copolymer remained stable up to 357°C and the thermal stability was significantly improved in comparison with polymer matrix and the Tb(III) complex. The luminescent intensity of the synthetic terbium macromolecular complexes increased with increasing complex monomer content. Moreover, concentration quenching was not observed. PMID:25712787

  6. The Use of p-Aminobenzoic Acid as a Probe Substance for the Targeted Profiling of Glycine Conjugation.

    PubMed

    Nortje, Carla; van der Sluis, Rencia; van Dijk, Alberdina Aike; Erasmus, Elardus

    2016-03-01

    Glycine conjugation facilitates the metabolism of toxic aromatic acids, capable of disrupting mitochondrial integrity. Owing to the high exposure to toxic substrates, characterization of individual glycine conjugation capacity, and its regulatory factors has become increasingly important. Aspirin and benzoate have been employed for this purpose; however, adverse reactions, aspirin intolerance, and Reye's syndrome in children are substantial drawbacks. The goal of this study was to investigate p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) as an alternative glycine conjugation probe. Ten human volunteers participated in a PABA challenge test, and p-aminohippuric acid (PAHA), p-acetamidobenzoic acid, and p-acetamidohippuric acid were quantified in urine. The glycine N-acyltransferase gene of the volunteers was also screened for two polymorphisms associated with normal and increased enzyme activity. All of the individuals were homozygous for increased enzyme activity, but excretion of PAHA varied significantly (16-56%, hippurate ratio). The intricacies of PABA metabolism revealed possible limiting factors and the potential of PABA as an indicator of Phase 0 biotransformation. PMID:26484797

  7. Degradation of sunscreen agent p-aminobenzoic acid using a combination system of UV irradiation, persulphate and iron(II).

    PubMed

    Xue, Yicen; Dong, Wenbo; Wang, Xiaoning; Bi, Wenlong; Zhai, Pingping; Li, Hongjing; Nie, Minghua

    2016-03-01

    Increased usage and discharge of sunscreens have led to ecological safety crisis, and people are developing the advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to treat them. The present study aimed to determine the degradation efficiency and mechanism of the sunscreen agent p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) using the UV/Fe(2+)/persulphate (PS) method. A series of irradiation experiments were conducted to optimise the system conditions and to study the impacts of the natural anion. Free radicals and degradation products were identified in order to clarify the degradation mechanism. Initial PS and Fe(2+) concentrations showed significant impacts on PABA degradation. Natural anions, such as Cl(-), NO3 (-), H2PO4 (-) and HCO3 (-), impeded PABA degradation because of ion (Fe(2+)) capture, radical scavenging or pH effects. Hydroxyl (HO·) and sulphate (SO4 (·-)) radicals were two main radicals observed in the UV/Fe(2+)/PS system; of these, SO4 (·-) showed greater effects on PABA degradation. Over 99 % of the available PABA was completely degraded into carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) by the UV/Fe(2+)/PS system, and the remaining PABA participated in complex radical reactions. By-products were identified by total ion chromatography and mass spectrometry. Our research provides a treatment process for PABA with high degradation efficiency and environmental safety and introduces a new strategy for sunscreen degradation. PMID:26517998

  8. Herbicidal effects of sulfamethoxazole in Lemna gibba: using p-aminobenzoic acid as a biomarker of effect.

    PubMed

    Brain, Richard A; Ramirez, Alejandro J; Fulton, Barry A; Chambliss, C Kevin; Brooks, Bryan W

    2008-12-01

    Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is among the most frequently detected antibiotics in the environment, heavily used in both human therapy and agriculture. Like other sulfonamides, SMX disrupts the folate biosynthetic pathway in bacteria, which was recently established as identical to that of plants, raising concerns over nontarget toxicity. Consequently, Lemna gibba was exposed to SMX to evaluate phytotoxic potency and mode of action (MOA) by HPLC-MS/MS measurement of p-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) metabolite levels, a precursor to folate biosynthesis and substrate of the target enzyme dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS). pABA levels were found to increase upon exposure to SMX following an exponential rise to a maxima regression model in a concentration-dependent manner. The EC50 for pABA content was 3.36 microg/L, 20 times lower than that of fresh weight (61.6 microg/L) and 40 times lower than frond number (132 microg/L) responses. These results suggest that, as in bacteria, sulfonamide antibiotics specifically disrupt folate biosynthesis via inhibition of DHPS. Analysis of pABA concentrations appears to provide a sulfonamide-specific biomarker of effect based on MOA with exceptional diagnostic capacity and sensitivity compared to traditional morphological end points. Using the EC50 for pABA content, a potential hazard was identified for L. gibba exposed to SMX, which would not have been detected based upon traditional standardized morphological approaches. PMID:19192826

  9. Synthesis and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanowires in the degradation of p-aminobenzoic acid: A comparative study with a commercial catalyst.

    PubMed

    Soto-Vzquez, Loraine; Cotto, Mara; Ducong, Jos; Morant, Carmen; Mrquez, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of p-aminobenzoic acid was studied using TiO2 nanowires as the catalyst synthesized through a hydrothermal procedure. The as-synthesized TiO2 nanowires were fully characterized by SEM, TEM, XRD and Raman with a very high surface area of 512m(2)g(-1). The photocatalytic degradation of p-aminobenzoic acid was carried out under 180min of constant radiation and the results were compared with P25 as commercial catalyst. Optimal experimental conditions were determined for TiO2 nanowires with a catalyst dosage of 1.0gL(-1) under acidic conditions with a 20?M p-aminobenzoic acid solution obtaining 95% of degradation. Under similar experimental conditions comparative studies were performed obtaining 98% of degradation when P25 is employed. In both systems, a pseudo first order reaction was found to provide the best correlations, with constant rates of 2.0נ10(-2)min(-1) and 2.4נ10(-2)min(-1) for TiO2 nanowires and P25, respectively. PMID:26610195

  10. Human N-benzoyl-L-tyrosyl-p-aminobenzoic acid hydrolase (human meprin): genomic structure of the alpha and beta subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, D; Illisson, R; Metspalu, A; Sterchi, E E

    2000-01-01

    N-Benzoyl-L-tyrosyl-p-aminobenzoic acid hydrolase (PPH, human meprin), a zinc-metalloendopeptidase of the astacin family, consists of two similar subunits. As well as in small-intestinal epithelial cells, the enzyme is found in lamina propria leucocytes, human cancer cells and colorectal cancer tissue, making it a potential candidate for a role in tumour formation and cancer progression. To elucidate the mechanisms that control PPH gene expression and to gain more insights into the evolutionary relationship of the two subunits, we analysed the complete exon-intron organization and searched for putative regulatory elements in 3 kb of the upstream region of both genes. The human gene for the alpha subunit is approx. 35 kb in size and contains 14 exons. The gene for the beta subunit is organized in 15 exons and spans approx. 27 kb. A comparison of both genes indicates strong structural similarities. The exons are almost identical in size, except exon 13 in PPHalpha, which codes for an additional I domain not present in PPHbeta. The locations of the respective exon-intron junctions and the intron phases are almost identical; five of them contain conserved split codons. The main variation is in the intron lengths. It can be concluded that PPHalpha and PPHbeta are derived from a common ancestor. Sequence analysis of the 5' flanking DNA with a computer search for promoter elements and different promoter constructs transfected into Caco-2 cells revealed a number of potential regulatory motifs and suggests that each of the two genes is regulated independently. PMID:10657243

  11. Interaction of P-aminobenzoic acid with normal and sickel erythrocyte membrane: photoaffinity labelling of the binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Premachandra, B.R.

    1986-03-05

    Electron microscopic studies revealed that P-Amino benzoic acid (PABA) could prevent eichinocytosis of red cells in vitro. Equilibrium binding studies with right side out membrane vesicles (ROV) revealed a similar number of binding sites (1.2-1.4 ..mu..mol/mg) and Kd (1.4-1.6 mM) values for both normal and sickle cell membranes. /sup 14/C-Azide analogue of PABA was synthesized as a photoaffinity label to probe its sites of interaction on the erythrocyte membranes. Competitive binding studies of PABA with its azide indicated that both the compounds share common binding sites on the membrane surface since a 20 fold excess of azide inhibited PABA binding in a linear fashion. The azide was covalently incorporated into the membrane components only upon irradiation (52-35% of the label found in the proteins and the rest in lipids). Electrophoretic analysis of photolabelled ROV revealed that the azide interacts chiefly with Band 3 protein. PABA inhibited both high and low affinity calcium (Ca) binding sites situated on either surface of the membrane in a non-competitive manner; however, Ca binding stimulated by Mg-ATP was not affected. Ca transport into inside out vesicles was inhibited by PABA; but it did not affect the calcium ATP-ase activity. The authors studies suggest that the mechanism of action of PABA is mediated by its interaction with Band 3 protein (anion channel), calcium channel and calcium binding sites of erythrocyte membrane.

  12. Comparative study of solid-matrix luminescence interactions of p-aminobenzoate on two different matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasamy, S.M.; Hurtubise, R.J. )

    1990-05-15

    The luminescence properties of the anion of p-aminobenzoic acid adsorbed on sodium acetate and filter paper were compared to gain insights into the interactions that result in the fluorescence and phosphorescence of p-aminobenzoate. Fluorescence quantum yields, phosphorescence quantum yields, and phosphorescence lifetimes were obtained for the anion of p-aminobenzoic acid adsorbed on filter paper. Preexponential and activation energy terms were calculated for p-aminobenzoate on filter paper and compared with similar terms for p-aminobenzoate adsorbed on sodium acetate. It was shown that there was a simple relationship between the reciprocal of the phosphorescence lifetimes and the thermal processes that cause deactivation of the triplet state. It was concluded that p-aminobenzoate is incorporated into the crystal structure of sodium acetate and the triplet energy of p-aminobenzoate was lost primarily via skeletal vibrations in NaOAc. For the anion of p-aminobenzoic acid on filter paper, some of the triplet energy was lost through vibrational modes in the filter paper, although other factors would also be involved in the loss of the triplet-state energy.

  13. Room-temperature luminescence of benzo[f]quinoline, p-aminobenzoic acid, phenanthrene, and 4-phenylphenol on a variety of solid surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Purdy, B.B.; Hurtubise, R.J. )

    1989-01-01

    Analytical figures of merit for the room-temperature luminescence of four model compounds with quite different chemical structures were compared. The compounds were adsorbed on four different surfaces that have been employed recently in solid-surface luminescence analysis. The solid materials investigated were silica gel with a polyacrylate binder, filter paper, 1% polyacrylic acid-NaBr, and 80% [alpha]-cyclodextrin-NaCl. The experimental conditions were optimized to give enhanced luminescence signals. In some cases, filter paper and 80% [alpha]-cyclodextrin-NaCl gave comparable analytical results. However, filter paper gave the best overall results.

  14. Chemical Speciation and Bond Lengths of Organic Solutes by Core-Level Spectroscopy: pH and Solvent Influence on p-Aminobenzoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Joanna S; Gainar, Adrian; Suljoti, Edlira; Xiao, Jie; Golnak, Ronny; Aziz, Emad F; Schroeder, Sven L M

    2015-01-01

    Through X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies, the chemical, electronic and structural properties of organic species in solution can be observed. Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) measurements at the nitrogen K-edge of para-aminobenzoic acid reveal both pH- and solvent-dependent variations in the ionisation potential (IP), 1s→π* resonances and HOMO–LUMO gap. These changes unequivocally identify the chemical species (neutral, cationic or anionic) present in solution. It is shown how this incisive chemical state sensitivity is further enhanced by the possibility of quantitative bond length determination, based on the analysis of chemical shifts in IPs and σ* shape resonances in the NEXAFS spectra. This provides experimental access to detecting even minor variations in the molecular structure of solutes in solution, thereby providing an avenue to examining computational predictions of solute properties and solute–solvent interactions. PMID:25788101

  15. Crystal structures of the pyrazinamide-p-aminobenzoic acid (1/1) cocrystal and the transamidation reaction product 4-(pyrazine-2-carboxamido)benzoic acid in the molten state.

    PubMed

    Thorat, Shridhar H; Sahu, Sanjay Kumar; Gonnade, Rajesh G

    2015-11-01

    The synthesis of pharmaceutical cocrystals is a strategy to enhance the performance of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) without affecting their therapeutic efficiency. The 1:1 pharmaceutical cocrystal of the antituberculosis drug pyrazinamide (PZA) and the cocrystal former p-aminobenzoic acid (p-ABA), C7H7NO2·C5H5N3O, (1), was synthesized successfully and characterized by relevant solid-state characterization methods. The cocrystal crystallizes in the monoclinic space group P2₁/n containing one molecule of each component. Both molecules associate via intermolecular O-H···O and N-H···O hydrogen bonds [O···O = 2.6102 (15) Å and O-H···O = 168.3 (19)°; N···O = 2.9259 (18) Å and N-H···O = 167.7 (16)°] to generate a dimeric acid-amide synthon. Neighbouring dimers are linked centrosymmetrically through N-H···O interactions [N···O = 3.1201 (18) Å and N-H···O = 136.9 (14)°] to form a tetrameric assembly supplemented by C-H···N interactions [C···N = 3.5277 (19) Å and C-H···N = 147°]. Linking of these tetrameric assemblies through N-H···O [N···O = 3.3026 (19) Å and N-H···O = 143.1 (17)°], N-H···N [N···N = 3.221 (2) Å and N-H···N = 177.9 (17)°] and C-H···O [C···O = 3.5354 (18) Å and C-H···O = 152°] interactions creates the two-dimensional packing. Recrystallization of the cocrystals from the molten state revealed the formation of 4-(pyrazine-2-carboxamido)benzoic acid, C12H9N3O3, (2), through a transamidation reaction between PZA and p-ABA. Carboxamide (2) crystallizes in the triclinic space group P1̅ with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. Molecules of (2) form a centrosymmetric dimeric homosynthon through an acid-acid O-H···O hydrogen bond [O···O = 2.666 (3) Å and O-H···O = 178 (4)°]. Neighbouring assemblies are connected centrosymmetrically via a C-H···N interaction [C···N = 3.365 (3) Å and C-H···N = 142°] engaging the pyrazine groups to generate a linear chain. Adjacent chains are connected loosely via C-H···O interactions [C···O = 3.212 (3) Å and C-H···O = 149°] to generate a two-dimensional sheet structure. Closely associated two-dimensional sheets in both compounds are stacked via aromatic π-stacking interactions engaging the pyrazine and benzene rings to create a three-dimensional multi-stack structure. PMID:26524176

  16. In vitro reconstitution and crystal structure of p-aminobenzoate N-oxygenase (AurF) involved in aureothin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoo Seong; Zhang, Houjin; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Nair, Satish K.; Zhao, Huimin

    2008-01-01

    p-aminobenzoate N-oxygenase (AurF) from Streptomyces thioluteus catalyzes the formation of unusual polyketide synthase starter unit p-nitrobenzoic acid (pNBA) from p-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) in the biosynthesis of antibiotic aureothin. AurF is a metalloenzyme, but its native enzymatic activity has not been demonstrated in vitro, and its catalytic mechanism is unclear. In addition, the nature of the cofactor remains a controversy. Here, we report the in vitro reconstitution of the AurF enzyme activity, the crystal structure of AurF in the oxidized state, and the cocrystal structure of AurF with its product pNBA. Our combined biochemical and structural analysis unequivocally indicates that AurF is a non-heme di-iron monooxygenase that catalyzes sequential oxidation of aminoarenes to nitroarenes via hydroxylamine and nitroso intermediates. PMID:18458342

  17. BIOCHEMICAL AND GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF AN EARLY STEP IN A NOVEL PATHWAY FOR THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF AROMATIC AMINO ACIDS AND P-AMINOBENZOIC ACID IN THE ARCHAEON METHANOCOCCUS MARIPALUDIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methanococcus maripaludis is a strictly anaerobic, methane-producing archaeon and facultative autotroph capable of biosynthesizing all the amino acids and vitamins required for growth. In this work, the novel 6-deoxy-5-ketofructose-1-phosphate (DKFP) pathway for the biosynthesis ...

  18. Ethyl-p-aminobenzoate (Benzocaine): efficacy as an anesthetic for five species of freshwater fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, V.K.; Gilderhus, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    Ethyl-p-aminobenzoate (benzocaine) was tested for its efficacy as an anesthetic for rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii, brown trout (Salmo truttas, northern pike (Esox lucius). carp (Cyprinus carpio), and largemouth bass (Mieropterus salmoidesi. Since benzocaine is not water soluble, it was applied with acetone as a carrier. Concentrations of 100 to 200 mg!l were required for large adult northern pike, compared with 50 to 100 mg/l for small fish. Rates of sedation and recovery were slower in cold water than in warm water. Water hardness had little influence on the activity of benzocaine. Fish were anesthetized faster and recovered more slowly in acid than in alkaline water. Benzocaine produced deep anesthesia, but concentrations that rendered the fish handleable within 5 min were generally not safe for exposures longer than 15 min. Concentrations of benzocaine efficacious for fish were not acutely toxic to eggs of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshauiytschas, rainbow trout, brown trout, or lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Benzocaine is not registered for fishery use and is neither more effective nor safer than the registered anesthetic, tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222l.

  19. Synthesis, structure, growth and characterization of a novel organic NLO single crystal: Morpholin-4-ium p-aminobenzoate

    SciTech Connect

    Shanmugam, G.; Ravi Kumar, K.; Sridhar, B.; Brahadeeswaran, S.

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ► A new organic NLO crystal morpholin-4-ium p-aminobenzoate has been grown for the first time. ► The structure is reported for the first time in the literature. ► Thermal, optical and SHG studies suggest its suitability for various NLO applications. -- Abstract: The title compound, morpholin-4-ium p-aminobenzoate (MPABA)(C{sub 4}H{sub 10}NO{sup +},C{sub 7}H{sub 6}NO{sub 2}{sup −}), has been synthesized for the first time by the addition of morpholine with 4-aminobenzoic acid in equi-molar ratio and good quality single crystals have been grown by solution growth technique using methanol as a solvent. The molecular structure of the compound was solved and refined by Direct Methods using SHELXS97 and full-matrix least-squares technique using SHELXL97, respectively. MPABA crystallizes in a monoclinic system with unit cell parameters, a = 5.948(5) Å, b = 18.033(4) Å, c = 10.577(5) Å, β = 90.40(1)° and non-centrosymmetric space group Cc. The experimentally measured density and chemical compositions were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. The phases and functional groups of MPABA have been identified and confirmed through powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies, respectively. The thermal stability and decomposition details were studied through TG/DTA thermograms. The UV–visible transmission spectra were recorded for the grown crystal and its NLO characteristic was explored by powder second harmonic generation (SHG) studies.

  20. Silica-bonded N-propyl sulfamic acid used as a heterogeneous catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil with methanol.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wenlei; Yang, Dong

    2011-10-01

    The transesterification of soybean oil with methanol was carried out, to produce biodiesel, over silica-bonded N-propyl sulfamic acid in a heterogeneous manner. Results showed that a maximum conversion of 90.5% was achieved using a 1:20 M ratio of soybean oil to methanol and a catalyst amount of 7.5 wt.% at 423 K for 60 h. It was found that the free fatty acid (FFA) and water present in the feedstock had no significant influence on the catalytic activity to the transesterification reaction. Besides, the catalyst also showed activities towards the esterification reaction of FFAs, in terms of the FFA conversion of 95.6% at 423 K for 30 h. Furthermore, the catalyst could be recovered with a better reusability. PMID:21871795

  1. Crystal structure of 5-hy-droxy-5-propyl-barbituric acid.

    PubMed

    Gelbrich, Thomas; Griesser, Ulrich J

    2015-11-01

    Mol-ecules of the title compound, C7H10N2O4, systematic name 5-hy-droxy-5-propyl-pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione, form a hydrogen-bonded framework which is based on three independent hydrogen bonds, N-H⋯O(carbon-yl), N-H⋯O(hy-droxy) and O-H⋯O(carbon-yl). This framework has the topology of the 5-connected nov net. Each mol-ecule is linked to five other mol-ecules via six hydrogen bonds, and the descriptor of the hydrogen-bonded structure is F65[4(4).6(6)-nov]. The crystal packing is isostructural with that of the previously reported 5-hy-droxy-5-ethyl analogue. PMID:26594498

  2. Crystal structure of 5-hy­droxy-5-propyl­barbituric acid

    PubMed Central

    Gelbrich, Thomas; Griesser, Ulrich J.

    2015-01-01

    Mol­ecules of the title compound, C7H10N2O4, systematic name 5-hy­droxy-5-propyl­pyrimidine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione, form a hydrogen-bonded framework which is based on three independent hydrogen bonds, N—H⋯O(carbon­yl), N—H⋯O(hy­droxy) and O—H⋯O(carbon­yl). This framework has the topology of the 5-connected nov net. Each mol­ecule is linked to five other mol­ecules via six hydrogen bonds, and the descriptor of the hydrogen-bonded structure is F65[44.66-nov]. The crystal packing is isostructural with that of the previously reported 5-hy­droxy-5-ethyl analogue. PMID:26594498

  3. Fabrication of calcium phosphate-calcium sulfate injectable bone substitute using hydroxy-propyl-methyl-cellulose and citric acid.

    PubMed

    Thai, Van Viet; Lee, Byong-Taek

    2010-06-01

    In this study, an injectable bone substitute (IBS) consisting of citric acid, chitosan, and hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as the liquid phase and tetra calcium phosphate (TTCP), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and calcium sulfate dehydrate (CSD, CaSO4 x 2H2O) powders as the solid phase, were fabricated. Two groups were classified based on the percent of citric acid in the liquid phase (20, 40 wt%). In each groups, the HPMC percentage was 0, 2, and 4 wt%. An increase in compressive strength due to changes in morphology was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy images. A good conversion rate of HAp at 20% citric acid was observed in the XRD profiles. In addition, HPMC was not obviously affected by apatite formation. However, both HPMC and citric acid increased the compressive strength of IBS. The maximum compressive strength for IBS was with 40% citric acid and 4% HPMC after 14 days of incubation in 100% humidity at 37 degrees C. PMID:20333539

  4. Fabrication of calcium phosphate–calcium sulfate injectable bone substitute using hydroxy-propyl-methyl-cellulose and citric acid

    PubMed Central

    Thai, Van Viet

    2010-01-01

    In this study, an injectable bone substitute (IBS) consisting of citric acid, chitosan, and hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as the liquid phase and tetra calcium phosphate (TTCP), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and calcium sulfate dehydrate (CSD, CaSO4·2H2O) powders as the solid phase, were fabricated. Two groups were classified based on the percent of citric acid in the liquid phase (20, 40 wt%). In each groups, the HPMC percentage was 0, 2, and 4 wt%. An increase in compressive strength due to changes in morphology was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy images. A good conversion rate of HAp at 20% citric acid was observed in the XRD profiles. In addition, HPMC was not obviously affected by apatite formation. However, both HPMC and citric acid increased the compressive strength of IBS. The maximum compressive strength for IBS was with 40% citric acid and 4% HPMC after 14 days of incubation in 100% humidity at 37°C. PMID:20333539

  5. Effect of Tetra Propyl Ammonium Bromide During Cobalt Electrodeposition from Acidic Sulfate Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patnaik, Pinak; Tripathy, Bankim Chandra; Bhattacharya, Indra Narayan; Paramguru, Raja Kishore; Mishra, Barada Kanta

    2015-02-01

    In the current study, the effect of an organic additive tetra propyl ammonium bromide (TPAB) on the structural, morphological characteristics of the cobalt metal produced from aqueous sulfate solutions has been investigated. The concentration of TPAB was varied over a range of 1 to 50 mg/L to evaluate its effect on current efficiency, energy consumption, and quality of electrodeposited cobalt. Smooth and bright electrodeposits of cobalt were obtained at low concentration of TPAB (10 mg/L) maintaining a current efficiency of 99.4 pct, with a low energy consumption of 2.42 kWh/kg. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that (100) plane is the most preferred plane of crystal growth during cobalt electrodeposition. However, at higher concentrations, the (101) plane became the most preferred one. Scanning electron micrographs indicated that smooth and uniform deposit of cobalt was obtained at 10 mg/L beyond which the deposit quality deteriorates. The presence of TPAB in the electrolytic bath polarizes the cathode and decreases the cathodic current considerably. AAS results indicated that the cobalt deposits were of high purity.

  6. Linkage and branch analysis of high-mannose oligosaccharides using closed-ring labeling of 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate and p-aminobenzoic ethyl ester and negative ion trap mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Ting; Her, Guor-Rong

    2012-08-01

    A strategy based on negative ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and closed-ring labeling with both 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate (APTS) and p-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester (ABEE) was developed for linkage and branch determination of high-mannose oligosaccharides. X-type cross-ring fragment ions obtained from APTS-labeled oligosaccharides by charge remote fragmentation provided information on linkages near the non-reducing terminus. In contrast, A-type cross-ring fragment ions observed from ABEE-labeled oligosaccharides yielded information on linkages near the reducing terminus. This complementary information provided by APTS- and ABEE-labeled oligosaccharides was utilized to delineate the structures of the high-mannose oligosaccharides. As a demonstration of this approach, the linkages and branches of high-mannose oligosaccharides Man(5)GlcNAc(2), Man(6)GlcNAc(2), Man(8)GlcNAc(2), and Man(9)GlcNAc(2) cleaved from the ribonuclease B were assigned from MS(2) spectra of ABEE- and APTS-labeled derivatives. PMID:22673837

  7. Linkage and Branch Analysis of High-Mannose Oligosaccharides Using Closed-Ring Labeling of 8-Aminopyrene-1,3,6-Trisulfonate and P-Aminobenzoic Ethyl Ester and Negative Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shu-Ting; Her, Guor-Rong

    2012-08-01

    A strategy based on negative ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and closed-ring labeling with both 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate (APTS) and p-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester (ABEE) was developed for linkage and branch determination of high-mannose oligosaccharides. X-type cross-ring fragment ions obtained from APTS-labeled oligosaccharides by charge remote fragmentation provided information on linkages near the non-reducing terminus. In contrast, A-type cross-ring fragment ions observed from ABEE-labeled oligosaccharides yielded information on linkages near the reducing terminus. This complementary information provided by APTS- and ABEE-labeled oligosaccharides was utilized to delineate the structures of the high-mannose oligosaccharides. As a demonstration of this approach, the linkages and branches of high-mannose oligosaccharides Man5GlcNAc2, Man6GlcNAc2, Man8GlcNAc2, and Man9GlcNAc2 cleaved from the ribonuclease B were assigned from MS2 spectra of ABEE- and APTS-labeled derivatives.

  8. 2,4-Dicarboxy-pyrroles as selective non-competitive mGluR1 antagonists: further characterization of 3,5-dimethyl pyrrole-2,4-dicarboxylic acid 2-propyl ester 4-(1,2,2-trimethyl-propyl) ester and structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Micheli, Fabrizio; Di Fabio, Romano; Bordi, Fabio; Cavallini, Palmina; Cavanni, Paolo; Donati, Daniele; Faedo, Stefania; Maffeis, Micaela; Sabbatini, Fabio Maria; Tarzia, Giorgio; Tranquillini, Maria Elvira

    2003-07-01

    Following the disclosure of 3,5-dimethyl pyrrole-2,4-dicarboxylic acid 2-propyl ester 4-(1,2,2-trimethyl-propyl) ester [3,5-dimethyl PPP] as a potent and selective mGluR1 non-competitive antagonist, we report here further in vivo characterization of this important tool and disclose the investigation of the C-5 position, which led to very potent compounds. PMID:12798316

  9. SWELLING OF PEATS IN LIQUID METHYL, TETRAMETHYLENE AND PROPYL SULFOXIDES AND IN LIQUID PROPYL SULFONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interactions of methyl, tetramethylene, and propyl sulfoxides and propyl sulfone during sorption onto four de-waxed, acid-form peats have been studied by means of swelling measurements. The results for sulfoxides are displayed as het-eromolecular sorption isotherms, which plo...

  10. Long-lasting epidural sensory blockade by n-butyl p-aminobenzoate in the dog: neurotoxic or local anesthetic effect?

    PubMed

    Korsten, H H; Hellebrekers, L J; Grouls, R J; Ackerman, E W; van Zundert, A A; van Herpen, H; Gruys, E

    1990-09-01

    An aqueous suspension of n-butyl p-aminobenzoate (BAB), a highly lipid-soluble congener of benzocaine, was applied epidurally and around ulnar nerves in dogs. The suspension consisted of 10% BAB and 0.025% polysorbate in 0.9% NaCl. Sensory effects were tested by electrical stimulation. Three epidural injections were given, and the dogs were killed after 21 days. The increase in stimulation threshold was comparable to the effect of lidocaine in a concentration between 0.5% and 1%. Increased sensory threshold lasted for days, whereas no long-lasting motor effects were observed. Pathomorphologic changes were found primarily in the dorsal spinal nerve roots, although slight changes were also found in the ventral spinal roots. White matter degeneration was found only in the lumbar dorsal columns. This result suggested Wallerian degeneration in the dorsal spinal nerves and was at variance with recently published data on epidural BAB. No changes were observed in the ulnar nerves. The authors demonstrated that the pathomorphologic changes were induced by the BAB suspension and not by the suspending additive polysorbate 80. It was postulated that the suspension of BAB, which contains particles of a median size of 15 microns, was mainly confined to the dorsal epidural space where neurolytic changes in axons of the dorsal spinal nerve roots and dorsal columns are induced. This may explain the long-lasting sensory effects seen in intractable cancer pain patients after epidural BAB administration. More research is necessary to define the distribution of BAB in nervous tissue after its epidural administration and to better characterize toxicity, neurolytic effects, and regeneration of nervous tissue after BAB administrations. PMID:2393134

  11. β-Cyclodextrin-Propyl Sulfonic Acid Catalysed One-Pot Synthesis of 1,2,4,5-Tetrasubstituted Imidazoles as Local Anesthetic Agents.

    PubMed

    Ran, Yan; Li, Ming; Zhang, Zong-Ze

    2015-01-01

    Some functionalized 1,2,4,5-tetrasubstituted imidazole derivatives were synthesized using a one-pot, four component reaction involving 1,2-diketones, aryl aldehydes, ammonium acetate and substituted aromatic amines. The synthesis has been efficiently carried out in a solvent free medium using β-cyclodextrin-propyl sulfonic acid as a catalyst to afford the target compounds in excellent yields. The local anesthetic effect of these derivatives was assessed in comparison to lidocaine as a standard using a rabbit corneal and mouse tail anesthesia model. The three most potent promising compounds were subjected to a rat sciatic nerve block assay where they showed considerable local anesthetic activity, along with minimal toxicity. Among the tested analogues, 4-(1-benzyl-4,5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-N,N-dimethylaniline (5g) was identified as most potent analogue with minimal toxicity. It was further characterized by a more favourable therapeutic index than the standard. PMID:26569210

  12. FTIR SOLUTION SPECTRA OF PROPYL SULFIDE, PROPYL SULFOXIDE, AND PROPYL SULFONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    FTIR spectra were obtained of 0.5% volumetric solutions of propyl sulfide, propyl sulfoxide and propyl sulfone in hexane, CC14, CS2, and CHCl3 to assist in the assignment of FTIR-PAS spectra of propyl sulfoxide sorbed within the structure of several peats and onto cellulose. he C...

  13. FT-IR SOLUTION SPECTRA OF PROPYL SULFIDE, PROPYL SULFOXIDE, AND PROPYL SULFONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    FT-IR spectra were obtained of 0.5% volumetric solutions of propyl sulfide, propyl sulfoxide, and propyl sulfone in hexane, CCl4, CS2, and CHCl3 to assist in the assignment of FT-IR-PAS spectra of propyl sulfoxide sorbed within the structure of several peats and onto cellulose. T...

  14. Cyclic fatty esters: synthesis, characterization, and lipolysis of isomeric triglycerides of 9-(6-propyl-3-cyclohexenyl)-(Z)8-nonenoic acid.

    PubMed

    Awl, R A; Frankel, E N; Brooks, D D; Weisleder, D

    1986-08-01

    Triglycerides of a model cyclic fatty acid (CFA) 9-(6-propyl-3-cyclohexenyl)-(Z)8-nonenoic acid (Ia) were synthesized for biological and toxicity evaluations. The monoacid triglyceride II (CyCyCy) was interesterified with triolein (OOO) to obtain mixtures of diacid triglycerides: III (OOCy), IV (OCyO), V (OCyCy), and VI (CyOCy). The interesterification mixtures were separated by preparative HPLC into two 'critical pairs' of isomeric triglycerides. Triglycerides III-VI were synthesized and a 13C-NMR method was developed to estimate 'critical pairs'. CFA-triglycerides were characterized by IR, NMR, HPLC and capillary GLC, and their relative rates of hydrolysis by lipase were compared. Although tricyclin (II) was completely resistant to lipolysis, triglycerides III and VI hydrolyzed significantly slower than triolein, and the 'critical pairs' hydrolyzed as readily as triolein. Therefore, partial CFA-triglycerides formed in heat-abused fats can undergo lipolysis and likely be absorbed like normal dietary fats. PMID:3757149

  15. 21 CFR 184.1660 - Propyl gallate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... manufacturing practice results in a maximum total content of antioxidants of 0.02 percent of the fat or oil content, including the essential (volatile) oil content, of the food. (e) Prior sanctions for this... prepared by esterification of gallic acid with propyl alcohol followed by distillation to remove...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1660 - Propyl gallate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... manufacturing practice results in a maximum total content of antioxidants of 0.02 percent of the fat or oil content, including the essential (volatile) oil content, of the food. (e) Prior sanctions for this... prepared by esterification of gallic acid with propyl alcohol followed by distillation to remove...

  17. The effects of a garlic oil chemical compound, propyl-propane thiosulfonate, on ruminal fermentation and fatty acid outflow in a dual-flow continuous culture system.

    PubMed

    Foskolos, A; Siurana, A; Rodriquez-Prado, M; Ferret, A; Bravo, D; Calsamiglia, S

    2015-08-01

    The ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feeds in the European Union has stimulated research on potential alternatives. Recently, propyl-propane thiosulfonate (PTSO), a stable organosulfurate compound of garlic, was purified. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the potential effects of PTSO on rumen microbial fermentation and to define effective doses. Two experiments were conducted using dual-flow continuous culture fermenters in 2 replicated periods. Each experimental period consisted of 5 d for adaptation of the ruminal fluid and 3 d for sampling. Temperature (39°C), pH (6.4), and liquid (0.10 h(-1)) and solid (0.05 h(-1)) dilution rates were maintained constant. Samples were taken 2 h after feeding and from the 24-h effluent. Samples were analyzed for volatile fatty acids (VFA) and nitrogen fractions, and degradation of nutrients was calculated. In addition, 24-h effluents from experiment 2 were analyzed for their fatty acid (FA) profile. Treatments in experiment 1 included a negative control without additive, a positive control with monensin (12mg/L), and PTSO at 30 and 300mg/L. The addition of 30mg/L did not affect any of the measurements tested. The addition of 300mg/L reduced microbial fermentation, as suggested by the decreased total VFA concentration, true degradation of organic matter and acid detergent fiber, and a tendency to decrease neutral detergent fiber degradation. Experiment 2 was conducted to test increasing doses of PTSO (0, 50, 100, and 150mg/L) on rumen microbial fermentation. At 2 h postfeeding, total VFA and molar proportion of propionate responded quadratically, with higher values in the intermediate doses. Molar proportions of butyrate increased and branched-chain VFA decreased linearly as the dose of PTSO increased. In the 24-h effluents, total VFA, acetate, and branched-chain VFA concentrations decreased linearly and those of propionate responded cubically with the highest value at 100mg/L. Saturated FA decreased and unsaturated FA increased linearly with increasing dose of PTSO. The concentration of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid decreased by 78.5% with addition of PTSO at the highest dose (150mg/L). Results suggest the potential of PTSO to modify ruminal fermentation in a direction consistent with higher propionate molar proportion, higher outflow of unsaturated FA, and low trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid in an effective dose between 50 and 100mg/L. PMID:26004834

  18. Synthesis of 2-[[1-oxo-2-(substituted amino)propyl]amino]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-3-carboxylic acid ethyl esters as potential local anesthetic agents.

    PubMed

    al-Obaid, A R

    1995-05-01

    The synthesis of a series of 10 compounds related to 2-[[1-oxo-2-substituted amino)propyl]amino]-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[b]thiophen-3-carboxyli c acid ethyl esters (III-XII) that are structurally-related to carticaine and the results of a study of their biological activity are reported. Most of the these compounds showed significant activity at lower concentrations when evaluated for local anesthetic activity using the frog-foot withdrawal reflex, the guinea pig wheal derm and the rabbit corneal reflex tests. Compounds III, V, VII and X displayed the shortest onset times and the longest duration of activity, compared to the model drug lidocaine. PMID:7612067

  19. Synthesis of an indole analog of folic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Shengeliya, M.S.; Avramenko, V.G.; Kuleshova, L.N.; Ershova, Yu.A.; Chernov, V.A.; Surorov, N.N.

    1987-06-01

    The authors study the replacement of the p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) moiety. The authors synthesized an indole analog of folic acid, namely dimethyl N-(5-(2'-amino-4'-oxo-6'-pteridinyl)methylaminoindol-2-yl)glutamate. The physicochemical properties and the chemical shifts in the PMR spectra of the compounds obtained are shown. The examination of the compound for antitumor activity was carried out using rats and mice.

  20. Kinetics of the transformation of n-propyl gallate and structural analogs in the perfused rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Eler, Gabrielle Jacklin; Santos, Israel Souza; Giaretta de Moraes, Amarilis; Mito, Márcio Shigueaki; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Peralta, Rosane Marina; Bracht, Adelar

    2013-11-15

    n-Propyl gallate and its analogs are used in foods and other products to prevent oxidation. In the liver the compound exerts several harmful effects, especially gluconeogenesis inhibition. The mode of transport and distribution of n-propyl gallate and its kinetics of biotransformation have not yet been investigated. To fill this gap the transformation, transport and distribution of n-propyl gallate and two analogs were investigated in the rat liver. Isolated perfused rat liver was used. n-Propyl gallate, methyl gallate, n-octyl gallate and transformation products were quantified by high pressure-liquid chromatography coupled to fluorescence detection. The interactions of n-propyl gallate and analogs with the liver presented three main characteristics: (1) the hydrolytic release of gallic acid from n-propyl gallate and methyl gallate was very fast compared with the subsequent transformations of the gallic acid moiety; (2) transport of the esters was very fast and flow-limited in contrast to the slow and barrier-limited transport of gallic acid; (3) the apparent distribution volume of n-propyl gallate, but probably also of methyl gallate and n-octyl gallate, greatly exceeded the water space in the liver, contrary to the gallic acid space which is smaller than the water space. It can be concluded that at low portal concentrations (< 50 μM) the gallic acid esters are 100% extracted during a single passage through the liver, releasing mainly gallic acid into the systemic circulation. For the latter a considerable time is required until complete biotransformation. The exposure of the liver to the esters, however, is quite prolonged due to extensive intracellular binding. - Highlights: • The liver binds very strongly n-propyl gallate and releases basically gallic acid. • n-propyl gallate and analogs undergo concentrative flow-limited distribution. • Gallic acid undergoes barrier-limited distribution and is slowly transformed. • The long residence time of n-propyl gallate and analogs increases toxicity.

  1. Ultraviolet photodissociation dynamics of the n-propyl and i-propyl radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Yu; Zheng, Xianfeng; Zhou, Weidong; Lucas, Michael; Zhang, Jingsong

    2015-06-14

    Ultraviolet (UV) photodissociation dynamics of jet-cooled n-propyl (n-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}) radical via the 3s Rydberg state and i-propyl (i-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}) radical via the 3p Rydberg states are studied in the photolysis wavelength region of 230–260 nm using high-n Rydberg atom time-of-flight and resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization techniques. The H-atom photofragment yield spectra of the n-propyl and i-propyl radicals are broad and in good agreement with the UV absorption spectra. The H + propene product translational energy distributions, P(E{sub T})’s, of both n-propyl and i-propyl are bimodal, with a slow component peaking around 5-6 kcal/mol and a fast one peaking at ∼50 kcal/mol (n-propyl) and ∼45 kcal/mol (i-propyl). The fraction of the average translational energy in the total excess energy, 〈f{sub T}〉, is 0.3 for n-propyl and 0.2 for i-propyl, respectively. The H-atom product angular distributions of the slow components of n-propyl and i-propyl are isotropic, while that of the fast component of n-propyl is anisotropic (with an anisotropy parameter ∼0.8) and that of i-propyl is nearly isotropic. Site-selective loss of the β hydrogen atom is confirmed using the partially deuterated CH{sub 3}CH{sub 2}CD{sub 2} and CH{sub 3}CDCH{sub 3} radicals. The bimodal translational energy and angular distributions indicate two dissociation pathways to the H + propene products in the n-propyl and i-propyl radicals: (i) a unimolecular dissociation pathway from the hot ground-state propyl after internal conversion from the 3s and 3p Rydberg states and (ii) a direct, prompt dissociation pathway coupling the Rydberg excited states to a repulsive part of the ground-state surface, presumably via a conical intersection.

  2. Room-temperature luminescence of the volatile compounds, 1- and 2-naphthol, and other compounds, 5,6-benzoquinoline, 4-phenylphenol, phenanthrene, triphenylene, and p-aminobenzoic acid, adsorbed on filter paper treated with salts and cyclodextrins

    SciTech Connect

    Ramasamy, S.M.; Hurtubise, R.J. )

    1989-01-01

    1- and 2-Naphthol are known to volatilize upon heating along with solvents such as ethanol and water. Filter paper, treated with salts and cyclodextrins, was shown to be capable of trapping these volatile phosphors efficiently on filter paper and permitting strong luminescence signals to be observed. Filter paper samples treated with and without cyclodextrins were compared on the basis of their ability to induce room-temperature fluorescence and phosphorescence from adsorbed naphthols and five other organic compounds. Also, the effect of heavy-atom salt, NaBr, on the phosphorescence intensities of phosphors adsorbed on the filter paper surfaces was studied.

  3. 21 CFR 573.880 - Normal propyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Normal propyl alcohol. 573.880 Section 573.880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additive Listing § 573.880 Normal propyl alcohol. Normal propyl alcohol may be safely used in feeds...

  4. 21 CFR 573.880 - Normal propyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Normal propyl alcohol. 573.880 Section 573.880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additive Listing § 573.880 Normal propyl alcohol. Normal propyl alcohol may be safely used in feeds...

  5. 21 CFR 573.880 - Normal propyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Normal propyl alcohol. 573.880 Section 573.880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additive Listing § 573.880 Normal propyl alcohol. Normal propyl alcohol may be safely used in feeds...

  6. 21 CFR 573.880 - Normal propyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Normal propyl alcohol. 573.880 Section 573.880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additive Listing § 573.880 Normal propyl alcohol. Normal propyl alcohol may be safely used in feeds...

  7. 21 CFR 573.880 - Normal propyl alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Normal propyl alcohol. 573.880 Section 573.880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additive Listing § 573.880 Normal propyl alcohol. Normal propyl alcohol may be safely used in feeds...

  8. Ecotoxicological effects of the antioxidant additive propyl gallate in five aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    Zurita, Jorge L; Jos, Angeles; del Peso, Ana; Salguero, Manuel; Lpez-Artguez, Miguel; Repetto, Guillermo

    2007-06-01

    Propyl gallate is an antioxidant widely used in foods, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals. The occurrence and fate of additives in the aquatic environment is an emerging issue in environmental chemistry. To date, there is little available information about the adverse effects of propyl gallate on aquatic organisms. Therefore, the toxic effects were investigated, using five model systems from four trophic levels. The most sensitive system was the hepatoma fish cell line PLHC-1 according to total protein content, with an EC(50) of 10 microM and a NOAEL of 1 microM at 72 h, followed by the immobilization of Daphnia magna, the inhibition of bioluminescence of Vibrio fischeri, the salmonid fish cell line RTG-2 and the inhibition of the growth of Chlorella vulgaris. Although protein content, neutral red uptake, methylthiazol metabolization and acetylcholinesterase activity were reduced in PLHC-1 cells, stimulations were observed for lysosomal function, succinate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activities. No changes were observed in metallothionein levels. The main morphological observations were the loss of cells and the induction of cell death mainly by necrosis but also by apoptosis. The protective and toxic effects of propyl gallate were evaluated. General antioxidants and calcium chelators did not modify the toxicity of propyl gallate, but an iron-dependent lipid peroxidation inhibitor gave 22% protection. The results also suggest that propyl gallate cytotoxicity is dependent on glutathione levels, which were modulated by malic acid diethyl ester and 2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid. According to the results, propyl gallate should be classified as toxic to aquatic organisms. PMID:17382989

  9. Detection of a branched alkyl molecule in the interstellar medium: iso-propyl cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloche, Arnaud; Garrod, Robin T.; Müller, Holger S. P.; Menten, Karl M.

    2014-09-01

    The largest noncyclic molecules detected in the interstellar medium (ISM) are organic with a straight-chain carbon backbone. We report an interstellar detection of a branched alkyl molecule, iso-propyl cyanide (i-C3H7CN), with an abundance 0.4 times that of its straight-chain structural isomer. This detection suggests that branched carbon-chain molecules may be generally abundant in the ISM. Our astrochemical model indicates that both isomers are produced within or upon dust grain ice mantles through the addition of molecular radicals, albeit via differing reaction pathways. The production of iso-propyl cyanide appears to require the addition of a functional group to a nonterminal carbon in the chain. Its detection therefore bodes well for the presence in the ISM of amino acids, for which such side-chain structure is a key characteristic.

  10. Interaction of single-walled carbon nanotubes with poly(propyl ether imine) dendrimers

    SciTech Connect

    Jayamurugan, G.; Rajesh, Y. B. R. D.; Jayaraman, N.; Vasu, K. S.; Kumar, S.; Sood, A. K.; Vasumathi, V.; Maiti, P. K.

    2011-03-14

    We study the complexation of nontoxic, native poly(propyl ether imine) dendrimers with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The interaction was monitored by measuring the quenching of inherent fluorescence of the dendrimer. The dendrimer-nanotube binding also resulted in the increased electrical resistance of the hole doped SWNT, due to charge-transfer interaction between dendrimer and nanotube. This charge-transfer interaction was further corroborated by observing a shift in frequency of the tangential Raman modes of SWNT. We also report the effect of acidic and neutral pH conditions on the binding affinities. Experimental studies were supplemented by all atom molecular dynamics simulations to provide a microscopic picture of the dendrimer-nanotube complex. The complexation was achieved through charge transfer and hydrophobic interactions, aided by multitude of oxygen, nitrogen, and n-propyl moieties of the dendrimer.

  11. Pathologically activated neuroprotection via uncompetitive blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors with fast off-rate by novel multifunctional dimer bis(propyl)-cognitin.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jialie; Li, Wenming; Zhao, Yuming; Fu, Hongjun; Ma, Dik-Lung; Tang, Jing; Li, Chaoying; Peoples, Robert W; Li, Fushun; Wang, Qinwen; Huang, Pingbo; Xia, Jun; Pang, Yuanping; Han, Yifan

    2010-06-25

    Uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists with fast off-rate (UFO) may represent promising drug candidates for various neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we report that bis(propyl)-cognitin, a novel dimeric acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and gamma-aminobutyric acid subtype A receptor antagonist, is such an antagonist of NMDA receptors. In cultured rat hippocampal neurons, we demonstrated that bis(propyl)-cognitin voltage-dependently, selectively, and moderately inhibited NMDA-activated currents. The inhibitory effects of bis(propyl)-cognitin increased with the rise in NMDA and glycine concentrations. Kinetics analysis showed that the inhibition was of fast onset and offset with an off-rate time constant of 1.9 s. Molecular docking simulations showed moderate hydrophobic interaction between bis(propyl)-cognitin and the MK-801 binding region in the ion channel pore of the NMDA receptor. Bis(propyl)-cognitin was further found to compete with [(3)H]MK-801 with a K(i) value of 0.27 mum, and the mutation of NR1(N616R) significantly reduced its inhibitory potency. Under glutamate-mediated pathological conditions, bis(propyl)-cognitin, in contrast to bis(heptyl)-cognitin, prevented excitotoxicity with increasing effectiveness against escalating levels of glutamate and much more effectively protected against middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced brain damage than did memantine. More interestingly, under NMDA receptor-mediated physiological conditions, bis(propyl)-cognitin enhanced long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices, whereas MK-801 reduced and memantine did not alter this process. These results suggest that bis(propyl)-cognitin is a UFO antagonist of NMDA receptors with moderate affinity, which may provide a pathologically activated therapy for various neurodegenerative disorders associated with NMDA receptor dysregulation. PMID:20404346

  12. Pathologically Activated Neuroprotection via Uncompetitive Blockade of N-Methyl-d-aspartate Receptors with Fast Off-rate by Novel Multifunctional Dimer Bis(propyl)-cognitin*

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jialie; Li, Wenming; Zhao, Yuming; Fu, Hongjun; Ma, Dik-Lung; Tang, Jing; Li, Chaoying; Peoples, Robert W.; Li, Fushun; Wang, Qinwen; Huang, Pingbo; Xia, Jun; Pang, Yuanping; Han, Yifan

    2010-01-01

    Uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists with fast off-rate (UFO) may represent promising drug candidates for various neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we report that bis(propyl)-cognitin, a novel dimeric acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and γ-aminobutyric acid subtype A receptor antagonist, is such an antagonist of NMDA receptors. In cultured rat hippocampal neurons, we demonstrated that bis(propyl)-cognitin voltage-dependently, selectively, and moderately inhibited NMDA-activated currents. The inhibitory effects of bis(propyl)-cognitin increased with the rise in NMDA and glycine concentrations. Kinetics analysis showed that the inhibition was of fast onset and offset with an off-rate time constant of 1.9 s. Molecular docking simulations showed moderate hydrophobic interaction between bis(propyl)-cognitin and the MK-801 binding region in the ion channel pore of the NMDA receptor. Bis(propyl)-cognitin was further found to compete with [3H]MK-801 with a Ki value of 0.27 μm, and the mutation of NR1(N616R) significantly reduced its inhibitory potency. Under glutamate-mediated pathological conditions, bis(propyl)-cognitin, in contrast to bis(heptyl)-cognitin, prevented excitotoxicity with increasing effectiveness against escalating levels of glutamate and much more effectively protected against middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced brain damage than did memantine. More interestingly, under NMDA receptor-mediated physiological conditions, bis(propyl)-cognitin enhanced long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices, whereas MK-801 reduced and memantine did not alter this process. These results suggest that bis(propyl)-cognitin is a UFO antagonist of NMDA receptors with moderate affinity, which may provide a pathologically activated therapy for various neurodegenerative disorders associated with NMDA receptor dysregulation. PMID:20404346

  13. Hyaluronic acid based hydroxamate and conjugates with biologically active amines: In vitro effect on matrix metalloproteinase-2.

    PubMed

    Ponedel'kina, Irina Yu; Gaskarova, Aigul R; Khaybrakhmanova, Elvira A; Lukina, Elena S; Odinokov, Victor N

    2016-06-25

    In this study, water soluble hyaluronic acid (HA) based hydroxamate and conjugates with biologically active amines and hydrazides such as p- and o-aminophenols, anthranilic, 4- and 5-aminosalicylic acids, nicotinic, N-benzylnicotinic and isonicotinic hydrazides, p-aminobenzenesulfonamide (Streptocide), p-aminobenzoic acid diethylaminoethyl ester (Procaine), and 4-amino-2,3-dimethyl-1-phenyl-3-pyrazolin-5-one (4-aminoantipyrene) were examined as matrix metalloproteinase-2 inhibitors (MMPIs). In a dose of 0.27-270μM, the most efficient MMPIs were HA conjugates with o-aminophenol=4-aminoantipyrine>4-aminosalicylic acid>5-aminosalicylic acid. Conjugates with Streptocide, Procaine and HA hydroxamate showed 40-50% inhibitory effect at all used concentrations. Conjugates with anthranilic acid and isonicotinic hydrazide (Isoniazid) in a dose of 0.27μM inhibited enzyme activity by ∼70%, but with the concentration increase their inhibitory effect was decreased. PMID:27083788

  14. Conformers and photochemistry of propyl nitrites: a matrix isolation study.

    PubMed

    Matyus, Edit; Magyarfalvi, Gabor; Tarczay, György

    2007-01-25

    The infrared spectra of both constitutional isomers (n and i) of propyl nitrite have been recorded in an Ar matrix. Conformational analysis and assignments of the vibrational transitions have been carried out on the basis of quantum chemical calculations. Assignment of spectral lines to different conformers was also aided experimentally, by utilizing the different rate of photodecomposition of the conformers, as well as by employing conformational cooling using a supersonic jet as the inlet source for matrix deposition. The rate of photodecomposition is primarily determined by the steric alignment of the nitrite group, whereas jet cooling affects mainly the conformation of the alkyl tail. On the basis of these experimental observations and computational predictions two to three conformers of isopropyl nitrite and eight conformers of n-propyl nitrite were identified. After broadband ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) photolysis of isopropyl nitrite in the matrix, HNO, acetone, HNO.acetone complex, acetaldehyde, and nitrosomethane were identified as the main products. Furthermore, in a small amount, NO and possibly the isopropoxy radical were also present in the matrix. Photolysis of n-propyl nitrite yielded HNO, propanal, and their 1:1 complex as the main products together with a small amount of NO and cis-1-nitrosopropanol. PMID:17228893

  15. Physico-chemical studies and emulsifying properties of N-propyl-N-methylene phosphonic chitosan.

    PubMed

    Albertengo, Liliana; Farenzena, Sonia; Debbaudt, Adriana; Zuñiga, Adriana; Schulz, Pablo; Rodriguez, Maria Susana

    2013-02-15

    Chitosan is a modified, natural carbohydrate polymer derived by deacetylation of chitin. Due to the presence of two functional groups can undergo many chemical modifications. In a previous work we described the synthetic strategy and characterization of a novel soluble derivative: N-propyl-N-methylene phosphonic chitosan (PNMPC). In the study of some physicochemical properties, results showed that this modified chitosan aggregates in several steps when the concentration is increased. By addition of NaOH the initially coiled molecules stretch exposing more phosphonic acid groups to neutralization and finally give a cooperative reaction with OH((). PNMPC has emulsifying properties and gives O/W emulsions with quasi-monodisperse small droplets. Emulsions with 0.18% PNMPC and 30:70 o:w ratio exhibited the best emulsifying properties within the test range. This emulsion ratio showed high stability to long time storage and several successive freeze/thaw and heating/cooling cycles. PMID:23399201

  16. Diesters from Oleic Acid: Synthesis, Low Temperature Properties, and Oxidation Stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several diesters were prepared from commercially available oleic acid and common organic acids. The key step in the three step synthesis of oleochemical diesters entails a ring opening esterification of alkyl 9,10-epoxyoctadecanoates (alkyl: propyl, iso-propyl, octyl, 2-ethylhexyl) using propionic a...

  17. Photolysis of n-Propyl Formate in the Presence of O2 and NO2: Peroxy Formyl Propyl Nitrate CH3CH2CH2OC(O)OONO2 Synthesis and Characterization.

    PubMed

    Vila, Jess A; Argello, Gustavo A; Malanca, Fabio E

    2016-01-21

    The photo-oxidation of n-propyl formate (initiated by chlorine atoms) was studied in the presence of NO2, and the products were identified. The Cl atom attack to the molecule occurs in four sites, leading to the formation of formic acid, carbon dioxide, dicarbonylic products, nitrates, peroxy propionyl nitrate (CH3CH2C(O)OONO2, PPN), and a new peroxynitrate, peroxy formyl propyl nitrate (CH3CH2CH2OC(O)OONO2, PFPN). To characterize bulk quantities of the PFPN, its synthesis was carried out by the photolysis of mixtures of CH3CH2CH2OC(O)H, NO2, Cl2, and O2. After purification, its infrared spectrum and thermal stability were determined. The main infrared absorption bands and their corresponding cross sections are 796, 1219, 1302, 1741, and 1831 cm(-1) (1.16, 3.11, 0.88, 2.42, and 1.34 10(-18) cm(2) molec(-1), respectively). Thermal decomposition was studied as a function of pressure from 6.0 to 1000 mbar at 298 K, and the activation energy was determined between 293 and 304 K at total pressures of 9.0 and 1000 mbar (Ea = 98 3 and 110 2 kJ/mol, respectively). The atmospheric thermal lifetimes were obtained from kinetic parameters. PMID:26702471

  18. Influence of Coformer Stoichiometric Ratio on Pharmaceutical Cocrystal Dissolution: Three Cocrystals of Carbamazepine/4-Aminobenzoic Acid.

    PubMed

    Li, Zi; Matzger, Adam J

    2016-03-01

    Cocrystallization is a technique to optimize solid forms that shows great potential to improve the solubility of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). In some systems, an API can form cocrystals in multiple stoichiometries with the same coformer. However, it remains unclear how coformer stoichiometry influences solubility. This paper investigates the pharmaceutical:coformer pair carbamazepine (CBZ)/p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA); both CBZ/PABA 1:1 and 2:1 cocrystals are known, and a novel 4:1 CBZ/PABA cocrystal is reported here. The 4:1 cocrystal is structurally characterized, and phase stability data suggest that it is a thermodynamically unstable form. Dissolution experiments show that there is no correlation between the cocrystal stoichiometry and dissolution rate in this system. On the other hand, with the relatively weak intermolecular interactions, metastable forms can be beneficial to dissolution rate, which suggests that more effort should be devoted to cocrystal production with kinetic growth methods. PMID:26837376

  19. Non-covalent bonded 2D-3D supramolecular architectures based on 4-dimethylaminopyridine and organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huan; Jin, Shouwen; Wen, Xianhong; Liu, Bin; Fang, Yang; Zhang, Yani; Wang, Daqi

    2015-07-01

    Studies concentrating on non-covalent weak interactions between the organic base of 4-dimethylaminopyridine, and acidic derivatives have led to an increased understanding of the role 4-dimethylaminopyridine has in binding with the organic acid derivatives. Here anhydrous and hydrous multicomponent organic acid-base adducts of 4-dimethylaminopyridine have been prepared with organic acids such as 1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 5-chlorosalicylic acid, 5-bromosalicylic acid, 5-nitrosalicylic acid, and 5-sulfosalicylic acid. The 4-dimethylaminopyridine is only monoprotonated. All compounds are organic salts with the 1:1 ratio of the cation and the anion. For the 5-sulfosalicylic acid only one H is ionized to exhibit the valence number of -1. The eight crystalline complexes were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. These structures adopted the hetero supramolecular synthons. Analysis of the crystal packing of 1-8 suggests that there are Nsbnd H⋯O, Osbnd H⋯O, and Osbnd H⋯S hydrogen bonds (charge assisted or neutral) between the organic acid and the 4-dimethylaminopyridine moieties in the studied compounds. Except the classical hydrogen bonding interactions, the secondary propagating interactions also play important roles in structure extension. For the synergistic effect of the various non-covalent interactions, the complexes displayed 2D-3D framework structures.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Mixed Substituent P-n-Propyl-N-trimethylphosphoranimines

    SciTech Connect

    Klaehn, John Ray; Luther, Thomas Alan; Harrup, Mason Kurt; Stewart, Frederick Forrest

    2003-07-01

    One approach to the synthesis of polyphosphazenes is the condensation polymerization of phosphoranimines. In this work, several novel P-n-propyl-N-trimethylsilylphosphoranimines have been synthesized and characterized. Modifications to the literature synthetic routes were required to obtain the precursor phosphines. The N-trimethylsilylphosphoranimines were obtained though oxidation of the phosphine with bromine and then subsequent nucleophilic displacement using lithium phenoxide. These phosphoranimines were stable for long periods of time under dry inert conditions. NMR analyses revealed complex splitting patterns beyond typical coupling due to the stereocenter at phosphorus. We report several approaches to the n-propyl containing phosphines

  1. Pathway and kinetic analysis on the propyl radical + 02 reaction system

    SciTech Connect

    Bozzelli, J.W.; Pitz, W.J.

    1997-05-01

    In this study of the reaction of alkyl radicals with molecular oxygen, we analyze the propyl + 02 reaction system using thermochemical kinetics, Transition State Theory (TST), molecular thermodynamic properties, quantum Kassel analysis (quantum RRK) for k(E) and modified strong collision analysis for fall off. Cyclic transition states for both hydrogen transfer and the H02 concerted elimination from propylperoxy are calculated using semi-empirical (MOPAC PM3) calculations [8] in addition to transition states for H02 elimination and epoxide formation from hydroperoxy-isopropyl. Computed rate constants for propyl + 02 are compared to the values of Gulati and Walker who measured the rate constants at 50 torr and over a temperature range of 653 to 773 K. Computed rate constants are also used in a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism and compared to the n- propyl + 02 data of Slagle. They measured the rate of disappearance of n-propyl by reaction with 02 over a temperature range of 297 to 635 K and a pressure range of 0.4 to 7 Torr, as well as the fall off data of the Kaiser and Wallington.

  2. Studies on the Food Additive Propyl Gallate: Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Jorge; Garrido, E. Manuela; Borges, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are additives largely used in industry for delaying, retarding, or preventing the development of oxidative deterioration. Propyl gallate (E310) is a phenolic antioxidant extensively used in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. A series of lab experiments have been developed to teach students about the importance and

  3. Studies on the Food Additive Propyl Gallate: Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Jorge; Garrido, E. Manuela; Borges, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are additives largely used in industry for delaying, retarding, or preventing the development of oxidative deterioration. Propyl gallate (E310) is a phenolic antioxidant extensively used in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. A series of lab experiments have been developed to teach students about the importance and…

  4. 40 CFR 721.9500 - Silane, (1,1-dimethylethoxy) dimethoxy(2-methyl propyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Silane, (1,1-dimethylethoxy) dimethoxy(2-methyl propyl)-. 721.9500 Section 721.9500 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9500 Silane, (1,1-dimethylethoxy)...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9500 - Silane, (1,1-dimethylethoxy) dimethoxy(2-methyl propyl)-.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Silane, (1,1-dimethylethoxy) dimethoxy(2-methyl propyl)-. 721.9500 Section 721.9500 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9500 Silane, (1,1-dimethylethoxy)...

  6. Inhibitory effects of propyl gallate on tyrosinase and its application in controlling pericarp browning of harvested longan fruits.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Fen; Hu, Yong-Hua; Lin, He-Tong; Liu, Xuan; Chen, Yi-Hui; Zhang, Shen; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2013-03-20

    Tyrosinase (EC 1.14.18.1), also known as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), is a key enzyme in pigment biosynthesis of organisms. The inhibitory effects of propyl gallate on the activity of mushroom tyrosinase and effects of propyl gallate on pericarp browning of harvested longan fruits in relation to phenolic metabolism were investigated. The results showed that propyl gallate could potently inhibit diphenolase activity of tyrosinase. The inhibitor concentration leading to 50% activity lost (IC50) was determined to be 0.685 mM. Kinetic analyses showed that propyl gallate was a reversible and mixed type inhibitor on this enzyme. The inhibition constants (K(IS) and K(I)) were determined to be 2.135 and 0.661 mM, respectively. Furthermore, the results also showed that propyl gallate treatment inhibited activities of PPO and POD in pericarp of harvested longan fruits, and maintained higher contents of total phenol and flavonoid of longan pericarp. Moreover, propyl gallate treatment also delayed the increases of browning index and browning degree in pericarp of harvested longan fruits. Therefore, application of propyl gallate may be a promising method for inhibiting tyrosinase activity, controlling pericarp browning, and extending shelf life of harvested longan fruits. PMID:23427826

  7. Mathematical evaluation of the amino acid and polyphenol content and antioxidant activities of fruits from different apricot cultivars.

    PubMed

    Sochor, Jiri; Skutkova, Helena; Babula, Petr; Zitka, Ondrej; Cernei, Natalia; Rop, Otakar; Krska, Boris; Adam, Vojtech; Provazník, Ivo; Kizek, Rene

    2011-01-01

    Functional foods are of interest because of their significant effects on human health, which can be connected with the presence of some biologically important compounds. In this study, we carried out complex analysis of 239 apricot cultivars (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivated in Lednice (climatic area T4), South Moravia, Czech Republic. Almost all previously published studies have focused only on analysis of certain parameters. However, we focused on detection both primary and secondary metabolites in a selection of apricot cultivars with respect to their biological activity. The contents of thirteen biogenic alpha-L-amino acids (arginine, asparagine, isoleucine, lysine, serine, threonine, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, proline and alanine) were determined using ion exchange chromatography with UV-Vis spectrometry detection. Profile of polyphenols, measured as content of ten polyphenols with significant antioxidant properties (gallic acid, procatechinic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, rutin, ferrulic acid and quercetrin), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrometric/electrochemical detection. Moreover, content of total phenolics was determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was determined using five independent spectrophotometric methods: DPPH assay, DMPD method, ABTS method, FRAP and Free Radicals methods. Considering the complexity of the obtained data, they were processed and correlated using bioinformatics techniques (cluster analysis, principal component analysis). The studied apricot cultivars were clustered according to their common biochemical properties, which has not been done before. The observed similarities and differences were discussed. PMID:21886093

  8. Crystal structure of 3-amino-1-propyl­pyridinium bromide

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, P.; Rajakannan, V.; Thamotharan, S.

    2014-01-01

    The title mol­ecular salt, C8H13N2 +·Br−, crystallizes with two independent 3-amino­pyridinium cations and two bromide anions in the asymmetric unit (Z′ = 2). In the pyridine ring, the N atom is alkyl­ated by a propyl group. The dihedral angle between the mean planes of the pyridinium ring and the propyl group is 84.84 (2)° in cation A, whereas the corresponding angle is 89.23 (2)° in cation B. In the crystal, the anions and cations are linked via N—H⋯Br and C—H⋯Br hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along [100]. PMID:25552997

  9. 2-Propyl-4H-thia­zolo[3,2-a][1,3,5]triazine-4-thione

    PubMed Central

    Yunus, Uzma; Tahir, Muhammad Kalim; Bhatti, Moazzam Hussain; Wong, Wai-Yeung

    2008-01-01

    In the title compound, C8H9N3S2, the n-propyl chain is disordered over two orientations (site-occupancy ratio = 0.522:0.478) and is roughly perpendicular to the fused thia­zolotriazine system. The angle between the fused ring and the propyl chain is 83.6 (1)° [ 82.2 (1)° for the disordered chain]. The structure is stabilized by C—H⋯N hydrogen bonds. PMID:21202112

  10. Laboratory Evaluation of Drop-in Solvent Alternatives to n-Propyl Bromide for Vapor Degreasing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Mark A.; Lowrey, Nikki M.

    2012-01-01

    Based on this limited laboratory study, solvent blends of trans-1,2 dichloroethylene with HFEs, HFCs, or PFCs appear to be viable alternatives to n-propyl bromide for vapor degreasing. The lower boiling points of these blends may lead to greater solvent loss during use. Additional factors must be considered when selecting a solvent substitute, including stability over time, VOC, GWP, toxicity, and business considerations.

  11. Vibrational-Torsional Coupling Revealed in the Infrared Spectrum of He-Solvated n-PROPYL Radical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, Christopher P.; Broderick, Bernadette M.; Agarwal, Jay; Schaefer, Henry F., III.; Douberly, Gary E.

    2015-06-01

    The n-propyl and i-propyl radicals were generated in the gas phase via pyrolysis of n-butyl nitrite (CH3(CH2)3ONO) and i-butyl nitrite (CH3CH(CH3)CH2ONO) precursors, respectively. Nascent radicals were promptly solvated by a beam of He nanodroplets, and the infrared spectra of the radicals were recorded in the C-H stretching region. In addition to three vibrations of n-propyl previously measured in an Ar matrix, we observe many unreported bands between 2800 and 3150 wn, which we attribute to propyl radicals. The C-H stretching modes observed above 2960 wn for both radicals are in excellent agreement with anharmonic frequencies computed using VPT2. Between 2800 and 2960 wn, however, the spectra of n-propyl and i-propyl radicals become quite congested and difficult to assign due to the presence of multiple anharmonic resonances. Computations reveal the likely origin of the spectral congestion to be strong coupling between the high frequency C-H stretching modes and a lower frequency torsional motion, which modulates quite substantially a through-space hyperconjugation interaction. Pacansky, et. al., J. Phys. Chem. 1977, 81, 2149.

  12. Propyl Gallate Inhibits Adipogenesis by Stimulating Extracellular Signal-Related Kinases in Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeung-Eun; Kim, Jung-Min; Jang, Hyun-Jun; Lim, Se-young; Choi, Seon-Jeong; Lee, Nan-Hee; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Choi, Ung-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Propyl gallate (PG) used as an additive in various foods has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Although the functional roles of PG in various cell types are well characterized, it is unknown whether PG has effect on stem cell differentiation. In this study, we demonstrated that PG could inhibit adipogenic differentiation in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) by decreasing the accumulation of intracellular lipid droplets. In addition, PG significantly reduced the expression of adipocyte-specific markers including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), CCAAT enhancer binding protein-α (C/EBP-α), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2 (aP2). PG inhibited adipogenesis in hAMSCs through extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Decreased adipogenesis following PG treatment was recovered in response to ERK blocking. Taken together, these results suggest a novel effect of PG on adipocyte differentiation in hAMSCs, supporting a negative role of ERK1/2 pathway in adipogenic differentiation. PMID:25813451

  13. Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

  14. 40 CFR 721.10565 - Ethanol, 2,2′-[[3-[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]propyl]imino]bis-, N-(hydrogenated tallow alkyl) derivs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethanol, 2,2â²- propyl]imino]bis-, N... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10565 Ethanol, 2,2′- propyl]imino]bis-, N...) The chemical substance identified as ethanol, 2,2′- propyl]imino]bis-, N-(hydrogenated tallow...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10565 - Ethanol, 2,2′-[[3-[(2-hydroxyethyl)amino]propyl]imino]bis-, N-(hydrogenated tallow alkyl) derivs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethanol, 2,2â²- propyl]imino]bis-, N... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10565 Ethanol, 2,2′- propyl]imino]bis-, N...) The chemical substance identified as ethanol, 2,2′- propyl]imino]bis-, N-(hydrogenated tallow...

  16. Flow cytometric determination of basophils in whole blood with n-propyl Astra Blue iodide.

    PubMed

    Malin, M J; Hwang, D R; Ben-David, D

    1986-07-01

    Within the past year, it has become apparent, in connection with its use on automatic flow cytometers, that the quality of commercially available Alcian Blue has significantly declined. A homologous series of alkylated (C1-C7) Astra Blue quaternary ammonium halides was prepared, characterized, and evaluated for the detection of basophils in whole blood. On the Technicon H6000 flow cytometer, the resolution of the basophil cluster from the main population of unstained white blood cells was found to depend on the chain length of the quaternizing alkyl group. Optimal basophil resolution was observed for the n-propyl derivative. Correlation of the new method vs Alcian Blue as the reference on the H6000 was expressed as follows: %Baso (Astra Blue) = 0.89% Baso (Alcian Blue) + 0.12% for 180 fresh whole blood samples. Within-run precision at a basophil differential count of 0.73% was characterized by SD = 0.11, identical to that obtained for Alcian Blue. Aqueous solutions of n-propyl Astra Blue iodide, in contrast to Alcian Blue, are thermally stable. Heating the reagent for 1 h at 100 degrees C did not alter solubility or cytochemical behavior. In contrast, parallel treatment of Alcian Blue yielded insoluble material by hydrolysis of the isothiouronium groups. The reagent for basophil detection comprises n-propyl Astra Blue iodide, lanthanum chloride, sodium chloride, Tween 20, and cetylpyridinium chloride. The Astra Blue derivatives were characterized by uv-vis, ir, percentage halide, paper chromatography, and 13C NMR. PMID:2426984

  17. Endonucleolytic activity directed towards 8-(2-hydroxy-2-propyl) purines in double-stranded DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Livneh, Z; Elad, D; Sperling, J

    1979-01-01

    Photoalkylation of circular covalently closed DNA from phage PM2 with isopropyl alcohol by using a free radical photoinitiator and UV light of lambda greater than 305 nm led to the specific 8-substitution of purine moieties in the DNA, yielding 8-(2-hydroxy-2-propyl)adenine and 8-(2-hydroxy-2-propyl)guanine as the only detectable damage in the DNA. Using this specifically photoalkylated DNA as a substrate, we discovered in extracts of Micrococcus luteus an endonucleolytic activity that is directed towards 8-(2-hydroxy-2-propyl) purines in DNA. The activity is not a combination of a DNA-glycosylase and an apurinic site endonuclease. It is not inhibited by single-stranded DNA, by UV- or gamma-irradiated single-stranded DNA, or by normal or depurinated double-stranded DNA. however, gamma- or UV-(254 nm) irradiated double-stranded DNAs to inhibit the activity, hinting at the possibility of a common type of lesion in these damaged DNAs. Divalent cations are not required for the incising activity, and it is fully active in 1 mM EDTA, whereas caffeine and ATP cause inhibition. Extracts of mutant M. luteus lacking pyrimidine-dimer-directed endonucleases were found to contain the endonucleolytic activity in levels comparable to those present in the wild type. After the incision, we could demonstrate the specific excision of the 8-alkylated purines from the damaged DNA. The special conformational consequences of the 8-alkylation of purines, at the nucleotide level, namely their nonregular syn conformation, suggest that it is the distortion in the DNA that is recognized by the endonuclease. PMID:293658

  18. Propyl alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... and monitor the person's vital signs, including temperature, pulse, breathing rate, and blood pressure. The person may receive: Activated charcoal Airway support, including oxygen, breathing tube through the mouth (intubation),and ventilator (breathing machine) ...

  19. Identification of glucuronides as in vivo liver conjugates of seven cannabinoids and some of their hydroxy and acid metabolites.

    PubMed

    Harvey, D J; Martin, B R; Paton, W D

    1977-02-01

    Glucuronide conjugates of cannabidiol (CBD), 7-hydroxy-CBD, propyl-CBD, cannabinol (CBN), 7-hydroxy-CBN, CBN-7-oic acid, propyl CBN and cannabichromene have been identified as major metabolites of CBD, CBN and their propyl homologues and of cannabichromene in mouse liver. Trace amounts of the glucuronide conjugates of delta1- and delta1(6)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) were also detected. Identification was made by combined gas-liquid chromatographic and mass spectrometric studies of the trimethylsilyl (TMS), d9-TMS and methyl ester-TMS derivatives of the glucuronides and the TMS derivatives of the product of the reduction of the metabolites with lithium aluminium deuteride. PMID:847285

  20. Simultaneous, stability indicating, HPLC-DAD determination of guaifenesin and methyl and propyl-parabens in cough syrup.

    PubMed

    Grosa, Giorgio; Del Grosso, Erika; Russo, Roberta; Allegrone, Gianna

    2006-06-01

    A stability indicating high performance liquid chromatography procedure has been developed for the simultaneous determination of guaifenesin (GUA), methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (MHB) and propyl p-hydroxybenzoate (PHB) in a commercial cough syrup dosage form. The method was specific and stability indicating as chromatographic conditions were selected to provide adequate separation of GUA, MHB and PHB from the putative degradation products guaiacol (GUAI) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA) as well as from excipients. The isocratic separation and quantitation were achieved within 17 min on a 150-mm column with an ether-linked phenyl stationary phase and a hydrophilic endcapping. The mobile phase was constituted of eluant A: aqueous phosphate buffer (pH 3.0, 10 mM)/acetonitrile 25/75 (v/v) and eluant B:methanol; the A:B ratio was 85:15 (v/v) with a flow rate 1 ml min-1 and detection of analytes at 254 and 276 nm. The method showed good linearity for the GUA-MHB-PHB mixture in the 95-285, 4-12, and 1-3 microg ml-1 ranges, respectively, being all the square of the correlation coefficients greater than 0.999. The interday R.S.D.s were 1.17, 1.14, and 0.91%, for GUA, MHB, and PHP, respectively. The method demonstrated also to be accurate; indeed the average recoveries, at 100% of the target assay concentration, were 100.5, 100.3, and 100.7% with relative standard deviations of 0.8, 0.7, and 0.4% for GUA, MHB, and PHB, respectively, from laboratory prepared samples. The applicability of the method was evaluated in commercial dosage form analysis as well as in stability studies. PMID:16497471

  1. LC/MS/MS identification of some folic acid degradation products after E-beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, M. M.; Marchioni, E.; Zhao, M.; Kuntz, F.; Di Pascoli, T.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Bergaentzle, M.

    2012-08-01

    Folates belong to the B vitamin group based on the parental compound folic acid (FA). They are involved in important biochemical processes like DNA synthesis and repair. FA is composed of a pteridine ring, p-aminobenzoic acid and glutamate moieties. The human metabolism is not able to synthesize folates and therefore obtain them from diet. FA, a synthetic vitamin, is used as a food fortificant because of its low price, relative stability and increased bioavailability compared to natural folate forms. FA is known to be a sensitive compound easily degradable in aqueous solution by ultraviolet and visible light towards various by-products. Irradiation is a process for preservation of foods that uses accelerated electrons, gamma rays or X-rays. Irradiation is proposed for the treatment of various food products, eliminating or reducing pathogens and insects, increasing the storage time and replacing chemical fumigants. This study concerns the identification of degradation products of FA after E-beam irradiation. FA aqueous solutions were irradiated with a Van de Graaff electrons beam accelerator (2 MeV, 100 μA current, 20 cm scan width, dose rate about 2 kGy/s). Applied doses were between 0 (control) and 10.0 kGy. Absorbed doses were monitored with FWT 60.00 radiochromic dosimeters.

  2. (E)-Propyl ?-Cyano-4-Hydroxyl Cinnamylate: A High Sensitive and Salt Tolerant Matrix for Intact Protein Profiling by MALDI Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sheng; Xiao, Zhaohui; Xiao, Chunsheng; Wang, Huixin; Wang, Bing; Li, Ying; Chen, Xuesi; Guo, Xinhua

    2016-01-01

    Low-abundance samples and salt interference are always of great challenges for the practical protein profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). Herein, a series of carboxyl-esterified derivatives of ?-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) were synthesized and evaluated as matrices for MALDI-MS analysis of protein. Among them, (E)-propyl ?-cyano-4-hydroxyl cinnamylate (CHCA-C3) was found to exhibit excellent assay performance for intact proteins by improving the detection sensitivity 10 folds compared with the traditional matrices [i.e., super2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (superDHB), sinapic acid (SA), and CHCA]. In addition, CHCA-C3 was shown to have high tolerance to salts, the ion signal of myoglobin was readily detected even in the presence of urea (8 M), NH4HCO3 (2 M), and KH2PO4 (500 mM), meanwhile sample washability was robust. These achievements were mainly attributed to improved ablation ability and increased hydrophobicity or affinity of CHCA-C3 to proteins in comparison with hydrophilic matrixes, leading to more efficient ionization of analyte. Furthermore, direct analysis of proteins from crude egg white demonstrated that CHCA-C3 was a highly efficient matrix for the analysis of low-abundance proteins in complex biological samples. These outstanding performances indicate the tremendous potential use of CHCA-C3 in protein profiling by MALDI-MS.

  3. (E)-Propyl α-Cyano-4-Hydroxyl Cinnamylate: A High Sensitive and Salt Tolerant Matrix for Intact Protein Profiling by MALDI Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Sheng; Xiao, Zhaohui; Xiao, Chunsheng; Wang, Huixin; Wang, Bing; Li, Ying; Chen, Xuesi; Guo, Xinhua

    2016-04-01

    Low-abundance samples and salt interference are always of great challenges for the practical protein profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). Herein, a series of carboxyl-esterified derivatives of α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) were synthesized and evaluated as matrices for MALDI-MS analysis of protein. Among them, (E)-propyl α-cyano-4-hydroxyl cinnamylate (CHCA-C3) was found to exhibit excellent assay performance for intact proteins by improving the detection sensitivity 10 folds compared with the traditional matrices [i.e., super2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (superDHB), sinapic acid (SA), and CHCA]. In addition, CHCA-C3 was shown to have high tolerance to salts, the ion signal of myoglobin was readily detected even in the presence of urea (8 M), NH4HCO3 (2 M), and KH2PO4 (500 mM), meanwhile sample washability was robust. These achievements were mainly attributed to improved ablation ability and increased hydrophobicity or affinity of CHCA-C3 to proteins in comparison with hydrophilic matrixes, leading to more efficient ionization of analyte. Furthermore, direct analysis of proteins from crude egg white demonstrated that CHCA-C3 was a highly efficient matrix for the analysis of low-abundance proteins in complex biological samples. These outstanding performances indicate the tremendous potential use of CHCA-C3 in protein profiling by MALDI-MS.

  4. (E)-Propyl α-Cyano-4-Hydroxyl Cinnamylate: A High Sensitive and Salt Tolerant Matrix for Intact Protein Profiling by MALDI Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng; Xiao, Zhaohui; Xiao, Chunsheng; Wang, Huixin; Wang, Bing; Li, Ying; Chen, Xuesi; Guo, Xinhua

    2016-04-01

    Low-abundance samples and salt interference are always of great challenges for the practical protein profiling by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). Herein, a series of carboxyl-esterified derivatives of α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) were synthesized and evaluated as matrices for MALDI-MS analysis of protein. Among them, (E)-propyl α-cyano-4-hydroxyl cinnamylate (CHCA-C3) was found to exhibit excellent assay performance for intact proteins by improving the detection sensitivity 10 folds compared with the traditional matrices [i.e., super2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (superDHB), sinapic acid (SA), and CHCA]. In addition, CHCA-C3 was shown to have high tolerance to salts, the ion signal of myoglobin was readily detected even in the presence of urea (8 M), NH4HCO3 (2 M), and KH2PO4 (500 mM), meanwhile sample washability was robust. These achievements were mainly attributed to improved ablation ability and increased hydrophobicity or affinity of CHCA-C3 to proteins in comparison with hydrophilic matrixes, leading to more efficient ionization of analyte. Furthermore, direct analysis of proteins from crude egg white demonstrated that CHCA-C3 was a highly efficient matrix for the analysis of low-abundance proteins in complex biological samples. These outstanding performances indicate the tremendous potential use of CHCA-C3 in protein profiling by MALDI-MS. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:26729454

  5. Micellar and biochemical properties of a propyl-ended fluorinated surfactant designed for membrane-protein study.

    PubMed

    Abla, Maher; Unger, Sebastian; Keller, Sandro; Bonneté, Françoise; Ebel, Christine; Pucci, Bernard; Breyton, Cécile; Durand, Grégory

    2015-05-01

    Our goal is to design optimised fluorinated surfactants for handling membrane proteins in solution. We report herein the self-assembling and biochemical properties of a new hemifluorinated surfactant (H3F6H3DigluM) with a branched diglucosylated polar head group and an apolar tail consisting of a perfluorohexane core decorated with a hydrogenated propyl tip. For the sake of comparison, its fluorinated analogue without propyl tip (F6H3DigluM) was also studied. Isothermal titration calorimetry and surface tension showed that the addition of a propyl tip has a significant effect on the overall hydrophobicity of the surfactant, in contrast to the behaviour described when adding an ethyl tip to a fluorinated surfactant. From dynamic light scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation and small-angle X-ray scattering, both H3F6H3DigluM and F6H3DigluM self-assemble into small globular micelles of 5-7 nm in diameter and have aggregation numbers of 62±8 and 46±2, respectively. Finally, H3F6H3DigluM was found to be the best fluorinated surfactant developed in our group to stabilise the model membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR) in aqueous solution. This study demonstrates the suitability of this new propyl-ended fluorinated surfactant for biochemical and structural applications and confirms the superiority of hemifluorinated chains over fluorinated ones. PMID:25616252

  6. Control of laser induced molecular fragmentation of n-propyl benzene using chirped femtosecond laser pulses

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Tapas; Karthick Kumar, S.K.; Dutta, Aveek; Goswami, Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    We present the effect of chirping a femtosecond laser pulse on the fragmentation of n-propyl benzene. An enhancement of an order of magnitude for the relative yields of C3H3+ and C5H5+ in the case of negatively chirped pulses and C6H5+ in the case of positively chirped pulses with respect to the transform-limited pulse indicates that in some fragmentation channel, coherence of the laser field plays an important role. For the relative yield of all other heavier fragment ions, resulting from the interaction of the intense laser field with the molecule, there is no such enhancement effect with the sign of chirp, within experimental errors. The importance of the laser phase is further reinforced through a direct comparison of the fragmentation results with the second harmonic of the chirped laser pulse with identical bandwidth. PMID:19696899

  7. Control of laser induced molecular fragmentation of n-propyl benzene using chirped femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goswami, Tapas; Karthick Kumar, S. K.; Dutta, Aveek; Goswami, Debabrata

    2009-06-01

    We present the effect of chirping a femtosecond laser pulse on the fragmentation of n-propyl benzene. An enhancement of an order of magnitude for the relative yields of C3H 3 + and C5H 5 + in the case of negatively chirped pulses and C6H 5 + in the case of positively chirped pulses with respect to the transform-limited pulse indicates that in some fragmentation channel, coherence of the laser field plays an important role. For the relative yield of all other heavier fragment ions, resulting from the interaction of the intense laser field with the molecule, there is no such enhancement effect with the sign of chirp, within experimental errors. The importance of the laser phase is further reinforced through a direct comparison of the fragmentation results with the second harmonic of the chirped laser pulse with identical bandwidth.

  8. The Use of Chlorhexidine/n-Propyl Gallate (CPG) as an Ambient-Temperature Urine Preservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nillen, Jeannie L.; Smith, Scott M.

    2003-01-01

    A safe, effective ambient temperature urine preservative, chlorhexidine/n-propyl gallate (CPG), has been formulated for use during spacefli ght that reduces the effects of oxidation and bacterial contamination on sample integrity while maintaining urine pH. The ability of this preservative to maintain stability of nine key analytes was evaluated for a period of one year. CPG effectively maintained stability of a mmonia, total nitrogen, 3-methylhistidine, chloride, sodium, potassiu m, and urea; however, creatinine and osmolality were not preserved by CPG. These data indicate that CPG offers prolonged room-temperature storage for multiple urine analytes, reducing the requirements for f rozen urine storage on future spaceflights. Iii medical applications on Earth, this technology can allow urine samples to be collected in remote settings and eliminate the need to ship frozen samples.

  9. Crystal structure of 3-amino-2-propyl­quinazolin-4(3H)-one

    PubMed Central

    El-Hiti, Gamal A.; Smith, Keith; Hegazy, Amany S.; Alanazi, Saud A.; Kariuki, Benson M.

    2015-01-01

    In the title mol­ecule, C11H13N3O, the propyl group is almost perpendicular to the quinazolin-4(3H)-one mean plane, making a dihedral angle of 88.98 (9)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules related by an inversion centre are paired via π–π overlap, indicated by the short distances of 3.616 (5) and 3.619 (5) Å between the centroids of the aromatic rings of neighbouring mol­ecules. Inter­molecular N—H⋯N and N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds form R 6 6(30) rings and C(5) chains, respectively, generating a three-dimensional network. Weak C—H⋯O inter­actions are also observed. PMID:26396813

  10. Effects of the novel anti-ulcer agent 1-(5'-oxohexyl)-3-methyl-7-propyl xanthine on experimental ulcers and gastric secretion in rats.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, T; Bickel, M; Herling, A W; Sakurai, M; Goto, M; Hayashi, S

    1989-06-01

    The effects of 1-(5'-oxohexyl)-3-methyl-7-propyl xanthine (HWA 285) on various experimentally induced ulcers and gastric acid secretion were investigated in rats. HWA 285 (10-50 mg/kg, p.o.) inhibited restraint and water-immersion-induced stress, ulcers, indometacin- and absolute ethanol-induced gastric ulcers and mepirizole-induced duodenal ulcers in rats in a dose-dependent manner. HWA 285 (10-25 mg/kg i.d.) had inhibitory effects on acetylsalicylic acid-induced ulcers. The healing of acetic acid-induced chronic ulcers was significantly accelerated by HWA 285 (25 mg/kg p.o.) when it was given twice daily for 7 consecutive days. When given orally (twice a day, 11 doses in total) before the induction of gastric ulcers by stress, cimetidine at 100 mg/kg aggravated the ulcers, whereas, HWA 285 at 25 mg/kg had not such an effect. In conscious pylorus-ligated rats, HWA 285 (10-100 mg/kg i.p.) showed a dose-dependent inhibition on basal and desglugastrin- and 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG)-stimulated gastric acid secretion. In stomach-lumen perfused rats, HWA 285 (30 mg/kg i.v.) inhibited 2-DG-stimulated gastric acid secretion but not carbachol-stimulated gastric acid secretion. These results suggest that the anti-ulcer effects of HWA 285 are produced by cytoprotective and central anti-secretory activity without peripheral anti-cholinergic properties. Whether the central anti-secretory effects of HWA 285 play thereby the key role, have to be clarified in further investigation. PMID:2775336

  11. Study of lanthanide aromatic acid complexes in silica gels by photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yuetao; Liu, Xiaojun; Zhang, Shuyi

    2010-02-01

    Lanthanide complexes Ln( p-ABA) 3·H 2O ( p-ABA: p-aminobenzoic acid; Ln 3+:La 3+, Tb 3+ and Er 3+) have been incorporated into silica gels via a sol-gel method. Upon heat treatment at 120 °C, photoacoustic (PA) intensity of the ligand increases for Tb 3+, La 3+ and Er 3+ complexes in silica gels, respectively, while this difference cannot be observed for the samples without heat treatment. Different PA intensities of the samples are interpreted by comparison with their luminescence spectra. The nephelauxetic parameters and PA branching vectors of Er 3+ complex in silica gel have been calculated. Spectral results indicate that p-ABA does not coordinate with lanthanide ions in silica matrix without a suitable heat treatment. For the co-doped samples, it is shown that the emissions of Tb 3+ are enhanced with addition of La( p-ABA) 3·H 2O and remarkably quenched with the addition of Er( p-ABA) 3·H 2O. The possible mechanisms for these phenomena are proposed.

  12. Densities and vapor-liquid equilibria in binary mixtures formed by propyl methanoate + ethanol, + propan-1-ol, and + butan-1-ol at 160.0 kPa

    SciTech Connect

    Falcon, J.; Ortega, J.; Gonzalez, E.

    1996-07-01

    Densities and excess volumes were determined at 298.15 K for propyl methanoate + ethanol, + propan-1-ol, and + butan-1-ol. The results of those quantities were then correlated to get the concentrations of vapor-liquid equilibrium obtained isobarically at 160 kPa for the same mixtures. Two mixtures show azeotropes: for propyl methanoate (1) + ethanol (2), x{sub 1} = 0.443 at T = 358.7 K; and for propyl methanoate (1) + propan-1-ol (2), x{sub 1} = 0.762 at T = 368.2 K. The mixtures are thermodynamically consistent, and the predictions made using several group-contribution models are satisfactory.

  13. Fungicidal Activities of Dihydroferulic Acid Alkyl Ester Analogues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural product dihydroferulic acid (DFA, 1) and the synthesized DFA methyl (4a), ethyl (4b), propyl (4c), hexyl (4d), octyl (4e), and decyl (4f) esters were examined for antifungal activity. Test fungi included Saccharomyces cerevisiae (wild type, and deletion mutants slt2delta and bck1delta), ...

  14. 77 FR 21676 - Silicic Acid, Sodium Salt etc.; Tolerance Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-11

    ...This regulation establishes an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of Silicic acid, sodium salt, reaction products with chlorotrimethylsilane and iso-propyl alcohol, reaction with poly(oxypropylene)-poly(oxyethylene) glycol; when used as an inert ingredient in a pesticide chemical formulation. Dow Corning Corporation submitted a petition to EPA under the Federal Food,......

  15. Fungicidal Activities of Dihydroferulic Acid Alkyl Ester Analogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural product dihydroferulic acid (DFA, 1) and the synthesized DFA methyl (4a), ethyl (4b), propyl (4c), hexyl (4d), octyl (4e), and decyl (4f) esters were examined for antifungal activity. Test fungi included Saccharomyces cerevisiae (wild type, and deletion mutants slt2' and bck1'), Aspergil...

  16. Phase diagram of the iodine-sodium iodide-water-propyl alcohol system at 298.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubtsova, E. M.; Varlamova, T. M.; Monakhova, Y. B.; Mushtakova, S. P.

    2015-06-01

    Phase equilibria in the cross sections of isothermal-isobaric sections of the phase diagram of four-component iodine-potassium iodide-water-propyl alcohol are investigated at 298.15 K and pressure of 101325 Pa. It is shown that a three-phase equilibrium of the eutonic type occurs in the cross sections containing (I) 10 and (II) 30 wt % of propyl alcohol, and two three-phase equilibria of the monotectic type are found in cross section II. It is shown that the solid phases of saturated solutions in the investigated cross sections are potassium iodide and crystalline iodine. The compositions of the mixed solvents with the strongest iodine dissolving ability relative to individual solvents are established.

  17. A comprehensive evaluation of the density of neat fatty acids and esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Density is one of the most important physical properties of a chemical compound, affecting numerous applications. An application in the case of fatty acid esters (biodiesel) is that density is specified in some biodiesel standards. In the present work, the density of fatty acid methyl, ethyl, propyl...

  18. Effects of Cultivation Conditions on Folate Production by Lactic Acid Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Sybesma, Wilbert; Starrenburg, Marjo; Tijsseling, Linda; Hoefnagel, Marcel H. N.; Hugenholtz, Jeroen

    2003-01-01

    A variety of lactic acid bacteria were screened for their ability to produce folate intracellularly and/or extracellularly. Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Leuconostoc spp. all produced folate, while most Lactobacillus spp., with the exception of Lactobacillus plantarum, were not able to produce folate. Folate production was further investigated in L. lactis as a model organism for metabolic engineering and in S. thermophilus for direct translation to (dairy) applications. For both these two lactic acid bacteria, an inverse relationship was observed between growth rate and folate production. When cultures were grown at inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics or salt or when the bacteria were subjected to low growth rates in chemostat cultures, folate levels in the cultures were increased relative to cell mass and (lactic) acid production. S. thermophilus excreted more folate than L. lactis, presumably as a result of differences in the number of glutamyl residues of the folate produced. In S. thermophilus 5,10-methenyl and 5-formyl tetrahydrofolate were detected as the major folate derivatives, both containing three glutamyl residues, while in L. lactis 5,10-methenyl and 10-formyl tetrahydrofolate were found, both with either four, five, or six glutamyl residues. Excretion of folate was stimulated at lower pH in S. thermophilus, but pH had no effect on folate excretion by L. lactis. Finally, several environmental parameters that influence folate production in these lactic acid bacteria were observed; high external pH increased folate production and the addition of p-aminobenzoic acid stimulated folate production, while high tyrosine concentrations led to decreased folate biosynthesis. PMID:12902240

  19. Evaluation of a Simple in-House Test to Presumptively Differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex from Nontuberculous Mycobacteria by Detection of p-Nitrobenzoic Acid Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guirong; Yu, Xia; Liang, Qian; Chen, Suting; Wilson, Stuart; Huang, Hairong

    2013-01-01

    The timely differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and non-tubercular mycobacterium (NTM) species is urgently needed in patient care since the routine laboratory method is time consuming and cumbersome. An easy and cheap method which can successfully distinguish MTC from NTM was established and evaluated. 38 mycobacterial type and reference strains and 65 clinical isolates representing 10 species of mycobacterium were included in this study. Metabolites of p-nitrobenzoic acid (PNB) reduction were identified using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). A spectrophotometric method was developed to detect these metabolites, which was evaluated on a number of MTC and NTM species. All of the tested NTM species and strains reduced PNB to p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), while none of the MTC strains showed a similar activity. Spectrophotometric detection of PABA had 100% sensitivity and specificity for MTC and NTM differentiation among the type strains and the clinical isolates tested. PABA was identified as one of the metabolites of PNB reduction. All the tested NTM species metabolized PNB to PABA whereas the MTC members lacked this activity. A simple, specific and cost-effective method based on PABA production was established in order to discriminate MTC from NTM from cultured organisms. PMID:24260497

  20. Utilization of Boron Compounds for the Modification of Suberoyl Anilide Hydroxamic Acid as Inhibitor of Histone Deacetylase Class II Homo sapiens

    PubMed Central

    Bakri, Ridla; Parikesit, Arli Aditya; Satriyanto, Cipta Prio; Kerami, Djati; Tambunan, Usman Sumo Friend

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) has a critical function in regulating gene expression. The inhibition of HDAC has developed as an interesting anticancer research area that targets biological processes such as cell cycle, apoptosis, and cell differentiation. In this study, an HDAC inhibitor that is available commercially, suberoyl anilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), has been modified to improve its efficacy and reduce the side effects of the compound. Hydrophobic cap and zinc-binding group of these compounds were substituted with boron-based compounds, whereas the linker region was substituted with p-aminobenzoic acid. The molecular docking analysis resulted in 8 ligands with ΔGbinding value more negative than the standards, SAHA and trichostatin A (TSA). That ligands were analyzed based on the nature of QSAR, pharmacological properties, and ADME-Tox. It is conducted to obtain a potent inhibitor of HDAC class II Homo sapiens. The screening process result gave one best ligand, Nova2 (513246-99-6), which was then further studied by molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:25214833

  1. The Occurrence of Propyl Lactate in Chinese Baijius (Chinese Liquors) Detected by Direct Injection Coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jihong; Zheng, Yang; Sun, Baoguo; Sun, Xiaotao; Sun, Jiyuan; Zheng, Fuping; Huang, Mingquan

    2015-01-01

    As one of the oldest distillates in the world, flavor compounds of Chinese Baijiu (Chinese liquor) were extremely complex. Propyl lactate was ?rstly detected by direct injection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in 72 Chinese Baijius. The objectives were to detect the contents of propyl lactate and evaluate its contribution to the aroma of Chinese Baijiu based on odor activity values (OAVs). The levels of propyl lactate in these distillates were determined by internal standard method and selective ion monitoring (SIM), which ranged from 0.050 to 1.900 mg?L(-1) under investigation. Its detection threshold was determined by Three-Alternative Forced-Choice (3-AFC) and curve fitting (CF), which was 0.740 mg?L(-1) in 38% ethanol solution. The contribution of propyl lactate on the aroma of these distillate drinks was evaluated by their odor activity values (OAVs), which varied from 0.066 to 4.440. The OAVs of propyl lactate were found to exceed 1 in 13 Chinese Baijius, including 50 Jingzhi Guniang 5 years (4.440), 52 Jingzhi Guniang 10 years (3.024), Jingyanggang (2.568), Xianghe Ronghe Shaofang (2.313), and 1956 Laolang (1.431), which indicated that propyl lactate was one of odor-active components in these Chinese Baijius. PMID:26492228

  2. Growth of propyl-p-hydroxybenzoate single crystals and its characterizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karunagaran, N.; Ramasamy, P.

    2012-06-01

    Single crystals of Propyl-p-hydroxybenzoate (PHB) crystals have been grown by slow evaporation solution technique (SEST) using methanol as a solvent. The PHB single crystal of dimension up to 27×16×8 mm3 has been grown in a period of 18 days at room temperature. The optical transparency of the grown PHB crystal has been measured on (212) plane by UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. The crystal has 60% of transparency in the entire visible region. The thermo gravimetric analysis (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) studies reveal that the crystal is thermally stable up to 99°C. The mechanical strength of the grown PHB crystal is measured using Vickers microhardness tester. The chemical etching studies were carried out on (212) plane using methanol etchant. The laser damage threshold of PHB crystal is 1.3 GW/cm2. The dielectric properties have been investigated. The birefringence value is found to be 0.10148 at the wavelength of 504 nm. The refractive index of grown PHB single crystal is 1.6753.

  3. In vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility of calcium phosphate cements using Hydroxy-propyl-methyl-Cellulose (HPMC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jyoti, M. Anirban; Thai, Van Viet; Min, Young Ki; Lee, Byong-Taek; Song, Ho-Yeon

    2010-12-01

    In this study, the bioactivity and biocompatibility of new calcium phosphate bone cements (CPC) using Hydroxy-propyl-methyl-Cellulose (HPMC) was evaluated to understand the effect of HPMC on bone-bonding apatite formation and biocompatibility. In vitro bioactivity was investigated by incubating the CPC samples containing different ratios of HPMC (0%, 2% and 4% HPMC) in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 2, 7, 14 and 28 days. The formation of bone like apatite was confirmed on CPC surfaces by SEM and XRD analysis. Higher HPMC content of CPC showed faster apatite deposition in SBF. A high Ca ion dissolution profile was also reported with an increase of pH in all samples in SBF. The apatite formation ability of these CPC samples was found to be dependent on both surface chemistry and immersion time in SBF. The In vitro cytotoxicity test showed that the CPC samples with 4% HPMC were fairly cytocompatible for fibroblast L-929 cells. SEM images showed that MG-63 cells were successfully attached to the CPC samples and well proliferated.

  4. Development of Anionically Decorated Caged Neurotransmitters: In Vitro Comparison of 7-Nitroindolinyl- and 2-(p-Phenyl-o-nitrophenyl)propyl-Based Photochemical Probes.

    PubMed

    Kantevari, Srinivas; Passlick, Stefan; Kwon, Hyung-Bae; Richers, Matthew T; Sabatini, Bernardo L; Ellis-Davies, Graham C R

    2016-05-17

    Neurotransmitter uncaging, especially that of glutamate, has been used to study synaptic function for over 30 years. One limitation of caged glutamate probes is the blockade of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor function. This problem comes to the fore when the probes are applied at the high concentrations required for effective two-photon photolysis. To mitigate such problems one could improve the photochemical properties of caging chromophores and/or remove receptor blockade. We show that addition of a dicarboxylate unit to the widely used 4-methoxy-7-nitroindolinyl-Glu (MNI-Glu) system reduced the off-target effects by about 50-70 %. When the same strategy was applied to an electron-rich 2-(p-Phenyl-o-nitrophenyl)propyl (PNPP) caging group, the pharmacological improvements were not as significant as in the MNI case. Finally, we used very extensive biological testing of the PNPP-caged Glu (more than 250 uncaging currents at single dendritic spines) to show that nitro-biphenyl caging chromophores have two-photon uncaging efficacies similar to that of MNI-Glu. PMID:26929152

  5. Cunninghamella as a microbiological model for metabolism of histamine H(3) receptor antagonist 1-[3-(4-tert-butylphenoxy)propyl]piperidine.

    PubMed

    P?kala, El?bieta; Kubowicz, Paulina; ?a?ewska, Dorota

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the ability of the microorganism Cunninghamella to carry out the biotransformation of 1-[3-(4-tert-butylphenoxy)propyl]piperidine (DL76) and to compare the obtained results with in silico models. Biotransformation was carried out by three strains of filamentous fungus: Cunninghamella echinulata, Cunninghamella blakesleeana, and Cunninghamella elegans. Most probable direction of DL76 metabolic transition was the oxidation of the methyl group in the tert-butyl moiety leading to the formation of the metabolite with I alcohol properties. This kind of reaction was conducted by all three strains tested. However, only in the case of C. blakesleeana that biotransformation product had a structure of carboxylic acid. CYP2C19 was identified by Metasite software to be the isoform of major importance in the oxidation process in the tert-butyl moiety of DL76. In silico data coincide with the results of experiments conducted in vitro. It was confirmed that Cunninghamella fungi are a very good model to study the metabolism of xenobiotics. The computational methods and microbial models of metabolism can be used as useful tools in early ADME-Tox assays in the process of developing new drug candidates. PMID:22983742

  6. Systemic exposure to parabens: pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, excretion balance and plasma metabolites of [14C]-methyl-, propyl- and butylparaben in rats after oral, topical or subcutaneous administration.

    PubMed

    Aubert, Nicolas; Ameller, Thibault; Legrand, Jean-Jacques

    2012-03-01

    Parabens (PB) are preservatives used in food, drugs and personal care products preventing microbial and fungal contamination. We investigated ADME profiles of [14C]-methyl-, propyl- or butylparaben (MP, PP, BP) following single oral, dermal or subcutaneous (BP) doses at 100 mg/kg to Sprague-Dawley rats. Plasma Cmax and AUC values after oral or subcutaneous doses were 4- to 10-fold higher relative to respective values after dermal administration. tmax ranged from 0.5, 2 or 8 h after oral, subcutaneous or dermal administration, respectively. MP produced higher blood Cmax and AUC levels relative to those after PP or BP. Following oral or subcutaneous administration, urinary excretion was predominant (>70%, mainly during the first 24 h), less than 4% were eliminated in the feces, 2% were retained in the tissues and carcasses. Following dermal application, >50% of the dose was unabsorbed, 14-27% or <2% were respectively excreted in the urine or feces, respectively. Overall, parabens were well absorbed after oral and subcutaneous, and partially absorbed after dermal administration. All administration routes produced a single peak in the plasma, corresponding to that of para-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA) suggesting that PB produce no significant systemic exposure of mammalian organisms after oral, topical or subcutaneous administration. PMID:22265941

  7. Bioconcentration and transfer of the organophorous flame retardant 1,3-dichloro-2-propyl phosphate causes thyroid endocrine disruption and developmental neurotoxicity in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiangwei; Lai, Nelson Lok-Shun; Wang, Xianfeng; Guo, Yongyong; Lam, Paul Kwan-Sing; Lam, James Chung-Wah; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2015-04-21

    Organophosphate flame retardants are emerging environmental contaminants, although knowledge of their health risks is limited. Here, thyroid hormone homeostasis and neuronal development was studied in the progeny of adult zebrafish exposed to tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP). Adult zebrafish were exposed to TDCPP (0, 4, 20, and 100 μg/L) for 3 months. Increased generation of reactive oxygen species and reduced survival rates was observed in exposed F1 larvae. We also observed a significant decrease in plasma thyroxine and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine levels in F0 females and F1 eggs/larvae. The mRNA and protein expression of factors associated with neuronal development (e.g., α1-tubulin, myelin basic protein, and synapsin IIa) were significantly downregulated in exposed F1 larvae, as was the level of the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, gamma amino butyric acid, and histamine. Larval locomotion was significantly decreased in exposed fish, but there was no effect on acetylcholinesterase activity. Bioconcentration of TDCPP was observed in F0 fish. TDCPP was also detected in F1 eggs following parental exposure, indicating maternal transfer of this compound. This study uniquely shows that TDCPP can be transferred to the offspring of exposed adults, causing thyroid endocrine disruption and developmental neurotoxicity. PMID:25826601

  8. Infrared and Raman spectroscopic studies of tris-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] isocyanurate, its sol-gel process, and coating on aluminum and copper.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-Sing; Church, Jeffrey S; Woodhead, Andrea L; Vecchio, Nicolas E; Yang, Johnny

    2014-11-11

    Tris-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] isocyanurate (TTPI) has been used as a precursor to prepare a sol using ethanol as the solvent under acidic conditions. The sol-gel was applied for the surface treatment of aluminum and copper. Infrared and Raman spectra have been recorded for pure TTPI and the TTPI sol, xerogel and TTPI sol-gel coated metals. From the vibrational spectra, TTPI is likely to have the C1 point group. Vibrational assignments are suggested based on group frequencies, the expected reactions in the sol-gel process and the vibrational studies of some related molecules. From the experimental infrared spectra of xerogels annealed at different temperatures and from the thermal-gravimetric analysis, it is found that the TTPI xerogel decomposes at around 450°C with silica being the major decomposition product. A cyclic voltammetric study of the metal electrodes coated with different concentrations of TTPI ranging from 5% to 42% (v/v) has shown that the films with high concentrations of sol would provide better corrosion protection for aluminum and copper. PMID:24866089

  9. Adaptation of an L-Proline Adenylation Domain to Use 4-Propyl-L-Proline in the Evolution of Lincosamide Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kadlčík, Stanislav; Kučera, Tomáš; Chalupská, Dominika; Gažák, Radek; Koběrská, Markéta; Ulanová, Dana; Kopecký, Jan; Kutejová, Eva; Najmanová, Lucie; Janata, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Clinically used lincosamide antibiotic lincomycin incorporates in its structure 4-propyl-L-proline (PPL), an unusual amino acid, while celesticetin, a less efficient related compound, makes use of proteinogenic L-proline. Biochemical characterization, as well as phylogenetic analysis and homology modelling combined with the molecular dynamics simulation were employed for complex comparative analysis of the orthologous protein pair LmbC and CcbC from the biosynthesis of lincomycin and celesticetin, respectively. The analysis proved the compared proteins to be the stand-alone adenylation domains strictly preferring their own natural substrate, PPL or L-proline. The LmbC substrate binding pocket is adapted to accomodate a rare PPL precursor. When compared with L-proline specific ones, several large amino acid residues were replaced by smaller ones opening a channel which allowed the alkyl side chain of PPL to be accommodated. One of the most important differences, that of the residue corresponding to V306 in CcbC changing to G308 in LmbC, was investigated in vitro and in silico. Moreover, the substrate binding pocket rearrangement also allowed LmbC to effectively adenylate 4-butyl-L-proline and 4-pentyl-L-proline, substrates with even longer alkyl side chains, producing more potent lincosamides. A shift of LmbC substrate specificity appears to be an integral part of biosynthetic pathway adaptation to the PPL acquisition. A set of genes presumably coding for the PPL biosynthesis is present in the lincomycin - but not in the celesticetin cluster; their homologs are found in biosynthetic clusters of some pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBD) and hormaomycin. Whereas in the PBD and hormaomycin pathways the arising precursors are condensed to another amino acid moiety, the LmbC protein is the first functionally proved part of a unique condensation enzyme connecting PPL to the specialized amino sugar building unit. PMID:24386435

  10. Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate perturbs the expression of genes involved in immune response and lipid and steroid metabolism in chicken embryos

    SciTech Connect

    Farhat, Amani; Buick, Julie K.; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L.; O'Brien, Jason M.; Crump, Doug; Williams, Kim L.; Chiu, Suzanne; Kennedy, Sean W.

    2014-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that in ovo exposure to the flame retardant tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) decreased plasma thyroxine levels, reduced growth parameters, and decreased gallbladder size in chicken embryos. In the current study DNA microarrays were used to evaluate global mRNA expression in liver tissue of male chicken embryos that exhibited the above mentioned effects. Injected doses were dimethyl sulfoxide vehicle control, 7.6 or 45 μg TDCPP/g egg. TDCPP caused significant changes in the expression of five genes at the low dose and 47 genes at the high dose (False Discovery Rate p ≤ 0.1, fold change ≥ 1.5). The gene expression analysis suggested a compromised immune function, a state of cholestatic liver/biliary fibrosis, and disrupted lipid and steroid metabolism. Circulating bile acid levels were elevated, which is an indication of liver dysfunction, and plasma cholesterol levels were reduced; however, hepatic bile acid and cholesterol levels were unaltered. Interactome analyses identified apolipoprotein E, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha as key regulatory molecules involved in the effects of TDCPP. Our results demonstrate a targeted effect of TDCPP toxicity on lipid metabolism, including cholesterol, that helps explain the aforementioned phenotypic effects, as chicken embryos are highly dependent on yolk lipids for growth and maintenance throughout development. Finally, our results are in concordance with the literature that describes TDCPP as a cancer-causing agent, since the majority of dysregulated genes were involved in cancer pathways. - Highlights: • TDCPP dysregulates genes involved in immune function and lipid metabolism. • A targeted effect of TDCPP toxicity on cholesterol metabolism is apparent. • A state of cholestatic liver fibrosis is suggested by the expression profile. • Elevated plasma bile acids suggest that TDCPP causes liver dysfunction.

  11. Dichlorodiaportin, diaportinol, and diaportinic acid: three novel isocoumarins from penicillium nalgiovense

    PubMed

    Larsen; Breinholt

    1999-08-01

    Three novel isocoumarin (or isochromen) metabolites, dichlorodiaportin [3-(3, 3-dichloro-2-hydroxy-propyl)-8-hydroxy-6-methoxy-isochromen-1-one] (1), diaportinol [3-(2, 3-dihydroxy-propyl)-8-hydroxy-6-methoxy-isochromen-1-one] (2), and diaportinic acid [2-hydroxy-3-(8-hydroxy-6-methoxy-1-oxo-1H-isochromen-3-yl)-propanoic acid] (3), were isolated from the cultures of Penicillium nalgiovense along with citreoisocoumarin (4) and 6-methyl-citreoisocoumarin (5). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including UV, MS, and NMR. PMID:10479334

  12. Kinetics of the reduction of pyridinium ions by 2-hydroxy-2-propyl radicals in aqueous solution

    SciTech Connect

    Shimura, M.; Espenson, J.H.

    1983-01-19

    Kinetic measurements were made for the reductions of the pyridinium ions derived from pyridine, 4-methylpyridine, 3-hydroxypyridine, nicotinamide, and isonicotinamide as well as 1-methylpyridinium and 1,4-dimethylpyridinium ions by 2-hydroxy-2-propyl radicals, which were generated by the homolytic cleavage of the chromium-carbon bond in (H/sub 2/O)/sub 5/CrC(CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/OH/sup 2 +/. The rate constants (dm/sup 3/ mol/sup -1/ s/sup -1/) at 25.0/sup 0/C and an ionic strength of 1.0M (LiClO/sub 4/) are as follows: pyridinium ion, 9.6 x 10/sup 5/; 1-methylpyridinium ion, 3.7 x 10/sup 5/; 4-methylpyridinium ion, 7.3 x 10/sup 4/; 1,4-dimethylpyridinium ion, less than or equal to1 x 10/sup 4/; 3-hydroxypyridinium ion, 1.4 x 10/sup 8/; 3-(aminocarbonyl)pyridinium ion, 7.9 x 10/sup 8/; 4-(aminocarbonyl)pyridinium ion, 1.2 x 10/sup 9/. The rate constants are reasonably well correlated by the Hammett p-sigma equation with p = +8.5. The first two compounds show a second kinetic term corresponding to the rate law k'(Cr/sup 2 +/)(pyH/sup +/)(.C-(CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/OH)(H/sup +/)/sup -1/, consistent with reduction of a Cr(II)-pyridine complex by the free radical.

  13. Autoradiographic localization of sigma receptor binding sites in guinea pig and rat central nervous system with (+)3H-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)piperidine

    SciTech Connect

    Gundlach, A.L.; Largent, B.L.; Snyder, S.H.

    1986-06-01

    (+)3H-3-PPP ((+)3H-3-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)-piperidine) binds with high affinity to brain membranes with a pharmacological profile consistent with that of sigma receptors. The distribution of (+)3H-3-PPP binding sites in brain and spinal cord of both guinea pig and rat has been determined by in vitro autoradiography with binding densities quantitated by computer-assisted densitometry. (+)3H-3-PPP binding to slide-mounted brain sections is saturable and displays high affinity and a pharmacological specificity very similar to sites labeled in homogenates. (+)3H-3-PPP binding sites are heterogeneously distributed. Highest concentrations of binding sites occur in spinal cord, particularly the ventral horn and dorsal root ganglia; the pons-medulla, associated with the cranial nerve and pontine nuclei and throughout the brain stem reticular formation; the cerebellum, over the Purkinje cell layer; the midbrain, particularly the central gray and red nucleus; and hippocampus, over the pyramidal cell layer. Lowest levels are seen in the basal ganglia and parts of the thalamus, while all other areas, including hypothalamus and cerebral cortex, exhibit moderate grain densities. Quinolinic acid-induced lesions of the hippocampus indicate that (+)3H-3-PPP labels hippocampal pyramidal cells and granule cells in the dentate gyrus. Intrastriatal injection of ibotenic acid dramatically reduces (+)3H-3-PPP binding in this area, while injection of 6-hydroxydopamine produces a relatively slight decrease. The distribution of (+)3H-3-PPP binding sites does not correlate with the receptor distribution of any recognized neurotransmitter or neuropeptide, including dopamine. However, there is a notable similarity between the distribution of (+)3H-3-PPP sites and high-affinity binding sites for psychotomimetic opioids, such as the benzomorphan (+)SKF 10,047.

  14. Potent inhibition of endopeptidase 24.16 and endopeptidase 24.15 by the phosphonamide peptide N-(phenylethylphosphonyl)-Gly-L-Pro-L-aminohexanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Barelli, H; Dive, V; Yiotakis, A; Vincent, J P; Checler, F

    1992-10-15

    A phosphonamide peptide, N-(phenylethylphosphonyl)-Gly-L-Pro-L-aminohexanoic acid, previously shown to block Clostridium histolyticum collagenases, was examined as a putative inhibitor of endopeptidase 24.16 and endopeptidase 24.15. Hydrolysis of two endopeptidase 24.16 substrates, i.e. 3-carboxy-7-methoxycoumarin (Mcc)-Pro-Leu-Gly-Pro-D-Lys-dinitrophenyl (Dnp) and neurotensin, were completely and dose-dependently inhibited by the phosphonamide inhibitor with KI values of 0.3 and 0.9 nM respectively. In addition, the phosphonamide peptide inhibited the hydrolysis of benzoyl (Bz)-Gly-Ala-Ala-Phe-(pAB) p-aminobenzoate and neurotensin by endopeptidase 24.15 with about a 10-fold lower potency (KI values of 5 and 7.5 nM respectively). The selectivity of this inhibitor towards several exo- and endo-peptidases belonging to the zinc-containing metallopeptidase family established that a 1 microM concentration of this inhibitor was unable to affect leucine aminopeptidase, carboxypeptidase A, angiotensin-converting enzyme and endopeptidase 24.11. The present paper therefore reports on the first hydrophilic highly potent endopeptidase 24.16 inhibitor and describes the most potent inhibitory agent directed towards endopeptidase 24.15 developed to date. These tools should allow one to assess the contribution of endopeptidase 24.16 and endopeptidase 24.15 to the physiological inactivation of neurotensin as well as other neuropeptides. PMID:1332678

  15. Plant-mediated stereoselective biotransformation of phenylglyoxylic acid esters.

    PubMed

    Maczka, Wanda Krystyna; Grabarczyk, Małgorzata; Wińska, Katarzyna; Anioł, Mirosław

    2014-01-01

    Enantioselective reduction of the carbonyl group of three phenylglyoxylic acid esters (methyl, ethyl, and n-propyl esters, 2-4) was conducted using blended plant materials (roots of carrot, beetroot, celeriac and parsley; apple). All used biocatalysts transformed these esters to the corresponding mandelic acid esters with high yield, preferably into the respective R-enantiomer. Butanedione addition improved the enantioselectivity of the reaction. PMID:25265851

  16. ARTICLES: Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data of Carbon Dioxide+Methyl Propionate and Carbon Dioxide+Propyl Propionate Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Xie, Chuan-xin; Li, Hong-ling; Tian, Yi-ling

    2010-06-01

    High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the binary systems of methyl propionate+carbon dioxide and propyl propionate+carbon dioxide were measured at pressure from 1.00 MPa to 12.00 MPa and temperature in the range from 313 K to 373 K. Experimental results were correlated with the Peng-Robinson equation of state with the two-parameter van der Waals mixing rule. At the same time, the Henry's coefficient, partial molar enthalpy change and partial molar entropy change of CO2 during dissolution at different temperature were also calculated.

  17. Pulse and gamma radiolysis studies of 3-sulfo propyl methacrylate in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Anjali; Mohan, Hari; Sabharwal, S.

    2001-10-01

    Radiation induced polymerization of 3-sulfo propyl methacrylate (SPMA) in aqueous solution (10 wt%) has been studied by steady state and pulse radiolysis techniques. The effect of radiation characteristics such as irradiation dose, dose rate and the presence of crosslinking agent on the gel formation of SPMA monomer has been investigated. In N 2 -saturated solution, the gel formation doses for SPMA were found to be 70 and 258 Gy at dose rates of 1.2 and 5 kGy h -1, respectively. The swelling ratio results showed that the gel obtained at a constant dose of 0.8 kGy dose swells ˜630 times of its dry weight at a dose rate of 5 kGy h -1 whereas it is 394 times of its dry weight for the dose rate 1.2 kGy h -1. The reactions of the primary radicals of water radiolysis such as e aq-, H-atom, OH radical, O rad - , and some oxidizing radicals like N3rad , Cl2rad - , SO4rad - and reducing species like CO 2rad - with SPMA have been studied using pulse radiolysis technique. The results show that the reaction of e aq-, H-atom and OH radicals with SPMA are in the diffusion controlled limit with their respective bimolecular rate constant values being 8.6×10 9, 2×10 9 and 1.5×10 10 dm 3 mol -1 s -1. The radical anion, SPMA rad - , ( λmax=280 nm) is observed to undergo fast protonation forming H-adduct, SPMA—H rad , ( λmax=310 nm) with a p Ka value of 9.1. Cl 2rad - reacts with a bimolecular rate constant of 3.5×10 7 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 forming solute radical cation ( λmax=265 nm). One-electron oxidation and reduction potentials for SPMA/SPMA rad + and SPMA/SPMA rad - couples are estimated to be more than +1.6 and less than -1.9 V, respectively.

  18. Comparison of the characteristics of the negative inotropic actions of dinitrophenol, rotenone, antimycin A and the intracellular calcium antagonist, propyl-methylenedioxyindene.

    PubMed

    Lynch, J J; Rahwan, R G

    1983-01-01

    The characteristics of the reversal of the comparable negative inotropic actions of 10(-4) M propyl-methylenedioxyindene (an intracellular calcium antagonist), 3 X 10(-5) M dinitrophenol (an uncoupler of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation), 10(-6) M rotenone (a site I mitochondrial respiratory chain poison) and 3 X 10(-6) M antimycin A (a site II mitochondrial respiratory chain poison) were studied in the isolated, electrically-paced guinea-pig left atrium. The negative inotropic effect of propyl-methylenedioxyindene was more sensitive to reversal by 5 mM calcium and 10(-9)-10(-7) M isoproterenol than were the comparable negative inotropic effects of dinitrophenol, rotenone and antimycin A. These results indicate that the negative inotropic effect of propyl-methylenedioxyindene is not exerted through inhibition of mitochondrial electron transport nor through uncoupling of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:6618146

  19. High-resolution cavity ringdown spectroscopy of the jet-cooled propyl peroxy radical C(3)H(7)O(2).

    PubMed

    Just, Gabriel M P; Rupper, Patrick; Miller, Terry A; Meerts, W Leo

    2010-05-14

    We have obtained high resolution, partially rotationally resolved, jet-cooled cavity ringdown spectra of the origin band of the A<--X electronic transition of two of the five conformers (G(1)G(2) and G(1)T(2)) of the normal propyl peroxy radical, C(3)H(7)O(2), as well as the G conformer of the iso-propyl peroxy radical isomer. This transition, located in the near infrared, was studied using a narrow band laser source (less than or approximately 250 MHz) and a supersonic slit-jet expansion coupled with an electric discharge allowing us to obtain rotational temperatures of about 15 K. All three spectra have been successfully fitted using an evolutionary algorithm approach with a Hamiltonian including rotational and spin-rotational terms. Excellent agreement with the experimental spectra was obtained by fitting seven molecular parameters in each of the ground and the first excited electronic states as well as the band origin of the electronic transition. These parameters are compared with the results from electronic structure calculations. This analysis confirms unambiguously the previous room-temperature conformer assignments that were based upon quantum chemistry calculations. PMID:20428558

  20. Study of adsorption and preconcentration by using a new silica organomodified with [3-(2,2'-dipyridylamine)propyl] groups.

    PubMed

    Soares, Isaac Vaz; Vieira, Eduardo Guimarães; Dias Filho, Newton Luiz; da Silva, Niléia Cristina; Bastos, Andréa de Castro; Lima, Lucélia Julia A; Fraceto, Leonardo Fernandes; Rosa, André Henrique

    2013-02-01

    In this work, a silica surface chemically modified with [3-(2,2'-dipyridylamine)propyl] groups, named [3-(2,2'-dipyridylamine)propyl]silica (Si-Pr-DPA) was prepared, characterized, and evaluated for its heavy metal adsorption characteristics from aqueous solution. To our knowledge, we are the first authors who have reported the present modification. The material was characterized using infrared spectroscopy, SEM, and NMR (29) Si and (13) C solid state. Batch and column experiments were conducted to investigate for heavy metal removal from dilute aqueous solution by sorption onto Si-Pr-DPA. From a number of studies the affinity of various metal ions for the Si-Pr-DPA sorbent was determined to follow the order Fe(III) > Cr(III) > Cu(II) > Cd(II) > Pb(II) > Ni(II). Two standard reference materials were used for checking the accuracy and precision of the method. The proposed method was successfully applied to the analysis of environmental samples. This ligand material has great advantage for adsorption of transition-metal ions from aqueous medium due to its high degree of organofunctionalization associated with the large adsorption capacity, reutilization possibility, and rapidity in reaching the equilibrium. PMID:23339039

  1. 1,3-Bis(3-ammonium-propyl)tetramethyldisiloxane-sulfate: Structural characterization and evaluation of some properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nistor, Alexandra; Soroceanu, Alina; Shova, Sergiu; Cazacu, Maria

    2012-08-01

    1,3-Bis(3-ammonium-propyl)tetramethyldisiloxane sulfate resulted from the reaction between 1,3-bis(3-aminopropyl)tetramethyldisiloxane with a proper transition metal (iron(III) or vanadium(IV) oxide) salt as anion generator and a carbonylic compound (4-imidazole carboxaldehyde or 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde) as a metal collector, in methanol, was thoroughly characterized. The compound's structure was proved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and spectral (FT-IR, 1H NMR) analysis, while the thermal behavior was evaluated by thermogravimetry. Water vapor sorption capacity on the crystalline compound was measured in dynamic regime. The co-existence of hydrophobic bis(propyl)tetramethyldisiloxane moiety and telechelic hydrophilic groups constitutes a premise for surface activity, as confirmed by tensiometry. Formation of micelles and aggregates in solution was emphasized by dynamic light scattering and confirmed by AFM images taken on the spin coated films, both revealing closed values for size of the micelles (100-200 nm).

  2. Conformations and Barriers to Methyl Group Internal Rotation in Two Asymmetric Ethers: Propyl Methyl Ether and Butyl Methyl Ether

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, B. E.; Dechirico, F.; Cooke, S. A.

    2012-06-01

    The conformational preferences of the O-C-C-C unit are important in many biological systems with the unit generally preferring a gauche configuration compared to an anti configuration. Butyl methyl ether and propyl methyl ether provide very simple systems for this phenomenom to manifest. Pure rotational spectra of the title molecules have been recorded using chirped pulse Fourier transform microwave spectroscopy (CP-FTMW). In the case of butyl methyl ether, only one conformer has been observed. This conformer has torsional angles of COCC = 180°, OCCC = 62° and CCCC = 180° (anti-gauche-anti) and rotational constants of A = 10259.4591(33) MHz, B = 1445.6470(13) MHz, and C = 1356.2944(14) MHz. The rotational spectrum was doubled and has been analyzed to produce an effective barrier to methyl group internal rotation of 780(35) cm-1. A prior rotational spectroscopic study on propyl methyl ether had focused only on the high energy anti-anti conformer. We have analyzed spectra from the lowest energy anti-gauche conformer and the spectroscopic constants will be presented. A summary of the differences in conformational energies and methyl group internal rotation barriers for the class of aliphatic asymmetric ethers will be presented. K. N. Houk, J. E. Eksterowicz, Y.-D. Wu, C. D. Fuglesang, D. B. Mitchell. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 115 (4170), 1993. Hiroshi Kato, Jun Nakagawa, Michiro Hayashi. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 80 (272), 1980.

  3. Bioconcentration, metabolism and neurotoxicity of the organophorous flame retardant 1,3-dichloro 2-propyl phosphate (TDCPP) to zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiangwei; Lam, James Chung-Wah; Man, Yin-Chung; Lai, Nelson Lok-Shun; Kwok, Karen Ying; Guo, Yong yong; Lam, Paul Kwan-Sing; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphate flame retardants are ubiquitous environmental contaminants; however, knowledge is limited regarding their environmental health risks and toxicity. Here, we investigated the effects of acute and long-term exposure to tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) to the nervous system of zebrafish. Zebrafish embryos (2 h post-fertilization) were exposed to TDCPP (0-100 μg/L) for 6 months up until sexual maturation. Concentrations of TDCPP and its metabolic product (bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate, BDCPP) were measured in the tissues of 5 day post-fertilization (dpf) larvae. There was no effect on locomotion, acetylcholinesterase activity, levels of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin, and expression of mRNAs and proteins related to central nervous system development (e.g., myelin basic protein, α1-tubulin) in any exposure group. However, in adult fish, reductions of dopamine and serotonin levels were detected in the brains of females but not males. Downregulation of nervous system development genes was observed in both the male and female brain tissues. TDCPP concentrations were measured in adult fish tissues including the brain, and greater levels were detected in females. Our results showed that females are more sensitive to TDCPP stress than males in terms of TDCPP-induced neurotoxicity. We demonstrate that long-term exposure to lower concentrations of TDCPP in fish can lead to neurotoxicity. PMID:25461749

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Choisya ternata Kunth Essential Oil, Ternanthranin, and Its Two Synthetic Analogs (Methyl and Propyl N-Methylanthranilates)

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Mariana Martins Gomes; Miltojević, Ana B.; Radulović, Niko S.; Abdul-Wahab, Ikarastika Rahayu; Boylan, Fabio; Fernandes, Patrícia Dias

    2015-01-01

    Choisya ternata Kunth (Rutaceae) is native to North America where it is popularly known as “Mexican orange”. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil (EO) obtained from the leaves of C. ternata, one of its minor components (ternanthranin—ISOAN) and its two synthetic analogues (methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilate – MAN and PAN) were evaluated. Mice pretreated with the EO (EO) obtained from C. ternata leaves (3–100 mg/kg, p.o.), ISOAN, MAN or PAN (1–30 mg/kg, p.o.) and the reference drugs, morphine (1 mg/kg, p.o.) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 100 mg/kg, p.o.), were evaluated in inflammation models such as formalin and subcutaneous air pouch models, with measurement of cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravasation, nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The EO from C. ternata significantly inhibited the time that the animals spent licking the formalin-injected paw in the second phase of the model at their higher doses (30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively). An inhibition of the inflammatory reaction induced after subcutaneous carrageenan injection into air pouch was also observed. In this model, the EO significantly reduced cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravased, and the increase in levels of inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β). ISOAN, MAN and PAN behaved in the same fashion at much smaller doses. Also, these molecules were able to show significant effects in the reduction of paw edema (at all tested doses) when the phlogistic agent was carrageenan, bradykinin, 5-HT, PGE2, C48/80 or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-acetate (TPA). None of the tested doses had any effect in reducing histamine-induced edema. Our results indicate that the EO from C. ternata and anthranilate derivatives demonstrates an anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:25807367

  5. Anti-inflammatory activity of Choisya ternata Kunth essential oil, ternanthranin, and its two synthetic analogs (methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilates).

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Mariana Martins Gomes; Miltojević, Ana B; Radulović, Niko S; Abdul-Wahab, Ikarastika Rahayu; Boylan, Fabio; Fernandes, Patrícia Dias

    2015-01-01

    Choisya ternata Kunth (Rutaceae) is native to North America where it is popularly known as "Mexican orange". In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil (EO) obtained from the leaves of C. ternata, one of its minor components (ternanthranin-ISOAN) and its two synthetic analogues (methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilate--MAN and PAN) were evaluated. Mice pretreated with the EO (EO) obtained from C. ternata leaves (3-100 mg/kg, p.o.), ISOAN, MAN or PAN (1-30 mg/kg, p.o.) and the reference drugs, morphine (1 mg/kg, p.o.) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 100 mg/kg, p.o.), were evaluated in inflammation models such as formalin and subcutaneous air pouch models, with measurement of cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravasation, nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The EO from C. ternata significantly inhibited the time that the animals spent licking the formalin-injected paw in the second phase of the model at their higher doses (30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively). An inhibition of the inflammatory reaction induced after subcutaneous carrageenan injection into air pouch was also observed. In this model, the EO significantly reduced cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravased, and the increase in levels of inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β). ISOAN, MAN and PAN behaved in the same fashion at much smaller doses. Also, these molecules were able to show significant effects in the reduction of paw edema (at all tested doses) when the phlogistic agent was carrageenan, bradykinin, 5-HT, PGE2, C48/80 or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-acetate (TPA). None of the tested doses had any effect in reducing histamine-induced edema. Our results indicate that the EO from C. ternata and anthranilate derivatives demonstrates an anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:25807367

  6. Spectrophotometric Determination of 6-Propyl-2-Thiouracil in Pharmaceutical Formulations Based on Prussian Blue Complex Formation: An Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakrzewski, Robert; Skowron, Monika; Ciesielski, Witold; Rembisz, Zaneta

    2016-01-01

    The laboratory experiment challenges students to determine 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) based on Prussian blue complex formation. Prussian blue is formed by ferricyanide and Fe(II) ions which are generated in situ from Fe(III) ions reduced by PTU. The absorbance of this product was measured at a wavelength of 840 nm, after a reaction time of 30

  7. 40 CFR 721.9516 - Siloxanes and silicones, 3-[(2-aminoethyl) amino]propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., di-Me, reaction products with polyethylene-polypropylene glycol Bu glycidal ether. 721.9516 Section... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9516 Siloxanes and silicones, 3- propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with...

  8. Spectrophotometric Determination of 6-Propyl-2-Thiouracil in Pharmaceutical Formulations Based on Prussian Blue Complex Formation: An Undergraduate Instrumental Analysis Laboratory Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakrzewski, Robert; Skowron, Monika; Ciesielski, Witold; Rembisz, Zaneta

    2016-01-01

    The laboratory experiment challenges students to determine 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) based on Prussian blue complex formation. Prussian blue is formed by ferricyanide and Fe(II) ions which are generated in situ from Fe(III) ions reduced by PTU. The absorbance of this product was measured at a wavelength of 840 nm, after a reaction time of 30…

  9. 40 CFR 721.9516 - Siloxanes and silicones, 3-[(2-aminoethyl) amino]propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., di-Me, reaction products with polyethylene-polypropylene glycol Bu glycidal ether. 721.9516 Section... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9516 Siloxanes and silicones, 3- propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9516 - Siloxanes and silicones, 3-[(2-aminoethyl) amino]propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., di-Me, reaction products with polyethylene-polypropylene glycol Bu glycidal ether. 721.9516 Section... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9516 Siloxanes and silicones, 3- propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9516 - Siloxanes and silicones, 3-[(2-aminoethyl) amino]propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., di-Me, reaction products with polyethylene-polypropylene glycol Bu glycidal ether. 721.9516 Section... Substances § 721.9516 Siloxanes and silicones, 3- propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with polyethylene..., reaction products with polyethylene-polypropylene glycol Bu glycidyl ether (PMN P-97-740; CAS No....

  12. 40 CFR 721.9516 - Siloxanes and silicones, 3-[(2-aminoethyl) amino]propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., di-Me, reaction products with polyethylene-polypropylene glycol Bu glycidal ether. 721.9516 Section... Substances § 721.9516 Siloxanes and silicones, 3- propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with polyethylene..., reaction products with polyethylene-polypropylene glycol Bu glycidyl ether (PMN P-97-740; CAS No....

  13. Neurotoxicological and thyroid evaluations of rats developmentally exposed to tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDICPP) and tris(2-chloro-2-ethyl)phosphate(TCEP)

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDICPP) and tris(2-chloro-2-ethyl)phosphate (TCEP) are organophosphorous flame retardants with widespread usage and human exposures through food, inhalation, and dust ingestion. They have been detected in human tissues including ur...

  14. A novel, simple and inexpensive procedure for the simultaneous determination of iopamidol and p-aminohippuric acid for renal function assessment from plasma samples in awake rats.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Romero, Violeta; González-Villalva, Karla I; Reyes, José L; Franco-Bourland, Rebecca E; Guízar-Sahagún, Gabriel; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto; Cruz-Antonio, Leticia

    2015-03-25

    The purpose of the current study was to design, validate and implement a novel analytical method for the simultaneous plasma measurement of iopamidol and p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) to estimate renal function in awake rats. A reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the simultaneous measurement of iopamidol (for glomerular filtration rate estimation, GFR) and PAH (for tubular secretion determination, TS) was designed and validated using a C-18 column, 0.1M acetic acid-10% acetonitrile (90:10, v/v) as mobile phase, at a flow rate of 0.3 ml/min, and UV detection at 270 nm. Iopamidol (244.8 mg/kg) was administered intravenously followed immediately by sodium PAH (100 mg/kg) to healthy female Sprague-Dawley rats. Plasma samples obtained at 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after drug administration were deproteinized with 2.5% trichloroacetic acid containing p-aminobenzoic acid as internal standard, and separated by the validated RP-HPLC method described above. The iopamidol and PAH chromatographic data were analyzed using a non-compartmental model. The results demonstrated that the RP-HPLC method was linear in ranges between 15-120 μg/ml and 2.5-120 μg/ml for iopamidol and PAH, respectively. Precision and accuracy were within 15% for both drugs. Recovery of iopamidol and PAH was 92% and 100%, respectively. Plasma iopamidol and PAH clearances in awake rats, estimates for GFR and TS, respectively, were 1.49±0.20 ml/min and 3.73±0.38 ml/min. In conclusion, the method here described is a simple and reliable procedure, for the simultaneous and time-saving determination of GFR and TS from plasma samples in the conscious rat. PMID:25594899

  15. Comparison of shikimic acid determination by capillary zone electrophoresis with direct and indirect detection with liquid chromatography for varietal differentiation of red wines.

    PubMed

    Mardones, Claudia; Hitschfeld, Antonieta; Contreras, Alejandra; Lepe, Karla; Gutiérrez, Luis; von Baer, Dietrich

    2005-09-01

    Two capillary zone electrophoretic (CZE) methods for determination of shikimic acid in Chilean red wine were developed and compared with a HPLC method. Both electrophoretic methods were carried out by using a reversed electroosmotic flow induced by trimethyl(tetradecyl)ammoniumbromide (TTAB) with indirect detection at 260 nm using p-aminobenzoic acid as a UV-absorbing co-ion or by direct detection at 213 nm. In both cases, the separation was carried out in a 50 microm I.D. uncoated capillary with an effective length of 48 cm, a negative power supply of 30 kV, using a buffer based on bis[2-hydroxyethyl]imino-tris[hydroxymethyl]methane (Bis-Tris), pH 7.0 or 7.5 and hydrodynamic injection. The chromatographic separations were carried out on a C-18 reversed phase column followed by a sulfonyl-styrene-divinylbenzene (S-DVB) ion exclusion column at 70 degrees C with H2SO4 0.02 M as isocratic mobile phase and a flow rate of 0.5 mL min(-1). The three methods allowed the quantification of shikimic acid with quantification limits between 1.0 and 12.0 mg L(-1) and precision between 7.3 and 10.1%, however, only the concentrations obtained by CZE with direct detection were statistically similar to those of HPLC. This parameter was evaluated as analytical tool to verify varietal authenticity of red wines. In all cases, the Cabernet Sauvignon wines presented higher concentrations of shikimic acid, compared with Merlot or Carmenère wines. PMID:16106710

  16. RAFT Polymerization of N-[3-(Trimethoxysilyl)-propyl]acrylamide and Its Versatile Use in Silica Hybrid Materials.

    PubMed

    Maçon, Anthony L B; Greasley, Sarah L; Becer, C Remzi; Jones, Julian R

    2015-12-01

    Reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization and characterization of an alkoxysilane acrylamide monomer using a trithiocarbonate chain transfer agent are described. Poly(N-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]acrylamide) (PTMSPAA) homopolymers are obtained with good control over the polymerization. A linear increase in the molecular weight is observed whereas the polydispersity values do not exceed 1.2 regardless of the monomer conversion. Moreover, PTMSPAA is used as a macro-RAFT agent to polymerize N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM). By varying the degree of polymerization of NIPAM within the block copolymer, different sizes of thermoresponsive particles are obtained. These particles are stabilized by the condensation of the alkoxysilane moieties of the polymers. Furthermore, a co-network of silica and PTMSPAA is prepared using the sol-gel process. After drying, transparent mesoporous hybrids are obtained with a surface area of up to 400 m(2) g(-1) . PMID:26288010

  17. 5-Fluoro-3-phenyl-N?-(4-propylcyclohexylidene)-1H-indole-2-carbohydrazide

    PubMed Central

    elikesir, Sevim Trktekin; Akkurt, Mehmet; stnda?, Gke Cihan; Bykgngr, Orhan

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, C24H26FN3O, the cyclohexane ring adopts a chair conformation; the propyl substituent is in an equatorial orientation and the bond-angle sum at the C atom bonded to the carbohydrazide N atom is 360.0. The dihedral angle between the 1H-indole ring system and the phenyl ring is 82.77?(13). A weak intramolecular CH?? contact occurs. In the crystal, pairs of molecules related by a crystallographic twofold axis are linked by bifurcated NH?(O,N) hydrogen bonds; a CH?O interaction occurs between the same pair. The dimers are linked by CH?F and CH?? interactions, generating a three-dimensional network. PMID:24109300

  18. Corrosion mitigation of N-(2-hydroxy-3-trimethyl ammonium)propyl chitosan chloride as inhibitor on mild steel.

    PubMed

    Sangeetha, Y; Meenakshi, S; SairamSundaram, C

    2015-01-01

    The biopolymer N-(2-hydroxy-3-trimethyl ammonium)propyl chitosan chloride (HTACC) was synthesised and its influence as a novel corrosion inhibitor on mild steel in 1M HCl was studied using gravimetric and electrochemical experiments. The compound obtained was characterised using FTIR and NMR studies. The inhibition efficiency increased with the increase in concentration and reached a maximum of 98.9% at 500 ppm concentration. Polarisation studies revealed that HTACC acts both as anodic and cathodic inhibitor. Electrochemical impedance studies confirmed that the inhibition is through adsorption on the metal surface. The extent of inhibition exhibits a negative trend with increase in temperature. Langmuir isotherm provides the best description on the adsorption nature of the inhibitor. SEM analysis indicated the presence of protective film formed by the inhibitor on the metal surface. PMID:25450546

  19. (Z)-N-(2,6-Diiso­propyl­phen­yl)-4-nitro­benzimidoyl chloride

    PubMed Central

    El-Hiti, Gamal A.; Smith, Keith; Jones, Dyfyr Heulyn; Masmali, Ali; Kariuki, Benson M.

    2013-01-01

    In the title compound, C19H21ClN2O2, the aromatic rings are approximately perpendicular to each other, subtending a dihedral angle of 87.7 (1)°. In the crystal, the 4-nitro­phenyl groups of pairs of neighbouring mol­ecules are parallel and oriented head-to-tail with a ring centroid–centroid distance of 3.9247 (12) Å, leading to a π–π inter­action between the pair. The faces of each phenyl ring of the 2,6-diiso­propyl­phenyl group inter­act with two different groups, viz. a chloro group of an adjacent mol­ecule on one side and the edge of the 4-nitro­phenyl ring of a second mol­ecule on the other side. PMID:24427026

  20. Crystal structure of 2-[2-(hy-droxy-imino)-1-phenyl-propyl-idene]-N-phen-ylhydrazinecarbo-thio-amide.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Brian J; Freedman, Michael B; Millikan, Sean P; Smolenski, Victoria A; Jasinski, Jerry P

    2015-10-01

    In the title compound, C16H16N4OS, an intra-molecular C-H⋯S hydrogen bond is observed. With the exception of the phenyl ring of the phenyl-propyl-idene unit, the remainder of the mol-ecule has an almost planar skeleton with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.121 (5) Å from the plane through the remaining 16 atoms. In the crystal O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds are observed between the terminal hy-droxy-imino groups, forming inverson dimers with R 2 (2)(6) graph-set motifs. Additional C-H⋯N contacts stack the dimers along [100]. While no π-π inter-actions are present, weak C-H⋯O and O-H⋯Cg inter-actions are also observed and help stabilize the crystal packing. PMID:26594484

  1. Predictors of Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate Metabolite in the Urine of Office Workers

    PubMed Central

    Carignan, Courtney C.; McClean, Michael D.; Cooper, Ellen M.; Watkins, Deborah J.; Fraser, Alicia J.; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy; Stapleton, Heather M.; Webster, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) is a flame retardant widely used in furniture containing polyurethane foam. It is a carcinogen, endocrine disruptor, and potentially neurotoxic. Our objectives were to characterize exposure of adult office workers (n=29) to TDCPP by measuring its primary metabolite, bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCPP), in their urine; measuring TDCPP in dust from their homes; offices and vehicles; and assessing possible predictors of exposure. We identified TDCPP in 99% of dust (GM=4.43 µg/g) and BDCPP in 100% of urine samples (GM=408 pg/mL). Concentrations of TDCPP in dust were significantly higher in vehicles (GM=12.5 µg/g) and offices (GM=6.06 µg/g) than in dust from the main living area (GM=4.21 µg/g) or bedrooms (GM=1.40 µg/g) of worker homes. Urinary BDCPP concentrations among participants who worked in a new office building were 26% of those who worked in older buildings (p=0.01). We found some evidence of a positive trend between urinary BDCPP and TDCPP in office dust that was not observed in the other microenvironments and may be related to the timing of urine sample collection during the afternoon of a workday. Overall our findings suggest that exposure to TDCPP in the work environment is one of the contributors to the personal exposure for office workers. Further research is needed to confirm specific exposure sources (e.g., polyurethane foam), determine the importance of exposure in other microenvironments such as homes and vehicles, and address the inhalation and dermal exposure pathways. PMID:23523854

  2. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel benzimidazole-2-substituted phenyl or pyridine propyl ketene derivatives as antitumour agents.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lin-Tao; Jiang, Zhi; Shen, Jia-Jia; Yi, Hong; Zhan, Yue-Chen; Sha, Ming-Quan; Wang, Zhen; Xue, Si-Tu; Li, Zhuo-Rong

    2016-05-23

    A series of novel benzimidazole-2-subsituted phenyl or pyridine propyl ketene derivatives were designed and synthesized. The biological activities of these derivatives were then evaluated as potential antitumour agents. These compounds were assayed for growth-inhibitory activity against HCT116, MCF-7 and HepG2 cell lines in vitro. The IC50 values of compounds A1 and A7 against the cancer cells were 0.06-3.64 μM and 0.04-9.80 μM, respectively. Their antiproliferative activities were significantly better than that of 5-Fluorouracil (IC50: 56.96-174.50 μM) and were close to that of Paclitaxel (IC50: 0.026-1.53 μM). The activity of these derivatives was over 100 times more effective than other reported structures of chalcone analogues (licochalcone A). A preliminary mechanistic study suggested that these compounds inhibit p53-MDM2 binding. Compounds A1, A7 and A9 effectively inhibited tumour growth in BALB/c mice with colon carcinoma HCT116 cells. The group administered 200 mg/kg of compound A7 showed a 74.6% tumour growth inhibition with no signs of toxicity at high doses that was similar to the inhibition achieved with the 12.5 mg/kg irinotecan positive control (70.2%). Therefore, this class of benzimidazole-2-subsituted phenyl or pyridine propyl ketene derivatives represents a promising lead structure for the development of possible p53-MDM2 inhibitors as new antitumour agents. PMID:27017265

  3. Synthesis, gastroprotective, antisecretory and anti-Helicobacter effect of N-[3-(3-(1-piperidinylmethyl) phenoxy)propyl]-hydroxyacetamide 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate bismuth (3+) complex (MX1)-MX1.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, C; Petkov, O; Petrov, P; Taskov, M; Athanassova, R; Tsvetkova, E; Kotsev, V; Lyutakov, G; Nikolov, G; Savov, E

    1996-03-01

    MX1 (N-[3-(3-(1-piperidinylmethyl)phenoxy)propyl]-hydroxyacetamide+ ++ 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate bismuth (3+) complex) is a novel salt of the active metabolite of H2-antagonist roxatidine with a complex of bismuth with citric acid. In a model of ethanol-induced ulcers in male Wistar rats, both roxatidine and the bismuth salt reduced the number and the total length of lesions. Comparison of roxatidine and MX1 at equimolar doses of 160 mumol kg-1 showed a more potent cytoprotective effect of MX1. The potency of anti-secretory and antiacidic effects of MX1 was more than twice that of roxatidine on histamine-stimulated secretion in female Wistar pylorus-ligated rats. Microbiological tests with the reference bismuth preparation De-Nol showed prominent anti-Helicobacter properties of MX1 in-vitro. Both test compounds had similar range of MICs to Helicobacter pylori, from 4 to 64 microgram bismuth mL-1. The cytoprotective, antisecretory, anti-acidic and anti-Helicobacter properties of the new agent MX1 warrant further more extensive pharmacological and clinical trials. PMID:8737057

  4. 40 CFR 180.362 - Hexakis (2-methyl-2-phenyl-propyl)distannoxane; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)distannoxane in or on the following raw agricultural commodities: Commodity Parts per million Almond, hulls 80...)stannane, and 2-methyl-2phenylpropylstannoic acid in or on the following raw agricultural commodities..., fat 0.5 Horse, meat 0.5 Horse, meat byproducts 0.5 Milk, fat 0.1 Poultry, fat 0.1 Poultry, meat...

  5. RATE CONSTANTS FOR THE REACTIONS OF OH RADICALS AND CL ATOMS WITH DI-N-PROPYL ETHER AND DI-N-BUTYL ETHER AND THEIR DEUTERATED ANALOGS. (R825252)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using relative rate methods, rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals and Cl atoms with di-n-propyl ether, di-n-propyl ether-d14, di-n-butyl ether and di-n-butyl ether-d18 have been measured at 296 ? 2 K and atmos...

  6. Genotoxicity assessment of propyl thiosulfinate oxide, an organosulfur compound from Allium extract, intended to food active packaging.

    PubMed

    Mellado-García, P; Maisanaba, S; Puerto, M; Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Prieto, A I; Marcos, R; Pichardo, S; Cameán, A M

    2015-12-01

    Essential oils from onion (Allium cepa L.), garlic (Allium sativum L.), and their main components, such as propyl thiosulfinate oxide (PTSO) are being intended for active packaging with the purpose of maintaining and extending food product quality and shelf life. The present work aims to assess for the first time the potential mutagenicity/genotoxicity of PTSO (0-50 µM) using the following battery of genotoxicity tests: (1) the bacterial reverse-mutation assay in Salmonella typhimurium (Ames test, OECD 471); (2) the micronucleus test (OECD 487) (MN) and (3) the mouse lymphoma thymidine-kinase assay (OECD 476) (MLA) on L5178YTk(+/-), cells; and (4) the comet assay (with and without Endo III and FPG enzymes) on Caco-2 cells. The results revealed that PTSO was not mutagenic in the Ames test, however it was mutagenic in the MLA assay after 24 h of treatment (2.5-20 µM). The parent compound did not induce MN on mammalian cells; however, its metabolites (in the presence S9) produced positive results (from 15 µM). Data from the comet assay indicated that PTSO did not induce DNA breaks or oxidative DNA damage. Further in vivo genotoxicity tests are needed to confirm its safety before it is used as active additive in food packaging. PMID:26607106

  7. Imprinted propyl gallate electrochemical sensor based on graphene/single walled carbon nanotubes/sol-gel film.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guilin; Chi, Yu; Li, Lu; Liu, Shouhua; Kan, Xianwen

    2015-06-15

    A novel imprinted sol-gel electrochemical sensor for the determination of propyl gallate (PG) was developed based on a composite of graphene and single walled carbon nanotubes (GR-SWCNTs). It was fabricated by stepwise modifying GR-SWCNTs and molecularly imprinted polymers and stored in 0.10 mol L(-1) phosphate buffer solution pH 6.0, which endowed the sensor good sensitivity and selective recognition towards template molecules. The morphology and specific adsorption capacity of the sensor was characterized by scanning electron microscope and electrochemical methods, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, a linear range of the sensor to PG was 8.0 × 10(-8)-2.6 × 10(-3)mo lL(-1) with a limit of detection of 5.0 × 10(-8)mol L(-1) (S/N=3). The sensor exhibited specificity and selectivity towards template molecules as well as excellent reproducibility, regeneration and stability. Furthermore, the sensor could be applied to determine PG in edible oils, instant noodles and cookies with satisfactory results. PMID:25660855

  8. Effects of Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate (TDCPP) in Tetrahymena Thermophila: Targeting the Ribosome.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Giesy, John P; Yu, Liqin; Li, Guangyu; Liu, Chunsheng

    2015-01-01

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) has been frequently detected in the environment, and exposure to TDCPP appears widespread. It has been implicated to cause toxicity in vertebrates, but its potential to affect lower-trophic-level species remains unknown. In the present study, the ciliated protozoan, Tetrahymena thermophila, was used as a model to evaluate toxic effects of TDCPP and explore molecular mechanisms by integrating phenotypic observation, RNA-Seq and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Imaging technologies. Exposure to 0.01, 0.1 or 1 μM TDCPP for 5 days significantly decreased the relative biomass by reducing number of cells, size of cells and quantity of cilia in a dose-dependent manner. RNA-Seq analysis demonstrated that expression of twenty-one ribosome protein genes was down-regulated and these genes were enriched in "ribosome" term in KEGG pathway analysis. Furthermore, down-regulation of genes expressing ribosome proteins was accompanied by decreased ribosome quantity in rough endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm and enlarged ribosome size. Therefore, taken together, the data from the present study suggest that exposure to TDCPP affects growth and reproduction of Tetrahymena thermophila by targeting the ribosome. This information might provide insights into critical mechanisms of toxic action in other species and lead to useful bioindicators of exposure to TDCPP. PMID:25994279

  9. Effects of Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate (TDCPP) in Tetrahymena Thermophila: Targeting the Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Giesy, John P.; Yu, Liqin; Li, Guangyu; Liu, Chunsheng

    2015-01-01

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) has been frequently detected in the environment, and exposure to TDCPP appears widespread. It has been implicated to cause toxicity in vertebrates, but its potential to affect lower-trophic-level species remains unknown. In the present study, the ciliated protozoan, Tetrahymena thermophila, was used as a model to evaluate toxic effects of TDCPP and explore molecular mechanisms by integrating phenotypic observation, RNA-Seq and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Imaging technologies. Exposure to 0.01, 0.1 or 1 μM TDCPP for 5 days significantly decreased the relative biomass by reducing number of cells, size of cells and quantity of cilia in a dose-dependent manner. RNA-Seq analysis demonstrated that expression of twenty-one ribosome protein genes was down-regulated and these genes were enriched in “ribosome” term in KEGG pathway analysis. Furthermore, down-regulation of genes expressing ribosome proteins was accompanied by decreased ribosome quantity in rough endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm and enlarged ribosome size. Therefore, taken together, the data from the present study suggest that exposure to TDCPP affects growth and reproduction of Tetrahymena thermophila by targeting the ribosome. This information might provide insights into critical mechanisms of toxic action in other species and lead to useful bioindicators of exposure to TDCPP. PMID:25994279

  10. Multiple sites of action of (+)-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)piperidine ((+)-3PPP) in blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Massamiri, T; Duckles, S P

    1990-11-13

    Functional effects of the sigma ligand, (+)-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)piperidine ((+)-3PPP), were explored in perfused rat tail and rabbit ear arteries in vitro. In the rat tail artery (+)-3PPP inhibited contractile responses to adrenergic nerve stimulation, an effect which was reversed to potentiation by the dopamine D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride. In the rabbit ear artery, however, (+)-3PPP potentiated contractile responses to nerve stimulation, an effect which was unchanged by sulpiride. In the rat tail artery, blockade of norepinephrine uptake by cocaine and deoxycorticosterone in the presence of sulpiride revealed two additional actions of (+)-3PPP. First, an inhibitory action on the monoamine uptake site was confirmed by direct measurement of [3H]norepinephrine accumulation. Second, at higher concentrations, an action to inhibit contractile responses to adrenergic nerve stimulation was manifested at a still unidentified site. These studies demonstrate that the observed functional effect of (+)-3PPP results from its combined actions on three individual sites with the net effect dependent on the relative densities of these different receptor sites in each type of vessel. PMID:2272368

  11. A case study on quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolation for environmental esters: Methyl-, propyl- and butylparaben.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jerry L; Yoon, Miyoung; Clewell, Harvey J

    2015-06-01

    Parabens have been reported as potential endocrine disrupters and are widely used in consumer projects including cosmetics, foods and pharmaceuticals. We report on the development of a PBPK model for methyl-, propyl-, and butylparaben. The model was parameterized through a combination of QSAR for tissue solubility and quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) for hydrolysis in portals of entry including intestine and skin as well as in the primary site of metabolism, the liver. Overall, the model provided very good agreement with published time-course data in blood and urine from controlled dosing studies in rat and human, and demonstrates the potential value of quantitative IVIVE in expanding the use of human biomonitoring data in safety assessment. An in vitro based cumulative margin of safety (MOS) was calculated by comparing the effective concentrations from an in vitro assay of estrogenicity to the free paraben concentrations predicted by the model to be associated with the 95th percentile urine concentrations reported in NHANES (2009-2010 collection period). The calculated MOS for adult females was 108, whereas the MOS for males was 444. PMID:25839974

  12. A simple and convenient method to synthesize N-[(2-hydroxyl)-propyl-3-trimethylammonium] chitosan chloride in an ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaodeng; Zhang, Chuanguang; Qiao, Congde; Mu, Xueli; Li, Tianduo; Xu, Jinku; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Dongju

    2015-10-01

    N-[(2-Hydroxyl)-propyl-3-trimethyl ammonium] chitosan chloride (HTCC) was synthesized through nucleophilic substitution of 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (EPTAC) onto chitosan using ionic liquid of 1-allyl-3-methylimidazole chloride (AmimCl) as a homogeneous and green reaction media. The chemical structure of HTCC was confirmed by FTIR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. The FTIR peak intensity of amino group at 1595 cm(-1) decreased and that of [Formula: see text] at 1475 cm(-1) increased with the increase of reaction time, confirming the substitution of EPTAC on CS. The degree of substitutions (DS) were calculated from the integral area of (1)H NMR, and the optimum reaction condition was obtained, namely, reaction time of 8h, temperature of 80°C and [Formula: see text] of 3/1. The degree of crystallinity and thermal properties of HTCC were characterized by XRD, TG, DSC, and DMA methods. Data from XRD, TG, DSC and DMA show that the degree of crystallinity, thermal stability, as well as glass transition temperature of HTCC decreased with the increase of DS. The reaction mechanism of chitosan with EPTAC in AmimCl was elucidated by performing density functional theory (DFT) calculations. PMID:26076633

  13. Psychotomimetic opiate receptors labeled and visualized with (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)piperidine

    SciTech Connect

    Largent, B.L.; Gundlach, A.L.; Snyder, S.H.

    1984-08-01

    3-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)piperidine (3-PPP) has been proposed as a selective dopamine autoreceptor agonist in the central nervous system. This report describes the pharmacology and localization of specific high-affinity binding sites for (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-PPP in brain. The drug specificity of (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-PPP binding is identical to that of sigma receptors, which may mediate psychotomimetic effects of some opiates. Haloperidol and the opioid derivatives, pentazocine, cyclazocine, and SKF 10,047 are potent inhibitors of (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-PPP binding. Stereoselectivity is exhibited for the (+) isomers of cyclazocine and SKF 10.047 at the sigma site, opposite to the stereoselectivity seen at ..mu.., sigma, and k opiate receptors. (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-PPP does not label dopamine receptors, as potent dopamine agonists and antagonists are weak inhibitors of binding and the localization of specific (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-PPP binding sites does not parallel that of dopamine neurons. Discrete localizations of (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-PPP binding sites in many brain areas including limbic, midbrain, brainstem, and cerebellar regions may explain psychotomimetic actions of opiates and behavior effects of 3-PPP. 41 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  14. Effects of Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate (TDCPP) in Tetrahymena Thermophila: Targeting the Ribosome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jing; Giesy, John P.; Yu, Liqin; Li, Guangyu; Liu, Chunsheng

    2015-05-01

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) has been frequently detected in the environment, and exposure to TDCPP appears widespread. It has been implicated to cause toxicity in vertebrates, but its potential to affect lower-trophic-level species remains unknown. In the present study, the ciliated protozoan, Tetrahymena thermophila, was used as a model to evaluate toxic effects of TDCPP and explore molecular mechanisms by integrating phenotypic observation, RNA-Seq and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Imaging technologies. Exposure to 0.01, 0.1 or 1 μM TDCPP for 5 days significantly decreased the relative biomass by reducing number of cells, size of cells and quantity of cilia in a dose-dependent manner. RNA-Seq analysis demonstrated that expression of twenty-one ribosome protein genes was down-regulated and these genes were enriched in “ribosome” term in KEGG pathway analysis. Furthermore, down-regulation of genes expressing ribosome proteins was accompanied by decreased ribosome quantity in rough endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm and enlarged ribosome size. Therefore, taken together, the data from the present study suggest that exposure to TDCPP affects growth and reproduction of Tetrahymena thermophila by targeting the ribosome. This information might provide insights into critical mechanisms of toxic action in other species and lead to useful bioindicators of exposure to TDCPP.

  15. Hyperthermia Stress Activates Heat Shock Protein Expression via Propyl Isomerase 1 Regulation with Heat Shock Factor 1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsiu-Yu; Fu, Jimmy Chun-Ming; Lee, Yu-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs), which are members of the chaperone family of proteins, are essential factors for cellular responses to environmental stressors, such as hyperthermia, and are antiapoptotic. The transcription of HSPs is mainly controlled by heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1). In response to environmental stress, HSF1 forms a trimer, undergoes hyperphosphorylation, and is translocated to the nucleus. In this study, we show that upon heat shock treatment of cells, a WW domain-containing propyl-isomerase, PIN1, is able to colocalize to and associate with phospho-HSF1 at Ser326 in the nucleus via its WW domain. This interaction is required for the DNA-binding activity of HSF1 and is consistent with the lower induction of HSPs in PIN1-deficient cells. This function of PIN1 is further demonstrated by in vivo refolding and survival assays, which have shown that PIN1-deficient cells are temperature sensitive and develop apoptosis upon exposure to an environmental challenge. Moreover, the reduced levels of HSPs in PIN1-deficient cells resulted in less efficient refolding of denatured proteins. Based on our results, we propose a novel role for PIN1 whereby it acts as a stress sensor regulating HSF1 activity in response to stress on multiple levels through the transcriptional activation of stress response elements in embryonic fibroblast cells, tumor cells, and neurons. PMID:24126052

  16. Defensive and adverse energy-related molecular responses precede tris (1, 3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinkang; Williams, Timothy D; Chipman, James K; Viant, Mark R

    2016-05-01

    To understand the potentially adverse effects of human exposure to tris (1, 3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms, combined transcriptomic and metabolomic approaches were employed to investigate the molecular responses of two human cell lines exposed to different concentrations of TDCIPP. Comparative analyses of transcriptional and metabolic profiles of HepG2/C3A and A549 cells were performed after exposure to 1, 10 and 100 μM TDCIPP for 24 and 72 h. Stress responses (e.g. xenobiotic metabolism and ABC transporter pathways) were observed at the transcriptional level after 24-h exposure to a sub-cytotoxic concentration (10 μM). Transcription of an energy metabolism-related pathway (oxidative phosphorylation) was down-regulated more severely at 100 μM TDCIPP exposure, accompanied by the suppression of pathways relevant to cell proliferation (e.g. cell cycle and DNA replication), while no significant cytotoxic effects were observed. Functional metabolic changes were observed after 72 h in HepG2/C3A cells exposed to 100 μM TDCIPP that corresponded to changes detected at the transcriptional level after 24 h. Taken together, defensive responses to chemical exposure and energy-related changes both precede the cytotoxic effects of TDCIPP in HepG2/C3A cells. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26179874

  17. The effects of the covalent attachment of 3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl) propyl amine to glutaraldehyde pretreated bovine pericardium on structural degeneration, oxidative modification, and calcification of rat subdermal implants.

    PubMed

    Christian, Abigail J; Alferiev, Ivan S; Connolly, Jeanne M; Ischiropoulos, Harry; Levy, Robert J

    2015-07-01

    Bioprosthetic heart valves (BHV) fabricated from glutaraldehyde pretreated heterograft materials, porcine aortic valves or bovine pericardium (BP), are widely used in cardiac surgery. BHV progressively fail in clinical use due to structural degeneration. Previously we reported that dityrosine, an oxidized amino acid, was present in failed clinical BP-BHV explants; unimplanted BP had no detectable dityrosine. In the same studies BP were demonstrated in vitro to be susceptible to oxidative damage, that could be mitigated with BP covalently modified with the antioxidant, 3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propyl amine (DBP). The present studies compared in rat subdermal implants glutaraldehyde pretreated BP to BP modified with either DBP or the chemical reactions used to link DBP. All BP explants regardless of DBP demonstrated reduced hydroxyproline and increased digestibility by collagenase. However, the DBP-BP explants showed significant inhibition of reduced explant shrink temperatures (an index of crosslinking) as compared with control BP. Significant mitigation of calcification was observed in both the BP-DBP and chemically modified explants as compared with BP. Dityrosine was not detectable in the 90 day explants. It is concluded that rat subdermal BP implants undergo both calcific and noncalcific structural degeneration, but without the formation of dityrosine, unlike clinical BP explants. PMID:25546235

  18. Morphology and water resistance of mixed silane films of bis[3-(triethoxysilyl) propyl]tetrasulfide and bis-[trimethoxysilylpropyl]amine

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Guirong; Schaefer, Dale W.; van Ooij, Wim J.; Kent, Michael S.; Majewski, Jaroslaw; Yim, Hyun

    2010-12-03

    Functional organosilanes are powerful interface-active agents that find applications as adhesion promoters as well as optical, dielectric and protective coatings. Bis-silanes are of particular interest because they are highly crosslinked leading to very robust films. In almost all applications, the water resistance of the films is a critical performance measure. Here we use neutron reflectivity to address the effect of bridging group on the hydrothermal response of bis-silane films prepared using bis[3-(triethoxysilyl) propyl]tetrasulfide and bis-[trimethoxysilylpropyl]amine. Neat and mixed films are examined as-prepared, after exposure to water vapor and then in the re-dried state. The bridging group is the key factor that controls the morphology and water resistance of silane films. Although bis-sulfur silane is not as condensed as bis-amino silane, bis-sulfur swells less in water because of the hydrophobic nature of bridging group. The reflectivity of bis-sulfur silane film is reversible after room-temperature water conditioning but not at 80 C, indicating chemical alternation of the film at 80 C. The water resistance of mixed silane is roughly that of both components weighted by their volume fraction. But based on the enhanced shrinkage that occurs following water-vapor conditioning of the mixed film, condensation is accelerated in the mixed silane. Regarding the precursor solution, bis-amino silane may act as a catalyst in the hydrolysis of bis-sulfur silane leading to more silanols in the solution and further condensation in the film. Variation in the structure normal to the substrate is also examined by swelling the film with d-nitrobenzene, a non-reacting swelling agent.

  19. The ozone productivity of n-propyl bromide: Part 2--An exception to the Maximum Incremental Reactivity Scale.

    PubMed

    Whitten, Gary Z; Yarwood, Greg

    2008-07-01

    In an earlier paper the ozone-forming potential of n-propyl bromide (NPB) was studied with a new methodology designed to address issues associated with a marginal smog-forming compound. However, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) subsequently revised its policy and now recommends using the Maximum Incremental Reactivity (MIR) scale to rank the ozone-forming potential of all volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including those of marginal ozone productivity. Nevertheless, EPA contemplated exceptions to the box-model-derived MIR scale by allowing use of photochemical grid-model simulations for case specific reactivity assessments. The California Air Resources Board (CARB) also uses the MIR scale and CARB has a Reactivity Scientific Advisory Committee that can consider exceptions to the MIR scale. In this study, grid-model simulations that were recommended by EPA are used to evaluate the incremental ozone impacts of NPB using an update to the chemical mechanism developed in an earlier paper. New methods of analysis of the grid-model output are further developed here to quantify the relative reactivities between NPB and ethane over a wide range of conditions. The new grid-model-based analyses show that NPB is significantly different and generally less in ozone-forming potential (i.e., reactivity) than predicted by the box-model-based MIR scale relative to ethane, EPA's "bright-line" test for non-VOC status. Although NPB has low reactivity compared to typical VOCs on any scale, the new grid-model analyses developed here show that NPB is far less reactive (and even has negative reactivity) compared to the reactivity predicted by the MIR scale. PMID:18672713

  20. Instrumental Dependent Dissociations of n-Propyl/Isopropyl Phosphonate Isomers: Evaluation of Resonant and Non-Resonant Vibrational Activations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennaceur, Chafia; Afonso, Carlos; Alves, Sandra; Bossée, Anne; Tabet, Jean-Claude

    2013-08-01

    Structural elucidation and distinction of isomeric neurotoxic agents remain a challenge. Tandem mass spectrometry can be used for this purpose in particular if a "diagnostic" product ion is observed. Different vibrational activation methods were investigated to enhance formation of diagnostic ions through consecutive processes from O,O-dialkyl alkylphosphonates. Resonant and non-resonant collisional activation and infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) were used with different mass spectrometers: a hybrid quadrupole Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (Qh-FTICR) and a hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap (LTQ/Orbitrap). Double resonance (DR) experiments, in ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) cell, were used for unambiguous determination of direct intermediate yielding diagnostic ions. From protonated n-propyl and isopropyl O-O-dialkyl-phosphonates, a diagnostic m/ z 83 ion characterizes the isopropyl isomer. This ion is produced through consecutive dissociation processes. Conditions to favor its formation and observation using different activation methods were investigated. It was shown that with the LTQ, consecutive experimental steps of isolation/activation with modified trapping conditions limiting the low mass cut off (LMCO) effect were required, whereas with FT-ICR by CID and IRMPD the diagnostic ion detection was provided only by one activation step. Among the different investigated activation methods it was shown that by using low-pressure conditions or using non-resonant methods, efficient and fast differentiation of isomeric neurotoxic agents was obtained. This work constitutes a unique comparison of different activation modes for distinction of isomers showing the instrumental dependence characteristic of the consecutive processes. New insights in the dissociation pathways were obtained based on double-resonance IRMPD experiments using a FT-ICR instrument with limitation at low mass values.

  1. Variations of lipid profile in animals caused by adenosine analogs: N6 (amido-3-propyl) adenosine hydrochloride and (carboxamido-3-propylamino)-6-(triproprionyl) 2',3',5'beta (D-ribosyl)-9-purine.

    PubMed

    Laborit, G; Hasni, H; Baron, C; Pierrefiche, G; Laborit, H

    1992-03-01

    N6-substituted adenosine analogues are powerful inhibitors of lipolysis in the adipose tissues of animals and humans, because of their agonist effect on A1 purine receptors. Using a model of hypertriglyceridemia provoked by intravenous injection of Triton WR 1339, we observed that Agr 529 [N6(amido-3-propyl)adenosine hydrochloride] at 2 mg.kg-1 intravenous in rabbits, and intraperitoneally and orally in rats led to a return of the levels of circulating triglycerides to normal values. In addition, Agr 529 and its prodrug, Agr 540 [(carboxamido-3-propylamino)-6-(triproprionyl)2', 3',5'beta(D-ribosyl)-9-purine] administered to rats at 3 and 30 mg.kg-1, respectively, returned plasma triglyceride concentrations to normal levels. Intravenous administration of Agr 529 to normal rats led to decreased concentrations of plasma fatty acids, phospholipids, triglycerides and total cholesterol as a function of dose. The decrease began at 0.1 mg.kg-1 and was highly significant at 3 mg.kg-1. In the same conditions, the intraperitoneal administration of Agr 529 caused a dose-dependent hypolipemia. There was no apparent effect on cholesterol and on the triglycerides of high density lipoproteins. A kinetic study showed that the antilipemic effect of Agr 529 intravenously injected at 3 mg.kg-1 began 30 minutes after the injection with a maximum effect at 2 hours. The effect persisted up to 8 hours after injection. The present results show that the administration of Agr 529 and Agr 540 to normal animals causes hypolipemia (decrease in fatty acids, phospholipids, triglycerides and cholesterol) and restores induced hypertriglyceridemia. These effects may be attributed to an interaction of the molecules with A1 purinergic receptors of adipose tissue. PMID:1509199

  2. Organosilane grafted acid-activated beidellite clay for the removal of non-ionic alachlor and anionic imazaquin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Blain; Martens, Wayde N.; Frost, Ray L.

    2011-04-01

    Clay adsorbents were prepared via two-step method to remove nonionic alachlor and anionic imazaquin herbicides from water. Firstly, layered beidellite clay, a member of smectite family, was treated with acid in hydrothermal process; secondly, common silane coupling agents, 3-chloro-propyl trimethoxysilane or triethoxy silane, were grafted on the acid treated samples to prepare adsorbent materials. The organically modified clay samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, N2 gas adsorption, and FTIR spectroscopy. It was found that the selective modification of clay samples displayed higher adsorption capacity for herbicides compared with acid activated clay. And the amount of adsorption is increased with increasing the grafting amount of silane groups. Clay grafted with 3-chloro-propyl trimethoxysilane is an excellent adsorbent for both alachlor and imazaquin but triethoxy (octyl) silane grafted clay is more efficient only for alachlor removal.

  3. Synthesis of a Nanostructured Composite: Octakis(1-propyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-yl(methyl 2-chlorobenzoate))octasilsesquioxane via Click Reaction.

    PubMed

    Ghodsi, Mohammadi Ziarani; Shakiba Nahad, Monireh; Lashgari, Negar; Alireza, Badiei

    2015-01-01

    Octakis(1-propyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-yl(methyl 2-chlorobenzoate))octasilsesquioxanes as functionalized silsesquioxanes were synthesized via click reaction (copper-catalyzed Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction) between azidemoiety functionalized silsesquioxane and prop-2-ynyl 2-chlorobenzoate. The latter one was synthesized via the condensation reaction of propargyl alcohol and 2-chlorobenzoyl chloride in the presence of SBA-Pr-NH(2) (Santa Barbara Amorphous type material) as a nano basic catalyst. This approach provides a simple and convenient route to efficiently functionalize a wide range of new structures on the surface of silsesquioxanes. PMID:26454606

  4. Crystal structure of 3,5-bis-(4-chloro-phen-yl)-1-propyl-1,3,5-tri-aza-cyclo-hexane.

    PubMed

    Lefrada, Leila; Bouchemma, Ahcene; Bouacida, Sofiane; Claiser, Nicolas; Souhassou, Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    In the title mol-ecule, C18H21Cl2N3, the tri-aza-cyclo-hexane ring adopts a chair conformation with both 4-chloro-phenyl substituents in axial positions and the propyl group in an equatorial site. The dihedral angle between the planes of the benzene rings is 49.5 (1)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are arranged in a head-to-tail fashion, forming columns along [010], and pairs of weak C-H⋯π inter-actions form inversion dimers between columns. PMID:25309226

  5. Nutritional Requirements of Microbacterium thermosphactum

    PubMed Central

    Grau, Frederick H.

    1979-01-01

    Microbacterium thermosphactum requires cysteine, α-lipoate, nicotinate, pantothenate, p-aminobenzoate, biotin, and thiamin for aerobic growth in glucose-mineral salts medium. Glucose cannot be replaced by Casamino Acids or acids of the tricarboxylic acid cycle as sole carbon and energy sources. The organism can also grow anaerobically in the minimal synthetic medium. PMID:16345460

  6. Developmental exposure to the organophosphorus flame retardant tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate: estrogenic activity, endocrine disruption and reproductive effects on zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiangwei; Lam, James C W; Han, Jian; Wang, Xianfeng; Guo, Yongyong; Lam, Paul K S; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2015-03-01

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) is an organophosphate flame retardant that is detectable in the environment and biota, prompting concern over its risk to wildlife and human health. Our objective was to investigate whether long-term exposure to low concentrations of TDCPP can affect fish reproduction. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to low concentrations (0, 4, 20 and 100μg/L) of TDCPP from 2h post-fertilization until sexual maturation. Exposure to TDCPP significantly increased plasma estradiol and testosterone levels in females, but had no effect in males. TDCPP exposure also caused a significant reduction in fecundity as indicated by decreased egg production. Real-time PCR was performed to examine selected genes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and liver. Principle component analysis (PCA) showed that sex hormone levels and fecundity were related to the mRNA level of several genes in the HPG axis. Furthermore, hepatic vitellogenin (vtg1 and vtg3) expression was upregulated in both females and males, suggesting TDCPP has estrogenic activity. Histological examination revealed promotion of oocyte maturation in the females, but retardation of spermiation in males. Reduced egg quality (e.g., egg diameter) and increased malformation rates were observed in the F1 generation. Chemical analysis showed significant levels of TDCPP and its metabolite bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate in the gonads of males and females. In conclusion, long-term exposure to low concentrations of TDCPP impairs fish reproduction. PMID:25637911

  7. The Flame-Retardant Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate Represses Androgen Signaling in Human Prostate Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Reers, Alexandra R; Eng, Margaret L; Williams, Tony D; Elliott, John E; Cox, Michael E; Beischlag, Timothy V

    2016-05-01

    The effects of six organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate, tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate, tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate, tris(methylphenyl) phosphate, tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP), and triethyl phosphate on the activities of androgen receptor (AR), estrogen receptor (ER), and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) were assessed in human prostate and endometrial cancer cells. OPFRs had no effect on ER or AhR target gene activation in ECC-1 cells. The effect of TDCIPP on mRNA and protein accumulation of AR target genes was examined further. AR-inducible gene and protein expression were significantly altered by TDCIPP exposure and repressed PSA levels in conditioned media of prostate cancer cells. We demonstrated that TDCIPP has no affinity for the AR ligand binding domain (AR-LBD) and exerts its antiandrogenic effects in a noncompetitive fashion. Thus, the clinical relevance of TDCIPP exposure on prostate cancer detection and progression to a therapeutically refractile state ought to be investigated further. PMID:26709203

  8. The carboxyl modifier 1-ethyl-3-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)carbodiimide (EDC) inhibits half of the high-affinity Mn-binding site in photosystem II membrane fragments

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, C.; Seibert, M. )

    1991-10-08

    The diphenylcarbazide (DPC)/Mn{sup 2+} assay was used to assess the amount of the high-affinity Mn-binding site in manganese-depleted photosystem II (PS II) membrane fragments from spinach and Scenedesmus obliquus. The assay mechanism at high DPC concentration was shown to involve noncompetitive inhibition of only half of the control level of DPC donation to PS II by micromolar concentrations of Mn at pH 6.5. At low DPC concentration both DPC and Mn{sup 2+} donate to PS II additively. Treatment with the carboxyl amino acid modifier 1-ethyl-3-(3(dimethylamino) propyl) carbodiimide (EDC) inhibited half of the high affinity Mn-binding site in spinach and Scenedesmus WT PS II membranes and all of the available site in Scenedesmus LF-1 mutant PS II membranes. A similar EDC concentration dependence was observed in all cases. This protection was specific for Mn{sup 2+}; six other divalent cations were ineffective. The authors conclude that EDC modifies that half of the high-affinity Mn-binding site that is insensitive to the histidine modifier diethyl pyrocarbonate (DEPC) and directly affects ligands that bind Mn. The effects of EDC and DEPC that influence the high-affinity site are mutually exclusive and are specific to the lumenal side of the PS II membrane. They suggest that carboxyl residues on reaction center proteins are associated with half of the high-affinity Mn-binding site in PS II and are involved along with histidine residues in binding Mn functional in the O{sub 2}-evolving process.

  9. Urinary Amino Acid Analysis: A Comparison of iTRAQ®-LC-MS/MS, GC-MS, and Amino Acid Analyzer

    PubMed Central

    Kaspar, Hannelore; Dettmer, Katja; Chan, Queenie; Daniels, Scott; Nimkar, Subodh; Daviglus, Martha L.; Stamler, Jeremiah; Elliott, Paul; Oefner, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Urinary amino acid analysis is typically done by cation-exchange chromatography followed by post-column derivatization with ninhydrin and UV detection. This method lacks throughput and specificity. Two recently introduced stable isotope ratio mass spectrometric methods promise to overcome those shortcomings. Using two blinded sets of urine replicates and a certified amino acid standard, we compared the precision and accuracy of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) of propyl chloroformate and iTRAQ® derivatized amino acids, respectively, to conventional amino acid analysis. The GC-MS method builds on the direct derivatization of amino acids in diluted urine with propyl chloroformate, GC separation and mass spectrometric quantification of derivatives using stable isotope labeled standards. The LC-MS/MS method requires prior urinary protein precipitation followed by labeling of urinary and standard amino acids with iTRAQ® tags containing different cleavable reporter ions distinguishable by MS/MS fragmentation. Means and standard deviations of percent technical error (%TE) computed for 20 amino acids determined by amino acid analyzer, GC-MS, and iTRAQ®-LC-MS/MS analyses of 33 duplicate and triplicate urine specimens were 7.27±5.22, 21.18±10.94, and 18.34±14.67, respectively. Corresponding values for 13 amino acids determined in a second batch of 144 urine specimens measured in duplicate or triplicate were 8.39±5.35, 6.23±3.84, and 35.37±29.42. Both GC-MS and iTRAQ®-LC-MS/MS are suited for high-throughput amino acid analysis, with the former offering at present higher reproducibility and completely automated sample pretreatment, while the latter covers more amino acids and related amines. PMID:19481989

  10. Intramolecular charge transfer and dielectric solvent relaxation in n-propyl cyanide. N-phenylpyrrole and 4-dimethylamino-4'-cyanostilbene.

    PubMed

    Druzhinin, Sergey I; Galievsky, Victor A; Yoshihara, Toshitada; Zachariasse, Klaas A

    2006-11-30

    Fast intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) accompanied by dual fluorescence from a locally excited (LE) and an ICT state taking place with N-phenylpyrrole (PP) in the solvent n-propyl cyanide (PrCN) is investigated as a function of temperature between 25 and -112 degrees C. The LE and ICT fluorescence decays from -45 to -70 degrees C can be adequately fitted with two exponentials, in accordance with a two state (LE + ICT) reaction mechanism, similar to what has been observed with PP in the more polar and less viscous alkyl cyanides acetonitrile (MeCN) and ethyl cyanide (EtCN). At lower temperatures, triple-exponential fits are required for the LE and ICT decays. The ICT emission band maximum of the time-resolved fluorescence spectra of PP in PrCN at -100 degrees C displays a spectral shift from 29 230 cm-1 at t = 0 to 27 780 cm-1 at infinite time, which equilibration process is attributed to dielectric solvent relaxation. From the time dependence of this shift, in global analysis with that of the band integrals BI(LE) and BI(ICT) of the time-resolved LE and ICT fluorescence bands, the decay times 119 and 456 ps are obtained. Dielectric relaxation times of 20 and 138 ps are determined from the double-exponential spectral solvation response function C(t) of the probe molecule 4-dimethylamino-4'-cyanostilbene in PrCN at -100 degrees C. It is concluded from the similarity of the times 119 ps (PP) and 138 ps (DCS) that the deviation from double-exponential character for the fluorescence decays of PP in PrCN below -70 degrees C is due to the interference of dielectric solvent relaxation with the ICT reaction. This fact complicates the kinetic analysis of the LE and ICT fluorescence decays. The kinetic analysis for PP in PrCN is hence restricted to temperatures between -70 and -45 degrees C. From this analysis, the forward and backward ICT activation energies Ea (12 kJ/mol) and Ed (17 kJ/mol) are obtained, giving an ICT stabilization enthalpy -DeltaH of 5 kJ/mol. A comparison of the reaction barriers for PP in the three alkyl cyanides PrCN, EtCN, and MeCN (J. Phys. Chem. A 2005, 109, 1497) shows that Ea becomes smaller with increasing solvent polarity (from 12 to 6 kJ/mol), whereas Ed remains effectively constant. Both observations are indicative of a late transition state for the LE --> ICT reaction. The significance of the Leffler-Hammond postulate in this connection is discussed: not primarily the energy of the LE, ICT, and transition states but rather the extent of charge transfer in these states determines whether an early or a late transition state is present. PMID:17125289

  11. Release characteristics of novel pH-sensitive p(HEMA-DMAEMA) hydrogels containing 3-(trimethoxy-silyl) propyl methacrylate.

    PubMed

    Brahim, Sean; Narinesingh, Dyer; Guiseppi-Elie, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    An amphiphilic hydrogel of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) cross-linked with tetraethyleneglycol diacrylate (TEGDA) was synthesized to contain the hydrophobic monomer 3-(trimethoxy-silyl) propyl methacrylate (PMA) and the pH-responsive, hydrophilic monomer N',N'-dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA). The gels were separately loaded with two biomolecular probes, insulin and protamine, via both physical entrapment and equilibrium imbibition methods. The release profiles for these biomolecular probes, possessing similar MW (5.7 and 4-6 kDa, respectively) but different pI's (5.3 and 10.0, respectively), were investigated with respect to variation in the pH of the bathing medium as well as the DMAEMA content, and the cross-link density of the hydrogel. Gels exhibited classical Fickian diffusion release profiles. For a typical gel composition 66:15:10:09 mol % (HEMA:DMAEMA:PMA:TEGDA), as the pH of the release media decreased from 7.3 to 4.0, the rate of release of both biomolecular probes increased. When loaded via entrapment, the insulin release rate increased ca. 4-fold (1.0-3.7 x 10(-7) cm(2) s(-1)), whereas that of protamine increased 10-fold (0.3-3.3 x 10(-7) cm(2) s(-1)). When loaded by imbibition, the insulin diffusion coefficient increased 2-fold (3.8-7.2 x 10(-7) cm(2) s(-1)), whereas that of protamine increased 3-fold (1.9-5.5 x 10(-7) cm(2) s(-1)). The reduction of pH, through its protonation of the gel network, has a more dramatic influence on protamine release, the result of its higher pI (10.0) compared to that of insulin (5.3). As the DMAEMA content of the hydrogel was increased from 0 to 20 mol %, the diffusion coefficient of protamine increased by ca. 7-fold (1.7-12.2 x 10(-7) cm(2) s(-1)), whereas that of insulin increased only ca. 2-fold (1.7-4.0 x 10(-7) cm(2) s(-1)). This differential release confirms the role of internal protonation in effecting the greater release of the protonated drug molecule. Increasing the TEGDA content from 3 to 15 mol % reduced the diffusion coefficient ca. 3-fold for insulin (1.6-0.5 x 10(-7) cm(2) s(-1)) and 5-fold for protamine (4.0-0.8 x 10(-7) cm(2) s(-1)). The final D(ip) at 15 mol % TEGDA suggests that the smaller mesh size offsets any differential release that arises from protonation. The presence of PMA in the hydrogel formulation, which contributes additional cross-links by reason of the formation of siloxane macromers, did not change the usually observed Fickian diffusion mechanism. PMID:12959587

  12. Acid-functionalized nanoparticles for biomass hydrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pena Duque, Leidy Eugenia

    Cellulosic ethanol is a renewable source of energy. Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex material composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Biomass pretreatment is a required step to make sugar polymers liable to hydrolysis. Mineral acids are commonly used for biomass pretreatment. Using acid catalysts that can be recovered and reused could make the process economically more attractive. The overall goal of this dissertation is the development of a recyclable nanocatalyst for the hydrolysis of biomass sugars. Cobalt iron oxide nanoparticles (CoFe2O4) were synthesized to provide a magnetic core that could be separated from reaction using a magnetic field and modified to carry acid functional groups. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the crystal structure was that of cobalt spinel ferrite. CoFe2O4 were covered with silica which served as linker for the acid functions. Silica-coated nanoparticles were functionalized with three different acid functions: perfluoropropyl-sulfonic acid, carboxylic acid, and propyl-sulfonic acid. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images were analyzed to obtain particle size distributions of the nanoparticles. Total carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur were quantified using an elemental analyzer. Fourier transform infra-red spectra confirmed the presence of sulfonic and carboxylic acid functions and ion-exchange titrations accounted for the total amount of catalytic acid sites per nanoparticle mass. These nanoparticles were evaluated for their performance to hydrolyze the beta-1,4 glycosidic bond of the cellobiose molecule. Propyl-sulfonic (PS) and perfluoropropyl-sulfonic (PFS) acid functionalized nanoparticles catalyzed the hydrolysis of cellobiose significantly better than the control. PS and PFS were also evaluated for their capacity to solubilize wheat straw hemicelluloses and performed better than the control. Although PFS nanoparticles were stronger acid catalysts, the acid functions leached out of the nanoparticle during the catalytic reactions. PS nanoparticles were further evaluated for the pretreatment of corn stover in order to increase digestibility of the biomass. The pretreatment was carried out at three different catalyst load and temperature levels. At 180°C, the total glucose yield was linearly correlated to the catalyst load. A maximum glucose yield of 90% and 58% of the hemicellulose sugars were obtained at this temperature.

  13. Conducting Polymer Based Nucleic Acid Sensor for Environment Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, Bansi Dhar; Prabhakar, Nirmal; Solanki, Pratima R.

    Nucleic acid sensor based on polyaniline has been fabricated by covalently immobilizing double stranded calf thymus (dsCT) DNA onto perchlorate (ClO-4) doped polyaniline (PANI) film deposited onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass plate using 1-(3-(dimethylamino) propyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC)/N-hydroxyl succinimide (NHS) chemistry. These dsCT-DNA-PANI/ITO and PANI/ITO electrodes have been characterized using square wave voltammetry, electrochemical impedance, and Fourier-transform-infra-red (FTIR) measurements. This disposable dsCT-DNA-PANI/ITO bioelectrode is stable for about four months, can be used to detect arsenic trioxide (0.1ppm) in 30s.

  14. 40 CFR 180.1065 - 2-Amino-4,5-dihydro-6-methyl-4-propyl-s-triazolo(1,5-alpha)pyrimidin-5-one; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-s-triazolo(1,5-alpha)pyrimidin-5-one; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1065...-Amino-4,5-dihydro-6-methyl-4-propyl-s-triazolo(1,5-alpha)pyrimidin-5-one; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The inert ingredient,...

  15. 40 CFR 180.1065 - 2-Amino-4,5-dihydro-6-methyl-4-propyl-s-triazolo(1,5-alpha)pyrimidin-5-one; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-s-triazolo(1,5-alpha)pyrimidin-5-one; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1065...-Amino-4,5-dihydro-6-methyl-4-propyl-s-triazolo(1,5-alpha)pyrimidin-5-one; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The inert ingredient,...

  16. Well-defined poly(2-hydroxyl-3-(2-hydroxyethylamino)propyl methacrylate) vectors with low toxicity and high gene transfection efficiency.

    PubMed

    Xu, F J; Chai, M Y; Li, W B; Ping, Y; Tang, G P; Yang, W T; Ma, J; Liu, F S

    2010-06-14

    Successful gene delivery vectors for clinical translation should have high transfection efficiency and minimal toxicity. In this work, well-defined poly(2-hydroxyl-3-(2-hydroxyethylamino)propyl methacrylate) (PGEA) vectors with flanking cationic secondary amine and nonionic hydroxyl units were prepared via the ring-opening reaction of the pendant epoxide groups of poly(glycidyl methacrylate) with the amine moieties of ethanolamine. It was found that PGEA carriers possess very low toxicity (<10% of the toxicity of branched polyethylenimine (PEI, 25 kDa), while exhibiting surprisingly excellent transfection efficiency (higher than or comparable to that of PEI (25 kDa)) in different cell lines. A series of transfection and cytotoxicity assays revealed that PGEAs are highly promising as a new class of safe and efficient gene delivery vectors for future clinical gene therapies. PMID:20426406

  17. Rapid separation of barbiturates and benzodiazepines by capillary electrochromatography with 3-(1,8-naphthalimido)propyl-modified silyl silica gel.

    PubMed

    Ohyama, Kaname; Wada, Mitsuhiro; Ohba, Yoshihito; Fujishita, Osamu; Nakashima, Kenichiro; Kuroda, Naotaka

    2004-07-01

    A capillary electrochromatographic (CEC) method was applied to the simultaneous separation of barbiturates (barbital, phenobarbital, secobarbital and thiopental) and benzodiazepines (nitrazepam, diazepam and triazolam). The separation was performed in a 75 microm i.d. capillary, packed with 3-(1,8-naphthalimido)propyl-modified silyl silica gel (NAIP), studying the effects of buffer pH and mobile phase composition. Using an applied voltage of 20 kV and the short-end injection method (9 cm capillary effective length), the mobile phase of 1.0 mM citrate buffer (pH 5.0) containing 45% methanol provided the baseline separation of seven toxic drugs in less than 9 min. In CEC with NAIP, the benzodiazepines were separated by the combination of hydrophobic and pi-pi interactions, whereas the separation of the barbiturates was based on the hydrophobic interaction. PMID:15273980

  18. X-ray studies of 2-amino-5-oxo-4-propyl-4,5-dihydropyrano[3,2- c]chromene-3-carbonitrile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, S.; Banerjee, B.; Brahmachari, G.; Kant, R.; Gupta, V. K.

    2015-11-01

    The carbonitrile compound, 2-amino-5-oxo-4-propyl-4,5-dihydropyrano[3,2- c]chromene-3-carbonitrile was synthesized, in 83% yield, by one-pot multicomponent reaction of butyraldehyde, malononitrile and 4-hydroxycoumarin using 10 mol% urea as an organo-catalyst at room temperature, and its crystal structure was determined by X-ray diffraction technique. The crystals are triclinic, a = 7.7379(5), b = 8.7520(6), c = 11.6589(5) Å, α = 96.668(4)°, β = 100.033(4)°, γ = 112.547(6)°, Z = 2, sp. gr. P. Both pyran rings in the molecule adopt a boat conformation. The crystal structure is stabilized by N-H···O and N-H···N hydrogen bonds.

  19. Unravelling the structure of protic ionic liquids with theoretical and experimental methods: ethyl-, propyl- and butylammonium nitrate explored by Raman spectroscopy and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Bodo, E; Mangialardo, S; Ramondo, F; Ceccacci, F; Postorino, P

    2012-11-29

    We present an analysis of gas-phase structures of small clusters of n-alkylammonium nitrates (ethyl, propyl, and butyl) together with vibrational Raman spectroscopy of their respective liquid phases. The assignment and interpretation of the resonant frequencies have been performed by comparison with high-quality ab initio (DFT) computations. The theoretical spectra are in excellent agreement with the measured ones and allow the interpretation and assignment of almost all the spectral features. A careful analysis of the vibrational frequencies and of the electronic structure of the compounds has provided additional information on various structural features and on the rather complex hydrogen bonding network that exists in such compounds. A geometric structure of the short-range local arrangement in the bulk phases is also proposed. PMID:22973943

  20. Crystal structure of 3-methyl-1-phenyl-6-propylamino-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine-5-carbonitrile

    PubMed Central

    Jasinski, Jerry P.; Akkurt, Mehmet; Mohamed, Shaaban K.; Abdu-Allah, Hajjaj H. M.; Albayati, Mustafa R.

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C17H17N5, the dihedral angle between the 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine ring system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.001?) and the attached phenyl group is 2.56?(6). The propylamino side chain has a contorted conformation [CarNCC = ?77.97?(16) and NCCC = ?57.37?(17)]. An intramolecular CH?N interaction closes an S(6) ring. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of NH?N hydrogen bonds generate R 2 2(12) loops. Aromatic ?? stacking interactions [centroidcentroid distance = 3.5726?(8)?] are also observed. PMID:26594467

  1. Simultaneous speciation of mercury and butyltin compounds in natural waters and snow by propylation and species-specific isotope dilution mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Monperrus, M; Tessier, E; Veschambre, S; Amouroux, D; Donard, O

    2005-02-01

    A robust method has been developed for simultaneous determination of mercury and butyltin compounds in aqueous samples. This method is capable of providing accurate results for analyte concentrations in the picogram per liter to nanogram per liter range. The simultaneous determination of the mercury and tin compounds is achieved by species-specific isotope dilution, derivatization, and gas chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (GC-ICP-MS). In derivatization by ethylation and propylation, reaction conditions such as pH and the effect of chloride were carefully studied. Ethylation was found to be more sensitive to matrix effects, especially for mercury compounds. Propylation was thus the preferred derivatization method for simultaneous determination of organomercury and organotin compounds in environmental samples. The analytical method is highly accurate and precise, with RSD values of 1 and 3% for analyte concentrations in the picogram per liter to nanogram per liter range. By use of cleaning procedures and SIDMS blank measurements, detection limits in the range 10-60 pg L(-1) were achieved; these are suitable for determination of background levels of these contaminants in environmental samples. This was demonstrated by using the method for analysis of real snow and seawater samples. This work illustrates the great advantage of species-specific isotope dilution for the validation of an analytical speciation method-the possibility of overcoming species transformations and non-quantitative recovery. Analysis time is saved by use of the simultaneous method, because of the use of a single sample-preparation procedure and one analysis. PMID:15602618

  2. Analysis of the flame retardant metabolites bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCPP) and diphenyl phosphate (DPP) in urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cooper, E M; Covaci, A; van Nuijs, A L N; Webster, T F; Stapleton, H M

    2011-10-01

    Organophosphate triesters tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) and triphenyl phosphate are widely used flame retardants (FRs) present in many products common to human environments, yet understanding of human exposure and health effects of these compounds is limited. Monitoring urinary metabolites as biomarkers of exposure can be a valuable aid for improving this understanding; however, no previously published method exists for the analysis of the primary TDCPP metabolite, bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCPP), in human urine. Here, we present a method to extract the metabolites BDCPP and diphenyl phosphate (DPP) in human urine using mixed-mode anion exchange solid phase extraction and mass-labeled internal standards with analysis by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The method detection limit was 8 pg mL(-1) urine for BDCPP and 204 pg mL(-1) for DPP. Recoveries of analytes spiked into urine ranged from 82 ± 10% to 91 ± 4% for BDCPP and from 72 ± 12% to 76 ± 8% for DPP. Analysis of a small number of urine samples (n=9) randomly collected from non-occupationally exposed adults revealed the presence of both BDCPP and DPP in all samples. Non-normalized urinary concentrations ranged from 46-1,662 pg BDCPP mL(-1) to 287-7,443 pg DPP mL(-1), with geometric means of 147 pg BDCPP mL(-1) and 1,074 pg DPP mL(-1). Levels of DPP were higher than those of BDCPP in 89% of samples. The presented method is simple and sufficiently sensitive to detect these FR metabolites in humans and may be applied to future studies to increase our understanding of exposure to and potential health effects from FRs. PMID:21830137

  3. The adsorption and reactions of propyl iodide on clean and adsorbate-modified Mo 2C/Mo( 1 0 0 ) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugyi, L.; Oszkó, A.; Solymosi, F.

    2002-09-01

    The adsorption and surface reactions of propyl iodide on clean and adsorbate-modified Mo 2C/Mo(1 0 0) surfaces have been investigated by thermal desorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) in the 100-1200 K temperature range. Propyl iodide adsorbed molecularly on the clean Mo 2C/Mo(1 0 0) surface at 100 K and desorbed in two peaks at 180 and 280 K, characteristic of condensed and chemisorbed layers, respectively. The dissociation of adsorbed C 3H 7I producing C 3H 7 and I started at as low as 140 K and was completed at 260 K. C 3H 7 fragments underwent dehydrogenation to propene and hydrogenation to propane. Propane desorbed with a Tp=280-320 K and propene with Tp=240 and 310 K. Hexane and hexene were also detected in the desorbing products, Tp˜450 K, indicating the occurrence of the coupling reactions between the adsorbed alkyl species. The desorption of iodine occurred at high temperature with a Tp=1050 K. Analysis of HREELS spectra of annealed layer suggests the formation of di-σ-bonded propylene at 200 K, and propylidyne at 296 K on the surface. The latter decomposes at higher temperatures leaving carbon on the surface and releasing hydrogen into the gas phase with Tp=360 and 640 K. Preadsorbed iodine and CO exerted no influence on the uptake of C 3H 7I at 100 K, but suppressed the decomposition of C 3H 7I by a factor of ˜5.

  4. [Changes in amino acid and fatty acid contents as well as activity of some related enzymes in apple fruit during aroma production].

    PubMed

    Nie, Lan-Chun; Sun, Jian-She; Di, Bao

    2005-12-01

    Aroma volatiles from apple (Malus domestica Borkh. var. Starkrimson) fruit at different stages of maturity were collected by solid adsorbent-Tenax-GC and determined by thermodesorption and GC-MS. Production of propyl acetate, butyl acetate, ethyl 2-methyl-butanoate and total ester volatiles and changes in concentration of the precursors of aroma biosynthsis--free amino acids and fatty acids and activities of lipoxygenases (LOX) and alcohol acetyltransferase (AAT) in apple fruits during ripening were studied. The results showed that propyl acetate and total esters were very low when the endogenous ethylene formation of the fruit was very low. At the stage of the increase in ethylene production, the rate of formation of propyl acetate and total esters increased. Butyl acetate appeared at the beginning of ethylene rise and increased thereafter. Ethyl 2-methyl-butanoate was produced at the beginning of climacteric stage and then increased sharply (Figs.1). These facts suggest that the aroma production is closely related to ethylene production. Among the 14 free amino acids detected in fruit, isoleucine which is considered to be the biosynthetic precursor of some branched chain esters showed a great increase during fruit ripening while the others decreased or remained stable (Table 1). The accumulation of isoleucine suggested that isoleucine supply in fruit may not limit the biosynthesis of esters with branched chain alkyl groups. Concentrations of free fatty acids such as palmitic, linolenic, oleic, linoleic, stearic acids increased before the increase of aroma production, decreased with the increase of aroma production and showed an increase at postclimacteric stages (Fig.2). LOX activity increased at climacteric stages and declined rapidly thereafter. AAT activity increased sharply at the early stage of fruit maturity when the aroma was very low and remained at a stable high level during fruit ripening (Fig.3) indicating that the AAT activity is not the limiting factor for aroma formation in apple fruit. PMID:16361796

  5. Valproic acid: brain and plasma levels of the drug and its metabolites, anticonvulsant effects and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) metabolism in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Nau, H; Löscher, W

    1982-03-01

    The slow onset and carry-over effect of valproic acid (VPA) therapy observed in some clinical as well as experimental animal studies have been examined by parallel pharmacokinetic and pharmacological investigations in a mouse model. VPA was rapidly transferred into brain and was cleared from that tissue with rates which exceeded plasma clearance rates. Of several VPA metabolites present in plasma, only one could be found in the brain: 2-propyl-2-pentenoic acid. This metabolite was cleared from plasma and from brain slower than the parent drug. gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations were increased within 15 min after VPA injection and remained significantly elevated for at least 8 h. A similar time course was found in regard to the increase of the electroconvulsive threshold (maximal seizures) induced by VPA administration. The activity of glutamic acid decarboxylase rose parallel to the elevation of brain GABA levels, whereas the activity of GABA aminotransferase was not affected. Whereas the rapid onset of the effect on electroconvulsive threshold and on GABA metabolism can be explained by the rapid entrance of VPA into brain, the carry-over effects observed correlated with the kinetics of the metabolite 2-propyl-2-pentenoic acid better than with those of VPA due to the persistence of this metabolite in brain. PMID:6801254

  6. Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of Culex quinquefasciatus to certain fatty acid esters.

    PubMed

    Seenivasagan, Thangaraj; Guha, Lopamudra; Iqbal, S Thanvir

    2013-12-01

    Oviposition response of gravid Culex quinquefasciatus females to a series of synthetic fatty acid esters was evaluated at 10ppm under laboratory conditions. Octyl tridecanoate and propyl octadecanoate elicited 85% and 73% increased ovipositional responses respectively, compared to control, among the 16 esters tested. Other 14 esters showed highly significant repellency (67-96%) to gravid females. Standard 3-methyl indole received 69% increased egg deposition compared to control. In the Y-tube olfactometer, gravid C. quinquefasciatus females exhibited 78, 64% and 58% orientation respectively to octyl tridecanoate, propyl octadecanoate and 3-methyl indole. Gravid females exhibited 19-41% reduced orientation toward treatment odors of other esters significantly different from respective control. Electroantennogram studies revealed 4-18-fold increased antennal response, in which 3-methyl indole, octyl tridecanoate and propyl octadecanoate elicited 8-, 18- and 15-fold EAG response respectively, compared to control. Relative EAG response of octyl tridecanoate compared to standard 3-methyl indole was significantly different. Reduced EAG responses were elicited by FAE-06, -08, -13, -14 and -15, while the relative EAG responses of other esters were at par with the standard stimulus. These, esters could be utilized potentially as oviposition attractants and repellents against C. quinquefasciatus females to reduce the breeding in polluted water along with existing integrated vector control methods. PMID:24055543

  7. Effect of Yeast Extract and Vitamin B(12) on Ethanol Production from Cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Goto, S; Yonemura, S; Sekine, K; Okuma, E; Takagi, Y; Hon-Nami, K; Saiki, T

    1992-02-01

    Addition to media of yeast extract, a vitamin mixture containing vitamin B(12), biotin, pyridoxamine, and p-aminobenzoic acid, or vitamin B(12) alone enhanced formation of ethanol but decreased lactate production in the fermentation of cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B. A similar effect was not observed with C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 and JW20. PMID:16348657

  8. Rodent models of the human isoniazid-acetylator polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Tannen, R H; Weber, W W

    1979-01-01

    Inbred strains and subpopulations of rats, laboratory mice, and deer mice were examined for individual variation in the ability to metabolize several arylamines (p-aminobenzoic acid, sulfamethazine, aniline, alpha-naphthylamine, and aminofluorene) by N-acetylation. Individual differences within species were found to be dependent upon the tissue source of N-acetyltransferase activity and the acetyl acceptor employed. Long-Evans rats possessed about 2-fold more p-aminobenzoic acid N-acetyltransferase activity in blood and liver than Sprague-Dawley rats; no strain differences could be found with sulfamethazine. Nine strains of laboratory mice (Mus musculus) were found to have considerable liver p-aminobenzoic acid N-acetyltransferase activity but only slight activity towards sulfamethazine. No strain differences were apparent in regard to liver N-acetyltransferase activity. Blood p-aminobenzoic acid N-acetyltransferase activity was distinctly polymorphic in laboratory mice; of the nine strains tested, only A/J mice did not have this activity. Partially inbred deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) showed a narrower phenotypic range than random-bred stock from which they were obtained, which suggests the existence of distinct subpopulations with respect to N-acetylation capacity. Presumptive evidence for multiple forms of N-acetyltransferase in liver and blood was obtained through a study of substrate specificity. PMID:40765

  9. Aspartic acid

    MedlinePlus

    Aspartic acid is a nonessential amino acids . Amino acids are building blocks of proteins. "Nonessential" means that our ... this amino acid from the food we eat. Aspartic acid is also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps ...

  10. Synthesis and structures of Se analogues of the antithyroid drug 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil and its alkyl derivatives: formation of dimeric Se-Se compounds and deselenation reactions of charge-transfer adducts of diiodine.

    PubMed

    Antoniadis, Constantinos D; Hadjikakou, Sotiris K; Hadjiliadis, Nick; Papakyriakou, Athanasios; Baril, Martin; Butler, Ian S

    2006-09-01

    Four selenium analogues of the antithyroid drug 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU), of formulae RSeU, (R = methyl (Me) (1), ethyl (Et) (2), n-propyl (nPr) (3), and isopropyl (iPr) 4), have been synthesized. Reaction of 1-4 with diiodine in a 1:1 molar ratio in dichloromethane results in the formation of [(RSeU)I(2)] (R = methyl (5), ethyl (6), n-propyl (7) and isopropyl (8)). All compounds have been characterized by elemental analysis, FT-Raman, FT-IR, UV/Vis, (1)H-, (13)C-, (77)Se-1D and -2D NMR spectroscopy, and ESI-MS spectrometric techniques. Recrystallization of 4 from dichloromethane afforded (4CH(2)Cl(2)). Crystals of [(nPrSeU)I(2)] (7), a charge-transfer complex, were obtained from chloroform solutions, while crystallization of 6 and 7 from acetone afforded the diselenides [N-(6-Et-4-pyrimidone)(6-EtSeU)(2)] (92 H(2)O) and [N-(6-nPr-4-pyrimidone)(6-nPrSeU)(2)] (10) as oxidation products. Recrystallization of 7 from methanol/acetonitrile solutions led to deselenation with the formation of 6-n-propyl-2-uracil (nPrU) (11). [(nPrSeU)I(2)] (7) was found to be a charge-transfer complex with a Se--I bond. These results are discussed in relation to the mechanism of action of antithyroid drugs. PMID:16773663

  11. Acute Exposure to Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate (TDCIPP) Causes Hepatic Inflammation and Leads to Hepatotoxicity in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunsheng; Su, Guanyong; Giesy, John P.; Letcher, Robert J.; Li, Guangyu; Agrawal, Ira; Li, Jing; Yu, Liqin; Wang, Jianghua; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) has been frequently detected in environmental media and has adverse health effect on wildlife and humans. It has been implicated to have hepatotoxicity, but its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, adult male zebrafish were exposed to TDCIPP and global hepatic gene expression was examined by RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR in order to understand the molecular mechanisms of TDCIPP-induced hepatotoxicity. Our results indicated that TDCIPP exposure significantly up-regulated the expression of genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress and Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway, implying an inflammatory response, which was supported by up-regulation of inflammation-related biomaker genes. Hepatic inflammation was further confirmed by histological observation of increase of infiltrated neutrophils and direct observation of liver recruitment of neutrophils labeled with Ds-Red fluorescent protein of Tg(lysC:DsRed) zebrafish upon TDCIPP exposure. To further characterize the hepatotoxicity of TDCIPP, the expression of hepatotoxicity biomarker genes, liver histopathology and morphology were examined. The exposure to TDCIPP significantly up-regulated the expression of several biomarker genes for hepatotoxicity (gck, gsr and nqo1) and caused hepatic vacuolization and apoptosis as well as increase of the liver size. Collectively, our results suggest that exposure to TDCIPP induces hepatic inflammation and leads to hepatotoxicity in zebrafish. PMID:26743178

  12. The effect of cesium carbonate on 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C{sub 61} aggregation in films

    SciTech Connect

    Lindemann, William R.; Wang, Wenjie; Shinar, Joseph; Vaknin, David; Fungura, Fadzai; Shinar, Ruth

    2014-11-10

    Surface-pressure versus molecular area isotherms, X-ray reflectivity, and X-ray near-total reflection fluorescence were used to study the properties of 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C{sub 61} (PCBM) that was pre-mixed with cesium carbonate and spread as a film at the air-water interface. The pre-mixed PCBM with cesium carbonate demonstrated a strikingly strong effect on the organization of the film. Whereas films formed from pure PCBM solution were rough due to strong inter-molecular interactions, the films formed from the mixture were much smoother. This indicates that the cesium carbonate moderates the inter-molecular interactions among PCBM molecules, hinting that the cesium diffusion observed in inverted organic photovoltaic structures and the likely ensuing ionic Cs-PCBM interaction decrease aggregation tendency of PCBM. This implies that the use of cesium salts affects the morphology of the organic layer and consequently improves the efficiency of these devices.

  13. Pharmacokinetics in melanoma-bearing mice of 5-dihydroxyboryl-6-propyl-2-thiouracil (BPTU), a candidate compound for boron neutron capture therapy.

    PubMed Central

    Verrijk, R.; Smolders, I. J.; Huiskamp, R.; Gavin, P. R.; Philipp, K. H.; Begg, A. C.

    1994-01-01

    Blood pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of 5-dihydroxyboryl-6-propyl-2-thiouracil (BPTU), a boron carrier with postulated melanin-seeking properties for boron neutron capture therapy, were determined in C57/BL mice with subcutaneous pigmented or non-pigmented B16 melanomas. Borocaptate sodium (BSH) was used as a boron compound without melanin-seeking properties in a comparative biodistribution study in the same animal tumour models. Administration of single doses showed that BPTU was retained better in the pigmented B16 tumour than in the non-pigmented variant. BPTU was found in large concentrations in kidney and liver. Brain boron was approximately 10-fold lower than tumour boron. On a molar basis, BPTU demonstrated higher affinity for B16 tumours than BSH. Owing to solubility limits, tumour boron concentrations in this mouse study were too low for effective application of BNCT. However, the high tumour-to-blood and tumour-to-normal tissues ratios indicate that, with appropriate formulation, BPTU could be a promising candidate for clinical BNCT. PMID:8142252

  14. Acute Exposure to Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate (TDCIPP) Causes Hepatic Inflammation and Leads to Hepatotoxicity in Zebrafish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chunsheng; Su, Guanyong; Giesy, John P.; Letcher, Robert J.; Li, Guangyu; Agrawal, Ira; Li, Jing; Yu, Liqin; Wang, Jianghua; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) has been frequently detected in environmental media and has adverse health effect on wildlife and humans. It has been implicated to have hepatotoxicity, but its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, adult male zebrafish were exposed to TDCIPP and global hepatic gene expression was examined by RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR in order to understand the molecular mechanisms of TDCIPP-induced hepatotoxicity. Our results indicated that TDCIPP exposure significantly up-regulated the expression of genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress and Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway, implying an inflammatory response, which was supported by up-regulation of inflammation-related biomaker genes. Hepatic inflammation was further confirmed by histological observation of increase of infiltrated neutrophils and direct observation of liver recruitment of neutrophils labeled with Ds-Red fluorescent protein of Tg(lysC:DsRed) zebrafish upon TDCIPP exposure. To further characterize the hepatotoxicity of TDCIPP, the expression of hepatotoxicity biomarker genes, liver histopathology and morphology were examined. The exposure to TDCIPP significantly up-regulated the expression of several biomarker genes for hepatotoxicity (gck, gsr and nqo1) and caused hepatic vacuolization and apoptosis as well as increase of the liver size. Collectively, our results suggest that exposure to TDCIPP induces hepatic inflammation and leads to hepatotoxicity in zebrafish.

  15. Novel histamine H(3)-receptor antagonists with carbonyl-substituted 4-(3-(phenoxy)propyl)-1H-imidazole structures like ciproxifan and related compounds.

    PubMed

    Stark, H; Sadek, B; Krause, M; Hüls, A; Ligneau, X; Ganellin, C R; Arrang, J M; Schwartz, J C; Schunack, W

    2000-10-19

    Novel histamine H(3)-receptor antagonists possessing a 4-(3-(phenoxy)propyl)-1H-imidazole structure generally substituted in the para-position of the phenyl ring have been synthesized according to Mitsunobu or S(N)Ar reactions. With in vitro and in vivo screening for H(3)-receptor antagonist potency, the carbonyl-substituted derivatives proved to be highly active compounds. A number of compounds showed in vitro affinities in the subnanomolar concentration range, and the 4-hexanoyl (10) and 4-acetyl-3-methyl (29) substituted derivatives showed in vivo antagonist potencies of about 0.1 mg/kg after po administration. Many proxifans were also tested for their affinities at other histamine receptor subtypes thereby demonstrating their pronounced H(3)-receptor subtype selectivity. Since the cyclopropyl ketone derivative 14 (ciproxifan) had high affinity in vitro as well as high potency in vivo, it was selected for further studies in monkeys. It showed good oral absorption and long-lasting, dose-dependent plasma levels making it a promising compound for drug development. PMID:11052804

  16. Development of anionically decorated caged neurotransmitters: in vitro comparison of 7-nitroindolinyl- and 2-(p-phenyl-o-nitrophenyl)-propyl-based photochemical probes

    PubMed Central

    Kantevari, Srinivas; Passlick, Stefan; Kwon, Hyung-Bae; Richers, Matthew T.; Sabatini, Bernardo L.; Ellis-Davies, Graham C.R.

    2016-01-01

    Neurotransmitter uncaging, especially that of glutamate, has been used to study synaptic function for over 30 years. One limitation of caged glutamate probes is the blockade of GABA-A receptor function. This problem comes to the fore when the probes are applied at the high concentrations required for effective 2-photon photolysis. To mitigate such problems one could improve the photochemical properties of caging chromophores and/or remove receptor blockade. We show that addition of a dicarboxylate unit to the widely used MNI-Glu reduced the off-target effects by about 50–70%. When the same strategy was applied to an electron rich 2-(p-phenyl-o-nitrophenyl)-propyl (PNPP) cage, the pharmacological improvements were not as significant as for MNI. Finally, we used very extensive biological testing of the PNPP-caged Glu (more than 250 uncaging currents at single dendritic spines) to show that nitro-biphenyl caging chromophores have a 2-photon uncaging efficacy similar to that of MNI-Glu. PMID:26929152

  17. The mechanical properties of the ultra high molecular weight polyethylene grafted with 3-dimethy (3-(N-methacryamido) propyl) ammonium propane sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yaling; Xiong, Dangsheng; Wang, Kun

    2014-07-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) powder was modified with a zwitterion monomer with good biocompatibility of MPDSAH (3-dimethy (3-(N-methacryamido) propyl) ammonium propane sulfonate) by UV irradiation and then hot pressed. The microstructure and mechanical properties of modified UHMWPE are investigated. The results show that the structure of powder and bulk materials has been changed. The modified powders have more filaments than that of untreated. The surface of modified bulk materials is more rough and displays the granular protuberances which have the random loose arrangement compared with untreated UHMWPE. The crystallinity, uniaxial tensile and compressive properties decreased after grafting. Ultimate elongations decrease with the increase of the monomer concentration and are higher than 300% which is recommended by ASTM and ISO except the sample with 0.45mol/L MPDSAH. The friction coefficient of modified UHMWPE is lower than that of the untreated UHMWPE and it decreases gradually with the increase of monomer concentration. The wear rates have been decreased and the wear resistance has been improved under saline and distilled water lubrication. PMID:24727573

  18. Assessing differences in toxicity and teratogenicity of three phthalates, Diethyl phthalate, Di-n-propyl phthalate, and Di-n-butyl phthalate, using Xenopus laevis embryos.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Steven T; Wood, Andrew T; Lester, Rachel; Onkst, Paitra E; Burnham, Nathaniel; Perygin, Donna H; Rayburn, James

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates, compounds used to add flexibility to plastics, are ubiquitous in the environment. In particular, the diethyl (DEP), di-n-propyl (DnPP), and di-n-butyl (DBP) phthalates were found to exert detrimental effects in both mammalian and non-mammalian studies, with toxic effects varying according to alkyl chain length. Embryos of Xenopus laevis, the African clawed frog, have been used to assess toxicity and teratogenicity of several compounds and serves as a model for assessing adverse and teratogenic effects of ortho-phthalate esters. The purpose of this study was to develop a model for comparison of developmentally toxic effects of ortho-phthalate esters using Xenopus embryos. In this study developing Xenopus laevis embryos were exposed to increasing concentrations of DEP, DnPP, and DBP using the 96-h Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX), with 96-h lethal concentrations, effective concentrations to induce malformations, teratogenic indices, and concentrations to inhibit growth determined. DEP, DnPP, and DBP showed enhanced toxicity with increasing ester length. Developing Xenopus laevis exposed to DEP, DnPP, and DBP showed similar malformations that also occurred at lower concentrations with increasing alkyl chain length. Teratogenic risk did not change markedly with alkyl chain length, with data showing only DBP to be teratogenic. PMID:26730679

  19. Influences of the propyl group on the van der Waals structures of 4-propylaniline complexes with one and two argon atoms studied by electronic and cationic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhijun; Gu, Quanli; Trindle, Carl O.; Knee, J. L.

    2015-07-01

    4-propylaniline complexes with one and two argon atoms formed in the molecular beam were studied in the first excited electronic state, S1, using resonance enhanced two-photon ionization spectroscopy and in the cation ground state, D0, using mass analyzed threshold ionization spectroscopy. The combination of electronic and cationic spectra of the clusters allows two conformations to be identified in both aniline-Ar1 and aniline-Ar2, which are assigned to either the gauche configuration or anti-configuration of 4-propylaniline. The gauche isomer exhibits complex bands shifted 29 cm-1 and 89 cm-1 from the S1 origin bands and 83 cm-1 and 148 cm-1 from the ionization potential assigned to the Ar1 and Ar2 complexes, respectively. For the anti-rotamer, the corresponding shifts actually become nearly additive, 53 cm-1 and 109 cm-1 for the S1 origin bands, and 61 cm-1 and 125 cm-1 for the ionization potentials. Ab initio calculations provide insights into the influences of the propyl and amino groups on the positions of the argon atoms within the clusters. In addition, the binding energy of one argon with the gauche isomer of 4-propylaniline has been measured to be 550 ± 5 cm-1 in the D0 state, 496 ± 5 cm-1 in the S1 state, and 467 ± 5 cm-1 in the neutral ground state, S0.

  20. Acute Exposure to Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate (TDCIPP) Causes Hepatic Inflammation and Leads to Hepatotoxicity in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunsheng; Su, Guanyong; Giesy, John P; Letcher, Robert J; Li, Guangyu; Agrawal, Ira; Li, Jing; Yu, Liqin; Wang, Jianghua; Gong, Zhiyuan

    2016-01-01

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) has been frequently detected in environmental media and has adverse health effect on wildlife and humans. It has been implicated to have hepatotoxicity, but its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, adult male zebrafish were exposed to TDCIPP and global hepatic gene expression was examined by RNA-Seq and RT-qPCR in order to understand the molecular mechanisms of TDCIPP-induced hepatotoxicity. Our results indicated that TDCIPP exposure significantly up-regulated the expression of genes involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress and Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway, implying an inflammatory response, which was supported by up-regulation of inflammation-related biomaker genes. Hepatic inflammation was further confirmed by histological observation of increase of infiltrated neutrophils and direct observation of liver recruitment of neutrophils labeled with Ds-Red fluorescent protein of Tg(lysC:DsRed) zebrafish upon TDCIPP exposure. To further characterize the hepatotoxicity of TDCIPP, the expression of hepatotoxicity biomarker genes, liver histopathology and morphology were examined. The exposure to TDCIPP significantly up-regulated the expression of several biomarker genes for hepatotoxicity (gck, gsr and nqo1) and caused hepatic vacuolization and apoptosis as well as increase of the liver size. Collectively, our results suggest that exposure to TDCIPP induces hepatic inflammation and leads to hepatotoxicity in zebrafish. PMID:26743178

  1. Role of 2-hexyl, 5-propyl resorcinol production by Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1606 in the multitrophic interactions in the avocado rhizosphere during the biocontrol process.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Claudia E; de Vicente, Antonio; Cazorla, Francisco M

    2014-07-01

    Different bacterial traits can contribute to the biocontrol of soilborne phytopathogenic fungus. Among others, (1) antagonism, (2) competition for nutrients and niches, (3) induction of systemic resistance of the plants and (4) predation and parasitism are the most studied. Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1606 is an antagonistic rhizobacterium that produces the antifungal metabolite 2-hexyl, 5-propyl resorcinol (HPR). This bacterium can biologically control the avocado white root rot caused by Rosellinia necatrix. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of the avocado rhizosphere revealed that this biocontrol bacterium and the fungal pathogen compete for the same niche and presumably also for root exudate nutrients. The use of derivative mutants in the geners related to HPR biosynthesis (dar genes) revealed that the lack of HPR production by P. chlororaphis PCL1606 negatively influences the bacterial colonisation of the avocado root surface. Microscopical analysis showed that P. chlororaphis PCL1606 closely interacts and colonises the fungal hyphae, which may represent a novel biocontrol mechanism in this pseudomonad. Additionally, the presence of HPR-producing biocontrol bacteria negatively affects the ability of the fungi to infect the avocado root. HPR production negatively affects hyphal growth, leading to alterations in the R. necatrix physiology visible under microscopy, including the curling, vacuolisation and branching of hyphae, which presumably affects the colonisation and infection abilities of the fungus. This study provides the first report of multitrophic interactions in the avocado rhizosphere, advancing our understanding of the role of HPR production in those interactions. PMID:24641321

  2. Bridged amine-functionalized mesoporous organosilica materials from 1,2-bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane and bis[(3-trimethoxysilyl)propyl]amine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahab, Mohammad A.; Kim, Il; Ha, Chang-Sik

    2004-10-01

    Amine-functionalized, organic/inorganic hybrid mesostructured organosilica (BAFMO) materials have been synthesized and characterized from two bridged silsesquioxane precursors, 1,2-bis(triethoxysilyl)ethane (BTESE) and bis[(3-trimethoxysilyl)propyl]amine (BTMSPA). Mole ratios of BTESE ranged from 0.05, 0.10, 0.125, to 0.175. The synthetic pathway involves employing cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as a template under basic conditions at room temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies revealed that the resultant BAFMO materials possess mesocopically ordered, hexagonal symmetries and well-defined morphologies. However, the order was decreased as the amount of BTMSPA increased, in terms of the d100 spacings and the unit cell parameters on XRD as well as the TEM images. N2 gas sorption experiments showed a gradual decrease in both the surface area, from 1075 to 688 m2/g, and the pore volume, from 2.08 to 0.55 cm3/g, on increasing the amount of BTMSPA. The organic functionalization was successfully determined by Fourier-transform infrared and 13C CP MAS NMR spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and elemental analysis results also confirmed the presence of Si-C bond as well as amine functionalities in the solvent-extracted mesoporous organosilica materials.

  3. Denatonium and 6-n-Propyl-2-thiouracil, Agonists of Bitter Taste Receptor, Inhibit Contraction of Various Types of Smooth Muscles in the Rat and Mouse.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroyasu; Sato, Ken; Kai, Yuki; Chiba, Yoshihiko; Narita, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    Recently the global expression of taste 2 receptors (TAS2Rs) on smooth muscle cells in human airways was demonstrated. Here, the effects of agonists of taste receptor, type 2, denatonium and 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil, on smooth-muscle contraction were examined in the rat and mouse. Contractions induced by carbachol (CCh), high K, and sodium fluoride, but not calyculin-A, were inhibited significantly in the presence of a TAS2R agonist in the bronchial smooth muscle of mice. The contraction induced by CCh was inhibited by TAS2R agonists in ileal smooth muscle. Phenylephrine-induced contraction was also inhibited by TAS2R agonists in aortic smooth muscle. Gastrointestinal motility and blood pressure were attenuated by administration of TAS2R agonists in vivo. These findings suggest that TAS2R may be receptor for endogenous biologically active substances as well as for bitter tastes on the tongue. TAS2R signaling could be employed in the development of anti-asthmatic, anti-spasmodic, and anti-hypertensive drugs. PMID:27110632

  4. Denatonium and 6-n-Propyl-2-thiouracil, Agonists of Bitter Taste Receptor, Inhibit Contraction of Various Types of Smooth Muscles in the Rat and Mouse.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroyasu; Sato, Ken; Kai, Yuki; Chiba, Yoshihiko; Narita, Minoru

    2016-01-01

    Recently the global expression of taste 2 receptors (TAS2Rs) on smooth muscle cells in human airways was demonstrated. Here, the effects of agonists of taste receptor, type 2, denatonium and 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil, on smooth-muscle contraction were examined in the rat and mouse. Contractions induced by carbachol (CCh), high K(+), and sodium fluoride, but not calyculin-A, were inhibited significantly in the presence of a TAS2R agonist in the bronchial smooth muscle of mice. The contraction induced by CCh was inhibited by TAS2R agonists in ileal smooth muscle. Phenylephrine-induced contraction was also inhibited by TAS2R agonists in aortic smooth muscle. Gastrointestinal motility and blood pressure were attenuated by administration of TAS2R agonists in vivo. These findings suggest that TAS2R may be receptor for endogenous biologically active substances as well as for bitter tastes on the tongue. TAS2R signaling could be employed in the development of anti-asthmatic, anti-spasmodic, and anti-hypertensive drugs. PMID:26567724

  5. Toxicogenomic responses of zebrafish embryos/larvae to tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) reveal possible molecular mechanisms of developmental toxicity.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jie; Han, Jian; Zhou, Bingsheng; Gong, Zhiyuan; Santos, Eduarda M; Huo, Xiaojing; Zheng, Weiling; Liu, Hongling; Yu, Hongxia; Liu, Chunsheng

    2013-09-17

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) is frequently present in indoor dust and can be detected in human milk. In order to evaluate the effects of TDCPP on vertebrate development, zebrafish embryos/larvae were used as an animal model to examine developmental phenotypes and explore possible mechanisms of toxicity by employing microarrays and iTRAQ labeling quantitative proteomics. The results demonstrated that treatment with TDCPP (3 μM) from 0.75 h postfertilization (hpf) inhibited cell rearrangement at 4 hpf, caused delay in epiboly at 5.7 and 8.5 hpf, and led to abnormal development (e.g., short tail, reduced body size) and lethality between 14 and 45 hpf, which might be related with altered expression of genes regulating embryogenesis. Furthermore, trunk curvature was observed as the main phenotype in 96 hpf zebrafish larvae exposed to 1 or 3 μM TDCPP, possibly by changing somite formation and expression of proteins related to fast muscle and cartilage development. Collectively, our results suggest that exposure to TDCPP causes developmental toxicity in vertebrates and warrant the need for studies to evaluate the potential health risks of TDCPP to developing human embryos/infants/children, due to its frequent presence in indoor dust and potential for human exposure. PMID:23919627

  6. The effect of cesium carbonate on 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C61 aggregation in films

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lindemann, William R.; Wang, Wenjie; Fungura, Fadzai; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth; Vaknin, David

    2014-11-11

    Surface-pressure isotherms, X-ray reflectivity, and X-ray near-total reflection fluorescence were used to study the properties of 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C61 (PCBM) that was pre-mixed with cesium carbonate and spread as a film at the air-water interface. The pre-mixed PCBM with cesium carbonate demonstrated a strikingly strong effect on the organization of the film. Whereas films formed from pure PCBM solution were rough due to strong inter-molecular interactions, the films formed from the mixture were much smoother. This indicates that the cesium carbonate moderates the inter-molecular interactions among PCBM molecules, hinting that the cesium diffusion observed in inverted organic photovoltaics and the likely ensuingmore » ionic Cs-PCBM interaction decrease aggregation tendency of PCBM. As a result, this implies that the use of cesium salts affects the morphology of the organic layer and consequently improves the efficiency of these devices.« less

  7. The effect of cesium carbonate on 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C61 aggregation in films

    SciTech Connect

    Lindemann, William R.; Wang, Wenjie; Fungura, Fadzai; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth; Vaknin, David

    2014-11-11

    Surface-pressure isotherms, X-ray reflectivity, and X-ray near-total reflection fluorescence were used to study the properties of 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C61 (PCBM) that was pre-mixed with cesium carbonate and spread as a film at the air-water interface. The pre-mixed PCBM with cesium carbonate demonstrated a strikingly strong effect on the organization of the film. Whereas films formed from pure PCBM solution were rough due to strong inter-molecular interactions, the films formed from the mixture were much smoother. This indicates that the cesium carbonate moderates the inter-molecular interactions among PCBM molecules, hinting that the cesium diffusion observed in inverted organic photovoltaics and the likely ensuing ionic Cs-PCBM interaction decrease aggregation tendency of PCBM. As a result, this implies that the use of cesium salts affects the morphology of the organic layer and consequently improves the efficiency of these devices.

  8. Mechanical and structural properties underlying contraction of skeletal muscle fibers after partial 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide cross-linking.

    PubMed Central

    Bershitsky, S; Tsaturyan, A; Bershitskaya, O; Mashanov, G; Brown, P; Webb, M; Ferenczi, M A

    1996-01-01

    We show prolonged contraction of permeabilized muscle fibers of the frog during which structural order, as judged from low-angle x-ray diffraction, was preserved by means of partial cross-linking of the fibers using the zero-length cross-linker 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide. Ten to twenty percent of the myosin cross-bridges were cross-linked, allowing the remaining 80-90% to cycle and generate force. These fibers displayed a well-preserved sarcomeric order and mechanical characteristics similar to those of intact muscle fibers. The intensity of the brightest meridional reflection at 14.5 nm, resulting from the projection of cross-bridges evenly spaced along the myofilament length, decreased by 60% as a relaxed fiber was deprived of ATP and entered the rigor state. Upon activation of a rigorized fiber by the addition of ATP, the intensity of this reflection returned to 97% of the relaxed value, suggesting that the overall orientation of cross-bridges in the active muscle was more perpendicular to the filament axis than in rigor. Following a small-amplitude length step applied to the active fibers, the reflection intensity decreased for both releases and stretches. In rigor, however, a small stretch increased the amplitude of the reflection by 35%. These findings show the close link between cross-bridge orientation and tension changes. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 6 PMID:8874020

  9. Pharmacological studies on a new thymoleptic antidepressant, 1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-5-methyl-3-phenyl-1H-indazole (FS-32).

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Y; Takano, N; Matsushita, H; Shiraki, Y; Koide, T; Nagashima, R; Fujimura, Y; Shindo, M; Suzuki, S; Iwasaki, T

    1979-01-01

    Some pharmacological actions of 1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-5-methyl-3-phenyl-1H-indazole (FS-32), a newly synthesized indazole derivative, were investigated in comparison with imipramine. FS-32 showed anti-reserpine activity in a dose-dependent manner, whereas imipramine exhibited a bell-shaped dose-response pattern. Catecholaminergic potentiation was demonstrated with FS-32. The results obtained from a norepinephrine potentiation test in vitro suggest that FS-32 may act in a manner qualitatively different from the tricyclic antidepressant. FS-32 produced a definite suppressive effect on isolation-induced fighting without affecting coordinated motor activity and on the duration of afterdischarge elicited by electrical stimulation to the amygdala or the hippocampus without producing a slow wave pattern in the EEG. Similar effects on fighting behavior and the afterdischarge were shown under imipramine with a slight motor incoordination and with a slow wave pattern, respectively. FS-32 produced practically no peripheral anti-cholinergic action, while it antagonized central cholinergic activity. FS-32 tended to produce an increase in chatecholamine content in the brain without MAO or COMT inhibitory activity. Norepinephrine uptake was inhibited by FS-32, but less than by imipramine. These pharmacological properties suggest a potential clinical utility of FS-32 as an antidepressant possessing thymoleptic activities. PMID:114190

  10. Effects of Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate on Growth, Reproduction, and Gene Transcription of Daphnia magna at Environmentally Relevant Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Li, Han; Su, Guanyong; Zou, Ming; Yu, Liqin; Letcher, Robert J; Yu, Hongxia; Giesy, John P; Zhou, Bingsheng; Liu, Chunsheng

    2015-11-01

    The synthetic flame retardant tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) has been frequently detected in natural waters, and its maximum concentration ever reported is 377 ng/L. However, information on the adverse effects of environmentally relevant concentrations of TDCIPP on aquatic organisms are totally unknown. In this study, <12-h old water fleas, D. magna, were exposed to concentrations of 0, 65±7.1, 550±33, or 6500±1400 ng/L TDCIPP, and dose- and time-dependent effects on reproduction and development were evaluated. Sequences of genes of D. magna were obtained from the National Center for Biotechnology Information and were used to develop PCR arrays for D. magna. Arrays were then used to study transcriptional responses of D. magna to TDCIPP. Exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of TDCIPP significantly decreased fecundity as well as length of F0 and F1 generations. Transcriptional responses showed that, of the 155 genes tested, expressions of 57 genes were significantly changed, and some changes occurred following exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations (i.e., 65±7.1 and 550±23 ng/L). Furthermore, pathways related to protein synthesis and metabolism and endocytosis were considered to be significantly affected in a dose- and time-dependent manner and might be responsible for TDCIPP-induced reproductive and developmental toxicities. PMID:26422752

  11. darR and darS are regulatory genes that modulate 2-hexyl, 5-propyl resorcinol transcription in Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1606.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Claudia E; Carrión, Víctor J; de Vicente, Antonio; Cazorla, Francisco M

    2014-12-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1606 synthesizes the antifungal antibiotic 2-hexyl, 5-propyl resorcinol (HPR), which is crucial for the biocontrol of fungal soil-borne pathogens. The genetic basis for HPR production lies in the dar genes, which are directly involved in the biosynthesis of HPR. In the present study, we elucidated the genetic features of the dar genes. Reverse transcription PCR experiments revealed an independent organization of the dar genes, except for darBC, which was transcribed as a polycistronic mRNA. In silico analysis of each gene revealed putative promoters and terminator sequences, validating the proposed gene arrangement. Moreover, experiments utilizing 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends were used to determine the transcriptional initiation sites for the darA, darBC, darS and darR gene promoters, and subsequently to confirm the functionality of these regions. The results of quantitative real-time PCR experiments indicated that biosynthetic dar genes were not only modulated through the global regulator gacS, but also through darS and darR. The interplay between darS and darR revealed transcriptional cross-inhibition. However, these results also showed that other regulatory parameters play a role in HPR production, such as the environmental conditions and additional regulatory genes. PMID:25234473

  12. Bis-Arylidene Oxindole–Betulinic Acid Conjugate: A Fluorescent Cancer Cell Detector with Potent Anticancer Activity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Molecules offering simultaneous detection and killing of cancer cells are advantageous. Hybrid of cancer cell-selective, ROS generator betulinic acid and bis-arylidene oxindole with amino propyl-linker is developed. With intrinsic fluorescence, the molecule exhibited cancer cell-specific residence. Further, it generated ROS, triggered apoptosis, and exhibited potent cytotoxicity in cancer cells selectively. We demonstrate the first example and use of isatins as betulinic acid conjugate for selective detection of cancer and subsequent killing of cancer cells via apoptosis. PMID:26005543

  13. Involvement of snapdragon benzaldehyde dehydrogenase in benzoic acid biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Long, Michael C; Nagegowda, Dinesh A; Kaminaga, Yasuhisa; Ho, Kwok Ki; Kish, Christine M; Schnepp, Jennifer; Sherman, Debra; Weiner, Henry; Rhodes, David; Dudareva, Natalia

    2009-07-01

    Benzoic acid (BA) is an important building block in a wide spectrum of compounds varying from primary metabolites to secondary products. Benzoic acid biosynthesis from L-phenylalanine requires shortening of the propyl side chain by two carbons, which can occur via a beta-oxidative pathway or a non-beta-oxidative pathway, with benzaldehyde as a key intermediate. The non-beta-oxidative route requires benzaldehyde dehydrogenase (BALDH) to convert benzaldehyde to BA. Using a functional genomic approach, we identified an Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon) BALDH, which exhibits 40% identity to bacterial BALDH. Transcript profiling, biochemical characterization of the purified recombinant protein, molecular homology modeling, in vivo stable isotope labeling, and transient expression in petunia flowers reveal that BALDH is capable of oxidizing benzaldehyde to BA in vivo. GFP localization and immunogold labeling studies show that this biochemical step occurs in the mitochondria, raising a question about the role of subcellular compartmentalization in BA biosynthesis. PMID:19292760

  14. Abnormal metabolism of valproic acid in fatal hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Kochen, W; Schneider, A; Ritz, A

    1983-10-01

    A 7-year-old boy developed a severe unilateral grand mal seizure at the age of 5 years (phenobarbitone therapy); 1.5 years later valproate (2-propylpentanoic acid, VPA) was added to the therapy. After a seizure-free period of 3 months the patient died from hepatic failure resembling Reye syndrome. Several plasma and urine samples from the final stage before and during peritoneal dialysis were analyzed by GC/MS. The predominant feature was the abnormally increased formation of both 3 mono- and 4 double unsaturated metabolites of VPA amounting in plasma to 58%-71% of the sum of VPA plus all analyzed metabolites (controls maximal 15%) and in urine to 34%-61% (controls maximal 10%). The beta-oxidation pathway of VPA was shown to be suppressed (lack of 3-keto-VPA), whereas metabolites from the omega-oxidation pathway could still be measured (urinary 5-OH-VPA plus 2-propylglutaric acid ca. 1.6%, controls more than 10%). 4-en-VPA (2-propyl-4-pentenoic acid) (5%-21% in plasma) and 4,4'-dien-VPA (2(2-propenyl)-4-pentenoic acid) (4%-7%) have been found as abnormal unsaturated metabolites not detectable in controls. Additional typical findings were the high excretion of adipic acid, suberic acid, and 4-octen-1,8-dicarboxylic acid demonstrating the enhanced capacity of omega-oxidation in fatty acid oxidation. PMID:6416845

  15. Synthesis and characterization of p-type conductivity dopant 2-(3-(adamantan-1-yl)propyl)-3,5,6-trifluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane

    SciTech Connect

    Rainbolt, James E.; Koech, Phillip K.; Polikarpov, Evgueni; Swensen, James S.; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Von Ruden, Amber L.; Wang, Liang; Sapochak, Linda S.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Gaspar, Daniel J.

    2013-01-22

    We report the synthesis and characterization of 2-(3-(adamantan-1-yl)propyl)-3,5,6-trifluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F3TCNQ-Ad1), a substituted analog of 2,3,5,6-tetrafluoro-7,7,8,8-tetracyanoquinodimethane (F4TCNQ), designed for p-type conductivity doping. The dopant is designed as a model for substituted alternatives to F4TCNQ that maintain similar electronic properties with the goal of engineering dopants with superior fabrication characteristics over F4TCNQ. We describe the design strategy for F3TCNQ-Ad1 based on molecular modeling predictions that substitution of a single fluorine atom of F4TCNQ has little effect on the electronic properties of the molecule. Photophysical and electrochemical characterization reveal that the adamantyl substituent in F3TCNQ-Ad1 does not significantly alter the electronic properties of the substituted dopant relative to F4TCNQ. Unfortunately, F3TCNQ-Ad1 degrades under standard sublimation conditions, preventing sublimation deposition processing. Instead, hole-only devices were made via solution-processing of the p-doped films with the structure glass/ITO/2.3 x103Å PVK:(MTDATA:dopant)/2.0x102Å Au/1.0x103Å Al, where dopant is either F4TCNQ or F3TCNQ-Ad1. We demonstrate that F3TCNQ-Ad1 increased the conductivity of the films by at least 1,000 times compared to an undoped device.

  16. Is the PentaBDE replacement, tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), a developmental neurotoxicant? Studies in PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Dishaw, Laura V; Powers, Christina M; Ryde, Ian T; Roberts, Simon C; Seidler, Frederic J; Slotkin, Theodore A; Stapleton, Heather M

    2011-11-01

    Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are used as replacements for the commercial PentaBDE mixture that was phased out in 2004. OPFRs are ubiquitous in the environment and detected at high concentrations in residential dust, suggesting widespread human exposure. OPFRs are structurally similar to neurotoxic organophosphate pesticides, raising concerns about exposure and toxicity to humans. This study evaluated the neurotoxicity of tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) compared to the organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF), a known developmental neurotoxicant. We also tested the neurotoxicity of three structurally similar OPFRs, tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (1-chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (TDBPP), and 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), a major component of PentaBDE. Using undifferentiated and differentiating PC12 cells, changes in DNA synthesis, oxidative stress, differentiation into dopaminergic or cholinergic neurophenotypes, cell number, cell growth and neurite growth were assessed. TDCPP displayed concentration-dependent neurotoxicity, often with effects equivalent to or greater than equimolar concentrations of CPF. TDCPP inhibited DNA synthesis, and all OPFRs decreased cell number and altered neurodifferentiation. Although TDCPP elevated oxidative stress, there was no adverse effect on cell viability or growth. TDCPP and TDBPP promoted differentiation into both neuronal phenotypes, while TCEP and TCPP promoted only the cholinergic phenotype. BDE-47 had no effect on cell number, cell growth or neurite growth. Our results demonstrate that different OPFRs show divergent effects on neurodifferentiation, suggesting the participation of multiple mechanisms of toxicity. Additionally, these data suggest that OPFRs may affect neurodevelopment with similar or greater potency compared to known and suspected neurotoxicants. PMID:21255595

  17. Is the PentaBDE replacement, tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), a developmental neurotoxicant? Studies in PC12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dishaw, Laura V.; Powers, Christina M.; Ryde, Ian T.; Roberts, Simon C.; Seidler, Frederic J.; Slotkin, Theodore A.; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2011-11-15

    Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are used as replacements for the commercial PentaBDE mixture that was phased out in 2004. OPFRs are ubiquitous in the environment and detected at high concentrations in residential dust, suggesting widespread human exposure. OPFRs are structurally similar to neurotoxic organophosphate pesticides, raising concerns about exposure and toxicity to humans. This study evaluated the neurotoxicity of tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) compared to the organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF), a known developmental neurotoxicant. We also tested the neurotoxicity of three structurally similar OPFRs, tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (1-chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (TDBPP), and 2,2 Prime ,4,4 Prime -tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), a major component of PentaBDE. Using undifferentiated and differentiating PC12 cells, changes in DNA synthesis, oxidative stress, differentiation into dopaminergic or cholinergic neurophenotypes, cell number, cell growth and neurite growth were assessed. TDCPP displayed concentration-dependent neurotoxicity, often with effects equivalent to or greater than equimolar concentrations of CPF. TDCPP inhibited DNA synthesis, and all OPFRs decreased cell number and altered neurodifferentiation. Although TDCPP elevated oxidative stress, there was no adverse effect on cell viability or growth. TDCPP and TDBPP promoted differentiation into both neuronal phenotypes, while TCEP and TCPP promoted only the cholinergic phenotype. BDE-47 had no effect on cell number, cell growth or neurite growth. Our results demonstrate that different OPFRs show divergent effects on neurodifferentiation, suggesting the participation of multiple mechanisms of toxicity. Additionally, these data suggest that OPFRs may affect neurodevelopment with similar or greater potency compared to known and suspected neurotoxicants.

  18. 4-Amino-1-(3-mercapto-propyl)-pyridine hexafluorophosphate ionic liquid functionalized gold nanoparticles for IgG immunosensing enhancement.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Wu, Kangbing; Liu, Changxian; Huang, Yin; Wang, Yanying; Fang, Huaifang; Zhang, Huijuan; Li, Chunya

    2014-06-01

    A novel ionic liquid, 4-amino-1-(3-mercapto-propyl)-pyridine hexafluorophosphate (AMPPH), was successfully synthesized and characterized. Subsequently, AMPPH was used as a functional monomer to fabricate AMPPH-modified gold nanoparticles (AMPPH-AuNPs) via a one-pot synthesis method. The as-prepared AMPPH-AuNPs were confirmed with transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. AMPPH-AuNPs were used to construct a biocompatible interface to immobilize rabbit anti-human IgG (anti-HIgG) onto a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface, followed by a cross-linking step with glutaraldehyde to fabricate an anti-HIgG-AMPPH-AuNPs/GCE. The nonspecific binding sites were enclosed with bovine serum albumin (BSA) to develop an immunosensor for human IgG. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry were used to investigate the electrochemical properties of the developed immunosensor. The results indicate that AMPPH-AuNPs can improve the immunosensing performance. The current response of the immunosensor was found linearly related to human IgG concentration in the range of 0.1-5.0 ng mL(-1) and 5.0-100.0 ng mL(-1). The detection limit is estimated to be 0.08 ng mL(-1) (S/N = 3). The obtained immunosensor was successfully applied to the analysis human IgG immunoglobulin in human serum, and the results were well consistent with ELISA method. PMID:24803006

  19. Simultaneous multicomponent spectrophotometric monitoring of methyl and propyl parabens using multivariate statistical methods after their preconcentration by robust ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khani, Rouhollah; Ghasemi, Jahan B.; Shemirani, Farzaneh

    2014-03-01

    A powerful and efficient signal-preprocessing technique that combines local and multiscale properties of the wavelet prism with the global filtering capability of orthogonal signal correction (OSC) is applied for pretreatment of spectroscopic data of parabens as model compounds after their preconcentration by robust ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method (IL-DLLME). In the proposed technique, a mixture of a water-immiscible ionic liquid (as extraction solvent) [Hmim][PF6] and disperser solvent is injected into an aqueous sample solution containing one of the IL's ions, NaPF6, as extraction solvent and common ion source. After preconcentration, the absorbance of the extracted compounds was measured in the wavelength range of 200-700 nm. The wavelet orthogonal signal correction with partial least squares (WOSC-PLS) method was then applied for simultaneous determination of each individual compound. Effective parameters, such as amount of IL, volume of the disperser solvent and amount of NaPF6, were inspected by central composite design to identify the most important parameters and their interactions. The effect of pH on the sensitivity and selectivity was studied according to the net analyte signal (NAS) for each component. Under optimum conditions, enrichment factors of the studied compounds were 75 for methyl paraben (MP) and 71 for propyl paraben (PP). Limits of detection for MP and PP were 4.2 and 4.8 ng mL-1, respectively. The root mean square errors of prediction for MP and PP were 0.1046 and 0.1275 μg mL-1, respectively. The practical applicability of the developed method was examined using hygienic, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and natural water samples.

  20. Effect of the new beta-adrenolytic compound propyl-3-acetyl-4-[(2-hydroxy-3-isopropylamino) propoxy]carbanylate hydrochloride on isolated heart muscle.

    PubMed

    Knezl, V; Magna, D; Sotníková, R; Drímal, J

    1994-01-01

    The effect of the new beta-adrenolytic drug Bl 343 Ac (propyl-3-acetyl-4-[(2-hydroxy-3-isopropylamino) propoxy] carbanylate hydrochloride) was tested in preparations of the guinea-pig atrium and compared with the effects of propranolol and metipranolol. BL 343 Ac has an affinity to beta-adrenergic receptors, expressed as the pA2 value, which is comparable to those of propranolol and metipranolol. To achieve the slope of the Schild plot not different from unity, it was necessary to prolong incubation of the drug with the tissue to 75 min. At the concentrations of 10(-5) and 10(-4) mol/l and higher, BL 343 Ac was found to have negative chronotropic and inotropic effects, respectively. IN atria isolated from guinea-pigs and rats premedicated with reserpine, application of 10(-8) and 10(-7) mol/l of Bl 343 Ac exhibited a slightly stimulatory effect on the chronotropy. A positive inotropic effect of Bl 343 Ac was observed on the left guinea-pig atria after prolongation of the incubation time of the drug with the tissue up to 75 min. This inotropic effect of Bl 343 Ac may be associated with an increased concentration of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), observed after 1-h incubation with the drug (from 0.78 +/- 0.05 to 1.13 +/- 0.09 pmol/mg w.w. cAMP). Bl 343 Ac, similarly to propranolol and metipranolol, prolonged the refractory period in the atrial preparations starting with the concentration of 10(-6) mol/l. In the ventricular preparations, Bl 343 Ac shortened the refractory period up to the concentration of 10(-5) mol/l, similarly to propranolol. PMID:7907875

  1. Photoaffinity labeling of the sigma-1 receptor with N-[3-(4-nitrophenyl)propyl]-N-dodecylamine: evidence of receptor dimers.

    PubMed

    Chu, Uyen B; Ramachandran, Subramaniam; Hajipour, Abdol R; Ruoho, Arnold E

    2013-02-01

    The sigma-1 receptor is a ligand-regulated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident chaperone involved in the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Coupling of the sigma-1 receptor with various ER and/or plasma membrane ion channels is associated with its ability to regulate the locomotor activity and cellular proliferation produced in response to sigma-1 receptor ligands. A number of endogenous small molecules bind to the sigma-1 receptor and have been shown to regulate its activity; these include progesterone, N,N-dimethyltryptamine, d-erythro-sphingosine, and/or other endogenous lipids. We previously reported the synthesis of long chain N-alkylamine derivatives and the characterization of the structure-activity relationship between the chain length of N-alkylamine and affinities at the sigma-1 receptor. Here, we present data demonstrating the photoincorporation of one of these N-alkylamine derivatives, N-[3-(4-nitrophenyl)propyl]-N-dodecylamine (4-NPPC12), to the sigma-1 receptor. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight and tandem mass spectrometry showed that 4-NPPC12 photoinserted at histidine 154 of the derivatized population of the sigma-1 receptor. Interestingly, light-dependent photoinsertion of 4-NPPC12 resulted in an enhanced electrophoretic mobility of only 50% of the derivatized receptor molecules as assessed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The proposed binding and reactivity of 4-NPPC12 evoke a ligand binding model for the sigma-1 receptor that likely involves a receptor dimer and/or oligomer. PMID:23324054

  2. Crystal structure of (Z)-7,8-di-chloro-4-(2-oxo-propyl-idene)-4,5-di-hydro-1H-1,5-benzodiazepin-2(3H)-one.

    PubMed

    Lahmidi, Sanae; Essaghouani, Abdelhanine; Essassi, El Mokhtar; Saadi, Mohamed; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2015-12-01

    In the title compound, C12H10Cl2N2O2, the seven-membered heterocycle displays a half-chair conformation. The mean plane through the oxo-propyl-idene group makes a dihedral angle of 36.44 (9)° with the fused benzene ring. An intra-molecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bond to close an S(6) loop is noted. An important feature of the mol-ecular packing are N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds that lead to the formation of helical supra-molecular chains along the b axis. PMID:26870497

  3. Crystal structure of (Z)-7,8-di­chloro-4-(2-oxo­propyl­idene)-4,5-di­hydro-1H-1,5-benzodiazepin-2(3H)-one

    PubMed Central

    Lahmidi, Sanae; Essaghouani, Abdelhanine; Essassi, El Mokhtar; Saadi, Mohamed; El Ammari, Lahcen

    2015-01-01

    In the title compound, C12H10Cl2N2O2, the seven-membered heterocycle displays a half-chair conformation. The mean plane through the oxo­propyl­idene group makes a dihedral angle of 36.44 (9)° with the fused benzene ring. An intra­molecular N—H⋯O hydrogen bond to close an S(6) loop is noted. An important feature of the mol­ecular packing are N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds that lead to the formation of helical supra­molecular chains along the b axis. PMID:26870497

  4. Crystal structure of 3,5-bis­(4-chloro­phen­yl)-1-propyl-1,3,5-tri­aza­cyclo­hexane

    PubMed Central

    Lefrada, Leila; Bouchemma, Ahcene; Bouacida, Sofiane; Claiser, Nicolas; Souhassou, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    In the title mol­ecule, C18H21Cl2N3, the tri­aza­cyclo­hexane ring adopts a chair conformation with both 4-chloro­phenyl substituents in axial positions and the propyl group in an equatorial site. The dihedral angle between the planes of the benzene rings is 49.5 (1)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are arranged in a head-to-tail fashion, forming columns along [010], and pairs of weak C—H⋯π inter­actions form inversion dimers between columns. PMID:25309226

  5. Synthesis and comparison of two poly (methyl methacrylate-b-3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate)/SiO2 hybrids by "grafting-to" approach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongpu; He, Ling; Huang, Kehan; Gao, Min

    2014-11-01

    Two copolymer/SiO2 hybrids are prepared by growing SiO2 on the template of well -structured diblock copolymer PMMA-b-PMPS using a "grafting-to" approach. PMMA-b-PMPS is obtained by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (PMPS) using a brominated initiator end group termed 1H,1H,2H,2H-heptadecafluoro (F-Br) and a conventional initiator of ethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate (EBiB), respectively. The "grafting-to" approach is controlled at HCl for 24h by hydrolysis and condensation of Si(OCH3)3 groups in PMPS with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) to gain both hybrids of F-PMMA-b-PMPS/SiO2 (by F-Br initiator) and E-PMMA-b-PMPS/SiO2 (by EBIB initiator). Comparatively, a little amount of fluorine content provided by F-Br is able to tighten the size of self-assembled micelles, to improve wettability and the viscoelasticity of F-PMMA-b-PMPS film due to F-Br migrating onto the film surface. Therefore, the surface of F-PMMA-b-PMPS film is sufficiently hydrophobic (99° and Δf=2941Hz) than E-PMMA-b-PMPS film (94°and Δf=4820Hz), and the viscoelasticity of the adsorbed layer for F-PMMA-b-PMPS (ΔD/Δf=-0.112) film is much harder than E-PMMA-b-PMPS/SiO2 (ΔD/Δf=-0.071). On the other hand, the cross-linked silica in PMMA-b-PMPS/SiO2 could also increase water contact angels of films (100-107°) and decrease the water absorption (Δf=704-798Hz). The influence on the viscoelasticity of the adsorbed layer by the fluorine group is much more obvious than the cross-linked silica, therefore F-PMMA-b-PMPS/SiO2 (ΔD/Δf=-0.347) and F-PMMA-b-PMPS (ΔD/Δf=-0.112) films have harder adsorbed layer than E-PMMA-b-PMPS/SiO2 (-0.071) and F-PMMA-b-PMPS films (-0.042). However, compared with a slightly improvement in thermo stability by F-Br, the cross-linked silica in PMMA-b-PMPS/SiO2 performs significantly improving thermal decomposition temperature at 300°C and 350°C. PMID:25127293

  6. Neurotoxicological and thyroid evaluations of rats developmentally exposed to tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCIPP) and tris(2-chloro-2-ethyl)phosphate (TCEP).

    PubMed

    Moser, Virginia C; Phillips, Pamela M; Hedge, Joan M; McDaniel, Katherine L

    2015-01-01

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCIPP) and tris(2-chloro-2-ethyl)phosphate (TCEP) are organophosphorous flame retardants with widespread usage and human exposures through food, inhalation, and dust ingestion. They have been detected in human tissues including urine and breast milk. Reports of disrupted neural growth in vitro, abnormal development in larval zebrafish, and altered thyroid hormones in several species have raised concern for neurodevelopmental toxicity. This is especially the case for TDCIPP, which is more potent and has more activity in those assays than does TCEP. We evaluated the potential for developmental neurotoxicity of TDCIPP and TCEP in a mammalian model. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were administered TDCIPP (15, 50, or 150mg/kg/day) or TCEP (12, 40, 90mg/kg/day) via oral gavage from gestational day 10 to weaning. Corn oil was the vehicle control in both studies. Body weight and righting reflex development were monitored in all pups. A subset of offspring at culling and weaning, and dams at weaning, were sacrificed for serum and organ collection for measurement of brain, liver, and thyroid weights, serum thyroid levels, and serum and brain acetylcholinesterase activities. Brain weights were also measured in a group of adult TDCIPP-treated offspring. One male and one female from each litter were allocated for behavioral testing at several ages: standard locomotor activity (preweaning, postweaning, adults), locomotor activity including a lighting change mid-way (postweaning, adults), elevated zero maze (postweaning, adults), functional observational battery (FOB; postweaning, adults), and Morris water maze (place learning, reference and working memory; adults). Neither chemical produced changes in maternal body weight or serum thyroid hormones, but relative liver weight was increased at the high doses of both TDCIPP and TCEP. In offspring, there were no effects on viability, litter size, or birth weight. With TDCIPP, absolute liver weights were lower at weaning and weight gain was lower in the high-dose offspring until about two months of age. Thyroid hormones and brain weights were not altered and acetylcholinesterase (both brain and serum) was not inhibited by either chemical. TDCIPP-treated offspring showed slight differences in floating in the water maze, hindlimb grip strength, and altered activity habituation, whereas TCEP-treated rats showed differences in quadrant time (probe) and middle-zone preference in the water maze. Regarding these few changes, the effects were minimal, mostly not related to dose, and did not appear treatment-related or biologically significant. Overall, these data do not support the potential for thyrotoxicity or developmental neurotoxicity produced by TDCIPP or TCEP. PMID:26300399

  7. Amino acids

    MedlinePlus

    Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids ...

  8. The Role of Excitatory Amino Acids and NMDA Receptors in Traumatic Brain Injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faden, Alan I.; Demediuk, Paul; Panter, S. Scott; Vink, Robert

    1989-05-01

    Brain injury induced by fluid percussion in rats caused a marked elevation in extracellular glutamate and aspartate adjacent to the trauma site. This increase in excitatory amino acids was related to the severity of the injury and was associated with a reduction in cellular bioenergetic state and intracellular free magnesium. Treatment with the noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist dextrorphan or the competitive antagonist 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid limited the resultant neurological dysfunction; dextrorphan treatment also improved the bioenergetic state after trauma and increased the intracellular free magnesium. Thus, excitatory amino acids contribute to delayed tissue damage after brain trauma; NMDA antagonists may be of benefit in treating acute head injury.

  9. Identification of Microbial Metabolites Elevating Vitamin Contents in Barley Seeds.

    PubMed

    Yousaf, Anam; Qadir, Abdul; Anjum, Tehmina; Ahmad, Aqeel

    2015-08-19

    The current investigation analyzes metabolites of Acetobacter aceti to explore chemical compounds responsible for the induction of vitamins in barley seeds. A bioactivity guided assay of bacterial extracts and chromatographic analyses of barley produce revealed 13 chemical compounds, which were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA). PCA determined four chemical compounds (i.e., quinolinic acid, pyridoxic acid, p-aminobenzoate, and α-oxobutanoic acid) highly associated with increased quantities of vitamins. Further experimentations confirmed that quinolinic acid and p-aminobenzoate were the most efficient vitamin inducers. The results indicated chloroform/ethanol (4:1) as the best solvent system for the extraction of active compounds from crude metabolites of A. aceti. Significant quantities of mevalonic acid were detected in the extracted fraction, indicating the possible induction of the isoprenoid pathway. Altogether, the current investigation broadens the frontiers in plant-microbe interaction. PMID:26173019

  10. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methylphosponic and alkyl methylphosphonic acids determination in environmental samples after pre-column derivatization with p-bromophenacyl bromide.

    PubMed

    Baygildiev, T M; Rodin, I A; Stavrianidi, A N; Braun, A V; Lebedev, A T; Rybalchenko, I V; Shpigun, O A

    2016-04-15

    Once exposed to the environment organophosphate nerve agents readily degrade by rapid hydrolysis to the corresponding alkyl methylphosphonic acids which do not exist in nature. These alkyl methylphosphonic acids are finally slowly hydrolyzed to methylphosphonic acid. Methylphosphonic acid is the most stable hydrolysis product of organophosphate nerve agents, persisting in environment for a long time. A highly sensitive method of methylphosphonic acid and alkyl methylphosphonic acids detection in dust and ground mixed samples has been developed and validated. The fact that alkyl methylphosphonic acids unlike methylphosphonic acid did not react with p-bromophenacyl bromide under chosen conditions was discovered. This allowed simultaneous chromatographic separation and mass spectrometric detection of derivatized methylphosphonic acid and underivatized alkyl methylphosphonic acids using HILIC-MS/MS method. Very simple sample pretreatment with high recoveries for each analyte was developed. Methylphosphonic acid pre-column derivate and alkyl methylphosphonic acids were detected using tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization after hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography separation. The developed approach allows achieving ultra-low detection limits: 200pgmL(-1) for methylphosphonic acid, 70pgmL(-1) for ethyl methylphosphonic acid, 8pgmL(-1) for i-propyl methylphosphonic acid, 8pgmL(-1) for i-butyl methylphosphonic acid, 5pgmL(-1) for pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid in the extracts of dust and ground mixed samples. This approach was successfully applied to the dust and ground mixed samples from decommissioned plant for the production of chemical weapons. PMID:26965649

  11. Esters of valerenic acid as potential prodrugs.

    PubMed

    Hintersteiner, Juliane; Haider, Maximilian; Luger, Denise; Schwarzer, Christoph; Reznicek, Gottfried; Jäger, Walter; Khom, Sophia; Mihovilovic, Marko D; Hering, Steffen

    2014-07-15

    Valerenic acid (VA) is a β2/3 subunit-specific modulator of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A (GABAA) receptors inducing anxiolysis. Here we analyze if VA-esters can serve as prodrugs and if different ester structures have different in vitro/in vivo effects. Modulation of GABAA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes was studied with 2-microelectrode-voltage-clamp. Anxiolytic effects of the VA-esters were studied on male C57BL/6N mice by means of the elevated plus maze-test; anticonvulsant properties were deduced from changes in seizure threshold upon pentylenetetrazole infusion. VA was detected in plasma confirming hydrolysis of the esters and release of VA in vivo. Esterification significantly reduced the positive allosteric modulation of GABAA (α1β3γ2S) receptors in vitro. in vivo, the studied VA-ester derivatives induced similar or even stronger anxiolytic and anticonvulsant action than VA. While methylation and propylation of VA resulted in faster onset of anxiolysis, the action of VA-ethylester was longer lasting, but occurred with a significant delay. The later finding is in line with the longer lasting anticonvulsant effects of this compound. The estimated VA plasma concentrations provided first insight into the release kinetics from different VA-esters. This might be an important step for its future clinical application as a potential non-sedative anxiolytic and anticonvulsant. PMID:24680924

  12. Lipophilic caffeic acid derivatives protect cells against H2O2-Induced DNA damage by chelating intracellular labile iron.

    PubMed

    Kitsati, Natalia; Fokas, Demosthenes; Ouzouni, Maria-Dimitra; Mantzaris, Michalis D; Barbouti, Alexandra; Galaris, Dimitrios

    2012-08-15

    Naturally occurring cinnamic acid derivatives are ubiquitously distributed in the plant kingdom, and it has been proposed that their consumption contributes to the maintenance of human health. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their health keeping effects remain unknown. In the present investigation, we evaluated the capacity of several cinnamic acid derivatives (trans-cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids, as well as caffeic acid-methyl and -propyl esters) to protect cells from oxidative stress-induced DNA damage. It was observed that effective protection was based on the ability of each compound to (i) reach the intracellular space and (ii) chelate intracellular "labile" iron. These results support the notion that numerous lipophilic iron chelating compounds, present abundantly in plant-derived diet components, may protect cells in conditions of oxidative stress and in this way be important contributors toward maintenance of human health. PMID:22827723

  13. Acid Rain

    MedlinePlus

    ... damaging to lakes, streams, and forests and the plants and animals that live in these ecosystems. This Web site provides information about the following: What causes acid rain The effects of acid rain How we measure acid rain ...

  14. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

  15. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

  16. Tetra­kis(di­propyl­ammonium) tetra­kis(oxa­lato-κ2 O 1,O 2)stannate(IV) mono­hydrate: a complex with an eight-coordinate SnIV atom

    PubMed Central

    Gueye, Ndongo; Diop, Libasse; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen

    2014-01-01

    In the title salt, [(CH3CH2CH2)2NH2]4[Sn(C2O4)4]·H2O, the SnIV atom of the stannate anion is located on a special position with -42m symmetry. It is eight-coordinated by four chelating oxalate anions. The di­propyl­ammonium cation possesses mirror symmetry while the lattice water mol­ecule is disordered about a position with -42m symmetry and has an occupancy of 0.25. In the crystal, the anions and cations are linked by N—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. This network is futher stabilized by weak O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the water mol­ecules and oxalate O atoms. The crystal studied was refined as an inversion twin. PMID:24764818

  17. Effect of 3-(3'-tert-butyl-4'-hydroxyphenyl)propyl thiosulfonate sodium on expression of GSTP1 and NQO1 genes and protein transcription factors in BALB/c mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Shintyapina, A B; Safronova, O G; Vavilin, V A; Kandalintseva, N V; Prosenko, A E; Lyakhovich, V V

    2014-08-01

    The study examined dynamics of the effect of novel phenol antioxidant preparation 3-(3'-tertbutyl- 4'-hydroxyphenyl)propyl thiosulfonate sodium (TS-13) on expression of antioxidant protection enzymes genes GSTP1 and NQO1 and on the content of protein transcription factors NF-κB and ATF-2 in mouse liver. Expression of GSTP1 gene decreased significantly on days 4 and 7 after per os administration of TS-13 (100 mg/kg), but increased on post-administration day 14. On days 7 and 14 post-administration, expression of NQO1 gene was significantly increased. On day 7, the hepatic content of the phosphorylated form of ATF-2 and two subunits of nuclear factor NF-κB (p50, p65) decreased significantly. PMID:25110086

  18. The influence of subsequent dehydroepiandrosterone, diaminopropane, phenobarbital, butylated hydroxyanisole and butylated hydroxytoluene treatment on the development of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions in the rat initiated with di-hydroxy-di-n-propyl nitrosamine.

    PubMed

    Moore, M A; Thamavit, W; Tsuda, H; Ito, N

    1986-02-01

    The comparative modifying potential of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), diaminopropane (DAP), phenobarbital (PB), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) on the development of lesions initiated by dihydroxy-di-n-propyl nitrosamine (DHPN) in F344 rats were investigated. DHEA, BHA and BHT were all associated with significant reduction in numbers of glutathione-S-transferase P form (GST-P) positive foci in the liver whereas PB brought about their enhanced development. BHT and PB exerted promoting activity on the incidence of thyroid adenomas while DAP similarly increased lung adenoma formation. The results illustrate the advantages to be gained from two stage experiments using broad spectrum carcinogen initiation for comparative analysis of 'modifiers' of the neoplastic process and suggest that studies of enzyme alteration within putative preneoplastic lesions may be directly relevant to elucidation of mechanisms underlying such modification. PMID:2937531

  19. Hydroxyurea Enhances the Activities of Didanosine, 9-[2-(Phosphonylmethoxy)ethyl]adenine, and 9-[2-(Phosphonylmethoxy)propyl]adenine against Drug-Susceptible and Drug-Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Sarah; Shafer, Robert W.; Merigan, Thomas C.

    1999-01-01

    We assessed the effects of hydroxyurea (HU) at a concentration of 50 μM on the in vitro activities of 2′,3′-dideoxyinosine (ddI), 9-[2-(phosphonylmethoxy)ethyl]adenine (PMEA), and 9-[2-(phosphonylmethoxy)propyl]adenine (PMPA) against a wild-type human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 (HIV-1) laboratory isolate and a panel of five well-characterized drug-resistant HIV isolates. Fifty micromolar HU significantly increased the activities of ddI, PMEA, and PMPA against both the wild-type and the drug-resistant HIV-1 isolates. In fixed combinations, both ddI and PMEA were synergistic with HU against wild-type and drug-resistant viruses. PMID:10428934

  20. Tetra-kis(di-propyl-ammonium) tetra-kis(oxa-lato-κ(2) O (1),O (2))stannate(IV) mono-hydrate: a complex with an eight-coordinate Sn(IV) atom.

    PubMed

    Gueye, Ndongo; Diop, Libasse; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen

    2014-02-01

    In the title salt, [(CH3CH2CH2)2NH2]4[Sn(C2O4)4]·H2O, the Sn(IV) atom of the stannate anion is located on a special position with -42m symmetry. It is eight-coordinated by four chelating oxalate anions. The di-propyl-ammonium cation possesses mirror symmetry while the lattice water mol-ecule is disordered about a position with -42m symmetry and has an occupancy of 0.25. In the crystal, the anions and cations are linked by N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. This network is futher stabilized by weak O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the water mol-ecules and oxalate O atoms. The crystal studied was refined as an inversion twin. PMID:24764818

  1. Crystal structure of ({4-[(4-bromo­phen­yl)ethyn­yl]-3,5-di­ethyl­phen­yl}ethyn­yl)triiso­propyl­silane

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Caiyun; Moxey, Graeme J.; Barlow, Adam; Morshedi, Mahbod

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C29H37BrSi, was synthesized by the Sonogashira coupling of [(3,5-diethyl-4-ethynylphen­yl)ethyn­yl]triiso­propyl­silane with 4-bromo-1-iodo­benzene. In the structure, the two phenyl rings are nearly parallel to each other with a dihedral angle of 4.27 (4)°. In the crystal, π–π inter­actions between the terminal and central phenyl rings of adjacent mol­ecules link them in the a-axis direction [perpendicular distance = 3.5135 (14); centroid–centroid distance = 3.7393 (11) Å]. In addition, there are weak C—H⋯π inter­actions between the isopropyl H atoms and the phenyl rings of adjacent mol­ecules. PMID:25995927

  2. Structure-activity relationships of new 1-substitutedmethyl-4-[5-(N-methyl-N-propylamino)pentyloxy]piperidines and selected 1-[(N-substituted-N-methyl)-3-propyloxy]-5-(N-methy-l-N-propyl)-pentanediamines as H3 -antagonists.

    PubMed

    Masłowska-Lipowicz, Iwona; Walczyński, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Novel, potent non-imidazole histamine H3 receptor antagonists have been prepared and in vitro tested as H3 -receptor antagonists (the electrically evoked contraction of the guinea-pig jejunum). The present compounds contain a 4-hydroxypiperidine core, which behaves as a conformationally restricted version of the 3-amino-1-propanol moiety common to the many previously described non-imidazole H3 ligands. Detailed structure-activity studies revealed that 1-(2-benzofuranylmethyl)- 5c (pA2 = 8.47 ± 0.05) and 1-(3-benzofuranylmethyl)-4-[5-(N-methyl-N-propyl)pentyloxy]piperidine 5d (pA2 = 8.15 ± 0.07) exhibit high potency for the H3 histamine receptor. In addition, the potency of selected 1-[(N-substituted-N-methyl)-3-propyloxy]-5-(N-methyl-N-propyl)pentanediamines as antagonist of the H3 histamine receptor was also evaluated. Replacement of the 4-hydroxypiperidine of the leads 7 and 5c by a highly flexible 3-(methylamino)propyloxy chain yields compounds 6a (pA2 = 8.02) and 6b (pA2 = 6.23) with higher and lower potency than their piperidine analogues (7, pA2 = 7.79; 5c, pA2 = 8.47), respectively. The histaminergic H1 antagonism of selected compounds 5c, 5d and 6a has been established on the isolated guinea-pig ileum by conventional methods; the pA2 values have compared with the potency of pyrilamine. None of them showed any H1 -antagonistic activity (pA2 < 4; for pyrilamine pA2 = 8.5). PMID:23957330

  3. Antinociceptive esters of N-methylanthranilic acid: Mechanism of action in heat-mediated pain.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Mariana Martins Gomes; Radulović, Niko S; Miltojević, Ana B; Boylan, Fabio; Dias Fernandes, Patrícia

    2014-03-15

    Recently, we identified a new natural antinociceptive alkaloid ternanthranin, isopropyl N-methylanthranilate (ISOAN), from the plant species Choisya ternata Kunth (Rutaceae). In this work we concentrated on the elucidation of its mechanism of action in comparison with two other esters of this acid (methyl (MAN) and propyl (PAN)). Mice orally pre-treated with ISOAN, MAN or PAN (at 0.3, 1 and 3mg/kg) were less sensitive to chemical or thermal stimuli in different nociception models (formalin-, capsaicin- and glutamate-induced licking response, tail flick and hot plate). All compounds (1 and 3mg/kg) showed significant activity in the peripheral nociception models, as well as a dose-dependent spinal antinociceptive effect in the tail flick model. We observed that glibenclamide was able to reverse the antinociceptive effect of ISOAN in the hot plate model suggesting the involvement of K(+)ATP channels. The antinociceptive effect of MAN and PAN may be related to adrenergic, nitrergic and serotoninergic pathways. In addition, the antinociception of PAN was reverted by naloxone implying that the opioid pathway participates in its activity. The cholinergic and cannabinoid systems were found not be involved in the onset of the antinociceptive effects of any of the esters. In conclusion, isopropyl, methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilates produced significant peripheral and central antinociception at doses lower than that of morphine, the classical opioid analgesic drug, without causing toxicity. PMID:24486396

  4. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  5. Hydroxybenzoic acids and their derivatives as peroxynitrite scavengers.

    PubMed

    Hubková, Beáta; Veliká, Beáta; Birková, Anna; Guzy, Juraj; Mareková, Mária

    2014-10-01

    A social challenge of the 21(st) century is to reduce the incidence of chronic diseases. A balanced diet rich in polyphenols could contribute to reduce the risk and to the prevention of diabetes, coronary heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer's diseases and cataract(1). Hydroxybenzoic acids (HBA) and their derivatives, which are one of the substances responsible for these beneficial properties, are known mainly due to their antioxidant properties(2). They are effective scavengers of free radicals and reactive nitrogen species, such as peroxynitrite. Peroxynitrite is resulting from the reaction of nitric oxide with superoxide, causes lipid peroxidation and subsequent cellular damage and is responsible for the inactivation of many enzymes, activation of stress signalling pathways, release of proapoptotic factors, as well as cardiovascular dysfunction in septic schock(3). In this study we have tested 2-HBA, 3-HBA, 4-HBA, acetylsalicylic acid, 4-HBA methyl and propyl esters, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA), 2,5-DHBA, 2,4-DHBA, 2,6-DHBA, 3,5-DHBA, 3,4-DHBA, gallic acid and caffeic acid, by UV/VIS spectroscopy. The best ability to scavenge peroxynitrite was observed for gallic acid, 2,4-DHBA, 3,5-DHBA and caffeic acid. Improved comprehension of the complex relationship between the antioxidant properties of substances and their structure is important to understand their proper use in the prevention and treatment of diseases and for the detection of pathological processes. Monitoring and improved understanding of the antioxidant properties of hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives are important due to their frequent use in modern medical nutrition therapies. PMID:26461345

  6. Optical measurements of the phase diagrams of Langmuir monolayers of fatty acid, ester, and alcohol mixtures by Brewster-angle microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teer, Ellis; Knobler, Charles M.; Lautz, Carsten; Wurlitzer, Stefan; Kildae, John; Fischer, Thomas M.

    1997-02-01

    Surface pressure-temperature phase diagrams have been determined by Brewster-angle microscopy for Langmuir monolayers of heneicosanoic acid with the esters methyl and ethyl heneicosanoate and octadecanoic acid with methyl, ethyl, and propyl octadecanoate. The behavior is similar to that found previously in mixtures of an acid and an alcohol. In each case with increasing ester concentration the L2/L2' phase boundary moves toward lower pressure and higher temperature while the L2/Ov boundary moves toward lower pressure and lower temperature. The L2' and Ov phases eventually merge and the boundary with the L2 phase moves to zero pressure. The phase diagram of eicosyl acetate is similar to that of the fatty acids. We attribute the variations in the diagrams to the extent of hydrogen bonding between the head group and the subphase.

  7. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Stensland, G.J.

    1983-11-01

    A series of definitions for the field of acid rain studies are presented. Protocols for acid rain sampling and monitoring are also presented. A procedure for calculatory precipitation pH is discussed. 11 references, 1 table.

  8. Aminocaproic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  9. Efficient Diethylzinc/Gallic Acid and Diethylzinc/Gallic Acid Ester Catalytic Systems for the Ring-Opening Polymerization of rac-Lactide.

    PubMed

    Żółtowska, Karolina; Piotrowska, Urszula; Oledzka, Ewa; Sobczak, Marcin

    2015-01-01

    Polylactide (PLA) represents one of the most promising biomedical polymers due to its biodegradability, bioresorbability and good biocompatibility. This work highlights the synthesis and characterization of PLAs using novel diethylzinc/gallic acid (ZnEt₂/GAc) and diethylzinc/propyl gallate (ZnEt₂/PGAc) catalytic systems that are safe for human body. The results of the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of rac-lactide (rac-LA) in the presence of zinc-based catalytic systems have shown that, depending on the reaction conditions, "predominantly isotactic", disyndiotactic or atactic PLA can be obtained. Therefore, the controlled and stereoselective ROP of rac-LA is discussed in detail in this paper. PMID:26670224

  10. Synthesis, characterization and physicochemical properties of oleic acid ether derivatives as biolubricant basestocks.

    PubMed

    Salimon, Jumat; Salih, Nadia; Yousif, Emad

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum is a finite source as well as causing several environmental problems. Therefore petroleum needs to be replaced by alternative and sustainable sources. Plant oils and oleochemicals derived from them represent such alternative sources; the use of oleochemicals as biobased lubricants is of significant interest. This article presents a series of chemical modification on oleic acid to yield synthetic biolubricant basestocks. Measuring of density, volatility, cloud point (CP), pour point (PP), flash point (FP), viscosity index (VI), onset temperature (OT) and signal maximum temperature (SMT) was carried out for each compound. Furthermore, the friction and wear properties were measured using high-frequency reciprocating rig (HFRR). The results showed that octadecyl 9-octadecyloxy-10-hydroxyoctadecanoate exhibited the most favorable low-temperature performance (CP %ndash;26C, PP %ndash;28C) and the lowest ball wear scan diameter (42 m) while propyl 9-propyloxy-10-hydroxyoctadecanoate exhibited the higher oxidation stability (OT 156C). PMID:22123242

  11. 9-[2-(R)-(Phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-2,6-diaminopurine (R)-PMPDAP and its prodrugs: optimized preparation, including identification of by-products formed, and antiviral evaluation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Krečmerová, Marcela; Jansa, Petr; Dračínský, Martin; Sázelová, Petra; Kašička, Václav; Neyts, Johan; Auwerx, Joeri; Kiss, Eleonóra; Goris, Nesya; Stepan, George; Janeba, Zlatko

    2013-03-01

    New large-scale synthetic approach to antiretroviral agent 9-[2-(R)-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-2,6-diaminopurine, (R)-PMPDAP, was developed. Reaction of (R)-propanediol carbonate with 2,6-diaminopurine afforded exclusively (R)-9-(2-hydroxypropyl)-2,6-diaminopurine which was subsequently used for introduction of a phosphonomethyl residue using TsOCH(2)P(O)(OiPr)(2) or BrCH(2)P(O)(OiPr)(2) followed by deprotection of ester groups. All minor ingredients and by-products formed during the process were identified and further studied. The final product was obtained in high yield and its high enantiomeric purity (>99%) was confirmed by chiral capillary electrophoretic analysis using β-cyclodextrin as a chiral selector. Antiretroviral activity data of (R)-PMPDAP and its diverse prodrugs against HIV and FIV were investigated. Akin to (R)-PMPDAP, both prodrugs inhibit FIV replication in a selective manner. Compared to the parent molecule, the amidate prodrug was 10-fold less active against FIV in cell culture, whereas the alkoxyalkyl ester prodrug was 200-fold more potent in inhibiting FIV replication in vitro. PMID:23375089

  12. Use of S-[2,3-bispalmitoyiloxy-(2R)-propyl]-R-cysteinyl-amido-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol as an adjuvant improved protective immunity associated with a DNA vaccine encoding Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase of Brucella abortus in mice.

    PubMed

    Retamal-Díaz, Angello; Riquelme-Neira, Roberto; Sáez, Darwin; Rivera, Alejandra; Fernández, Pablo; Cabrera, Alex; Guzmán, Carlos A; Oñate, Angel

    2014-11-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding Brucella abortus Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) using the Toll-like receptor 2/6 agonist S-[2,3-bispalmitoyiloxy-(2R)-propyl]-R-cysteinyl-amido-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol (BPPcysMPEG) as an adjuvant. Intranasal coadministration of BPPcysMPEG with a plasmid carrying the SOD-encoding gene (pcDNA-SOD) into BALB/c mice elicited antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. Humoral responses were characterized by the stimulation of IgG2a and IgG1 and by the presence of SOD-specific secretory IgA in nasal and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Furthermore, T-cell proliferative responses and increased production of gamma interferon were also observed upon splenocyte restimulation with recombinant SOD. Cytotoxic responses were also stimulated, as demonstrated by the lysis of RB51-SOD-infected J774.A1 macrophages by cells recovered from immunized mice. The pcDNA-SOD/BPPcysMPEG formulation induced improved protection against challenge with the virulent strain B. abortus 2308 in BALB/c mice over that provided by pcDNA-SOD, suggesting the potential of this vaccination strategy against Brucella infection. PMID:25165025

  13. Use of S-[2,3-Bispalmitoyiloxy-(2R)-Propyl]-R-Cysteinyl-Amido-Monomethoxy Polyethylene Glycol as an Adjuvant Improved Protective Immunity Associated with a DNA Vaccine Encoding Cu,Zn Superoxide Dismutase of Brucella abortus in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Retamal-Díaz, Angello; Riquelme-Neira, Roberto; Sáez, Darwin; Rivera, Alejandra; Fernández, Pablo; Cabrera, Alex; Guzmán, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a DNA vaccine encoding Brucella abortus Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) using the Toll-like receptor 2/6 agonist S-[2,3-bispalmitoyiloxy-(2R)-propyl]-R-cysteinyl-amido-monomethoxy polyethylene glycol (BPPcysMPEG) as an adjuvant. Intranasal coadministration of BPPcysMPEG with a plasmid carrying the SOD-encoding gene (pcDNA-SOD) into BALB/c mice elicited antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. Humoral responses were characterized by the stimulation of IgG2a and IgG1 and by the presence of SOD-specific secretory IgA in nasal and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids. Furthermore, T-cell proliferative responses and increased production of gamma interferon were also observed upon splenocyte restimulation with recombinant SOD. Cytotoxic responses were also stimulated, as demonstrated by the lysis of RB51-SOD-infected J774.A1 macrophages by cells recovered from immunized mice. The pcDNA-SOD/BPPcysMPEG formulation induced improved protection against challenge with the virulent strain B. abortus 2308 in BALB/c mice over that provided by pcDNA-SOD, suggesting the potential of this vaccination strategy against Brucella infection. PMID:25165025

  14. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, calculational studies and in vitro antitumoral activity of 4-(3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl)-(thiophen-2-ylmethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süleymanoğlu, Nevin; Ustabaş, Reşat; Alpaslan, Yelda Bingöl; Ünver, Yasemin; Turan, Mustafa; Sancak, Kemal

    2011-03-01

    4-(3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl)-(thiophen-2-ylmethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one (IPTT), C 13H 15N 5OS, was synthesized and characterized by 13C NMR, 1H NMR, IR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure of IPTT is stabilized by three intermolecular hydrogen bonds and by intermolecular C sbnd H⋯ π interaction. The compound IPTT was modelled by using DFT method. Calculations of vibrational frequencies, gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO), 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of IPTT in the ground state, total electronic charge density map and frontier molecular orbitals were performed at B3LYP/6-31 G(d) level of theory were carried out by using DFT method with 6-31 G(d) basis set. The structural parameters obtained by geometry optimization, the theoretical vibrational frequencies and chemical shift values are in good agreement with experimental ones. FT-IR, NMR and X-ray analytical results of IPTT show that the compound exists as keto form, that was supported by DFT calculations. In addition, in vitro studies showed hopeful antitumoral activity of the title IPTT compound.

  15. Synthesis and structure of dicopper(II) complexes bridged by N-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-N'-[3-(methy lamino)propyl]oxamide: evaluation of DNA/protein binding, DNA cleavage, and in vitro anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Wen; Li, Xue-Jie; Zhu, Ling; Li, Yan-Tuan; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Yan, Cui-Wei

    2015-06-01

    Three new dicopper(II) complexes bridged by N-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-N'-[3-(methylamino)-propyl]oxamide (H3chmpoxd) and end-capped with 1,10-phenanthroline (phen); 2,2'-diamino-4,4'-bithiazole (dabt); and 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), namely [Cu2(chmpoxd)(H2O)(phen)](ClO4)⋅CH3CN (1), [Cu2(chmpoxd)(dabt)(C2H5OH)](NO3) (2) and [Cu2(chmpoxd)(H2O)(bpy)](NO3)⋅CH3CN (3), were synthesized and structurally characterized. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that both the copper(II) ions bridged by the cis-chmpoxd(3-) ligands in the three complexes are in square-planar and square-pyramidal environments, respectively. The reactivity towards herring sperm DNA (HS-DNA) and protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) indicated that these copper(II) complexes can interact with the DNA in the mode of intercalation, and bind to BSA responsible for quenching of tryptophan fluorescence by the static quenching mechanism. The cytotoxicity and DNA cleavage suggested that all the dicopper(II) complexes are active against the selected tumor cell lines, and the complex 1 exhibits the cleavage capacity for plasmid DNA. PMID:25837411

  16. Antiallodynic action of 1-(3-(9H-Carbazol-9-yl)-1-propyl)-4-(2-methyoxyphenyl)-4-piperidinol (NNC05-2090), a betaine/GABA transporter inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Jinzenji, Ayako; Sogawa, Chiharu; Miyawaki, Takuya; Wen, Xue-Fang; Yi, Dan; Ohyama, Kazumi; Kitayama, Shigeo; Sogawa, Norio; Morita, Katsuya

    2014-01-01

    The GABAergic system in the spinal cord has been shown to participate in neuropathic pain in various animal models. GABA transporters (GATs) play a role in controlling the synaptic clearance of GABA; however, their role in neuropathic pain remains unclear. In the present study, we compared the betaine/GABA transporter (BGT-1) with other GAT subtypes to determine its participation in neuropathic pain using a mouse model of sciatic nerve ligation. 1-(3-(9H-Carbazol-9-yl)-1-propyl)-4-(2-methyoxyphenyl)-4-piperidinol (NNC05-2090), an inhibitor that displays moderate selectivity for BGT-1, had an antiallodynic action on model mice treated through both intrathecally and intravenous administration routes. On the other hand, SKF89976A, a selective GAT-1 inhibitor, had a weak antiallodynic action, and (S)-SNAP5114, an inhibitor that displays selectivity for GAT-3, had no antiallodynic action. Systemic analysis of these compounds on GABA uptake in CHO cells stably expressing BGT-1 revealed that NNC05-2090 not only inhibited BGT-1, but also serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine transporters, using a substrate uptake assay in CHO cells stably expressing each transporter, with IC50: 5.29, 7.91, and 4.08 ?M, respectively. These values were similar to the IC50 value at BGT-1 (10.6 ?M). These results suggest that the antiallodynic action of NNC05-2090 is due to the inhibition of both BGT-1 and monoamine transporters. PMID:24881960

  17. Diaqua­bis­(4-carb­oxy-2-propyl-1H-imidazole-5-carboxyl­ato-κ2 N 3,O 4)zinc(II) N,N-dimethyl­formamide disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Cheng-Jun; Zhao, Xiao-Jun

    2010-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, [Zn(C8H9N2O4)2(H2O)2]·2C3H7NO, the ZnII atom is coordinated by two N,O-bidentate 2-propyl-1H-imidazole-4,5-dicarboxyl­ate anions and two water mol­ecules in a distorted octa­hedral environment. The asymmetric unit consists of one ZnII atom located on a center of inversion as well as one anion, one water mol­ecule and one additional dimethyl­formamide mol­ecule that occupy general positions. Between the carboxyl and the carboxyl­ate group an intra­molecular hydrogen bond is found in which the hydroxy H atom is disordered. Disorder is also found for the H atoms of one of the three methyl groups. In the crystal structure, additional inter­molecular N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonding is found. PMID:21587728

  18. Spectroscopic and electronic structure calculation of a potential chemotherapeutic agent 5-propyl-6-(p-tolylsulfanyl)pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione using first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Alshaikh, Monirah A.; Al-Deeb, Omar A.; Alzoman, Nourah Z.; El-Emam, Ali A.; Srivastava, Ruchi; Sachan, Alok K.; Prasad, Onkar; Sinha, Leena

    2015-11-01

    Quantum chemical calculations of energy, geometrical structure and vibrational wavenumbers of a potential chemotherapeutic agent namely, 5-propyl-6-(p-tolylsulfanyl)pyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione were carried out, using DFT method. Comprehensive interpretation of the experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of the compound under study is based on potential energy distribution. The difference between the observed and scaled wavenumbers of most of the normal modes is very small with B3LYP/6-311 + +G(d,p) method. The UV-Vis spectrum of the compound was recorded and the electronic properties, such as frontier orbitals and band gap energies were calculated by the TD-DFT approach. The values of the electric dipole moment, polarizability and first static hyperpolarizability of the title compound have also been investigated. NBO analysis has been performed to explain the charge transfer within the molecule along with the calculation of different thermo-dynamical properties.

  19. Fluorescent Derivatives of σ Receptor Ligand 1-Cyclohexyl-4-[3-(5-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-yl)propyl]piperazine (PB28) as a Tool for Uptake and Cellular Localization Studies in Pancreatic Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Abate, Carmen; Hornick, John R.; Spitzer, Dirk; Hawkins, William G; Niso, Mauro; Perrone, Roberto; Berardi, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Fluorescent derivatives of σ2 high affinity ligand 1-cyclohexyl-4-[3-(5-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-yl)propyl]piperazine 1 (PB28) were synthesized. NBD or Dansyl fluorescent tags were connected through a 5- or 6-atoms linker in two diverse positions of 1 structure. Good σ2 affinities were obtained when the fluorescent tag was linked to 5-methoxytetralin nucleus replacing the methyl function. NBD-bearing compound 16 displayed high σ2 affinity (Ki = 10.8 nM) and optimal fluorescent properties. Its uptake in pancreatic tumor cells was evaluated by flow cytometry showing that it partially occurs through endocytosis. In proliferating cells the uptake was higher supporting that σ2 receptors are markers of cell proliferation and that the higher is the proliferation, the stronger is the antiproliferative effect of σ2 agonists. Colocalization of 16 with subcellular organelles was studied by confocal microscopy: the greatest was in endoplasmic reticulum and lysosomes. Fluorescent σ2 ligands show their potential in clarifying the mechanisms of action of σ2 receptors. PMID:21744858

  20. E-p-Methoxycinnamic acid protects cultured neuronal cells against neurotoxicity induced by glutamate

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So Ra; Sung, Sang Hyun; Jang, Young Pyo; Markelonis, George J; Oh, Tae H; Kim, Young Choong

    2002-01-01

    We previously reported that four new phenylpropanoid glycosides and six known cinnamate derivatives isolated from roots of Scrophularia buergeriana Miquel (Scrophulariaceae) protected cultured cortical neurons from neurotoxicity induced by glutamate. Here, we have investigated the structure-activity relationships in the phenylpropanoids using our primary culture system. The α,β-unsaturated ester moiety and the para-methoxy group in the phenylpropanoids appeared to play a vital role in neuroprotective activity. This suggested that E-p-methoxycinnamic acid (E-p-MCA) might be a crucial component for their neuroprotective activity within the phenylpropanoid compounds. E-p-MCA significantly attenuated glutamate-induced neurotoxicity when added prior to an excitotoxic glutamate challenge. The neuroprotective activity of E-p-MCA appeared to be more effective in protecting neurons against neurotoxicity induced by NMDA than from that induced by kainic acid. E-p-MCA inhibited the binding of [propyl-2,3-3H]-CGP39653 and [2-3H]-glycine to their respective binding sites on rat cortical membranes. However, even high concentrations of E-p-MCA failed to inhibit completely [propyl-2,3-3H]-CGP39653 and [2-3H]-glycine binding. Indeed, E-p-MCA diminished the calcium influx that routinely accompanies glutamate-induced neurotoxicity, and inhibited the subsequent overproduction of nitric oxide and cellular peroxide in glutamate-injured neurons. Thus, our results suggest that E-p-MCA exerts significant protective effects against neurodegeneration induced by glutamate in primary cultures of cortical neurons by an action suggestive of partial glutamatergic antagonism. PMID:11877337

  1. Acid Deposition

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator presents acid deposition trends in the contiguous U.S. from 1989 to 2007. Data are broken down by wet and dry deposition and deposition of nitrogen and sulfur compounds. Acid deposition is particularly damaging to lakes, streams, and forests and the plants and a...

  2. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Elsworth, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

  3. How Acidic Is Carbonic Acid?

    PubMed

    Pines, Dina; Ditkovich, Julia; Mukra, Tzach; Miller, Yifat; Kiefer, Philip M; Daschakraborty, Snehasis; Hynes, James T; Pines, Ehud

    2016-03-10

    Carbonic, lactic, and pyruvic acids have been generated in aqueous solution by the transient protonation of their corresponding conjugate bases by a tailor-made photoacid, the 6-hydroxy-1-sulfonate pyrene sodium salt molecule. A particular goal is to establish the pKa of carbonic acid H2CO3. The on-contact proton transfer (PT) reaction rate from the optically excited photoacid to the carboxylic bases was derived, with unprecedented precision, from time-correlated single-photon-counting measurements of the fluorescence lifetime of the photoacid in the presence of the proton acceptors. The time-dependent diffusion-assisted PT rate was analyzed using the Szabo-Collins-Kimball equation with a radiation boundary condition. The on-contact PT rates were found to follow the acidity order of the carboxylic acids: the stronger was the acid, the slower was the PT reaction to its conjugate base. The pKa of carbonic acid was found to be 3.49 ± 0.05 using both the Marcus and Kiefer-Hynes free energy correlations. This establishes H2CO3 as being 0.37 pKa units stronger and about 1 pKa unit weaker, respectively, than the physiologically important lactic and pyruvic acids. The considerable acid strength of intact carbonic acid indicates that it is an important protonation agent under physiological conditions. PMID:26862781

  4. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Sweet, W.

    1980-06-20

    Acid precipitation includes not only rain but also acidified snow, hail and frost, as well as sulfur and nitrogen dust. The principal source of acid precipitation is pollution emitted by power plants and smelters. Sulfur and nitrogen compounds contained in the emissions combine with moisture to form droplets with a high acid content - sometimes as acidic as vinegar. When sufficiently concentrated, these acids can kill fish and damage material structures. Under certain circumstances they may reduce crop and forest yields and cause or aggravate respiratory diseases in humans. During the summer, especially, pollutants tend to collect over the Great Lakes in high pressure systems. Since winds typically are westerly and rotate clockwise around high pressure systems, the pollutants gradually are dispersed throughout the eastern part of the continent.

  5. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for α-lipoic acid in α-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications. PMID:24099657

  6. Gas-Phase Reactivity of Carboxylic Acid Functional Groups with Carbodiimides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, Boone M.; Gilbert, Joshua D.; Stutzman, John R.; Forrest, William P.; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    Gas-phase modification of carboxylic acid functionalities is performed via ion/ion reactions with carbodiimide reagents [ N-cyclohexyl- N'-(2-morpholinoethyl)carbodiimide (CMC) and [3-(3-Ethylcarbodiimide-1-yl)propyl]trimethylaminium (ECPT)]. Gas-phase ion/ion covalent chemistry requires the formation of a long-lived complex. In this instance, the complex is stabilized by an electrostatic interaction between the fixed charge quaternary ammonium group of the carbodiimide reagent cation and the analyte dianion. Subsequent activation results in characteristic loss of an isocyanate derivative from one side of the carbodiimide functionality, a signature for this covalent chemistry. The resulting amide bond is formed on the analyte at the site of the original carboxylic acid. Reactions involving analytes that do not contain available carboxylic acid groups (e.g., they have been converted to sodium salts) or reagents that do not have the carbodiimide functionality do not undergo a covalent reaction. This chemistry is demonstrated using PAMAM generation 0.5 dendrimer, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and the model peptide DGAILDGAILD. This work demonstrates the selective gas-phase covalent modification of carboxylic acid functionalities.

  7. Gas-phase reactivity of carboxylic acid functional groups with carbodiimides.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Boone M; Gilbert, Joshua D; Stutzman, John R; Forrest, William P; McLuckey, Scott A

    2013-01-01

    Gas-phase modification of carboxylic acid functionalities is performed via ion/ion reactions with carbodiimide reagents [N-cyclohexyl-N'-(2-morpholinoethyl)carbodiimide (CMC) and [3-(3-Ethylcarbodiimide-1-yl)propyl]trimethylaminium (ECPT)]. Gas-phase ion/ion covalent chemistry requires the formation of a long-lived complex. In this instance, the complex is stabilized by an electrostatic interaction between the fixed charge quaternary ammonium group of the carbodiimide reagent cation and the analyte dianion. Subsequent activation results in characteristic loss of an isocyanate derivative from one side of the carbodiimide functionality, a signature for this covalent chemistry. The resulting amide bond is formed on the analyte at the site of the original carboxylic acid. Reactions involving analytes that do not contain available carboxylic acid groups (e.g., they have been converted to sodium salts) or reagents that do not have the carbodiimide functionality do not undergo a covalent reaction. This chemistry is demonstrated using PAMAM generation 0.5 dendrimer, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and the model peptide DGAILDGAILD. This work demonstrates the selective gas-phase covalent modification of carboxylic acid functionalities. PMID:23208744

  8. [Gastric Acid].

    PubMed

    Ruíz Chávez, R

    1996-01-01

    Gastric acid, a product of parietal cells secretion, full fills multiple biological roles which are absolutely necessary to keep corporal homeostasis. The production of the acid depends upon an effector cellular process represented in the first step by histamine, acetilcholine and gastrin, first messengers of the process. These interact with specific receptors than in sequence activate second messengers -cAMP and the calcium-calmodulin system- which afterwards activate a kinase. An specific protein is then phosphorilated by this enzyme, being the crucial factor that starts the production of acid. Finally, a proton bomb, extrudes the acid towards the gastric lumen. The secretion process mentioned above, is progressive lyactivated in three steps, two of which are stimulators -cephalic and gastric phases- and the other one inhibitor or intestinal phase. These stages are started by mental and neurological phenomena -thought, sight, smell or memory-; by food, drugs or other ingested substances; and by products of digestion. Changes in regulation of acid secretion, in the structure of gastro-duodenal mucosal barrier by a wide spectrum of factors and agents including food, drugs and H. pylori, are the basis of acid-peptic disease, entity in which gastric acid plays a fundamental role. From the therapeutic point of view, so at the theoretical as at the practical levels, t is possible to interfere with the secretion of acid by neutralization of some of the steps of the effector cellular process. An adequate knowledge of the basics related to gastric acid, allows to create strategies for the clinical handling of associated pathology, specifically in relation to peptic acid disease in all of the known clinical forms. PMID:12165790

  9. Synthesis, characterization and anti proliferative effect of [Au(en) 2]Cl 3 and [Au(N- propyl-en) 2]Cl 3 on human cancer cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isab, Anvarhusein A.; Shaikh, M. Nasiruzzaman; Monim-ul-Mehboob, M.; Al-Maythalony, Bassem A.; Wazeer, Mohammed I. M.; Altuwaijri, Saleh

    2011-09-01

    Two Au(III) complexes of the type [Au(en) 2]Cl 3 ( 2a) and [Au(N-pr-en) 2]Cl 3 ( 3a) were synthesized by reacting Auric acid (HAuCl 4·3H 2O) with 2 equiv. ethylenediamine (en) or N-alkyl substituted ethylenediamine ligands. This metallodrug was characterized by various analytical and spectroscopic techniques such as elemental analysis, UV-Vis, Far-IR, 1H NMR and solution 13C as well as solid 13C and 15N NMR. Potentiality of [Au(en) 2]Cl 3 and [Au(N-pr-en) 2]Cl 3 as an anti-cancer agent were investigated by measuring some relevant physicochemical and biochemical properties such as stability of Au-N bonds by vibrational stretching from Far IR as well as cytotoxicity and stomach cancer cell inhibiting effect, respectively. The solid-state 15N NMR chemical shift shows that the ligand is strongly bound to gold(III) centre via N atoms. The computational study of 2a shows that the gold coordination sphere adopts distorted square planar geometry with bidentate ethylenediamine ligands acting as a tetradentate chelate. While stable in the solution state, the in vitro biological studies performed with these compounds 2a in solution showed higher activity towards the inhibitory effects of the human cancer cell lines such as prostate cancer (PC-3) and gastric carcinoma (SGC-7901) than that of the N-substituted gold(III) complex ( 3a). Cytotoxicity of the new compounds has also been estimated in PC-3 and SGC-7901 cells.

  10. A targeted metabolomic protocol for short-chain fatty acids and branched-chain amino acids.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaojiao; Qiu, Yunping; Zhong, Wei; Baxter, Sarah; Su, Mingming; Li, Qiong; Xie, Guoxiang; Ore, Brandon M; Qiao, Shanlei; Spencer, Melanie D; Zeisel, Steven H; Zhou, Zhanxiang; Zhao, Aihua; Jia, Wei

    2013-08-01

    Research in obesity and metabolic disorders that involve intestinal microbiota demands reliable methods for the precise measurement of the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) concentration. Here, we report a rapid method of simultaneously determining SCFAs and BCAAs in biological samples using propyl chloroformate (PCF) derivatization followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. A one-step derivatization using 100 µL of PCF in a reaction system of water, propanol, and pyridine (v/v/v = 8:3:2) at pH 8 provided the optimal derivatization efficiency. The best extraction efficiency of the derivatized products was achieved by a two-step extraction with hexane. The method exhibited good derivatization efficiency and recovery for a wide range of concentrations with a low limit of detection for each compound. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of all targeted compounds showed good intra- and inter-day (within 7 days) precision (< 10%), and good stability (< 20%) within 4 days at room temperature (23-25 °C), or 7 days when stored at -20 °C. We applied our method to measure SCFA and BCAA levels in fecal samples from rats administrated with different diet. Both univariate and multivariate statistics analysis of the concentrations of these target metabolites could differentiate three groups with ethanol intervention and different oils in diet. This method was also successfully employed to determine SCFA and BCAA in the feces, plasma and urine from normal humans, providing important baseline information of the concentrations of these metabolites. This novel metabolic profile study has great potential for translational research. PMID:23997757

  11. A targeted metabolomic protocol for short-chain fatty acids and branched-chain amino acids

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xiaojiao; Qiu, Yunping; Zhong, Wei; Baxter, Sarah; Su, Mingming; Li, Qiong; Xie, Guoxiang; Ore, Brandon M.; Qiao, Shanlei; Spencer, Melanie D.; Zeisel, Steven H.; Zhou, Zhanxiang; Zhao, Aihua; Jia, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Research in obesity and metabolic disorders that involve intestinal microbiota demands reliable methods for the precise measurement of the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) concentration. Here, we report a rapid method of simultaneously determining SCFAs and BCAAs in biological samples using propyl chloroformate (PCF) derivatization followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. A one-step derivatization using 100 µL of PCF in a reaction system of water, propanol, and pyridine (v/v/v = 8:3:2) at pH 8 provided the optimal derivatization efficiency. The best extraction efficiency of the derivatized products was achieved by a two-step extraction with hexane. The method exhibited good derivatization efficiency and recovery for a wide range of concentrations with a low limit of detection for each compound. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of all targeted compounds showed good intra- and inter-day (within 7 days) precision (< 10%), and good stability (< 20%) within 4 days at room temperature (23–25 °C), or 7 days when stored at −20 °C. We applied our method to measure SCFA and BCAA levels in fecal samples from rats administrated with different diet. Both univariate and multivariate statistics analysis of the concentrations of these target metabolites could differentiate three groups with ethanol intervention and different oils in diet. This method was also successfully employed to determine SCFA and BCAA in the feces, plasma and urine from normal humans, providing important baseline information of the concentrations of these metabolites. This novel metabolic profile study has great potential for translational research. PMID:23997757

  12. Acid Precipitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the fact that the acidity of rain and snow falling on parts of the U.S. and Europe has been rising. The reasons are still not entirely clear and the consequences have yet to be well evaluated. (MLH)

  13. Mefenamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... as mefenamic acid may cause ulcers, bleeding, or holes in the stomach or intestine. These problems may ... like coffee grounds, blood in the stool, or black and tarry stools.Keep all appointments with your ...

  14. Carnosic acid.

    PubMed

    Birtić, Simona; Dussort, Pierre; Pierre, François-Xavier; Bily, Antoine C; Roller, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Carnosic acid (salvin), which possesses antioxidative and antimicrobial properties, is increasingly exploited within the food, nutritional health and cosmetics industries. Since its first extraction from a Salvia species (∼70 years ago) and its identification (∼50 years ago), numerous articles and patents (∼400) have been published on specific food and medicinal applications of Rosmarinus and Salvia plant extracts abundant in carnosic acid. In contrast, relevant biochemical, physiological or molecular studies in planta have remained rare. In this overview, recent advances in understanding of carnosic acid distribution, biosynthesis, accumulation and role in planta, and its applications are summarised. We also discuss the deficiencies in our understanding of the relevant biochemical processes, and suggest the molecular targets of carnosic acid. Finally, future perspectives and studies related to its potential roles are highlighted. PMID:25639596

  15. Tranexamic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat heavy bleeding during the menstrual cycle (monthly periods) in women. Tranexamic acid is in ... tablets for more than 5 days in a menstrual cycle or take more than 6 tablets in a ...

  16. Acidic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

  17. Experimental and theoretical studies of the molecular structure of 4-(3-(1 H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl)-5- p-tolyl-2 H-1,2,4-triazol-3(4 H)-one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustabaş, Reşat; Süleymanoğlu, Nevin; Tanak, Hasan; Alpaslan, Yelda Bingöl; Ünver, Yasemin; Sancak, Kemal

    2010-12-01

    The triazol-imidazol compound, 4-(3-(1 H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl)-5- p-tolyl-2 H-1,2,4-triazol-3(4 H)-one ( 3), (C 15H 17N 5O), was prepared and characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. By using the density functional theory (DFT) method with 6-31G(d) basis set, the molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies and gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) 1H and 13C NMR chemical shift values of the title compound ( 3) in the ground state were calculated and compared with the experimental data. The calculated results are show that the optimized geometry can well reproduce the crystal structure. X-ray, FT-IR and NMR spectral results of the title compound ( 3) indicate that the compound exists as keto form. To determine most favorable conformation as theoretically, molecular energy profile of the title compound ( 3) were obtained as a function of the selected torsion angles T(N1 sbnd C8 sbnd C7 sbnd C6), T1 and T(C8 sbnd N1 sbnd C10 sbnd C11), T2, which is varied from -180° to +180° in every 10 by semi-empirical (PM3) calculations. In addition, DFT calculations of the title compound ( 3), molecular electrostatic potential and frontier molecular orbitals were performed at B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory.

  18. Studies on the translational and rotational motions of ionic liquids composed of N-methyl-N-propyl-pyrrolidinium (P13) cation and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide and bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide anions and their binary systems including lithium salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayamizu, Kikuko; Tsuzuki, Seiji; Seki, Shiro; Fujii, Kenta; Suenaga, Masahiko; Umebayashi, Yasuhiro

    2010-11-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTIL, IL) are stable liquids composed of anions and cations. N-methyl-N-propyl-pyrrolidinium (P13, Py13, PYR13, or mppy) is an important cation and produces stable ILs with various anions. In this study two amide-type anions, bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide [N(SO2CF3)2, TFSA, TFSI, NTf2, or Tf2N] and bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide [N(SO2F)2, FSA, or FSI], were investigated. In addition to P13-TFSA and P13-FSA, lithium salt doped samples were prepared (P13-TFSA-Li and P13-FSA-Li). The individual ion diffusion coefficients (D) and spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) were measured by H1, F19, and L7i NMR. At the same time, the ionic conductivity (σ), viscosity (η), and density (ρ) were measured over a wide temperature range. The van der Waals volumes of P13, TFSA, FSA, Li(TFSA)2, and Li(FSA)3 were estimated by molecular orbital calculations. The experimental values obtained in this study were analyzed by the classical Stokes-Einstein, Nernst-Einstein (NE), and Stokes-Einstein-Debye equations and Walden plots were also made for the neat and binary ILs to clarify physical and mobile properties of individual ions. From the temperature-dependent velocity correlation coefficients for neat P13-TFSA and P13-FSA, the NE parameter 1-ξ was evaluated. The ionicity (electrochemical molar conductivity divided by the NE conductivity from NMR) and the 1-ξ had exactly the same values. The rotational and translational motions of P13 and jump of a lithium ion are also discussed.

  19. A comparative evaluation of the dopamine D(2/3) agonist radiotracer [11C](-)-N-propyl-norapomorphine and antagonist [11C]raclopride to measure amphetamine-induced dopamine release in the human striatum.

    PubMed

    Narendran, Rajesh; Mason, N Scott; Laymon, Charles M; Lopresti, Brian J; Velasquez, Natalie D; May, Maureen A; Kendro, Steve; Martinez, Diana; Mathis, Chester A; Frankle, W Gordon

    2010-05-01

    (-)-N-Propyl-norapomorphine (NPA) is a full dopamine D(2/3) receptor agonist, and [(11)C]NPA is a suitable radiotracer to image D(2/3) receptors configured in a state of high affinity for agonists with positron emission tomography (PET). In this study, the vulnerability of the in vivo binding of [11C]NPA to acute fluctuation in synaptic dopamine was assessed with PET in healthy humans and compared with that of the reference D(2/3) receptor antagonist radiotracer [11C]raclopride. Ten subjects (eight females and two males) were studied on two separate days, a minimum of 1 week apart, both with [11C]raclopride and [11C]NPA at baseline and after the administration of 0.5 mg x kg(-1) oral d-amphetamine. Kinetic modeling with an arterial input function was used to derive the binding potential relative to nonspecific uptake (BPND) in the ventral striatum (VST), caudate (CAD), and putamen (PUT). [11C]Raclopride BPND was significantly reduced by 9.7 +/- 4.4, 8.4 +/- 4.2, and 14.7 +/- 4.8% after amphetamine administration in the VST, CAD, and PUT. [11C]NPA BPND was also reduced significantly, by 16.0 +/- 7.0, 16.1 +/- 6.1, and 21.9 +/- 4.9% after the same dose of amphetamine in the VST, CAD, and PUT. Although these results suggest that [11C]NPA is more vulnerable to endogenous competition by dopamine compared with [11C]raclopride by a factor of 1.49 to 1.90, the same data for a related outcome measure, binding potential relative to plasma concentration, was not significant. Nevertheless, these data add to the growing literature that suggests D(2/3) agonist radiotracers are more vulnerable to endogenous competition by dopamine than existing D(2/3) antagonist radiotracers. PMID:20103586

  20. Hirshfeld Surface Investigation of Structure-Directing Interactions within Dipicolinic Acid Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Six compounds based on dipicolinic acid esters have been synthesized and Hirshfeld surfaces used to investigate the structure-directing effects of functional groups in controlling their solid-state behavior. Compounds 14 are 4-bromo dipicolinic acid esters substituted with methyl, ethyl, propyl, and benzyl groups, respectively. The main structure-directing motif within 13 is a pairwise OH interaction involving two carbonyl oxygen atoms and two aromatic H atoms. The introduction of bulky benzyl groups in 4 forces a significant change in the position of this interaction. Compounds 2 and 4 were used in Suzuki coupling reactions to prepare extended analogues 5 and 6, respectively, and their solid-state behavior was also studied using Hirshfeld surfaces. Extension of these dipicolinic acid esters results in the complete loss of the pairwise OH interaction in 5, where the dominant structure-directing motifs are ?-based interactions. However, the pairwise OH interaction reappears for the more flexible 6, demonstrating control of the solid-state structure of these dipicolinic acid derivatives through the choice of functional groups. PMID:25866487

  1. Stereospecific ligands and their complexes. Part XII. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro antiproliferative activity of platinum(IV) complexes with some O,O‧-dialkyl esters of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N‧-di-2-propanoic acid against colon cancer (HCT-116) and breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojković, Danijela Lj.; Jevtić, Verica V.; Radić, Gordana P.; Đačić, Dragana S.; Ćurčić, Milena G.; Marković, Snežana D.; Ðinović, Vesna M.; Petrović, Vladimir P.; Trifunović, Srećko R.

    2014-03-01

    Synthesis of three new platinum(IV) complexes C1-C3, with bidentate N,N‧-ligand precursors, O,O‧-dialkyl esters (alkyl = propyl, butyl and pentyl), of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N‧-di-2-propanoic acid, H2-S,S-eddp were reported. The reported platinum(IV) complexes characterized by elemental analysis and their structures were discussed on the bases of their infrared, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. In vitro antiproliferative activity was determined on tumor cell lines: human colon carcinoma HCT-116 and human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231, using MTT test.

  2. Elucidation on enhanced application of synthesised kojic acid immobilised magnetic and chitosan tri-polyphosphate nanoparticles as antibacterial agents.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Jignesh; Lakhawat, Sudarshan; Pathak, Amrendra Nath

    2015-12-01

    Kojic acid (KA) is a secondary metabolite which is secreted by several aspergillus species. It is a multi-functional skeleton from which many derivatives can be synthesised and applied in various areas of biotechnology. KA grafting on synthesised magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and chitosan tri-polyphosphate (chitosan-TPP) nanoparticles was successfully done and characterised by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy. It was observed that amino propyl triethoxy silane-coated MNPs and chitosan-TPP nanoparticles enhanced the antibacterial activity of KA against both Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa). The organic constitution and significant antibacterial activity of KA-chitosan-TPP nanoparticles can be applicable in the field of medical biotechnology. PMID:26647814

  3. Semiquantitative study of the EDC/NHS activation of acid terminal groups at modified porous silicon surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sam, S; Touahir, L; Salvador Andresa, J; Allongue, P; Chazalviel, J-N; Gouget-Laemmel, A C; Henry de Villeneuve, C; Moraillon, A; Ozanam, F; Gabouze, N; Djebbar, S

    2010-01-19

    Infrared spectroscopy is used to investigate the transformation of carboxyl-terminated alkyl chains immobilized on a surface into succinimidyl ester-terminated chains by reaction with an aqueous solution of N-ethyl-N'-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)carbodiimide (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS). The acid chains are covalently grafted at the surface of hydrogenated porous silicon whose large specific surface area allows for assessing the activation yield in a semiquantitative way by infrared (IR) spectroscopy and detecting trace amounts of surface products and/or reaction products of small IR cross section. In this way, we rationalize the different reaction paths and optimize the reaction conditions to obtain as pure as possible succinimidyl ester-terminated surfaces. A diagram mapping the surface composition after activation was constructed by systematically varying the solution composition. Results are accounted for by NHS surface adsorption and a kinetic competition between the various EDC-induced surface reactions. PMID:19725548

  4. Ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica material as sorbent for solid-phase extraction of acidic and basic compounds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Chen, Yihui; Ma, Junfeng; Chen, Mingliang; Nie, Chenggang; Hu, Minjie; Li, Ying; Jia, Zhijian; Fang, Jianghua; Gao, Haoqi

    2013-09-20

    A novel sorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE) was synthesized by chemical immobilization of ampholine on hybrid organic-inorganic silica material. The ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica sorbent is consisted of aliphatic amine groups, carboxyl groups and long carbon chains, allowing for extraction of both acidic and basic compounds. The retention properties of the developed sorbent were evaluated for 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (HNA), 1-naphthoic acid (NA), 3-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA), benzoic acid (BA), sorbic acid (SA), vanillic aldehyde (VA), butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (BHB), propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (PHB), ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (EHB), and methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (MHB). The results show that such a sorbent has three types of interaction, i.e., electrostatic interaction, hydrophobic interaction, and hydrogen bonding, exhibiting high extraction efficiency towards the compounds tested. The adsorption capacities of the analytes ranged from 0.61 to 6.54μgmg(-1). The reproducibility of the sorbent preparation was evaluated at three spiking concentration levels, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.0-10.5%. The recoveries of ten acidic and basic compounds spiked in beverage Coca-Cola(®) sample ranged from 82.5% to 98.2% with RSDs less than 5.8%. Under optimum conditions, the ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica sorbent rendered higher extraction efficiency for acidic compounds than that of the commercially available ampholine-functionalized silica particles, and was comparable to that of the commercial Oasis WAX and Oasis WCX. PMID:23953713

  5. Salicylic acids

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

    2012-01-01

    Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

  6. Trichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 09 / 003F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF TRICHLOROACETIC ACID ( CAS No . 76 - 03 - 9 ) In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) September 2011 U.S . Environmental Protection Agency Washington , DC ii DISCLAIMER This document has

  7. Ethacrynic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... ethacrynic acid once a day, take it with breakfast in the morning. If you take it twice ... a daily exercise program, a low-salt or low-sodium diet, potassium supplements, and increased amounts of potassium-rich foods (e.g., bananas, prunes, raisins, and orange juice) in your diet.

  8. Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor what vitamins and supplements you might need. Return to top More information on folic acid For more information about folic ... Bifida Association of America Phone: 800-621-3141 Return to top Share this information! The information on our website is provided by ...

  9. Stearic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

  10. Acrylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrylic acid ( CASRN 79 - 10 - 7 ) Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  11. Formic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Formic acid ; CASRN 64 - 18 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effect

  12. Cacodylic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Cacodylic acid ; CASRN 75 - 60 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  13. Phosphoric acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phosphoric acid ; CASRN 7664 - 38 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  14. Dichloroacetic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dichloroacetic acid ; CASRN 79 - 43 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogeni

  15. Benzoic acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Benzoic acid ; CASRN 65 - 85 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  16. Selenious acid

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Selenious acid ; CASRN 7783 - 00 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic E

  17. Anticancer potential of pyrrole (1, 2, a) pyrazine 1, 4, dione, hexahydro 3-(2-methyl propyl) (PPDHMP) extracted from a new marine bacterium, Staphylococcus sp. strain MB30.

    PubMed

    Lalitha, P; Veena, V; Vidhyapriya, P; Lakshmi, Pragna; Krishna, R; Sakthivel, N

    2016-05-01

    Marine bacterium, strain MB30 isolated from the deep sea sediment of Bay of Bengal, India, exhibited antimicrobial activity against human pathogenic bacteria. Based on the 16S rRNA sequence homology and subsequent phylogenetic tree analysis, the strain MB30 was identified as Staphylococcus sp. The bioactive metabolite produced by the strain MB30 was purified through silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. Purified metabolite was further characterized by FT-IR, LC-MS and NMR analyses. On the basis of spectroscopic data, the metabolite was identified as pyrrole (1, 2, a) pyrazine 1, 4, dione, hexahydro 3-(2-methyl propyl) (PPDHMP). The PPDHMP exhibited in vitro anticancer potential against lung (A549) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner with the IC50 concentration of 19.94 ± 1.23 and 16.73 ± 1.78 μg ml(-1) respectively. The acridine orange (AO)/ethidium bromide (EB) and 4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride (DAPI) staining of the IC50 concentration of PPDHMP-treated cancer cells exhibited an array of morphological changes such as nuclear condensation, cell shrinkage and formation of apoptotic bodies. The PPDHMP-treated cancer cells induced the progressive accumulation of fragmented DNA in a time-dependent manner. Based on the flow cytometric analysis, it has become evident that the compound was also effective in arresting the cell cycle at G1 phase. Further, the Western blotting analysis confirmed the down-regulation of cyclin-D1, cyclin dependent kinase (CDK-2), anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL), activation of caspase-9 and 3 with the cleavage of PARP. The PPDHMP-treated cancer cells also showed the inhibition of migration and invasive capacity of cancer cells. In the present investigation, for the first time, we have reported the extraction, purification and characterization of an anticancer metabolite, PPDHMP from a new marine bacterium, Staphylococcus sp. strain MB30. PMID:26852140

  18. Alternative thermodiffusion interface for simultaneous speciation of organic and inorganic lead and mercury species by capillary GC-ICPMS using tri-n-propyl-lead chloride as an internal standard.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dong; Yang, Limin; Wang, Qiuquan

    2008-08-01

    An alternative thermodiffusion interface (TDI) was designed and constructed for the effective online coupling of capillary gas chromatography (cGC) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Pb(2+), (CH3)3Pb(+), (C2H5)3Pb(+), Hg(2+), CH3Hg(+) and C2H5Hg(+) were derived as Pb(C4H9)4, (CH3)3PbC4H9, (C2H5)3PbC4H9, (C4H9)2Hg, CH3HgC4H9, and C2H5HgC4H9 when butyl magnesium bromide was employed as a derivatization reagent for a proof-of-concept study, avoiding the loss of their species specific information. All these derivatives together with the neutral fully saturated (CH3)4Pb and (C2H5)4Pb could be quantitatively separated within 7 min using a 15 m long capillary column, allowing the determination and speciation of organic and inorganic Pb and Hg species in a single run. The method detection limits (3sigma) for Me4Pb, Et4Pb, Me3Pb(3+), Pb(2+), MeHg(+), EtHg(+), and Hg(2+) are 0.07, 0.06, 0.04, 7.0, 0.09, 0.1, and 0.2 pg g(-1), respectively. Moreover, tri-n-propyl-lead chloride was synthesized and used as an alternative internal standard for the accurate and simultaneous speciation analysis of Pb and Hg in complicated environmental and biological samples for the first time. This cGC-TDI-ICPMS method was validated by analyzing Pb and Hg species in certified reference materials and then was applied to simultaneous speciation analysis of Pb and Hg in real-life samples. It is expected that these approaches can be extended to the speciation of other organometallic compounds after suitable modifications and so will aid in monitoring the occurrence, pathways, toxicity, and/or biological effects of these compounds in the environment and in organisms. PMID:18576666

  19. PET Imaging of D2/3 agonist binding in healthy human subjects with the radiotracer [11C]-N-propyl-nor-apomorphine (NPA): preliminary evaluation and reproducibility studies

    PubMed Central

    Narendran, Rajesh; Frankle, W. Gordon; Mason, N. Scott; Laymon, Charles M.; Lopresti, Brian J; Price, Julie C.; Kendro, Steve; Vora, Shivangi; Litschge, Maralee; Mountz, James M.; Mathis, Chester A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective (-)-N-[11C]-Propyl-norapomorphine (NPA) is a full dopamine D2/3 receptor agonist radiotracer suitable for imaging D2/3 receptors configured in a state of high affinity for agonists using Positron Emission Tomography (PET). The aim of the present study was to define the optimal analytic method to derive accurate and reliable D2/3 receptor parameters with [11C]NPA. Methods Six healthy subjects (4 females/2 males) underwent two [11C]NPA scans in the same day. D2/3 receptor binding parameters were estimated using kinetic analysis (using 1- and 2- tissue compartment models) as well as simplified reference tissue method in the three functional subdivisions of the striatum (associative striatum, AST; limbic striatum LST and sensorimotor striatum SMST). The test-retest variability and intraclass correlation coefficient were assessed for distribution volume (VT), binding potential relative to plasma concentration (BPP), and binding potential relative to nondisplaceable uptake (BPND) Results A two-tissue compartment kinetic model adequately described the functional subdivisions of the striatum as well as cerebellum time-activity data. The reproducibility of VT was excellent (≤ 10%) in all regions, for this approach. The reproducibility of both BPP (≤ 12%) and BPND (≤ 10%) was also excellent. The intraclass correlation coefficient of BPP and BPND were acceptable as well (> 0.75) in the three functional subdivisions of the striatum. Although SRTM led to an underestimation of BPND values relative to that estimated by kinetic analysis by 8 to 13%, the values derived using both the methods were reasonably well correlated (r2 = 0.89, n = 84). Both methods were similarly effective at detecting the differences in [11C]NPA BPND between subjects. Conclusion The results of this study indicate that [11C]NPA can be used to measure D2/3 receptors configured in a state of high affinity for the agonists with high reliability and reproducibility in the functional subdivisions of the human striatum. PMID:19301416

  20. A Comparative Evaluation of the Dopamine D2/3 Agonist Radiotracer [11C](−)-N-Propyl-norapomorphine and Antagonist [11C]Raclopride to Measure Amphetamine-Induced Dopamine Release in the Human Striatum

    PubMed Central

    Mason, N. Scott; Laymon, Charles M.; Lopresti, Brian J.; Velasquez, Natalie D.; May, Maureen A.; Kendro, Steve; Martinez, Diana; Mathis, Chester A.; Frankle, W. Gordon

    2010-01-01

    (−)-N-Propyl-norapomorphine (NPA) is a full dopamine D2/3 receptor agonist, and [11C]NPA is a suitable radiotracer to image D2/3 receptors configured in a state of high affinity for agonists with positron emission tomography (PET). In this study, the vulnerability of the in vivo binding of [11C]NPA to acute fluctuation in synaptic dopamine was assessed with PET in healthy humans and compared with that of the reference D2/3 receptor antagonist radiotracer [11C]raclopride. Ten subjects (eight females and two males) were studied on two separate days, a minimum of 1 week apart, both with [11C]raclopride and [11C]NPA at baseline and after the administration of 0.5 mg · kg−1 oral d-amphetamine. Kinetic modeling with an arterial input function was used to derive the binding potential relative to nonspecific uptake (BPND) in the ventral striatum (VST), caudate (CAD), and putamen (PUT). [11C]Raclopride BPND was significantly reduced by 9.7 ± 4.4, 8.4 ± 4.2, and 14.7 ± 4.8% after amphetamine administration in the VST, CAD, and PUT. [11C]NPA BPND was also reduced significantly, by 16.0 ± 7.0, 16.1 ± 6.1, and 21.9 ± 4.9% after the same dose of amphetamine in the VST, CAD, and PUT. Although these results suggest that [11C]NPA is more vulnerable to endogenous competition by dopamine compared with [11C]raclopride by a factor of 1.49 to 1.90, the same data for a related outcome measure, binding potential relative to plasma concentration, was not significant. Nevertheless, these data add to the growing literature that suggests D2/3 agonist radiotracers are more vulnerable to endogenous competition by dopamine than existing D2/3 antagonist radiotracers. PMID:20103586

  1. Carbonate acidizing

    SciTech Connect

    Daccord, G.; Touboul, E.; Lenormand, R.

    1989-02-01

    The authors present the first quantitative study and complete model of the wormholing phenomenon, leading to a means of predicting and optimizing carbonate acidizing treatments. Laboratory experiments on a gypsum model system and computer simulations show that for a given geometry, wormholes can be quantified by a unique parameter, their equivalent hydraulic length. The behavior of this quantifying parameter vs. all the system parameters is studied and allows the quantitative prediction of the efficiency of an acidizing treatment. This study highlights the fractal nature of the phenomenon, which is accounted for in the equations, and the strong effect of the sample geometry. Three types of etching can be obtained: compact, wormhole type, or homogeneous. The optimum conditions for achieving the best skin decrease correspond to the creation of wormholes and can then be defined in terms of fluid reactivity and injection rate.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1660 - Propyl gallate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... in a maximum total content of antioxidants of 0.02 percent of the fat or oil content, including the essential (volatile) oil content, of the food. (e) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from...

  3. 21 CFR 582.3660 - Propyl gallate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... safe for use in food when the total content of antioxidants is not over 0.02 percent of fat or oil content, including essential (volatile) oil content of the food, provided the substance is used...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1660 - Propyl gallate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... manufacturing practice results in a maximum total content of antioxidants of 0.02 percent of the fat or oil content, including the essential (volatile) oil content, of the food. (e) Prior sanctions for...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1660 - Propyl gallate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... manufacturing practice results in a maximum total content of antioxidants of 0.02 percent of the fat or oil content, including the essential (volatile) oil content, of the food. (e) Prior sanctions for...

  6. 21 CFR 582.3660 - Propyl gallate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... safe for use in food when the total content of antioxidants is not over 0.02 percent of fat or oil content, including essential (volatile) oil content of the food, provided the substance is used...

  7. 21 CFR 582.3660 - Propyl gallate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... safe for use in food when the total content of antioxidants is not over 0.02 percent of fat or oil content, including essential (volatile) oil content of the food, provided the substance is used...

  8. 21 CFR 582.3660 - Propyl gallate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... safe for use in food when the total content of antioxidants is not over 0.02 percent of fat or oil content, including essential (volatile) oil content of the food, provided the substance is used...

  9. 21 CFR 582.3660 - Propyl gallate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... safe for use in food when the total content of antioxidants is not over 0.02 percent of fat or oil content, including essential (volatile) oil content of the food, provided the substance is used...

  10. Hydroxycarboxylic acids and salts

    SciTech Connect

    Kiely, Donald E; Hash, Kirk R; Kramer-Presta, Kylie; Smith, Tyler N

    2015-02-24

    Compositions which inhibit corrosion and alter the physical properties of concrete (admixtures) are prepared from salt mixtures of hydroxycarboxylic acids, carboxylic acids, and nitric acid. The salt mixtures are prepared by neutralizing acid product mixtures from the oxidation of polyols using nitric acid and oxygen as the oxidizing agents. Nitric acid is removed from the hydroxycarboxylic acids by evaporation and diffusion dialysis.

  11. Chemical and enzymatic stability of amino acid prodrugs containing methoxy, ethoxy and propylene glycol linkers.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Deepak; Gupta, Sheeba Varghese; Lee, Kyung-Dall; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the chemical and enzymatic stabilities of prodrugs containing methoxy, ethoxy and propylene glycol linkers in order to find a suitable linker for prodrugs of carboxylic acids with amino acids. l-Valine and l-phenylalanine prodrugs of model compounds (benzoic acid and phenyl acetic acid) containing methoxy, ethoxy and propylene glycol linkers were synthesized. The hydrolysis rate profile of each compound was studied at physiologically relevant pHs (1.2, 4, 6 and 7.4). Enzymatic hydrolysis of propylene glycol containing compounds was studied using Caco-2 homogenate as well as purified enzyme valacyclovirase. It was observed that the stability of the prodrugs increases with the linker length (propyl > ethyl > methyl). The model prodrugs were stable at acidic pH as compared to basic pH. It was observed that the prodrug with the aliphatic amino acid promoiety was more stable compared to its aromatic counterpart. The comparison between benzyl and the phenyl model compounds revealed that the amino acid side chain is significant in determining the stability of the prodrug whereas the benzyl or phenyl carboxylic acid had little or no effect on the stability. The enzymatic activation studies of propylene glycol linker prodrug in the presence of valacyclovirase and cell homogenate showed faster generation of the parent drug at pH 7.4. The half-life of prodrugs at pH 7.4 was more than 12 h, whereas in the presence of cell homogenate the half-lives were less than 1 h. Hydrolysis by Caco-2 homogenate generated the parent compound in two steps, where the prodrug was first converted to the intermediate, propylene glycol benzoate, which was then converted to the parent compound (benzoic acid). Enzymatic hydrolysis of propylene glycol containing prodrugs by valacyclovirase showed hydrolysis of the amino acid ester part to generate the propylene glycol ester of model compound (propylene glycol benzoate) as the major product. The amino acid prodrugs containing methoxy linker were the least stable while prodrugs containing propylene glycol linker were most stable. This work suggests that the propylene glycol linker is an optimal linker for amino acid prodrugs since it has good chemical stability and is enzymatically hydrolyzed to yield the parent drug. This approach can be further extended to other non-amino acid prodrugs and to provide a chemical handle to modify lead molecules containing carboxylic group(s). PMID:19566080

  12. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... acid is a substance produced when proteins, called amino acids, in the body break down. The health care ... Cederbaum S, Berry GT. Inborn errors of carbohydrate, ammonia, amino acid, and organic acid metabolism. In: Gleason CA, Devaskar ...

  13. Mimicking the hierarchical functions of dentin collagen cross-links with plant derived phenols and phenolic acids

    PubMed Central

    Vidal, Cristina M. P.; Leme, Ariene A.; Aguiar, Thaiane R.; Phansalkar, Rasika; Nam, Joo-Won; Bisson, Jonathan; McAlpine, James B.; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F.; Bedran-Russo, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PACs) are secondary plant metabolites that mediate non-enzymatic collagen cross-linking and enhance the properties of collagen based tissue, such as dentin. The extent and nature of cross-linking is influenced by the composition and specific chemical structure of the bioactive compounds present in certain PAC-rich extracts. This study investigated the effect of the molecular weight and stereochemistry of polyphenol compounds on two important properties of dentin, biomechanics and biostability. For that, purified phenols, a phenolic acid and some of its derivatives were selected: PACs dimers (A1, A2, B1 and B2) and a trimer (C1), gallic acid (Ga), its esters methyl gallate (MGa) and propyl gallate (PGa), and a pentagalloyl ester of glucose (PGG). Synergism was assessed by combination of the most active PAC and gallic acid derivative. Mechanical properties of dentin organic matrix were determined by the modulus of elasticity obtained in a flexural test. Biostability was evaluated by resistance to collagenase degradation. PACs significantly enhanced dentin mechanical properties and decreased collagen digestion. Among the gallic acid derivatives, only PGG had a significant enhancing effect. The lack of observed C1:PGG synergy indicates that both compounds have similar mechanisms of interaction with the dentin matrix. These findings reveal that the molecular weight of polyphenols have a determinant effect on their interaction with type I collagen and modulate the mechanism of cross-linking at the molecular, inter-molecular, and inter-micro-fibrillar levels. PMID:25379878

  14. Solvent effects on the formation of nanoparticles and multilayered coatings based on hydrogen-bonded interpolymer complexes of poly(acrylic acid) with homo- and copolymers of N-vinyl pyrrolidone.

    PubMed

    Zhunuspayev, Daulet E; Mun, Grigoriy A; Hole, Patrick; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V

    2008-12-01

    The formation of hydrogen-bonded interpolymer complexes between poly(acrylic acid) and poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) as well as amphiphilic copolymers of N-vinyl pyrrolidone with vinyl propyl ether has been studied in aqueous and organic solutions. It was demonstrated that introduction of vinyl propyl ether units into the macromolecules of the nonionic polymer enhances their ability to form complexes in aqueous solutions due to more significant contribution of hydrophobic effects. The complexation was found to be a multistage process that involves the formation of primary polycomplex particles, which further aggregate to form spherical nanoparticles. Depending on the environmental factors (pH, solvent nature), these nanoparticles may either form stable colloidal solutions or undergo further aggregation, resulting in precipitation of interpolymer complexes. In organic solvents, the intensity of complex formation increases in the following order: methanol < ethanol < isopropanol < dioxane. The multilayered coatings were developed using layer-by-layer deposition of interpolymer complexes on glass surfaces. It was demonstrated that the solvent nature affects the efficiency of coating deposition. PMID:18980359

  15. Design and synthesis of a new [18F]fluoropyridine-based haloacetamide reagent for the labeling of oligonucleotides: 2-bromo-N-[3-(2-[18F]fluoropyridin-3-yloxy)propyl]acetamide.

    PubMed

    Kuhnast, Bertrand; de Bruin, Béatrice; Hinnen, Françoise; Tavitian, Bertrand; Dollé, Frédéric

    2004-01-01

    Based on the recently highlighted potential of nucleophilic heteroaromatic ortho-radiofluorinations in the preparation of fluorine-18-labeled radiotracers and radiopharmaceuticals for PET, a [(18)F]fluoropyridine-based bromoacetamide reagent has been prepared and used in prosthetic group introduction for the labeling of oligonucleotides. [(18)F]FPyBrA (2-bromo-N-[3-(2-[(18)F]fluoropyridin-3-yloxy)propyl]acetamide) was designed as a radiochemically feasible reagent, its pyridinyl moiety both carrying the radioactive halogen (fluorine-18) and allowing its efficient incorporation via a nucleophilic heteroaromatic substitution, and its 2-bromoacetamide function, ensuring the efficient alkylation of a phosphorothioate monoester group born at the 3'- or 5'-end of single-stranded oligonucleotides. [(18)F]FPyBrA (HPLC-purified) was efficiently prepared in 18-20% non-decay-corrected yield (based on starting [(18)F]fluoride) using a three-step radiochemical pathway in 80-85 min. The developed procedure involves (1) a high-yield nucleophilic heteroaromatic ortho-radiofluorination as the fluorine-18 incorporation-step (70-85% radiochemical yield) and uses [3-(3-tert-butoxycarbonylaminopropoxy)pyridin-2-yl]trimethylammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate as precursor for labeling, followed by (2) rapid and quantitative TFA-removal of the N-Boc-protective group and (3) condensation with 2-bromoacetyl bromide (45-65% radiochemical yield). Typically, 3.3-3.7 GBq (90-100 mCi) of HPLC-purified [(18)F]FPyBrA could be obtained in 80-85 min, starting from 18.5 GBq (500 mCi) of a cyclotron production batch of [(18)F]fluoride. [(18)F]FPyBrA was regioselectively conjugated with 9-mer and 18-mer single-stranded oligonucleotides, provided with a phosphorothioate monoester group at their 3'-end. Both natural phosphodiester DNAs and in vivo-stable 2'-methoxy and -fluoro-modified RNAs were used. Conjugation uses optimized, short-time reaction conditions (MeOH/0.1 M PBS pH 7.4, 15 min, 120 degrees C), both compatible with the chemical stability of the oligonucleotides (ONs) and the half-life of fluorine-18. Conjugated [(18)F]ONs were finally purified by RP-HPLC and desalted using a Sephadex NAP-10 column. The whole radiosynthetic procedure, including the preparation of the fluorine-18-labeled reagent, the conjugation with the oligonucleotide, and the HPLC purification and formulation lasted 140-160 min. [(18)F]FPyBrA represents a valuable alternative to the already reported N-(4-[(18)F]fluorobenzyl)-2-bromoacetamide for the design and development of oligonucleotide-based radiopharmaceuticals for PET. PMID:15149190

  16. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  17. New bioactive fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octad...

  18. New Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecen...

  19. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH

  20. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, R.H.; Boyle, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Acid rain, says Boyle is a chemical leprosy eating into the face of North America and Europe, perhaps the major ecological problem of our time. Boyle describes the causes and scope of the phenomenon; the effects on man, wildlife, water, and our cultural heritage. He probes the delays of politicians and the frequent self-serving arguments advanced by industry in the face of what scientists have proved. The solutions he offers are to strengthen the Clean Air Act and require emission reductions that can be accomplished by establishing emission standards on a regional or bubble basis, burn low-sulfur coal, install scrubbers at critical plants, and invest in alternative energy sources. 73 references, 1 figure.

  1. Cocrystals and alloys of nitazoxanide: enhanced pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Kuthuru; Mannava, M K Chaitanya; Nangia, Ashwini

    2016-03-01

    Two isomorphous cocrystals of nitazoxanide (NTZ) with p-aminosalicylic acid (PASA) and p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) as well as their alloys were prepared by slurry and grinding techniques. The cocrystals exhibit faster dissolution rates and higher pharmacokinetic properties compared to the reference drug, and surprisingly the cocrystal alloy NTZ-PABA : NTZ-PASA (0.75 : 0.25) exhibited 4 fold higher bioavailability of NTZ in Sprague Dawley rats. This study opens the opportunity for cocrystal alloys as improved medicines. PMID:26911515

  2. Synthesis and biological evaluation of quinic acid derivatives as anti-inflammatory agents.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Kui; Thompson, Karin Emmons; Yates, Charles R; Miller, Duane D

    2009-09-15

    Quinic acid (QA) esters found in hot water extracts of Uncaria tomentosa (a.k.a. cat's claw) exert anti-inflammatory activity through mechanisms involving inhibition of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB). Herein, we describe the synthesis and biological testing of novel QA derivatives. Inhibition of NF-kappaB was assessed using A549 (Type II alveolar epithelial-like) cells that stably express a secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter driven by an NF-kappaB response element. A549-NF-kappaB cells were stimulated with TNF-alpha (10 ng/mL) in the presence or absence of QA derivative for 18 hours followed by measurement of SEAP activity. Amide substitution at the carboxylic acid position yielded potent inhibitors of NF-kappaB. A variety of modifications to the amide substitution were tolerated with the N-propyl amide derivative being the most potent. Further examination of the SAR demonstrated that acetylation of the hydroxyl groups reduced NF-kappaB inhibitory activity. QA amide derivatives lacked anti-oxidant activity and were found to be neither anti-proliferative nor cytotoxic at concentrations up to 100 microM. In conclusion, we have discovered a novel series of non-toxic QA amides that potently inhibit NF-kappaB, despite their lack of anti-oxidant activity. Mechanistic studies and pre-clinical efficacy studies in various inflammatory animal models are on-going. PMID:19674895

  3. The furan fatty acid metabolite CMPF is elevated in diabetes and induces β cell dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Kacey J; Luu, Lemieux; Allister, Emma M; Liu, Ying; Jun, Lucy S; Sloop, Kyle W; Hardy, Alexandre B; Wei, Li; Jia, Weiping; Fantus, I George; Sweet, Douglas H; Sweeney, Gary; Retnakaran, Ravi; Dai, Feihan F; Wheeler, Michael B

    2014-04-01

    Gestational diabetes (GDM) results from failure of the β cells to adapt to increased metabolic demands; however, the cause of GDM and the extremely high rate of progression to type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unknown. Using metabolomics, we show that the furan fatty acid metabolite 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropanoic acid (CMPF) is elevated in the plasma of humans with GDM, as well as impaired glucose-tolerant and T2D patients. In mice, diabetic levels of plasma CMPF induced glucose intolerance, impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and decreased glucose utilization. Mechanistically, we show that CMPF acts directly on the β cell, causing impaired mitochondrial function, decreasing glucose-induced ATP accumulation, and inducing oxidative stress, resulting in dysregulation of key transcription factors and ultimately reduced insulin biosynthesis. Importantly, specifically blocking its transport through OAT3 or antioxidant treatment could prevent CMPF-induced β cell dysfunction. Thus, CMPF provides a link between β cell dysfunction and GDM/T2D that could be targeted therapeutically. PMID:24703697

  4. Rapid Stimulation of 5-Lipoxygenase Activity in Potato by the Fungal Elicitor Arachidonic Acid 1

    PubMed Central

    Bostock, Richard M.; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Choi, Doil; Ricker, Karin E.; Ward, Bernard L.

    1992-01-01

    The activity of lipoxygenase (LOX) in aged potato tuber discs increased by almost 2-fold following treatment of the discs with the fungal elicitor arachidonic acid (AA). Enzyme activity increased above that in untreated discs within 30 min after AA treatment, peaked at 1 to 3 h, and returned to near control levels by 6 h. The majority of the activity was detected in a soluble fraction (105,000g supernatant), but a minor portion was also associated with a particulate fraction enriched in microsomal membranes (105,000g pellet); both activities were similarly induced. 5-Hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid was the principal product following incubation of these extracts with AA. Antibodies to soybean LOX strongly reacted with a protein with a molecular mass of approximately 95-kD present in both soluble and particulate fractions whose abundance generally corresponded with LOX activity in extracts. LOX activity was not enhanced by treatment of the discs with nonelicitor fatty acids or by branched ?-glucans from the mycelium of Phytophthora infestans. Prior treatment of the discs with abscisic acid, salicylhydroxamic acid, or n-propyl gallate, all of which have been shown to suppress AA induction of the hypersensitive response, inhibited the AA-induced increment in LOX activity. Cycloheximide pretreatment, which abolishes AA elicitor activity for other responses such as phytoalexin induction, did not inhibit LOX activity in water- or elicitor-treated discs but enhanced activity similar to that observed by AA treatment. The elicitor-induced increase in 5-LOX activity preceded or temporally paralleled the induction of other studied responses to AA, including the accumulation of mRNAs for 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase reported here. The results are discussed in relation to the proposed role of the 5-LOX in signal-response coupling of arachidonate elicitation of the hypersensitive response. Images Figure 4 Figure 7 PMID:16653144

  5. The role of hydroxyl group acidity on the activity of silica-supported secondary amines for the self-condensation of n-butanal.

    PubMed

    Shylesh, Sankaranarayanapillai; Hanna, David; Gomes, Joseph; Canlas, Christian G; Head-Gordon, Martin; Bell, Alexis T

    2015-02-01

    The catalytic activity of secondary amines supported on mesoporous silica for the self-condensation of n-butanal to 2-ethylhexenal can be altered significantly by controlling the Brønsted acidity of M--OH species present on the surface of the support. In this study, M--OH (M=Sn, Zr, Ti, and Al) groups were doped onto the surface of SBA-15, a mesoporous silica, prior to grafting secondary propyl amine groups on to the support surface. The catalytic activity was found to depend critically on the synthesis procedure, the nature and amount of metal species introduced and the spatial separation between the acidic sites and amine groups. DFT analysis of the reaction pathway indicates that, for weak Brønsted acid groups, such as Si--OH, the rate-limiting step is C--C bond formation, whereas for stronger Brønsted acid groups, such as Ti and Al, hydrolysis of iminium species produced upon C--C bond formation is the rate-limiting step. Theoretical analysis shows further that the apparent activation energy decreases with increasing Brønsted acidity of the M--OH groups, consistent with experimental observation. PMID:25314616

  6. Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxygenated fatty acids are useful as specialty chemicals, plasticizers, and biomedicals. Microbial enzymes convert fatty acids to mono-, di-, and trihydroxy fatty acid products. Among them, Bacillus megaterium ALA2 converted n-6 and n-3 PUFAs to many new oxygenated fatty acids. Linoleic acid was ...

  7. Synthesis of highly phosphonic acid functionalized benzene-bridged periodic mesoporous organosilicas for use as efficient dye adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Deka, Juti Rani; Liu, Chia-Ling; Wang, Tzu-Hua; Chang, Wei-Chieh; Kao, Hsien-Ming

    2014-08-15

    Periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMOs) with benzene bridging groups in the silica wall were functionalized with a tunable content of phosphonic acid groups. These bifunctional materials were synthesized by co-condensation of two different organosilane precursors, that is, 1,4-bis(triethoxysilyl)benzene (BTEB) and sodium 3-(trihydroxysilyl)propyl methyl phosphate (SPMP), under acidic conditions using nonionic surfactant Brij-S10 as template. The materials exhibited well-ordered mesostructures and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen sorption, TEM, TGA, FTIR, and solid-state NMR measurements. The materials thus obtained were employed as adsorbents to remove different types of dyes, for example, cationic dyes methylene blue and phenosafranine, anionic orange II, and amphoteric rhodamine B, from aqueous solutions. The materials exhibited a remarkably high adsorption capacity than activated carbon due to their ordered mesostructures, a large number of phosphonic acid groups, and high surface areas. The adsorption was mainly governed by electrostatic interaction, but also involved π-π stacking interaction as well as hydrogen bonding. The adsorption kinetics can be better fitted by the pseudo-second order model. The adsorption process was controlled by the mechanisms of external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion. The materials retained more than 97% dye removal efficiency after use for five consecutive cycles. PMID:25010459

  8. Contact sensitizers modulate the arachidonic acid metabolism of PMA-differentiated U-937 monocytic cells activated by LPS.

    PubMed

    Del Bufalo, Aurélia; Bernad, José; Dardenne, Christophe; Verda, Denis; Meunier, Jean Roch; Rousset, Françoise; Martinozzi-Teissier, Silvia; Pipy, Bernard

    2011-10-01

    For the effective induction of a hapten-specific T cell immune response toward contact sensitizers, in addition to covalent-modification of skin proteins, the redox and inflammatory statuses of activated dendritic cells are crucial. The aim of this study was to better understand how sensitizers modulate an inflammatory response through cytokines production and COX metabolism cascade. To address this purpose, we used the human monocytic-like U-937 cell line differentiated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and investigated the effect of 6 contact sensitizers (DNCB, PPD, hydroquinone, propyl gallate, cinnamaldehyde and eugenol) and 3 non sensitizers (lactic acid, glycerol and tween 20) on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and on the arachidonic acid metabolic profile after bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Our results showed that among the tested molecules, all sensitizers specifically prevent the production of PMA/LPS-induced COX-2 metabolites (PGE(2,) TxB(2) and PGD(2)), eugenol and cinnamaldehyde inhibiting also the production of IL-1β and TNF-α. We further demonstrated that there is no unique PGE(2) inhibition mechanism: while the release of arachidonic acid (AA) from membrane phospholipids does not appear do be a target of modulation, COX-2 expression and/or COX-2 enzymatic activity are the major steps of prostaglandin synthesis that are inhibited by sensitizers. Altogether these results add a new insight into the multiple biochemical effects described for sensitizers. PMID:21807015

  9. Formation of a liquid organic ion associate in aqueous solution and its application to the GF-AAS determination of trace cadmium in environmental water as a complex with 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-(N-propyl-N-sulfopropylamino)phenol.

    PubMed

    Hata, Noriko; Hieda, Shiho; Yamada, Mika; Yasui, Rie; Kuramitz, Hideki; Taguchi, Shigeru

    2008-07-01

    The formation of a liquid organic ion associate in an aqueous sample was applied to the concentration and determination of cadmium in environmental water samples. Cadmium was converted into a complex with 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-(N-propyl-N-sulfopropylamino)phenol (5-Br-PAPS) in a 40-mL sample solution, and was extracted into a liquid ion associate of phenolsulfonate and benzethonium during phase formation. More than 400-fold enrichment was easily attained by this technique, because the volume of the liquid organic phase formed was very small, ca. 2 microL. After dilution of the organic phase with a small volume of 2-methoxyethanol, the cadmium in the solution was determined by GF-AAS. The detection limit was 0.09 ng/L (3sigma(b)). This method was applied to the determination of cadmium in river water and seawater. PMID:18614838

  10. Catalyst-substrate adducts in asymmetric catalytic hydrogenation. Crystal and molecular structure of (((R,R)-1,2-bis(phenyl-o-anisoylphosphino)ethane)(methyl (Z)-. beta. -propyl-. alpha. -acetamidoacrylate))rhodium tetrafluoroborate, (Rh(DIPAMP)(MPAA))BF sub 4

    SciTech Connect

    McCulloch, B.; Halpern, J. ); Thompson, M.R. ); Landis, C.R. )

    1990-05-01

    (Rh(R,R-DIPAMP)(MeOH){sub 2}){sup +} (DIPAMP = 1,2-bis(phenyl-o-anisoylphosphino)ethane), which serves as an asymmetric hydrogenation catalyst for enamides, reacts with methyl (Z)-{beta}-propyl-{alpha}-acetamidoacrylate (MPAA) to form the 1:1 adduct, (Rh(R,R-DIPAMP)(MPAA)){sup +} (1), with a binding constant of 1.4 {times} 10{sup 4} M{sup {minus}1} at 25{degree}C. Crystals of the BF{sub 4} salt of the predominant diastereomer of 1 were isolated and subjected to single-crystal X-ray analysis. The structure of 1 resembles those deduced previously for rhodium ((1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane)(methyl(Z)-{alpha}-acetamidocinnamate))tetrafluoroborate and rhodium ((2S,3S)-2,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)butane(ethyl (Z)-{alpha}-acetamideocinnamate)) perchlorate.

  11. Synthesis, in Vitro, and in Vivo Biological Evaluation and Molecular Docking Analysis of Novel 3-(3-oxo-substitutedphenyl-3-)4-(2-(piperidinyl)ethoxy)phenyl)propyl)-2H-chromen-2-one Derivatives as Anti-breast Cancer Agents.

    PubMed

    Dube, Pritam N; Waghmare, Madhuri N; Mokale, Santosh N

    2016-04-01

    The analogs of coumarin-chalcones have been reported to exhibit antineoplastic, anti-allergic, antihepatoprotective, and estrogenic activity. Herein, we have reported 3-(3-oxo-substitutedphenyl-3-)4-(2-(piperidinyl)ethoxy)phenyl)propyl)-2H-chromen-2-one derivatives as a new class of compounds that exhibit selectivity for ER-α binding along with antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity on human breast cancer cell line. The active compounds which show prominent activity against estrogen receptor-alpha-positive (ER+) human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and Zr-75-1 are subjected to in vivo screening. The Glide XP docking was performed for designed scaffold to optimize its structural requirement for ER-α inhibition. PMID:26643017

  12. Uric acid test (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  13. Tentative Method for the Qualitative Detection and Quantitative Assessment of Air Contamination by Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Buogo, A.; Eboli, V.

    1972-01-01

    A method for detecting and measuring air contamination by drugs is described which uses an electrostatic bacterial air sampler, sprayers for micronizing drugs, and Mueller-Hinton medium seeded with a highly susceptible strain of Sarcina lutea. Three antibiotics (penicillin, tetracycline, aminosidine) and a sulfonamide (sulfapyrazine) were identified by pretreating portions of medium, showing no bacterial growth, with penicillinase or p-aminobenzoic acid solution and subsequently determining how both drug- susceptible and drug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus were affected by this pretreatment. Quantitative determinations were also attempted by measuring the size of the inhibition zones. Images PMID:4483536

  14. N-[[(Mercaptoacetyl)amino]benzoyl]glycines as mucolytic agents.

    PubMed

    Martin, T A; Comer, W T

    1985-07-01

    m- and p-aminobenzoic acids were converted to the title compounds by sequential use of ClCH2COCl, SOCl2, glycine methyl or ethyl ester, AcSK, and hydrolysis. The title compounds and a number of salts were compared for mucolytic activity, toxicity, stability, and hygroscopicity. When compared to N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), the compounds exhibit several times the in vitro mucolytic activity of NAC on a molar basis. The most promising candidate appears to be the sodium salt 3.5H2O 2 of the meta series. PMID:4009614

  15. Synthesis and theoretical calculations of carbazole substituted chalcone urea derivatives and studies their polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Nixha, Arleta Rifati; Arslan, Mustafa; Atalay, Yusuf; Gençer, Nahit; Ergün, Adem; Arslan, Oktay

    2013-08-01

    Synthesis of carbazole substituted chalcone urea derivatives and their polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity effects on the diphenolase activity of banana tyrosinase were evaluated. Tyrosinase has been purified from banana on an affinity gel comprised of Sepharose 4B-L-tyrosine-p-aminobenzoic acid. The results showed that most of the compounds (3,4,5a,5d-h) inhibited and some of them (5c,5i-l) activated the tyrosinase enzyme activity. The molecular calculations were performed using Gaussian software for the synthesized compounds to explain the experimental results. PMID:22803668

  16. [The PABA test].

    PubMed

    Müller, G; Biering, A; Graubaum, K; Jeschkeit, H; Neubert, K; Kleine, R; Klapperstück, M

    1984-01-01

    PABA test has proved to be an easy and reliable test for determination of exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. N-benzoyl-L-tyrosyl-p-aminobenzoic acid or 4-(N-acetyl-L-tyrosyl) aminobenzoic acid are split by action of chymotrypsin in the small intestine. N.O-diacetyl-L-tyrosyl-p-aminobenzoic acid is converted easy in vivo in 4(N-acetyl-L-tyrosyl) aminobenzoic acid. The amount of 4-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) in urine collected for 6-10 hours is used as an index of chymotrypsin production. The concentration of PABA (and aromatic amines) is estimated in urine by the Bratton and Marshall method. p-dimethylamino cinnamaldehyde is less useful for the determination of urinary PABA. 60 min are necessary as time for acid hydrolysis of conjugated PABA metabolites. False abnormal test results are found for instance in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, small bowel resection, impaired liver function, anorexia nervosa, lambliasis or renal insufficiency. The PABA test appears in consideration of these restrictions to be an useful simple method in the assessment of exocrine pancreatic function. PMID:6334604

  17. Amine-modified SBA-15 and MCF mesoporous molecular sieves as promising sorbents for natural antioxidant. Modeling of caffeic acid adsorption.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Michał; Geszke-Moritz, Małgorzata

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a detailed study of caffeic acid adsorption on mesoporous SBA-15 and MCF silicas functionalized with (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES) and 3-[2-(aminoethylamino)propyl]trimethoxysilane (AEAPTMS). Synthesized mesoporous adsorbents were characterized using different analytical techniques such as N2 sorption, XRD, TEM, SEM and FT-IR. The adsorption studies of caffeic acid were conducted in various organic solvents. Moreover, the effect of water content in 2-propanol-water mixture on adsorption efficiency was investigated. The experimental data were best fitted to the Langmuir equation, followed by the Temkin, Dubinin-Radushkevich and Freundlich models. The maximum adsorption capacity values calculated from the Langmuir model demonstrated that SBA-15 and MCF silicas modified with AEAPTMS revealed better adsorption properties toward caffeic acid (192.3 and 161.3mg/g, respectively) as compared to the materials modified with APTES (125.0 and 113.6mg/g, respectively). The obtained results indicate that both SBA-15 and MCF silicas functionalized with AEAPTMS and APTES are promising materials for the entrapment of caffeic acid. PMID:26838867

  18. Cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of novel ganoderic acid derivatives on human cervical cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ru-Ming; Li, Ying-Bo; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

    2012-04-15

    Ganoderic acid T, a triterpenic acid produced by Ganoderma lucidum, has demonstrated therapeutic potential for tumor disease. In the current work, ganoderic acid T was modified to produce more effective small-molecule inhibitors of cancer cell proliferation. Moreover, the anticancer effects of three new ganoderic acid T derivatives, i.e., (22S,24E)-3α,15α,22-triacetoxy-5α-lanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-26-oic acid ethyl ester (TLTO-Ee), (22S,24E)-3α,15α,22-triacetoxy-5α-lanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-26-oic acid propyl ester (TLTO-Pe), and (22S,24E)-3α,15α,22-triacetoxy-5α-lanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-26-oic acid amide (TLTO-A), and one known derivative, (22S,24E)-3α,15α,22-triacetoxy-5α-lanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-26-oic acid methyl ester (TLTO-Me), on the cervical cell line HeLa were investigated and compared. MTT assay indicated that, among the tested compounds, TLTO-A displayed the highest inhibitory effect on the growth of HeLa cells, whereas it showed less cytotoxicity to the non-tumorous cell line MCF-10A than ganoderic acid T. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that all the compounds caused cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, they decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential and enhanced the activities of pro-apoptotic factors caspase-3 and caspase-9 in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, the apoptosis induction was presumed to occur through the endogenous pathway. The following order ranks both cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of the compounds against HeLa cells: TLTO-A>ganoderic acid T≈TLTO-Me≈TLTO-Ee≈TLTO-Pe. This study suggests that the carboxyl group of ganoderic acid T is not the main active group and is suitable for its further structural modification. The current work presents valuable information on the design of ganoderic acid T derivatives to develop potential chemotherapy agents. PMID:22366428

  19. Acid tolerance in amphibians

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, B.A.

    1985-04-01

    Studies of amphibian acid tolerance provide information about the potential effects of acid deposition on amphibian communities. Amphibians as a group appear to be relatively acid tolerant, with many species suffering increased mortality only below pH 4. However, amphibians exhibit much intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, and some species are sensitive to even low levels of acidity. Furthermore, nonlethal effects, including depression of growth rates and increases in developmental abnormalities, can occur at higher pH.

  20. NIACIN REQUIREMENT FOR SPORULATION OF PHYSARUM POLYCEPHALUM

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, John W.; Rusch, Harold P.

    1962-01-01

    Daniel, John W. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis.) and Harold P. Rusch. Niacin requirement for sporulation of Physarum polycephalum. J. Bacteriol. 83:1244–1250. 1962.—The myxomycete Physarum polycephalum undergoes sexual sporulation if exposed to light after 4 days of incubation in the dark on a salts medium containing niacin, niacinamide, or tryptophan. None of these compounds is required for growth. Quinic acid, shikimic acid, intermediates of the kynurenine pathway, diphosphopyridine nucleotide (DPN), and triphosphopyridine nucleotide (TPN) replace niacin but a number of other tryptophan metabolites do not. Analogues of niacin inhibit sporulation when added at the beginning but not at the end of dark incubation with niacin. Folic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid, and p-aminobenzenesulfonamide inhibit sporulation if added at any time during the incubation or illumination periods. Reduced di- or triphosphopyridine nucleotide, but not DPN or TPN, reverse the p-aminobenzoic acid inhibition but do not replace the light requirement or shorten the dark incubation period. Gluconate and 2-ketogluconate also replace niacin. Glucose, pyruvate, malate, and oxalacetate inhibit the niacin-induced sporulation. Iodoacetate and fluoride do not counteract the glucose effect or inhibit sporulation. PMID:13883385

  1. Niacin requirement for sporulation of Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed

    DANIEL, J W; RUSCH, H P

    1962-06-01

    Daniel, John W. (University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis.) and Harold P. Rusch. Niacin requirement for sporulation of Physarum polycephalum. J. Bacteriol. 83:1244-1250. 1962.-The myxomycete Physarum polycephalum undergoes sexual sporulation if exposed to light after 4 days of incubation in the dark on a salts medium containing niacin, niacinamide, or tryptophan. None of these compounds is required for growth. Quinic acid, shikimic acid, intermediates of the kynurenine pathway, diphosphopyridine nucleotide (DPN), and triphosphopyridine nucleotide (TPN) replace niacin but a number of other tryptophan metabolites do not. Analogues of niacin inhibit sporulation when added at the beginning but not at the end of dark incubation with niacin. Folic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid, and p-aminobenzenesulfonamide inhibit sporulation if added at any time during the incubation or illumination periods. Reduced di- or triphosphopyridine nucleotide, but not DPN or TPN, reverse the p-aminobenzoic acid inhibition but do not replace the light requirement or shorten the dark incubation period. Gluconate and 2-ketogluconate also replace niacin. Glucose, pyruvate, malate, and oxalacetate inhibit the niacin-induced sporulation. Iodoacetate and fluoride do not counteract the glucose effect or inhibit sporulation. PMID:13883385

  2. Mediation of oviposition responses in the malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi Liston by certain fatty acid esters.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Kavita R; Seenivasagan, T; Rao, A N; Ganesan, K; Agrawal, O P; Prakash, Shri

    2009-01-01

    The chemical factors involved in oviposition site selection by mosquitoes have become the focus of interest in recent years, and considerable attention is paid to the chemical cues influencing mosquito oviposition. Studies on synthetic oviposition attractants/repellents of long-chain fatty acid esters against Anopheles stephensi are limited. Screening and identification of chemicals which potentially attract/repel the gravid females to/or from oviposition site could be exploited for eco-friendly mosquito management strategies. The ester compounds demonstrated their ability to repel and attract the gravid A. stephensi females in the treated substrates. Significant level of concentration-dependent negative oviposition response of mosquitoes to octadecyl propanoate, heptadecyl butanoate, hexadecyl pentanoate, and tetradecyl heptanoate were observed. In contrast, decyl undecanoate, nonyl dodecanoate, pentyl hexadecanoate, and propyl octadecanoate elicited concentration-dependent positive oviposition responses from the gravid mosquitoes. Forcing a female to retain her eggs due to unavailability of a suitable oviposition site and attracting them to lay the eggs in a baited ovitraps shall ensure effective control of mosquito breeding and population buildup because the oviposition bioassay target the most susceptible stage of an insect life cycle. Treating relatively smaller natural breeding sites with an effective repellent and placing ovitraps containing an attractant in combination with insect-growth regulator (IGR)/insecticide would be a promising method of mosquito management. PMID:18795330

  3. Anti-HSV-1 and anti-HIV-1 activity of gallic acid and pentyl gallate.

    PubMed

    Kratz, Jadel Müller; Andrighetti-Fröhner, Carla Regina; Kolling, Deise Juliana; Leal, Paulo César; Cirne-Santos, Cláudio César; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; Nunes, Ricardo José; Trybala, Edward; Bergström, Tomas; Frugulhetti, Izabel C P P; Barardi, Célia Regina Monte; Simões, Cláudia Maria Oliveira

    2008-08-01

    The synthetic n-alkyl esters of gallic acid (GA), also known as gallates, especially propyl, octyl and dodecyl gallates, are widely employed as antioxidants by food and pharmaceutical industries. The inhibitory effects of GA and 15 gallates on Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV-1) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) replication were investigated here. After a preliminary screening of these compounds, GA and pentyl gallate (PG) seemed to be the most active compounds against HSV-1 replication and their mode of action was characterized through a set of assays, which attempted to localize the step of the viral multiplication cycle where impairment occurred. The detected anti-HSV-1 activity was mediated by the inhibition of virus attachment to and penetration into cells, and by virucidal properties. Furthermore, an anti-HIV-1 activity was also found, to different degrees. In summary, our results suggest that both compounds could be regarded as promising candidates for the development of topical anti-HSV-1 agents, and further studies concerning the anti-HIV-1 activity of this group of molecules are merited. PMID:18797755

  4. Fast capillary electrochromatographic analysis of parabens and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in drugs and cosmetics.

    PubMed

    De Rossi, Antonella; Desiderio, Claudia

    2002-09-01

    A fast capillary electrochromatographic method was developed for the analysis of paraben preservatives in drugs and cosmetics in the presence of their main metabolite and/or impurity, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. The separation was optimized in a 75 num ID capillary, fully packed with 5 num C18 stationary phase, studying the effects of mobile phase pH and composition (buffer type and organic solvent content). The mobile phase 5 mM ammonium formate, pH 3.0, containing 65% acetonitrile allowed us to obtain the baseline separation of methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl-, and benzylparabens from a mixture in less than 2.5 min with repeatability and linearity using the short-end injection method (8 cm separation capillary effective length). Under the optimum experimental conditions, the method provided high separation efficiency for parabens, in the range of 129 312-140 325 number of theoretical plates per meter, and analyte quantitation limits (LOQs) in the range of 1.25-2.50 nug/mL. The method was successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of paraben preservatives in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industrial samples with direct injection or after reduced sample pretreatment. PMID:12373771

  5. Dialkylmethyl-2-(N,N-diisobutyl)acetamidoammonium iodide as a ruthenium selective ligand from nitric acid medium.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shikha; Ghosh, Sunil K; Sharma, Joti N

    2015-09-15

    A new class of quaternary ammonium iodide based ligands with 2-(N,N-diisobutyl)acetamide as an alkyl appendage have been designed, synthesized and tested for their ability to extract ruthenium selectively from nitric acid medium. The 2-(N,N-diisobutyl)acetamido ammonium iodide with two propyl and a methyl substituents showed best results for the recovery of ruthenium. The optimized concentration of the solvent was found to be 0.2M in 30% isodecyl alcohol/n-dodecane. The stoichiometry of the complex was ascertained by slope analysis method and was found to be 1:1 with respect to ligand L(+)I(-) and Ru(NO)(NO3)3. Ruthenium formed an adduct of structure LRu(NO)(NO3)3 I in the extraction medium. Iodide ion played an important role in the formation of the stable and extractable complex of ruthenium. No extraction was observed when iodide was replaced by nitrate anion in the ligand. The ligand also showed good selectivity for ruthenium in the presence of other metal ions commonly found in nitric acid solutions of nuclear waste. PMID:25863580

  6. Synthesis and evaluation of novel [alpha]-heteroaryl-phenylpropanoic acid derivatives as PPAR[alpha/gamma] dual agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Casimiro-Garcia, Agustin; Bigge, Christopher F.; Davis, Jo Ann; Padalino, Teresa; Pulaski, James; Ohren, Jeffrey F.; McConnell, Patrick; Kane, Christopher D.; Royer, Lori J.; Stevens, Kimberly A.; Auerbach, Bruce; Collard, Wendy; McGregor, Christine; Song, Kun; Pfizer

    2010-09-27

    The synthesis of a new series of phenylpropanoic acid derivatives incorporating an heteroaryl group at the {alpha}-position and their evaluation for binding and activation of PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} are presented in this report. Among the new compounds, (S)-3-{l_brace}4-[3-(5-methyl-2-phenyl-oxazol-4-yl)-propyl]-phenyl{r_brace}-2-1,2,3-triazol-2-yl-propionic acid (17j), was identified as a potent human PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} dual agonist (EC{sub 50} = 0.013 and 0.061 {micro}M, respectively) with demonstrated oral bioavailability in rat and dog. 17j was shown to decrease insulin levels, plasma glucose, and triglycerides in the ZDF female rat model. In the human apolipoprotein A-1/CETP transgenic mouse model 17j produced increases in hApoA1 and HDL-C and decreases in plasma triglycerides. The increased potency for binding and activation of both PPAR subtypes observed with 17j when compared to previous analogs in this series was explained based on results derived from crystallographic and modeling studies.

  7. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  8. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few

  9. Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Hyperbaric Oxygen I. Sulfonamide Activity Enhancement and Reversal

    PubMed Central

    Pakman, Leonard M.

    1971-01-01

    To elucidate an explanation for in vitro sulfonamide enhancement by high-pressure oxygen (HPO) and the reported absence of enhancement with in vivo therapy, Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultures were exposed to selected antifolate antimicrobials in the presence of 1.87 atm absolute of O2 and compared with non-HPO treated controls. Under these conditions, HPO alone retarded growth. Trimethoprim, a non-sulfonamide which inhibits dihydrofolate reductase, was not bactericidal, nor did HPO enhance existent bacteriostatic activity. The sulfonamide, sulfisozazole, was not bactericidal, but HPO enhanced bacteriostatic activity twofold; bacteriostasis was mitigated in HPO-treated and control cultures by p-aminobenzoate but not by a mixture of compounds involved in folate-mediated “1-C” biosynthesis. Mafenide, a unique sulfonamide, at high concentrations with HPO, was synergistically bactericidal; non-HPO-treated cultures were bacteriostatically inhibited. Bacteriostatic activity of lower mafenide concentrations was also enhanced at least twofold by HPO. These inhibitory effects of mafenide, acting with or without HPO, were mitigated by the above mixture, but not by p-aminobenzoate. This may explain the lack of in vivo HPO-mafenide enhancement in burn-wound sepsis where exudates would contain such a mixture. Lastly, HPO itself was largely bactericidal at 2.87 atm absolute of O2. This was reversed to various degrees by the above mixture, or its components, or by folic, folinic, or p-aminobenzoic acids. These in vitro interactions suggest HPO per se may act at the same site as some sulfonamides to inhibit folate synthesis (not primarily at the dihydrofolate reductase level), or coenzyme functions of folate, or both. PMID:5005304

  10. Antioxidative and melanogenesis-inhibitory activities of caffeoylquinic acids and other compounds from moxa.

    PubMed

    Akihisa, Toshihiro; Kawashima, Kohta; Orido, Masashi; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Ayako; Ogihara, Eri; Fukatsu, Makoto; Tokuda, Harukuni; Fuji, Jizaemon

    2013-03-01

    The MeOH extract of moxa, the processed leaves of Artemisia princeps PAMP. (Asteraceae), exhibited potent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and melanogenesis-inhibitory activity in α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-stimulated B16 melanoma cells. Eight caffeoylquinic acids, 1 and 6-12, five flavonoids, 13-17, two benzoic acid derivatives, 18 and 19, three coumarin derivatives, 20-22, four steroids, 23-26, and six triterpenoids, 27-32, were isolated from the MeOH extract. Upon evaluation of compounds 1, 6-23, and four semisynthetic caffeoylquinic acid esters, 2-5, for their DPPH radical-scavenging activity, 15 compounds, 1-13, 17, and 19, showed potent activities (IC(50) 3.1-16.8 μM). The 15 compounds exhibited, moreover, potent inhibitory activities (51.1-92.5% inhibition) against peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at 10 μg/ml concentration. In addition, when 27 compounds, 1-8, 10, 12, 13, 15-18, 20-25, and 27-32, were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against melanogenesis in α-MSH-stimulated B16 melanoma cells, five caffeoylquinic acids, i.e., chlorogenic acid (1), ethyl chlorogenate (3), propyl chlorogenate (4), isopropyl chlorogenate (5), and butyl chlorogenate (6), along with homoorientin (17) and vanillic acid (18), exhibited inhibitory activities with 33-62% reduction of melanin content at 100 μM concentration with no or almost no toxicity to the cells (89-114% of cell viability at 100 μM). Western blot analysis showed that compound 6 reduced the protein levels of microphtalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosine-related protein 1 (TRP-1), and TRP-2 mostly in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that this compound inhibits melanogenesis on α-MSH-stimulated B16 melanoma cells by, at least in part, inhibiting the expression of MITF, followed by decreasing the expression of tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2. Furthermore, four compounds, 13, 15, 16, and 30, exhibited cytotoxicities against HL60 human leukemia cell line (IC(50) 7.0-11.1 μM), and nine compounds, 14-16, 23, 26-28, 31, and 32, showed inhibitory effects (IC(50) 272-382 mol ratio/32 pmol 12-O-tetradecanoylphohrbol-13-acetate (TPA)) against Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by TPA in Raji cells. PMID:23495149

  11. Acid Functionalized Mesoporous Ordered Materials for the Production of 5-Hydroxymethyfurfural from Carbohydrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisci, Anthony J.

    Solid acid catalysts were designed for the conversion of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Some of the catalysts incorporate thioether groups to promote the tautomerization of fructose to its furanose form, as well as sulfonic acid groups to catalyze its dehydration. A bifunctional silane, 3-((3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl)thio)propane-1-sulfonic acid (TESAS), was designed for incorporation into SBA-15-type silica by co-condensation. To achieve mesopore ordering in the functionalized silica, the standard SBA-15 synthetic protocol was modified, resulting in well-formed hexagonal particles. Functional groups incorporated into mesoporous silica by co-condensation are more robust under the reaction conditions than those grafted onto a non-porous silica. In a variation, the thioether group of TESAS was oxidized by H2O 2 to the sulfone during the synthesis of the modified SBA-15. The materials were tested in batch reactors and compared in the selective dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Compared to benchmark catalysts, the thioether-containing TESAS-SBA-15 showed the highest activity in the dehydration of aqueous fructose, as well as the highest selectivity towards HMF (71 % at 84 % conversion). In addition, the stability of several supported acid catalysts was evaluated in tubular reactors designed to produce 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) continuously. The reactors, packed with the solid catalysts, were operated at 403 K for extended periods, up to 180 h. The behaviors of three propylsulfonic acid-functionalized, ordered porous silicas (one inorganic SBA-15-type silica, and two ethane-bridged SBA-15-type organosilicas) were compared with that of a propylsulfonic acid-modified, non-ordered porous silica. The HMF selectivity of the catalysts with ordered pore structures ranged from 60 to 75 %, while the selectivity of the non-ordered catalyst peaked at 20 %. The latter was also the least stable, deactivating with a first-order rate constant of 0.152 h-1. The organosilicas are more hydrothermally stable and maintained a steady catalytic activity longer than inorganic SBA-15-type silica. The organosilica with an intermediate framework ethane content of 45 mol % was the most stable, with a first-order deactivation rate constant of only 0.012 h-1. Deactivation under flow conditions is caused primarily by hydrolytic cleavage of acid sites, which can be (to some extent) recaptured by the free surface hydroxyl groups of the silica surface.

  12. Determination of total, free and saliva mycophenolic acid with a LC-MS/MS method: application to pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers and renal transplant patients.

    PubMed

    Shen, Bing; Li, Shuijun; Zhang, Yuan; Yuan, Xuelu; Fan, Yu; Liu, Zhihong; Hu, Qiang; Yu, Chen

    2009-10-15

    Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is the active moiety of mycophenoate mofetil (MMF), an ester prodrug widely used as an immunosuppressant. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of MPA is becoming mandatory for transplant patients received MMF therapy in the routine clinical practice because of large individual variability, dose-related toxicity and the risk of acute rejection. In this study, a rapid, sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the quantitative analysis of total and free MPA in plasma and in saliva that uses one identical liquid chromatographic and mass spectrometric condition. Following protein precipitation for total and saliva MPA, and ultrafiltration for free MPA, chromatographic separation was performed on an Allure PFP Propyl analytical column (100 x 2.1 mm, 5 microm, RESTEK Co., Bellefonte, PA, USA) with 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water (45:55, v/v) as the mobile phases. The compounds were quantified by positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, matrix effect, and saliva stability were evaluated during method validation. The validated method was applied to a pharmacokinetic study of MPA after an oral administration of a single 1000 mg of MMF to eight healthy male volunteers and 750 mg bid of MMF to nine renal transplant patients. PMID:19574013

  13. Highly selective and effective solid phase microextraction of benzoic acid esters using ionic liquid functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes-doped polyaniline coating.

    PubMed

    Ai, Youhong; Wu, Mian; Li, Lulu; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao

    2016-03-11

    The present work reports the electrochemical fabrication of an ionic liquid functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes-polyaniline (MWCNT@IL/PANI) nanocomposite coating and its application in the headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography (GC) determination of benzoic acid esters (i.e., methyl benzoate, ethyl benzoate, propyl benzoate and butyl benzoate). The MWCNTs was firstly functionalized with amine-terminated IL (MWCNT@IL) through chemical reduction, and then was doped in PANI during the electropolymerization of aniline. The resulting coating was characterized by infrared spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and thermo gravimetry. It showed net-like structure and had high thermal stability (up to 330°C). Furthermore, it presented high selectivity for the four benzoic acid esters and thus suited for their HS-SPME-GC determination. Results showed that under optimized extraction conditions, the detection limits were less than 6.1ngL(-1) (S/N=3) and the linear detection ranges were 0.012-50μgL(-1) (R≥0.9957) for these analytes. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were lower than 6.4% for five successive measurements with one fiber, and the RSDs for fiber-to-fiber were 4.4-9.6% (n=5). The developed method was successfully applied to the determination of these benzoic acid esters in perfume samples. PMID:26852620

  14. Lactic acid test

    MedlinePlus

    Lactate test ... test. Exercise can cause a temporary increase in lactic acid levels. ... not getting enough oxygen. Conditions that can increase lactic acid levels include: Heart failure Liver disease Lung disease ...

  15. Facts about Folic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners About Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... a woman needs 400 micrograms (mcg) every day. Facts About Folic Acid Download and print this fact ...

  16. Fatty acid analogs

    DOEpatents

    Elmaleh, David R.; Livni, Eli

    1985-01-01

    In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

  17. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  18. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount ... the blood in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications ...

  19. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID

    DOEpatents

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-07-19

    A method is given for the production of improved yields of trifluoroacetic acid. The compound is prepared by oxidizing m-aminobenzotrifluoride with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal permanganate at a temperature in the range of 80 deg C to 100 deg C while dissolved ln a mixture of water with glacial acetic acid and/or trifluoroacetic acid. Preferably a mixture of water and trifluoroacetic acid ls used as the solvent.

  20. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; Broun, Pierre; van de Loo, Frank

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  1. The Acid Rain Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)

  2. What Is Acid Rain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.

  3. The Acid Rain Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  4. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  5. What Is Acid Rain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

  6. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH

  7. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  8. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor L.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  9. Nucleic acid detection assays

    SciTech Connect

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  10. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  11. Editorial: Acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This editorial focuses on acid rain and the history of public and governmental response to acid rain. Comments on a book by Gwineth Howell `Acid Rain and Acid Waters` are included. The editor feels that Howells has provide a service to the environmental scientific community, with a textbook useful to a range of people, as well as a call for decision makers to learn from the acid rain issue and use it as a model for more sweeping global environmental issues. A balance is needed among several parameters such as level of evidence, probability that the evidence will lead to a specific direction and the cost to the global community. 1 tab.

  12. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James L.

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  13. Amino acid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  14. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow; Mary Ann D.; Dahlberg, James E.

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  15. Development of a Highly Potent D2/D3 Agonist and a Partial Agonist from Structure-Activity Relationship Study of N(6)-(2-(4-(1H-Indol-5-yl)piperazin-1-yl)ethyl)-N(6)-propyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[d]thiazole-2,6-diamine Analogues: Implication in the Treatment of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Das, Banibrata; Vedachalam, Seenuvasan; Luo, Dan; Antonio, Tamara; Reith, Maarten E A; Dutta, Aloke K

    2015-12-10

    Our structure-activity relationship studies with N(6)-(2-(4-(1H-indol-5-yl)piperazin-1-yl)ethyl)-N(6)-propyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[d]thiazole-2,6-diamine derivatives led to development of a lead compound (-)-21a which exhibited very high affinity (Ki, D2 = 16.4 nM, D3 = 1.15 nM) and full agonist activity (EC50 (GTPγS); D2 = 3.23 and D3 = 1.41 nM) at both D2 and D3 receptors. A partial agonist molecule (-)-34 (EC50 (GTPγS); D2 = 21.6 (Emax = 27%) and D3 = 10.9 nM) was also identified. In a Parkinson's disease (PD) animal model, (-)-21a was highly efficacious in reversing hypolocomotion in reserpinized rats with a long duration of action, indicating its potential as an anti-PD drug. Compound (-)-34 was also able to elevate locomotor activity in the above PD animal model significantly, implying its potential application in PD therapy. Furthermore, (-)-21a was shown to be neuroprotective in protecting neuronal PC12 from toxicity of 6-OHDA. This report, therefore, underpins the notion that a multifunctional drug like (-)-21a might have the potential not only to ameliorate motor dysfunction in PD patients but also to modify disease progression by protecting DA neurons from progressive degeneration. PMID:26555041

  16. Structural Modifications of Neuroprotective Anti-Parkinsonian (−)-N6-(2-(4-(Biphenyl-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl)-ethyl)-N6-propyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[d]thiazole-2,6-diamine (D-264): An Effort toward the Improvement of in Vivo Efficacy of the Parent Molecule

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In our overall goal to develop multifunctional dopamine D2/D3 agonist drugs for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD), we previously synthesized potent D3 preferring agonist D-264 (1a), which exhibited neuroprotective properties in two animal models of PD. To enhance the in vivo efficacy of 1a, a structure–activity relationship study was carried out. Competitive binding and [35S]GTPγS functional assays identified compound (−)-9b as one of the lead molecules with preferential D3 agonist activity (EC50(GTPγS); D3 = 0.10 nM; D2/D3 (EC50): 159). Compounds (−)-9b and (−)-8b exhibited high in vivo activity in two PD animal models, reserpinized and 6-hydroxydopamine (OHDA)-induced unilateral lesioned rats. On the other hand, 1a failed to show any in vivo activity in these models unless the compound was dissolved in 5–10% beta-hydroxy propyl cyclodextrin solution. Lead compounds exhibited appreciable radical scavenging activity. In vitro experiments with dopaminergic MN9D cells indicated neuroprotection by both 1a and (−)-9b from toxicity of MPP+. PMID:24471976

  17. Enhanced Performance of Inverted Polymer Solar Cells by Combining ZnO Nanoparticles and Poly[(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctyfluorene)] as Electron Transport Layer.

    PubMed

    Han, Changfeng; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Chen, Ling; Qian, Lei; Yang, Ziyan; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Ting; Yang, Yixing; Cao, Weiran

    2016-02-10

    A highly efficient inverted polymer solar cell (PSC) has been successfully demonstrated by using a ZnO nanoparticle (NP) and poly[(9,9-bis(3'-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl)-2,7-fluorene)-alt-2,7-(9,9-dioctyfluorene)] (PFN) bilayer structure as an effective electron collecting layer. This ZnO/PFN bilayer structure is designed to combine the advantages of both ZnO and PFN, based on the performance comparison of ZnO-only, PFN-only, and ZnO/PFN bilayer devices in our work. ZnO NPs can serve as an efficient electron transport and buffer layer for reduced series resistance, while the PFN interlayer can improve the energy level alignment of devices through the formation of an interfacial dipole. With the enhanced electron extraction induced by the ZnO/PFN bilayer structure and PTB7:ICBA:PC71BM ternary system, the corresponding inverted PSC device shows a high PCE of 9.3%, which is more than a 15% improvement compared to the ZnO- or PFN-only devices. PMID:26754052

  18. Nucleic acid detection kits

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  19. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    PubMed

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition. PMID:27175515

  20. Valproic acid in amygdala-kindled rats: alterations in anticonvulsant efficacy, adverse effects and drug and metabolite levels in various brain regions during chronic treatment.

    PubMed

    Löscher, W; Fisher, J E; Nau, H; Hönack, D

    1989-09-01

    Amygdala-kindled rats were treated with valproic acid (VPA; administered as its sodium salt) 3 times daily at 200 mg/kg i.p. for 6 weeks, and anticonvulsant and adverse effects during this period were studied. Groups of nonkindled rats were treated in parallel for determination of VPA and its major active metabolites in various brain regions after different durations of treatment. After the first injection of VPA, 200 mg/kg, seizure severity, seizure duration and duration of electrical afterdischarges recorded from the stimulated amygdala were reduced significantly, but only one of nine animals was protected completely from kindled seizures. At day 3 of chronic treatment, the anticonvulsant activity of VPA had increased markedly so that seven of nine animals were totally protected from seizures. However, this potent anticonvulsant effect was only transitory so that after 1 week of treatment the anticonvulsant effect of the medication was similar to that obtained after the first dosing. The effect of VPA remained at this level for the subsequent weeks, but there was a second, more permanent increase in the number of protected animals after 4 to 6 weeks. Plasma and brain levels of VPA and its metabolites remained relatively constant throughout the chronic treatment although there was a moderate accumulation of some metabolites, e.g., trans isomer of 2-propyl-2-pentenoic acid, in specific brain nuclei. The most prominent adverse effects of VPA were ataxia, muscle relaxation, wet-dog shake behavior and an increase in body temperature. Except for body temperature, tolerance developed to these adverse effects, but escape from wet-dog shake behavior occurred much more rapidly than reduction of other adverse effects. Pathohistological examination of liver sections from animals treated with VPA for 6 weeks showed no indication of any hepatotoxic effects. After drug withdrawal, kindled seizure parameters returned toward control values without evidence of significant carry-over effects. Five days after termination of treatment, only minute amounts of VPA and trans isomer of 2-propyl-2-pentenoic acid were determined in some brain regions, indicating that there was no persistence of active drug or metabolite concentrations in the brain. PMID:2506334

  1. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  2. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  3. Acid-Base Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Nakhoul, Nazih; Hering-Smith, Kathleen S.

    2015-01-01

    Acid-base homeostasis and pH regulation are critical for both normal physiology and cell metabolism and function. The importance of this regulation is evidenced by a variety of physiologic derangements that occur when plasma pH is either high or low. The kidneys have the predominant role in regulating the systemic bicarbonate concentration and hence, the metabolic component of acid-base balance. This function of the kidneys has two components: reabsorption of virtually all of the filtered HCO3− and production of new bicarbonate to replace that consumed by normal or pathologic acids. This production or generation of new HCO3− is done by net acid excretion. Under normal conditions, approximately one-third to one-half of net acid excretion by the kidneys is in the form of titratable acid. The other one-half to two-thirds is the excretion of ammonium. The capacity to excrete ammonium under conditions of acid loads is quantitatively much greater than the capacity to increase titratable acid. Multiple, often redundant pathways and processes exist to regulate these renal functions. Derangements in acid-base homeostasis, however, are common in clinical medicine and can often be related to the systems involved in acid-base transport in the kidneys. PMID:26597304

  4. Effects of luteolin on arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity in human liver tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, J C; Chung, J G; Lin, K M

    2000-01-01

    The human liver tumour cell line (J5) was selected in order to evaluate whether or not luteolin affected arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) activity. Using high performance liquid chromatography, the NAT activity for acetylation of arylamine substrates (2-aminofluorene and p-aminobenzoic acid) was determined. The cytosolic NAT activity in human liver tumour cells was 2.74+/-0.26 and 1.68+/-0.20 nmol/min/mg of protein for 2-aminofluorene and p-aminobenzoic acid, respectively. Luteolin displayed a dose-dependent inhibition to cytosolic NAT activity and intact human liver tumour cells. Time-course experiments showed that NAT activity measured from intact human liver tumour cells was inhibited by luteolin for up to 24 h. Using standard steady-state kinetic analysis, it was shown that luteolin was a possible noncompetitive inhibitor to NAT activity in cytosols. This report is the first to show how luteolin affects NAT activity in human liver tumour cells. PMID:10885506

  5. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  6. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  7. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  8. Cytocompatibility and Mechanical Properties of Short Phosphate Glass Fibre Reinforced Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composites: Effect of Coupling Agent Mediated Interface

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Muhammad Sami; Ahmed, Ifty; Parsons, Andrew; Walker, Gavin; Scotchford, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In this study three chemical agents Amino-propyl-triethoxy-silane (APS), sorbitol ended PLA oligomer (SPLA) and Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) were identified to be used as coupling agents to react with the phosphate glass fibre (PGF) reinforcement and the polylactic acid (PLA) polymer matrix of the composite. Composites were prepared with short chopped strand fibres (l = 20 mm, ϕ = 20 µm) in a random arrangement within PLA matrix. Improved, initial composite flexural strength (~20 MPa) was observed for APS treated fibres, which was suggested to be due to enhanced bonding between the fibres and polymer matrix. Both APS and HDI treated fibres were suggested to be covalently linked with the PLA matrix. The hydrophobicity induced by these coupling agents (HDI, APS) helped to resist hydrolysis of the interface and thus retained their mechanical properties for an extended period of time as compared to non-treated control. Approximately 70% of initial strength and 65% of initial modulus was retained by HDI treated fibre composites in contrast to the control, where only ~50% of strength and modulus was retained after 28 days of immersion in PBS at 37 °C. All coupling agent treated and control composites demonstrated good cytocompatibility which was comparable to the tissue culture polystyrene (TCP) control, supporting the use of these materials as coupling agent’s within medical implant devices. PMID:24955744

  9. Effect of roxatidine bismuth citrate (MX1) against acetylsalicylic acid- and indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Marazova, K; Klouchek, E; Popov, A; Ivanov, C; Krushkov, I; Ichikawa, T; Ishihara, K; Hotta, K

    1998-10-01

    We have studied the effect of the newly synthesized agent, roxatidine bismuth citrate (N-[3-(3-(1-piperidinyl-methyl)phenoxy)propyl]-hydroxyacetamide-2- hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylate-bismuth(3+) complex), code name MX1, against acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)- and indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal damage in rats. Effects of MX1 (12.5, 50, 125, 184, 250 mg/kg) were compared to the effects of equimolar doses of roxatidine and bismuth subcitrate. Effect of MX1 (10(-6) M) on mucin biosynthesis measured by [3H] glucosamine incorporation in rat gastric corpus has been determined. MX1-pretreatment dose-dependently decreased the mean ulcer number and length in all doses used in an extent similar to that of roxatidine and more pronounced in comparison with bismuth subcitrate. The morphometrical results have been confirmed histomorphologically. The biosynthesis of mucin was found to be significantly enhanced after MX1 addition. The results of the present study suggest that MX1 has a gastroprotective effect against ASA- and indomethacin-induced ulcers which might be due both to its H2-blocking and mucus-stimulating activity. PMID:9922982

  10. Biodiesel production by combined fatty acids separation and subsequently enzymatic esterification to improve the low temperature properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Nie, Kaili; Cao, Hao; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei

    2014-12-01

    The poor low-temperature properties of biodiesel, which provokes easy crystallization at low temperature, can cause fuel line plugging and limits its blending amount with petro-diesel. This work aimed to study the production of biodiesel with a new process of improving the low temperature performance of biodiesel. Waste cooking oil was first hydrolyzed into fatty acids (FAs) by 60g immobilized lipase and 240g RO water in 15h. Then, urea complexation was used to divide the FAs into saturated and unsaturated components. The conditions for complexation were: FA-to-urea ratio 1:2 (w/w), methanol to FA ratio 5:1 (v/v), duration 2h. The saturated and unsaturated FAs were then converted to iso-propyl and methyl esters by lipase, respectively. Finally, the esters were mixed together. The CFPP of this mixture was decreased from 5°C to -3°C. Hydrolysis, urea complexation and enzymic catalyzed esterification processes are discussed in this paper. PMID:25441717

  11. Bioactivity Focus of α-Cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) Leads to Effective Multifunctional Aldose Reductase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Laitao; Li, Yi-Fang; Yuan, Sheng; Zhang, Shijie; Zheng, Huanhuan; Liu, Jie; Sun, Pinghua; Gu, Yijun; Kurihara, Hiroshi; He, Rong-Rong; Chen, Heru

    2016-01-01

    Bioactivity focus on α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) scaffold results in a small library of novel multifunctional aldose reductase (ALR2) inhibitors. All the entities displayed good to excellent inhibition with IC50 72–405 nM. (R,E)-N-(3-(2-acetamido-3-(benzyloxy)propanamido)propyl)-2-cyano-3-(4-hydroxy phenyl)acrylamide (5f) was confirmed as the most active inhibitor (IC50 72.7 ± 1.6 nM), and the best antioxidant. 5f bound to ALR2 with new mode without affecting the aldehyde reductase (ALR1) activity, implicating high selectivity to ALR2. 5f was demonstrated as both an effective ALR2 inhibitor (ARI) and antioxidant in a chick embryo model of hyperglycemia. It attenuated hyperglycemia-induced incidence of neural tube defects (NTD) and death rate, and significantly improved the body weight and morphology of the embryos. 5f restored the expression of paired box type 3 transcription factor (Pax3), and reduced the hyperglycemia-induced increase of ALR2 activity, sorbitol accumulation, and the generation of ROS and MDA to normal levels. All the evidences support that 5f may be a potential agent to treat diabetic complications. PMID:27109517

  12. Bioactivity Focus of α-Cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) Leads to Effective Multifunctional Aldose Reductase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Laitao; Li, Yi-Fang; Yuan, Sheng; Zhang, Shijie; Zheng, Huanhuan; Liu, Jie; Sun, Pinghua; Gu, Yijun; Kurihara, Hiroshi; He, Rong-Rong; Chen, Heru

    2016-01-01

    Bioactivity focus on α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA) scaffold results in a small library of novel multifunctional aldose reductase (ALR2) inhibitors. All the entities displayed good to excellent inhibition with IC50 72-405 nM. (R,E)-N-(3-(2-acetamido-3-(benzyloxy)propanamido)propyl)-2-cyano-3-(4-hydroxy phenyl)acrylamide (5f) was confirmed as the most active inhibitor (IC50 72.7 ± 1.6 nM), and the best antioxidant. 5f bound to ALR2 with new mode without affecting the aldehyde reductase (ALR1) activity, implicating high selectivity to ALR2. 5f was demonstrated as both an effective ALR2 inhibitor (ARI) and antioxidant in a chick embryo model of hyperglycemia. It attenuated hyperglycemia-induced incidence of neural tube defects (NTD) and death rate, and significantly improved the body weight and morphology of the embryos. 5f restored the expression of paired box type 3 transcription factor (Pax3), and reduced the hyperglycemia-induced increase of ALR2 activity, sorbitol accumulation, and the generation of ROS and MDA to normal levels. All the evidences support that 5f may be a potential agent to treat diabetic complications. PMID:27109517

  13. Synthesis and Evaluation of Amino Acid-Based Radiotracer 99mTc-N4-AMT for Breast Cancer Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Fan-Lin; Ali, Mohammad S.; Zhang, Yinhan; Oh, Chang-Sok; Yu, Dong-Fang; Chanda, Mithu; Yang, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. This study was to develop an efficient synthesis of 99mTc-O-[3-(1,4,8,11-tetraazabicyclohexadecane)-propyl]-α-methyl tyrosine (99mTc-N4-AMT) and evaluate its potential in cancer imaging. Methods. N4-AMT was synthesized by reacting N4-oxalate and 3-bromopropyl AMT (N-BOC, ethyl ester). In vitro cellular uptake kinetics of 99mTc-N4-AMT was assessed in rat mammary tumor cells. Tissue distribution of the radiotracer was determined in normal rats at 0.5–4 h, while planar imaging was performed in mammary tumor-bearing rats at 30–120 min. Results. The total synthesis yield of N4-AMT was 14%. Cellular uptake of 99mTc-N4-AMT was significantly higher than that of 99mTc-N4. Planar imaging revealed that 99mTc-N4-AMT rendered greater tumor/muscle ratios than 99mTc-N4. Conclusions. N4-AMT could be synthesized with a considerably high yield. Our in vitro and in vivo data suggest that 99mTc-N4-AMT, a novel amino acid-based radiotracer, efficiently enters breast cancer cells, effectively distinguishes mammary tumors from normal tissues, and thus holds the promise for breast cancer imaging. PMID:21541217

  14. THIN-LAYER SEPARATION OF CITRIC ACID CYCLE INTERMEDIATES, LACTIC ACID, AND THE AMINO ACID TAURINE

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes a two-dimensional mixed-layer method for separating citric acid cycle intermediates, lactic acid and the amino acid taurine. The method cleanly separates all citric acid cycle intermediates tested, excepting citric acid and isocitric acid. The solvents are in...

  15. Contact sensitizers modulate the arachidonic acid metabolism of PMA-differentiated U-937 monocytic cells activated by LPS

    SciTech Connect

    Del Bufalo, Aurelia; Bernad, Jose; Dardenne, Christophe; Verda, Denis; Meunier, Jean Roch; Rousset, Francoise; Martinozzi-Teissier, Silvia; Pipy, Bernard

    2011-10-01

    For the effective induction of a hapten-specific T cell immune response toward contact sensitizers, in addition to covalent-modification of skin proteins, the redox and inflammatory statuses of activated dendritic cells are crucial. The aim of this study was to better understand how sensitizers modulate an inflammatory response through cytokines production and COX metabolism cascade. To address this purpose, we used the human monocytic-like U-937 cell line differentiated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and investigated the effect of 6 contact sensitizers (DNCB, PPD, hydroquinone, propyl gallate, cinnamaldehyde and eugenol) and 3 non sensitizers (lactic acid, glycerol and tween 20) on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha}) and on the arachidonic acid metabolic profile after bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Our results showed that among the tested molecules, all sensitizers specifically prevent the production of PMA/LPS-induced COX-2 metabolites (PGE{sub 2,} TxB{sub 2} and PGD{sub 2}), eugenol and cinnamaldehyde inhibiting also the production of IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha}. We further demonstrated that there is no unique PGE{sub 2} inhibition mechanism: while the release of arachidonic acid (AA) from membrane phospholipids does not appear do be a target of modulation, COX-2 expression and/or COX-2 enzymatic activity are the major steps of prostaglandin synthesis that are inhibited by sensitizers. Altogether these results add a new insight into the multiple biochemical effects described for sensitizers. - Highlights: > We investigated how contact sensitizers modulate an inflammatory response. > We used macrophage-differentiated cell line, U-937 treated with PMA/LPS. > Sensitizers specifically inhibit the production of COX metabolites (PGE2, TxB2). > Several mechanisms of inhibition: COX-2 expression/enzymatic activity, isomerases. > New insight in the biochemical properties of sensitizers.

  16. Structure of Acid phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Csar L; Vihko, Pirkko T

    2013-01-01

    Acid phosphatases are enzymes that have been studied extensively due to the fact that their dysregulation is associated with pathophysiological conditions. This characteristic has been exploited for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic methods. As an example, prostatic acid phosphatase was the first marker for metastatic prostate cancer diagnosis and the dysregulation of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase is associated with abnormal bone resorption linked to osteoporosis. The pioneering crystallization studies on prostatic acid phosphatase and mammalian tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase conformed significant milestones towards the elucidation of the mechanisms followed by these enzymes (Schneider et al., EMBO J 12:2609-2615, 1993). Acid phosphatases are also found in nonmammalian species such as bacteria, fungi, parasites, and plants, and most of them share structural similarities with mammalian acid phosphatase enzymes. Acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.2) enzymes catalyze the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters following the general equation. Phosphate monoester + H2O -->/<-- alcohol + phosphate. The general classification "acid phosphatase" relies only on the optimum acidic pH for the enzymatic activity in assay conditions using non-physiological substrates. These enzymes accept a wide range of substrates in vitro, ranging from small organic molecules to phosphoproteins, constituting a heterogeneous group of enzymes from the structural point of view. These structural differences account for the divergence in cofactor dependences and behavior against substrates, inhibitors, and activators. In this group only the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase is a metallo-enzyme whereas the other members do not require metal-ion binding for their catalytic activity. In addition, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and erythrocytic acid phosphatase are not inhibited by L-(+)-tartrate ion while the prostatic acid phosphatase is tartrate-sensitive. This is an important difference that can be exploited in in vitro assays to differentiate between different kinds of phosphatase activity. The search for more sensitive and specific methods of detection in clinical laboratory applications led to the development of radioimmunoassays (RIA) for determination of prostatic acid phosphatase in serum. These methods permit the direct quantification of the enzyme regardless of its activity status. Therefore, an independent structural classification exists that helps to group these enzymes according to their structural features and mechanisms. Based on this we can distinguish the histidine acid phosphatases (Van Etten, Ann N Y Acad Sci 390:27-51, 1982), the low molecular weight protein tyrosine acid phosphatases and the metal-ion dependent phosphatases. A note of caution is worthwhile mentioning here. The nomenclature of acid phosphatases has not been particularly easy for those new to the subject. Unfortunately, the acronym PAP is very common in the literature about purple acid phosphatases and prostatic acid phosphatase. In addition, LPAP is the acronym chosen to refer to the lysophosphatidic acid phosphatase which is a different enzyme. It is important to bear in mind this distinction while reviewing the literature to avoid confusion. PMID:23860654

  17. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Amicar® Injection ... Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type of ... baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  18. Mutant fatty acid desaturase

    DOEpatents

    Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

    2004-02-03

    The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

  19. EXPOSURES TO ACIDIC AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient monitoring of acid aerosol in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. easurements made in Kingston, TN, and Stuebenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H+ ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/m3 more than 10 ti...

  20. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;

  1. Pantothenic acid and biotin

    MedlinePlus

    Pantothenic acid and biotin are types of B vitamins. They are water-soluble, which means that the body can't store them. If ... Pantothenic acid and biotin are needed for growth. They help the body break down and use food. This is called metabolism . They are ...

  2. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl acids

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Perfluoroalkyl acids(PFAAs) area a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perflurinated carbon backbone (4-12in length) and a acidic functional moiety (Carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds have excellent surface-tension reducing properties and have numerous industr...

  3. Analysis of Organic Acids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are the procedures and a discussion of the results for an experiment in which students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol. A table of selected carboxylic acids is included. (CW)

  4. Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl Acids*

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perfluorinated carbon backbone (4-12 in length) and an acidic functional moiety (carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds are chemically stable, have excellent surface-tension reducing properties...

  5. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  6. Fats and fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The absolute fat requirement of the human species is the amount of essential fatty acids needed to maintain optimal fatty acid composition of all tissues and normal eicosanoid synthesis. At most, this requirement is no more than about 5% of an adequate energy intake. However, fat accounts for appro...

  7. Bile acid transporters

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.; Lan, Tian; Rao, Anuradha

    2009-01-01

    In liver and intestine, transporters play a critical role in maintaining the enterohepatic circulation and bile acid homeostasis. Over the past two decades, there has been significant progress toward identifying the individual membrane transporters and unraveling their complex regulation. In the liver, bile acids are efficiently transported across the sinusoidal membrane by the Na+ taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide with assistance by members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide family. The bile acids are then secreted in an ATP-dependent fashion across the canalicular membrane by the bile salt export pump. Following their movement with bile into the lumen of the small intestine, bile acids are almost quantitatively reclaimed in the ileum by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. The bile acids are shuttled across the enterocyte to the basolateral membrane and effluxed into the portal circulation by the recently indentified heteromeric organic solute transporter, OSTα-OSTβ. In addition to the hepatocyte and enterocyte, subgroups of these bile acid transporters are expressed by the biliary, renal, and colonic epithelium where they contribute to maintaining bile acid homeostasis and play important cytoprotective roles. This article will review our current understanding of the physiological role and regulation of these important carriers. PMID:19498215

  8. Proteins and Amino Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins are the most abundant substances in living organisms and cells. All proteins are constructed from the same twenty amino acids that are linked together by covalent bonds. Shorter chains of two or more amino acids can be linked by covalent bonds to form polypeptides. There are twenty amino...

  9. Gas chromatographic determination and mechanism of formation of D-amino acids occurring in fermented and roasted cocoa beans, cocoa powder, chocolate and cocoa shell.

    PubMed

    Pätzold, R; Brückner, H

    2006-07-01

    Fermented cocoa beans of various countries of origin (Ivory Coast, Ghana, Sulawesi), cocoa beans roasted under defined conditions (100-150 degrees C; 30-120 min), low and high fat cocoa powder, various brands of chocolate, and cocoa shells were analyzed for their contents of free L-and D-amino acids. Amino acids were isolated from defatted products using a cation exchanger and converted into volatile N(O)-pentafluoropropionyl amino acid 2-propyl esters which were analyzed by enantioselective gas chromatography mass spectrometry on a Chirasil-L-Val capillary column. Besides common protein L-amino acids low amounts of D-amino acids were detected in fermented cocoa beans. Quantities of D-amino acids increased on heating. On roasting cocoa beans of the Forastero type from the Ivory Coast at 150 degrees C for 2 h, relative quantities of D-amino acids approached 17.0% D-Ala, 11.7% D-Ile, 11.1% D-Asx (Asp + Asn), 7.9% D-Tyr, 5.8% D-Ser, 4.8% D-Leu, 4.3% D-Phe, 37.0% D-Pro, and 1.2% D-Val. In cocoa powder and chocolate relative quantities amounted to 14.5% D-Ala, 10.6% D-Tyr, 9.8% D-Phe, 8.1% L-Asx, and 7.2% D-Ile. Lower quantities of other D-amino acids were also detected. In order to corroborate our hypothesis that D-amino acids are generated from Amadori compounds (fructose amino acids) formed in the course of the Maillard reaction, fructose-L-phenylalanine and fructose-D-phenylalanine were synthesized and heated at 200 degrees C for 5-60 min. Already after 5 min release of 11.7% D-Phe and 11.8% L-Phe in the free form could be analyzed. Based on the data a racemization mechanism is presented founded on the intermediate and reversible formation of an amino acid carbanion in the Amadori compounds. PMID:16733618

  10. Conjugated Fatty Acid Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Rawat, Richa; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Sweet, Marie; Shanklin, John

    2012-01-01

    Conjugated linolenic acids (CLNs), 18:3 ?9,11,13, lack the methylene groups found between the double bonds of linolenic acid (18:3 ?9,12,15). CLNs are produced by conjugase enzymes that are homologs of the oleate desaturases FAD2. The goal of this study was to map the domain(s) within the Momordica charantia conjugase (FADX) responsible for CLN formation. To achieve this, a series of Momordica FADX-Arabidopsis FAD2 chimeras were expressed in the Arabidopsis fad3fae1 mutant, and the transformed seeds were analyzed for the accumulation of CLN. These experiments identified helix 2 and the first histidine box as a determinant of conjugase product partitioning into punicic acid (18:3 ?9cis,11trans,13cis) or ?-eleostearic acid (18:3 ?9cis,11trans,13trans). This was confirmed by analysis of a FADX mutant containing six substitutions in which the sequence of helix 2 and first histidine box was converted to that of FAD2. Each of the six FAD2 substitutions was individually converted back to the FADX equivalent identifying residues 111 and 115, adjacent to the first histidine box, as key determinants of conjugase product partitioning. Additionally, expression of FADX G111V and FADX G111V/D115E resulted in an approximate doubling of eleostearic acid accumulation to 20.4% and 21.2%, respectively, compared with 9.9% upon expression of the native Momordica FADX. Like the Momordica conjugase, FADX G111V and FADX D115E produced predominantly ?-eleostearic acid and little punicic acid, but the FADX G111V/D115E double mutant produced approximately equal amounts of ?-eleostearic acid and its isomer, punicic acid, implicating an interactive effect of residues 111 and 115 in punicic acid formation. PMID:22451660

  11. Synthesis and biological evaluation of the binding of dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist, (R,S)-5-hydroxy-2-(N-propyl-N-(5'-(18)F-fluoropentyl)aminotetralin ((18)F-5-OH-FPPAT) in rodents and nonhuman primates.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bingzhi; Narayanan, Tanjore K; Christian, Bradley T; Chattopadhyay, Sankha; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar

    2004-04-01

    We have synthesized a new fluorinated dopamine D2 receptor agonist, (R,S)-2-(N-propyl-N-5'-fluoropentyl)amino-5-hydroxytetralin (5-OH-FPPAT). The radiosynthesis of the fluorine-18 analog, (18)F-5-OH-FPPAT was achieved in decay corrected yields of 10 to 15% in specific activities of approx. 1.5 to 2 Ci/micromol. In vitro binding and autoradiographic studies of this new radiotracer have been investigated. Using rat striatal homogenate binding assay, 5-OH-FPPAT exhibited an affinity of IC(50) = 6.95 nM. The octanol-buffer partition coefficient, Log P was found to be 1.60. In vitro autoradiographs in rat brain slices with (18)F-5-OH-FPPAT revealed selective binding to the dopaminergic regions in the striata that was displaceable by sulpiride. This selective binding to the striata was also removed in the presence of the GTP analog, 5'-guanylylimidodiphosphate, indicative of predominant binding of (18)F-5-OH-FPPAT to the high-affinity state of the D2 receptor. In vivo regional distribution of (18)F-5-OH-FPPAT in rat brains revealed selective localization in the striata with striata/cortex ratio of 1.5 and striata/cerebellum ratio of 1.8 to 2.0. The binding of (18)F-5-OH-FPPAT in the striata was reduced upon pretreatment with the antagonist, risperidone and the agonist, PPHT. A PET study in rhesus monkeys showed selective localization of (18)F-5-OH-FPPAT in the striata and the ratio between striata and cerebellum approached approximately 2 at 40 min post-injection. PMID:15028242

  12. Action of methyl-, propyl- and butylparaben on GPR30 gene and protein expression, cAMP levels and activation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and MCF-10A non-transformed breast epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wróbel, Anna Maria; Gregoraszczuk, Ewa Łucja

    2015-10-14

    In the present study, we examined cAMP levels and activation of the MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in response to the actions of parabens on GPR30 in MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells. Cells were exposed to methyl-, propyl- or butylparaben at a concentration of 20nM; 17-β-estradiol (10nM) was used as a positive control. 17β-estradiol and all tested parabens increased GPR30 gene and protein expression in MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells. No parabens affected cAMP levels in either cell line, with the exception of propylparaben in MCF-10A cells. 17β-estradiol, propylparaben, and butylparaben increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in MCF-7 cells, whereas 17β-estradiol, methyl- and butylparaben, but not propylparaben, increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in MCF-10A cells. Akt activation was noted only in MCF-7 cells and only with propylparaben treatment. Collectively, the data presented here point to a nongenomic mechanism of action of parabens in activation GPR30 in both cancer and non-cancer breast cell lines through βγ dimer-mediated activation of the ERK1/2 pathway, but not the cAMP/PKA pathway. Moreover, among investigated parabens, propylparaben appears to inhibit apoptosis in cancer cells through activation of Akt kinases, confirming conclusions suggested by our previously published data. Nevertheless, continuing research on the carcinogenic action of parabens is warranted. PMID:26253279

  13. Total syntheses of cis-cyclopropane fatty acids: dihydromalvalic acid, dihydrosterculic acid, lactobacillic acid, and 9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Shah, Sayali; White, Jonathan M; Williams, Spencer J

    2014-12-14

    cis-Cyclopropane fatty acids (cis-CFAs) are widespread constituents of the seed oils of subtropical plants, membrane components of bacteria and protozoa, and the fats and phospholipids of animals. We describe a systematic approach to the synthesis of enantiomeric pairs of four cis-CFAs: cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid, lactobacillic acid, dihydromalvalic acid, and dihydrosterculic acid. The approach commences with Rh2(OAc)4-catalyzed cyclopropenation of 1-octyne and 1-decyne, and hinges on the preparative scale chromatographic resolution of racemic 2-alkylcycloprop-2-ene-1-carboxylic acids using a homochiral Evan's auxiliary. Saturation of the individual diastereomeric N-cycloprop-2-ene-1-carbonylacyloxazolidines, followed by elaboration to alkylcyclopropylmethylsulfones, allowed Julia-Kocienski olefination with various ?-aldehyde-esters. Finally, saponification and diimide reduction afforded the individual cis-CFA enantiomers. PMID:25321346

  14. 2-substituted thiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acids as prodrugs of L-cysteine. Protection of mice against acetaminophen hepatotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasawa, H.T.; Goon, D.J.; Muldoon, W.P.; Zera, R.T.

    1984-05-01

    A number of 2-alkyl- and 2-aryl-substituted thiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acids were evaluated for their protective effect against hepatotoxic deaths produced in mice by LD/sub 90/ doses of acetaminophen. 2(RS)-Methyl-, 2(RS)-n-propyl-, and 2(RS)-n- pentylthiazolidine -4(R)-carboxylic acids (compounds 1b,d,e, respectively) were nearly equipotent in their protective effect based on the number of surviving animals at 48 h as well as by histological criteria. 2(RS)-Ethyl-, 2(RS)-phenyl-, and 2(RS)-(4-pyridyl)thiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acids (compounds 1c,f,g) were less protective. The enantiomer of 1b, viz., 2(RS)- methylthiazolidine -4(S)-carboxylic acid (2b), was totally ineffective in this regard. Thiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acid (1a), but not its enantiomer, 2a, was a good substrate for a solubilized preparation of rat liver mitochondrial proline oxidase (K/sub m/ 1.1 x 10(-4) M; V/sub max/ . 5.4 mumol min-1 (mg of protein)-1). Compound 1b was not a substrate for proline oxidase but dissociated to L-cysteine in this system. At physiological pH and temperature, the hydrogens on the methyl group of 1b underwent deuterium exchange with solvent D/sub 2/O (k1 . 2.5 X 10(-5) s), suggesting that opening of the thiazolidine ring must have taken place. Indeed, 1b labeled with /sup 14/C in the 2 and methyl positions was rapidly metabolized by the rat to produce /sup 14/CO/sub 2/, 80% of the dose being excreted in this form in the expired air after 24 h. It is suggested that these 2-substituted thiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acids are prodrugs of L-cysteine that liberate this sulfhydryl amino acid in vivo by nonenzymatic ring opening, followed by solvolysis.

  15. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

    This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

    Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

    Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  16. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  17. Strongly Acidic Auxin Indole-3-Methanesulfonic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Bialek, Krystyna

    1985-01-01

    A radiochemical synthesis is described for [14C]indole-3-methanesulfonic acid (IMS), a strongly acidic auxin analog. Techniques were developed for fractionation and purification of IMS using normal and reverse phase chromatography. In addition, the utility of both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for analysis of IMS has been demonstrated. IMS was shown to be an active auxin, stimulating soybean hypocotyl elongation, bean first internode curvature, and ethylene production. IMS uptake by thin sections of soybean hypocotyl was essentially independent of solution pH and, when applied at a 100 micromolar concentration, IMS exhibited a basipetal polarity in its transport in both corn coleoptile and soybean hypocotyl sections. [14C]IMS should, therefore, be a useful compound to study fundamental processes related to the movement of auxins in plant tissues and organelles. PMID:16664007

  18. Substrate Specificity and Ligand Interactions of CYP26A1, the Human Liver Retinoic Acid Hydroxylase

    PubMed Central

    Thatcher, Jayne E.; Buttrick, Brian; Shaffer, Scott A.; Shimshoni, Jakob A.; Goodlett, David R.; Nelson, Wendel L.

    2011-01-01

    All-trans-retinoic acid (atRA) is the active metabolite of vitamin A. atRA is also used as a drug, and synthetic atRA analogs and inhibitors of retinoic acid (RA) metabolism have been developed. The hepatic clearance of atRA is mediated primarily by CYP26A1, but design of CYP26A1 inhibitors is hindered by lack of information on CYP26A1 structure and structure-activity relationships of its ligands. The aim of this study was to identify the primary metabolites of atRA formed by CYP26A1 and to characterize the ligand selectivity and ligand interactions of CYP26A1. On the basis of high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry data, four metabolites formed from atRA by CYP26A1 were identified as 4-OH-RA, 4-oxo-RA, 16-OH-RA and 18-OH-RA. 9-cis-RA and 13-cis-RA were also substrates of CYP26A1. Forty-two compounds with diverse structural properties were tested for CYP26A1 inhibition using 9-cis-RA as a probe, and IC50 values for 10 inhibitors were determined. The imidazole- and triazole-containing inhibitors [S-(R*,R*)]-N-[4-[2-(dimethylamino)-1-(1H-imidazole-1-yl)propyl]-phenyl]2-benzothiazolamine (R116010) and (R)-N-[4-[2-ethyl-1-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)butyl]phenyl]-2-benzothiazolamine (R115866) were the most potent inhibitors of CYP26A1 with IC50 values of 4.3 and 5.1 nM, respectively. Liarozole and ketoconazole were significantly less potent with IC50 values of 2100 and 550 nM, respectively. The retinoic acid receptor (RAR) γ agonist CD1530 was as potent an inhibitor of CYP26A1 as ketoconazole with an IC50 of 530 nM, whereas the RARα and RARβ agonists tested did not significantly inhibit CYP26A1. The pan-RAR agonist 4-[(E)-2-(5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-5,5,8,8-tetramethyl-2-naphthalenyl)-1-propenyl]benzoic acid and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligands rosiglitazone and pioglitazone inhibited CYP26A1 with IC50 values of 3.7, 4.2, and 8.6 μM, respectively. These data demonstrate that CYP26A1 has high ligand selectivity but accepts structurally related nuclear receptor agonists as inhibitors. PMID:21521770

  19. Uric acid photo-oxidation assay: in vitro comparison of sunscreening agents.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, W C; Yamamoto, Y; Inoue, M; Kashiba-Iwatsuki, M; Yamaguchi, M; Tomita, K

    1998-02-01

    We present a new method to evaluate the photo-oxidative activity of sunscreening agents based on the photodynamic oxidation of uric acid. Uric acid was selected as the oxidant probe for its high reactivity to singlet oxygen and oxygen radicals, high sensitivity of detection using electrochemical (EC) techniques, low light absorptivity and high photochemical stability in the UVA/B region of interest, and stability to autoxidation. The method is demonstrated by the photodynamic oxidation of uric acid on co-irradiation with Rose Bengal, a highly efficient photosensitizing dye for the production of singlet oxygen (1O2). Using this assay we found that the relative photodynamic oxidation rates of UVB-absorbing sunscreens in 80% methanol on irradiation with >290 nm light decreased in the order 2-ethylhexyl 4-dimethylaminobenzoate (DMABA-2EH) > 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate (MCA-2EH) and the experimental sunscreens, 1-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-3-octanoyl-4,4-dimethyl- 1,4,5,6,-tetrahydropyridine (ICI-319) and 1-(2-methylpropyl)-3-propionyl-4,4-dimethyl-1,4,5,6-tetrahydropyridine (ICI-855). The relative photodynamic oxidation rates of UVA-absorbing sunscreens decreased in the order 4-tert-butyl-4'-methoxydibenzoylmethane (BMDBM) and 4-(2-propyl)benzophenone (PB) > 2-hydroxy-4'-methoxy-benzophenone (HMB) and 2,2'-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (DHMB). We have confirmed the photodynamic activity of DMABA-2EH for the production of singlet oxygen (1O2) using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and the reagent 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone (4-oxo-TEMP). We failed to detect the photodynamic production of the oxyradicals, superoxide (O2.-) and hydroxyl radical (HO.) using N-tert-butyl-a-phenylnitrone (PBN) and 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrrolidine-1-oxide (DMPO) as a result of photochemical interference caused by these spin-trapping reagents. The uric acid photo-oxidation assay was also used to compare the photodynamic reactivity of light-reflective, microfine oxides TiO2, ZnO and ZrO2 suspended in aqueous 80% methanol. All of the microfine oxides (uncoated) showed greater photodynamic reactivity in equimolar dispersion than did any of the organic UVA- and UVB-absorbing sunscreens in homogeneous solution. In this assay the photodynamic oxidation rates for the microfine oxides decreased in the order ZnO > TiO2 (anatase) > ZrO2 > TiO2 (rutile). PMID:18505485

  20. Understanding Acid Base Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Hernando; Kellum, John A

    2015-10-01

    The concentration of hydrogen ions is regulated in biologic solutions. There are currently 3 recognized approaches to assess changes in acid base status. First is the traditional Henderson-Hasselbalch approach, also called the physiologic approach, which uses the relationship between HCO3(-) and Pco2; the second is the standard base excess approach based on the Van Slyke equation. The third approach is the quantitative or Stewart approach, which uses the strong ion difference and the total weak acids. This article explores the origins of the current concepts framing the existing methods to analyze acid base balance. PMID:26410149

  1. Understanding acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Budiansky, S.

    1981-06-01

    The complexities of the phenomenon of acid rain are described. Many factors, including meteorology, geology, chemistry, and biology, all play parts. Varying weather, varying soils, the presence of other pollutants and species differences all act to blur the connections between industrial emissions, acid rain, and environmental damage. Some experts believe that the greatest pH shock to lakes occurs during snow melt and runoff in the spring; others believe that much of the plant damage ascribed to acid rain is actually due to the effects of ozone. Much work needs to be done in the area of sampling. Historical data are lacking and sampling methods are not sufficiently accurate. (JMT)

  2. WASTE ACID DETOXIFICATION AND RECLAMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) project demonstrated the Waste Acid Detoxification and Reclamation (WADR) systems ability to recover waste electropolish acid solutions generated during the manufacturing of gun-tubes, and reuse the clean acid. ...

  3. In vitro induction of micronuclei by monofunctional methanesulphonic acid esters: possible role of alkylation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Eder, Erwin; Kütt, Wolfgang; Deininger, Christoph

    2006-12-01

    Six monofunctional alkylating methanesulphonates of widely varying structures were investigated in the in vitro micronucleus assay with Syrian hamster embryo fibroblast cells. The results were compared with the alkylating activities measured in the 4-(nitrobenzyl)pyridine test (NBP-test) and the N-methyl mercaptoimidazole (MMI-test) as measures for S(N)2 reactivity as well as in the triflouoroacetic acid (TFA) solvolysis and the hydrolysis reaction as measures for S(N)1 reactivity in order to provide insights into the role of alkylation mechanisms on induction of micronuclei. Moreover we compared the results of micronucleus assay with those of the Ames tests in strain TA 100 and TA1535 and with those of the SOS chromotest with the strains PQ37, PQ243, PM21 and GC 4798. The potency of methanesulphonates to induce micronuclei depended only to a certain degree, on the total alkylating activity (S(N)1 and S(N)2 reactivity). An inverse, significant correlation between the Ames test and the micronucleus assay was observed and an inverse correlation between the micronucleus assay and the SOS chromotest with the different strains. The results indicate that the primary mechanism leading to induction of micronuclei is not O-alkylation in DNA as it is the case in the Ames test with the hisG46 strains TA1535 and TA100 and not N-alkylation as with the SOS chromotest. There is evidence that protein alkylation, e.g. in the spindle apparatus in mitosis is decisive for induction of micronuclei by alkylating compounds. The structurally voluminous methanesulphonates 2-phenyl ethyl methanesulphonate and 1-phenyl-2-propyl methanesulphonate show a clear higher micronuclei inducing potency than the other tested though the bulky methanesulphonates possess a lower total alkylating activity than the others. This effect can be explained by a higher disturbance during mitosis after alkylation of the spindle apparatus with the structurally more bulky methanesulphonates. PMID:17011536

  4. Polymers for acid thickening

    SciTech Connect

    Dixon, K.W.

    1980-09-30

    Acids, thickened with branched emulsion or suspension polymers of diallyldimethylammonium chloride are useful as oil well drilling and fracturing fluids for stimulating well production and in other applications, such as thickeners for cosmetics, paints, adhesives, textiles and printing inks.

  5. Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

  6. Folic acid - test

    MedlinePlus

    ... folic acid before and during pregnancy helps prevent neural tube defects, such as spina bifida. Women who are pregnant ... take more if they have a history of neural tube defects in earlier pregnancies. Ask your provider how much ...

  7. Suberanilohydroxamic Acid. Aton Pharma.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Ricky W

    2004-07-01

    Aton Pharma Inc, under license from the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, is developing suberanilohydroxamic acid (SAHA), a cytodifferentiating agent and histone deacetylase inhibitor, as a potential cancer chemopreventive. PMID:15243870

  8. Nucleic Acids for Computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Joanne; Stojanovic, Milan N.

    Nucleic acids have many features that are ideal for molecular computation. Using nucleic acids, we have constructed a full set of molecular logic gates, with modular stem-loop-controlled deoxyribozymes as switches and single-stranded oligonucleotides as inputs and outputs. These gates have been combined to form basic computational circuits, including a half- and a full-adder, and can also be assembled into automata to perform complex computational tasks such as game playing. Our most advanced automaton to-date integrates more than 100 nucleic acid logic gates to play a complete game of tic-tac-toe encompassing 76 possible game plays. Inputs and outputs can also be coupled with upstream and downstream components, such as aptamers, sensors, secondary gate activation, and small-molecule release, indicating the potential for nucleic acid computation in the engineering of autonomous therapeutic and diagnostic molecular devices.

  9. (Acid rain workshop)

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, R.S.

    1990-12-05

    The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the World Bank. Papers presented on the first day discussed how the experience gained with acid rain in North America and Europe might be applied to the Asian situation. Papers describing energy use projections, sulfur emissions, and effects of acid rain in several Asian countries were presented on the second day. The remaining time was allotted to discussion, planning, and writing plans for a future research program.

  10. Alpha Hydroxy Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer cells associated with exposure to light) in mice, and that salicyclic acid had a photoprotective effect (protected against the effects of light) in mice. The complete results of this study are available ...

  11. Amino Acids and Chirality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  12. Citric acid urine test

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to diagnose renal tubular acidosis and evaluate kidney stone disease. ... tubular acidosis and a tendency to form calcium kidney stones. The following may decrease urine citric acid levels: ...

  13. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    MedlinePlus

    ... 3 fatty acids for 3 months can improve reading, spelling, and behavior, but not coordination or movement in children with DCD. Laser eye surgery. Early research suggests that taking a tablet that contains an ...

  14. Stomach acid test

    MedlinePlus

    Gastric acid secretion test ... The test is done after you have not eaten for a while so fluid is all that remains in ... injected into your body. This is done to test the ability of the cells in the stomach ...

  15. Methylmalonic Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... MMA Formal name: Methylmalonic Acid Related tests: Vitamin B12 and Folate , Homocysteine , Intrinsic Factor Antibody , Complete Blood ... to help diagnose an early or mild vitamin B12 deficiency . It may be ordered by itself or ...

  16. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT; special blue light) to treat actinic keratoses (small crusty or scaly ... photosensitizing agents. When aminolevulinic acid is activated by light, it damages the cells of actinic keratosis lesions.

  17. Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria, including infections of the ears, lungs, sinus, skin, ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Clavulanic acid is in a class of medications ...

  18. Trans fatty acids (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Trans fatty acids are manufactured fats created during a process called hydrogenation, which is aimed at stabilizing polyunsaturated oils to prevent them from becoming rancid and to keep them solid at room temperature. They may be particularly dangerous for ...

  19. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat skin conditions that involve scaling or overgrowth of skin cells ... to allow pimples to shrink. It treats other skin conditions by softening and loosening dry, scaly, or thickened ...

  20. Acid-base chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, C.W.; Blewit, H.L.

    1985-01-01

    The book is not a research compendium and there are no references to the literature. It is a teaching text covering the entire range of undergraduate subject matter dealing with acid-base chemistry (some of it remotely) as taught in inorganic, analytical, and organic chemistry courses. The excellent chapters VII through IX deal in detail with the quantitative aspects of aqueous acid-base equilibria (salt hydrolysis and buffer, titrations, polyprotic and amphoteric substances).

  1. Neutron Nucleic Acid Crystallography.

    PubMed

    Chatake, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The hydration shells surrounding nucleic acids and hydrogen-bonding networks involving water molecules and nucleic acids are essential interactions for the structural stability and function of nucleic acids. Water molecules in the hydration shells influence various conformations of DNA and RNA by specific hydrogen-bonding networks, which often contribute to the chemical reactivity and molecular recognition of nucleic acids. However, X-ray crystallography could not provide a complete description of structural information with respect to hydrogen bonds. Indeed, X-ray crystallography is a powerful tool for determining the locations of water molecules, i.e., the location of the oxygen atom of H2O; however, it is very difficult to determine the orientation of the water molecules, i.e., the orientation of the two hydrogen atoms of H2O, because X-ray scattering from the hydrogen atom is very small.Neutron crystallography is a specialized tool for determining the positions of hydrogen atoms. Neutrons are not diffracted by electrons, but are diffracted by atomic nuclei; accordingly, neutron scattering lengths of hydrogen and its isotopes are comparable to those of non-hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron crystallography can determine both of the locations and orientations of water molecules. This chapter describes the current status of neutron nucleic acid crystallographic research as well as the basic principles of neutron diffraction experiments performed on nucleic acid crystals: materials, crystallization, diffraction experiments, and structure determination. PMID:26227050

  2. Studies on bile acids

    PubMed Central

    Okishio, Tatsuo; Nair, Padmanabhan P.; Gordon, Maureen

    1967-01-01

    1. A method is described for the quantitative isolation of bile acids from cellular material. Homogenates of rat liver are freeze-dried and extracted exhaustively with 95% (v/v) ethanol containing 0·1% (v/v) of aq. ammonia (sp.gr. 0·88) and purified by anion-exchange chromatography on Amberlyst A-26. 2. The extracted bile acid conjugates are subjected to either of two hydrolytic procedures, one involving chemical and the other enzymic agents. A unique feature in this study is the introduction of an enzyme, a clostridial peptide-bond hydrolase, for the rapid cleavage of bile acid conjugates, replacing the classical drastic chemical hydrolysis with strong alkali. 3. After hydrolysis, free bile acids are methylated and converted into their trifluoroacetates for final determination by gas–liquid chromatography on a triple component column, FS-1265–SE30–NGS. 4. For the purpose of identification of peaks, bile acid methyl esters are converted into their trimethylsilyl ethers by allowing the methyl esters to react with a new and potent silyl donor, bis(trimethylsilyl)acetamide. 5. The technique affords us a means of studying the metabolism of bile acids at the cellular and subcellular levels in tissues. PMID:16742477

  3. Method for isolating nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Hurt, Jr., Richard Ashley; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2015-09-29

    The current disclosure provides methods and kits for isolating nucleic acid from an environmental sample. The current methods and compositions further provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by reducing adsorption of nucleic acids by charged ions and particles within an environmental sample. The methods of the current disclosure provide methods for isolating nucleic acids by releasing adsorbed nucleic acids from charged particles during the nucleic acid isolation process. The current disclosure facilitates the isolation of nucleic acids of sufficient quality and quantity to enable one of ordinary skill in the art to utilize or analyze the isolated nucleic acids for a wide variety of applications including, sequencing or species population analysis.

  4. Acidification and Acid Rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that endangers the existing biota. Concerns about acid (or acidic) rain in its modern sense were publicized by the Swedish soil scientist Svante Odén (1968). He argued, initially in the Swedish press, that long-term increases in the atmospheric deposition of acid could lower the pH of surface waters, cause a decline in fish stocks, deplete soils of nutrients, and accelerate damage to materials. By the 1970s, acidification of surface waters was reported in many countries in Europe as well as in North America. The late twentieth-century rush to understand the impact of acid rain was driven by: (i) reports of damaged or threatened freshwater fisheries and (ii) damaged forests. Perhaps the earliest linkage between acidic surface water and damage to fish was made by Dahl (1921) in southern Norway. There, spring runoff was sufficiently acidic to kill trout. It was not until the 1970s that a strong link was established between depressed pH, mobilization of aluminum from soil, and fish status ( Schofield and Trojnar,1980). The relationship between acidification of soils and forest health started with hypotheses in the 1960s and has slowly developed. Acid rain enhances the availability of some nutrients (e.g., nitrogen), and may either enhance or diminish the availability of others (e.g., calcium, magnesium, potassium, and phosphorus). Damage to anthropogenic structures, human health, and visibility have also raised concerns. The history of these early developments was summarized by Cowling (1982). Since the 1970s, sulfur and nitrogen emissions to the atmosphere have been reduced by 50-85% and 0-30%, respectively, both in North America and Europe. The emission reductions have occurred as a consequence of knowledge gained and economic factors. While recovery of water quality is underway in some areas, problems of acidification persist, and are now complicated by the effects of climate change ( Schindler, 1997).

  5. Discovery of essential fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Arthur A.; Kim, Hee-Yong

    2015-01-01

    Dietary fat was recognized as a good source of energy and fat-soluble vitamins by the first part of the 20th century, but fatty acids were not considered to be essential nutrients because they could be synthesized from dietary carbohydrate. This well-established view was challenged in 1929 by George and Mildred Burr who reported that dietary fatty acid was required to prevent a deficiency disease that occurred in rats fed a fat-free diet. They concluded that fatty acids were essential nutrients and showed that linoleic acid prevented the disease and is an essential fatty acid. The Burrs surmised that other unsaturated fatty acids were essential and subsequently demonstrated that linolenic acid, the omega-3 fatty acid analog of linoleic acid, is also an essential fatty acid. The discovery of essential fatty acids was a paradigm-changing finding, and it is now considered to be one of the landmark discoveries in lipid research. PMID:25339684

  6. Positive and Negative Allosteric Modulation of an α1β3γ2 γ-Aminobutyric Acid Type A (GABAA) Receptor by Binding to a Site in the Transmembrane Domain at the γ+-β- Interface.

    PubMed

    Jayakar, Selwyn S; Zhou, Xiaojuan; Savechenkov, Pavel Y; Chiara, David C; Desai, Rooma; Bruzik, Karol S; Miller, Keith W; Cohen, Jonathan B

    2015-09-18

    In the process of developing safer general anesthetics, isomers of anesthetic ethers and barbiturates have been discovered that act as convulsants and inhibitors of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (GABAARs) rather than potentiators. It is unknown whether these convulsants act as negative allosteric modulators by binding to the intersubunit anesthetic-binding sites in the GABAAR transmembrane domain (Chiara, D. C., Jayakar, S. S., Zhou, X., Zhang, X., Savechenkov, P. Y., Bruzik, K. S., Miller, K. W., and Cohen, J. B. (2013) J. Biol. Chem. 288, 19343-19357) or to known convulsant sites in the ion channel or extracellular domains. Here, we show that S-1-methyl-5-propyl-5-(m-trifluoromethyl-diazirynylphenyl) barbituric acid (S-mTFD-MPPB), a photoreactive analog of the convulsant barbiturate S-MPPB, inhibits α1β3γ2 but potentiates α1β3 GABAAR responses. In the α1β3γ2 GABAAR, S-mTFD-MPPB binds in the transmembrane domain with high affinity to the γ(+)-β(-) subunit interface site with negative energetic coupling to GABA binding in the extracellular domain at the β(+)-α(-) subunit interfaces. GABA inhibits S-[(3)H]mTFD-MPPB photolabeling of γ2Ser-280 (γM2-15') in this site. In contrast, within the same site GABA enhances photolabeling of β3Met-227 in βM1 by an anesthetic barbiturate, R-[(3)H]methyl-5-allyl-5-(m-trifluoromethyl-diazirynylphenyl)barbituric acid (mTFD-MPAB), which differs from S-mTFD-MPPB in structure only by chirality and two hydrogens (propyl versus allyl). S-mTFD-MPPB and R-mTFD-MPAB are predicted to bind in different orientations at the γ(+)-β(-) site, based upon the distance in GABAAR homology models between γ2Ser-280 and β3Met-227. These results provide an explanation for S-mTFD-MPPB inhibition of α1β3γ2 GABAAR function and provide a first demonstration that an intersubunit-binding site in the GABAAR transmembrane domain binds negative and positive allosteric modulators. PMID:26229099

  7. Cytochrome P-450-catalyzed desaturation of valproic acid in vitro. Species differences, induction effects, and mechanistic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Rettie, A.E.; Boberg, M.; Rettenmeier, A.W.; Baillie, T.A.

    1988-09-25

    The cytochrome P-450-mediated desaturation of valproic acid (VPA) to its hepatotoxic metabolite, 2-n-propyl-4-pentenoic acid (4-ene-VPA), was examined in liver microsomes from rats, mice, rabbits and humans. The highest substrate turnover was found with microsomes from rabbits (44.2 +/- 2.7 pmol of product/nmol P-450/15 min), while lower activities were observed in preparations from human, mouse, and rat liver, in that order. Pretreatment of animals with phenobarbital led to enhanced rates of formation of 4-ene-VPA in vitro and yielded induction ratios for desaturation ranging from 2.5 to 8.4, depending upon the species. Comparative studies in the rat showed that phenobarbital is a more potent inducer of olefin formation than either phenytoin or carbamazepine. The mechanism of the desaturation reaction was studied by inter- and intramolecular deuterium isotope effect experiments, which demonstrated that removal of a hydrogen atom from the subterminal C-4 position of VPA is rate limiting in the formation of both 4-ene- and 4-hydroxy-VPA. Hydroxylation at the neighboring C-5 position, on the other hand, was highly sensitive to deuterium substitution at that site, but not to deuteration at C-4. Based on these findings, it is proposed that 4-ene- and 4-hydroxy-VPA are products of a common P-450-dependent metabolic pathway, in which a carbon-centered free radical at C-4 serves as the key intermediate. 5-Hydroxy-VPA, in contrast, derives from an independent hydroxylation reaction.

  8. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  9. Purification and characterization of prophenoloxidase from Galleria mellonella L.

    PubMed

    Demir, Dudu; Gençer, Nahit; Er, Aylin

    2012-12-01

    Prophenoloxidase (PPO) was purified from Galleria mellonella L. A 67-fold purification of the proenzyme with 352% yield was achieved by using a Sepharose 4B-L-tyrosine-p-amino benzoic acid affinity column. The purified enzyme was migrated as a single band on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. K(m) and V(max) values were 0.017 M and 1430.45 EU for catechol. Inhibition of PPO was investigated with inhibitors such as p-aminobenzoic acid, etyleneglycol, and ascorbic acid. Among them, ascorbic acid showed the strongest inhibitory activity with IC(50) value of 2.94 μM. The current paper represents new strategies for the biological control of the Galleria mellonella L. insect. PMID:22780216

  10. Metal oxide-based silver substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.S.; Lin, X.

    1995-12-01

    New substrates were prepared by using sol-gel process for metal oxide (MgO and TiO{sub 2}) undercoating and by using chemical reduction method for silver coating. The substrates were found to exhibit strong Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) signals for benzoic acid (BA), terephthalic acid (TPA), p-nitrobenzoic acid (PNBA), p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), p-nitrophenol (PNP), and p-nitroanaline. Optimization of metal oxide undercoating and silver deposition was conducted to obtain intense SER band of BA. It was shown that the substrates could be reused for the SER investigation of different samples. A study of the solvent effect on the SERS intensity of BA was conducted; an explanation to the result was suggested.

  11. Amino-acid contamination of aqueous hydrochloric acid.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolman, Y.; Miller, S. L.

    1971-01-01

    Considerable amino-acid contamination in commercially available analytical grade hydrochloric acid (37% HCl) was found. One bottle contained 8,300 nmol of amino-acids per liter. A bottle from another supplier contained 6,700 nmol per liter. The contaminants were mostly protein amino-acids and several unknowns. Data on the volatility of the amino-acids during HCl distillation were also obtained.

  12. Domoic acid epileptic disease.

    PubMed

    Ramsdell, John S; Gulland, Frances M

    2014-03-01

    Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:24663110

  13. Optical high acidity sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, B.S.; Nekimken, H.L.; Carey, W.P.; O`Rourke, P.E.

    1997-07-22

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber. 10 figs.

  14. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Betty S.; Nekimken, Howard L.; Carey, W. Patrick; O'Rourke, Patrick E.

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and, a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.

  15. Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ramsdell, John S.; Gulland, Frances M.

    2014-01-01

    Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:24663110

  16. Pelargonic acid weed control parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers and researchers are interested in pelargonic acid (nonanoic acid) as a broad-spectrum post-emergence or burn-down herbicide. Pelargonic acid is a fatty acid naturally occurring in many plants and animals, and present in many foods we consume. The objective of this research was to determine...

  17. Corrosion inhibitors used in acidizing

    SciTech Connect

    Cizek, A. . Aquaness Chemical Division)

    1994-01-01

    The history of the development of oil well acidizing and acid corrosion inhibitors used by this industry is reviewed. As deeper and hotter wells were drilled, stimulation acids were exposed to hotter conditions and the organic inhibitors required intensifiers. High-temperature acid corrosion inhibitors are also discussed.

  18. A Demonstration of Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Man Wai

    2004-01-01

    A demonstration showing acid rain formation is described. Oxides of sulfur and nitrogen that result from the burning of fossil fuels are the major pollutants of acid rain. In this demonstration, SO[subscript 2] gas is produced by the burning of matches. An acid-base indicator will show that the dissolved gas turns an aqueous solution acidic.

  19. WS-50030 [7-{4-[3-(1H-inden-3-yl)propyl]piperazin-1-yl}-1,3-benzoxazol-2(3H)-one]: a novel dopamine D2 receptor partial agonist/serotonin reuptake inhibitor with preclinical antipsychotic-like and antidepressant-like activity.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Julie A; Graf, Radka; Grauer, Steven M; Navarra, Rachel L; Pulicicchio, Claudine M; Hughes, Zoë A; Lin, Qian; Wantuch, Caitlin; Rosenzweig-Lipson, Sharon; Pruthi, Farhana; Lai, Margaret; Smith, Deborah; Goutier, Wouter; van de Neut, Martina; Robichaud, Albert J; Rotella, David; Feenstra, Rolf W; Kruse, Chris; Broqua, Pierre; Beyer, Chad E; McCreary, Andrew C; Pausch, Mark H; Marquis, Karen L

    2010-01-01

    The preclinical characterization of WS-50030 [7-{4-[3-(1H-inden-3-yl)propyl]piperazin-1-yl}-1,3-benzoxazol-2(3H)-one] is described. In vitro binding and functional studies revealed highest affinity to the D(2) receptor (D(2L) K(i), 4.0 nM) and serotonin transporter (K(i), 7.1 nM), potent D(2) partial agonist activity (EC(50), 0.38 nM; E(max), 30%), and complete block of the serotonin transporter (IC(50), 56.4 nM). Consistent with this in vitro profile, WS-50030 (10 mg/kg/day, 21 days) significantly increased extracellular 5-HT in the rat medial prefrontal cortex, short-term WS-50030 treatment blocked apomorphine-induced climbing (ID(50), 0.51 mg/kg) in a dose range that produced minimal catalepsy in mice and induced low levels of contralateral rotation in rats with unilateral substantia nigra 6-hydroxydopamine lesions (10 mg/kg i.p.), a behavioral profile similar to that of the D(2) partial agonist aripiprazole. In a rat model predictive of antipsychotic-like activity, WS-50030 and aripiprazole reduced conditioned avoidance responding by 42 and 55% at 10 mg/kg, respectively. Despite aripiprazole's reported lack of effect on serotonin transporters, long-term treatment with aripiprazole or WS-50030 reversed olfactory bulbectomy-induced hyperactivity at doses that did not reduce activity in sham-operated rats, indicating antidepressant-like activity for both compounds. Despite possessing serotonin reuptake inhibitory activity in addition to D(2) receptor partial agonism, WS-50030 displays activity in preclinical models predictive of antipsychotic- and antidepressant efficacy similar to aripiprazole, suggesting potential efficacy of WS-50030 versus positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia, comorbid mood symptoms, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and treatment-resistant depression. Furthermore, WS-50030 provides a tool to further explore how combining these mechanisms might differentiate from other antipsychotics or antidepressants. PMID:19828876

  20. The biosynthesis of ricinoleic acid

    PubMed Central

    James, A. T.; Hadaway, H. C.; Webb, Joan P. W.

    1965-01-01

    1. Ricinoleic acid is shown to be synthesized in the immature castor bean seed only after 3–4 weeks from the time of fertilization. 2. Synthesis occurs both in the isolated embryo and the endosperm. 3. Linoleic acid does not act as precursor of ricinoleic acid in the isolated bean embryo. 4. Oleic acid is shown to be the direct precursor of ricinoleic acid. 5. The reaction does not use molecular oxygen. This suggests that ricinoleic acid is not a precursor of linoleic acid. PMID:14340094

  1. Oleanolic acid ethanol monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Froelich, Anna; Gzella, Andrzej K.

    2010-01-01

    Crystals of the title compound (systematic name: 3β-hy­droxy­olean-12-en-28-oic acid ethanol monosolvate), C30H48O3·C2H5OH, were obtained from unsuccessful co-crystallization trials. The asymmetric unit contains two symmetry-independent oleanolic acid mol­ecules, as well as two ethanol solvent mol­ecules. Inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds stabilize the crystal packing. In the oleanolic acid mol­ecules, ring C has a slightly distorted envelope conformation, while rings A, B, D and E adopt chair conformations and rings D and E are cis-fused. Both independent ethanol mol­ecules are orientationally disordered [occupancy ratios of 0.742 (8):0.258 (8) and 0.632 (12):0.368 (12). PMID:21588987

  2. Acid rain in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Neeloo; Streets, David G.; Foell, Wesley K.

    1992-07-01

    Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in the developing world, particularly in Asia, is much bleaker. Given the policies of many Asian nations to achieve levels of development comparable with the industrialized world—which necessitate a significant expansion of energy consumption (most derived from indigenous coal reserves)—the potential for the formation of, and damage from, acid deposition in these developing countries is very high. This article delineates and assesses the emissions patterns, meteorology, physical geology, and biological and cultural resources present in various Asian nations. Based on this analysis and the risk factors to acidification, it is concluded that a number of areas in Asia are currently vulnerable to acid rain. These regions include Japan, North and South Korea, southern China, and the mountainous portions of Southeast Asia and southwestern India. Furthermore, with accelerated development (and its attendant increase in energy use and production of emissions of acid deposition precursors) in many nations of Asia, it is likely that other regions will also be affected by acidification in the near future. Based on the results of this overview, it is clear that acid deposition has significant potential to impact the Asian region. However, empirical evidence is urgently needed to confirm this and to provide early warning of increases in the magnitude and spread of acid deposition and its effects throughout this part of the world.

  3. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2013-09-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent can bind to metals via four carboxylate and two amine groups. It is a polyamino carboxylic acid and a colorless, water-soluble solid, which is widely used to dissolve lime scale. It is produced as several salts, notably disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA. EDTA reacts with the calcium ions in dentine and forms soluble calcium chelates. A review of the literature and a discussion of the different indications and considerations for its usage are presented. PMID:24966721

  4. NITRIC ACID PICKLING PROCESS

    DOEpatents

    Boller, E.R.; Eubank, L.D.

    1958-08-19

    An improved process is described for the treatment of metallic uranium surfaces preparatory to being given hot dip coatings. The process consists in first pickling the uraniunn surInce with aqueous 50% to 70% nitric acid, at 60 to 70 deg C, for about 5 minutes, rinsing the acid solution from the uranium article, promptly drying and then passing it through a molten alkali-metal halide flux consisting of 42% LiCl, 53% KCla and 5% NaCl into a molten metal bath consisting of 85 parts by weight of zinc and 15 parts by weight of aluminum

  5. Synergism of herbicide toxicity by 5-aminolevulinic acid is related to physiological and ultra-structural disorders in crickweed (Malachium aquaticum L.).

    PubMed

    Xu, Ling; Zhang, Wenfang; Ali, Basharat; Islam, Faisal; Zhu, Jinwen; Zhou, Weijun

    2015-11-01

    Selection of effective herbicides to control weeds has been one of the major objectives of scientists. This study determines the differential tolerance or susceptibility of crickweed (Malachium aquaticum L.) to various concentration combinations of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) (1, 10 and 100mg/L) and propyl 4-(2-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy)benzylamino)benzoate (ZJ0273) (100, 200, and 500mg/L). ALA was applied as pre- and post-treatment alone or in combination with ZJ0273. Results showed that ZJ0273 stress alone imposed negative effects on M. aquaticum seedling's growth, net photosynthetic rates and SPAD values, and the rate of decline was consistently increased with the increase in ZJ0273 concentration. The ZJ0273 treatment showed a gradual decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and increase in the accumulation of malondialdehyde (MDA). Changes in chloroplast swelling, increased number of plastoglobuli, disruption of thylakoid, disintegrated mitochondria and turbid nucleoplasm were noticed. Moreover, SDS-PAGE analysis of total proteins revealed that herbicide stress in the leaves was associated with the decrease or disappearance of some protein bands. Further, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) results showed that proteins in different spots were classified into three types for M. aquaticum. These results indicate that the combined treatment of ALA and ZJ0273 synergizes the herbicide toxicity which is different from its independent effects on M. aquaticum and thus, could improve weed control efficacy. PMID:26615151

  6. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the

  7. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  8. Comparison of Buffer Effect of Different Acids During Sandstone Acidizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Umer Shafiq, Mian; Khaled Ben Mahmud, Hisham; Hamid, Mohamed Ali

    2015-04-01

    The most important concern of sandstone matrix acidizing is to increase the formation permeability by removing the silica particles. To accomplish this, the mud acid (HF: HCl) has been utilized successfully for many years to stimulate the sandstone formations, but still it has many complexities. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of different acid combinations (HF: HCl, HF: H3PO4 and HF: HCOOH). Hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid are used to dissolve clays and feldspar. Phosphoric and formic acids are added as a buffer to maintain the pH of the solution; also it allows the maximum penetration of acid into the core sample. Different tests have been performed on the core samples before and after the acidizing to do the comparative study on the buffer effect of these acids. The analysis consists of permeability, porosity, color change and pH value tests. There is more increase in permeability and porosity while less change in pH when phosphoric and formic acids were used compared to mud acid. From these results it has been found that the buffer effect of phosphoric acid and formic acid is better than hydrochloric acid.

  9. [Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination. PMID:20649031

  10. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  11. Docosahexaenoic acid and lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an important component of membrane phospholipids in the retina, and brain, and accumulates rapidly in these tissues during early infancy. DHA is present in human milk, but the amount varies considerably and is largely dependent on maternal diet. This article reviews dat...

  12. Water surface is acidic

    PubMed Central

    Buch, Victoria; Milet, Anne; Vácha, Robert; Jungwirth, Pavel; Devlin, J. Paul

    2007-01-01

    Water autoionization reaction 2H2O → H3O− + OH− is a textbook process of basic importance, resulting in pH = 7 for pure water. However, pH of pure water surface is shown to be significantly lower, the reduction being caused by proton stabilization at the surface. The evidence presented here includes ab initio and classical molecular dynamics simulations of water slabs with solvated H3O+ and OH− ions, density functional studies of (H2O)48H+ clusters, and spectroscopic isotopic-exchange data for D2O substitutional impurities at the surface and in the interior of ice nanocrystals. Because H3O+ does, but OH− does not, display preference for surface sites, the H2O surface is predicted to be acidic with pH < 4.8. For similar reasons, the strength of some weak acids, such as carbonic acid, is expected to increase at the surface. Enhanced surface acidity can have a significant impact on aqueous surface chemistry, e.g., in the atmosphere. PMID:17452650

  13. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which provides opportunities for role-playing as industrialists, ecologists, and government officials. The activity involves forming an international commission on acid rain, taking testimony, and, based on the testimony, making recommendations to governments on specific ways to solve the problem. Includes suggestions for

  14. The Acid Rain Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.

  15. Acid rain bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Sayers, C.S.

    1983-09-01

    This bibliography identifies 900 citations on various aspects of Acid Rain, covering published bibliographies, books, reports, conference and symposium proceedings, audio visual materials, pamphlets and newsletters. It includes five sections: citations index (complete record of author, title, source, order number); KWIC index; title index; author index; and source index. 900 references.

  16. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which provides opportunities for role-playing as industrialists, ecologists, and government officials. The activity involves forming an international commission on acid rain, taking testimony, and, based on the testimony, making recommendations to governments on specific ways to solve the problem. Includes suggestions for…

  17. The Acid Rain Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

  18. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

  19. Acid Rain Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugo, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students investigate the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)

  20. Acid Rain Classroom Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demchik, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation. Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. (SAH)

  1. Acid Rain: Science Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.

    1989-01-01

    Presented is a science activity designed to help students monitor the pH of rainfall. Materials, procedures and follow-up activities are listed. A list of domestic and foreign sources of information is provided. Topics which relate to acid precipitation are outlined. (CW)

  2. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Somerville, C.; Loo, F. van de

    2000-02-22

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related to the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  3. Uric Acid Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and ... page helpful? Also known as: Serum Urate; UA Formal name: Uric Acid Related tests: Synovial Fluid Analysis , Kidney Stone Analysis , Kidney Stone Risk Panel At ...

  4. Folic Acid Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... half of all the pregnancies in the United States are unplanned. Remember, neural tube defects occur before many women know that they are pregnant. Close × Answer: A CORRECT: While it's important to eat a healthy diet, the EASIEST way to get the right amount of folic acid everyday is to take ...

  5. ACID AEROSOL MEASUREMENT WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the discussion and results of the U.S. EPA Acid Aerosol Measurement Workshop, conducted February 1-3, 1989, in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. t was held in response to recommendations by the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) regarding ...

  6. Lake and Stream Acidity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator presents trends in the percentage of lakes and streams in selected regions in the Northeast and mid-Atlantic states that have been considered chronically acidic between 1987 and 2007. This information describes how the extent of acidification, a serious danger t...

  7. Mefenamic acid enteropathy.

    PubMed Central

    Isaacs, P E; Sladen, G E; Filipe, I

    1987-01-01

    The clinical, radiological, and histological features of two patients with severe intestinal damage induced by mefenamic acid and mimicking coeliac disease are described. Symptoms rapidly reverted on withdrawal of the drug, and in one case, did not relapse during treatment with other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Images Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 5 Fig 6 PMID:3680546

  8. Spermatotoxicity of dichloroacetic acid

    EPA Science Inventory

    The testicular toxicity of dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a disinfection byproduct of drinking water, was evaluated in adult male rats given both single and multiple (up to 14 d) oral doses. Delayed spermiation and altered resorption of residual bodies were observed in rats given sin...

  9. Plant fatty acid hydroxylase

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris; van de Loo, Frank

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

  10. Post-Stroke Depression Modulation and in Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Gallic Acid and Its Synthetic Derivatives in a Murine Model System.

    PubMed

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Habtemariam, Solomon; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Sureda, Antoni; Khanjani, Sedigheh; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Daglia, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA) is a plant secondary metabolite, which shows antioxidant activity and is commonly found in many plant-based foods and beverages. Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress contributes to the development of many human chronic diseases, including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative pathologies, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cancer. GA and its derivative, methyl-3-O-methyl gallate (M3OMG), possess physiological and pharmacological activities closely related to their antioxidant properties. This paper describes the antidepressive-like effects of intraperitoneal administration of GA and two synthetic analogues, M3OMG and P3OMG (propyl-3-O-methylgallate), in balb/c mice with post-stroke depression, a secondary form of depression that could be due to oxidative stress occurring during cerebral ischemia and the following reperfusion. Moreover, this study determined the in vivo antioxidant activity of these compounds through the evaluation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (Cat) activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in mouse brain. GA and its synthetic analogues were found to be active (at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg) in the modulation of depressive symptoms and the reduction of oxidative stress, restoring normal behavior and, at least in part, antioxidant endogenous defenses, with M3OMG being the most active of these compounds. SOD, TBARS, and GSH all showed strong correlation with behavioral parameters, suggesting that oxidative stress is tightly linked to the pathological processes involved in stroke and PSD. As a whole, the obtained results show that the administration of GA, M3OMG and P3OMG induce a reduction in depressive symptoms and oxidative stress. PMID:27136579

  11. Post-Stroke Depression Modulation and in Vivo Antioxidant Activity of Gallic Acid and Its Synthetic Derivatives in a Murine Model System

    PubMed Central

    Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Habtemariam, Solomon; Di Lorenzo, Arianna; Sureda, Antoni; Khanjani, Sedigheh; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad; Daglia, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Gallic acid (3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid, GA) is a plant secondary metabolite, which shows antioxidant activity and is commonly found in many plant-based foods and beverages. Recent evidence suggests that oxidative stress contributes to the development of many human chronic diseases, including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative pathologies, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cancer. GA and its derivative, methyl-3-O-methyl gallate (M3OMG), possess physiological and pharmacological activities closely related to their antioxidant properties. This paper describes the antidepressive-like effects of intraperitoneal administration of GA and two synthetic analogues, M3OMG and P3OMG (propyl-3-O-methylgallate), in balb/c mice with post-stroke depression, a secondary form of depression that could be due to oxidative stress occurring during cerebral ischemia and the following reperfusion. Moreover, this study determined the in vivo antioxidant activity of these compounds through the evaluation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (Cat) activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in mouse brain. GA and its synthetic analogues were found to be active (at doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg) in the modulation of depressive symptoms and the reduction of oxidative stress, restoring normal behavior and, at least in part, antioxidant endogenous defenses, with M3OMG being the most active of these compounds. SOD, TBARS, and GSH all showed strong correlation with behavioral parameters, suggesting that oxidative stress is tightly linked to the pathological processes involved in stroke and PSD. As a whole, the obtained results show that the administration of GA, M3OMG and P3OMG induce a reduction in depressive symptoms and oxidative stress. PMID:27136579

  12. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, Luc

    2003-06-24

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  13. Vitamin and nitrogen base requirements for Listeria monocytogenes and haemolysin production.

    PubMed

    Siddiqi, R; Khan, M A

    1982-11-01

    A complete chemically defined medium is described for the growth of different serovars of Listeria monocytogenes. The medium supported rapid, luxuriant and transferable growth. At the same time haemolysin production was induced to the same extent as in tryptose phosphate broth. Riboflavin and calcium-pantothenate were essential for the growth of all six strains tested. Biotin, pyridoxal-hydrochloride and p-aminobenzoic acid were either essential or stimulatory to all strains. Most strains did not require folic acid, thiamin, nicotinic acid and inositol, but they were stimulatory for some strains. Adenine was essential for two strains (NCTC 7973, 5214 m) while cytosine exhibited an inhibitory effect on the growth of all the strains. PMID:6819739

  14. Effect of dietary carrageenan and pectin on the reduction of nitro-compounds by the rat caecal microflora.

    PubMed

    Rowland, I R; Mallett, A K; Wise, A; Bailey, E

    1983-04-01

    Rats were fed either a basal purified diet, or that diet supplemented with 50 g/kg pectin or iota carrageenan for 50 days, and caecal microbial nitroreductase activity determined using p-nitrobenzoic acid, p-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrotoluene, nitrofurantoin and metronidazole as substrates. Both pectin and carrageenan increased the weight of caecal contents, and pectin also increased the number of bacteria per caecum. In contrast, carrageenan decreased the caecal bacterial population. Pectin significantly increased the rate of reduction of metronidazole and the rate of conversion of p-nitrobenzoic acid to p-aminobenzoic acid, while carrageenan significantly decreased the rate of reduction of every compound studied. The results demonstrate that microbial reduction of the nitro-group may be altered by diet, although the response found with one nitro-compound may differ from that seen with another substrate. PMID:6624140

  15. Effects of acidic precipitation and acidity on soil microbial processes

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Effects of oil acidity on microbial decomposition of organic matter and transformation of nitrogen in an acid forest soil were investigated. In the oak-leaf-amended pH-adjusted acid soils, CO/sub 2/ production in 14- and 150-day preincubated samples decreased by about 6 and 37%, respectively. In the control (unamended) acidified soils, reductions in CO/sub 2/ production of 14% in 14-day preincubated samples and 52% in 150-day samples were observed. Ammonia formation in the pH-adjusted acid soil was about 50% less than in the naturally acid soil. Increased rates of ammonification and nitrification were observed in the pH-adjusted neutral soil. Little autotrophic and heterotrophic nitrifying activity was detected in naturally acid and acidified forest soils. The rate of denitrification was rather slow in acid soils, and at greater acidities N/sub 2/O was the predominant end product. The abundance of nitrogen-fixing free-living bacteria was very low in acidic and acidified forest soils, and nitrogen gains by asymbiotic bacterial fixation in an acid forest ecosystem may be insignificant. These results suggest that further acidification of acid forest soils by addition of sulfuric acid or by acid precipitation may lead to significant reductions in the leaf litter decomposition, ammonification, nitrification, and denitrification and thus reduce nutrient recycling in the forest ecosystem.

  16. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    SciTech Connect

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  17. Mass spectral studies towards more reliable measurement of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid and other perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in food matrices using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Antony S; Bailey, Victoria A; Hird, Simon J; Routledge, Anne; Clarke, Don B

    2009-09-01

    Liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) experiments are described, leading to a reliable method for the measurement of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) and other perfluorinated chemicals (PFCs) in foods. Separations were performed on new fluorinated stationary phases, RP Octyl (-C(8)F(17)) or propyl-perfluorobenzene (-C(3)H(6)-C(6)F(5)), to ensure resolution of PFOS and interfering taurohydroxycholate isomers. Aqueous ammonium formate (5 mM) and methanol were used as the mobile phases. The mass spectrometer was operated in negative electrospray ionisation mode, recording two transitions for each analyte and one for each internal standard. The purities of the analytical standards for the eleven target perfluoro analytes (C(7) to C(12) carboxylic acids, C(4), C(6) and C(8) sulfonic acids, and octanesulfonamide (PFOSA)) were found to be in close agreement with the supplied values; the lowest purity was 91%. Five candidate internal standards were investigated, (13)C(4)-PFOS, (13)C(4)-perfluorooctanoic acid, (13)C(2)-perfluorodecanoic acid, D(9)-n-ethylperfluorooctanesulfonamidoethanol (D(9)-n-Et-FOSE) and D(3)-n-methylperfluorooctanesulfonamide (D(3)-n-Me-FOSA); the purities were all >98%. The use of tetrahydro-PFOS generated backgrounds (>1 microg/kg) for perfluoroheptanoic acid and perfluorobutanesulfonic acid. Similarly D(9)-n-Et-FOSE was unacceptable and D(3)-n-Me-FOSA was volatile, leaving no clear candidate for normalisation of the measurement of PFOSA. Severe matrix-induced suppression and enhancement effects influenced ionisation, making external calibration and quantification problematic. This was addressed by a parallel standard addition and matrix-matching approach, comparing ionisation in methanol, in procedural blanks and in food-based extracts. The limits of detection (LODs) of 0.001-0.01 microg/kg in solvent and 0.01-1 microg/kg in foods demonstrate that this method is suitable for the determination of PFCs in all food to the required 1 microg/kg reporting level. PMID:19685475

  18. Acid Earth--The Global Threat of Acid Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, John

    Acid pollution is a major international problem, but the debate it has elicited has often clouded the distinction between myth and facts. This publication attempts to concerning the acid pollution situation. This publication attempts to identify available facts. It is the first global review of the problem of acid pollution and the first to…

  19. SPECTROFLUOROMETRIC ASSAY FOR HYPOHALITE AND PEROXYACETIC ACID USING KOJIC ACID

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hypochlorite reacted with kojic acid to form an intensely fluorescent product with excitation and emission wavelengths at 395 and 495 nm, respectively. Hypobromite, generated by reaction of hypochlorite or peroxyacetic acid with NaBr, also reacted with kojic acid to generate an identical fluorescen...

  20. Acid Earth--The Global Threat of Acid Pollution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, John

    Acid pollution is a major international problem, but the debate it has elicited has often clouded the distinction between myth and facts. This publication attempts to concerning the acid pollution situation. This publication attempts to identify available facts. It is the first global review of the problem of acid pollution and the first to