Sample records for p-aminobenzoic acid propyl

  1. The gyrase inhibitor albicidin consists of p-aminobenzoic acids and cyanoalanine.

    PubMed

    Cociancich, Stéphane; Pesic, Alexander; Petras, Daniel; Uhlmann, Stefanie; Kretz, Julian; Schubert, Vivien; Vieweg, Laura; Duplan, Sandrine; Marguerettaz, Mélanie; Noëll, Julie; Pieretti, Isabelle; Hügelland, Manuela; Kemper, Sebastian; Mainz, Andi; Rott, Philippe; Royer, Monique; Süssmuth, Roderich D

    2015-03-01

    Albicidin is a potent DNA gyrase inhibitor produced by the sugarcane pathogenic bacterium Xanthomonas albilineans. Here we report the elucidation of the hitherto unknown structure of albicidin, revealing a unique polyaromatic oligopeptide mainly composed of p-aminobenzoic acids. In vitro studies provide further insights into the biosynthetic machinery of albicidin. These findings will enable structural investigations on the inhibition mechanism of albicidin and its assessment as a highly effective antibacterial drug. PMID:25599532

  2. p-Aminobenzoate-p-aminobenzoate.

    PubMed

    Kane, J F; O'Brien, H D

    1975-09-01

    p-Aminobenzoate (PABA) synthase from Bacillus subtilis is an aggregate composed of two nonidentical subunits and has the following properties. (i) In crude extracts this enzyme catalyzes the formation of PABA in the presence of chorismate and either glutamine (amidotransferase) or ammonia (aminase). The amidotransferase activity is about 5- to 10-fold higher than the aminase activity and is stable for at least 1 week when frozen at -70 C. (II) Although no divalent cation requirement could be demonstrated with crude extracts, 2 mM ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid completely inhibits both activities. (iii) After ammonium sulfate fractionation both the aminase and amidotransferase activities require Mg2+ and guanosine in addition to the substrates indicated above for optimal activity. The guanosine requirement can be replaced by guanosine 5'-monophosphate, guanosine 5'-diphosphate, and guanosine 5'-triphosphate but not by guanine, adenosine 5'-triphosphate, uridine 5'-triphosphate, cytidine 5'-triphosphate, thymidine 5'-triphosphate, inorganic phosphate, and phosphoribosylpyrophosphate. Furthermore, at a pH above 7.4 or below 6.4 activity is rapidly lost a 4 C, or -60 C. (IV) The enzyme is composed of two non-identical subunits, designated subunit A and subunit X. Subunit A has an estimated molecular weight of 31,000, whereas subunit X has an estimated molecular weight of 19,000. Subunit A has aminase activity but no amidotransferase activity; a mutation at the pabA locus results in the loss of PABA synthase activity. Subunit X, which is also a component of the anthranilate synthase complex, has no PABA synthase activity itself but complexes with subunit A to give an AX aggregate that can use glutamine as a substrate. (v) The molecular weight of the AX complex has been estimated at 50,000, suggesting a 1:1 ratio of subunits. (vi) The enzyme is readily associated and dissociated. PMID:239922

  3. Synthesis, characterization and cation adsorption of p-aminobenzoic acid intercalated on calcium phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, Camila F.N. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil)] [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Lazarin, Angélica M., E-mail: amlazarin2@uem.br [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil); Sernaglia, Rosana L.; Andreotti, Elza I.S. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil)] [Departamento de Química, Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Av. Colombo, 5790, 87020-900 Maringá, PR (Brazil)

    2012-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Scanning electron microscopy photographs of calcium phosphate (a) and intercalated with p-aminobenzoic acid (b). Highlights: ? Calcium phosphate was intercalated with p-aminobenzoic acid. ? Guest molecule contains nitrogen and oxygen atoms from amine and carboxylic groups. ? These basic centers are potentially useful for cation coordination in ethanol solution. ? Crystal morphology of compounds is lamellar, it agrees with expected structural characteristics. -- Abstract: Crystalline lamellar calcium phosphate retained 4-aminobenzoic acid inside its cavity without leaching. The intense infrared bands in the 1033 and 1010 cm{sup ?1} interval confirmed the presence of the phosphonate groups attached to the inorganic layer, with sharp and intense peaks in X-ray diffraction patterns, which gave basal distances of 712 and 1578 pm for the original and the intercalated compounds, respectively. Solid-state {sup 31}P nuclear magnetic resonance spectra presented only one peak for the phosphate groups attached to the main inorganic polymeric structure near ?2.4 ppm. The adsorption isotherms from ethanol gave the maximum adsorption capacities of 6.44 and 3.34 mmol g{sup ?1} for nickel and cobalt, respectively, which stability constant and distribution coefficient followed Co > Ni.

  4. Synthesis, crystal structure and biological activity of 2-hydroxyethylammonium salt of p-aminobenzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Crisan, Manuela E; Bourosh, Paulina; Maffei, Massimo E; Forni, Alessandra; Pieraccini, Stefano; Sironi, Maurizio; Chumakov, Yurii M

    2014-01-01

    p-Aminobenzoic acid (pABA) plays important roles in a wide variety of metabolic processes. Herein we report the synthesis, theoretical calculations, crystallographic investigation, and in vitro determination of the biological activity and phytotoxicity of the pABA salt, 2-hydroxyethylammonium p-aminobenzoate (HEA-pABA). The ability of neutral and anionic forms of pABA to interact with TIR1 pocket was investigated by calculation of molecular electrostatic potential maps on the accessible surface area, docking experiments, Molecular Dynamics and Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics calculations. The docking study of the folate precursor pABA, its anionic form and natural auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) with the auxin receptor TIR1 revealed a similar binding mode in the active site. The phytotoxic evaluation of HEA-pABA, pABA and 2-hydroxyethylamine (HEA) was performed on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Col 0 at five different concentrations. HEA-pABA and pABA acted as potential auxin-like regulators of root development in Arabidopsis thaliana (0.1 and 0.2 mM) and displayed an agravitropic root response at high concentration (2 mM). This study suggests that HEA-pABA and pABA might be considered as potential new regulators of plant growth. PMID:25054237

  5. Synthesis, Crystal Structure and Biological Activity of 2-Hydroxyethylammonium Salt of p-Aminobenzoic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Crisan, Manuela E.; Bourosh, Paulina; Maffei, Massimo E.; Forni, Alessandra; Pieraccini, Stefano; Sironi, Maurizio; Chumakov, Yurii M.

    2014-01-01

    p-Aminobenzoic acid (pABA) plays important roles in a wide variety of metabolic processes. Herein we report the synthesis, theoretical calculations, crystallographic investigation, and in vitro determination of the biological activity and phytotoxicity of the pABA salt, 2-hydroxyethylammonium p-aminobenzoate (HEA-pABA). The ability of neutral and anionic forms of pABA to interact with TIR1 pocket was investigated by calculation of molecular electrostatic potential maps on the accessible surface area, docking experiments, Molecular Dynamics and Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics calculations. The docking study of the folate precursor pABA, its anionic form and natural auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) with the auxin receptor TIR1 revealed a similar binding mode in the active site. The phytotoxic evaluation of HEA-pABA, pABA and 2-hydroxyethylamine (HEA) was performed on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Col 0 at five different concentrations. HEA-pABA and pABA acted as potential auxin-like regulators of root development in Arabidopsis thaliana (0.1 and 0.2 mM) and displayed an agravitropic root response at high concentration (2 mM). This study suggests that HEA-pABA and pABA might be considered as potential new regulators of plant growth. PMID:25054237

  6. Adsorption studies of p-aminobenzoic acid on the anatase TiO?(101) surface.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Andrew G; Jackman, Mark J; Wagstaffe, Michael; Radtke, Hanna; Syres, Karen; Adell, Johan; Lévy, Anna; Martsinovich, Natalia

    2014-10-21

    The adsorption of p-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) on the anatase TiO2(101) surface has been investigated using synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy, near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT). Photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that the molecule is adsorbed in a bidentate mode through the carboxyl group following deprotonation. NEXAFS spectroscopy and DFT calculations of the adsorption structures indicate the ordering of a monolayer of the amino acid on the surface with the plane of the ring in an almost upright orientation. The adsorption of pABA on nanoparticulate TiO2 leads to a red shift of the optical absorption relative to bare TiO2 nanoparticles. DFT and valence band photoelectron spectroscopy suggest that the shift is attributed to the presence of the highest occupied molecular orbitals in the TiO2 band gap region and the presence of new molecularly derived states near the foot of the TiO2 conduction band. PMID:25254628

  7. Use of the conjugate of disulphated ursodeoxycholic acid with p-aminobenzoic acid for the detection of intestinal bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, M; Konishi, T; Maeda, Y; Matsugu, Y; Akazawa, F; Eto, T; Okajima, M; Uchida, K; Masaoka, Y; Okada, K

    1993-01-01

    The disulphate ester of ursodeoxycholyl-p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA-UCDA) was synthesised and compared with PABA-UDCA for its use in detection of intestinal bacteria. This compound, PABA-UDCA disulphate, had characters in common with PABA-UDCA in that it was deconjugated by cholylglycine hydrolase to release free PABA and bacteria that split glycocholic acid deconjugated PABA-UDCA disulphate. Further, in rat experiments urinary excretions of PABA were measured for six hours after oral administration of 15 mg PABA-UDCA disulphate. Ten control rats excreted (mean (SE) 188.2 (13.6) micrograms of PABA; 10 rats with an intestinal stagnant loop excreted more (530.1 (30.1) micrograms; p < 0.001): whereas 10 rats in each of three groups pretreated by oral administration of various antibiotics excreted less (polymixin B+tinidazole, 4.9 (1.6) micrograms; kanamycin, 31.0 (4.7) micrograms; clindamycin 40.9 (5.5) micrograms; p < 0.001). By contrast with PABA-UDCA, PABA-UDCA disulphate was not actively absorbed from any part of the small intestine in everted gut sac experiments, and showed poor recovery from bile after its intraileal instillation in rats. This indicated that PABA-UDCA disulphate is a single pass type substance in the gut and its oral administration test reflects the sum of the activities of bacteria in the small intestine and colon. The disulphate was easily soluble in water and this allowed its application in an in vitro test involving PABA-UDCA disulphate incubation with intraperitoneal pus (PABA-UDCA disulphate incubation test) from patients with peritonitis. This test was carried out on six patients with peritonitis, and the severity of bacterial peritonitis was expressed quantitatively. From the results obtained PABA-UDCA disulphate was considered a good material to detect intestinal bacteria. PMID:8314517

  8. In vitro reconstitution and crystal structure of p-aminobenzoate N-oxygenase (AurF) involved

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Huimin

    In vitro reconstitution and crystal structure of p-aminobenzoate N-oxygenase (AurF) involved, and approved March 18, 2008 (received for review December 21, 2007) p-aminobenzoate N-oxygenase (AurF) from-nitrobenzoic acid (pNBA) from p-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) in the biosynthesis of antibiotic aureothin. AurF

  9. Investigation of polymer and nanoparticle properties with nicotinic acid and p-aminobenzoic acid grafted on poly(?-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(?-caprolactone) via click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Suksiriworapong, Jiraphong; Sripha, Kittisak; Kreuter, Jörg; Junyaprasert, Varaporn Buraphacheep

    2011-04-20

    In this study, the grafting of nicotinic acid and p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) onto poly(?-caprolactone)-poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(?-caprolactone) was performed by Huisgen's 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition, also known as click chemistry. Concentrations used for grafting were 0.10, 0.20, and 0.30 molar ratios with respect to caproyl units. The grafted copolymers were successfully obtained at all ratios as confirmed by NMR, GPC, and FT-IR. According to the DSC results, the polymorphisms of these grafted copolymers were mostly changed from semicrystalline to amorphous depending on the type and the amount of grafting compounds. TGA thermograms showed different thermal stabilities of the grafted copolymers compared to the original copolymers. Cytotoxicity results from HUVEC models suggested that the toxicity of grafted nanoparticles increased with the molar ratios of grafting units. Due to differences in molecular structure between nicotinic acid and PABA, physicochemical properties (particle size and surface charge) of grafted copolymer nanoparticles were substantially different. With increasing molar ratio of the grafting units, the particle size of blank nanoparticles tended to increase, resulting from an increase in the hydrophobic fragments of the grafted copolymer. Ibuprofen was chosen as a model drug to evaluate the interaction between grafted copolymers and loaded drug. After ibuprofen loading, the particle size of the loaded nanoparticles of both grafted copolymers increased compared to that of the blank nanoparticles. Significant differences in loading capacity between nicotinic acid and PABA grafted copolymer nanoparticles were clearly shown. This is most likely a result of different compatibility between each grafting compound and ibuprofen, including hydrogen bond interaction, ?-? stacking interaction, and steric hindrance. PMID:21375231

  10. Interaction of P-aminobenzoic acid with normal and sickel erythrocyte membrane: photoaffinity labelling of the binding sites

    SciTech Connect

    Premachandra, B.R.

    1986-03-05

    Electron microscopic studies revealed that P-Amino benzoic acid (PABA) could prevent eichinocytosis of red cells in vitro. Equilibrium binding studies with right side out membrane vesicles (ROV) revealed a similar number of binding sites (1.2-1.4 ..mu..mol/mg) and Kd (1.4-1.6 mM) values for both normal and sickle cell membranes. /sup 14/C-Azide analogue of PABA was synthesized as a photoaffinity label to probe its sites of interaction on the erythrocyte membranes. Competitive binding studies of PABA with its azide indicated that both the compounds share common binding sites on the membrane surface since a 20 fold excess of azide inhibited PABA binding in a linear fashion. The azide was covalently incorporated into the membrane components only upon irradiation (52-35% of the label found in the proteins and the rest in lipids). Electrophoretic analysis of photolabelled ROV revealed that the azide interacts chiefly with Band 3 protein. PABA inhibited both high and low affinity calcium (Ca) binding sites situated on either surface of the membrane in a non-competitive manner; however, Ca binding stimulated by Mg-ATP was not affected. Ca transport into inside out vesicles was inhibited by PABA; but it did not affect the calcium ATP-ase activity. The authors studies suggest that the mechanism of action of PABA is mediated by its interaction with Band 3 protein (anion channel), calcium channel and calcium binding sites of erythrocyte membrane.

  11. p-Aminobenzoate synthesis in Escherichia coli: mutational analysis of three conserved amino acid residues of the amidotransferase PabA.

    PubMed

    Roux, B; Walsh, C T

    1993-04-13

    p-Aminobenzoate synthesis in Escherichia coli requires three enzymes, PabA, PabB, and PabC, acting respectively as glutaminase, chorismate aminase, and 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate aromatase. PabA requires stoichiometric amounts of PabB to display glutaminase activity. PabA has conserved cysteine (C79), histidine (H168), and glutamate (E170) residues that have been suggested in the analogous anthranilate synthase to form a type of catalytic triad in an acylenzyme mechanism. Mutations at each of these residues of PabA lead to the following observations. C79S PabA has 40-fold lower kcat and 10(4) lower kcat/Km with no detectable acylenzyme accumulation in steady-state turnover (vs wild-type PabA at 0.56 mol fraction of gamma-glutamyl-enzyme). H168Q has no catalytic activity and does not compete with wild-type PabA for PabB (this may indicate a folding defect). Four E170 mutants give three outcomes. E170D and E170A yield active PabA species, down 4-fold and 150-fold, respectively, in kcat/Km ratios from wild-type PabA. E170Q has no detectable glutaminase activity but does bind to PabB in competition with wild-typoe PabA while E170K has neither detectable catalytic activity nor the ability to be recognized by PabB. PMID:8096767

  12. In vitro reconstitution and crystal structure of p-aminobenzoate N-oxygenase (AurF) involved in aureothin biosynthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoo Seong Choi; Houjin Zhang; Joseph S. Brunzelle; Satish K. Nair; Huimin Zhao

    2008-01-01

    p-aminobenzoate N-oxygenase (AurF) from Streptomyces thioluteus catalyzes the formation of unusual polyketide synthase starter unit p-nitrobenzoic acid (pNBA) from p-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) in the biosynthesis of antibiotic aureothin. AurF is a metalloenzyme, but its native enzymatic activity has not been demonstrated in vitro, and its catalytic mechanism is unclear. In addition, the nature of the cofactor remains a controversy. Here,

  13. Modification of hyaluronic acid with aromatic amino acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Yu. Ponedel’kina; V. N. Odinokov; E. S. Vakhrusheva; M. T. Golikova; L. M. Khalilov; U. M. Dzhemilev

    2005-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid was modified with aromatic amino acids (5-aminosalicylic, 4-aminosalicylic, anthranilic, and p-aminobenzoic) in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide. The modified glycans contained 9–43% of arylamide groups and 10–33% of isoureidocarbonyl groups depending on the nature of the amino acid. Reduction with sodium borohydride allowed the conversion of isoureidocarbonyl groups into hydroxymethyl groups.

  14. In vitro reconstitution and crystal structure of p-aminobenzoate N-oxygenase (AurF) involved in aureothin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yoo Seong; Zhang, Houjin; Brunzelle, Joseph S; Nair, Satish K; Zhao, Huimin

    2008-05-13

    p-Aminobenzoate N-oxygenase (AurF) from Streptomyces thioluteus catalyzes the formation of unusual polyketide synthase starter unit p-nitrobenzoic acid (pNBA) from p-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) in the biosynthesis of antibiotic aureothin. AurF is a metalloenzyme, but its native enzymatic activity has not been demonstrated in vitro, and its catalytic mechanism is unclear. In addition, the nature of the cofactor remains a controversy. Here, we report the in vitro reconstitution of the AurF enzyme activity, the crystal structure of AurF in the oxidized state, and the cocrystal structure of AurF with its product pNBA. Our combined biochemical and structural analysis unequivocally indicates that AurF is a non-heme di-iron monooxygenase that catalyzes sequential oxidation of aminoarenes to nitroarenes via hydroxylamine and nitroso intermediates. PMID:18458342

  15. In vitro reconstitution and crystal structure of p-aminobenzoate N-oxygenase (AurF) involved in aureothin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoo Seong; Zhang, Houjin; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Nair, Satish K.; Zhao, Huimin

    2008-01-01

    p-aminobenzoate N-oxygenase (AurF) from Streptomyces thioluteus catalyzes the formation of unusual polyketide synthase starter unit p-nitrobenzoic acid (pNBA) from p-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) in the biosynthesis of antibiotic aureothin. AurF is a metalloenzyme, but its native enzymatic activity has not been demonstrated in vitro, and its catalytic mechanism is unclear. In addition, the nature of the cofactor remains a controversy. Here, we report the in vitro reconstitution of the AurF enzyme activity, the crystal structure of AurF in the oxidized state, and the cocrystal structure of AurF with its product pNBA. Our combined biochemical and structural analysis unequivocally indicates that AurF is a non-heme di-iron monooxygenase that catalyzes sequential oxidation of aminoarenes to nitroarenes via hydroxylamine and nitroso intermediates. PMID:18458342

  16. Ethyl-p-aminobenzoate (Benzocaine): efficacy as an anesthetic for five species of freshwater fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, V.K.; Gilderhus, P.A.

    1979-01-01

    Ethyl-p-aminobenzoate (benzocaine) was tested for its efficacy as an anesthetic for rainbow trout (Salmo gairdnerii, brown trout (Salmo truttas, northern pike (Esox lucius). carp (Cyprinus carpio), and largemouth bass (Mieropterus salmoidesi. Since benzocaine is not water soluble, it was applied with acetone as a carrier. Concentrations of 100 to 200 mg!l were required for large adult northern pike, compared with 50 to 100 mg/l for small fish. Rates of sedation and recovery were slower in cold water than in warm water. Water hardness had little influence on the activity of benzocaine. Fish were anesthetized faster and recovered more slowly in acid than in alkaline water. Benzocaine produced deep anesthesia, but concentrations that rendered the fish handleable within 5 min were generally not safe for exposures longer than 15 min. Concentrations of benzocaine efficacious for fish were not acutely toxic to eggs of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshauiytschas, rainbow trout, brown trout, or lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush). Benzocaine is not registered for fishery use and is neither more effective nor safer than the registered anesthetic, tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222l.

  17. Nucleotide sequence of Escherichia coli pabB indicates a common evolutionary origin of p-aminobenzoate synthetase and anthranilate synthetase.

    PubMed

    Goncharoff, P; Nichols, B P

    1984-07-01

    Biochemical and immunological experiments have suggested that the Escherichia coli enzyme p-aminobenzoate synthetase and anthranilate synthetase are structurally related. Both enzymes are composed of two nonidentical subunits. Anthranilate synthetase is composed of proteins encoded by the genes trp(G)D and trpE, whereas p-aminobenzoate synthetase is composed of proteins encoded by pabA and pabB. These two enzymes catalyze similar reactions and produce similar products. The nucleotide sequences of pabA and trp(G)D have been determined and indicate a common evolutionary origin of these two genes. Here we present the nucleotide sequence of pabB and compare it with that of trpE. Similarities are 26% at the amino acid level and 40% at the nucleotide level. We propose that pabB and trpE arose from a common ancestor and hence that there is a common ancestry of genes encoding p-aminobenzoate synthetase and anthranilate synthetase. PMID:6330050

  18. Flame-ionization detector response to methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl esters of fatty acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franz Ulberth; Robert G. Gabernig; Franz Schrammel

    1999-01-01

    The concept of theoretical response factors is not directly applicable to methyl esters of short-chain fatty acids (FA), since\\u000a their carbon deficiency is larger than expected from theory. Substituting the methyl group by an ethyl, propyl, or butyl group\\u000a improved the flame-ionization efficiency of fatty acid esters gradually, up to the point where the empirical response factors\\u000a of the butyl

  19. Synthesis, structure, growth and characterization of a novel organic NLO single crystal: Morpholin-4-ium p-aminobenzoate

    SciTech Connect

    Shanmugam, G. [Department of Physics, Anna University of Technology Tiruchirappalli, Tiruchirappalli 620024 (India)] [Department of Physics, Anna University of Technology Tiruchirappalli, Tiruchirappalli 620024 (India); Ravi Kumar, K.; Sridhar, B. [X-ray Crystallography Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, CSIR, Hyderabad 500007 (India)] [X-ray Crystallography Division, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, CSIR, Hyderabad 500007 (India); Brahadeeswaran, S., E-mail: sbrag67@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Anna University of Technology Tiruchirappalli, Tiruchirappalli 620024 (India)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ? A new organic NLO crystal morpholin-4-ium p-aminobenzoate has been grown for the first time. ? The structure is reported for the first time in the literature. ? Thermal, optical and SHG studies suggest its suitability for various NLO applications. -- Abstract: The title compound, morpholin-4-ium p-aminobenzoate (MPABA)(C{sub 4}H{sub 10}NO{sup +},C{sub 7}H{sub 6}NO{sub 2}{sup ?}), has been synthesized for the first time by the addition of morpholine with 4-aminobenzoic acid in equi-molar ratio and good quality single crystals have been grown by solution growth technique using methanol as a solvent. The molecular structure of the compound was solved and refined by Direct Methods using SHELXS97 and full-matrix least-squares technique using SHELXL97, respectively. MPABA crystallizes in a monoclinic system with unit cell parameters, a = 5.948(5) ?, b = 18.033(4) ?, c = 10.577(5) ?, ? = 90.40(1)° and non-centrosymmetric space group Cc. The experimentally measured density and chemical compositions were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. The phases and functional groups of MPABA have been identified and confirmed through powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) studies, respectively. The thermal stability and decomposition details were studied through TG/DTA thermograms. The UV–visible transmission spectra were recorded for the grown crystal and its NLO characteristic was explored by powder second harmonic generation (SHG) studies.

  20. SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF METAL COMPLEXES OF P,P?DI[3-(TRIMETHYLSILYL)-1PROPYL] METHYLENEDIPHOSPHONIC ACID

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel R. McAlister; Albert W. Herlinger; John R. Ferraro; Mark L. Dietz

    2002-01-01

    The silicon-substituted diphosphonic acid P,P?-di[3-(trimethyl-silyl)-1-propyl] methylenediphosphonic acid, H2DTMSP-[MDP], reacts with metal nitrates in methanol to form complexes M2(DTMSP[MDP])3 for M?Fe, Eu and Yb and M(DTMSP[MDP])2 for M?Th. The sodium salt, Na2-(DTMSP[MDP]), forms upon neutralization of H2DTMSP-[MDP] with NaOH. The calcium salt, Ca(DTMSP[MDP]), forms upon addition of the aqueous metal nitrate to an equivalent amount of the neutralized ligand in methanol.

  1. Inhibition of p-Aminobenzoate and Folate Syntheses in Plants and Apicomplexan Parasites by Natural Product Rubreserine*

    PubMed Central

    Camara, Djeneb; Bisanz, Cordelia; Barette, Caroline; Van Daele, Jeroen; Human, Esmare; Barnard, Bernice; Van Der Straeten, Dominique; Stove, Christophe P.; Lambert, Willy E.; Douce, Roland; Maréchal, Eric; Birkholtz, Lyn-Marie; Cesbron-Delauw, Marie-France; Dumas, Renaud; Rébeillé, Fabrice

    2012-01-01

    Glutamine amidotransferase/aminodeoxychorismate synthase (GAT-ADCS) is a bifunctional enzyme involved in the synthesis of p-aminobenzoate, a central component part of folate cofactors. GAT-ADCS is found in eukaryotic organisms autonomous for folate biosynthesis, such as plants or parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa. Based on an automated screening to search for new inhibitors of folate biosynthesis, we found that rubreserine was able to inhibit the glutamine amidotransferase activity of the plant GAT-ADCS with an apparent IC50 of about 8 ?m. The growth rates of Arabidopsis thaliana, Toxoplasma gondii, and Plasmodium falciparum were inhibited by rubreserine with respective IC50 values of 65, 20, and 1 ?m. The correlation between folate biosynthesis and growth inhibition was studied with Arabidopsis and Toxoplasma. In both organisms, the folate content was decreased by 40–50% in the presence of rubreserine. In both organisms, the addition of p-aminobenzoate or 5-formyltetrahydrofolate in the external medium restored the growth for inhibitor concentrations up to the IC50 value, indicating that, within this range of concentrations, rubreserine was specific for folate biosynthesis. Rubreserine appeared to be more efficient than sulfonamides, antifolate drugs known to inhibit the invasion and proliferation of T. gondii in human fibroblasts. Altogether, these results validate the use of the bifunctional GAT-ADCS as an efficient drug target in eukaryotic cells and indicate that the chemical structure of rubreserine presents interesting anti-parasitic (toxoplasmosis, malaria) potential. PMID:22577137

  2. Synthesis and characterization of metal complexes of P, P{sup prime}DI[3-(trimethylsilyl)-1-propyl] methylenediphosphonic acid{double_dagger}

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. R. McAlister; A. W. Herlinger; J. R. Ferraro; M. L. Dietz

    2002-01-01

    The silicon-substituted diphosphonic acid P,P'-di[3-(trimethyl-silyl)-1-propyl] methylenediphosphonic acid, H2DTMSP-[MDP], reacts with metal nitrates in methanol to form complexes M2(DTMSP[MDP])3 for M=Fe, Eu and Yb and M(DTMSP[MDP])2 for M=Th. The sodium salt, Na2-(DTMSP[MDP]), forms upon neutralization of H2DTMSP-[MDP] with NaOH. The calcium salt, Ca(DTMSP[MDP]), forms upon addition of the aqueous metal nitrate to an equivalent amount of the neutralized ligand in methanol.

  3. Laccase-catalyzed bisphenol A oxidation in the presence of 10-propyl sulfonic acid phenoxazine.

    PubMed

    Ivanec-Goranina, R?ta; Kulys, Juozas; Bachmatova, Irina; Marcinkevi?ien?, Liucija; Meškys, Rolandas

    2015-04-01

    The kinetics of the Coriolopsis byrsina laccase-catalyzed bisphenol A (BisA) oxidation was investigated in the absence and presence of electron-transfer mediator 3-phenoxazin-10-yl-propane-1-sulfonic acid (PPSA) at pH5.5 and 25°C. It was shown that oxidation rate of the hardly degrading compound BisA increased in the presence of the highly reactive substrate PPSA. The increase of reaction rate depends on PPSA and BisA concentrations as well on their ratio, e.g., at 0.2mmol/L of BisA and 2?mol/L of PPSA the rate increased 2 times. The kinetic data were analyzed using a scheme of synergistic laccase-catalyzed BisA oxidation. The calculated constant, characterizing reactivity of PPSA with laccase, is almost 1000 times higher than the constant, characterizing reactivity of BisA with laccase. This means that mediator-assisted BisA oxidation rate can be 1000 times higher in comparison to non-mediator reaction if compounds concentration is equal but very low. PMID:25872719

  4. SWELLING OF PEATS IN LIQUID METHYL, TETRAMETHYLENE AND PROPYL SULFOXIDES AND IN LIQUID PROPYL SULFONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interactions of methyl, tetramethylene, and propyl sulfoxides and propyl sulfone during sorption onto four de-waxed, acid-form peats have been studied by means of swelling measurements. The results for sulfoxides are displayed as het-eromolecular sorption isotherms, which plo...

  5. SWELLING OF PEATS IN LIQUID METHYL, TETRAMETHYLENE AND PROPYL SULFOXIDES AND IN LIQUID PROPYL SULFONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The interactions of methyl, tetramethylene, and propyl sulfoxides and propyl sulfone during sorption onto four dewaxed, acid-form peats have been studied by meas of swelling measurements. The results for sulfoxides are displayed as heteromolecular sorption isotherms, which plot a...

  6. Metal-mediated oxidative damage to cellular and isolated DNA by gallic acid, a metabolite of antioxidant propyl gallate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hatasu Kobayashi; Shinji Oikawa; Kazutaka Hirakawa; Shosuke Kawanishi

    2004-01-01

    Propyl gallate (PG), widely used as an antioxidant in foods, is carcinogenic to mice and rats. PG increased the amount of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a characteristic oxidative DNA lesion, in human leukemia cell line HL-60, but not in HP100, which is hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-resistant cell line derived from HL-60. Although PG induced no or little damage to 32P-5?-end-labeled DNA fragments obtained

  7. Linkage and Branch Analysis of High-Mannose Oligosaccharides Using Closed-Ring Labeling of 8-Aminopyrene-1,3,6-Trisulfonate and P-Aminobenzoic Ethyl Ester and Negative Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shu-Ting; Her, Guor-Rong

    2012-08-01

    A strategy based on negative ion electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry and closed-ring labeling with both 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate (APTS) and p-aminobenzoic acid ethyl ester (ABEE) was developed for linkage and branch determination of high-mannose oligosaccharides. X-type cross-ring fragment ions obtained from APTS-labeled oligosaccharides by charge remote fragmentation provided information on linkages near the non-reducing terminus. In contrast, A-type cross-ring fragment ions observed from ABEE-labeled oligosaccharides yielded information on linkages near the reducing terminus. This complementary information provided by APTS- and ABEE-labeled oligosaccharides was utilized to delineate the structures of the high-mannose oligosaccharides. As a demonstration of this approach, the linkages and branches of high-mannose oligosaccharides Man5GlcNAc2, Man6GlcNAc2, Man8GlcNAc2, and Man9GlcNAc2 cleaved from the ribonuclease B were assigned from MS2 spectra of ABEE- and APTS-labeled derivatives.

  8. FT-IR SOLUTION SPECTRA OF PROPYL SULFIDE, PROPYL SULFOXIDE, AND PROPYL SULFONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    FT-IR spectra were obtained of 0.5% volumetric solutions of propyl sulfide, propyl sulfoxide, and propyl sulfone in hexane, CCl4, CS2, and CHCl3 to assist in the assignment of FT-IR-PAS spectra of propyl sulfoxide sorbed within the structure of several peats and onto cellulose. T...

  9. FTIR SOLUTION SPECTRA OF PROPYL SULFIDE, PROPYL SULFOXIDE, AND PROPYL SULFONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    FTIR spectra were obtained of 0.5% volumetric solutions of propyl sulfide, propyl sulfoxide and propyl sulfone in hexane, CC14, CS2, and CHCl3 to assist in the assignment of FTIR-PAS spectra of propyl sulfoxide sorbed within the structure of several peats and onto cellulose. he C...

  10. Synthesis and characterization of metal complexes of P, P{sup prime}-DI[3-(trimethylsilyl)-1-propyl] methylenediphosphonic acid{double_dagger}.

    SciTech Connect

    McAlister, D. R.; Herlinger, A. W.; Ferraro, J. R.; Dietz, M. L.; Chemistry; Loyola Univ.

    2002-02-01

    The silicon-substituted diphosphonic acid P,P'-di[3-(trimethyl-silyl)-1-propyl] methylenediphosphonic acid, H2DTMSP-[MDP], reacts with metal nitrates in methanol to form complexes M2(DTMSP[MDP])3 for M=Fe, Eu and Yb and M(DTMSP[MDP])2 for M=Th. The sodium salt, Na2-(DTMSP[MDP]), forms upon neutralization of H2DTMSP-[MDP] with NaOH. The calcium salt, Ca(DTMSP[MDP]), forms upon addition of the aqueous metal nitrate to an equivalent amount of the neutralized ligand in methanol. Elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements were used to characterize the compounds. Frequency shifts in the asymmetric and symmetric POO- stretching bands of the Fe, Eu, Yb and Th compounds indicate symmetrical coordination of the phosphonate groups through chelate and/or bridging interactions. The frequency difference between these stretching bands becomes smaller as the ionic potential (e/r) of the metal ion increases.

  11. The effects of a garlic oil chemical compound, propyl-propane thiosulfonate, on ruminal fermentation and fatty acid outflow in a dual-flow continuous culture system.

    PubMed

    Foskolos, A; Siurana, A; Rodriquez-Prado, M; Ferret, A; Bravo, D; Calsamiglia, S

    2015-08-01

    The ban on the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in animal feeds in the European Union has stimulated research on potential alternatives. Recently, propyl-propane thiosulfonate (PTSO), a stable organosulfurate compound of garlic, was purified. The objectives of the current study were to investigate the potential effects of PTSO on rumen microbial fermentation and to define effective doses. Two experiments were conducted using dual-flow continuous culture fermenters in 2 replicated periods. Each experimental period consisted of 5 d for adaptation of the ruminal fluid and 3 d for sampling. Temperature (39°C), pH (6.4), and liquid (0.10 h(-1)) and solid (0.05 h(-1)) dilution rates were maintained constant. Samples were taken 2 h after feeding and from the 24-h effluent. Samples were analyzed for volatile fatty acids (VFA) and nitrogen fractions, and degradation of nutrients was calculated. In addition, 24-h effluents from experiment 2 were analyzed for their fatty acid (FA) profile. Treatments in experiment 1 included a negative control without additive, a positive control with monensin (12mg/L), and PTSO at 30 and 300mg/L. The addition of 30mg/L did not affect any of the measurements tested. The addition of 300mg/L reduced microbial fermentation, as suggested by the decreased total VFA concentration, true degradation of organic matter and acid detergent fiber, and a tendency to decrease neutral detergent fiber degradation. Experiment 2 was conducted to test increasing doses of PTSO (0, 50, 100, and 150mg/L) on rumen microbial fermentation. At 2 h postfeeding, total VFA and molar proportion of propionate responded quadratically, with higher values in the intermediate doses. Molar proportions of butyrate increased and branched-chain VFA decreased linearly as the dose of PTSO increased. In the 24-h effluents, total VFA, acetate, and branched-chain VFA concentrations decreased linearly and those of propionate responded cubically with the highest value at 100mg/L. Saturated FA decreased and unsaturated FA increased linearly with increasing dose of PTSO. The concentration of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid decreased by 78.5% with addition of PTSO at the highest dose (150mg/L). Results suggest the potential of PTSO to modify ruminal fermentation in a direction consistent with higher propionate molar proportion, higher outflow of unsaturated FA, and low trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid in an effective dose between 50 and 100mg/L. PMID:26004834

  12. The quantitative determination of amino acids by microbiological assay

    E-print Network

    Norman, William Harvey

    1943-01-01

    aoid bacteria exoept p-aminobenzoic acid. On replacing the Bacto-Tryptone with hydrolyzed casein, only L. ~cido- hil-aero ence, Streo. lactis, L. ~c sei e? and L; ~arab n- usus 1V-5 grow welj. L. ~ar hinosus, however, grew at a somewhat higher level...) . On the addition, of "vitamin?free" casein hydroiyzate or a little tomato juice increased growth was obtained. Isbe11 (9) has pointed out that the substance in casein I hydrolysate whioh stimulates growth is p aminobenzoic acid, one of the latest vitamins...

  13. Vapour pressure and enthalpy of vaporization of di-iso-propyl and di-tert-butyl esters of dicarboxylic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Svetlana V. Portnova; Eugen L. Krasnykh; Sergey P. Verevkin

    2011-01-01

    Molar enthalpies of vaporization of the branched aliphatic alkyl esters of dicarboxylic acids R-CO2-(CH2)n-CO2-R with n=(0–4) with R=iso-C3H7, tert-C4H9 were obtained from the temperature dependence of the vapour pressure measured by the transpiration method. These experimental results were checked for internal consistency and compared with the data available from the literature. A linear correlation of enthalpies of vaporization ?lgHm (298.15K)

  14. Folate synthesis in plants: The p-aminobenzoate branch is initiated by a bifunctional PabA-PabB protein that is targeted to plastids

    PubMed Central

    Basset, Gilles J. C.; Quinlivan, Eoin P.; Ravanel, Stéphane; Rébeillé, Fabrice; Nichols, Brian P.; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Seki, Motoaki; Adams-Phillips, Lori C.; Giovannoni, James J.; Gregory, Jesse F.; Hanson, Andrew D.

    2004-01-01

    It is not known how plants synthesize the p-aminobenzoate (PABA) moiety of folates. In Escherichia coli, PABA is made from chorismate in two steps. First, the PabA and PabB proteins interact to catalyze transfer of the amide nitrogen of glutamine to chorismate, forming 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate (ADC). The PabC protein then mediates elimination of pyruvate and aromatization to give PABA. Fungi, actinomycetes, and Plasmodium spp. also synthesize PABA but have proteins comprising fused domains homologous to PabA and PabB. These bipartite proteins are commonly called “PABA synthases,” although it is unclear whether they produce PABA or ADC. Genomic approaches identified Arabidopsis and tomato cDNAs encoding bipartite proteins containing fused PabA and PabB domains, plus a putative chloroplast targeting peptide. These cDNAs encode functional enzymes, as demonstrated by complementation of an E. coli pabA pabB double mutant and a yeast PABA-synthase deletant. The partially purified recombinant Arabidopsis protein did not produce PABA unless the E. coli PabC enzyme was added, indicating that it forms ADC, not PABA. The enzyme behaved as a monomer in size-exclusion chromatography and was not inhibited by physiological concentrations of PABA, its glucose ester, or folates. When the putative targeting peptide was fused to GFP and expressed in protoplasts, the fusion protein appeared only in chloroplasts, indicating that PABA synthesis is plastidial. In the pericarp of tomato fruit, the PabA-PabB mRNA level fell drastically as ripening advanced, but there was no fall in total PABA content, which stayed between 0.7 and 2.3 nmol·g-1 fresh weight. PMID:14745019

  15. Conversion of nitrogen dioxide, nitric acid, and n-propyl nitrate to nitric oxide by gold-catalyzed reduction with carbon monoxide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark J. Bollinger; Robert E. Sievers; David W. Fahey; Frederick C. Fehsenfeld

    1983-01-01

    A new technique is described for the real-time, quantitative conversion of several XNOâ compounds to NO, where X denotes a radical group. The technique utilizes the reduction of these compounds by CO at heated gold catalyst to yield NO. The NO product was detected by a sensitive chemiluminescence detector. The technique was demonstrated to convert NOâ, HNOâ, and n-propyl nitrate

  16. Liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time of flight tandem mass spectrometry based quantitative structure-retention relationships of amino acid analogues derivatized via n-propyl chloroformate mediated reaction.

    PubMed

    Kritikos, Nikolaos; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, Anna; Loukas, Yannis L; Dotsikas, Yannis

    2015-07-17

    In the current study, quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRR) were constructed based on data obtained by a LC-(ESI)-QTOF-MS/MS method for the determination of amino acid analogues, following their derivatization via chloroformate esters. Molecules were derivatized via n-propyl chloroformate/n-propanol mediated reaction. Derivatives were acquired through a liquid-liquid extraction procedure. Chromatographic separation is based on gradient elution using methanol/water mixtures from a 70/30% composition to an 85/15% final one, maintaining a constant rate of change. The group of examined molecules was diverse, including mainly ?-amino acids, yet also ?- and ?-amino acids, ?-amino acid analogues, decarboxylated and phosphorylated analogues and dipeptides. Projection to latent structures (PLS) method was selected for the formation of QSRRs, resulting in a total of three PLS models with high cross-validated coefficients of determination Q(2)Y. For this reason, molecular structures were previously described through the use of descriptors. Through stratified random sampling procedures, 57 compounds were split to a training set and a test set. Model creation was based on multiple criteria including principal component significance and eigenvalue, variable importance, form of residuals, etc. Validation was based on statistical metrics Rpred(2),QextF2(2),QextF3(2) for the test set and Roy's metrics rm(Av)(2) and rm(?)(2), assessing both predictive stability and internal validity. Based on aforementioned models, simplified equivalent were then created using a multi-linear regression (MLR) method. MLR models were also validated with the same metrics. The suggested models are considered useful for the estimation of retention times of amino acid analogues for a series of applications. PMID:26044385

  17. Rapid and sensitive HPLC assay for simultaneous determination of procaine and para-aminobenzoic acid from human and rat liver tissue extracts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mugunthu R. Dhananjeyan; Jill A. Trendel; Crystal Bykowski; Jeffrey G. Sarver; Howard Ando; Paul W. Erhardt

    2008-01-01

    A sensitive and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for simultaneous determination of procaine and its metabolite p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) from human and rat liver tissue extracts. The method has been validated according to ICH guidelines in terms of selectivity, linearity, lower limit of detection, lower limit of quantitation, accuracy, precision and recovery from human and rat liver

  18. para-aminobenzoic acid used as a marker for completeness of 24 hour urine: assessment of control limits for a specific HPLC method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Jakobsen; L Ovesen; S Fagt; AN Pedersen

    1997-01-01

    Objective and design: The study comprised three protocols. Protocol 1 compared a HPLC method with the commonly employed colorimetric diazocoupling method. Protocol 2 examined, if the last dosage of p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) could be advanced in the old to allow for a delayed age-dependent urinary excretion of PABA. Protocol 3 established limits for recovery of PABA in 24 h urine

  19. Kinetics of the transformation of n-propyl gallate and structural analogs in the perfused rat liver

    SciTech Connect

    Eler, Gabrielle Jacklin; Santos, Israel Souza; Giaretta de Moraes, Amarilis; Mito, Márcio Shigueaki; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Peralta, Rosane Marina; Bracht, Adelar, E-mail: adebracht@uol.com.br

    2013-11-15

    n-Propyl gallate and its analogs are used in foods and other products to prevent oxidation. In the liver the compound exerts several harmful effects, especially gluconeogenesis inhibition. The mode of transport and distribution of n-propyl gallate and its kinetics of biotransformation have not yet been investigated. To fill this gap the transformation, transport and distribution of n-propyl gallate and two analogs were investigated in the rat liver. Isolated perfused rat liver was used. n-Propyl gallate, methyl gallate, n-octyl gallate and transformation products were quantified by high pressure-liquid chromatography coupled to fluorescence detection. The interactions of n-propyl gallate and analogs with the liver presented three main characteristics: (1) the hydrolytic release of gallic acid from n-propyl gallate and methyl gallate was very fast compared with the subsequent transformations of the gallic acid moiety; (2) transport of the esters was very fast and flow-limited in contrast to the slow and barrier-limited transport of gallic acid; (3) the apparent distribution volume of n-propyl gallate, but probably also of methyl gallate and n-octyl gallate, greatly exceeded the water space in the liver, contrary to the gallic acid space which is smaller than the water space. It can be concluded that at low portal concentrations (< 50 ?M) the gallic acid esters are 100% extracted during a single passage through the liver, releasing mainly gallic acid into the systemic circulation. For the latter a considerable time is required until complete biotransformation. The exposure of the liver to the esters, however, is quite prolonged due to extensive intracellular binding. - Highlights: • The liver binds very strongly n-propyl gallate and releases basically gallic acid. • n-propyl gallate and analogs undergo concentrative flow-limited distribution. • Gallic acid undergoes barrier-limited distribution and is slowly transformed. • The long residence time of n-propyl gallate and analogs increases toxicity.

  20. Synthesis of an indole analog of folic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Shengeliya, M.S.; Avramenko, V.G.; Kuleshova, L.N.; Ershova, Yu.A.; Chernov, V.A.; Surorov, N.N.

    1987-06-01

    The authors study the replacement of the p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) moiety. The authors synthesized an indole analog of folic acid, namely dimethyl N-(5-(2'-amino-4'-oxo-6'-pteridinyl)methylaminoindol-2-yl)glutamate. The physicochemical properties and the chemical shifts in the PMR spectra of the compounds obtained are shown. The examination of the compound for antitumor activity was carried out using rats and mice.

  1. Safety assessment of propyl paraben: a review of the published literature

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. G. Soni; G. A. Burdock; S. L. Taylor; N. A. Greenberg

    2001-01-01

    Propyl paraben (CAS no. 94-13-3) is a stable, non-volatile compound used as an antimicrobial preservative in foods, drugs and cosmetics for over 50 years. It is an ester of p-hydroxybenzoate. Propyl paraben is readily absorbed via the gastrointestinal tract and dermis. It is hydrolyzed to p-hydroxybenzoic acid, conjugated and the conjugates are rapidly excreted in the urine. There is no

  2. Cytotoxicity of propyl gallate and related compounds in rat hepatocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Nakagawa; S. Tayama

    1995-01-01

    The cytotoxic effects of propyl gallate (PG), its related gallates and gallic acid have been studied in freshly isolated rat\\u000a hepatocytes. Addition of PG (0.5–2.0 mM) to hepatocyte suspension elicited concentration-dependent cell death accompanied\\u000a by losses of intracellular ATP, adenine nucleotide pools, glutathione (GSH) and protein thiols. The rapid loss of intracellular\\u000a ATP preceded the onset of cell death caused

  3. Ultraviolet photodissociation dynamics of the n-propyl and i-propyl radicals.

    PubMed

    Song, Yu; Zheng, Xianfeng; Zhou, Weidong; Lucas, Michael; Zhang, Jingsong

    2015-06-14

    Ultraviolet (UV) photodissociation dynamics of jet-cooled n-propyl (n-C3H7) radical via the 3s Rydberg state and i-propyl (i-C3H7) radical via the 3p Rydberg states are studied in the photolysis wavelength region of 230-260 nm using high-n Rydberg atom time-of-flight and resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization techniques. The H-atom photofragment yield spectra of the n-propyl and i-propyl radicals are broad and in good agreement with the UV absorption spectra. The H + propene product translational energy distributions, P(ET)'s, of both n-propyl and i-propyl are bimodal, with a slow component peaking around 5-6 kcal/mol and a fast one peaking at ?50 kcal/mol (n-propyl) and ?45 kcal/mol (i-propyl). The fraction of the average translational energy in the total excess energy, ?fT?, is 0.3 for n-propyl and 0.2 for i-propyl, respectively. The H-atom product angular distributions of the slow components of n-propyl and i-propyl are isotropic, while that of the fast component of n-propyl is anisotropic (with an anisotropy parameter ?0.8) and that of i-propyl is nearly isotropic. Site-selective loss of the ? hydrogen atom is confirmed using the partially deuterated CH3CH2CD2 and CH3CDCH3 radicals. The bimodal translational energy and angular distributions indicate two dissociation pathways to the H + propene products in the n-propyl and i-propyl radicals: (i) a unimolecular dissociation pathway from the hot ground-state propyl after internal conversion from the 3s and 3p Rydberg states and (ii) a direct, prompt dissociation pathway coupling the Rydberg excited states to a repulsive part of the ground-state surface, presumably via a conical intersection. PMID:26071709

  4. Ultraviolet photodissociation dynamics of the n-propyl and i-propyl radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Yu; Zheng, Xianfeng; Zhou, Weidong; Lucas, Michael; Zhang, Jingsong

    2015-06-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) photodissociation dynamics of jet-cooled n-propyl (n-C3H7) radical via the 3s Rydberg state and i-propyl (i-C3H7) radical via the 3p Rydberg states are studied in the photolysis wavelength region of 230-260 nm using high-n Rydberg atom time-of-flight and resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization techniques. The H-atom photofragment yield spectra of the n-propyl and i-propyl radicals are broad and in good agreement with the UV absorption spectra. The H + propene product translational energy distributions, P(ET)'s, of both n-propyl and i-propyl are bimodal, with a slow component peaking around 5-6 kcal/mol and a fast one peaking at ˜50 kcal/mol (n-propyl) and ˜45 kcal/mol (i-propyl). The fraction of the average translational energy in the total excess energy, , is 0.3 for n-propyl and 0.2 for i-propyl, respectively. The H-atom product angular distributions of the slow components of n-propyl and i-propyl are isotropic, while that of the fast component of n-propyl is anisotropic (with an anisotropy parameter ˜0.8) and that of i-propyl is nearly isotropic. Site-selective loss of the ? hydrogen atom is confirmed using the partially deuterated CH3CH2CD2 and CH3CDCH3 radicals. The bimodal translational energy and angular distributions indicate two dissociation pathways to the H + propene products in the n-propyl and i-propyl radicals: (i) a unimolecular dissociation pathway from the hot ground-state propyl after internal conversion from the 3s and 3p Rydberg states and (ii) a direct, prompt dissociation pathway coupling the Rydberg excited states to a repulsive part of the ground-state surface, presumably via a conical intersection.

  5. Synthesis of a Novel Fluorescence Probe Modified by ??Cyclodextrin and Its Application in the Determination for Nucleic Acids at ppb Levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Feng Gao; Yong Jia Shang; Li Zhang; Shi Ke She; Lun Wang

    2004-01-01

    A new fluorescence probe, mono[6?N(4?carboxy?phenyl)]???cyclodextrin (ACD), was synthesized. p?Aminobenzoic acid (PA) with a emission peak located in 351 nm (?ex = 286 nm) is not suitable for the quantitative determination of nucleic acids because of its background interference. It is necessary to change its fluorescence properties as to be applied in biochemical analysis by chemical modification. In this article, PA modified by ??cyclodextrin was

  6. Synthesis of Oligomeric Silicon-containing Poly(imide-amide)s Derived from Trimellitic Anhydride and Amino-Acids. Vibration Spectral, Optical, Thermal and Morphological Characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luis H. Tagle; Claudio A. Terraza; Pablo Ortiz; María J. Rodríguez; Alain Tundidor-Camba; Angel Leiva; Carmen González-Henríquez; Alejandro L. Cabrera; Ulrich G. Volkmann; Esteban Ramos-Moore

    2012-01-01

    Poly(imide-amide)s (PIAs) were synthesized from diacids, which were obtained by trimellitic anhydride and glycine, L-alanine, L-phenylalanine, L-valine, L-leucine, L-isoleucine and p-aminobenzoic acid, and bis(4-aminophenyl)diphenylsilane. Compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, optical activity, IR and NMR spectroscopies. Yields were good, but ?inh values were low, showing materials of oligomeric nature, confirmed by MALDI-TOF spectrometry. PIAs were soluble in polar aprotic solvents,

  7. Interaction of single-walled carbon nanotubes with poly(propyl ether imine) dendrimers

    SciTech Connect

    Jayamurugan, G.; Rajesh, Y. B. R. D.; Jayaraman, N. [Department of Organic Chemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Vasu, K. S.; Kumar, S.; Sood, A. K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Vasumathi, V.; Maiti, P. K. [Center for Condensed Matter Theory, Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2011-03-14

    We study the complexation of nontoxic, native poly(propyl ether imine) dendrimers with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The interaction was monitored by measuring the quenching of inherent fluorescence of the dendrimer. The dendrimer-nanotube binding also resulted in the increased electrical resistance of the hole doped SWNT, due to charge-transfer interaction between dendrimer and nanotube. This charge-transfer interaction was further corroborated by observing a shift in frequency of the tangential Raman modes of SWNT. We also report the effect of acidic and neutral pH conditions on the binding affinities. Experimental studies were supplemented by all atom molecular dynamics simulations to provide a microscopic picture of the dendrimer-nanotube complex. The complexation was achieved through charge transfer and hydrophobic interactions, aided by multitude of oxygen, nitrogen, and n-propyl moieties of the dendrimer.

  8. Detection of a branched alkyl molecule in the interstellar medium: iso-propyl cyanide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belloche, Arnaud; Garrod, Robin T.; Müller, Holger S. P.; Menten, Karl M.

    2014-09-01

    The largest noncyclic molecules detected in the interstellar medium (ISM) are organic with a straight-chain carbon backbone. We report an interstellar detection of a branched alkyl molecule, iso-propyl cyanide (i-C3H7CN), with an abundance 0.4 times that of its straight-chain structural isomer. This detection suggests that branched carbon-chain molecules may be generally abundant in the ISM. Our astrochemical model indicates that both isomers are produced within or upon dust grain ice mantles through the addition of molecular radicals, albeit via differing reaction pathways. The production of iso-propyl cyanide appears to require the addition of a functional group to a nonterminal carbon in the chain. Its detection therefore bodes well for the presence in the ISM of amino acids, for which such side-chain structure is a key characteristic.

  9. Pharmacomodulation on the 3-acetylursolic acid skeleton: Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of novel N-{3-[4-(3-aminopropyl)piperazinyl]propyl}-3-O-acetylursolamide derivatives as antimalarial agents.

    PubMed

    Gnoatto, Simone C B; Susplugas, Sophie; Dalla Vechia, Luciana; Ferreira, Thais B; Dassonville-Klimpt, Alexandra; Zimmer, Karine R; Demailly, Catherine; Da Nascimento, Sophie; Guillon, Jean; Grellier, Philippe; Verli, Hugo; Gosmann, Grace; Sonnet, Pascal

    2008-01-15

    A series of new piperazine derivatives of ursolic acid was synthesized and tested against Plasmodium falciparum strains. They were also tested on their cytotoxicity effects upon MRC-5 cells. Seven new piperazinyl analogues showed significant activity in the nanomolar range (IC(50)=78-167nM) against Plasmodium falciparum CQ-resistant strain FcB1. A possible mechanism of interaction implicating binding of these compounds to beta-hematin was supported by in vitro tests. Moreover, the importance of the hydrophilic framework attached at the terminal nitrogen atom of the bis-(3-aminopropyl)piperazine joined to the triterpene ring was also explored through molecular dynamic simulations. PMID:17967541

  10. An apparent Bacillus subtilis folic acid biosynthetic operon containing pab, an amphibolic trpG gene, a third gene required for synthesis of para-aminobenzoic acid, and the dihydropteroate synthase gene.

    PubMed

    Slock, J; Stahly, D P; Han, C Y; Six, E W; Crawford, I P

    1990-12-01

    McDonald and Burke (J. Bacteriol. 149:391-394, 1982) previously cloned a sulfanilamide-resistance gene, sul, residing on a 4.9-kb segment of Bacillus subtilis chromosomal DNA, into plasmid pUB110. In this study we determined the nucleotide sequence of the entire 4.9-kb fragment. Genes identified on the fragment include pab, trpG, pabC, sul, one complete unidentified open reading frame, and one incomplete unidentified open reading frame. The first three of these genes, pab, trpG, and pabC, are required for synthesis of p-aminobenzoic acid. The trpG gene encodes an amphibolic glutamine amidotransferase required for synthesis of both p-aminobenzoate and anthranilate, the latter an intermediate in the tryptophan biosynthetic pathway. The pabC gene may encode a B. subtilis analog of enzyme X, an enzyme needed for p-aminobenzoate synthesis in Escherichia coli. The sul gene probably encodes dihydropteroate synthase, the enzyme responsible for formation of 7,8-dihydropteroate, the immediate precursor of folic acid. All six of the cloned genes are arranged in a single operon. Since all four of the identified genes are needed for folate biosynthesis, we refer to this operon as a folic acid operon. Expression of the trpG gene is known to be negatively controlled by tryptophan. We propose that this regulation is at the level of translation. This hypothesis is supported by the finding of an apparent Mtr-binding site which overlaps with the trpG ribosome-binding site. PMID:2123867

  11. DOI: 10.1002/cbic.200600136 A New Class of Arylamine

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Huimin

    DOI: 10.1002/cbic.200600136 A New Class of Arylamine Oxygenases: Evidence that p- Aminobenzoate N-Oxygenase metabolic reactions,[1,2] aminopyrrolnitrin oxy- genase (PrnD)[2] and p-aminobenzoate oxygenase (AurF)[3 as in other laboratories,[1,5] p-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) conversion to p- nitrobenzoic acid (p

  12. Bis(tetra­propyl­ammonium) di-?3-iodido-di-?2-iodido-diiodidodi­pyridine­tetra­copper(I)

    PubMed Central

    Jalilian, Ehsan

    2010-01-01

    The title compound, (C12H28N)2[Cu3.194I6(C5H5N)2] was prepared from reaction of copper powder, copper(I) oxide, hydro­iodic acid, tetra­propyl­ammonium iodide and pyridine under hydro­thermal conditions. In the centrosymmetric Cu4I6 2? anion, one Cu site is in a trigonal-planar coordination while the second Cu site, which is only partially occupied [site occupancy of 0.5968?(16)], is surroundedby three iodine atoms and one pyridine molecule in a distorted tetrahedral coordination. PMID:21580527

  13. Synthesis, characterization and electrochromic properties of conducting copolymers of 2,3-bis-[(3-thienylcarbonyl)oxy]propyl 3-thiophene carboxylate with thiophene and pyrrole

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Bulut; L. Toppare; F. Y?lmaz; Y. Ya?c?

    2004-01-01

    2,3-bis-[(3-thienylcarbonyl)oxy]propyl 3-thiophene carboxylate (TOPT) was synthesized via the reaction of 3-thionylcarboxylic acid with glycerol, and electrochemically polymerized either with thiophene and pyrrole by using tetrabutylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TBAFB) as the supporting electrolyte in acetonitrile (AN). Characterization of the resulting copolymers was performed via cyclic voltammetry, FTIR, thermal gravimetry analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Electrical conductivities were measured by the

  14. Diesters from Oleic Acid: Synthesis, Low Temperature Properties, and Oxidation Stability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several diesters were prepared from commercially available oleic acid and common organic acids. The key step in the three step synthesis of oleochemical diesters entails a ring opening esterification of alkyl 9,10-epoxyoctadecanoates (alkyl: propyl, iso-propyl, octyl, 2-ethylhexyl) using propionic a...

  15. Determination of urinary metabolites of thiamine propyl disulfide in humans.

    PubMed

    Yamano, S; Yoshimura, H

    1982-02-01

    Gas chromatographic procedure for the quantitative determination of methyl propyl sulfone (MPS), 2-hydroxypropyl methyl sulfone (2HPMS) and 3-hydroxypropyl methyl sulfone (3HPMS) in urine was developed. By using this procedure, the urinary excretion of MPS, 2HPMS and 3HPMS after oral dose of thiamine propyl disulfide (TPD) was investigated in healthy adults, in order to assess their ability of drug disposition including metabolism. Among these metabolites, 2HPMS was predominant and the other two were minor. 2HPMS was excreted most in the 24--36 h urine and the time course of excretion of this metabolite was almost the same among these subjects. In 4th day urine, a significant amount of 2HPMS was still excreted. On the contrary, the time course of excretion of MPS varied among subjects and also at different occasions in the same subjects. 3HPMS was excreted most in the 0--12 or 12--24 h urine and more rapidly excreted than 2HPMS. Two-fold interindividual differences in the amount of 2HPMS in the 0--48 h urine occurred and intraindividual difference was also observed. Inter- and intraindividual differences in the amount of MPS in 0--48 h urine were much larger than that in 2HPMS. In 3HPMS, these differences were slightly less than in 2HPMS. Sex difference in the excretion of MPS and 2HPMS was not observed. PMID:7097480

  16. 40 CFR 180.362 - Hexakis (2-methyl-2-phenyl-propyl)distannoxane; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2-methyl-2-phenyl-propyl)distannoxane; tolerances for residues. 180.362 Section 180.362 Protection...AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180...2-methyl-2-phenyl-propyl)distannoxane; tolerances for residues. (a) General . (1)...

  17. Poly (vinyl alcohol)/3-(trimethylammonium) propyl-functionalized silica hybrid membranes for alkaline

    E-print Network

    Zhao, Tianshou

    Poly (vinyl alcohol)/3-(trimethylammonium) propyl-functionalized silica hybrid membranes (DEFC) Alkaline membranes Poly(vinyl alcohol) a b s t r a c t A novel hybrid membrane based on poly (vinyl alcohol)/3-(trimethylammonium) propyl- functionalized silica (PVA-TMAPS) is prepared by a simple

  18. Thermal degradation behaviour of poly[(2-hydroxy-3-phenoxy)propyl methacrylate] and poly[(2-hydroxy-3-tetrahydrofurfuryloxy)propyl methacrylate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet Co?kun; M. Mür?it Temüz; Murat Koca

    2003-01-01

    (2-Hydroxy-3-phenoxy)propyl methacrylate (PPMA) and (2-hydroxy-3-tetrahydrofurfuryloxy)propyl methacrylate (THPMA) were polymerised using benzoyl peroxide as initiator in 1,4-dioxane at 60 °C. The polymers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), IR, 1H and 13C NMR techniques. The thermal degradations of poly(THPMA) and poly(PPMA) were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and programmed heating of the polymers from ambient to 500 °C

  19. 78 FR 57285 - 2,5-Furandione, Polymer With Ethenylbenzene, Hydrolyzed, 3-(Dimethylamino)propyl Imide, Imide...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ...5-Furandione, Polymer With Ethenylbenzene, Hydrolyzed, 3- (Dimethylamino)propyl Imide...5-furandione, polymer with ethenylbenzene, hydrolyzed, 3-(dimethylamino)propyl imide...5-furandione, polymer with ethenylbenzene, hydrolyzed, 3- [[Page 57286

  20. Induction of tumors in female Donryu rats by a single administration of 1-propyl-1-nitrosourea.

    PubMed

    Ogiu, T; Nakadate, M; Odashima, S

    1976-02-01

    Three groups of female Donryu rats were given a single gastric intubation of 800, 400, or 200 mg/kg body weight of 1-propyl-1-nitrosourea and one group of female Donryu rats was given a single subcutaneous injection of 1-propyl-1-nitrosourea. The incidence of tumors was highest for mammary tumors and leukemia, and next for tumors of the ovary, thyroid, and adrenal glands, and in the digestive tract in rats given the chemical by oral administration. There were also scattered tumors in various other organs. Mammary and subcutaneous tumors were found in some rats given a subcutaneous injection of 1-propyl-1-nitrosourea. PMID:1269852

  1. Non-covalent bonded 2D-3D supramolecular architectures based on 4-dimethylaminopyridine and organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huan; Jin, Shouwen; Wen, Xianhong; Liu, Bin; Fang, Yang; Zhang, Yani; Wang, Daqi

    2015-07-01

    Studies concentrating on non-covalent weak interactions between the organic base of 4-dimethylaminopyridine, and acidic derivatives have led to an increased understanding of the role 4-dimethylaminopyridine has in binding with the organic acid derivatives. Here anhydrous and hydrous multicomponent organic acid-base adducts of 4-dimethylaminopyridine have been prepared with organic acids such as 1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 5-chlorosalicylic acid, 5-bromosalicylic acid, 5-nitrosalicylic acid, and 5-sulfosalicylic acid. The 4-dimethylaminopyridine is only monoprotonated. All compounds are organic salts with the 1:1 ratio of the cation and the anion. For the 5-sulfosalicylic acid only one H is ionized to exhibit the valence number of -1. The eight crystalline complexes were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. These structures adopted the hetero supramolecular synthons. Analysis of the crystal packing of 1-8 suggests that there are Nsbnd H⋯O, Osbnd H⋯O, and Osbnd H⋯S hydrogen bonds (charge assisted or neutral) between the organic acid and the 4-dimethylaminopyridine moieties in the studied compounds. Except the classical hydrogen bonding interactions, the secondary propagating interactions also play important roles in structure extension. For the synergistic effect of the various non-covalent interactions, the complexes displayed 2D-3D framework structures.

  2. Development of an HPLC–MS procedure for the quantification of N-acetyl-S-(n-propyl)- l-cysteine, the major urinary metabolite of 1-bromopropane in human urine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. L. Cheever; K. L. Marlow; C. B’Hymer; K. W. Hanley; D. W. Lynch

    2009-01-01

    An analytical procedure was developed for the detection and quantification of N-acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-l-cysteine (n-propylmercapturic acid, AcPrCys), a metabolite and biomarker for exposure to 1-bromopropane (1-BP). 1-BP is used as an industrial solvent and exposure is a health concern for industrial workers due to its toxicity. It has been associated with neurological disorders in both animals and humans. Urine sample preparation for

  3. Oral treatment of polioencephalomalacia and subclinical thiamine deficiency with thiamine propyl disulphide and thiamine hydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Thomas, K W

    1986-12-01

    Thiaminase type I production by Bacillus thiaminolyticus and activity in vitro were repressed by the primary substate thiamine and by thiamine monophosphate and thiamine propyl disulphide. At thiamine concentrations of 300-3000 mumol/l production of active enzyme by B. thiaminolyticus, and activity of purified enzyme, were totally repressed. Growth of B. thiaminolyticus was inhibited by thiamine propyl disulphide at 3000 mumol/l. Activity of purified thiaminase was lost when incubated with ruminal fluid from healthy thiaminase free sheep. Enzyme activity was also lost when exposed to mildly alkaline conditions but was stimulated and stabilized against heat denaturation if treated with dithiothreitol. Thiaminase activities in the ruminal fluids of cases of ovine polioencephalomalacia were repressed within 2 h of oral administration of thiamine propyl disulphide. Blood pyruvate levels and transketolase activities were restored to normal following treatment. Treated animals recovered clinically and were returned to pasture. PMID:3806781

  4. Synthesis of poly(styrene-co-3-trimethoxysilyl propyl methacrylate) microspheres coated with polysiloxane layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Lu; Zhong Xin

    2007-01-01

    A procedure has been developed to coat micron-sized poly(styrene-co-3-trimethoxysilyl propyl methacrylate) microspheres with\\u000a a smooth layer of polysiloxane by the hydrolysis and condensation of methyl trimethoxylsilane (MTMS). Firstly, polystyrene\\u000a microspheres containing silanol groups were prepared by conventional dispersion polymerization using 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl\\u000a methacrylate (MPS) as a functional comonomer in an ethanol\\/water medium. Secondly, the synthesis of the polysiloxane shell\\u000a was

  5. Inhibition of Aspergillus growth and aflatoxin release by derivatives of benzoic acid.

    PubMed

    Chipley, J R; Uraih, N

    1980-08-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of o-nitrobenzoate, p-aminobenzoate, benzocaine (ethyl aminobenzoate), ethyl benzoate, methyl benzoate, salicylic acid (o-hydroxybenzoate), trans-cinnamic acid (beta-phenylacrylic acid), trans-cinnamaldehyde (3-phenylpropenal), ferulic acid (p-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid), aspirin (o-acetoxy benzoic acid), and anthranilic acid (o-aminobenzoic acid) upon growth and aflatoxin release in Aspergillus flavus NRRL 3145 and A. parasiticus NRRL 3240. A chemically defined medium was supplemented with various concentrations of these compounds and inoculated with spores, and the developing cultures were incubated for 4, 6, and 8 days at 27 degree C in a mechanical shaker. At the beginning of day 8 of incubation, aflatoxins were extracted from cell-free filtrates, separated by thin-layer chromatography, and quantitated by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. The structure of these aromatic compounds appeared to be critically related to their effects on mycelial growth and aflatoxin release. At concentrations of 2.5 and 5.0 mg per 25 ml of medium, methyl benzoate and ethyl benzoate were the most effective in reducing both mycelial growth and aflatoxin release by A. flavus and A. parasiticus. Inhibition of mycelial growth and aflatoxin release by various concentrations of the above-named aromatic compounds may indicate the possibility of their use as fungicides. PMID:6781406

  6. No-carrier-added carbon-11-labeled sn-1,2- and sn-1,3-diacylglycerols by (11C)propyl ketene method

    SciTech Connect

    Imahori, Y.; Fujii, R.; Ueda, S.; Ido, T.; Nishino, H.; Moriyama, Y.; Yamamoto, Y.L.; Nakahashi, H. (Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine (Japan))

    1991-08-01

    This article describes the preparation of sn-1,2-(11C)diacylglycerols and sn-1,3-(11C)diacylglycerols by a no-carrier-added reaction based on a labeling method using (1-11C)propyl ketene, which is one of the most potent acylating agents. (1-11C)Propyl ketene was produced by pyrolytic decomposition of (1-11C)butyric acid and was trapped in pyridine containing L-alpha-palmitoyl-lysophosphatidylcholine, producing L-alpha-palmitoyl-2-(1-11C)butyryl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine. The authors adopted an enzymatic reaction to remove the phosphorylcholine, in which L-alpha-palmitoyl-2-(1-11C)butyryl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine was incubated with phospholipase C, hydrolyzing to produce 1-palmitoyl-sn-2-(1-11C)butyrylglycerol. Total synthesis time was about 50 minutes and the specific activity was estimated at 93 GBq/mumol (2.5 Ci/mumol) at end of synthesis. Radiochemical yield was 3.8% based on the trapped 11CO2. sn-1,3-(11C)Diacylglycerol was also synthesized by (1-11C)propyl ketene reaction with 1-palmitoyl-sn-glycerol in a single procedure. The regional brain tissue radioactivities obtained in sn-1,2-(11C)diacylglycerol were higher than those of sn-1,3-(11C)diacylglycerol, and the regional values varied widely. In autoradiography of brain slices from conscious rats, sn-1,2-(11C)diacylglycerol incorporation sites were discretely localized, especially in the amygdala, cerebral cortex, and hippocampus, suggesting that intensive neuronal processing occurred in these areas on the basis of phosphatidylinositol turnover.

  7. Automated GC–MS analysis of free amino acids in biological fluids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hannelore Kaspar; Katja Dettmer; Wolfram Gronwald; Peter J. Oefner

    2008-01-01

    A gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) method was developed for the quantitative analysis of free amino acids as their propyl chloroformate derivatives in biological fluids. Derivatization with propyl chloroformate is carried out directly in the biological samples without prior protein precipitation or solid-phase extraction of the amino acids, thereby allowing automation of the entire procedure, including addition of reagents, extraction and

  8. Studies on the Food Additive Propyl Gallate: Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Jorge; Garrido, E. Manuela; Borges, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are additives largely used in industry for delaying, retarding, or preventing the development of oxidative deterioration. Propyl gallate (E310) is a phenolic antioxidant extensively used in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. A series of lab experiments have been developed to teach students about the importance and…

  9. 75 FR 50922 - Prohydrojasmon, propyl-3-oxo-2-pentylcyclo-pentylacetate; Temporary Exemption From the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ...propyl-3-oxo-2-pentylcyclo-pentylacetate, on red apple varieties when applied/used as a plant...exposure to treated fruit or foliage (e.g. apples) is not expected to exist above background...aquatic site from PDJ runoff (spray to apple trees) using the GENeric Estimated...

  10. Effects of propyl paraben on the male reproductive system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Oishi

    2002-01-01

    Parabens are p-hydroxybenzoic acid ester compounds widely used as preservatives in foods, cosmetics, toiletries and pharmaceuticals. These compounds exert a weak estrogenic activity as determined by in vitro estrogen receptor assay and in vivo uterotrophic assay. In a previous study, it was demonstrated by the present author that exposure of post-weaning mammals to butyl paraben adversely affects the secretion of

  11. Attachment of Salmonella on cantaloupe and effect of electron beam irradiation on quality and safety of sliced cantaloupe

    E-print Network

    Palekar, Mangesh Prafull

    2006-04-12

    are lactic acid, citric acid, acetic acid, tartaric acid, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and orthophosphoric acid (Richards and others 1995; FDA 2001). Lactic acid has been used extensively as sanitizer on food animal carcasses (Castillo and others 2002...

  12. Mathematical evaluation of the amino acid and polyphenol content and antioxidant activities of fruits from different apricot cultivars.

    PubMed

    Sochor, Jiri; Skutkova, Helena; Babula, Petr; Zitka, Ondrej; Cernei, Natalia; Rop, Otakar; Krska, Boris; Adam, Vojtech; Provazník, Ivo; Kizek, Rene

    2011-01-01

    Functional foods are of interest because of their significant effects on human health, which can be connected with the presence of some biologically important compounds. In this study, we carried out complex analysis of 239 apricot cultivars (Prunus armeniaca L.) cultivated in Lednice (climatic area T4), South Moravia, Czech Republic. Almost all previously published studies have focused only on analysis of certain parameters. However, we focused on detection both primary and secondary metabolites in a selection of apricot cultivars with respect to their biological activity. The contents of thirteen biogenic alpha-L-amino acids (arginine, asparagine, isoleucine, lysine, serine, threonine, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, tyrosine, proline and alanine) were determined using ion exchange chromatography with UV-Vis spectrometry detection. Profile of polyphenols, measured as content of ten polyphenols with significant antioxidant properties (gallic acid, procatechinic acid, p-aminobenzoic acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, rutin, ferrulic acid and quercetrin), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrometric/electrochemical detection. Moreover, content of total phenolics was determined spectrophotometrically using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Antioxidant activity was determined using five independent spectrophotometric methods: DPPH assay, DMPD method, ABTS method, FRAP and Free Radicals methods. Considering the complexity of the obtained data, they were processed and correlated using bioinformatics techniques (cluster analysis, principal component analysis). The studied apricot cultivars were clustered according to their common biochemical properties, which has not been done before. The observed similarities and differences were discussed. PMID:21886093

  13. Bioorganometallic chemistry. 8. The molecular recognition of aromatic and aliphatic amino acids and substituted aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acid guests with supramolecular ({eta}{sup 5}-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)rhodium - nucleobase, nucleoside, and nucleotide cyclic trimer hosts via non-covalent {pi}-{pi} and hydrophobic interactions in water: Steric, electronic, and conformational parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, H.; Ogo, Seiji; Fish, R.H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1996-05-29

    Molecular recognition, via non-covalent processes such as hydrogen bonding, {pi}-{pi}, and hydrophobic interactions, is an important biological phenomenon for guests, such as drugs, proteins, and other important biological molecules with, for example, host DNA/RNA. We have studied a novel molecular recognition process using guests that encompass aromatic and aliphatic amino acids [L-alanine, L-glutamine (L-Gln), L-histidine, L-isoleucine(L-Ile), L-leucine(L-Leu), L-phenylalanine(L-Phe), L-proline, L-tryptophan(L-Trp), L-valine(L-Val)], substituted aromatic carboxylic acids o-, m-, p-aminobenzoic acids (G1-3), benzoic acid (G4), phenylacetic acid (G5), p-methoxyphenylacetic acid (G6), o-methyoxybenozoic acid (G9), o-nitrobenzoic acid (G10), and aliphatic carboxylic acids [cyclohexylacetic acid (G7), 1-adamantanecarboxylic acid (G8)] with supramolecular, bioorganometallic hosts, ({eta}{sup 5}-pentamethylcyclopentadienyl)rhodium (Cp{sup *}Rh)-nucleobase, nucleoside, and nucleotide cyclic trimer complexes in aqueous solution at pH 7, utilizing {sup 1}H NMR, NOE, and molecular modeling techniques, and, as well, determining association constants (K{sub a}) and free energies of complexation ({Delta}{degree}G). The host-guest complexation occurs predominantly via non-covalent {pi}-{pi}, hydrophobic, and possible subtle H-bonding interactions, with steric, electronic, and molecular conformational parameters as important criteria. 8 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Efficient Removal of Albumin-Bound Furancarboxylic Acid, an Inhibitor of Erythropoiesis, by Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal Dialysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshimitsu Niwa; Tomoko Yazawa; Tomio Kodama; Yasuo Uehara; Kenji Maeda; Kazumasa Yamada

    1990-01-01

    3-Carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionic acid, which cannot be removed by conventional hemodialysis due to its strong albumin binding, was found to be efficiently removed by continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), resulting in a lower serum level in uremic patients on CAPD than in those on hemodialysis. 3-Carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionic acid was demonstrated in vitro to inhibit erythroid colony formation. The anemia in patients on CAPD

  15. Thermal conversion of 2-propyl iodide on O/Ni(100): Changes in produce distribution with varying oxygen coverages

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, N.R.; Zaera, F. [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, Riverside, CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The oxidation of 2-propyl iodide on oxygen-covered Ni(100) surfaces has been studied with temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and ion-scattering spectroscopy (ISS). The product distribution was strongly dependent on oxygen preexposure. XP I 3d core-level spectra indicate that the adsorption of 2-propyl iodide below 100 K is molecular, and ISS data strongly suggest preferential bonding to Ni sites, Annealing the 2-propyl iodide adsorbed on O/Ni(100) surfaces between 120 to 200 K generates 2-propyl groups on the nickel sites via dissociation of the C-I bond, the same as on the clean surface. 48 refs., 10 figs.

  16. 9-[2-(Phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine therapy of established simian immunodeficiency virus infection in infant rhesus macaques.

    PubMed Central

    Van Rompay, K K; Cherrington, J M; Marthas, M L; Berardi, C J; Mulato, A S; Spinner, A; Tarara, R P; Canfield, D R; Telm, S; Bischofberger, N; Pedersen, N C

    1996-01-01

    The long-term therapeutic and toxic effects of 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine (PMPA) were evaluated in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected newborn rhesus macaques. Four untreated SIV-infected newborn macaques developed persistently high levels of viremia, and three of the four animals had rapidly fatal disease within 3 months. In contrast, long-term PMPA treatment of four newborn macaques starting 3 weeks after virus inoculation resulted in a rapid, pronounced, and persistent reduction of viremia in three of the four animals. Emergence of virus with fivefold-decreased susceptibility to PMPA occurred in all four PMPA-treated animals and was associated with the development of a lysine-to-arginine substitution at amino acid 65 (K65R mutation) and additional mutations in the reverse transcriptase; however, the clinical implications of this low-level drug resistance are nuclear. No toxic side effects have been seen, and all PMPA-treated animals have remained disease-free for more than 13 months. Our data suggest that PMPA holds much promise for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus-infected human infants and adults. PMID:8913470

  17. Propyl Gallate Inhibits Adipogenesis by Stimulating Extracellular Signal-Related Kinases in Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeung-Eun; Kim, Jung-Min; Jang, Hyun-Jun; Lim, Se-young; Choi, Seon-Jeong; Lee, Nan-Hee; Suh, Pann-Ghill; Choi, Ung-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    Propyl gallate (PG) used as an additive in various foods has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Although the functional roles of PG in various cell types are well characterized, it is unknown whether PG has effect on stem cell differentiation. In this study, we demonstrated that PG could inhibit adipogenic differentiation in human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs) by decreasing the accumulation of intracellular lipid droplets. In addition, PG significantly reduced the expression of adipocyte-specific markers including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR-?), CCAAT enhancer binding protein-? (C/EBP-?), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 2 (aP2). PG inhibited adipogenesis in hAMSCs through extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Decreased adipogenesis following PG treatment was recovered in response to ERK blocking. Taken together, these results suggest a novel effect of PG on adipocyte differentiation in hAMSCs, supporting a negative role of ERK1/2 pathway in adipogenic differentiation. PMID:25813451

  18. Quantitative Analysis of ()-N-11C-Propyl- Norapomorphine In Vivo Binding in Nonhuman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rajesh Narendran; Yiyun Huang; Mark Slifstein; Peter S. Talbot; Yasuhiko Sudo; Bart N. Van Berckel; Lawrence S. Kegeles; Diana Martinez; Marc Laruelle

    ()-N-11C-propyl-norapomorphine (11C-NPA) is a new dopa- mine agonist PET radiotracer that holds potential for imaging the high-affinity states of dopamine D2-like receptors in the living brain. The goal of this study was to develop and evaluate analytic strategies to derive in vivo 11C-NPA binding parame- ters. Methods: Two baboons were scanned 4 times after 11C- NPA injections. The metabolite-corrected arterial

  19. Examination of the Potential Antiulcer Activity of the Calcium Antagonist Propyl-Methylenedioxyindene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wai-shiu Fred Wong; Ralf G. Rahwan

    1990-01-01

    Since propyl-methylenedioxyindene (pr-MDI) exhibits significant protective effects against stress-induced ulcers in rats at subcardiovascular doses (10–30 mg\\/kg, i.p.), the aim of the present study was to explore the effect of this intracellular calcium antagonist on cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers at the same low doses. Duodenal ulcers were induced in rats with a single dose of cysteamine (425 mg\\/kg, s.c), which produced

  20. Hybrid copolymer latexes cross-linked with methacryloxy propyl trimethoxy silane. Film formation and mechanical properties

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Solweig Vitry; Audrey Mezzino; Catherine Gauthier; Jean-Yves Cavaillé; Frédéric Lefebvre; Élodie Bourgeat-Lami

    2003-01-01

    We describe in this work the copolymerization reaction of 3-trimethoxysilyl propyl methacrylate (MPS) with styrene (Styr.) and n-butyl acrylate (BuA) monomers through emulsion polymerization. The so-produced hybrid copolymer (P(BuA-co-MPS)) and terpolymer (P(Styr-co-BuA-co-MPS)) latexes were cast into films that displayed a good optical transparency. The copolymers microstructure in the films was characterized by FTIR, 13C and 29Si solid state NMR spectroscopies,

  1. Laboratory Evaluation of Drop-in Solvent Alternatives to n-Propyl Bromide for Vapor Degreasing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Mark A.; Lowrey, Nikki M.

    2012-01-01

    Based on this limited laboratory study, solvent blends of trans-1,2 dichloroethylene with HFEs, HFCs, or PFCs appear to be viable alternatives to n-propyl bromide for vapor degreasing. The lower boiling points of these blends may lead to greater solvent loss during use. Additional factors must be considered when selecting a solvent substitute, including stability over time, VOC, GWP, toxicity, and business considerations.

  2. Development and analytical application of a glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase/O-(2-hydroxyl)propyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride nanoparticle-immobilized onion inner epidermis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Yao, Jun; Russel, Mohammad; Chen, Huilun; Chen, Ke; Zhou, Yong; Ceccanti, Brunello; Zaray, Gyula; Choi, Martin M F

    2010-06-15

    A glucose biosensor comprising a glucose oxidase/O-(2-hydroxyl)propyl-3-trimethylammonium chitosan chloride nanoparticle (O-HTCC NP)-immobilized onion inner membrane and a dissolved oxygen (O(2)) sensor has been successfully developed. The detection scheme is based on the depletion of dissolved O(2) content upon exposure to glucose. The decrease in O(2) level was monitored and related to the glucose concentration. The biosensor shows linear response to glucose from 0.0 to 0.60 mM with a detection limit of 50 microM (S/N=3). The effect of O-HTCC NP and enzyme loading, pH, temperature, and phosphate buffer concentration on the sensitivity of the biosensor was studied in detail. The biosensor exhibits fast response time (70s), good repeatability (3.2%, n=10) and storage stability (90% of initial sensitivity after 3-week storage). Common interferents including acetic acid, lactic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, folic acid, methanol, glycine, DL-alpha-alanine and DL-cysteine do not cause significant interferences on the biosensor. The proposed biosensor method was successfully applied to determine the glucose content in real samples such as orange juice, red wine and tea drink and the results were comparable to that obtained from a spectrophotometric method. The glucose recovery test demonstrates that the proposed glucose biosensor offers an excellent, accurate and precise method for the determination of glucose in real samples. PMID:20353886

  3. In vitro toxicity of alternative oxidase inhibitors salicylhydroxamic acid and propyl gallate on Fusicladium effusum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Murat Seyran; Timothy B. Brenneman; Katherine L. Stevenson

    2010-01-01

    Pecan scab, caused by the fungus Fusicladium effusum (syn. Cladosporium caryigenum and Fusicladosporium effusum), is the most devastating disease of the commercial pecan (Carya illinoinensis) production in Southeastern United States. Disease control depends primarily on multiple applications of fungicides per season.\\u000a Fungicides available for scab control include those in the quinone outside inhibitor (QoI) group. QoI fungicides have a high

  4. Determination of rotary diffusivity of poly(n-propyl isocyanate) by molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laso, M.; Jimeno, N.; Muneta, L. M.; Müller, M.

    2006-12-01

    The rotational dynamics of a nondilute solution of the rodlike polymer poly(n-propyl isocyanate) (PPIC) has been studied on an atomistic model by means of a large-scale classical molecular dynamics investigation. The rotary diffusivity of PPIC in toluene solution has been determined from the Einsteinian diffusion regime of the end-to-end vector on the surface of the unit sphere and has been found to be Dr=10.5×105(±2.7)s-1, which falls in the range of the experimental data available. A comparison of molecular dynamics predictions with theoretical and perturbation expansion predictions has also been performed.

  5. Measurement of urinary thiamine propyl disulfide metabolites as an index of liver function.

    PubMed

    Oda, R; Okumura, M; Yamano, S; Yoshimura, H

    1984-11-01

    Thiamine propyl disulfide (TPD) was orally administered in patients with liver disease to measure the main metabolite, 2-hydroxypropyl methyl sulfone (2HPMS), in urine, for the test of liver function. The amount of urinary excretion of 2HPMS decreased in proportion to the degree of severity of liver disease, with intimate correlation with various tests reflecting hepatic reserve function (p less than 0.01). Phenobarbital (PB), one of the inducers of hepatic microsomal drug metabolizing enzymes scarcely influenced the results of this test. In patients with ordinary liver disease without remarkable disturbance of intestinal absorption and renal excretory function, this method appears to be clinically applicable. PMID:6500755

  6. Induction of Leukemias and digestive tract tumors in Donryu rats by 1-propyl-1-nitrosourea.

    PubMed

    Ogiu, T; Nakadate, M; Odashima, S

    1975-04-01

    Three groups of female Donryu rats were continuously given 600, 300, or 150 ppm solution of 1-propyl-1-nitrosourea in their drinking water. Leukemias developed in 62 of 109 (57%) rats surviving for more than 17 weeks and tumors developed in the digestive tracts of 31 (28%) animals. Of the leukemias, the differentiated myelocytic type was the most frequent, followed by myeloblastic leukemia and erythroleukemia. Tumors in the digestive tract, predominantly in the glandular stomach and duodenum, were both epithelial and nonepithelial. The other induced tumors were mainly in the mammary glands, ear ducts, and thymus, though the incidence was less than 15%. PMID:1055269

  7. 2,4-Diiodo-6-[(propyl­imino)­meth­yl]phenol

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Peng-Gang; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Yang, Yong-An; Zhu, Hai-Liang

    2012-01-01

    The title compound, C10H11I2NO, was prepared by the reaction of 3,5-diiodo­salicyl­aldehyde with propyl­amine in ethanol. The mol­ecule adopts an E conformation with respect to the C=N bond and the aromatic ring. The aromatic ring and the imino unit are close to being coplanar, with a dihedral angle of 2.6?(3)° between their planes. This planarity is assisted by the formation of an intra­molecular O—H?O hydrogen bond. PMID:22412661

  8. The Pyrolysis of nButylBenzene and the Heat of Formation of n-Propyl Radical

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Leigh; M. Szwarc

    1952-01-01

    It has been shown that the pyrolysis of n-butyl-benzene results in its dissociating into benzyl and n-propyl radicals, C6H5·CH2·CH2·CH2·CH3?C6H5·CH2·+·CH2·CH2·CH3, and the propyl radicals subsequently decompose to give ethylene and methyl radicals, CH3·CH2·CH2·?CH3·+C2H4. By the use of the toluene-carrier technique, it has been possible to measure the rate of reaction (1) by measuring the rate of formation of ethylene. The activation

  9. 40 CFR 721.9516 - Siloxanes and silicones, 3-[(2-aminoethyl) amino]propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with polyethylene-polypropylene...glycidal ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with...

  10. 40 CFR 721.9516 - Siloxanes and silicones, 3-[(2-aminoethyl) amino]propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with polyethylene-polypropylene...glycidal ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with...

  11. 40 CFR 721.9516 - Siloxanes and silicones, 3-[(2-aminoethyl) amino]propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with polyethylene-polypropylene...glycidal ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with...

  12. 40 CFR 721.9516 - Siloxanes and silicones, 3-[(2-aminoethyl) amino]propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721...propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with polyethylene-polypropylene...glycidal ether. (a) Chemical substance and significant...reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified...propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with...

  13. 40 CFR 180.1065 - 2-Amino-4,5-dihydro-6-methyl-4-propyl-s-triazolo(1,5-alpha)pyrimidin-5-one; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...5-dihydro-6-methyl-4-propyl-s-triazolo(1,5-alpha)pyrimidin-5-one; exemption from...5-dihydro-6-methyl-4-propyl-s-triazolo(1,5-alpha)pyrimidin-5-one; exemption from...5-dihydro-6-methyl-4-propyl-s-triazolo(1,5-alpha)pyrimidin-5-one is...

  14. 40 CFR 180.1065 - 2-Amino-4,5-dihydro-6-methyl-4-propyl-s-triazolo(1,5-alpha)pyrimidin-5-one; exemption from the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...5-dihydro-6-methyl-4-propyl-s-triazolo(1,5-alpha)pyrimidin-5-one; exemption from...5-dihydro-6-methyl-4-propyl-s-triazolo(1,5-alpha)pyrimidin-5-one; exemption from...5-dihydro-6-methyl-4-propyl-s-triazolo(1,5-alpha)pyrimidin-5-one is...

  15. The Use of Chlorhexidine/n-Propyl Gallate (CPG) as an Ambient-Temperature Urine Preservative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nillen, Jeannie L.; Smith, Scott M.

    2003-01-01

    A safe, effective ambient temperature urine preservative, chlorhexidine/n-propyl gallate (CPG), has been formulated for use during spacefli ght that reduces the effects of oxidation and bacterial contamination on sample integrity while maintaining urine pH. The ability of this preservative to maintain stability of nine key analytes was evaluated for a period of one year. CPG effectively maintained stability of a mmonia, total nitrogen, 3-methylhistidine, chloride, sodium, potassiu m, and urea; however, creatinine and osmolality were not preserved by CPG. These data indicate that CPG offers prolonged room-temperature storage for multiple urine analytes, reducing the requirements for f rozen urine storage on future spaceflights. Iii medical applications on Earth, this technology can allow urine samples to be collected in remote settings and eliminate the need to ship frozen samples.

  16. Control of laser induced molecular fragmentation of n-propyl benzene using chirped femtosecond laser pulses

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Tapas; Karthick Kumar, S.K.; Dutta, Aveek; Goswami, Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    We present the effect of chirping a femtosecond laser pulse on the fragmentation of n-propyl benzene. An enhancement of an order of magnitude for the relative yields of C3H3+ and C5H5+ in the case of negatively chirped pulses and C6H5+ in the case of positively chirped pulses with respect to the transform-limited pulse indicates that in some fragmentation channel, coherence of the laser field plays an important role. For the relative yield of all other heavier fragment ions, resulting from the interaction of the intense laser field with the molecule, there is no such enhancement effect with the sign of chirp, within experimental errors. The importance of the laser phase is further reinforced through a direct comparison of the fragmentation results with the second harmonic of the chirped laser pulse with identical bandwidth. PMID:19696899

  17. Fungicidal Activities of Dihydroferulic Acid Alkyl Ester Analogues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural product dihydroferulic acid (DFA, 1) and the synthesized DFA methyl (4a), ethyl (4b), propyl (4c), hexyl (4d), octyl (4e), and decyl (4f) esters were examined for antifungal activity. Test fungi included Saccharomyces cerevisiae (wild type, and deletion mutants slt2delta and bck1delta), ...

  18. A comprehensive evaluation of the density of neat fatty acids and esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Density is one of the most important physical properties of a chemical compound, affecting numerous applications. An application in the case of fatty acid esters (biodiesel) is that density is specified in some biodiesel standards. In the present work, the density of fatty acid methyl, ethyl, propyl...

  19. Densities and vapor-liquid equilibria in binary mixtures formed by propyl methanoate + ethanol, + propan-1-ol, and + butan-1-ol at 160.0 kPa

    SciTech Connect

    Falcon, J.; Ortega, J.; Gonzalez, E. [Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Las Palmas (Spain). Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica] [Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Las Palmas (Spain). Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica

    1996-07-01

    Densities and excess volumes were determined at 298.15 K for propyl methanoate + ethanol, + propan-1-ol, and + butan-1-ol. The results of those quantities were then correlated to get the concentrations of vapor-liquid equilibrium obtained isobarically at 160 kPa for the same mixtures. Two mixtures show azeotropes: for propyl methanoate (1) + ethanol (2), x{sub 1} = 0.443 at T = 358.7 K; and for propyl methanoate (1) + propan-1-ol (2), x{sub 1} = 0.762 at T = 368.2 K. The mixtures are thermodynamically consistent, and the predictions made using several group-contribution models are satisfactory.

  20. Infrared absorption of branched-chain fatty acids and derivatives in the carbon-hydrogen stretching region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald L. Guertin; Stephen E. Wiberley; Walter H. Bauer

    1956-01-01

    Summary  An investigation of the lithium fluoride region makes it possible to characterize a number of structural isomers of branched-chain\\u000a fatty acids. For example, 2-methyl, 3-methyl, and 5-methyl hexanoic acids may be distinguished. Similarly a number of isomers\\u000a of octanoic acid may be identified ; 2-n-propyl and 2-isopropyl hexanoic acid may be differentiated. The isomers of 2-n-butyl\\u000a hexanoic acid may also

  1. Phase diagram of the iodine-sodium iodide-water-propyl alcohol system at 298.15 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubtsova, E. M.; Varlamova, T. M.; Monakhova, Y. B.; Mushtakova, S. P.

    2015-06-01

    Phase equilibria in the cross sections of isothermal-isobaric sections of the phase diagram of four-component iodine-potassium iodide-water-propyl alcohol are investigated at 298.15 K and pressure of 101325 Pa. It is shown that a three-phase equilibrium of the eutonic type occurs in the cross sections containing (I) 10 and (II) 30 wt % of propyl alcohol, and two three-phase equilibria of the monotectic type are found in cross section II. It is shown that the solid phases of saturated solutions in the investigated cross sections are potassium iodide and crystalline iodine. The compositions of the mixed solvents with the strongest iodine dissolving ability relative to individual solvents are established.

  2. Protection of particular endonuclease R. Hind III cleavage sites by distamycin A, propyl-distamycin and netropsin.

    PubMed Central

    Nosikov, V V; Sain, B

    1977-01-01

    It is shown that three related antibiotics, distamycin A, propyl-distamycin and netropsin, can protect certain endo R.Hind III cleavage sites from attack by endonuclease, giving rise, after endo R.Hind III digestion, to larger DNA fragments. Bacteriophage lambda DNA has six recognition sites for Hind III enzyme. Three of these sites: shind III 2, 3 and 6 can be protected from nuclease action by all the antibiotics used. Propyl-distamycin protects partly shind III 5, too. Netropsin protects partly sites shind III 5 and 4, while distamycin A protects all the sites but shind III 1 so the Hind III digestion produces only two large fragments of lambda DNA. Images PMID:909774

  3. Bioconcentration and transfer of the organophorous flame retardant 1,3-dichloro-2-propyl phosphate causes thyroid endocrine disruption and developmental neurotoxicity in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiangwei; Lai, Nelson Lok-Shun; Wang, Xianfeng; Guo, Yongyong; Lam, Paul Kwan-Sing; Lam, James Chung-Wah; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2015-04-21

    Organophosphate flame retardants are emerging environmental contaminants, although knowledge of their health risks is limited. Here, thyroid hormone homeostasis and neuronal development was studied in the progeny of adult zebrafish exposed to tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP). Adult zebrafish were exposed to TDCPP (0, 4, 20, and 100 ?g/L) for 3 months. Increased generation of reactive oxygen species and reduced survival rates was observed in exposed F1 larvae. We also observed a significant decrease in plasma thyroxine and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine levels in F0 females and F1 eggs/larvae. The mRNA and protein expression of factors associated with neuronal development (e.g., ?1-tubulin, myelin basic protein, and synapsin IIa) were significantly downregulated in exposed F1 larvae, as was the level of the neurotransmitters dopamine, serotonin, gamma amino butyric acid, and histamine. Larval locomotion was significantly decreased in exposed fish, but there was no effect on acetylcholinesterase activity. Bioconcentration of TDCPP was observed in F0 fish. TDCPP was also detected in F1 eggs following parental exposure, indicating maternal transfer of this compound. This study uniquely shows that TDCPP can be transferred to the offspring of exposed adults, causing thyroid endocrine disruption and developmental neurotoxicity. PMID:25826601

  4. Infrared and Raman spectroscopic studies of tris-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] isocyanurate, its sol-gel process, and coating on aluminum and copper.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-Sing; Church, Jeffrey S; Woodhead, Andrea L; Vecchio, Nicolas E; Yang, Johnny

    2014-11-11

    Tris-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] isocyanurate (TTPI) has been used as a precursor to prepare a sol using ethanol as the solvent under acidic conditions. The sol-gel was applied for the surface treatment of aluminum and copper. Infrared and Raman spectra have been recorded for pure TTPI and the TTPI sol, xerogel and TTPI sol-gel coated metals. From the vibrational spectra, TTPI is likely to have the C1 point group. Vibrational assignments are suggested based on group frequencies, the expected reactions in the sol-gel process and the vibrational studies of some related molecules. From the experimental infrared spectra of xerogels annealed at different temperatures and from the thermal-gravimetric analysis, it is found that the TTPI xerogel decomposes at around 450°C with silica being the major decomposition product. A cyclic voltammetric study of the metal electrodes coated with different concentrations of TTPI ranging from 5% to 42% (v/v) has shown that the films with high concentrations of sol would provide better corrosion protection for aluminum and copper. PMID:24866089

  5. Site-specific mutagenesis induced by single O6-alkylguanines (O6-n-propyl, O6-n-butyl, O6-n-octyl) in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Baumgart, P M; Kliem, H C; Gottfried-Anacker, J; Wiessler, M; Schmeiser, H H

    1993-01-01

    The mutagenic activity of a series of longer chain O6-n-alkylguanine residues (O6-n-propyl, O6-n-butyl, O6-n-octyl) has been analyzed using a plasmid molecule (pUC 9) in which single O6-alkylguanines were positioned in the unique Pstl recognition site by shot gun ligation (Nucleic Acids Res. 13, 3305-3316 (1985)) of overlapping synthetic oligonucleotides. After transfection of these vectors into E. coli cells having normal DNA repair systems, progeny plasmids were produced, of which 2.6%, 2.8% and 4.3% were mutated in their Pstl site when containing O6-n-propylguanine, O6-n-butylguanine, O6-n-octylguanine, respectively. DNA sequence analysis of mutant plasmid genomes revealed that O6-n-propylguanine and O6-n-butylguanine induced exclusively G-->A transitions located specifically at the preselected site. O6-n-octylguanine induced apart from G-->A transitions (70%) also targeted G-->T transversions (30%). These results indicate that the mutation frequency of longer chain O6-alkylguanines can be substantial in cells with normal repair systems and that the mutation pattern depends on the nature of the alkyl group. Images PMID:8367292

  6. Adaptation of an L-Proline Adenylation Domain to Use 4-Propyl-L-Proline in the Evolution of Lincosamide Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kadl?ík, Stanislav; Ku?era, Tomáš; Chalupská, Dominika; Gažák, Radek; Kob?rská, Markéta; Ulanová, Dana; Kopecký, Jan; Kutejová, Eva; Najmanová, Lucie; Janata, Ji?í

    2013-01-01

    Clinically used lincosamide antibiotic lincomycin incorporates in its structure 4-propyl-L-proline (PPL), an unusual amino acid, while celesticetin, a less efficient related compound, makes use of proteinogenic L-proline. Biochemical characterization, as well as phylogenetic analysis and homology modelling combined with the molecular dynamics simulation were employed for complex comparative analysis of the orthologous protein pair LmbC and CcbC from the biosynthesis of lincomycin and celesticetin, respectively. The analysis proved the compared proteins to be the stand-alone adenylation domains strictly preferring their own natural substrate, PPL or L-proline. The LmbC substrate binding pocket is adapted to accomodate a rare PPL precursor. When compared with L-proline specific ones, several large amino acid residues were replaced by smaller ones opening a channel which allowed the alkyl side chain of PPL to be accommodated. One of the most important differences, that of the residue corresponding to V306 in CcbC changing to G308 in LmbC, was investigated in vitro and in silico. Moreover, the substrate binding pocket rearrangement also allowed LmbC to effectively adenylate 4-butyl-L-proline and 4-pentyl-L-proline, substrates with even longer alkyl side chains, producing more potent lincosamides. A shift of LmbC substrate specificity appears to be an integral part of biosynthetic pathway adaptation to the PPL acquisition. A set of genes presumably coding for the PPL biosynthesis is present in the lincomycin - but not in the celesticetin cluster; their homologs are found in biosynthetic clusters of some pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBD) and hormaomycin. Whereas in the PBD and hormaomycin pathways the arising precursors are condensed to another amino acid moiety, the LmbC protein is the first functionally proved part of a unique condensation enzyme connecting PPL to the specialized amino sugar building unit. PMID:24386435

  7. 3,3?-Di-n-propyl-1,1?-[p-phenyl­enebis(methyl­ene)]diimidazolium dibromide

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Rosenani A.; Nasri, S. Fatimah; Hemamalini, Madhukar; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2011-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C20H28N4 2+·2Br?, consists of half a 3,3?-di-n-propyl-1,1?-[p-phenyl­enenis(methyl­ene)]diimidazolium cation and a bromide anion. The cation is located on an inversion center and adopts an ?AAA? trans conformation. In the crystal, the cation is linked to the anions via weak C—H?Br hydrogen bonds. PMID:22090975

  8. In vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility of calcium phosphate cements using Hydroxy-propyl-methyl-Cellulose (HPMC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jyoti, M. Anirban; Thai, Van Viet; Min, Young Ki; Lee, Byong-Taek; Song, Ho-Yeon

    2010-12-01

    In this study, the bioactivity and biocompatibility of new calcium phosphate bone cements (CPC) using Hydroxy-propyl-methyl-Cellulose (HPMC) was evaluated to understand the effect of HPMC on bone-bonding apatite formation and biocompatibility. In vitro bioactivity was investigated by incubating the CPC samples containing different ratios of HPMC (0%, 2% and 4% HPMC) in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 2, 7, 14 and 28 days. The formation of bone like apatite was confirmed on CPC surfaces by SEM and XRD analysis. Higher HPMC content of CPC showed faster apatite deposition in SBF. A high Ca ion dissolution profile was also reported with an increase of pH in all samples in SBF. The apatite formation ability of these CPC samples was found to be dependent on both surface chemistry and immersion time in SBF. The In vitro cytotoxicity test showed that the CPC samples with 4% HPMC were fairly cytocompatible for fibroblast L-929 cells. SEM images showed that MG-63 cells were successfully attached to the CPC samples and well proliferated.

  9. Vibrational spectra and normal coordinate analysis of 2-hydroxy-3-(2-methoxyphenoxy) propyl carbamate.

    PubMed

    Muthu, S; Renuga, S

    2014-11-11

    In this work, the vibrational spectral analysis was carried out by using FT-Raman and FTIR spectroscopy in the range 50-4000 cm(-1) and 450-4000 cm(-1) respectively, for 2-hydroxy-3-(2-methoxyphenoxy) propyl carbamate (2H3MPPLC) molecule. The molecular structure, fundamental vibrational frequencies and intensities of the vibrational bands were interpreted with the aid of structure optimizations and normal coordinate force field calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio HF methods with 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The complete vibrational assignments of wave numbers were made on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED). The results of the calculations were applied to simulated spectra of the title compound, which show excellent agreement with observed spectra. The scaled B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) results show the best agreement with the experimental values over the other method. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The results confirm the occurrence of intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) within the molecule. The dipole moment (?), polarizability (?) and hyperpolarizability (?) of the investigated molecule has been computed using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method. Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges was also calculated. Besides, frontier molecular orbitals, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and thermodynamic properties were performed. PMID:24878438

  10. Hydroxy propyl cellulose capped silver nanoparticles produced by simple dialysis process

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, L. [University of Genova, Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy)] [University of Genova, Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Balakrishnan, A. [Laboratoire SIMaP - GPM2, Grenoble-INP/UJF/CNRS BP46, 38042 Saint Martin d'Heres cedex (France)] [Laboratoire SIMaP - GPM2, Grenoble-INP/UJF/CNRS BP46, 38042 Saint Martin d'Heres cedex (France); Sanosh, K.P. [Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Lecce, via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy)] [Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Lecce, via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Marsano, E., E-mail: marsano@chimica.unige.it [University of Genova, Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy)

    2010-08-15

    Silver (Ag) nanoparticles ({approx}6 nm) were synthesized using a novel dialysis process. Silver nitrate was used as a starting precursor, ethylene glycol as solvent and hydroxy propyl cellulose (HPC) introduced as a capping agent. Different batches of reaction mixtures were prepared with different concentrations of silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}). After the reduction and aging, these solutions were subjected to ultra-violet visible spectroscopy (UVS). Optimized solution, containing 250 mg AgNO{sub 3} revealed strong plasmon resonance peak at {approx}410 nm in the spectrum indicating good colloidal state of Ag nanoparticles in the diluted solution. The optimized solution was subjected to dialysis process to remove any unreacted solvent. UVS of the optimized solution after dialysis showed the plasmon resonance peak shifting to {approx}440 nm indicating the reduction of Ag ions into zero-valent Ag. This solution was dried at 80 {sup o}C and the resultant HPC capped Ag (HPC/Ag) nanoparticles were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for their particle size and morphology. The particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of these nanoparticles showed skewed distribution plot with particle size ranging from 3 to 18 nm. The nanoparticles were characterized for phase composition using X-ray diffractrometry (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).

  11. Visible-light-promoted degradation of the antioxidants propyl gallate and t-butylhydroquinone: mechanistic aspects.

    PubMed

    Criado, Susana; Allevi, Carolina; García, Norman A

    2012-01-01

    The kinetic and mechanistic aspects of the visible-light-mediated photodegradation of the phenolic antioxidants (PA), propyl gallate (PG), and t-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), employing riboflavin (Rf) as photosensitizer, have been studied by time-resolved and stationary techniques. The photosensitizer Rose Bengal (RB) was used for auxiliary experiments. Results show the occurrence of chemical transformations on PA with the participation of electronically excited states of Rf and different reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from these states. With 0.02 mM Rf and 1.0 mM PA, the electronically excited triplet state of Rf is quenched by PA, in a competitive manner with the dissolved oxygen. As a consequence, a cascade of photoprocesses produces singlet oxygen (O(2)((1)?(g))) and H(2)O(2) in the case of PG and, O(2)((1)?(g)), H(2)O(2) and HO(•) in the case of TBHQ. The participation of these species is supported by experiments of oxygen consumption carried out in the presence of specific ROS scavengers. TBHQ has a relatively high capacity for O(2)((1)?(g)) physical deactivation and a low photodegradation efficiency by the oxidative species. Comparatively, it can be asserted that TBHQ has a higher antioxidant capacity than PG. PMID:22732940

  12. Utilization of Boron Compounds for the Modification of Suberoyl Anilide Hydroxamic Acid as Inhibitor of Histone Deacetylase Class II Homo sapiens

    PubMed Central

    Bakri, Ridla; Parikesit, Arli Aditya; Satriyanto, Cipta Prio; Kerami, Djati; Tambunan, Usman Sumo Friend

    2014-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) has a critical function in regulating gene expression. The inhibition of HDAC has developed as an interesting anticancer research area that targets biological processes such as cell cycle, apoptosis, and cell differentiation. In this study, an HDAC inhibitor that is available commercially, suberoyl anilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), has been modified to improve its efficacy and reduce the side effects of the compound. Hydrophobic cap and zinc-binding group of these compounds were substituted with boron-based compounds, whereas the linker region was substituted with p-aminobenzoic acid. The molecular docking analysis resulted in 8 ligands with ?Gbinding value more negative than the standards, SAHA and trichostatin A (TSA). That ligands were analyzed based on the nature of QSAR, pharmacological properties, and ADME-Tox. It is conducted to obtain a potent inhibitor of HDAC class II Homo sapiens. The screening process result gave one best ligand, Nova2 (513246-99-6), which was then further studied by molecular dynamics simulations. PMID:25214833

  13. Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate perturbs the expression of genes involved in immune response and lipid and steroid metabolism in chicken embryos.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Amani; Buick, Julie K; Williams, Andrew; Yauk, Carole L; O'Brien, Jason M; Crump, Doug; Williams, Kim L; Chiu, Suzanne; Kennedy, Sean W

    2014-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that in ovo exposure to the flame retardant tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) decreased plasma thyroxine levels, reduced growth parameters, and decreased gallbladder size in chicken embryos. In the current study DNA microarrays were used to evaluate global mRNA expression in liver tissue of male chicken embryos that exhibited the above mentioned effects. Injected doses were dimethyl sulfoxide vehicle control, 7.6 or 45 ?g TDCPP/g egg. TDCPP caused significant changes in the expression of five genes at the low dose and 47 genes at the high dose (False Discovery Rate p ? 0.1, fold change ? 1.5). The gene expression analysis suggested a compromised immune function, a state of cholestatic liver/biliary fibrosis, and disrupted lipid and steroid metabolism. Circulating bile acid levels were elevated, which is an indication of liver dysfunction, and plasma cholesterol levels were reduced; however, hepatic bile acid and cholesterol levels were unaltered. Interactome analyses identified apolipoprotein E, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha as key regulatory molecules involved in the effects of TDCPP. Our results demonstrate a targeted effect of TDCPP toxicity on lipid metabolism, including cholesterol, that helps explain the aforementioned phenotypic effects, as chicken embryos are highly dependent on yolk lipids for growth and maintenance throughout development. Finally, our results are in concordance with the literature that describes TDCPP as a cancer-causing agent, since the majority of dysregulated genes were involved in cancer pathways. PMID:24407104

  14. Optimized protocol for protein macrocomplexes stabilization using the EDC, 1-ethyl-3-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)carbodiimide, zero-length cross-linker.

    PubMed

    Lepvrier, Eléonore; Doigneaux, Cyrielle; Moullintraffort, Laura; Nazabal, Alexis; Garnier, Cyrille

    2014-11-01

    Since noncovalent protein macrocomplexes are implicated in many cellular functions, their characterization is essential to understand how they drive several biological processes. Over the past 20 years, because of its high sensitivity, mass spectrometry has been described as a powerful tool for both the protein identification in macrocomplexes and the understanding of the macrocomplexes organization. Nonetheless, stabilizing these protein macrocomplexes, by introducing covalent bonds, is a prerequisite before their analysis by the denaturing mass spectrometry technique. In this study, using the Hsp90/Aha1 macrocomplex as a model (where Hsp denotes a heat shock protein), we optimized a double cross-linking protocol with 1-ethyl-3-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)carbodiimide (EDC). This protocol takes place in a two-step process: initially, a cross-linking is performed according to a previously optimized protocol, and then a second cross-linking is performed by increasing the EDC concentration, counterbalanced by a high dilution of sample and, thus, protein macrocomplexes. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry, we verified the efficiency of our optimized protocol by submitting (or not submitting) samples to the K200 MALDI MS analysis kit containing N-succinimidyl iodo-acetate, suberic acid bis(3-sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester), suberic acid bis(N-hydroxysuccinimide ester), disuccinimidyl tartrate, and dithiobis(succinimidyl) propionate, developed by the CovalX Company. Results obtained show that our optimized cross-linking protocol allows a complete stabilization of protein macrocomplexes and appears to be very accurate. Indeed, contrary to other cross-linkers, the "zero-length" feature of the EDC reagent prevents overdetermination of the mass of complexes, because EDC does not remain as part of the linkage. PMID:25268573

  15. Transmission genetics of pancreatic acinar atrophy in the German Shepherd Dog and development of microsatellite DNA-based tools for canine forensics and linkage analysis

    E-print Network

    Clark, Leigh Anne

    2004-09-30

    , and adipose tissue replace acinar tissue (Wiberg et al. 1999). Diagnosis and treatment Previously, the fecal soybean stimulation test (SST), fecal proteolytic activity (FPA), and N-benzoyl-L-tyrosyl-P-aminobenzoic acid absorption test (BT-PABA) have... soybean stimulation test, fecal proteolytic activity, and N-benzoyl-L-tyrosyl-P- aminobenzoic acid absorption have all been used for the diagnosis of EPI (Westermarck 1982; Westermarck et al. 1993). Unfortunately, all of these tests are either cumbersome...

  16. Cellular and in vivo hepatotoxicity caused by green tea phenolic acids and catechins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giuseppe Galati; Alison Lin; Amira M. Sultan; Peter J. O'Brien

    2006-01-01

    Tea phenolic acids and catechins containing gallic acid moieties are most abundant in green tea, and various medical benefits have been proposed from their consumption. In the following, the cytotoxicities of these major tea phenolics toward isolated rat hepatocytes have been ranked and the mechanisms of cytotoxicity evaluated. The order of cytotoxic effectiveness found was epigallocatechin-3-gallate > propyl gallate > epicatechin-3-gallate > gallic acid, epigallocatechin > epicatechin. Using

  17. Studies on the isolation and properties of the highly unsaturated fatty acids from natural sources 

    E-print Network

    Abu-Nasr, Ahmed Mostafa

    1953-01-01

    CONCENTRATION OF HIGHLY UNSATURATED ACIDSj EXPERIMENTAL METHODS,. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . A. SOME GENERAL PROCEDURES USED IN UREA COMPLEX STUDY . . . B. FRACTIONATION BY UREA ................................. 1. Ethyl Esters of Cod Liver Oil... Fatty Acids . . . . . . . 2. Free Fatty Acids from Various Fish Oils ? . ? . ? . o 3. Methyl, Ethyl, n-Propyl and n-Butyl Esters from Cod Liver Oil . ? ............ U. Pure Unsaturated Fatty Acids and their n-Alkyl Esters 5>. Methyl Esters from Hog...

  18. Synthesis and Properties of 1,1-bis{[3-( N , N -Dimethylamino)propyl]amido}alkane-di- N -oxides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrzej Piasecki; S?awomir Karczewski; Irena Maliszewska

    2007-01-01

    A homologous series of new surface-active 1,1-bis{[3-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl]amido}alkane-di-N-oxides were synthesized in the reaction of an appropriate diethyl 2-alkylmalonate with N,N-dimethylamino-1,3-propanediamine followed by oxidation with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. The adsorption isotherms of their\\u000a aqueous solutions were measured and evaluated to obtain adsorption parameters: critical micelle concentration (CMC), surface\\u000a excess concentration (?CMC), equilibrium surface tension at the CMC (?CMC), cross-sectional area of the

  19. Structure of poly(propyl ether imine) (PETIM) dendrimer from fully atomistic molecular Dynamics Simulation and by Small Angle X-ray scattering

    E-print Network

    Chandan Jana; G. Jayamurugan; R. Ganapathy; Prabal K. Maiti; N. Jayaraman; A. K. Sood

    2006-11-18

    We study the structure of carboxylic acid terminated neutral poly (propyl ether imine) (PETIM) dendrimer from generation 1 through 6 (G1-G6) in a good solvent (water) by fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We determine as a function of generation such structural properties as: radius of gyration, shape tensor, asphericity, fractal dimension, monomer density distribution, and end-group distribution functions. The sizes obtained from the MD simulations have been validated by Small Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS) experiment on dendrimer of generation 2 to 4 (G2-G4). A good agreement between the experimental and theoretical value of radius of gyration has been observed. We find a linear increase in radius of gyration with the generation. In contrast, Rg scales as ~ N^x with the number of monomers. We find two distinct exponents depending on the generations: x = 0.47 for G1-G3 and x = 0.28 for G3-G6 which reveals their non-space filling nature. In comparison with the amine terminated PAMAM dendrimer, we find Rg of G-th generation PETIM dendrimer is nearly equal to that of (G+1)-th generation of PAMAM dendrimer as observed by Maiti et. al. [Macromolecules,38, 979 2005]. We find substantial back folding of the outer sub generations into the interior of the dendrimer. Due to their highly flexible nature of the repeating branch units, the shape of the PETIM dendrimer deviates significantly from the spherical shape and the molecules become more and more spherical as the generation increases. The interior of the dendrimer is quite open with internal cavities available for accommodating guest molecules suggesting using PETIM dendrimer for guest-host applications. We also give a quantitative measure of the number of water molecules present inside the dendrimer.

  20. A uremic toxin, 3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionate induces cell damage to proximal tubular cells via the generation of a radical intermediate.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Yohei; Iwao, Yasunori; Mera, Katsumi; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kadowaki, Daisuke; Ishima, Yu; Chuang, Victor Tuan Giam; Sato, Keizo; Otagiri, Masaki; Maruyama, Toru

    2012-11-01

    3-Carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionate (CMPF), a furan fatty acid uremic toxin (UT) and a substrate for organic ion transporters, contributes to the accumulation of CMPF in renal tubular cells. Although oxidative stress induced by UTs has been proposed as a mechanism of its toxicity in chronic kidney disease, little information is available regarding the redox property of CMPF and its relation to renal cell damage. The findings herein show that CMPF enhances the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HK-2 cells in the presence of angiotensin II (A-II), an inducer of O(2)(·-). When iron is also present, CMPF and A-II induce the Fenton reaction, resulting in a further increase in ROS production. Such CMPF-induced oxidative stress increases TGF-?1 secretion in HK-2 cells, and a positive correlation between CMPF-induced ROS production and the secretion of active TGF-?1 was observed. CMPF caused a reduction in cell viability which was negatively correlated with intracellular ROS production. These negative effects of CMPF in HK-2 cells were completely suppressed by probenecid, an inhibitor of organic anion transport. Interestingly, in vitro ROS assays indicate that CMPF directly interacts with superoxide anion radicals (O(2)(·-)) and peroxy radicals (LOO) to produce CMPF radicals. The subsequent interaction of CMPF radicals with dissolved oxygen leads to the overproduction of O(2)(·-). Based on these findings, we conclude that CMPF, which accumulates in the renal cells, appears to play a prominent role as a pro-oxidant which subsequently leads to renal cellular damage via the overproduction of O(2)(·-). PMID:22898098

  1. N-acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-l-cysteine in urine from workers exposed to 1-bromopropane in foam cushion spray adhesives.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Kevin W; Petersen, Martin R; Cheever, Kenneth L; Luo, Lian

    2009-10-01

    1-Bromopropane (1-BP) has been marketed as an alternative for ozone depleting and other solvents; it is used in aerosol products, adhesives, metal, precision, and electronics cleaning solvents. Mechanisms of toxicity of 1-BP are not fully understood, but it may be a neurological and reproductive toxicant. Sparse exposure information prompted this study using 1-BP air sampling and urinary metabolites. Mercapturic acid conjugates are excreted in urine from 1-BP metabolism involving debromination. Research objectives were to evaluate the utility of urinary N-acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-L-cysteine (AcPrCys) for assessing exposure to 1-BP and compare it to urinary bromide [Br((-))] previously reported for these workers. Forty-eight-hour urine specimens were obtained from 30 workers at two factories where 1-BP spray adhesives were used to construct polyurethane foam seat cushions. Urine specimens were also obtained from 21 unexposed control subjects. All the workers' urine was collected into composite samples representing three time intervals: at work, after work but before bedtime, and upon awakening. Time-weighted average (TWA) geometric mean breathing zone concentrations were 92.4 and 10.5 p.p.m. for spraying and non-spraying jobs, respectively. Urinary AcPrCys showed the same trend as TWA exposures to 1-BP: higher levels were observed for sprayers. Associations of AcPrCys concentrations, adjusted for creatinine, with 1-BP TWA exposure were statistically significant for both sprayers (P < 0.05) and non-sprayers (P < 0.01). Spearman correlation coefficients for AcPrCys and Br((-)) analyses determined from the same urine specimens were highly correlated (P < 0.0001). This study confirms that urinary AcPrCys is an important 1-BP metabolite and an effective biomarker for highly exposed foam cushion workers. PMID:19706636

  2. Biocontrol of avocado dematophora root rot by antagonistic Pseudomonas fluorescens PCL1606 correlates with the production of 2-hexyl 5-propyl resorcinol.

    PubMed

    Cazorla, Francisco M; Duckett, Simon B; Bergström, Ed T; Noreen, Sadaf; Odijk, Roeland; Lugtenberg, Ben J J; Thomas-Oates, Jane E; Bloemberg, Guido V

    2006-04-01

    A collection of 905 bacterial isolates from the rhizospheres of healthy avocado trees was obtained and screened for antagonistic activity against Dematophora necatrix, the cause of avocado Dematophora root rot (also called white root rot). A set of eight strains was selected on the basis of growth inhibitory activity against D. necatrix and several other important soilborne phytopathogenic fungi. After typing of these strains, they were classified as belonging to Pseudomonas chlororaphis, Pseudomonas fluorescens, and Pseudomonas putida. The eight antagonistic Pseudomonas spp. were analyzed for their secretion of hydrogen cyanide, hydrolytic enzymes, and antifungal metabolites. P. chlororaphis strains produced the antibiotic phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and phenazine-1-carboxamide. Upon testing the biocontrol ability of these strains in a newly developed avocado-D. necatrix test system and in a tomato-F oxysporum test system, it became apparent that P. fluorescens PCL1606 exhibited the highest biocontrol ability. The major antifungal activity produced by strain P. fluorescens PCL1606 did not correspond to any of the major classes of antifungal antibiotics produced by Pseudomonas biocontrol strains. This compound was purified and subsequently identified as 2-hexyl 5-propyl resorcinol (HPR). To study the role of HPR in biocontrol activity, two Tn5 mutants of P. fluorescens PCL1606 impaired in antagonistic activity were selected. These mutants were shown to impair HRP production and showed a decrease in biocontrol activity. As far as we know, this is the first report of a Pseudomonas biocontrol strain that produces HPR in which the production of this compound correlates with its biocontrol activity. PMID:16610745

  3. Bioconcentration, metabolism and neurotoxicity of the organophorous flame retardant 1,3-dichloro 2-propyl phosphate (TDCPP) to zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiangwei; Lam, James Chung-Wah; Man, Yin-Chung; Lai, Nelson Lok-Shun; Kwok, Karen Ying; Guo, Yong yong; Lam, Paul Kwan-Sing; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2015-01-01

    Organophosphate flame retardants are ubiquitous environmental contaminants; however, knowledge is limited regarding their environmental health risks and toxicity. Here, we investigated the effects of acute and long-term exposure to tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) to the nervous system of zebrafish. Zebrafish embryos (2 h post-fertilization) were exposed to TDCPP (0-100 ?g/L) for 6 months up until sexual maturation. Concentrations of TDCPP and its metabolic product (bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate, BDCPP) were measured in the tissues of 5 day post-fertilization (dpf) larvae. There was no effect on locomotion, acetylcholinesterase activity, levels of the neurotransmitters dopamine and serotonin, and expression of mRNAs and proteins related to central nervous system development (e.g., myelin basic protein, ?1-tubulin) in any exposure group. However, in adult fish, reductions of dopamine and serotonin levels were detected in the brains of females but not males. Downregulation of nervous system development genes was observed in both the male and female brain tissues. TDCPP concentrations were measured in adult fish tissues including the brain, and greater levels were detected in females. Our results showed that females are more sensitive to TDCPP stress than males in terms of TDCPP-induced neurotoxicity. We demonstrate that long-term exposure to lower concentrations of TDCPP in fish can lead to neurotoxicity. PMID:25461749

  4. 3,3?-[1,2-Phenyl­enebis(methyl­ene)]bis­(1-propyl­benzimidazolium) dibromide hemihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Muhammad Adnan; Haque, Rosenani A.; Fun, Hoong-Kun; Chia, Tze Shyang

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C28H32N4 2+·2Br?·0.5H2O, contains one 3,3?-[1,2-phenyl­enebis(methyl­ene)]bis­(1-propyl­benzimidazolium) cation, two bromide anions and one half-mol­ecule of water. In the crystal, the whole 3,3?-[1,2-phen­yl­enebis(methyl­ene)]bis­(1-propyl­benzimidazolium) cation and one of the bromide anions are each disordered over two positions with site-occupancy ratios of 0.751?(6):0.249?(6) and 0.680?(8):0.320?(8). For the major component of the disordered cation, the central benzene ring forms dihedral angles of 83.6?(5) and 88.2?(4)° with its adjacent imidazole rings, while these angles for the minor component are 89.2?(15) and 84.9?(13)°. In the crystal, the cations and anions are linked by C—H?Br hydrogen bonds into dimers and then stacked along the c axis. The crystal packing is further stabilized by C—H?? and ?–? inter­actions [shortest centroid–centroid distance = 3.646?(4)?Å]. PMID:22347075

  5. RATE CONSTANTS FOR THE REACTIONS OF OH RADICALS AND CL ATOMS WITH DI-N-PROPYL ETHER AND DI-N-BUTYL ETHER AND THEIR DEUTERATED ANALOGS. (R825252)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using relative rate methods, rate constants for the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals and Cl atoms with di- n -propyl ether, di- n -propyl ether-d14, di- n -butyl ether and di- n -butyl ether-d18 have been measured at 296 ? 2 K and atmos...

  6. ?-Phenoxyphenylacetic acid derived angiotensin II antagonists with low nanomolar AT 1\\/AT 2 receptor subtype affinity (Part II)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas F. Walsh; Kenneth J. Fitch; Raymond S. L. Chang; Kristie A. Faust; Tsing-Bau Chen; Salah D. Kivlighn; Gloria J. Zingaro; Victor J. Lotti; Peter K. S. Siegl; Arthur A. Patchett; William J. Greenlee

    1995-01-01

    Directed synthesis and pharmacological evaluation in a recently described class of ?-phenoxyphenylacetic acid bearing angiotensin II (AII) receptor antagonists has afforded further potent AT1-selective AII antagonists. Substitution in the central aromatic ring significantly increases AT2 receptor affinity such that the n-propyl derivative 7g displayed low nanomolar potency at both AT1 and AT2 receptor subtypes.

  7. Bioadhesive analysis of controlled-release systems. I. Fracture and interpenetration analysis in poly(acrylic acid)-containing systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gilles Ponchel; Frederic Touchard; D DUCHENE; Nikolaos A. Peppas

    1987-01-01

    Novel bioadhesive controlled release tablets were prepared from poly (acrylic acid) and hydroxy- propyl methylcellulose. Their bioadhesive behavior was studied in a modified tensile tester in contact with bovine sublingual mucus, and the force-elongation behavior was measured up to the breakpoint. The work of adhesion was calculated and related to bioadhesive characteristics of the tablets. It was found that the

  8. New positive allosteric modulators of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2): identification and synthesis of N-propyl-8-chloro-6-substituted isoquinolones.

    PubMed

    Trabanco, Andrés A; Duvey, Guillaume; Cid, José María; Macdonald, Gregor J; Cluzeau, Philippe; Nhem, Vanthea; Furnari, Rocco; Behaj, Nadia; Poulain, Géraldine; Finn, Terry; Lavreysen, Hilde; Poli, Sonia; Raux, Alexandre; Thollon, Yves; Poirier, Nicolas; D'Addona, David; Andrés, José Ignacio; Lutjens, Robert; Le Poul, Emmanuel; Imogai, Hassan; Rocher, Jean-Philippe

    2011-02-01

    A series of N-propyl-8-chloro-6-substituted isoquinolones was identified as positive allosteric modulators of metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2 PAM) via high throughput screening (HTS). The subsequent synthesis and initial SAR exploration that led to the identification of compound 28 is described. PMID:21232953

  9. A novel, simple and inexpensive procedure for the simultaneous determination of iopamidol and p-aminohippuric acid for renal function assessment from plasma samples in awake rats.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Romero, Violeta; González-Villalva, Karla I; Reyes, José L; Franco-Bourland, Rebecca E; Guízar-Sahagún, Gabriel; Castañeda-Hernández, Gilberto; Cruz-Antonio, Leticia

    2015-03-25

    The purpose of the current study was to design, validate and implement a novel analytical method for the simultaneous plasma measurement of iopamidol and p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) to estimate renal function in awake rats. A reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the simultaneous measurement of iopamidol (for glomerular filtration rate estimation, GFR) and PAH (for tubular secretion determination, TS) was designed and validated using a C-18 column, 0.1M acetic acid-10% acetonitrile (90:10, v/v) as mobile phase, at a flow rate of 0.3 ml/min, and UV detection at 270 nm. Iopamidol (244.8 mg/kg) was administered intravenously followed immediately by sodium PAH (100 mg/kg) to healthy female Sprague-Dawley rats. Plasma samples obtained at 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after drug administration were deproteinized with 2.5% trichloroacetic acid containing p-aminobenzoic acid as internal standard, and separated by the validated RP-HPLC method described above. The iopamidol and PAH chromatographic data were analyzed using a non-compartmental model. The results demonstrated that the RP-HPLC method was linear in ranges between 15-120 ?g/ml and 2.5-120 ?g/ml for iopamidol and PAH, respectively. Precision and accuracy were within 15% for both drugs. Recovery of iopamidol and PAH was 92% and 100%, respectively. Plasma iopamidol and PAH clearances in awake rats, estimates for GFR and TS, respectively, were 1.49±0.20 ml/min and 3.73±0.38 ml/min. In conclusion, the method here described is a simple and reliable procedure, for the simultaneous and time-saving determination of GFR and TS from plasma samples in the conscious rat. PMID:25594899

  10. (3E,5E)-3,5-Bis(2-chloro­benzyl­idene)-1-propyl­piperidin-4-one

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Quanzhi; Chen, Lingzi; Weng, Bixia; Fan, Lei; Wu, Xiaoping

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C22H21Cl2NO, is a derivative of mono-carbonyl analogues of curcumin (MACs). The mol­ecule has an E conformation for each of the olefinic bonds. The 1-propyl­piperidin-4-one ring has a distorted chair conformation with the ring N and the C and O atoms of the carbonyl group deviating from the mean plane of the remaining four ring C atoms by 0.682?(2), ?0.134?(3) and ?0.340?(4)?Å, respectively. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 26.5?(1)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are connected by weak C—H?O and C—H?? inter­actions. PMID:23476444

  11. Corrosion mitigation of N-(2-hydroxy-3-trimethyl ammonium)propyl chitosan chloride as inhibitor on mild steel.

    PubMed

    Sangeetha, Y; Meenakshi, S; SairamSundaram, C

    2015-01-01

    The biopolymer N-(2-hydroxy-3-trimethyl ammonium)propyl chitosan chloride (HTACC) was synthesised and its influence as a novel corrosion inhibitor on mild steel in 1M HCl was studied using gravimetric and electrochemical experiments. The compound obtained was characterised using FTIR and NMR studies. The inhibition efficiency increased with the increase in concentration and reached a maximum of 98.9% at 500 ppm concentration. Polarisation studies revealed that HTACC acts both as anodic and cathodic inhibitor. Electrochemical impedance studies confirmed that the inhibition is through adsorption on the metal surface. The extent of inhibition exhibits a negative trend with increase in temperature. Langmuir isotherm provides the best description on the adsorption nature of the inhibitor. SEM analysis indicated the presence of protective film formed by the inhibitor on the metal surface. PMID:25450546

  12. 3,3?-[1,4-Phenyl­enebis(methyl­ene)]­bis­(1-propyl­benzimidazolium) dichloride dihydrate

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Rosenani A.; Iqbal, Muhammad Adnan; Ahmad, Safaa A.; Chia, Tze Shyang; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2012-01-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C28H32N4 2+·2Cl?·2H2O, contains half of a 3,3?-[1,4-phenyl­enebis(methyl­ene)]bis­(1-propyl­benzimidazolium) cation, one chloride anion and one water mol­ecule. The complete cation is generated by a crystallographic inversion center. The central benzene ring forms a dihedral angle of 66.06?(11)° with its adjacent benzimidazolium ring system. In the crystal, the cations, anions and water mol­ecules are linked by O—H?Cl, C—H?O and C—H?Cl hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network. The crystal packing is further stabilized by ?–? inter­actions, with centroid–centroid distances of 3.5561?(15) and 3.6708?(15)?Å. PMID:22412706

  13. In vivo insulin-mimetic activity of [N,N'-1,3-propyl-bis(salicyladimine)]oxovanadium(IV).

    PubMed

    Xie, Mingjin; Xu, Guangjun; Li, Ling; Liu, Weiping; Niu, Yanfen; Yan, Shiping

    2007-06-01

    [N,N'-1,3-Propyl-bis(salicyladimine)]oxovanadium(IV) - an oxovanadium complex has been tested for bioactivity as an insulin-enhancing agent. Its structure reveals that the vanadium(IV) ion is hexacoordinated and situated in a distorted octahedral environment. The complex was administered intragastrically to both normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats for two weeks. The results showed that the complex, at a dose of 10.0 and 20.0mgV.kg(-1), could lower the blood glucose level in STZ-diabetic rats and improve the response to an oral glucose challenge. This complex did not alter these parameters in normal rats. It was suggested that the complex exerted an antidiabetic effect in STZ-diabetic rats. PMID:17343957

  14. The Laboratory Rotational Spectrum of Iso-Propyl Cyanide and AN Astronomical Search in Sagittarius B2(N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Holger S. P.; Coutens, A.; Walters, A.; Grabow, J.-U.; Belloche, A.; Menten, K. M.; Schlemmer, S.

    2009-06-01

    We have carried out a molecular line survey of Sagittarius B2(N) in the 3 mm region with selected recordings at 2 and 1.3 mm to probe the chemical complexity in massive star-forming regions. Noteworthy results include the detection of aminoacetonitrile, a possible precursor of the aminoacid glycine, the detection of ^{13}C isotopologs of vinyl cyanide, and the detection of ethyl formate as well as normal-propyl cyanide. The heavy atoms in the latter molecule form a chain. An isomer with a branched structure, iso-propyl cyanide, also exists, but its rotational spectrum has only been recorded in few transitions up to 40 GHz. Therefore, laboratory measurements were extended. The molecule is rather asymmetric (? = -0.5766) with a strong a-dipole moment component of 4.05 (2) D and a still sizable c-component of 1.4 (2) D.^e Measurements in Köln were carried out in selected regions between 40 and 600 GHz. Since the c-type transitions appeared to be weaker than predicted additional Stark (and also zero-field) measurements have been carried out in Hannover between 6 and 20 GHz. We will present results of these laboratory spectroscopic investigations as well as the outcome of a search for the molecule in our Sgr B2(N) line survey. A. Belloche, K. M. Menten, C. Comito, H. S. P. Müller, P. Schilke, J. Ott, S. Thorwirth, C. Hieret, Astron. Astrophys. 482 (2008) 179; Erratum 492 (2008) 796. H. S. P. Müller, A. Belloche, K. M. Menten, C. Comito, P. Schilke, J. Mol. Spectrosc. 251 (2008) 319. A. Belloche, R. T. Garrod, H. S. P. Müller, K. M. Menten, C. Comito, P. Schilke, Astron. Astrophys. (2009), accepted. G. E. Herberich, Z. Naturforsch. 22a (1967) 543. J. R. Durig, Y. S. Li, J. Mol. Struct. 21 (1974) 289.

  15. Effects of polytherapy with phenytoin, carbamazepine, and stiripentol on formation of 4-ene-valproate, a hepatotoxic metabolite of valproic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    René H Levy; Albert W Rettenmeier; Gail D Anderson; Alan J Wilensky; Patrick N Friel; Thomas A Baillie; Andrew Acheampong; Jacques Tor; Martine Guyot; Pierre Loiseau

    1990-01-01

    The incidence of valproic acid hepatotoxicity has been reported to increase in patients who are receiving polytherapy. A minor valproic acid metabolite, 2-propyl-4-pentenoic acid (4-ene-VPA), formed by a cytochrome P450-mediated reaction, has been shown to be a potent inducer of microvesicular steatosis in rats. This study tested the hypothesis that formation of 4-ene-VPA would be increased in patients taking valproic

  16. The effects of the covalent attachment of 3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl) propyl amine to glutaraldehyde pretreated bovine pericardium on structural degeneration, oxidative modification, and calcification of rat subdermal implants.

    PubMed

    Christian, Abigail J; Alferiev, Ivan S; Connolly, Jeanne M; Ischiropoulos, Harry; Levy, Robert J

    2015-07-01

    Bioprosthetic heart valves (BHV) fabricated from glutaraldehyde pretreated heterograft materials, porcine aortic valves or bovine pericardium (BP), are widely used in cardiac surgery. BHV progressively fail in clinical use due to structural degeneration. Previously we reported that dityrosine, an oxidized amino acid, was present in failed clinical BP-BHV explants; unimplanted BP had no detectable dityrosine. In the same studies BP were demonstrated in vitro to be susceptible to oxidative damage, that could be mitigated with BP covalently modified with the antioxidant, 3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)propyl amine (DBP). The present studies compared in rat subdermal implants glutaraldehyde pretreated BP to BP modified with either DBP or the chemical reactions used to link DBP. All BP explants regardless of DBP demonstrated reduced hydroxyproline and increased digestibility by collagenase. However, the DBP-BP explants showed significant inhibition of reduced explant shrink temperatures (an index of crosslinking) as compared with control BP. Significant mitigation of calcification was observed in both the BP-DBP and chemically modified explants as compared with BP. Dityrosine was not detectable in the 90 day explants. It is concluded that rat subdermal BP implants undergo both calcific and noncalcific structural degeneration, but without the formation of dityrosine, unlike clinical BP explants. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 103: 2441-2448, 2015. PMID:25546235

  17. Inhibition of HIV-1 by Octadecyloxyethyl Esters of (S)-[3-Hydroxy-2-(Phosphonomethoxy)Propyl] Nucleosides and Evaluation of Their Mechanism of Action ?

    PubMed Central

    Magee, Wendy C.; Valiaeva, Nadejda; Beadle, James R.; Richman, Douglas D.; Hostetler, Karl Y.; Evans, David H.

    2011-01-01

    (S)-1-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]cytosine (HPMPC [cidofovir]) and (S)-9-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]adenine (HPMPA) are potent inhibitors of a variety of DNA viruses. These drugs possess a 3?-hydroxyl equivalent which could support chain extension from an incorporated drug molecule. HPMPC and HPMPA were initially reported to lack activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1); more recent results have shown that the octadecyloxyethyl (ODE) and hexadecyloxypropyl (HDP) esters of HPMPA are potent inhibitors of the virus. We have synthesized the ODE esters of a series of (S)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl] (HPMP) nucleosides, including HPMPC, HPMP-guanine (HPMPG), HPMP-thymine (HPMPT), and HPMP-diaminopurine (HPMPDAP), as well as the ODE ester of the obligate chain terminator (S)-9-[3-methoxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)-propyl]adenine (MPMPA). All compounds except ODE-HPMPT were inhibitors of HIV-1 replication at low nanomolar concentrations. These compounds were also inhibitors of the replication of HIV-1 variants that are resistant to various nucleoside reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors at concentrations several times lower than would be expected to be achieved in vivo. To investigate the mechanism of the antiviral activity, the active metabolites of HPMPC and HPMPA were studied for their effects on reactions catalyzed by HIV-1 RT. Incorporation of HPMPC and HPMPA into a DNA primer strand resulted in multiple inhibitory effects exerted on the enzyme and showed that neither compound acts as an absolute chain terminator. Further, inhibition of HIV-1 RT also occurred when these drugs were located in the template strand. These results indicate that HPMPC and HPMPA inhibit HIV-1 by a complex mechanism and suggest that this class of drugs has a broader spectrum of activity than previously shown. PMID:21896914

  18. Synthesis and characterization of a new surface derivatizing reagent to promote the adhesion of polypyrrole films to n-type silicon photoanodes: N-(3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl) pyrrole

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Simon; Antonio J. Ricco; Mark S. Wrighton

    1982-01-01

    The synthesis, characterization, and application of N-(3-(trimethoxysilyl-propyl)pyrrole (I) as a photoanode derivatizing reagent that can be covalently anchored to the electrode via reaction of surface OH groups are described. The pendant group of I can then be used as the initiation site for polymerization of polypyrrole. The treatment of both Pt and n-type Si electrodes with I and films of

  19. Biological Effects of Short-Term or Prolonged Administration of 9-[2-(Phosphonomethoxy)Propyl]Adenine (Tenofovir) to Newborn and Infant Rhesus Macaques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koen K. A. Van Rompay; Laurie L. Brignolo; Dennis J. Meyer; Christopher Jerome; Ross Tarara; Abigail Spinner; Marta Hamilton; Linda L. Hirst; David R. Bennett; Don R. Canfield; Trish G. Dearman; Wilhelm Von Morgenland; Phil C. Allen; Celia Valverde; Alesha B. Castillo; R. Bruce Martin; Valerie F. Samii; Ray Bendele; John Desjardins; Marta L. Marthas; Niels C. Pedersen; Norbert Bischofberger

    2004-01-01

    The reverse transcriptase inhibitor 9-(2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl)adenine (PMPA; tenofovir) was previ- ously found to offer strong prophylactic and therapeutic benefits in an infant macaque model of pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. We now summarize the toxicity and safety of PMPA in these studies. When a range of PMPA doses (4 to 30 mg\\/kg of body weight administered subcutaneously once daily) was

  20. The anti-apoptotic effects of caspase inhibitors on propyl gallate-treated HeLa cells in relation to reactive oxygen species and glutathione levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong Hwan Han; Hwa Jin Moon; Bo Ra You; Woo Hyun Park

    2009-01-01

    Propyl gallate (PG) as a synthetic antioxidant is widely used in processed food, cosmetics and medicinal preparations. Despite\\u000a the assumed low toxicity of PG, it exerts a variety of effects on tissue and cell functions. In the present study, we evaluated\\u000a the anti-apoptotic effects of caspase inhibitors on PG-treated human cervix adenocarcinoma HeLa cells in relation to the changes\\u000a of

  1. Structural determination Vitex cymosa Bertero active principle: Diastereoselective synthesis of (±)- trans-4-hydroxy-6-propyl-1-oxocyclohexan-2-one and its antinociceptive activity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leandro S. de Maris e Miranda; Bruno Guimarães Marinho; Jeronimo S. Costa; Suzana G. Leitão; Tereza Cristina dos Santos; Franco Delle Monache; Patricia Dias Fernandes; Mário Luiz A. A. Vasconcellos; Vera L. Patrocinio Pereira

    2010-01-01

    The diastereoselective synthesis of (±)-trans-4-hydroxy-6-propyl-1-oxocyclohexan-2-one, as a mixture trans:cis (3:1), was accomplished using a protocol that combine the Prins cyclization and RuO4 oxidation. The synthesis this lactone allowed the elucidation of the correct structure of the substance isolated from the barks of Vitex cymosa. The ?-lactones mixture showed significant antinociceptive properties in preliminary tests using the tail flick model assay.

  2. Effects of Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate (TDCPP) in Tetrahymena Thermophila: Targeting the Ribosome

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Giesy, John P.; Yu, Liqin; Li, Guangyu; Liu, Chunsheng

    2015-01-01

    Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) has been frequently detected in the environment, and exposure to TDCPP appears widespread. It has been implicated to cause toxicity in vertebrates, but its potential to affect lower-trophic-level species remains unknown. In the present study, the ciliated protozoan, Tetrahymena thermophila, was used as a model to evaluate toxic effects of TDCPP and explore molecular mechanisms by integrating phenotypic observation, RNA-Seq and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) Imaging technologies. Exposure to 0.01, 0.1 or 1??M TDCPP for 5 days significantly decreased the relative biomass by reducing number of cells, size of cells and quantity of cilia in a dose-dependent manner. RNA-Seq analysis demonstrated that expression of twenty-one ribosome protein genes was down-regulated and these genes were enriched in “ribosome” term in KEGG pathway analysis. Furthermore, down-regulation of genes expressing ribosome proteins was accompanied by decreased ribosome quantity in rough endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm and enlarged ribosome size. Therefore, taken together, the data from the present study suggest that exposure to TDCPP affects growth and reproduction of Tetrahymena thermophila by targeting the ribosome. This information might provide insights into critical mechanisms of toxic action in other species and lead to useful bioindicators of exposure to TDCPP. PMID:25994279

  3. A case study on quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolation for environmental esters: Methyl-, propyl- and butylparaben.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jerry L; Yoon, Miyoung; Clewell, Harvey J

    2015-06-01

    Parabens have been reported as potential endocrine disrupters and are widely used in consumer projects including cosmetics, foods and pharmaceuticals. We report on the development of a PBPK model for methyl-, propyl-, and butylparaben. The model was parameterized through a combination of QSAR for tissue solubility and quantitative in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) for hydrolysis in portals of entry including intestine and skin as well as in the primary site of metabolism, the liver. Overall, the model provided very good agreement with published time-course data in blood and urine from controlled dosing studies in rat and human, and demonstrates the potential value of quantitative IVIVE in expanding the use of human biomonitoring data in safety assessment. An in vitro based cumulative margin of safety (MOS) was calculated by comparing the effective concentrations from an in vitro assay of estrogenicity to the free paraben concentrations predicted by the model to be associated with the 95th percentile urine concentrations reported in NHANES (2009-2010 collection period). The calculated MOS for adult females was 108, whereas the MOS for males was 444. PMID:25839974

  4. A simple and convenient method to synthesize N-[(2-hydroxyl)-propyl-3-trimethylammonium] chitosan chloride in an ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaodeng; Zhang, Chuanguang; Qiao, Congde; Mu, Xueli; Li, Tianduo; Xu, Jinku; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Dongju

    2015-10-01

    N-[(2-Hydroxyl)-propyl-3-trimethyl ammonium] chitosan chloride (HTCC) was synthesized through nucleophilic substitution of 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (EPTAC) onto chitosan using ionic liquid of 1-allyl-3-methylimidazole chloride (AmimCl) as a homogeneous and green reaction media. The chemical structure of HTCC was confirmed by FTIR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. The FTIR peak intensity of amino group at 1595cm(-1) decreased and that of [Formula: see text] at 1475cm(-1) increased with the increase of reaction time, confirming the substitution of EPTAC on CS. The degree of substitutions (DS) were calculated from the integral area of (1)H NMR, and the optimum reaction condition was obtained, namely, reaction time of 8h, temperature of 80°C and [Formula: see text] of 3/1. The degree of crystallinity and thermal properties of HTCC were characterized by XRD, TG, DSC, and DMA methods. Data from XRD, TG, DSC and DMA show that the degree of crystallinity, thermal stability, as well as glass transition temperature of HTCC decreased with the increase of DS. The reaction mechanism of chitosan with EPTAC in AmimCl was elucidated by performing density functional theory (DFT) calculations. PMID:26076633

  5. Conformations of silica-bound (pentafluorophenyl)propyl groups determined by solid-state NMR spectroscopy and theoretical calculations.

    PubMed

    Mao, Kanmi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Wiench, Jerzy W; Chen, Hung-Ting; Tsai, Chih-Hsiang; Lin, Victor S-Y; Pruski, Marek

    2010-09-01

    The conformations of (pentafluorophenyl)propyl groups (-CH(2)-CH(2)-CH(2)-C(6)F(5), abbreviated as PFP), covalently bound to the surface of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), were determined by solid-state NMR spectroscopy and further refined by theoretical modeling. Two types of PFP groups were described, including molecules in the prone position with the perfluorinated aromatic rings located above the siloxane bridges (PFP-p) and the PFP groups denoted as upright (PFP-u), whose aromatic rings do not interact with the silica surface. Two-dimensional (2D) (13)C-(1)H, (13)C-(19)F and (19)F-(29)Si heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR) spectra were obtained with high sensitivity on natural abundance samples using fast magic angle spinning (MAS), indirect detection of low-gamma nuclei and signal enhancement by Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) spin-echo sequence. 2D double-quantum (DQ) (19)F MAS NMR spectra and spin-echo measurements provided additional information about the structure and mobility of the pentafluorophenyl rings. Optimization of the PFP geometry, as well as calculations of the interaction energies and (19)F chemical shifts, proved very useful in refining the structural features of PFP-p and PFP-u functional groups on the silica surface. The prospects of using the PFP-functionalized surface to modify its properties (e.g., the interaction with solvents, especially water) and design new types of the heterogeneous catalytic system are discussed. PMID:20707348

  6. Characterization of a bystander effect induced by the endocrine-disrupting chemical 6-propyl-2-thiouracil in zebrafish embryos.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunsheng; Yan, Wei; Zhou, Bingsheng; Guo, Yongyong; Liu, Hongling; Yu, Hongxia; Giesy, John P; Wang, Jianghua; Li, Guangyu; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2012-08-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate possible bystander effects induced by the model chemical 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) on melanin synthesis. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos were treated with PTU by either microinjection exposure, via waterborne exposure or indirectly through bystander exposure. Melanin content, related mRNA and protein expression were examined at the end of exposure (36 h post-fertilization). Direct exposure to PTU decreased the melanin content, up-regulated mRNA expressions of oculocutaneous albinism type 2 (OCA2), tyrosinase (TYR), dopachrometautomerase (DCT), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1) and silver (SILV), and increased the protein expressions of TYR and SILV. Bystander exposure also up-regulated mRNA and protein expressions of TYR and SILV but increased melanin contents. Correlation analysis demonstrated that mRNA expressions of OCA2, TYR, DCT, TYRP1, SILV and protein expressions of TYR and SILV in bystander exposure groups were positively correlated with corresponding expressions in microinjection exposure groups. The results might have environmental implications and highlight the need to consider the bystander effects when assessing potential risks of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. PMID:22542736

  7. Highly efficient non-biofouling coating of zwitterionic polymers: poly((3-(methacryloylamino)propyl)-dimethyl(3-sulfopropyl)ammonium hydroxide).

    PubMed

    Cho, Woo Kyung; Kong, Bokyung; Choi, Insung S

    2007-05-01

    This work describes the formation of highly efficient non-biofouling polymeric thin films of poly((3-(methacryloylamino)propyl)-dimethyl(3-sulfopropyl)ammonium hydroxide), (poly(MPDSAH)). The poly(MPDSAH) films were generated from the self-assembled monolayers terminating in an initiator of atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) by the surface-initiated ATRP of MPDSAH. The poly(MPDSAH) films on a gold surface were characterized by ellipsometry, FT-IR spectroscopy, contact angle goniometery, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The copper complexes and unpolymerized monomers trapped inside the polymer brushes were completely washed out by soaking the poly(MPDSAH)-coated substrate in water at 40 degrees C for 4 days. The amount of proteins nonspecifically adsorbed onto the poly(MPDSAH) films was evaluated by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy: the adsorption of proteins was <0.6 ng/cm(2) on the surfaces for all the model proteins. The ability of the poly(MPDSAH) films to resist the nonspecific adsorption of proteins was comparable to that of the best known systems. PMID:17432887

  8. Psychotomimetic opiate receptors labeled and visualized with (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)piperidine

    SciTech Connect

    Largent, B.L.; Gundlach, A.L.; Snyder, S.H.

    1984-08-01

    3-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)piperidine (3-PPP) has been proposed as a selective dopamine autoreceptor agonist in the central nervous system. This report describes the pharmacology and localization of specific high-affinity binding sites for (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-PPP in brain. The drug specificity of (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-PPP binding is identical to that of sigma receptors, which may mediate psychotomimetic effects of some opiates. Haloperidol and the opioid derivatives, pentazocine, cyclazocine, and SKF 10,047 are potent inhibitors of (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-PPP binding. Stereoselectivity is exhibited for the (+) isomers of cyclazocine and SKF 10.047 at the sigma site, opposite to the stereoselectivity seen at ..mu.., sigma, and k opiate receptors. (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-PPP does not label dopamine receptors, as potent dopamine agonists and antagonists are weak inhibitors of binding and the localization of specific (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-PPP binding sites does not parallel that of dopamine neurons. Discrete localizations of (+)-(/sup 3/H)3-PPP binding sites in many brain areas including limbic, midbrain, brainstem, and cerebellar regions may explain psychotomimetic actions of opiates and behavior effects of 3-PPP. 41 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  9. Blood cholesterol profile in guineapigs: Effect of ascorbic acid ingestion on hypercholesterolemia induced by manganese deficiency or overdosage of an anti-thyroid agent in diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asish K. Basumallik

    1995-01-01

    Effects of ascorbic acid ingestion (0.25 g\\/day) on serum cholesterol and total lipid levels were compared in three hyperlipidemic guineapig models. The first model received a diet rich in atherogenic and thrombogenic agents (e.g. cholesterol, butter-fat, cholic acid, vitamin D2 etc.). The second (hypothyroid) and third (deficient manganese) models were created by feeding excess propyl-thiouracil (a potent goitrogen) and low-level

  10. Antidepressant Potential of 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonist, N-n- propyl-3-ethoxyquinoxaline-2-carboxamide (6n)

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, R; Bhatt, S; Devadoss, T; Jindal, AK; Gautam, BK; Pandey, DK

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the antidepressant potential of 5-HT3 receptor antagonist N-n-propyl-3-ethoxyquinoxaline-2-carboxamide (6n). The compound ‘6n’ with optimum log P and pA2 value identified from a series of compounds synthesized in our laboratory was subjected to forced Swim Test (FST) (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg, i.p) and Tail Suspension Test (TST) (1, 2, and 4 mg/kg, i.p.). The compound ‘6n’ significantly reduced the duration of immobility in mice without affecting the baseline locomotion. Moreover, ‘6n’ (2 mg/kg, i.p.) potentiated the 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP)-induced head twitch responses in mice and ‘6n’ at tested dose (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) reversed the reserpine-induced hypothermia in rats. In interaction studies of ‘6n’ with various standard drugs/ligands using FST, ‘6n’ (1 mg/kg, i.p.) potentiated the antidepressant effect of venlafaxine (4 and 8 mg/kg, i.p.) and fluoxetine (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.). Additionally, ‘6n’ (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) influenced the effect of harmane (5 mg/ kg, i.p.) as well as reversed the effect of parthenolide (1 mg/kg, i.p.) by reducing the duration of immobility in FST. Furthermore, ‘6n’ (1 mg/kg, i.p.) potentiated the effect of bupropion (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) in TST. Chronic ‘6n’ (1 and 2 mg/kg, i.p.) treatment attenuated the behavioral abnormalities in olfactory bulbectomized rats. In conclusion, these various findings reiterated the antidepressant-like effects of ‘6n’ in behavioral models of depression. PMID:23493308

  11. The ozone productivity of n-propyl bromide: Part 2--An exception to the Maximum Incremental Reactivity Scale.

    PubMed

    Whitten, Gary Z; Yarwood, Greg

    2008-07-01

    In an earlier paper the ozone-forming potential of n-propyl bromide (NPB) was studied with a new methodology designed to address issues associated with a marginal smog-forming compound. However, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) subsequently revised its policy and now recommends using the Maximum Incremental Reactivity (MIR) scale to rank the ozone-forming potential of all volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including those of marginal ozone productivity. Nevertheless, EPA contemplated exceptions to the box-model-derived MIR scale by allowing use of photochemical grid-model simulations for case specific reactivity assessments. The California Air Resources Board (CARB) also uses the MIR scale and CARB has a Reactivity Scientific Advisory Committee that can consider exceptions to the MIR scale. In this study, grid-model simulations that were recommended by EPA are used to evaluate the incremental ozone impacts of NPB using an update to the chemical mechanism developed in an earlier paper. New methods of analysis of the grid-model output are further developed here to quantify the relative reactivities between NPB and ethane over a wide range of conditions. The new grid-model-based analyses show that NPB is significantly different and generally less in ozone-forming potential (i.e., reactivity) than predicted by the box-model-based MIR scale relative to ethane, EPA's "bright-line" test for non-VOC status. Although NPB has low reactivity compared to typical VOCs on any scale, the new grid-model analyses developed here show that NPB is far less reactive (and even has negative reactivity) compared to the reactivity predicted by the MIR scale. PMID:18672713

  12. Synthesis of arginine, tyrosine, and phenylalanine by Lactobacillus arabinosus

    E-print Network

    Ory, Robert Louis

    1954-01-01

    . These findings indicate that yeasts are able to utilize far less specific carbon sources for lysine syn? thesis than, can bacteria and molds. Koft et al. (145) reported that D-lysine can replace p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) as a growth factor for L. arab.... They obtained mutants with a multiple requirement for tyrosine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and p-aminobenzoic 25 acid and a relative requirement for p-hydroxybenzoic acid. It was shown that shikimic acid could substitute for the quintuple requirement...

  13. Synthesis and characterization of a new surface derivatizing reagent to promote the adhesion of polypyrrole films to n-type silicon photoanodes: N-(3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl) pyrrole

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, R.A.; Ricco, A.J.; Wrighton, M.S.

    1982-04-07

    The synthesis, characterization, and application of N-(3-(trimethoxysilyl-propyl)pyrrole (I) as a photoanode derivatizing reagent that can be covalently anchored to the electrode via reaction of surface OH groups are described. The pendant group of I can then be used as the initiation site for polymerization of polypyrrole. The treatment of both Pt and n-type Si electrodes with I and films of polypyrrole to protect the semiconductor from photoanodic decomposition is described. Improved durability noted for the treated n-type Si electrodes is attributed to less H/sub 2/O/electrolyte undermining of the polymer when it is covalently anchored to the surface. (BLM)

  14. Pharmacokinetics of the immunomodulatory 1,2-O-isopropylidene-3-O-3?-(N?,N?-dimethyl-amino- n -propyl)-D-glucofuranose hydrochloride in normal human volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward R. Garrett; Achiel Van Peer; Paul Altmayer; Waldtraut Schuermann; Peter Liicker

    1982-01-01

    1,2-O-Isopropylidene-3-O-3'(N',N'-dimethyl-amino-n-propyl)-D-glucofuranose hydrochloride, I, is a substituted sugar with claimed immunomodulatory action. Pharmacokinetic studies in 10 volunteers (bolus i.v., 100 mg) showed respective half-lives for each exponential in the sum of two exponentials that characterized plasma level decay with time of 4.6 ± 0.4 (SEM) min, t1\\/2(?1), and 244±20 min, t1\\/2(?2)), The total and renal clearances were 277±20 and 2S4±18 (SEM)

  15. Crystal structure of 3,5-bis­(4-chloro­phen­yl)-1-propyl-1,3,5-tri­aza­cyclo­hexane

    PubMed Central

    Lefrada, Leila; Bouchemma, Ahcene; Bouacida, Sofiane; Claiser, Nicolas; Souhassou, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    In the title mol­ecule, C18H21Cl2N3, the tri­aza­cyclo­hexane ring adopts a chair conformation with both 4-chloro­phenyl substituents in axial positions and the propyl group in an equatorial site. The dihedral angle between the planes of the benzene rings is 49.5?(1)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are arranged in a head-to-tail fashion, forming columns along [010], and pairs of weak C—H?? inter­actions form inversion dimers between columns. PMID:25309226

  16. Crystal structure of 3,5-bis-(4-chloro-phen-yl)-1-propyl-1,3,5-tri-aza-cyclo-hexane.

    PubMed

    Lefrada, Leila; Bouchemma, Ahcene; Bouacida, Sofiane; Claiser, Nicolas; Souhassou, Mohamed

    2014-09-01

    In the title mol-ecule, C18H21Cl2N3, the tri-aza-cyclo-hexane ring adopts a chair conformation with both 4-chloro-phenyl substituents in axial positions and the propyl group in an equatorial site. The dihedral angle between the planes of the benzene rings is 49.5?(1)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are arranged in a head-to-tail fashion, forming columns along [010], and pairs of weak C-H?? inter-actions form inversion dimers between columns. PMID:25309226

  17. New methodology for Ozone Depletion Potentials of short-lived compounds: n-Propyl bromide as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuebbles, Donald J.; Patten, Kenneth O.; Johnson, Matthew T.; Kotamarthi, Rao

    2001-07-01

    A number of the compounds proposed as replacements for substances controlled under the Montreal Protocol have extremely short atmospheric lifetimes, on the order of days to a few months. An important example is n-propyl bromide (also referred to as 1-bromopropane, CH2BrCH2CH3 or simplified as 1-C3H7Br or nPB). This compound, useful as a solvent, has an atmospheric lifetime of less than 20 days due to its reaction with hydroxyl. Because nPB contains bromine, any amount reaching the stratosphere has the potential to affect concentrations of stratospheric ozone. The definition of Ozone Depletion Potentials (ODP) needs to be modified for such short-lived compounds to account for the location and timing of emissions. It is not adequate to treat these chemicals as if they were uniformly emitted at all latitudes and longitudes as normally done for longer-lived gases. Thus, for short-lived compounds, policymakers will need a table of ODP values instead of the single value generally provided in past studies. This study uses the MOZART2 three-dimensional chemical-transport model in combination with studies with our less computationally expensive two-dimensional model to examine potential effects of nPB on stratospheric ozone. Multiple facets of this study examine key questions regarding the amount of bromine reaching the stratosphere following emission of nPB. Our most significant findings from this study for the purposes of short-lived replacement compound ozone effects are summarized as follows. The degradation of nPB produces a significant quantity of bromoacetone which increases the amount of bromine transported to the stratosphere due to nPB. However, much of that effect is not due to bromoacetone itself, but instead to inorganic bromine which is produced from tropospheric oxidation of nPB, bromoacetone, and other degradation products and is transported above the dry and wet deposition processes of the model. The MOZART2 nPB results indicate a minimal correction of the two-dimensional results in order to derive our final results: an nPB chemical lifetime of 19 days and an Ozone Depletion Potential range of 0.033 to 0.040 for assumed global emissions over landmasses, 19 days and 0.021 to 0.028, respectively, for assumed emissions in the industrialized regions of the Northern Hemisphere, and 9 days and 0.087 to 0.105, respectively, for assumed emission in tropical Southeast Asia.

  18. Preliminary study of propyl bromide exposure among New Jersey dry cleaners as a result of a pending ban on perchloroethylene.

    PubMed

    Blando, James D; Schill, Donald P; De La Cruz, Mary Pauline; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Junfeng

    2010-09-01

    Many states are considering, and some states have actively pursued, banning the use of perchloroethylene (PERC) in dry cleaning establishments. Proposed legislation has led many dry cleaners to consider the use of products that contain greater than 90% n-propyl bromide (n-PB; also called 1-bromopropane or 1-BP). Very little information is known about toxicity and exposure to n-PB. Some n-PB-containing products are marketed as nonhazardous and "green" or "organic." This has resulted in some users perceiving the solvent as nontoxic and has resulted in at least one significant poisoning incident in New Jersey. In addition, many dry cleaning operators may not realize that the machine components and settings must be changed when converting from PERC to n-PB containing products. Not performing these modifications may result in overheating and significant leaks in the dry cleaning equipment. A preliminary investigation was conducted of the potential exposures to n-PB and isopropyl bromide (iso-PB; also called 2-bromopropane or 2-BP) among dry cleaners in New Jersey who have converted their machines from PERC to these new solvent products. Personal breathing zone and area samples were collected using the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Sampling and Analytical Method 1025, with a slight modification to gas chromatography conditions to facilitate better separation of n-PB from iso-PB. During the preliminary investigation, exposures to n-PB among some workers in two of three shops were measured that were greater than the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) threshold limit value (TLV) for n-PB. The highest exposure measured among a dry cleaning machine operator was 54 parts per million (ppm) as an 8-hr time-weighted average, which is more than 5 times the ACGIH TLV of 10 ppm. The preliminary investigation also found that the work tasks most likely to result in the highest short-term exposures included the introduction of solvent to the machine, maintenance of the machine, unloading and handling of recently cleaned clothes, and interrupting the wash cycle of the machine. In addition, this assessment suggested that leaks may have contributed to exposure and may have resulted from normal machine wear over time, ineffective maintenance, and from the incompatibility of n-PB with gasket materials. PMID:20863050

  19. Development of an HPLC-MS procedure for the quantification of N-acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-l-cysteine, the major urinary metabolite of 1-bromopropane in human urine.

    PubMed

    Cheever, K L; Marlow, K L; B'hymer, C; Hanley, K W; Lynch, D W

    2009-03-15

    An analytical procedure was developed for the detection and quantification of N-acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-l-cysteine (n-propylmercapturic acid, AcPrCys), a metabolite and biomarker for exposure to 1-bromopropane (1-BP). 1-BP is used as an industrial solvent and exposure is a health concern for industrial workers due to its toxicity. It has been associated with neurological disorders in both animals and humans. Urine sample preparation for the determination of AcPrCys consisted of solid phase extraction (SPE). Urine samples on preconditioned SPE (C18) columns were washed with 40% methanol/60% water solution prior to elution with acetone. Quantification was by means of a liquid chromatograph (LC) equipped with a mass spectrometer (MS) using an Aqua 3 microm C18 300A column and [d(7)]-AcPrCys was used as internal standard. Electrospray ionization (ESI) was used with the MS operated in the negative ion mode and selected ion monitoring (SIM) at m/z 204 for AcPrCys and m/z 211 for [d(7)]-AcPrCys. Demonstrated recovery of urine samples fortified at multiple levels (0.625-10 microg/ml) varied between 96 and 103% of theory with relative standard deviations (RSD) of 6.4% or less. The limit of detection (LOD) for the procedure was approximately 0.01 microg/ml AcPrCys in urine. These data will be discussed as well as other factors of the development of this test procedure. PMID:19237326

  20. Chloroformates and isothiocyanates derived from 2-arylpropionic acids as chiral reagents: synthetic routes and chromatographic behaviour of the derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ralf Büschges; Hermann Linde; Ernst Mutschler; Hildegard Spahn-Langguth

    1996-01-01

    Chiral derivatization with an enantiomerically pure reagent is an economical and effective way to separate the enantiomers of optically active drugs on achiral HPLC columns. This paper describes the preparation and analytical testing of two novel chiral derivatizing agents (CDAs) deriving from the 2-arylpropionic acid (S)-(+)-naproxen, viz., 1-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl)ethyl isothiocyanate (NAP-IT) and 2-(6-methoxy-2-naphthyl)-1-propyl chloroformate (NAP-C). Both are suitable reagents for the

  1. Acid zeolites as catalysts in organic reactions. Friedel-Crafts reaction of 2-alkylfurans with 3-substituted allylic alcohols

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felipe Algarra; Avelino Corma; Hermenegildo García; Jaime Primo

    1995-01-01

    Methyl 3-(2-furyl) propanoate (1) and 3-(2-furyl) propyl acetate (3) can be conveniently alkylated with high conversion and selectivity by cinnamyl and crotyl alcohols in the liquid phase at moderate temperatures using acid zeolites of medium and large pore size as heterogeneous catalysts. ZSM-5 zeolite exhibited the highest turnover number for the heteroaromatic alkylation. This reaction was found to be totally

  2. Electrochemical detection of hybridization using peptide nucleic acids and methylene blue on self-assembled alkanethiol monolayer modified gold electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dilsat Ozkan; Arzum Erdem; Pinar Kara; Kagan Kerman; J Justin Gooding; Peter E Nielsen; Mehmet Ozsoz

    2002-01-01

    An electrochemical hybridization biosensor based on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes is presented. PNA probes were attached covalently through a competition of free amines on the guanine bases and also at the 5? end of the probe, using N-(3-dimethylamino)propyl)-N?-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) onto a carboxylate terminated alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) preformed on a gold electrode (AuE). The covalently

  3. Silica chemically bonded N-propyl kriptofix 21 and 22 with immobilized palladium nanoparticles for solid phase extraction and preconcentration of some metal ions.

    PubMed

    Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Niknam, Khodabakhsh; Zamani, Saeed; Larki, Habib Abasi; Roosta, Mostafa; Soylak, Mustafa

    2013-08-01

    Silica gel chemically bonded N-propyl kriptofix 21 (SBNPK 21) and N-propyl kriptofix 22 (SBNPK 22) and subsequently immobilized with palladium nanoparticles (PNP-SBNPK 21 and PNP-SBNPK 22) to produce two new complexing lipophilic materials. Then these novel sorbents were applied for the enrichment of some metal ions and their subsequent determination by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS). The influences of the variables including pH, amount of solid phase, sample flow rate, eluent conditions and sample volume on the metal ion recoveries were investigated. The detection limit of proposed method was in the interval 2.1-2.3 and 1.7-2.8 ng mL(-1) for PNP-SBNPK 21 and PNP-SBNPK 22 respectively, while the preconcentration factor was 80 for two sorbents. The relative standard deviations of recoveries were between 1.23-1.31 and 1.28-1.49 for PNP-SBNPK 21 and PNP-SBNPK 22 respectively. The method has high sorption-preconcentration efficiency even in the presence of various interfering ions. Due to the reasonable selectivity of proposed method, the relative standard deviation of recoveries of all understudied metal ions in some complicated matrices was less than 3.0%. PMID:23706199

  4. Preferential attack of the (S)-configured ether-linked carbons in bis-(1-chloro-2-propyl) ether by Rhodococcus sp. strain DTB.

    PubMed

    Garbe, Leif-Alexander; Moreno-Horn, Marcus; Tressl, Roland; Görisch, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    Rhodococcus sp. strain DTB (DSM 44534) was grown on a mixture of (R,R)-, (S,S)- and meso-bis-(1-chloro-2-propyl) ether (BCPE) as the sole source of carbon and energy. During BCPE degradation 1'-chloro-2'-propyl-3-chloro-2-prop-1-enyl-ether (DVE), 1-chloro-2-propanol and chloroacetone intermediates were formed. The BCPE or DVE stereoisomers were metabolized in consecutive order via scission of the ether bond, with discrimination against the (R) configuration. Resting cell suspensions of Rhodococcus pregrown on BCPE showed a preferential attack of the (S)-configured ether-linked carbons, resulting in an enantioselective enrichment of (R,R)-BCPE. Microbial discrimination of BCPE or DVE isomers and chemical conversion of the intermediates to 1-chloro-2-propanol allowed the identification of the configuration of all BCPE isomers and the DVE enantiomers. Elucidation of the absolute configuration of the 1-chloro-2-propanol isomers was achieved by enantioselective chemical synthesis. PMID:16420620

  5. Direct evidence for preferential {beta} C-H bond cleavage resulting from 248 nm photolysis of the n-propyl radical using selectively-deuterated 1-bromopropane precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Z.; Mathews, M.G.; Koplitz, B. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1995-05-04

    A series of selectively deuterated 1-bromopropane precursors have been used to study site-specific photolysis in the n-propyl radical. A two-color photolysis approach (222 nm followed by 248 nm radiation) is used to create an intermediate photofragment and produce an H or a D atom, which is detected by 1 + 1 resonance ionization through Lyman-{alpha}. Target precursors are BrCH{sub 2}CD{sub 2}CD{sub 3}, BrCD{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CD{sub 3}, and BrCD{sub 2}CD{sub 2}CH{sub 3} as well as BrCD{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CH{sub 3}, BrCH{sub 2}CD{sub 2}CH{sub 3}, and BrCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}CD{sub 3}. The `enhanced` H (or D) atom signals clearly demonstrate that C-H (or C-D) bond cleavage at the {beta} position is strongly favored. The net enhancement process undoubtedly involves photolysis of an intermediate, almost certainly the n-propyl radical. A comparison with systems involving ethyl and isopropyl radical photolysis is also presented. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Evolution of glutamine amidotransferase genes. Nucleotide sequences of the pabA genes from Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella aerogenes and Serratia marcescens.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, J B; Merkel, W K; Nichols, B P

    1985-06-01

    The amide group of glutamine is a source of nitrogen in the biosynthesis of a variety of compounds. These reactions are catalyzed by a group of enzymes known as glutamine amidotransferases; two of these, the glutamine amidotransferase subunits of p-aminobenzoate synthase and anthranilate synthase have been studied in detail and have been shown to be structurally and functionally related. In some micro-organisms, p-aminobenzoate synthase and anthranilate synthase share a common glutamine amidotransferase subunit. We report here the primary DNA and deduced amino acid sequences of the p-aminobenzoate synthase glutamine amidotransferase subunits from Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella aerogenes and Serratia marcescens. A comparison of these glutamine amidotransferase sequences to the sequences of ten others, including some that function specifically in either the p-aminobenzoate synthase or anthranilate synthase complexes and some that are shared by both synthase complexes, has revealed several interesting features of the structure and organization of these genes, and has allowed us to speculate as to the evolutionary history of this family of enzymes. We propose a model for the evolution of the p-aminobenzoate synthase and anthranilate synthase glutamine amidotransferase subunits in which the duplication and subsequent divergence of the genetic information encoding a shared glutamine amidotransferase subunit led to the evolution of two new pathway-specific enzymes. PMID:3894673

  7. Isomers and homologues of l-glutamic acid 5- n-butyl ester as promoters of sediment formation in raw soy sauce

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masahiro Tomita; Yoshie Motomura; Haruo Kitahara; Yumiko Yoshiki; Kazuyoshi Okubo

    1999-01-01

    Soy sauce was found to contain promoters of sediment formation at 60°C (1, 2), one of which has previously been identified as l-glutamic acid 5-n-butyl ester (3). Isomers and homologues of l-glutamic acid 5-n-butyl ester (n-propyl, isopropyl, n-butyl, isobutyl, and sec-butyl esters of l-glutamic acid) were synthesized using 80% (w\\/w) sulfuric acid as a catalyst and identified by 1H-NMR and

  8. Mutagenicity and antimutagenicity studies of tannic acid and its related compounds.

    PubMed

    Chen, S C; Chung, K T

    2000-01-01

    Tannic acid and its hydrolysed products such as ellagic acid, gallic acid and propyl gallate were tested for mutagenicities using Ames Salmonella tester strains TA98 and TA100. Also, the antimutagenic activities of these compounds against a number of direct mutagens including 2-nitrofluorene (2-NF), 4,4'-dinitro-2-biphenylamine, 1-nitropyrene, 1,3-dinitropyrene, 2-nitro-p-phenylenediamine, 3-nitro-o-phenylenediamine, 4-nitro-o-phenylenediamine were tested. None of these tannic acid compounds was mutagenic. They also failed to show antimutagenic activity towards the tested direct mutagens. However, tannic acid at non-growth inhibitory concentrations reduced the revertant numbers of TA98 in the presence of S9 mix when benzidine, 3,3'-4,4'-tetraminobiphenyl, 4-aminobiphenyl, and N,N-N', N'-tetramethylbenzidine were used as the mutagens. These results suggest that tannic acid, but not its hydrolytic products, affects the metabolic activation of these mutagens. PMID:10685008

  9. Synthesis and biodistribution of a new 99mtechnetium fatty acid.

    PubMed

    Jones, G S; Elmaleh, D R; Strauss, H W; Fischman, A J

    1994-01-01

    The synthesis and biodistribution is described for a new 99mTc-labeled fatty acid. The requisite diaminodithiol (N2S2) ligand, 9,10-bis[N-(2'-methyl-2'-mercapto)propyl] aminooctadecanoic acid, was prepared in nine steps from ethyl oleate and characterized by fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry and elemental analysis of its nickell(II) complex. The radiolabeling procedure provided a liposoluble 99mTc-labeled complex (99mTc-11) which was administered intravenously to rats concomitantly with 15-(p-[125I]-iodophenyl) pentadecanoic acid (IPPA). The myocardial profile of 99mTc-11 was inferior to that of IPPA. PMID:9234273

  10. Crystal structure of ({4-[(4-bromo­phen­yl)ethyn­yl]-3,5-di­ethyl­phen­yl}ethyn­yl)triiso­propyl­silane

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Caiyun; Moxey, Graeme J.; Barlow, Adam; Morshedi, Mahbod

    2015-01-01

    The title compound, C29H37BrSi, was synthesized by the Sonogashira coupling of [(3,5-diethyl-4-ethynylphen­yl)ethyn­yl]triiso­propyl­silane with 4-bromo-1-iodo­benzene. In the structure, the two phenyl rings are nearly parallel to each other with a dihedral angle of 4.27?(4)°. In the crystal, ?–? inter­actions between the terminal and central phenyl rings of adjacent mol­ecules link them in the a-axis direction [perpendicular distance = 3.5135?(14); centroid–centroid distance = 3.7393?(11)?Å]. In addition, there are weak C—H?? inter­actions between the isopropyl H atoms and the phenyl rings of adjacent mol­ecules. PMID:25995927

  11. Reaction Rate Coefficients of OH Radicals and Cl Atoms with Ethyl Propanoate, n-Propyl Propanoate, Methyl 2-Methylpropanoate, and Ethyl n-Butanoate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cometto, Pablo M.; Daële, Véronique; Idir, Mahmoud; Lane, Silvia I.; Mellouki, Abdelwahid

    2009-09-01

    Kinetics of the reactions of OH radicals and Cl atoms with four saturated esters have been investigated. Rate coefficients for the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals with ethyl propanoate (k1), n-propyl propanoate (k2), methyl 2-methylpropanoate (k3), and ethyl n-butanoate (k4) were measured using a conventional relative rate method and the pulsed laser photolysis-laser induced fluorescence technique. At (296 ± 2) K, the rate coefficients obtained by the two methods were in good agreement. Significant curvatures in the Arrhenius plots have been observed in the temperature range 243-372 K for k1, k3, and k4. The rate coefficients for the reactions of the four esters with Cl atoms were determined using the relative rate method at (296 ± 2) K and atmospheric pressure. The values obtained are presented, compared with the literature values when they exist, and discussed. Reactivity trends and atmospheric implications for these esters are also presented.

  12. Antibacterial activity and cytocompatibility of chitosan-N-hydroxy-2,3-propyl-N methyl-N,N-diallylammonium methyl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Jou, Chi-Hsiung

    2011-11-01

    A water-soluble quaternary ammonium salt of chitosan, chitosan-N-hydroxy-2,3-propyl-N-methyl-N,N-diallylammonium methyl sulfate (MDAACS), was synthesized by reacting chitosan with methyl diallyl ammonium salt (MDAA). The results of water contact angle and swelling ratio showed that the membrane of MDAACS was more hydrophilic than chitosan. The antibacterial activities of MDAACS against Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae were evaluated with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). The results showed that the antibacterial activity of MDAACS was higher than that of chitosan. The cytocompatibility was evaluated in vitro with L929 fibroblast proliferation based on MTT colorimetric assay. The results showed that cell growth was much higher on MDAACS than on chitosan. PMID:21816584

  13. CF3+ fragmentation by electron impact ionization of perfluoro-propyl-vinyl-ethers, C5F10O, in gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondo, Yusuke; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hayashi, Toshio; Miyawaki, Yudai; Takeda, Keigo; Kondo, Hiroki; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru

    2015-04-01

    The gas phase fragmentations of perfluoro-propyl-vinyl ether (PPVE, C5F10O) are studied experimentally. Dominant fragmentations of PPVE are found to be the result of a dissociative ionization reaction, i.e., CF3+ via direct bond cleavage, and C2F3O? and C3F7O? via electron attachment. Regardless of the appearance energy of around 14.5 eV for the dissociative ionization of CF3+, the observed ion efficiency for the CF3+ ion was extremely large the order of 10?20 cm?2, compared with only 10?21 cm?2 for the other channels. PPVE characteristically generated CF3+ as the largest abundant ion are advantageous for use of feedstock gases in plasma etching processes.

  14. Application of Molecular Connectivity Indices to the Design of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide?Soluble Metal Ion Extractants: SC?CO2 Solubilities of Symmetrically Substituted Alkylenediphosphonic Acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel R. McAlister; Mark L. Dietz; Dominique Stepinski; Peter R. Zalupski; Julie A. Dzielawa; R. E. Barrans Jr; J. N. Hess; A. W. Herlinger

    2005-01-01

    Using a dynamic flow method, the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC?CO2) solubilities of two series of symmetrically substituted alkylenediphosphonic acids, bearing 2?ethylhexyl and 3?trimethylsilyl?1?propyl ester groups, respectively, were determined as a function of the number of methylene groups separating the two phosphorus atoms. An even–odd effect, similar to that observed previously for the aggregation of these compounds in nonpolar diluents, was

  15. The effects of nitric acid and silane surface treatments on carbon fibers and carbon\\/vinyl ester composites before and after seawater exposure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tye A. Langston

    2008-01-01

    This research focuses on carbon fiber treatment by nitric acid and 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate silane, and how this affects carbon\\/vinyl ester composites. These composites offer great benefits, but it is difficult to bond the fiber and matrix together, and without a strong interfacial bond, composites fall short of their potential. Silanes work well with glass fiber, but do not bond directly

  16. ANALYSIS OF THE FLAME RETARDANT METABOLITES BIS (1,3-DICHLORO-2-PROPYL) PHOSPHATE (BDCPP) AND DIPHENYL PHOSPHATE (DPP) IN URINE USING LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, EM; Covaci, A; van Nuijs, ALN; Webster, TF; Stapleton, HM

    2013-01-01

    Organophosphate triesters tris-(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) are widely used flame retardants (FRs) present in many products common to human environments, yet understanding of human exposure, and health effects of these compounds is limited. Monitoring urinary metabolites as biomarkers of exposure can be a valuable aid for improving this understanding; however, no previously published method exists for the analysis of the primary TDCPP metabolite, bis (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCPP), in human urine. Here we present a method to extract the metabolites BDCPP and diphenyl phosphate (DPP) in human urine using mixed-mode anion exchange solid phase extraction and mass-labeled internal standards with analysis by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-LC/MS-MS). The method detection limit was 8 pg mL?1 urine for BDCPP and 204 pg mL?1 for DPP. Recoveries of analytes spiked into urine ranged from 82 ± 10% to 91 ± 4% for BDCPP and from 72 ± 12% to 76 ± 8% for DPP. Analysis of a small number of urine samples (n=9) randomly collected from non occupationally exposed adults revealed the presence of both BDCPP and DPP in all samples. Non-normalized urinary concentrations ranged from 46–1662 pg BDCPP mL?1 and 287–7443 pg DPP mL?1, with geometric means of 147 pg BDCPP mL?1 and 1074 pg DPP mL?1. Levels of DPP were higher than those of BDCPP in 89% of samples. The presented method is simple and sufficiently sensitive to detect these FR metabolites in humans and may be applied to future studies to increase our understanding of exposure and potential health effects to FRs. PMID:21830137

  17. The importance of vitamin B12 and unidentified factors in the nutrition of the domestic fowl

    E-print Network

    Olcese, Orlando

    1950-01-01

    acid 0.025, biotin 0.01, inositol 10, choline 100, and p-aminobenzoic acid 25 mg. Vitamins A and D were administered as oleum percomorphum diluted 1:4 with corn oil and fed at the rate of 2 drops per week. The procedure described by these workers...

  18. Ru-TsDPEN with formic acid/Hunig's base for asymmetric transfer hydrogenation, a practical synthesis of optically enriched N-propyl pantolactam.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji; Blazecka, Peter G; Bruendl, Michelle M; Huang, Yun

    2009-02-01

    The Noyori-Ikariya catalysts, Ru-TsDPEN 1 or 2, in combination with HCOOH/Hunig's base (5:2) have been successfully utilized for catalytic asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of alpha-ketopantolactam, and optically enriched N-substituted pantolactam was prepared (S/C = 500, up to 95% ee and 99% conversion in HCOOH/Hunig's base condition). More than 2 kg of this key intermediate 9 has been synthesized efficiently with excellent chemical yield and chiral purity. PMID:19105680

  19. In vitro and in vivo pharmacological characterization of ethyl-4-[trans-4-[((2S)-2-hydroxy-3-[4-hydroxy-3[(methylsulfonyl)amino]-phenoxy]propyl) amino]cyclohexyl]benzoate hydrochloride (SAR150640), a new potent and selective human beta3-adrenoceptor agonist for the treatment of preterm labor.

    PubMed

    Croci, Tiziano; Cecchi, Roberto; Marini, Pietro; Rouget, Céline; Viviani, Nunzia; Germain, Guy; Guagnini, Fabio; Fradin, Yvon; Descamps, Laurence; Pascal, Marc; Advenier, Charles; Breuiller-Fouché, Michelle; Leroy, Marie-Josèphe; Bardou, Marc

    2007-06-01

    Ethyl-4-[trans-4-[((2S)-2-hydroxy-3-[4-hydroxy-3[(methylsulfonyl)amino] phenoxy]propyl) amino]cyclohexyl]benzoate hydrochloride (SAR150640) was characterized as a new potent and selective beta(3)-adrenoceptor agonist for the treatment of preterm labor. SAR150640 and its major metabolite, the corresponding acid 4-[trans-4-[((2S)-2-hydroxy-3-[4-hydroxy-3[(methylsulfonyl) amino] phenoxy]propyl)amino]cyclohexyl]benzoic acid (SSR500400), showed high affinity for beta(3)-adrenoceptors (K(i) = 73 and 358 nM) and greater potency than (-)-isoproterenol in increasing cAMP production in membrane preparations from human neuroblastoma cells (SKNMC), which express native beta(3)-adrenoceptors (pEC(50) = 6.5, 6.2, and 5.1, respectively). SAR150640 and SSR500400 also increased cAMP production in membrane preparations from human uterine smooth muscle cells (UtSMC), which also express native beta(3)-adrenoceptors (pEC(50) = 7.7 and 7.7, respectively). In these cells, SAR150640 dose-dependently inhibited oxytocin-induced intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation. SAR150640 and SSR500400 had no beta(1)- or beta(2)-agonist or antagonist activity in guinea pig atrium and trachea, or in human isolated atrium and bronchus preparations. Both compounds concentration-dependently inhibited spontaneous contractions in human near-term myometrial strips, with greater potency than salbutamol and 4-[3-[(1,1-dimethylethyl)-amino]-2-hydroxypropoxy]-1,3-dihydro-2H-benzimidazol-2-one hydrochloride (CGP12177) (pIC(50) = 6.4, 6.8, 5.9, and 5.8, respectively), but with similar potency to (-)-isoproterenol and atosiban (oxytocin/vasopressin V(1)a receptor antagonist). SAR150640 also inhibited the contractions induced by oxytocin and prostaglandin F(2alpha). In vivo, after intravenous administration, SAR150640 (1 and 6 mg/kg), but not atosiban (6 mg/kg), dose-dependently inhibited myometrial contractions in conscious unrestrained female cynomolgus monkeys, with no significant effects on heart rate or blood pressure. In contrast, salbutamol (50 and 250 microg/kg) had no inhibitory effect on uterine contractions, but it dose-dependently increased heart rate. These findings indicate a potential for the therapeutic use of SAR150640 in mammals during preterm labor. PMID:17351104

  20. Effects of tannic acid and its related compounds on food mutagens or hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA strands breaks in human lymphocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. T. Wu; C. C. Chu; J. G. Chung; C.-H. Chen; L.-S. Hsu; J.-K. Liu; S. C. Chen

    2004-01-01

    The effect of tannic acid (TA), gallic acid (GA), propyl gallate (PA) and ellagic acid (EA) on DNA damage in human lymphocytes induced by food mutagens [3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido (4,3-b) indole (Trp-P-2) and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimadazo (4,5-b) pyridine (PhIP) or H2O2 was evaluated by using single-cell electrophoresis (comet assay). The toxicity of these tested compounds (0.1–100?g\\/ml) on lymphocytes was not found. These compounds did

  1. Carbodithioic acid esters of fluoxetine, a novel class of dual-function spermicides.

    PubMed

    Kiran Kumar, S T V S; Kumar, Lalit; Sharma, Vishnu L; Jain, Ashish; Jain, Rajeev K; Maikhuri, Jagdamba P; Kumar, Manish; Shukla, Praveen K; Gupta, Gopal

    2008-10-01

    Carbodithioic acid esters of fluoxetine have been prepared by replacing the methylamino function in aminopropane chain with carbodithioic acid ester group and by adding various S-2-hydroxypropyl ester of dialkyl carbodithioic acid at 3-methylamino group. Some of these compounds showed spermicidal, antifungal and anti-Trichomonas activities. The study revealed that incorporation of carbodithioic acid residue directly into fluoxetine structure leads to compounds with better antifungal and anti-Trichomonas activities, and N-methyl-[3-phenyl-3-(4-trifluoromethyl-phenoxy)-propyl]carbodithioic acid S-(2-pyrrolidino-ethyl) ester (14) has shown better profile than both fluoxetine and nonoxynol-9. Further lead optimization may yield a potent dual-function spermicide. PMID:18061311

  2. Bis-arylidene oxindole-betulinic Acid conjugate: a fluorescent cancer cell detector with potent anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Pal, Abhishek; Ganguly, Anirban; Chowdhuri, Sumit; Yousuf, Md; Ghosh, Avijit; Barui, Ayan Kumar; Kotcherlakota, Rajesh; Adhikari, Susanta; Banerjee, Rajkumar

    2015-05-14

    Molecules offering simultaneous detection and killing of cancer cells are advantageous. Hybrid of cancer cell-selective, ROS generator betulinic acid and bis-arylidene oxindole with amino propyl-linker is developed. With intrinsic fluorescence, the molecule exhibited cancer cell-specific residence. Further, it generated ROS, triggered apoptosis, and exhibited potent cytotoxicity in cancer cells selectively. We demonstrate the first example and use of isatins as betulinic acid conjugate for selective detection of cancer and subsequent killing of cancer cells via apoptosis. PMID:26005543

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of novel [alpha]-heteroaryl-phenylpropanoic acid derivatives as PPAR[alpha\\/gamma] dual agonists

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agustin Casimiro-Garcia; Christopher F. Bigge; Jo Ann Davis; Teresa Padalino; James Pulaski; Jeffrey F. Ohren; Patrick McConnell; Christopher D. Kane; Lori J. Royer; Kimberly A. Stevens; Bruce Auerbach; Wendy Collard; Christine McGregor; Kun Song

    2010-01-01

    The synthesis of a new series of phenylpropanoic acid derivatives incorporating an heteroaryl group at the -position and their evaluation for binding and activation of PPAR and PPAR are presented in this report. Among the new compounds, (S)-3-{l_brace}4-[3-(5-methyl-2-phenyl-oxazol-4-yl)-propyl]-phenyl{r_brace}-2-1,2,3-triazol-2-yl-propionic acid (17j), was identified as a potent human PPAR\\/ dual agonist (EC = 0.013 and 0.061 M, respectively) with demonstrated oral bioavailability

  4. Abnormal metabolism of valproic acid in fatal hepatic failure.

    PubMed

    Kochen, W; Schneider, A; Ritz, A

    1983-10-01

    A 7-year-old boy developed a severe unilateral grand mal seizure at the age of 5 years (phenobarbitone therapy); 1.5 years later valproate (2-propylpentanoic acid, VPA) was added to the therapy. After a seizure-free period of 3 months the patient died from hepatic failure resembling Reye syndrome. Several plasma and urine samples from the final stage before and during peritoneal dialysis were analyzed by GC/MS. The predominant feature was the abnormally increased formation of both 3 mono- and 4 double unsaturated metabolites of VPA amounting in plasma to 58%-71% of the sum of VPA plus all analyzed metabolites (controls maximal 15%) and in urine to 34%-61% (controls maximal 10%). The beta-oxidation pathway of VPA was shown to be suppressed (lack of 3-keto-VPA), whereas metabolites from the omega-oxidation pathway could still be measured (urinary 5-OH-VPA plus 2-propylglutaric acid ca. 1.6%, controls more than 10%). 4-en-VPA (2-propyl-4-pentenoic acid) (5%-21% in plasma) and 4,4'-dien-VPA (2(2-propenyl)-4-pentenoic acid) (4%-7%) have been found as abnormal unsaturated metabolites not detectable in controls. Additional typical findings were the high excretion of adipic acid, suberic acid, and 4-octen-1,8-dicarboxylic acid demonstrating the enhanced capacity of omega-oxidation in fatty acid oxidation. PMID:6416845

  5. Negative chemotaxis in Spirochaeta aurantia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charlotte Kaempf; E. P. Greenberg

    1990-01-01

    A repellent-gradient tube assay for negative chemotaxis inSpirochaeta aurantia was developed and used to demonstrate that acids, alcohols, and sulfide were effective chemorepellents. The threshold concentrations (the lowest concentration of a repellent that elicited a detectable response) for benzoic acid, salicylic acid, and butyric acid were 3×10?5M. For acetic acid, propionic acid,p-aminobenzoic acid, propanol, butanol, and sulfide, threshold concentrations were

  6. Use of 1,3-diaminepropane-3-propyl grafted onto a silica gel as a sorbent for flow-injection spectrophotometric determination of copper (II) in digests of biological materials and natural waters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra V. M. de Moraes; Jorge L. Brasil; Caroline D. Milcharek; Lucas C. Martins; Marina T. Laranjo; Márcia R. Gallas; Edílson V. Benvenutti; Eder C. Lima

    2005-01-01

    The 1,3-diaminepropane-3-propyl-anchored silica gel (DAPPS) was successfully employed as a sorbent in a spectrophotometric flow system for the preconcentration of Cu2+ in digests of biological materials (maize powder, soybean, citrus leaves, corn stalks) as well as water samples (river, stream, streamlet, springwater and well). The system presented a minicolumn packed with DAPPS, where the sample solution was passed through it

  7. Reaction rate coefficients of OH radicals and Cl atoms with ethyl propanoate, n-propyl propanoate, methyl 2-methylpropanoate, and ethyl n-butanoate.

    PubMed

    Cometto, Pablo M; Daële, Véronique; Idir, Mahmoud; Lane, Silvia I; Mellouki, Abdelwahid

    2009-10-01

    Kinetics of the reactions of OH radicals and Cl atoms with four saturated esters have been investigated. Rate coefficients for the gas-phase reactions of OH radicals with ethyl propanoate (k(1)), n-propyl propanoate (k(2)), methyl 2-methylpropanoate (k(3)), and ethyl n-butanoate (k(4)) were measured using a conventional relative rate method and the pulsed laser photolysis-laser induced fluorescence technique. At (296 +/- 2) K, the rate coefficients obtained by the two methods were in good agreement. Significant curvatures in the Arrhenius plots have been observed in the temperature range 243-372 K for k(1), k(3), and k(4). The rate coefficients for the reactions of the four esters with Cl atoms were determined using the relative rate method at (296 +/- 2) K and atmospheric pressure. The values obtained are presented, compared with the literature values when they exist, and discussed. Reactivity trends and atmospheric implications for these esters are also presented. PMID:19746921

  8. darR and darS are regulatory genes that modulate 2-hexyl, 5-propyl resorcinol transcription in Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1606.

    PubMed

    Calderón, Claudia E; Carrión, Víctor J; de Vicente, Antonio; Cazorla, Francisco M

    2014-12-01

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis PCL1606 synthesizes the antifungal antibiotic 2-hexyl, 5-propyl resorcinol (HPR), which is crucial for the biocontrol of fungal soil-borne pathogens. The genetic basis for HPR production lies in the dar genes, which are directly involved in the biosynthesis of HPR. In the present study, we elucidated the genetic features of the dar genes. Reverse transcription PCR experiments revealed an independent organization of the dar genes, except for darBC, which was transcribed as a polycistronic mRNA. In silico analysis of each gene revealed putative promoters and terminator sequences, validating the proposed gene arrangement. Moreover, experiments utilizing 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends were used to determine the transcriptional initiation sites for the darA, darBC, darS and darR gene promoters, and subsequently to confirm the functionality of these regions. The results of quantitative real-time PCR experiments indicated that biosynthetic dar genes were not only modulated through the global regulator gacS, but also through darS and darR. The interplay between darS and darR revealed transcriptional cross-inhibition. However, these results also showed that other regulatory parameters play a role in HPR production, such as the environmental conditions and additional regulatory genes. PMID:25234473

  9. The mechanical properties of the ultra high molecular weight polyethylene grafted with 3-dimethy (3-(N-methacryamido) propyl) ammonium propane sulfonate.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yaling; Xiong, Dangsheng; Wang, Kun

    2014-07-01

    Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) powder was modified with a zwitterion monomer with good biocompatibility of MPDSAH (3-dimethy (3-(N-methacryamido) propyl) ammonium propane sulfonate) by UV irradiation and then hot pressed. The microstructure and mechanical properties of modified UHMWPE are investigated. The results show that the structure of powder and bulk materials has been changed. The modified powders have more filaments than that of untreated. The surface of modified bulk materials is more rough and displays the granular protuberances which have the random loose arrangement compared with untreated UHMWPE. The crystallinity, uniaxial tensile and compressive properties decreased after grafting. Ultimate elongations decrease with the increase of the monomer concentration and are higher than 300% which is recommended by ASTM and ISO except the sample with 0.45mol/L MPDSAH. The friction coefficient of modified UHMWPE is lower than that of the untreated UHMWPE and it decreases gradually with the increase of monomer concentration. The wear rates have been decreased and the wear resistance has been improved under saline and distilled water lubrication. PMID:24727573

  10. Kinetics of thermal and photo-initiated release of tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCP) flame retardant from polyurethane foam materials.

    PubMed

    Ghanem, Raed A

    2015-07-01

    Kinetics of thermal and photo-initiated release of Tris (1.3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCP) from the polyurethane foam (PUF) materials were studied using a validated chromatographic method with linear calibration curve in the range of 0.03-400 ?g mL(-1). Time dependence of TDCP leaching from foam samples was found to follow first-order kinetics; with rate constants directly dependent on ageing temperatures and intensity of UV radiation, rate constants for the thermally and photo initiated were 3.6 × 10(-3), 1.03 × 10(-2), 3.6 × 10(-2) and 3.94 × 10(-2) day(-1), respectively. Migration of TDCP from foam samples simulating skin or oral exposure were observed from all samples regardless of their ageing history, the presence of biological fluids found to enhance the migration rate. Oral exposure to foam material contains TDCP, which was simulated using the Head-over-Heels test, reveals that an average amount of ? 1.7% wt./wt. of the total amount of TDCP was found to leach into biological fluids, and it significantly increased to ? 6.0% wt./wt. due to ageing conditions. Direct contact between foam material and skin simulated by using the Contact Blotting test reveals that TDCP is transferred from both aged and un-aged samples at different rates, due to the presence of biological fluids; the transferred amount is increased with ageing conditions. PMID:26030692

  11. Structure and strength at the bonding interface of a titanium-segmented polyurethane composite through 3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate for artificial organs.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Harumi; Doi, Hisashi; Kobayashi, Equo; Yoneyama, Takayuki; Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Hanawa, Takao

    2007-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the structure and strength at the bonding interface of a titanium (Ti)-segmented polyurethane (SPU) composite through (3-trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (gamma-MPS) for artificial organs. The effects of the thickness of the gamma-MPS layer on the shear bonding strength between Ti and SPU were investigated. Ti disks were immersed in various concentrations of gamma-MPS solutions for several immersion times. The depth profiles of elements and the thickness of the gamma-MPS layer were determined by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy and ellipsometry, respectively. The bonding stress at the Ti/gamma-MPS/SPU interface was evaluated with a shear bonding test. Furthermore, the fractured surface of a Ti-SPU composite was observed by optical microscopy and characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Consequently, the thickness of the gamma-MPS layer was controlled by the concentration of the gamma-MPS solution and immersion time. The shear bonding stress at the interface increased with the increase of the thickness of the gamma-MPS layer. Therefore, the control of the thickness of the gamma-MPS layer is significant to increase the shear bonding stress at the Ti/gamma-MPS/SPU interface. These results are significant to create composites for artificial organs consisting of other metals and polymers. PMID:17269135

  12. Template and coordination interactions of 4,4?-bipyridine (Bipy) in nickel(II) complexes of 2-propyl-4,5-dicarboxylate-imidazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Ji-Hua; Zhong, Di-Chang; Wang, Ke-Jun; Luo, Xu-Zhong; Lu, Wen-Guan

    2013-03-01

    Two nickel(II) complexes, (H2Bipy)0.5[Ni(H2PIDC)3]·(Bipy)·5H2O (1) and [Ni(H2PIDC)2(Bipy)]n (2) (H3PIDC = 2-propyl-4,5-dicarboxylate-imidazole, Bipy = 4,4'-bipyridine), have been solvothermally synthesized and structurally characterized by infrared spectra (IR), elemental analysis, thermogravimetic analysis (TG), and single-crystal/powder X-ray diffraction. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis indicates that 1 is a mononuclear coordination compound, in which the [Ni(H2PIDC)3]- coordination units are connected together through indirect hydrogen interactions to form a 3D supramolecular structure with 1D supramolecular channels. The Bipy and H2Bipy2+, as templates, fill in the channels. 2 is a 1D chain-shaped coordination polymer, in which the Bipy molecules serve as bridging ligand linking the [Ni(H2PIDC)2] units together to form a 1D chain. Through the interactions of intermolecular hydrogen bonds, these 1D chains are further stacked together to form a 3D overpass-like supramolecular network.

  13. A Chemogenomic Screening of Sulfanilamide-Hypersensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mutants Uncovers ABZ2, the Gene Encoding a Fungal Aminodeoxychorismate Lyase?

    PubMed Central

    Botet, Javier; Mateos, Laura; Revuelta, José L.; Santos, María A.

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale phenotypic analyses have proved to be useful strategies in providing functional clues about the uncharacterized yeast genes. We used here a chemogenomic profiling of yeast deletion collections to identify the core of cellular processes challenged by treatment with the p-aminobenzoate/folate antimetabolite sulfanilamide. In addition to sulfanilamide-hypersensitive mutants whose deleted genes can be categorized into a number of groups, including one-carbon related metabolism, vacuole biogenesis and vesicular transport, DNA metabolic and cell cycle processes, and lipid and amino acid metabolism, two uncharacterized open reading frames (YHI9 and YMR289w) were also identified. A detailed characterization of YMR289w revealed that this gene was required for growth in media lacking p-aminobenzoic or folic acid and encoded a 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyase, which is the last of the three enzymatic activities required for p-aminobenzoic acid biosynthesis. In light of these results, YMR289w was designated ABZ2, in accordance with the accepted nomenclature. ABZ2 was able to rescue the p-aminobenzoate auxotrophy of an Escherichia coli pabC mutant, thus demonstrating that ABZ2 and pabC are functional homologues. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Abz2p is the founder member of a new group of fungal 4-amino-4-deoxychorismate lyases that have no significant homology to its bacterial or plant counterparts. Abz2p appeared to form homodimers and dimerization was indispensable for its catalytic activity. PMID:17873082

  14. GM Media-Sept 21, 2007 PBS, NH4Cl and KCl

    E-print Network

    .99 Vitamins 100 times concentrated stock solution Ingredient Concentration (g/L) biotin 0.2 folic acid 0.2 pyridoxine HCl 1 riboflavin 0.5 thiamin 0.5 nicotinic acid 0.5 pantothenic acid 0.5 B-12 0.01 p-aminobenzoic acid 0.5 thioctic acid 0.5 Diluted Vitamines (the one that should be used inside MFC) To have Final

  15. Is the PentaBDE Replacement, Tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) Phosphate (TDCPP), a Developmental Neurotoxicant? Studies in PC12 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dishaw, Laura V.; Powers, Christina M.; Ryde, Ian T.; Roberts, Simon C.; Seidler, Frederic J.; Slotkin, Theodore A.; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) are used as replacements for the commercial PentaBDE mixture that was phased out in 2004. OPFRs are ubiquitous in the environment and detected at high concentrations in residential dust, suggesting widespread human exposure. OPFRs are structurally similar to neurotoxic organophosphate pesticides, raising concerns about exposure and toxicity to humans. This study evaluated the neurotoxicity of tris (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) compared to the organophosphate pesticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF), a known developmental neurotoxicant. We also tested the neurotoxicity of three structurally similar OPFRs, tris (2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris (1-chloropropyl) phosphate (TCPP), and tris (1,3-dibromopropyl) phosphate (TDBPP), and 2,2?,4,4?-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), a major component of PentaBDE. Using undifferentiated and differentiating PC12 cells, changes in DNA synthesis, oxidative stress, differentiation into dopaminergic or cholinergic neurophenotypes, cell number, cell growth and neurite growth were assessed. TDCPP displayed concentration-dependent neurotoxicity, often with effects equivalent to or greater than equimolar concentrations of CPF. TDCPP inhibited DNA synthesis, and all OPFRs decreased cell number, and altered neurodifferentiation. Although TDCPP elevated oxidative stress, there was no adverse effect on cell viability or growth. TDCPP and TDBPP promoted differentiation into both neuronal phenotypes, while TCEP and TCPP promoted only the cholinergic phenotype. BDE-47 had no effect on cell number, cell growth or neurite growth. Our results demonstrate that different OPFRs show divergent effects on neurodifferentiation, suggesting the participation of multiple mechanisms of toxicity. Additionally, these data suggest that OPFRs may affect neurodevelopment with similar or greater potency compared to known and suspected neurotoxicants. PMID:21255595

  16. Simultaneous multicomponent spectrophotometric monitoring of methyl and propyl parabens using multivariate statistical methods after their preconcentration by robust ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khani, Rouhollah; Ghasemi, Jahan B.; Shemirani, Farzaneh

    2014-03-01

    A powerful and efficient signal-preprocessing technique that combines local and multiscale properties of the wavelet prism with the global filtering capability of orthogonal signal correction (OSC) is applied for pretreatment of spectroscopic data of parabens as model compounds after their preconcentration by robust ionic liquid-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method (IL-DLLME). In the proposed technique, a mixture of a water-immiscible ionic liquid (as extraction solvent) [Hmim][PF6] and disperser solvent is injected into an aqueous sample solution containing one of the IL's ions, NaPF6, as extraction solvent and common ion source. After preconcentration, the absorbance of the extracted compounds was measured in the wavelength range of 200-700 nm. The wavelet orthogonal signal correction with partial least squares (WOSC-PLS) method was then applied for simultaneous determination of each individual compound. Effective parameters, such as amount of IL, volume of the disperser solvent and amount of NaPF6, were inspected by central composite design to identify the most important parameters and their interactions. The effect of pH on the sensitivity and selectivity was studied according to the net analyte signal (NAS) for each component. Under optimum conditions, enrichment factors of the studied compounds were 75 for methyl paraben (MP) and 71 for propyl paraben (PP). Limits of detection for MP and PP were 4.2 and 4.8 ng mL-1, respectively. The root mean square errors of prediction for MP and PP were 0.1046 and 0.1275 ?g mL-1, respectively. The practical applicability of the developed method was examined using hygienic, cosmetic, pharmaceutical and natural water samples.

  17. Efficient dendrimer-DNA complexation and gene delivery vector properties of nitrogen-core poly(propyl ether imine) dendrimer in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Lakshminarayanan, Abirami; Ravi, Vijay Kumar; Tatineni, Ranjitha; Rajesh, Y B R D; Maingi, Vishal; Vasu, K S; Madhusudhan, Nandhitha; Maiti, Prabal K; Sood, A K; Das, Saumitra; Jayaraman, N

    2013-09-18

    Dendrimers as vectors for gene delivery were established, primarily by utilizing few prominent dendrimer types so far. We report herein studies of DNA complexation efficacies and gene delivery vector properties of a nitrogen-core poly(propyl ether imine) (PETIM) dendrimer, constituted with 22 tertiary amine internal branches and 24 primary amines at the periphery. The interaction of the dendrimer with pEGFPDNA was evaluated through UV-vis, circular dichroism (CD) spectral studies, ethidium bromide fluorescence emission quenching, thermal melting, and gel retardation assays, from which most changes to DNA structure during complexation was found to occur at a weight ratio of dendrimer:DNA ? 2:1. The zeta potential measurements further confirmed this stoichiometry at electroneutrality. The structure of a DNA oligomer upon dendrimer complexation was simulated through molecular modeling and the simulation showed that the dendrimer enfolded DNA oligomer along both major and minor grooves, without causing DNA deformation, in 1:1 and 2:1 dendrimer-to-DNA complexes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) studies on dendrimer-pEGFP DNA complex showed an increase in the average z-height as a result of dendrimers decorating the DNA, without causing a distortion of the DNA structure. Cytotoxicity studies involving five different mammalian cell lines, using [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide] (MTT) assay, reveal the dendrimer toxicity profile (IC50) values of ?400-1000 ?g mL(-1), depending on the cell line tested. Quantitative estimation, using luciferase assay, showed that the gene transfection was at least 100 times higher when compared to poly(ethylene imine) branched polymer, having similar number of cationic sites as the dendrimer. The present study establishes the physicochemical behavior of new nitrogen-core PETIM dendrimer-DNA complexes, their lower toxicities, and efficient gene delivery vector properties. PMID:23909622

  18. Optical isomer separation of flavanones and flavanone glycosides by nano-liquid chromatography using a phenyl-carbamate-propyl-beta-cyclodextrin chiral stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Si-Ahmed, Kahina; Tazerouti, Fairouz; Badjah-Hadj-Ahmed, Ahmed Y; Aturki, Zeineb; D'Orazio, Giovanni; Rocco, Anna; Fanali, Salvatore

    2010-02-12

    In this paper a phenyl-carbamate-propyl-beta-cyclodextrin stationary phase was employed for the enantioseparation of several flavonoids, including flavanones and methoxyflavanones by using nano-liquid chromatography (nano-LC). The same stationary phase was also used for the diastereoisomeric separation of two flavanone glycosides. The compounds: flavanone, 2'-hydroxyflavanone, 4'-hydroxyflavanone, 6-hydroxyflavanone, 7-hydroxyflavanone, 4'-methoxyflavanone, 6-methoxyflavanone, 7-methoxyflavanone, hesperetin, hesperidin, naringenin and naringin were studied using reversed, polar organic and normal elution modes. The effect of the nature and composition of the mobile phase (organic modifier type, buffer and water content in the reversed phase mode) on the enantioresolution (R(s)), retention factor (k) and enantioselectivity (alpha) were investigated. Baseline resolution of all studied flavonoids, with the exception of 2'-hydroxyflavanone and naringin, was achieved in reversed phase mode using a mixture of MeOH/H(2)O at different ratios as mobile phase. Good results, in terms of peak efficiency and short analysis time, were obtained adding 1% triethylammonium acetate pH 4.5 buffer to MeOH/H(2)O mixture. The separation of the studied compounds was also performed in polar organic mode. By using 100% of MeOH as mobile phase, the resolution was achieved for the studied analytes, except for 7-hydroxyflavanone, 2'-hydroxyflavanone, naringenin, hesperidin and naringin. Normal mode was tested employing a mixture of EtOH/hexane/TFA as mobile phase achieving the enantiomeric and diastereomeric separation of only hesperetin and hesperidin, respectively. The use of nano-LC technique for the resolution of flavanones optical isomers allowed to achieve good resolutions in shorter analysis time compared to the results reported in literature with conventional HPLC. PMID:19699481

  19. In vivo oxidation of [9-14C] cyclic fatty acids derived from linolenic acid in the rat.

    PubMed

    Bretillon, Lionel; Loreau, Olivier; Sébédio, Jean-Louis; Taran, Frédéric

    2006-01-01

    Heating oils and fats may lead to cyclization of polyunsaturated fatty acids, as for example linolenic acid. Cyclohexenyl and cyclopentenyl fatty acids are subsequently present in some edible oils and these are suspected to induce metabolic disorders. In a previous experiment using [1-14C] labeled molecules, we published that these cyclic fatty acids are beta oxidized to the same extent as linolenic acid, at least for the first cycle of beta oxidation. However, it is possible that the presence of a ring could alter the ability of the organism to fully oxidize the molecule. In order to test this hypothesis, we assessed the oxidative metabolism of cyclic fatty acids carrying a 14C atom at the vicinity of the ring. For this purpose, rats were force-fed from 1.1 to 1.3 MBq of a representative fraction of dietary cyclohexenyl cyclic fatty acid monomers of [9-14C] 9-(6-propyl-cyclohex-3-enyl)-non-8-enoic acids and 14CO2 production was monitored for 24h. The animals were then necropsied and the radioactivity was determined in different tissues. No consistent radioactivity was recovered as 14CO2 24h after administration of the molecules. Sixty percent of the radioactivity was recovered in the urine and 30% in the gastrointestinal tract. By combining our previous data on the oxidation of [1-14C] cyclic fatty acids and the present results, we suggest that cyclohexenyl fatty acids are first beta oxidized in a similar way as linolenic acid and that the remaining molecule carrying the ring is detoxified and eliminated in the urine and feces. PMID:16597424

  20. The preparation and characteristics of poly(methyl methacrylate–methylacrylate acid)\\/nano-ZnO composite latex particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chia-Fen Lee; Yu-Sheng Liu

    In this work, poly(methyl methacrylate-co-methylacrylate acid)\\/ZnO (poly(MMA–MAA)\\/ZnO) composite latex particle was synthesized\\u000a by three steps The first step was to synthesize poly(MMA–MAA) copolymer latex particles by soapless emulsion polymerization.\\u000a Following the first step, the second step was to polymerize MMA, MAA and 3,3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (MPS) in\\u000a the presence of poly(MMA–MAA) seed latex particles to form the poly(MMA–MAA)\\/poly(MMA–MAA–MPS) core–shell latex

  1. Rapid determination of four short-chain alkyl mercapturic acids in human urine by column-switching liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Eckert, Elisabeth; Göen, Thomas

    2014-08-15

    We developed and validated an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of methyl mercapturic acid (MeMA), ethyl mercapturic acid (EtMA), n-propyl mercapturic acid (PrMA) and iso-propyl mercapturic acid (iPrMA) in human urine. These alkyl mercapturic acids are known or presumed biomarkers of exposure to several alkylating agents including methyl bromide, dimethyl sulfate, ethyl bromide, 1-bromopropane and 2-bromopropane. The method involves a column switching arrangement for online solid phase extraction of the analytes with subsequent analytical separation and detection using liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. Within day and day-to-day imprecision was determined to range from 4.5 to 12.2%. The analytical method is distinguished by its wide linear working range of up to 2,500 ?g/L with detection limits ranging from 2.0 ?g/L (for PrMA) to 5.1 ?g/L (for MeMA) that render possible the application in various biomonitoring studies regarding exposure to alkylating agents. The results of a pilot study on urine samples of 30 individuals occupationally non-exposed to alkylating agents using the new procedure confirmed the background excretion of MeMA (<5.1-35.6 ?g/L) and PrMA (<2.0-95.7 ?g/L). PMID:24997437

  2. Esters of valerenic acid as potential prodrugs

    PubMed Central

    Hintersteiner, Juliane; Haider, Maximilian; Luger, Denise; Schwarzer, Christoph; Reznicek, Gottfried; Jäger, Walter; Khom, Sophia; Mihovilovic, Marko D.; Hering, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    Valerenic acid (VA) is a ?2/3 subunit-specific modulator of ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A (GABAA) receptors inducing anxiolysis. Here we analyze if VA-esters can serve as prodrugs and if different ester structures have different in vitro/in vivo effects. Modulation of GABAA receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes was studied with 2-microelectrode-voltage-clamp. Anxiolytic effects of the VA-esters were studied on male C57BL/6N mice by means of the elevated plus maze-test; anticonvulsant properties were deduced from changes in seizure threshold upon pentylenetetrazole infusion. VA was detected in plasma confirming hydrolysis of the esters and release of VA in vivo. Esterification significantly reduced the positive allosteric modulation of GABAA (?1?3?2S) receptors in vitro. in vivo, the studied VA-ester derivatives induced similar or even stronger anxiolytic and anticonvulsant action than VA. While methylation and propylation of VA resulted in faster onset of anxiolysis, the action of VA-ethylester was longer lasting, but occurred with a significant delay. The later finding is in line with the longer lasting anticonvulsant effects of this compound. The estimated VA plasma concentrations provided first insight into the release kinetics from different VA-esters. This might be an important step for its future clinical application as a potential non-sedative anxiolytic and anticonvulsant. PMID:24680924

  3. The SAR of 6-(N-alkyl-N-acyl)-2-propyl-3-[(2?-tetrazol-5-yl)biphen-4-yl)methyl]-quinazolinones as balanced affinity antagonists of the human AT 1 and AT 2 receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen E. de Laszlo; Raymond S. Chang; Tsing-Bau Chen; Kristie A. Faust; William J. Greenlee; Salah D. Kivlighn; Victor J. Lotti; Stacey S. O'Malley; Terry W. Schorn; Peter K. Siegl; Jennifer Tran; Gloria J. Zingaro

    1995-01-01

    Modification of the 6-N-alkyl-N-acyl groups of L-159,689, 6 6-(N-benzoyl-N-pentyl)-amino-2-propyl-3-[(2?-(tetrazol-5-yl)biphen-4-yl)methyl]quinazolin-4-(3H)one led to the identification of the 6-(N-benzoyl-N-(3-pyridylmethyl)) analog (L-162,537). L-162,537 had improved aqueous solubility and oral bioavailability in the dog. The SAR of this class of AT1 and AT2 ligands is discussed.

  4. Improvement of metabolic disorders and visceral fat obesity by the ? 3-adrenoceptor agonist ( R ?,R ?)-(±)- methyl-4-[2-[2- hydroxy-2-(3- chlorophenyl)ethylamino]propyl]-phenoxyacetate hydrobromide (BRL35135A) in genetically obese rodents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koji Hashimoto; Yuji Nagao; Keiichi Ida; Mitsuhiro Takeda; Nobuya Murakami; Katsuaki Kato; Masahiro Mizota

    1996-01-01

    The effects of BRL35135A ((R?,R?)-(±)-methyl-4-[2-[2-hydroxy-2-(3-chlorophenyl)ethylamino]propyl]-phenoxyacetate hydrobromide), a ?3-adrenoceptor agonist, on visceral and subcutaneous fat weight and metabolic disorders were studied in genetically obese C57BL\\/KsJ db\\/db mice and Zucker fa\\/fa rats. In db\\/db mice, four weeks of oral administration of BRL35135A (0.5 and 5 mg\\/kg\\/day) decreased body weight gain and reduced white fat weight. The rates of reduction of white fat

  5. Cannabinoid receptor binding and agonist activity of amides and esters of arachidonic acid.

    PubMed

    Pinto, J C; Potié, F; Rice, K C; Boring, D; Johnson, M R; Evans, D M; Wilken, G H; Cantrell, C H; Howlett, A C

    1994-09-01

    The cannabinoid receptor in brain (CB1) specifically binds delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the predominant central nervous system-active component of marijuana. An eicosanoid found in brain, N-(2-hydroxyethyl)arachidonylamide (anandamide), binds to CB1 with similar affinity. This report considers structure-activity requirements for a series of novel amides and rigid hairpin conformations typified by N-(2-hydroxyethyl)prostaglandin amides, assayed with phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride inactivation of esterases/amidases. Arachidonyl esters were 30-fold less potent than N-(2-hydroxyethyl)arachidonylamide, showing a rank order of potency of methyl = ethyl > propyl = isopropyl. Within the N-(hydroxyalkyl)arachidonylamide series, a one-carbon increase in chain length increased the potency 2-fold, but continued extension decreased affinity. Substituting the amide for the N-(2-hydroxyethyl)amide function produced a 4-fold loss of affinity. The N-(propyl)-, N-(butyl)-, and N-(benzyl)arachidonylamide derivatives exhibited a 3-fold increase, no change, and a 5-fold decrease, respectively, in affinity, compared with N-(2-hydroxyethyl)arachidonylamide. Both the methoxy ether and the formamide derivatives suffered > 20-fold loss of potency, compared with N-(2-hydroxyethyl)arachidonylamide. N-(2-Aminoethyl)arachidonylamide interacted poorly with CB1. At 100 microM, N-(2-hydroxyethyl)amide analogs of prostaglandin E2, A2, B2, and B1 failed to alter [3H]CP55940 binding to CB1. N-(2-Hydroxyethyl)arachidonylamide inhibited adenylate cyclase with lesser potency but with similar efficacy, compared with desacetyllevonantradol. Extending the length of the hydroxyalkyl moiety by one carbon increased the apparent potency by 1 order of magnitude. The N-(propyl) derivative exhibited a 5-fold greater potency than did the N-(2-hydroxyethyl) analog. It appears that the bulk and length of the moiety appended to arachidonic acid are more important determinants of affinity for CB1 than is hydrogen-bonding capability. PMID:7935333

  6. Synthesis and comparison of two poly (methyl methacrylate-b-3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate)/SiO2 hybrids by "grafting-to" approach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hongpu; He, Ling; Huang, Kehan; Gao, Min

    2014-11-01

    Two copolymer/SiO2 hybrids are prepared by growing SiO2 on the template of well -structured diblock copolymer PMMA-b-PMPS using a "grafting-to" approach. PMMA-b-PMPS is obtained by atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of methyl methacrylate (PMMA) and 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate (PMPS) using a brominated initiator end group termed 1H,1H,2H,2H-heptadecafluoro (F-Br) and a conventional initiator of ethyl 2-bromoisobutyrate (EBiB), respectively. The "grafting-to" approach is controlled at HCl for 24h by hydrolysis and condensation of Si(OCH3)3 groups in PMPS with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) to gain both hybrids of F-PMMA-b-PMPS/SiO2 (by F-Br initiator) and E-PMMA-b-PMPS/SiO2 (by EBIB initiator). Comparatively, a little amount of fluorine content provided by F-Br is able to tighten the size of self-assembled micelles, to improve wettability and the viscoelasticity of F-PMMA-b-PMPS film due to F-Br migrating onto the film surface. Therefore, the surface of F-PMMA-b-PMPS film is sufficiently hydrophobic (99° and ?f=2941Hz) than E-PMMA-b-PMPS film (94°and ?f=4820Hz), and the viscoelasticity of the adsorbed layer for F-PMMA-b-PMPS (?D/?f=-0.112) film is much harder than E-PMMA-b-PMPS/SiO2 (?D/?f=-0.071). On the other hand, the cross-linked silica in PMMA-b-PMPS/SiO2 could also increase water contact angels of films (100-107°) and decrease the water absorption (?f=704-798Hz). The influence on the viscoelasticity of the adsorbed layer by the fluorine group is much more obvious than the cross-linked silica, therefore F-PMMA-b-PMPS/SiO2 (?D/?f=-0.347) and F-PMMA-b-PMPS (?D/?f=-0.112) films have harder adsorbed layer than E-PMMA-b-PMPS/SiO2 (-0.071) and F-PMMA-b-PMPS films (-0.042). However, compared with a slightly improvement in thermo stability by F-Br, the cross-linked silica in PMMA-b-PMPS/SiO2 performs significantly improving thermal decomposition temperature at 300°C and 350°C. PMID:25127293

  7. Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1987-01-01

    Provides some background information on acid deposition. Includes a historical perspective, describes some effects of acid precipitation, and discusses acid rain in the United Kingdom. Contains several experiments that deal with the effects of acid rain on water quality and soil. (TW)

  8. Crystal structures of trans-di-chlorido-tetra-kis-[1-(2,6-diiso-propyl-phen-yl)-1H-imidazole-?N (3)]iron(II), trans-di-bromido-tetra-kis-[1-(2,6-diiso-propyl-phen-yl)-1H-imidazole-?N (3)]iron(II) and trans-di-bromido-tetra-kis-[1-(2,6-diiso-propyl-phen-yl)-1H-imidazole-?N (3)]iron(II) diethyl ether disolvate.

    PubMed

    Mafua, Roger; Jenny, Titus; Labat, Gael; Neels, Antonia; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen

    2014-08-01

    The title compounds, [FeCl2(C15H20N2)4], (I), [FeBr2(C15H20N2)4], (II), and [FeBr2(C15H20N2)4]·2C4H10O, (IIb), respectively, all have triclinic symmetry, with (I) and (II) being isotypic. The Fe(II) atoms in each of the structures are located on an inversion center. They have octa-hedral FeX 2N4 (X = Cl and Br, respectively) coordination spheres with the Fe(II) atom coordinated by two halide ions in a trans arrangement and by the tertiary N atom of four aryl-imidazole ligands [1-(2,6-diiso-propyl-phen-yl)-1H-imidazole] in the equatorial plane. In the two independent ligands, the benzene and imidazole rings are almost normal to one another, with dihedral angles of 88.19?(15) and 79.26?(14)° in (I), 87.0?(3) and 79.2?(3)° in (II), and 84.71?(11) and 80.58?(13)° in (IIb). The imidazole rings of the two independent ligand mol-ecules are inclined to one another by 70.04?(15), 69.3?(3) and 61.55?(12)° in (I), (II) and (IIb), respectively, while the benzene rings are inclined to one another by 82.83?(13), 83.0?(2) and 88.16?(12)°, respectively. The various dihedral angles involving (IIb) differ slightly from those in (I) and (II), probably due to the close proximity of the diethyl ether solvent mol-ecule. There are a number of C-H?halide hydrogen bonds in each mol-ecule involving the CH groups of the imidazole units. In the structures of compounds (I) and (II), mol-ecules are linked via pairs of C-H?halogen hydrogen bonds, forming chains along the a axis that enclose R 2 (2)(12) ring motifs. The chains are linked by C-H?? inter-actions, forming sheets parallel to (001). In the structure of compound (IIb), mol-ecules are linked via pairs of C-H?halogen hydrogen bonds, forming chains along the b axis, and the diethyl ether solvent mol-ecules are attached to the chains via C-H?O hydrogen bonds. The chains are linked by C-H?? inter-actions, forming sheets parallel to (001). In (I) and (II), the methyl groups of an isopropyl group are disordered over two positions [occupancy ratio = 0.727?(13):0.273?(13) and 0.5:0.5, respectively]. In (IIb), one of the ethyl groups of the diethyl ether solvent mol-ecule is disordered over two positions (occupancy ratio = 0.5:0.5). PMID:25249858

  9. Aristolochic Acids

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Sciences NIH-HHS www.niehs.nih.gov Aristolochic Acids Key Points Report on Carcinogens Status Known to be human carcinogens Aristolochia Clematitis Aristolochic Acids n Known human carcinogens n Found in certain ...

  10. Effect of the Ruffled Porphyrin Ring on Electronic Structures: Structure and Characterization of [Fe(TalkylP)(OClO3)] and [Fe(TPrP)(THF)2]ClO4 (alkyl = Ethyl, Et and n-Propyl, Pr)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Oliver, Allen G.; Neal, Teresa J.

    2013-01-01

    We report the synthesis of Fe(TalkylP)(OClO3)] (alkyl = ethyl and propyl) and [Fe(TPrP)(THF)2]ClO4, which are characterized by UV-vis, EPR, X-ray crystallography, and solid-state magnetic susceptibilities. The macrocycles of all three complexes are ruffled, all of the structural features for [Fe(TEtP(OClO3)] and [Fe(TPrP)(OClO3)] are characteristic of the nearly pure S = 3/2 state, while the structural parameters for [Fe(TPrP)(THF)2]ClO4 feature a pure intermediate-spin (S = 3/2) state, which are all consistent with EPR and magnetic data. It is clear from these studies that the ruffled conformation plays a significant role in affecting the extent of S = 3/2 character. PMID:23626455

  11. Characterization of a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase-associated diiron arylamine N-oxygenase from Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erin Platter; Michael Lawson; Christopher Marsh; Matthew H. Sazinsky

    2011-01-01

    The regiospecific oxidation of aromatic amines to aryl nitro compounds is critical to the synthesis of several natural products having pharmacological importance. The arylamine N-oxygenase (AAO) from Streptomyces thioluteus (AurF) selectively oxidizes p-aminobenzoic acid to p-nitrobenzoic acid and has been the subject of investigation for its unique chemistry and substrate preferences. Little, however, is known about the biochemistry and substrate

  12. Sulfonamides in the Environment as Veterinary Drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Premasis Sukul; Michael Spiteller

    SAs, a structurally related group of antibiotics containing a similar 4-aminobenzene sulfonamide backbone, are used in agriculture,\\u000a aquaculture, animal husbandry, and also as human medicines. Competing with p-aminobenzoic acid in the enzymatic synthesis of dihydrofolic acid, SAs inhibit the growth and reproduction of bacteria. Once\\u000a released to the environment, SAs distribute themselves among different environmental compartments, along with their degradation

  13. Kinetic Characterization of 4Amino 4-Deoxychorismate Synthase fromEscherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K. VISWANATHAN; JACALYN M. GREEN; ANDBRIAN P. NICHOLS

    The metabolic fate of p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) in Escherichia coli is its incorporation into the vitamin folic acid. PABA is derived from the aromatic branch point precursor chorismate in two steps. Aminodeoxy- chorismate (ADC) synthase converts chorismate and glutamine to ADC and glutamate and is composed of two subunits, PabA and PabB. ADC lyase removes pyruvate from ADC, aromatizes the

  14. Peptide coupling between amino acids and the carboxylic acid of a functionalized chlorido-gold(I)-phosphane.

    PubMed

    Kriechbaum, Margit; List, Manuela; Himmelsbach, Markus; Redhammer, Günther J; Monkowius, Uwe

    2014-10-01

    We have developed a protocol for the direct coupling between methyl ester protected amino acids and the chlorido-gold(I)-phosphane (p-HOOC(C6H4)PPh2)AuCl. By applying the EDC·HCl/NHS strategy (EDC·HCl = N-ethyl-N'-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride, NHS = N-hydroxysuccinimide), the methyl esters of l-phenylalanine, glycine, l-leucine, l-alanine, and l-methionine are coupled with the carboxylic acid of the gold complex in moderate to good yields (62-88%). All amino acid tagged gold complexes were characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. As corroborated by measurement of the angle of optical rotation, no racemization occurred during the reaction. The molecular structure of the leucine derivative was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In the course of developing an efficient coupling protocol, the acyl chlorides (p-Cl(O)C(C6H4)PPh2)AuX (X = Cl, Br) were also prepared and characterized. PMID:25203269

  15. Interaction of cyanine dyes with nucleic acids. XVII. Towards an aggregation of cyanine dyes in solutions as a factor facilitating nucleic acid detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Yu Ogul’chansky; V. M Yashchuk; M. Yu Losytskyy; I. O Kocheshev; S. M Yarmoluk

    2000-01-01

    Spectral properties of newly synthesized cyanine dyes, namely 1-[6-(4-{6-[2,6-dimethyl-4-(3-methyl-2,3-dihydro-1,3-benzothiazol-2-ylidenmethyl)-1-pyridiniumyl]hexanoyl}piperazino)-6-oxohexyl]-2,6-dimethyl-4-(3-ethyl-2,3-dihydro-1,3-benzothiazol-2-ylidenmethyl)pyridinium (K-6) (bichromophoric dye) and 1-[5-di(3-{5-[2,6-dimethyl-4-(3-methyl-2,3-dihydro-1,3-benzothiazol-2-ylidenmethyl)-1-pyridiniumyl]pentylcarboxamido}propyl) carbamoylpentyl]-2,6-dimethyl-4-(3-methyl-2,3-dihydro-1,3-benzothiazol-2-ylidenmethyl) pyridinium (K-T) (trichromophoric dye) in solutions in the presence of and without deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) were studied within a wide concentration range. It has been established that absorption, as well as fluorescence of investigated dye solutions, without DNA are mainly determined by H-aggregates of dye

  16. Rosmarinic acid.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Maike; Simmonds, Monique S J

    2003-01-01

    Rosmarinic acid is an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid. It is commonly found in species of the Boraginaceae and the subfamily Nepetoideae of the Lamiaceae. However, it is also found in species of other higher plant families and in some fern and hornwort species. Rosmarinic acid has a number of interesting biological activities, e.g. antiviral, antibacterial, antiinflammatory and antioxidant. The presence of rosmarinic acid in medicinal plants, herbs and spices has beneficial and health promoting effects. In plants, rosmarinic acid is supposed to act as a preformed constitutively accumulated defence compound. The biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid starts with the amino acids L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine. All eight enzymes involved in the biosynthesis are known and characterised and cDNAs of several of the involved genes have been isolated. Plant cell cultures, e.g. from Coleus blumei or Salvia officinalis, accumulate rosmarinic acid in amounts much higher than in the plant itself (up to 36% of the cell dry weight). For this reason a biotechnological production of rosmarinic acid with plant cell cultures has been proposed. PMID:12482446

  17. Basically Acids

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    University of Houston,

    Students learn the basics of acid/base chemistry in a fun, interactive way by studying instances of acid/base chemistry found in popular films such as Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban and National Treasure. Students learn what acids, bases and indicators are and how they can be used, including invisible ink. They also learn how engineers use acids and bases every day to better our quality of life. Students' interest is piqued by the use of popular culture in the classroom.

  18. Acid test

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Olivia Worland (Purdue University; Biological Sciences)

    2008-06-06

    Baking soda can be used as an indicator of how much acid a substance contains. Lemons and limes have more acid in them than grapefruits and oranges. Indophenol can be used as an indicator of how much vitamin C is in a substance.

  19. Acids (GCMP)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Acids: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". We will observe the reaction of sodium bicarbonate with three acid solutions. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

  20. Domoic Acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bailey, Christina

    This online student report discusses the chemistry of domoic acid, a biotoxin that is produced by the diatom Psuedo-nitzschia and associated with Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). In addition to a descriptive summary and images, the report links to other areas of interest related to domoic acid poisoning including signs and symptoms, modes of action, and treatment.

  1. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.C. (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (US))

    1988-01-01

    This book presents the proceedings of the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse (ARIC). Topics covered include: Legal aspects of the source-receptor relationship: an energy perspective; Scientific uncertainty, agency inaction, and the courts; and Acid rain: the emerging legal framework.

  2. Acid Rain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gene E. Likens; Richard F. Wright; James N. Galloway; Thomas J. Butler

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of the acidity of rain and snow reveal that in parts of the eastern U.S. and of western Europe precipitation has changed from a nearly neutral solution 200 years ago to a dilute solution of sulfuric and nitric acids today. The trend is a result of the emission of sulfur and nitrogen oxides to the atmosphere accompanying the rise

  3. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Elsworth, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book was written in a concise and readable style for the lay public. It's purpose was to make the public aware of the damage caused by acid rain and to mobilize public opinion to favor the elimination of the causes of acid rain.

  4. Acid Precipitation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Tyser, Jim

    Acid precipitation will be defined. At different points in the lesson students will write balanced reactions for the formation acid precipitation from atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen oxides and the neutralization of acids by limestone. Students will determine which states are most at risk from acid precipitation and assess how that risk has changed from 1996 to 2006. Sources of atmospheric sulfur (burning of high-sulfur coal) and nitrogen oxides (automobile exhaust) will be listed. The buffering effect of limestone soils and its mitigating effect on acid precipitation will be discussed. Students will correlate these areas with sulfur and nitrogen oxide production, population, composition of coal fields, and soil composition. This resource includes both a teaching guide and student worksheets.

  5. Asparagusic acid.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

    2014-01-01

    Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for ?-lipoic acid in ?-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications. PMID:24099657

  6. Gas-Phase Reactivity of Carboxylic Acid Functional Groups with Carbodiimides

    PubMed Central

    Prentice, Boone M.; Gilbert, Joshua D.; Stutzman, John R.; Forrest, William P.; McLuckey, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    Gas-phase modification of carboxylic acid functionalities is performed via ion/ion reactions with carbodiimide reagents [N-cyclohexyl-N?-(2-morpholinoethyl)carbodiimide (CMC) and [3-(3-Ethylcarbodiimide-1-yl)propyl]trimethylaminium (ECPT). Gas-phase ion/ion covalent chemistry requires the formation of a long-lived complex. In this instance, the complex is stabilized by an electrostatic interaction between the fixed charge quaternary ammonium group of the carbodiimide reagent cation and the analyte dianion. Subsequent activation results in characteristic loss of an isocyanate derivative from one side of the carbodiimide functionality, a signature for this covalent chemistry. The resulting amide bond is formed on the analyte at the site of the original carboxylic acid. Reactions involving analytes that do not contain available carboxylic acid groups (e.g., they have been converted to sodium salts) or reagents that do not have the carbodiimide functionality do not undergo a covalent reaction. This chemistry is demonstrated using PAMAM generation 0.5 dendrimer, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and the model peptide DGAILDGAILD. This work demonstrates the selective gas-phase covalent modification of carboxylic acid functionalities. PMID:23208744

  7. Inhibition of biofilm formation on silicone rubber samples using various antimicrobial agents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Atarijabarzadeh; E. Strömberg; S. Karlsson

    2011-01-01

    High-temperature-cured silicone rubber samples (silicone rubber (SIR) based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)) and SIR samples containing three different antimicrobial agents, sodium benzoate (NaB), DCOIT (4,5 Dichloro-2-octyl-2H-isothiazolone-one) and p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) were inoculated with fungal spore suspensions and incubated for 28 days at 29±1°C and ?90% humidity, according to the ISO 846:1997(E) protocol. Prior to the biodegradation test, a powder test was

  8. Determination of Urinary Constituents in Solutions by Least-Squares Resolution of Ultraviolet Spectrums

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Davis; E. Schonfeld; A. H. Kibbey

    Least-squaresresolutionof ultraviolet (UV) spectrums has been tested as a method for determining the concentration of each UV-absorbing urinary component in a multicomponent solution. The tests reported here involvedsolutionscontaining 4-12 componentschosenfrom 17 reference materials: p-aminobenzoic,anthranilic, ascorbic, ferulic, hippuric, p-hydroxybenzoic,uric, vanillic, and xanthurenic acids, and adenine, creatinine, cytosine, ergothioneine, hypoxanthine,indican, N-methylnicotinamide, and tryptophan. Spectrumsof these reference and multicomponent solutionswere meas- ured from

  9. Folic Acid

    MedlinePLUS Videos and Cool Tools

    ... register. I'm interested in: Pregnancy Baby growth & care Research Volunteer opportunities Advocacy in government For health ... acid During your pregnancy Your pregnant body Prenatal care Eating and nutrition Physical activity Emotional and life ...

  10. ACID RAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid precipitation has become one of the major environmental problems of this decade. It is a challenge to scientists throughout the world. Researchers from such diverse disciplines as plant pathology, soil science, bacteriology, meteorology and engineering are investigating diff...

  11. Carnosic acid.

    PubMed

    Birti?, Simona; Dussort, Pierre; Pierre, François-Xavier; Bily, Antoine C; Roller, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Carnosic acid (salvin), which possesses antioxidative and antimicrobial properties, is increasingly exploited within the food, nutritional health and cosmetics industries. Since its first extraction from a Salvia species (?70years ago) and its identification (?50years ago), numerous articles and patents (?400) have been published on specific food and medicinal applications of Rosmarinus and Salvia plant extracts abundant in carnosic acid. In contrast, relevant biochemical, physiological or molecular studies in planta have remained rare. In this overview, recent advances in understanding of carnosic acid distribution, biosynthesis, accumulation and role in planta, and its applications are summarised. We also discuss the deficiencies in our understanding of the relevant biochemical processes, and suggest the molecular targets of carnosic acid. Finally, future perspectives and studies related to its potential roles are highlighted. PMID:25639596

  12. Acidic precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

  13. Self-association properties of 4-[1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl]-2-propyl-1-[4-[2-[tetrazole-5-yl]phenyl]phenyl] methylimidazole-5-carboxylic acid monohydrate (CS-088), an antiglaucoma ophthalmic agent.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Takayuki; Ito, Nobuya; Suzuki, Masahiko; Kusai, Akira; Iseki, Ken; Sasaki, Hitoshi

    2005-08-11

    Self-association properties of CS-088, an antiglaucoma ophthalmic agent, were investigated. Various analytical methods, such as surface tension measurement, demonstrated that CS-088 is a self-associating compound with critical micellar concentration (CMC) of approximately 10 mg/mL. Light scattering analysis revealed that the micellar molecular weight (MMW) of CS-088 aggregates well above the CMC was approximately 2260, corresponding to a pentamer. In addition, the MMW corresponding to a dimer was detected by NMR spectroscopy, indicating that self-association of monomers to pentamers is via the formation of dimers. According to the Stokes-Einstein equation, hydrodynamic radii of the dimer and pentamer were calculated to be 0.87 and 1.16 nm, respectively. The concentration-dependent change in the NMR chemical shift indicated that hydrophobic interaction between biphenyl groups is an important factor in the self-association of CS-088 molecules. Furthermore, measurement of particle size distribution using a Nicomp Submicron Particle-Sizer revealed that the addition of either n-propanol or urea to CS-088 solution led to monomerization of the dimers and pentamers, suggesting that not only hydrophobic interaction but also hydrogen bonding is involved in stabilizing CS-088 aggregates. No bigger aggregate than a pentamer was formed in the absence of NaCl, whereas further aggregation was observed with increasing concentrations of NaCl. PMID:15979261

  14. /sup 125/I-Bolton-Hunter-8-methoxy-2-(N-propyl-N-propylamino)tetralin as a new selective radioligand of 5-HT1A sites in the rat brain. In vitro binding and autoradiographic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gozlan, H.; Ponchant, M.; Daval, G.; Verge, D.; Menard, F.; Vanhove, A.; Beaucourt, J.P.; Hamon, M.

    1988-02-01

    In vitro binding assays with /sup 125/I-(8-methoxy-2-(N-propyl-N-(3'-iodo-4'-hydroxyphenyl)-propionamido -N'- propylamino) tetralin) (/sup 125/I-BH-8-MeO-N-PAT), a /sup 125/I-labeled derivative of the potent serotonin (5-HT) agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin ((/sup 3/H)-8-OH-DPAT), showed that this compound recognized specific sites with nanomolar affinity for 5-HT and 5-HT1A ligands such as spiroxatrine, ipsapirone, buspirone and gepirone in rat hippocampal membranes. Comparison of the binding characteristics of /sup 125/I-BH-8-MeO-N-PAT with those of (/sup 3/H)-8-OH-DPAT revealed striking similarities: at the hippocampal level, both binding sites exhibited nanomolar affinity for their respective ligands and the same Bmax; their pharmacological profiles defined by the inhibition of each bound ligand by a series of 26 serotonin, dopamine- or norepinephrine-related agonists and antagonists were identical; and their regional distributions examined by membrane binding assays and autoradiography of labeled brain sections were highly correlated. These observations indicate that /sup 125/I-BH-8-MeO-N-PAT is the first /sup 125/I-reversible ligand for the selective labeling of 5-HT1A sites in the rat central nervous system.

  15. Kinetics and mechanism of the reaction of perfluoro propyl vinyl ether (PPVE, C3F7OCH[double bond, length as m-dash]CH2) with OH: assessment of its fate in the atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Amedro, D; Vereecken, L; Crowley, J N

    2015-07-01

    Absolute rate coefficients for the reaction between OH radicals and perfluoro propyl vinyl ether (PPVE) were obtained using the technique of pulsed laser photolysis with the detection of OH radicals by laser induced fluorescence. Rate coefficients were measured over a range of temperatures (212-298 K) and at either 50 or 200 Torr bath-gas (N2 or N2/O2). The temperature dependence of the rate coefficient is given by k1(212-298 K) = (4.88 ± 0.49) × 10(-13)?exp[(564 ± 10)/T] cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) with a value at room temperature of (3.4 ± 0.3) × 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). No pressure dependence was observed, indicating that the reaction is at the high pressure limit under atmospheric conditions. The accuracy of the rate coefficient obtained was enhanced by on-line optical absorption measurements of PPVE at 184.95 nm using a value of ?184.95 nm = (5.64 ± 0.28) × 10(-18) cm(2) molecule(-1) determined in this work. An atmospheric lifetime of a few days for PPVE was calculated. Extensive quantum chemical calculations as a complement to the experimental work are presented in order to determine its probable tropospheric degradation mechanism. PMID:26112907

  16. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, calculational studies and in vitro antitumoral activity of 4-(3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl)-(thiophen-2-ylmethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süleymano?lu, Nevin; Ustaba?, Re?at; Alpaslan, Yelda Bingöl; Ünver, Yasemin; Turan, Mustafa; Sancak, Kemal

    2011-03-01

    4-(3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl)-(thiophen-2-ylmethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one (IPTT), C 13H 15N 5OS, was synthesized and characterized by 13C NMR, 1H NMR, IR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure of IPTT is stabilized by three intermolecular hydrogen bonds and by intermolecular C sbnd H⋯ ? interaction. The compound IPTT was modelled by using DFT method. Calculations of vibrational frequencies, gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO), 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of IPTT in the ground state, total electronic charge density map and frontier molecular orbitals were performed at B3LYP/6-31 G(d) level of theory were carried out by using DFT method with 6-31 G(d) basis set. The structural parameters obtained by geometry optimization, the theoretical vibrational frequencies and chemical shift values are in good agreement with experimental ones. FT-IR, NMR and X-ray analytical results of IPTT show that the compound exists as keto form, that was supported by DFT calculations. In addition, in vitro studies showed hopeful antitumoral activity of the title IPTT compound.

  17. Structure-Activity Relationships for a Novel Series of Citalopram (1-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-5-carbonitrile) Analogues at Monoamine Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Cyriac, George; Kopajtic, Theresa; Zhao, Yongfang; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Katz, Jonathan L.; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2010-01-01

    (±)-Citalopram (1, 1-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydroisobenzofuran-5-carbonitrile), and its eutomer, escitalopram (S(+)-1) are selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) that are used clinically to treat anxiety and depression. To further explore structure-activity relationships at the serotonin transporter (SERT), a series of (±)-4- and 5-substituted citalopram analogues were designed, synthesized and evaluated for binding at the SERT, dopamine transporter (DAT) and norepinephrine transporter (NET) in native rodent tissue. Many of these analogues showed high SERT binding affinities (Ki = 1–40 nM) and selectivities over both NET and DAT. Selected enantiomeric pairs of analogues were synthesized and both retained enantioselectivity as with S- and R-1, wherein S > R at the SERT. In addition, the enantiomeric pairs of 1 and 5 were tested for binding at the homologous bacterial Leucine transporter (LeuT), wherein low affinities and the absence of enantioselectivity suggested distinctive binding sites for these compounds at SERT as compared to LeuT. These novel ligands will provide molecular tools to elucidate drug-protein interactions at the SERT and to relate those to behavioral actions, in vivo. PMID:20672825

  18. Hexa­kis­(propyl­ammonium) benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra­carboxyl­ate 2,5-dicarb­oxy­benzene-1,4-carboxyl­ate tetra­hydrate

    PubMed Central

    Khorasani, Sanaz; Fernandes, Manuel A.

    2012-01-01

    The title organic salt, 6C3H10N+·C10H2O8 4?·C10H4O8 2?·4H2O, contains seven independent entities in the asymmetric unit which comprises three propyl­ammonium cations, two water mol­ecules, half a 2,5-dicarb­oxy­benzene-1,4-carboxyl­ate dianion (H2btc2?) and half a benzene-1,2,4,5-tetra­carboxyl­ate tetra­anion (btc4?), the latter two anions being located about centres of inversion. One of the water mol­ecules is disordered over two positions in a 0.55?(2):0.45?(2) ratio. The combination of mol­ecular ions and water mol­ecules results in an extensive and complex three-dimensional network of hydrogen bonds, the network being made up of nine unique N—H?O inter­actions between the ammonium cations and the anions, as well as four unique O—H?O inter­actions between the water mol­ecules and the anions. PMID:22969679

  19. Diaqua­bis­(4-carb­oxy-2-propyl-1H-imidazole-5-carboxyl­ato-?2 N 3,O 4)zinc(II) N,N-dimethyl­formamide disolvate

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Cheng-Jun; Zhao, Xiao-Jun

    2010-01-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, [Zn(C8H9N2O4)2(H2O)2]·2C3H7NO, the ZnII atom is coordinated by two N,O-bidentate 2-propyl-1H-imidazole-4,5-dicarboxyl­ate anions and two water mol­ecules in a distorted octa­hedral environment. The asymmetric unit consists of one ZnII atom located on a center of inversion as well as one anion, one water mol­ecule and one additional dimethyl­formamide mol­ecule that occupy general positions. Between the carboxyl and the carboxyl­ate group an intra­molecular hydrogen bond is found in which the hydroxy H atom is disordered. Disorder is also found for the H atoms of one of the three methyl groups. In the crystal structure, additional inter­molecular N—H?O and O—H?O hydrogen bonding is found. PMID:21587728

  20. Synthesis and structure of dicopper(II) complexes bridged by N-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-N'-[3-(methy lamino)propyl]oxamide: evaluation of DNA/protein binding, DNA cleavage, and in vitro anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiao-Wen; Li, Xue-Jie; Zhu, Ling; Li, Yan-Tuan; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Yan, Cui-Wei

    2015-06-01

    Three new dicopper(II) complexes bridged by N-(5-chloro-2-hydroxyphenyl)-N'-[3-(methylamino)-propyl]oxamide (H3chmpoxd) and end-capped with 1,10-phenanthroline (phen); 2,2'-diamino-4,4'-bithiazole (dabt); and 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), namely [Cu2(chmpoxd)(H2O)(phen)](ClO4)?CH3CN (1), [Cu2(chmpoxd)(dabt)(C2H5OH)](NO3) (2) and [Cu2(chmpoxd)(H2O)(bpy)](NO3)?CH3CN (3), were synthesized and structurally characterized. The single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that both the copper(II) ions bridged by the cis-chmpoxd(3-) ligands in the three complexes are in square-planar and square-pyramidal environments, respectively. The reactivity towards herring sperm DNA (HS-DNA) and protein bovine serum albumin (BSA) indicated that these copper(II) complexes can interact with the DNA in the mode of intercalation, and bind to BSA responsible for quenching of tryptophan fluorescence by the static quenching mechanism. The cytotoxicity and DNA cleavage suggested that all the dicopper(II) complexes are active against the selected tumor cell lines, and the complex 1 exhibits the cleavage capacity for plasmid DNA. PMID:25837411

  1. In vitro cytotoxic activities, DNA-, and BSA-binding studies of a new dinuclear copper(II) complex with N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-N'-(2-carboxylatophenyl)-oxamide as ligand.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Jing; Jiang, Man; Li, Yan-Tuan; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Yan, Cui-Wei

    2014-02-01

    A new dinuclear copper(II) complex bridged by N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-N'- (2-carbo-xylatophenyl)oxamide (H3 dmapob), and endcapped with 2,2'-diamino-4,4'-bithiazole (dabt), namely [Cu?(dmapob)(dabt)(CH?OH)(pic)]·(DMF)?.?? ·(CH?OH)?.?? has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductivity measurement, infrared and electronic spectra studies, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In the crystal structure, both copper(II) ions have square-pyramidal coordination geometries. The Cu···Cu separation through the oxamido bridge is 5.176(9) Å. A two-dimensional supramolecular framework is formed through hydrogen bonds and ?-? stacking interactions. The reactivities toward herring sperm DNA and bovine serum albumin (BSA) show that the complex can interact with the DNA via intercalation mode and bind to the BSA responsible for quenching of tryptophan fluorescence by the static quenching mechanism. The in vitro anticancer activities suggest that the copper(II) complex is active against the selected tumor cell lines. The influence of different bridging ligands in dinuclear complexes on the DNA- and BSA-binding properties as well as anticancer activities is preliminarily discussed. PMID:24497175

  2. Acid Stomach

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Netlinks

    2003-08-07

    This Science NetLinks lesson is intended for a high-school, introductory chemistry class or health class. The lesson begins with an article on the history of the development of aspirin. Students will then complete a lab that compares the reaction of regular aspirin, buffered aspirin, and enteric aspirin in neutral, acidic, and basic solutions. They will then analyze the results of the experiment to gain insight into how this information was used by researchers to solve some of the problems associated with aspirin. To complete the lesson, students must understand acids and bases.

  3. Stereospecific ligands and their complexes. Part XII. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro antiproliferative activity of platinum(IV) complexes with some O,O?-dialkyl esters of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N?-di-2-propanoic acid against colon cancer (HCT-116) and breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stojkovi?, Danijela Lj.; Jevti?, Verica V.; Radi?, Gordana P.; ?a?i?, Dragana S.; ?ur?i?, Milena G.; Markovi?, Snežana D.; Ðinovi?, Vesna M.; Petrovi?, Vladimir P.; Trifunovi?, Sre?ko R.

    2014-03-01

    Synthesis of three new platinum(IV) complexes C1-C3, with bidentate N,N?-ligand precursors, O,O?-dialkyl esters (alkyl = propyl, butyl and pentyl), of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N?-di-2-propanoic acid, H2-S,S-eddp were reported. The reported platinum(IV) complexes characterized by elemental analysis and their structures were discussed on the bases of their infrared, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. In vitro antiproliferative activity was determined on tumor cell lines: human colon carcinoma HCT-116 and human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231, using MTT test.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and anti proliferative effect of [Au(en) 2]Cl 3 and [Au(N- propyl-en) 2]Cl 3 on human cancer cell lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isab, Anvarhusein A.; Shaikh, M. Nasiruzzaman; Monim-ul-Mehboob, M.; Al-Maythalony, Bassem A.; Wazeer, Mohammed I. M.; Altuwaijri, Saleh

    2011-09-01

    Two Au(III) complexes of the type [Au(en) 2]Cl 3 ( 2a) and [Au(N-pr-en) 2]Cl 3 ( 3a) were synthesized by reacting Auric acid (HAuCl 4·3H 2O) with 2 equiv. ethylenediamine (en) or N-alkyl substituted ethylenediamine ligands. This metallodrug was characterized by various analytical and spectroscopic techniques such as elemental analysis, UV-Vis, Far-IR, 1H NMR and solution 13C as well as solid 13C and 15N NMR. Potentiality of [Au(en) 2]Cl 3 and [Au(N-pr-en) 2]Cl 3 as an anti-cancer agent were investigated by measuring some relevant physicochemical and biochemical properties such as stability of Au-N bonds by vibrational stretching from Far IR as well as cytotoxicity and stomach cancer cell inhibiting effect, respectively. The solid-state 15N NMR chemical shift shows that the ligand is strongly bound to gold(III) centre via N atoms. The computational study of 2a shows that the gold coordination sphere adopts distorted square planar geometry with bidentate ethylenediamine ligands acting as a tetradentate chelate. While stable in the solution state, the in vitro biological studies performed with these compounds 2a in solution showed higher activity towards the inhibitory effects of the human cancer cell lines such as prostate cancer (PC-3) and gastric carcinoma (SGC-7901) than that of the N-substituted gold(III) complex ( 3a). Cytotoxicity of the new compounds has also been estimated in PC-3 and SGC-7901 cells.

  5. SYNTHESIS, METABOLIC STABILITY AND ANTIVIRAL EVALUATION OF VARIOUS ALKOXYALKYL ESTERS OF CIDOFOVIR AND (S)-[3-HYDROXY-2-(PHOSPHONOMETHOXY)PROPYL]ADENINE

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Jacqueline; Beadle, James R.; Buller, R. Mark; Schreiwer, Jill; Prichard, Mark N.; Keith, Kathy A.; Lewis, Kenneth C.; Hostetler, Karl Y.

    2011-01-01

    Alkoxyalkyl esters of cidofovir (CDV) are orally active agents which inhibit the replication of a variety of double stranded DNA (dsDNA) viruses including variola, vaccinia, ectromelia, herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, adenovirus and others. One of these compounds, hexadecyloxypropyl-CDV (HDP-CDV, CMX001) is in clinical development for prevention and treatment of poxvirus infection, vaccination complications, and for infections caused by cytomegalovirus, adenovirus, herpesviruses and other dsDNA viruses. This class of lipid analogs is potentially prone to undergo omega oxidation of the alkyl moiety which can lead to a short chain carboxylic acid lacking antiviral activity. To address this issue, we synthesized a series of alkoxyalkyl or alkyl glycerol esters of CDV and (S)-HPMPA having modifications in the structure of the alkyl residue. Antiviral activity was assessed in cells infected with vaccinia, cowpox or ectromelia viruses. Metabolic stability was determined in S9 membrane fractions from rat, guinea pig, monkey and human liver. All compounds had substantial antiviral activity in cells infected with vaccinia, cowpox or ectromelia. Metabolic stability was lowest in monkey liver S9 incubations where rapid disappearance of HDP-CDV and HDP-(S)-HPMPA was noted. Metabolic stability in monkey preparations increased substantially when a ?-1 methyl group (15-methyl-HDP-CDV) or a terminal cyclopropyl residue (14-cyclopropyl-tetradecyloxypropyl-CDV) was present in the alkyl chain. The most stable compound was 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-benzyl-sn-glycero-3-CDV (ODBG-CDV) which was not metabolized extensively by monkey liver S9. In rat, guinea pig or human liver S9 incubations, most of the modified antiviral compounds were considerably more stable. PMID:21493074

  6. Stearic Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jay A.

    2004-01-01

    A chemical laboratory information profile (CLIP) is presented for the chemical, stearic acid. The profile lists the chemical's physical and harmful characteristics, exposure limits, and symptoms of major exposure, for the benefit of teachers and students, who use the chemical in the laboratory.

  7. Folic Acid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... lifelong disabilities. They may also need many surgeries. Anencephaly (an-en-SEF-uh-lee), which is when most or all of the brain does not develop. Babies with this problem die before or shortly after birth. The results of some studies suggest that folic acid might also help to prevent other types of ...

  8. Acid Rain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This activity is part of Planet Diary and is an online examination into acid rain and sulfur dioxide emissions. Students research which states have succeeded in reducing sulfur dioxide emissions between 1980 and 1999, and which states emissions have increased. This activity is accompanied by a page of websites for further information.

  9. Acid Attack

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-09-18

    In this activity, students explore the effect of chemical erosion on statues and monuments. They use chalk to see what happens when limestone is placed in liquids with different pH values. They also learn several things that engineers are doing to reduce the effects of acid rain.

  10. Azelaic acid.

    PubMed

    Nazzaro-Porro, M

    1987-12-01

    This review is an update on the literature accumulated over the past 10 years following the original observation that azelaic acid, a naturally occurring and nontoxic C9 dicarboxylic acid, possesses significant biologic properties and a potential as a therapeutic agent. These studies have shown that azelaic acid is a reversible inhibitor of tyrosinase and other oxidoreductases in vitro and that it inhibits mitochondrial respiration. It can also inhibit anaerobic glycolysis. Both in vitro and in vivo it has an antimicrobial effect on both aerobic and anaerobic (Propionibacterium acnes) microorganisms. In tissue culture it exerts a dose- and time-dependent cytotoxic effect on malignant melanocytes, associated with mitochondrial damage and inhibition of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) synthesis. Tumoral cell lines not containing tyrosinase are equally affected. Normal cells in culture exposed to the same concentrations of the diacid that are toxic for tumoral cells are in general not damaged. Radioactive azelaic acid has been shown to penetrate tumoral cells at a higher level than normal cells of the corresponding line. Topically applied (a 20% cream), it has been shown to be of therapeutic value in skin disorders of different etiologies. Its beneficial effect on various forms of acne (comedogenic, papulopustular, nodulocystic) has been clearly demonstrated. Particularly important is its action on abnormal melanocytes, which has led to the possibility of obtaining good results on melasma and highly durable therapeutic responses on lentigo maligna. It is also capable of causing regression of cutaneous malignant melanoma, but its role in melanoma therapy remains to be investigated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2963038

  11. Pharmacology of oleanolic acid and ursolic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jie Liu

    1995-01-01

    Oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are triterpenoid compounds that exist widely in food, medicinal herbs and other plants. This review summarizes the pharmacological studies on these two triterpenoids. Both oleanolic acid and ursolic acid are effective in protecting against chemically induced liver injury in laboratory animals. Oleanolic acid has been marketed in China as an oral drug for human liver

  12. Domoic Acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    INCHEM

    This highly detailed chemical information page features domoic acid, a toxin associated with Amnesic shellfish poisoning and naturally produced by the red algae Chondria armata and diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. Created by the International Programme on Chemical Safety, this web page organizes information under the following sections: Name, Summary, Physio-Chemical Properties, Uses, Routes of Entry, Kinetics, Toxicology, Toxicological and Biomedical Investigations, Clinical Effects, Management, Illustrative Cases, Additional Information, References, and Authors.

  13. Understanding Acid Rain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  14. New Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecen...

  15. Distribution of stable free radicals among amino acids of isolated soy proteins.

    PubMed

    Lei, Qingxin; Liebold, Christopher M; Boatright, William L; Shah Jahan, M

    2010-09-01

    Application of deuterium sulfide to powdered isolated soy proteins (ISP) was used to quench stable free radicals and produce a single deuterium label on amino acids where free radicals reside. The deuterium labels rendered increases of isotope ratio for the specific ions of radical-bearing amino acids. Isotope ratio measurements were achieved by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analyses after the amino acids were released by acidic hydrolysis and converted to volatile derivatives with propyl chloroformate. The isotope enrichment data showed the stable free radicals were located on Ala, Gly, Leu, Ile, Asx (Asp+Asn), Glx (Glu+Gln), and Trp but not on Val, Pro, Met, Phe, Lys, and His. Due to the low abundance of Ser, Thr, and Cys derivatives and the impossibility to accurately measure their isotope ratios, the radical bearing status for these amino acids remained undetermined even though their derivatives were positively identified from ISP hydrolysates. The relative isotope enrichment for radical-bearing amino acids Ala, Gly, Leu, Ile, Asx (Asp+Asn), Glx (Glu+Gln), and Trp were 8.67%, 2.96%, 2.90%, 3.94%, 6.03%, 3.91%, and 21.48%, respectively. Isotope ratio increase for Tyr was also observed but further investigation revealed such increase was mainly from nonspecific deuterium-hydrogen exchange not free radical quenching. The results obtained from the present study provide important information for a better understanding of the mechanisms of free radical formation and stabilization in "dry" ISP. PMID:21535530

  16. Acid Ocean

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The I2I-Acid Ocean virtual lab is an e-learning activity where students become virtual scientists studying the impact of ocean acidification on sea urchin larval growth. Students recreate a real, up-to-date climate change experiment. They also learn important general scientific principles, such as the importance of sample size and numbers of replicates, and discuss what this research into a specific impact of climate change may mean for the future of our oceans. There is a French translation available.

  17. Lefetamine-derived designer drugs N-ethyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine (NEDPA) and N-iso-propyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine (NPDPA): metabolism and detectability in rat urine using GC-MS, LC-MSn and LC-HR-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Wink, Carina S D; Meyer, Golo M J; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Jacobsen-Bauer, Andrea; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2014-10-01

    N-Ethyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine (NEDPA) and N-iso-propyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine (NPDPA) are two designer drugs, which were confiscated in Germany in 2008. Lefetamine (N,N-dimethyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine, also named L-SPA), the pharmaceutical lead of these designer drugs, is a controlled substance in many countries. The aim of the present work was to study the phase I and phase II metabolism of these drugs in rats and to check for their detectability in urine using the authors' standard urine screening approaches (SUSA). For the elucidation of the metabolism, rat urine samples were worked up with and without enzymatic cleavage, separated and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-high resolution-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS/MS). According to the identified metabolites, the following metabolic pathways for NEDPA and NPDPA could be proposed: N-dealkylation, mono- and bis-hydroxylation of the benzyl ring followed by methylation of one of the two hydroxy groups, combinations of these steps, hydroxylation of the phenyl ring after N-dealkylation, glucuronidation and sulfation of all hydroxylated metabolites. Application of a 0.3 mg/kg BW dose of NEDPA or NPDPA, corresponding to a common lefetamine single dose, could be monitored in rat urine using the authors' GC-MS and LC-MS(n) SUSA. However, only the metabolites could be detected, namely N-deethyl-NEDPA, N-deethyl-hydroxy-NEDPA, hydroxy-NEDPA, and hydroxy-methoxy-NEDPA or N-de-iso-propyl-NPDPA, N-de-iso-propyl-hydroxy-NPDPA, and hydroxy-NPDPA. Assuming similar kinetics, an intake of these drugs should also be detectable in human urine. PMID:24591097

  18. Brnsted Acids The Strongest Isolable Acid**

    E-print Network

    Reed, Christopher A.

    Brønsted Acids The Strongest Isolable Acid** Mark Juhasz, Stephan Hoffmann, Evgenii Stoyanov, Kee-Chan Kim, and Christopher A. Reed* Acids based on carborane anions as conjugate bases (Figure 1) are a new class of Brønsted (protic) acids, notable for their "strong yet gentle" qualities.[1] For example

  19. Mimicking the hierarchical functions of dentin collagen cross-links with plant derived phenols and phenolic acids.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Cristina M P; Leme, Ariene A; Aguiar, Thaiane R; Phansalkar, Rasika; Nam, Joo-Won; Bisson, Jonathan; McAlpine, James B; Chen, Shao-Nong; Pauli, Guido F; Bedran-Russo, Ana

    2014-12-16

    Proanthocyanidins (PACs) are secondary plant metabolites that mediate nonenzymatic collagen cross-linking and enhance the properties of collagen based tissue, such as dentin. The extent and nature of cross-linking is influenced by the composition and specific chemical structure of the bioactive compounds present in certain PAC-rich extracts. This study investigated the effect of the molecular weight and stereochemistry of polyphenol compounds on two important properties of dentin, biomechanics, and biostability. For that, purified phenols, a phenolic acid, and some of its derivatives were selected: PAC dimers (A1, A2, B1, and B2) and a trimer (C1), gallic acid (Ga), its esters methyl-gallate (MGa) and propyl-gallate (PGa), and a pentagalloyl ester of glucose (PGG). Synergism was assessed by combining the most active PAC and gallic acid derivative. Mechanical properties of dentin organic matrix were determined by the modulus of elasticity obtained in a flexural test. Biostability was evaluated by the resistance to collagenase degradation. PACs significantly enhanced dentin mechanical properties and decreased collagen digestion. Among the gallic acid derivatives, only PGG had a significant enhancing effect. The lack of observed C1:PGG synergy indicates that both compounds have similar mechanisms of interaction with the dentin matrix. These findings reveal that the molecular weight of polyphenols have a determinant effect on their interaction with type I collagen and modulates the mechanism of cross-linking at the molecular, intermolecular, and inter-microfibrillar levels. PMID:25379878

  20. Microbiological and nutritional aspects of pendulous crop in turkey poults

    E-print Network

    Wheeler, Harry Ogden

    1959-01-01

    * Folic acid 2.00 mg. Para-aminobenzoic acid 2Q.OO mg. Inositol 1*00 mg. Biotin 0.20 mg* Methionine 1350 gra. Glycine 4*00 gnu Aureamycin (crystalline) 50,00 mg. BBT (25#) (Butylated hydroxtoluene) 500*00 mg. Menadione sodium bisulfite 5.00 mg... Table 6 UGREDIEHT PER LITER CSP MEDIUM Biotin 2.00 meg* Calcium pantothenate 400.00 meg. Folic acid 2.00 meg. Inositol 2000.00 meg. Niacin 400.00 meg* p-Aminobenzoic acid 200.00 meg. Pyridoxine hydrochloride 400*00 meg* Riboflavin 200.00 meg...

  1. Alkyl esters of hydroxycinnamic acids with improved antioxidant activity and lipophilicity protect PC12 cells against oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Jorge; Gaspar, Alexandra; Garrido, E Manuela; Miri, Ramin; Tavakkoli, Marjan; Pourali, Samaneh; Saso, Luciano; Borges, Fernanda; Firuzi, Omidreza

    2012-04-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) are phenolic compounds present in dietary plants, which possess considerable antioxidant activity. In order to increase the lipophilicity of HCAs, with the aim of improving their cellular absorption and expansion of their use in lipophilic media, methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl esters of caffeic acid and ferulic acid have been synthesized. All caffeate esters had a slightly lower DPPH IC(50) (13.5-14.5 ?M) and higher ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values (1490-1588 mM quercetin/mole [mMQ/mole]) compared to caffeic acid (16.6 ?M and 1398 mMQ/mole, respectively) in antioxidant assays. In contrast, ferulate esters were less active in DPPH (56.3-74.7 ?M) and FRAP assays (193-262 mMQ/mole) compared to ferulic acid (44.6 ?M and 324 mMQ/mole, respectively). Redox properties of HCAs were in line with their antioxidant capacities, so that compounds with higher antioxidant activities had lower oxidation potentials. Measurement of partition coefficients disclosed the higher lipophilicity of the esters compared to parent compounds. All esters of caffeic acid significantly inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced neuronal PC12 cell death assessed by MTT assay at 5 and 25 ?M. However, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and ferulate esters were not able to protect the cells. In conclusion, these findings suggest that alkyl esterification of some HCAs augments their antioxidant properties as well as their lipophilicity and as a consequence, improves their cell protective activity against oxidative stress. These compounds could have useful applications in conditions where oxidative stress plays a pathogenic role. PMID:22210493

  2. Acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, R.H.; Boyle, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Acid rain, says Boyle is a chemical leprosy eating into the face of North America and Europe, perhaps the major ecological problem of our time. Boyle describes the causes and scope of the phenomenon; the effects on man, wildlife, water, and our cultural heritage. He probes the delays of politicians and the frequent self-serving arguments advanced by industry in the face of what scientists have proved. The solutions he offers are to strengthen the Clean Air Act and require emission reductions that can be accomplished by establishing emission standards on a regional or bubble basis, burn low-sulfur coal, install scrubbers at critical plants, and invest in alternative energy sources. 73 references, 1 figure.

  3. 21 CFR 582.3660 - Propyl gallate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...gallate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as safe for use in food when the total content of antioxidants is not over 0.02 percent of fat or oil content, including essential (volatile) oil content of the food, provided the...

  4. 21 CFR 582.3660 - Propyl gallate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...gallate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as safe for use in food when the total content of antioxidants is not over 0.02 percent of fat or oil content, including essential (volatile) oil content of the food, provided the...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1660 - Propyl gallate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...locations.html. (c) The ingredient is used as an antioxidant as defined in § 170.3(o)(3) of this chapter. ...manufacturing practice results in a maximum total content of antioxidants of 0.02 percent of the fat or oil content, including...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1660 - Propyl gallate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...locations.html. (c) The ingredient is used as an antioxidant as defined in § 170.3(o)(3) of this chapter. ...manufacturing practice results in a maximum total content of antioxidants of 0.02 percent of the fat or oil content, including...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1660 - Propyl gallate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...locations.html. (c) The ingredient is used as an antioxidant as defined in § 170.3(o)(3) of this chapter. ...manufacturing practice results in a maximum total content of antioxidants of 0.02 percent of the fat or oil content, including...

  8. 21 CFR 582.3660 - Propyl gallate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...gallate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as safe for use in food when the total content of antioxidants is not over 0.02 percent of fat or oil content, including essential (volatile) oil content of the food, provided the...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1660 - Propyl gallate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...locations.html. (c) The ingredient is used as an antioxidant as defined in § 170.3(o)(3) of this chapter. ...manufacturing practice results in a maximum total content of antioxidants of 0.02 percent of the fat or oil content, including...

  10. 21 CFR 582.3660 - Propyl gallate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...gallate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as safe for use in food when the total content of antioxidants is not over 0.02 percent of fat or oil content, including essential (volatile) oil content of the food, provided the...

  11. 21 CFR 582.3660 - Propyl gallate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...gallate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized as safe for use in food when the total content of antioxidants is not over 0.02 percent of fat or oil content, including essential (volatile) oil content of the food, provided the...

  12. Chiral separation of FITC-labeled amino acids with gel electrochromatography using a polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hu-Lie; Li, Haifang; Wang, Xu; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2007-01-01

    A chiral separation model of gel electrochromatography in a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic device for amino acids (AAs) is presented. Six pairs of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labeled dansyl amino acids (Dns-AAs) were separated in a 36-mm effectual separation channel in less than 120 sec, with resolutions all above 0.96. This highly efficient PDMS chiral microfluidic chip was prepared by inserting the mixture solution of monomers, crosslinkers, and radical initiation into the microchannel via syringe. Specifically, allyl-gamma-cyclodextrin (CD) as a chiral selector and crosslinker was bonded in gamma-CD-bonded polyacrylamide (PAA) gel, which was the separation media, and was immobilized in a PDMS microchannel through the stable linkage of 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyl methacrylate (Bind-Silane, Sigma, St. Louis, MO, U.S.A.). The preparation not only permitted the prompt chiral separation of AAs, but also extended application of the PDMS microfluidic device by restraining its hydrophobicity through the PAA gel monolithic column. Furthermore, the longevity of the PDMS microfluidic device was prolonged significantly. This can also be a powerful way to develop a rapid and efficient bioanalysis method and portable analytical apparatus. PMID:17685238

  13. Facile synthesis of magnetic poly(styrene-co-4-vinylbenzene-boronic acid) microspheres for selective enrichment of glycopeptides.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mengyi; Zhang, Xiangmin; Deng, Chunhui

    2015-07-01

    In this work, the composites of magnetic Fe3 O4 @SiO2 @poly (styrene-co-4-vinylbenzene-boronic acid) microspheres with well-defined core-shell-shell structure were facilely synthesized and applied to selectively enrich glycopeptides. Due to the relatively large amount of vinyl groups introduced by 3-methacryloxy-propyl-trimethoxysilane on the core-shell surface, the poly(styrene-co-4-vinylbenzeneboronic acid) (PSV) was coated with high efficiency, resulting in a large amount of boronic acid on the outermost polymer shell of the Fe3 O4 @SiO2 @PSV microspheres, which is of great importance to improve the enrichment efficiency for glycopeptides. The obtained Fe3 O4 @SiO2 @PSV microspheres were successfully applied to the enrichment of glycopeptides with strong specificity and high selectivity, evaluated by capturing glycopeptides from tryptic digestion of model glycoprotein HRP diluted to 0.05 ng/?L (1.25 × 10(-13) mol, 100 ?L), tryptic digest of HRP and nonglycosylated BSA up to the ratio of 1:120 w/w and the real complex sample human serum with 103 unique N-glycosylation peptides of 46 different glycoproteins enriched. PMID:25689582

  14. Synthesis of highly phosphonic acid functionalized benzene-bridged periodic mesoporous organosilicas for use as efficient dye adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Deka, Juti Rani; Liu, Chia-Ling; Wang, Tzu-Hua; Chang, Wei-Chieh; Kao, Hsien-Ming

    2014-08-15

    Periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMOs) with benzene bridging groups in the silica wall were functionalized with a tunable content of phosphonic acid groups. These bifunctional materials were synthesized by co-condensation of two different organosilane precursors, that is, 1,4-bis(triethoxysilyl)benzene (BTEB) and sodium 3-(trihydroxysilyl)propyl methyl phosphate (SPMP), under acidic conditions using nonionic surfactant Brij-S10 as template. The materials exhibited well-ordered mesostructures and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen sorption, TEM, TGA, FTIR, and solid-state NMR measurements. The materials thus obtained were employed as adsorbents to remove different types of dyes, for example, cationic dyes methylene blue and phenosafranine, anionic orange II, and amphoteric rhodamine B, from aqueous solutions. The materials exhibited a remarkably high adsorption capacity than activated carbon due to their ordered mesostructures, a large number of phosphonic acid groups, and high surface areas. The adsorption was mainly governed by electrostatic interaction, but also involved ?-? stacking interaction as well as hydrogen bonding. The adsorption kinetics can be better fitted by the pseudo-second order model. The adsorption process was controlled by the mechanisms of external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion. The materials retained more than 97% dye removal efficiency after use for five consecutive cycles. PMID:25010459

  15. Boronic acid-functionalized core-shell-shell magnetic composite microspheres for the selective enrichment of glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Pan, Miaorong; Sun, Yangfei; Zheng, Jin; Yang, Wuli

    2013-09-11

    In this work, core-shell-shell-structured boronic acid-functionalized magnetic composite microspheres Fe3O4@SiO2@poly (methyl methacrylate-co-4-vinylphenylbornoic acid) (Fe3O4@SiO2@P(MMA-co-VPBA)) with a uniform size and fine morphology were synthesized. Here, Fe3O4 magnetic particles were prepared by a solvothermal reaction, whereas the Fe3O4@SiO2 microspheres with a core-shell structure were obtained by a sol-gel process. 3-(Trimethoxysilyl) propyl methacrylate (MPS)-modified Fe3O4@SiO2 was used as the seed in the emulsion polymerization of MMA and VPBA to form the core-shell-shell-structured magnetic composite microspheres. As the boronic acid groups on the surface of Fe3O4@SiO2@P(MMA-co-VPBA) could form tight yet reversible covalent bonds with the cis-1,2-diols groups of glycoproteins, the magnetic composite microspheres were applied to enrich a standard glycoprotein, horseradish peroxidase (HRP), and the results demonstrated that the composite microspheres have a higher affinity for the glycoproteins in the presence of the nonglycoprotein bovine serum albumin (BSA) over HRP. Additionally, different monomer mole ratios of MMA/VPBA were studied, and the results implied that using MMA as the major monomer could reduce the amount of VPBA with a similar glycoprotein enrichment efficiency but a lower cost. PMID:23924282

  16. Formic Acid Mechanical,

    E-print Network

    Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

    Formic Acid Fire Ant Starch Mechanical, Industrial Chemical, Petroleum Biological What Do and engineering. Products will range from starch, to polylactic acid, to corn fiber, to motor fuels. Progressive systems. Fire ants make formic acid. U of I researchers are developing fuel cells that use formic acid (1

  17. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid

  18. Acids and Bases (Netorials)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Acids and Bases: this is a resource in the collection "Netorials". In this module there is an introduction to the chemical properties of acids and bases. Afterwards, the sections include topics such as Molecular Structures of Acids and Bases, Ionization constants, properties of salts, buffers and Lewis theory of Acids and Bases. The Netorials cover selected topics in first-year chemistry including: Chemical Reactions, Stoichiometry, Thermodynamics, Intermolecular Forces, Acids & Bases, Biomolecules, and Electrochemistry.

  19. Photostabilization of doxorubicin hydrochloride with radioprotective and photoprotective agents: Potential mechanism for enhancing chemotherapy during radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Habib, M.J.; Asker, A.F.

    1989-11-01

    p-Aminobenzoic acid (PABA), urocanic acid, and sodium urate were found to significantly enhance the photostability of doxorubicin hydrochloride (adriamycin, (ADR)). d1-Methionine, thiourea, and glycine also increased the photostability of this drug, but to a lesser degree. Sodium thiosulfate on the other hand, was found to be detrimental to the photostability of ADR. The photostabilizing effect of PABA was found to increase with increase of its concentration and was influenced by the pH and the buffer species of the vehicle. The findings would have an impact on the enhancement of therapeutic efficacy of adriamycin when administered during radiation therapy.

  20. Reversed-phase ion-pair HPLC determination of some water-soluble vitamins in pharmaceuticals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Ivanovi?; A Popovi?; D Radulovi?; M Medenica

    1999-01-01

    A reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatografic method (RP-IPC) was developed to assay some water-soluble vitamins in solution dosage forms. Vitamins of the B-group B1, B2, B3, and B6, including vitamin C were determined in Oligovit® coated tablets. In Beviplex® coated tablets the vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6 and p-aminobenzoic acid were analysed. Hexanesulphonic acid sodium salt and triethanolamine in water–methanol

  1. Cyclic fatty acids from linolenic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Eisenhauer; R. E. Beal; E. L. Griffin

    1964-01-01

    Linolenic acid of 95% purity was heated with excess alkali in ethylene glycol to produce cyclic fatty acids. Reaction variables,\\u000a which are associated with the cyclization reaction and which were investigated, included solvent-to-fatty-acid ratio, catalyst\\u000a concentration, and reaction temperature, headspace gas (N2 or C2H4), and head-space gas pressure.\\u000a \\u000a Yields of cyclic acids were improved by increasing solvent ratio (1.5–6 wt

  2. Acid Thunder: Acid Rain and Ancient Mesoamerica

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.; Berg, Craig A.

    2006-01-01

    Much of Mesoamerica's rich cultural heritage is slowly eroding because of acid rain. Just as water dissolves an Alka-Seltzer tablet, acid rain erodes the limestone surfaces of Mexican archaeological sites at a rate of about one-half millimeter per century (Bravo et al. 2003). A half-millimeter may not seem like much, but at this pace, a few…

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of novel [alpha]-heteroaryl-phenylpropanoic acid derivatives as PPAR[alpha/gamma] dual agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Casimiro-Garcia, Agustin; Bigge, Christopher F.; Davis, Jo Ann; Padalino, Teresa; Pulaski, James; Ohren, Jeffrey F.; McConnell, Patrick; Kane, Christopher D.; Royer, Lori J.; Stevens, Kimberly A.; Auerbach, Bruce; Collard, Wendy; McGregor, Christine; Song, Kun; Pfizer

    2010-09-27

    The synthesis of a new series of phenylpropanoic acid derivatives incorporating an heteroaryl group at the {alpha}-position and their evaluation for binding and activation of PPAR{alpha} and PPAR{gamma} are presented in this report. Among the new compounds, (S)-3-{l_brace}4-[3-(5-methyl-2-phenyl-oxazol-4-yl)-propyl]-phenyl{r_brace}-2-1,2,3-triazol-2-yl-propionic acid (17j), was identified as a potent human PPAR{alpha}/{gamma} dual agonist (EC{sub 50} = 0.013 and 0.061 {micro}M, respectively) with demonstrated oral bioavailability in rat and dog. 17j was shown to decrease insulin levels, plasma glucose, and triglycerides in the ZDF female rat model. In the human apolipoprotein A-1/CETP transgenic mouse model 17j produced increases in hApoA1 and HDL-C and decreases in plasma triglycerides. The increased potency for binding and activation of both PPAR subtypes observed with 17j when compared to previous analogs in this series was explained based on results derived from crystallographic and modeling studies.

  4. Lactic acid test

    MedlinePLUS

    Lactate test ... test. Exercise can cause a temporary increase in lactic acid levels. ... not getting enough oxygen. Conditions that can increase lactic acid levels include: Heart failure Liver disease Lung disease ...

  5. Plasma amino acids

    MedlinePLUS

    Plasma amino acids is a screening test done on infants that looks at the amounts of amino ... Laboratory error High or low amounts of individual plasma amino acids must be considered with other information. ...

  6. Plant fatty acid hydroxylases

    DOEpatents

    Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

    2001-01-01

    This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

  7. Dendritic Cells Hyaluronic Acid

    E-print Network

    Schüler, Axel

    Keywords Dendritic Cells Hyaluronic Acid CD44 Human CD90 Melanoma » Prof. Dr. Jan C. Simon the role of HYALURONIC ACID (HA) and small fragments of HA during DC activation and the participating receptors on DC. (ii) Investigation of the extracellular glucosaminoglycan HYALURONIC ACID, its metabolism

  8. Neutralizing Acids and Bases

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-04-08

    Learners use their knowledge of color changes with red cabbage indicator to neutralize an acidic solution with a base and then neutralize a basic solution with an acid. Use this as a follow-up activity to the related activity, "Color Changes with Acids and Bases."

  9. [alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

    2010-01-01

    Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

  10. Anaerobic Amino Acid Metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Reggiani; A. Bertani

    2003-01-01

    Anoxic stress induces a strong change in sugar, protein, and amino acid metabolism in higher plants. Sugars are rapidly consumed through the anaerobic glycolysis to sustain energy production. Protein degradation under anoxia is a mechanism to release free amino acids contributing in this way to maintaining the osmotic potential of the tissue under stress. Among free amino acids, a particular

  11. The Acid Rain Reader.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  12. What Is Acid Rain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Likens, Gene E.

    2004-01-01

    Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

  13. Nucleic acid detection assays

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R.; Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Brow, Mary Ann; Dahlberg, James E.

    2005-04-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  14. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Waunakee, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow; Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2010-11-09

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  15. Nucleic acid detection compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James L. (Madison, WI)

    2008-08-05

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  16. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor L. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2007-12-11

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  17. Cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  18. Editorial: Acid precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1995-09-01

    This editorial focuses on acid rain and the history of public and governmental response to acid rain. Comments on a book by Gwineth Howell `Acid Rain and Acid Waters` are included. The editor feels that Howells has provide a service to the environmental scientific community, with a textbook useful to a range of people, as well as a call for decision makers to learn from the acid rain issue and use it as a model for more sweeping global environmental issues. A balance is needed among several parameters such as level of evidence, probability that the evidence will lead to a specific direction and the cost to the global community. 1 tab.

  19. Amino acid analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (inventors)

    1974-01-01

    The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

  20. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  1. The linoleic acid and trans fatty acids of margarines1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Beare-Rogers; L. M. Gray; R. Hollywood

    Fifty brands of margarine were analysed for cis-polyunsaturated acids by lipox- idase, for trans fatty acid by infrared spectroscopy, and for fatty acid composition by gas-liquid chromatography. High concentrations of trans fatty acids tended to be associated with low concentrations of hinoleic acid. Later analyses on eight of the brands, representing various proportions of linoleic to trans fatty acids, indicated

  2. 78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ...AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 [EPA-HQ-OPP-2013-0057; FRL-9381-2] Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION:...

  3. Demospongic Acids Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Kornprobst, Jean-Michel; Barnathan, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    The well-known fatty acids with a ?5,9 unsaturation system were designated for a long period as demospongic acids, taking into account that they originally occurred in marine Demospongia sponges. However, such acids have also been observed in various marine sources with a large range of chain-lengths (C16–C32) and from some terrestrial plants with short acyl chains (C18–C19). Finally, the ?5,9 fatty acids appear to be a particular type of non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids (NMA FAs). This article reviews the occurrence of these particular fatty acids in marine and terrestrial organisms and shows the biosynthetic connections between ?5,9 fatty acids and other NMI FAs. PMID:21116406

  4. Nucleic acid detection kits

    DOEpatents

    Hall, Jeff G.; Lyamichev, Victor I.; Mast, Andrea L.; Brow, Mary Ann; Kwiatkowski, Robert W.; Vavra, Stephanie H.

    2005-03-29

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof. The present invention further relates to methods and devices for the separation of nucleic acid molecules based on charge. The present invention also provides methods for the detection of non-target cleavage products via the formation of a complete and activated protein binding region. The invention further provides sensitive and specific methods for the detection of nucleic acid from various viruses in a sample.

  5. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  6. Synchronized GABAergic IPSPs recorded in the neocortex after blockade of synaptic transmission mediated by excitatory amino acids.

    PubMed

    Aram, J A; Michelson, H B; Wong, R K

    1991-05-01

    1. Intracellular and extracellular recordings were carried out in guinea pig neocortical slices to examine the effects of blockade of excitatory amino acid (EAA) synaptic transmission on population discharges elicited by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP; 50-100 microM). 2. After the introduction of 4-AP, two distinct types of rhythmic spontaneous field potentials were recorded in neocortical slices. Type I consisted of multiple spike discharges lasting 20-90 s. These events occurred at a frequency of 0.4-0.2/min. Type II were single field potential spikes (3-6 s in duration) occurring at a higher frequency (2-4/min). 3. Blockade of amino acid-mediated excitatory synaptic transmission with D-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (D-AP5; 10-30 microM) or 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-l-phosphonic acid (CPP, 10 microM) and 6-cyano-7nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX; 10 microM) abolished the first type of 4-AP-induced field potential, whereas type II events persisted. 4. Type II field events, occurring in the presence of EAA blockers, were further characterized by paired recordings. Events recorded along an axis orthogonal to the pia surface occurred simultaneously without measurable delay. Recordings made along a plane parallel to the pia surface showed that type II discharges propagated over distances of greater than or equal to 3 mm at an estimated velocity of 7.5 mm/s. 5. Intracellular recordings show that during type II field discharges all cells exhibited phasic depolarizations or hyperpolarizations, depending on the resting membrane potential. When resting potentials were more depolarized than -68 mV, events became mostly hyperpolarizing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1678421

  7. Behavioral effects of alpha-alkylated amino acid analogs in the C57BL/6J mouse.

    PubMed

    Sase, Ajinkya; Brückner, Hans; Höger, Harald; Pollak, Arnold; Lubec, Gert

    2013-09-01

    Although a series of amino acid analogs have been shown to modulate brain function, information on the pharmacology of alpha-alkylated amino acids (AAAA) is limited. In particular there is no information on the effect of these amino acid analogs (AAA) on the elevated plus maze, the tail suspension test and the forced swim test. It was therefore the aim of the study to test a series of AAAA in these paradigms in order to explore behavioral activities of this compound class. 10 male mice per group aged between 10 and 14 weeks were used. Vehicle-treated controls were used in addition to intraperitoneal injections of 1, 10 and 100mg/kg body weight of each, alpha-amino-isobutyic acid (AIB), isovaline (IVA), alpha-propyl-alanine (APA), alpha-butyl-alanine (ABA), alpha-pentyl-alanine (APnA), alpha-ethylphenylglycine (AEPG) and alpha-methyl-valine (AMV). The elevated plus maze (EPM), the tail suspension test (TST) and forced swim test (FST) were used for behavioral testing. There were dose-dependent results: all compounds increased time and pathlength in the open arm of the EPM at least at one dose administered. In the TST and in the FST only the 100mg dose was showing an effect. The results show pharmacological activity modifying the EPM in low doses suggesting the use in treatment of behavioral traits and symptoms represented by or linked to the EPM including anxiety-related behavior including depression. Compounds acting at higher doses may be used to induce behavioral changes and thus serve as neurobiological-neuropharmacological tools. PMID:23756141

  8. Prediction of Effective Acid Penetration and Acid Volume for Matrix Acidizing Treatments in Naturally Fractured Carbonates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiong Hongjie

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses a new method and a corresponding computer model developed to investigate matrix acidizing in naturally fractured carbonates. With this method, the effective acid penetration distance and acid volume needed for acid treatments in naturally fractured carbonates can be predicted. The new model simulates acid flowing in the natural fracture network and the acid\\/rock reaction. During the simulation,

  9. CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID OR EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID, BUT NOT ARACHIDONIC ACID,

    E-print Network

    Wurtman, Richard

    CHRONIC ADMINISTRATION OF DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID OR EICOSAPENTAENOIC ACID, BUT NOT ARACHIDONIC ACID circulating precursors: choline; a pyrimidine (e.g. uridine); and a poly- unsaturated fatty acid, with UMP plus the omega-3 fatty acid docosa- hexaenoic acid (given by gavage), produces substantial in

  10. Enantioselective fluorescence sensing of amino acids by modified cyclodextrins: role of the cavity and sensing mechanism.

    PubMed

    Pagliari, Sara; Corradini, Roberto; Galaverna, Gianni; Sforza, Stefano; Dossena, Arnaldo; Montalti, Marco; Prodi, Luca; Zaccheroni, Nelsi; Marchelli, Rosangela

    2004-06-01

    Two selectors based on modified cyclodextrins containing a metal binding site and a dansyl fluorophore-6-deoxy-6-N-(N(alpha)-[(5-dimethylamino-1-naphthalenesulfonyl)aminoethyl]phenylalanylamino-beta-cyclodextrin-containing D-Phe (3) and L-Phe (4) moieties were synthesized. The conformations of the two selectors were studied by circular dichroism, two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. Cyclodextrin 4 was found to have a predominant conformation in which the dansyl group is self-included in the cyclodextrin cavity, while 3 showed a larger proportion of the conformation with the dansyl group outside the cavity. As a consequence, the two cyclodextrins were found to bind copper(II) with different affinities, as revealed by fluorescence quenching in competitive binding measurements. Addition of D- or L-amino acids induced increases in fluorescence intensity, which were dependent on the amino acid used and in some cases on its absolute configuration. The cyclodextrin 4 was found to be more enantioselective than 3, suggesting that the self-inclusion in the cyclodextrin cavity strongly increases the chiral discrimination ability of the copper(II) complex. Accordingly, a linear fluorescent ligand N(alpha)-[(5-dimethylamino-1-naphthalenesulfonyl)aminoethyl]-N(1)-propyl-phenylalaninamide, which has the same binding site and absolute configuration as 4, showed very low chiral discrimination ability. The enantioselectivity in fluorescence response was found to be due to the formation of diastereomeric ternary complexes, which were detected by ESI-MS and by circular dichroism. Time-resolved fluorescence studies showed that the fluorescence of the dansyl group was completely quenched in the ternary complexes formed, and that the residual fluorescence was due to uncomplexed ligand. PMID:15195306

  11. Acid Rain Learning Activities

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    These suggestions for activities allow students to learn about acid deposition in new and interactive ways, both in and out of the classroom. The suggestions are for individuals and small groups, the class as a whole, or for field trips. Students may contact local experts about acid rain issues, investigate the energy sources used to generate electricity by their local power companies, collect cartoons about acid rain and air pollution, or play the roles of scientists or interested parties involved in investigations of acid rain issues. Field trip ideas include visiting a local museum or science center to see exhibits or resources on acid rain, and visiting a local cemetary to examine the effects of acid rain on the headstones.

  12. Kidney amino acid transport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    François Verrey; Dustin Singer; Tamara Ramadan; Raphael N. Vuille-dit-Bille; Luca Mariotta; Simone M. R. Camargo

    2009-01-01

    Near complete reabsorption of filtered amino acids is a main specialized transport function of the kidney proximal tubule.\\u000a This evolutionary conserved task is carried out by a subset of luminal and basolateral transporters that together form the\\u000a transcellular amino acid transport machinery similar to that of small intestine. A number of other amino acid transporters\\u000a expressed in the basolateral membrane

  13. Bile Acid Metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Y. L. Chiang

    \\u000a Bile acids are physiological agents that facilitate biliary secretion of lipids and metabolites, and intestinal absorption\\u000a of fat and nutrients. Bile acids are also signaling molecules that activate nuclear receptors and cell signaling pathways\\u000a to regulate hepatic lipid metabolism and homeostasis. Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver, stored in\\u000a the gallbladder, secreted to the intestine and reabsorbed

  14. Acid rain on Bermuda

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Timothy Jickells; Anthony Knap; Thomas Church; James Galloway; John Miller

    1982-01-01

    Increased acidity of precipitation due to combustion of fossil fuels has been well documented for both the eastern USA1 and Canada2. The SO2 and NOxemitted by the burning of coal, natural gas, fuel oil and petrol are oxidized in the atmosphere to sulphuric and nitric acids which subsequently give rise to acid precipitation1. However, the SO2 and NOx emitted, and

  15. Lactic Acid Bacteria

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This on-line exercise is focused on lactic acid bacteria, a group of related bacteria that produce lactic acid as a result of carbohydrate fermentation. It includes a protocol for the enrichment of lactic acid bacteria from enriched samples (like yogurt, sauerkraut, decaying plant matter, and tooth plaque). Three parameters are measured: growth, culture diversity, and pH. The exercise also includes instructions for the isolation of some of these bacteria by using the streak-plate method.

  16. Molecular Structure of Fumaric acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-11-05

    Fumaric acid is odorless and colorless or white crystalline powder with a fruit acid taste. Fumaric acid is used as a substitute of tartaric acid in beverages and baking powders and as a replacement for citric acid in fruits drinks. It is also used as antioxidant to prevent rancidity in butter, cheese, powdered milk, and other foodstuff. In addition, fumaric acid is a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, synthetic resins and plastics. Fumaric acid can be prepared by catalytic oxidation of benzene or by bacterial action on glucose and it is involved in the production of energy from food. Fumaric acid (known as trans-butanedioic acid) is the trans isomer of maleic acid (also called cis-butanedioic acid). Fumaric acid is more stable than maleic acid and can be prepared by heating maleic acid.

  17. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W. (Golden, CO); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  18. Recovery of organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Verser, Dan W. (Menlo Park, CA); Eggeman, Timothy J. (Lakewood, CO)

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  19. Idiopathic bile acid catharsis.

    PubMed Central

    Thaysen, E H; Pedersen, L

    1976-01-01

    In the course of extensive routine screening for bile acid malabsorption a few patients were detected in whom chronic diarrhoea was apparently induced by excess bile acid loss which was neither associated with demonstrable conventional ileopathy nor with any other disorder allied to diarrhoea. In three patients subjected to scrutiny the results obtained were in harmony with a concept of idiopathic bile acid catharsis. Ingestion of cholestyramine was followed by immediate relief, but the diarrhoea recurred whenever this treatment was withdrawn. It it suggested that idiopathic bile acid catharsis should be suspected in patients with unexplained chronic diarrhoea and especially in those with a diagnosis of irritable colon with diarrhoea. PMID:1017717

  20. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  1. Acid Rain Students' Site

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The EPA developed this colorful website to teach students all about acid rain. First, through clear descriptions and helpful figures users can learn the characteristics of acid rain, its dangers, and how to control it. The website offers an interactive connect-the-dots, word searches, crossword puzzles, and other games. A short movie provides an overview of how the use of coal contributes to acid rain and acid rain's impacts on ecosystems and human health. The website also offers an introduction to the pH scale and tools to measure the pH.

  2. Silicic acid: boric acid complexes as wood preservatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haruhiko Yamaguchi

    2003-01-01

    Wood was treated with a low molecular-weight silicic acid: boric acid agent and examined for increased resistance to termites and combustion. Wood treated with silicic acid only exhibited increased termite resistance, but not to the marked extent observed after treatment with a mixture of silicic and boric acids. Increasing the quantity of boric acid also increased the termite mortality rate

  3. EXPOSURES TO ACIDIC AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ambient monitoring of acid aerosol in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. easurements made in Kingston, TN, and Stuebenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H+ ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/m3 more than 10 ti...

  4. Proteins and Amino Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins are the most abundant substances in living organisms and cells. All proteins are constructed from the same twenty amino acids that are linked together by covalent bonds. Shorter chains of two or more amino acids can be linked by covalent bonds to form polypeptides. There are twenty amino...

  5. Tautomerism of Penicillic Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. W. Munday

    1949-01-01

    THE existence of tautomeric forms of penicillic acid was first postulated by Birkinshaw, Oxford arid Raistrick1. Recent workers have tended to the view that the hypothesis of tautomerism was not needed to explain the chemical properties of penicillic acid2.

  6. Salicylic Acid Topical

    MedlinePLUS

    Propa pH® Peel-Off Acne Mask ... pimples and skin blemishes in people who have acne. Topical salicylic acid is also used to treat ... medications called keratolytic agents. Topical salicylic acid treats acne by reducing swelling and redness and unplugging blocked ...

  7. Strong Acids (GCMP)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Strong Acids: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". This problem will explore the properties of common strong acids. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

  8. Acids and Salts (GCMP)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Acids and Salts: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". This problem will explore a few properties of common acids and their salts. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

  9. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  10. Controlling acid rain

    E-print Network

    Fay, James A.

    1983-01-01

    High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn the northeastern USA are caused by the large scale combustion of fossil fuels within this region. Average precipitation acidity is pH 4.2, but spatial and temporal ...

  11. What Causes Acid Rain?

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The phenomenon is the formation of acid rain. The resource explains the chemical reaction that begins when compounds like sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides are released into the air, mix and react with water and other chemicals to form more acidic pollutants that dissolve very easily in water and can be carried long distances where they become part of rain, sleet, snow, and fog.

  12. EFFECTS OF ACID PRECIPITATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent reviews of available data indicate that precipitation in a large region of North America is highly acidic when its pH is compared with the expected pH value of 5.65 for pure rain water in equilibrium with CO2. A growing body of evidence suggests that acid rain is responsib...

  13. Characterization of acid tars.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Sunday A; Stegemann, Julia A; Roy, Amitava

    2010-03-15

    Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain. PMID:19857924

  14. Acid in water

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Laszlo Ilyes (None; )

    2007-05-16

    Plants and animals that live in water create some amount of acid in the water. The carbon dioxide that plants and animals release into the water makes the water acidic and unsafe for living organisms. This is why the water of captive aquatic animals and plants must be changed often.

  15. Analysis of Organic Acids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are the procedures and a discussion of the results for an experiment in which students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol. A table of selected carboxylic acids is included. (CW)

  16. Acid Rain Revisited

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sanders, Hilary C.

    2001-01-01

    The results of a long term study of the effects of acidic deposition in the Northeast were published in Bioscience this week, and they suggest that forests, lakes, and streams of the Northeastern US are not recovering from the toxic effects of acid rain despite significant cuts in the power plant emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide -- two major contributors to the problem. "Acid rain," more accurately called acidic deposition, causes toxic forms of aluminum to concentrate in soil and water, vital calcium and magnesium to be leached from trees, and surface waters to become inhospitable to aquatic biota. The study showed that, after 30 years of federally mandated air emission reductions, sulfur dioxide emissions have decreased while nitrogen oxide emissions have remained the same and that acidic deposition-related problems continue to plague New York and New England.

  17. Sialic Acid Utilization123

    PubMed Central

    Sprenger, Norbert; Duncan, Peter I.

    2012-01-01

    Early postnatal development encounters milk as a key environmental variable and yet the sole nutrient source. One evolutionary conserved constituent of milk is sialic acid, which is generally displayed on glycoconjugates and free glycans. During early postnatal development, high sialic acid need was proposed to be unmet by the endogenous sialic acid synthetic capacity. Hence, milk sialic acid was proposed to serve as a conditional nutrient for the newborn. In the elderly, at the other end of ontogeny, decreased sialylation in the brain, saliva, and immune system is observed. Analogous to the neonatal situation, the endogenous synthetic capacity may be unable to keep up with the need in this age group. The data discussed here propose a functional dietary role of sialic acid as a building block for sialylation and beyond. PMID:22585917

  18. Reduction of benzenoid synthesis in petunia flowers reveals multiple pathways to benzoic acid and enhancement in auxin transport.

    PubMed

    Orlova, Irina; Marshall-Colón, Amy; Schnepp, Jennifer; Wood, Barbara; Varbanova, Marina; Fridman, Eyal; Blakeslee, Joshua J; Peer, Wendy Ann; Murphy, Angus S; Rhodes, David; Pichersky, Eran; Dudareva, Natalia

    2006-12-01

    In plants, benzoic acid (BA) is believed to be synthesized from Phe through shortening of the propyl side chain by two carbons. It is hypothesized that this chain shortening occurs via either a beta-oxidative or non-beta-oxidative pathway. Previous in vivo isotope labeling and metabolic flux analysis of the benzenoid network in petunia (Petunia hybrida) flowers revealed that both pathways yield benzenoid compounds and that benzylbenzoate is an intermediate between L-Phe and BA. To test this hypothesis, we generated transgenic petunia plants in which the expression of BPBT, the gene encoding the enzyme that uses benzoyl-CoA and benzyl alcohol to make benzylbenzoate, was reduced or eliminated. Elimination of benzylbenzoate formation decreased the endogenous pool of BA and methylbenzoate emission but increased emission of benzyl alcohol and benzylaldehyde, confirming the contribution of benzylbenzoate to BA formation. Labeling experiments with 2H5-Phe revealed a dilution of isotopic abundance in most measured compounds in the dark, suggesting an alternative pathway from a precursor other than Phe, possibly phenylpyruvate. Suppression of BPBT activity also affected the overall morphology of petunia plants, resulting in larger flowers and leaves, thicker stems, and longer internodes, which was consistent with the increased auxin transport in transgenic plants. This suggests that BPBT is involved in metabolic processes in vegetative tissues as well. PMID:17194766

  19. Analysis of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid with a mixed-mode coating-based solid-phase microextraction fiber.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunyan; Wang, Jianping; Yang, Shaolei; Yan, Zhihong; Cai, Qingyun; Yao, Shouzhuo

    2013-09-30

    A novel mixed-mode coating-based solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber was prepared by chemical bonding dimethyloctadecyl [3-(trimethoxysilyl) propyl] ammonium chloride and 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-1-propanamine, the sol-gel precursors, on an anodized Ti wire, aiming to effectively adsorb perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA). The anodized Ti wire with uniform TiO2 nanotube arrays provides high mechanical strength and strong adhesion to the mixed-mode coating. The prepared fiber shows excellent organic solvent stability due to the covalent bonding between the coating and the fiber, and significantly higher extraction efficiency than the commercial fibers, 100 ?m polydimethylsiloxane and 85 ?m polyacrylate fiber, due to the synergistic extraction effects of the coating functional groups. Good linearity (R(2)=0.9994 for PFOS, R(2)=0.9992 for PFOA) was obtained with detection limits of 2.5 and 7.5 pg mL(-1) for PFOS and PFOA, respectively. Recoveries were in the range of 88%-102%. The proposed method was successfully applied in the analysis of PFOS and PFOA in a local river with the results of 0.05 and 0.06 ng mL(-1), respectively. PMID:23953434

  20. Biodiesel production by combined fatty acids separation and subsequently enzymatic esterification to improve the low temperature properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meng; Nie, Kaili; Cao, Hao; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei

    2014-12-01

    The poor low-temperature properties of biodiesel, which provokes easy crystallization at low temperature, can cause fuel line plugging and limits its blending amount with petro-diesel. This work aimed to study the production of biodiesel with a new process of improving the low temperature performance of biodiesel. Waste cooking oil was first hydrolyzed into fatty acids (FAs) by 60g immobilized lipase and 240g RO water in 15h. Then, urea complexation was used to divide the FAs into saturated and unsaturated components. The conditions for complexation were: FA-to-urea ratio 1:2 (w/w), methanol to FA ratio 5:1 (v/v), duration 2h. The saturated and unsaturated FAs were then converted to iso-propyl and methyl esters by lipase, respectively. Finally, the esters were mixed together. The CFPP of this mixture was decreased from 5°C to -3°C. Hydrolysis, urea complexation and enzymic catalyzed esterification processes are discussed in this paper. PMID:25441717

  1. Cytocompatibility and Mechanical Properties of Short Phosphate Glass Fibre Reinforced Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composites: Effect of Coupling Agent Mediated Interface

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Muhammad Sami; Ahmed, Ifty; Parsons, Andrew; Walker, Gavin; Scotchford, Colin

    2012-01-01

    In this study three chemical agents Amino-propyl-triethoxy-silane (APS), sorbitol ended PLA oligomer (SPLA) and Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) were identified to be used as coupling agents to react with the phosphate glass fibre (PGF) reinforcement and the polylactic acid (PLA) polymer matrix of the composite. Composites were prepared with short chopped strand fibres (l = 20 mm, ? = 20 µm) in a random arrangement within PLA matrix. Improved, initial composite flexural strength (~20 MPa) was observed for APS treated fibres, which was suggested to be due to enhanced bonding between the fibres and polymer matrix. Both APS and HDI treated fibres were suggested to be covalently linked with the PLA matrix. The hydrophobicity induced by these coupling agents (HDI, APS) helped to resist hydrolysis of the interface and thus retained their mechanical properties for an extended period of time as compared to non-treated control. Approximately 70% of initial strength and 65% of initial modulus was retained by HDI treated fibre composites in contrast to the control, where only ~50% of strength and modulus was retained after 28 days of immersion in PBS at 37 °C. All coupling agent treated and control composites demonstrated good cytocompatibility which was comparable to the tissue culture polystyrene (TCP) control, supporting the use of these materials as coupling agent’s within medical implant devices. PMID:24955744

  2. Carboxylic Acid Unknowns and Titration 90 CARBOXYLIC ACID UNKNOWN

    E-print Network

    Jasperse, Craig P.

    Carboxylic Acid Unknowns and Titration 90 CARBOXYLIC ACID UNKNOWN A. Solubility Tests: Water, Na the formula weight. #12;Carboxylic Acid Unknowns and Titration 91 Note: Do your titration once, and check

  3. CLA production from ricinoleic acid by lactic acid bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akinori Ando; Jun Ogawa; Shigenobu Kishino; Sakayu Shimizu

    2003-01-01

    The ability to produce CLA from ricinoleic acid is widely distributed in lactic acid bacteria. Washed cells of Lactobacillus plantarum JCM 1551 were selected as a potential catalyst for CLA production from ricinoleic acid. Cells cultivated in medium supplemented\\u000a with a mixture of ?-linolenic acid and linoleic acid showed enhanced CLA productivity. Under optimal reaction conditions,\\u000a with the free acid

  4. Antioxidant activity of caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ?lhami Gülçin

    2006-01-01

    Caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid) is among the major hydroxycinnamic acids present in wine; sinapic acid, which is a potent antioxidant. It has also been identified as one of the active antioxidant. In the present study, the antioxidant properties of the caffeic acid were evaluated by using different in vitro antioxidant assays such as 2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free

  5. ORGANOSULPHUR PHOSPHORUS ACID COMPOUNDS. PART 4. FLUOROBENZYLPHOSPHONO-SULPHONIC ACIDS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Montoneri; P. Savarino; G. Viscardi; M. C. Gallazzi

    1994-01-01

    Four new organosulphur phosphorus acid compounds have been obtained by sulphonation with liquid SO3: 2-fluorobenzylphosphonic and 4-fluorobenzylphosphonic acids gave 2-fluorobenzylphosphono-5-sulphonic and 4-fluorobenzylphosphono-3-sulphonic acids respectively, in nearly quantitative yields; 3-fluorobenzylphosphonic acid gave 3-fluorobenzylphosphono-6-sulphonic acid (85%) and 3-fluorobenzylphosphono-4-sulphonic acid (15%). Product structures are based on C magnetic resonance data. The entry of the SO3H group into the aromatic ring seems mainly ruled

  6. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman), first order hyperpolarizability, NBO analysis, HOMO and LUMO analysis of 1,7,8,9-tetrachloro-10,10-dimethoxy-4-[3-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)propyl]-4-azatricyclo[5.2.1.0(2,6)]dec-8-ene-3,5-dione by density functional methods.

    PubMed

    Renjith, R; Mary, Y Sheena; Panicker, C Yohannan; Varghese, Hema Tresa; Pakosi?ska-Parys, Magdalena; Van Alsenoy, C; Manojkumar, T K

    2014-04-24

    The optimized molecular structure, vibrational frequencies, corresponding vibrational assignments of 1,7,8,9-tetrachloro-10,10-dimethoxy-4-[3-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)propyl]-4-azatricyclo[5.2.1.0(2,6)]dec-8-ene-3,5-dione (TDPPAD) have been investigated experimentally and theoretically using Gaussian09 software package. Gauge-including atomic orbital (1)H NMR chemical shifts calculations were carried out and compared with experimental data. The HOMO and LUMO analysis is used to determine the charge transfer within the molecule. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. Molecular Electrostatic Potential was performed by the DFT method and the infrared and Raman intensities have also been reported. Mulliken's net charges have been calculated and compared with the atomic natural charges. Fist hyperpolarizability is calculated in order to find its role in non-liner optics. The calculated geometrical parameters (SDD) are in agreement with that of similar derivatives. PMID:24508888

  7. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman) investigations and quantum chemical calculations of 1,7,8,9-tetrachloro-10,10-dimethoxy-4-{3-[4-(3-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl]propyl}-4-azatricyclo[5.2.1.02,6]dec-8-ene-3,5-dione

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renjith, R.; Mary, Y. Sheena; Panicker, C. Yohannan; Varghese, Hema Tresa; Pakosi?ska-Parys, Magdalena; Van Alsenoy, C.; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A.

    2014-08-01

    The optimized molecular structure, vibrational frequencies, corresponding vibrational assignments of 1,7,8,9-tetrachloro-10,10-dimethoxy-4-{3-[4-(3-methoxyphenyl) piperazin-1-yl]propyl}-4-azatricyclo[5.2.1.02,6]dec-8-ene-3,5-dione have been investigated experimentally and theoretically using Gaussian09 software package. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. Gauge-including atomic orbital 1H NMR chemical shifts calculations were carried out and compared with experimental data. The HOMO and LUMO analysis is used to determine the charge transfer within the molecule. Molecular Electrostatic Potential was performed by the DFT method and the infrared and Raman intensities have also been reported. First hyperpolarizability is calculated in order to find its role in non-liner optics. The calculated geometrical parameters (SDD) are in agreement with that of similar derivatives. Mulliken’s net charges have been calculated and compared with the atomic natural charges.

  8. 2-substituted thiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acids as prodrugs of L-cysteine. Protection of mice against acetaminophen hepatotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Nagasawa, H.T.; Goon, D.J.; Muldoon, W.P.; Zera, R.T.

    1984-05-01

    A number of 2-alkyl- and 2-aryl-substituted thiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acids were evaluated for their protective effect against hepatotoxic deaths produced in mice by LD/sub 90/ doses of acetaminophen. 2(RS)-Methyl-, 2(RS)-n-propyl-, and 2(RS)-n- pentylthiazolidine -4(R)-carboxylic acids (compounds 1b,d,e, respectively) were nearly equipotent in their protective effect based on the number of surviving animals at 48 h as well as by histological criteria. 2(RS)-Ethyl-, 2(RS)-phenyl-, and 2(RS)-(4-pyridyl)thiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acids (compounds 1c,f,g) were less protective. The enantiomer of 1b, viz., 2(RS)- methylthiazolidine -4(S)-carboxylic acid (2b), was totally ineffective in this regard. Thiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acid (1a), but not its enantiomer, 2a, was a good substrate for a solubilized preparation of rat liver mitochondrial proline oxidase (K/sub m/ 1.1 x 10(-4) M; V/sub max/ . 5.4 mumol min-1 (mg of protein)-1). Compound 1b was not a substrate for proline oxidase but dissociated to L-cysteine in this system. At physiological pH and temperature, the hydrogens on the methyl group of 1b underwent deuterium exchange with solvent D/sub 2/O (k1 . 2.5 X 10(-5) s), suggesting that opening of the thiazolidine ring must have taken place. Indeed, 1b labeled with /sup 14/C in the 2 and methyl positions was rapidly metabolized by the rat to produce /sup 14/CO/sub 2/, 80% of the dose being excreted in this form in the expired air after 24 h. It is suggested that these 2-substituted thiazolidine-4(R)-carboxylic acids are prodrugs of L-cysteine that liberate this sulfhydryl amino acid in vivo by nonenzymatic ring opening, followed by solvolysis.

  9. WASTE ACID DETOXIFICATION AND RECLAMATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) project demonstrated the Waste Acid Detoxification and Reclamation (WADR) systems ability to recover waste electropolish acid solutions generated during the manufacturing of gun-tubes, and reuse the clean acid. ...

  10. Gluconic acid production.

    PubMed

    Anastassiadis, Savas; Morgunov, Igor G

    2007-01-01

    Gluconic acid, the oxidation product of glucose, is a mild neither caustic nor corrosive, non toxic and readily biodegradable organic acid of great interest for many applications. As a multifunctional carbonic acid belonging to the bulk chemicals and due to its physiological and chemical characteristics, gluconic acid itself, its salts (e.g. alkali metal salts, in especially sodium gluconate) and the gluconolactone form have found extensively versatile uses in the chemical, pharmaceutical, food, construction and other industries. Present review article presents the comprehensive information of patent bibliography for the production of gluconic acid and compares the advantages and disadvantages of known processes. Numerous manufacturing processes are described in the international bibliography and patent literature of the last 100 years for the production of gluconic acid from glucose, including chemical and electrochemical catalysis, enzymatic biocatalysis by free or immobilized enzymes in specialized enzyme bioreactors as well as discontinuous and continuous fermentation processes using free growing or immobilized cells of various microorganisms, including bacteria, yeast-like fungi and fungi. Alternatively, new superior fermentation processes have been developed and extensively described for the continuous and discontinuous production of gluconic acid by isolated strains of yeast-like mold Aureobasidium pullulans, offering numerous advantages over the traditional discontinuous fungi processes. PMID:19075839

  11. Trans Fatty Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Ellin

    1997-09-01

    Fats and their various fatty acid components seem to be a perennial concern of nutritionists and persons concerned with healthful diets. Advice on the consumption of saturated, polyunsaturated, monounsaturated, and total fat bombards us from magazines and newspapers. One of the newer players in this field is the group of trans fatty acids found predominantly in partially hydrogenated fats such as margarines and cooking fats. The controversy concerning dietary trans fatty acids was recently addressed in an American Heart Association (AHA) science advisory (1) and in a position paper from the American Society of Clinical Nutrition/American Institute of Nutrition (ASCN/AIN) (2). Both reports emphasize that the best preventive strategy for reducing risk for cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer is a reduction in total and saturated fats in the diet, but a reduction in the intake of trans fatty acids was also recommended. Although the actual health effects of trans fatty acids remain uncertain, experimental evidence indicates that consumption of trans fatty acids adversely affects serum lipid levels. Since elevated levels of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerols are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, it follows that intake of trans fatty acids should be minimized.

  12. Sulfuric Acid on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

    This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

    Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

    Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

  13. Molecular Structure of Gallic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-05-08

    Gallic acid is found in its free state and combined with the tannin molecule, from which it can be extracted by the hydrolysis of tannic acid with sulfuric acid. Since one molecule of gallic acid has a carboxylic acid group and hydroxyl groups, it can react with another molecule of gallic acid to form an ester, digallic acid. When heated above 200 degrees C, gallic acid loses carbon dioxide to form pyrogallol (1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene, C6H3(OH)3), which is used in the production of azo dyes, photographic developers, and in laboratories for absorbing oxygen.

  14. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    MedlinePLUS

    ... in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT; special blue light) to treat actinic keratoses (small crusty or scaly ... photosensitizing agents. When aminolevulinic acid is activated by light, it damages the cells of actinic keratosis lesions.

  15. Acid-Base Tutorial

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    MD Alan W. Grogono (Tulane University School of Medicine Dept. of Anesthesiology)

    2002-06-01

    Website for anyone wanting to become more familiar with the physiology of acid-base balance in clinical medicine. Several pages are interactive. Numerical results are accompanied by text interpretations to facilitate recognition and understanding.

  16. Fatty Acid Carcass Mapping 

    E-print Network

    Turk, Stacey N.

    2010-01-14

    We hypothesized that subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue would differ in monounsaturated (MUFA) and saturated fatty acid (SFA) composition among different depots throughout a beef carcass. To test this, 50 carcasses from a variety of breed types...

  17. Stomach acid test

    MedlinePLUS

    Gastric acid secretion test ... The test is done after a period of not eating so that fluid is all that remains in the ... the stomach through the esophagus (food pipe). To test the ability of the cells in the stomach ...

  18. Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid

    MedlinePLUS

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria, including infections of the ears, lungs, sinus, skin, ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Clavulanic acid is in a class of medications ...

  19. ACID RAIN CONTROL OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE) both develo...

  20. Difficult Decisions: Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John A.; Slesnick, Irwin L.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses some of the contributing factors and chemical reactions involved in the production of acid rain, its effects, and political issues pertaining to who should pay for the clean up. Supplies questions for consideration and discussion. (RT)

  1. Folic acid (image)

    MedlinePLUS

    ... show that an increase in the mother's dietary folic acid before conception and during the first month of pregnancy reduces the risk of having a child with a neural tube defect. The recommendation is that women of childbearing years ...

  2. Diversity of Oleic Acid, Ricinoleic Acid and Linoleic Acid Conversions Among Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsung Min Kuo; Lawrence K. Nakamura

    2004-01-01

    Sixteen Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains, including patent strain NRRL B-18602, three recent isolates from composted materials amended with ricinoleic acid, and 12 randomly selected from the holdings of the ARS Culture Collection, were examined for their fatty acid converting abilities. The study examined the bioconversion of oleic acid to 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD) and ricinoleic acid to 7,10,12-trihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (TOD). A new

  3. Folic Acid Recommendations Survey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Pinkham; K. Cobb

    1999-01-01

    This study was designed to determine the current practices of women's health care providers with regard to folic acid knowledge and recommendations. Two-hundred-twenty obstetrician\\/gynecologists and certified nurse-midwives participated by completing questionnaires.A gap between the belief that folic acid reduces the risk of neural tube defects [NTDs] and the lack of widespread supplementation recommendations was revealed. Results showed that only 45%

  4. Acid-base chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, C.W.; Blewit, H.L.

    1985-01-01

    The book is not a research compendium and there are no references to the literature. It is a teaching text covering the entire range of undergraduate subject matter dealing with acid-base chemistry (some of it remotely) as taught in inorganic, analytical, and organic chemistry courses. The excellent chapters VII through IX deal in detail with the quantitative aspects of aqueous acid-base equilibria (salt hydrolysis and buffer, titrations, polyprotic and amphoteric substances).

  5. Acid Rain Lesson Plan

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Five articulated lessons focus on air quality using classroom and field data collection activities. Case study in Great Smoky Mountains has broader application. Background and data for lessons on: the pH scale, understanding acid vs. base, collecting data, mapping relationship of weather events to acid rain. Links to NPS data on air quality, current values, atlas and reports, packaged datasets on ozone, meteorological conditions and other parameters. Also available: teacher resources; educator workshops.

  6. Biodegradation of polyhydroxyalkanoic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Jendrossek; A. Schirmer; H. G. Schlegel

    1996-01-01

    Stimulated by the commercial availability of bacteriologically produced polyesters such as poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyric acid], and encouraged by the discovery of new constituents of polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (PHA), a considerable\\u000a body of knowledge on the metabolism of PHA in microorganisms has accumulated. The objective of this essay is to give an overview\\u000a on the biodegradation of PHA. The following topics are discussed: (i)

  7. Thin-layer chromatography of gallic acid, methyl gallate, pyrogallol, phloroglucinol, catechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, catechin, epicatechin, cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and tannic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Om Prakash Sharma; Tej Krishan Bhat; Bhupinder Singh

    1998-01-01

    Six solvent systems of varying suitability are reported for the thin-layer chromatographic separation of simple phenolics and related compounds such as gallic acid, methyl gallate, pyrogallol, phloroglucinol, catechol, resorcinol, hydroquinone, catechin, epicatechin, cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and tannic acid. The solvent system chloroform-ethyl acetate-acetic acid (50:50:1) facilitated the separation of all the compounds except pyrogallol and ferulic acid;

  8. Managing bile acid diarrhoea

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Julian R. F.; Pattni, Sanjeev S.

    2010-01-01

    Bowel symptoms including diarrhoea can be produced when excess bile acids (BA) are present in the colon. This condition, known as bile acid or bile salt malabsorption, has been under recognized, as the best diagnostic method, the 75Se-homocholic acid taurine (SeHCAT) test, is not available in many countries and is not fully utilized in others. Reduced SeHCAT retention establishes that this is a complication of many other gastrointestinal diseases. Repeated studies show SeHCAT tests are abnormal in about 30% of patients otherwise diagnosed as diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome or functional diarrhoea, with an estimated population prevalence of around 1%. Recent work suggests that the condition previously called idiopathic bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is not in fact due to a defect in absorption, but results from an overproduction of BA because of defective feedback inhibition of hepatic bile acid synthesis, a function of the ileal hormone fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19). The approach to treatment currently depends on binding excess BA, to reduce their secretory actions, using colestyramine, colestipol and, most recently, colesevelam. Colesevelam has a number of potential advantages that merit further investigation in trials directed at patients with bile acid diarrhoea. PMID:21180614

  9. Portable nucleic acid thermocyclers.

    PubMed

    Almassian, David R; Cockrell, Lisa M; Nelson, William M

    2013-11-21

    A nucleic acid thermal cycler is considered to be portable if it is under ten pounds, easily carried by one individual, and battery powered. Nucleic acid amplification includes both polymerase chain reaction (e.g. PCR, RT-PCR) and isothermal amplification (e.g. RPA, HDA, LAMP, NASBA, RCA, ICAN, SMART, SDA). There are valuable applications for portable nucleic acid thermocyclers in fields that include clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, and veterinary testing. A system that is portable allows for the distributed detection of targets at the point of care and a reduction of the time from sample to answer. The designer of a portable nucleic acid thermocycler must carefully consider both thermal control and the detection of amplification. In addition to thermal control and detection, the designer may consider the integration of a sample preparation subsystem with the nucleic acid thermocycler. There are a variety of technologies that can achieve accurate thermal control and the detection of nucleic acid amplification. Important evaluation criteria for each technology include maturity, power requirements, cost, sensitivity, speed, and manufacturability. Ultimately the needs of a particular market will lead to user requirements that drive the decision between available technologies. PMID:24030680

  10. Original article Acid stress susceptibility and acid adaptation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Acid stress susceptibility and acid adaptation of Propionibacterium freudenreichii as their use in cheese tech- nology implies exposure to various environmental stresses, including acidic pH. The acid tolerance response (ATR) of Propionibacterium freudenreichii was investigated. One strain present

  11. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  12. What is Acid Rain? Explore the Acid Lake

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Earth Day Canada

    2010-01-01

    Acid rain is a type of air pollution that occurs when certain chemicals mix with water in the air. Most chemicals that cause acid rain come from the emissions from factories and cars. Acid rain looks just like 'normal' rain but when it falls, it can hurt plants and animals. For example, when acid rain falls into a lake or river, it makes that body of water more acidic. Many plants and animals cannot live in acidic water. Play this game, from Earth Day Canada's EcoKids program, to learn more about acid rain and its impact on the environment.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of some ricinoleic acid oleic acid derivatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur F. Novak; Gladys C. Clark; Harold P. Dupuy

    1961-01-01

    Ricinoleic and acid oleic acid derivatives were screened for their antimicrobial activity, under optimum growing-conditions,\\u000a against several species of bacteria, yeasts, and molds. Several ricinoleic acid derivatives and petroselinic (iso-oleic) acid\\u000a exhibited considerable activity; in fact, their activity against some micro-organisms was comparable to sorbic and 10-undecenoic\\u000a acid, known antimicrobial agents, as indicated by this test.

  14. In vitro induction of micronuclei by monofunctional methanesulphonic acid esters: possible role of alkylation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Eder, Erwin; Kütt, Wolfgang; Deininger, Christoph

    2006-12-01

    Six monofunctional alkylating methanesulphonates of widely varying structures were investigated in the in vitro micronucleus assay with Syrian hamster embryo fibroblast cells. The results were compared with the alkylating activities measured in the 4-(nitrobenzyl)pyridine test (NBP-test) and the N-methyl mercaptoimidazole (MMI-test) as measures for S(N)2 reactivity as well as in the triflouoroacetic acid (TFA) solvolysis and the hydrolysis reaction as measures for S(N)1 reactivity in order to provide insights into the role of alkylation mechanisms on induction of micronuclei. Moreover we compared the results of micronucleus assay with those of the Ames tests in strain TA 100 and TA1535 and with those of the SOS chromotest with the strains PQ37, PQ243, PM21 and GC 4798. The potency of methanesulphonates to induce micronuclei depended only to a certain degree, on the total alkylating activity (S(N)1 and S(N)2 reactivity). An inverse, significant correlation between the Ames test and the micronucleus assay was observed and an inverse correlation between the micronucleus assay and the SOS chromotest with the different strains. The results indicate that the primary mechanism leading to induction of micronuclei is not O-alkylation in DNA as it is the case in the Ames test with the hisG46 strains TA1535 and TA100 and not N-alkylation as with the SOS chromotest. There is evidence that protein alkylation, e.g. in the spindle apparatus in mitosis is decisive for induction of micronuclei by alkylating compounds. The structurally voluminous methanesulphonates 2-phenyl ethyl methanesulphonate and 1-phenyl-2-propyl methanesulphonate show a clear higher micronuclei inducing potency than the other tested though the bulky methanesulphonates possess a lower total alkylating activity than the others. This effect can be explained by a higher disturbance during mitosis after alkylation of the spindle apparatus with the structurally more bulky methanesulphonates. PMID:17011536

  15. Composition for nucleic acid sequencing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonas Korlach; Watt W. Webb; Michael Levene; Stephen Turner; Harold G. Craighead; Mathieu Foquet

    2008-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of sequencing a target nucleic acid molecule having a plurality of bases. In its principle, the temporal order of base additions during the polymerization reaction is measured on a molecule of nucleic acid, i.e. the activity of a nucleic acid polymerizing enzyme on the template nucleic acid molecule to be sequenced is

  16. Ursodeoxycholic acid, 7-ketolithocholic acid, and chenodeoxycholic acid are primary bile acids of the nutria (Myocastor coypus).

    PubMed

    Tint, G S; Bullock, J; Batta, A K; Shefer, S; Salen, G

    1986-03-01

    Because ursodeoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids are interconverted in humans via 7-ketolithocholic acid, bile acid metabolism was studied in the nutria (Myocastor coypus), the bile of which is known to contain these three bile acids. Relative concentrations of ursodeoxycholic (37% +/- 20%), 7-ketolithocholic (33% +/- 17%), and chenodeoxycholic (17% +/- 9%) acids in gallbladder bile were unchanged by 5-20 h of complete biliary diversion (n = 7). Injection of either [14C]cholesterol, [14C]ursodeoxycholic, [14C]7-ketolithocholic acid, or a mixture of [7 beta-3H]chenodeoxycholic acid and [14C]chenodeoxycholic acid into bile fistula nutria demonstrated that all three bile acids can be synthesized hepatically from cholesterol, that they are interconverted sparingly (2%-5%) by the liver, but that 7-ketolithocholic acid is an intermediate in the hepatic transformation of chenodeoxycholic acid to ursodeoxycholic acid. An animal that had been fed antibiotics showed an unusually elevated concentration of ursodeoxycholic acid in gallbladder and hepatic bile, suggesting that bacterial transformation of ursodeoxycholic acid in the intestine may be a source of some biliary chenodeoxycholic acid and 7-ketolithocholic acid. PMID:3943698

  17. Acid Catalysis in Modern Organic

    E-print Network

    Snyder, Scott A.

    Acid Catalysis in Modern Organic Synthesis "Acid is one of the oldest, but the most important follows their earlier book "Lewis Acids in Organic Synthesis (2000)", and covers the new developments of university studies, in which an evil-smelling carbox- ylic acid and an alcohol were converted into a fragrant

  18. Molecular Structure of Malonic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-10-10

    Propanedioic acid is a dibasic carboxylic acid that was first synthesized by oxidizing malic acid in 1858 by a scientist named Dessaigne. Naturally, propandioic acid is found in apples. This chemical is relatively unstable and has few uses, but its ester derivative, diethyl malonate, is used to synthesize useful compounds such as barbiturates, flavors, fragrances, and vitamins (B1 and B6).

  19. Atmospheric Dust and Acid Rain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars O. Hedin; Gene E. Likens

    1996-01-01

    Why is acid rain still an environmental problem in Europe and North America despite antipollution reforms? The answer really is blowing in the wind: atmospheric dust. These airborne particles can help neutralize the acids falling on forests, but dust levels are unusually low these days. In the air dust particles can neutralize acid rain. What can we do about acid

  20. Corrosion inhibitors used in acidizing

    SciTech Connect

    Cizek, A. (Baker Performance Chemicals Inc., Houston, TX (United States). Aquaness Chemical Division)

    1994-01-01

    The history of the development of oil well acidizing and acid corrosion inhibitors used by this industry is reviewed. As deeper and hotter wells were drilled, stimulation acids were exposed to hotter conditions and the organic inhibitors required intensifiers. High-temperature acid corrosion inhibitors are also discussed.

  1. Triterpenic acids in table olives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Concepción Romero; Aranzazu García; Eduardo Medina; Antonio de Castro; Manuel Brenes

    2010-01-01

    An experimental investigation was carried out for the first time on the triterpenic acids in table olives. Maslinic acid was found in a higher concentration than oleanolic acid in the flesh of 17, unprocessed olive varieties, with the Picual and the Manzanilla varieties showing the highest and almost the lowest contents, respectively. The level of triterpenic acids in several types

  2. Pelargonic acid weed control parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Producers and researchers are interested in pelargonic acid (nonanoic acid) as a broad-spectrum post-emergence or burn-down herbicide. Pelargonic acid is a fatty acid naturally occurring in many plants and animals, and present in many foods we consume. The objective of this research was to determine...

  3. Molecular Structure of Succinic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-11-11

    Succinic acid is an odorless and colorless crystal, triclinic or monoclinic prism with a very acid taste. Succinic acid is one of the natural acids found in broccoli, rhubarb, beets, asparagus, fresh meat extracts, sauerkraut and cheese. It is also a constituent of almost all plant and animal tissues and plays an important role in intermediary metabolism. Succinic acid is produced commercially by catalytic hydrogenation of maleic or fumaric acid or by acid hydrolysis of succinonitrile. Succinic acid is used in flavoring for food and beverages, and in the manufacture of lacquers, dyes, esters for perfumes, succinates, in photography and in foods as a sequestrant, buffer and neutralizing agent. Succinic acid has uses in certain drug compounds and in agricultural production. An interesting fact, succcinic acid has also been found in meteorites.

  4. Versatile peroxidase of Bjerkandera fumosa: substrate and inhibitor specificity.

    PubMed

    Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Makarov, Oleg; Chernyshova, Marina; Turkovskaya, Olga; Jarosz-Wilkolazka, Anna

    2013-01-10

    The inhibitor and substrate specificities of versatile peroxidase from Bjerkandera fumosa (VPBF) were studied. Two different effects were found: NaN(3), Tween-80, anthracene, and fluorene decreased the activity of VPBF, but p-aminobenzoic acid increased it. A mixed mechanism of effector influence on the activity of this enzyme was shown. The catalytic properties of VPBF in the oxidation of mono- and polycyclic aromatic compounds were studied also. 2,7-Diaminofluorene, ABTS, veratryl alcohol, and syringaldazine can be oxidized by VPBF in two ways: either directly by the enzyme or by diffusible chelated Mn(3+) as an oxidizing agent. During VPBF oxidation of 2,7-diaminofluorene, both with and without Mn(2+), biphasic kinetics with apparent saturation in both micromolar and millimolar ranges were obtained. In the case of ABTS, inhibition of VPBF activity by an excess of substrate was observed. Direct oxidation of p-aminobenzoic acid by versatile peroxidase was found for the first time. The oxidation of three- and four-ring PAHs by VPBF was investigated, and the oxidation of anthracene, phenanthrene, fluorene, pyrene, chrysene, and fluoranthene was shown. The products of PAH oxidation (9,10-anthraquinone, 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, and 9-fluorenone) catalyzed by VPBF were identified. PMID:23199738

  5. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  6. Asphaltene damage in matrix acidizing 

    E-print Network

    Hinojosa, Roberto Antonio

    1996-01-01

    REVIEW CONSTRUCTION OF APPARATUS . DESCRIPTION OF CORE SAMPLES DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTAL ACID TREATMENT . . . ACIDIZING RESULTS BRINE SATURATED CORE L1D ACIDIZING RESULTS BRINE/CRUDE OIL SATURATED CORE S2A . . . ACIDIZING RESULTS BRINE/KEROSENE OIL... experiment they used HCl saturated kerosene to test the same crude samples. Deposition occurred with the HCl saturated acid. The authors concluded, though deposition at an interface was preferential, sludge formation did not require an interface. Moore et...

  7. Molecular Structure of Citric Acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-13

    Citric Acid was first isolated in 1734 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele. Citric acid is found in many fruits, in particular lemons, grapefruit, and oranges. Several types of bacteria and fungi are also known to produce citric acid. In fact, the fungus Aspergillus niger produces the vast majority of citric acid, which is used in almost all carbonated sodas. Additionally, citric acid is also used to clean stainless steel.

  8. Science Shorts: Understanding Acid Rain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kathleen Damonte

    2004-11-01

    You may have heard acid rain mentioned as an environmental problem. It doesn't mean that a strong chemical is raining from the sky. The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. However, a small change in how acidic precipitation is can have a profound effect. This month's activity will help students understand the effect of acid rain on buildings and statues.

  9. Optical high acidity sensor

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Betty S. (Jemez Springs, NM); Nekimken, Howard L. (Los Alamos, NM); Carey, W. Patrick (Lynnwood, WA); O'Rourke, Patrick E. (Martinez, GA)

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining acid concentrations in solutions having acid concentrations of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar is disclosed. The apparatus includes a chamber for interrogation of the sample solution, a fiber optic light source for passing light transversely through the chamber, a fiber optic collector for receiving the collimated light after transmission through the chamber, a coating of an acid resistant polymeric composition upon at least one fiber end or lens, the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution within the chamber and having a detectable response to acid concentrations within the range of from about 0.1 Molar to about 16 Molar, a measurer for the response of the polymeric composition in contact with the sample solution, and, a comparer of the measured response to predetermined standards whereby the acid molarity of the sample solution within the chamber can be determined. Preferably, a first lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic light source, the first lens adapted to collimate light from the fiber optic light source, and a second lens is attached to the end of the fiber optic collector for focusing the collimated light after transmission through the chamber.

  10. Acid neutralizing capacity, alkalinity, and acid-base status of natural waters containing organic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Harold F. Hemond

    1990-01-01

    The terms acid neutralizing capacity (ANC) and alkalinity (Alk) are extensively employed in the characterization of natural waters, including soft circumneutral or acidic waters. However, in the presence of organic acids, ANC measurements are inconsistent with many conceptual definitions of ANC or Alk and do not provide an adequate characterization of the acid-base chemistry of water. Knowledge of Gran ANC

  11. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  12. 40 CFR 721.3620 - Fatty acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. 721.3620 Section 721.3620 ...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (a) Chemical substance and significant...acid amine condensate, polycarboxylic acid salts. (PMN P-92-445) is subject...

  13. Thiol modified mycolic acids.

    PubMed

    Balogun, Mohammed O; Huws, Enlli H; Sirhan, Muthana M; Saleh, Ahmed D; Al Dulayymi, Juma'a R; Pilcher, Lynne; Verschoor, Jan A; Baird, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    Patient serum antibodies to mycolic acids have the potential to be surrogate markers of active tuberculosis (TB) when they can be distinguished from the ubiquitously present cross-reactive antibodies to cholesterol. Mycolic acids are known to interact more strongly with antibodies present in the serum of patients with active TB than in patients with latent TB or no TB. Examples of single stereoisomers of mycolic acids with chain lengths corresponding to major homologues of those present in Mycobacterium tuberculosis have now been synthesised with a sulfur substituent on the terminal position of the ?-chain; initial studies have established that one of these binds to a gold electrode surface, offering the potential to develop second generation sensors for diagnostic patient antibody detection. PMID:23603063

  14. Bioavailability of ferulic acid.

    PubMed

    Bourne, L C; Rice-Evans, C

    1998-12-18

    There is a wealth of evidence for the powerful antioxidant properties in vitro of flavonoid components of the diet. However, few studies have been undertaken concerning the hydroxycinnamates, major constituents of fruit, some vegetables, beverages, and grains, particularly the extent to which they are absorbed in vivo from the diet. The study described here has investigated the bioavailability of ferulic acid in humans, from tomato consumption, through the monitoring of the pharmacokinetics of excretion in relation to intake. The results show that the peak time for maximal urinary excretion is approximately 7 h and the recovery of ferulic acid in the urine, on the basis of total free ferulic acid and feruloyl glucuronide excreted, is 11-25% of that ingested. PMID:9878519

  15. Oleanolic acid ethanol monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Froelich, Anna; Gzella, Andrzej K.

    2010-01-01

    Crystals of the title compound (systematic name: 3?-hy­droxy­olean-12-en-28-oic acid ethanol monosolvate), C30H48O3·C2H5OH, were obtained from unsuccessful co-crystallization trials. The asymmetric unit contains two symmetry-independent oleanolic acid mol­ecules, as well as two ethanol solvent mol­ecules. Inter­molecular O—H?O hydrogen bonds stabilize the crystal packing. In the oleanolic acid mol­ecules, ring C has a slightly distorted envelope conformation, while rings A, B, D and E adopt chair conformations and rings D and E are cis-fused. Both independent ethanol mol­ecules are orientationally disordered [occupancy ratios of 0.742?(8):0.258?(8) and 0.632?(12):0.368?(12). PMID:21588987

  16. [Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination. PMID:20649031

  17. Acid rain in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatti, Neeloo; Streets, David G.; Foell, Wesley K.

    1992-07-01

    Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in the developing world, particularly in Asia, is much bleaker. Given the policies of many Asian nations to achieve levels of development comparable with the industrialized world—which necessitate a significant expansion of energy consumption (most derived from indigenous coal reserves)—the potential for the formation of, and damage from, acid deposition in these developing countries is very high. This article delineates and assesses the emissions patterns, meteorology, physical geology, and biological and cultural resources present in various Asian nations. Based on this analysis and the risk factors to acidification, it is concluded that a number of areas in Asia are currently vulnerable to acid rain. These regions include Japan, North and South Korea, southern China, and the mountainous portions of Southeast Asia and southwestern India. Furthermore, with accelerated development (and its attendant increase in energy use and production of emissions of acid deposition precursors) in many nations of Asia, it is likely that other regions will also be affected by acidification in the near future. Based on the results of this overview, it is clear that acid deposition has significant potential to impact the Asian region. However, empirical evidence is urgently needed to confirm this and to provide early warning of increases in the magnitude and spread of acid deposition and its effects throughout this part of the world.

  18. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid in endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) is a chelating agent can bind to metals via four carboxylate and two amine groups. It is a polyamino carboxylic acid and a colorless, water-soluble solid, which is widely used to dissolve lime scale. It is produced as several salts, notably disodium EDTA and calcium disodium EDTA. EDTA reacts with the calcium ions in dentine and forms soluble calcium chelates. A review of the literature and a discussion of the different indications and considerations for its usage are presented. PMID:24966721

  19. Acid Deposition Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity students will design an apparatus and carry out tests of fossil fuels to determine their impact on acid deposition by placing a small amount of a fossil fuel on a cotton puff and burning it to measure if acidic compounds are given off. Students will provide a diagram of their collection device and describe how it should function. Students will then draw a map showing the location of their precipitation collector and develop a graph or chart based on the results they have collected.

  20. Lactic acid bacterial cell factories for gamma-aminobutyric acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Haixing Li; Yusheng Cao

    2010-01-01

    Gamma-aminobutyric acid is a non-protein amino acid that is widely present in organisms. Several important physiological functions\\u000a of gamma-aminobutyric acid have been characterized, such as neurotransmission, induction of hypotension, diuretic effects,\\u000a and tranquilizer effects. Many microorganisms can produce gamma-aminobutyric acid including bacteria, fungi and yeasts. Among\\u000a them, gamma-aminobutyric acid-producing lactic acid bacteria have been a focus of research in recent

  1. Synthesis of acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid from 5-bromo levulinic acid esters

    DOEpatents

    Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

    2003-06-24

    A process of preparing an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinc acid comprising: a) dissolving a lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate and hexamethylenetetramine in a solvent selected from the group consisting of water, ethyl acetate, chloroform, acetone, ethanol, tetrahydrofuran and acetonitrile, to form a quaternary ammonium salt of the lower alkyl 5-bromolevulinate; and b) hydrolyzing the quaternary ammonium salt with an inorganic acid to form an acid addition salt of delta-aminolevulinic acid.

  2. Molecular Structure of Aspartic Acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-08-20

    Aspartate was first isolated in 1868 from legumin in plant seeds. Aspartic acid forms colorless crystals that are soluble in water and insoluble in alcohols and ethers. This is a naturally occurring nonessential amino acid that is produced in the liver from oxaloacetic acid, but is plentiful in meats and sprouting seeds. The amino acid is important in the Krebs cycle as well as the urea cycle, where it is vital in the elimination of dietary waste products. Aspartic acid is required for stamina, brain and neural health. This acid has been found to be important in the functioning of ribonucleic acid (RNA), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and in the production of immunoglobin and antibody synthesis. A deficiency of aspartate will lead to fatigue and depression. Aspartic acid has many uses that include biological and clinical studies, preparation of culture media, and it also functions as a detergent, fungicide, germicide, and metal complexation.

  3. Cysteic Acid Transaminase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sven Darling

    1952-01-01

    IT has previously been reported by Cohen1 that enzyme preparations catalysing the reactions : (1) Alanine + alpha-ketoglutarate rlharr glutamate + pyruvate; (2) Aspartate + alpha-ketoglutarate rlharr glutamate + oxalo acetate; are also capable of catalysing : (3) Cysteic acid + alpha-ketoglutarate rlharr glutamate + sulphopyruvate. (In a succeeding paper it will be shown that reaction (3) is reversible, which

  4. Microbial hyaluronic acid production

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barrie Fong Chong; Lars M. Blank; Richard Mclaughlin; Lars K. Nielsen

    2005-01-01

    sHyaluronic acid (HA) is a commercially valuable medical biopolymer increasingly produced through microbial fermentation. Viscosity limits product yield and the focus of research and development has been on improving the key quality parameters, purity and molecular weight. Traditional strain and process optimisation has yielded significant improvements, but appears to have reached a limit. Metabolic engineering is providing new opportunities and

  5. Spermatotoxicity of dichloroacetic acid

    EPA Science Inventory

    The testicular toxicity of dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a disinfection byproduct of drinking water, was evaluated in adult male rats given both single and multiple (up to 14 d) oral doses. Delayed spermiation and altered resorption of residual bodies were observed in rats given sin...

  6. Fumaric acid esters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin Rostami Yazdi; Ulrich Mrowietz

    2008-01-01

    Several clinical studies have shown that systemic therapy with fumaric acid esters (FAEs) in patients with moderate to severe psoriasis is effective and has a good long-term safety profile. For therapeutic use, tablets with a defined mixture of FAEs (dimethylfumarate [DMF] and three different salts of monoethylfumarate) are registered in Germany. There is evidence that DMF is the most essential

  7. ACID AEROSOL MEASUREMENT WORKSHOP

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the discussion and results of the U.S. EPA Acid Aerosol Measurement Workshop, conducted February 1-3, 1989, in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. t was held in response to recommendations by the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) regarding ...

  8. The Acid Rain Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

  9. Acid Rain Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hugo, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students investigate the formation of solid ammonium chloride aerosol particles to help students better understand the concept of acid rain. Provides activity objectives, procedures, sample data, clean-up instructions, and questions and answers to help interpret the data. (MDH)

  10. Acid rain bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Sayers, C.S.

    1983-09-01

    This bibliography identifies 900 citations on various aspects of Acid Rain, covering published bibliographies, books, reports, conference and symposium proceedings, audio visual materials, pamphlets and newsletters. It includes five sections: citations index (complete record of author, title, source, order number); KWIC index; title index; author index; and source index. 900 references.

  11. Federal Acid Rain Games

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arthur J. Caplan; Emilson C. D. Silva

    1999-01-01

    Federal environmental policy, designed to control acid rain, is shaped after the hierarchy of the system, and is controlled simultaneously by regional and central governments. Each governmental level controls one of two policy instruments: pollution abatement production and pollution tax. In a two-stage game where regional governments are Stackelberg leaders and control pollution taxes, the subgame perfect equilibrium is socially

  12. Effects of Acid Rain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This portal provides links to information on the potential damage caused to the environment by acid rain. An introductory paragraph briefly describes the damage to lakes and streams, building materials, and monuments. Each link access additional information on these topics: surface waters and aquatic animals, forests, automotive coatings, soluble building materials such as marble or limestone, atmospheric haze, and human health effects.

  13. Acid Rain Classroom Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demchik, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a curriculum plan in which students learn about acid rain through instructional media, research and class presentations, lab activities, simulations, design, and design implementation. Describes the simulation activity in detail and includes materials, procedures, instructions, examples, results, and discussion sections. (SAH)

  14. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bybee, Rodger; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which provides opportunities for role-playing as industrialists, ecologists, and government officials. The activity involves forming an international commission on acid rain, taking testimony, and, based on the testimony, making recommendations to governments on specific ways to solve the problem. Includes suggestions for…

  15. The Acid Rain Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates-Bockenstedt, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Details an activity designed to motivate students by incorporating science-related issues into a classroom debate. Includes "The Acid Rain Bill" and "Position Guides" for student roles as committee members, consumers, governors, industry owners, tourism professionals, senators, and debate directors. (DKM)

  16. Acidification and Acid Rain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. Norton

    2003-01-01

    Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw

  17. Acid Mine Drainage Remediation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-12-10

    In this video, an environmental technologist visits an abandoned coal mine in Kentucky to talk about how a remediation system (a series of settling ponds and treatment cells) is neutralizing the acid drainage flowing from the mine and keeping it from damaging a creek downstream.

  18. Acid Rain: Science Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubbs, Harriett S.

    1989-01-01

    Presented is a science activity designed to help students monitor the pH of rainfall. Materials, procedures and follow-up activities are listed. A list of domestic and foreign sources of information is provided. Topics which relate to acid precipitation are outlined. (CW)

  19. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  20. Inhibition of oxidative degradation of hyaluronic acid by uric acid.

    PubMed

    Liu, K M; Swann, D; Lee, P; Lam, K W

    1984-08-01

    It has been postulated that glycosaminoglycans in the trabeculum have an influence on aqueous humor drainage. Ascorbate reduces the viscosity of hyaluronic acid, and also increases outflow facility. Our recent observation of high urate concentrations in some glaucomatous eyes led us to study the influence of urate on oxidative degradation of hyaluronic acid by ascorbate. The viscosity of rooster comb hyaluronic acid was reduced slowly by ascorbate. Cupric sulfate accelerated ascorbate oxidation and also enhanced hyaluronic acid degradation. Urate inhibited ascorbate oxidation and prevented the copper catalyzed oxidative degradation of rooster comb hyaluronic acid. The range of urate concentrations used in this study was within the range of urate concentrations observed in glaucomatous eyes. The partially purified umbilical cord hyaluronic acid had lower viscosity than rooster comb hyaluronic acid, and rapidly degraded in the presence of ascorbate. The ascorbate effect on umbilical cord hyaluronic acid was partially prevented by urate. PMID:6488856

  1. Photostabilization of ascorbic acid with citric acid, tartaric acid and boric acid in cream formulations.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, I; Ali Sheraz, M; Ahmed, S; Shad, Z; Vaid, F H M

    2012-06-01

    This study involves the evaluation of the effect of certain stabilizers, that is, citric acid (CT), tartaric acid (TA) and boric acid (BA) on the degradation of ascorbic acid (AH(2) ) in oil-in-water cream formulations exposed to the UV light and stored in the dark. The apparent first-order rate constants (0.34-0.95 × 10(-3) min(-1) in light, 0.38-1.24 × 10(-2) day(-1) in dark) for the degradation reactions in the presence of the stabilizers have been determined. These rate constants have been used to derive the second-order rate constants (0.26-1.45 × 10(-2) M(-1) min(-1) in light, 3.75-8.50 × 10(-3) M(-1) day(-1) in dark) for the interaction of AH(2) and the individual stabilizers. These stabilizers are effective in causing the inhibition of the rate of degradation of AH(2) both in the light and in the dark. The inhibitory effect of the stabilizers is in the order of CT > TA > BA. The rate of degradation of AH(2) in the presence of these stabilizers in the light is about 120 times higher than that in the dark. This could be explained on the basis of the deactivation of AH(2) -excited triplet state by CT and TA and by the inhibition of AH(2) degradation through complex formation with BA. AH(2) leads to the formation of dehydroascorbic acid (A) by chemical and photooxidation in cream formulations. PMID:22296174

  2. Use of p-toluenesulfonic acid for the controlled grafting of alkoxysilanes onto silanol containing surfaces: preparation of tunable hydrophilic, hydrophobic, and super-hydrophobic silica.

    PubMed

    García, Nuria; Benito, Esperanza; Guzman, Julio; Tiemblo, Pilar

    2007-04-25

    The modification of Aerosil 200 has been carried out using methoxysilanes in toluene reflux, with p-toluenesulfonic acid as the catalyst. Both trimethoxyalkyl silanes (methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, hexyl, octyl, and octadecyl) and trialkylmethoxy silanes (trimethyl and dimethyloctyl) have been used. The surface has been studied by 29Si NMR, 13C NMR, elemental analysis, thermogravimetry, water contact angle, and BET analysis. When incorporating trimethoxysilanes, a plateau of modification was achieved after 1 h of reflux, while when using trialkylmethoxy silanes, a longer time of about 7 h was required. The average number of molecules incorporated in both cases has been well above those reported by other authors in similar reactions and in much shorter times. Depending on the modification agent and on the experimental conditions, the resulting organosilicas are in seven cases superhydrophobic, in three cases hydrophobic, and in two cases hydrophilic. Two structural origins for superhydrophobicity have been identified in these samples: almost complete disappearance of water accessible surface silanols (smallest methoxysilanes) and shielding of would-be water accessible surface silanols by long aliphatic tails. These features can be very precisely controlled. PMID:17397151

  3. Iridium porphyrins in CD3OD: reduction of Ir(III), CD3-OD bond cleavage, Ir-D acid dissociation and alkene reactions.

    PubMed

    Bhagan, Salome; Imler, Gregory H; Wayland, Bradford B

    2013-04-15

    Methanol solutions of iridium(III) tetra(p-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin [(TSPP)Ir(III)] form an equilibrium distribution of methanol and methoxide complexes ([(TSPP)Ir(III)(CD3OD)(2-n)(OCD3)n]((3+n)-)). Reaction of [(TSPP)Ir(III) with dihydrogen (D2) in methanol produces an iridium hydride [(TSPP)Ir(III)-D(CD3OD)](4-) in equilibrium with an iridium(I) complex ([(TSPP)Ir(I)(CD3OD)](5-)). The acid dissociation constant of the iridium hydride (Ir-D) in methanol at 298 K is 3.5 × 10(-12). The iridium(I) complex ([(TSPP)Ir(I)(CD3OD)](5-)) catalyzes reaction of [(TSPP)Ir(III)-D(CD3OD)](4-) with CD3-OD to produce an iridium methyl complex [(TSPP)Ir(III)-CD3(CD3OD)](4-) and D2O. Reactions of the iridium hydride with ethene and propene produce iridium alkyl complexes, but the Ir-D complex fails to give observable addition with acetaldehyde and carbon monoxide in methanol. Reaction of the iridium hydride with propene forms both the isopropyl and propyl complexes with free energy changes (?G° 298 K) of -1.3 and -0.4 kcal mol(-1) respectively. Equilibrium thermodynamics and reactivity studies are used in discussing relative Ir-D, Ir-OCD3 and Ir-CD2- bond energetics in methanol. PMID:23540797

  4. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic analysis of CNS-active constitutional isomers of valnoctamide and sec-butylpropylacetamide - Amide derivatives of valproic acid.

    PubMed

    Mawasi, Hafiz; Shekh-Ahmad, Tawfeeq; Finnell, Richard H; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan J; Bialer, Meir

    2015-05-01

    Valnoctamide (VCD) and sec-butylpropylacetamide (SPD) are CNS-active closely related amide derivatives of valproic acid with unique anticonvulsant activity. This study evaluated how small chemical changes affect the pharmacodynamics (PD; anticonvulsant activity and teratogenicity) and pharmacokinetics (PK) of three constitutional isomers of SPD [sec-butylisopropylacetamide (SID) and tert-butylisopropylacetamide (TID)] and of VCD [tert-butylethylacetamide (TED)]. The anticonvulsant activity of SID, TID, and TED was comparatively evaluated in several rodent anticonvulsant models. The PK-PD relationship of SID, TID, and TED was evaluated in rats, and their teratogenicity was evaluated in a mouse strain highly susceptible to teratogen-induced neural tube defects (NTDs). sec-Butylisopropylacetamide and TID have a similar PK profile to SPD which may contribute to their similar anticonvulsant activity. tert-Butylethylacetamide had a better PK profile than VCD (and SPD); however, this did not lead to a superior anticonvulsant activity. sec-Butylisopropylacetamide and TED did not cause NTDs at doses 4-7 times higher than their anticonvulsant ED50 values. In rats, SID, TID (ip), and TED exhibited a broad spectrum of anticonvulsant activity. However, combined anticonvulsant analysis in mice and rats shows SID as the most potent compound with similar activity to that of SPD, demonstrating that substitution of the isobutyl moiety in the SPD or VCD molecule by tert-butyl as well as a propyl-to-isopropyl replacement in the SPD molecule did not majorly affect the anticonvulsant activity. PMID:25863940

  5. Preparation of a Highly Fluorophilic Phosphonium Salt and its Use in a Fluorous Anion-Exchanger Membrane with High Selectivity for Perfluorinated Acids

    PubMed Central

    Boswell, Paul G.; Anfang, Alyce C.; Bühlmann, Philippe

    2008-01-01

    Fluorous solvents are the most nonpolar, nonpolarizable phases known, whereas ions are inherently polar. This makes it difficult to create salts that are soluble in a fluorous solvent. Here we present the synthesis and characterization of a new fluorophilic phosphonium salt, tris{3,5-bis[(perfluorooctyl)propyl]phenyl}methylphosphonium methyl sulfate. The salt has a solubility of at least 14 mM in perfluoro(perhydrophenanthrene), perfluoro(methylcyclohexane), and perfluorohexanes. It also shows immediate potential for use as a phase-transfer catalyst in fluorous biphasic catalysis, but in this work it is used as an anion exchanger site in the first potentiometric fluorous-membrane anion-selective electrode. The membrane sensor exhibited the exceptional selectivity of 3.9 × 1010 to 1 for perfluorooctanesulfonate over chloride, and of 2.5 × 107 to 1 for perfluorooctanoate over chloride. With improvements to the sensor’s detection limit and lifetime, it has the potential to be an attractive alternative to the expensive, time-consuming methods currently employed for measurement of perfluorinated acids. PMID:22072222

  6. Recovery of Carboxylic Acids from Fermentation Broth via Acid Springing

    E-print Network

    Dong, Jipeng

    2010-01-14

    RECOVERY OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS FROM FERMENTATION BROTH VIA ACID SPRINGING A Thesis by JIPENG DONG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2008 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering RECOVERY OF CARBOXYLIC ACIDS FROM FERMENTATION BROTH VIA ACID SPRINGING A Thesis by JIPENG DONG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A...

  7. Fatty acid selectivity of lipases: Erucic acid from rapeseed oil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip E. Sonnet; Thomas A. Foglia; Stephen H. Feairheller

    1993-01-01

    The fatty acid selectivity of several commercial lipases was evaluated in the hydrolysis of high-erucic acid rapeseed oil\\u000a (HEARO). The lipase ofPseudomonas cepacia catalyzed virtually complete hydrolysis of the oil (94–97%), while that ofGeotrichum candidum discriminated strongly against erucic acid, especially in esterification. A two-step process is suggested for obtaining a\\u000a highly enriched erucic acid in which theG. candidum lipase

  8. Thiobarbituric Acid Spray Reagent for Deoxy Sugars and Sialic Acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonard Warren

    1960-01-01

    RECENTLY, new sensitive assays have been reported for deoxy sugars1, 2-keto,3-deoxy sugar acids2-4, and sialic acids5,6. In these assays, the products of periodate oxidation, malonaldehyde from deoxy sugars and beta-formylpyruvic acid from the latter two groups of compounds, are coupled with 2-thiobarbituric acid to produce a bright red chromophore. I wish to report an adaptation of these methods for spraying

  9. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids for women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Marie Bourre

    2007-01-01

    This review details the specific needs of women for omega-3 fatty acids, including alpha linoleic acid (ALA) and the very long chain fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Omega-3 fatty acid (dietary or in capsules) ensures that a woman's adipose tissue contains a reserve of these fatty acids for the developing fetus and the breast-fed newborn infant.

  10. Acid placement and coverage in the acid jetting process 

    E-print Network

    Mikhailov, Miroslav I.

    2009-05-15

    Many open-hole acid treatments are being conducted by pumping acid through jetting ports placed at the end of coiled tubing or drill pipe. The filter-cake on the bore-hole is broken by the jet; the acid-soluble material is dissolved, creating...

  11. Acid Placement in Acid Jetting Treatments in Long Horizontal Wells 

    E-print Network

    Sasongko, Hari

    2012-07-16

    In the Middle East, extended reach horizontal wells (on the order of 25,000 feet of horizontal displacement) are commonly acid stimulated by jetting acid out of drill pipe. The acid is jetted onto the face of the openhole wellbore as the drill pipe...

  12. SPECTROFLUOROMETRIC ASSAY FOR HYPOHALITE AND PEROXYACETIC ACID USING KOJIC ACID

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hypochlorite reacted with kojic acid to form an intensely fluorescent product with excitation and emission wavelengths at 395 and 495 nm, respectively. Hypobromite, generated by reaction of hypochlorite or peroxyacetic acid with NaBr, also reacted with kojic acid to generate an identical fluorescen...

  13. College Chemistry Students' Mental Models of Acids and Acid Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClary, LaKeisha; Talanquer, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize the mental models of acids and acid strength expressed by advanced college chemistry students when engaged in prediction, explanation, and justification tasks that asked them to rank chemical compounds based on their relative acid strength. For that purpose we completed a qualitative research…

  14. Acid adaptation sensitizes Salmonella typhimurium to hypochlorous acid.

    PubMed Central

    Leyer, G J; Johnson, E A

    1997-01-01

    Acid adaptation of Salmonella typhimurium at a pH of 5.0 to 5.8 for one to two cell doublings resulted in marked sensitization of the pathogen to halogen-based sanitizers including chlorine (hypochlorous acid) and iodine. Acid-adapted S. typhimurium was more resistant to an anionic acid sanitizer than was its nonadapted counterpart. A nonselective plating medium of tryptose phosphate agar plus 1% pyruvate was used throughout the study to help recover chemically stressed cells. Mechanisms of HOCl-mediated inactivation of acid-adapted and nonadapted salmonellae were investigated. Hypochlorous acid oxidized a higher percentage of cell surface sulfhydryl groups in acid-adapted cells than in nonadapted cells, and sulfhydryl oxidation was correlated with cell inactivation. HOCl caused severe metabolic disruptions in acid-adapted and nonadapted S. typhimurium, such as respiratory loss and inability to restore the adenylate energy charge from a nutrient-starved state. Sensitization of S. typhimurium to hypochlorous acid by acid adaptation also involved increased permeability of the cell surface because nonadapted cells treated with EDTA became sensitized. The results of this study establish that acid-adapted S. typhimurium cells are highly sensitized to HOCl oxidation and that inactivation by HOCl involves changes in membrane permeability, inability to maintain or restore energy charge, and probably oxidation of essential cellular components. This study provides a basis for improved practical technologies to inactivate Salmonella and implies that acid pretreatment of food plant environments may increase the efficacy of halogen sanitizers. PMID:9023924

  15. Focus Sheet | Hydrofluoric Acid Health hazards of hydrofluoric acid

    E-print Network

    Wilcock, William

    Focus Sheet | Hydrofluoric Acid Health hazards of hydrofluoric acid Hydrofluoric acid (HF eye damage. HF vapors can seriously damage the lungs. Pulmonary edema (flooding of the lungs characterized by weight loss, brittle bones, anemia, and general ill health. Safe use If possible, avoid working

  16. Mapping of the tryptophan genes of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus by transformation.

    PubMed

    Sawula, R V; Crawford, I P

    1972-11-01

    Auxotrophs of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus blocked in each reaction of the synthetic pathway from chorismic acid to tryptophan were obtained after N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis. One novel class was found to be blocked in both anthranilate and p-aminobenzoate synthesis; these mutants (trpG) require p-aminobenzoate or folate as well as tryptophan (or anthranilate) for growth. The loci of six other auxotrophic classes requiring only tryptophan were defined by growth, accumulation, and enzymatic analysis where appropriate. The trp mutations map in three chromosomal locations. One group contains trpC and trpD (indoleglycerol phosphate synthetase and phosphoribosyl transferase) in addition to trpG mutations; this group is closely linked to a locus conferring a glutamate requirement. Another cluster contains trpA and trpB, coding for the two tryptophan synthetase (EC 4.2.1.20) subunits, along with trpF (phosphoribosylanthranilate isomerase); this group is weakly linked to a his marker. The trpE gene, coding for the large subunit of anthranilate synthetase, is unlinked to any of the above. This chromosomal distribution of the trp genes has not been observed in other organisms. PMID:5086660

  17. Pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5)

    MedlinePLUS

    Pantothenic acid is a vitamin, also known as vitamin B5. It is widely found in both plants and animals ... Vitamin B5 is commercially available as D-pantothenic acid, as well as dexpanthenol and calcium pantothenate, which ...

  18. Molecular Structure of Glutaric acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-11-10

    Glutaric acid is a colorless liquid and white crystals as a solid occurring in plants and animal tissues. It is used in organic synthesis and as an intermediate for the manufacture of polymers such as polyamides and polyesters, ester plasticizers and corrosion inhibitors. It is also useful in the application of decreasing polymer elasticity and in a variety of industrial applications. In addition glutaric acid plays an important role as an intermediary in the Krebs cycle and is used in medication against a large number of viruses and in animal diabetes. Glutaric acid can be prepared from cyclopentanone by oxidative ring fission with nitric acid and in the presence of a catalyst. Glutaric acid has the lowest melting point among dicarboxylic acids (98 C); it is very soluble in water and the solution in water is a medium strong acid. Short-term exposure to glutaric acid may cause irritation to the eyes, skin and the respiratory tract.

  19. Molecular Structure of Maleic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-11-10

    Maleic acid is colorless to white crystals with a faint acidulous odor and a characteristic repulsive, astringent taste. Maleic acid is used in making polyesters, surface coatings, lubricant additives, agricultural chemicals and paint vehicles. It is used in organic synthesis of fumaric acid, succinic, aspartic, tartaric, propionic, lactic, malonic, acrylic and hydrocarylic acids. Maleic acid and its anhydride are prepared industrially by the catalytic oxidation of benzene. Maleic acid may be released into waste water during its production and used in the manufacture of polymer products. Dust of maleic acid is irritating to the eyes, nose and throat. The general population is exposed to maleic acid in areas with heavy traffic since it is found in aerosols from auto exhaust.

  20. Uranium (VI) - Chromotropic Acid Chelate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Samir K. Banerji; Arun K. Dey

    1963-01-01

    DISODIUM- 1:8-dihydroxy naphthalene-3:6-disulphonate (trivial name chromotropic acid-sodium salt)yields coloured lakes with various cations1. Investigations of chelates of chromotropic acid with iron (III)2 and titanium (IV)3,4 have already been made. Sommer et al. have extensively examined chelates of titanium with chromotropic acid and various polyphenols5-7 and have discussed the structure of the metal chelates. The use of chromotropic acid in the

  1. Fatty acid signaling in Arabidopsis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward E. Farmer; Hans Weber; Sabine Vollenweider

    1998-01-01

    .   Many organisms use fatty acid derivatives as biological regulators. In plants, for example, fatty acid-derived signals have\\u000a established roles in the regulation of developmental and defense gene expression. Growing numbers of these compounds, mostly\\u000a derived from fatty acid hydroperoxides, are being characterized. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana is serving a vital role in the discovery of fatty acid-derived signal

  2. Molecular Structure of Trimesic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-05-08

    Trimesic Acid is made up of a benzene ring with three carboxylic groups at the 1, 3, and 5 positions, and it can be synthesized from the oxidation of 1,3,5-trimethyl benzene. The acid is an important building block in crystal engineering which is used to form honeycomb structures, but it has the ability to form diverse supramolecular structures. Also, trimesic acid salt and the free trimesic acid are useful as a plasticizer.

  3. Molecular Structure of Acetic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-06-02

    Acetic Acid commonly associated with vinegar; it is the most commercially important organic acid and is used to manufacture a wide range of chemical products, such as plastics and insecticides. Acetic acid is produced naturally by Aceto bacteria but, except for making vinegar, is usually made through synthetic processes. Ethanoic acid is used as herbicide, as a micro-biocide, as a fungicide and for pH adjustment.

  4. Molecular Structure of Octanoic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-10-11

    Caprylic acid is a colorless oil manufactured from 1-heptene or 1-octanol. Octanoic acid has an unpleasant rancid taste. When converted from the carboxlic acid to an ester, it has a pleasant taste. In addition, esters of caprylic acid are used in the preparation of dyes, perfumes, and food preservatives. This compound has also been found to have antifungal activity and is used to treat yeast infections.

  5. Acid rain: Reign of controversy

    SciTech Connect

    Kahan, A.M.

    1986-01-01

    Acid Rain is a primer on the science and politics of acid rain. Several introductory chapters describe in simple terms the relevant principles of water chemistry, soil chemistry, and plant physiology and discuss the demonstrated or postulated effects of acid rain on fresh waters and forests as well as on statuary and other exposed objects. There follow discussions on the economic and social implications of acid rain (for example, possible health effects) and on the sources, transport, and distribution of air pollutants.

  6. Enviropedia: Introduction to Acid Rain

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This resource provides information about acid rain, a widespread term used to describe all forms of acid precipitation. The sources, nature, and chemistry of acid rain are discussed, along with its impact on buildings, soils, freshwater lakes, trees, and wildlife. Other topics include measuring, modeling, and monitoring acid rain; and vehicle and industrial emission controls. The problem of airborne pollutants migrating across international borders is also discussed.

  7. Factors Controlling Naphthenic Acid Corrosion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan Turnbull; Evelina Slavcheva; Bryan Shone

    1998-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to elucidate the influence of chemical and physical parameters on corrosion of type 1018 carbon steel (CS, UNS G10180) and 5% Cr-0.5% Mo steel in oils containing naphthenic acids (NAs) for application to crude oil refinery systems. Effects of test duration, temperature, and acid concentration were assessed for a range of single acids of varying

  8. Nucleic Acids Molecular Biology Tools

    E-print Network

    Qiu, Weigang

    Nucleic Acids Proteins Molecular Biology Tools Molecular Biology and Genomics Weigang Qiu Weigang Qiu Molecular Biology and Genomics #12;Nucleic Acids Proteins Molecular Biology Tools Outline 1 Nucleic Acids 2 Proteins 3 Molecular Biology Tools Weigang Qiu Molecular Biology and Genomics #12;Nucleic

  9. CHARACTERISTICS Picric acid is a

    E-print Network

    Wilcock, William

    CHARACTERISTICS · Picric acid is a trinitroaromatic compound that is a flammable solid when purchased wet with 30% water, by mass. · Picric acid is a high-powered explosive when allowed to dehydrate. As an explosive, picric acid is not shock sensitive, but when in contact with metals can form shock sensitive

  10. Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process

    DOEpatents

    King, C.J.; Poole, L.J.

    1995-05-02

    Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. 10 figs.

  11. A ACID RAIN Audrey Gibson

    E-print Network

    Toohey, Darin W.

    A ACID RAIN Audrey Gibson ATOC 3500 Thursday, April 29, 2010 #12;CAUSES Natural sources - volcanoes Thursday, April 29, 2010 #12;ON WILDLIFE Acid rain causes acidification of lakes and streams and contributes to damage of trees at high elevations. Acid rain primarily affects sensitive bodies of water

  12. An Umbrella for Acid Rain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randal, Judith

    1979-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has awarded several grants to study effects of and possible solutions to the problem of "acid rain"; pollution from atmospheric nitric and sulfuric acids. The research program is administered through North Carolina State University at Raleigh and will focus on biological effects of acid rain. (JMF)

  13. Do We Need Gastric Acid?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Pohl; M. Fox; M. Fried; B. Göke; C. Prinz; H. Mönnikes; G. Rogler; M. Dauer; J. Keller; F. Lippl; I. Schiefke; U. Seidler; H. D. Allescher

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from comparative anatomy and physiology studies indicates that gastric acid secretion developed during the evolution of vertebrates approximately 350 million years ago. The cellular mechanisms that produce gastric acid have been conserved over the millennia and therefore proton pump inhibitors have pharmacological effects in almost all relevant species. These observations suggest that gastric acid provides an important selective advantage;

  14. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    DOEpatents

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  15. BACTERIAL OXIDATION OF DIPICOLINIC ACID

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Yasuo; Arima, Kei

    1962-01-01

    Kobayashi, Yasuo (University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan) and Kei Arima. Bacterial oxidation of dipicolinic acid. II. Identification of ?-ketoglutaric acid and 3-hydroxydipicolinic acid and some properties of cell-free extracts. J. Bacteriol. 84:765–771. 1962—When a dipicolinic acid (DPA)-decomposing bacterium, Achromobacter strain 1–2, was incubated at 30 C with shaking in a DPA solution containing 10?3m arsenite, a keto acid was accumulated. The 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone of this acid was synthesized and identified as ?-ketoglutaric acid by paper chromatography, visible absorption spectrum, infrared analysis, elemental analysis, and mixed melting point. During this incubation, oxalic acid equivalent to the consumed dipicolinic acid was produced. A fluorescent material was also isolated from culture fluid and identified as 3-hydroxydipicolinic acid by paper chromatography and the ultraviolet absorption spectrum. Further, cell-free extracts were prepared by sonic oscillation. Ferrous ion and a reduced di- or triphosphopyridine nucleotide-generating system were proven to be required for enzymic oxidation of DPA. And 3-hydroxydipicolinic acid was also oxidized by this preparation. From the results obtained, a possible metabolic pathway of dipicolinic acid was proposed. PMID:14033954

  16. Weak Acid Equilibrium

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    michael stapleton

    Students are asked to calculate the pH of a weak acid aqueous solution. The problems involve a series of generic acids with assigned equilibrium constants (Ka) and total concentrations (Ct). Initially, students are required to hand calculate all problems by algebraic manipulation of the mathematical relationships of the system. The solution is a cubic equation. Through a series of assumptions, the solution is simplified. The assumptions are based on the chemistry of the system given the Ka and Ct for the problem. The problems are then graphically solved. Ultimately, the students develop an Excel worksheet to solve the problems and a Bjerrum plot to display the speciation as a function of pH.

  17. Nucleic Acid Detection Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cassandra L. Smith; Ron Yaar; Przemyslaw Szafranski; Charles R. Cantor

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and\\/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3'-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be

  18. Nucleic acid detection methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Smith; R. Yaar; P. Szafranski; C. R. Cantor

    1998-01-01

    The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and\\/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3â²-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be

  19. Acid Rain Effects

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2014-06-30

    Learners conduct a simple experiment to model and explore the harmful effects of acid rain (vinegar) on living (green leaf and eggshell) and non-living (paper clip) objects. Learners observe the effects over a period of days. This activity has links to other activities which can be combined to make a larger lesson. Resource contains vocabulary definitions and suggestions for assessment, extensions, and scaling for different levels of learners.

  20. Acid rain in Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neeloo Bhatti; David G. Streets; Wesley K. Foell

    1992-01-01

    Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to\\u000a the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging\\u000a perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in

  1. Fatty Acid Carcass Mapping

    E-print Network

    Turk, Stacey N.

    2010-01-14

    ) composition among different depots throughout a beef carcass. To test this, 50 carcasses from a variety of breed types and backgrounds were sampled. External fat samples were collected from eight different carcass locations: round, sirloin, loin, rib... was the lowest. Due to the significant differences amongst fat depots within bovine carcasses in their fatty acid composition we conclude that substantial differences exist across fat depots. v DEDICATION...

  2. Cannabinoid acids analysis.

    PubMed

    Lercker, G; Bocci, F; Frega, N; Bortolomeazzi, R

    1992-03-01

    The cannabinoid pattern of vegetable preparations from Cannabis sativa (hashish, marijuana) allows to recognize the phenotype of the plants, to be used as drug or for fiber. Cannabinoid determination by analytical point of view has represented some problems caused by the complex composition of the hexane extract. Capillary gas chromatography of the hexane extracts of vegetable samples, shows the presence of rather polar constituents that eluted, with noticeable interactions, only on polar phase. The compounds can be methylated by diazomethane and silanized (TMS) by silylating reagents. The methyl and methyl-TMS derivatives are analyzed by high resolution gas chromatography (HRGC) and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The identification of the compounds shows their nature of cannabinoid acids, which the main by quantitative point of view results the cannabidiolic acid (CBDA). It is known that the cannabinoid acids are thermally unstable and are transformed in the corresponding cannabinoids by decarboxilation. This is of interest in forensic analysis with the aim to establish the total amount of THC in the Cannabis preparations, as the active component. PMID:1503600

  3. Degradation of Phthalic Acids and Benzoic Acid from Terephthalic Acid Wastewater by Advanced Oxidation Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ramesh Thiruvenkatachari; Tae Ouk Kwon; Il Shik Moon

    2006-01-01

    Terephthalic acid (TPA) wastewater is traditionally being treated by biological method. This study investigates the degradation of three major toxic target organic species, namely terephthalic acid (TPA), isophthalic acid (IPA), benzoic acid (BA), present in the TPA wastewater, by several advanced oxidation processes. The performance of three main oxidation processes such as photofenton oxidation (UV-H2O2-Fe), photocatalytic ozonation (UV-O3-Fe) and photofenton

  4. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  5. Invasive cleavage of nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Prudent, James R. (Madison, WI); Hall, Jeff G. (Madison, WI); Lyamichev, Victor I. (Madison, WI); Brow, Mary Ann D. (Madison, WI); Dahlberg, James E. (Madison, WI)

    2002-01-01

    The present invention relates to means for the detection and characterization of nucleic acid sequences, as well as variations in nucleic acid sequences. The present invention also relates to methods for forming a nucleic acid cleavage structure on a target sequence and cleaving the nucleic acid cleavage structure in a site-specific manner. The structure-specific nuclease activity of a variety of enzymes is used to cleave the target-dependent cleavage structure, thereby indicating the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences or specific variations thereof.

  6. Molecular Structure of Benzoic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-05-08

    Benzoic acid is a medium-strong acid found in human foods such as berries, and is used as a plasticizer, insecticide, fungicide, an antifungal agent and in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals. It is more hydrophobic, water fearing, in comparison with other carboxylic acids and therefore can be extracted easily from all types of solvents. This acid is slightly soluble in water and has a melting point of 122 degrees Celsius. Benzoic acid is industrially manufactured from toluene, benzotrichloride and phthalic anhydride. It is purified by the process of sublimation, and the extremely pure form is used as a titrimetric and calorimetric standard in analytical chemistry.

  7. Molecular Structure of Adipic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-11-09

    Adipic acid is odorless and colorless white crystals or powder with a sour taste. Adipic acid is used primarily in the manufacture of nylon-6,6 polyamide and polyester polyols for polyurethane systems. It is also used for raw materials in pharmaceuticals, perfume fixatives, acidulants, leavening and buffering agents in non-alcoholic beverages, gelatins and puddings. In addition, adipic acid is used in manufacturing plasticizers and lubricants components. It is slightly soluble in water and soluble in alcohol and acetone. Adipic acid can be prepared from acetylene and acetic acid in the presence of tert-butyl peroxide. It has been manufactured from either cyclohexane or phenol.

  8. The politics of acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcher, M.E. (Pennsylvania State Univ., New Kensington, PA (US))

    1989-01-01

    This work examines and compares the acid rain policies through the different political systems of Canada, Great Britain and the United States. Because the flow of acid rain can transcend national boundaries, acid rain has become a crucial international problem. According to the author, because of differences in governmental institutions and structure, the extent of governmental intervention in the industrial economy, the degree of reliance on coal for power generation, and the extent of acid rain damage, national responses to the acid rain problem have varied.

  9. Acid Rain Experiments: Soil Buffering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This experiment will help students understand that soil sometimes contains substances, like limestone, that buffer acids or bases, and that some salts in soil may also act as buffers. They will collect soil samples from their lawn, garden, or school and look for buffering effects by observing the pH change of an acid mixture poured through the samples. If the water collected from the sample is less acidic than the original mixture, then the soil is buffering some of the acid. If it does not change, then the soil may not be capable of buffering acids.

  10. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts...6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts...identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts...uses are: (i) Release to water. Requirements as...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...false Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts...6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts...identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts...uses are: (i) Release to water. Requirements as...

  12. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...false Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts...6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts...identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts...uses are: (i) Release to water. Requirements as...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6200 - Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...false Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts...6200 Fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphoric acid ester salts...identified as fatty acid polyamine condensate, phosphate ester salts...uses are: (i) Release to water. Requirements as...

  14. AC260584 (4-[3-(4-butylpiperidin-1-yl)-propyl]-7-fluoro-4H-benzo[1,4]oxazin-3-one), a selective muscarinic M1 receptor agonist, increases acetylcholine and dopamine release in rat medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhu; Bonhaus, Douglas W; Huang, Mei; Prus, Adam J; Dai, Jin; Meltzer, Herbert Y

    2007-10-31

    Both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors are implicated in cognition. We have previously suggested that stimulation of the muscarinic M1 receptor has a beneficial effect on cognition, based upon evidence that the muscarinic M1 receptor agonist of N-desmethylclozapine, the major metabolite of clozapine, may contribute to the ability of clozapine to improve some domains of cognition in schizophrenia. Present study examined the effectiveness of a new muscarinic M1 receptor agonist, 4-[3-(4-butylpiperidin-1-yl)-propyl]-7-fluoro-4H-benzo[1,4]oxazin-3-one (AC260584), to increase the release of acetylcholine and dopamine in the rat medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Using microdialysis in awake, freely moving rats, AC260584, 3 and 10, but not 1 mg/kg (s.c.), significantly increased dopamine release in the medial prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. However, only the high dose of AC260584, 10 mg/kg (s.c.), significantly increased acetylcholine release in these regions. Moreover, the increases in acetylcholine release produced by AC260584, 10 mg/kg, were attenuated by the muscarinic M1 receptor antagonist telenzepine (3 mg/kg, s.c.) but not by the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist N-[2-(4-2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]-N-(2-pyridyl) cyclohexanecarboxamide (WAY100635, 0.2 mg/kg, s.c.). However, the increase in dopamine release produced by 10 mg/kg AC260584 was blocked by both telenzepine and WAY100635. In addition, pretreatment with the atypical antipsychotic drug risperidone (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) potentiated AC260584 (1.0 mg/kg, s.c.)-induced acetylcholine and dopamine release in the medial prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest that the muscarinic M1 receptor agonist property of AC260584 contributes to its enhancement of cortical acetylcholine and dopamine efflux. Therefore, AC260584, as well as other muscarinic M1 receptor agonists, may be a valuable target for the development of drugs which can improve the cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and perhaps other neuropsychiatric disorders, as well. PMID:17628522

  15. Effect of diets rich in oleic acid, stearic acid and linoleic acid on postprandial haemostatic factors in young healthy men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kirsty A. Hunter; Lynn C. Crosbie; Graham W. Horgan; George J. Miller; Asim K. Dutta-Roy

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of stearic acid-, oleic acid- and linoleic acid-rich meals on postprandial haemostasis in young healthy volunteers whose background diets had been controlled for 14 d in a residential study. Six healthy male volunteers were assigned randomly to consume diets rich in stearic acid, oleic acid or linoleic acid for

  16. Molecular Structure of Picric acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-09-23

    Picric Acid was first discovered in 1771 by a British Chemist named Peter Woulfe by treatment of indigo with nitric acid. It is most commonly seen in its yellow, water-soluble, crystalline form. For this reason, picric acid first saw use as a dyeing agent in textiles. However, around 1849 it was discovered (for obvious reasons) that picric acid is a shock, heat, and friction-sensitive explosive. Its first use as an explosive material came in military weaponry: torpedoes in particular due to its shock-sensitive nature not requiring a detonator to explode on contact with a target. However, picric acid was found to be highly corrosive to metals, making the weapons very difficult to handle and the acid itself difficult to store. Today, picric acid is used more widely as an ingredient in the manufacture of inert dyes and stable explosives such as dynamite.

  17. Molecular Structure of Sorbic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2004-11-11

    Sorbic acid is a colorless or white crystalline powder, with a weak characteristic odor and slightly acidic taste. It may be obtained from berries of the mountain ash or prepared synthetically by condensing crotonaldehyde and malonic acid in pyridine solution. Sorbic acid is a polyunsaturated fat used to inhibit molds and yeast, is a fungistatic agent for foods (especially cheeses, wine and baked goods). The main use of sorbic acid is as a preservative in foods, animal feeds, tobacco, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, as well in packing materials for these substances and in other products that come in contact with human or animal skin in some way. Sorbic acid is also used as an intermediate for plasticizers and lubricants. Sorbic acid reacts with potassium to make potassium sorbate and with calcium to make calcium sorbate.

  18. Esterification by the Plasma Acidic Water: Novel Application of Plasma Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Ling

    2014-03-01

    This work explores the possibility of plasma acid as acid catalyst in organic reactions. Plasma acidic water was prepared by dielectric barrier discharge and used to catalyze esterification of n-heptanioc acid with ethanol. It is found that the plasma acidic water has a stable and better performance than sulfuric acid, meaning that it is an excellent acid catalyst. The plasma acidic water would be a promising alternative for classic mineral acid as a more environment friendly acid.

  19. Lipid metabolism in the perfused chicken liver. The uptake and metabolism of oleic acid, elaidic acid, cis-vaccenic acid, trans-vaccenic acid and stearic acid

    PubMed Central

    Bickerstaffe, R.; Annison, E. F.

    1970-01-01

    Comparative studies were made of the uptake and metabolism of cis- and trans-octadecenoic acids by the perfused chicken liver. No differences were observed in the rates of uptake of the isomers. There was considerable incorporation of radioactivity into triglycerides and phospholipids, and some release of labelled lipid into the perfusate was observed. The cis-fatty acids were more readily incorporated into triglycerides than phospholipids, the reverse being true of the trans-fatty acids. Examination of the intramolecular distribution of fatty acids in triglycerides showed that the trans-fatty acid and stearate mainly occupied the 1- and 3-positions, and cis-fatty acids the 2-position. In the phospholipids phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine the trans-fatty acids again behaved like stearic acid and favoured the 1-position. No evidence was obtained of atypical patterns of uptake or metabolism of the trans-fatty acids. PMID:5472169

  20. Vibrational structure of the polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and arachidonic acid studied by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiefer, Johannes; Noack, Kristina; Bartelmess, Juergen; Walter, Christian; Dörnenburg, Heike; Leipertz, Alfred

    2010-02-01

    The spectroscopic discrimination of the two structurally similar polyunsaturated C 20 fatty acids (PUFAs) 5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraenoic acid (arachidonic acid) is shown. For this purpose their vibrational structures are studied by means of attenuated total reflection (ATR) Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The fingerprint regions of the recorded spectra are found to be almost identical, while the C-H stretching mode regions around 3000 cm -1 show such significant differences as results of electronic and molecular structure alterations based on the different degree of saturation that both fatty acids can be clearly distinguished from each other.

  1. Metabolism of 14 C-labelled oleic acid, erucic acid and nervonic acid in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. K. Carroll

    1966-01-01

    1-14C-Oleic acid, 2-14C-erucic acid and 2-14C-nervonic acid were administered to rats by tail-vein and the distribution of radioactivity in liver lipids was determined\\u000a at intervals from 15 min to 6 hr after injection. High levels of activity were found after short time intervals which were\\u000a mainly associated with triglycerides in the case of oleic acid and with free fatty acids

  2. Growth of nitric acid hydrates on thin sulfuric acid films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, Laura T.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Wilson, Margaret A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

    1994-01-01

    Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are thought to nucleate and grow on stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs). To model this system, thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors (1-3 x 10(exp -4) Torr H2O and 1-2.5 x 10(exp -6) Torr HNO3) and subjected to cooling and heating cycles. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to probe the phase of the sulfuric acid and to identify the HNO3/H2O films that condensed. Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) was observed to grow on crystalline sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) films. NAT also condensed in/on supercooled H2SO4 films without causing crystallization of the sulfuric acid. This growth is consistent with NAT nucleation from ternary solutions as the first step in PSC formation.

  3. Structural model for gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor noncompetitive antagonist binding: widely diverse structures fit the same site.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ligong; Durkin, Kathleen A; Casida, John E

    2006-03-28

    Several major insecticides, including alpha-endosulfan, lindane, and fipronil, and the botanical picrotoxinin are noncompetitive antagonists (NCAs) for the GABA receptor. We showed earlier that human beta(3) homopentameric GABA(A) receptor recognizes all of the important GABAergic insecticides and reproduces the high insecticide sensitivity and structure-activity relationships of the native insect receptor. Despite large structural diversity, the NCAs are proposed to fit a single binding site in the chloride channel lumen lined by five transmembrane 2 segments. This hypothesis is examined with the beta(3) homopentamer by mutagenesis, pore structure studies, NCA binding, and molecular modeling. The 15 amino acids in the cytoplasmic half of the pore were mutated to cysteine, serine, or other residue for 22 mutants overall. Localization of A-1'C, A2'C, T6'C, and L9'C (index numbers for the transmembrane 2 region) in the channel lumen was established by disulfide cross-linking. Binding of two NCA radioligands [(3)H]1-(4-ethynylphenyl)-4-n-propyl-2,6,7-trioxabicyclo[2.2.2]octane and [(3)H] 3,3-bis-trifluoromethyl-bicyclo[2,2,1]heptane-2,2-dicarbonitrile was dramatically reduced with 8 of the 15 mutated positions, focusing attention on A2', T6', and L9' as proposed binding sites, consistent with earlier mutagenesis studies. The cytoplasmic half of the beta3 homopentamer pore was modeled as an alpha-helix. The six NCAs listed above plus t-butylbicyclophosphorothionate fit the 2' to 9' pore region forming hydrogen bonds with the T6' hydroxyl and hydrophobic interactions with A2', T6', and L9' alkyl substituents, thereby blocking the channel. Thus, widely diverse NCA structures fit the same GABA receptor beta subunit site with important implications for insecticide cross-resistance and selective toxicity between insects and mammals. PMID:16537435

  4. Bile Acid Metabolism and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, John Y. L.

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids are important physiological agents for intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary secretion of lipids, toxic metabolites, and xenobiotics. Bile acids also are signaling molecules and metabolic regulators that activate nuclear receptors and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling to regulate hepatic lipid, glucose, and energy homeostasis and maintain metabolic homeostasis. Conversion of cholesterol to bile acids is critical for maintaining cholesterol homeostasis and preventing accumulation of cholesterol, triglycerides, and toxic metabolites, and injury in the liver and other organs. Enterohepatic circulation of bile acids from the liver to intestine and back to the liver plays a central role in nutrient absorption and distribution, and metabolic regulation and homeostasis. This physiological process is regulated by a complex membrane transport system in the liver and intestine regulated by nuclear receptors. Toxic bile acids may cause inflammation, apoptosis, and cell death. On the other hand, bile acid-activated nuclear and GPCR signaling protects against inflammation in liver, intestine, and macrophages. Disorders in bile acid metabolism cause cholestatic liver diseases, dyslipidemia, fatty liver diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Bile acids, bile acid derivatives, and bile acid sequestrants are therapeutic agents for treating chronic liver diseases, obesity, and diabetes in humans. PMID:23897684

  5. Biophysical Properties of Phenyl Succinic Acid Derivatised Hyaluronic Acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Teresa Neves-Petersen; Søren Klitgaard; Esben Skovsen; Steffen B. Petersen; Kristoffer Tømmeraas; Khadija Schwach-Abdellaoui

    2010-01-01

    Modification of hyaluronic acid (HA) with aryl succinic anhydrides results in new biomedical properties of HA as compared\\u000a to non-modified HA, such as more efficient skin penetration, stronger binding to the skin, and the ability to blend with hydrophobic\\u000a materials. In the present study, hyaluronic acid has been derivatised with the anhydride form of phenyl succinic acid (PheSA).\\u000a The fluorescence

  6. Boswellic acid inhibits expression of acid sphingomyelinase in intestinal cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yao Zhang; Rui-Dong Duan

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Boswellic acid is a type of triterpenoids with antiinflammatory and antiproliferative properties. Sphingomyelin metabolism generates multiple lipid signals affecting cell proliferation, inflammation, and apoptosis. Upregulation of acid sphingomyelinase (SMase) has been found in several inflammation-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. METHODS: The present study is to examine the effect of 3-acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic acids (AKBA), a potent

  7. Molecular Structure of Phosphoric acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-09-10

    Phosphoric acid was first made in 1774 by K.W. Scheele and J.G. Gahn from bone ash. Phosphoric acid is made by treating calcium phosphate rock with sulfuric acid, followed by filtration. It is by this process that almost 10 tons of phosphoric acid are produced in the United States each year. The compound is primarily used to manufacture some pharmaceutical products, fertilizers and as a flavoring agent in coca-cola. The steel industry uses it to clean and rust-proof their steel. Phosphoric acid is also used in the process of soil stabilization, and as a catalyst in the production of propylene and butene polymers, ethylbenzene, and cumene. In recent years though the industry has moved away from using phosphoric acid as a ingredient in detergents because of the harmful effect that Phosphates have on lakes a process called lake eutrophication.

  8. Molecular Structure of Butyric acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-10-11

    n-Butyric acid is a substance that was isolated from butter in 1869. Butyric acid means, in Latin, the acid of butter as it was first discovered in rancid butter. It is found most commonly in butter, but can also be present in some fruits. Butyric acid is also produced synthetically, through fermentation of various carbohydrates, to be used as a flavoring agent in various food products. Applications of butyric acid are as an additive to food, flavorings, varnishes, perfumes, pharmaceuticals and disinfectants. It is also used for the production of plastics, plasticizers, surfactants and textile auxiliaries. Butyric acid and its derivatives are also being seriously considered around the world as potential anticancer agents.

  9. Butyric acid in functional constipation

    PubMed Central

    Pituch, Aleksandra; Walkowiak, Jaros?aw

    2013-01-01

    Butyric acid, a short-chain fatty acid, is a major energy source for colonocytes. It occurs in small quantities in some foods, and in the human body, it is produced in the large intestine by intestinalkacteria. This production can be reduced in some cases, for which butyric acid supplementation may be useful. So far, the use of butyric acid in the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders has been limited because of its specific characteristics such as its rancid smell and rapid absorption in the upper gastrointestinal tract. In the Polish market, sodium butyrate has been recently made available, produced by the modern technology of microencapsulation, which allows the active substance to reach the small and large intestines, where butyrate easily dissociates into butyric acid. This article presents the potential beneficial mechanisms of action of butyric acid in defecation disorders, which are primarily associated with reductions in pain during defecation and inflammation in the gut, among others. PMID:24868272

  10. Reversed-phase ion-pair HPLC determination of some water-soluble vitamins in pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Ivanovi?, D; Popovi?, A; Radulovi?, D; Medenica, M

    1999-01-01

    A reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatografic method (RP-IPC) was developed to assay some water-soluble vitamins in solution dosage forms. Vitamins of the B-group B1, B2, B3, and B6, including vitamin C were determined in Oligovit coated tablets. In Beviplex coated tablets the vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6 and p-aminobenzoic acid were analysed. Hexanesulphonic acid sodium salt and triethanolamine in water methanol were used as mobile phase with adjusting pH to 2.8 with orthophosphoric acid. Phenol was used as an internal standard. For quantitative simultaneous analysis of vitamins in pharmaceutical formulations, the method of internal standard was used. All parameters for the validation of the method are given. PMID:9925335

  11. Aqueous solubility and acidity constants of cholic, deoxycholic, chenodeoxycholic, and u rsodeoxyc ho I ic acids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoshikiyo Moroi; Hideaki Itoh

    Cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid, and ursodeoxycholic acid were purified by a foam frac- tionation method. Using thermogravimetric analysis, the at- tached water molecule was found to be completely removed from solids of the latter three at 100°C, while cholic acid still had one water molecule of crystallization per two cholic acid molecules at that temperature. The acidity constants

  12. Zirconium in sulfuric acid applications

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, R.T.; Yau, T.L.

    1986-02-01

    Zirconium is one of the few metals that resists attack by sulfuric acid at concentrations up to 75% and temperatures to boiling and above. This capability makes zirconium a good structural metal for use in 40 to 65% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ up to boiling temperatures and for weak acid concentrations at elevated temperatures. Zirconium's corrosion properties in sulfuric acid solutions are compared with nickel base alloys. Examples of applications and limitations in the use of zirconium are presented.

  13. Intestinal metabolism of fatty acids

    PubMed Central

    Enser, M.

    1965-01-01

    1. The effect of concentration on the oxidation and incorporation into lipids of lauric acid and linoleic acid by rings of rat small intestine has been studied in vitro. 2. In the absence of glucose, the oxidation of lauric acid in the range 0·01–5·0mm showed a maximum at 0·1mm. In the presence of glucose the maximum was at 0·5mm. The oxidation of linoleic acid in the presence of glucose increased throughout the concentration range 0·01–5·0mm. 3. The incorporation of lauric acid into lipids was maximal at 0·5–0·6mm in the presence of glucose, but at 10mm in the absence of glucose. At 0·8mm-lauric acid, in the presence of glucose, over 75% of the incorporated lauric acid was in triglycerides, but at 10mm they only contained 30%. The incorporation of glucose carbon into glycerides paralleled the incorporation of lauric acid. 4. In the range 0·01–2·5mm-linoleic acid the quantity incorporated into lipids increased. In the range 0·01–0·4mm linoleic acid was incorporated predominantly into triglycerides, but between 0·4 and 1·0mm most was in diglycerides, and between 2·5 and 5·0mm most was in monoglycerides. 5. The relationship of fatty acid concentration to the mechanism of absorption is discussed, together with the correlation between the distribution of the absorbed fatty acids within the tissue lipids and the lipase activity of intestinal mucosa. PMID:5837779

  14. Piezoelectricity in protein amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemanov, V. V.; Popov, S. N.; Pankova, G. A.

    2011-06-01

    The piezoelectric activity of protein amino acids and their compounds has been measured using the pulse method at a frequency of 10 MHz. It has been established that, at room temperature, the piezoelectric effect is not observed in ?-glycine (achiral amino acid) and protein amino acids of the L modification, namely, methionine, phenylalanine, and tryptophan. An assumption has been made that this phenomenon is associated with the enhanced damping of elastic vibrations excited in samples due to the piezoelectric effect.

  15. New syntheses of aminoalkylphosphonic acids 

    E-print Network

    DeBardeleben, John Frederick

    1963-01-01

    to remove any remaining benzoic acid, The aqueous layer was evaporated on a steam bath in vacuum. To the residue 100 ml, of ethyl alcohol was added. The resulting mixture was filtered while hot to remove sodium chloride. The alcohol was removed by dis.... Only three ? valine (VIII a), leucine (VIII b), and isoleucine (VIII c) ? corresponded to naturally occurring amino carboxylic acids. Mono- and dialkylmalonamidic acids (IX) were caused to react with sodium hypobromite, yielding the desired amino...

  16. Acid site promotion of mordenite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. J. Kiovsky; J. R. Goyette; T. M. Notermann

    1978-01-01

    Ammonia adsorption isotherms for H-mordenite (10:1 silica-alumina) and partially dealuminated H-mordenite (13:1 silica-alumina) showed that dealumination generated new strong acid sites, in contrast to dealumination of Y-zeolite, which decreases first the weak and then the stronger acid sites. An IR spectroscopic study of 13:1 and 16:1 silica-alumina mordenites showed that the number of both Lewis and Broensted strong acid sites

  17. Alkali-isomerized linoleic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Terry; D. H. Wheeler

    1946-01-01

    Summary  Alkali-isomerized linoleic acid and its methyl ester have been found to have boiling points higher than the corresponding\\u000a normal C18 acids and esters.\\u000a \\u000a By careful fractional distillation of methyl esters of alkali-isomerized C18 cottonseed acids, methyl linoleate of 95% or more purity is obtained consisting of 75% conjugated methyl linoleate and some\\u000a 20% of methyl ester of an altered linoleic

  18. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carol A. Roa Engel; Adrie J. J. Straathof; Tiemen W. Zijlmans; Walter M. van Gulik; Luuk A. M. van der Wielen

    2008-01-01

    The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric\\u000a acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical\\u000a process yields 112% w\\/w fumaric acid from maleic anhydride and the fermentation process yields only 85% w\\/w from glucose, the latter raw

  19. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 68 - Table of Toxic Endpoints

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...011 7647-01-0 Hydrochloric acid (conc 37% or greater) 0.030...Propyl chloroformate [Carbonochloridic acid, propylester] 0.010 75-55-8...108-05-4 Vinyl acetate monomer [Acetic acid ethenyl ester] 0.26 [61...

  20. Molecular Structure of Propionic acid

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2002-10-11

    Propanoic acid was named after the Greek word "Pro" for first and "pion" for fat, because it is the first fatty acid. It is a liquid and has a slightly pungent odor that can be characterized as rancid. Sweat, milk, and fermentation products all contain small amounts of this chemical. It can be synthesized from ethanol or ethylene and carbon monoxide. The calcium salt of propanoic acid is used as an antimolding agent and is an additive in breads. Esters of this carboxylic acid have a pleasant smell and taste and are used in the manufacture of fruit flavors and perfume bases. This compound is also found in a herbicide, called Silverado.