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1

Crystal structure and luminescence property of ternary terbium p-aminobenzoic acid complexes with different second ligands  

E-print Network

Crystal structure and luminescence property of ternary terbium p-aminobenzoic acid complexes; revised 21 January 2005; accepted 24 January 2005 Abstract Ternary terbium complexes with p on the crystal structure and luminescence property of the ternary terbium p-aminobenzoic acid complexes

Gao, Song

2

Formaldehyde removal by Rayon-based activated carbon fibers modified by P -aminobenzoic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

We impregnated Rayon-based activated carbon fibers (ACFs) by p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and systematically investigated their porous structure, surface chemistry, and formaldehyde removal\\u000a behavior. Using standard nitrogen adsorption analysis, we found that the specific surface area, the micropore volume, and\\u000a the total pore volume decreased with increasing concentration of PABA. Through elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron\\u000a spectroscopy, it was found that

Haiqin Rong; Zhenyu Liu; Qilin Wu; Ding Pan; Jingtang Zheng

2010-01-01

3

In Vitro Skin Absorption and Metabolism of Benzoic Acid, p -Aminobenzoic Acid, and Benzocaine in the Hairless Guinea Pig  

Microsoft Academic Search

The percutaneous absorption and metabolism of three structurally related compounds, benzoic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), and ethyl aminobenzoate (benzocaine), were determined in vitro through hairless guinea pig skin. Benzocaine was also studied in human skin. Absorption of benzocaine was rapid and similar through both viable and nonviable skin. The absorption of the two acidic compounds, benzoic acid and PABA, was

David Nathan; Adel Sakr; J. Leon Lichtin; Robert L. Bronaugh

1990-01-01

4

Synthesis, characterization and cation adsorption of p-aminobenzoic acid intercalated on calcium phosphate  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: Scanning electron microscopy photographs of calcium phosphate (a) and intercalated with p-aminobenzoic acid (b). Highlights: ? Calcium phosphate was intercalated with p-aminobenzoic acid. ? Guest molecule contains nitrogen and oxygen atoms from amine and carboxylic groups. ? These basic centers are potentially useful for cation coordination in ethanol solution. ? Crystal morphology of compounds is lamellar, it agrees with expected structural characteristics. -- Abstract: Crystalline lamellar calcium phosphate retained 4-aminobenzoic acid inside its cavity without leaching. The intense infrared bands in the 1033 and 1010 cm{sup ?1} interval confirmed the presence of the phosphonate groups attached to the inorganic layer, with sharp and intense peaks in X-ray diffraction patterns, which gave basal distances of 712 and 1578 pm for the original and the intercalated compounds, respectively. Solid-state {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance spectra presented only one peak for the phosphate groups attached to the main inorganic polymeric structure near ?2.4 ppm. The adsorption isotherms from ethanol gave the maximum adsorption capacities of 6.44 and 3.34 mmol g{sup ?1} for nickel and cobalt, respectively, which stability constant and distribution coefficient followed Co > Ni.

Silva, Camila F.N. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil)] [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Lazarin, Angélica M., E-mail: amlazarin2@uem.br [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Sernaglia, Rosana L.; Andreotti, Elza I.S. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil)] [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil)

2012-06-15

5

Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Biological Activity of 2-Hydroxyethylammonium Salt of p-Aminobenzoic Acid  

PubMed Central

p-Aminobenzoic acid (pABA) plays important roles in a wide variety of metabolic processes. Herein we report the synthesis, theoretical calculations, crystallographic investigation, and in vitro determination of the biological activity and phytotoxicity of the pABA salt, 2-hydroxyethylammonium p-aminobenzoate (HEA-pABA). The ability of neutral and anionic forms of pABA to interact with TIR1 pocket was investigated by calculation of molecular electrostatic potential maps on the accessible surface area, docking experiments, Molecular Dynamics and Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics calculations. The docking study of the folate precursor pABA, its anionic form and natural auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) with the auxin receptor TIR1 revealed a similar binding mode in the active site. The phytotoxic evaluation of HEA-pABA, pABA and 2-hydroxyethylamine (HEA) was performed on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Col 0 at five different concentrations. HEA-pABA and pABA acted as potential auxin-like regulators of root development in Arabidopsis thaliana (0.1 and 0.2 mM) and displayed an agravitropic root response at high concentration (2 mM). This study suggests that HEA-pABA and pABA might be considered as potential new regulators of plant growth. PMID:25054237

Crisan, Manuela E.; Bourosh, Paulina; Maffei, Massimo E.; Forni, Alessandra; Pieraccini, Stefano; Sironi, Maurizio; Chumakov, Yurii M.

2014-01-01

6

Synthesis, crystal structure and biological activity of 2-hydroxyethylammonium salt of p-aminobenzoic acid.  

PubMed

p-Aminobenzoic acid (pABA) plays important roles in a wide variety of metabolic processes. Herein we report the synthesis, theoretical calculations, crystallographic investigation, and in vitro determination of the biological activity and phytotoxicity of the pABA salt, 2-hydroxyethylammonium p-aminobenzoate (HEA-pABA). The ability of neutral and anionic forms of pABA to interact with TIR1 pocket was investigated by calculation of molecular electrostatic potential maps on the accessible surface area, docking experiments, Molecular Dynamics and Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics calculations. The docking study of the folate precursor pABA, its anionic form and natural auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) with the auxin receptor TIR1 revealed a similar binding mode in the active site. The phytotoxic evaluation of HEA-pABA, pABA and 2-hydroxyethylamine (HEA) was performed on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Col 0 at five different concentrations. HEA-pABA and pABA acted as potential auxin-like regulators of root development in Arabidopsis thaliana (0.1 and 0.2 mM) and displayed an agravitropic root response at high concentration (2 mM). This study suggests that HEA-pABA and pABA might be considered as potential new regulators of plant growth. PMID:25054237

Crisan, Manuela E; Bourosh, Paulina; Maffei, Massimo E; Forni, Alessandra; Pieraccini, Stefano; Sironi, Maurizio; Chumakov, Yurii M

2014-01-01

7

P-aminobenzoic acid and tritiated cyanoborohydride for the detection of pyruvoyl residues in proteins  

SciTech Connect

A procedure for the detection of covalently bound pyruvic acid in purified proteins or in crude extracts is described. The dialyzed sample is first treated with sodium cyanoborohydride to reduce any Schiff bases present and then incubated with p-aminobenzoic acid and sodium (/sup 3/H)cyanoborohydride. Derivatized proteins are visualized by fluorography following sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Gel slices containing the labeled proteins are hydrolyzed, and, after removal of polyacrylic acid, the hydrolysate is subjected to ion-exchange high-performance liquid chromatography. The presence of pyruvic acid is established by the detection of a tritiated, 280-nm absorbing compound with a retention time corresponding to that of synthetic N-(p-carboxyphenyl)alanine. The procedure is capable of detecting protein-bound pyruvic acid in the picomolar range and is easily modified to screen for other covalently bound keto acids.

van Poelje, P.D.; Snell, E.E.

1987-03-01

8

Simultaneous removal of acetaldehyde, ammonia and hydrogen sulphide from air by active carbon impregnated with p -aminobenzoic acid, phosphoric acid and metal compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simultaneous removal of acetaldehyde, ammonia, and hydrogen sulphide from air by the impregnated active carbon was studied at 25‡C. p-Aminobenzoic acid (PABA), phosphoric acid (H3PO4), and metal compound such as copper (II) chloride dihydrate (CuCl2·2H2O), copper (II) nitrate trihydrate (Cu(NO3)2·3H2O), and potassium iodide (KI) were investigated as impregnation ingredients. Acetaldehyde and ammonia were simultaneously removed from air by the active

M. Sugiura; K. Fukumoto

1994-01-01

9

Human N-benzoyl-L-tyrosyl-p-aminobenzoic acid hydrolase (human meprin): genomic structure of the alpha and beta subunits.  

PubMed Central

N-Benzoyl-L-tyrosyl-p-aminobenzoic acid hydrolase (PPH, human meprin), a zinc-metalloendopeptidase of the astacin family, consists of two similar subunits. As well as in small-intestinal epithelial cells, the enzyme is found in lamina propria leucocytes, human cancer cells and colorectal cancer tissue, making it a potential candidate for a role in tumour formation and cancer progression. To elucidate the mechanisms that control PPH gene expression and to gain more insights into the evolutionary relationship of the two subunits, we analysed the complete exon-intron organization and searched for putative regulatory elements in 3 kb of the upstream region of both genes. The human gene for the alpha subunit is approx. 35 kb in size and contains 14 exons. The gene for the beta subunit is organized in 15 exons and spans approx. 27 kb. A comparison of both genes indicates strong structural similarities. The exons are almost identical in size, except exon 13 in PPHalpha, which codes for an additional I domain not present in PPHbeta. The locations of the respective exon-intron junctions and the intron phases are almost identical; five of them contain conserved split codons. The main variation is in the intron lengths. It can be concluded that PPHalpha and PPHbeta are derived from a common ancestor. Sequence analysis of the 5' flanking DNA with a computer search for promoter elements and different promoter constructs transfected into Caco-2 cells revealed a number of potential regulatory motifs and suggests that each of the two genes is regulated independently. PMID:10657243

Hahn, D; Illisson, R; Metspalu, A; Sterchi, E E

2000-01-01

10

The effect of nitrate, bicarbonate and natural organic matter on the degradation of sunscreen agent p-aminobenzoic acid by simulated solar irradiation.  

PubMed

Our experiments revealed that a model sunscreen agent, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), can be effectively transformed through reactions that are mediated by simulated solar irradiation. We systematically explored the effects of nitrate ions, bicarbonate and different types of natural organic matter (NOM) on the degradation of PABA by simulated solar irradiation. Experimental data suggest that these components ubiquitous in nature water have different influence on the rates of the photoinduced removal of PABA. Products were extracted and analyzed using LC/MS and a total of four products probably resulting from OH and NO2 radicals attack were identified and the possible reaction pathways were proposed. The findings in this study provide useful information for understanding the environmental transformation of sunscreen agent in aquatic system. PMID:21975008

Mao, Liang; Meng, Cui; Zeng, Chao; Ji, Yuefei; Yang, Xi; Gao, Shixiang

2011-11-15

11

Interaction of P-aminobenzoic acid with normal and sickel erythrocyte membrane: photoaffinity labelling of the binding sites  

SciTech Connect

Electron microscopic studies revealed that P-Amino benzoic acid (PABA) could prevent eichinocytosis of red cells in vitro. Equilibrium binding studies with right side out membrane vesicles (ROV) revealed a similar number of binding sites (1.2-1.4 ..mu..mol/mg) and Kd (1.4-1.6 mM) values for both normal and sickle cell membranes. /sup 14/C-Azide analogue of PABA was synthesized as a photoaffinity label to probe its sites of interaction on the erythrocyte membranes. Competitive binding studies of PABA with its azide indicated that both the compounds share common binding sites on the membrane surface since a 20 fold excess of azide inhibited PABA binding in a linear fashion. The azide was covalently incorporated into the membrane components only upon irradiation (52-35% of the label found in the proteins and the rest in lipids). Electrophoretic analysis of photolabelled ROV revealed that the azide interacts chiefly with Band 3 protein. PABA inhibited both high and low affinity calcium (Ca) binding sites situated on either surface of the membrane in a non-competitive manner; however, Ca binding stimulated by Mg-ATP was not affected. Ca transport into inside out vesicles was inhibited by PABA; but it did not affect the calcium ATP-ase activity. The authors studies suggest that the mechanism of action of PABA is mediated by its interaction with Band 3 protein (anion channel), calcium channel and calcium binding sites of erythrocyte membrane.

Premachandra, B.R.

1986-03-05

12

Percutaneous absorption of salicylic acid, theophylline, 2, 4-dimethylamine, diethyl hexyl phthalic acid, and p-aminobenzoic acid in the isolated perfused porcine skin flap compared to man in vivo.  

PubMed

Human risk assessment for topical exposure requires percutaneous absorption data to link environmental contamination to potential systemic dose. Human absorption data are not readily available, so absorption models are used. In vitro diffusion systems are easy to use but have proved to be somewhat unreliable and are not validated to man. This study compares percutaneous absorption in the isolated perfused porcine skin flap (IPPSF) system with that in man in vivo. The study design utilized the same compounds and the same dose concentration and vehicle in both systems. Methodology for each system was that which is routinely used ineach system. The skin surface was not protected during the absorption dosing period. Percutaneous absorption values were, for man and the IPPSF system, respectively: salicylic acid (6.5 +/- 5.0%; 7.5 +/- 2.6%), theophylline (16.9 +/- 11.3%; 11.8 +/- 3.8%), 2,4-dimethylamine (1.1 +/- 0.3%; 3.8 +/- 0.6%), diethyl hexyl phthalic acid (1.8 +/- 0.5%; 3.9 +/- 2.4%), and p-aminobenzoic acid (11.5 +/- 6.3%; 5.9 +/- 3.7%) (correlation coefficient was 0.78; p < 0.04). The skin surface wash recovery postapplication was similar for salicylic acid in man (53.4 +/- 6.3%) and the IPPSF system (48.2 +/- 4.9%). With the other compounds the majority of surface chemical was recovered in the surface wash and skin tape strip in the IPPSF system. With man, other than salicylic acid, only a few percent applied dose was recovered with surface washing and tape stripping. Since the wash procedure was effective with pig skin, we can assume that these chemicals in man were lost to adsorption to any clothing or bedding with the volunteers. The absorption in man was not less than that in the IPPSF. Assuming the dose was lost in man, it seems plausible that whatever compound was to penetrate human skin in solvent vehicle did so in the period of time before the chemical was removed. The IPPSF system appears to be a good model for predicting percutaneous absorption relative to man. This study design should be used to validate other systems to humans in vivo. PMID:9705899

Wester, R C; Melendres, J; Sedik, L; Maibach, H; Riviere, J E

1998-07-01

13

Room-temperature luminescence of benzo[f]quinoline, p-aminobenzoic acid, phenanthrene, and 4-phenylphenol on a variety of solid surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Analytical figures of merit for the room-temperature luminescence of four model compounds with quite different chemical structures were compared. The compounds were adsorbed on four different surfaces that have been employed recently in solid-surface luminescence analysis. The solid materials investigated were silica gel with a polyacrylate binder, filter paper, 1% polyacrylic acid-NaBr, and 80% [alpha]-cyclodextrin-NaCl. The experimental conditions were optimized to give enhanced luminescence signals. In some cases, filter paper and 80% [alpha]-cyclodextrin-NaCl gave comparable analytical results. However, filter paper gave the best overall results.

Purdy, B.B.; Hurtubise, R.J. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States))

1989-01-01

14

BIOCHEMICAL AND GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF AN EARLY STEP IN A NOVEL PATHWAY FOR THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF AROMATIC AMINO ACIDS AND P-AMINOBENZOIC ACID IN THE ARCHAEON METHANOCOCCUS MARIPALUDIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Methanococcus maripaludis is a strictly anaerobic, methane-producing archaeon and facultative autotroph capable of biosynthesizing all the amino acids and vitamins required for growth. In this work, the novel 6-deoxy-5-ketofructose-1-phosphate (DKFP) pathway for the biosynthesis ...

15

Hydrogen bonding in cyclic imides and amide carboxylic acid derivatives from the facile reaction of cis-cyclohexane-1,2-carboxylic anhydride with o- and p-anisidine and m- and p-aminobenzoic acids.  

PubMed

The structures of the open-chain amide carboxylic acid rac-cis-2-[(2-methoxyphenyl)carbamoyl]cyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid, C(15)H(19)NO(4), (I), and the cyclic imides rac-cis-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3a,4,5,6,7,7a-hexahydroisoindole-1,3-dione, C(15)H(17)NO(3), (II), chiral cis-3-(1,3-dioxo-3a,4,5,6,7,7a-hexahydroisoindol-2-yl)benzoic acid, C(15)H(15)NO(4), (III), and rac-cis-4-(1,3-dioxo-3a,4,5,6,7,7a-hexahydroisoindol-2-yl)benzoic acid monohydrate, C(15)H(15)NO(4)·H(2)O, (IV), are reported. In the amide acid (I), the phenylcarbamoyl group is essentially planar [maximum deviation from the least-squares plane = 0.060 (1) Å for the amide O atom] and the molecules form discrete centrosymmetric dimers through intermolecular cyclic carboxy-carboxy O-H···O hydrogen-bonding interactions [graph-set notation R(2)(2)(8)]. The cyclic imides (II)-(IV) are conformationally similar, with comparable benzene ring rotations about the imide N-C(ar) bond [dihedral angles between the benzene and isoindole rings = 51.55 (7)° in (II), 59.22 (12)° in (III) and 51.99 (14)° in (IV)]. Unlike (II), in which only weak intermolecular C-H···O(imide) hydrogen bonding is present, the crystal packing of imides (III) and (IV) shows strong intermolecular carboxylic acid O-H···O hydrogen-bonding associations. With (III), these involve imide O-atom acceptors, giving one-dimensional zigzag chains [graph-set C(9)], while with the monohydrate (IV), the hydrogen bond involves the partially disordered water molecule which also bridges molecules through both imide and carboxy O-atom acceptors in a cyclic R(4)(4)(12) association, giving a two-dimensional sheet structure. The structures reported here expand the structural database for compounds of this series formed from the facile reaction of cis-cyclohexane-1,2-dicarboxylic anhydride with substituted anilines, in which there is a much larger incidence of cyclic imides compared to amide carboxylic acids. PMID:22935496

Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D

2012-09-01

16

Ethyl-p-aminobenzoate (Benzocaine): efficacy as an anesthetic for five species of freshwater fish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Ethyl-p-aminobenzoate (benzocaine) was tested for its efficacy as an anesthetic for rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii, brown trout (Salmo truttas, northern pike (Esox lucius). carp (Cyprinus carpio), and largemouth bass (Mieropterus salmoidesi. Since benzocaine is not water soluble, it was applied with acetone as a carrier. Concentrations of 100 to 200 mg!l were required for large adult northern pike, compared with 50 to 100 mg/l for small fish. Rates of sedation and recovery were slower in cold water than in warm water. Water hardness had little influence on the activity of benzocaine. Fish were anesthetized faster and recovered more slowly in acid than in alkaline water. Benzocaine produced deep anesthesia, but concentrations that rendered the fish handleable within 5 min were generally not safe for exposures longer than 15 min. Concentrations of benzocaine efficacious for fish were not acutely toxic to eggs of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshauiytschas, rainbow trout, brown trout, or lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Benzocaine is not registered for fishery use and is neither more effective nor safer than the registered anesthetic, tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222l.

Dawson, V.K.; Gilderhus, P.A.

1979-01-01

17

Synthesis, structure, growth and characterization of a novel organic NLO single crystal: Morpholin-4-ium p-aminobenzoate  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: ? A new organic NLO crystal morpholin-4-ium p-aminobenzoate has been grown for the first time. ? The structure is reported for the first time in the literature. ? Thermal, optical and SHG studies suggest its suitability for various NLO applications. -- Abstract: The title compound, morpholin-4-ium p-aminobenzoate (MPABA)(C{sub 4}H{sub 10}NO{sup +},C{sub 7}H{sub 6}NO{sub 2}{sup ?}), has been synthesized for the first time by the addition of morpholine with 4-aminobenzoic acid in equi-molar ratio and good quality single crystals have been grown by solution growth technique using methanol as a solvent. The molecular structure of the compound was solved and refined by Direct Methods using SHELXS97 and full-matrix least-squares technique using SHELXL97, respectively. MPABA crystallizes in a monoclinic system with unit cell parameters, a = 5.948(5) ?, b = 18.033(4) ?, c = 10.577(5) ?, ? = 90.40(1)° and non-centrosymmetric space group Cc. The experimentally measured density and chemical compositions were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. The phases and functional groups of MPABA have been identified and confirmed through powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies, respectively. The thermal stability and decomposition details were studied through TG/DTA thermograms. The UV–visible transmission spectra were recorded for the grown crystal and its NLO characteristic was explored by powder second harmonic generation (SHG) studies.

Shanmugam, G. [Department of Physics, Anna University of Technology Tiruchirappalli, Tiruchirappalli 620024 (India)] [Department of Physics, Anna University of Technology Tiruchirappalli, Tiruchirappalli 620024 (India); Ravi Kumar, K.; Sridhar, B. [X-ray Crystallography Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, CSIR, Hyderabad 500007 (India)] [X-ray Crystallography Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, CSIR, Hyderabad 500007 (India); Brahadeeswaran, S., E-mail: sbrag67@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Anna University of Technology Tiruchirappalli, Tiruchirappalli 620024 (India)

2012-09-15

18

Solubilities of benzoin, propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate and mandelic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semi-flow type apparatus was used to measure the equilibrium solubilities of benzoin , propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, and mandelic acid in supercritical carbon dioxide at 308.15, 318.15, and 328.15K over the pressure range from 9 to 24MPa. New equilibrium data of solid solubility in supercritical carbon dioxide are presented. The approach to solid–fluid phase equilibrium is examined based on a plug

Kong-Wei Cheng; Muoi Tang; Yan-Ping Chen

2002-01-01

19

In Situ Spectrodensitometric Determination of Methyl and Propyl Parabens, Benzoic and Sorbic Acids in Bulk Powder, Foods, and Pharmaceutical Formulations  

Microsoft Academic Search

ATLC spectrodensitometric procedure was developed for the determination of methyl paraben, propyl paraben, sorbic acid and benzoic acid as bulk powders or in pharmaceutical dosage forms and foods. The procedure was used for the determination of the two parabens singly or together and also was used for the determination of benzoic and sorbic acids singly because they were found singly

A. El-Bayoumi; M. S. Tawakkol; J. M. Diab

1997-01-01

20

21 CFR 184.1660 - Propyl gallate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...the n -propylester of 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (C10 H12 O5 ). Natural occurrence of propyl...reported. It is commercially prepared by esterification of gallic acid with propyl alcohol followed by distillation to...

2010-04-01

21

Modulation of peripheral Na(+) channels and neuronal firing by n-butyl-p-aminobenzoate.  

PubMed

n-butyl-p-aminobenzoate (BAB), a local anesthetic, is administered epidurally in cancer patients to treat pain that is poorly controlled by other drugs that have a number of adverse effects. The purpose of the study was to unravel the mechanisms underlying the apparent selective pain suppressant effect of BAB. We used the whole-cell patch-clamp technique to record Na(+) currents and action potentials (APs) in dissociated, nociceptive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells from rats, two types of peripheral sensory neuron Na(+) channels (Nav1.7 and Nav1.8), and the motor neuron-specific Na(+) channel (Nav1.6) expressed in HEK293 cells. BAB (1-100?M) inhibited, in a concentration-dependent manner, the depolarization evoked repetitive firing in DRG cells, the three types of Na(+) current expressed in HEK293 cells, and the TTXr Na(+) current of the DRG neurons. BAB induced a use-dependent block that caused a shift of the inactivation curve in the hyperpolarizing direction. BAB enhanced the onset of slow inactivation of Nav1.7 and Nav1.8 currents but not of Nav1.6 currents. At clinically relevant concentrations (1-100?M), BAB is thus a more potent inhibitor of peripheral TTX-sensitive TTXs, Nav1.7 and TTX-resistant NaV1.8 Na(+) channels than of motor neuron axonal Nav1.6 Na(+) channels. BAB had similar effects on the TTXr Na(+) channels of rat DRG neurons and Nav1.8 channels expressed in HEK293 cells. The observed selectivity of BAB in treating cancer pain may be due to an enhanced and selective responsiveness of Na(+) channels in nociceptive neurons to this local anesthetic. PMID:24486399

Thériault, Olivier; Poulin, Hugo; Sculptoreanu, Adrian; de Groat, William C; O'Leary, Micheal E; Chahine, Mohamed

2014-03-15

22

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF METAL COMPLEXES OF P,P?DI[3-(TRIMETHYLSILYL)-1PROPYL] METHYLENEDIPHOSPHONIC ACID  

Microsoft Academic Search

The silicon-substituted diphosphonic acid P,P?-di[3-(trimethyl-silyl)-1-propyl] methylenediphosphonic acid, H2DTMSP-[MDP], reacts with metal nitrates in methanol to form complexes M2(DTMSP[MDP])3 for M?Fe, Eu and Yb and M(DTMSP[MDP])2 for M?Th. The sodium salt, Na2-(DTMSP[MDP]), forms upon neutralization of H2DTMSP-[MDP] with NaOH. The calcium salt, Ca(DTMSP[MDP]), forms upon addition of the aqueous metal nitrate to an equivalent amount of the neutralized ligand in methanol.

Daniel R. McAlister; Albert W. Herlinger; John R. Ferraro; Mark L. Dietz

2002-01-01

23

Method Development and Validation of Preservatives (Phenylformic Acid, 2,4?Hexadienoic Acid, Methyl 4?Hydroxybenzoate, and Propyl 4?Hydroxybenzoate) by HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the assay of phenylformic acid, 2,4?hexadienoic acid, methyl 4?hydroxybenzoate, and propyl 4?hydroxybenzoate preservatives was developed and validated. The use of a reversed?phase C8 column using an isocratic elution system enabled four compounds to be separated simultaneously in one analytical run. The method was validated to demonstrate its selectivity, linearity, precision, accuracy, specificity,

Ghulam A. Shabir; W. John Lough; Shafique A. Arain; Ghulam Qadir Shar

2006-01-01

24

Inhibition of p-aminobenzoate and folate syntheses in plants and apicomplexan parasites by natural product rubreserine.  

PubMed

Glutamine amidotransferase/aminodeoxychorismate synthase (GAT-ADCS) is a bifunctional enzyme involved in the synthesis of p-aminobenzoate, a central component part of folate cofactors. GAT-ADCS is found in eukaryotic organisms autonomous for folate biosynthesis, such as plants or parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa. Based on an automated screening to search for new inhibitors of folate biosynthesis, we found that rubreserine was able to inhibit the glutamine amidotransferase activity of the plant GAT-ADCS with an apparent IC(50) of about 8 ?M. The growth rates of Arabidopsis thaliana, Toxoplasma gondii, and Plasmodium falciparum were inhibited by rubreserine with respective IC(50) values of 65, 20, and 1 ?M. The correlation between folate biosynthesis and growth inhibition was studied with Arabidopsis and Toxoplasma. In both organisms, the folate content was decreased by 40-50% in the presence of rubreserine. In both organisms, the addition of p-aminobenzoate or 5-formyltetrahydrofolate in the external medium restored the growth for inhibitor concentrations up to the IC(50) value, indicating that, within this range of concentrations, rubreserine was specific for folate biosynthesis. Rubreserine appeared to be more efficient than sulfonamides, antifolate drugs known to inhibit the invasion and proliferation of T. gondii in human fibroblasts. Altogether, these results validate the use of the bifunctional GAT-ADCS as an efficient drug target in eukaryotic cells and indicate that the chemical structure of rubreserine presents interesting anti-parasitic (toxoplasmosis, malaria) potential. PMID:22577137

Camara, Djeneb; Bisanz, Cordelia; Barette, Caroline; Van Daele, Jeroen; Human, Esmare; Barnard, Bernice; Van der Straeten, Dominique; Stove, Christophe P; Lambert, Willy E; Douce, Roland; Maréchal, Eric; Birkholtz, Lyn-Marie; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Dumas, Renaud; Rébeillé, Fabrice

2012-06-22

25

Effect of Tetra Propyl Ammonium Bromide During Cobalt Electrodeposition from Acidic Sulfate Solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the current study, the effect of an organic additive tetra propyl ammonium bromide (TPAB) on the structural, morphological characteristics of the cobalt metal produced from aqueous sulfate solutions has been investigated. The concentration of TPAB was varied over a range of 1 to 50 mg/L to evaluate its effect on current efficiency, energy consumption, and quality of electrodeposited cobalt. Smooth and bright electrodeposits of cobalt were obtained at low concentration of TPAB (10 mg/L) maintaining a current efficiency of 99.4 pct, with a low energy consumption of 2.42 kWh/kg. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that (100) plane is the most preferred plane of crystal growth during cobalt electrodeposition. However, at higher concentrations, the (101) plane became the most preferred one. Scanning electron micrographs indicated that smooth and uniform deposit of cobalt was obtained at 10 mg/L beyond which the deposit quality deteriorates. The presence of TPAB in the electrolytic bath polarizes the cathode and decreases the cathodic current considerably. AAS results indicated that the cobalt deposits were of high purity.

Patnaik, Pinak; Tripathy, Bankim Chandra; Bhattacharya, Indra Narayan; Paramguru, Raja Kishore; Mishra, Barada Kanta

2015-02-01

26

A two-dimensional copper(II) coordination polymer based on 2-propyl-1H-imidazole-4,5-dicarboxylic acid.  

PubMed

Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of poly[bis(?2-5-carboxy-2-propyl-1H-imidazole-4-carboxylato-?(3)N(3),O(4):O(5))copper(II)], [Cu(C8H9N2O4)2)]n, indicates that one carboxylic acid group of the 2-propyl-1H-imidazole-4,5-dicarboxylic acid (H3PDI) ligand is deprotonated. The resulting H2PDI(-) anion, acting as a bridge, connects the Cu(II) cations to form a two-dimensional (4,4)-connected layer. Adjacent layers are further linked through interlayer hydrogen-bond interactions, resulting in a three-dimensional supramolecular structure. PMID:25652284

Zhong, Di-Chang; Guo, Hua-Bin; Deng, Ji-Hua; Lian, Ping; Luo, Xu-Zhong

2015-02-01

27

Synthesis and characterization of metal complexes of P, P{sup prime}DI[3-(trimethylsilyl)-1-propyl] methylenediphosphonic acid{double_dagger}  

Microsoft Academic Search

The silicon-substituted diphosphonic acid P,P'-di[3-(trimethyl-silyl)-1-propyl] methylenediphosphonic acid, H2DTMSP-[MDP], reacts with metal nitrates in methanol to form complexes M2(DTMSP[MDP])3 for M=Fe, Eu and Yb and M(DTMSP[MDP])2 for M=Th. The sodium salt, Na2-(DTMSP[MDP]), forms upon neutralization of H2DTMSP-[MDP] with NaOH. The calcium salt, Ca(DTMSP[MDP]), forms upon addition of the aqueous metal nitrate to an equivalent amount of the neutralized ligand in methanol.

D. R. McAlister; A. W. Herlinger; J. R. Ferraro; M. L. Dietz

2002-01-01

28

Laccase-catalyzed bisphenol A oxidation in the presence of 10-propyl sulfonic acid phenoxazine.  

PubMed

The kinetics of the Coriolopsis byrsina laccase-catalyzed bisphenol A (BisA) oxidation was investigated in the absence and presence of electron-transfer mediator 3-phenoxazin-10-yl-propane-1-sulfonic acid (PPSA) at pH5.5 and 25°C. It was shown that oxidation rate of the hardly degrading compound BisA increased in the presence of the highly reactive substrate PPSA. The increase of reaction rate depends on PPSA and BisA concentrations as well on their ratio, e.g., at 0.2mmol/L of BisA and 2?mol/L of PPSA the rate increased 2 times. The kinetic data were analyzed using a scheme of synergistic laccase-catalyzed BisA oxidation. The calculated constant, characterizing reactivity of PPSA with laccase, is almost 1000 times higher than the constant, characterizing reactivity of BisA with laccase. This means that mediator-assisted BisA oxidation rate can be 1000 times higher in comparison to non-mediator reaction if compounds concentration is equal but very low. PMID:25872719

Ivanec-Goranina, R?ta; Kulys, Juozas; Bachmatova, Irina; Marcinkevi?ien?, Liucija; Meškys, Rolandas

2015-04-01

29

SWELLING OF PEATS IN LIQUID METHYL, TETRAMETHYLENE AND PROPYL SULFOXIDES AND IN LIQUID PROPYL SULFONE  

EPA Science Inventory

The interactions of methyl, tetramethylene, and propyl sulfoxides and propyl sulfone during sorption onto four dewaxed, acid-form peats have been studied by meas of swelling measurements. The results for sulfoxides are displayed as heteromolecular sorption isotherms, which plot a...

30

SWELLING OF PEATS IN LIQUID METHYL, TETRAMETHYLENE AND PROPYL SULFOXIDES AND IN LIQUID PROPYL SULFONE  

EPA Science Inventory

The interactions of methyl, tetramethylene, and propyl sulfoxides and propyl sulfone during sorption onto four de-waxed, acid-form peats have been studied by means of swelling measurements. The results for sulfoxides are displayed as het-eromolecular sorption isotherms, which plo...

31

The covalent binding to protein of valproic acid and its hepatotoxic metabolite, 2-n-propyl-4-pentenoic acid, in rats and in isolated rat hepatocytes.  

PubMed

The covalent binding of radioactivity to protein following administration of 14C-labeled analogs of valproic acid (VPA) and a hepatotoxic metabolite thereof, 2-n-propyl-4-pentenoic acid (delta 4-VPA), was investigated in male rats. Covalent binding occurred in a number of tissues, the level of binding being greatest to proteins in liver for each compound. Moreover, the binding of radioactivity from delta 4-VPA to hepatic macromolecules was higher than the corresponding value for VPA. When radiolabeled VPA and delta 4-VPA were incubated with rat hepatocytes, radiolabel again became bound to cellular proteins, the time-course of which suggested the existence of at least two underlying mechanisms. Thus, after initial rapid binding of both substrates, a secondary slow phase was evident, which favored binding of delta 4-VPA. Although phenobarbital pretreatment of rats had little effect on the covalent binding of either substrate to isolated hepatocytes, clofibrate pretreatment markedly enhanced the covalent binding of both VPA and delta 4-VPA to these cells. In contrast, the covalent binding of VPA and delta 4-VPA was suppressed strongly by 4-pentenoic acid, a potent inhibitor of beta-oxidation, but was not affected by metyrapone, an inhibitor of cytochrome P-450 activity. (-)-Borneol and 8-bromo-cAMP, two inhibitors of glucuronidation, acted to decrease the binding of both substrates, although this inhibition was evident only in the early stages of incubation. A similar effect was seen with valeric acid, the saturated analog of 4-pentenoic acid.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2565201

Porubek, D J; Grillo, M P; Baillie, T A

1989-01-01

32

Amino acid analysis in physiological samples by GC-MS with propyl chloroformate derivatization and iTRAQ-LC-MS/MS.  

PubMed

Two mass spectrometry-based methods for the quantitative analysis of free amino acids are described. The first method uses propyl chloroformate/propanol derivatization and gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-qMS) analysis in single-ion monitoring mode. Derivatization is carried out directly in aqueous samples, thereby allowing automation of the entire procedure, including addition of reagents, extraction, and injection into the GC-MS. The method delivers the quantification of 26 amino acids. The isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) method employs the labeling of amino acids with isobaric iTRAQ tags. The tags contain two different cleavable reporter ions, one for the sample and one for the standard, which are detected by fragmentation in a tandem mass spectrometer. Reversed-phase liquid chromatography of the labeled amino acids is performed prior to mass spectrometric analysis to separate isobaric amino acids. The commercial iTRAQ kit allows for the analysis of 42 physiological amino acids with a respective isotope-labeled standard for each of these 42 amino acids. PMID:22125145

Dettmer, Katja; Stevens, Axel P; Fagerer, Stephan R; Kaspar, Hannelore; Oefner, Peter J

2012-01-01

33

Thermodynamic approach for studying both the retention and complexation mechanisms with hydroxy-propyl-beta-cyclodextrin of a phenoxy-propionic acid herbicide series.  

PubMed

The retention and complexation mechanisms of a herbicide series were studied from a chromatographic approach using a novel column called "Nautilus((R))". The effects of water fraction and the hydroxy-propyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) concentration in the mobile phase were analysed in relation to the column temperature. Two retention models of phenoxy-propionic acid (PPA) derivatives were investigated. It was shown that the retention mechanism was led by free PPA herbicide for low HP-beta-CD concentrations and by the PPA/HP-beta-CD complex for the highest ones. In addition, an enthalpy-entropy compensation study revealed that both the solute retention and complexation mechanisms were independent of the number of chlorine atoms in the structure. Also the thermodynamic results showed that (1) the retention process depended on the water fraction (X) in the mobile phase and (2) the PPA/HP-beta-CD complexation mechanism was shown to be entropically controlled. PMID:18969678

Darrouzain, François; Matoga, Myriam; Cavalli, Eric; Thomassin, Mireille; Ismaili, Lhassane; Guillaume, Yves Claude

2004-11-15

34

FTIR SOLUTION SPECTRA OF PROPYL SULFIDE, PROPYL SULFOXIDE, AND PROPYL SULFONE  

EPA Science Inventory

FTIR spectra were obtained of 0.5% volumetric solutions of propyl sulfide, propyl sulfoxide and propyl sulfone in hexane, CC14, CS2, and CHCl3 to assist in the assignment of FTIR-PAS spectra of propyl sulfoxide sorbed within the structure of several peats and onto cellulose. he C...

35

FT-IR SOLUTION SPECTRA OF PROPYL SULFIDE, PROPYL SULFOXIDE, AND PROPYL SULFONE  

EPA Science Inventory

FT-IR spectra were obtained of 0.5% volumetric solutions of propyl sulfide, propyl sulfoxide, and propyl sulfone in hexane, CCl4, CS2, and CHCl3 to assist in the assignment of FT-IR-PAS spectra of propyl sulfoxide sorbed within the structure of several peats and onto cellulose. T...

36

[Effects of krestin and p-aminobenzoic-N-xyloside sodium salt on activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes and glutathione-related enzymes in rat liver].  

PubMed

Effects of krestin (PSK) and p-aminobenzoic-N-xyloside sodium salt (K-247) (both products of Kreha Chemical Co., Japan) on activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes and glutathione (GSH)-related enzymes were investigated in rat liver. When PSK was administered at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, ip every day for 7 or 14 days, the action of UDP-glucuronyltransferase (UDP-GT) on o-aminophenol (o-GT) and those of GSH S-transferase (GST) on both 1, 2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene ( DCNB ) and 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) slightly increased together with increased activities of GSH-peroxidase on both H2O2 and cumene hydroperoxide, were as GSH levels were decreased. When PSK or K-247 was administered at 1% in diet for 4 or 8 weeks, o-GT activity and GST activities with both substrates increased on K-247 feeding, while GST activity for CDNB decreased on PSK and K-247 feedings. These changes were statistically significant but very small. The content of P-450 and the activity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase changed little in any administration schedules mentioned above. PMID:6144291

Ebina, T; Kitahara, A; Soma, Y; Ishikawa, T; Tsuchida, S; Sato, K

1984-05-01

37

Synthesis and characterization of metal complexes of P, P{sup prime}-DI[3-(trimethylsilyl)-1-propyl] methylenediphosphonic acid{double_dagger}.  

SciTech Connect

The silicon-substituted diphosphonic acid P,P'-di[3-(trimethyl-silyl)-1-propyl] methylenediphosphonic acid, H2DTMSP-[MDP], reacts with metal nitrates in methanol to form complexes M2(DTMSP[MDP])3 for M=Fe, Eu and Yb and M(DTMSP[MDP])2 for M=Th. The sodium salt, Na2-(DTMSP[MDP]), forms upon neutralization of H2DTMSP-[MDP] with NaOH. The calcium salt, Ca(DTMSP[MDP]), forms upon addition of the aqueous metal nitrate to an equivalent amount of the neutralized ligand in methanol. Elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements were used to characterize the compounds. Frequency shifts in the asymmetric and symmetric POO- stretching bands of the Fe, Eu, Yb and Th compounds indicate symmetrical coordination of the phosphonate groups through chelate and/or bridging interactions. The frequency difference between these stretching bands becomes smaller as the ionic potential (e/r) of the metal ion increases.

McAlister, D. R.; Herlinger, A. W.; Ferraro, J. R.; Dietz, M. L.; Chemistry; Loyola Univ.

2002-02-01

38

Final Report On the Safety Assessment of Glycolic Acid, Ammonium, Calcium, Potassium, and Sodium Glycolates, Methyl, Ethyl, Propyl, and Butyl Glycolates, and Lactic Acid, Ammonium, Calcium, Potassium, Sodium, and Tea-Lactates, Methyl, Ethyl, Isopropyl, and Butyl Lactates, and Lauryl, Myristyl, and Cetyl Lactates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides a review of the safety of Glycolic Acid, Ammonium, Calcium, Potassium, and Sodium Glycolates, Methyl, Ethyl, Propyl, and Butyl Glycolates, Lactic Acid, Ammonium, Calcium, Potassium, Sodium, and TEA-Lactates, and Lauryl, Myristyl, and Cetyl Lactates. These ingredients belong to a group known as alpha-hydroxy acids (AHAs). Products containing these ingredients may be for consumer use, salon use, or

F. A. Andersen

1998-01-01

39

Water-soluble N-[(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium)propyl]chitosan chloride as a nucleic acids vector for cell transfection.  

PubMed

To endow the cationic polysaccharides with solubility in the whole pH-range without loss of functionality of the amino groups, different chitosan samples were treated with glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride. Each modified unit of the exhaustively alkylated quaternized chitosan (QCht) contained both quaternary and secondary amino groups. The intercalated dye displacement assay and ?-potential measurements implied stability of QCht polyplexes at physiological conditions and protonation of the secondary amino groups in slightly acidic media which is favorable for transfection according to proton sponge mechanism. The cytotoxicity and transfection efficacy increased with the chain lengthening. Nevertheless, the longest chains of QCht, 250 kDa were less toxic than PEI for COS-1 cells and revealed comparable and even significantly higher transfection activity of siRNA and plasmid DNA, respectively. Thus, highly polymerized QCht (250 kDa) provided the highest level of the plasmid DNA transfection being 5 and 80 times more active than QCht (100 kDa) and QCht (50 kDa), respectively, and 4-fold more effective than PEI, 25 kDa. The established influence of QCht molecular weight on toxicity and transfection efficacy allows elaborating polysaccharide vectors that possess rational balance of these characteristics. PMID:24750918

Faizuloev, Evgeny; Marova, Anna; Nikonova, Alexandra; Volkova, Irina; Gorshkova, Marina; Izumrudov, Vladimir

2012-08-01

40

Synthesis and biological activity of an acyclic analogue of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolic acid, N-[4-[[3-(2,4-diamino-1,6-dihydro-6-oxo-5- pyrimidinyl)propyl]amino]-benzoyl]-L-glutamic acid.  

PubMed

The synthesis and biological evaluation of N-[4-[[3-(2,4-diamino-1,6-dihydro-6-oxo-5-pyrimidinyl)propyl]amino]- benzoyl]-L-glutamic acid (1) (5-DACTHF, 543U76), an acyclic analogue of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolic acid (THFA), are described. The key intermediate, hemiaminal 8, was prepared in four stages from 3-chloropropionaldehyde diethyl acetal. Reaction of 8 with dimethyl N-(4-aminobenzoyl)-L-glutamate gave the 2,4-bis(acetylamino) derivative 11, which was hydrolyzed with 1 N sodium hydroxide to give 1; the glycine analogue 16 was prepared in a similar manner. The N-methyl analogue 2 and N-formyl analogue 3 were prepared from 11 and 1, respectively. Compounds 1-3 inhibited growth of Detroit 98 and L cells in cell culture, with IC50s ranging from 2 to 0.018 microM. Cell culture toxicity reversal studies and enzyme inhibition tests showed that 1 was cytotoxic but not by the mechanism of the dihydrofolate reductase inhibitor aminopterin. Compound 1 and its polyglutamylated homologues inhibited glycinamide ribonucleotide transformylase (GAR-TFase) and aminoimidazole ribonucleotide transformylase (AICAR-TFase), the folate-dependent enzymes in de novo purine biosynthesis; and 1 was an effective substrate for mammalian folyl-polyglutamate synthetase. The compound inhibited (IC50 = 20 nM) the conversion of [14C]formate to [14C]-formylglycinamide ribonucleotide by MOLT-4 cells in culture. These data suggest that the site of action of 1 is inhibition of purine de novo biosynthesis. Moderate activity was observed against P388 leukemia in vivo. PMID:2299624

Kelley, J L; McLean, E W; Cohn, N K; Edelstein, M P; Duch, D S; Smith, G K; Hanlon, M H; Ferone, R

1990-02-01

41

Kinetics of the transformation of n-propyl gallate and structural analogs in the perfused rat liver  

SciTech Connect

n-Propyl gallate and its analogs are used in foods and other products to prevent oxidation. In the liver the compound exerts several harmful effects, especially gluconeogenesis inhibition. The mode of transport and distribution of n-propyl gallate and its kinetics of biotransformation have not yet been investigated. To fill this gap the transformation, transport and distribution of n-propyl gallate and two analogs were investigated in the rat liver. Isolated perfused rat liver was used. n-Propyl gallate, methyl gallate, n-octyl gallate and transformation products were quantified by high pressure-liquid chromatography coupled to fluorescence detection. The interactions of n-propyl gallate and analogs with the liver presented three main characteristics: (1) the hydrolytic release of gallic acid from n-propyl gallate and methyl gallate was very fast compared with the subsequent transformations of the gallic acid moiety; (2) transport of the esters was very fast and flow-limited in contrast to the slow and barrier-limited transport of gallic acid; (3) the apparent distribution volume of n-propyl gallate, but probably also of methyl gallate and n-octyl gallate, greatly exceeded the water space in the liver, contrary to the gallic acid space which is smaller than the water space. It can be concluded that at low portal concentrations (< 50 ?M) the gallic acid esters are 100% extracted during a single passage through the liver, releasing mainly gallic acid into the systemic circulation. For the latter a considerable time is required until complete biotransformation. The exposure of the liver to the esters, however, is quite prolonged due to extensive intracellular binding. - Highlights: • The liver binds very strongly n-propyl gallate and releases basically gallic acid. • n-propyl gallate and analogs undergo concentrative flow-limited distribution. • Gallic acid undergoes barrier-limited distribution and is slowly transformed. • The long residence time of n-propyl gallate and analogs increases toxicity.

Eler, Gabrielle Jacklin; Santos, Israel Souza; Giaretta de Moraes, Amarilis; Mito, Márcio Shigueaki; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Peralta, Rosane Marina; Bracht, Adelar, E-mail: adebracht@uol.com.br

2013-11-15

42

Availability of selected amino acids in sorghum grain and corn determined in ileocecal cannulated finishing pigs  

E-print Network

; menadione, 22. 5 mg; p aminobenzoic acid, 50 mg; niacin, 45 mg; riboflavin, 10 mg; pyridoxine hydrochloride, 10 mg; thiamine hydrochloride, 10 mg; calcium pantothenate, 30 mg; biotin, 0. 20 mg; folic acid, 0. 90 mg; and vitamin 812, 0. 135 mg. c...AVAILABILITY OF SELECTED AMINO ACIDS IN SORGHUM GRAIN AND CORN DETERMINED IN ILEOCECAL CANNULATED FINISHING PIGS A Thesis by ROBERT ARNOLD EASTER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

Easter, Robert Arnold

1972-01-01

43

Determination of efficacy of fingermark enhancement reagents; the use of propyl chloroformate for the derivatization of fingerprint amino acids extracted from paper.  

PubMed

The analysis of the constituents of fingerprints has been described numerous times, mainly with the purpose of determining the aging effect on fingerprints or showing the differences between donors or groups of donors. In this paper we describe the use of derivatized amino acids to determine the efficacy of the visualization reagents 1,8-diazafluoren-9-one (DFO) and ninhydrin. At present certain conditions are used for the application of these reagents, as determined by trial-and-error investigations, to the effect on fingerprints. The recovery of amino acids from a porous surface can be used as a measure for the efficacy of a visualization agent. In this paper we describe a method for the determination of the amount of amino acid left after reaction with well known fingerprint visualization reagents. This will allow a more scientific approach to method development for fingermark enhancement techniques. Furthermore, investigations on the influence of the concentration of fingermark amino acids, the order of application of and exposure time to reagents and the influence of age of the amino acids were carried out. These studies have resulted in a broader understanding of the mechanism involved in visualization of fingermarks using DFO and ninhydrin. PMID:23937938

Mink, Tineke; Voorhaar, Annelies; Stoel, Reinoud; de Puit, Marcel

2013-09-01

44

Development and Validation of an Improved LC Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Pirfenidone and Its Carboxylic Acid Metabolite in Human Plasma  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive and specific assay based on liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection was developed for the simultaneous\\u000a determination of pirfenidone (PFD), a novel antifibrotic agent, and its carboxylic acid metabolite in human plasma. The carboxylic\\u000a acid metabolite was further identified by mass spectrometric analysis. PFD, its carboxylic acid metabolite and the internal\\u000a standard methyl-p-aminobenzoate were extracted from plasma by a

Shaojun Shi; Jianhong Wu; Jun Wu; Fandian Zeng

2009-01-01

45

Aminobenzoic acid incorporated octapeptides for cation transport.  

PubMed

Robust oligopeptides that mimic natural ion channels are attractive for use as molecular switches or model systems to study ion transport. Herein, we report octapeptides derived from aminobenzoic acid and l/d amino acids. Two of the alanine containing peptides were found to be most active and the peptide containing p-aminobenzoic acid was found to be most active (2.4 times its m-analog). Experimental studies indicate the peptides do not transport halides and transport alkali metal ions. PMID:25766627

Benke, Bahiru P; Madhavan, Nandita

2015-04-01

46

High-pressure phase behavior of propyl lactate and butyl lactate in supercritical carbon dioxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lactate esters synthesized with lactic acid and ester are used as solvents and reactants in various industries, including agricultural chemistry, pharmaceuticals, electronics, and fine chemicals. Among lactate esters, high purity propyl lactate and butyl lactate are used to produce fine chemicals and in the synthesis of chiral intermediates for use in pesticides and drugs. However, distillation for the removal of

Dong Woo Cho; Jungin Shin; Moon Sam Shin; Won Bae; Hwayong Kim

47

Detection of a branched alkyl molecule in the interstellar medium: iso-propyl cyanide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The largest noncyclic molecules detected in the interstellar medium (ISM) are organic with a straight-chain carbon backbone. We report an interstellar detection of a branched alkyl molecule, iso-propyl cyanide (i-C3H7CN), with an abundance 0.4 times that of its straight-chain structural isomer. This detection suggests that branched carbon-chain molecules may be generally abundant in the ISM. Our astrochemical model indicates that both isomers are produced within or upon dust grain ice mantles through the addition of molecular radicals, albeit via differing reaction pathways. The production of iso-propyl cyanide appears to require the addition of a functional group to a nonterminal carbon in the chain. Its detection therefore bodes well for the presence in the ISM of amino acids, for which such side-chain structure is a key characteristic.

Belloche, Arnaud; Garrod, Robin T.; Müller, Holger S. P.; Menten, Karl M.

2014-09-01

48

Pathologically activated neuroprotection via uncompetitive blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors with fast off-rate by novel multifunctional dimer bis(propyl)-cognitin.  

PubMed

Uncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists with fast off-rate (UFO) may represent promising drug candidates for various neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we report that bis(propyl)-cognitin, a novel dimeric acetylcholinesterase inhibitor and gamma-aminobutyric acid subtype A receptor antagonist, is such an antagonist of NMDA receptors. In cultured rat hippocampal neurons, we demonstrated that bis(propyl)-cognitin voltage-dependently, selectively, and moderately inhibited NMDA-activated currents. The inhibitory effects of bis(propyl)-cognitin increased with the rise in NMDA and glycine concentrations. Kinetics analysis showed that the inhibition was of fast onset and offset with an off-rate time constant of 1.9 s. Molecular docking simulations showed moderate hydrophobic interaction between bis(propyl)-cognitin and the MK-801 binding region in the ion channel pore of the NMDA receptor. Bis(propyl)-cognitin was further found to compete with [(3)H]MK-801 with a K(i) value of 0.27 mum, and the mutation of NR1(N616R) significantly reduced its inhibitory potency. Under glutamate-mediated pathological conditions, bis(propyl)-cognitin, in contrast to bis(heptyl)-cognitin, prevented excitotoxicity with increasing effectiveness against escalating levels of glutamate and much more effectively protected against middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced brain damage than did memantine. More interestingly, under NMDA receptor-mediated physiological conditions, bis(propyl)-cognitin enhanced long-term potentiation in hippocampal slices, whereas MK-801 reduced and memantine did not alter this process. These results suggest that bis(propyl)-cognitin is a UFO antagonist of NMDA receptors with moderate affinity, which may provide a pathologically activated therapy for various neurodegenerative disorders associated with NMDA receptor dysregulation. PMID:20404346

Luo, Jialie; Li, Wenming; Zhao, Yuming; Fu, Hongjun; Ma, Dik-Lung; Tang, Jing; Li, Chaoying; Peoples, Robert W; Li, Fushun; Wang, Qinwen; Huang, Pingbo; Xia, Jun; Pang, Yuanping; Han, Yifan

2010-06-25

49

The reaction of hydroperoxy-propyl radicals with molecular oxygen  

SciTech Connect

Addition of hydroperoxy-alkyl radicals to molecular oxygen leads to chain branching in autoignition and engine knock, and in low temperature oxidation of paraffins. Rate constants and product channels for reaction of hydroperoxy-propyl radicals with O{sub 2} are estimated using thermodynamic properties, bimolecular quantum Kassel analysis and transition state theory. Thermochemistry of relevant molecules and radicals is estimated using group additivity and bond dissociation groups for radicals. Results show that rates of the hydroperoxy-propyl radical addition to O{sub 2} are near their high pressure limits at {ge} 1 atm. Main products at 1--15 atm are stabilization, reverse reaction to hydroperoxy-propyl + O{sub 2} and alkyl carbonyl + OH. Reactions of the stabilized adducts, dissociation rates and product channels are estimated using unimolecular quantum Kassel analysis, because stabilization is the most important hydroperoxy-propyl radical + O{sub 2} product channel. Below 700 K, the stabilized peroxy adducts react primarily to hydroperoxy-carbonyl + OH, products which lead to chain branching. Above 700K, the stabilized peroxy adducts react primarily to hydroperoxy-propyl radical + O{sub 2}, initial reactants, which inhibits the overall oxidation. This switchover in channels correlates well observed negative temperature coefficient behavior for propane oxidation. Rate expressions for reaction of each of the three hydroperoxy-alkyl isomers with O{sub 2} and for dissociation of the associated stabilized adducts are calculated for a series of pressures at 300--2100K.

Bozzelli, J.W. [New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering; Pitz, W.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

1993-12-03

50

Crystal structure of 3-amino-1-propyl­pyridinium bromide  

PubMed Central

The title mol­ecular salt, C8H13N2 +·Br?, crystallizes with two independent 3-amino­pyridinium cations and two bromide anions in the asymmetric unit (Z? = 2). In the pyridine ring, the N atom is alkyl­ated by a propyl group. The dihedral angle between the mean planes of the pyridinium ring and the propyl group is 84.84?(2)° in cation A, whereas the corresponding angle is 89.23?(2)° in cation B. In the crystal, the anions and cations are linked via N—H?Br and C—H?Br hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along [100]. PMID:25552997

Venkatesan, P.; Rajakannan, V.; Thamotharan, S.

2014-01-01

51

Dextran Carrier Macromolecules for Colon-specific Delivery of 5-Aminosalicylic Acid.  

PubMed

Present manuscript describes the sustained and targeted delivery of 5-aminosalicylic acid to the distal ileum and proximal colon, using dextran (40 kDa) as a carrier for targeting 5-aminosalicylic acid at the colonic site by attaching p-aminobenzoic acid and benzoic acid as linkers. Prepared conjugate were characterized by UV, HPLC, FT-IR, and (1)H NMR. The degree of substitution was estimated by complete hydrolysis of conjugates in borate buffer and in vitro hydrolysis study of conjugates was performed in different biological media. It was observed that 5-aminosalicylic acid alone have produced high incidence of gastric ulcer with high ulcer index whereas lower ulcer index was found for the dextran conjugates of 5-aminosalicylic acid. The release pattern of conjugates in 3% w/v rat caecal content was confirmed the colon specificity of 5-aminosalicylic acid conjugates. PMID:24082343

Shrivastava, P K; Shrivastava, A; Sinha, S K; Shrivastava, S K

2013-05-01

52

40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl...Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl...chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil,...

2012-07-01

53

40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl...Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl...chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil,...

2014-07-01

54

40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl...Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl...chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil,...

2013-07-01

55

40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl...Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl...chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil,...

2011-07-01

56

40 CFR 721.10176 - Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl].  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl...Substances § 721.10176 Amides, peanut-oil, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl...chemical substance identified as amides, peanut-oil,...

2010-07-01

57

No-carrier-added carbon-11-labeled sn-1,2- and sn-1,3-diacylglycerols by (11C)propyl ketene method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the preparation of sn-1,2-(11C)diacylglycerols and sn-1,3-(11C)diacylglycerols by a no-carrier-added reaction based on a labeling method using (1-11C)propyl ketene, which is one of the most potent acylating agents. (1-11C)Propyl ketene was produced by pyrolytic decomposition of (1-11C)butyric acid and was trapped in pyridine containing L-alpha-palmitoyl-lysophosphatidylcholine, producing L-alpha-palmitoyl-2-(1-11C)butyryl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine. The authors adopted an enzymatic reaction to remove the phosphorylcholine, in

Y. Imahori; R. Fujii; S. Ueda; T. Ido; H. Nishino; Y. Moriyama; Y. L. Yamamoto; H. Nakahashi

1991-01-01

58

HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS PROFILE FOR N-PROPYL ALCOHOL  

EPA Science Inventory

The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for n-Propyl Alcohol was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide ...

59

Rapid synthesis of propyl caffeate in ionic liquid using a packed bed enzyme microreactor under continuous-flow conditions.  

PubMed

Propyl caffeate has the highest antioxidant activity among caffeic acid alkyl esters, but its industrial production via enzymatic transesterification in batch reactors is hindered by a long reaction time (24h). To develop a rapid process for the production of propyl caffeate in high yield, a continuous-flow microreactor composed of a two-piece PDMS in a sandwich-like microchannel structure was designed for the transesterification of methyl caffeate and 1-propanol catalyzed by Novozym 435 in [B mim][CF3SO3]. The maximum yield (99.5%) in the microreactor was achieved in a short period of time (2.5h) with a flow rate of 2 ?L/min, which kinetic constant Km was 16 times lower than that of a batch reactor. The results indicated that the use of a continuous-flow packed bed enzyme microreactor is an efficient method of producing propyl caffeate with an overall yield of 84.0%. PMID:24128399

Wang, Jun; Gu, Shuang-Shuang; Cui, Hong-Sheng; Yang, Liu-Qing; Wu, Xiang-Yang

2013-12-01

60

Synthesis and pharmacological study of 1-acetyl\\/propyl-3-aryl-5-(5-chloro-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1 H-pyrazol-4-yl)-2-pyrazoline  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of 1-acetyl\\/propyl-3-aryl-5-(5-chloro-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-2-pyrazolines were synthesized in one step by condensing suitably substituted propenones, hydrazine and acetic\\/propionic acid. The newly synthesized pyrazolines were characterized by analytical and spectral data. The new compounds were screened for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity and most of them showed good activity comparable with that of standard drugs Pentazocin and Diclofinac sodium respectively.

K. S. Girisha; Balakrishna Kalluraya; Vijaya Narayana; Padmashree

2010-01-01

61

Poly (vinyl alcohol)/3-(trimethylammonium) propyl-functionalized silica hybrid membranes for alkaline  

E-print Network

Poly (vinyl alcohol)/3-(trimethylammonium) propyl-functionalized silica hybrid membranes (DEFC) Alkaline membranes Poly(vinyl alcohol) a b s t r a c t A novel hybrid membrane based on poly (vinyl alcohol)/3-(trimethylammonium) propyl- functionalized silica (PVA-TMAPS) is prepared by a simple

Zhao, Tianshou

62

Polymerization of acetaldehyde using tetraiso-Propyl titanate as a catalyst  

E-print Network

POLYMERIZATION OF ACETALDEHYDE USING TETRAISO-PROPYL TITANATE AS A CATALYST A Thesis by MUNEHARU MAKITA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AEM University in Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE... 1974 f $5Q6rtq ABSTRACT POLYMERIZATION OF ACETALDEHYDE USING TETRAISO-PROPYL TITANATE AS A CATALYST (August 1974) Muneharu Makita, B. E. , Fukui University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Minoru Tsutsui This work was an effort to determine...

Makita, Muneharu

1974-01-01

63

Role of kinetic process in the solvent effect on crystallization of BPT propyl ester polymorph  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The polymorphic crystallization behavior of 2-(3-cyano-4-(2-methylpropoxy)-phenyl)-4-methyl-thiazole-5-carboxylic acid propyl ester (Pr-est) is strongly influenced by the solvent. In acetonitrile, only the stable B form crystallizes; however, in ethanol and cyclohexane, the metastable A form tends to crystallize and transform into the B form. Transformation rate measurements of Pr-est indicate that the transformation proceeds substantially faster in acetonitrile than in cyclohexane or ethanol, corresponding to the preferential crystallization of the B form in acetonitrile. It appears that the nucleation rate of the B form is much higher in acetonitrile than in cyclohexane or ethanol. The high solubility of Pr-est in acetonitrile suggests that the strong solute-solvent interaction in acetonitrile is advantageous for the nucleation of the stable B form. Although the transformation time in ethanol and cyclohexane is similar, the nucleation rate of the B form in ethanol is relatively higher than in c-hexane. The growth rate measurements for the B form indicate that it is similar between EtOH and c-Hxn, however, 6 times larger in MeCN than in EtOH or c-Hxn. Finally, the solvent effect is controlled by the kinetic process of the nucleation and the growth of the stable B form in each solvent.

Kitamura, Mitsutaka; Horimoto, Kohei

2013-06-01

64

Lack of spermatotoxic effects of methyl and ethyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parabens are alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid widely used as preservatives in foodstuffs, cosmetics toiletries and pharmaceuticals. These compounds are known to exert a weak estrogenic activity in estrogen receptor assays in vitro. In addition butyl and propyl parabens show uterotrophic activity in vivo. It was previously shown that exposure of post-weaning rats and mice to butyl or propyl parabens

Shinshi Oishi

2004-01-01

65

Effects of solvent polarity on the acid dissociation constants of benzoic acids.  

PubMed

The pKa values of benzoic acid, p-methylbenzoic, and p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) were determined by potentiometric titration in mixtures of 0-0.5 volume fractions of various cosolvents and water. The differences between the aqueous and semiaqueous pKa values were similar for the three solutes at a particular cosolvent-water mixture for most of the cosolvents studied. The largest differences occurred in the dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO)-water system, where the pKa changes were larger for PABA than the other two solutes. The data are analyzed by a consideration of both electrostatic and nonelectrostatic medium effects. The electrostatic medium effect was calculated from the Born Equation while any residual pKa change was attributed to nonelectrostatic medium effects. The residual effects were found to correlate well with indexes of solvent hydrogen bond acceptor ability such as HBA and beta-values. These results provide a rationale for the use of two solvent polarity indexes for more accurate estimates of pKa values of weak electrolytes in semiaqueous solvent systems. Analysis of solubility data of the salt and acid forms of PABA and benzoic acid in ethanol-water and Me2SO-water mixtures suggests that the higher activity of the anionic form of PABA in Me2SO-water mixtures is primarily responsible for the large pKa changes observed for that solute. PMID:3958930

Rubino, J T; Berryhill, W S

1986-02-01

66

Study of the ultrasonic relaxation and cis-trans isomerization in propyl formate: Evidence from low frequency spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ultrasonic attenuation of pure propyl formate was measured in the frequency range from 80 kHz to 150 MHz, over the temperature range from 20 °C to 70 °C. From the temperature dependence of a relaxation parameter of the ultrasonic attenuation, molecular parameters of propyl formate were calculated. The estimated value were 5.5 kcal/mol for activation enthalpy and 3.2 kcal/mol for the enthalpy difference between trans- and cis-isomers of propyl formate.

Mirzaev, S. Z.; Khabibullaev, P. K.; Kononenko, V. S.; Saidov, A. A.

2000-01-01

67

Bromide and N -acetyl- S -( n -propyl)- l -cysteine in urine from workers exposed to 1-bromopropane solvents from vapor degreasing or adhesive manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  1-Bromopropane (1-BP) is an alternative for ozone depleting and other solvents; it is used in aerosol products, adhesives,\\u000a and cleaning solvents. There is concern that 1-BP may be a reproductive and neurological toxicant. Mercapturic acid conjugates\\u000a are excreted in urine from 1-BP metabolism involving debromination. The main objectives were to evaluate urinary bromide [Br(?)] and N-acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-l-cysteine (AcPrCys) for assessing 1-BP

Kevin William Hanley; Martin R. Petersen; Kenneth L. Cheever; Lian Luo

2010-01-01

68

Diffusion and Catalytic Cracking of 1,3,5 Tri-iso-propyl-benzene in FCC Catalysts  

E-print Network

1 Diffusion and Catalytic Cracking of 1,3,5 Tri-iso- propyl-benzene in FCC Catalysts S.Al-Khattaf1 describes catalytic cracking experiments developed in a novel CREC Riser Simulator using 1,3,5-Tri-iso-propyl-benzene

Al-Khattaf, Sulaiman

69

Inhibition of Aspergillus growth and aflatoxin release by derivatives of benzoic acid.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to determine the effects of o-nitrobenzoate, p-aminobenzoate, benzocaine (ethyl aminobenzoate), ethyl benzoate, methyl benzoate, salicylic acid (o-hydroxybenzoate), trans-cinnamic acid (beta-phenylacrylic acid), trans-cinnamaldehyde (3-phenylpropenal), ferulic acid (p-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid), aspirin (o-acetoxy benzoic acid), and anthranilic acid (o-aminobenzoic acid) upon growth and aflatoxin release in Aspergillus flavus NRRL 3145 and A. parasiticus NRRL 3240. A chemically defined medium was supplemented with various concentrations of these compounds and inoculated with spores, and the developing cultures were incubated for 4, 6, and 8 days at 27 degree C in a mechanical shaker. At the beginning of day 8 of incubation, aflatoxins were extracted from cell-free filtrates, separated by thin-layer chromatography, and quantitated by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The structure of these aromatic compounds appeared to be critically related to their effects on mycelial growth and aflatoxin release. At concentrations of 2.5 and 5.0 mg per 25 ml of medium, methyl benzoate and ethyl benzoate were the most effective in reducing both mycelial growth and aflatoxin release by A. flavus and A. parasiticus. Inhibition of mycelial growth and aflatoxin release by various concentrations of the above-named aromatic compounds may indicate the possibility of their use as fungicides. PMID:6781406

Chipley, J R; Uraih, N

1980-08-01

70

Equilibrium and kinetic studies on complexes of 10-[2,3-dihydroxy-(1-hydroxymethyl)-propyl]-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triacetate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Complexation properties of the ligand 10-[2,3-dihydroxy-(1-hydroxymethyl)-propyl]-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triacetatic acid (DO3A-B) were studied and compared with those of 10-(2-hydroxypropyl)-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triacetic acid (HP-DO3A) and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA). The protonation constants of DO3A-B (KiH) and the stability constants (K) of the complexes formed with Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, Zn2+, Cu2+, Fe3+, Ce3+, Nd3+, Eu3+, Gd3+, Dy3+, Tm3+ and Lu3+ were determined in different media (I = 0.1

É. Tóth; R. Király; J. Platzek; B. Radüchel; E. Brücher

1996-01-01

71

Studies on the Food Additive Propyl Gallate: Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Antioxidants are additives largely used in industry for delaying, retarding, or preventing the development of oxidative deterioration. Propyl gallate (E310) is a phenolic antioxidant extensively used in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. A series of lab experiments have been developed to teach students about the importance and…

Garrido, Jorge; Garrido, E. Manuela; Borges, Fernanda

2012-01-01

72

No-carrier-added carbon-11-labeled sn-1,2- and sn-1,3-diacylglycerols by (11C)propyl ketene method  

SciTech Connect

This article describes the preparation of sn-1,2-(11C)diacylglycerols and sn-1,3-(11C)diacylglycerols by a no-carrier-added reaction based on a labeling method using (1-11C)propyl ketene, which is one of the most potent acylating agents. (1-11C)Propyl ketene was produced by pyrolytic decomposition of (1-11C)butyric acid and was trapped in pyridine containing L-alpha-palmitoyl-lysophosphatidylcholine, producing L-alpha-palmitoyl-2-(1-11C)butyryl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine. The authors adopted an enzymatic reaction to remove the phosphorylcholine, in which L-alpha-palmitoyl-2-(1-11C)butyryl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine was incubated with phospholipase C, hydrolyzing to produce 1-palmitoyl-sn-2-(1-11C)butyrylglycerol. Total synthesis time was about 50 minutes and the specific activity was estimated at 93 GBq/mumol (2.5 Ci/mumol) at end of synthesis. Radiochemical yield was 3.8% based on the trapped 11CO2. sn-1,3-(11C)Diacylglycerol was also synthesized by (1-11C)propyl ketene reaction with 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol in a single procedure. The regional brain tissue radioactivities obtained in sn-1,2-(11C)diacylglycerol were higher than those of sn-1,3-(11C)diacylglycerol, and the regional values varied widely. In autoradiography of brain slices from conscious rats, sn-1,2-(11C)diacylglycerol incorporation sites were discretely localized, especially in the amygdala, cerebral cortex, and hippocampus, suggesting that intensive neuronal processing occurred in these areas on the basis of phosphatidylinositol turnover.

Imahori, Y.; Fujii, R.; Ueda, S.; Ido, T.; Nishino, H.; Moriyama, Y.; Yamamoto, Y.L.; Nakahashi, H. (Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine (Japan))

1991-08-01

73

Effects of propyl paraben on the male reproductive system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Parabens are p-hydroxybenzoic acid ester compounds widely used as preservatives in foods, cosmetics, toiletries and pharmaceuticals. These compounds exert a weak estrogenic activity as determined by in vitro estrogen receptor assay and in vivo uterotrophic assay. In a previous study, it was demonstrated by the present author that exposure of post-weaning mammals to butyl paraben adversely affects the secretion of

S Oishi

2002-01-01

74

Reactions of OH and Cl with isopropyl formate, isobutyl formate, n-propyl isobutyrate and isopropyl isobutyrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The rate coefficients for the reactions of OH with isopropyl formate, isobutyl formate, n-propyl isobutyrate and isopropyl isobutyrate have been determined using both absolute and relative methods. The relative rate method has been also used to measure the room temperature rate coefficient for the reaction of Cl with the same esters. In addition, a series of runs conducted on the OH-initiated oxidation of isopropyl formate, isobutyl formate and n-propyl isobutyrate showed the formation of acetone from the three reactions. The formation of propanal was also observed for n-propyl isobutyrate.

Zhang, Y. J.; Liang, P.; Jiang, Z. H.; Cazaunau, M.; Daële, V.; Mu, Y. J.; Mellouki, A.

2014-05-01

75

Propyl Gallate Inhibits Adipogenesis by Stimulating Extracellular Signal-Related Kinases in Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells  

PubMed Central

Propyl gallate (PG) used as an additive in various foods has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Although the functional roles of PG in various cell types are well characterized, it is unknown whether PG has effect on stem cell differentiation. In this study, we demonstrated that PG could inhibit adipogenic differentiation in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) by decreasing the accumulation of intracellular lipid droplets. In addition, PG significantly reduced the expression of adipocyte-specific markers including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?), CCAAT enhancer binding protein-? (C/EBP-?), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2 (aP2). PG inhibited adipogenesis in hAMSCs through extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Decreased adipogenesis following PG treatment was recovered in response to ERK blocking. Taken together, these results suggest a novel effect of PG on adipocyte differentiation in hAMSCs, supporting a negative role of ERK1/2 pathway in adipogenic differentiation. PMID:25813451

Lee, Jeung-Eun; Kim, Jung-Min; Jang, Hyun-Jun; Lim, Se-young; Choi, Seon-Jeong; Lee, Nan-Hee; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Choi, Ung-Kyu

2015-01-01

76

Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

1992-11-01

77

Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

1992-01-01

78

Reaction of the 2-hydroxy-2-propyl radical with acrylate type molecules in aqueous solution: Radical addition or electron transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction of 2-hydroxy-2-propyl (IP) radical with 12 acrylate type monomers in aqueous solutions was investigated by means of pulse radiolysis: the molecular structure effects and the mechanisms were evaluated. Radicals were generated either in the reaction of hydrated electron with acetone and subsequent protonation or in the H abstraction reaction by OH radicals from i-propanol. IP radical reacts with acrylamides and acrylic acid esters in radical addition reaction of the type: (CH 3) 2(OH)C rad + CH 2dbnd CH-C(O)R ? (CH 3) 2(OH)C-CH 2-C rad H-C(O)R with rate coefficients between 3.2 × 10 7 and 1.9 × 10 8 mol -1 dm 3 s -1. Rate coefficients of the reaction with maleic acid (neutral), dimethyl- and diethyl maleate are between 1.3 × 10 8 and 4.7 × 10 8 mol -1 dm 3 s -1. The values for dimethyl- and diethyl fumarate are ca. one order of magnitude higher. However with maleates and fumarates there is also a few percent contribution from the electron transfer reaction of the type (CH 3) 2(OH)C rad + ROOC-CH dbnd CH-COOR + H 2O ? ROOC-CH dbnd CH-C rad O -OR + (CH 3) 2CO + H 3O +. In neutral solutions and at pH ˜3 and ˜9, the same rate coefficients were measured. However, in dialkyl maleate and -fumarate solutions between pH 9.5 and 10.5, a base catalyzed decomposition of the IP radical adduct was observed forming electron adduct: ROOC-C((CH 3) 2(OH)C)H-C rad H-COOR + OH - ? ROOC-CH dbnd CH-C rad O -OR + (CH 3) 2CO + H 2O. Molecular structure effects were evaluated using log k- ?p and log k-LUMO plots.

Wojnárovits, László; Takács, Erzsébet; Emmi, Salvatore S.

2006-09-01

79

Allergic contact dermatitis to propyl gallate and pentylene glycol in an emollient cream.  

PubMed

A 62-year-old man, with a 20-year history of seborrhoeic dermatitis, presented with a worsening of his dermatitis. He had previously been demonstrated to be allergic to various topical corticosteroids, so he had been using an emollient cream (Sebclair), containing piroctone olamine and various anti-inflammatory substances, for 6 months, with good effect. Patch testing to the cream and its ingredients revealed positive reactions to both propyl gallate and pentylene glycol. A positive reaction to propylene glycol was also detected, whereas patch testing to butylene glycol was negative. Complete remission followed avoidance of the offending substances. PMID:20546226

Foti, Caterina; Bonamonte, Domenico; Cassano, Nicoletta; Conserva, Anna; Vena, Gino A

2010-05-01

80

Propyl alcohol  

MedlinePLUS

... and not for use in the treatment or management of an actual poison exposure. If you have an exposure, you should call your local emergency number (such as 911) or a local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222.

81

LC/MS/MS identification of some folic acid degradation products after E-beam irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Folates belong to the B vitamin group based on the parental compound folic acid (FA). They are involved in important biochemical processes like DNA synthesis and repair. FA is composed of a pteridine ring, p-aminobenzoic acid and glutamate moieties. The human metabolism is not able to synthesize folates and therefore obtain them from diet. FA, a synthetic vitamin, is used as a food fortificant because of its low price, relative stability and increased bioavailability compared to natural folate forms. FA is known to be a sensitive compound easily degradable in aqueous solution by ultraviolet and visible light towards various by-products. Irradiation is a process for preservation of foods that uses accelerated electrons, gamma rays or X-rays. Irradiation is proposed for the treatment of various food products, eliminating or reducing pathogens and insects, increasing the storage time and replacing chemical fumigants. This study concerns the identification of degradation products of FA after E-beam irradiation. FA aqueous solutions were irradiated with a Van de Graaff electrons beam accelerator (2 MeV, 100 ?A current, 20 cm scan width, dose rate about 2 kGy/s). Applied doses were between 0 (control) and 10.0 kGy. Absorbed doses were monitored with FWT 60.00 radiochromic dosimeters.

Araújo, M. M.; Marchioni, E.; Zhao, M.; Kuntz, F.; Di Pascoli, T.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Bergaentzle, M.

2012-08-01

82

40 CFR 721.9516 - Siloxanes and silicones, 3-[(2-aminoethyl) amino]propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with polyethylene-polypropylene...glycidal ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with...

2013-07-01

83

40 CFR 721.9516 - Siloxanes and silicones, 3-[(2-aminoethyl) amino]propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with polyethylene-polypropylene...glycidal ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with...

2011-07-01

84

40 CFR 721.9516 - Siloxanes and silicones, 3-[(2-aminoethyl) amino]propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with polyethylene-polypropylene...glycidal ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with...

2010-07-01

85

40 CFR 721.9516 - Siloxanes and silicones, 3-[(2-aminoethyl) amino]propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with polyethylene-polypropylene...glycidal ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with...

2012-07-01

86

40 CFR 721.9516 - Siloxanes and silicones, 3-[(2-aminoethyl) amino]propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with polyethylene-polypropylene...glycidal ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with...

2014-07-01

87

Low cost brine tolerant sulfonate and sulfate surfactants having 1,3-dyhydrocharboxy-2-propyl hydrophobic tails  

SciTech Connect

Novel sulfonate and sulfate surfactants which have low interfacial tension at high salinity, and their use in enhanced oil recovery are disclosed. These surfactants may be made from relatively inexpensive intermediates, such as monohydric alcohols and epichlorohydrin. These surfactants have 1,3-dihydrocarboxy-2-propyl hydrophobic tails linked by ethoxy linkages to sulfate or alkyl sulfonate moieties.

Hoskin, D. H.

1985-05-07

88

Simultaneous, stability indicating, HPLC-DAD determination of guaifenesin and methyl and propyl-parabens in cough syrup  

Microsoft Academic Search

A stability indicating high performance liquid chromatography procedure has been developed for the simultaneous determination of guaifenesin (GUA), methyl p-hydroxybenzoate (MHB) and propyl p-hydroxybenzoate (PHB) in a commercial cough syrup dosage form. The method was specific and stability indicating as chromatographic conditions were selected to provide adequate separation of GUA, MHB and PHB from the putative degradation products guaiacol (GUAI)

Giorgio Grosa; Erika Del Grosso; Roberta Russo; Gianna Allegrone

2006-01-01

89

Micellar and biochemical properties of a propyl-ended fluorinated surfactant designed for membrane-protein study.  

PubMed

Our goal is to design optimised fluorinated surfactants for handling membrane proteins in solution. We report herein the self-assembling and biochemical properties of a new hemifluorinated surfactant (H3F6H3DigluM) with a branched diglucosylated polar head group and an apolar tail consisting of a perfluorohexane core decorated with a hydrogenated propyl tip. For the sake of comparison, its fluorinated analogue without propyl tip (F6H3DigluM) was also studied. Isothermal titration calorimetry and surface tension showed that the addition of a propyl tip has a significant effect on the overall hydrophobicity of the surfactant, in contrast to the behaviour described when adding an ethyl tip to a fluorinated surfactant. From dynamic light scattering, analytical ultracentrifugation and small-angle X-ray scattering, both H3F6H3DigluM and F6H3DigluM self-assemble into small globular micelles of 5-7nm in diameter and have aggregation numbers of 62±8 and 46±2, respectively. Finally, H3F6H3DigluM was found to be the best fluorinated surfactant developed in our group to stabilise the model membrane protein bacteriorhodopsin (bR) in aqueous solution. This study demonstrates the suitability of this new propyl-ended fluorinated surfactant for biochemical and structural applications and confirms the superiority of hemifluorinated chains over fluorinated ones. PMID:25616252

Abla, Maher; Unger, Sebastian; Keller, Sandro; Bonneté, Françoise; Ebel, Christine; Pucci, Bernard; Breyton, Cécile; Durand, Grégory

2015-05-01

90

The Use of Chlorhexidine/n-Propyl Gallate (CPG) as an Ambient-Temperature Urine Preservative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A safe, effective ambient temperature urine preservative, chlorhexidine/n-propyl gallate (CPG), has been formulated for use during spacefli ght that reduces the effects of oxidation and bacterial contamination on sample integrity while maintaining urine pH. The ability of this preservative to maintain stability of nine key analytes was evaluated for a period of one year. CPG effectively maintained stability of a mmonia, total nitrogen, 3-methylhistidine, chloride, sodium, potassiu m, and urea; however, creatinine and osmolality were not preserved by CPG. These data indicate that CPG offers prolonged room-temperature storage for multiple urine analytes, reducing the requirements for f rozen urine storage on future spaceflights. Iii medical applications on Earth, this technology can allow urine samples to be collected in remote settings and eliminate the need to ship frozen samples.

Nillen, Jeannie L.; Smith, Scott M.

2003-01-01

91

Synthesis and antileukemic activity of novel 4-(3-(piperidin-4-yl) propyl)piperidine derivatives.  

PubMed

To explore the anticancer effect associated with the piperidine framework, several (substituted phenyl) {4-[3-(piperidin-4-yl)propyl]piperidin-1-yl} methanone derivatives 3(a-i) were synthesized. Variation in the functional group at N-terminal of the piperidine led to a set of compounds bearing amide moiety. Their chemical structures were confirmed by (1) H NMR, IR and mass spectra analysis. Among these, compounds 3a, 3d and 3e were endowed with antiproliferative activity. The most active compound among this series was 3a with nitro and fluoro substitution on the phenyl ring of aryl carboxamide moiety, which inhibited the growth of human leukemia cells (K562 and Reh) at low concentration. Comparison with other derivative (3h) results shown by LDH assay, cell cycle analysis and DNA fragmentation suggested that 3a is more potent to induce apoptosis. PMID:21756286

Vinaya, Kambappa; Kavitha, Chandagirikoppal V; Chandrappa, Siddappa; Prasanna, Doddakunche S; Raghavan, Sathees C; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S

2011-10-01

92

Synthesis and opioid activity of dynorphin A-(1-13)NH2 analogues containing cis- and trans-4-aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid.  

PubMed

It has been proposed that the "message" sequence of dynorphin A (Dyn A) exists in an extended conformation in aqueous solution (Schiller, P. W. Int. J. Pept. Protein Res. 1983, 21, 307-312). Molecular modeling suggested that trans-4-aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid (trans-ACCA) might function as a conformationally constrained replacement for Gly2-Gly3 of Dyn A in such an extended conformation. ACCA was synthesized by catalytic hydrogenation of p-aminobenzoic acid, and the cis and trans isomers were separated by fractional recrystallization. Analogues of Dyn A-(1-13)-NH2 containing cis- and trans-ACCA were prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis using the Fmoc chemical protocol. Results from radioligand binding assays indicated that the peptides have modest affinity for kappa opioid receptors (Ki's = 9.1 and 13.4 nM for [cis-ACCA2-3]- and [trans-ACCA2-3]Dyn A-(1-13)NH2, respectively) and modest kappa-receptor selectivity (Ki ratio (kappa/mu/delta) = 1/13/210 and 1/21/103, respectively). [cis-ACCA2-3]- and [trans-ACCA2-3]Dyn A-(1-13)-NH2 are the first reported Dyn A analogues constrained in the "message" sequence that are selective for kappa receptors. The cis-ACCA analogue showed very weak opioid activity (IC50 = 4.0 microM) in the guinea pig ileum. PMID:8097539

Snyder, K R; Murray, T F; DeLander, G E; Aldrich, J V

1993-04-16

93

Enantioselective r-Hydroxylation of 2-Arylacetic Acid Derivatives and Buspirone Catalyzed by Engineered Cytochrome P450 BM-3  

E-print Network

building blocks for semisynthetic penicillins, cephalosporin, and antiobesity agents.15 Mandelic acid and propyl esters of (S)-mandelic acid were obtained in 90 and 82% enantiomeric excess (ee), respectivelyEnantioselective r-Hydroxylation of 2-Arylacetic Acid Derivatives and Buspirone Catalyzed

Arnold, Frances H.

94

Densities and vapor-liquid equilibria in binary mixtures formed by propyl methanoate + ethanol, + propan-1-ol, and + butan-1-ol at 160.0 kPa  

SciTech Connect

Densities and excess volumes were determined at 298.15 K for propyl methanoate + ethanol, + propan-1-ol, and + butan-1-ol. The results of those quantities were then correlated to get the concentrations of vapor-liquid equilibrium obtained isobarically at 160 kPa for the same mixtures. Two mixtures show azeotropes: for propyl methanoate (1) + ethanol (2), x{sub 1} = 0.443 at T = 358.7 K; and for propyl methanoate (1) + propan-1-ol (2), x{sub 1} = 0.762 at T = 368.2 K. The mixtures are thermodynamically consistent, and the predictions made using several group-contribution models are satisfactory.

Falcon, J.; Ortega, J.; Gonzalez, E. [Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Las Palmas (Spain). Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica] [Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Las Palmas (Spain). Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica

1996-07-01

95

Fungicidal Activities of Dihydroferulic Acid Alkyl Ester Analogues  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The natural product dihydroferulic acid (DFA, 1) and the synthesized DFA methyl (4a), ethyl (4b), propyl (4c), hexyl (4d), octyl (4e), and decyl (4f) esters were examined for antifungal activity. Test fungi included Saccharomyces cerevisiae (wild type, and deletion mutants slt2delta and bck1delta), ...

96

Fungicidal Activities of Dihydroferulic Acid Alkyl Ester Analogs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The natural product dihydroferulic acid (DFA, 1) and the synthesized DFA methyl (4a), ethyl (4b), propyl (4c), hexyl (4d), octyl (4e), and decyl (4f) esters were examined for antifungal activity. Test fungi included Saccharomyces cerevisiae (wild type, and deletion mutants slt2' and bck1'), Aspergil...

97

Comparison of different amino acid derivatives and analysis of rat brain microdialysates by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

The efficiencies of three derivatisation reagents that react with either the amine (9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC)) or the carboxylic acid group (butanol) of amino acid or with both types of functional groups (propyl chloroformate) were compared in the analysis of amino acids by liquid chromatography-electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Separation of 20 amino acids derivatised with these three reagents was studied on reversed-phase chromatography. Linearity, repeatability and limits of detection of the LC-ESI-MS/MS method were determined by analysing FMOC-, butanol- and propyl chloroformate-derivatised lysine, beta-aminobutyric acid, threonine and glutamic acid. The limits of detection for the derivatised amino acids (7.5-75fmol) were as much as 2-60 times lower than those of the corresponding underivatised molecules. The best linearity was observed for amino acids derivatised with propyl chloroformate or butanol (r(2)=0.996-0.999, range=100-8500nmolL(-1)). Propyl chloroformate was the best suited of the reagents tested for the analysis of amino acids with LC-MS/MS and was used for the analysis of amino acids in rat brain microdialysis samples. PMID:19166726

Uutela, Päivi; Ketola, Raimo A; Piepponen, Petteri; Kostiainen, Risto

2009-02-01

98

Design, synthesis, antibacterial evaluation and docking study of novel 2-hydroxy-3-(nitroimidazolyl)-propyl-derived quinolone.  

PubMed

A novel series of 2-hydroxy-3-(nitroimidazolyl)-propyl-derived quinolones 6a-o were synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antibacterial activity. Most of the target compounds exhibited potent activity against Gram-positive strains. Among them, moxifloxacin analog 6n displayed the most potent activity against Gram-positive strains including S. epidermidis (MIC = 0.06 ?g/mL), MSSE (MIC = 0.125 ?g/mL), MRSE (MIC = 0.03 ?g/mL), S. aureus (MIC = 0.125 ?g/mL), MSSA (MIC = 0.125 ?g/mL), (MIC = 2 ?g/mL). Its activity against MRSA was eightfold more potent than reference drug gatifloxacin. Finally, docking study of the target compound 6n revealed that the binding model of quinolone nucleus was similar to that of gatifloxacin and the 2-hydroxy-3-(nitroimidazolyl)-propyl group formed two additional hydrogen bonds. PMID:25048811

Li, Qing; Xing, Junhao; Cheng, Haibo; Wang, Hui; Wang, Jing; Wang, Shuai; Zhou, Jinpei; Zhang, Huibin

2015-01-01

99

Evaluation of a Simple in-House Test to Presumptively Differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex from Nontuberculous Mycobacteria by Detection of p-Nitrobenzoic Acid Metabolites  

PubMed Central

The timely differentiation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC) and non-tubercular mycobacterium (NTM) species is urgently needed in patient care since the routine laboratory method is time consuming and cumbersome. An easy and cheap method which can successfully distinguish MTC from NTM was established and evaluated. 38 mycobacterial type and reference strains and 65 clinical isolates representing 10 species of mycobacterium were included in this study. Metabolites of p-nitrobenzoic acid (PNB) reduction were identified using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). A spectrophotometric method was developed to detect these metabolites, which was evaluated on a number of MTC and NTM species. All of the tested NTM species and strains reduced PNB to p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), while none of the MTC strains showed a similar activity. Spectrophotometric detection of PABA had 100% sensitivity and specificity for MTC and NTM differentiation among the type strains and the clinical isolates tested. PABA was identified as one of the metabolites of PNB reduction. All the tested NTM species metabolized PNB to PABA whereas the MTC members lacked this activity. A simple, specific and cost-effective method based on PABA production was established in order to discriminate MTC from NTM from cultured organisms. PMID:24260497

Wang, Guirong; Yu, Xia; Liang, Qian; Chen, Suting; Wilson, Stuart; Huang, Hairong

2013-01-01

100

Utilization of Boron Compounds for the Modification of Suberoyl Anilide Hydroxamic Acid as Inhibitor of Histone Deacetylase Class II Homo sapiens  

PubMed Central

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) has a critical function in regulating gene expression. The inhibition of HDAC has developed as an interesting anticancer research area that targets biological processes such as cell cycle, apoptosis, and cell differentiation. In this study, an HDAC inhibitor that is available commercially, suberoyl anilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), has been modified to improve its efficacy and reduce the side effects of the compound. Hydrophobic cap and zinc-binding group of these compounds were substituted with boron-based compounds, whereas the linker region was substituted with p-aminobenzoic acid. The molecular docking analysis resulted in 8 ligands with ?Gbinding value more negative than the standards, SAHA and trichostatin A (TSA). That ligands were analyzed based on the nature of QSAR, pharmacological properties, and ADME-Tox. It is conducted to obtain a potent inhibitor of HDAC class II Homo sapiens. The screening process result gave one best ligand, Nova2 (513246-99-6), which was then further studied by molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:25214833

Bakri, Ridla; Parikesit, Arli Aditya; Satriyanto, Cipta Prio; Kerami, Djati; Tambunan, Usman Sumo Friend

2014-01-01

101

Hydroxy-propyl-methyl-cellulose is a safe and effective lifting agent for endoscopic mucosal resection of large colorectal polyps  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is today the treatment of choice for flat and sessile colorectal lesion, the only concern\\u000a being completeness of resection. One of the major issues is the choice of the infiltrating substance to enable a long-lasting\\u000a cushion under the lesion. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate safety and efficacy of hydroxy-propyl-methyl-cellulose\\u000a (HPMC) injection for

A. Arezzo; N. Pagano; F. Romeo; G. Delconte; C. Hervoso; M. Morino; A. Repici

2009-01-01

102

Preliminary Study of Propyl Bromide Exposure among New Jersey Dry Cleaners as a Result of a Pending Ban on Perchloroethylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many states are considering, and some states have actively pursued, banning the use of perchloroethylene (PERC) in dry cleaning establishments. Proposed legislation has led many dry cleaners to consider the use of products that contain greater than 90% n-propyl bromide (n-PB; also called 1-bromopropane or 1-BP). Very little information is known about toxicity and exposure to n-PB. Some n-PB-containing products

James D. Blando; Donald P. Schill; Mary Pauline De La Cruz; Lin Zhang; Junfeng Zhang; Vladimir Vukovic; Paulo Tabares-Velasco; Jelena Srebric; A. Abhishek; Joo-Youp Lee; Tim Keener; Y. Yang; Pat Rasmussen; H. Gardner; Jianjun Niu; Qian Tan; Guo Huang; Yanpeng Cai; Barbara George; Donald Whitaker; Robert Gilliam; Jenise Swall; Ronald Williams; Barron Henderson; Harvey Jeffries; Byeong-Uk Kim; William Vizuete; Donna Jones

2010-01-01

103

Catalytic synthesis of isobutyraldehyde from methanol and n-propyl alcohol over titanium oxide-supported vanadium oxide catalysts  

SciTech Connect

Catalytic synthesis of isobutyraldehyde from methanol and n-propyl alcohol was achieved by using titanium oxide-supported vanadium oxide catalysts in one step. At high conversion (> 90%), isobutyraldehyde was formed in high yield (> 60%) with minor amounts of propionaldehyde, propane, and isobutane. The experimental results indicated that isobutane was formed by a propane intermediate and isobutyraldehyde was formed by a propionaldehyde intermediate in the reaction.

Feylong Wang; Wenshin Lee; Yifang Liou; Licheng Chen (Providence Univ., Taichung Hsien (Taiwan, Province of China))

1993-01-01

104

Psychotomimetic opiate receptors labeled and visualized with (+)-(³H)3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)piperidine  

Microsoft Academic Search

3-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)piperidine (3-PPP) has been proposed as a selective dopamine autoreceptor agonist in the central nervous system. This report describes the pharmacology and localization of specific high-affinity binding sites for (+)-(³H)3-PPP in brain. The drug specificity of (+)-(³H)3-PPP binding is identical to that of sigma receptors, which may mediate psychotomimetic effects of some opiates. Haloperidol and the opioid derivatives, pentazocine, cyclazocine,

B. L. Largent; A. L. Gundlach; S. H. Snyder

1984-01-01

105

Propyl gallate is a superoxide dismutase mimic and protects cultured lens epithelial cells from H 2O 2 insult  

Microsoft Academic Search

n-Propyl gallate (nPG) is a food preservative that is generally regarded as safe by the US FDA. It suppresses oxidation in biological systems. The mechanism by which nPG acts in biological systems is uncertain. We investigated whether nPG protected cultured lens epithelial cells from H2O2-induced damage. Cells were treated with H2O2 or with nPG and then H2O2. H2O2 inhibited growth,

John R. Reddan; Frank J. Giblin; Michael Sevilla; Vanita Padgaonkar; Dorothy C. Dziedzic; Victor R. Leverenz; Indira C. Misra; Justin S. Chang; John T. Pena

2003-01-01

106

Synthesis and antibacterial activity of 1-N-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propyl)kanamycin B (UK-31,214).  

PubMed

1-N-(1,3-Dihydroxy-2-propyl)kanamycin B was prepared and its in vitro activity against aminoglycoside-sensitive and aminoglycoside-resistant organisms was compared with that of kanamycin B and gentamicin. This kanamycin B derivative (code No. UK-31,214) demonstrated potent activity in all of these tests and gave good protection in experimental infections in mice. PMID:528375

Richardson, K; Brammer, K W; Jevons, S; Plews, R M; Wright, J R

1979-10-01

107

THE ROLE OF TEMPERATURE IN 1,3-DI-ISO-PROPYL- BENZENE CATALYTIC REACTIONS USING FCC CATALYSTS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study reports the catalytic reactions of a gasoline range aromatic compound 1,3-di-iso-propyl-benzene (1,3-DIPB). Experiments are performed in a novel CREC Riser Simulator, a catalytic reactor that mimics the operating conditions of large-scale FCC units. Reaction testing involved different reaction times and temperatures, using USY-zeolites of different crystal sizes (0.4-µm and 0.9-µm). It is suggested that 1,3-DIPB dealkylates in

S. Al-Khattaf

2005-01-01

108

Simultaneous analysis of BHA, TBHQ, BHT and propyl gallate by gas chromatography as extracted from refined vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed for the simultaneous gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of 4 phenolic antioxidants extracted from\\u000a refined cottonseed oil. The antioxidants in the study were butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), tertiary butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ),\\u000a butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and propyl gallate (PG). The method involves extraction with acetonitrile, followed by silyl\\u000a derivatization prior to GC injection. The method was applied to

D. M. Wyatt

1981-01-01

109

Bioconcentration and Transfer of the Organophorous Flame Retardant 1,3-Dichloro-2-propyl Phosphate Causes Thyroid Endocrine Disruption and Developmental Neurotoxicity in Zebrafish Larvae.  

PubMed

Organophosphate flame retardants are emerging environmental contaminants, although knowledge of their health risks is limited. Here, thyroid hormone homeostasis and neuronal development was studied in the progeny of adult zebrafish exposed to tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP). Adult zebrafish were exposed to TDCPP (0, 4, 20, and 100 ?g/L) for 3 months. Increased generation of reactive oxygen species and reduced survival rates was observed in exposed F1 larvae. We also observed a significant decrease in plasma thyroxine and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine levels in F0 females and F1 eggs/larvae. The mRNA and protein expression of factors associated with neuronal development (e.g., ?1-tubulin, myelin basic protein, and synapsin IIa) were significantly downregulated in exposed F1 larvae, as was the level of the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, gamma amino butyric acid, and histamine. Larval locomotion was significantly decreased in exposed fish, but there was no effect on acetylcholinesterase activity. Bioconcentration of TDCPP was observed in F0 fish. TDCPP was also detected in F1 eggs following parental exposure, indicating maternal transfer of this compound. This study uniquely shows that TDCPP can be transferred to the offspring of exposed adults, causing thyroid endocrine disruption and developmental neurotoxicity. PMID:25826601

Wang, Qiangwei; Lai, Nelson Lok-Shun; Wang, Xianfeng; Guo, Yongyong; Lam, Paul Kwan-Sing; Lam, James Chung-Wah; Zhou, Bingsheng

2015-04-21

110

Infrared and Raman spectroscopic studies of tris-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] isocyanurate, its sol-gel process, and coating on aluminum and copper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tris-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] isocyanurate (TTPI) has been used as a precursor to prepare a sol using ethanol as the solvent under acidic conditions. The sol-gel was applied for the surface treatment of aluminum and copper. Infrared and Raman spectra have been recorded for pure TTPI and the TTPI sol, xerogel and TTPI sol-gel coated metals. From the vibrational spectra, TTPI is likely to have the C1 point group. Vibrational assignments are suggested based on group frequencies, the expected reactions in the sol-gel process and the vibrational studies of some related molecules. From the experimental infrared spectra of xerogels annealed at different temperatures and from the thermal-gravimetric analysis, it is found that the TTPI xerogel decomposes at around 450 °C with silica being the major decomposition product. A cyclic voltammetric study of the metal electrodes coated with different concentrations of TTPI ranging from 5% to 42% (v/v) has shown that the films with high concentrations of sol would provide better corrosion protection for aluminum and copper.

Li, Ying-Sing; Church, Jeffrey S.; Woodhead, Andrea L.; Vecchio, Nicolas E.; Yang, Johnny

2014-11-01

111

Infrared and Raman spectroscopic studies of tris-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] isocyanurate, its sol-gel process, and coating on aluminum and copper.  

PubMed

Tris-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] isocyanurate (TTPI) has been used as a precursor to prepare a sol using ethanol as the solvent under acidic conditions. The sol-gel was applied for the surface treatment of aluminum and copper. Infrared and Raman spectra have been recorded for pure TTPI and the TTPI sol, xerogel and TTPI sol-gel coated metals. From the vibrational spectra, TTPI is likely to have the C1 point group. Vibrational assignments are suggested based on group frequencies, the expected reactions in the sol-gel process and the vibrational studies of some related molecules. From the experimental infrared spectra of xerogels annealed at different temperatures and from the thermal-gravimetric analysis, it is found that the TTPI xerogel decomposes at around 450°C with silica being the major decomposition product. A cyclic voltammetric study of the metal electrodes coated with different concentrations of TTPI ranging from 5% to 42% (v/v) has shown that the films with high concentrations of sol would provide better corrosion protection for aluminum and copper. PMID:24866089

Li, Ying-Sing; Church, Jeffrey S; Woodhead, Andrea L; Vecchio, Nicolas E; Yang, Johnny

2014-11-11

112

Cunninghamella as a microbiological model for metabolism of histamine H(3) receptor antagonist 1-[3-(4-tert-butylphenoxy)propyl]piperidine.  

PubMed

The aim of the study was to analyze the ability of the microorganism Cunninghamella to carry out the biotransformation of 1-[3-(4-tert-butylphenoxy)propyl]piperidine (DL76) and to compare the obtained results with in silico models. Biotransformation was carried out by three strains of filamentous fungus: Cunninghamella echinulata, Cunninghamella blakesleeana, and Cunninghamella elegans. Most probable direction of DL76 metabolic transition was the oxidation of the methyl group in the tert-butyl moiety leading to the formation of the metabolite with I° alcohol properties. This kind of reaction was conducted by all three strains tested. However, only in the case of C. blakesleeana that biotransformation product had a structure of carboxylic acid. CYP2C19 was identified by Metasite software to be the isoform of major importance in the oxidation process in the tert-butyl moiety of DL76. In silico data coincide with the results of experiments conducted in vitro. It was confirmed that Cunninghamella fungi are a very good model to study the metabolism of xenobiotics. The computational methods and microbial models of metabolism can be used as useful tools in early ADME-Tox assays in the process of developing new drug candidates. PMID:22983742

P?kala, El?bieta; Kubowicz, Paulina; ?a?ewska, Dorota

2012-11-01

113

Thermal and spectroscopic studies of the antioxidant food additive propyl gallate.  

PubMed

Literature mentions propyl gallate (PG) as a non-toxic synthetic antioxidant that can be used as a food additive due to its high tolerance to heat. It is important to understand the thermal properties and to identify the decomposition products of this substance, since it has been reported to be thermally stable at temperatures as high as 300°C. Simultaneous thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), differential scanning calorimetry-photovisual (DSC-photovisual), coupled thermogravimetry-infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR) analyses and spectroscopic techniques were used to study the food additive PG. The TG-DTA curves, which were performed with the aid of DSC-photovisual, provided information concerning the thermal stability and decomposition profiles of the compound. From the TG-FTIR coupled techniques, it was possible to identify n-propanol as a possible volatile compound released during the thermal decomposition of the antioxidant. A complete spectroscopic characterization in the ultraviolet, visible, near and middle infrared regions was performed in order to understand the spectroscopic properties of PG. PMID:25842313

Gálico, D A; Nova, C V; Guerra, R B; Bannach, G

2015-09-01

114

Vibrational spectra and normal coordinate analysis of 2-hydroxy-3-(2-methoxyphenoxy) propyl carbamate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the vibrational spectral analysis was carried out by using FT-Raman and FTIR spectroscopy in the range 50-4000 cm-1 and 450-4000 cm-1 respectively, for 2-hydroxy-3-(2-methoxyphenoxy) propyl carbamate (2H3MPPLC) molecule. The molecular structure, fundamental vibrational frequencies and intensities of the vibrational bands were interpreted with the aid of structure optimizations and normal coordinate force field calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio HF methods with 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The complete vibrational assignments of wave numbers were made on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED). The results of the calculations were applied to simulated spectra of the title compound, which show excellent agreement with observed spectra. The scaled B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) results show the best agreement with the experimental values over the other method. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The results confirm the occurrence of intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) within the molecule. The dipole moment (?), polarizability (?) and hyperpolarizability (?) of the investigated molecule has been computed using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method. Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges was also calculated. Besides, frontier molecular orbitals, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and thermodynamic properties were performed.

Muthu, S.; Renuga, S.

2014-11-01

115

In vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility of calcium phosphate cements using Hydroxy-propyl-methyl-Cellulose (HPMC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, the bioactivity and biocompatibility of new calcium phosphate bone cements (CPC) using Hydroxy-propyl-methyl-Cellulose (HPMC) was evaluated to understand the effect of HPMC on bone-bonding apatite formation and biocompatibility. In vitro bioactivity was investigated by incubating the CPC samples containing different ratios of HPMC (0%, 2% and 4% HPMC) in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 2, 7, 14 and 28 days. The formation of bone like apatite was confirmed on CPC surfaces by SEM and XRD analysis. Higher HPMC content of CPC showed faster apatite deposition in SBF. A high Ca ion dissolution profile was also reported with an increase of pH in all samples in SBF. The apatite formation ability of these CPC samples was found to be dependent on both surface chemistry and immersion time in SBF. The In vitro cytotoxicity test showed that the CPC samples with 4% HPMC were fairly cytocompatible for fibroblast L-929 cells. SEM images showed that MG-63 cells were successfully attached to the CPC samples and well proliferated.

Jyoti, M. Anirban; Thai, Van Viet; Min, Young Ki; Lee, Byong-Taek; Song, Ho-Yeon

2010-12-01

116

Intricate internal rotation surface and fundamental infrared transitions of the n-propyl radical.  

PubMed

The potential energy surface for methylene hindered internal rotation is examined for the n-propyl radical, a molecule fundamental to combustion chemistry. Six stationary points are identified, and four of them are unique: 1, 2, TS1, and TS2. The remaining two structures 1' and TS1' are mirror images with respect to 1 and TS1. Focal point analysis, converged to the complete basis set limit of coupled-cluster theory with single, double, triple, and perturbative quadruple excitations [CCSDT(Q)], is employed to obtain the relative energies of these structures. A one-dimensional potential energy surface (PES) is constructed by explicitly mapping out a distinguished reaction path via constrained geometry optimizations. A "double-well" feature is observed on the electronic PES, but under the adiabatic approximation, the enthalpic (0 K) PES becomes a regular single-well potential with the expected 180° periodicity. The corresponding one-dimensional vibrational Schrödinger equation is solved using the Cooley-Numerov approach to obtain vibrational states of the methylene torsional motion. The predicted barrier for internal rotation is 105.5 and 137.2 cm(-1) for the electronic and enthalpic surfaces, respectively. Anharmonic (fundamental) vibrational frequencies are predicted for structure 1 using second-order vibrational perturbation theory, and the band origins for 11 modes are reported. Comparison with previous electron spin resonance and infrared spectroscopic work, in addition to other theoretical investigations, is made where possible. PMID:25007004

Li, Chenyang; Agarwal, Jay; Wu, Chia-Hua; Allen, Wesley D; Schaefer, Henry F

2015-01-22

117

Activity of 9-(S)-[3-Hydroxy-2-(Phosphonomethoxy)Propyl]Adenine against Schistosomiasis mansoni in Mice  

PubMed Central

The activity of the acyclic nucleotide analogue 9-(S)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine [(S)-HPMPA] against Schistosoma mansoni was investigated in mice. The compound was injected intraperitoneally, usually on two or five consecutive days, at 10 to 20 mg/kg of body weight/day. The treatment started before, at the time of, and after the onset of egg laying (oviposition) by S. mansoni. The animals were killed from 7 to 40 days after the cessation of treatment. Significant reductions in the total numbers of female and coupled worms were found. Female fecundity and both hepatic and intestinal egg loads were suppressed. These effects were more pronounced with dosing regimens launched before the time of oviposition. The complete disappearance of immature eggs and a significant reduction to the complete absence of mature eggs, with 99 to 100% of the eggs being dead, were produced. No hepatic egg-induced granulomas were present in mice treated at the time of oviposition, and the granulomas were smaller in mice treated before S. mansoni oviposition. These preliminary findings extend the knowledge of the antiparasitic properties of (S)-HPMPA. PMID:14638494

Botros, Sanaa; William, Samia; Hammam, Olfat; Zídek, Zden?ek; Holý, Antonín

2003-01-01

118

Hydroxy propyl cellulose capped silver nanoparticles produced by simple dialysis process  

SciTech Connect

Silver (Ag) nanoparticles ({approx}6 nm) were synthesized using a novel dialysis process. Silver nitrate was used as a starting precursor, ethylene glycol as solvent and hydroxy propyl cellulose (HPC) introduced as a capping agent. Different batches of reaction mixtures were prepared with different concentrations of silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}). After the reduction and aging, these solutions were subjected to ultra-violet visible spectroscopy (UVS). Optimized solution, containing 250 mg AgNO{sub 3} revealed strong plasmon resonance peak at {approx}410 nm in the spectrum indicating good colloidal state of Ag nanoparticles in the diluted solution. The optimized solution was subjected to dialysis process to remove any unreacted solvent. UVS of the optimized solution after dialysis showed the plasmon resonance peak shifting to {approx}440 nm indicating the reduction of Ag ions into zero-valent Ag. This solution was dried at 80 {sup o}C and the resultant HPC capped Ag (HPC/Ag) nanoparticles were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for their particle size and morphology. The particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of these nanoparticles showed skewed distribution plot with particle size ranging from 3 to 18 nm. The nanoparticles were characterized for phase composition using X-ray diffractrometry (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).

Francis, L. [University of Genova, Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy)] [University of Genova, Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Balakrishnan, A. [Laboratoire SIMaP - GPM2, Grenoble-INP/UJF/CNRS BP46, 38042 Saint Martin d'Heres cedex (France)] [Laboratoire SIMaP - GPM2, Grenoble-INP/UJF/CNRS BP46, 38042 Saint Martin d'Heres cedex (France); Sanosh, K.P. [Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Lecce, via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy)] [Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Lecce, via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Marsano, E., E-mail: marsano@chimica.unige.it [University of Genova, Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy)

2010-08-15

119

Autoradiographic localization of sigma receptor binding sites in guinea pig and rat central nervous system with (+)3H-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)piperidine  

SciTech Connect

(+)3H-3-PPP ((+)3H-3-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)-piperidine) binds with high affinity to brain membranes with a pharmacological profile consistent with that of sigma receptors. The distribution of (+)3H-3-PPP binding sites in brain and spinal cord of both guinea pig and rat has been determined by in vitro autoradiography with binding densities quantitated by computer-assisted densitometry. (+)3H-3-PPP binding to slide-mounted brain sections is saturable and displays high affinity and a pharmacological specificity very similar to sites labeled in homogenates. (+)3H-3-PPP binding sites are heterogeneously distributed. Highest concentrations of binding sites occur in spinal cord, particularly the ventral horn and dorsal root ganglia; the pons-medulla, associated with the cranial nerve and pontine nuclei and throughout the brain stem reticular formation; the cerebellum, over the Purkinje cell layer; the midbrain, particularly the central gray and red nucleus; and hippocampus, over the pyramidal cell layer. Lowest levels are seen in the basal ganglia and parts of the thalamus, while all other areas, including hypothalamus and cerebral cortex, exhibit moderate grain densities. Quinolinic acid-induced lesions of the hippocampus indicate that (+)3H-3-PPP labels hippocampal pyramidal cells and granule cells in the dentate gyrus. Intrastriatal injection of ibotenic acid dramatically reduces (+)3H-3-PPP binding in this area, while injection of 6-hydroxydopamine produces a relatively slight decrease. The distribution of (+)3H-3-PPP binding sites does not correlate with the receptor distribution of any recognized neurotransmitter or neuropeptide, including dopamine. However, there is a notable similarity between the distribution of (+)3H-3-PPP sites and high-affinity binding sites for psychotomimetic opioids, such as the benzomorphan (+)SKF 10,047.

Gundlach, A.L.; Largent, B.L.; Snyder, S.H.

1986-06-01

120

Improvement of aripiprazole solubility by complexation with (2-hydroxy)propyl-?-cyclodextrin using spray drying technique.  

PubMed

Due to the fact that the number of new poorly soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients is increasing, it is important to investigate the possibilities of improvement of their solubility in order to obtain a final pharmaceutical formulation with enhanced bioavailability. One of the strategies to increase drug solubility is the inclusion of the APIs in cyclodextrins. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of aripiprazole solubility improvement by inclusion in (2-hydroxy)propyl-?-cyclodextrin (HPBCD) and simultaneous manipulation of pH of the medium and addition of polyvinylpyrrolidone. Aripiprazole-HPBCD complexes were prepared by spray drying aqueous drug-HPBCD solutions, and their properties were compared with those prepared by solvent-drop co-grinding and physical mixing. The obtained powders were characterized by thermoanalytical methods (TGA and DSC), FTIR spectroscopy, their dissolution properties were assessed, while the binding of aripiprazole into the cavity of HPBCD was studied by molecular docking simulations. The solubilization capacity was found to be dependent on pH as well as the buffer solution's ionic composition. The presence of PVP in the formulation could affect the solubilization capacity significantly, but further experimentation is required before its effect is fully understood. On the basis of solubility studies, the drug/HPBCD stoichiometry was found to be 1:3. The spray-dried products were free of crystalline aripiprazole, they possessed higher solubility and dissolution rate, and were stable enough over a prolonged period of storage. Spray drying of cyclodextrin solutions proved to be an appropriate and efficient technique for the preparation of highly soluble inclusion compounds of aripiprazole and HPBCD. PMID:22535520

Mihajlovic, Tijana; Kachrimanis, Kyriakos; Graovac, Adrijana; Djuric, Zorica; Ibric, Svetlana

2012-06-01

121

Plant-mediated stereoselective biotransformation of phenylglyoxylic acid esters.  

PubMed

Enantioselective reduction of the carbonyl group of three phenylglyoxylic acid esters (methyl, ethyl, and n-propyl esters, 2-4) was conducted using blended plant materials (roots of carrot, beetroot, celeriac and parsley; apple). All used biocatalysts transformed these esters to the corresponding mandelic acid esters with high yield, preferably into the respective R-enantiomer. Butanedione addition improved the enantioselectivity of the reaction. PMID:25265851

Maczka, Wanda Krystyna; Grabarczyk, Ma?gorzata; Wi?ska, Katarzyna; Anio?, Miros?aw

2014-01-01

122

Use of ? -aminoisobutyric acid and isovaline as marker amino acids for the detection of fungal polypeptide antibiotics. Screening of Hypocrea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Filamentous fungi of the genusHypocrea were grown on malt extract\\/peptone agar, the mycelia were extracted with dichloromethane\\/methanol, and the extracts were totally hydrolyzed with 6 N HCl (110°C, 24 h). The amino acids (AA) released from peptides were converted into theirN(O)-pen-tafluoropropionyl 1-propyl esters and investigated by gas chromatography and gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry for the presence of the nonprotein AAa-aminoisobutyric acid

H. Briickner; J. Maisch; C. Reinecke; A. Kimonyo

1991-01-01

123

Benzodiazepine agonists protect a histidine residue from modification by diethyl pyrocarbonate whereas propyl beta-carboline does not.  

PubMed

The pH sensitivity of benzodiazepine binding suggests that a histidine residue may be present in, or close to the benzodiazepine binding site. This was confirmed by the selective modification of histidine residues using diethyl pyrocarbonate which was found to block both benzodiazepine and beta-carboline binding. In order to assess whether this histidine residue is located in or adjacent to the benzodiazepine and beta-carboline binding sites, experiments were performed using either benzodiazepine or beta-carboline to protect against diethyl pyrocarbonate treatment. It was found that benzodiazepine agonists, but not propyl beta-carboline protect the benzodiazepine binding sites from diethyl pyrocarbonate modification. PMID:3038606

Lambolez, B; Rossier, J

1987-07-27

124

ARTICLES: Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium Data of Carbon Dioxide+Methyl Propionate and Carbon Dioxide+Propyl Propionate Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-pressure vapor-liquid equilibrium data for the binary systems of methyl propionate+carbon dioxide and propyl propionate+carbon dioxide were measured at pressure from 1.00 MPa to 12.00 MPa and temperature in the range from 313 K to 373 K. Experimental results were correlated with the Peng-Robinson equation of state with the two-parameter van der Waals mixing rule. At the same time, the Henry's coefficient, partial molar enthalpy change and partial molar entropy change of CO2 during dissolution at different temperature were also calculated.

Xu, Wei; Xie, Chuan-xin; Li, Hong-ling; Tian, Yi-ling

2010-06-01

125

Synthesis and Properties of 1,1-bis{[3-( N , N -Dimethylamino)propyl]amido}alkane-di- N -oxides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A homologous series of new surface-active 1,1-bis{[3-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl]amido}alkane-di-N-oxides were synthesized in the reaction of an appropriate diethyl 2-alkylmalonate with N,N-dimethylamino-1,3-propanediamine followed by oxidation with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. The adsorption isotherms of their\\u000a aqueous solutions were measured and evaluated to obtain adsorption parameters: critical micelle concentration (CMC), surface\\u000a excess concentration (?CMC), equilibrium surface tension at the CMC (?CMC), cross-sectional area of the

Andrzej Piasecki; S?awomir Karczewski; Irena Maliszewska

2007-01-01

126

N-Acetyl-S-(n-Propyl)-L-Cysteine in Urine from Workers Exposed to 1-Bromopropane in Foam Cushion Spray Adhesives  

PubMed Central

1-Bromopropane (1-BP) has been marketed as an alternative for ozone depleting and other solvents; it is used in aerosol products, adhesives, metal, precision, and electronics cleaning solvents. Mechanisms of toxicity of 1-BP are not fully understood, but it may be a neurological and reproductive toxicant. Sparse exposure information prompted this study using 1-BP air sampling and urinary metabolites. Mercapturic acid conjugates are excreted in urine from 1-BP metabolism involving debromination. Research objectives were to evaluate the utility of urinary N-acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-L-cysteine (AcPrCys) for assessing exposure to 1-BP and compare it to urinary bromide [Br(?)] previously reported for these workers. Forty-eight-hour urine specimens were obtained from 30 workers at two factories where 1-BP spray adhesives were used to construct polyurethane foam seat cushions. Urine specimens were also obtained from 21 unexposed control subjects. All the workers' urine was collected into composite samples representing three time intervals: at work, after work but before bedtime, and upon awakening. Time-weighted average (TWA) geometric mean breathing zone concentrations were 92.4 and 10.5 p.p.m. for spraying and non-spraying jobs, respectively. Urinary AcPrCys showed the same trend as TWA exposures to 1-BP: higher levels were observed for sprayers. Associations of AcPrCys concentrations, adjusted for creatinine, with 1-BP TWA exposure were statistically significant for both sprayers (P < 0.05) and non-sprayers (P < 0.01). Spearman correlation coefficients for AcPrCys and Br(?) analyses determined from the same urine specimens were highly correlated (P < 0.0001). This study confirms that urinary AcPrCys is an important 1-BP metabolite and an effective biomarker for highly exposed foam cushion workers. PMID:19706636

Hanley, Kevin W.; Petersen, Martin R.; Cheever, Kenneth L.; Luo, Lian

2009-01-01

127

N-acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-l-cysteine in urine from workers exposed to 1-bromopropane in foam cushion spray adhesives.  

PubMed

1-Bromopropane (1-BP) has been marketed as an alternative for ozone depleting and other solvents; it is used in aerosol products, adhesives, metal, precision, and electronics cleaning solvents. Mechanisms of toxicity of 1-BP are not fully understood, but it may be a neurological and reproductive toxicant. Sparse exposure information prompted this study using 1-BP air sampling and urinary metabolites. Mercapturic acid conjugates are excreted in urine from 1-BP metabolism involving debromination. Research objectives were to evaluate the utility of urinary N-acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-L-cysteine (AcPrCys) for assessing exposure to 1-BP and compare it to urinary bromide [Br((-))] previously reported for these workers. Forty-eight-hour urine specimens were obtained from 30 workers at two factories where 1-BP spray adhesives were used to construct polyurethane foam seat cushions. Urine specimens were also obtained from 21 unexposed control subjects. All the workers' urine was collected into composite samples representing three time intervals: at work, after work but before bedtime, and upon awakening. Time-weighted average (TWA) geometric mean breathing zone concentrations were 92.4 and 10.5 p.p.m. for spraying and non-spraying jobs, respectively. Urinary AcPrCys showed the same trend as TWA exposures to 1-BP: higher levels were observed for sprayers. Associations of AcPrCys concentrations, adjusted for creatinine, with 1-BP TWA exposure were statistically significant for both sprayers (P < 0.05) and non-sprayers (P < 0.01). Spearman correlation coefficients for AcPrCys and Br((-)) analyses determined from the same urine specimens were highly correlated (P < 0.0001). This study confirms that urinary AcPrCys is an important 1-BP metabolite and an effective biomarker for highly exposed foam cushion workers. PMID:19706636

Hanley, Kevin W; Petersen, Martin R; Cheever, Kenneth L; Luo, Lian

2009-10-01

128

Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Choisya ternata Kunth Essential Oil, Ternanthranin, and Its Two Synthetic Analogs (Methyl and Propyl N-Methylanthranilates)  

PubMed Central

Choisya ternata Kunth (Rutaceae) is native to North America where it is popularly known as “Mexican orange”. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil (EO) obtained from the leaves of C. ternata, one of its minor components (ternanthranin—ISOAN) and its two synthetic analogues (methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilate – MAN and PAN) were evaluated. Mice pretreated with the EO (EO) obtained from C. ternata leaves (3–100 mg/kg, p.o.), ISOAN, MAN or PAN (1–30 mg/kg, p.o.) and the reference drugs, morphine (1 mg/kg, p.o.) and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 100 mg/kg, p.o.), were evaluated in inflammation models such as formalin and subcutaneous air pouch models, with measurement of cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravasation, nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The EO from C. ternata significantly inhibited the time that the animals spent licking the formalin-injected paw in the second phase of the model at their higher doses (30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively). An inhibition of the inflammatory reaction induced after subcutaneous carrageenan injection into air pouch was also observed. In this model, the EO significantly reduced cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravased, and the increase in levels of inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide, TNF-? and IL-1?). ISOAN, MAN and PAN behaved in the same fashion at much smaller doses. Also, these molecules were able to show significant effects in the reduction of paw edema (at all tested doses) when the phlogistic agent was carrageenan, bradykinin, 5-HT, PGE2, C48/80 or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-acetate (TPA). None of the tested doses had any effect in reducing histamine-induced edema. Our results indicate that the EO from C. ternata and anthranilate derivatives demonstrates an anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:25807367

Pinheiro, Mariana Martins Gomes; Miltojevi?, Ana B.; Radulovi?, Niko S.; Abdul-Wahab, Ikarastika Rahayu; Boylan, Fabio; Fernandes, Patrícia Dias

2015-01-01

129

Bioconcentration, metabolism and neurotoxicity of the organophorous flame retardant 1,3-dichloro 2-propyl phosphate (TDCPP) to zebrafish.  

PubMed

Organophosphate flame retardants are ubiquitous environmental contaminants; however, knowledge is limited regarding their environmental health risks and toxicity. Here, we investigated the effects of acute and long-term exposure to tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) to the nervous system of zebrafish. Zebrafish embryos (2 h post-fertilization) were exposed to TDCPP (0-100 ?g/L) for 6 months up until sexual maturation. Concentrations of TDCPP and its metabolic product (bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate, BDCPP) were measured in the tissues of 5 day post-fertilization (dpf) larvae. There was no effect on locomotion, acetylcholinesterase activity, levels of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin, and expression of mRNAs and proteins related to central nervous system development (e.g., myelin basic protein, ?1-tubulin) in any exposure group. However, in adult fish, reductions of dopamine and serotonin levels were detected in the brains of females but not males. Downregulation of nervous system development genes was observed in both the male and female brain tissues. TDCPP concentrations were measured in adult fish tissues including the brain, and greater levels were detected in females. Our results showed that females are more sensitive to TDCPP stress than males in terms of TDCPP-induced neurotoxicity. We demonstrate that long-term exposure to lower concentrations of TDCPP in fish can lead to neurotoxicity. PMID:25461749

Wang, Qiangwei; Lam, James Chung-Wah; Man, Yin-Chung; Lai, Nelson Lok-Shun; Kwok, Karen Ying; Guo, Yong yong; Lam, Paul Kwan-Sing; Zhou, Bingsheng

2015-01-01

130

Biocatalytic amidation of carboxylic acids and their antinemic activity.  

PubMed

A series of novel N-alkyl substituted amides, synthesized by enzyme catalysis, were evaluated against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita and found to have potential antinemic activity. The corresponding amides were prepared by the condensation of equimolar amounts of carboxylic acids with different alkyl amines in the presence of Candida antarctica lipase at 60-90 degrees C in 16-20 h. The reactions were carried out in a non - solvent system without the use of any activating agents. All the products were obtained in appreciable amounts and the yields for different compounds varied between 77.4-82.3%. The synthesized compounds were characterized using spectroscopy techniques namely Infra Red (IR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) ((1)H and (13)C). Nematicidal activity of synthesized amides was evaluated against J(2)s of Meloidogyne incognita at 500, 250, 125 and 62.5 ppm concentrations after 24 h, 48 h and 72 h of exposure. Among all the tested compounds, N-propyl-butyramide, N-propyl-pentanamide and N-propyl-hexanamide were found to possess significant activity with LC(50) values of 67.46, 83.49 and 96.53 respectively. N-propyl-butyramide with LC(50) value of 67.46 ppm was found to be most active amide against J(2)s of Meloidogyne incognita. The bioactivity study showed that an increase in alkyl chain significantly decreased the activity of amides against root-knot nematode. PMID:20390959

Bose, Abinesh; Shakil, Najam Akhtar; Pankaj; Kumar, Jitendra; Singh, Manish K

2010-04-01

131

RATE CONSTANTS FOR THE REACTIONS OF OH RADICALS AND CL ATOMS WITH DI-N-PROPYL ETHER AND DI-N-BUTYL ETHER AND THEIR DEUTERATED ANALOGS. (R825252)  

EPA Science Inventory

Using relative rate methods, rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals and Cl atoms with di- n -propyl ether, di- n -propyl ether-d14, di- n -butyl ether and di- n -butyl ether-d18 have been measured at 296 ? 2 K and atmos...

132

A novel, simple and inexpensive procedure for the simultaneous determination of iopamidol and p-aminohippuric acid for renal function assessment from plasma samples in awake rats.  

PubMed

The purpose of the current study was to design, validate and implement a novel analytical method for the simultaneous plasma measurement of iopamidol and p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) to estimate renal function in awake rats. A reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the simultaneous measurement of iopamidol (for glomerular filtration rate estimation, GFR) and PAH (for tubular secretion determination, TS) was designed and validated using a C-18 column, 0.1M acetic acid-10% acetonitrile (90:10, v/v) as mobile phase, at a flow rate of 0.3ml/min, and UV detection at 270nm. Iopamidol (244.8mg/kg) was administered intravenously followed immediately by sodium PAH (100mg/kg) to healthy female Sprague-Dawley rats. Plasma samples obtained at 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120min after drug administration were deproteinized with 2.5% trichloroacetic acid containing p-aminobenzoic acid as internal standard, and separated by the validated RP-HPLC method described above. The iopamidol and PAH chromatographic data were analyzed using a non-compartmental model. The results demonstrated that the RP-HPLC method was linear in ranges between 15-120?g/ml and 2.5-120?g/ml for iopamidol and PAH, respectively. Precision and accuracy were within 15% for both drugs. Recovery of iopamidol and PAH was 92% and 100%, respectively. Plasma iopamidol and PAH clearances in awake rats, estimates for GFR and TS, respectively, were 1.49±0.20ml/min and 3.73±0.38ml/min. In conclusion, the method here described is a simple and reliable procedure, for the simultaneous and time-saving determination of GFR and TS from plasma samples in the conscious rat. PMID:25594899

Rodríguez-Romero, Violeta; González-Villalva, Karla I; Reyes, José L; Franco-Bourland, Rebecca E; Guízar-Sahagún, Gabriel; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto; Cruz-Antonio, Leticia

2015-03-25

133

THE EFFECT OF THE ANTIOXIDANTS, BUTYLATED HYDROXY ANISOLE, BUTYLATED HYDROXY TOLUENE AND PROPYL GALLATE ON GROWTH, LIVER AND SERUM LIPIDS AND SERUM SODIUM LEVELS OF THE RAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Confirmation of our previous finding that there are greater hazards in the use of butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) than in that of butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA) as antioxidants for use in human foodstuffs was obtained. BHA and propyl gallate (PG) met one of the requirements for safety as a food additive. A sex difference in the effect of BHT was

AR Johnson; FR Hewgill

1961-01-01

134

Di ( n-propyl) thiuram disulfide bonded on silica gel as a new sorbent for separation, preconcentration, and measurement of silver ion from aqueous samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new synthesized sorbent, di (n-propyl) thiuram disulfide bonded on silica gel, was applied for separation and preconcentration of silver ion from aqueous samples. Factors influencing the sorption and desorption of silver ion were investigated. An aqueous solution containing sodium thiosulfate was used as eluent in order to selectively desorb the adsorbed silver ion from the surface of the sorbent.

M. Akhond; G. Absalan; L. Sheikhian; M. M. Eskandari; H. Sharghi

2006-01-01

135

Further studies into the photodissociation pathways of 2-bromo-2-nitropropane and the dissociation channels of the 2-nitro-2-propyl radical intermediate.  

PubMed

These experiments investigate the decomposition mechanisms of geminal dinitro energetic materials by photolytically generating two key intermediates: 2-nitropropene and 2-nitro-2-propyl radicals. To characterize the unimolecular dissociation of each intermediate, we form them under collision-free conditions using the photodissociation of 2-bromo-2-nitropropane; the intermediates are formed at high internal energies and undergo a multitude of subsequent unimolecular dissociation events investigated herein. Complementing our prior work on this system, the new data obtained with a crossed-laser molecular beam scattering apparatus with VUV photoionization detection at Taiwan's National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC) and new velocity map imaging data better characterize two of the four primary 193 nm photodissociation channels. The C-Br photofission channel forming the 2-nitro-2-propyl radicals has a trimodal recoil kinetic energy distribution, P(ET), suggesting that the 2-nitro-2-propyl radicals are formed both in the ground electronic state and in two low-lying excited electronic states. The new data also revise the HBr photoelimination P(ET) forming the 2-nitropropene intermediate. We then resolved the multiple competing unimolecular dissociation channels of each photoproduct, confirming many of the channels detected in the prior study, but not all. The new data detected HONO product at m/e = 47 using 11.3 eV photoionization from both intermediates; analysis of the momentum-matched products allows us to establish that both 2-nitro-2-propyl ? HONO + CH3CCH2 and 2-nitropropene ? HONO + C3H4 occur. Photoionization at 9.5 eV allowed us to detect the mass 71 coproduct formed in OH loss from 2-nitro-2-propyl; a channel missed in our prior study. The dynamics of the highly exothermic 2-nitro-2-propyl ? NO + acetone dissociation is also better characterized; it evidences a sideways scattered angular distribution. The detection of some stable 2-nitropropene photoproducts allows us to fit signal previously assigned to H loss from 2-nitro-2-propyl radicals. Overall, the data provide a comprehensive study of the unimolecular dissociation channels of these important nitro-containing intermediates. PMID:24947044

Booth, Ryan S; Brynteson, Matthew D; Lee, Shih-Huang; Lin, J J; Butler, Laurie J

2014-07-01

136

Corrosion mitigation of N-(2-hydroxy-3-trimethyl ammonium)propyl chitosan chloride as inhibitor on mild steel.  

PubMed

The biopolymer N-(2-hydroxy-3-trimethyl ammonium)propyl chitosan chloride (HTACC) was synthesised and its influence as a novel corrosion inhibitor on mild steel in 1M HCl was studied using gravimetric and electrochemical experiments. The compound obtained was characterised using FTIR and NMR studies. The inhibition efficiency increased with the increase in concentration and reached a maximum of 98.9% at 500 ppm concentration. Polarisation studies revealed that HTACC acts both as anodic and cathodic inhibitor. Electrochemical impedance studies confirmed that the inhibition is through adsorption on the metal surface. The extent of inhibition exhibits a negative trend with increase in temperature. Langmuir isotherm provides the best description on the adsorption nature of the inhibitor. SEM analysis indicated the presence of protective film formed by the inhibitor on the metal surface. PMID:25450546

Sangeetha, Y; Meenakshi, S; SairamSundaram, C

2015-01-01

137

(3E,5E)-3,5-Bis(2-chloro­benzyl­idene)-1-propyl­piperidin-4-one  

PubMed Central

The title compound, C22H21Cl2NO, is a derivative of mono-carbonyl analogues of curcumin (MACs). The mol­ecule has an E conformation for each of the olefinic bonds. The 1-propyl­piperidin-4-one ring has a distorted chair conformation with the ring N and the C and O atoms of the carbonyl group deviating from the mean plane of the remaining four ring C atoms by 0.682?(2), ?0.134?(3) and ?0.340?(4)?Å, respectively. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 26.5?(1)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are connected by weak C—H?O and C—H?? inter­actions. PMID:23476444

Yang, Quanzhi; Chen, Lingzi; Weng, Bixia; Fan, Lei; Wu, Xiaoping

2013-01-01

138

3,3?-[1,4-Phenyl­enebis(methyl­ene)]­bis­(1-propyl­benzimidazolium) dichloride dihydrate  

PubMed Central

The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C28H32N4 2+·2Cl?·2H2O, contains half of a 3,3?-[1,4-phenyl­enebis(methyl­ene)]bis­(1-propyl­benzimidazolium) cation, one chloride anion and one water mol­ecule. The complete cation is generated by a crystallographic inversion center. The central benzene ring forms a dihedral angle of 66.06?(11)° with its adjacent benzimidazolium ring system. In the crystal, the cations, anions and water mol­ecules are linked by O—H?Cl, C—H?O and C—H?Cl hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network. The crystal packing is further stabilized by ?–? inter­actions, with centroid–centroid distances of 3.5561?(15) and 3.6708?(15)?Å. PMID:22412706

Haque, Rosenani A.; Iqbal, Muhammad Adnan; Ahmad, Safaa A.; Chia, Tze Shyang; Fun, Hoong-Kun

2012-01-01

139

Predictors of Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate Metabolite in the Urine of Office Workers  

PubMed Central

Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) is a flame retardant widely used in furniture containing polyurethane foam. It is a carcinogen, endocrine disruptor, and potentially neurotoxic. Our objectives were to characterize exposure of adult office workers (n=29) to TDCPP by measuring its primary metabolite, bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCPP), in their urine; measuring TDCPP in dust from their homes; offices and vehicles; and assessing possible predictors of exposure. We identified TDCPP in 99% of dust (GM=4.43 µg/g) and BDCPP in 100% of urine samples (GM=408 pg/mL). Concentrations of TDCPP in dust were significantly higher in vehicles (GM=12.5 µg/g) and offices (GM=6.06 µg/g) than in dust from the main living area (GM=4.21 µg/g) or bedrooms (GM=1.40 µg/g) of worker homes. Urinary BDCPP concentrations among participants who worked in a new office building were 26% of those who worked in older buildings (p=0.01). We found some evidence of a positive trend between urinary BDCPP and TDCPP in office dust that was not observed in the other microenvironments and may be related to the timing of urine sample collection during the afternoon of a workday. Overall our findings suggest that exposure to TDCPP in the work environment is one of the contributors to the personal exposure for office workers. Further research is needed to confirm specific exposure sources (e.g., polyurethane foam), determine the importance of exposure in other microenvironments such as homes and vehicles, and address the inhalation and dermal exposure pathways. PMID:23523854

Carignan, Courtney C.; McClean, Michael D.; Cooper, Ellen M.; Watkins, Deborah J.; Fraser, Alicia J.; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy; Stapleton, Heather M.; Webster, Thomas F.

2013-01-01

140

Predictors of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate metabolite in the urine of office workers.  

PubMed

Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) is a flame retardant widely used in furniture containing polyurethane foam. It is a carcinogen, endocrine disruptor, and potentially neurotoxic. Our objectives were to characterize exposure of adult office workers (n=29) to TDCPP by measuring its primary metabolite, bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCPP), in their urine; measuring TDCPP in dust from their homes; offices and vehicles; and assessing possible predictors of exposure. We identified TDCPP in 99% of dust (GM=4.43?g/g) and BDCPP in 100% of urine samples (GM=408pg/mL). Concentrations of TDCPP were significantly higher in dust from vehicles (GM=12.5?g/g) and offices (GM=6.06?g/g) than in dust from the main living area (GM=4.21?g/g) or bedrooms (GM=1.40?g/g) of worker homes. Urinary BDCPP concentrations among participants who worked in a new office building were 26% of those who worked in older buildings (p=0.01). We found some evidence of a positive trend between urinary BDCPP and TDCPP in office dust that was not observed in the other microenvironments and may be related to the timing of urine sample collection during the afternoon of a workday. Overall our findings suggest that exposure to TDCPP in the work environment is one of the contributors to the personal exposure for office workers. Further research is needed to confirm specific exposure sources (e.g., polyurethane foam), determine the importance of exposure in other microenvironments such as homes and vehicles, and address the inhalation and dermal exposure pathways. PMID:23523854

Carignan, Courtney C; McClean, Michael D; Cooper, Ellen M; Watkins, Deborah J; Fraser, Alicia J; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy; Stapleton, Heather M; Webster, Thomas F

2013-05-01

141

The Laboratory Rotational Spectrum of Iso-Propyl Cyanide and AN Astronomical Search in Sagittarius B2(N)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have carried out a molecular line survey of Sagittarius B2(N) in the 3 mm region with selected recordings at 2 and 1.3 mm to probe the chemical complexity in massive star-forming regions. Noteworthy results include the detection of aminoacetonitrile, a possible precursor of the aminoacid glycine, the detection of ^{13}C isotopologs of vinyl cyanide, and the detection of ethyl formate as well as normal-propyl cyanide. The heavy atoms in the latter molecule form a chain. An isomer with a branched structure, iso-propyl cyanide, also exists, but its rotational spectrum has only been recorded in few transitions up to 40 GHz. Therefore, laboratory measurements were extended. The molecule is rather asymmetric (? = -0.5766) with a strong a-dipole moment component of 4.05 (2) D and a still sizable c-component of 1.4 (2) D.^e Measurements in Köln were carried out in selected regions between 40 and 600 GHz. Since the c-type transitions appeared to be weaker than predicted additional Stark (and also zero-field) measurements have been carried out in Hannover between 6 and 20 GHz. We will present results of these laboratory spectroscopic investigations as well as the outcome of a search for the molecule in our Sgr B2(N) line survey. A. Belloche, K. M. Menten, C. Comito, H. S. P. Müller, P. Schilke, J. Ott, S. Thorwirth, C. Hieret, Astron. Astrophys. 482 (2008) 179; Erratum 492 (2008) 796. H. S. P. Müller, A. Belloche, K. M. Menten, C. Comito, P. Schilke, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 251 (2008) 319. A. Belloche, R. T. Garrod, H. S. P. Müller, K. M. Menten, C. Comito, P. Schilke, Astron. Astrophys. (2009), accepted. G. E. Herberich, Z. Naturforsch. 22a (1967) 543. J. R. Durig, Y. S. Li, J. Mol. Struct. 21 (1974) 289.

Müller, Holger S. P.; Coutens, A.; Walters, A.; Grabow, J.-U.; Belloche, A.; Menten, K. M.; Schlemmer, S.

2009-06-01

142

Enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction of zopiclone with mandelic acid ester derivatives.  

PubMed

Enantioselective liquid-liquid extraction of zopiclone was conducted by employing a series of (R)-mandelic acid esters as chiral extractants. The effects of concentration of extractant, concentration of zopiclone, type of organic solvent, pH value, and temperature on the extraction efficiency were investigated. (R)-o-chloromandelic acid propyl ester was demonstrated to be an efficient chiral extractant for zopiclone resolution with a maximum enantioselectivity of 1.6. PMID:24123425

Peng, Yangfeng; He, Quan; Zuo, Bin; Niu, Haibo; Tong, Tianzhong; Zhao, Hongliang

2013-12-01

143

Mechanisms for the Expulsion of Propene from Ionized Propyl Phenyl Ethers in the Gas Phase  

E-print Network

for the Brønsted acid-base reaction between isopropyl cation and phenoxy radical within ion-neutral complexes has for insuring that different isotopomers can be compared at the same internal energy. Elimination of neutral predominantly (>90%) via a [CD3CHCH3 + PhO·] ion-neutral complex, with an additional 7% passing through

Morton, Thomas Hellman

144

Determination of the arpromidine-type histamine H 2-receptor agonist N 1 -[3-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(2-pyridyl)propyl]- N 2 -[3-(1 H-imidazol-4-yl)propyl]guanidine and corresponding N 3 -alkoxycarbonylguanidines by HPLC and CE 1 Dedicated to Professor Dr. Dr. Ernst Mutschler on the occasion of his 65th birthday. 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The highly potent cardiohistaminergic N1-[3-(3,4-difluorophenyl)-3-(2-pyridyl)propyl]-N2-[3-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)propyl]guanidine 1 and the corresponding putative prodrugs, the N-ethoxycarbonyl and N-Boc-substituted guanidines 2 and 3, were analysed by isocratic reversed phase ion-pairing HPLC and capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) using UV-detection. At 210 nm the limits of detection of the high precision HPLC method (Nucleosil 100-7, C18, 52% methanol\\/48% sodium phosphate buffer (50 mM, pH 3.0) containing

A. Schuster; G. Bernhardt; A. Buschauer

1997-01-01

145

Calculation of Vapor Pressure Curves for Ethyl, Propyl, and Butyl Parabens Using Thermogravimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The heat treatment of parahydroxy benzoic acid esters follows zero order rate processes that are in good correlation with their evaporation process. Rising temperature experiments were performed and the optimum conditions were found when the heating rate was 10°C\\/min in an atmosphere of dry nitrogen, the flow rate of which was maintained at 100 mL\\/min.The Antoine constants for methyl paraben

Koustuv Chatterjee; David Dollimore; Kenneth Alexander

2001-01-01

146

Analysis of an ampicillin propyl ester prodrug which inhibits the growth of Escherichia coli.  

PubMed

An ampicillin prodrug was synthesized by utilizing the chemical reaction of ampicillin with diazopropane (CH(3)CH(2)CHN(2)) in an organic solvent. The result is esterification of the carboxylic acid functional group. The ampicillin prodrug is a solid that forms yellow crystals which are soluble in water and LB agarose media. The ampicillin prodrug was stable for more than 10 weeks when stored at < or = 0.0 degrees C. The prodrug has reduced hydrogen-bonding capability compared with the unmodified structure of ampicillin. Evaluation of the logP parameter (the octanol/water partition coefficient) indicates that the ampicillin prodrug (logP=1.773) has increased lipophilic characteristics relative to the unmodified ampicillin structure (logP=1.06). The lipophilic substituent constant for the esterification of the carboxylic acid is 0.713, a positive value which indicates that the substituent has a lipophilic nature. The ampicillin prodrug was solubilized into LB agarose media at a concentration of 0.228 mg/ml, and was found to induce 100% growth inhibition of an ampicillin-susceptible and streptomycin-resistant Escherichia coli strain (designated DH1), and induced greater than 30% growth inhibition of an ampicillin-resistant E. coli strain (designated PKK). Synthesis of this prodrug utilizing a diazoalkane was highly efficient, with no undesirable by-products being formed. PMID:12241549

Bartzatt, Ronald; Malesa, Cynthia

2002-10-01

147

LC-MS-MS Method for the Analysis of New Non-Imidazole Histamine H(3) Receptor Antagonist 1-[3-(4-tert-Butylphenoxy)propyl]piperidine in Rat Serum-Application to Pharmacokinetic Studies.  

PubMed

A sensitive and specific liquid chromatography electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of new non-imidazole histamine H(3) receptor antagonist 1-[3-(4-tert-butylphenoxy)propyl]piperidine (DL76) in rat serum has been developed and validated. Chromatography was performed on a XBridge™ C18 analytical column (2.1 × 30 mm, 3.5 µm, Waters, Ireland) with gradient elution using a mobile phase containing acetonitrile and water with an addition of 0.1% of formic acid. Detection was achieved by an Applied Biosystems MDS Sciex (Concord, Ontario, Canada) API 2000 triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. Electrospray ionization (ESI) was used for ion production. The limit of detection in the SRM mode was found to be 0.5 ng mL(-1). The limit of quantification was 1 ng mL(-1). The precision and accuracy for both intra- and inter-day determination of DL76 ranged from 1.65 to 15.09% and from 88.74 to 113.43%. The results of this analytical method validation allow to carry out pharmacokinetic studies in rats. The method was used for the pilot study of the pharmacokinetic behavior of DL76 in rats after intravenous administration. PMID:21544189

Szafarz, Malgorzata; Szymura-Oleksiak, Joanna; Lazewska, Dorota; Kiec-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

2011-05-01

148

Preparation and antiviral properties of new acyclic, achiral nucleoside analogues: 1- or 9-[3-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)prop-1-enyl]nucleobases and 1- or 9-[2,3-dihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)propyl]nucleobases.  

PubMed

Acyclic, achiral nucleoside derivatives 1b-e of adenine, cytosine, 5-methylcytosine, and guanine, containing a 3-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)prop-1-enyl group on N-1 or N-9, have been prepared analogously to the previously described thymine derivative 1a. In contrast to the adenine and guanine derivatives, the cytosine derivative 9 was unstable, and was obtained in a low yield due to side reactions. These include cleavage of the propenyl group from the base, and the formation of a bicyclic compound. The thymine derivative, although stable under neutral conditions, likewise underwent a reversible cyclization reaction (Michael addition) in the presence of acids or bases. The 5-methylcytosine derivative was stable under neutral and basic conditions. Four other nucleoside derivatives 26a-d containing a 2,3-dihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)propyl group on N-1 or N-9, three of which are new, have likewise been prepared. All compounds were evaluated as antiviral agents against HIV-1 and HSV-1 but were devoid of antiviral activity. PMID:15064804

Boesen, Thomas; Madsen, Christian; Pedersen, Daniel Sejer; Nielsen, Brian M; Petersen, Asger B; Petersen, Michael A; Munck, Michael; Henriksen, Ulla; Nielsen, Claus; Dahl, Otto

2004-04-21

149

The quest for complex molecules in space. Searches for cyanides related to n-propyl cyanide in Sgr B2(N)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A molecular line survey was carried out with the IRAM 30 m telecope toward the prolific hot core Sgr B2(N) in order to explore its molecular complexity. The entire 3 mm range as well as selected regions at 2 and 1.3 mm were covered. Notable results include the detections of aminoacetonitrile, ethyl formate, n-propyl cyanide, and the singly substituted 13C isotopologs of vinyl cyanide. There exists a branched isomer of n-propyl cyanide: iso-propyl cyanide. A search for this isomer in our line survey required a laboratory spectroscopic investigation beforehand. Even though promising emission features have been found for this as well as other, related molecules, there are rather few uncontaminated lines. Overlap by other emission or some absorption features occurs frequently, and uncertainties about the position of the baseline also contribute to considering detections to be inconclusive. Nevertheless, the determination of upper limits or abundances among isomers and related molecules will help to contrain astrochemical pathways. We will present our results and discuss promising strategies to search for complex molecules in space.

Muller, H. S. P.; Belloche, A.; Menten, K. M.; Coutens, A.; Walters, A.; Grabow, J. U.; Schlemmer, S.

2011-05-01

150

Product study of the OH, NO3, and O3 initiated atmospheric photooxidation of propyl vinyl ether.  

PubMed

A product study is reported on the gas-phase reactions of OH and NO3 radicals and ozone with propyl vinyl ether (PVE). The experiments were performed in a 405 L borosilicate glass chamber in synthetic air at 298 +/- 3 K using long path in situ FTIR spectroscopy for the analysis of the reactants and products. In the presence of NO(x) (NO + NO2) the main products for the OH-radical initiated oxidation of PVE were propylformate and formaldehyde with molar formation yields of 78.6 +/- 8.8% and 75.9 +/- 8.4%, respectively. In the absence of NO(x) propylformate and formaldehyde were formed with molar formation yields of 63.0 +/- 9.0% and 61.3 +/- 6.3%, respectively. In the reaction of NO3 radicals with PVE propylformate 52.7 +/- 5.9% and formaldehyde 55.0 +/- 6.3% were again observed as major products. The ozonolysis of PVE led to the production of propylformate, formaldehyde, hydroxyperoxymethyl formate (HPMF; HC(O)OCH2OOH), and CO with molar formation yields of 89.0 +/- 11.4%, 12.9 +/- 4.0%, 13.0 +/- 3.4%, and 10.9 +/- 2.6%, respectively. The formation yield of OH radicals in the ozonolysis of PVE was estimated to be 17 +/- 9%. Simple atmospheric degradation mechanisms are postulated to explain the formation of the observed products. PMID:16999119

Zhou, Shouming; Barnes, Ian; Zhu, Tong; Klotz, Björn; Albu, Mihaela; Bejan, Iustinian; Benter, Thorsten

2006-09-01

151

Stability of the complex BSA-6-propyl-2-thiouracil in the presence of Gu·HCl and urea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pathologic structure of albumin is present in blood of uremic or diabetic patients. The defective binding of albumin can cause, among others, inhibition of the metabolism of amphipathic hormones and the enhancement of the toxicity of drugs. We aim to show the alteration of the binding site of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) in bovine serum albumin (BSA) in the presence of urea and guanidine hydrochloride. This study shows that PTU has the tendency to interact within the hydrophobic domain IIA or IB of serum albumin and to quench the fluorescence of tryptophanyl side chains by the static and collisional quenching mechanism. For the binding to the native protein, two classes of binding sites are seen. In the first one, the binding constant is equal to K bI-9.6×10 4 M -1, and in the second class, the binding constant is K bII-7.1×10 3 M -1. For the binding to the denaturated serum albumin, only one class of the binding sites can be observed. The binding constants for BSA denatured with urea and Gu·HCl are lower and are equal to 2.2×10 4 M -1 and 3.5×10 4 M -1, respectively. Evaluation of the binding ability of serum albumin is also important in case of older people because weaker drug-protein interaction can result in the increase of drug concentration in the blood serum.

Równicka, Joanna; Su?kowska, Anna; Po?ycka, Jadwiga; Bojko, Barbara; Su?kowski, Wies?aw W.

2006-07-01

152

Physicochemical properties of N-propyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide for sodium metal battery applications.  

PubMed

The physicochemical properties of a range of NaNTf2 (or NaTFSI) salt concentrations in N-propyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (or C3mpyrFSI) ionic liquid were investigated by DSC, conductivity, cyclic voltammetry and diffusivity studies. Cyclic voltammetry indicated a stable sodium plating behavior with a current of 5 mA cm(-2) at 25 °C to 20 mA cm(-2) at 100 °C, along with high reversibility identifying this electrolyte as a possible candidate for sodium-ion or sodium metal battery applications. (23)Na NMR chemical shifts and spectral linewidths (FWHM) indicate a complex coordination of the Na(+) ion which is dependent on both temperature and salt concentration with an apparently stronger coordination to the NTf2 anion upon increasing the NaNTf2 concentration. Temperature dependent PFG-NMR diffusion measurements show that both FSI and NTf2 have a comparable behaviour although the smaller FSI anion is more diffusive. PMID:24824026

Yoon, Hyungook; Zhu, Haijin; Hervault, Aziliz; Armand, Michel; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Forsyth, Maria

2014-06-28

153

Molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor for propyl gallate based on PtAu bimetallic nanoparticles modified graphene-carbon nanotube composites.  

PubMed

A novel molecularly imprinted electrochemical sensor for propyl gallate (PG) determination was developed via electropolymerization of an o-phenylenediamine membrane in the presence of template molecules on glassy carbon electrode surface modified by PtAu bimetallic nanoparticles-capped graphene-carbon nanotubes composites (PtAu-GrCNTs). The modified electrodes were characterized by cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscope, x-ray diffraction and chronoamperometry. Moreover, experimental parameters such as scan cycles, incubation time, molar ratios of template molecules to functional monomers and extraction time were optimized. It was found that the PtAu-GrCNTs composite could effectively enhance the electron transfer efficiency and remarkably improve the sensitivity of the sensor. The results revealed the sensor displayed superb resistance to no-specific binding, very attractive detection limit as low as 2.51×10(-8)mol/L, and a wide linear range from 7×10(-8)mol/L to 1×10(-5)mol/L towards PG. Furthermore, the MIPs sensor was also successfully used for the detection of PG in food samples. Therefore, the MIPs-based electrochemical sensing strategy might provide a sensitive, rapid, and cost-effective method for PG determination and related food safety analysis. PMID:25638798

Cui, Min; Huang, Jiadong; Wang, Yu; Wu, Yumin; Luo, Xiliang

2015-06-15

154

Imprinted propyl gallate electrochemical sensor based on graphene/single walled carbon nanotubes/sol-gel film.  

PubMed

A novel imprinted sol-gel electrochemical sensor for the determination of propyl gallate (PG) was developed based on a composite of graphene and single walled carbon nanotubes (GR-SWCNTs). It was fabricated by stepwise modifying GR-SWCNTs and molecularly imprinted polymers and stored in 0.10 mol L(-1) phosphate buffer solution pH 6.0, which endowed the sensor good sensitivity and selective recognition towards template molecules. The morphology and specific adsorption capacity of the sensor was characterized by scanning electron microscope and electrochemical methods, respectively. Under the optimized conditions, a linear range of the sensor to PG was 8.0 × 10(-8)-2.6 × 10(-3)mo lL(-1) with a limit of detection of 5.0 × 10(-8)mol L(-1) (S/N=3). The sensor exhibited specificity and selectivity towards template molecules as well as excellent reproducibility, regeneration and stability. Furthermore, the sensor could be applied to determine PG in edible oils, instant noodles and cookies with satisfactory results. PMID:25660855

Xu, Guilin; Chi, Yu; Li, Lu; Liu, Shouhua; Kan, Xianwen

2015-06-15

155

Psychotomimetic opiate receptors labeled and visualized with (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)piperidine  

SciTech Connect

3-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)piperidine (3-PPP) has been proposed as a selective dopamine autoreceptor agonist in the central nervous system. This report describes the pharmacology and localization of specific high-affinity binding sites for (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-PPP in brain. The drug specificity of (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-PPP binding is identical to that of sigma receptors, which may mediate psychotomimetic effects of some opiates. Haloperidol and the opioid derivatives, pentazocine, cyclazocine, and SKF 10,047 are potent inhibitors of (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-PPP binding. Stereoselectivity is exhibited for the (+) isomers of cyclazocine and SKF 10.047 at the sigma site, opposite to the stereoselectivity seen at ..mu.., sigma, and k opiate receptors. (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-PPP does not label dopamine receptors, as potent dopamine agonists and antagonists are weak inhibitors of binding and the localization of specific (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-PPP binding sites does not parallel that of dopamine neurons. Discrete localizations of (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-PPP binding sites in many brain areas including limbic, midbrain, brainstem, and cerebellar regions may explain psychotomimetic actions of opiates and behavior effects of 3-PPP. 41 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

Largent, B.L.; Gundlach, A.L.; Snyder, S.H.

1984-08-01

156

Characterization of a bystander effect induced by the endocrine-disrupting chemical 6-propyl-2-thiouracil in zebrafish embryos.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to evaluate possible bystander effects induced by the model chemical 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) on melanin synthesis. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were treated with PTU by either microinjection exposure, via waterborne exposure or indirectly through bystander exposure. Melanin content, related mRNA and protein expression were examined at the end of exposure (36 h post-fertilization). Direct exposure to PTU decreased the melanin content, up-regulated mRNA expressions of oculocutaneous albinism type 2 (OCA2), tyrosinase (TYR), dopachrometautomerase (DCT), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) and silver (SILV), and increased the protein expressions of TYR and SILV. Bystander exposure also up-regulated mRNA and protein expressions of TYR and SILV but increased melanin contents. Correlation analysis demonstrated that mRNA expressions of OCA2, TYR, DCT, TYRP1, SILV and protein expressions of TYR and SILV in bystander exposure groups were positively correlated with corresponding expressions in microinjection exposure groups. The results might have environmental implications and highlight the need to consider the bystander effects when assessing potential risks of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. PMID:22542736

Liu, Chunsheng; Yan, Wei; Zhou, Bingsheng; Guo, Yongyong; Liu, Hongling; Yu, Hongxia; Giesy, John P; Wang, Jianghua; Li, Guangyu; Zhang, Xiaowei

2012-08-15

157

Differential Photoimmunoprotection by Sunscreen Ingredients Is Unrelated to Epidermal cis Unrocanic Acid Formation in Hairless Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of experimental sunscreen preparations based on a common vehicle, containing increasing concentrations of either octyl-N-dimethyl-p-aminobenzoate (o-PABA) or 2-ethylhexyl-p-methoxycinnamate (2- EHMC) as the ultraviolet B (UVB) absorber, has been tested in the hairless mouse for the ability to protect from erythema, from the systemically suppressive effects of UVB (280–320 nm) radiation on contact hypersensitivity, and from photoisomerization of epidermal

Vivienne E. Reeve; C. Boehm-Wilcox; M. Bosnic; W. G. Reilly

1994-01-01

158

Instrumental Dependent Dissociations of n-Propyl/Isopropyl Phosphonate Isomers: Evaluation of Resonant and Non-Resonant Vibrational Activations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Structural elucidation and distinction of isomeric neurotoxic agents remain a challenge. Tandem mass spectrometry can be used for this purpose in particular if a "diagnostic" product ion is observed. Different vibrational activation methods were investigated to enhance formation of diagnostic ions through consecutive processes from O,O-dialkyl alkylphosphonates. Resonant and non-resonant collisional activation and infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) were used with different mass spectrometers: a hybrid quadrupole Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (Qh-FTICR) and a hybrid linear ion trap-Orbitrap (LTQ/Orbitrap). Double resonance (DR) experiments, in ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) cell, were used for unambiguous determination of direct intermediate yielding diagnostic ions. From protonated n-propyl and isopropyl O-O-dialkyl-phosphonates, a diagnostic m/ z 83 ion characterizes the isopropyl isomer. This ion is produced through consecutive dissociation processes. Conditions to favor its formation and observation using different activation methods were investigated. It was shown that with the LTQ, consecutive experimental steps of isolation/activation with modified trapping conditions limiting the low mass cut off (LMCO) effect were required, whereas with FT-ICR by CID and IRMPD the diagnostic ion detection was provided only by one activation step. Among the different investigated activation methods it was shown that by using low-pressure conditions or using non-resonant methods, efficient and fast differentiation of isomeric neurotoxic agents was obtained. This work constitutes a unique comparison of different activation modes for distinction of isomers showing the instrumental dependence characteristic of the consecutive processes. New insights in the dissociation pathways were obtained based on double-resonance IRMPD experiments using a FT-ICR instrument with limitation at low mass values.

Bennaceur, Chafia; Afonso, Carlos; Alves, Sandra; Bossée, Anne; Tabet, Jean-Claude

2013-08-01

159

Effect of butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, propyl gallate and thiabendazole on cytochrome P450 forms in cultured human hepatocytes.  

PubMed

1. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of four food chemicals, namely butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), curcumin (CC), propyl gallate (PG) and thiabendazole (TB), on cytochrome P450 (CYP) forms in cultured human hepatocytes. 2. Treatment of human hepatocytes for 72 h with 2-200 microM TB produced concentration-dependent increases in CYP1A2, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 mRNA levels, whereas treatment with BHT increased CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 mRNA levels. CYP1A2, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 mRNA levels were induced around 48-, 21- and 9-fold, respectively, by 200 microM TB, with CYP2B6 and CYP 3A4 mRNA levels being induced around 12- and 7-fold, respectively, by 200 microM BHT. 3. In contrast, the treatment of human hepatocytes for 72 h with PG and CC had little or no effect on CYP mRNA levels. 4. The treatment of human hepatocytes with TB also induced CYP1A-dependent 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity, whereas BHT induced CYP3A-dependent testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase activity. 5. In summary, the results demonstrate that TB is a mixed inducer of CYP forms in human hepatocytes inducing CYP1A, CYP2B and CYP3A forms, whereas BHT is an inducer of CYP2B and CYP3A forms. PMID:18570159

Price, R J; Scott, M P; Giddings, A M; Walters, D G; Stierum, R H; Meredith, C; Lake, B G

2008-06-01

160

Characterization of low molecular weight organic acids from beech wood treated in supercritical water.  

PubMed

Japanese beech (Fagus crenata Blume), its cell wall components, and model compounds were treated by supercritical water (380 degrees C, 100 MPa) for 5 s using a batch-type reactor to investigate the production behavior of low molecular weight organic acids. It was found that cellulose and hemicellulose were decomposed to formic acid, pyruvic acid, glycolic acid, acetic acid, and lactic acid, whereas lignin was barely decomposed to such organic acids under the given conditions. However, after prolonged treatment (380 degrees C, 100 MPa, 4 min) of lignin, some organic acids were recovered owing perhaps to the decomposition of the propyl side chain of lignin. It was additionally revealed that the predominant organic acid recovered was acetic acid, which might be derived from the acetyl group of hemicellulose in Japanese beech. PMID:15930559

Yoshida, Kei; Kusaki, Junko; Ehara, Katsunobu; Saka, Shiro

2005-01-01

161

Increase in plasma free fatty acids and natriuresis by xanthines may reflect adenosine antagonism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hypothesis has been examined that adenosine is involved in the diuretic and free fatty acid (FFA) — releasing action of xanthines. The effects of theophylline (T), a potent adenosine antagonist, were compared with those of enprofylline (3-propyl xanthine, E), which exerts negligible antagonism of adenosine. Eight healthy male volunteers were given E 1.5 mg\\/kg, T 5.0mg\\/kg or placebo 0.9%

K.-E. Andersson; N. Johannesson; B. Karlberg; C. G. A. Persson

1984-01-01

162

Use of hexadeuterated valproic acid and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine the pharmacokinetics of valproic acid  

SciTech Connect

Di-(( 3,3,3-/sup 2/H3)propyl)acetic acid, a hexadeuterated analogue of valproic acid, was synthesized and its pharmacokinetic properties compared with valproic acid. Concentrations of valproic acid and (/sup 2/H)valproic acid in serum and saliva were determined by GC-MS using selected-ion monitoring. Saliva drug levels were measured with good precision down to 0.1 microgram/mL. Kinetic equivalence of valproic acid and (/sup 2/H)valproic acid was demonstrated in a single-dose study in a human volunteer. An isotope effect was observed for omega-oxidation, but the difference in metabolism was not sufficient to make (/sup 2/H)valproic acid biologically nonequivalent. The application of (/sup 2/H)valproic acid to determine the kinetics of valproic acid under steady-state concentrations was evaluated in the same volunteer. The kinetic data obtained with (/sup 2/H)valproic acid was consistent with previously reported values for valproic acid including kinetic differences observed between single-dose and steady-state experiments. Saliva levels of valproic acid were found to give a good correlation with total serum valproic acid under multiple-dose conditions. A concentration dependence was found for the ratio of saliva valproic acid to free valproic acid in serum, low ratios being observed at high serum concentrations of valproic acid.

Acheampong, A.A.; Abbott, F.S.; Orr, J.M.; Ferguson, S.M.; Burton, R.W.

1984-04-01

163

The Quest for Complex Molecules in Space. Searches for Cyanides Related to n-PROPYL Cyanide in SGR B2(N)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A molecular line survey was carried out with the IRAM 30 m telescope toward the prolific hot core Sgr B2(N) in order to explore its molecular complexity. The entire 3 mm range as well as selected regions at 2 and 1.3 mm were covered. Notable results include the detections of aminoacetonitrile, ethyl formate, n-propyl cyanide,^b and the singly substituted 13C isotopologs of vinyl cyanide. There exists a branched isomer of n-propyl cyanide: iso-propyl cyanide. A search for this isomer in our line survey required a laboratory spectroscopic investigation beforehand. Even though promising emission features have been found for this as well as other, related molecules, there are rather few uncontaminated lines. Overlap by other emission or some absorption features occurs frequently, and uncertainties about the position of the baseline also contribute to considering detections to be inconclusive. Nevertheless, the determination of upper limits or abundances among isomers and related molecules will help to constrain astrochemical pathways. We will present our results and discuss promising strategies to search for complex molecules in space. A. Belloche, K. M. Menten, C. Comito, H. S. P. Müller, P. Schilke, J. Ott, S. Thorwirth, C. Hieret, Astron. Astrophys. 482 (2008) 179. A. Belloche, R. T. Garrod, H. S. P. Müller, K. M. Menten, C. Comito, P. Schilke, Astron. Astrophys. 499 (2009), 215. H. S. P. Müller, A. Belloche, K. M. Menten, C. Comito, P. Schilke, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 251 (2008) 319. H. S. P. Müller, A. Coutens, A. Walters, J.-U. Grabow, S. Schlemmer, submitted to J. Mol. Spectrosc.

Müller, Holger S. P.; Schlemmer, S.; Belloche, A.; Menten, K. M.; Coutens, A.; Walters, A.; Grabow, J.-U.

2011-06-01

164

Heat of Mixing and Solution of Propyl benzoate C10H12O2 + C13H28 Tridecane (HMSD1111, LB4171_H)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document is part of Subvolume A 'Binary Liquid Systems of Nonelectrolytes I' of Volume 26 'Heats of Mixing, Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium, and Volumetric Properties of Mixtures and Solutions' of Landolt-Börnstein Group IV 'Physical Chemistry'. It contains the Chapter 'Heat of Mixing and Solution of Propyl benzoate C10H12O2 + C13H28 Tridecane (HMSD1111, LB4171_H)' providing data from direct low-pressure calorimetric measurement of molar excess enthalpy at variable mole fraction and constant temperature.

Cibulka, I.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Sosnkowska-Kehiaian, K.; Kehiaian, H. V.

165

Preliminary study of propyl bromide exposure among New Jersey dry cleaners as a result of a pending ban on perchloroethylene.  

PubMed

Many states are considering, and some states have actively pursued, banning the use of perchloroethylene (PERC) in dry cleaning establishments. Proposed legislation has led many dry cleaners to consider the use of products that contain greater than 90% n-propyl bromide (n-PB; also called 1-bromopropane or 1-BP). Very little information is known about toxicity and exposure to n-PB. Some n-PB-containing products are marketed as nonhazardous and "green" or "organic." This has resulted in some users perceiving the solvent as nontoxic and has resulted in at least one significant poisoning incident in New Jersey. In addition, many dry cleaning operators may not realize that the machine components and settings must be changed when converting from PERC to n-PB containing products. Not performing these modifications may result in overheating and significant leaks in the dry cleaning equipment. A preliminary investigation was conducted of the potential exposures to n-PB and isopropyl bromide (iso-PB; also called 2-bromopropane or 2-BP) among dry cleaners in New Jersey who have converted their machines from PERC to these new solvent products. Personal breathing zone and area samples were collected using the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Sampling and Analytical Method 1025, with a slight modification to gas chromatography conditions to facilitate better separation of n-PB from iso-PB. During the preliminary investigation, exposures to n-PB among some workers in two of three shops were measured that were greater than the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) for n-PB. The highest exposure measured among a dry cleaning machine operator was 54 parts per million (ppm) as an 8-hr time-weighted average, which is more than 5 times the ACGIH TLV of 10 ppm. The preliminary investigation also found that the work tasks most likely to result in the highest short-term exposures included the introduction of solvent to the machine, maintenance of the machine, unloading and handling of recently cleaned clothes, and interrupting the wash cycle of the machine. In addition, this assessment suggested that leaks may have contributed to exposure and may have resulted from normal machine wear over time, ineffective maintenance, and from the incompatibility of n-PB with gasket materials. PMID:20863050

Blando, James D; Schill, Donald P; De La Cruz, Mary Pauline; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Junfeng

2010-09-01

166

Therapeutic efficacy of new dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) analogues in acute arsenic trioxide poisoning in mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The therapeutic efficacy of six newly synthesized analogues of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) was investigated in acute arsenic trioxide poisoning in mice. Meso-2,3-di(acetylthio)succinic acid (DATSA) and meso-2,3-di(benzoylthio)succinic acid (DBTSA) are analogues of DMSA with protected thiol groups (“prodrugs”), and DMDMS, DEDMS, DnPDMS, and DiPDMS are various di-esters of DMSA with methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, and isopropyl alcohols, respectively. Thirty minutes after s.c.

Helmut Kreppel; Uwe Paepcke; Horst Thiermannl; Ladislaus Szinicz; Franz X. Reichl; Pramod K. Singh; Mark M. Jones

1993-01-01

167

Determination of valproic acid and its metabolites using gas chromatography with mass-selective detection: application to serum and urine samples from sheep.  

PubMed

An improved method for the quantitative determination of valproic acid (VPA) and sixteen of its metabolites has been developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selected-ion monitoring. The method is applicable to serum or urine and all metabolites are measured in a single chromatographic run of 29.5 min. Ions selected for quantitative purposes were the characteristic [M-57]+ ions of the tert.-butyldimethylsilyl (tBDMS) derivatives. The method utilizes heptadeuterated VPA as well as six heptadeuterated metabolites as internal standards [i.e. 2-[2H7]propyl-2-pentenoic acid (2-ene[2H7]VPA), 2-[2H7]propyl-4-pentenoic acid (4-ene[2H7]VPA), 2-[2H7]propyl-3-oxopentanoic acid (3-keto[2H7]VPA), 2-[2H7]propyl-4-oxopentanoic acid (4-keto[2H7]VPA), 2-[2H7]propyl-3-hydroxypentanoic acid (3-OH[2H7]VPA), 2-[2H7]propyl-5-hydroxypentanoic acid (5-OH[2H7]VPA)]. The method demonstrates very good accuracy and precision over a large range of concentrations for VPA and all metabolites measured in both human and sheep biological fluids. The assay was applied to the analysis of VPA and metabolites in serum and urine samples collected from three non-pregnant ewes following intravenous bolus administration of a mixture of VPA and [13C4]VPA. Sheep were observed to produce measurable quantities of the majority of metabolites found in humans, with the notable exception of the di-unsaturated compounds (i.e. 2,3'-diene VPA and 2,4-diene VPA). The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of VPA and [13C4]VPA appear to be equivalent in the sheep model. The elimination half-life of VPA and [13C4]VPA in the ewe were estimated to be approximately 3.5 +/- 0.4 and 3.2 +/- 0.4 h, respectively. PMID:7633603

Yu, D; Gordon, J D; Zheng, J; Panesar, S K; Riggs, K W; Rurak, D W; Abbott, F S

1995-04-21

168

Acid-functionalized nanoparticles for biomass hydrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cellulosic ethanol is a renewable source of energy. Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex material composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Biomass pretreatment is a required step to make sugar polymers liable to hydrolysis. Mineral acids are commonly used for biomass pretreatment. Using acid catalysts that can be recovered and reused could make the process economically more attractive. The overall goal of this dissertation is the development of a recyclable nanocatalyst for the hydrolysis of biomass sugars. Cobalt iron oxide nanoparticles (CoFe2O4) were synthesized to provide a magnetic core that could be separated from reaction using a magnetic field and modified to carry acid functional groups. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the crystal structure was that of cobalt spinel ferrite. CoFe2O4 were covered with silica which served as linker for the acid functions. Silica-coated nanoparticles were functionalized with three different acid functions: perfluoropropyl-sulfonic acid, carboxylic acid, and propyl-sulfonic acid. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images were analyzed to obtain particle size distributions of the nanoparticles. Total carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur were quantified using an elemental analyzer. Fourier transform infra-red spectra confirmed the presence of sulfonic and carboxylic acid functions and ion-exchange titrations accounted for the total amount of catalytic acid sites per nanoparticle mass. These nanoparticles were evaluated for their performance to hydrolyze the beta-1,4 glycosidic bond of the cellobiose molecule. Propyl-sulfonic (PS) and perfluoropropyl-sulfonic (PFS) acid functionalized nanoparticles catalyzed the hydrolysis of cellobiose significantly better than the control. PS and PFS were also evaluated for their capacity to solubilize wheat straw hemicelluloses and performed better than the control. Although PFS nanoparticles were stronger acid catalysts, the acid functions leached out of the nanoparticle during the catalytic reactions. PS nanoparticles were further evaluated for the pretreatment of corn stover in order to increase digestibility of the biomass. The pretreatment was carried out at three different catalyst load and temperature levels. At 180°C, the total glucose yield was linearly correlated to the catalyst load. A maximum glucose yield of 90% and 58% of the hemicellulose sugars were obtained at this temperature.

Pena Duque, Leidy Eugenia

169

Developmental exposure to the organophosphorus flame retardant tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate: Estrogenic activity, endocrine disruption and reproductive effects on zebrafish.  

PubMed

Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) is an organophosphate flame retardant that is detectable in the environment and biota, prompting concern over its risk to wildlife and human health. Our objective was to investigate whether long-term exposure to low concentrations of TDCPP can affect fish reproduction. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to low concentrations (0, 4, 20 and 100?g/L) of TDCPP from 2h post-fertilization until sexual maturation. Exposure to TDCPP significantly increased plasma estradiol and testosterone levels in females, but had no effect in males. TDCPP exposure also caused a significant reduction in fecundity as indicated by decreased egg production. Real-time PCR was performed to examine selected genes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis and liver. Principle component analysis (PCA) showed that sex hormone levels and fecundity were related to the mRNA level of several genes in the HPG axis. Furthermore, hepatic vitellogenin (vtg1 and vtg3) expression was upregulated in both females and males, suggesting TDCPP has estrogenic activity. Histological examination revealed promotion of oocyte maturation in the females, but retardation of spermiation in males. Reduced egg quality (e.g., egg diameter) and increased malformation rates were observed in the F1 generation. Chemical analysis showed significant levels of TDCPP and its metabolite bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate in the gonads of males and females. In conclusion, long-term exposure to low concentrations of TDCPP impairs fish reproduction. PMID:25637911

Wang, Qiangwei; Lam, James C W; Han, Jian; Wang, Xianfeng; Guo, Yongyong; Lam, Paul K S; Zhou, Bingsheng

2015-03-01

170

Quantitation of total homocysteine in human plasma by derivatization to its N(O,S)-propoxycarbonyl propyl ester and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.  

PubMed

Much evidence supports the hypothesis that mild or moderate hyperhomocysteinaemia represents an important and independent risk factor for occlusive vascular diseases. Therefore, the accurate and reliable determination of total plasma homocysteine has gained major importance for risk assessment. Furthermore, it can help in the detection of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency. This has prompted us to develop a sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method in order to quantify total homocysteine in human plasma. Prior to chromatography, reduced homocysteine was released from disulfide bonds by incubation with excess dithiothreitol and converted into its N(O,S)-propoxycarbonyl propyl ester by derivatization with n-propyl chloroformate. Aminoethylcysteine served as internal standard. The method proved to be highly linear over the entire concentration range examined (corresponding to 0-266 microM homocysteine) and showed intra-assay and inter-assay variation (relative standard deviations) of approximately 5 and 5-10%, respectively. External quality control by comparison with duplicate analysis performed on a HPLC-based system revealed satisfactory correlation. The newly developed GC-MS based method provides simple, reliable and fast quantification of total homocysteine and requires only inexpensive chemicals, which are easy to obtain. PMID:9291598

Sass, J O; Endres, W

1997-08-01

171

Increased complexity in interstellar chemistry: detection and chemical modeling of ethyl formate and n-propyl cyanide in Sagittarius B2(N)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: In recent years, organic molecules of increasing complexity have been found toward the prolific Galactic center source Sagittarius B2. Aims: We wish to explore the degree of complexity that the interstellar chemistry can reach in star-forming regions. Methods: We carried out a complete line survey of the hot cores Sgr B2(N) and (M) with the IRAM 30 m telescope in the 3 mm range, plus partial surveys at 2 and 1.3 mm. We analyzed this spectral survey in the local thermodynamical equilibrium approximation. We modeled the emission of all known molecules simultaneously, which allows us to search for less abundant, more complex molecules. We compared the derived column densities with the predictions of a coupled gas-phase and grain-surface chemical code. Results: We report the first detection in space of ethyl formate (C2H5OCHO) and n-propyl cyanide (C3H7CN) toward Sgr B2(N). The detection of n-propyl cyanide is based on refined spectroscopic parameters derived from combined analyses of available laboratory spectroscopic data. For each molecule, we identified spectral features at the predicted frequencies having intensities compatible with a unique rotation temperature. For an assumed source size of 3 arcsec, our modeling yields a column density of 5.4 × 1016 cm-2, a temperature of 100 K, and a linewidth of 7 km s-1 for ethyl formate. n-Propyl cyanide is detected with two velocity components having column densities of 1.5 × 1016 cm-2 and 6.6 × 1015 cm-2, respectively, for a source size of 3 arcsec, a temperature of 150 K, and a linewidth of 7 km s-1. The abundances of ethyl formate and n-propyl cyanide relative to H2 are estimated to be 3.6 × 10-9 and 1.0 × 10-9, respectively. We derived column density ratios of 0.8/15/1 for the related species t-HCOOH/CH3OCHO/C2H5OCHO and 108/80/1 for CH3CN/C2H5CN/C3H7CN. Our chemical modeling reproduces these ratios reasonably well. It suggests that the sequential, piecewise construction of ethyl and n-propyl cyanide from their constituent functional groups on the grain surfaces is their most likely formation route. Ethyl formate is primarily formed on the grains by adding CH3 to functional-group radicals derived from methyl formate, although ethanol may also be a precursor. Conclusions: The detection in Sgr B2(N) of the next stage of complexity in two classes of complex molecule, esters and alkyl cyanides, suggests that greater complexity in other classes of molecule may be present in the interstellar medium. Based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30 m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany) and IGN (Spain). Tables [see full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full text], [see full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full text], [see full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full text], [see full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full text], [see full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full text], [see full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full text], Figs. [see full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full text], [see full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full textsee full text] and Appendix are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Belloche, A.; Garrod, R. T.; Müller, H. S. P.; Menten, K. M.; Comito, C.; Schilke, P.

2009-05-01

172

Electrochemical detection of hybridization using peptide nucleic acids and methylene blue on self-assembled alkanethiol monolayer modified gold electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrochemical hybridization biosensor based on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes is presented. PNA probes were attached covalently through a competition of free amines on the guanine bases and also at the 5? end of the probe, using N-(3-dimethylamino)propyl)-N?-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) onto a carboxylate terminated alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) preformed on a gold electrode (AuE). The covalently

Dilsat Ozkan; Arzum Erdem; Pinar Kara; Kagan Kerman; J Justin Gooding; Peter E Nielsen; Mehmet Ozsoz

2002-01-01

173

Selective production of lactobionic acid by aerobic oxidation of lactose over gold crystallites supported on mesoporous silica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partial oxidation of lactose over Au-based catalyst system using nanostructured silica materials with improved activity, selectivity and stability was investigated as a novel chemo-catalytic approach for selective synthesis of lactobionic acid (LBA) for therapeutic, pharmaceutical and food grad applications.Highly active gold crystallites dispersed on mesoporous silica (SiO2-meso) using bis-[3-(triethoxysilyl) propyl] tetrasulfide (BTSPT), a silane coupling agent to immobilize gold, were

Luis-Felipe Gutierrez; Safia Hamoudi; Khaled Belkacemi

2011-01-01

174

O-[2Hydroxy3-(dialkylamino)propyl]ethers of (+)-1,7,7-trimethyl bicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-one oxime (camphor oxime) with analgesic and antiarrhythmic activities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel series of O-[2-hydroxy-3-(dialkylamino)propyl]ethers of (+)-camphor oxime was prepared and tested for its cardiovascular, analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. No significant anti-inflammatory and hypotensive activities were displayed by any of the compounds, whereas several of them are reasonably active as antiarrhythmic and analgesic agents.

Silvia Schenone; Olga Bruno; Angelo Ranise; Francesco Bondavalli; Walter Filippelli; Giuseppe Falcone; Barbara Rinaldi

2000-01-01

175

CF3+ fragmentation by electron impact ionization of perfluoro-propyl-vinyl-ethers, C5F10O, in gas phase  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gas phase fragmentations of perfluoro-propyl-vinyl ether (PPVE, C5F10O) are studied experimentally. Dominant fragmentations of PPVE are found to be the result of a dissociative ionization reaction, i.e., CF3+ via direct bond cleavage, and C2F3O? and C3F7O? via electron attachment. Regardless of the appearance energy of around 14.5 eV for the dissociative ionization of CF3+, the observed ion efficiency for the CF3+ ion was extremely large the order of 10?20 cm?2, compared with only 10?21 cm?2 for the other channels. PPVE characteristically generated CF3+ as the largest abundant ion are advantageous for use of feedstock gases in plasma etching processes.

Kondo, Yusuke; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hayashi, Toshio; Miyawaki, Yudai; Takeda, Keigo; Kondo, Hiroki; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

2015-04-01

176

Antibacterial activity and cytocompatibility of chitosan-N-hydroxy-2,3-propyl-N methyl-N,N-diallylammonium methyl sulfate.  

PubMed

A water-soluble quaternary ammonium salt of chitosan, chitosan-N-hydroxy-2,3-propyl-N-methyl-N,N-diallylammonium methyl sulfate (MDAACS), was synthesized by reacting chitosan with methyl diallyl ammonium salt (MDAA). The results of water contact angle and swelling ratio showed that the membrane of MDAACS was more hydrophilic than chitosan. The antibacterial activities of MDAACS against Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae were evaluated with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The results showed that the antibacterial activity of MDAACS was higher than that of chitosan. The cytocompatibility was evaluated in vitro with L929 fibroblast proliferation based on MTT colorimetric assay. The results showed that cell growth was much higher on MDAACS than on chitosan. PMID:21816584

Jou, Chi-Hsiung

2011-11-01

177

Design, synthesis, and applications of chiral N-2-phenyl-2-propyl sulfinyl imines for group-assisted purification (GAP) asymmetric synthesis.  

PubMed

A new chiral (Rs)-2-phenyl-2-propyl sulfinamide has been designed and synthesized; its derived aldimines and ketimines have been applied for asymmetric addition reaction with allylmagnesium bromide. The reaction was conveniently performed at room temperature to give a series of homoallylic amines in high yields (up to quant) and diastereoselectivity (up to >99% de). The pure products were obtained by relying on group-assisted purification (GAP) chemistry to avoid traditional purification methods of column chromatography or recrystallization. The conversion of disulfide to (R(s))-thiosulfinate which contains a newly generated polar group was also confirmed to be of the GAP chemistry in which washing crude product can generate pure enantiomer. The absolute stereochemistry has been determined by X-ray analysis. PMID:23496279

Pindi, Suresh; Wu, Jianbin; Li, Guigen

2013-04-19

178

Synthesis and cytotoxicity evaluation of thiophene analogues of 1-methyl-2, 3-bis(hydroxymethyl)benzo[g]indole bis[N-(2-propyl)carbamate].  

PubMed

The cytotoxicity of the bis[N-(2-propyl)carbamates] 2 and 3 which are linked to thieno[i,j-g]indole scaffolds through methylene bridges were studied as thiophene analogues of prototype 1. Compounds 2 and 3 were evaluated in vitro against 60 human-tumor cell lines derived from nine cancer-cell types and demonstrated, for compound 3 not only strong growth-inhibitory activities against leukemia cancer cells, but also fairly good activities against the growth of certain renal and ovarian cancer cell lines. Compound 2, the thieno[2,3-g]indole bis-carbamate, possessed only significant (MG-MID log10 GI50 = -4.89) and selective cytoxicity against NCI-HOP92 (non-small cell lung), MALME 3M (melanoma) and IGROV 1 (ovarian) cancer cell with log10 GI50 values of -5.66, -5.48 and -5.47, respectively. PMID:11989812

Pirisi, M A; Murineddu, G; Mussinu, J M; Pinna, G A

2002-04-01

179

Convenient syntheses and characterization of fluorophilic perfluorooctyl-propyl amines and ab initio calculations of proton affinities of related model compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

A convenient and effective method for the preparation of perfluorooctyl-propyl amines ([Rf8(CH2)3]nNH3?n (1–3), n=1,2,3; Rf8(CH2)3NHMe (4); [Rf8(CH2)3]2NMe (5); Rf8(CH2)3NMe2 (6); Rf8=F(CF2)8) via a step by step alkylation with Rf8(CH2)3I is described. The fluorophilicity values of 1–6 were determined by GC and range from 0.79±0.07 (1) to 5.3±0.2 (3). Systematic ab initio calculations of proton affinities of model compounds (7a–j) using

Zoltán Szlávik; Gábor Tárkányi; Ágnes Gömöry; György Tarczay; József Rábai

2001-01-01

180

Simultaneous determination of bromhexine hydrochloride and methyl and propyl p-hydroxybenzoate and determination of dextromethorphan hydrobromide in cough-cold syrup by high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

Liquid chromatographic methods were developed for the determination of bromhexine hydrochloride, methyl p-hydroxybenzoate and propyl p-hydroxybenzoate (method A) and dextromethorphan hydrobromide (method B) in cough-cold syrup formulations. Reversed-phase analytical columns (150 mm x 3.9 mm i.d.) were used with (A) C18 and (B) phenyl as stationary phases and mixtures of (A) acetonitrile and aqueous 15 mM triethylamine solution (43:57) and (B) methanol and aqueous 3% ammonium formate buffer solution (53:47) as mobile phases at a flow rate of 1.0 ml min-1. Both aqueous components were adjusted to pH 3.9. UV detection of analytes was at (A) 245 nm and (B) 278 nm. In both methods, the time required for an HPLC run giving good separations and recoveries was less than 8 min. PMID:8933431

Rauha, J P; Salomies, H; Aalto, M

1996-11-01

181

CCR5 antagonists as anti-HIV-1 agents. Part 2: Synthesis and biological evaluation of N-[3-(4-benzylpiperidin-1-yl)propyl]-N,N'-diphenylureas.  

PubMed

We have previously reported the novel lead compound 1a as a CCR5 antagonist for treatment of HIV-1 infection. SAR studies on incorporating various acyl groups as a replacement for the 5-oxopyrrolidine-3-carbonyl group of the lead structure resulted in the discovery of N-[3-(4-benzylpiperidin-1-yl)propyl]-N,N'-diphenylurea (4a) with significantly improved CCR5 binding affinity. Substitutions (4-Cl, 4e,f; 4-Me, 4i) on the N'-phenyl ring further increased the binding affinity. Introduction of polar substituents on the phenyl ring of the 4-benzylpiperidine moiety enhanced the inhibitory activity of the HIV-1 envelope-mediated membrane fusion (4v,w), suggesting that polar substituents at this position can interfere effectively with HIV-1 cell entry. PMID:15080927

Imamura, Shinichi; Kurasawa, Osamu; Nara, Yoshi; Ichikawa, Takashi; Nishikawa, Youichi; Iida, Takehiro; Hashiguchi, Shohei; Kanzaki, Naoyuki; Iizawa, Yuji; Baba, Masanori; Sugihara, Yoshihiro

2004-05-01

182

Synthesis of novel N-alkyl carbamates of a-substituted amides of g-hydroxybutyric acid as potential acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.  

PubMed

In a search for new acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors, derivatives of N-alkyl carbamates of a-substituted N-benzylamides of g-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) 2(a-d); 3(a-d); 4(a-d) were obtained. Starting from 3-bromo-tetrahydrofuran-2-one, and N-phenylpiperazine 3-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl) tetrahydrofuran-2-one (1) was obtained. The aminolysis of lactone 1 with 4-substituted derivatives of benzylamine yielded N-substituted benzylamides of a-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)-g-hydroxy-butyric acid (2-4). The target compounds were prepared by refluxing N-substituted benzyl-amides of a-(4-phenylpiperazinyl-1-)-GHB with ethyl-, i-propyl-, n-propyl- or n-butyl-isocyanate in dry acetonitrile. The inhibitory potency of AChE was evaluated by means of Ellman's in vitro test. PMID:15909954

Musia?, Anna; Malawska, Barbara

2004-12-01

183

Kinetics of hydrolysis of 4-methoxy-2-[2-hydroxy-3(4-phenyl-1-piperazinyl)]propyl-2,3-dihydro-6-methyl-1,3-dioxo-1H-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyridine in aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

The kinetics of hydrolysis of 4-methoxy-2-[2-hydroxy-3(4-phenyl-1-piperazinyl)]propyl-2,3-dihydro-6-methyl-1,3-dioxo-1H-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyridine (I) in aqueous solutions at 333, 343, 353 and 363 K over the pH range 0.4-4.8 was investigated. The decomposition was observed with the HPLC method (LiChrosorb) 100 RP-18 column 250 x 4.0 mm ID, dp = 5 microm; mobile phase: acetonitrile--0.01 M phosphate buffer (H3PO4 + KH2PO4; pH 3) (50:50, v/v-phase A) or (30:70, v/v-phase B). The pH-rate profile indicated specific acid- and base-catalyzed reactions as well as spontaneous water-catalyzed decomposition of both dissociated and undissociated molecules of I. Various buffer substances exhibited general acid and base catalysis of the degradation. The ionic strength effect, the pKa value (4.2), the pHmin value (2.0) and thermodynamic parameters of the reaction (energy and enthalpy of activation and the frequency coefficient for the specific rate constants) were determined. PMID:15178305

Muszalska, Izabela

2004-06-01

184

Ru-TsDPEN with formic acid/Hunig's base for asymmetric transfer hydrogenation, a practical synthesis of optically enriched N-propyl pantolactam.  

PubMed

The Noyori-Ikariya catalysts, Ru-TsDPEN 1 or 2, in combination with HCOOH/Hunig's base (5:2) have been successfully utilized for catalytic asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of alpha-ketopantolactam, and optically enriched N-substituted pantolactam was prepared (S/C = 500, up to 95% ee and 99% conversion in HCOOH/Hunig's base condition). More than 2 kg of this key intermediate 9 has been synthesized efficiently with excellent chemical yield and chiral purity. PMID:19105680

Zhang, Ji; Blazecka, Peter G; Bruendl, Michelle M; Huang, Yun

2009-02-01

185

Application of Molecular Connectivity Indices to the Design of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide?Soluble Metal Ion Extractants: SC?CO2 Solubilities of Symmetrically Substituted Alkylenediphosphonic Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a dynamic flow method, the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC?CO2) solubilities of two series of symmetrically substituted alkylenediphosphonic acids, bearing 2?ethylhexyl and 3?trimethylsilyl?1?propyl ester groups, respectively, were determined as a function of the number of methylene groups separating the two phosphorus atoms. An even–odd effect, similar to that observed previously for the aggregation of these compounds in nonpolar diluents, was

Daniel R. McAlister; Mark L. Dietz; Dominique Stepinski; Peter R. Zalupski; Julie A. Dzielawa; R. E. Barrans Jr; J. N. Hess; A. W. Herlinger

2005-01-01

186

Effect of yeast extract and vitamin B sub 12 on ethanol production from cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B  

SciTech Connect

Addition to media of yeast extract, a vitamin mixture containing vitamin B{sub 12}, biotin, pyridoxamine, and p-aminobenzoic acid, or vitamin B{sub 12} alone enhanced formation of ethanol but decreased lactate production in the fermentation of cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B. A similar effect was not observed with C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 and JW20.

Sato, Kanji; Goto, Shingo; Yonemura, Sotaro; Sekine, Kenji; Okuma, Emiko; Takagi, Yoshio; Honnami, Koyu; Saiki, Takashi (New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Chiba (Japan))

1992-02-01

187

Negative chemotaxis in Spirochaeta aurantia  

Microsoft Academic Search

A repellent-gradient tube assay for negative chemotaxis inSpirochaeta aurantia was developed and used to demonstrate that acids, alcohols, and sulfide were effective chemorepellents. The threshold concentrations (the lowest concentration of a repellent that elicited a detectable response) for benzoic acid, salicylic acid, and butyric acid were 3×10?5M. For acetic acid, propionic acid,p-aminobenzoic acid, propanol, butanol, and sulfide, threshold concentrations were

Charlotte Kaempf; E. P. Greenberg

1990-01-01

188

Bis(?-nitrato-?2 O:O)bis­{[1,2-bis­(diiso­propyl­phosphan­yl)-1,2-dicarba-closo-dodeca­borane-?2 P,P?]silver(I)} di­chloro­methane disolvate  

PubMed Central

The title compound, [Ag2(NO3)2(C14H38B10P2)2]·2CH2Cl2, was synthesized by the reaction of 1,2-bis­(diiso­propyl­phosphan­yl)-1,2-dicarba-closo-dodeca­borane with AgNO3. The resulting dinuclear molecule has crystallographically imposed inversion symmetry. The diiso­propyl­phosphanyl-closo-carborane ligand is coordin­ated in a bidentate manner to the AgI atom through the two P atoms. The distorted tetra­hedral coordination of the metal is completed by two O atoms of two bridging nitrate anions. The separation between the two AgI atoms is 3.8913?(5)?Å. C—H?O hydrogen bonds are observed involving the dichloromethane solvent molecule and the nitrate anion. PMID:24826102

Yang, Liguo

2014-01-01

189

A Chemogenomic Screening of Sulfanilamide-Hypersensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mutants Uncovers ABZ2, the Gene Encoding a Fungal Aminodeoxychorismate Lyase?  

PubMed Central

Large-scale phenotypic analyses have proved to be useful strategies in providing functional clues about the uncharacterized yeast genes. We used here a chemogenomic profiling of yeast deletion collections to identify the core of cellular processes challenged by treatment with the p-aminobenzoate/folate antimetabolite sulfanilamide. In addition to sulfanilamide-hypersensitive mutants whose deleted genes can be categorized into a number of groups, including one-carbon related metabolism, vacuole biogenesis and vesicular transport, DNA metabolic and cell cycle processes, and lipid and amino acid metabolism, two uncharacterized open reading frames (YHI9 and YMR289w) were also identified. A detailed characterization of YMR289w revealed that this gene was required for growth in media lacking p-aminobenzoic or folic acid and encoded a 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase, which is the last of the three enzymatic activities required for p-aminobenzoic acid biosynthesis. In light of these results, YMR289w was designated ABZ2, in accordance with the accepted nomenclature. ABZ2 was able to rescue the p-aminobenzoate auxotrophy of an Escherichia coli pabC mutant, thus demonstrating that ABZ2 and pabC are functional homologues. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Abz2p is the founder member of a new group of fungal 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyases that have no significant homology to its bacterial or plant counterparts. Abz2p appeared to form homodimers and dimerization was indispensable for its catalytic activity. PMID:17873082

Botet, Javier; Mateos, Laura; Revuelta, José L.; Santos, María A.

2007-01-01

190

Synthesis, Spectroscopic, DNA Binding, and Antimicrobial Studies on bis (1-amidino-O-alkylurea) Cu(II) Tartrate Complexes Where Alkyl = Methyl, Ethyl, n-Propyl, n-, or IsoButyl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five New Cu(II) complexes, [bis(1-amidino-O-alkylurea) Cu(II)tartrate], where alkyl= methyl (1), ethyl (2), n-propyl (3), n-butyl (4), or iso-butyl (5) have been synthesized and characterized. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of complexes 1 and 2 showed features of mononuclear species whereas complexes 3, 4, and 5 in frozen DMSO solution show the existence of mononuclear and binuclear species in these complexes.

R. K. Hemakumar Singh; N. Shantibala Devi; L. Reena Devi; R. M. Kadam

2012-01-01

191

Synthesis, Spectroscopic, DNA Binding and Antimicrobial Studies on bis (1-amidino-O-alkylurea) Cu(II) tartrate complexes where alkyl = methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, n- or iso-butyl  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five New Cu(II) complexes, [bis(1-amidino-O-alkylurea)Cu(II)tartrate], where alkyl = methyl (1), ethyl (2), n-propyl (3), n-butyl (4) or iso-butyl (5) have been synthesized and characterized. The EPR spectra of complexes 1 and 2 showed features of mononuclear species whereas complexes 3, 4 and 5 in frozen DMSO solution show the existence of mononuclear and binuclear species in these complexes. Complexes crystallize

R. K. Hemakumar Singh; N. Shantibala Devi; L. Reena Devi; R. M. Kadam

2012-01-01

192

Prophylactic and Therapeutic Benefits of Short-Term 9-[2-(R)-(Phosphonomethoxy)Propyl]Adenine (PMPA) Administration to Newborn Macaques following Oral Inoculation with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus with Reduced Susceptibility to PMPA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection of newborn macaques is a useful animal model of human pediatric AIDS to study pathogenesis and to develop intervention strategies aimed at preventing infection or delaying disease progression. In previous studies, we demonstrated that 9-(2-(R)-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl) adenine (PMPA; tenofovir) was highly effective in protecting newborn macaques against infection with virulent wild-type (i.e., drug-susceptible) SIVmac251. In the

KOEN K. A. VAN ROMPAY; MICHAEL D. MILLER; MARTA L. MARTHAS; NICOLAS A. MARGOT; PETER J. DAILEY; DON R. CANFIELD; ROSS P. TARARA; JULIE M. CHERRINGTON; NANCY L. AGUIRRE; NORBERT BISCHOFBERGER; NIELS C. PEDERSEN

2000-01-01

193

Synthesis and photochemical properties of zinc–aluminum layered double hydroxide\\/organic UV ray absorbing molecule\\/silica nanocomposites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic ultraviolet (UV) ray absorbents have been used as sunscreen materials, but may pose a safety problem when used at high concentration. In order to prevent direct contact of organic UV ray absorbent to the human skin several organic UV absorbents such as 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone-5-sulfonic acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid, 4,4?-diaminostilbene-2,2?-disulfonic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid and urocanic acid were intercalated into Zn2Al

Q. He; S. Yin; T. Sato

2004-01-01

194

Synthesis and magnetic properties of copper(II)-lanthanide(III) heterobinuclear complexes with N,N?-bis[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]oxamido as ligand  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nine new ?-oxamido-bridged copper(II)-lanthanide(III) heterobinuclear complexes, described by the overall formula Cu(dmoxpn)Ln(NO 2phen) 2(NO 3) 3 (Ln=La, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er), where dmoxpn denotes N,N'-bis[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]oxamido dianions and NO 2phen represents 5-nitro-1,10-phenanthroline, have been synthesized and characterized by the elemental analyses, molar conductivity measurements and spectroscopic (IR, UV, ESR) studies. The complex Cu(dmoxpn)Gd(NO 2phen) 2(NO 3) 3 was further characterized by variable-temperature magnetic susceptibility (4.2˜300 K) measurements and the magnetic data have also been used to deduce the indicated heterobinuclear structure. The results derived from least-squares fit of the experimental data have confirmed that the adjacent copper(II) and gadolinium(III) ions through the oxamido-bridge in the complex are ferromagnetically coupled with the exchange integral J=+7.8 cm. A plausible mechanism for the ferromagnetic coupling between gadolinium(III) and copper(II) is discussed.

Li, Yan-Tuan; Wu, Qiang-Ming; Yan, Cui-Wei; Zhu, Chun-Yuan

2004-12-01

195

The effect of 1-(5'-oxohexyl)-3-methyl-7-propyl-xanthine on the respiratory activity of the rat brain mitochondria.  

PubMed

The effect of 1-(5'-oxohexyl)-3-methyl-7-propyl-xanthine (HWA 285) on the respiration and oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria isolated from normal (CM), ischemic (IsM) and postischemic (PIsM) rat brain was investigated. After the administration of 10 mg/kg HWA 285 p.o. daily for 14 days the mitochondrial ATPase activity was significantly increased, whereas O2-consumption and the respiratory control rate (RCR) were decreased. In IsM the RCR was increased, if they consumed glutamate and malate as substrates (from 3.7 +/- 0.8 to 5.0 +/- 0.75) as consequence of increased oxygen consumption in status 3. The pretreatment of the rats with 10 mg/kg HWA 285 p.o. induced a normalization of RCR in mitochondria from ischemic brains. The RCR in PIsM was apparently not influenced by HWA 285 but the oxidative phosphorylation was slightly increased. These results are consistent with the assumption that HWA 285 exerts a modulative effect on the rat brain mitochondria dependent on their functional status. PMID:6217818

Porsche, E; Stefanovich, V

1982-01-01

196

On the biochemical mechanism of action of 1-propyl-3-methyl-7-(5-hydroxy-hexyl)-xanthine (HWA 153), a new bronchospasmolytically active methyl xanthine derivative.  

PubMed

1-Propyl-3-methyl-7-(5-hydroxy-hexyl)-xanthine (HWA 153) is a new bronchospasmolytic agent with a significant influence on the cAMP system of lungs and bronchi. In in vitro experiments HWA 153 inhibits cAMP phosphodiesterase (PDE) isolated from bovine bronchi more than does theophylline. HWA 153 is (in conc. 5 x 10(-4) mol/l) 1.8 and 4.3 times more active as a PDE inhibitor of guinea pig lungs and bronchi, respectively, than theophylline-ethylenediamine. HWA 153 also stabilizes rat erythrocyte membrane against hypoosmotic shock. In isolated guinea pig bronchi HWA 153 (in conc. 5 x 10(-4) mol/l) decreases by 77% bronchial spasm induced by the addition of histamine (5 x 10(-5) mol/l). A significant increase in cAMP level of bronchi was simultaneously observed. In in vivo experiments HWA 153 (25 mg/kg p.o.) inhibits PDE of lungs and bronchi of guinea pigs. Simultaneously, a significant increase in cAMP level in these organs was observed. In in vivo experiments with hypoxic rats, HWA 153 (25 mg/kg p.o.) increases ATP, ATP/ADP ratio and adenylate energy charge (AEC) in hypoxic rats, 1 h after administration. This indicates a positive influence of HWA 153 on the energy metabolism of red blood cells. PMID:226104

Stefanovich, V; Porsche, E

1979-01-01

197

Toxicogenomic responses of zebrafish embryos/larvae to tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) reveal possible molecular mechanisms of developmental toxicity.  

PubMed

Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) is frequently present in indoor dust and can be detected in human milk. In order to evaluate the effects of TDCPP on vertebrate development, zebrafish embryos/larvae were used as an animal model to examine developmental phenotypes and explore possible mechanisms of toxicity by employing microarrays and iTRAQ labeling quantitative proteomics. The results demonstrated that treatment with TDCPP (3 ?M) from 0.75 h postfertilization (hpf) inhibited cell rearrangement at 4 hpf, caused delay in epiboly at 5.7 and 8.5 hpf, and led to abnormal development (e.g., short tail, reduced body size) and lethality between 14 and 45 hpf, which might be related with altered expression of genes regulating embryogenesis. Furthermore, trunk curvature was observed as the main phenotype in 96 hpf zebrafish larvae exposed to 1 or 3 ?M TDCPP, possibly by changing somite formation and expression of proteins related to fast muscle and cartilage development. Collectively, our results suggest that exposure to TDCPP causes developmental toxicity in vertebrates and warrant the need for studies to evaluate the potential health risks of TDCPP to developing human embryos/infants/children, due to its frequent presence in indoor dust and potential for human exposure. PMID:23919627

Fu, Jie; Han, Jian; Zhou, Bingsheng; Gong, Zhiyuan; Santos, Eduarda M; Huo, Xiaojing; Zheng, Weiling; Liu, Hongling; Yu, Hongxia; Liu, Chunsheng

2013-09-17

198

The effect of cesium carbonate on 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C61 aggregation in films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface-pressure versus molecular area isotherms, X-ray reflectivity, and X-ray near-total reflection fluorescence were used to study the properties of 1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)propyl-1-phenyl[6,6]C61 (PCBM) that was pre-mixed with cesium carbonate and spread as a film at the air-water interface. The pre-mixed PCBM with cesium carbonate demonstrated a strikingly strong effect on the organization of the film. Whereas films formed from pure PCBM solution were rough due to strong inter-molecular interactions, the films formed from the mixture were much smoother. This indicates that the cesium carbonate moderates the inter-molecular interactions among PCBM molecules, hinting that the cesium diffusion observed in inverted organic photovoltaic structures and the likely ensuing ionic Cs-PCBM interaction decrease aggregation tendency of PCBM. This implies that the use of cesium salts affects the morphology of the organic layer and consequently improves the efficiency of these devices.

Lindemann, William R.; Wang, Wenjie; Fungura, Fadzai; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth; Vaknin, David

2014-11-01

199

Quantitative determination of butylated hydroxyanisole and n-propyl gallate in cosmetics using three-dimensional fluorescence coupled with second-order calibration.  

PubMed

This work presents a novel approach for simultaneous determination of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and propyl gallate (PG) in a very interfering environment by combining the sensitivity of molecular fluorescence and the selectivity of the second-order calibration method. The excitation-emission fluorescence matrix data are processed by applying the second-order calibration method based on the self-weighted alternating normalized residue fitting (SWANRF) algorithm. The limits of detection (LOD) were 1.2-1.3 ng/ml for BHA and 2.2-2.9 ng/ml for PG. The recoveries from spiked cosmetics samples are in the ranges 95.7-103.9% for BHA and 95.9-105.7% for PG. The proposed method avoids preconcentration and elution procedures, so it considerably decreases the analytical time and the experimental expenses. Because the instrument involved in the measurement is nonsophisticated, the experiments could be carried out in routine laboratories. Then it is compared with the HPLC method in dosage of cosmetics and organic reagents, runtime, cost per analysis and LOD. PMID:24148414

Wang, Jian-Yao; Wu, Hai-Long; Chen, Yao; Zhai, Min; Qing, Xiang-Dong; Yu, Ru-Qin

2013-11-15

200

Role of 2-hexyl, 5-propyl resorcinol production by Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1606 in the multitrophic interactions in the avocado rhizosphere during the biocontrol process.  

PubMed

Different bacterial traits can contribute to the biocontrol of soilborne phytopathogenic fungus. Among others, (1) antagonism, (2) competition for nutrients and niches, (3) induction of systemic resistance of the plants and (4) predation and parasitism are the most studied. Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1606 is an antagonistic rhizobacterium that produces the antifungal metabolite 2-hexyl, 5-propyl resorcinol (HPR). This bacterium can biologically control the avocado white root rot caused by Rosellinia necatrix. Confocal laser scanning microscopy of the avocado rhizosphere revealed that this biocontrol bacterium and the fungal pathogen compete for the same niche and presumably also for root exudate nutrients. The use of derivative mutants in the geners related to HPR biosynthesis (dar genes) revealed that the lack of HPR production by P. chlororaphis PCL1606 negatively influences the bacterial colonisation of the avocado root surface. Microscopical analysis showed that P. chlororaphis PCL1606 closely interacts and colonises the fungal hyphae, which may represent a novel biocontrol mechanism in this pseudomonad. Additionally, the presence of HPR-producing biocontrol bacteria negatively affects the ability of the fungi to infect the avocado root. HPR production negatively affects hyphal growth, leading to alterations in the R. necatrix physiology visible under microscopy, including the curling, vacuolisation and branching of hyphae, which presumably affects the colonisation and infection abilities of the fungus. This study provides the first report of multitrophic interactions in the avocado rhizosphere, advancing our understanding of the role of HPR production in those interactions. PMID:24641321

Calderón, Claudia E; de Vicente, Antonio; Cazorla, Francisco M

2014-07-01

201

Poly[diaqua-bis(?(2)-5-carb-oxy-2-propyl-1H-imidazole-4-carboxyl-ato-?N,O:O)lead(II)].  

PubMed

In the title complex, [Pb(C(8)H(9)N(2)O(4))(2)(H(2)O)(2)](n), the eight-coordinate Pb(II) atom lies on a twofold rotation axis and adopts a slightly distorted square-anti-prismatic N(2)O(6) coordination geometry. The ligand donor atoms are the tertiary N atoms of the imidazole rings and the carboxyl-ate O atoms of two chelating 5-carb-oxy-2-propyl-1H-imidazole-4-carboxyl-ate ligands, the carb-oxy O atoms of two additional imidazole ligands and two water O atoms. The carb-oxy O and the N,O-chelate systems also link adjacent Pb(II) atoms, forming a two-dimensional layer structure, with four individual Pb(II) atoms located at the corners of a square. These layers are further inter-connected by an extensive array of O-H?O and N-H?O hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network. PMID:21579031

Chen, Xiang; Liu, Hai-Cheng

2010-01-01

202

Application of silica gel organofunctionalized with 3(1-imidazolyl)propyl in an on-line preconcentration system for the determination of copper by FAAS.  

PubMed

This study presents a new procedure for the determination of trace levels of copper(II) in an aqueous matrix, through flow injection (FI) on-line preconcentration with a minicolumn packed with silica gel modified with 3(1-imidazolyl)propyl groups. After the preconcentration stage, the analyte was eluted with a HNO(3) solution and determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The measurements of the analytical signals were carried out as peak area and peak height with the objective of evaluating the most appropriate absorption measurement for the proposed method. Four procedures to calculate the experimental enrichment factor (EF) were also studied. For a preconcentration time of 90s the enrichment factors found in this study varied between 19.5-25.8 and 36.2-42.2 for peak area and peak height, respectively. The precision of the proposed method was calculated for a solution containing 20mugl(-1) of Cu(II), when 11.2ml of solution was preconcentrated (n=7), and their respective relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) values were 1.2 and 1.4% for peak area and peak height, respectively. The detection limits obtained were 0.4 and 0.2mugl(-1) of Cu(II) for peak area and peak height, respectively, with a preconcentration time of 90s. The on-line preconcentration system accuracy was evaluated through a recovery test on the aqueous samples and analysis of a certified material. PMID:18969586

da Silva, Edson Luiz; Martins, Amarildo Otavio; Valentini, Antoninho; de Fávere, Valfredo Tadeu; Carasek, Eduardo

2004-09-01

203

Pharmacokinetics in melanoma-bearing mice of 5-dihydroxyboryl-6-propyl-2-thiouracil (BPTU), a candidate compound for boron neutron capture therapy.  

PubMed Central

Blood pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of 5-dihydroxyboryl-6-propyl-2-thiouracil (BPTU), a boron carrier with postulated melanin-seeking properties for boron neutron capture therapy, were determined in C57/BL mice with subcutaneous pigmented or non-pigmented B16 melanomas. Borocaptate sodium (BSH) was used as a boron compound without melanin-seeking properties in a comparative biodistribution study in the same animal tumour models. Administration of single doses showed that BPTU was retained better in the pigmented B16 tumour than in the non-pigmented variant. BPTU was found in large concentrations in kidney and liver. Brain boron was approximately 10-fold lower than tumour boron. On a molar basis, BPTU demonstrated higher affinity for B16 tumours than BSH. Owing to solubility limits, tumour boron concentrations in this mouse study were too low for effective application of BNCT. However, the high tumour-to-blood and tumour-to-normal tissues ratios indicate that, with appropriate formulation, BPTU could be a promising candidate for clinical BNCT. PMID:8142252

Verrijk, R.; Smolders, I. J.; Huiskamp, R.; Gavin, P. R.; Philipp, K. H.; Begg, A. C.

1994-01-01

204

Edible bioactive fatty acid-cellulosic derivative composites used in food-packaging applications.  

PubMed

To develop biodegradable packaging that both acts as a moisture barrier and as antimicrobial activity, nisin and stearic acid were incorporated into a hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) based film. Fifteen percent (w/w HPMC) of stearic acid improved film moisture barrier. However, film mechanical resistance and film antimicrobial activity on Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus pathogenic strains were both reduced. This lower film inhibitory activity was due to interactions between nisin and stearic acid. The molecular interaction was modeled, and an equation was developed to calculate the nisin concentration needed to be incorporated into the film matrix to obtain a desired residual antimicrobial activity. Because the molecular interactions were pH dependent, the impact of the pH of the film-forming solution on film inhibitory activity was investigated. Adjusting the pH to 3 totally avoided stearic acid and nisin interaction, inducing a high film inhibitory activity. PMID:12105960

Sebti, Issam; Ham-Pichavant, Frédérique; Coma, Véronique

2002-07-17

205

Transcriptome analysis provides new insights into liver changes induced in the rat upon dietary administration of the food additives butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, propyl gallate and thiabendazole.  

PubMed

Transcriptomics was performed to gain insight into mechanisms of food additives butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), curcumin (CC), propyl gallate (PG), and thiabendazole (TB), additives for which interactions in the liver can not be excluded. Additives were administered in diets for 28 days to Sprague-Dawley rats and cDNA microarray experiments were performed on hepatic RNA. BHT induced changes in the expression of 10 genes, including phase I (CYP2B1/2; CYP3A9; CYP2C6) and phase II metabolism (GST mu2). The CYP2B1/2 and GST expression findings were confirmed by real time RT-PCR, western blotting, and increased GST activity towards DCNB. CC altered the expression of 12 genes. Three out of these were related to peroxisomes (phytanoyl-CoA dioxygenase, enoyl-CoA hydratase; CYP4A3). Increased cyanide insensitive palmitoyl-CoA oxidation was observed, suggesting that CC is a weak peroxisome proliferator. TB changed the expression of 12 genes, including CYP1A2. In line, CYP1A2 protein expression was increased. The expression level of five genes, associated with p53 was found to change upon TB treatment, including p53 itself, GADD45alpha, DN-7, protein kinase C beta and serum albumin. These array experiments led to the novel finding that TB is capable of inducing p53 at the protein level, at least at the highest dose levels employed above the current NOAEL. The expression of eight genes changed upon PG administration. This study shows the value of gene expression profiling in food toxicology in terms of generating novel hypotheses on the mechanisms of action of food additives in relation to pathology. PMID:18539377

Stierum, Rob; Conesa, Ana; Heijne, Wilbert; Ommen, Ben van; Junker, Karin; Scott, Mary P; Price, Roger J; Meredith, Clive; Lake, Brian G; Groten, John

2008-08-01

206

Is the PentaBDE Replacement, Tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate (TDCPP), a Developmental Neurotoxicant? Studies in PC12 Cells  

PubMed Central

Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are used as replacements for the commercial PentaBDE mixture that was phased out in 2004. OPFRs are ubiquitous in the environment and detected at high concentrations in residential dust, suggesting widespread human exposure. OPFRs are structurally similar to neurotoxic organophosphate pesticides, raising concerns about exposure and toxicity to humans. This study evaluated the neurotoxicity of tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) compared to the organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF), a known developmental neurotoxicant. We also tested the neurotoxicity of three structurally similar OPFRs, tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (1-chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tris (1,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (TDBPP), and 2,2?,4,4?-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), a major component of PentaBDE. Using undifferentiated and differentiating PC12 cells, changes in DNA synthesis, oxidative stress, differentiation into dopaminergic or cholinergic neurophenotypes, cell number, cell growth and neurite growth were assessed. TDCPP displayed concentration-dependent neurotoxicity, often with effects equivalent to or greater than equimolar concentrations of CPF. TDCPP inhibited DNA synthesis, and all OPFRs decreased cell number, and altered neurodifferentiation. Although TDCPP elevated oxidative stress, there was no adverse effect on cell viability or growth. TDCPP and TDBPP promoted differentiation into both neuronal phenotypes, while TCEP and TCPP promoted only the cholinergic phenotype. BDE-47 had no effect on cell number, cell growth or neurite growth. Our results demonstrate that different OPFRs show divergent effects on neurodifferentiation, suggesting the participation of multiple mechanisms of toxicity. Additionally, these data suggest that OPFRs may affect neurodevelopment with similar or greater potency compared to known and suspected neurotoxicants. PMID:21255595

Dishaw, Laura V.; Powers, Christina M.; Ryde, Ian T.; Roberts, Simon C.; Seidler, Frederic J.; Slotkin, Theodore A.; Stapleton, Heather M.

2011-01-01

207

Simultaneous multicomponent spectrophotometric monitoring of methyl and propyl parabens using multivariate statistical methods after their preconcentration by robust ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A powerful and efficient signal-preprocessing technique that combines local and multiscale properties of the wavelet prism with the global filtering capability of orthogonal signal correction (OSC) is applied for pretreatment of spectroscopic data of parabens as model compounds after their preconcentration by robust ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method (IL-DLLME). In the proposed technique, a mixture of a water-immiscible ionic liquid (as extraction solvent) [Hmim][PF6] and disperser solvent is injected into an aqueous sample solution containing one of the IL's ions, NaPF6, as extraction solvent and common ion source. After preconcentration, the absorbance of the extracted compounds was measured in the wavelength range of 200-700 nm. The wavelet orthogonal signal correction with partial least squares (WOSC-PLS) method was then applied for simultaneous determination of each individual compound. Effective parameters, such as amount of IL, volume of the disperser solvent and amount of NaPF6, were inspected by central composite design to identify the most important parameters and their interactions. The effect of pH on the sensitivity and selectivity was studied according to the net analyte signal (NAS) for each component. Under optimum conditions, enrichment factors of the studied compounds were 75 for methyl paraben (MP) and 71 for propyl paraben (PP). Limits of detection for MP and PP were 4.2 and 4.8 ng mL-1, respectively. The root mean square errors of prediction for MP and PP were 0.1046 and 0.1275 ?g mL-1, respectively. The practical applicability of the developed method was examined using hygienic, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and natural water samples.

Khani, Rouhollah; Ghasemi, Jahan B.; Shemirani, Farzaneh

2014-03-01

208

Treatment of murine cytomegalovirus infections in severe combined immunodeficient mice with ganciclovir, (S)-1-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonylmethoxy)propyl]cytosine, interferon, and bropirimine.  

PubMed Central

Severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice were found to be highly susceptible to murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection. Treatment of infected mice with ganciclovir (12.5, 25, and 50 mg/kg of body weight for 10 days) starting 24 h after virus challenge resulted in delays in death by 2 to 8 days, and no animals survived the infection. (S)-1-[3-Hydroxy-2-(phosphonylmethoxy)propyl]cytosine (HPMPC) was much more potent, with doses of 1, 3.2, and 10 mg/kg/day (for 10 days) increasing the mean survival time by 15 to 30 days. Twenty-day treatments with HPMPC starting 5 days after virus inoculation increased the mean survival time by 24 to 32 days, with once-weekly (50-mg/kg) treatments being equivalent to daily (10-mg/kg) treatments. Delays in the development of liver, lung, and spleen virus titers in ganciclovir- and HPMPC-treated groups correlated with extensions in the mean survival times relative to the survival times of the placebo controls. The two compounds were approximately equally toxic to uninfected BALB/c mice treated for 10 days, causing 80 to 100% mortality after a dose of 150 mg/kg and 0% mortality after a dose of 75 mg/kg. Thus, the relative therapeutic index of HPMPC was 50-fold greater than that of ganciclovir. Recombinant alpha interferon delta 4 alpha 1/alpha 2 (1 x 10(4) and 5 x 10(4) units per mouse per day) and bropirimine (100 and 300 mg/kg/day) provided no protection from the lethal MCMV infection. The severe combined immunodeficient mouse MCMV infection is an important new model that will permit chemotherapy regimens to be studied over several months. PMID:1329629

Smee, D F; Morris, J L; Leonhardt, J A; Mead, J R; Holy, A; Sidwell, R W

1992-01-01

209

Complete detoxification of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate by mixed two bacteria, Sphingobium sp. strain TCM1 and Arthrobacter sp. strain PY1.  

PubMed

Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), a flame retardant, is regarded as a potentially toxic and persistent environmental contaminant. We previously isolated a TDCPP-degrading bacterium, Sphingobium sp. strain TCM1, which, however, produced a toxic metabolite: 1,3-dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP). This study was undertaken to develop a technique for complete TDCPP detoxification using strain TCM1 with a 1,3-DCP-degrading bacterium, Arthrobacter sp. strain PY1. For efficient detoxification, we designed a resting cell system and examined the effect of freezing and lyophilization treatments for preparation of their resting cells. Results show that treatments had no marked adverse effect on their activities. The TDCPP dephosphorylation by TCM1 resting cells was optimal at 30°C and pH 8.5. Also, 1,3-DCP dehalogenation by strain PY1 resting cells was optimal at 35°C and pH 9.5. Under those respective conditions, the activities were 2.48 ?mol h?¹·OD????¹ for TDCPP and 0.95 ?mol h?¹·OD????¹ for 1,3-DCP. Based on these results, we set the reaction temperature to 30°C and pH to 9.0. Then we examined the detoxification of 50 ?M TDCPP using mixed resting cells at a final OD(660) of 0.05 for strain TCM1 and 0.2 for strain PY1. In these conditions, TDCPP was eliminated after 1h, but some of the resulting 1,3-DCP remained at a constant level. The increase in strain PY1 cells to a final OD??? of 4.0 decreased the TDCPP dephosphorylation rate of strain TCM1 cells but achieved complete detoxification of TDCPP during 12 h of reaction. PMID:21956155

Takahashi, Shouji; Obana, Yuki; Okada, Shohei; Abe, Katsumasa; Kera, Yoshio

2012-01-01

210

Is the PentaBDE replacement, tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), a developmental neurotoxicant? Studies in PC12 cells  

SciTech Connect

Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are used as replacements for the commercial PentaBDE mixture that was phased out in 2004. OPFRs are ubiquitous in the environment and detected at high concentrations in residential dust, suggesting widespread human exposure. OPFRs are structurally similar to neurotoxic organophosphate pesticides, raising concerns about exposure and toxicity to humans. This study evaluated the neurotoxicity of tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) compared to the organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF), a known developmental neurotoxicant. We also tested the neurotoxicity of three structurally similar OPFRs, tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (1-chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tris (2,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (TDBPP), and 2,2 Prime ,4,4 Prime -tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), a major component of PentaBDE. Using undifferentiated and differentiating PC12 cells, changes in DNA synthesis, oxidative stress, differentiation into dopaminergic or cholinergic neurophenotypes, cell number, cell growth and neurite growth were assessed. TDCPP displayed concentration-dependent neurotoxicity, often with effects equivalent to or greater than equimolar concentrations of CPF. TDCPP inhibited DNA synthesis, and all OPFRs decreased cell number and altered neurodifferentiation. Although TDCPP elevated oxidative stress, there was no adverse effect on cell viability or growth. TDCPP and TDBPP promoted differentiation into both neuronal phenotypes, while TCEP and TCPP promoted only the cholinergic phenotype. BDE-47 had no effect on cell number, cell growth or neurite growth. Our results demonstrate that different OPFRs show divergent effects on neurodifferentiation, suggesting the participation of multiple mechanisms of toxicity. Additionally, these data suggest that OPFRs may affect neurodevelopment with similar or greater potency compared to known and suspected neurotoxicants.

Dishaw, Laura V. [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)] [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Powers, Christina M. [Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)] [Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Ryde, Ian T.; Roberts, Simon C. [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)] [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Seidler, Frederic J.; Slotkin, Theodore A. [Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710 (United States)] [Department of Pharmacology and Cancer Biology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27710 (United States); Stapleton, Heather M., E-mail: heather.stapleton@duke.edu [Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

2011-11-15

211

Gas chromatography/mass spectrometric assay of endogenous cellular lipid peroxidation products: quantitative analysis of 9- and 10-hydroxystearic acids.  

PubMed

A sensitive, specific, accurate and reproducible gas chromatography/mass spectrometry method was developed for the assay of 9- and 10-hydroxystearic acids in samples obtained as cell extracts. The preparation of the samples required specific procedures to allow the analysis of both the free and the conjugated hydroxy acids as the corresponding methyl esters. The quantification used propyl-paraben as the internal standard and monitoring of a specific fragment of each isomeric hydroxy acid methyl ester, and allowed quantification of the conjugate and the free fractions of both 9- and 10-hydroxystearic acids. This method is suitable for identification and quantification (LOQ 1.8 and 4.4 ng, respectively) of these important metabolites of lipid peroxidation. In particular the development of an assay for the free 9-hydroxystearic acid methyl ester makes the method a reliable analytical tool for investigations of the role of this metabolite in the mechanisms of tumour cell proliferation. PMID:11948817

Bertucci, C; Hudaib, M; Boga, C; Calonghi, N; Cappadone, C; Masotti, L

2002-01-01

212

The isolation and preliminary characterisation of auxotrophic and analogue resistant mutants of the moss, Physcomitrella patens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eighteen nutritional mutants have been isolated in the haploid, monoecious moss, Physcomitrella patens: five nicotinic acid auxotrophs, four p-aminobenzoic acid auxotrophs, four adenine auxotrophs, two amino acid requiring mutants and three nitrate non-utilising mutants. Seventeen of them were obtained using total isolation; one was isolated selectively. Strains resistant to the amino acid analogues, D-serine and p-fluorophenyl-alanine, and the purine analogue,

N. W. Ashton; D. J. Cove

1977-01-01

213

Amino acids  

MedlinePLUS

Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . Amino acids and proteins are the building blocks of life. When proteins are digested or broken down, amino acids are left. The human body uses amino acids ...

214

Evaluation of LY163443, 1-[2-hydroxy-3-propyl-4-{[4-(1H-tetrazol-5-ylmethyl)phenoxy]methyl}phenyl]ethanone, as a pharmacologic antagonist of leukotrienes D 4 and E 4  

Microsoft Academic Search

LY163443,1-[2-hydroxy-3-propyl-4-{[4-(1H-tetrazol-5-ylmethyl)-phenoxy]methyl}phenyl]ethanone, antagonized LTD4-induced contractions of guinea pig ileum, trachea, and lung parenchyma. Tracheal contractions to LTE4 were also inhibited by LY163443. The compound had minimal effect against ileal responses to LTC4 and parenchymal contractions to LTB4. Furthermore, LY163443.had little to no effect against contractions of isolated smooth muscles to histamine, bradykinin, PGF2a, carbachol, serotonin or U46619. LY163443, given by oral

Jerome H. Fleisch; Lynn E. Rinkema; Klaus D. Haisch; Doris McCullough; F. Patrick Carr; Robert D. Dillard

1986-01-01

215

Effects of 3,5,3?-triiodo-L-thyronine (T 3 ) and 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) on growth of GH-transgenic coho salmon, Oncorhynchus kitsutch  

Microsoft Academic Search

GH-transgeniccoho salmon (Oncorhynchus kitsutch) juveniles were fed diets containing 3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3; 30 ng\\/g fish) or 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU; 20 ug\\/g fish), to assess the effect of these drugs on the physiology, growthand survival in comparison with untreated transgenicand non-transgenic salmon. After 84 days, food intake, feed efficiency, survival, growth, hepato-somatic index (HSI), viscera-somatic index (VSI), plasma L-thyroxine (T4), T3and growth hormone

Duk-Young Kang; Robert H. Devlin

2003-01-01

216

Synthesis and structure–activity relationships of 2-(substituted phenyl)-3-[3-( N,N-dimethylamino)propyl]-1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones acting as H 1-histamine antagonists  

Microsoft Academic Search

2-(Substituted-phenyl)-3-[3-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl]-1,3-thiazolidin-4-ones (1–15) showed dependence of the potency of the H1-histamine antagonism on the m- and p-substituents suggesting that the aromatic moiety binds the receptor by a strong ?-interaction. Electron-withdrawing substituents decrease the potency while the electron-donating alkyl substituents, enhancing the aryl HOMO energy, increase the antihistamine activity. The m-substituents with the capability to form hydrogen bonds, seems to share an

M. Vittoria Diurno; Orazio Mazzoni; Gaetano Correale; Isabel Gomez Monterrey; Antonio Calignano; Giovanna La Rana; Adele Bolognese

1999-01-01

217

Phosphatidylcholine and dihydrocaffeic acid amide mixture enhanced the thermo-oxidative stability of canola oil.  

PubMed

Recently, we reported the synthesis of a series of dihydrocaffeic acid amides and evaluated their performance as antioxidants for frying applications using a model frying. In the present study, the possibility of a synergy between the amide, N-propyl-N-benzyl-3-(3,4 dihydroxyphenyl)propanamide (DCA) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) was explored in a 6-day actual frying operation. As measured by the amount of polar components (TPC), anisidine value (AnV), changes in fatty acid composition, residual tocopherol and hydroxynonenal (HNE), canola oil containing the formulated antioxidant was twice as stable compared to the regular unfortified oil. At the end of the frying period, the amount of HNE detected in regular canola oil and the fortified sample was at 5.7 and 2.5?g/g, respectively. Thus, the mixture containing phosphatidylcholine and dihydrocaffeic acid amide is a promising antioxidant for frying application. PMID:24360481

Aladedunye, Felix; Przybylski, Roman

2014-05-01

218

Lipophilic caffeic acid derivatives protect cells against H2O2-Induced DNA damage by chelating intracellular labile iron.  

PubMed

Naturally occurring cinnamic acid derivatives are ubiquitously distributed in the plant kingdom, and it has been proposed that their consumption contributes to the maintenance of human health. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying their health keeping effects remain unknown. In the present investigation, we evaluated the capacity of several cinnamic acid derivatives (trans-cinnamic, p-coumaric, caffeic and ferulic acids, as well as caffeic acid-methyl and -propyl esters) to protect cells from oxidative stress-induced DNA damage. It was observed that effective protection was based on the ability of each compound to (i) reach the intracellular space and (ii) chelate intracellular "labile" iron. These results support the notion that numerous lipophilic iron chelating compounds, present abundantly in plant-derived diet components, may protect cells in conditions of oxidative stress and in this way be important contributors toward maintenance of human health. PMID:22827723

Kitsati, Natalia; Fokas, Demosthenes; Ouzouni, Maria-Dimitra; Mantzaris, Michalis D; Barbouti, Alexandra; Galaris, Dimitrios

2012-08-15

219

Esters of valerenic acid as potential prodrugs  

PubMed Central

Valerenic acid (VA) is a ?2/3 subunit-specific modulator of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A (GABAA) receptors inducing anxiolysis. Here we analyze if VA-esters can serve as prodrugs and if different ester structures have different in vitro/in vivo effects. Modulation of GABAA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes was studied with 2-microelectrode-voltage-clamp. Anxiolytic effects of the VA-esters were studied on male C57BL/6N mice by means of the elevated plus maze-test; anticonvulsant properties were deduced from changes in seizure threshold upon pentylenetetrazole infusion. VA was detected in plasma confirming hydrolysis of the esters and release of VA in vivo. Esterification significantly reduced the positive allosteric modulation of GABAA (?1?3?2S) receptors in vitro. in vivo, the studied VA-ester derivatives induced similar or even stronger anxiolytic and anticonvulsant action than VA. While methylation and propylation of VA resulted in faster onset of anxiolysis, the action of VA-ethylester was longer lasting, but occurred with a significant delay. The later finding is in line with the longer lasting anticonvulsant effects of this compound. The estimated VA plasma concentrations provided first insight into the release kinetics from different VA-esters. This might be an important step for its future clinical application as a potential non-sedative anxiolytic and anticonvulsant. PMID:24680924

Hintersteiner, Juliane; Haider, Maximilian; Luger, Denise; Schwarzer, Christoph; Reznicek, Gottfried; Jäger, Walter; Khom, Sophia; Mihovilovic, Marko D.; Hering, Steffen

2014-01-01

220

Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of 1-benzhydryl-sulfonyl-4-(3-(piperidin-4-yl) propyl)piperidine derivatives against pathogens of Lycopersicon esculentum: a structure-activity evaluation study.  

PubMed

Several 1-benzhydryl-sulfonyl-4-(3-(piperidin-4-yl)propyl)piperidine derivatives 8(a-j) were prepared by the treatment of substituted benzhydryl chlorides with 4-(3-(piperidin-4-yl)propyl)piperidine followed by N-sulfonation with sulfonyl chlorides in the presence of dry methylene dichloride and triethyl amine. The synthesized compounds were characterized by (1)H-NMR, IR, and elemental analysis. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated in vitro for their efficacy as antimicrobial agents by artificial inoculation technique against standard strains of two important bacterial viz., Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria and Ralstonia solanacearum as well as and two fungal pathogens namely Alternaria solani and Fusarium solani of tomato plants. We have briefly investigated the structure-activity relation studies and reveal that the nature of substitutions on benzhydryl ring and sulfonamide ring influences the antibacterial activity. Among the synthesized new compounds 8b, 8d, 8g, 8h, 8i, and 8j were showed significant potent antimicrobial activities compared to the standard drugs chloramphenicol, mancozeb. PMID:19183874

Vinaya, K; Kavitha, R; Ananda Kumar, C S; Benaka Prasad, S B; Chandrappa, S; Deepak, S A; Nanjunda Swamy, S; Umesha, S; Rangappa, K S

2009-01-01

221

Theoretical investigations on the molecular structure, vibrational spectral, HOMO-LUMO and NBO analysis of 9-[3-(Dimethylamino)propyl]-2-trifluoro-methyl-9H-thioxanthen-9-ol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 9-[3-(Dimethylamino)propyl]-2-trifluoro-methyl-9H-thioxanthen-9-ol have been recorded. Quantum chemical calculations of geometry and vibrational wavenumbers of 9-[3-(Dimethylamino)propyl]-2-trifluoro-methyl-9H-thioxanthen-9-ol are carried out theoretically. Four possible stable conformations of the title compound were determined. In terms of the conformational analysis, one of the most interesting structural features of the title compound is the intra molecular Osbnd H⋯N hydrogen bond. The barrier of planarity between the most stable and planar form is also predicted. The optimized geometrical parameters obtained by B3LYP method show a good agreement with XRD data. The difference between the observed and theoretical wavenumbers is very small. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of potential energy distribution of the vibrational modes calculated theoretically. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies allow the calculation of atomic and molecular properties and they also showed that charge transfer occurs in the molecule. A detailed molecular picture of the title compound and its interactions were obtained from NBO analysis. As seen from the MEP map, negative potential regions are over the hydroxyl group and positive potential regions are over the methyl groups.

Mary, Y. Sheena; Panicker, C. Yohannan; Yamuna, T. S.; Siddegowda, M. S.; Yathirajan, H. S.; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A.; Van Alsenoy, Christian

2014-11-01

222

Hydrolysis of cellulose catalyzed by novel acidic ionic liquids.  

PubMed

The conversion of cellulosic biomass directly into valuable chemicals becomes a hot subject. Six novel acidic ionic liquids (ILs) based on 2-phenyl-2-imidazoline were synthesized and characterized by UV-VIS, TGA, and NMR. The novel acidic ionic liquids were investigated as catalysts for the hydrolysis of cellulose in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([Bmim]Cl). The acidic ionic liquids with anions HSO4(-) and Cl(-) showed better catalytic performance for the hydrolysis of cellulose than those with H2PO4(-). The temperature and dosage of water affect significantly the yield of total reducing sugar (TRS). When the hydrolysis of cellulose was catalyzed by 1-propyl sulfonic acid-2-phenyl imidazoline hydrogensulfate (IL-1) and the dosage of water was 0.2g, the TRS yield was up to 85.1% within 60 min at 100°C. These new acidic ionic liquids catalysts are expected to have a wide application in the conversion of cellulose into valuable chemicals. PMID:25439867

Zhuo, Kelei; Du, Quanzhou; Bai, Guangyue; Wang, Congyue; Chen, Yujuan; Wang, Jianji

2015-01-22

223

Simultaneous determination of sorbic acid, benzoic acid and parabens in foods: a new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique adopted in a survey on Italian foods and beverages.  

PubMed

A gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric technique is described for the simultaneous determination of sorbates, benzoates and other lipophilic preservatives in foods and beverages. The selected ions monitoring (SIM) technique allowed unambiguous identification of the compounds under study. This methodology eliminated all kinds of interferences from the complex food matrices which affect most routinely-used techniques, HPLC included. A very simple and time-saving extraction procedure was therefore employed, since subsequent purification steps were unnecessary, even for detection of trace levels of preservatives. The detection limits fell within the range of 100-200 pg. With this analytical technique, we have conducted a survey on sorbic acid, benzoic acid, methyl, ethyl, and propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate levels in 249 samples of foods and beverages on sale in markets in the Rome area. Samples were chosen from among those currently preserved by these additives. All compounds were also determined by a routinely-used HPLC technique for method comparison. PMID:7758623

de Luca, C; Passi, S; Quattrucci, E

1995-01-01

224

Folic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Folic acid is used to treat or prevent folic acid deficiency. It is a B-complex vitamin needed by ... Folic acid comes in tablets. It usually is taken once a day. Follow the directions on your prescription label ...

225

Folic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Folic acid is a B vitamin. It helps the body make healthy new cells. Everyone needs folic acid. For women who may get pregnant, it is really important. Getting enough folic acid before and during pregnancy can prevent major birth ...

226

Identification of genetically homozygous rapid and slow acetylators of drugs and environmental carcinogens among established inbred rabbit strains  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liver and gut mucosa N-acetyltransferase (NAT) cytosol (105,000 x g) was prepared from selected lines of New Zealand White rapid and slow acetylator rabbits bred and housed at the University of Michigan, and from inbred and partially inbred rabbits obtained from The Jackson Laboratory. Liver NAT activity was determined with p-aminobenzoic acid, p-aminosalicyclic acid, procainamide, sulfamethazine, isoniazid and 2-aminofluorene as

D. W. Hein; T. N. Smolen; R. R. Fox; W. W. Weber

1982-01-01

227

Sulfonamides in the Environment as Veterinary Drugs  

Microsoft Academic Search

SAs, a structurally related group of antibiotics containing a similar 4-aminobenzene sulfonamide backbone, are used in agriculture,\\u000a aquaculture, animal husbandry, and also as human medicines. Competing with p-aminobenzoic acid in the enzymatic synthesis of dihydrofolic acid, SAs inhibit the growth and reproduction of bacteria. Once\\u000a released to the environment, SAs distribute themselves among different environmental compartments, along with their degradation

Premasis Sukul; Michael Spiteller

228

Attempts to validate a possible predictive animal model for human erythrocyte G?6?PD deficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of Dorset sheep erythrocytes as a model for human G?6?PD deficient erythrocytes was investigated. Seven Pharmaceuticals were examined for oxidant Stressor effects using a liver microsomal enzyme system to generate metabolites of the drugs. The Pharmaceuticals examined were salicylic acid, dapsone, naphthalene, B?naphthol, p?aminobenzoic acid, sulfanilamide and sulfapyridine. The test compounds were incubated with Dorset sheep erythrocytes and

Holly M. Horton; Edward J. Calabrese

1986-01-01

229

Aspartic acid  

MedlinePLUS

... don't get this amino acid from the food we eat. Aspartic acid is also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It plays a role in: Hormone production and release Normal nervous system function Plant sources ...

230

Acid Rain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

Openshaw, Peter

1987-01-01

231

Study of disulfide reduction and alkyl chloroformate derivatization of plasma sulfur amino acids using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Four disulfide-reducing agents, dithiothreitol (DTT), 2,3-dimercaptopropanesulfonate (DMPS), and the newly tested 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate (MESNA) and Tris(hydroxypropyl)phosphine (THP), were investigated in detail for release of sulfur amino acids in human plasma. After protein precipitation with trichloroacetic acid (TCA), the plasma supernatant was treated with methyl, ethyl, or propyl chloroformate via the well-proven derivatization-extraction technique and the products were subjected to gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. All the tested agents proved to be rapid and effective reducing agents for the assay of plasma thiols. When compared with DTT, the novel reducing agents DMPS, MESNA, and THP provided much cleaner extracts and improved analytical performance. Quantification of homocysteine, cysteine, and methionine was performed using their deuterated analogues, whereas other analytes were quantified by means of 4-chlorophenylalanine. Precise and reliable assay of all examined analytes was achieved, irrespective of the chloroformate reagent used. Average relative standard deviations at each analyte level were ?6%, quantification limits were 0.1-0.2 ?mol L(-1), recoveries were 94-121%, and linearity was over three orders of magnitude (r(2) equal to 0.997-0.998). Validation performed with the THP agent and propyl chloroformate derivatization demonstrated the robustness and reliability of this simple sample-preparation methodology. PMID:22349320

Svagera, Zden?k; Hanzlíková, Dagmar; Simek, Petr; Hušek, Petr

2012-03-01

232

Identification and characterization of N-acetylcysteine conjugates of valproic acid in humans and animals.  

PubMed

Reactive and hepatotoxic metabolites formed from the biotransformation of valproic acid (VPA) are normally detoxified by conjugating with GSH and followed by mercapturic acid metabolism to produce their respective N-acetylcysteine (NAC) conjugates. Hence, the levels of NAC conjugates of VPA in human urine are an indirect measure of exposure of the liver toward reactive metabolites of the anticonvulsant drug. We report here the synthesis, identification, and characterization of a second NAC conjugate of (E)-2-propyl-2, 4-pentadienoic acid in the urine samples (n = 39) of humans on VPA therapy, namely, (E)-5-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)-2-ene VPA by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. In this study, we were able to separate the diastereomers of (E)-5-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)-3-ene VPA by HPLC. The NAC conjugate of 4,5-epoxy VPA, namely, 5-NAC-4-OH-VPA gamma-lactone, previously identified in rats treated with 2-propyl-4-pentenoic acid (4-ene VPA), was not detected in any of the human urine samples studied. This suggests that in humans, the P-450 metabolism of 4-ene VPA to the reactive epoxide is not a significant pathway. The excretion of the NAC conjugate of (E)-2, 4-diene VPA glucuronide in the urine of seven patients on VPA was also examined and was not detected. The limit of detection of 5-NAC-3-keto VPA and its decarboxylated product, 1-NAC-3-heptanone, was estimated at 25 ng (signal to noise ratio > 3). Neither 5-NAC-3-keto VPA nor 1-NAC-3-heptanone was detected in the urine of patients on VPA therapy or 4-ene VPA-treated guinea pigs, but 1-NAC-3-heptanone was detected in the urine of 4-ene VPA-treated rats. PMID:10859157

Gopaul, S V; Farrell, K; Abbott, F S

2000-07-01

233

Crystal structure of 1,3-bis­(2,6-diiso­propyl­phen­yl)-4,5-dimethyl-1H-imid­azol-3-ium bromide di­chloro­methane disolvate  

PubMed Central

The title solvated salt, C29H41N2 +·Br?·2CH2Cl2 was obtained from the reaction of the Arduengo-type carbene 1,3-bis­(2,6-diiso­propyl­phen­yl)-1,3-dihydro-4,5-dimethyl-2H-imidazol-2-ylidene with Si2Br6 in di­chloro­methane. The complete cation is generated by a crystallographic mirror plane and the dihedral angle between the five-membered ring and the benzene ring is 89.8?(6)°; the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 40.7?(2)°. The anion also lies on the mirror plane and both di­chloro­methane mol­ecules are disordered across the mirror plane over two equally occupied orientations. In the crystal, the cations are linked to the anions via C—H?Br hydrogen bonds. PMID:25484824

Berger, Matthias; Auner, Norbert; Bolte, Michael

2014-01-01

234

Crystal structure of 1,3-bis-(2,6-diiso-propyl-phen-yl)-4,5-dimethyl-1H-imid-azol-3-ium bromide di-chloro-methane disolvate.  

PubMed

The title solvated salt, C29H41N2 (+)·Br(-)·2CH2Cl2 was obtained from the reaction of the Arduengo-type carbene 1,3-bis-(2,6-diiso-propyl-phen-yl)-1,3-dihydro-4,5-dimethyl-2H-imidazol-2-ylidene with Si2Br6 in di-chloro-methane. The complete cation is generated by a crystallographic mirror plane and the dihedral angle between the five-membered ring and the benzene ring is 89.8?(6)°; the dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 40.7?(2)°. The anion also lies on the mirror plane and both di-chloro-methane mol-ecules are disordered across the mirror plane over two equally occupied orientations. In the crystal, the cations are linked to the anions via C-H?Br hydrogen bonds. PMID:25484824

Berger, Matthias; Auner, Norbert; Bolte, Michael

2014-11-01

235

Synthesis, antifungal activities and molecular docking studies of novel 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propyl dithiocarbamates.  

PubMed

A series of 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-3-(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)propyl dithiocarbamates as new analogs of fluconazole were synthesized and their antifungal activities were evaluated. Among these compounds, 2a-f and 3a-q exhibited higher activities than fluconazole against nearly all fungi tested except Aspergillus fumigatus. Noticeably, the in vitro biological activities of 2b, 3a, 3c, 3h-k, and 3o-q against Candida species were much better than those of fluconazole and ketoconazole. Also, 2a-d, 3a-d, 3e-f, 3h-k, 3p and 3q showed higher activities against A. fumi than fluconazole. Computational docking experiments indicated that the inhibition of CYP51 involved a coordination bond with iron of the heme group, the hydrophilic H-bonding region, the hydrophobic region, and the narrow hydrophobic cleft. PMID:24487187

Zou, Yan; Yu, Shichong; Li, Renwu; Zhao, Qingjie; Li, Xiang; Wu, Maocheng; Huang, Ting; Chai, Xiaoxun; Hu, Honggang; Wu, Qiuye

2014-03-01

236

Acidity in bile acid systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The acidity parameter in bile acid systems was re-examined in an attempt to unify the many contrasting results reported in the literature. Discrepancies originate not only through differences in experimental approaches but mainly through the peculiar behaviour of bile acids and their salts, which can be present in aqueous solution as monomers, or simple and\\/or mixed aggregates. The acidity (and

Adamo Fini; Giorgio Feroci; Aldo Roda

2002-01-01

237

Drug resistance in trypanosomes; selective interference with trypanocidal action  

PubMed Central

Selective reversal of the trypanocidal action of carboxylated arsenicals by p-aminobenzoic acid and of melaminyl arsenicals and diamidines by melamine has been demonstrated in vivo and in vitro. The structural specificity of these reversal phenomena is high, and suggests preferential adsorption of the antagonist during a reversible primary drug fixation stage. Thiols antagonized neutral, carboxylated and melaminyl aromatic arsenicals equally, but not diamidines; p-aminobenzoic acid antagonism is specific for carboxylated arsenicals, and melamine antagonizes only the melaminyl arsenicals and the diamidines. These reversals reflect the pattern of crossresistance behaviour and suggest that cellular structures associated with a reversible stereospecific drug adsorption phase are modified during the development of resistance. PMID:13844960

Williamson, J.

1959-01-01

238

Enantiomeric separation of chiral phenoxy acid herbicides by electrokinetic chromatography. Application to the determination of analyte-selector apparent binding constants for enantiomers.  

PubMed

The enantiomeric resolution of chiral phenoxy acid herbicides was performed by electrokinetic chromatography using a cyclodextrin as chiral pseudophase (CD-EKC). A systematic evaluation of several neutral and charged cyclodextrins was made. Among the cyclodextrins tested, (2-hydroxy)propyl beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) was found to be the most appropriate for the enantioseparation of phenoxy acids. The influence of some experimental conditions, such as nature and pH of the background electrolyte, chiral selector concentration, and temperature, on the enantiomeric separation of phenoxy acids was also studied. The use of a 50 mM electrolyte solution in ammonium formate at pH 5 and a temperature of 40 degrees C enabled the enantiomeric resolution of four of the six phenoxy acids investigated (2-phenoxypropionic acid, 2(3-chlorophenoxy)propionic acid, 2-(4-chlorophenoxy)propionic acid, and 2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propionic acid) obtaining migration times ranging from 9 to 15 min. Mixtures of the two phenoxy acids not enantiomerically resolved (2-(4-chlorophenoxy)-2-methylpropionic acid and 2-(2,4,5-trichlorophenoxy)propionic acid) and up to three of the phenoxy acids enantiomerically resolved were separated in about 15 min. Finally, the apparent binding constants for each enantiomer-HP-beta-CD pair were calculated at two temperature values (20 and 40 degrees C). PMID:11589282

Martín-Biosca, Y; García-Ruiz, C; Marina, M L

2001-09-01

239

Ascorbic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

240

Ethacrynic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

241

Folic acid  

MedlinePLUS

Folic acid is a water-soluble B vitamin. Since 1998, it has been added to cold cereals, flour, breads, ... law. Foods that are naturally high in folic acid include leafy vegetables (such as spinach, broccoli, and ...

242

Mefenamic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Mefenamic acid is used to relieve mild to moderate pain, including menstrual pain (pain that happens before or during a menstrual period). Mefenamic acid is in a class of medications called NSAIDs. ...

243

Aristolochic Acids  

Cancer.gov

Aristolochic acids are a group of acids found naturally in many types of plants known as Aristolochia (birthworts or pipevines) and some types of plants known as Asarum (wild ginger), which grow worldwide.

244

Aristolochic Acids  

MedlinePLUS

... Sciences NIH-HHS www.niehs.nih.gov Aristolochic Acids Key Points Report on Carcinogens Status Known to be human carcinogens Aristolochia Clematitis Aristolochic Acids n Known human carcinogens n Found in certain ...

245

Aminocaproic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

246

Folic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

... acid. Talk to your doctor about how much folic acid you need if you: Are taking medicines used to treat: Epilepsy Type 2 diabetes Rheumatoid arthritis , lupus , psoriasis , asthma , and inflammatory bowel disease Have kidney disease ...

247

Peptide coupling between amino acids and the carboxylic acid of a functionalized chlorido-gold(I)-phosphane.  

PubMed

We have developed a protocol for the direct coupling between methyl ester protected amino acids and the chlorido-gold(I)-phosphane (p-HOOC(C6H4)PPh2)AuCl. By applying the EDC·HCl/NHS strategy (EDC·HCl = N-ethyl-N'-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride, NHS = N-hydroxysuccinimide), the methyl esters of l-phenylalanine, glycine, l-leucine, l-alanine, and l-methionine are coupled with the carboxylic acid of the gold complex in moderate to good yields (62-88%). All amino acid tagged gold complexes were characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. As corroborated by measurement of the angle of optical rotation, no racemization occurred during the reaction. The molecular structure of the leucine derivative was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In the course of developing an efficient coupling protocol, the acyl chlorides (p-Cl(O)C(C6H4)PPh2)AuX (X = Cl, Br) were also prepared and characterized. PMID:25203269

Kriechbaum, Margit; List, Manuela; Himmelsbach, Markus; Redhammer, Günther J; Monkowius, Uwe

2014-10-01

248

Valproic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Valproic acid is used alone or with other medications to treat certain types of seizures. Valproic acid is also used to treat mania (episodes of ... to relieve headaches that have already begun. Valproic acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. ...

249

Shikimic Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The molecule for this month comes from the article Isolation of Shikimic Acid from Star Aniseed by Richard Payne and Michael Edmonds. Shikimic acid plays a key role in the biosynthesis of many important natural products including aromatic amino acids, alkaloids, phenolics, and phenylpropanoids. It plays such an important role that one of the key biosynthetic pathways is referred to as the shikimate pathway.

250

EEVEESAL OF SULFAGUANIDINE TOXICITY IN THE RAT 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mackenzie, Mackenzie and McCollum and Mackenzie and Mackenzie ('41, '43) reported that sulfaguanidine and other sulfonamides were goitrogenic when fed to the rat at a level of 0.5 to 3.0% of the diet. This effect could be prevented by hypophysectomy, or by the administration of thyroxine, but not by iodine. Liver powder, fresh liver, p-aminobenzoic acid and certain other substances

C. J. ACKEBMAN

251

Basically Acids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn the basics of acid/base chemistry in a fun, interactive way by studying instances of acid/base chemistry found in popular films such as Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban and National Treasure. Students learn what acids, bases and indicators are and how they can be used, including invisible ink. They also learn how engineers use acids and bases every day to better our quality of life. Students' interest is piqued by the use of popular culture in the classroom.

2014-09-18

252

Gas-Phase Reactivity of Carboxylic Acid Functional Groups with Carbodiimides  

PubMed Central

Gas-phase modification of carboxylic acid functionalities is performed via ion/ion reactions with carbodiimide reagents [N-cyclohexyl-N?-(2-morpholinoethyl)carbodiimide (CMC) and [3-(3-Ethylcarbodiimide-1-yl)propyl]trimethylaminium (ECPT). Gas-phase ion/ion covalent chemistry requires the formation of a long-lived complex. In this instance, the complex is stabilized by an electrostatic interaction between the fixed charge quaternary ammonium group of the carbodiimide reagent cation and the analyte dianion. Subsequent activation results in characteristic loss of an isocyanate derivative from one side of the carbodiimide functionality, a signature for this covalent chemistry. The resulting amide bond is formed on the analyte at the site of the original carboxylic acid. Reactions involving analytes that do not contain available carboxylic acid groups (e.g., they have been converted to sodium salts) or reagents that do not have the carbodiimide functionality do not undergo a covalent reaction. This chemistry is demonstrated using PAMAM generation 0.5 dendrimer, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and the model peptide DGAILDGAILD. This work demonstrates the selective gas-phase covalent modification of carboxylic acid functionalities. PMID:23208744

Prentice, Boone M.; Gilbert, Joshua D.; Stutzman, John R.; Forrest, William P.; McLuckey, Scott A.

2012-01-01

253

Acid Rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the acidity of rain and snow reveal that in parts of the eastern U.S. and of western Europe precipitation has changed from a nearly neutral solution 200 years ago to a dilute solution of sulfuric and nitric acids today. The trend is a result of the emission of sulfur and nitrogen oxides to the atmosphere accompanying the rise

Gene E. Likens; Richard F. Wright; James N. Galloway; Thomas J. Butler

1979-01-01

254

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the proceedings of the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse (ARIC). Topics covered include: Legal aspects of the source-receptor relationship: an energy perspective; Scientific uncertainty, agency inaction, and the courts; and Acid rain: the emerging legal framework.

White, J.C. (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (US))

1988-01-01

255

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

Elsworth, S.

1985-01-01

256

Domoic Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online student report discusses the chemistry of domoic acid, a biotoxin that is produced by the diatom Psuedo-nitzschia and associated with Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). In addition to a descriptive summary and images, the report links to other areas of interest related to domoic acid poisoning including signs and symptoms, modes of action, and treatment.

Bailey, Christina

257

Acids (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acids: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". We will observe the reaction of sodium bicarbonate with three acid solutions. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

258

Design and synthesis of novel 2-(3-substituted propyl)-3-(2-methyl phenyl) quinazolin-4-(3H)-ones as a new class of H1-antihistaminic agents.  

PubMed

A series of novel 2-(3-substituted propyl)-3-(2-methyl phenyl) quinazolin-4-(3H)-ones were synthesized by the reaction of 2-(3-bromopropyl thio)-3-(2-methyl phenyl) quinazolin-4-(3H)-one with various amines. The starting material, 2-(3-bromopropyl thio)-3-(2-methyl phenyl) quinazolin-4-(3H)-one was synthesized from 2-methyl aniline. When tested for their in vivo H(1)-antihistaminic activity on conscious guinea pigs, all the test compounds protected the animals from histamine induced bronchospasm significantly. Compound 2-(3-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl) propylthio)-3-(2-methyl phenyl) quinazolin-4(3H)-one (OT5) emerged as the most active compound (71.70% protection) of the series when compared to the reference standard chlorpheniramine maleate (70.09% protection). Compound OT5 shows negligible sedation (7%) compared to chlorpheniramine maleate (33%). Therefore, compound OT5 can serve as the leading molecule for further development into a new class of H(1)-antihistaminic agents. PMID:22074561

Alagarsamy, V; Parthiban, P

2013-02-01

259

Diaqua­bis­(4-carb­oxy-2-propyl-1H-imidazole-5-carboxyl­ato-?2 N 3,O 4)zinc(II) N,N-dimethyl­formamide disolvate  

PubMed Central

In the crystal structure of the title compound, [Zn(C8H9N2O4)2(H2O)2]·2C3H7NO, the ZnII atom is coordinated by two N,O-bidentate 2-propyl-1H-imidazole-4,5-dicarboxyl­ate anions and two water mol­ecules in a distorted octa­hedral environment. The asymmetric unit consists of one ZnII atom located on a center of inversion as well as one anion, one water mol­ecule and one additional dimethyl­formamide mol­ecule that occupy general positions. Between the carboxyl and the carboxyl­ate group an intra­molecular hydrogen bond is found in which the hydroxy H atom is disordered. Disorder is also found for the H atoms of one of the three methyl groups. In the crystal structure, additional inter­molecular N—H?O and O—H?O hydrogen bonding is found. PMID:21587728

Hao, Cheng-Jun; Zhao, Xiao-Jun

2010-01-01

260

Novel derivatives of 1-cyclohexyl-4-[3-(5-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-yl)propyl]piperazine (PB28) with improved fluorescent and ? receptors binding properties.  

PubMed

Despite the promising potentials of ?2 receptors in cancer therapy and diagnosis, there are still ambiguities related to the nature and physiological role of the ?2 protein. With the aim of providing potent and reliable tools to be used in ?2 receptor research, we developed a novel series of fluorescent ?2 ligands on the basis of our previous work, where high-affinity ?2 ligand 1-cyclohexyl-4-[3-(5-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-yl)-n-propyl]piperazine (1, PB28) was used as the pharmacophore. Compared to the previous compounds, these novel ligands displayed improved fluorescence and ?2 binding properties, were ?2-specifically taken up by breast tumor cells, and were successfully employed in confocal microscopy. Compound 14, which was the best compromise between pharmacological and fluorescent properties, was successfully employed in flow cytometry, demonstrating its potential to be used as a tool in nonradioactive binding assays for studying the affinity of putative ?2 receptor ligands. PMID:24697311

Abate, Carmen; Niso, Mauro; Marottoli, Roberta; Riganti, Chiara; Ghigo, Dario; Ferorelli, Savina; Ossato, Giulia; Perrone, Roberto; Lacivita, Enza; Lamb, Don C; Berardi, Francesco

2014-04-24

261

Cyclic flow-injection analysis for the repetitive determination of zinc with 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-[N-n-propyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl)amino]phenol and EDTA.  

PubMed

A circulatory flow-injection method (cyclic FIA) for the repetitive determination of zinc has been proposed. The procedure involves the use of 2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-[N-n-propyl-N-(3-sulfopropyl)amino]phenol (5-Br-PAPS) together with EDTA as a reagent carrier solution, which is recycled in a single-line flow system via a reservoir. The formed 5-Br-PAPS-Zn(II) complex was measured spectrophotometrically at 552 nm, and the signal intensity corresponded to the zinc concentration. After passing through a flow-through cell, the carrier stream then returned to the reservoir, and the main reagent, 5-Br-PAPS, was successfully regenerated by a ligand-exchange reaction with EDTA, allowing the repetitive determination of zinc. The calibration curve for zinc was linear in the concentration range from 0.4 to 10.0 mg dm(-3) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9995 (n = 6). The detection limit of this method was 0.02 mg dm(-3) (S/N= 3). This method allowed as many as 300 repetitive determinations of 2.0 mg dm(-3) zinc solution with only 100 cm3 of the circulating carrier solution, providing a reduction in the consumption of reagents and an elimination of waste, an important approach towards clean chemistry. PMID:15913139

Zenki, Michio; Ideshima, Makiko; Taniguchi, Miwa; Katoh, Ayako; Yokoyama, Takashi

2005-05-01

262

Synthesis and structure of dicopper(II) complexes bridged by N-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-N'-[3-(methy lamino)propyl]oxamide: Evaluation of DNA/protein binding, DNA cleavage, and in vitro anticancer activity.  

PubMed

Three new dicopper(II) complexes bridged by N-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-N'-[3-(methylamino)-propyl]oxamide (H3chmpoxd) and end-capped with 1,10-phenanthroline (phen); 2,2'-diamino-4,4'-bithiazole (dabt); and 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), namely [Cu2(chmpoxd)(H2O)(phen)](ClO4)?CH3CN (1), [Cu2(chmpoxd)(dabt)(C2H5OH)](NO3) (2) and [Cu2(chmpoxd)(H2O)(bpy)](NO3)?CH3CN (3), were synthesized and structurally characterized. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that both the copper(II) ions bridged by the cis-chmpoxd(3-) ligands in the three complexes are in square-planar and square-pyramidal environments, respectively. The reactivity towards herring sperm DNA (HS-DNA) and protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) indicated that these copper(II) complexes can interact with the DNA in the mode of intercalation, and bind to BSA responsible for quenching of tryptophan fluorescence by the static quenching mechanism. The cytotoxicity and DNA cleavage suggested that all the dicopper(II) complexes are active against the selected tumor cell lines, and the complex 1 exhibits the cleavage capacity for plasmid DNA. PMID:25837411

Xu, Xiao-Wen; Li, Xue-Jie; Zhu, Ling; Li, Yan-Tuan; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Yan, Cui-Wei

2015-06-01

263

Development and Validation of a Stability Indicating RP-HPLC Method for Hydrocortisone Acetate Active Ingredient, Propyl Parahydroxybenzoate and Methyl Parahydroxybenzoate Preservatives, Butylhydroxyanisole Antioxidant, and Their Degradation Products in a Rectal Gel Formulation.  

PubMed

A stability indicating method was established through a stress study, wherein different methods of degradation (oxidation, hydrolysis, photolysis, and temperature) were studied simultaneously to determine the active ingredient hydrocortisone acetate, preservatives propyl parahydroxybenzoate, and methyl parahydroxybenzoate, antioxidant butylhydroxyanisole (BHA), and their degradation products in a semisolid dosage gel form. The proposed method was suitably validated using a Zorbax SB-Phenyl column and gradient elution. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of methanol, acetonitrile, and water in different proportions according to a planned program at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. The diode array detector was set at 240 nm for the active substance and two preservatives, and 290 nm for BHA. The validation study was conducted according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines for specificity, linearity, repeatability, precision, and accuracy. The method was used for QC of hydrocortisone acetate gel and for the stability studies with the aim of quantifying the active substance, preservatives, antioxidant, and degradation products. It has proved to be suitable as a fast and reliable method for QC. PMID:25857875

Ascaso, Magda; Pérez-Lozano, Pilar; García, Mireia; García-Montoya, Encarna; Miñarro, Montse; Ticó, Josep R; Fàbregas, Anna; Carrillo, Carolina; Sarrate, Rocío; Suñé-Negre, Josep M

2015-01-01

264

Acid Precipitation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acid precipitation will be defined. At different points in the lesson students will write balanced reactions for the formation acid precipitation from atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen oxides and the neutralization of acids by limestone. Students will determine which states are most at risk from acid precipitation and assess how that risk has changed from 1996 to 2006. Sources of atmospheric sulfur (burning of high-sulfur coal) and nitrogen oxides (automobile exhaust) will be listed. The buffering effect of limestone soils and its mitigating effect on acid precipitation will be discussed. Students will correlate these areas with sulfur and nitrogen oxide production, population, composition of coal fields, and soil composition. This resource includes both a teaching guide and student worksheets.

Tyser, Jim

265

Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Due to the presence of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide, rainfall is naturally acidic. The release of other gases and chemicals such as sulfur dioxide during the combustion of coal and oil can cause rainfall to become even more acidic, sometimes to the point of toxicity. In this activity, students will measure the pH of local rainfall to see what effect these gases have in their region. They will also check an online resource to see how the releases of acid rain-causing chemicals have varied over the past 20 years, and answer questions about the information they uncover.

Chris Fox

266

ACID RAIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Acid precipitation has become one of the major environmental problems of this decade. It is a challenge to scientists throughout the world. Researchers from such diverse disciplines as plant pathology, soil science, bacteriology, meteorology and engineering are investigating diff...

267

Acid Reflux  

MedlinePLUS

... time. This stomach juice consists of acid, digestive enzymes, and other injurious materials. The prolonged contact of ... role in absorption of vitamins (Vitamin B12), the digestion of proteins, and initiation of peristalsis which causes the food ...

268

Synthesis, characterization and anti proliferative effect of [Au(en) 2]Cl 3 and [Au(N- propyl-en) 2]Cl 3 on human cancer cell lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two Au(III) complexes of the type [Au(en) 2]Cl 3 ( 2a) and [Au(N-pr-en) 2]Cl 3 ( 3a) were synthesized by reacting Auric acid (HAuCl 4·3H 2O) with 2 equiv. ethylenediamine (en) or N-alkyl substituted ethylenediamine ligands. This metallodrug was characterized by various analytical and spectroscopic techniques such as elemental analysis, UV-Vis, Far-IR, 1H NMR and solution 13C as well as solid 13C and 15N NMR. Potentiality of [Au(en) 2]Cl 3 and [Au(N-pr-en) 2]Cl 3 as an anti-cancer agent were investigated by measuring some relevant physicochemical and biochemical properties such as stability of Au-N bonds by vibrational stretching from Far IR as well as cytotoxicity and stomach cancer cell inhibiting effect, respectively. The solid-state 15N NMR chemical shift shows that the ligand is strongly bound to gold(III) centre via N atoms. The computational study of 2a shows that the gold coordination sphere adopts distorted square planar geometry with bidentate ethylenediamine ligands acting as a tetradentate chelate. While stable in the solution state, the in vitro biological studies performed with these compounds 2a in solution showed higher activity towards the inhibitory effects of the human cancer cell lines such as prostate cancer (PC-3) and gastric carcinoma (SGC-7901) than that of the N-substituted gold(III) complex ( 3a). Cytotoxicity of the new compounds has also been estimated in PC-3 and SGC-7901 cells.

Isab, Anvarhusein A.; Shaikh, M. Nasiruzzaman; Monim-ul-Mehboob, M.; Al-Maythalony, Bassem A.; Wazeer, Mohammed I. M.; Altuwaijri, Saleh

2011-09-01

269

Acidic precipitation  

SciTech Connect

At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

Martin, H.C.

1987-01-01

270

Acidizing wells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of increasing the permeability of a rock formation by acidizing is applicable to silicate-bearing formations containing alkaline-earth-metal ions and alkali- metal ions which would have a reducing effect on the permeability of the formation. A carbonate solution is injected into the formation to convert any calcium sulfate to calcium carbonate. This is followed by injecting hydrochloric acid to

1966-01-01

271

Furan formation from fatty acids as a result of storage, gamma irradiation, UV-C and heat treatments.  

PubMed

The effects of gamma and UV-C irradiation in comparison with thermal processing and storage at 25°C on formation of furan from different fatty acids were investigated. Results showed that furan was generated from polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic and linolenic acid during thermal (120°C, 25 min) and UV-C (11.5 J/cm(2)) treatments. Gamma irradiation (up to 20 kGy) did not induce formation of significant amounts of furan from any of the fatty acids studied. Storage of unsaturated fatty acid emulsions at 25°C for 3 days led to the formation of furan (7-11 ng/mL) even without prior thermal or non-thermal treatments. pH significantly impacted furan formation with >3.5 times more furan formed at pH 9 than at pHs 3 or 6 during 3 days at 25°C. The addition of Trolox, BHA, and propyl gallate had no significant effect on furan formation from linolenic acid while ?-tocopherol and FeSO4 promoted furan formation. PMID:25577103

Fan, Xuetong

2015-05-15

272

Hirshfeld Surface Investigation of Structure-Directing Interactions within Dipicolinic Acid Derivatives  

PubMed Central

Six compounds based on dipicolinic acid esters have been synthesized and Hirshfeld surfaces used to investigate the structure-directing effects of functional groups in controlling their solid-state behavior. Compounds 1–4 are 4-bromo dipicolinic acid esters substituted with methyl, ethyl, propyl, and benzyl groups, respectively. The main structure-directing motif within 1–3 is a pairwise O···H interaction involving two carbonyl oxygen atoms and two aromatic H atoms. The introduction of bulky benzyl groups in 4 forces a significant change in the position of this interaction. Compounds 2 and 4 were used in Suzuki coupling reactions to prepare extended analogues 5 and 6, respectively, and their solid-state behavior was also studied using Hirshfeld surfaces. Extension of these dipicolinic acid esters results in the complete loss of the pairwise O···H interaction in 5, where the dominant structure-directing motifs are ?-based interactions. However, the pairwise O···H interaction reappears for the more flexible 6, demonstrating control of the solid-state structure of these dipicolinic acid derivatives through the choice of functional groups. PMID:25866487

2015-01-01

273

Solid phase extraction of petroleum carboxylic acids using a functionalized alumina as stationary phase.  

PubMed

Petroleum essentially consists of a mixture of organic compounds, mainly containing carbon and hydrogen, and, in minor quantities, compounds with nitrogen, sulphur, and oxygen. Some of these compounds, such as naphthenic acids, can cause corrosion in pipes and equipment used in processing plants. Considering that the methods of separation or clean up the target compounds in low concentrations and in complex matrix use large amounts of solvents or stationary phases, is necessary to study new methodologies that consume smaller amounts of solvent and stationary phases to identify the acid components present in complex matrix, such as crude oil samples. The proposed study aimed to recover acid compounds using the solid phase extraction method, employing different types of commercial stationary ion exchange phases (SAX and NH(2)) and new phase alumina functionalized with 1,4-bis(n-propyl)diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane chloride silsesquioxane (Dab-Al(2)O(3)), synthesized in this work. Carboxylic acids were used as standard mixture in the solid phase extraction for further calculation of recovery yield. Then, the real sample (petroleum) was fractionated into saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes, and the resin fraction of petroleum (B1) was eluted through stationary ion exchange phases. The stationary phase synthesized in this work showed an efficiency of ion exchange comparable to that of the commercial stationary phases. PMID:22589166

de Conto, Juliana Faccin; Nascimento, Juciara dos Santos; de Souza, Driele Maiara Borges; da Costa, Luiz Pereira; Egues, Silvia Maria da Silva; Freitas, Lisiane Dos Santos; Benvenutti, Edilson Valmir

2012-04-01

274

Ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica material as sorbent for solid-phase extraction of acidic and basic compounds.  

PubMed

A novel sorbent for solid-phase extraction (SPE) was synthesized by chemical immobilization of ampholine on hybrid organic-inorganic silica material. The ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica sorbent is consisted of aliphatic amine groups, carboxyl groups and long carbon chains, allowing for extraction of both acidic and basic compounds. The retention properties of the developed sorbent were evaluated for 1-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (HNA), 1-naphthoic acid (NA), 3-hydroxybenzoic acid (HBA), benzoic acid (BA), sorbic acid (SA), vanillic aldehyde (VA), butyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (BHB), propyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (PHB), ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (EHB), and methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate (MHB). The results show that such a sorbent has three types of interaction, i.e., electrostatic interaction, hydrophobic interaction, and hydrogen bonding, exhibiting high extraction efficiency towards the compounds tested. The adsorption capacities of the analytes ranged from 0.61 to 6.54?gmg(-1). The reproducibility of the sorbent preparation was evaluated at three spiking concentration levels, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.0-10.5%. The recoveries of ten acidic and basic compounds spiked in beverage Coca-Cola(®) sample ranged from 82.5% to 98.2% with RSDs less than 5.8%. Under optimum conditions, the ampholine-functionalized hybrid organic-inorganic silica sorbent rendered higher extraction efficiency for acidic compounds than that of the commercially available ampholine-functionalized silica particles, and was comparable to that of the commercial Oasis WAX and Oasis WCX. PMID:23953713

Wang, Tingting; Chen, Yihui; Ma, Junfeng; Chen, Mingliang; Nie, Chenggang; Hu, Minjie; Li, Ying; Jia, Zhijian; Fang, Jianghua; Gao, Haoqi

2013-09-20

275

Stereospecific ligands and their complexes. Part XII. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro antiproliferative activity of platinum(IV) complexes with some O,O?-dialkyl esters of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N?-di-2-propanoic acid against colon cancer (HCT-116) and breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cell lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthesis of three new platinum(IV) complexes C1-C3, with bidentate N,N?-ligand precursors, O,O?-dialkyl esters (alkyl = propyl, butyl and pentyl), of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N?-di-2-propanoic acid, H2-S,S-eddp were reported. The reported platinum(IV) complexes characterized by elemental analysis and their structures were discussed on the bases of their infrared, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. In vitro antiproliferative activity was determined on tumor cell lines: human colon carcinoma HCT-116 and human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231, using MTT test.

Stojkovi?, Danijela Lj.; Jevti?, Verica V.; Radi?, Gordana P.; ?a?i?, Dragana S.; ?ur?i?, Milena G.; Markovi?, Snežana D.; Ðinovi?, Vesna M.; Petrovi?, Vladimir P.; Trifunovi?, Sre?ko R.

2014-03-01

276

Uric acid - urine  

MedlinePLUS

The urine uric acid test measures the level of uric acid in urine. Uric acid level can also be checked using a blood ... to choose the best medicine to lower uric acid level in the blood. Uric acid is a ...

277

Salicylic acids  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

2012-01-01

278

Acid Stomach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson is intended for a high-school, introductory chemistry class or health class. The lesson begins with an article on the history of the development of aspirin. Students will then complete a lab that compares the reaction of regular aspirin, buffered aspirin, and enteric aspirin in neutral, acidic, and basic solutions. They will then analyze the results of the experiment to gain insight into how this information was used by researchers to solve some of the problems associated with aspirin. To complete the lesson, students must understand acids and bases.

Science Netlinks

2003-08-07

279

Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity is part of Planet Diary and is an online examination into acid rain and sulfur dioxide emissions. Students research which states have succeeded in reducing sulfur dioxide emissions between 1980 and 1999, and which states emissions have increased. This activity is accompanied by a page of websites for further information.

280

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

An overview is presented of acid rain and the problems it causes to the environment worldwide. The acidification of lakes and streams is having a dramatic effect on aquatic life. Aluminum, present in virtually all forest soils, leaches out readily under acid conditions and interferes with the gills of all fish, some more seriously than others. There is evidence of major damage to forests in European countries. In the US, the most severe forest damage appears to be in New England, New York's Adirondacks, and the central Appalachians. This small region is part of a larger area of the Northeast and Canada that appears to have more acid rainfall than the rest of the country. It is downwind from major coal burning states, which produce about one quarter of US SO/sub 2/ emissions and one sixth of nitrogen oxide emissions. Uncertainties exist over the causes of forest damage and more research is needed before advocating expensive programs to reduce rain acidity. The President's current budget seeks an expansion of research funds from the current $30 million per year to $120 million.

Not Available

1984-06-01

281

Amino Acids  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Featured Molecules this month are the 20 standard ?-amino acids found in proteins and serve as background to the paper by Barone and Schmidt on the Nonfood Applications of Proteinaceous Renewable Materials. The molecules are presented in two formats, the neutral form and the ionized form found in solution at physiologic pH.

282

Acid Attack  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students explore the effect of chemical erosion on statues and monuments. They use chalk to see what happens when limestone is placed in liquids with different pH values. They also learn several things that engineers are doing to reduce the effects of acid rain.

Integrated Teaching and Learning Program,

283

Pharmacology of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are triterpenoid compounds that exist widely in food, medicinal herbs and other plants. This review summarizes the pharmacological studies on these two triterpenoids. Both oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are effective in protecting against chemically induced liver injury in laboratory animals. Oleanolic acid has been marketed in China as an oral drug for human liver

Jie Liu

1995-01-01

284

Domoic Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This highly detailed chemical information page features domoic acid, a toxin associated with Amnesic shellfish poisoning and naturally produced by the red algae Chondria armata and diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. Created by the International Programme on Chemical Safety, this web page organizes information under the following sections: Name, Summary, Physio-Chemical Properties, Uses, Routes of Entry, Kinetics, Toxicology, Toxicological and Biomedical Investigations, Clinical Effects, Management, Illustrative Cases, Additional Information, References, and Authors.

INCHEM

285

Distribution of stable free radicals among amino acids of isolated soy proteins.  

PubMed

Application of deuterium sulfide to powdered isolated soy proteins (ISP) was used to quench stable free radicals and produce a single deuterium label on amino acids where free radicals reside. The deuterium labels rendered increases of isotope ratio for the specific ions of radical-bearing amino acids. Isotope ratio measurements were achieved by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analyses after the amino acids were released by acidic hydrolysis and converted to volatile derivatives with propyl chloroformate. The isotope enrichment data showed the stable free radicals were located on Ala, Gly, Leu, Ile, Asx (Asp+Asn), Glx (Glu+Gln), and Trp but not on Val, Pro, Met, Phe, Lys, and His. Due to the low abundance of Ser, Thr, and Cys derivatives and the impossibility to accurately measure their isotope ratios, the radical bearing status for these amino acids remained undetermined even though their derivatives were positively identified from ISP hydrolysates. The relative isotope enrichment for radical-bearing amino acids Ala, Gly, Leu, Ile, Asx (Asp+Asn), Glx (Glu+Gln), and Trp were 8.67%, 2.96%, 2.90%, 3.94%, 6.03%, 3.91%, and 21.48%, respectively. Isotope ratio increase for Tyr was also observed but further investigation revealed such increase was mainly from nonspecific deuterium-hydrogen exchange not free radical quenching. The results obtained from the present study provide important information for a better understanding of the mechanisms of free radical formation and stabilization in "dry" ISP. PMID:21535530

Lei, Qingxin; Liebold, Christopher M; Boatright, William L; Shah Jahan, M

2010-09-01

286

21 CFR 582.3660 - Propyl gallate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...as safe for use in food when the total content of antioxidants is not over 0.02 percent of fat or oil content, including essential (volatile) oil content of the food, provided the substance is used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

2010-04-01

287

Methylmalonic acid blood test  

MedlinePLUS

... acid is a substance produced when proteins (called amino acids) in the body break down. A test can ... Cederbaum S, Berry GT. Inborn errors of carbohydrate, ammonia, amino acid, and organic acid metabolism. In: Gleason CA, Devaskar ...

288

Folic acid - test  

MedlinePLUS

Folic acid is a type of B vitamin. This article discusses the test to measure the amount of folic acid in the blood. ... that may interfere with test results, including folic acid supplements. Drugs that can decrease folic acid measurements ...

289

Mimicking the hierarchical functions of dentin collagen cross-links with plant derived phenols and phenolic acids.  

PubMed

Proanthocyanidins (PACs) are secondary plant metabolites that mediate nonenzymatic collagen cross-linking and enhance the properties of collagen based tissue, such as dentin. The extent and nature of cross-linking is influenced by the composition and specific chemical structure of the bioactive compounds present in certain PAC-rich extracts. This study investigated the effect of the molecular weight and stereochemistry of polyphenol compounds on two important properties of dentin, biomechanics, and biostability. For that, purified phenols, a phenolic acid, and some of its derivatives were selected: PAC dimers (A1, A2, B1, and B2) and a trimer (C1), gallic acid (Ga), its esters methyl-gallate (MGa) and propyl-gallate (PGa), and a pentagalloyl ester of glucose (PGG). Synergism was assessed by combining the most active PAC and gallic acid derivative. Mechanical properties of dentin organic matrix were determined by the modulus of elasticity obtained in a flexural test. Biostability was evaluated by the resistance to collagenase degradation. PACs significantly enhanced dentin mechanical properties and decreased collagen digestion. Among the gallic acid derivatives, only PGG had a significant enhancing effect. The lack of observed C1:PGG synergy indicates that both compounds have similar mechanisms of interaction with the dentin matrix. These findings reveal that the molecular weight of polyphenols have a determinant effect on their interaction with type I collagen and modulates the mechanism of cross-linking at the molecular, intermolecular, and inter-microfibrillar levels. PMID:25379878

Vidal, Cristina M P; Leme, Ariene A; Aguiar, Thaiane R; Phansalkar, Rasika; Nam, Joo-Won; Bisson, Jonathan; McAlpine, James B; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F; Bedran-Russo, Ana

2014-12-16

290

Acid Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The I2I-Acid Ocean virtual lab is an e-learning activity where students become virtual scientists studying the impact of ocean acidification on sea urchin larval growth. Students recreate a real, up-to-date climate change experiment. They also learn important general scientific principles, such as the importance of sample size and numbers of replicates, and discuss what this research into a specific impact of climate change may mean for the future of our oceans. There is a French translation available.

291

Understanding Acid Rain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

Damonte, Kathleen

2004-01-01

292

Brnsted Acids The Strongest Isolable Acid**  

E-print Network

-Chan Kim, and Christopher A. Reed* Acids based on carborane anions as conjugate bases (Figure 1) are a newBrønsted Acids The Strongest Isolable Acid** Mark Juhasz, Stephan Hoffmann, Evgenii Stoyanov, Kee class of Brønsted (protic) acids, notable for their "strong yet gentle" qualities.[1] For example

Reed, Christopher A.

293

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

Acid rain, says Boyle is a chemical leprosy eating into the face of North America and Europe, perhaps the major ecological problem of our time. Boyle describes the causes and scope of the phenomenon; the effects on man, wildlife, water, and our cultural heritage. He probes the delays of politicians and the frequent self-serving arguments advanced by industry in the face of what scientists have proved. The solutions he offers are to strengthen the Clean Air Act and require emission reductions that can be accomplished by establishing emission standards on a regional or bubble basis, burn low-sulfur coal, install scrubbers at critical plants, and invest in alternative energy sources. 73 references, 1 figure.

Boyle, R.H.; Boyle, R.A.

1983-01-01

294

Acanthoic acid  

PubMed Central

The title compound [systematic name: (1R,4aR,7S,8aS,10aS)-1,4a,7-trimethyl-7-vinyl-1,2,3,4,4a,6,7,8,8a,9,10,10a-dodeca­hydro­phenanthrene-1-carb­oxy­lic acid], C20H30O2, is a pimarane-type diterpene extracted from Croton oblongifolius. There are two independent mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit. In both of these, the six-membered rings A, B and C adopt chair, boat and half-chair conformations, respectively. Rings A and B are trans-fused. The two mol­ecules in the asymmetric unit form O—H?O hydrogen-bonded R 2 2(8) dimers. The absolute configuration was assigned on the basis of the published literature on analogous structures. PMID:21587780

Suwancharoen, Sunisa; Tommeurd, Wantanee; Phurat, Chuttree; Muangsin, Nongnuj; Pornpakakul, Surachai

2010-01-01

295

Synthesis and biological evaluation of quinic acid derivatives as anti-inflammatory agents.  

PubMed

Quinic acid (QA) esters found in hot water extracts of Uncaria tomentosa (a.k.a. cat's claw) exert anti-inflammatory activity through mechanisms involving inhibition of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB). Herein, we describe the synthesis and biological testing of novel QA derivatives. Inhibition of NF-kappaB was assessed using A549 (Type II alveolar epithelial-like) cells that stably express a secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) reporter driven by an NF-kappaB response element. A549-NF-kappaB cells were stimulated with TNF-alpha (10 ng/mL) in the presence or absence of QA derivative for 18 hours followed by measurement of SEAP activity. Amide substitution at the carboxylic acid position yielded potent inhibitors of NF-kappaB. A variety of modifications to the amide substitution were tolerated with the N-propyl amide derivative being the most potent. Further examination of the SAR demonstrated that acetylation of the hydroxyl groups reduced NF-kappaB inhibitory activity. QA amide derivatives lacked anti-oxidant activity and were found to be neither anti-proliferative nor cytotoxic at concentrations up to 100 microM. In conclusion, we have discovered a novel series of non-toxic QA amides that potently inhibit NF-kappaB, despite their lack of anti-oxidant activity. Mechanistic studies and pre-clinical efficacy studies in various inflammatory animal models are on-going. PMID:19674895

Zeng, Kui; Thompson, Karin Emmons; Yates, Charles R; Miller, Duane D

2009-09-15

296

Mechanism of alkane dehydrogenation catalyzed by acidic zeolites: Ab initio transition path sampling.  

PubMed

The dehydrogenation of propane over acidic chabazite has been studied using ab initio density-functional simulations in combination with static transition-state searches and dynamic transition path sampling (TPS) methods at elevated temperatures. The acidic zeolite has been modeled both using a small cluster and a large periodic model consisting of two unit cells, the TPS simulations allow to account for the effect of temperature and entropy. In agreement with experimental observations we find propene as the dominant reaction product and that the barrier for the dehydrogenation of a methyl group is higher than that for a methylene group. However, whereas all studies based on small cluster models (including the present one) conclude that the reaction proceeds via the formation of an alkoxy intermediate, our TPS studies based on a large periodic model lead to the conclusion that propene formation occurs via the formation of various forms of propyl cations stabilized by entropy, while the formation of an alkoxy species is a relatively rare event. It was observed only in 15% of the reactive trajectories for methyl dehydrogenation and even in only 8% of the methylene dehydrogenation reactions. Our studies demonstrate the importance of entropic effects and the need to account for the structure and flexibility of the zeolitic framework by using large periodic models. PMID:19968352

Bucko, Tomás; Benco, Lubomir; Dubay, Orest; Dellago, Christoph; Hafner, Jürgen

2009-12-01

297

alpha-Oxidation of 3-methyl-substituted fatty acids in rat liver. Production of formic acid instead of CO2, cofactor requirements, subcellular localization and formation of a 2-hydroxy-3-methylacyl-CoA intermediate.  

PubMed

alpha-Oxidation of 3-methyl-substituted fatty acids in rat liver was studied in intact and permeabilized rat hepatocytes, and in homogenates and subcellular fractions. The experiments revealed that the primary end product of alpha-oxidation is formic acid, which is then converted to CO2. Rates of alpha-oxidation identical to those observed in intact hepatocytes were obtained in the permeabilized hepatocytes and liver homogenates when ATP, Mg2+ and CoA, and Fe2+, 2-oxoglutarate and ascorbate were added, suggesting that alpha-oxidation involves a fatty acid activation reaction and a dioxygenase reaction. Subcellular fractionation by differential and density gradient centrifugation demonstrated that alpha-oxidation is confined to peroxisomes, which produce formic acid that is converted to CO2, mainly in the cytosol. alpha-Oxidation in broken cell systems went hand in hand with the formation of a 2-hydroxy-3-methylacyl-CoA ester. Formation of the metabolite was strictly dependent on the presence of the above-mentioned cofactors, was confined to peroxisomes and was inhibited by fenoprofen and propyl gallate, inhibitors of alpha-oxidation in intact cells, indicating that the 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA ester is a bona fide intermediate of alpha-oxidation. Selective omission of cofactors from the reaction mixture and analysis of the incubation mixtures for 3-methyl fatty acids, 3-methyl fatty acyl-CoAs and their respective 2-hydroxy derivatives revealed that the activation reaction precedes the dioxygenase (hydroxylase) reaction. Our experiments demonstrate that alpha-oxidation is a peroxisomal process that consists of at least three reactions: fatty acid activation, hydroxylation and the reaction(s) involved in the release of formic acid. PMID:8856070

Croes, K; Casteels, M; De Hoffmann, E; Mannaerts, G P; Van Veldhoven, P P

1996-09-15

298

Bioactive Fatty Acids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Oxygenated fatty acids are useful as specialty chemicals, plasticizers, and biomedicals. Microbial enzymes convert fatty acids to mono-, di-, and trihydroxy fatty acid products. Among them, Bacillus megaterium ALA2 converted n-6 and n-3 PUFAs to many new oxygenated fatty acids. Linoleic acid was ...

299

Synthesis of highly phosphonic acid functionalized benzene-bridged periodic mesoporous organosilicas for use as efficient dye adsorbents.  

PubMed

Periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMOs) with benzene bridging groups in the silica wall were functionalized with a tunable content of phosphonic acid groups. These bifunctional materials were synthesized by co-condensation of two different organosilane precursors, that is, 1,4-bis(triethoxysilyl)benzene (BTEB) and sodium 3-(trihydroxysilyl)propyl methyl phosphate (SPMP), under acidic conditions using nonionic surfactant Brij-S10 as template. The materials exhibited well-ordered mesostructures and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen sorption, TEM, TGA, FTIR, and solid-state NMR measurements. The materials thus obtained were employed as adsorbents to remove different types of dyes, for example, cationic dyes methylene blue and phenosafranine, anionic orange II, and amphoteric rhodamine B, from aqueous solutions. The materials exhibited a remarkably high adsorption capacity than activated carbon due to their ordered mesostructures, a large number of phosphonic acid groups, and high surface areas. The adsorption was mainly governed by electrostatic interaction, but also involved ?-? stacking interaction as well as hydrogen bonding. The adsorption kinetics can be better fitted by the pseudo-second order model. The adsorption process was controlled by the mechanisms of external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion. The materials retained more than 97% dye removal efficiency after use for five consecutive cycles. PMID:25010459

Deka, Juti Rani; Liu, Chia-Ling; Wang, Tzu-Hua; Chang, Wei-Chieh; Kao, Hsien-Ming

2014-08-15

300

Plasma amino acids  

MedlinePLUS

Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acids levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

301

Uric acid test (image)  

MedlinePLUS

Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

302

Stomach acid test  

MedlinePLUS

Gastric acid secretion test ... of the cells in the stomach to release acid, a hormone called gastrin may be injected into ... 3.5). These numbers are converted to actual acid production in units of milliequivalents per hour in ...

303

Folic Acid and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... Flu Pregnancy Precautions Checkups: What to Expect Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth > Parents > Pregnancy & Newborn Center > Your ... before conception and during early pregnancy . About Folic Acid Folic acid, sometimes called folate, is a B ...

304

Facts about Folic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

... Information For... Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... of the baby's brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

305

Azelaic Acid Topical  

MedlinePLUS

Azelaic acid gel is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin disease that ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat acne. Azelaic acid ...

306

Acid Lipase Disease  

MedlinePLUS

NINDS Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease, Wolman’s Disease Table of Contents (click to jump ... research is being done? Clinical Trials What is Acid Lipase Disease ? Acid lipase disease occurs when the ...

307

Valproic Acid and Pregnancy  

MedlinePLUS

... visit us online at: www.OTISpregnancy.org . Valproic acid and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts ... from your health care professional. What is valproic acid? Valproic acid is a medication commonly used to ...

308

Method of acidizing wells using gelled acids  

SciTech Connect

The permeability of siliceous or calcareous subterranean formations adjacent a wellbore is increased by contacting the formation with a gelled aqueous acid capable of dissolving mineral constituents in the formation. The gelled aqueous acid compositions comprise (a) aqueous hydrochloric acid, and (b) a readily soluble gelling agent. Component (b) contains a sufficient amount of a polyoxyethylene glycol to gel the acid and enough ammonium-, alkali-, or alkaline earth metal bicarbonate or carbonate to cause rapid dissolution and dispersion of the polyoxyethylene glycol in the aqueous hydrochloric acid.

Crowe, C.W.

1984-01-17

309

Effect of excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists on apomorphine-, oxytocin- and ACTH-induced penile erection and yawning in male rats.  

PubMed

The effect of excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists, (5R,10S)-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]cyclo-hepten-5, 10-imine hydrogen maleate ((+)-MK-801), (+/-)-3-(2-carboxy-piperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP), 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) and (+/-)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutanoic acid (AP-4), on penile erection and yawning induced by subcutaneous apomorphine (80 micrograms/kg), intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) oxytocin (30 ng) and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-(1-24) (10 micrograms) was studied in male rats. Intraperitoneal (0.1-0.4 mg/kg) and i.c.v. (10-50 micrograms) (+)-MK-801 prevented dose dependently the penile erection and yawning induced by the three drugs. The (+)-MK-801 effect coincided with the appearance of head weaving, body rolling, hyperlocomotion and ataxia. Haloperidol (0.5 mg/kg i.p.) antagonized the prevention by (+)-MK-801 of oxytocin responses. Penile erection but not yawning was also prevented by high, but not low doses of CPP and CNQX, which impaired motor performance, AP-4 was ineffective at all doses tested. The above compounds were ineffective when injected into the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, the brain area where apomorphine and oxytocin act to induce penile erection and yawning. The results suggest that excitatory amino acid transmission is not involved in the expression of penile erection and yawning induced by the above compounds. PMID:1358647

Melis, M R; Stancampiano, R; Argiolas, A

1992-09-10

310

Cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of novel ganoderic acid derivatives on human cervical cancer cells in vitro.  

PubMed

Ganoderic acid T, a triterpenic acid produced by Ganoderma lucidum, has demonstrated therapeutic potential for tumor disease. In the current work, ganoderic acid T was modified to produce more effective small-molecule inhibitors of cancer cell proliferation. Moreover, the anticancer effects of three new ganoderic acid T derivatives, i.e., (22S,24E)-3?,15?,22-triacetoxy-5?-lanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-26-oic acid ethyl ester (TLTO-Ee), (22S,24E)-3?,15?,22-triacetoxy-5?-lanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-26-oic acid propyl ester (TLTO-Pe), and (22S,24E)-3?,15?,22-triacetoxy-5?-lanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-26-oic acid amide (TLTO-A), and one known derivative, (22S,24E)-3?,15?,22-triacetoxy-5?-lanosta-7,9(11),24-trien-26-oic acid methyl ester (TLTO-Me), on the cervical cell line HeLa were investigated and compared. MTT assay indicated that, among the tested compounds, TLTO-A displayed the highest inhibitory effect on the growth of HeLa cells, whereas it showed less cytotoxicity to the non-tumorous cell line MCF-10A than ganoderic acid T. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that all the compounds caused cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase and induced apoptosis. Furthermore, they decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential and enhanced the activities of pro-apoptotic factors caspase-3 and caspase-9 in a dose-dependent manner. Accordingly, the apoptosis induction was presumed to occur through the endogenous pathway. The following order ranks both cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects of the compounds against HeLa cells: TLTO-A>ganoderic acid T?TLTO-Me?TLTO-Ee?TLTO-Pe. This study suggests that the carboxyl group of ganoderic acid T is not the main active group and is suitable for its further structural modification. The current work presents valuable information on the design of ganoderic acid T derivatives to develop potential chemotherapy agents. PMID:22366428

Liu, Ru-Ming; Li, Ying-Bo; Zhong, Jian-Jiang

2012-04-15

311

Acid Rain Study Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid

Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

312

Acid-Base Equilibria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This 9-page PDF document is part of an environmental geochemistry course taught by Dr. David Sherman at the University of Bristol. Topics include acid-base theories, aqueous systems, strong and weak acids and bases, acid-base properties of minerals, the pH of weak acid and buffered systems, and the calculation of titration curves.

David W. Sherman

313

N-[[(Mercaptoacetyl)amino]benzoyl]glycines as mucolytic agents.  

PubMed

m- and p-aminobenzoic acids were converted to the title compounds by sequential use of ClCH2COCl, SOCl2, glycine methyl or ethyl ester, AcSK, and hydrolysis. The title compounds and a number of salts were compared for mucolytic activity, toxicity, stability, and hygroscopicity. When compared to N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), the compounds exhibit several times the in vitro mucolytic activity of NAC on a molar basis. The most promising candidate appears to be the sodium salt 3.5H2O 2 of the meta series. PMID:4009614

Martin, T A; Comer, W T

1985-07-01

314

Synthesis and bio-functionalization of multifunctional magnetic Fe3O4@Y2O3:Eu nanocomposites  

PubMed Central

A facile homogenous precipitation method has been developed for the synthesis of multifunctional, magnetic, luminescent nanocomposites with Fe3O4 nanoparticles as the core and europium-doped yttrium oxide (Y2O3:Eu) as the shell. The nanocomposites showed both super-paramagnetic behavior and unique europium fluorescence properties with high emission intensity. Their surface has been modified with a bifunctional ligand, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), and further biofunctionalized with biotin; the nanocomposites showed specific targeting for avidin-coupled polystyrene beads. PMID:20357905

Ma, Zhi Ya; Dosev, Dosi; Nichkova, Mikaela; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Kennedy, Ian M.

2010-01-01

315

Acid tolerance in amphibians  

SciTech Connect

Studies of amphibian acid tolerance provide information about the potential effects of acid deposition on amphibian communities. Amphibians as a group appear to be relatively acid tolerant, with many species suffering increased mortality only below pH 4. However, amphibians exhibit much intraspecific variation in acid tolerance, and some species are sensitive to even low levels of acidity. Furthermore, nonlethal effects, including depression of growth rates and increases in developmental abnormalities, can occur at higher pH.

Pierce, B.A.

1985-04-01

316

Acetylenic acids from mosses.  

PubMed

Two new acetylenic fatty acids, 9, 12-octadecadien-6-ynoic and 11, 14-eicosadien-8-ynoic, were identified from lipids of the moss, Fontinalis antipyretica. They resemble the previously identified 9,12,15-octadecatrien-6-ynoic acid by having a methylene interrupted unsaturated system. The C20 acetylenic acid shows that the capability of mosses to synthesize polyolefinic acids of this chain length applies, in certain species, also to olefinic-acetylenic acids. PMID:1160525

Anderson, W H; Gellerman, J L; Schlenk, H

1975-08-01

317

Acids and Bases (Netorials)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acids and Bases: this is a resource in the collection "Netorials". In this module there is an introduction to the chemical properties of acids and bases. Afterwards, the sections include topics such as Molecular Structures of Acids and Bases, Ionization constants, properties of salts, buffers and Lewis theory of Acids and Bases. The Netorials cover selected topics in first-year chemistry including: Chemical Reactions, Stoichiometry, Thermodynamics, Intermolecular Forces, Acids & Bases, Biomolecules, and Electrochemistry.

318

Fast capillary electrochromatographic analysis of parabens and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid in drugs and cosmetics.  

PubMed

A fast capillary electrochromatographic method was developed for the analysis of paraben preservatives in drugs and cosmetics in the presence of their main metabolite and/or impurity, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. The separation was optimized in a 75 num ID capillary, fully packed with 5 num C18 stationary phase, studying the effects of mobile phase pH and composition (buffer type and organic solvent content). The mobile phase 5 mM ammonium formate, pH 3.0, containing 65% acetonitrile allowed us to obtain the baseline separation of methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, butyl-, and benzylparabens from a mixture in less than 2.5 min with repeatability and linearity using the short-end injection method (8 cm separation capillary effective length). Under the optimum experimental conditions, the method provided high separation efficiency for parabens, in the range of 129 312-140 325 number of theoretical plates per meter, and analyte quantitation limits (LOQs) in the range of 1.25-2.50 nug/mL. The method was successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of paraben preservatives in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industrial samples with direct injection or after reduced sample pretreatment. PMID:12373771

De Rossi, Antonella; Desiderio, Claudia

2002-09-01

319

Transport and killing mechanism of a novel camptothecin-deoxycholic acid derivate on hepatocellular carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

Abstract Camptothecin-20(s)-O-glycine ester-[N-(3'?, 12'?-dihydroxy-24'-carbonyl-5'?-cholan)] (A2), 10-(3'?,12'?-dihydroxy-5'?-cholan-24'-carboxyl)-(20?s)-camptothecin (C2), and 10-O-(3-O-(3'?, 12'?-dihydroxy-24'-carbonyl-5'?-cholan)-propyl)-(20S)-camptothecin (D2) are novel camptothecin-deoxycholic acid analogues. MTT assays were performed to assess the anticancer activity of these compounds against hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7721, breast carcinoma MCF-7, and colorectal carcinoma HCT-116 cells. A2 had a high killing ability on SMMC-7721 cells selectively, but C2 and D2 did not exhibit selectivity with regard to SMMC-7721 killing. Uptake assays were performed in an effort to elucidate the transport mechanisms of A2 into SMMC-7721 cells. A2 increased the mRNA expression of OATP1B3 (an organic anion-transporting polypeptide) and uptake of A2 was inhibited by rifampin (inhibitor of OATP1B3), which indicated that the transporter-mediated transport of A2 was mediated by OATP1B3. In addition, according to the western blot and apoptosis assays, we found that A2 killed SMMC-7721 cells by inducing cell apoptosis mainly via an AIF (apoptosis-inducing factor) pathway and a caspase-dependent mitochondria apoptosis pathway. PMID:24725118

Li, Qingyong; Liu, Tianyu; Li, Yunchao; Luo, Shuyue; Zhu, Qiaochu; Zhang, Li; Zhao, Tengfei

2014-07-01

320

Hydrogen bonded multilayer films based on poly(2-oxazoline)s and tannic acid.  

PubMed

In recent years, the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly based on hydrogen bonding interactions is gaining popularity for the preparation of thin film coatings, especially for biomedical purposes, based on the use of neutral, non-toxic building blocks. The use of tannic acid (TA) as hydrogen bonding donor is especially interesting as it results in LbL films that are stable under physiological conditions. In this work, investigations on the LbL thin film preparation of TA with poly(2-oxazoline)s with varying hydrophilicity, namely poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) (PMeOx), poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEtOx) and poly(2-n-propyl-2-oxazoline) (PnPropOx), are reported. The LbL assembly process is investigated by quartz crystal microbalance and UV-vis spectroscopy revealing linear growth of the film thickness. Furthermore, isothermal titration calorimetry demonstrates the LbL assembly of TA, and PMeOx is found to be mostly enthalpy driven while the LbL assembly of TA with PEtOx and PnPropOx is mostly entropy driven. Finally, scanning electron microscopy and ellipsometry demonstrate the formation of smooth thin films for LbL assembly of TA with all three polymers. Such poly(2-oxazoline) coatings have high potential for use as anti-biofouling coatings. PMID:25274164

Sundaramurthy, Anandhakumar; Vergaelen, Maarten; Maji, Samarendra; Auzély-Velty, Rachel; Zhang, Zhiyue; De Geest, Bruno G; Hoogenboom, Richard

2014-12-01

321

Synthesis and evaluation of novel [alpha]-heteroaryl-phenylpropanoic acid derivatives as PPAR[alpha/gamma] dual agonists  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis of a new series of phenylpropanoic acid derivatives incorporating an heteroaryl group at the {alpha}-position and their evaluation for binding and activation of PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} are presented in this report. Among the new compounds, (S)-3-{l_brace}4-[3-(5-methyl-2-phenyl-oxazol-4-yl)-propyl]-phenyl{r_brace}-2-1,2,3-triazol-2-yl-propionic acid (17j), was identified as a potent human PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} dual agonist (EC{sub 50} = 0.013 and 0.061 {micro}M, respectively) with demonstrated oral bioavailability in rat and dog. 17j was shown to decrease insulin levels, plasma glucose, and triglycerides in the ZDF female rat model. In the human apolipoprotein A-1/CETP transgenic mouse model 17j produced increases in hApoA1 and HDL-C and decreases in plasma triglycerides. The increased potency for binding and activation of both PPAR subtypes observed with 17j when compared to previous analogs in this series was explained based on results derived from crystallographic and modeling studies.

Casimiro-Garcia, Agustin; Bigge, Christopher F.; Davis, Jo Ann; Padalino, Teresa; Pulaski, James; Ohren, Jeffrey F.; McConnell, Patrick; Kane, Christopher D.; Royer, Lori J.; Stevens, Kimberly A.; Auerbach, Bruce; Collard, Wendy; McGregor, Christine; Song, Kun; Pfizer

2010-09-27

322

Determination of methylphenidate and its metabolite ritalinic acid in urine by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Methylphenidate (MPH) is a drug that is licensed for treatment of ADHD and also narcolepsy. Monitoring of the parent drug and its major metabolite ritalinic acid (RA) in urine is considered necessary to ensure compliance with treatment programmes. A rapid, simple and sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay was developed for the determination of MPH and its metabolite RA in human urine. After urine was diluted with water, methylphenidate, the major metabolite ritalinic acid, and d?-amphetamine as the internal standard were resolved on a PFP propyl column using gradient elution of 0.02% ammonium formate and acetonitrile. The total analysis time was 13.5 min. The three compounds were detected using electrospray ionisation in the positive mode. Standard curves were linear over the concentration range 5-5000 ?g/L (r>0.997), bias was ? ±20%, intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation (imprecision) were <8% and the limit of detection was 5 ?g/L. The limit of quantitation was set at 100 ?g/L. Matrix effects were up to 140% but these were accounted for by the internal standard. The assay is being used successfully in clinical practice to enhance the safe and effective use of methylphenidate. PMID:22204874

Paterson, Sharon M; Moore, Grant A; Florkowski, Chris M; George, Peter M

2012-01-15

323

Effect of 1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid on the Production of Ethylene in Senescing Flowers of Ipomoea tricolor Cav. 1  

PubMed Central

Application of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) to rib segments excised from flowers of Ipomoea tricolor Cav. resulted in the formation of C2H4 in greater quantities than produced under natural conditions. The ability of ACC to enhance C2H4 production was independent of the physiological age of the tissue and its capacity to synthesize C2H4 without applied ACC. When ACC was fed to rib segments that had been treated with [14C]methionine, incorporation of radioactivity into C2H4 was reduced by 80%. Aminoethoxyvinylglycine and aminooxyacetic acid inhibited C2H4 production in rib segments of I. tricolor but had no effect on ACC-enhanced C2H4 production. Protoplasts obtained from flower tissue of I. tricolor did not form C2H4, even when incubated with methionine or selenomethionine. They produced C2H4 upon incubation with ACC, however. ACC-dependent C2H4 production in protoplasts was inhibited by n-propyl gallate, AgCl, CoCl2, KCN, Na2S, and NaN3. ACC-dependent C2H4 synthesis in rib segments and protoplasts was dependent on O2, the Km for O2 being 1.0 to 1.4% (v/v). These results confirm the following pathway for C2H4 biosynthesis in I. tricolor. methionine [selenomethionine] ? S-adenosylmethionine [selenoadenosylmethionine] ? ACC ? C2H4. PMID:16661478

Konze, Jörg R.; Jones, Jennifer F.; Boller, Thomas; Kende, Hans

1980-01-01

324

Selective Adsorption and Chiral Amplification of Amino Acids in Vermiculite Clay -Implications for the origin of biochirality  

E-print Network

Smectite clays are hydrated layer silicates that, like micas, occur naturally in abundance. Importantly, they have readily modifiable interlayer spaces that provide excellent sites for nanochemistry. Vermiculite is one such smectite clay and in the presence of small chain-length alkyl-NH3Cl ions, forms sensitive, 1-D ordered model clay systems with expandable nano-pore inter-layer regions. These inter-layers readily adsorb organic molecules. N-propyl NH3Cl vermiculite clay gels were used to determine the adsorption of alanine, lysine and histidine by chiral HPLC. The results show that during reaction with fresh vermiculite interlayers, significant chiral enrichment of either L- and D-enantiomers occurs depending on the amino acid. Chiral enrichment of the supernatant solutions is up to about 1% per pass. In contrast, addition to clay interlayers already reacted with amino acid solutions resulted in little or no change in D/L ratio during the time of the experiment. Adsorption of small amounts of amphiphilic o...

Fraser, Donald G; Jakschitz, Thomas; Rode, Bernd M

2010-01-01

325

An arylaminopyridazine derivative of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a selective and competitive antagonist at the GABAA receptor site.  

PubMed Central

In view of finding a new gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor ligand we synthesized an arylaminopyridazine derivative of GABA, SR 95103 [2-(carboxy-3'-propyl)-3-amino-4-methyl-6-phenylpyridazinium chloride]. SR 95103 displaced [3H]GABA from rat brain membranes with an apparent Ki of 2.2 microM and a Hill number near 1.0. SR 95103 (1-100 microM) antagonized the GABA-mediated enhancement of [3H]diazepam binding in a concentration-dependent manner without affecting [3H]diazepam binding per se. SR 95103 competitively antagonized GABA-induced membrane depolarization in rat spinal ganglia. In all these experiments, the potency of SR 95103 was close to that of bicuculline. SR 95103 (100 microM) did not interact with a variety of central receptors--in particular the GABAB, the strychnine, and the glutamate receptors--did not inhibit Na+-dependent synaptosomal GABA uptake, and did not affect GABA-transaminase and glutamic acid decarboxylase activities. Intraperitoneally administered SR 95103 elicited clonicotonic seizures in mice (ED50 = 180 mg/kg). On the basis of these results it is postulated that St 95103 is a competitive antagonist of GABA at the GABAA receptor site. In addition to being an interesting lead structure for the search of GABA ligands, SR 95103 could also be a useful tool to investigate GABA receptor subtypes because it is freely soluble in water and chemically stable. Images PMID:2984669

Chambon, J P; Feltz, P; Heaulme, M; Restle, S; Schlichter, R; Biziere, K; Wermuth, C G

1985-01-01

326

New bioactive fatty acids.  

PubMed

Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD) through 10-hydroxy-8-octadecenoic acid, and racinoleic acid to 7,10,12-trihydroxy-8-octadecenoic acid. DOD showed antibacterial activity including against food-borne pathogens. Bacillus megaterium ALA2 converted n-6 and n-3 PUFAs to many new oxygenated fatty acids. For example: linoleic acid was converted to12,13-epoxy-9-octadecenoic acid and then to 12,13-dihydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid (12,13-DHOA). From here, there are two bioconversion pathways. The major pathway is: 12,13-DHOA --> 12,13,17-trihydroxy-9(S)-octadecenoic acid (THOA) --> 12,17;13,17-diepoxy-16-hydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid (DEOA) --> 7-hydroxy-DEOA. The minor pathway is: 12,13-DHOA --> 12,13,16-THOA --> 12-hydroxy-13,16-epoxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid. 12,13,17-THOA has anti-plant pathogenic fungal activity. The tetrahydrofuranyl moiety is known in anti cancer drugs. Strain ALA2 also converts other n-3 and n-6 PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) to many new oxygenated unsaturated fatty acid products. All of these new products have high potential for antimicrobial agents or biomedical applications. We also screened 12 Mortierella fungal strains from the ARS Culture Collection for the production of bioactive fatty acids such as dihomo-gama-linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid. All of the strains tested produced AA and DGLA from glucose or glycerol. The top five AA producers (mg AA/g CDW) were in the following order: M. alpina > M. zychae > M. hygrophila > M. minutissima > M. parvispora. Both AA and DGLA are important natural precursors of a large family of prostaglandin and thromboxane groups. PMID:18296335

Hou, Ching T

2008-01-01

327

Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

2006-01-01

328

Purification of oleic acid and linoleic acid  

SciTech Connect

To permit kinetic studies of the reactivity of unsaturated fatty acids towards oxygen radicals, it is essential to remove traces of hydroperoxides and other conjugated lipid impurities commonly present in commercial samples. Removal of these impurities has been satisfactorily achieved for oleic and linoleic acids by anaerobic low temperature recrystallization from acetonitrile. The uv spectra of commercial and purified samples are compared.

Arudi, R.L.; Sutherland, M.W.; Bielski, B.H.J.

1983-01-01

329

Purification of oleic acid and linoleic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

To permit kinetic studies of the reactivity of unsaturated fatty acids towards oxygen radicals, it is essential to remove traces of hydroperoxides and other conjugated lipid impurities commonly present in commercial samples. Removal of these impurities has been satisfactorily achieved for oleic and linoleic acids by anaerobic low temperature recrystallization from acetonitrile. The uv spectra of commercial and purified samples

R. L. Arudi; M. W. Sutherland; B. H. J. Bielski

1983-01-01

330

Antioxidative and melanogenesis-inhibitory activities of caffeoylquinic acids and other compounds from moxa.  

PubMed

The MeOH extract of moxa, the processed leaves of Artemisia princeps PAMP. (Asteraceae), exhibited potent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity and melanogenesis-inhibitory activity in ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (?-MSH)-stimulated B16 melanoma cells. Eight caffeoylquinic acids, 1 and 6-12, five flavonoids, 13-17, two benzoic acid derivatives, 18 and 19, three coumarin derivatives, 20-22, four steroids, 23-26, and six triterpenoids, 27-32, were isolated from the MeOH extract. Upon evaluation of compounds 1, 6-23, and four semisynthetic caffeoylquinic acid esters, 2-5, for their DPPH radical-scavenging activity, 15 compounds, 1-13, 17, and 19, showed potent activities (IC(50) 3.1-16.8 ?M). The 15 compounds exhibited, moreover, potent inhibitory activities (51.1-92.5% inhibition) against peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion at 10 ?g/ml concentration. In addition, when 27 compounds, 1-8, 10, 12, 13, 15-18, 20-25, and 27-32, were evaluated for their inhibitory activity against melanogenesis in ?-MSH-stimulated B16 melanoma cells, five caffeoylquinic acids, i.e., chlorogenic acid (1), ethyl chlorogenate (3), propyl chlorogenate (4), isopropyl chlorogenate (5), and butyl chlorogenate (6), along with homoorientin (17) and vanillic acid (18), exhibited inhibitory activities with 33-62% reduction of melanin content at 100 ?M concentration with no or almost no toxicity to the cells (89-114% of cell viability at 100 ?M). Western blot analysis showed that compound 6 reduced the protein levels of microphtalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), tyrosinase, tyrosine-related protein 1 (TRP-1), and TRP-2 mostly in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that this compound inhibits melanogenesis on ?-MSH-stimulated B16 melanoma cells by, at least in part, inhibiting the expression of MITF, followed by decreasing the expression of tyrosinase, TRP-1, and TRP-2. Furthermore, four compounds, 13, 15, 16, and 30, exhibited cytotoxicities against HL60 human leukemia cell line (IC(50) 7.0-11.1 ?M), and nine compounds, 14-16, 23, 26-28, 31, and 32, showed inhibitory effects (IC(50) 272-382 mol ratio/32 pmol 12-O-tetradecanoylphohrbol-13-acetate (TPA)) against Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) activation induced by TPA in Raji cells. PMID:23495149

Akihisa, Toshihiro; Kawashima, Kohta; Orido, Masashi; Akazawa, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Ayako; Ogihara, Eri; Fukatsu, Makoto; Tokuda, Harukuni; Fuji, Jizaemon

2013-03-01

331

Acid Functionalized Mesoporous Ordered Materials for the Production of 5-Hydroxymethyfurfural from Carbohydrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid acid catalysts were designed for the conversion of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Some of the catalysts incorporate thioether groups to promote the tautomerization of fructose to its furanose form, as well as sulfonic acid groups to catalyze its dehydration. A bifunctional silane, 3-((3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl)thio)propane-1-sulfonic acid (TESAS), was designed for incorporation into SBA-15-type silica by co-condensation. To achieve mesopore ordering in the functionalized silica, the standard SBA-15 synthetic protocol was modified, resulting in well-formed hexagonal particles. Functional groups incorporated into mesoporous silica by co-condensation are more robust under the reaction conditions than those grafted onto a non-porous silica. In a variation, the thioether group of TESAS was oxidized by H2O 2 to the sulfone during the synthesis of the modified SBA-15. The materials were tested in batch reactors and compared in the selective dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Compared to benchmark catalysts, the thioether-containing TESAS-SBA-15 showed the highest activity in the dehydration of aqueous fructose, as well as the highest selectivity towards HMF (71 % at 84 % conversion). In addition, the stability of several supported acid catalysts was evaluated in tubular reactors designed to produce 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) continuously. The reactors, packed with the solid catalysts, were operated at 403 K for extended periods, up to 180 h. The behaviors of three propylsulfonic acid-functionalized, ordered porous silicas (one inorganic SBA-15-type silica, and two ethane-bridged SBA-15-type organosilicas) were compared with that of a propylsulfonic acid-modified, non-ordered porous silica. The HMF selectivity of the catalysts with ordered pore structures ranged from 60 to 75 %, while the selectivity of the non-ordered catalyst peaked at 20 %. The latter was also the least stable, deactivating with a first-order rate constant of 0.152 h-1. The organosilicas are more hydrothermally stable and maintained a steady catalytic activity longer than inorganic SBA-15-type silica. The organosilica with an intermediate framework ethane content of 45 mol % was the most stable, with a first-order deactivation rate constant of only 0.012 h-1. Deactivation under flow conditions is caused primarily by hydrolytic cleavage of acid sites, which can be (to some extent) recaptured by the free surface hydroxyl groups of the silica surface.

Crisci, Anthony J.

332

Determination of total, free and saliva mycophenolic acid with a LC-MS/MS method: application to pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers and renal transplant patients.  

PubMed

Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is the active moiety of mycophenoate mofetil (MMF), an ester prodrug widely used as an immunosuppressant. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of MPA is becoming mandatory for transplant patients received MMF therapy in the routine clinical practice because of large individual variability, dose-related toxicity and the risk of acute rejection. In this study, a rapid, sensitive and selective LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the quantitative analysis of total and free MPA in plasma and in saliva that uses one identical liquid chromatographic and mass spectrometric condition. Following protein precipitation for total and saliva MPA, and ultrafiltration for free MPA, chromatographic separation was performed on an Allure PFP Propyl analytical column (100 x 2.1 mm, 5 microm, RESTEK Co., Bellefonte, PA, USA) with 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid in water (45:55, v/v) as the mobile phases. The compounds were quantified by positive electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision, recovery, matrix effect, and saliva stability were evaluated during method validation. The validated method was applied to a pharmacokinetic study of MPA after an oral administration of a single 1000 mg of MMF to eight healthy male volunteers and 750 mg bid of MMF to nine renal transplant patients. PMID:19574013

Shen, Bing; Li, Shuijun; Zhang, Yuan; Yuan, Xuelu; Fan, Yu; Liu, Zhihong; Hu, Qiang; Yu, Chen

2009-10-15

333

21 CFR 176.180 - Components of paper and paperboard in contact with dry food.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Basic polymer. Acrylamide. Acrylic acid and its methyl, ethyl, butyl, propyl, or octyl esters. Acrylonitrile. Butadiene. Crotonic acid. Cyclol acrylate. Decyl acrylate. Diallyl fumarate. Diallyl maleate....

2010-04-01

334

Sulfuric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Sulfuric acid is a very strong chemical that is corrosive. Corrosive means it can cause severe burns and ... or mucous membranes. This article discusses poisoning from sulfuric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

335

Uric acid - blood  

MedlinePLUS

Uric acid is a chemical created when the body breaks down substances called purines. Purines are found in some ... dried beans and peas, and beer. Most uric acid dissolves in blood and travels to the kidneys. ...

336

Folic Acid Quiz  

MedlinePLUS

... Global Activities Information For... Media Policy Makers Folic Acid Quiz Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... button beside the question. Good Luck! 1. Folic acid is: A a B vitamin B a form ...

337

Zoledronic Acid Injection  

MedlinePLUS

Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and weak ... of life,' end of regular menstrual periods). Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in ...

338

Aminocaproic Acid Injection  

MedlinePLUS

Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

339

Hydrochloric acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Hydrocholoric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This is for information only and not for ...

340

Acid-fast stain  

MedlinePLUS

The acid-fast stain is a laboratory test that determines if a sample of tissue, blood, or other body ... dye. The slide is then washed with an acid solution and a different stain is applied. Bacteria ...

341

Alpha Hydroxy Acids  

MedlinePLUS

... page Home Cosmetics Products & Ingredients Ingredients Alpha Hydroxy Acids See also: Guidance for Industry: Labeling for Cosmetics Containing Alpha Hydroxy Acids The following information is intended to answer questions ...

342

Methylmalonic Acid Test  

MedlinePLUS

... this website will be limited. Search Help? Methylmalonic Acid Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: MMA Formal name: Methylmalonic Acid Related tests: Vitamin B12 and Folate , Homocysteine , Intrinsic ...

343

Aminolevulinic Acid Topical  

MedlinePLUS

Aminolevulinic acid is used in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT; special blue light) to treat actinic keratoses (small crusty ... skin cancer) of the face or scalp. Aminolevulinic acid is in a class of medications called photosensitizing ...

344

Carbolic acid poisoning  

MedlinePLUS

Phenol poisoning; Phenylic acid poisoning; Hydroxybenzene poisoning; Phenic acid poisoning; Benzenol poisoning ... Phenol ... and Disease Registry (ATSDR). 2008. Toxicological profile for Phenol. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human ...

345

Lactic acid test  

MedlinePLUS

Lactate test ... test. Exercise can cause a temporary increase in lactic acid levels. ... not getting enough oxygen. Conditions that can increase lactic acid levels include: Heart failure Liver disease Lung disease ...

346

Acid (and Base) Rainbows  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners use red cabbage juice and pH indicator paper to test the acidity and basicity of household materials. The activity links this concept of acids and bases to acid rain and other pollutants. Resource contains vocabulary definitions and suggestions for assessment, extensions, and scaling for different levels of learners.

2014-06-27

347

The Acid Rain Reader.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

348

Neutralizing Acids and Bases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners use their knowledge of color changes with red cabbage indicator to neutralize an acidic solution with a base and then neutralize a basic solution with an acid. Use this as a follow-up activity to the related activity, "Color Changes with Acids and Bases."

2012-04-08

349

[alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

2010-01-01

350

What Is Acid Rain?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

Likens, Gene E.

2004-01-01

351

1-[2-Hydroxy-3-octadecan-1'-oate]propyl-2'',2'',5'',5''-tetramethyl pyrolidine-N-oxyl-3''-carboxylate as a potential spin probe for membrane structure studies.  

PubMed

The synthesis of a new minimum steric perturbing proxyl nitroxide, which is a derivative of glycerol and contains a stearic acid moiety, has been carried out. Its localization in model membrane L-alpha-dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline (DPPC) was ascertained with the help of ESR, DSC, 1H and 31P NMR techniques. The nitroxide was used for detecting the changes in the phase transition temperature of the model membranes in the presence and absence of drugs. The permeation of the vasodilating drug epinephrine has also been studied using this spin label. The results prove the potential applicability of the new spin probe in the spin labeling of biomembranes. PMID:10658580

Katoch, R; Trivedi, G K; Phadke, R S

1999-12-01

352

Amino acid analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (inventors)

1974-01-01

353

Cleavage of nucleic acids  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Waunakee, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow; Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

2010-11-09

354

Cleavage of nucleic acids  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

2000-01-01

355

Cleavage of nucleic acids  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor L. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

2007-12-11

356

Editorial: Acid precipitation  

SciTech Connect

This editorial focuses on acid rain and the history of public and governmental response to acid rain. Comments on a book by Gwineth Howell `Acid Rain and Acid Waters` are included. The editor feels that Howells has provide a service to the environmental scientific community, with a textbook useful to a range of people, as well as a call for decision makers to learn from the acid rain issue and use it as a model for more sweeping global environmental issues. A balance is needed among several parameters such as level of evidence, probability that the evidence will lead to a specific direction and the cost to the global community. 1 tab.

NONE

1995-09-01

357

Nucleic acid detection assays  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

2005-04-05

358

Acetylenic acids from mosses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two new acetylenic fatty acids, 9, 12-octadecadien-6-ynoic and 11,14-eicosadien-8-ynoic, were identified from lipids of the\\u000a moss,Fontinalis antipyretica. They resemble the previously identified 9,12,15-octadecatrien-6-ynoic acid by having a methylene interrupted unsaturated\\u000a system. The C20 acetylenic acid shows that the capability of mosses to synthesize polyolefinic acids of this chain length applies, in certain\\u000a species, also to olefinic-acetylenic acids.

W. H. Anderson; J. L. Gellerman

1975-01-01

359

Nucleic acid detection compositions  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James L. (Madison, WI)

2008-08-05

360

Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid  

DOEpatents

Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

2008-12-02

361

Nucleic acid detection kits  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

2005-03-29

362

[Biosynthesis of adipic acid].  

PubMed

Adipic acid is a six-carbon dicarboxylic acid, mainly for the production of polymers such as nylon, chemical fiber and engineering plastics. Its annual demand is close to 3 million tons worldwide. Currently, the industrial production of adipic acid is based on the oxidation of aromatics from non-renewable petroleum resources by chemo-catalytic processes. It is heavily polluted and unsustainable, and the possible alternative method for adipic acid production should be developed. In the past years, with the development of synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, green and clean biotechnological methods for adipic acid production attracted more attention. In this study, the research advances of adipic acid and its precursor production are reviewed, followed by addressing the perspective of the possible new pathways for adipic acid production. PMID:24432653

Han, Li; Chen, Wujiu; Yuan, Fei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Wang, Qinhong; Ma, Yanhe

2013-10-01

363

78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2013-0057; FRL-9381-2] Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION:...

2013-04-03

364

Microorganisms for producing organic acids  

DOEpatents

Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

2014-09-30

365

4, 29012944, 2007 Acid deposition,  

E-print Network

short-term re- ductions in stream acidity, particularly base cation dilution and organic acid increasesHESSD 4, 2901­2944, 2007 Acid deposition, climate change and acid extremes C. D. Evans et al. Title System Sciences Effects of decreasing acid deposition and climate change on acid extremes in an upland

Boyer, Edmond

366

Structural Modifications of Neuroprotective Anti-Parkinsonian (?)-N6-(2-(4-(Biphenyl-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl)-ethyl)-N6-propyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzo[d]thiazole-2,6-diamine (D-264): An Effort toward the Improvement of in Vivo Efficacy of the Parent Molecule  

PubMed Central

In our overall goal to develop multifunctional dopamine D2/D3 agonist drugs for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (PD), we previously synthesized potent D3 preferring agonist D-264 (1a), which exhibited neuroprotective properties in two animal models of PD. To enhance the in vivo efficacy of 1a, a structure–activity relationship study was carried out. Competitive binding and [35S]GTP?S functional assays identified compound (?)-9b as one of the lead molecules with preferential D3 agonist activity (EC50(GTP?S); D3 = 0.10 nM; D2/D3 (EC50): 159). Compounds (?)-9b and (?)-8b exhibited high in vivo activity in two PD animal models, reserpinized and 6-hydroxydopamine (OHDA)-induced unilateral lesioned rats. On the other hand, 1a failed to show any in vivo activity in these models unless the compound was dissolved in 5–10% beta-hydroxy propyl cyclodextrin solution. Lead compounds exhibited appreciable radical scavenging activity. In vitro experiments with dopaminergic MN9D cells indicated neuroprotection by both 1a and (?)-9b from toxicity of MPP+. PMID:24471976

2015-01-01

367

Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman), first order hyperpolarizability, NBO analysis, HOMO and LUMO analysis of 1,7,8,9-tetrachloro-10,10-dimethoxy-4-[3-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)propyl]-4-azatricyclo[5.2.1.0(2,6)]dec-8-ene-3,5-dione by density functional methods.  

PubMed

The optimized molecular structure, vibrational frequencies, corresponding vibrational assignments of 1,7,8,9-tetrachloro-10,10-dimethoxy-4-[3-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)propyl]-4-azatricyclo[5.2.1.0(2,6)]dec-8-ene-3,5-dione (TDPPAD) have been investigated experimentally and theoretically using Gaussian09 software package. Gauge-including atomic orbital (1)H NMR chemical shifts calculations were carried out and compared with experimental data. The HOMO and LUMO analysis is used to determine the charge transfer within the molecule. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. Molecular Electrostatic Potential was performed by the DFT method and the infrared and Raman intensities have also been reported. Mulliken's net charges have been calculated and compared with the atomic natural charges. Fist hyperpolarizability is calculated in order to find its role in non-liner optics. The calculated geometrical parameters (SDD) are in agreement with that of similar derivatives. PMID:24508888

Renjith, R; Mary, Y Sheena; Panicker, C Yohannan; Varghese, Hema Tresa; Pakosi?ska-Parys, Magdalena; Van Alsenoy, C; Manojkumar, T K

2014-04-24

368

Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman) investigations and quantum chemical calculations of 1,7,8,9-tetrachloro-10,10-dimethoxy-4-{3-[4-(3-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl]propyl}-4-azatricyclo[5.2.1.02,6]dec-8-ene-3,5-dione  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimized molecular structure, vibrational frequencies, corresponding vibrational assignments of 1,7,8,9-tetrachloro-10,10-dimethoxy-4-{3-[4-(3-methoxyphenyl) piperazin-1-yl]propyl}-4-azatricyclo[5.2.1.02,6]dec-8-ene-3,5-dione have been investigated experimentally and theoretically using Gaussian09 software package. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. Gauge-including atomic orbital 1H NMR chemical shifts calculations were carried out and compared with experimental data. The HOMO and LUMO analysis is used to determine the charge transfer within the molecule. Molecular Electrostatic Potential was performed by the DFT method and the infrared and Raman intensities have also been reported. First hyperpolarizability is calculated in order to find its role in non-liner optics. The calculated geometrical parameters (SDD) are in agreement with that of similar derivatives. Mulliken’s net charges have been calculated and compared with the atomic natural charges.

Renjith, R.; Mary, Y. Sheena; Panicker, C. Yohannan; Varghese, Hema Tresa; Pakosi?ska-Parys, Magdalena; Van Alsenoy, C.; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A.

2014-08-01

369

Novel and potent calcium-sensing receptor antagonists: discovery of (5R)-N-[1-ethyl-1-(4-ethylphenyl)propyl]-2,7,7-trimethyl-5-phenyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-3-carboxamide monotosylate (TAK-075) as an orally active bone anabolic agent.  

PubMed

The calcium-sensing receptor antagonist (CaSR) has been recognized as a promising target of anabolic agents for treating osteoporosis. In the course of developing a new drug candidate for osteoporosis, we found tetrahydropyrazolopyrimidine derivative 1 to be an orally active CaSR antagonist that stimulated transient PTH secretion in rats. However, compound 1 showed poor physical and chemical stability. In order to work out this compound's chemical stability and further understand its in vivo efficacy, we focused on modifying the 2-position of the tetrahydropyrazolopyrimidine. As a result of chemical modification, we discovered (5R)-N-[1-ethyl-1-(4-ethylphenyl)propyl]-2,7,7-trimethyl-5-phenyl-4,5,6,7-tetrahydropyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidine-3-carboxamide monotosylate 10m (TAK-075), which showed improved solubility, chemical stability, and in vivo efficacy. Furthermore, we describe that evaluating the active metabolite is important during repeated treatment with short-acting CaSR antagonists. PMID:21353570

Yoshida, Masato; Mori, Akira; Morimoto, Shinji; Kotani, Etsuo; Oka, Masahiro; Notoya, Kohei; Makino, Haruhiko; Ono, Midori; Shirasaki, Mikio; Tada, Norio; Fujita, Hisashi; Ban, Junko; Ikeda, Yukihiro; Kawamoto, Tomohiro; Goto, Mika; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Baba, Atsuo; Yasuma, Tsuneo

2011-03-15

370

Further delineation of hydrophobic binding sites in dopamine D(2)/D(3) receptors for N-4 substituents on the piperazine ring of the hybrid template 5/7-{[2-(4-aryl-piperazin-1-yl)-ethyl]-propyl-amino}-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-naphthalen-2-ol.  

PubMed

Here we report a structure-activity relationship (SAR) study of analogues of 5/7-{[2-(4-aryl-piperazin-1-yl)-ethyl]-propyl-amino}-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-naphthalen-2-ol. Our SAR is focused on introduction of various substitutions in the piperazine ring of the hybrid template. The goal behind this study is to delineate the nature of the binding pocket for N-aryl substitution in the piperazine ring by observing the effect of various hydrophobic and other heteroaromatic substitutions on binding affinity (K(i)), as measured with tritiated spiperone and HEK-293 cells expressing either D(2) or D(3) receptors. Functional activity of selected compounds was assessed with the GTPgammaS binding assay. Compound 8d was the most selective for the D(3) receptor in the spiperone binding assay. An interesting similarity in binding affinity was observed between isoquinoline derivative D-301 and the 2-substituted pyridine derivative 8d, suggesting the importance of relative spatial relationships between the N-atom of the ligand and the molecular determinants of the binding pocket in D(2)/D(3) receptors. Functional activity assays demonstrated high potency and selectivity of (+)-8a and (-)-28b (D(2)/D(3) (ratio of EC(50)): 105 and 202, respectively) for the D(3) receptor and both compounds were more selective compared to the reference drug ropinirole (D(2)/D(3) (ratio of EC(50)): 29.5). PMID:20605099

Ghosh, Balaram; Antonio, Tamara; Gopishetty, Bhaskar; Reith, Maarten; Dutta, Aloke

2010-08-01

371

THIN-LAYER SEPARATION OF CITRIC ACID CYCLE INTERMEDIATES, LACTIC ACID, AND THE AMINO ACID TAURINE  

EPA Science Inventory

This paper describes a two-dimensional mixed-layer method for separating citric acid cycle intermediates, lactic acid and the amino acid taurine. The method cleanly separates all citric acid cycle intermediates tested, excepting citric acid and isocitric acid. The solvents are in...

372

Acid Rain Learning Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These suggestions for activities allow students to learn about acid deposition in new and interactive ways, both in and out of the classroom. The suggestions are for individuals and small groups, the class as a whole, or for field trips. Students may contact local experts about acid rain issues, investigate the energy sources used to generate electricity by their local power companies, collect cartoons about acid rain and air pollution, or play the roles of scientists or interested parties involved in investigations of acid rain issues. Field trip ideas include visiting a local museum or science center to see exhibits or resources on acid rain, and visiting a local cemetary to examine the effects of acid rain on the headstones.

373

Acid rain on Bermuda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased acidity of precipitation due to combustion of fossil fuels has been well documented for both the eastern USA1 and Canada2. The SO2 and NOxemitted by the burning of coal, natural gas, fuel oil and petrol are oxidized in the atmosphere to sulphuric and nitric acids which subsequently give rise to acid precipitation1. However, the SO2 and NOx emitted, and

Timothy Jickells; Anthony Knap; Thomas Church; James Galloway; John Miller

1982-01-01

374

Excretion of ascorbic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  The literature concerning the excretion of ascorbic acid is reviewed and discussed.\\u000a \\u000a Experiments have been carried out and results are given, to show the extent of the marked hourly variations which occur in\\u000a the excretion of ascorbic acid by the kidneys. This variation is present at all physiological ascorbic acid blood levels and\\u000a is not related to the urine pH

J. Deeny; E. T. Murdock; J. J. Rogan

1944-01-01

375

Lactic Acid Bacteria  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This on-line exercise is focused on lactic acid bacteria, a group of related bacteria that produce lactic acid as a result of carbohydrate fermentation. It includes a protocol for the enrichment of lactic acid bacteria from enriched samples (like yogurt, sauerkraut, decaying plant matter, and tooth plaque). Three parameters are measured: growth, culture diversity, and pH. The exercise also includes instructions for the isolation of some of these bacteria by using the streak-plate method.

376

Recovery of organic acids  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

Verser, Dan W. (Golden, CO); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

2009-10-13

377

Recovery of organic acids  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

Verser, Dan W. (Menlo Park, CA); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

2011-11-01

378

Acid Rain Students' Site  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The EPA developed this colorful website to teach students all about acid rain. First, through clear descriptions and helpful figures users can learn the characteristics of acid rain, its dangers, and how to control it. The website offers an interactive connect-the-dots, word searches, crossword puzzles, and other games. A short movie provides an overview of how the use of coal contributes to acid rain and acid rain's impacts on ecosystems and human health. The website also offers an introduction to the pH scale and tools to measure the pH.

379

Molecular Structure of Fumaric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fumaric acid is odorless and colorless or white crystalline powder with a fruit acid taste. Fumaric acid is used as a substitute of tartaric acid in beverages and baking powders and as a replacement for citric acid in fruits drinks. It is also used as antioxidant to prevent rancidity in butter, cheese, powdered milk, and other foodstuff. In addition, fumaric acid is a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, synthetic resins and plastics. Fumaric acid can be prepared by catalytic oxidation of benzene or by bacterial action on glucose and it is involved in the production of energy from food. Fumaric acid (known as trans-butanedioic acid) is the trans isomer of maleic acid (also called cis-butanedioic acid). Fumaric acid is more stable than maleic acid and can be prepared by heating maleic acid.

2004-11-05

380

Cytocompatibility and Mechanical Properties of Short Phosphate Glass Fibre Reinforced Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composites: Effect of Coupling Agent Mediated Interface  

PubMed Central

In this study three chemical agents Amino-propyl-triethoxy-silane (APS), sorbitol ended PLA oligomer (SPLA) and Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) were identified to be used as coupling agents to react with the phosphate glass fibre (PGF) reinforcement and the polylactic acid (PLA) polymer matrix of the composite. Composites were prepared with short chopped strand fibres (l = 20 mm, ? = 20 µm) in a random arrangement within PLA matrix. Improved, initial composite flexural strength (~20 MPa) was observed for APS treated fibres, which was suggested to be due to enhanced bonding between the fibres and polymer matrix. Both APS and HDI treated fibres were suggested to be covalently linked with the PLA matrix. The hydrophobicity induced by these coupling agents (HDI, APS) helped to resist hydrolysis of the interface and thus retained their mechanical properties for an extended period of time as compared to non-treated control. Approximately 70% of initial strength and 65% of initial modulus was retained by HDI treated fibre composites in contrast to the control, where only ~50% of strength and modulus was retained after 28 days of immersion in PBS at 37 °C. All coupling agent treated and control composites demonstrated good cytocompatibility which was comparable to the tissue culture polystyrene (TCP) control, supporting the use of these materials as coupling agent’s within medical implant devices. PMID:24955744

Hasan, Muhammad Sami; Ahmed, Ifty; Parsons, Andrew; Walker, Gavin; Scotchford, Colin

2012-01-01

381

Glycidol exposure evaluation of humans who have ingested diacylglycerol oil containing glycidol fatty acid esters using hemoglobin adducts.  

PubMed

Glycidol fatty acid esters (GEs) have been found as impurities in refined edible oils including diacylglycerol (DAG) oil, and concerns of possible exposure to glycidol (G), a known animal carcinogen, during digestion have been raised. We previously measured N-(2,3-dihydroxy-propyl)valine (diHOPrVal), a G hemoglobin adduct, for DAG oil exposed and non-exposed groups and showed there was no significant difference between them. In the present study, we conducted an additional analysis to verify the outcome of the previous report. The first experiment was designed as a matched case-control study to adjust variables with an increased sample size. The average levels of diHOPrVal were 6.9 pmol/g-globin (95%CI: 4.9-9.0) for 14 DAG oil exposed subjects and 7.3 pmol/g-globin (95%CI: 6.1-8.5) for 42 non-exposed volunteers, and no significant difference in levels was found between the two groups. In a second experiment, we compared the adduct levels of 12 DAG oil exposed subjects before and after discontinuing use of DAG oil, and found there was no significant change in diHOPrVal levels (from 7.1±1.1 to 7.5±1.4 pmol/g-globin). These results suggest that there was no increased exposure to G for humans who ingested DAG oil daily, although the evaluated population was limited. PMID:22889899

Honda, Hiroshi; Fujii, Kenkichi; Yamaguchi, Tohru; Ikeda, Naohiro; Nishiyama, Naohiro; Kasamatsu, Toshio

2012-11-01

382

Synthesis and Evaluation of Amino Acid-Based Radiotracer 99mTc-N4-AMT for Breast Cancer Imaging  

PubMed Central

Purpose. This study was to develop an efficient synthesis of 99mTc-O-[3-(1,4,8,11-tetraazabicyclohexadecane)-propyl]-?-methyl tyrosine (99mTc-N4-AMT) and evaluate its potential in cancer imaging. Methods. N4-AMT was synthesized by reacting N4-oxalate and 3-bromopropyl AMT (N-BOC, ethyl ester). In vitro cellular uptake kinetics of 99mTc-N4-AMT was assessed in rat mammary tumor cells. Tissue distribution of the radiotracer was determined in normal rats at 0.5–4?h, while planar imaging was performed in mammary tumor-bearing rats at 30–120 min. Results. The total synthesis yield of N4-AMT was 14%. Cellular uptake of 99mTc-N4-AMT was significantly higher than that of 99mTc-N4. Planar imaging revealed that 99mTc-N4-AMT rendered greater tumor/muscle ratios than 99mTc-N4. Conclusions. N4-AMT could be synthesized with a considerably high yield. Our in vitro and in vivo data suggest that 99mTc-N4-AMT, a novel amino acid-based radiotracer, efficiently enters breast cancer cells, effectively distinguishes mammary tumors from normal tissues, and thus holds the promise for breast cancer imaging. PMID:21541217

Kong, Fan-Lin; Ali, Mohammad S.; Zhang, Yinhan; Oh, Chang-Sok; Yu, Dong-Fang; Chanda, Mithu; Yang, David J.

2011-01-01

383

Modification of Cys-418 of pyruvate formate-lyase by methacrylic acid, based on its radical mechanism.  

PubMed

The recently determined crystal structure of pyruvate formate-lyase (PFL) suggested a new view of the mechanism of this glycyl radical enzyme, namely that intermediary thiyl radicals of Cys-418 and Cys-419 participate in different ways [Becker, A. et al. (1999) Nat. Struct. Biol. 6, 969-975]. We report here a suicide reaction of PFL that occurs with the substrate-analog methacrylate with retention of the protein radical (K(I)=0.42 mM, k(i)=0.14 min(-1)). Using [1-(14)C]methacrylate (synthesized via acetone cyanhydrin), the reaction end-product was identified by peptide mapping and cocrystallization experiments as S-(2-carboxy-(2S)-propyl) substituted Cys-418. The stereoselectivity of the observed Michael addition reaction is compatible with a radical mechanism that involves Cys-418 thiyl as nucleophile and Cys-419 as H-atom donor, thus supporting the functional assignments of these catalytic amino acid residues derived from the protein structure. PMID:10648809

Plaga, W; Vielhaber, G; Wallach, J; Knappe, J

2000-01-21

384

Biodiesel production by combined fatty acids separation and subsequently enzymatic esterification to improve the low temperature properties.  

PubMed

The poor low-temperature properties of biodiesel, which provokes easy crystallization at low temperature, can cause fuel line plugging and limits its blending amount with petro-diesel. This work aimed to study the production of biodiesel with a new process of improving the low temperature performance of biodiesel. Waste cooking oil was first hydrolyzed into fatty acids (FAs) by 60g immobilized lipase and 240g RO water in 15h. Then, urea complexation was used to divide the FAs into saturated and unsaturated components. The conditions for complexation were: FA-to-urea ratio 1:2 (w/w), methanol to FA ratio 5:1 (v/v), duration 2h. The saturated and unsaturated FAs were then converted to iso-propyl and methyl esters by lipase, respectively. Finally, the esters were mixed together. The CFPP of this mixture was decreased from 5°C to -3°C. Hydrolysis, urea complexation and enzymic catalyzed esterification processes are discussed in this paper. PMID:25441717

Wang, Meng; Nie, Kaili; Cao, Hao; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei

2014-12-01

385

Detection of marine microalgal biotoxins using bioassays based on functional expression of tunicate xenobiotic receptors in yeast.  

PubMed

Marine microalgae can produce biotoxins that cause widespread poisoning in marine ecosystems and may also affect human health. While established microalgal biotoxins are detectable using chemical methods, a need remains for robust, inexpensive bioassays. Ligand-binding domains (LBDs) from a tunicate nuclear receptor, VDR/PXR?, which is orthologous to both the vertebrate pregnane X receptor (PXR) and the vitamin D receptor (VDR), can be activated by microalgal biotoxins when expressed in mammalian cell lines. Building on this observation, we developed a generic recombinant yeast bioassay platform that expresses chimeric proteins containing tunicate VDR/PXR? LBDs which mediate ligand-dependent transcription of a reporter gene (lacZ) encoding an easily assayed enzyme (?-galactosidase). Recombinant yeast strains expressing VDR/PXR? LBDs from two tunicate species, Ciona intestinalis and Botryllus schlosseri, were exposed to both synthetic and natural toxins. Structurally simple synthetic chemicals (n-butyl-p-aminobenzoate, carbamazepine, p-aminobenzoic acid, and bisphenol-A) generated EC50 values in the ?M range, while more structurally complex marine biotoxins (okadaic acid, pectenotoxin-11, and portimine) activated the assays in the nM range. Given the large number of tunicate species, we propose that tunicate VDR/PXR LBDs may be used as 'sensor elements' in similar yeast-based high-throughput bioassays for detection of established microalgal biotoxins and uncharacterised marine bioactive compounds. PMID:25549942

Richter, Ingrid; Fidler, Andrew E

2015-03-01

386

Hydroxybenzoic acids from Boreava orientalis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new guaiacylglycerol ether, threo-guaiacylglycerol-8?-vanillic acid ether, pyrocatechuic acid, pyrocatechuic acid 3-O-?-d-glucoside, gentisic acid, gentisic acid 5-O-?-d-glucoside, vanillic acid and vanillic acid 4-O-?-d-glucoside were identified from fruits of Boreava orientalis. Structural elucidation was carried out on the basis of UV, mass, 1H and 13C NMR spectral data, including 2D shift-correlation and selective INEPT experiments.

Akiyo Sakushima; Maksut Co?kun; Takashi Maoka

1995-01-01

387

Contact sensitizers modulate the arachidonic acid metabolism of PMA-differentiated U-937 monocytic cells activated by LPS  

SciTech Connect

For the effective induction of a hapten-specific T cell immune response toward contact sensitizers, in addition to covalent-modification of skin proteins, the redox and inflammatory statuses of activated dendritic cells are crucial. The aim of this study was to better understand how sensitizers modulate an inflammatory response through cytokines production and COX metabolism cascade. To address this purpose, we used the human monocytic-like U-937 cell line differentiated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and investigated the effect of 6 contact sensitizers (DNCB, PPD, hydroquinone, propyl gallate, cinnamaldehyde and eugenol) and 3 non sensitizers (lactic acid, glycerol and tween 20) on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha}) and on the arachidonic acid metabolic profile after bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Our results showed that among the tested molecules, all sensitizers specifically prevent the production of PMA/LPS-induced COX-2 metabolites (PGE{sub 2,} TxB{sub 2} and PGD{sub 2}), eugenol and cinnamaldehyde inhibiting also the production of IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha}. We further demonstrated that there is no unique PGE{sub 2} inhibition mechanism: while the release of arachidonic acid (AA) from membrane phospholipids does not appear do be a target of modulation, COX-2 expression and/or COX-2 enzymatic activity are the major steps of prostaglandin synthesis that are inhibited by sensitizers. Altogether these results add a new insight into the multiple biochemical effects described for sensitizers. - Highlights: > We investigated how contact sensitizers modulate an inflammatory response. > We used macrophage-differentiated cell line, U-937 treated with PMA/LPS. > Sensitizers specifically inhibit the production of COX metabolites (PGE2, TxB2). > Several mechanisms of inhibition: COX-2 expression/enzymatic activity, isomerases. > New insight in the biochemical properties of sensitizers.

Del Bufalo, Aurelia, E-mail: adelbufalo@rd.loreal.com [L'Oreal R and I, 93600 Aulnay-sous-Bois (France); Bernad, Jose; Dardenne, Christophe [UMD3, INSERM-IFR150, Universite de Toulouse, Universite Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse (France); Verda, Denis; Meunier, Jean Roch; Rousset, Francoise; Martinozzi-Teissier, Silvia [L'Oreal R and I, 93600 Aulnay-sous-Bois (France); Pipy, Bernard [UMD3, INSERM-IFR150, Universite de Toulouse, Universite Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse (France)

2011-10-01

388

Acid in water  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Plants and animals that live in water create some amount of acid in the water. The carbon dioxide that plants and animals release into the water makes the water acidic and unsafe for living organisms. This is why the water of captive aquatic animals and plants must be changed often.

Laszlo Ilyes (None; )

2007-05-16

389

EXPOSURES TO ACIDIC AEROSOLS  

EPA Science Inventory

Ambient monitoring of acid aerosol in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. easurements made in Kingston, TN, and Stuebenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H+ ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/m3 more than 10 ti...

390

Controlling acid rain  

E-print Network

High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn the northeastern USA are caused by the large scale combustion of fossil fuels within this region. Average precipitation acidity is pH 4.2, but spatial and temporal ...

Fay, James A.

1983-01-01

391

EFFECTS OF ACID PRECIPITATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent reviews of available data indicate that precipitation in a large region of North America is highly acidic when its pH is compared with the expected pH value of 5.65 for pure rain water in equilibrium with CO2. A growing body of evidence suggests that acid rain is responsib...

392

Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl Acids*  

EPA Science Inventory

The perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perfluorinated carbon backbone (4-12 in length) and an acidic functional moiety (carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds are chemically stable, have excellent surface-tension reducing properties...

393

Toxicology of Perfluoroalkyl acids  

EPA Science Inventory

The Perfluoroalkyl acids(PFAAs) area a family of organic chemicals consisting of a perflurinated carbon backbone (4-12in length) and a acidic functional moiety (Carboxylate or sulfonate). These compounds have excellent surface-tension reducing properties and have numerous industr...

394

Acids in Proteins  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson describes how amino acids build proteins in a person's body. Amino acids are the chemical building blocks for the structure of an organism. A link to a quiz is provided at the end of the lesson to check comprehension.

2012-06-19

395

Mutant fatty acid desaturase  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a method for producing mutants of a fatty acid desaturase having a substantially increased activity towards fatty acid substrates with chains containing fewer than 18 carbons relative to an unmutagenized precursor desaturase having an 18 carbon atom chain length substrate specificity. The method involves inducing one or more mutations in the nucleic acid sequence encoding the precursor desaturase, transforming the mutated sequence into an unsaturated fatty acid auxotroph cell such as MH13 E. coli, culturing the cells in the absence of supplemental unsaturated fatty acids, thereby selecting for recipient cells which have received and which express a mutant fatty acid desaturase with an elevated specificity for fatty acid substrates having chain lengths of less than 18 carbon atoms. A variety of mutants having 16 or fewer carbon atom chain length substrate specificities are produced by this method. Mutant desaturases produced by this method can be introduced via expression vectors into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells and can also be used in the production of transgenic plants which may be used to produce specific fatty acid products.

Shanklin, John; Cahoon, Edgar B.

2004-02-03

396

Urobilinogen AscorbicAcid  

E-print Network

Date Lot # Bilirubin Urobilinogen Ketone AscorbicAcid Glucose Protein Blood pH Nitrite Leukocytes Specific Gravity hCG: Method Lot # Acetest® (Ketone): Lot # Clinitest® (Glucose): Lot # Ictotest®(Bilirubin AND DATA ENTRY FORMS #12;Date Lot # Bilirubin Urobilinogen Ketone AscorbicAcid Glucose Protein Blood p

Rodriguez, Carlos

397

Omega-3 Fatty Acids  

MedlinePLUS

Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat-like ... people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

398

Fats and fatty acids  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The absolute fat requirement of the human species is the amount of essential fatty acids needed to maintain optimal fatty acid composition of all tissues and normal eicosanoid synthesis. At most, this requirement is no more than about 5% of an adequate energy intake. However, fat accounts for appro...

399

Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

Sims, Paul A.

2011-01-01

400

What Causes Acid Rain?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The phenomenon is the formation of acid rain. The resource explains the chemical reaction that begins when compounds like sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are released into the air, mix and react with water and other chemicals to form more acidic pollutants that dissolve very easily in water and can be carried long distances where they become part of rain, sleet, snow, and fog.

401

Acid (and Base) Rainbows  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the differences between acids and bases and how to use indicators, such as pH paper and red cabbage juice, to distinguish between them. They learn why it is important for engineers to understand acids and bases.

2014-09-18

402

ACID AEROSOLS ISSUE PAPER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report evaluates scientific information on direct health effects associated with exposure to acid aerosols. The present report is not intended as a complete and detailed review of all literature pertaining to acid aerosols. Rather, an attempt has been made to focus on the eva...

403

Bile acid transporters  

PubMed Central

In liver and intestine, transporters play a critical role in maintaining the enterohepatic circulation and bile acid homeostasis. Over the past two decades, there has been significant progress toward identifying the individual membrane transporters and unraveling their complex regulation. In the liver, bile acids are efficiently transported across the sinusoidal membrane by the Na+ taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide with assistance by members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide family. The bile acids are then secreted in an ATP-dependent fashion across the canalicular membrane by the bile salt export pump. Following their movement with bile into the lumen of the small intestine, bile acids are almost quantitatively reclaimed in the ileum by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. The bile acids are shuttled across the enterocyte to the basolateral membrane and effluxed into the portal circulation by the recently indentified heteromeric organic solute transporter, OST?-OST?. In addition to the hepatocyte and enterocyte, subgroups of these bile acid transporters are expressed by the biliary, renal, and colonic epithelium where they contribute to maintaining bile acid homeostasis and play important cytoprotective roles. This article will review our current understanding of the physiological role and regulation of these important carriers. PMID:19498215

Dawson, Paul A.; Lan, Tian; Rao, Anuradha

2009-01-01

404

Strong Acids (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Strong Acids: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". This problem will explore the properties of common strong acids. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

405

Acids and Salts (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acids and Salts: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". This problem will explore a few properties of common acids and their salts. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

406

Halogenated fatty acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also, chlorinated lipids have been found in meat exposed to hypochlorite disinfected water, and in chlorine-treated flour and in

Peter Sundin

1997-01-01

407

Acid Rain Revisited  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The results of a long term study of the effects of acidic deposition in the Northeast were published in Bioscience this week, and they suggest that forests, lakes, and streams of the Northeastern US are not recovering from the toxic effects of acid rain despite significant cuts in the power plant emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide -- two major contributors to the problem. "Acid rain," more accurately called acidic deposition, causes toxic forms of aluminum to concentrate in soil and water, vital calcium and magnesium to be leached from trees, and surface waters to become inhospitable to aquatic biota. The study showed that, after 30 years of federally mandated air emission reductions, sulfur dioxide emissions have decreased while nitrogen oxide emissions have remained the same and that acidic deposition-related problems continue to plague New York and New England.

Sanders, Hilary C.

2001-01-01

408

Metabolic fate of oleic acid, palmitic acid and stearic acid in cultured hamster hepatocytes.  

PubMed Central

Unlike other saturated fatty acids, dietary stearic acid does not appear to raise plasma cholesterol. The reason for this remains to be established, although it appears that it must be related to inherent differences in the metabolism of the fatty acid. In the present study, we have looked at the metabolism of palmitic acid and stearic acid, in comparison with oleic acid, by cultured hamster hepatocytes. Stearic acid was taken up more slowly and was poorly incorporated into both cellular and secreted triacylglycerol. Despite this, stearic acid stimulated the synthesis and secretion of triacylglycerol to the same extent as the other fatty acids. Incorporation into cellular phospholipid was lower for oleic acid than for palmitic acid and stearic acid. Desaturation of stearic acid, to monounsaturated fatty acid, was found to be greater than that of palmitic acid. Oleic acid produced from stearic acid was incorporated into both triacylglycerol and phospholipid, representing 13% and 6% respectively of the total after a 4 h incubation. Significant proportions of all of the fatty acids were oxidized, primarily to form ketone bodies, but by 8 h more oleic acid had been oxidized compared with palmitic acid and stearic acid. PMID:8670161

Bruce, J S; Salter, A M

1996-01-01

409

Sulfuric Acid on Europa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

1999-01-01

410

Trans Fatty Acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

Doyle, Ellin

1997-09-01

411

Folic Acid: Data and Statistics  

MedlinePLUS

... pregnancy. [ Read article ] Use of Supplements Containing Folic Acid Among Women of Childbearing Age -- United States 2007 ... women of childbearing age: 40% reported taking folic acid daily. 81% reported awareness of folic acid. 12% ...

412

Fatty Acid Carcass Mapping  

E-print Network

positively correlated with the MUFA:SFA ratio. Also, the perception of beef can be influenced by the oleic acid concentration. Because fatty acids have very different melting points, variation in their composition has an important effect on firmness... or softness of the fat in meat, especially the s.c. and i.m. fats (Wood et al., 2003). This can also alter shelf-life depending on the double bonds of the unsaturated fatty acids, whether or not they will oxidize rapidly and become rancid and discolored...

Turk, Stacey N.

2010-01-14

413

Strongly Acidic Auxin Indole-3-Methanesulfonic Acid  

PubMed Central

A radiochemical synthesis is described for [14C]indole-3-methanesulfonic acid (IMS), a strongly acidic auxin analog. Techniques were developed for fractionation and purification of IMS using normal and reverse phase chromatography. In addition, the utility of both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for analysis of IMS has been demonstrated. IMS was shown to be an active auxin, stimulating soybean hypocotyl elongation, bean first internode curvature, and ethylene production. IMS uptake by thin sections of soybean hypocotyl was essentially independent of solution pH and, when applied at a 100 micromolar concentration, IMS exhibited a basipetal polarity in its transport in both corn coleoptile and soybean hypocotyl sections. [14C]IMS should, therefore, be a useful compound to study fundamental processes related to the movement of auxins in plant tissues and organelles. PMID:16664007

Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Bialek, Krystyna

1985-01-01

414

Molecular Structure of Gallic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Gallic acid is found in its free state and combined with the tannin molecule, from which it can be extracted by the hydrolysis of tannic acid with sulfuric acid. Since one molecule of gallic acid has a carboxylic acid group and hydroxyl groups, it can react with another molecule of gallic acid to form an ester, digallic acid. When heated above 200 degrees C, gallic acid loses carbon dioxide to form pyrogallol (1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene, C6H3(OH)3), which is used in the production of azo dyes, photographic developers, and in laboratories for absorbing oxygen.

2003-05-08

415

Acid-Base Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Website for anyone wanting to become more familiar with the physiology of acid-base balance in clinical medicine. Several pages are interactive. Numerical results are accompanied by text interpretations to facilitate recognition and understanding.

MD Alan W. Grogono (Tulane University School of Medicine Dept. of Anesthesiology)

2002-06-01

416

(Acid rain workshop)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the World Bank. Papers presented on the first day discussed how the experience gained with acid rain in North America and Europe might be applied to the Asian situation. Papers describing energy use projections, sulfur emissions, and effects of acid rain in several Asian countries were presented on the second day. The remaining time was allotted to discussion, planning, and writing plans for a future research program.

Turner, R.S.

1990-12-05

417

Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

1989-01-01

418

ACID RAIN CONTROL OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE) both develo...

419

Acid Violence in Pakistan  

E-print Network

Pakistan by the Asian Human Rights Commission. 97 Anwary, Acid Violence and Medical Care; Sexual assaults and rapespakistan-urban-women-get-beaten- by-their-husbands_1663675 Abid, Zehra. “Journalistic ethics: How the media traumatises rape

Zia, Taiba

2013-01-01

420

Polymers for acid thickening  

SciTech Connect

Acids, thickened with branched emulsion or suspension polymers of diallyldimethylammonium chloride are useful as oil well drilling and fracturing fluids for stimulating well production and in other applications, such as thickeners for cosmetics, paints, adhesives, textiles and printing inks.

Dixon, K.W.

1980-09-30

421

Amino Acids and Chirality  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

Cook, Jamie E.

2012-01-01

422

Boric Acid Poisoning  

PubMed Central

Boric acid poisoning in 11 infants, occurring in the newborn nursery as a result of the accidental and inadvertent use of 2.5% boric acid in the preparation of the formulae, is reported. Five of the infants died. All except two exhibited the classical symptomatology of acute boric acid poisoning, namely, diarrhea, vomiting, erythema, exfoliation, desquamation of the skin, and marked central nervous system irritation. Early manifestations of poisoning were nonspecific, and one patient died before skin manifestations were noted. Peritoneal dialysis, instituted in nine cases, was found to be the most effective method of treatment. It is recommended that boric acid, which is of doubtful therapeutic value, should be completely removed from hospitals, dispensaries and pharmacopoeias. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:14166459

Wong, L. C.; Heimbach, M. D.; Truscott, D. R.; Duncan, B. D.

1964-01-01

423

Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria, including infections of the ears, lungs, sinus, skin, ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Clavulanic acid is in a class of medications ...

424

Acid-base chemistry  

SciTech Connect

The book is not a research compendium and there are no references to the literature. It is a teaching text covering the entire range of undergraduate subject matter dealing with acid-base chemistry (some of it remotely) as taught in inorganic, analytical, and organic chemistry courses. The excellent chapters VII through IX deal in detail with the quantitative aspects of aqueous acid-base equilibria (salt hydrolysis and buffer, titrations, polyprotic and amphoteric substances).

Hand, C.W.; Blewit, H.L.

1985-01-01

425

Acid Rain Lesson Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Five articulated lessons focus on air quality using classroom and field data collection activities. Case study in Great Smoky Mountains has broader application. Background and data for lessons on: the pH scale, understanding acid vs. base, collecting data, mapping relationship of weather events to acid rain. Links to NPS data on air quality, current values, atlas and reports, packaged datasets on ozone, meteorological conditions and other parameters. Also available: teacher resources; educator workshops.

426

Domoic Acid Fact Sheet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online fact sheet illustrates the transfer of domoic acid through the food web. Domoic acid is a nerve toxin produced by a naturally occurring Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) usually (but not always) of the genus Pseudonitzchia. The sheet explains what to do if you find a sick or dead animal and includes contact information for injured/sick/entangled animal rescue networks in California.

Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary

427

Omega3 Fatty Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The research conducted in avians with emphasis on omega (?)-3 fatty acid enrichment of edible meat portions and the use of\\u000a fertilized eggs as a unique model for nutrition research is addressed. In a typical Western diet, over 70% of dietary fat\\u000a is supplied through animal products. Considering the health benefits of ?-3 fatty acids, feeding strategies have been adopted

Gita Cherian

428

Managing bile acid diarrhoea.  

PubMed

Bowel symptoms including diarrhoea can be produced when excess bile acids (BA) are present in the colon. This condition, known as bile acid or bile salt malabsorption, has been under recognized, as the best diagnostic method, the (75)Se-homocholic acid taurine (SeHCAT) test, is not available in many countries and is not fully utilized in others. Reduced SeHCAT retention establishes that this is a complication of many other gastrointestinal diseases. Repeated studies show SeHCAT tests are abnormal in about 30% of patients otherwise diagnosed as diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome or functional diarrhoea, with an estimated population prevalence of around 1%. Recent work suggests that the condition previously called idiopathic bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is not in fact due to a defect in absorption, but results from an overproduction of BA because of defective feedback inhibition of hepatic bile acid synthesis, a function of the ileal hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19). The approach to treatment currently depends on binding excess BA, to reduce their secretory actions, using colestyramine, colestipol and, most recently, colesevelam. Colesevelam has a number of potential advantages that merit further investigation in trials directed at patients with bile acid diarrhoea. PMID:21180614

Walters, Julian R F; Pattni, Sanjeev S

2010-11-01

429

Managing bile acid diarrhoea  

PubMed Central

Bowel symptoms including diarrhoea can be produced when excess bile acids (BA) are present in the colon. This condition, known as bile acid or bile salt malabsorption, has been under recognized, as the best diagnostic method, the 75Se-homocholic acid taurine (SeHCAT) test, is not available in many countries and is not fully utilized in others. Reduced SeHCAT retention establishes that this is a complication of many other gastrointestinal diseases. Repeated studies show SeHCAT tests are abnormal in about 30% of patients otherwise diagnosed as diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome or functional diarrhoea, with an estimated population prevalence of around 1%. Recent work suggests that the condition previously called idiopathic bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is not in fact due to a defect in absorption, but results from an overproduction of BA because of defective feedback inhibition of hepatic bile acid synthesis, a function of the ileal hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19). The approach to treatment currently depends on binding excess BA, to reduce their secretory actions, using colestyramine, colestipol and, most recently, colesevelam. Colesevelam has a number of potential advantages that merit further investigation in trials directed at patients with bile acid diarrhoea. PMID:21180614

Walters, Julian R. F.; Pattni, Sanjeev S.

2010-01-01

430

Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

1989-01-01

431

Original article Acid stress susceptibility and acid adaptation  

E-print Network

microor- ganisms. Fermentation of lactose by lactic acid bacteria in dairy products, in particular, leads to the accumulation of the end-product lactic acid. Furthermore, bacteria provided in fermented food are exposedOriginal article Acid stress susceptibility and acid adaptation of Propionibacterium freudenreichii

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

432

CONVERSION OF OLEIC ACID TO BRANCHED-CHAIN FATTY ACIDS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Oleic acid and linoleic acid are the most abundant fatty acids of cottonseed oil. As part of a project to develop new value-added industrial applications for cottonseed oil (such as biodiesel, fuel additives, and lubricants), studies were conducted in the synthetic conversion of oleic acid to branc...

433

What is Acid Rain? Explore the Acid Lake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acid rain is a type of air pollution that occurs when certain chemicals mix with water in the air. Most chemicals that cause acid rain come from the emissions from factories and cars. Acid rain looks just like 'normal' rain but when it falls, it can hurt plants and animals. For example, when acid rain falls into a lake or river, it makes that body of water more acidic. Many plants and animals cannot live in acidic water. Play this game, from Earth Day Canada's EcoKids program, to learn more about acid rain and its impact on the environment.

Earth Day Canada

2010-01-01

434

Modulation of synaptic transmission and analysis of neuroprotective effects of valproic Acid and derivates in rat embryonic motoneurons.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a devastating motoneuron disorder for which no effective treatment exists. There is some evidence for neuroprotective effects of valproic acid (VPA). The beneficial effects, however, are limited due to the adverse effects of VPA. To overcome this problem, a number of VPA derivates with fewer side effects have been synthesized. In the present study, we investigated the viability of highly purified embryonic motoneurons cultured on glial feeder layers, composed of either astrocytes or Schwann cells, or in monoculture, in presence of VPA and its three derivates 3-propyl-heptanoic acid (3-PHA), PE-4-yn enantiomers (R- and S-PE-4-yn). An excitotoxic stimulus, kainate (KA), was added at day in vitro 9 (DIV9) and the neuroprotective effect of either simultaneous incubation (DIV9) or pre-incubation (DIV1) of VPA and its derivates was tested. The survival of motoneurons under simultaneous application of KA and VPA derivates was not remarkably increased. Pre-incubation with VPA and even more with the derivates before the addition of KA, however, significantly reduced their vulnerability against the KA-induced neurotoxic effect. Our data suggest that the neuroprotective capacities of VPA and its three derivates tested here drastically increase when they are added several days before KA. Most prominent neuroprotective effects were seen for the PE-4-yn enantiomers. Patch-clamp experiments revealed an antiexcitotoxic effect of the S-PE-4-yn enantiomer that reduces the frequency of postsynaptic currents and enhances the inhibitory postsynaptic transmission dependent on the co-culture condition. PMID:20422280

Ragancokova, D; Song, Y; Nau, H; Dengler, R; Krampfl, K; Petri, S

2010-08-01

435

DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID AND ARACHIDONIC ACID PREVENT ESSENTIAL FATTY ACID DEFICIENCY AND HEPATIC STEATOSIS  

PubMed Central

Objectives Essential fatty acids are important for growth, development, and physiologic function. Alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid are the precursors of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid, respectively, and have traditionally been considered the essential fatty acids. However, we hypothesized that docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid can function as the essential fatty acids. Methods Using a murine model of essential fatty acid deficiency and consequent hepatic steatosis, we provided mice with varying amounts of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids to determine whether exclusive supplementation of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids could prevent essential fatty acid deficiency and inhibit or attenuate hepatic steatosis. Results Mice supplemented with docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids at 2.1% or 4.2% of their calories for 19 days had normal liver histology and no biochemical evidence of essential fatty acid deficiency, which persisted when observed after 9 weeks. Conclusion Supplementation of sufficient amounts of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids alone without alpha-linolenic and linoleic acids meets essential fatty acid requirements and prevents hepatic steatosis in a murine model. PMID:22038210

Le, Hau D.; Meisel, Jonathan A.; de Meijer, Vincent E.; Fallon, Erica M.; Gura, Kathleen M.; Nose, Vania; Bistrian, Bruce R.; Puder, Mark

2012-01-01

436

Atmospheric Dust and Acid Rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why is acid rain still an environmental problem in Europe and North America despite antipollution reforms? The answer really is blowing in the wind: atmospheric dust. These airborne particles can help neutralize the acids falling on forests, but dust levels are unusually low these days. In the air dust particles can neutralize acid rain. What can we do about acid

Lars O. Hedin; Gene E. Likens

1996-01-01

437

Malvalic Acid and its Structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

SOME of the properties of a biologically active C18 fatty acid isolated from Malva verticillata and M. parviflora have been reported1. The name `malvalic' acid is now proposed for this acid, which was previously referred to as ``Halphen acid'' because it gave rise to the Halphen colour test.

J. J. Macfarlane; F. S. Shenstone; J. R. Vickery

1957-01-01

438

Molecular Structure of Malonic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Propanedioic acid is a dibasic carboxylic acid that was first synthesized by oxidizing malic acid in 1858 by a scientist named Dessaigne. Naturally, propandioic acid is found in apples. This chemical is relatively unstable and has few uses, but its ester derivative, diethyl malonate, is used to synthesize useful compounds such as barbiturates, flavors, fragrances, and vitamins (B1 and B6).

2002-10-10

439

Pelargonic acid weed control parameters  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Producers and researchers are interested in pelargonic acid (nonanoic acid) as a broad-spectrum post-emergence or burn-down herbicide. Pelargonic acid is a fatty acid naturally occurring in many plants and animals, and present in many foods we consume. The objective of this research was to determine...

440

Ursodeoxycholic acid, 7-ketolithocholic acid, and chenodeoxycholic acid are primary bile acids of the nutria (Myocastor coypus).  

PubMed

Because ursodeoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids are interconverted in humans via 7-ketolithocholic acid, bile acid metabolism was studied in the nutria (Myocastor coypus), the bile of which is known to contain these three bile acids. Relative concentrations of ursodeoxycholic (37% +/- 20%), 7-ketolithocholic (33% +/- 17%), and chenodeoxycholic (17% +/- 9%) acids in gallbladder bile were unchanged by 5-20 h of complete biliary diversion (n = 7). Injection of either [14C]cholesterol, [14C]ursodeoxycholic, [14C]7-ketolithocholic acid, or a mixture of [7 beta-3H]chenodeoxycholic acid and [14C]chenodeoxycholic acid into bile fistula nutria demonstrated that all three bile acids can be synthesized hepatically from cholesterol, that they are interconverted sparingly (2%-5%) by the liver, but that 7-ketolithocholic acid is an intermediate in the hepatic transformation of chenodeoxycholic acid to ursodeoxycholic acid. An animal that had been fed antibiotics showed an unusually elevated concentration of ursodeoxycholic acid in gallbladder and hepatic bile, suggesting that bacterial transformation of ursodeoxycholic acid in the intestine may be a source of some biliary chenodeoxycholic acid and 7-ketolithocholic acid. PMID:3943698

Tint, G S; Bullock, J; Batta, A K; Shefer, S; Salen, G

1986-03-01

441

Molecular Structure of Succinic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Succinic acid is an odorless and colorless crystal, triclinic or monoclinic prism with a very acid taste. Succinic acid is one of the natural acids found in broccoli, rhubarb, beets, asparagus, fresh meat extracts, sauerkraut and cheese. It is also a constituent of almost all plant and animal tissues and plays an important role in intermediary metabolism. Succinic acid is produced commercially by catalytic hydrogenation of maleic or fumaric acid or by acid hydrolysis of succinonitrile. Succinic acid is used in flavoring for food and beverages, and in the manufacture of lacquers, dyes, esters for perfumes, succinates, in photography and in foods as a sequestrant, buffer and neutralizing agent. Succinic acid has uses in certain drug compounds and in agricultural production. An interesting fact, succcinic acid has also been found in meteorites.

2004-11-11

442

Domoic acid epileptic disease.  

PubMed

Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:24663110

Ramsdell, John S; Gulland, Frances M

2014-03-01

443

Analysis of Bile Acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Bile acids constitute a large family of steroids in vertebrates, normally formed from cholesterol and carrying a carboxyl group in a side-chain of variable length. Bile alcohols, also formed from cholesterol, have similar structures as bile acids, except for the absence of a carboxyl group in the steroid skeleton. The conversion of cholesterol to bile acids and/or bile alcohols is of major importance for maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis, both from quantitative and regulatory points of view (Chiang, 2004; Kalaany and Mangelsdorf, 2006; Moore, Kato, Xie, et al., 2006; Scotti, Gilardi, Godio, et al., 2007). Appropriately conjugated bile acids and bile alcohols (also referred to as bile salts) are secreted in bile and serve vital functions in the absorption of lipids and lipid-soluble compounds (Hofmann, 2007). Reliable analytical methods are required for studies of the functions and pathophysiological importance of the variety of bile acids and bile alcohols present in living organisms. When combined with genetic and proteomic studies, analysis of these small molecules (in today's terminology: metabolomics, steroidomics, sterolomics, cholanoidomics, etc.) will lead to a deeper understanding of the integrated metabolic processes in lipid metabolism.

Sjövall, Jan; Griffiths, William J.; Setchell, Kenneth D. R.; Mano, Nariyasu; Goto, Junichi

444

Optical high acidity sensor  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and, a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.

Jorgensen, Betty S. (Jemez Springs, NM); Nekimken, Howard L. (Los Alamos, NM); Carey, W. Patrick (Lynnwood, WA); O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA)

1997-01-01

445

Optical high acidity sensor  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber. 10 figs.

Jorgensen, B.S.; Nekimken, H.L.; Carey, W.P.; O`Rourke, P.E.

1997-07-22

446

Sensitive Amino Acid Composition and Chirality Analysis in the Martian Regolith with a Microfabricated in situ Analyzer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in microfabricated "lab-on-a-chip" technologies have dramatically enhanced the capabilities of chemical and biochemical analyzers. The portability and sensitivity of these devices makes them ideal instruments for in situ chemical analysis on other planets. We have focused our initial studies on amino acid analysis because amino acids are more chemically resistant to decomposition than other biomolecules, and because amino acid chirality is a well-defined biomarker [1]. Previously, we developed a prototype electrophoresis chip, detection system and analysis method where the amino acids were labeled with fluorescein using FITC and then electrophoretically analyzed using g-cyclodextrin as the chiral resolution agent [2]. Extracts of the Murchison meteorite were analyzed, and the D/L ratios determined by microchip CE closely matched those from HPLC and GCMS and exhibited greater precision. Our microchip analyzer has now been further improved by establishing the capability of performing amino acid composition and chirality analyses using fluorescamine rather than FITC [3]. Fluorescamine is advantageous because it reacts more rapidly than FITC, and because excess reagent is hydrolyzed to a non-fluorescent product. Furthermore, the use of fluorescamine facilitates interfacing with the Mars Organic Detector (MOD) [4]. Fluorescamine-amino acids are separated using similar conditions as the FITC-aa, resulting in similar separation times and identical elution orders. Fluorescamine-aa are chirally resolved in the presence of hydroxy-propyl-b-cyclodextrin, and typical limits of detection are ˜ 50 nM. This work establishes the feasibility of combining fluorescamine labeling of amino acids with microfabricated CE devices to develop low-volume, high-sensitivity apparatus for extraterrestrial exploration. The stage is now set for the development of the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA), a portable analysis system for amino acid extraction and chiral analysis that will combine the capabilities of microchip CE with the previously developed extraction capabilities of MOD [4]. Amino acids are first extracted from soil by sublimation to a cold finger coated with fluorescamine for solid phase labeling. Sample transfer between MOD and the CE device is achieved through a capillary sipper driven by microfabricated valves and pumps [5]. The construction of a portable MOA instrument will facilitate in situ studies of amino acids in Mars analog sites such as the Atacama Desert in Chile. Preliminary chiral analyses of Atacama soil extracts on the microfabricated CE device have shown amino acid detection down to low ppb concentrations. Future field tests in the Atacama Desert will explore the feasibility of the portable CE device for performing in situ amino acid analysis. This work will provide the technology base for the development the Mars Organic Laboratory (MOL), a portable device that will analyze a broad suite of biomolecules, including nucleobases, sugars, and organic acids and bases [6]. [1]J.L. Bada, G.D. McDonald, Icarus 114 (1995) 139. [2]L.D. Hutt, D.P. Glavin, J.L. Bada, R.A. Mathies, Anal. Chem. 71 (1999) 4000. [3]A.M. Skelley, R.A. Mathies, J. Chromatogr. A (2003) in press. [4]G. Kminek, J.L. Bada, O. Botta, D.P. Glavin, F. Grunthaner, Planet. Space Sci. 48 (2000) 1087. [5]W.H. Grover, A.M. Skelley, C.N. Liu, E.T. Lagally, R.A. Mathies, Sens. Actuators B 89 (2003) 325. [6]A.M. Skelley, F.J. Grunthaner, J.F. Bada, R.A. Mathies, in SPIE: Proceedings of the In-Situ Instrument Technologies Meeting, Pasadena, CA, 2002.

Skelley, A. M.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Bada, J. L.; Mathies, R. A.

2003-12-01

447

Science Shorts: Understanding Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

You may have heard acid rain mentioned as an environmental problem. It doesn't mean that a strong chemical is raining from the sky. The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. However, a small change in how acidic precipitation is can have a profound effect. This month's activity will help students understand the effect of acid rain on buildings and statues.

Kathleen Damonte

2004-11-01

448

Acid rain degradation of nylon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain, precipitation with a pH less than 5.6, is known to damage lakes, vegetation and buildings. Degradation of outdoor textiles by acid rain is strongly suspected but not well documented. This study reports the effects of sunlight, aqueous acid, heat and humidity (acid rain conditions) on spun delustered nylon 6,6 fabric. Untreated nylon and nylon treated with sulfuric acid

Kyllo

1984-01-01

449

Molecular Structure of Citric Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Citric Acid was first isolated in 1734 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele. Citric acid is found in many fruits, in particular lemons, grapefruit, and oranges. Several types of bacteria and fungi are also known to produce citric acid. In fact, the fungus Aspergillus niger produces the vast majority of citric acid, which is used in almost all carbonated sodas. Additionally, citric acid is also used to clean stainless steel.

2002-08-13

450

49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...with any other material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities...greater concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as...

2013-10-01

451

49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...with any other material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities...greater concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as...

2011-10-01

452

49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...with any other material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities...greater concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as...

2014-10-01

453

49 CFR 173.158 - Nitric acid.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...with any other material. (b) Nitric acid in any concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as impurities...greater concentration which does not contain sulfuric acid or hydrochloric acid as...

2012-10-01

454

A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid  

SciTech Connect

An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

2010-05-03

455

Acid neutralizing capacity, alkalinity, and acid-base status of natural waters containing organic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

The terms acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and alkalinity (Alk) are extensively employed in the characterization of natural waters, including soft circumneutral or acidic waters. However, in the presence of organic acids, ANC measurements are inconsistent with many conceptual definitions of ANC or Alk and do not provide an adequate characterization of the acid-base chemistry of water. Knowledge of Gran ANC

Harold F. Hemond

1990-01-01

456

The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

2012-01-01

457

Sequential injection redox or acid–base titration for determination of ascorbic acid or acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two sequential injection titration systems with spectrophotometric detection have been developed. The first system for determination of ascorbic acid was based on redox reaction between ascorbic acid and permanganate in an acidic medium and lead to a decrease in color intensity of permanganate, monitored at 525 nm. A linear dependence of peak area obtained with ascorbic acid concentration up to

Narong Lenghor; Jaroon Jakmunee; Michael Vilen; Rolf Sara; Gary D Christian; Kate Grudpan

2002-01-01

458

Acid rain in Asia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in the developing world, particularly in Asia, is much bleaker. Given the policies of many Asian nations to achieve levels of development comparable with the industrialized world—which necessitate a significant expansion of energy consumption (most derived from indigenous coal reserves)—the potential for the formation of, and damage from, acid deposition in these developing countries is very high. This article delineates and assesses the emissions patterns, meteorology, physical geology, and biological and cultural resources present in various Asian nations. Based on this analysis and the risk factors to acidification, it is concluded that a number of areas in Asia are currently vulnerable to acid rain. These regions include Japan, North and South Korea, southern China, and the mountainous portions of Southeast Asia and southwestern India. Furthermore, with accelerated development (and its attendant increase in energy use and production of emissions of acid deposition precursors) in many nations of Asia, it is likely that other regions will also be affected by acidification in the near future. Based on the results of this overview, it is clear that acid deposition has significant potential to impact the Asian region. However, empirical evidence is urgently needed to confirm this and to provide early warning of increases in the magnitude and spread of acid deposition and its effects throughout this part of the world.

Bhatti, Neeloo; Streets, David G.; Foell, Wesley K.

1992-07-01

459

40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 ...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject...

2011-07-01

460

40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 ...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject...

2012-07-01

461

Enantiomeric separation of amino acids and nonprotein amino acids using a particle-loaded  

E-print Network

Enantiomeric separation of amino acids and nonprotein amino acids using a particle acids and three nonprotein amino acids are derivatized with the fluorogenic reagent 4-fluoro-7-nitro-2 liquid chromatography (HPLC). Keywords: Amino acid / Nonprotein amino acid / Capillary

Zare, Richard N.

462

[Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].  

PubMed

Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination. PMID:20649031

Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

2010-06-01

463

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics  

PubMed Central

Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent can bind to metals via four carboxylate and two amine groups. It is a polyamino carboxylic acid and a colorless, water-soluble solid, which is widely used to dissolve lime scale. It is produced as several salts, notably disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA. EDTA reacts with the calcium ions in dentine and forms soluble calcium chelates. A review of the literature and a discussion of the different indications and considerations for its usage are presented. PMID:24966721

Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

2013-01-01

464

Acid Deposition Lab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students will design an apparatus and carry out tests of fossil fuels to determine their impact on acid deposition by placing a small amount of a fossil fuel on a cotton puff and burning it to measure if acidic compounds are given off. Students will provide a diagram of their collection device and describe how it should function. Students will then draw a map showing the location of their precipitation collector and develop a graph or chart based on the results they have collected.

465

Preparation of a Highly Fluorophilic Phosphonium Salt and its Use in a Fluorous Anion-Exchanger Membrane with High Selectivity for Perfluorinated Acids  

PubMed Central

Fluorous solvents are the most nonpolar, nonpolarizable phases known, whereas ions are inherently polar. This makes it difficult to create salts that are soluble in a fluorous solvent. Here we present the synthesis and characterization of a new fluorophilic phosphonium salt, tris{3,5-bis[(perfluorooctyl)propyl]phenyl}methylphosphonium methyl sulfate. The salt has a solubility of at least 14 mM in perfluoro(perhydrophenanthrene), perfluoro(methylcyclohexane), and perfluorohexanes. It also shows immediate potential for use as a phase-transfer catalyst in fluorous biphasic catalysis, but in this work it is used as an anion exchanger site in the first potentiometric fluorous-membrane anion-selective electrode. The membrane sensor exhibited the exceptional selectivity of 3.9 × 1010 to 1 for perfluorooctanesulfonate over chloride, and of 2.5 × 107 to 1 for perfluorooctanoate over chloride. With improvements to the sensor’s detection limit and lifetime, it has the potential to be an attractive alternative to the expensive, time-consuming methods currently employed for measurement of perfluorinated acids. PMID:22072222

Boswell, Paul G.; Anfang, Alyce C.; Bühlmann, Philippe

2008-01-01

466

Iridium porphyrins in CD3OD: reduction of Ir(III), CD3-OD bond cleavage, Ir-D acid dissociation and alkene reactions.  

PubMed

Methanol solutions of iridium(III) tetra(p-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin [(TSPP)Ir(III)] form an equilibrium distribution of methanol and methoxide complexes ([(TSPP)Ir(III)(CD3OD)(2-n)(OCD3)n]((3+n)-)). Reaction of [(TSPP)Ir(III) with dihydrogen (D2) in methanol produces an iridium hydride [(TSPP)Ir(III)-D(CD3OD)](4-) in equilibrium with an iridium(I) complex ([(TSPP)Ir(I)(CD3OD)](5-)). The acid dissociation constant of the iridium hydride (Ir-D) in methanol at 298 K is 3.5 × 10(-12). The iridium(I) complex ([(TSPP)Ir(I)(CD3OD)](5-)) catalyzes reaction of [(TSPP)Ir(III)-D(CD3OD)](4-) with CD3-OD to produce an iridium methyl complex [(TSPP)Ir(III)-CD3(CD3OD)](4-) and D2O. Reactions of the iridium hydride with ethene and propene produce iridium alkyl complexes, but the Ir-D complex fails to give observable addition with acetaldehyde and carbon monoxide in methanol. Reaction of the iridium hydride with propene forms both the isopropyl and propyl complexes with free energy changes (?G° 298 K) of -1.3 and -0.4 kcal mol(-1) respectively. Equilibrium thermodynamics and reactivity studies are used in discussing relative Ir-D, Ir-OCD3 and Ir-CD2- bond energetics in methanol. PMID:23540797

Bhagan, Salome; Imler, Gregory H; Wayland, Bradford B

2013-04-15

467

Lactic acid bacterial cell factories for gamma-aminobutyric acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma-aminobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid that is widely present in organisms. Several important physiological functions\\u000a of gamma-aminobutyric acid have been characterized, such as neurotransmission, induction of hypotension, diuretic effects,\\u000a and tranquilizer effects. Many microorganisms can produce gamma-aminobutyric acid including bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Among\\u000a them, gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing lactic acid bacteria have been a focus of research in recent

Haixing Li; Yusheng Cao

2010-01-01

468

Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters  

DOEpatents

A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

2003-06-24

469

Design, synthesis and evaluation of caffeic acid phenethyl ester-based inhibitors targeting a selectivity pocket in the active site of human aldo-keto reductase 1B10.  

PubMed

Inhibitors of a human aldo-keto reductase, AKR1B10, are regarded as promising therapeutics for the treatment of cancer, but those with both high potency and selectivity compared to the structurally similar aldose reductase (AKR1B1) have not been reported. In this study, we have found that, among honeybee propolis products, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) inhibited AKR1B10 (IC(50) = 80 nM) with 7-fold selectivity over AKR1B1. Based on a model of docked CAPE in AKR1B10, its derivatives were designed, synthesized and evaluated for inhibitory potency. Among them, 3-(4-hydroxy-2-methoxyphenyl)acrylic acid 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propyl ester (10c) was the most potent competitive inhibitor (K(i) = 2.6 nM) with 790-fold selectivity for AKR1B10 over AKR1B1. Molecular docking of 10c and site-directed mutagenesis of AKR1B10 residues suggested that the interactions between the 2-methoxy and 3-hydroxy groups of 10c and the enzyme's Val301 and Gln114, respectively, are important for the inhibitor's selectivity. Additionally, the sub-?M concentration of 10c significantly suppressed the farnesal metabolism and cellular proliferation in AKR1B10-overexpressing cells. PMID:22236472

Soda, Midori; Hu, Dawei; Endo, Satoshi; Takemura, Mayuko; Li, Jie; Wada, Ryogo; Ifuku, Syohei; Zhao, Hai-Tao; El-Kabbani, Ossama; Ohta, Shozo; Yamamura, Keiko; Toyooka, Naoki; Hara, Akira; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki

2012-02-01

470

Cyclic Fatty Acids Found in Frying Oils are Detoxified via Classical Drug Metabolic Pathway but also by ?-Oxidation and Eliminated as Conjugates in Rats.  

PubMed

Cyclic fatty acid monomers (CFAM) are mainly formed during heat treatments, such as frying, of edible oils. These fatty acids are mixtures of disubstituted five- or six-carbon-membered ring structures. Some earlier studies have suggested that some of these molecules could be metabolized and detoxified, but so far, neither the detoxification mechanisms nor the metabolite identifications have been elucidated. The objective of the present study was to identify the metabolites resulting from the metabolism and detoxification of CFAM. A deuterium-labeled CFAM, [9-(2)H]-10-(6-propyl-2-cyclohexenyl)-dodecenoic acid, was synthesized and fed to rats for 3 days, along with a standard chow diet while the control group was fed the same chow diet which did not contain any CFAM. Biological fluids (urine, blood) were collected for both groups of rats and analyzed using an untargeted metabolomic approach by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Two discriminant metabolites and 18 molecules derived from CFAM were identified or tentatively identified in plasma and urine samples, respectively. The structures of the metabolites suggest that CFAM having a six-carbon-membered ring could be detoxified by the classical drug metabolic pathway (phase I and phase II reactions), but our study also indicates that these are substrates for the ?-oxidation pathway and eliminated as glucuronide, sulphate, and/or nitrate conjugates. Urine metabolomics investigations without diet effects have indicated a higher excretion of medium-chain acylcarnitines in the D-CFAM diet group, which may indicate an incomplete ?-oxidation. PMID:25739730

Desmarais, Amélie; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Lyan, Bernard; Martin, Jean-François; Leblanc, Nadine; Angers, Paul; Sébédio, Jean-Louis

2015-04-01

471

Molecular Structure of Aspartic Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aspartate was first isolated in 1868 from legumin in plant seeds. Aspartic acid forms colorless crystals that are soluble in water and insoluble in alcohols and ethers. This is a naturally occurring nonessential amino acid that is produced in the liver from oxaloacetic acid, but is plentiful in meats and sprouting seeds. The amino acid is important in the Krebs cycle as well as the urea cycle, where it is vital in the elimination of dietary waste products. Aspartic acid is required for stamina, brain and neural health. This acid has been found to be important in the functioning of ribonucleic acid (RNA), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and in the production of immunoglobin and antibody synthesis. A deficiency of aspartate will lead to fatigue and depression. Aspartic acid has many uses that include biological and clinical studies, preparation of culture media, and it also functions as a detergent, fungicide, germicide, and metal complexation.

2002-08-20

472

The dopamine D3/D2 agonist (+)-PD-128,907 [(R-(+)-trans-3,4a,10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H-[1]benzopyrano[4,3-b]-1,4-oxazin-9-ol)] protects against acute and cocaine-kindled seizures in mice: further evidence for the involvement of D3 receptors.  

PubMed

Previous findings have demonstrated a protective role for dopamine D(3)/D(2) receptor agonists in the convulsant and lethal effects of acutely administered cocaine. Data are provided here to establish that the protection occurs through a D(3)-linked mechanism and that protection is extended to seizure kindling. The D(3) antagonist SB-277011-A [4-quinolinecarboxamide,N-[trans-4-[2-(6-cyano-3,4-dihydro-2(1H)-isoquinolinyl)ethyl]-cyclohexyl]-(9CI)] prevented the anticonvulsant effect of the D(3)/D(2) receptor agonist (+)-PD-128,907 [(R-(+)-trans-3,4a,10b-tetrahydro-4-propyl-2H,5H-[1]benzopyrano[4,3-b]-1,4-oxazin-9-ol)] on cocaine-induced seizures. The protection afforded by the D(3)/D(2) agonist, (+)-PD-128,907, was eliminated in D(3) receptor-deficient mice. In D(2) receptor knockout mice, the anticonvulsant effects of (+)-PD-128,907 were preserved. (+)-PD-128,907 also prevented the acquisition and expression of cocaine-kindled seizures engendered by repeated daily dosing with 60 mg/kg cocaine. (+)-PD-128,907 also blocked the seizures induced in mice fully seizure kindled to cocaine. Although repeated dosing with cocaine increased the potency of cocaine to produce seizures and lethality (decreased ED(50) values), daily coadministration of (+)-PD-128,907 significantly prevented this potency shift. In mice treated daily with cocaine and (+)-PD-128,907, the density, but not the affinity, of D(3) receptors was increased. The specificity with which (+)-PD-128,907 acts upon this cocaine-driven process was demonstrated by the lack of a significant effect of (+)-PD-128,907 on seizure kindling to a GABA(A) receptor antagonist, pentylenetetrazol. Taken together and with literature findings, the data indicate that dopamine D(3) receptors function in the initiation of a dampening mechanism against the toxic effects of cocaine, a finding that might have relevance to psychiatric disorders of drug dependence, schizophrenia, and bipolar depression. PMID:18566292

Witkin, J M; Levant, B; Zapata, A; Kaminski, R; Gasior, M

2008-09-01

473

Specific bile acids inhibit hepatic fatty acid uptake  

PubMed Central

Bile acids are known to play important roles as detergents in the absorption of hydrophobic nutrients and as signaling molecules in the regulation of metabolism. Here we tested the novel hypothesis that naturally occurring bile acids interfere with protein-mediated hepatic long chain free fatty acid (LCFA) uptake. To this end stable cell lines expressing fatty acid transporters as well as primary hepatocytes from mouse and human livers were incubated with primary and secondary bile acids to determine their effects on LCFA uptake rates. We identified ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) as the two most potent inhibitors of the liver-specific fatty acid transport protein 5 (FATP5). Both UDCA and DCA were able to inhibit LCFA uptake by primary hepatocytes in a FATP5-dependent manner. Subsequently, mice were treated with these secondary bile acids in vivo to assess their ability to inhibit diet-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Administration of DCA in vivo via injection or as part of a high-fat diet significantly inhibited hepatic fatty acid uptake and reduced liver triglycerides by more than 50%. In summary, the data demonstrate a novel role for specific bile acids, and the secondary bile acid DCA in particular, in the regulation of hepatic LCFA uptake. The results illuminate a previously unappreciated means by which specific bile acids, such as UDCA and DCA, can impact hepatic triglyceride metabolism and may lead to novel approaches to combat obesity-associated fatty liver disease. PMID:22531947

Nie, Biao; Park, Hyo Min; Kazantzis, Melissa; Lin, Min; Henkin, Amy; Ng, Stephanie; Song, Sujin; Chen, Yuli; Tran, Heather; Lai, Robin; Her, Chris; Maher, Jacquelyn J.; Forman, Barry M.; Stahl, Andreas

2012-01-01

474

Acid Mine Drainage Remediation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this video, an environmental technologist visits an abandoned coal mine in Kentucky to talk about how a remediation system (a series of settling ponds and treatment cells) is neutralizing the acid drainage flowing from the mine and keeping it from damaging a creek downstream.

2010-12-10

475

The Acid Rain Debate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an activity which provides opportunities for role-playing as industrialists, ecologists, and government officials. The activity involves forming an international commission on acid rain, taking testimony, and, based on the testimony, making recommendations to governments on specific ways to solve the problem. Includes suggestions for…

Bybee, Rodger; And Others

1984-01-01

476

Federal Acid Rain Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federal environmental policy, designed to control acid rain, is shaped after the hierarchy of the system, and is controlled simultaneously by regional and central governments. Each governmental level controls one of two policy instruments: pollution abatement production and pollution tax. In a two-stage game where regional governments are Stackelberg leaders and control pollution taxes, the subgame perfect equilibrium is socially

Arthur J. Caplan; Emilson C. D. Silva

1999-01-01

477

The Acid Rain Game.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

1982-01-01

478

Acid Rain Classroom Projects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation. Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. (SAH)

Demchik, Michael J.

2000-01-01

479

The Acid Rain Debate.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

1997-01-01

480

Acid Rain Investigations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an activity in which students investigate the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)

Hugo, John C.

1992-01-01