These are representative sample records from Science.gov related to your search topic.
For comprehensive and current results, perform a real-time search at Science.gov.
1

Inhibitors of dihydropteroate synthase: substituent effects in the side-chain aromatic ring of 6-[[3-(aryloxy)propyl]amino]-5-nitrosoisocytosines and synthesis and inhibitory potency of bridged 5-nitrosoisocytosine-p-aminobenzoic acid analogues.  

PubMed

We previously reported that 6-(methylamino)-5-nitrosoisocytosine (5) is a potent inhibitor (I50 = 1.6 microM) of Escherichia coli dihydropteroate synthase. It was noted that 6-amino substituents larger than methyl were detrimental to binding, although the adverse steric effect could be overcome by a positive ancillary binding contribution of a phenyl ring attached at the terminus of certain 6-alkylamino substituents. We selected the 6-[[3-(aryloxy)propyl]amino]-5-nitrosoisocytosine structure as a parent system and explored the effects of aromatic substituents on synthase inhibition. The nature of the aryl substitution influences binding, as shown by a 30-fold range of inhibitory potencies observed for the 15 aryl analogues (I50 values = 0.6-18 microM), although there is no apparent correlation between synthase inhibition and the electronic or hydrophobic characteristics of the aryl substituents. To explore the possibility that the aryl ring of these inhibitors might interact with the synthase binding site for the substrate p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), three compounds were synthesized in which a PABA analogue is bridged to the nitrosoisocytosine moiety by linkage to an amino group at C-6 of the isocytosine. The bridged analogues significantly inhibited the synthase (I50 values = 2.5-8.9 microM) but were of unexceptional potency compared with other members of the (aryloxy)propyl series. Structure-activity considerations and inhibition kinetics did not support the PABA binding site as the synthase region that interacts with the aryl ring of these inhibitors. Despite the potent synthase inhibition exhibited by many of the nitrosoisocytosines studied, none of the 18 new analogues showed significant antibacterial activity. PMID:3486292

Lever, O W; Bell, L N; Hyman, C; McGuire, H M; Ferone, R

1986-05-01

2

The solubilization of some local anaesthetic ester of p-aminobenzoic acid by lysophosphatidylcholine.  

PubMed

The solubilization by lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) of three n-alkyl esters of p-aminobenzoic acid has been studied. These esters have a local anaesthetic action. Quantitative studies show that the amount of compound solubilized is proportional to the LPC concentration and that solubilization increases in the order ethyl, n-propyl and n-butyl ester. 100MHz nmr studies indicate that the local anaesthetic esters are solubilized in the hydrocarbon interior of the LPC. PMID:237071

Hunt, M J; Saunders, L

1975-02-01

3

Synthesis, crystal structure and biological activity of 2-hydroxyethylammonium salt of p-aminobenzoic acid.  

PubMed

p-Aminobenzoic acid (pABA) plays important roles in a wide variety of metabolic processes. Herein we report the synthesis, theoretical calculations, crystallographic investigation, and in vitro determination of the biological activity and phytotoxicity of the pABA salt, 2-hydroxyethylammonium p-aminobenzoate (HEA-pABA). The ability of neutral and anionic forms of pABA to interact with TIR1 pocket was investigated by calculation of molecular electrostatic potential maps on the accessible surface area, docking experiments, Molecular Dynamics and Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics calculations. The docking study of the folate precursor pABA, its anionic form and natural auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) with the auxin receptor TIR1 revealed a similar binding mode in the active site. The phytotoxic evaluation of HEA-pABA, pABA and 2-hydroxyethylamine (HEA) was performed on the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Col 0 at five different concentrations. HEA-pABA and pABA acted as potential auxin-like regulators of root development in Arabidopsis thaliana (0.1 and 0.2 mM) and displayed an agravitropic root response at high concentration (2 mM). This study suggests that HEA-pABA and pABA might be considered as potential new regulators of plant growth. PMID:25054237

Crisan, Manuela E; Bourosh, Paulina; Maffei, Massimo E; Forni, Alessandra; Pieraccini, Stefano; Sironi, Maurizio; Chumakov, Yurii M

2014-01-01

4

Nitrofurantoin-p-aminobenzoic acid cocrystal: hydration stability and dissolution rate studies.  

PubMed

Nitrofurantoin (NF) drug is known to transform to a hydrate form in aqueous medium. The hydration stability and dissolution rate of a few cocrystals of NF were compared with that of its stable ? polymorph and hydrate form II. Hydrogen bonding and molecular packing in the novel cocrystal structures were analyzed. Pharmaceutical cocrystals of NF with p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) and urea showed superior physicochemical properties compared with the known L-arginine salt hydrate. All the solid-state adducts were characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis. NF-PABA cocrystal was found to be superior among the compounds studied in terms of minimal transformation to NF hydrate and comparable dissolution rate to the reference drug. PMID:21425165

Cherukuvada, Suryanarayan; Babu, N Jagadeesh; Nangia, Ashwini

2011-08-01

5

Virulence studies of Aspergillus nidulans mutants requiring lysine or p-aminobenzoic acid in invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.  

PubMed Central

To identify steps in fungal intermediary metabolism required by Aspergillus spp. during invasive pulmonary aspergillosis, we have developed murine models involving Aspergillus nidulans as the inoculum. The advantages of using A. nidulans over Aspergillus fumigatus or Aspergillus flavus, which are the most common agents of clinical disease, are the well-understood genetics of A. nidulans and a large range of mutants of this species which are affected in a variety of metabolic pathways. Comparison of the virulence of A. nidulans strains carrying mutations which block the biosynthesis of lysine (lysA2) and p-aminobenzoic acid (pabaA1) shows that lysA2 strains have reduced virulence while pabaA1 strains are entirely nonpathogenic. The pathogenicity of pabaA1 strains can be restored by supplementing the drinking water of animals with p-aminobenzoic acid. The results indicate that the availability of lysine in the lung is limited, and p-aminobenzoic acid is probably not available at all. Thus, models of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis involving A. nidulans can be used to identify metabolic pathways that may be essential for the pathogenicity of A. fumigatus, the predominant pathogenic species, suggesting potential new targets for antifungal therapy. Images PMID:7960102

Tang, C M; Smith, J M; Arst, H N; Holden, D W

1994-01-01

6

Lanthanide contraction and pH value controlled structural change in a series of rare earth complexes with p-aminobenzoic acid  

E-print Network

Lanthanide contraction and pH value controlled structural change in a series of rare earth,*, Kai-Bei Yub a State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Materials Chemistry and Applications, College 2004 Abstract A series of rare earth complexes with p-aminobenzoic acid (HL) have been synthesized: [RE

Gao, Song

7

Adsorption Studies of p-Aminobenzoic Acid on the Anatase TiO2(101) Surface.  

PubMed

The adsorption of p-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) on the anatase TiO2(101) surface has been investigated using synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy, near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy, and density functional theory (DFT). Photoelectron spectroscopy indicates that the molecule is adsorbed in a bidentate mode through the carboxyl group following deprotonation. NEXAFS spectroscopy and DFT calculations of the adsorption structures indicate the ordering of a monolayer of the amino acid on the surface with the plane of the ring in an almost upright orientation. The adsorption of pABA on nanoparticulate TiO2 leads to a red shift of the optical absorption relative to bare TiO2 nanoparticles. DFT and valence band photoelectron spectroscopy suggest that the shift is attributed to the presence of the highest occupied molecular orbitals in the TiO2 band gap region and the presence of new molecularly derived states near the foot of the TiO2 conduction band. PMID:25254628

Thomas, Andrew G; Jackman, Mark J; Wagstaffe, Michael; Radtke, Hanna; Syres, Karen; Adell, Johan; Lévy, Anna; Martsinovich, Natalia

2014-10-21

8

Surface chemical modification on hyper-cross-linked resin by hydrophilic carbonyl and hydroxyl groups to be employed as a polymeric adsorbent for adsorption of p-aminobenzoic acid from aqueous solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, a novel hyper-cross-linked HJ-Y10 resin was synthesized and its adsorption behaviors for p-aminobenzoic acid were investigated from aqueous solution. The results indicated that the skeleton surface of HJ-Y10 resin was modified by formaldehyde carbonyl, quinone carbonyl and phenolic hydroxyl groups, the unadjusted p-aminobenzoic acid solution was favorable for the adsorption, the isotherms could be fitted by Langmuir

Xiaomei Wang; Jianhan Huang; Kelong Huang

2010-01-01

9

Laccase-induced C-N coupling of substituted p-hydroquinones with p-aminobenzoic acid in comparison with known chemical routes.  

PubMed

Fungal laccases (benzenediol:oxygen oxidoreductase, EC 1.10.3.2) from Pycnoporus cinnabarinus and Myceliophthora thermophila were used as biocatalysts for enzymatic reaction of halogen-, alkyl-, alkoxy-, and carbonyl-substituted p-hydroquinones (laccase substrates) with p-aminobenzoic acid (no laccase substrate). During this reaction, the laccase substrate was oxidized to the corresponding quinones, which react with p-aminobenzoic acid by amination of the laccase substrate. The different substitutions at the hydroquinone substrates were used to prove whether the substituents influence the position of amination and product yields. The cross-coupling of methoxy-p-hydroquinone (alkoxylated) and 2,5-dihydroxybenzaldehyd (carbonyl-substituted) with p-aminobenzoic acid resulted in the formation of one monoaminated product (yield alkoxylated 52%). If monohalogen- or monoalkyl-substituted p-hydroquinones were used as laccase substrates, two monoaminated products (constitution isomers) were formed. The simultaneous formation of two different monoaminated products from the same hydroquinone substrate is the first report for laccase-mediated synthesis of aminated constitution isomers. Depending from the type of substituent of the hydroquinone, the positions of the two monoaminations are different. While the amination at the monoalkylated hydroquinone occurs at the 5- and 6-positions (yield 38%), the amination at monohalogenated hydroquinones was detectable at the 3- and 5-positions (yield 53%). The same product pattern could be achieved if instead of the biocatalyst laccase the chemical catalyst sodium iodate was used as the oxidant. However, the yields were partially much lower (0-45% of the yields with laccase). PMID:18668239

Mikolasch, Annett; Matthies, Anastasia; Lalk, Michael; Schauer, Frieder

2008-09-01

10

Interaction of P-aminobenzoic acid with normal and sickel erythrocyte membrane: photoaffinity labelling of the binding sites  

SciTech Connect

Electron microscopic studies revealed that P-Amino benzoic acid (PABA) could prevent eichinocytosis of red cells in vitro. Equilibrium binding studies with right side out membrane vesicles (ROV) revealed a similar number of binding sites (1.2-1.4 ..mu..mol/mg) and Kd (1.4-1.6 mM) values for both normal and sickle cell membranes. /sup 14/C-Azide analogue of PABA was synthesized as a photoaffinity label to probe its sites of interaction on the erythrocyte membranes. Competitive binding studies of PABA with its azide indicated that both the compounds share common binding sites on the membrane surface since a 20 fold excess of azide inhibited PABA binding in a linear fashion. The azide was covalently incorporated into the membrane components only upon irradiation (52-35% of the label found in the proteins and the rest in lipids). Electrophoretic analysis of photolabelled ROV revealed that the azide interacts chiefly with Band 3 protein. PABA inhibited both high and low affinity calcium (Ca) binding sites situated on either surface of the membrane in a non-competitive manner; however, Ca binding stimulated by Mg-ATP was not affected. Ca transport into inside out vesicles was inhibited by PABA; but it did not affect the calcium ATP-ase activity. The authors studies suggest that the mechanism of action of PABA is mediated by its interaction with Band 3 protein (anion channel), calcium channel and calcium binding sites of erythrocyte membrane.

Premachandra, B.R.

1986-03-05

11

[Modification of hyaluronic acid with aromatic amino acids].  

PubMed

Hyaluronic acid was modified with aromatic amino acids (5-aminosalicylic, 4-aminosalicylic, anthranilic, and p-aminobenzoic) in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide. The modified glycans contained 9-43% of arylamide groups and 10-33% of isoureidocarbonyl groups depending on the nature of the amino acid. Reduction with sodium borohydride allowed the conversion of isoureidocarbonyl groups into hydroxymethyl groups. PMID:15787219

Ponedel'kina, I Iu; Odinokov, V N; Vakhrusheva, E S; Golikova, M T; Khalilov, L M; Dzhemilov, U M

2005-01-01

12

BIOCHEMICAL AND GENETIC CHARACTERIZATION OF AN EARLY STEP IN A NOVEL PATHWAY FOR THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF AROMATIC AMINO ACIDS AND P-AMINOBENZOIC ACID IN THE ARCHAEON METHANOCOCCUS MARIPALUDIS  

EPA Science Inventory

Methanococcus maripaludis is a strictly anaerobic, methane-producing archaeon and facultative autotroph capable of biosynthesizing all the amino acids and vitamins required for growth. In this work, the novel 6-deoxy-5-ketofructose-1-phosphate (DKFP) pathway for the biosynthesis ...

13

Metabolism of the Folate Precursor p-Aminobenzoate in Plants  

PubMed Central

Plants produce p-aminobenzoate (pABA) in chloroplasts and use it for folate synthesis in mitochondria. In plant tissues, however, pABA is known to occur predominantly as its glucose ester (pABA-Glc), and the role of this metabolite in folate synthesis has not been defined. In this study, the UDP-glucose:pABA acyl-glucosyltransferase (pAGT) activity in Arabidopsis extracts was found to reside principally (95%) in one isoform with an apparent Km for pABA of 0.12 mm. Screening of recombinant Arabidopsis UDP-glycosyltransferases identified only three that recognized pABA. One of these (UGT75B1) exhibited a far higher kcat/Km value than the others and a far lower apparent Km for pABA (0.12 mm), suggesting its identity with the principal enzyme in vivo. Supporting this possibility, ablation of UGT75B1 reduced extractable pAGT activity by 95%, in vivo [14C]pABA glucosylation by 77%, and the endogenous pABA-Glc/pABA ratio by 9-fold. The Keq for the pABA esterification reaction was found to be 3 × 10-3. Taken with literature data on the cytosolic location of pAGT activity and on cytosolic UDP-glucose/UDP ratios, this Keq value allowed estimation that only 4% of cytosolic pABA is esterified. That pABA-Glc predominates in planta therefore implies that it is sequestered away from the cytosol and, consistent with this possibility, vacuoles isolated from [14C]pABA-fed pea leaves were estimated to contain?88% of the [14C]pABA-Glc formed. In total, these data and the fact that isolated mitochondria did not take up [3H]pABA-Glc, suggest that the glucose ester represents a storage form of pABA that does not contribute directly to folate synthesis. PMID:18385129

Eudes, Aymerick; Bozzo, Gale G.; Waller, Jeffrey C.; Naponelli, Valeria; Lim, Eng-Kiat; Bowles, Dianna J.; Gregory, Jesse F.; Hanson, Andrew D.

2008-01-01

14

A study of molecular complex formation between propyl gallate and ascorbic acid in the microemulsion phase of sodium dodecyl sulfate, pentanol and water system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between two water-soluble antioxidants, i.e. ascorbic acid and propyl gallate have been studied by absorption spectroscopy in microemulsion formed in sodium dodecyl sulfate\\/pentanol\\/water micellar system. It has been shown that propyl gallate forms 1:1 molecular complex with ascorbic acid in every solution. Evolution of the absorption spectra during the study of molecular complex formation goes through well-defined isosbestic

M. Szymula; S. Radzki

2004-01-01

15

SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF METAL COMPLEXES OF P,P?DI[3-(TRIMETHYLSILYL)-1PROPYL] METHYLENEDIPHOSPHONIC ACID  

Microsoft Academic Search

The silicon-substituted diphosphonic acid P,P?-di[3-(trimethyl-silyl)-1-propyl] methylenediphosphonic acid, H2DTMSP-[MDP], reacts with metal nitrates in methanol to form complexes M2(DTMSP[MDP])3 for M?Fe, Eu and Yb and M(DTMSP[MDP])2 for M?Th. The sodium salt, Na2-(DTMSP[MDP]), forms upon neutralization of H2DTMSP-[MDP] with NaOH. The calcium salt, Ca(DTMSP[MDP]), forms upon addition of the aqueous metal nitrate to an equivalent amount of the neutralized ligand in methanol.

Daniel R. McAlister; Albert W. Herlinger; John R. Ferraro; Mark L. Dietz

2002-01-01

16

Silica-bonded N-propyl sulfamic acid used as a heterogeneous catalyst for transesterification of soybean oil with methanol.  

PubMed

The transesterification of soybean oil with methanol was carried out, to produce biodiesel, over silica-bonded N-propyl sulfamic acid in a heterogeneous manner. Results showed that a maximum conversion of 90.5% was achieved using a 1:20 M ratio of soybean oil to methanol and a catalyst amount of 7.5 wt.% at 423 K for 60 h. It was found that the free fatty acid (FFA) and water present in the feedstock had no significant influence on the catalytic activity to the transesterification reaction. Besides, the catalyst also showed activities towards the esterification reaction of FFAs, in terms of the FFA conversion of 95.6% at 423 K for 30 h. Furthermore, the catalyst could be recovered with a better reusability. PMID:21871795

Xie, Wenlei; Yang, Dong

2011-10-01

17

Fabrication of calcium phosphate-calcium sulfate injectable bone substitute using hydroxy-propyl-methyl-cellulose and citric acid  

PubMed Central

In this study, an injectable bone substitute (IBS) consisting of citric acid, chitosan, and hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) as the liquid phase and tetra calcium phosphate (TTCP), dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) and calcium sulfate dehydrate (CSD, CaSO4·2H2O) powders as the solid phase, were fabricated. Two groups were classified based on the percent of citric acid in the liquid phase (20, 40 wt%). In each groups, the HPMC percentage was 0, 2, and 4 wt%. An increase in compressive strength due to changes in morphology was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy images. A good conversion rate of HAp at 20% citric acid was observed in the XRD profiles. In addition, HPMC was not obviously affected by apatite formation. However, both HPMC and citric acid increased the compressive strength of IBS. The maximum compressive strength for IBS was with 40% citric acid and 4% HPMC after 14 days of incubation in 100% humidity at 37°C. PMID:20333539

Thai, Van Viet

2010-01-01

18

Silica-bonded N-propyl sulfamic acid as an efficient catalyst for the formylation and acetylation of alcohols and amines under heterogeneous conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and efficient procedure for the preparation of silica-bonded N-propyl sulfamic acid (SBNPSA) by the reaction of 3-aminopropylsilica (1) and chlorosulfonic acid in chloroform is described. This solid acid is employed as a new catalyst for the formylation of alcohols and amines with ethyl formate under mild and heterogeneous conditions at room temperature with good to excellent yields. Also,

Khodabakhsh Niknam; Dariush Saberi

2009-01-01

19

Corrosion inhibition behavior of propyl phosphonic acid-Zn2+ system for carbon steel in aqueous solution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effectiveness of propyl phosphonic acid (PPA) as a corrosion inhibitor in association with a bivalent cation like Zn2+ has been studied. An eco-friendly inhibitor in controlling corrosion of carbon steel in neutral aqueous medium in the absence and presence of Zn2+ has been evaluated by gravimetric method. Impedance studies of the metal/solution interface indicated that the surface film is highly protective against the corrosion of carbon steel in the aqueous environment. Potentiodynamic polarization studies showed that the inhibitor is a mixed inhibitor. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis (XPS) of the protective film exhibited the presence of the elements viz., iron, phosphorus, oxygen, carbon and zinc. The chemical shifts in the binding energies of these elements inferred that the surface film is composed of oxides/hydroxides of iron(III), Zn(OH)2 and [Fe(II)/(III)-Zn(II)-PPA] complex. Further, the surface analysis techniques viz., FT-IR, AFM and SEM studies confirm the formation of an adsorbed protective film on the carbon steel surface. Based on all these results, a plausible mechanism of corrosion inhibition is proposed.

Prabakaran, M.; Venkatesh, M.; Ramesh, S.; Periasamy, V.

2013-07-01

20

Synthesis and characterization of metal complexes of P, P{sup prime}DI[3-(trimethylsilyl)-1-propyl] methylenediphosphonic acid{double_dagger}  

Microsoft Academic Search

The silicon-substituted diphosphonic acid P,P'-di[3-(trimethyl-silyl)-1-propyl] methylenediphosphonic acid, H2DTMSP-[MDP], reacts with metal nitrates in methanol to form complexes M2(DTMSP[MDP])3 for M=Fe, Eu and Yb and M(DTMSP[MDP])2 for M=Th. The sodium salt, Na2-(DTMSP[MDP]), forms upon neutralization of H2DTMSP-[MDP] with NaOH. The calcium salt, Ca(DTMSP[MDP]), forms upon addition of the aqueous metal nitrate to an equivalent amount of the neutralized ligand in methanol.

D. R. McAlister; A. W. Herlinger; J. R. Ferraro; M. L. Dietz

2002-01-01

21

SWELLING OF PEATS IN LIQUID METHYL, TETRAMETHYLENE AND PROPYL SULFOXIDES AND IN LIQUID PROPYL SULFONE  

EPA Science Inventory

The interactions of methyl, tetramethylene, and propyl sulfoxides and propyl sulfone during sorption onto four dewaxed, acid-form peats have been studied by meas of swelling measurements. The results for sulfoxides are displayed as heteromolecular sorption isotherms, which plot a...

22

SWELLING OF PEATS IN LIQUID METHYL, TETRAMETHYLENE AND PROPYL SULFOXIDES AND IN LIQUID PROPYL SULFONE  

EPA Science Inventory

The interactions of methyl, tetramethylene, and propyl sulfoxides and propyl sulfone during sorption onto four de-waxed, acid-form peats have been studied by means of swelling measurements. The results for sulfoxides are displayed as het-eromolecular sorption isotherms, which plo...

23

Synthesis and characterization of metal complexes of P, P{sup prime}-DI[3-(trimethylsilyl)-1-propyl] methylenediphosphonic acid{double_dagger}.  

SciTech Connect

The silicon-substituted diphosphonic acid P,P'-di[3-(trimethyl-silyl)-1-propyl] methylenediphosphonic acid, H2DTMSP-[MDP], reacts with metal nitrates in methanol to form complexes M2(DTMSP[MDP])3 for M=Fe, Eu and Yb and M(DTMSP[MDP])2 for M=Th. The sodium salt, Na2-(DTMSP[MDP]), forms upon neutralization of H2DTMSP-[MDP] with NaOH. The calcium salt, Ca(DTMSP[MDP]), forms upon addition of the aqueous metal nitrate to an equivalent amount of the neutralized ligand in methanol. Elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements were used to characterize the compounds. Frequency shifts in the asymmetric and symmetric POO- stretching bands of the Fe, Eu, Yb and Th compounds indicate symmetrical coordination of the phosphonate groups through chelate and/or bridging interactions. The frequency difference between these stretching bands becomes smaller as the ionic potential (e/r) of the metal ion increases.

McAlister, D. R.; Herlinger, A. W.; Ferraro, J. R.; Dietz, M. L.; Chemistry; Loyola Univ.

2002-02-01

24

Final Report On the Safety Assessment of Glycolic Acid, Ammonium, Calcium, Potassium, and Sodium Glycolates, Methyl, Ethyl, Propyl, and Butyl Glycolates, and Lactic Acid, Ammonium, Calcium, Potassium, Sodium, and Tea-Lactates, Methyl, Ethyl, Isopropyl, and Butyl Lactates, and Lauryl, Myristyl, and Cetyl Lactates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report provides a review of the safety of Glycolic Acid, Ammonium, Calcium, Potassium, and Sodium Glycolates, Methyl, Ethyl, Propyl, and Butyl Glycolates, Lactic Acid, Ammonium, Calcium, Potassium, Sodium, and TEA-Lactates, and Lauryl, Myristyl, and Cetyl Lactates. These ingredients belong to a group known as alpha-hydroxy acids (AHAs). Products containing these ingredients may be for consumer use, salon use, or

F. A. Andersen

1998-01-01

25

Extraction of gold(III), palladium(II), and platinum(IV) by 1-[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-propyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-ylmethyl]-1 H -1,2,4-triazole from hydrochloric acid solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of gold(III), palladium(II), and platinum(IV) with 1-[[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-propyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl]methyl]-1H-1,2,4-triazole from hydrochloric acid solutions into toluene has been studied. The extraction follows the anion-exchange\\u000a mechanism. The concentration constants and thermodynamic parameters of the extraction reaction have been calculated. The reagent\\u000a is proposed for use in the extraction of the sum of precious metals.

R. A. Khisamutdinov; Yu. I. Murinov; O. V. Shitikova

2007-01-01

26

Synthesis and biological activity of open-chain analogues of 5,6,7,8-tetrahydrofolic acid--potential antitumor agents.  

PubMed

This study describes the synthesis and in vitro antitumor activity of inhibitors of purine de novo biosynthesis that are analogues of N-[4-[[3-(2,4-diamino-1,6-dihydro-6-oxo-5-pyrimidinyl) propyl]amino]benzoyl-L-glutamic acid (5-DACTHF). Benzene ring substituted analogues were synthesized from a protected pyrimidinyl propionaldehyde and a substituted benzoyl glutamate moiety by a key reductive amination step. Pyrimidine and linking chain substituted analogues were built up stepwise from p-aminobenzoic acid or analogues. The compounds were tested as inhibitors of methotrexate uptake as a measure of binding to the reduced folate transport system, as inhibitors of glycinamide ribonucleotide transformylase, as substrates for folylpolyglutamate synthetase, and as inhibitors of tumor cell growth in cell culture. With the exception of 2'-F substituent, the ring-substituted analogues are less active than the parent compound. Replacement of the 10-nitrogen by carbon, sulfur, or oxygen produced less than 2-fold changes to biological activity in vitro. A four-atom linking chain and an amino group at the 2-position on the pyrimidine ring are important for good activity. PMID:1573633

Bigham, E C; Hodson, S J; Mallory, W R; Wilson, D; Duch, D S; Smith, G K; Ferone, R

1992-04-17

27

Mixed Ligand Complexes of Chromium(III), Manganese(III), Iron(III) And Cobalt(III) With Dipicolinic Acid and Some Monobasic Bidentate Nitrogen, Oxygen Donor Ligands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mixed-ligand complexes of trivalent chromium, manganese, iron and cobalt of type [M(dipic)(N-O)] nH2O (Where dipicH2 = pyridine-2, 6-dicarboxylic acid or dipicolinic acid; N-OH represents different nitrogen, oxygen donor ligands viz., picolinic acid, nicotinic acid, isonicotinic acid, glycine, aminophenol, o-aminobenzoic acid or p-aminobenzoic acid) have been prepared and characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility measurements and spectral

S. K. Sengupta; S. K. Sahni; R. N. Kapoor

1983-01-01

28

Determination of efficacy of fingermark enhancement reagents; the use of propyl chloroformate for the derivatization of fingerprint amino acids extracted from paper.  

PubMed

The analysis of the constituents of fingerprints has been described numerous times, mainly with the purpose of determining the aging effect on fingerprints or showing the differences between donors or groups of donors. In this paper we describe the use of derivatized amino acids to determine the efficacy of the visualization reagents 1,8-diazafluoren-9-one (DFO) and ninhydrin. At present certain conditions are used for the application of these reagents, as determined by trial-and-error investigations, to the effect on fingerprints. The recovery of amino acids from a porous surface can be used as a measure for the efficacy of a visualization agent. In this paper we describe a method for the determination of the amount of amino acid left after reaction with well known fingerprint visualization reagents. This will allow a more scientific approach to method development for fingermark enhancement techniques. Furthermore, investigations on the influence of the concentration of fingermark amino acids, the order of application of and exposure time to reagents and the influence of age of the amino acids were carried out. These studies have resulted in a broader understanding of the mechanism involved in visualization of fingermarks using DFO and ninhydrin. PMID:23937938

Mink, Tineke; Voorhaar, Annelies; Stoel, Reinoud; de Puit, Marcel

2013-09-01

29

GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) Food Ingredients: Propyl Gallate.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes the available scientific literature from 1920 to 1972, related to the 'safety' of propyl gallate as a food ingredient. Chemical information, biological data, and biochemical aspects of propyl gallate are given in a 48 page summary co...

1972-01-01

30

1-Methyl-1-propyl-pyrrolidinium chloride  

PubMed Central

The aymmetric unit of the title compound, C8H18N+·Cl?, consists of one crystallographically independent 1-methyl-1-propyl­pyrrolidinium cation and one chloride anion, both of which lie in general positions. Minor hydrogen-bonded C—H?Cl inter­actions occur. However, no classical hydrogen bonding is observed. PMID:21201968

Dean, Pamela M.; Pringle, Jennifer M.; MacFarlane, Douglas R.

2008-01-01

31

Room-temperature luminescence of the volatile compounds, 1- and 2-naphthol, and other compounds, 5,6-benzoquinoline, 4-phenylphenol, phenanthrene, triphenylene, and p-aminobenzoic acid, adsorbed on filter paper treated with salts and cyclodextrins  

SciTech Connect

1- and 2-Naphthol are known to volatilize upon heating along with solvents such as ethanol and water. Filter paper, treated with salts and cyclodextrins, was shown to be capable of trapping these volatile phosphors efficiently on filter paper and permitting strong luminescence signals to be observed. Filter paper samples treated with and without cyclodextrins were compared on the basis of their ability to induce room-temperature fluorescence and phosphorescence from adsorbed naphthols and five other organic compounds. Also, the effect of heavy-atom salt, NaBr, on the phosphorescence intensities of phosphors adsorbed on the filter paper surfaces was studied.

Ramasamy, S.M.; Hurtubise, R.J. (Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States))

1989-01-01

32

Adsorption of aromatic organic acids onto high area activated carbon cloth in relation to wastewater purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adsorption of aromatic organic acids: benzoic acid (BA), salicylic acid (SA), p-aminobenzoic acid (pABA) and nicotinic acid (NA), onto high area activated carbon cloth from solutions in 0.4M H2SO4, in water at natural pH, in 0.1M NaOH and also from solutions having pH 7.0 were studied by in situ UV-spectroscopic technique. The first-order rate law was found to be applicable

Erol Ayranci; Osman Duman

2006-01-01

33

Alkylation of aniline with n -propyl alcohol over zeolites  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alkylation of aniline withn-propyl alcohol over ZSM-5 and Y zeolites has been studied. Ce-exchanged Y zeolites proved to be the most active for the alkylation of aniline byn-propyl alcohol. The reaction of N-propylaniline over zeolites has been investigated. N-alkylaniline decomposed over zeolites to aniline and alkene, which in turn rearrange to C-alkylanilines.n-Propyl derivatives were formed through an SN2 type

R. B. C. Pillai

1996-01-01

34

Detection of a branched alkyl molecule in the interstellar medium: iso-propyl cyanide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The largest noncyclic molecules detected in the interstellar medium (ISM) are organic with a straight-chain carbon backbone. We report an interstellar detection of a branched alkyl molecule, iso-propyl cyanide (i-C3H7CN), with an abundance 0.4 times that of its straight-chain structural isomer. This detection suggests that branched carbon-chain molecules may be generally abundant in the ISM. Our astrochemical model indicates that both isomers are produced within or upon dust grain ice mantles through the addition of molecular radicals, albeit via differing reaction pathways. The production of iso-propyl cyanide appears to require the addition of a functional group to a nonterminal carbon in the chain. Its detection therefore bodes well for the presence in the ISM of amino acids, for which such side-chain structure is a key characteristic.

Belloche, Arnaud; Garrod, Robin T.; Müller, Holger S. P.; Menten, Karl M.

2014-09-01

35

Detection of a branched alkyl molecule in the interstellar medium: iso-propyl cyanide.  

PubMed

The largest noncyclic molecules detected in the interstellar medium (ISM) are organic with a straight-chain carbon backbone. We report an interstellar detection of a branched alkyl molecule, iso-propyl cyanide (i-C3H7CN), with an abundance 0.4 times that of its straight-chain structural isomer. This detection suggests that branched carbon-chain molecules may be generally abundant in the ISM. Our astrochemical model indicates that both isomers are produced within or upon dust grain ice mantles through the addition of molecular radicals, albeit via differing reaction pathways. The production of iso-propyl cyanide appears to require the addition of a functional group to a nonterminal carbon in the chain. Its detection therefore bodes well for the presence in the ISM of amino acids, for which such side-chain structure is a key characteristic. PMID:25258074

Belloche, Arnaud; Garrod, Robin T; Müller, Holger S P; Menten, Karl M

2014-09-26

36

Detection of a branched alkyl molecule in the interstellar medium: iso-propyl cyanide  

E-print Network

The largest non-cyclic molecules detected in the interstellar medium (ISM) are organic with a straight-chain carbon backbone. We report an interstellar detection of a branched alkyl molecule, iso-propyl cyanide (i-C3H7CN), with an abundance 0.4 times that of its straight-chain structural isomer. This detection suggests that branched carbon-chain molecules may be generally abundant in the ISM. Our astrochemical model indicates that both isomers are produced within or upon dust grain ice mantles through the addition of molecular radicals, albeit via differing reaction pathways. The production of iso-propyl cyanide appears to require the addition of a functional group to a non-terminal carbon in the chain. Its detection therefore bodes well for the presence in the ISM of amino acids, for which such side-chain structure is a key characteristic.

Belloche, Arnaud; Müller, Holger S P; Menten, Karl M

2014-01-01

37

Potentiometric and coulometric titration of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil.  

PubMed

A method for the determination of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil involving its reaction with iodine in an alkaline medium is presented. In volumetric titration with potentiometric end-point detection, the range of determination is 125-500 mumol (21-85 mg). In coulometric titration using biamperometric end-point detection, 0.5-5.0 mumol (0.085-0.85 mg) of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil was successfully determined. The RSD in all applied techniques was < 1%. The methods developed were applied to the determination of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil in tablets. PMID:9246819

Ciesielski, W; Zakrzewski, R

1997-05-01

38

Potentiometric and Coulometric Titration of 6Propyl2Thiouracil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method for the determination of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil involving its reaction with iodine in an alkaline medium is presented. In volumetric titration with potentiometric end-point detection, the range of determination is 125-500 mmol (21-85 mg). In coulometric titration using biamperometric end-point detection, 0.5-5.0mmol (0.085-0.85 mg) of 6-propyl-2-thiouracil was successfully determined. The RSD in all applied techniques was < 1%. The methods

Witold Ciesielski; Robert Zakrzewski

1997-01-01

39

The photo-oxidations of propyl acetates in synthetic air-HONO-NOx mixtures: Product formation studies and proposed kinetic mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of products following the hydroxyl radical initiated photo-oxidations of n-and isopropyl acetates has been studied. Mixtures of synthetic air containing a few ppm of nitrous acid, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide and one of the propyl acetates were irradiated with sunlamps in a Teflon bag smog chamber. The decay of reactants and the formation of products was monitored by

J. Alistair Kerr; David W. Stocker

1986-01-01

40

Poly (vinyl alcohol)/3-(trimethylammonium) propyl-functionalized silica hybrid membranes for alkaline  

E-print Network

Poly (vinyl alcohol)/3-(trimethylammonium) propyl-functionalized silica hybrid membranes (DEFC) Alkaline membranes Poly(vinyl alcohol) a b s t r a c t A novel hybrid membrane based on poly (vinyl alcohol)/3-(trimethylammonium) propyl- functionalized silica (PVA-TMAPS) is prepared by a simple

Zhao, Tianshou

41

N-[4-(Propyl-sulfamo-yl)phen-yl]acetamide  

PubMed Central

In the title compound, C11H16N2O3S, the S atom has a distorted tetra­hedral geometry [maximum deviation: O—S—O = 119.48?(15)°]. The dihedral angles between the benzene ring and its propyl­sulfonamide and methyl­amide substituents are 71.8?(2) and 5.8?(1)°, respectively. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by Nm—H?Os (m = methyl­amide and s = sulfonamide) hydrogen bonds, forming C(8) chains along the a axis. The two mol­ecule chains are connected by N—H?O hydrogen bonds, generating R 3 2(18) rings. The crystal packing is further stabilized by weak inter­molecular C—H?O hydrogen bonds. PMID:22346929

Ahmad, Saba; Farrukh, Muhammad Akhyar; Qureshi, Fahim Ashraf; Khan, Islam Ullah; Akkurt, Mehmet

2012-01-01

42

[Chemical modification of heparin].  

PubMed

Heparin was modified at carboxyl groups by reaction with several pharmacologically important amino-containing compounds in aqueous medium in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide. In dependence on the nature of the amine and the ratio of reagents, conjugates containing 36-100% amide and 0-25% isoureidocarbonyl groups were synthesized. Isoureidoarylamide groups are present, along with amide moieties, in the products of heparin modification by hydroxyl-containing aromatic amines. The conjugate of heparin with p-aminobenzoic acid contained oligomeric arylamide. PMID:17042270

Ponedel'kina, I Iu; Odinokova, V N; Lukina, E S; Tiumkina, T V; Khalilov, L M; Dzhemilev, U M

2006-01-01

43

Solvent effects on the cinnamoylation of n-propyl alcohol catalyzed by N-methylimidazole and 4-dimethylaminopyridine.  

PubMed

The kinetics of reaction of trans-cinnamic anhydride or trans-cinnamoyl chloride with n-propyl alcohol, catalyzed by N-methylimidazole or 4-dimethylaminopyridine, were studied spectrophotometrically at 25 degrees in methyl ethyl ketone, ethylene dichloride, methylene chloride, and toluene. The acid chloride reacted in all solvents via the intermediate formation of the N-acyl catalyst, which underwent reaction with the alcohol catalyzed by another molecule of the base. The anhydride did not form the intermediate in any of the solvents, but underwent direct general base catalysis. The rate of the anhydride reactions was not sensitive to solvent polarity, whereas the rate of the chloride reactions tended to increase as the solvent polarity decreased. A kinetic analysis is given of the effect of ion-pair formation on the kinetics of acyl transfer in systems where the charged N-acyl catalyst intermediate is formed. PMID:6864472

Connors, K A; Eboka, C J

1983-04-01

44

Bromide and N -acetyl- S -( n -propyl)- l -cysteine in urine from workers exposed to 1-bromopropane solvents from vapor degreasing or adhesive manufacturing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  1-Bromopropane (1-BP) is an alternative for ozone depleting and other solvents; it is used in aerosol products, adhesives,\\u000a and cleaning solvents. There is concern that 1-BP may be a reproductive and neurological toxicant. Mercapturic acid conjugates\\u000a are excreted in urine from 1-BP metabolism involving debromination. The main objectives were to evaluate urinary bromide [Br(?)] and N-acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-l-cysteine (AcPrCys) for assessing 1-BP

Kevin William Hanley; Martin R. Petersen; Kenneth L. Cheever; Lian Luo

2010-01-01

45

Polymerization of acetaldehyde using tetraiso-Propyl titanate as a catalyst  

E-print Network

the polymerization reactions of acetaldehyde in the presence of tetraiso-propyl titanate at 280'C, 200'C, 50'C, 20'C, 5'C and -20'C. The polymerization reaction of acetaldehyde, employing tetraiso- propyl titanate as a catalyst at 280'C for 24 hrs, may proceed.... The polymerization reaction at 200'C yield a poly- meric product similar to that obtained at 280'C. A product containing titanium, which could be the initial inter- mediate in the polymerization reactions at 200'C and 280'C, was ob- tained when the reaction...

Makita, Muneharu

2012-06-07

46

Vapor-liquid equilibria for the mixtures ether + 2-butanol and + propyl acetate at 101. 3 kPa  

SciTech Connect

Vapor-liquid equilibrium data at 101.3 kPa pressure for the systems 2-butanol + dibutyl ether, 2-butanol + tetrahydrofuran, propyl acetate + dibutyl ether, and propyl acetate + tetrahydrofuran are reported. The experimental data were well correlated by different thermodynamic equations. The experimental data have also been compared with those predicted by the UNIFAC group contribution method.

Benito, G.G.; Carton, A.; Uruena, M.A. (Univ. of Valladolid (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

1994-04-01

47

40 CFR 721.9516 - Siloxanes and silicones, 3-[(2-aminoethyl) amino]propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Siloxanes and silicones, 3-[(2-aminoethyl) amino]propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with polyethylene-polypropylene glycol...and silicones, 3-[(2-aminoethyl) amino]propyl Me, di-Me, reaction products with...

2010-07-01

48

40 CFR 721.10192 - Amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino)propyl], acrylates.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

. (1) The chemical substance identified as amides, coco, N-[3-(dibutylamino)propyl], acrylates (PMN P-06-263, Chemical A; CAS No. 851545-09-0) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses described in paragraph (a)(2) of this section. (2) The significant new uses...

2010-07-01

49

Inhibitory effects of propyl gallate on tyrosinase and its application in controlling pericarp browning of harvested longan fruits.  

PubMed

Tyrosinase (EC 1.14.18.1), also known as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), is a key enzyme in pigment biosynthesis of organisms. The inhibitory effects of propyl gallate on the activity of mushroom tyrosinase and effects of propyl gallate on pericarp browning of harvested longan fruits in relation to phenolic metabolism were investigated. The results showed that propyl gallate could potently inhibit diphenolase activity of tyrosinase. The inhibitor concentration leading to 50% activity lost (IC50) was determined to be 0.685 mM. Kinetic analyses showed that propyl gallate was a reversible and mixed type inhibitor on this enzyme. The inhibition constants (K(IS) and K(I)) were determined to be 2.135 and 0.661 mM, respectively. Furthermore, the results also showed that propyl gallate treatment inhibited activities of PPO and POD in pericarp of harvested longan fruits, and maintained higher contents of total phenol and flavonoid of longan pericarp. Moreover, propyl gallate treatment also delayed the increases of browning index and browning degree in pericarp of harvested longan fruits. Therefore, application of propyl gallate may be a promising method for inhibiting tyrosinase activity, controlling pericarp browning, and extending shelf life of harvested longan fruits. PMID:23427826

Lin, Yi-Fen; Hu, Yong-Hua; Lin, He-Tong; Liu, Xuan; Chen, Yi-Hui; Zhang, Shen; Chen, Qing-Xi

2013-03-20

50

Preliminary evaluation of an in utero-lactation assay using 6- n -propyl-2-thiouracil  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this preliminary study, the potential of an in utero-lactation assay to detect thyroid effectors was evaluated by treating three dams\\/group with 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU), a known thyroid antagonist, by oral gavage at doses of 0, 0.0032, 0.016, 0.08 and 0.4 mg\\/kg\\/day during fetal organogenesis and lactation. Hearing disturbances and an elevated relative thyroid weight were observed in offspring of both sexes

Shuji Noda; Takako Muroi; Saori Takakura; Satoko Sakamoto; Mineo Takatsuki; Kanji Yamasaki; Susumu Tateyama; Ryoji Yamaguchi

2005-01-01

51

Investigating the Location of Propyl Gallate at Surfaces and Its Chemical Microenvironment by 1 H NMR  

Microsoft Academic Search

The location and the resulting chemical microenvironment of the antioxidant propyl gallate (PG) was studied in micellar solutions\\u000a using the cationic emulsifier cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), the anionic emulsifier sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)\\u000a and the non-ionic emulsifier Brij 58 (polyoxyethylene-20-cetyl ester). T\\u000a 1 relaxation time of the aromatic protons of PG was investigated in micellar solutions and compared with

Anja Heins; Tobias Sokolowski; Heiko Stöckmann; Karin Schwarz

2007-01-01

52

Laboratory Evaluation of Drop-in Solvent Alternatives to n-Propyl Bromide for Vapor Degreasing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Based on this limited laboratory study, solvent blends of trans-1,2 dichloroethylene with HFEs, HFCs, or PFCs appear to be viable alternatives to n-propyl bromide for vapor degreasing. The lower boiling points of these blends may lead to greater solvent loss during use. Additional factors must be considered when selecting a solvent substitute, including stability over time, VOC, GWP, toxicity, and business considerations.

Mitchell, Mark A.; Lowrey, Nikki M.

2012-01-01

53

Quantitative Analysis of ()-N-11C-Propyl- Norapomorphine In Vivo Binding in Nonhuman  

Microsoft Academic Search

()-N-11C-propyl-norapomorphine (11C-NPA) is a new dopa- mine agonist PET radiotracer that holds potential for imaging the high-affinity states of dopamine D2-like receptors in the living brain. The goal of this study was to develop and evaluate analytic strategies to derive in vivo 11C-NPA binding parame- ters. Methods: Two baboons were scanned 4 times after 11C- NPA injections. The metabolite-corrected arterial

Rajesh Narendran; Yiyun Huang; Mark Slifstein; Peter S. Talbot; Yasuhiko Sudo; Bart N. Van Berckel; Lawrence S. Kegeles; Diana Martinez; Marc Laruelle

54

Characterization of the folic acid C9-N10-cleaving enzyme of Dictyostelium minutum V3.  

PubMed Central

Folic acid is a chemoattractant for the slime mold Dictyostelium minutum V3. The activity of extracellular folic acid is regulated by a folic acid C9-N10 splitting enzyme (FAS). The products were identified as pterin-6-aldehyde and p-amino-benzoylglutamic acid. The enzyme was stabilized by EDTA. For the extracellular enzyme, the Km was 10(-7) M, and the optimal pH was 4.0. During starvation, FAS activity was mainly secreted into the medium; after 3 h, a plateau was reached. The membrane-bound activity was constant, but only 12% of the extracellular activity at 3 h. Intracellular activity also increased up to 3 h to a level of 23% of the extracellular FAS. The substrate recognition of FAS was found to be based on 4-O or N3 or both, N5 or N8 or both, N10, and the p-aminobenzoic acid moiety, whereas 2-NH2, N1, and the glutamic acid moiety were not recognized. Other slime mold species were found to secrete FAS with 20-fold or more reduced activity than D. minutum V3. PMID:6841318

De Wit, R J; van der Velden, R J; Konijn, T M

1983-01-01

55

Diffusion and Catalytic Cracking of 1,3,5 Tri-iso-propyl-benzene in FCC Catalysts  

E-print Network

1 Diffusion and Catalytic Cracking of 1,3,5 Tri-iso- propyl-benzene in FCC Catalysts S.Al-Khattaf1-iso-propyl-benzene and two FCC catalysts with different crystal sizes (0.4-m and 0.9-m diameter). The experiments are modeled using an unsteady state model for both gas and catalyst phases. It is found that a quasi-steady state

Al-Khattaf, Sulaiman

56

Reaction of the 2-hydroxy-2-propyl radical with acrylate type molecules in aqueous solution: Radical addition or electron transfer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction of 2-hydroxy-2-propyl (IP) radical with 12 acrylate type monomers in aqueous solutions was investigated by means of pulse radiolysis: the molecular structure effects and the mechanisms were evaluated. Radicals were generated either in the reaction of hydrated electron with acetone and subsequent protonation or in the H abstraction reaction by OH radicals from i-propanol. IP radical reacts with acrylamides and acrylic acid esters in radical addition reaction of the type: (CH 3) 2(OH)C rad + CH 2dbnd CH-C(O)R ? (CH 3) 2(OH)C-CH 2-C rad H-C(O)R with rate coefficients between 3.2 × 10 7 and 1.9 × 10 8 mol -1 dm 3 s -1. Rate coefficients of the reaction with maleic acid (neutral), dimethyl- and diethyl maleate are between 1.3 × 10 8 and 4.7 × 10 8 mol -1 dm 3 s -1. The values for dimethyl- and diethyl fumarate are ca. one order of magnitude higher. However with maleates and fumarates there is also a few percent contribution from the electron transfer reaction of the type (CH 3) 2(OH)C rad + ROOC-CH dbnd CH-COOR + H 2O ? ROOC-CH dbnd CH-C rad O -OR + (CH 3) 2CO + H 3O +. In neutral solutions and at pH ˜3 and ˜9, the same rate coefficients were measured. However, in dialkyl maleate and -fumarate solutions between pH 9.5 and 10.5, a base catalyzed decomposition of the IP radical adduct was observed forming electron adduct: ROOC-C((CH 3) 2(OH)C)H-C rad H-COOR + OH - ? ROOC-CH dbnd CH-C rad O -OR + (CH 3) 2CO + H 2O. Molecular structure effects were evaluated using log k- ?p and log k-LUMO plots.

Wojnárovits, László; Takács, Erzsébet; Emmi, Salvatore S.

2006-09-01

57

Propyl-ended hemifluorinated surfactants: synthesis and self-assembling properties.  

PubMed

The advantages of using hemifluorinated surfactants as an efficient alternative to detergents for manipulating membrane proteins in aqueous solution have been demonstrated in recent reports. However, the large-scale synthesis of these surfactants is still considered as a major matter and has limited their use for biochemical purposes. We report herein the synthesis of a novel series of perfluorohexane-based surfactants endowed with a short propyl hydrocarbon tip and whose polar head size is modulated by the presence of two or three glucose moieties. The synthetic route is based on the radical addition of two alkenes onto the 1,6-diiodoperfluorohexane using AIBN as a radical initiator, affording the surfactants in satisfactory overall yields. The self-assembling properties of these hemifluorinated surfactants were studied by surface tension measurements, dynamic light scattering, as well as their behavior upon reversed-phase chromatography and were compared with those of their perfluorinated analogues. Our findings strongly suggest the predominant influence of the propyl tip on both adsorption and micellization phenomena as well as on the hydrophobic character of the surfactants, whereas as previously observed, the shorter ethyl tip does not greatly affect these properties when compared to the perfluorinated analogues. Moreover, all the surfactants reported here self-assemble into small and monodisperse aggregates, a feature of crucial importance for biochemistry applications. PMID:21384802

Abla, Maher; Durand, Grégory; Pucci, Bernard

2011-04-01

58

Expression alterations of genes on both neuronal and glial development in rats after developmental exposure to 6-propyl-2-thiouracil.  

PubMed

The present study was performed to determine target gene profiles associated with pathological mechanisms of developmental neurotoxicity. For this purpose, we selected a rat developmental hypothyroidism model because thyroid hormones play an essential role in both neuronal and glial development. Region-specific global gene expression analysis was performed at postnatal day (PND) 21 on four brain regions representing different structures and functions, i.e., the cerebral cortex, corpus callosum, dentate gyrus and cerebellar vermis of rats exposed to 6-propyl-2-thiouracil in the drinking water at 3 and 10ppm from gestational day 6 to PND 21. Expression changes of gene clusters of neuron differentiation and development, cell migration, synaptic function, and axonogenesis were detected in all four regions. Characteristically, gene expression profiles suggestive of affection of ephrin signaling and glutamate transmission were obtained in multiple brain regions. Gene clusters suggestive of suppression of myelination and glial development were specifically detected in the corpus callosum and cerebral cortex. Immunohistochemically, immature astrocytes immunoreactive for vimentin and glial fibrillary acidic protein were increased, and oligodendrocytes immunoreactive for oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 were decreased in the corpus callosum. Immunoreactive intensity of myelin basic protein was also decreased in the corpus callosum and cerebral cortex. The hippocampal dentate gyrus showed downregulation of Ptgs2, which is related to synaptic activity and neurogenesis, as well as a decrease of cyclooxygenase-2-immunoreactive granule cells, suggesting an impaired synaptic function related to neurogenesis. These results suggest that multifocal brain region-specific microarray analysis can determine the affection of neuronal or glial development. PMID:24780913

Shiraki, Ayako; Saito, Fumiyo; Akane, Hirotoshi; Takeyoshi, Masahiro; Imatanaka, Nobuya; Itahashi, Megu; Yoshida, Toshinori; Shibutani, Makoto

2014-08-01

59

LC/MS/MS identification of some folic acid degradation products after E-beam irradiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Folates belong to the B vitamin group based on the parental compound folic acid (FA). They are involved in important biochemical processes like DNA synthesis and repair. FA is composed of a pteridine ring, p-aminobenzoic acid and glutamate moieties. The human metabolism is not able to synthesize folates and therefore obtain them from diet. FA, a synthetic vitamin, is used as a food fortificant because of its low price, relative stability and increased bioavailability compared to natural folate forms. FA is known to be a sensitive compound easily degradable in aqueous solution by ultraviolet and visible light towards various by-products. Irradiation is a process for preservation of foods that uses accelerated electrons, gamma rays or X-rays. Irradiation is proposed for the treatment of various food products, eliminating or reducing pathogens and insects, increasing the storage time and replacing chemical fumigants. This study concerns the identification of degradation products of FA after E-beam irradiation. FA aqueous solutions were irradiated with a Van de Graaff electrons beam accelerator (2 MeV, 100 ?A current, 20 cm scan width, dose rate about 2 kGy/s). Applied doses were between 0 (control) and 10.0 kGy. Absorbed doses were monitored with FWT 60.00 radiochromic dosimeters.

Araújo, M. M.; Marchioni, E.; Zhao, M.; Kuntz, F.; Di Pascoli, T.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.; Bergaentzle, M.

2012-08-01

60

Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of 2-Hydroxy-3-[(2-aryloxyethyl)amino]propyl 4-[(Alkoxycarbonyl)amino]benzoates  

PubMed Central

A series of twenty substituted 2-hydroxy-3-[(2-aryloxyethyl)amino]propyl 4-[(alkoxycarbonyl)amino]benzoates were prepared and characterized. As similar compounds have been described as potential antimycobacterials, primary in vitro screening of the synthesized carbamates was also performed against two mycobacterial species. 2-Hydroxy-3-[2-(2,6-dimethoxyphenoxy)ethylamino]-propyl 4-(butoxycarbonylamino)benzoate hydrochloride, 2-hydroxy-3-[2-(4-methoxyphenoxy)ethylamino]-propyl 4-(butoxycarbonylamino)benzoate hydrochloride, and 2-hydroxy-3-[2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)ethylamino]-propyl 4-(butoxycarbonylamino)benzoate hydrochloride showed higher activity against M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis and M. intracellulare than the standards ciprofloxacin, isoniazid, or pyrazinamide. Cytotoxicity assay of effective compounds was performed using the human monocytic leukaemia THP-1 cell line. Compounds with predicted amphiphilic properties were also tested for their effects on the rate of photosynthetic electron transport (PET) in spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts. All butyl derivatives significantly stimulated the rate of PET, indicating that the compounds can induce conformational changes in thylakoid membranes resulting in an increase of their permeability and so causing uncoupling of phosphorylation from electron transport. PMID:24288475

Tengler, Jan; Kapustikova, Iva; Pesko, Matus; Keltosova, Stanislava; Mokry, Petr; Kollar, Peter; O'Mahony, Jim; Kral'ova, Katarina; Jampilek, Josef

2013-01-01

61

Rotational spectroscopy, dipole moment and $^{14}$N nuclear hyperfine structure of $iso$-propyl cyanide  

E-print Network

Rotational transitions of $iso$-propyl cyanide, (CH$_3$)$_2$CHCN, also known as $iso$-butyronitrile, were recorded using long-path absorption spectroscopy in selected regions between 37 and 600 GHz. Further measurements were carried out between 6 and 20 GHz employing Fourier transform microwave (FTMW) spectroscopy on a pulsed molecular supersonic jet. The observed transitions reach $J$ and $K_a$ quantum numbers of 103 and 59, respectively, and yield accurate rotational constants as well as distortion parameters up to eighth order. The $^{14}$N nuclear hyperfine splitting was resolved in particular by FTMW spectroscopy yielding spin-rotation parameters as well as very accurate quadrupole coupling terms. In addition, Stark effect measurements were carried out in the microwave region to obtain a largely revised $c$-dipole moment component and to improve the $a$-component. The hyperfine coupling and dipole moment values are compared with values for related molecules both from experiment and from quantum chemical ...

Müller, Holger S P; Walters, Adam; Grabow, Jens-Uwe; Schlemmer, Stephan; 10.1016/j.jms.2011.02.011

2011-01-01

62

Densities and vapor-liquid equilibria in binary mixtures formed by propyl methanoate + ethanol, + propan-1-ol, and + butan-1-ol at 160.0 kPa  

SciTech Connect

Densities and excess volumes were determined at 298.15 K for propyl methanoate + ethanol, + propan-1-ol, and + butan-1-ol. The results of those quantities were then correlated to get the concentrations of vapor-liquid equilibrium obtained isobarically at 160 kPa for the same mixtures. Two mixtures show azeotropes: for propyl methanoate (1) + ethanol (2), x{sub 1} = 0.443 at T = 358.7 K; and for propyl methanoate (1) + propan-1-ol (2), x{sub 1} = 0.762 at T = 368.2 K. The mixtures are thermodynamically consistent, and the predictions made using several group-contribution models are satisfactory.

Falcon, J.; Ortega, J.; Gonzalez, E. [Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Las Palmas (Spain). Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica] [Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Las Palmas (Spain). Laboratorio de Termodinamica y Fisicoquimica

1996-07-01

63

Antiviral Evaluation of Octadecyloxyethyl Esters of (S)-3-Hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl Nucleosides Against Herpesviruses and Orthopoxviruses?  

PubMed Central

Our previous studies showed that esterification of (S)-3-hydroxy-2-(phosphono-methoxy)propyl]adenine (HPMPA) or 1-(S)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)-propyl]cytosine (HPMPC) with alkoxyalkyl groups such as hexadecyloxypropyl (HDP) or octadecyloxyethyl (ODE) resulted in large increases in antiviral activity and oral bioavailability. The HDP- and ODE- esters of HPMPA were shown to be active in cells infected with human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1), while HPMPA itself was virtually inactive. To explore this approach in greater detail, we synthesized four new compounds in this series, the ODE esters of 9-(S)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)-propyl]guanine (HPMPG), 1-(S)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphono-methoxy)propyl]thymine (HPMPT), 9-(S)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-2,6-diaminopurine (HPMPDAP) and 9-(S)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-2-amino-6-cyclopropylaminopurine. (HPMP-cPrDAP) and evaluated their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus, type 1 (HSV-1), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), and vaccinia, cowpox and ectromelia. Against HSV-1, subnanomolar EC50 values were observed with ODE-HPMPA and ODE-HPMPC while ODE-HPMPG had intermediate antiviral activity with an EC50 of 40 nanomolar. In HFF cells infected with HCMV, the lowest EC50 values were observed with ODE-HPMPC, 0.9 nanomolar. ODE -HPMPA was highly active with an EC50 of 3 nanomolar, while ODE-HPMPG and ODE-HPMPDAP were also highly active with EC50s of 22 and 77 nanomolar, respectively. Against vaccinia and cowpox viruses, ODE-HPMPG and ODE-HPMPDAP were the most active and selective compounds with EC50 values of 20 to 60 nanomolar and selectivity index values of 600 to 3,500. ODE-HPMPG was also active against ectromelia virus with an EC50 value of 410 nanomolar and a selectivity index value of 166. ODE-HPMPG and ODE-HPMPDAP are proposed for further preclinical evaluation as possible candidates for treatment of HSV, HCMV or orthopoxvirus diseases. PMID:19800369

Valiaeva, Nadejda; Prichard, Mark N.; Buller, R. Mark; Beadle, James R.; Hartline, Caroll B.; Keith, Kathy A.; Schriewer, Jill; Trahan, Julissa; Hostetler, Karl Y.

2009-01-01

64

Studies on the anoxic dissipation and metabolism of pyribambenz propyl (ZJ0273) in soils using position-specific radiolabeling.  

PubMed

Pyribambenz propyl (ZJ0273) is a polycyclic herbicide with increasing use, although studies show that it tends to be persistent in soil and pose phytotoxicity to rotational crops. This study employed an improved ring-specific (14)C labeling method to characterize its anoxic metabolism, with (14)C positioned on the benzoate, pyrimidyl or benzyl rings. Separation and identification of the metabolites were achieved by liquid chromatography (LC), ultralow-level liquid scintillation spectrometry, and LC-mass spectrometry (MS). Results show that the anoxic degradation follows first-order kinetics and the half-lives are approximately 38.7, 50.2 and 70.7d for loamy, saline and clayey soils, respectively. A total of five radioactive intermediates (M1-M5) were detected, and due to the loss of radiolabels, different radiochromatograms were obtained from different labels, i.e., radioactive M5 was only detected for pyrimidinyl-(14)C; M3 and M4 were only detected for pyrimidinyl-(14)C and benzyl-(14)C, while M1 and M2 were detected for all labels. Based on their appearance pattern and fragmentations from LC-MS, the structures of M1-M5 were identified, and they were proposed to form by reactions such as de-estering, hydrolysis, acylation, CN cleavage, and demethylation. All metabolites have been previously detected in aerobic soils except M4, which is a demethylation product from M3, and identified as 2-(4-hydroxy-6-methoxypyrimidin-2-yloxy)benzoic acid. The results show that ZJ0273 is more persistent in anoxic soils, and its degradation pathways and intermediates are different from aerobic metabolism and differ with the soil types, suggesting that soil-specific and farming practices may be important considerations in the use of this herbicide. The ring-specific labeling provides full molecular information about the referred compound and guarantees the reliability of the results, and can be used as an effective tool for metabolite profiling of polycyclic compounds. PMID:24317166

Wang, Wei; Wang, Yichen; Li, Zheng; Wang, Haiyan; Yu, Zhiyang; Lu, Long; Ye, Qingfu

2014-02-15

65

Simultaneous analysis of BHA, TBHQ, BHT and propyl gallate by gas chromatography as extracted from refined vegetable oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method has been developed for the simultaneous gas chromatographic (GC) analysis of 4 phenolic antioxidants extracted from\\u000a refined cottonseed oil. The antioxidants in the study were butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), tertiary butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ),\\u000a butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and propyl gallate (PG). The method involves extraction with acetonitrile, followed by silyl\\u000a derivatization prior to GC injection. The method was applied to

D. M. Wyatt

1981-01-01

66

Isocriterial manifolds during extractive distillation of a mixture of methanol- n -propyl acetate-toluene with aniline  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study is devoted to the arrangement of isocriterial manifolds and regions of energetic optimality of extractive\\u000a distillation complexes within the simplex of the initial feed composition during the separation of methanol, n-propyl acetate,\\u000a and toluene mixture. The mixture being separated comprises one binary azeotrope with a boiling temperature being minimal (in\\u000a the binary pair of methanol-toluene), and one

B. B. Dolmatov; E. A. Anokhina; A. V. Timoshenko

2009-01-01

67

SIMULTANEOUS ANALYSIS OF PHENOTHRIN, METHYL4-HYDROXYBENZOATE AND PROPYL4-HYDROXYBENZOATE IN HUMAN HEAD LICE MEDICINE BY HPLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new and simple reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of methyl-4-hydroxybenzoate, propyl-4-hydroxybenzoate and phenothrin in human head lice medicine liquid formulation. The separation was achieved on a Lichrosorb C18, 150 mm × 4.6 mm and 5 µm column with detection wavelength of 254 nm using an isocratic mobile phase mixture of methanol-water (80:20, v\\/v) at flow

Ghulam A. Shabir

2011-01-01

68

Comparative Study of Propranolol hydrochloride Release from Matrix Tablets with Kollidon®SR or Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose  

Microsoft Academic Search

The release of propranolol hydrochloride from matrix tablets with hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K15M) or Kollidon®SR\\u000a at different concentrations was investigated with a view to developing twice daily sustained release dosage form. A hydrophilic\\u000a matrix-based tablet using different concentrations of HPMC K15M or Kollidon®SR was developed using direct compression technique\\u000a to contain 80 mg of propranolol hydrochloride. The resulting matrix

J. Sahoo; P. N. Murthy; S. Biswal; S. K. Sahoo; A. K. Mahapatra

2008-01-01

69

Synthesis of covalently bonded cellulose derivative chiral stationary phases with a bifunctional reagent of 3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl isocyanate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bifunctional reagent of 3-(triethoxysilyl)propyl isocyanate (TEPI) was initially adopted as a spacer reagent to prepare the bonded types of chiral stationary phases (CSPs) with cellulose derivatives. The silica-based CSPs were chemically prepared with non-regioselective and regioselective approaches and their chiral resolving capabilities were evaluated in terms of HPLC resolution of test enantiomers. It was observed that the chiral recognition

Xiaoming Chen; Yueqi Liu; Feng Qin; Liang Kong; Hanfa Zou

2003-01-01

70

Vibrational spectra and normal coordinate analysis of 2-hydroxy-3-(2-methoxyphenoxy) propyl carbamate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the vibrational spectral analysis was carried out by using FT-Raman and FTIR spectroscopy in the range 50-4000 cm-1 and 450-4000 cm-1 respectively, for 2-hydroxy-3-(2-methoxyphenoxy) propyl carbamate (2H3MPPLC) molecule. The molecular structure, fundamental vibrational frequencies and intensities of the vibrational bands were interpreted with the aid of structure optimizations and normal coordinate force field calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) and ab initio HF methods with 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The complete vibrational assignments of wave numbers were made on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED). The results of the calculations were applied to simulated spectra of the title compound, which show excellent agreement with observed spectra. The scaled B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) results show the best agreement with the experimental values over the other method. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The results confirm the occurrence of intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) within the molecule. The dipole moment (?), polarizability (?) and hyperpolarizability (?) of the investigated molecule has been computed using B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) method. Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges was also calculated. Besides, frontier molecular orbitals, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and thermodynamic properties were performed.

Muthu, S.; Renuga, S.

2014-11-01

71

Hydroxy propyl cellulose capped silver nanoparticles produced by simple dialysis process  

SciTech Connect

Silver (Ag) nanoparticles ({approx}6 nm) were synthesized using a novel dialysis process. Silver nitrate was used as a starting precursor, ethylene glycol as solvent and hydroxy propyl cellulose (HPC) introduced as a capping agent. Different batches of reaction mixtures were prepared with different concentrations of silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}). After the reduction and aging, these solutions were subjected to ultra-violet visible spectroscopy (UVS). Optimized solution, containing 250 mg AgNO{sub 3} revealed strong plasmon resonance peak at {approx}410 nm in the spectrum indicating good colloidal state of Ag nanoparticles in the diluted solution. The optimized solution was subjected to dialysis process to remove any unreacted solvent. UVS of the optimized solution after dialysis showed the plasmon resonance peak shifting to {approx}440 nm indicating the reduction of Ag ions into zero-valent Ag. This solution was dried at 80 {sup o}C and the resultant HPC capped Ag (HPC/Ag) nanoparticles were studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for their particle size and morphology. The particle size distribution (PSD) analysis of these nanoparticles showed skewed distribution plot with particle size ranging from 3 to 18 nm. The nanoparticles were characterized for phase composition using X-ray diffractrometry (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).

Francis, L. [University of Genova, Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy)] [University of Genova, Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy); Balakrishnan, A. [Laboratoire SIMaP - GPM2, Grenoble-INP/UJF/CNRS BP46, 38042 Saint Martin d'Heres cedex (France)] [Laboratoire SIMaP - GPM2, Grenoble-INP/UJF/CNRS BP46, 38042 Saint Martin d'Heres cedex (France); Sanosh, K.P. [Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Lecce, via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy)] [Department of Innovation Engineering, University of Lecce, via per Monteroni, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Marsano, E., E-mail: marsano@chimica.unige.it [University of Genova, Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy)

2010-08-15

72

Capillary electrophoresis-amperometric determination of antioxidant propyl gallate and butylated hydroxyanisole in foods.  

PubMed

Capillary electrophoretic separation coupled with end-column amperometric detection for the simultaneous quantification of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and propyl gallate (PG) in food was developed. Important factors affecting separation and detection, such as the running buffer, separation voltage, and detection potential, were investigated in detail. An improved working electrode preparation method was used, where a carbon disk of 33 microm in diameter was sealed in a tip and positioned opposite the outlet of a capillary. The experiments indicated that the preparation method was simple, and the obtained electrode exhibited good flexibility and stability for the determination of phenolic antioxidants. The separation was carried out within 5 min using a 50 cm length capillary, with a solution containing 5 mM phosphate and 5 mM borax of pH 8.84 as a separation buffer, and a separation potential of 20 kV. Amperometric detection was achieved with an applied potential of 0.70 V versus Ag|AgCl| saturated KCl. There was excellent linearity between the peak current and the concentrations of the analytes in the range of 1.8 - 180.2 microg/mL for BHA and 10.6 - 212.2 microg/mL for PG, respectively. Relative standard deviations of 4.92% for BHA and 5.27% for PG were obtained, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of antioxidants in several commercial foods. PMID:17575356

Xiang, Qian; Gao, Ying; Xu, Yuanhong; Wang, Erkang

2007-06-01

73

Visible-light-promoted degradation of the antioxidants propyl gallate and t-butylhydroquinone: mechanistic aspects.  

PubMed

The kinetic and mechanistic aspects of the visible-light-mediated photodegradation of the phenolic antioxidants (PA), propyl gallate (PG), and t-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), employing riboflavin (Rf) as photosensitizer, have been studied by time-resolved and stationary techniques. The photosensitizer Rose Bengal (RB) was used for auxiliary experiments. Results show the occurrence of chemical transformations on PA with the participation of electronically excited states of Rf and different reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from these states. With 0.02 mM Rf and 1.0 mM PA, the electronically excited triplet state of Rf is quenched by PA, in a competitive manner with the dissolved oxygen. As a consequence, a cascade of photoprocesses produces singlet oxygen (O(2)((1)?(g))) and H(2)O(2) in the case of PG and, O(2)((1)?(g)), H(2)O(2) and HO(•) in the case of TBHQ. The participation of these species is supported by experiments of oxygen consumption carried out in the presence of specific ROS scavengers. TBHQ has a relatively high capacity for O(2)((1)?(g)) physical deactivation and a low photodegradation efficiency by the oxidative species. Comparatively, it can be asserted that TBHQ has a higher antioxidant capacity than PG. PMID:22732940

Criado, Susana; Allevi, Carolina; García, Norman A

2012-01-01

74

Infrared and Raman spectroscopic studies of tris-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] isocyanurate, its sol-gel process, and coating on aluminum and copper  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Tris-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] isocyanurate (TTPI) has been used as a precursor to prepare a sol using ethanol as the solvent under acidic conditions. The sol-gel was applied for the surface treatment of aluminum and copper. Infrared and Raman spectra have been recorded for pure TTPI and the TTPI sol, xerogel and TTPI sol-gel coated metals. From the vibrational spectra, TTPI is likely to have the C1 point group. Vibrational assignments are suggested based on group frequencies, the expected reactions in the sol-gel process and the vibrational studies of some related molecules. From the experimental infrared spectra of xerogels annealed at different temperatures and from the thermal-gravimetric analysis, it is found that the TTPI xerogel decomposes at around 450 °C with silica being the major decomposition product. A cyclic voltammetric study of the metal electrodes coated with different concentrations of TTPI ranging from 5% to 42% (v/v) has shown that the films with high concentrations of sol would provide better corrosion protection for aluminum and copper.

Li, Ying-Sing; Church, Jeffrey S.; Woodhead, Andrea L.; Vecchio, Nicolas E.; Yang, Johnny

2014-11-01

75

Infrared and Raman spectroscopic studies of tris-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] isocyanurate, its sol-gel process, and coating on aluminum and copper.  

PubMed

Tris-[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl] isocyanurate (TTPI) has been used as a precursor to prepare a sol using ethanol as the solvent under acidic conditions. The sol-gel was applied for the surface treatment of aluminum and copper. Infrared and Raman spectra have been recorded for pure TTPI and the TTPI sol, xerogel and TTPI sol-gel coated metals. From the vibrational spectra, TTPI is likely to have the C1 point group. Vibrational assignments are suggested based on group frequencies, the expected reactions in the sol-gel process and the vibrational studies of some related molecules. From the experimental infrared spectra of xerogels annealed at different temperatures and from the thermal-gravimetric analysis, it is found that the TTPI xerogel decomposes at around 450°C with silica being the major decomposition product. A cyclic voltammetric study of the metal electrodes coated with different concentrations of TTPI ranging from 5% to 42% (v/v) has shown that the films with high concentrations of sol would provide better corrosion protection for aluminum and copper. PMID:24866089

Li, Ying-Sing; Church, Jeffrey S; Woodhead, Andrea L; Vecchio, Nicolas E; Yang, Johnny

2014-11-11

76

Adaptation of an L-Proline Adenylation Domain to Use 4-Propyl-L-Proline in the Evolution of Lincosamide Biosynthesis  

PubMed Central

Clinically used lincosamide antibiotic lincomycin incorporates in its structure 4-propyl-L-proline (PPL), an unusual amino acid, while celesticetin, a less efficient related compound, makes use of proteinogenic L-proline. Biochemical characterization, as well as phylogenetic analysis and homology modelling combined with the molecular dynamics simulation were employed for complex comparative analysis of the orthologous protein pair LmbC and CcbC from the biosynthesis of lincomycin and celesticetin, respectively. The analysis proved the compared proteins to be the stand-alone adenylation domains strictly preferring their own natural substrate, PPL or L-proline. The LmbC substrate binding pocket is adapted to accomodate a rare PPL precursor. When compared with L-proline specific ones, several large amino acid residues were replaced by smaller ones opening a channel which allowed the alkyl side chain of PPL to be accommodated. One of the most important differences, that of the residue corresponding to V306 in CcbC changing to G308 in LmbC, was investigated in vitro and in silico. Moreover, the substrate binding pocket rearrangement also allowed LmbC to effectively adenylate 4-butyl-L-proline and 4-pentyl-L-proline, substrates with even longer alkyl side chains, producing more potent lincosamides. A shift of LmbC substrate specificity appears to be an integral part of biosynthetic pathway adaptation to the PPL acquisition. A set of genes presumably coding for the PPL biosynthesis is present in the lincomycin - but not in the celesticetin cluster; their homologs are found in biosynthetic clusters of some pyrrolobenzodiazepines (PBD) and hormaomycin. Whereas in the PBD and hormaomycin pathways the arising precursors are condensed to another amino acid moiety, the LmbC protein is the first functionally proved part of a unique condensation enzyme connecting PPL to the specialized amino sugar building unit. PMID:24386435

Kadlcik, Stanislav; Kucera, Tomas; Chalupska, Dominika; Gazak, Radek; Koberska, Marketa; Ulanova, Dana; Kopecky, Jan; Kutejova, Eva; Najmanova, Lucie; Janata, Jiri

2013-01-01

77

Dichlorodiaportin, diaportinol, and diaportinic acid: three novel isocoumarins from penicillium nalgiovense  

PubMed

Three novel isocoumarin (or isochromen) metabolites, dichlorodiaportin [3-(3, 3-dichloro-2-hydroxy-propyl)-8-hydroxy-6-methoxy-isochromen-1-one] (1), diaportinol [3-(2, 3-dihydroxy-propyl)-8-hydroxy-6-methoxy-isochromen-1-one] (2), and diaportinic acid [2-hydroxy-3-(8-hydroxy-6-methoxy-1-oxo-1H-isochromen-3-yl)-propanoic acid] (3), were isolated from the cultures of Penicillium nalgiovense along with citreoisocoumarin (4) and 6-methyl-citreoisocoumarin (5). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including UV, MS, and NMR. PMID:10479334

Larsen; Breinholt

1999-08-01

78

Autoradiographic localization of sigma receptor binding sites in guinea pig and rat central nervous system with (+)3H-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)piperidine  

SciTech Connect

(+)3H-3-PPP ((+)3H-3-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-N-(1-propyl)-piperidine) binds with high affinity to brain membranes with a pharmacological profile consistent with that of sigma receptors. The distribution of (+)3H-3-PPP binding sites in brain and spinal cord of both guinea pig and rat has been determined by in vitro autoradiography with binding densities quantitated by computer-assisted densitometry. (+)3H-3-PPP binding to slide-mounted brain sections is saturable and displays high affinity and a pharmacological specificity very similar to sites labeled in homogenates. (+)3H-3-PPP binding sites are heterogeneously distributed. Highest concentrations of binding sites occur in spinal cord, particularly the ventral horn and dorsal root ganglia; the pons-medulla, associated with the cranial nerve and pontine nuclei and throughout the brain stem reticular formation; the cerebellum, over the Purkinje cell layer; the midbrain, particularly the central gray and red nucleus; and hippocampus, over the pyramidal cell layer. Lowest levels are seen in the basal ganglia and parts of the thalamus, while all other areas, including hypothalamus and cerebral cortex, exhibit moderate grain densities. Quinolinic acid-induced lesions of the hippocampus indicate that (+)3H-3-PPP labels hippocampal pyramidal cells and granule cells in the dentate gyrus. Intrastriatal injection of ibotenic acid dramatically reduces (+)3H-3-PPP binding in this area, while injection of 6-hydroxydopamine produces a relatively slight decrease. The distribution of (+)3H-3-PPP binding sites does not correlate with the receptor distribution of any recognized neurotransmitter or neuropeptide, including dopamine. However, there is a notable similarity between the distribution of (+)3H-3-PPP sites and high-affinity binding sites for psychotomimetic opioids, such as the benzomorphan (+)SKF 10,047.

Gundlach, A.L.; Largent, B.L.; Snyder, S.H.

1986-06-01

79

Optimized Protocol for Protein Macrocomplexes Stabilization Using the EDC, 1-Ethyl-3-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)carbodiimide, Zero-Length Cross-Linker.  

PubMed

Since noncovalent protein macrocomplexes are implicated in many cellular functions, their characterization is essential to understand how they drive several biological processes. Over the past 20 years, because of its high sensitivity, mass spectrometry has been described as a powerful tool for both the protein identification in macrocomplexes and the understanding of the macrocomplexes organization. Nonetheless, stabilizing these protein macrocomplexes, by introducing covalent bonds, is a prerequisite before their analysis by the denaturing mass spectrometry technique. In this study, using the Hsp90/Aha1 macrocomplex as a model (where Hsp denotes a heat shock protein), we optimized a double cross-linking protocol with 1-ethyl-3-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)carbodiimide (EDC). This protocol takes place in a two-step process: initially, a cross-linking is performed according to a previously optimized protocol, and then a second cross-linking is performed by increasing the EDC concentration, counterbalanced by a high dilution of sample and, thus, protein macrocomplexes. Using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry, we verified the efficiency of our optimized protocol by submitting (or not submitting) samples to the K200 MALDI MS analysis kit containing N-succinimidyl iodo-acetate, suberic acid bis(3-sulfo-N-hydroxysuccinimide ester), suberic acid bis(N-hydroxysuccinimide ester), disuccinimidyl tartrate, and dithiobis(succinimidyl) propionate, developed by the CovalX Company. Results obtained show that our optimized cross-linking protocol allows a complete stabilization of protein macrocomplexes and appears to be very accurate. Indeed, contrary to other cross-linkers, the "zero-length" feature of the EDC reagent prevents overdetermination of the mass of complexes, because EDC does not remain as part of the linkage. PMID:25268573

Lepvrier, Eléonore; Doigneaux, Cyrielle; Moullintraffort, Laura; Nazabal, Alexis; Garnier, Cyrille

2014-11-01

80

Preliminary evaluation of a single-day tubeless test of pancreatic function  

Microsoft Academic Search

The test for pancreatic exocrine function using N-benzoyl-L-tyrosyl-p-aminobenzoic acid (BTP test) does not require duodenal intubation, but misleadingly abnormal results often occur in patients with liver or bowel disease because the p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) released by chymotrypsin hydrolysis of the peptide either is not conjugated or is malabsorbed. This study evaluated a modified BTP test, using a tracer dose of

C J Mitchell; H P Field; F G Simpson; A Parkin; J Kelleher; M S Losowsky

1981-01-01

81

Pulse and gamma radiolysis studies of 3-sulfo propyl methacrylate in aqueous solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Radiation induced polymerization of 3-sulfo propyl methacrylate (SPMA) in aqueous solution (10 wt%) has been studied by steady state and pulse radiolysis techniques. The effect of radiation characteristics such as irradiation dose, dose rate and the presence of crosslinking agent on the gel formation of SPMA monomer has been investigated. In N 2 -saturated solution, the gel formation doses for SPMA were found to be 70 and 258 Gy at dose rates of 1.2 and 5 kGy h -1, respectively. The swelling ratio results showed that the gel obtained at a constant dose of 0.8 kGy dose swells ˜630 times of its dry weight at a dose rate of 5 kGy h -1 whereas it is 394 times of its dry weight for the dose rate 1.2 kGy h -1. The reactions of the primary radicals of water radiolysis such as e aq-, H-atom, OH radical, O rad - , and some oxidizing radicals like N3rad , Cl2rad - , SO4rad - and reducing species like CO 2rad - with SPMA have been studied using pulse radiolysis technique. The results show that the reaction of e aq-, H-atom and OH radicals with SPMA are in the diffusion controlled limit with their respective bimolecular rate constant values being 8.6×10 9, 2×10 9 and 1.5×10 10 dm 3 mol -1 s -1. The radical anion, SPMA rad - , ( ?max=280 nm) is observed to undergo fast protonation forming H-adduct, SPMA—H rad , ( ?max=310 nm) with a p Ka value of 9.1. Cl 2rad - reacts with a bimolecular rate constant of 3.5×10 7 dm 3 mol -1 s -1 forming solute radical cation ( ?max=265 nm). One-electron oxidation and reduction potentials for SPMA/SPMA rad + and SPMA/SPMA rad - couples are estimated to be more than +1.6 and less than -1.9 V, respectively.

Panda, Anjali; Mohan, Hari; Sabharwal, S.

2001-10-01

82

Garlic derivative propyl propane thiosulfonate is effective against broiler enteropathogens in vivo.  

PubMed

Two experiments were carried out to study the effects of dietary supplementation with the garlic (Allium sativum)-derived product propyl propane thiosulfonate (PTS-O) on the intestinal log(10) number of copies of enteropathogens in broiler chickens, together with their intestinal morphology and growth performance. The additive had no significant effect on feed intake at any dose assayed. In experiment 1 (1 to 21 d of age), the BW of chickens fed on 45 mg of PTS-O/kg of diet was higher (P < 0.01) than that of controls. Birds fed on diets containing 45 and 90 mg of PTS-O/kg of diet had improved (P < 0.01) feed:gain ratios compared with the controls at 21 d of age. Ileal villus height, width and surface area, mucosal thickness, and muscular layer thickness were considerably greater (P < 0.01) than control values in chickens fed 90 mg of PTS-O/kg of diet. The Clostridium perfringens log(10) number of counts was not significantly affected at any dose assayed. The inclusion of PTS-O at both concentrations (45 and 90 mg/kg of diet) resulted in lower (P < 0.01) log(10) number of copies of ileal Salmonella spp. and crop enterobacteria and Escherichia coli. The inclusion of 90 mg of PTS-O/kg of diet also resulted in lower (P < 0.01) enterobacteria and E. coli log(10) numbers of copies in the ileal and cecal contents, respectively. The number of copies of Campylobacter jejuni was not significantly affected. In experiment 2 (15 to 28 d of age), lower (P < 0.01) log(10) number of copies of Salmonella spp. and C. jejuni were determined in the ileal contents of chickens fed on diets containing 135 mg of PTS-O/kg of diet. The addition of 90 mg of PTS-O/kg of diet lowered (P < 0.01) only the number of copies of ileal Salmonella spp. This investigation confirmed previous in vitro data and showed that PTS-O lowered the intestinal numbers of enteropathogens and improved the ileal histological structure and productive parameters of broilers. PMID:22912448

Peinado, M J; Ruiz, R; Echávarri, A; Rubio, L A

2012-09-01

83

Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of N-[N-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl) propyl]-?-aspartyl]-L-phenylalanine 1-methyl ester, monohydrate (advantame) in the rat, dog, and man.  

PubMed

The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of advantame were evaluated in rats, dogs, and humans. The oral pharmacokinetic studies using (14)C-advantame showed that advantame undergoes rapid but incomplete absorption, with an oral bioavailability of total radioactivity in the range of 4-23%. Data indicated that absorption was mainly as ANS9801-acid (de-esterified advantame), which was formed in the gastrointestinal tract as a result of the hydrolysis of the methyl ester group of the parent compound. In the dog, plasma ANS9801-acid was present largely in the form of an unidentified conjugate. Advantame (chiefly in the form of metabolites) was mainly excreted in the feces in rats, dogs, and humans (>80% in each species), with urinary excretion representing a minor route. The predominant metabolite of (14)C-advantame detected in the feces and the urine of rats, dogs, and humans was ANS9801-acid, with lower amounts of 3-[3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl]-1-propylamine (termed HU-1) or N-(3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxy phenyl))propyl-L-aspartic acid (termed HF-1) present, as well as other minor metabolites and areas of indistinct radioactivity. ANS9801-acid, HU-1, and HF-1 were detected and identified in the urine of rats, humans, and dogs, while ANS9801-acid and HF-1 were identified in the feces of humans and dogs. In the feces of rats, in addition to ANS9801-acid, other additional metabolites were detected, including demethylated ANS9801-acid (designated as RF-1) and another unidentified metabolite (designated as RF-2). Overall, the data show generally similar pharmacokinetics of advantame and ANS9801-acid in animals and in humans and close similarity with neotame. Metabolites of advantame that occur in humans are also found in the 2 species utilized in the toxicology studies, and the metabolism studies support the interpretation of safety data from studies conducted in rats and dogs. PMID:22036030

Ubukata, K; Nakayama, A; Mihara, R

2011-11-01

84

Polymerization of Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Using Acidic Ionic Liquid as Catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polymerization of fatty acid methyl ester was investigated using biodiesel as the feed in the presence of a Brönsted-Lewis acidic ionic liquid (IL). A synergetic effect of Brönsted and Lewis acid sites enhanced the catalytic performance of the IL. 1-(3-Sulfonic acid)-propyl-3-methylimidazole chlorozincinate ([HO3S-(CH2)3-mim]Cl-ZnCl2, molar fraction of ZnCl2 was 0.67) was an efficient catalyst for the polymerization. The effects of

Shiwei LIU; Lu LI; Shitao YU; Congxia XIE; Fusheng LIU; Zhanqian SONG

2010-01-01

85

3,3?-[1,2-Phenyl-enebis(methyl-ene)]bis-(1-propyl-benzimidazolium) dibromide hemihydrate  

PubMed Central

The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C28H32N4 2+·2Br?·0.5H2O, contains one 3,3?-[1,2-phenyl­enebis(methyl­ene)]bis­(1-propyl­benzimidazolium) cation, two bromide anions and one half-mol­ecule of water. In the crystal, the whole 3,3?-[1,2-phen­yl­enebis(methyl­ene)]bis­(1-propyl­benzimidazolium) cation and one of the bromide anions are each disordered over two positions with site-occupancy ratios of 0.751?(6):0.249?(6) and 0.680?(8):0.320?(8). For the major component of the disordered cation, the central benzene ring forms dihedral angles of 83.6?(5) and 88.2?(4)° with its adjacent imidazole rings, while these angles for the minor component are 89.2?(15) and 84.9?(13)°. In the crystal, the cations and anions are linked by C—H?Br hydrogen bonds into dimers and then stacked along the c axis. The crystal packing is further stabilized by C—H?? and ?–? inter­actions [shortest centroid–centroid distance = 3.646?(4)?Å]. PMID:22347075

Iqbal, Muhammad Adnan; Haque, Rosenani A.; Fun, Hoong-Kun; Chia, Tze Shyang

2012-01-01

86

1,3-Bis(3-ammonium-propyl)tetramethyldisiloxane-sulfate: Structural characterization and evaluation of some properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1,3-Bis(3-ammonium-propyl)tetramethyldisiloxane sulfate resulted from the reaction between 1,3-bis(3-aminopropyl)tetramethyldisiloxane with a proper transition metal (iron(III) or vanadium(IV) oxide) salt as anion generator and a carbonylic compound (4-imidazole carboxaldehyde or 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde) as a metal collector, in methanol, was thoroughly characterized. The compound's structure was proved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and spectral (FT-IR, 1H NMR) analysis, while the thermal behavior was evaluated by thermogravimetry. Water vapor sorption capacity on the crystalline compound was measured in dynamic regime. The co-existence of hydrophobic bis(propyl)tetramethyldisiloxane moiety and telechelic hydrophilic groups constitutes a premise for surface activity, as confirmed by tensiometry. Formation of micelles and aggregates in solution was emphasized by dynamic light scattering and confirmed by AFM images taken on the spin coated films, both revealing closed values for size of the micelles (100-200 nm).

Nistor, Alexandra; Soroceanu, Alina; Shova, Sergiu; Cazacu, Maria

2012-08-01

87

5-Propyl-2-deoxyuridine induced interference with glycosylation in herpes simplex virus infected cells. Nature of PdU-induced modifications of N-linked glycans.  

PubMed

In herpes simplex virus-infected (HSV) cells, the antiviral nucleoside analogue 5-n-propyl-2'-deoxyuridine (PdU) may, under certain circumstances, induce a pattern of interference with late steps in formation of N-linked glycans, resulting in increased availability of viral glycoproteins for neutralizing antibodies. The PdU-induced changes in N-linked glycans, released by pronase digestion of the HSV-specified glycoprotein gC-1, were investigated by using lectin affinity chromatography and Bio-Gel P6 gel filtration of glycans, radiolabelled with [3H]galactose or [3H]glucosamine. PdU-treatment of HSV-infected cells totally inhibited addition of sialic acid and reduced the amount of galactose incorporated into N-linked glycans by 70%. In addition, the PDU-treatment caused a decrease in oligosaccharides with affinity for Phaseoulus vulgaris leuco-agglutinin and erythro-agglutinin, and an increase in Lens culinaris lectin (LCA)-binding oligosaccharides, suggesting a PdU-induced shift from multi-branched to moderately branched structures. This shift was also found in HSV-infected B16 mouse melanoma cells, where the large content of multi-branched oligosaccharides contributes to the metastatic potential. The LCA-binding glycans from PdU-treated cells were smaller and contained less galactose units than corresponding structures from untreated cells. In a cell-free system, PdU 5'-monophosphate inhibited the translocation of UDP-GlcNAc, and, to a smaller extent, also the translocation of UDP-galactose into Golgi vesicles, suggesting that nucleotide sugar translocation is one important target for the PdU-induced interference with glycosylation in HSV-infected cells. PMID:8382038

Olofsson, S; Sjöblom, I; Hellstrand, K; Shugar, D; Clairmont, C; Hirschberg, C

1993-01-01

88

N?(w) -propyl-L-arginine (L-NPA) reduces status epilepticus and early epileptogenic events in a mouse model of epilepsy: behavioural, EEG and immunohistochemical analyses.  

PubMed

We investigated the anticonvulsant and neurobiological effects of a highly selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) inhibitor, N?(w) -propyl-l-arginine (L-NPA), on kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE) and early epileptogenesis in C57BL/6J mice. SE was induced with 20 mg/kg KA (i.p.) and seizures terminated after 2 h with diazepam (10 mg/kg, i.p). L-NPA (20 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle was administered 30 min before KA. Behavioural seizure severity was scored using a modified Racine score and electrographic seizure was recorded using an implantable telemetry device. Neuronal activity, activity-dependent synaptogenesis and reactive gliosis were quantified immunohistochemically, using c-Fos, synaptophysin and microglial and astrocytic markers. L-NPA treatment reduced the severity and duration of convulsive motor seizures, the power of electroencephalogram in the gamma band, and the frequency of epileptiform spikes during SE. It also reduced c-Fos expression in dentate granule cells at 2 h post-KA, and reduced the overall rate of epileptiform spiking (by 2- to 2.5-fold) in the first 7 days after KA administration. Furthermore, treatment with L-NPA suppressed both hippocampal gliosis and activity-dependent synaptogenesis in the outer and middle molecular layers of the dentate gyrus in the early phase of epileptogenesis (72 h post-KA). These results suggest that nNOS facilitates seizure generation during SE and may be important for the neurobiological changes associated with the development of chronic epilepsy, especially in the early stages of epileptogenesis. As such, it might represent a novel target for disease modification in epilepsy. PMID:22943535

Beamer, Edward; Otahal, Jakub; Sills, Graeme J; Thippeswamy, Thimmasettappa

2012-11-01

89

N-Acetyl-S-(n-Propyl)-L-Cysteine in Urine from Workers Exposed to 1-Bromopropane in Foam Cushion Spray Adhesives  

PubMed Central

1-Bromopropane (1-BP) has been marketed as an alternative for ozone depleting and other solvents; it is used in aerosol products, adhesives, metal, precision, and electronics cleaning solvents. Mechanisms of toxicity of 1-BP are not fully understood, but it may be a neurological and reproductive toxicant. Sparse exposure information prompted this study using 1-BP air sampling and urinary metabolites. Mercapturic acid conjugates are excreted in urine from 1-BP metabolism involving debromination. Research objectives were to evaluate the utility of urinary N-acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-L-cysteine (AcPrCys) for assessing exposure to 1-BP and compare it to urinary bromide [Br(?)] previously reported for these workers. Forty-eight-hour urine specimens were obtained from 30 workers at two factories where 1-BP spray adhesives were used to construct polyurethane foam seat cushions. Urine specimens were also obtained from 21 unexposed control subjects. All the workers' urine was collected into composite samples representing three time intervals: at work, after work but before bedtime, and upon awakening. Time-weighted average (TWA) geometric mean breathing zone concentrations were 92.4 and 10.5 p.p.m. for spraying and non-spraying jobs, respectively. Urinary AcPrCys showed the same trend as TWA exposures to 1-BP: higher levels were observed for sprayers. Associations of AcPrCys concentrations, adjusted for creatinine, with 1-BP TWA exposure were statistically significant for both sprayers (P < 0.05) and non-sprayers (P < 0.01). Spearman correlation coefficients for AcPrCys and Br(?) analyses determined from the same urine specimens were highly correlated (P < 0.0001). This study confirms that urinary AcPrCys is an important 1-BP metabolite and an effective biomarker for highly exposed foam cushion workers. PMID:19706636

Hanley, Kevin W.; Petersen, Martin R.; Cheever, Kenneth L.; Luo, Lian

2009-01-01

90

Ionic liquid-regulated sulfamic acid: chemoselective catalyst for the transesterification of ?-ketoesters  

Microsoft Academic Search

1-Propyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C3MIm]Cl) ionic liquid and sulfamic acid (NH2SO3H), as a synergetic catalytic medium, were used for the transesterification of acetoacetate with alcohols of different structures. It shows the good ability for the chemoselective transesterificatin of ?-ketoesters and maintains its catalytic activity in the reuse.

Wang Bo; Yang Li Ming; Suo Ji Shuan

2003-01-01

91

Studies on the isolation and properties of the highly unsaturated fatty acids from natural sources  

E-print Network

CONCENTRATION OF HIGHLY UNSATURATED ACIDSj EXPERIMENTAL METHODS,. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS . . . . . . . . A. SOME GENERAL PROCEDURES USED IN UREA COMPLEX STUDY . . . B. FRACTIONATION BY UREA ................................. 1. Ethyl Esters of Cod Liver Oil... Fatty Acids . . . . . . . 2. Free Fatty Acids from Various Fish Oils ? . ? . ? . o 3. Methyl, Ethyl, n-Propyl and n-Butyl Esters from Cod Liver Oil . ? ............ U. Pure Unsaturated Fatty Acids and their n-Alkyl Esters 5>. Methyl Esters from Hog...

Abu-Nasr, Ahmed Mostafa

2013-10-04

92

Dimerization of fatty acid methyl ester using Brönsted–Lewis acidic ionic liquid as catalyst  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dimerization of fatty acid methyl ester was investigated using Brönsted–Lewis acidic ionic liquids (ILs) as catalysts. It is found that IL (3-sulfonic acid)-propyl-triethylammonium chlorozincinate [HO3S–(CH2)3–NEt3]Cl–ZnCl2 (x=0.64, x: molar fraction of ZnCl2, x=moles of ZnCl2\\/(moles of ZnCl2+moles of ammonium salt) was of good catalytic performance. Under the optimum conditions m(biodiesel):m(IL) 15:1, biodiesel 15g, reaction temperature 240°C, and reaction time 5h,

Shiwei Liu; Hongxia Zhou; Shitao Yu; Congxia Xie; Fusheng Liu; Zhanqian Song

2011-01-01

93

Substrate specificity of carboxylesterase isozymes and their contribution to hydrolase activity in human liver and small intestine.  

PubMed

Hydrolase activity from human liver and small intestine microsomes was compared with that of recombinant human carboxylesterases, hCE-1 and hCE-2. Although both hCE-1 and hCE-2 are present in human liver, the dominant component was found to be hCE-1, whereas the hydrolase activity of the human small intestine was found to be predominantly hCE-2. hCE-2 has a limited ability to hydrolyze large acyl compound substrates. Interestingly, propranolol derivatives, good substrates for hCE-2, were easily hydrolyzed by substitution of the methyl group on the 2-position of the acyl moiety, but were barely hydrolyzed when the methyl group was substituted on the 3-position. These findings suggest that hCE-2 does not easily form acylated intermediates because of conformational interference in its active site. In contrast, hCE-1 could hydrolyze a variety of substrates. The hydrolytic activity of hCE-2 increased with increasing alcohol chain length in benzoic acid derivative substrates, whereas hCE-1 preferentially catalyzed the hydrolysis of substrates with short alcohol chains. Kinetic data showed that the determining factor for the rate of hydrolysis of p-aminobenzoic acid esters was V(max) for hCE-1 and K(m) for hCE-2. Furthermore, the addition of hydrophobic alcohols to the reaction mixture with p-aminobenzoic acid propyl ester induced high and low levels of transesterification by hCE-1 and hCE-2, respectively. When considering the substrate specificities of hCE-1, it is necessary to consider the transesterification ability of hCE-1, in addition to the binding structure of the substrate in the active site of the enzyme. PMID:16837570

Imai, Teruko; Taketani, Megumi; Shii, Mayumi; Hosokawa, Masakiyo; Chiba, Kan

2006-10-01

94

THE EFFECT OF THE ANTIOXIDANTS, BUTYLATED HYDROXY ANISOLE, BUTYLATED HYDROXY TOLUENE AND PROPYL GALLATE ON GROWTH, LIVER AND SERUM LIPIDS AND SERUM SODIUM LEVELS OF THE RAT  

Microsoft Academic Search

Confirmation of our previous finding that there are greater hazards in the use of butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) than in that of butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA) as antioxidants for use in human foodstuffs was obtained. BHA and propyl gallate (PG) met one of the requirements for safety as a food additive. A sex difference in the effect of BHT was

AR Johnson; FR Hewgill

1961-01-01

95

40 CFR 721.9517 - Siloxanes and silicones, de-Me, 3-[4-[[[3-(dimethyl amino) propyl] amino]carbonyl]-2-oxo-1...  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Siloxanes and silicones, de-Me, 3-[4-[[[3-(dimethyl amino...carbonyl]-2-oxo-1-pyrrolidinyl] propyl Me. 721.9517 Section 721.9517 Protection...9517 Siloxanes and silicones, de-Me, 3-[4-[[[3-(dimethyl...

2010-07-01

96

Transcriptome analysis provides new insights into liver changes induced in the rat upon dietary administration of the food additives butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, propyl gallate and thiabendazole  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transcriptomics was performed to gain insight into mechanisms of food additives butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), curcumin (CC), propyl gallate (PG), and thiabendazole (TB), additives for which interactions in the liver can not be excluded. Additives were administered in diets for 28 days to Sprague–Dawley rats and cDNA microarray experiments were performed on hepatic RNA. BHT induced changes in the expression of

Rob Stierum; Ana Conesa; Wilbert Heijne; Ben van Ommen; Karin Junker; Mary P. Scott; Roger J. Price; Clive Meredith; Brian G. Lake; John Groten

2008-01-01

97

Further studies into the photodissociation pathways of 2-bromo-2-nitropropane and the dissociation channels of the 2-nitro-2-propyl radical intermediate.  

PubMed

These experiments investigate the decomposition mechanisms of geminal dinitro energetic materials by photolytically generating two key intermediates: 2-nitropropene and 2-nitro-2-propyl radicals. To characterize the unimolecular dissociation of each intermediate, we form them under collision-free conditions using the photodissociation of 2-bromo-2-nitropropane; the intermediates are formed at high internal energies and undergo a multitude of subsequent unimolecular dissociation events investigated herein. Complementing our prior work on this system, the new data obtained with a crossed-laser molecular beam scattering apparatus with VUV photoionization detection at Taiwan's National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center (NSRRC) and new velocity map imaging data better characterize two of the four primary 193 nm photodissociation channels. The C-Br photofission channel forming the 2-nitro-2-propyl radicals has a trimodal recoil kinetic energy distribution, P(ET), suggesting that the 2-nitro-2-propyl radicals are formed both in the ground electronic state and in two low-lying excited electronic states. The new data also revise the HBr photoelimination P(ET) forming the 2-nitropropene intermediate. We then resolved the multiple competing unimolecular dissociation channels of each photoproduct, confirming many of the channels detected in the prior study, but not all. The new data detected HONO product at m/e = 47 using 11.3 eV photoionization from both intermediates; analysis of the momentum-matched products allows us to establish that both 2-nitro-2-propyl ? HONO + CH3CCH2 and 2-nitropropene ? HONO + C3H4 occur. Photoionization at 9.5 eV allowed us to detect the mass 71 coproduct formed in OH loss from 2-nitro-2-propyl; a channel missed in our prior study. The dynamics of the highly exothermic 2-nitro-2-propyl ? NO + acetone dissociation is also better characterized; it evidences a sideways scattered angular distribution. The detection of some stable 2-nitropropene photoproducts allows us to fit signal previously assigned to H loss from 2-nitro-2-propyl radicals. Overall, the data provide a comprehensive study of the unimolecular dissociation channels of these important nitro-containing intermediates. PMID:24947044

Booth, Ryan S; Brynteson, Matthew D; Lee, Shih-Huang; Lin, J J; Butler, Laurie J

2014-07-01

98

Inhibition of Ethylene Biosynthesis by Salicylic Acid  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid inhibited ethylene formation from ACC in self-buffered (pH 3.8) pear (Pyrus communis) cell suspension cultures with a K1app of about 10 micromolar after 1 to 3 hours incubation. Inhibition appeared noncompetitive. Among 22 related phenolic compounds tested, only acetylsalicylic acid showed similar levels of inhibition. Inhibition by salicylic acid was inversely dependent on the pH of the culture medium and did not require a continuous external supply of salicylate. When compared to known inhibitors of the ethylene forming enzyme, cobalt, n-propyl gallate, and dinitrophenol, inhibition by salicylic acid most closely resembled that by dinitrophenol but salicylic acid did not produce the same degree of respiratory stimulation. Results are discussed in terms of other known effects of salicylic acid on plants, pH-dependency, and the possible influence of salicylic acid on electron transport. PMID:16666393

Leslie, Charles A.; Romani, Roger J.

1988-01-01

99

Microorganisms hydrolyse amide bonds; knowledge enabling read-across of biodegradability of fatty acid amides.  

PubMed

To get insight in the biodegradation and potential read-across of fatty acid amides, N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl] cocoamide and N-(1-ethylpiperazine) tall oil amide were used as model compounds. Two bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PK1 and Pseudomonas putida PK2 were isolated with N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl] cocoamide and its hydrolysis product N,N-dimethyl-1,3-propanediamine, respectively. In mixed culture, both strains accomplished complete mineralization of N-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl] cocoamide. Aeromonas hydrophila PK3 was enriched with N-(1-ethylpiperazine) tall oil amide and subsequently isolated using agar plates containing dodecanoate. N-(2-Aminoethyl)piperazine, the hydrolysis product of N-(1-ethylpiperazine) tall oil amide, was not degraded. The aerobic biodegradation pathway for primary and secondary fatty acid amides of P. aeruginosa and A. hydrophila involved initial hydrolysis of the amide bond producing ammonium, or amines, where the fatty acids formed were immediately metabolized. Complete mineralization of secondary fatty acid amides depended on the biodegradability of the released amine. Tertiary fatty acid amides were not transformed by P. aeruginosa or A. hydrophila. These strains were able to utilize all tested primary and secondary fatty acid amides independent of the amine structure and fatty acid. Read-across of previous reported ready biodegradability results of primary and secondary fatty acid amides is justified based on the broad substrate specificity and the initial hydrolytic attack of the two isolates PK1 and PK3. PMID:24509885

Geerts, Roy; Kuijer, Patrick; van Ginkel, Cornelis G; Plugge, Caroline M

2014-07-01

100

Bioadhesive analysis of controlled-release systems. I. Fracture and interpenetration analysis in poly(acrylic acid)-containing systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Novel bioadhesive controlled release tablets were prepared from poly (acrylic acid) and hydroxy- propyl methylcellulose. Their bioadhesive behavior was studied in a modified tensile tester in contact with bovine sublingual mucus, and the force-elongation behavior was measured up to the breakpoint. The work of adhesion was calculated and related to bioadhesive characteristics of the tablets. It was found that the

Gilles Ponchel; Frederic Touchard; D DUCHENE; Nikolaos A. Peppas

1987-01-01

101

The Use of Fatty Acid Esters to Enhance Free Acid Sophorolipid Synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fatty acid esters were prepared by transesterification of soy oil with methanol (methyl-soyate, Me-Soy), ethanol (ethyl-soyate,\\u000a Et-Soy) and propanol (propyl-soyate, Pro-Soy) and used with glycerol as fermentation substrates to enhance production of free-acid\\u000a sophorolipids (SLs). Fed-batch fermentations of Candida bombicola resulted in SL yields of 46 4 g\\/l, 42 7 g\\/l and 18 6 g\\/l from Me-Soy, Et-Soy, and Pro-Soy, respectively. Liquid chromatography

Richard D. Ashby; Daniel K. Y. Solaiman; Thomas A. Foglia

2006-01-01

102

Optimisation of derivatisation procedures for the determination of delta13C values of amino acids by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Compound-specific stable carbon isotope analysis of amino acids by gas chromatography/combustion/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC/C/IRMS) is a highly selective and sensitive method for probing the biosynthetic/diagenetic pathways, pool size and turnover rates of proteins, previously intractable to bulk isotope analyses. However, amino acids are polyfunctional, non-volatile compounds which require derivatisation prior to GC analysis. While a wide range of derivatives exist for the GC analysis of amino acids only a handful have been utilised for their GC/C/IRMS analysis. Significantly, none of those derivatives currently employed appear completely satisfactory and a thorough assessment of their relative utility is lacking. Seven derivatives (three previously reported and four novel) for obtaining delta(13)C values of amino acids via GC/C/IRMS analysis were compared. More specifically, standard mixtures of 15 protein amino acids were converted into N-acetylmethyl (NACME) esters, N-acetyl n-propyl (NANP) esters, N-acetyl i-propyl (NAIP) esters, N-trifluoroacetyl-i-propyl (TFA-IP) esters, N-pivaloyl methyl (NPME) esters, N-pivaloyl n-propyl (NPNP) esters and N-pivaloyl i-propyl (NPIP) esters. Each derivative was assessed with respect to its applicability to carbon isotope determinations of all the common alpha-amino acids, reaction yield, chromatographic resolution, stability, analyte-to-derivative carbon ratio, kinetic isotope effects and errors associated with their carbon isotope determinations. The NACME derivative was concluded to be the preferred derivative mainly due to the highest analyte-to-derivative carbon ratio being achieved, resulting in the lowest analytical errors for amino acid delta(13)C value determinations, ranging from +/-0.6 per thousand for phenylalanine, leucine and isoleucine to +/-1.1 per thousand for serine and glycine. PMID:17990247

Corr, Lorna T; Berstan, Robert; Evershed, Richard P

2007-01-01

103

Synthesis of N-phenyl-N-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propyl)benzofuran-2-carboxamides as new selective ligands for sigma receptors  

PubMed Central

Novel benzofuran-2-carboxamide ligands, which are selective for sigma receptors, have been synthesized via a microwave-assisted Perkin rearrangement reaction and a modified Finkelstein halogen-exchange used to facilitate N-alkylation. The ligands synthesized are the 3-methyl-N-phenyl-N-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propyl)benzofuran-2-carboxamides (KSCM-1, KSCM-5 and KSCM-11). The benzofuran-2-carboxamide structure was N-arylated and N-alkylated to include both N-phenyl and N-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propyl substituents respectively. These new carboxamides exhibit high affinity at the sigma-1 receptor with Ki values ranging from 7.8 – 34nM. Ligand KSCM-1 with two methoxy substituents at C-5 and C-6 of the benzofuran ring, and Ki = 27.5nM at sigma-1 was found to be more selective for sigma-1 over sigma-2. 3-methyl-N-phenyl-N-(3-(piperidin-1-yl)propyl)benzofuran-2-carboxamides PMID:23084435

Marriott, Karla-Sue C.; Morrison, Andrew Z.; Moore, Misty; Olubajo, Olarongbe; Stewart, Leonard E.

2012-01-01

104

Increased complexity in interstellar chemistry: Detection and chemical modeling of ethyl formate and n-propyl cyanide in Sgr B2(N)  

E-print Network

In recent years, organic molecules of increasing complexity have been found toward the prolific Galactic center source Sagittarius B2. We wish to explore the degree of complexity that the interstellar chemistry can reach in star-forming regions. We carried out a complete line survey of the hot cores Sgr B2(N) and (M) with the IRAM 30 m telescope in the 3 mm range. We analyzed this spectral survey in the LTE approximation. We modeled the emission of all known molecules simultaneously, which allows us to search for less abundant, more complex molecules. We compared the derived column densities with the predictions of a coupled gas-phase and grain-surface chemical code. We report the first detection in space of ethyl formate (C2H5OCHO) and n-propyl cyanide (C3H7CN) toward Sgr B2(N). The abundances of ethyl formate and n-propyl cyanide relative to H2 are estimated to be 3.6e-9 and 1.0e-9, respectively. Our chemical modeling suggests that the sequential, piecewise construction of ethyl and n-propyl cyanide from th...

Belloche, A; Müller, H S P; Menten, K M; Comito, C; Schilke, P

2009-01-01

105

SYNTHESIS AND ANTIVIRAL EVALUATION OF 9-(S)-[3-ALKOXY-2-(PHOSPHONOMETHOXY)PROPYL]NUCLEOSIDE ALKOXYALKYL ESTERS: INHIBITORS OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS AND HIV-1 REPLICATION  

PubMed Central

We reported previously that octadecyloxyethyl 9-(S)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)-propyl]adenine (ODE-(S)-HPMPA) was active against genotype 1b and 2a hepatitis C virus (HCV) replicons. This is surprising because acyclic nucleoside phosphonates have been regarded as having antiviral activity only against double stranded DNA viruses, HIV and HBV. We synthesized octadecyloxyethyl 9-(S)-[3-methoxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]-adenine and found it to be active in genotype 1b and 2a HCV replicons with EC50 values of 1-2 ?M and a CC50 of>150 ?M. Analogs with substitutions at the 3?-hydroxyl larger than methyl or ethyl, or with other purine bases were less active but most compounds had significant antiviral activity against HIV-1 in vitro. The most active anti-HIV compound was octadecyloxyethyl 9-(R)-[3-methoxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]guanine with an EC50 <0.01 nanomolar and a selectivity index of>4.4 million. PMID:21719300

Valiaeva, Nadejda; Wyles, David L.; Schooley, Robert T.; Hwu, Julia B.; Beadle, James R.; Prichard, Mark N.

2011-01-01

106

Physicochemical properties of N-propyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide for sodium metal battery applications.  

PubMed

The physicochemical properties of a range of NaNTf2 (or NaTFSI) salt concentrations in N-propyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (or C3mpyrFSI) ionic liquid were investigated by DSC, conductivity, cyclic voltammetry and diffusivity studies. Cyclic voltammetry indicated a stable sodium plating behavior with a current of 5 mA cm(-2) at 25 °C to 20 mA cm(-2) at 100 °C, along with high reversibility identifying this electrolyte as a possible candidate for sodium-ion or sodium metal battery applications. (23)Na NMR chemical shifts and spectral linewidths (FWHM) indicate a complex coordination of the Na(+) ion which is dependent on both temperature and salt concentration with an apparently stronger coordination to the NTf2 anion upon increasing the NaNTf2 concentration. Temperature dependent PFG-NMR diffusion measurements show that both FSI and NTf2 have a comparable behaviour although the smaller FSI anion is more diffusive. PMID:24824026

Yoon, Hyungook; Zhu, Haijin; Hervault, Aziliz; Armand, Michel; MacFarlane, Douglas R; Forsyth, Maria

2014-06-28

107

Over-expression of GAPDH in human colorectal carcinoma as a preferred target of 3-bromopyruvate propyl ester.  

PubMed

It has long been observed that many cancer cells exhibit increased aerobic glycolysis and rely more on this pathway to generate ATP and metabolic intermediates for cell proliferation. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) is a key enzyme in glycolysis and has been known as a housekeeping molecule. In the present study, we found that GAPDH expression was significantly up-regulated in human colorectal carcinoma tissues compared to the adjacent normal tissues, and also increased in colon cancer cell lines compared to the non-tumor colon mucosa cells in culture. The expression of GAPDH was further elevated in the liver metastatic tissues compared to the original colon cancer tissue of the same patients, suggesting that high expression of GAPDH might play an important role in colon cancer development and metastasis. Importantly, we found that 3-bromopyruvate propyl ester (3-BrOP) preferentially inhibited GAPDH and exhibited potent activity in inducing colon cancer cell death by causing severe depletion of ATP. 3-BrOP at low concentrations (1-10 ?M) inhibited GAPDH and a much higher concentration (300 ?M) was required to inhibit hexokinase-2. The cytotoxic effect of 3-BrOP was associated with its inhibition of GAPDH, and colon cancer cells with loss of p53 were more sensitive to this compound. Our study suggests that GAPDH may be a potential target for colon cancer therapy. PMID:22350014

Tang, Zhenjie; Yuan, Shuqiang; Hu, Yumin; Zhang, Hui; Wu, Wenjing; Zeng, Zhaolei; Yang, Jing; Yun, Jingping; Xu, Ruihua; Huang, Peng

2012-02-01

108

Hyperthermia Stress Activates Heat Shock Protein Expression via Propyl Isomerase 1 Regulation with Heat Shock Factor 1  

PubMed Central

Heat shock proteins (HSPs), which are members of the chaperone family of proteins, are essential factors for cellular responses to environmental stressors, such as hyperthermia, and are antiapoptotic. The transcription of HSPs is mainly controlled by heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1). In response to environmental stress, HSF1 forms a trimer, undergoes hyperphosphorylation, and is translocated to the nucleus. In this study, we show that upon heat shock treatment of cells, a WW domain-containing propyl-isomerase, PIN1, is able to colocalize to and associate with phospho-HSF1 at Ser326 in the nucleus via its WW domain. This interaction is required for the DNA-binding activity of HSF1 and is consistent with the lower induction of HSPs in PIN1-deficient cells. This function of PIN1 is further demonstrated by in vivo refolding and survival assays, which have shown that PIN1-deficient cells are temperature sensitive and develop apoptosis upon exposure to an environmental challenge. Moreover, the reduced levels of HSPs in PIN1-deficient cells resulted in less efficient refolding of denatured proteins. Based on our results, we propose a novel role for PIN1 whereby it acts as a stress sensor regulating HSF1 activity in response to stress on multiple levels through the transcriptional activation of stress response elements in embryonic fibroblast cells, tumor cells, and neurons. PMID:24126052

Wang, Hsiu-Yu; Fu, Jimmy Chun-Ming; Lee, Yu-Cheng

2013-01-01

109

Cyclopropane amino acid ester dipeptide sweeteners.  

PubMed

A series of esters of L-aspartyl-1-aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid has been prepared and their sweet tastes determined. The sweetest ester prepared was about 300 times sweeter than sucrose. An attempt to use basic conditions during preparation of the dipeptide allyl ester led to succinimide formation of the aspartyl peptide even though the beta-carboxyl group was protected by a t-butyl ester function. The X-ray structure of the propyl ester (1c) was determined and its conformation is discussed. PMID:3429129

Mapelli, C; Newton, M G; Ringold, C E; Stammer, C H

1987-10-01

110

Comparative study of propranolol hydrochloride release from matrix tablets with KollidonSR or hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose.  

PubMed

The release of propranolol hydrochloride from matrix tablets with hydroxy propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K15M) or KollidonSR at different concentrations was investigated with a view to developing twice daily sustained release dosage form. A hydrophilic matrix-based tablet using different concentrations of HPMC K15M or KollidonSR was developed using direct compression technique to contain 80 mg of propranolol hydrochloride. The resulting matrix tablets prepared with HPMC K15M or KollidonSR fulfilled all the official requirements of tablet dosage forms. Formulations were evaluated for the release of propranolol hydrochloride over a period of 12 h in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer using USP type II dissolution apparatus. Propranolol hydrochloride and pure KollidonSR or HPMC K15M compatibility interactions was investigated by using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). FTIR spectroscopic and DSC studies revealed that there was no well defined chemical interaction between propranolol hydrochloride with KollidonSR or HPMC K15M. Tablets were exposed to 40 degrees C/75% of RH in open disc for stability. The in vitro drug release study revealed that HPMC K15 at a concentration of 40% of the dosage form weight was able to control the release of propranolol hydrochloride for 12 h, exhibit non-Fickian diffusion with first-order release kinetics where as at 40% KollidonSR same dosage forms show zero-order release kinetics. In conclusion, the in vitro release profile and the mathematical models indicate that release of propranolol hydrochloride can be effectively controlled from a single tablet using HPMC K15M or KollidonSR matrix system. PMID:18459050

Sahoo, J; Murthy, P N; Biswal, S; Sahoo, S K; Mahapatra, A K

2008-01-01

111

Crystal structure of 3,5-bis-(4-chloro-phen-yl)-1-propyl-1,3,5-tri-aza-cyclo-hexane  

PubMed Central

In the title mol­ecule, C18H21Cl2N3, the tri­aza­cyclo­hexane ring adopts a chair conformation with both 4-chloro­phenyl substituents in axial positions and the propyl group in an equatorial site. The dihedral angle between the planes of the benzene rings is 49.5?(1)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are arranged in a head-to-tail fashion, forming columns along [010], and pairs of weak C—H?? inter­actions form inversion dimers between columns. PMID:25309226

Lefrada, Leila; Bouchemma, Ahcene; Bouacida, Sofiane; Claiser, Nicolas; Souhassou, Mohamed

2014-01-01

112

Crystal structure of 3,5-bis-(4-chloro-phen-yl)-1-propyl-1,3,5-tri-aza-cyclo-hexane.  

PubMed

In the title mol-ecule, C18H21Cl2N3, the tri-aza-cyclo-hexane ring adopts a chair conformation with both 4-chloro-phenyl substituents in axial positions and the propyl group in an equatorial site. The dihedral angle between the planes of the benzene rings is 49.5?(1)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are arranged in a head-to-tail fashion, forming columns along [010], and pairs of weak C-H?? inter-actions form inversion dimers between columns. PMID:25309226

Lefrada, Leila; Bouchemma, Ahcene; Bouacida, Sofiane; Claiser, Nicolas; Souhassou, Mohamed

2014-09-01

113

Solid-state 1H NMR in 1-propyl-1H-tetrazole complexes of iron(II) and zinc(II)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PMR linewidths (??) and spin-lattice relaxation times ( T1) were measured on [M(1- n-propyl-1H-tetrazole) 6](BF 4) 2 (M is Zn or Fe). Three motional minima of T1 associated with steps of ?? were found, and a structural change in the temperature region of 100 to 120 K is suggested in the zinc complex. The spin transition temperature was found to be ˜130 K, and an anomalous minimum of T1 occurred at 9 K in the iron complex.

Bokor, Mónika; Marek, Tamás; Tompa, Kálmán; Vértes, Attila

1997-06-01

114

Synthesis and Cytotoxic Activity of 1-{3-[1-(5-Organylsilylfuran-2-yl)silinan-1-yl]propyl}amines and Some Trimethylgermyl Analogues.  

PubMed

New highly cytotoxic 1-{3-[1-(5-organylsilyl-furan-2-yl)silinan-1-yl]propyl}amines and some trimethylgermyl analogues (IC50 1-7??g?mL(-1) ) have been synthesized by a hydrosilylation reaction of aliphatic and heterocyclic N-allylamines in the presence of Speier's catalyst. The effects of the silacycle, the element-organic substituent in position 5 of the furan ring, and the structure of the amine on the cytotoxicity of the new compounds have been studied. PMID:25111505

Ignatovich, Luba; Romanovs, Vitalijs; Muravenko, Velta; Sleiksha, Ilze; Popelis, Jury; Shestakova, Irina

2014-09-26

115

Organosilane grafted acid-activated beidellite clay for the removal of non-ionic alachlor and anionic imazaquin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Clay adsorbents were prepared via two-step method to remove nonionic alachlor and anionic imazaquin herbicides from water. Firstly, layered beidellite clay, a member of smectite family, was treated with acid in hydrothermal process; secondly, common silane coupling agents, 3-chloro-propyl trimethoxysilane or triethoxy silane, were grafted on the acid treated samples to prepare adsorbent materials. The organically modified clay samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, N2 gas adsorption, and FTIR spectroscopy. It was found that the selective modification of clay samples displayed higher adsorption capacity for herbicides compared with acid activated clay. And the amount of adsorption is increased with increasing the grafting amount of silane groups. Clay grafted with 3-chloro-propyl trimethoxysilane is an excellent adsorbent for both alachlor and imazaquin but triethoxy (octyl) silane grafted clay is more efficient only for alachlor removal.

Paul, Blain; Martens, Wayde N.; Frost, Ray L.

2011-04-01

116

Silica chemically bonded N-propyl kriptofix 21 and 22 with immobilized palladium nanoparticles for solid phase extraction and preconcentration of some metal ions.  

PubMed

Silica gel chemically bonded N-propyl kriptofix 21 (SBNPK 21) and N-propyl kriptofix 22 (SBNPK 22) and subsequently immobilized with palladium nanoparticles (PNP-SBNPK 21 and PNP-SBNPK 22) to produce two new complexing lipophilic materials. Then these novel sorbents were applied for the enrichment of some metal ions and their subsequent determination by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS). The influences of the variables including pH, amount of solid phase, sample flow rate, eluent conditions and sample volume on the metal ion recoveries were investigated. The detection limit of proposed method was in the interval 2.1-2.3 and 1.7-2.8 ng mL(-1) for PNP-SBNPK 21 and PNP-SBNPK 22 respectively, while the preconcentration factor was 80 for two sorbents. The relative standard deviations of recoveries were between 1.23-1.31 and 1.28-1.49 for PNP-SBNPK 21 and PNP-SBNPK 22 respectively. The method has high sorption-preconcentration efficiency even in the presence of various interfering ions. Due to the reasonable selectivity of proposed method, the relative standard deviation of recoveries of all understudied metal ions in some complicated matrices was less than 3.0%. PMID:23706199

Ghaedi, Mehrorang; Niknam, Khodabakhsh; Zamani, Saeed; Larki, Habib Abasi; Roosta, Mostafa; Soylak, Mustafa

2013-08-01

117

Actions of methyl-, propyl- and butylparaben on estrogen receptor-? and -? and the progesterone receptor in MCF-7 cancer cells and non-cancerous MCF-10A cells.  

PubMed

Numerous studies have shown that widely used parabens possess estrogenic properties. In the present study, we examined the effects of methyl-, propyl- and butylparaben on the mRNA and protein expression of estrogen receptor (ER)-? (ESR1) and -? (ESR2) and the progesterone receptor (PGR). Human MCF-7 breast cancer cells and MCF-10A non-transformed breast epithelial cells were exposed to parabens at a concentration of 20nM; 17?-estradiol at a concentration of 10nM, was used as a positive control. Both propyl- and butylparaben stimulated PGR mRNA expression in MCF-7 cells, whereas methyl- and propylparaben PGR protein expression. In MCF-10A cells, butyl- and propylparaben increased only PGR mRNA expression. All parabens increased ESR1 gene and protein expression in MCF-7 and with the exception of butylparaben in MCF-10A cells. All parabens significantly increased ESR2 mRNA and protein expression in MCF-7 cells, but in MCF-10A cells only ESR2 protein expression. In summary, by virtue of their stimulatory action on the expression of ESR1, ESR2 and PGR in cancer cells, parabens can be viewed as potential contributors to breast cancer progression. Extension, the actions of these parabens on the expression of ERs and PGR in non-cancerous cells point to possible actions on breast cancer initiation. PMID:25128701

Wróbel, Anna Maria; Gregoraszczuk, Ewa ?ucja

2014-11-01

118

N-(2-hydroxyl) propyl-3-trimethyl ammonium chitosan chloride nanoparticle as a novel delivery system for parathyroid hormone-related protein 1-34.  

PubMed

Chitosan (CS) and epoxy propyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (EPTAC) were used to prepare the water-soluble N-(2-hydroxyl) propyl-3-trimethyl ammonium chitosan chloride (HTCC). HTCC and sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) were mixed to form HTCC nanoparticles based on ionic gelation. Parathyroid hormone-related protein 1-34 (PTHrP1-34) was incorporated into the HTCC nanoparticles. The particle size and morphology of nanoparticles were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). HTCC/PTHrP1-34 nanoparticles were 100-180 nm in size and their encapsulation efficiency and loading capacity were related to HTCC concentration, TPP concentration and initial concentration of PTHrP1-34. Relatively optimum encapsulation efficiency (78.4%) and loading capacity (13.7%) of PTHrP1-34 is achieved, and the in vitro release profile of PTHrP1-34 from nanoparticles has an initial burst, which is followed up by a slow release phase. These studies showed that HTCC/PTHrP1-34 nanoparticles are suitable for the treatment of osteoporosis, because of their slow-continuous-release properties, and the relevant in vivo experiments and clinical trials should be further studied. PMID:20435115

Zhao, Sheng-hao; Wu, Xiao-ting; Guo, Wei-chun; Du, Yu-min; Yu, Ling; Tang, Jin

2010-06-30

119

Accurate ab initio predictions of ionization energies and heats of formation for the 2-propyl, phenyl, and benzyl radicals.  

PubMed

The ionization energies (IEs) for the 2-propyl (2-C(3)H(7)), phenyl (C(6)H(5)), and benzyl (C(6)H(5)CH(2)) radicals have been calculated by the wave-function-based ab initio CCSD(T)/CBS approach, which involves the approximation to the complete basis set (CBS) limit at the coupled cluster level with single and double excitations plus quasiperturbative triple excitation [CCSD(T)]. The zero-point vibrational energy correction, the core-valence electronic correction, and the scalar relativistic effect correction have been also made in these calculations. Although a precise IE value for the 2-C(3)H(7) radical has not been directly determined before due to the poor Franck-Condon factor for the photoionization transition at the ionization threshold, the experimental value deduced indirectly using other known energetic data is found to be in good accord with the present CCSD(T)/CBS prediction. The comparison between the predicted value through the focal-point analysis and the highly precise experimental value for the IE(C(6)H(5)CH(2)) determined in the previous pulsed field ionization photoelectron (PFI-PE) study shows that the CCSD(T)/CBS method is capable of providing an accurate IE prediction for C(6)H(5)CH(2), achieving an error limit of 35 meV. The benchmarking of the CCSD(T)/CBS IE(C(6)H(5)CH(2)) prediction suggests that the CCSD(T)/CBS IE(C(6)H(5)) prediction obtained here has a similar accuracy of 35 meV. Taking into account this error limit for the CCSD(T)/CBS prediction and the experimental uncertainty, the CCSD(T)/CBS IE(C(6)H(5)) value is also consistent with the IE(C(6)H(5)) reported in the previous HeI photoelectron measurement. Furthermore, the present study provides support for the conclusion that the CCSD(T)/CBS approach with high-level energy corrections can be used to provide reliable IE predictions for C(3)-C(7) hydrocarbon radicals with an uncertainty of +/-35 meV. Employing the atomization scheme, we have also computed the 0 K (298 K) heats of formation in kJ/mol at the CCSD(T)/CBS level for 2-C(3)H(7)/2-C(3)H(7) (+) ,C(6)H(5)/C(6)H(5) (+), and C(6)H(5)CH(2)/C(6)H(5)CH(2) (+) to be 105.2/822.7 (90.0/806.4), 351.4/1148.5 (340.4/1138.8), and 226.2/929.0 (210.3/912.7), respectively. Comparing these values with the available experimental values, we find that the discrepancies for the 0 and 298 K heats of formation values are < or =2.6 kJ/mol for 2-C(3)H(7)/2-C(3)H(7) (+),< or =4.1 kJ/mol for C(6)H(5)/C(6)H(5) (+), and < or =3.2 kJ//mol for C(6)H(5)CH(2)C(6)H(5)CH(2) (+). PMID:16460178

Lau, K-C; Ng, C Y

2006-01-28

120

Acid-functionalized nanoparticles for biomass hydrolysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cellulosic ethanol is a renewable source of energy. Lignocellulosic biomass is a complex material composed mainly of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Biomass pretreatment is a required step to make sugar polymers liable to hydrolysis. Mineral acids are commonly used for biomass pretreatment. Using acid catalysts that can be recovered and reused could make the process economically more attractive. The overall goal of this dissertation is the development of a recyclable nanocatalyst for the hydrolysis of biomass sugars. Cobalt iron oxide nanoparticles (CoFe2O4) were synthesized to provide a magnetic core that could be separated from reaction using a magnetic field and modified to carry acid functional groups. X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the crystal structure was that of cobalt spinel ferrite. CoFe2O4 were covered with silica which served as linker for the acid functions. Silica-coated nanoparticles were functionalized with three different acid functions: perfluoropropyl-sulfonic acid, carboxylic acid, and propyl-sulfonic acid. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images were analyzed to obtain particle size distributions of the nanoparticles. Total carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur were quantified using an elemental analyzer. Fourier transform infra-red spectra confirmed the presence of sulfonic and carboxylic acid functions and ion-exchange titrations accounted for the total amount of catalytic acid sites per nanoparticle mass. These nanoparticles were evaluated for their performance to hydrolyze the beta-1,4 glycosidic bond of the cellobiose molecule. Propyl-sulfonic (PS) and perfluoropropyl-sulfonic (PFS) acid functionalized nanoparticles catalyzed the hydrolysis of cellobiose significantly better than the control. PS and PFS were also evaluated for their capacity to solubilize wheat straw hemicelluloses and performed better than the control. Although PFS nanoparticles were stronger acid catalysts, the acid functions leached out of the nanoparticle during the catalytic reactions. PS nanoparticles were further evaluated for the pretreatment of corn stover in order to increase digestibility of the biomass. The pretreatment was carried out at three different catalyst load and temperature levels. At 180°C, the total glucose yield was linearly correlated to the catalyst load. A maximum glucose yield of 90% and 58% of the hemicellulose sugars were obtained at this temperature.

Pena Duque, Leidy Eugenia

121

Inhibition of human red blood cell N-acetyltransferase.  

PubMed

Acetanilide and derivatives of benzoic acid, benzamide, salicylic acid, and salicylamide were tested as inhibitors of p-aminobenzoic acid N-acetyltransferase partially purified from peripheral blood of three rapid and two slow dapsone acetylator human volunteers. The 50% inhibition point of these compounds does not provide a kinetic basis for differentiating the rapid and slow dapsone acetylator phenotypes. PMID:8095216

Voice, R A; Manis, M; Weber, W W

1993-01-01

122

Surface modification of polycaprolactone with poly(methacrylic acid) and gelatin covalent immobilization for promoting its cytocompatibility  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polycaprolactone (PCL) membrane was modified by grafting copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) initiated under UV light. The covalent immobilization of gelatin on PCL-g-PMAA surface was consequently performed by using condensing agent, 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylamino propyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride. The occurrence of grafting copolymerization of PMAA and further immobilization of gelatin was confirmed by ATR-FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterizations. The existence of carboxyl

Yabin Zhu; Changyou Gao; Jiacong Shen

2002-01-01

123

Electrochemical detection of hybridization using peptide nucleic acids and methylene blue on self-assembled alkanethiol monolayer modified gold electrodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

An electrochemical hybridization biosensor based on peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes is presented. PNA probes were attached covalently through a competition of free amines on the guanine bases and also at the 5? end of the probe, using N-(3-dimethylamino)propyl)-N?-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) onto a carboxylate terminated alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) preformed on a gold electrode (AuE). The covalently

Dilsat Ozkan; Arzum Erdem; Pinar Kara; Kagan Kerman; J Justin Gooding; Peter E Nielsen; Mehmet Ozsoz

2002-01-01

124

Synthesis and antiviral activity of N9-[3-fluoro-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl] analogues derived from N6-substituted adenines and 2,6-diaminopurines.  

PubMed

An efficient method for the synthesis of N(9)-[3-fluoro-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl] (FPMP) derivatives of purine bases has been developed. Both (R)- and (S)-enantiomers of the N(6)-substituted FPMP derivatives of adenine and 2,6-diaminopurine were prepared and their anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and anti-Moloney murine sarcoma virus (MSV) activity was evaluated. Whereas none of the 6-substituted FPMPA derivatives showed any antiviral activity, several FPMPDAP derivatives had a moderate antiretroviral activity. Moreover, the data obtained from the study of the substrate activity of the active derivatives towards N(6)-methyl-AMP aminohydrolase support the notion that the studied N(6)-substituted FPMPDAP derivatives act as prodrugs of the antiretroviral FPMPG analogues. PMID:21429755

Baszczy?ski, Ond?ej; Jansa, Petr; Dra?ínský, Martin; Klepetá?ová, Blanka; Holý, Antonín; Votruba, Ivan; de Clercq, Erik; Balzarini, Jan; Janeba, Zlatko

2011-04-01

125

Simultaneous determination of bromhexine hydrochloride and methyl and propyl p-hydroxybenzoate and determination of dextromethorphan hydrobromide in cough-cold syrup by high-performance liquid chromatography.  

PubMed

Liquid chromatographic methods were developed for the determination of bromhexine hydrochloride, methyl p-hydroxybenzoate and propyl p-hydroxybenzoate (method A) and dextromethorphan hydrobromide (method B) in cough-cold syrup formulations. Reversed-phase analytical columns (150 mm x 3.9 mm i.d.) were used with (A) C18 and (B) phenyl as stationary phases and mixtures of (A) acetonitrile and aqueous 15 mM triethylamine solution (43:57) and (B) methanol and aqueous 3% ammonium formate buffer solution (53:47) as mobile phases at a flow rate of 1.0 ml min-1. Both aqueous components were adjusted to pH 3.9. UV detection of analytes was at (A) 245 nm and (B) 278 nm. In both methods, the time required for an HPLC run giving good separations and recoveries was less than 8 min. PMID:8933431

Rauha, J P; Salomies, H; Aalto, M

1996-11-01

126

Vibrational spectroscopic and force field studies of organorhenium(VII) trioxides—I. Methyltrioxorhenium(VII), ethyltrioxorhenium(VII) and ( n-propyl)trioxorhenium(VII)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The infrared absorption spectra of the alkyltrioxorhenium(VII) compounds, methyl-, ethyl-, and ( n-propyl)trioxorhenium(VII) have been recorded and analyzed. The Raman spectrum could be obtained for the methyl compound, for which the IR and Raman spectra of a perdeuterated sample (CD 3ReO 3) were also examined. Full vibrational assignment is proposed for all three molecules. The band assignments were based on comparison with the spectra of similar molecules (e.g. alkylmercury halides) and supported or improved by normal coordinate analysis. For the CH 3ReO 3, a hybrid orbital force field (HOFF) was used while for C 2H 5ReO 3 and ( n-CH 3H 7)ReO 3 a common simplified valence force field was obtained from an overlay calculation. The influence of size and conformation of the alkyl group on the vibrations of the ReO 3 moiety is discussed.

Mink, J.; Keresztury, G.; Stirling, A.; Herrmann, W. A.

1994-11-01

127

(S)-6-Chloro-4-cyclo-propyl-ethynyl-4-trifluoro-methyl-1H-3,1-benzoxazin-2(4H)-one.  

PubMed

Two independent mol-ecules comprise the crystallographic asymmetric unit in the title anti-retroviral agent Efavirenz, C(14)H(9)ClF(3)NO(2), and these have noteworthy differences in conformation. The major difference relates to the orientation of the 2-cyclo-propyl-ethynyl residue relative to the six-membered heterocycle: this approaches an orthogonal disposition in mol-ecule a compared to a more flattened conformation in mol-ecule b, the difference being reflected in the O(ring)-C-C-C(ethyne) torsion angles of 65?(4) and 159?(5)°, respectively. The independent mol-ecules are connected via the eight-membered {?HNC (O)}(2) amide synthon. Disorder is noted in the cyclo-propane ring of mol-ecule b in that two orientations of equal weight were discerned. PMID:21578886

Cuffini, Silvia; Howie, R Alan; Tiekink, Edward R T; Wardell, James L; Wardell, Solange M S V

2009-01-01

128

Complexometric titration of thallium(III), by use of 4-amino-5-mercapto-3-propyl-1,2,4-triazole as replacing reagent.  

PubMed

A simple and selective EDTA method using a masking and demasking technique is proposed for the determination of thallium(III). The thallium is complexed with excess of EDTA, the surplus being back-titrated (pH 5-6, hexamine buffer) with zinc sulphate solution (Xylenol Orange as indicator). 4-Amino-5-mercapto-3-propyl-1,2,4-triazole is then added and the mixture heated on a water-bath for 5-10 min to displace EDTA from its thallium complex. The EDTA liberated is titrated with zinc sulphate solution. Reproducible and accurate results are obtained in the range 5-75 mg of thallium with both the relative error and coefficient of variation not exceeding 0.4%. PMID:18964601

Shetty A, N; Gadag, R V; Gajendragad, M R

1988-09-01

129

Water mediated synthesis, spectral and structural studies of ethyl 6-amino-4-aryl-5-cyano-2-propyl-4H-pyran-3-carboxylates: Single crystal X-ray structure of ethyl 6-amino-4-(2-chlorophenyl)-5-cyano-2-propyl-4H-pyran-3-carboxylate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An efficient and multifunctional three component synthetic protocol was developed to synthesize ethyl 6-amino-4-aryl-5-cyano-2-propyl-4H-pyran-3-carboxylates from ethyl 3-oxohexanoate, malononitrile and corresponding aldehydes (1a-11a) using K2CO3 as a catalyst under water solvent in good yields. The derived compounds have been analyzed by IR and NMR (1D and 2D) spectra. Single crystal X-ray structural analysis of 2a, evidences the flattened-boat conformation of pyran ring and the phenyl group is nearly perpendicular to the pyran ring.

Udhaya Kumar, C.; Sethukumar, A.; Agilandeshwari, R.; Arul Prakasam, B.; Vidhyasagar, T.; Sillanpää, Mika

2014-02-01

130

ANALYSIS OF THE FLAME RETARDANT METABOLITES BIS (1,3-DICHLORO-2-PROPYL) PHOSPHATE (BDCPP) AND DIPHENYL PHOSPHATE (DPP) IN URINE USING LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY  

PubMed Central

Organophosphate triesters tris-(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP) are widely used flame retardants (FRs) present in many products common to human environments, yet understanding of human exposure, and health effects of these compounds is limited. Monitoring urinary metabolites as biomarkers of exposure can be a valuable aid for improving this understanding; however, no previously published method exists for the analysis of the primary TDCPP metabolite, bis (1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCPP), in human urine. Here we present a method to extract the metabolites BDCPP and diphenyl phosphate (DPP) in human urine using mixed-mode anion exchange solid phase extraction and mass-labeled internal standards with analysis by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-LC/MS-MS). The method detection limit was 8 pg mL?1 urine for BDCPP and 204 pg mL?1 for DPP. Recoveries of analytes spiked into urine ranged from 82 ± 10% to 91 ± 4% for BDCPP and from 72 ± 12% to 76 ± 8% for DPP. Analysis of a small number of urine samples (n=9) randomly collected from non occupationally exposed adults revealed the presence of both BDCPP and DPP in all samples. Non-normalized urinary concentrations ranged from 46–1662 pg BDCPP mL?1 and 287–7443 pg DPP mL?1, with geometric means of 147 pg BDCPP mL?1 and 1074 pg DPP mL?1. Levels of DPP were higher than those of BDCPP in 89% of samples. The presented method is simple and sufficiently sensitive to detect these FR metabolites in humans and may be applied to future studies to increase our understanding of exposure and potential health effects to FRs. PMID:21830137

Cooper, EM; Covaci, A; van Nuijs, ALN; Webster, TF; Stapleton, HM

2013-01-01

131

Application of Molecular Connectivity Indices to the Design of Supercritical Carbon Dioxide?Soluble Metal Ion Extractants: SC?CO2 Solubilities of Symmetrically Substituted Alkylenediphosphonic Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a dynamic flow method, the supercritical carbon dioxide (SC?CO2) solubilities of two series of symmetrically substituted alkylenediphosphonic acids, bearing 2?ethylhexyl and 3?trimethylsilyl?1?propyl ester groups, respectively, were determined as a function of the number of methylene groups separating the two phosphorus atoms. An even–odd effect, similar to that observed previously for the aggregation of these compounds in nonpolar diluents, was

Daniel R. McAlister; Mark L. Dietz; Dominique Stepinski; Peter R. Zalupski; Julie A. Dzielawa; R. E. Barrans Jr; J. N. Hess; A. W. Herlinger

2005-01-01

132

The use of fatty acid esters to enhance free acid sophorolipid synthesis.  

PubMed

Fatty acid esters were prepared by transesterification of soy oil with methanol (methyl-soyate, Me-Soy), ethanol (ethyl-soyate, Et-Soy) and propanol (propyl-soyate, Pro-Soy) and used with glycerol as fermentation substrates to enhance production of free-acid sophorolipids (SLs). Fed-batch fermentations of Candida bombicola resulted in SL yields of 46 +/- 4 g/l, 42 +/- 7 g/l and 18 +/- 6 g/l from Me-Soy, Et-Soy, and Pro-Soy, respectively. Liquid chromatography with atmospheric pressure ionization mass spectrometry (LC/API-MS) showed that Me-Soy resulted in 71% open-chain SLs with 59% of those molecules remaining esterified at the carboxyl end of the fatty acids. Et-Soy and Pro-Soy resulted in 43% and 80% open-chain free-acid SLs, respectively (containing linoleic acid and oleic acid as the principal fatty acid species linked to the sophorose sugar at the omega-1 position), with no evidence of residual esterification. PMID:16555009

Ashby, Richard D; Solaiman, Daniel K Y; Foglia, Thomas A

2006-02-01

133

Mechanical and structural properties underlying contraction of skeletal muscle fibers after partial 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide cross-linking.  

PubMed Central

We show prolonged contraction of permeabilized muscle fibers of the frog during which structural order, as judged from low-angle x-ray diffraction, was preserved by means of partial cross-linking of the fibers using the zero-length cross-linker 1-ethyl-3-[3-dimethylamino)propyl]carbodiimide. Ten to twenty percent of the myosin cross-bridges were cross-linked, allowing the remaining 80-90% to cycle and generate force. These fibers displayed a well-preserved sarcomeric order and mechanical characteristics similar to those of intact muscle fibers. The intensity of the brightest meridional reflection at 14.5 nm, resulting from the projection of cross-bridges evenly spaced along the myofilament length, decreased by 60% as a relaxed fiber was deprived of ATP and entered the rigor state. Upon activation of a rigorized fiber by the addition of ATP, the intensity of this reflection returned to 97% of the relaxed value, suggesting that the overall orientation of cross-bridges in the active muscle was more perpendicular to the filament axis than in rigor. Following a small-amplitude length step applied to the active fibers, the reflection intensity decreased for both releases and stretches. In rigor, however, a small stretch increased the amplitude of the reflection by 35%. These findings show the close link between cross-bridge orientation and tension changes. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 6 PMID:8874020

Bershitsky, S; Tsaturyan, A; Bershitskaya, O; Mashanov, G; Brown, P; Webb, M; Ferenczi, M A

1996-01-01

134

Pharmacological studies on a new thymoleptic antidepressant, 1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-5-methyl-3-phenyl-1H-indazole (FS-32).  

PubMed

Some pharmacological actions of 1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-5-methyl-3-phenyl-1H-indazole (FS-32), a newly synthesized indazole derivative, were investigated in comparison with imipramine. FS-32 showed anti-reserpine activity in a dose-dependent manner, whereas imipramine exhibited a bell-shaped dose-response pattern. Catecholaminergic potentiation was demonstrated with FS-32. The results obtained from a norepinephrine potentiation test in vitro suggest that FS-32 may act in a manner qualitatively different from the tricyclic antidepressant. FS-32 produced a definite suppressive effect on isolation-induced fighting without affecting coordinated motor activity and on the duration of afterdischarge elicited by electrical stimulation to the amygdala or the hippocampus without producing a slow wave pattern in the EEG. Similar effects on fighting behavior and the afterdischarge were shown under imipramine with a slight motor incoordination and with a slow wave pattern, respectively. FS-32 produced practically no peripheral anti-cholinergic action, while it antagonized central cholinergic activity. FS-32 tended to produce an increase in chatecholamine content in the brain without MAO or COMT inhibitory activity. Norepinephrine uptake was inhibited by FS-32, but less than by imipramine. These pharmacological properties suggest a potential clinical utility of FS-32 as an antidepressant possessing thymoleptic activities. PMID:114190

Ikeda, Y; Takano, N; Matsushita, H; Shiraki, Y; Koide, T; Nagashima, R; Fujimura, Y; Shindo, M; Suzuki, S; Iwasaki, T

1979-01-01

135

Pharmacokinetics in melanoma-bearing mice of 5-dihydroxyboryl-6-propyl-2-thiouracil (BPTU), a candidate compound for boron neutron capture therapy.  

PubMed Central

Blood pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of 5-dihydroxyboryl-6-propyl-2-thiouracil (BPTU), a boron carrier with postulated melanin-seeking properties for boron neutron capture therapy, were determined in C57/BL mice with subcutaneous pigmented or non-pigmented B16 melanomas. Borocaptate sodium (BSH) was used as a boron compound without melanin-seeking properties in a comparative biodistribution study in the same animal tumour models. Administration of single doses showed that BPTU was retained better in the pigmented B16 tumour than in the non-pigmented variant. BPTU was found in large concentrations in kidney and liver. Brain boron was approximately 10-fold lower than tumour boron. On a molar basis, BPTU demonstrated higher affinity for B16 tumours than BSH. Owing to solubility limits, tumour boron concentrations in this mouse study were too low for effective application of BNCT. However, the high tumour-to-blood and tumour-to-normal tissues ratios indicate that, with appropriate formulation, BPTU could be a promising candidate for clinical BNCT. PMID:8142252

Verrijk, R.; Smolders, I. J.; Huiskamp, R.; Gavin, P. R.; Philipp, K. H.; Begg, A. C.

1994-01-01

136

The mechanical properties of the ultra high molecular weight polyethylene grafted with 3-dimethy (3-(N-methacryamido) propyl) ammonium propane sulfonate.  

PubMed

Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) powder was modified with a zwitterion monomer with good biocompatibility of MPDSAH (3-dimethy (3-(N-methacryamido) propyl) ammonium propane sulfonate) by UV irradiation and then hot pressed. The microstructure and mechanical properties of modified UHMWPE are investigated. The results show that the structure of powder and bulk materials has been changed. The modified powders have more filaments than that of untreated. The surface of modified bulk materials is more rough and displays the granular protuberances which have the random loose arrangement compared with untreated UHMWPE. The crystallinity, uniaxial tensile and compressive properties decreased after grafting. Ultimate elongations decrease with the increase of the monomer concentration and are higher than 300% which is recommended by ASTM and ISO except the sample with 0.45mol/L MPDSAH. The friction coefficient of modified UHMWPE is lower than that of the untreated UHMWPE and it decreases gradually with the increase of monomer concentration. The wear rates have been decreased and the wear resistance has been improved under saline and distilled water lubrication. PMID:24727573

Deng, Yaling; Xiong, Dangsheng; Wang, Kun

2014-07-01

137

On the hydrophilicity of polyzwitterion poly (N,N-dimethyl-N-(3-(methacrylamido)propyl)ammoniopropane sulfonate) in water, deuterated water, and aqueous salt solutions.  

PubMed

A series of zwitterionic model polymers with defined molar masses up to 150,000?Da and defined end groups are prepared from sulfobetaine monomer N,N-dimethyl-N-(3-(methacrylamido)propyl)ammoniopropanesulfonate (SPP). Polymers are synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization (RAFT) using a functional chain transfer agent labeled with a fluorescent probe. Their upper critical solution temperature-type coil-to-globule phase transition in water, deuterated water, and various salt solutions is studied by turbidimetry. Cloud points increase with polyzwitterion concentration and molar mass, being considerably higher in D2O than in H2O. Moreover, cloud points are strongly affected by the amount and nature of added salts. Typically, they increase with increasing salt concentration up to a maximum value, whereas further addition of salt lowers the cloud points again, mostly down to below freezing point. The different salting-in and salting-out effects of the studied anions can be correlated with the Hofmeister series. In physiological sodium chloride solution and in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), the cloud point is suppressed even for high molar mass samples. Accordingly, SPP-polymers behave strongly hydrophilic under most conditions encountered in biomedical applications. However, the direct transfer of results from model studies in D2O, using, e.g. (1)H NMR or neutron scattering techniques, to 'normal' systems in H2O is not obvious. PMID:25058808

Hildebrand, Viet; Laschewsky, André; Zehm, Daniel

2014-10-01

138

Analysis of carbohydrates in beverages by capillary electrophoresis with precolumn derivatization and UV detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a simple, selective capillary electrophoretic method using precolumn derivatization and UV detection at 280 nm to determine carbohydrates in beverages. Three carbohydrates, glucose, maltose and maltotriose, were analysed. The labelling reagent was p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA). Under optimised conditions the labelling reaction took 1 h at 40 °C in the presence of 250 mM PABA solution and 20% acetic

S. Cortacero-Ram??rez; A. Segura-Carretero; C. Cruces-Blanco; M. Hernáinz-Bermúdez de Castro; A. Fernández-Gutiérrez

2004-01-01

139

Simultaneous Determination of Fusidic Acid, m? and p?Hydroxybenzoates and Butylhydroxyanisole by TLC with Densitometric Detection in UV  

Microsoft Academic Search

A thin?layer chromatography (TLC)?densitometric method has been developed for the identification and quantification of fusidic acid (FA) (RF=0.53), methyl hydroxybenzoate (MHB) (RF=0.64), propyl hydroxybenzoate (PHB) (RF=0.72), and butylated hydroxyanisol (BHA) (RF=0.77), which are the components of a dermatological ointment. To separate these constituents, n?hexane?ethyl acetate?glacial acetic acid (6?3?1, v\\/v\\/v) has been used as the mobile phase and silica gel 60

Jan Krzek; Urszula Hubicka; Justyna Szczepa?czyk; Anna Kwiecie?; W?odzimierz Rzeszutko

2006-01-01

140

Combination of off-line solid-phase extraction and on-column sample stacking for sensitive determination of parabens and p-hydroxybenzoic acid in waters by non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the first time, a procedure based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) for the simultaneous extraction of a group of parabens (methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl and benzyl p-hydroxybenzoates) and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHBA), from environmental water samples has been developed. Analysis of the extracts was performed by non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) coupled with diode array detection (DAD), using large-volume sample stacking (LVSS)

Eva Blanco; María del Carmen Casais; María del Carmen Mejuto; Rafael Cela

2009-01-01

141

Modification of carcinogenesis by alpha-tocopherol, t-butylhydroquinone, propyl gallate and butylated hydroxytoluene in a rat multi-organ carcinogenesis model.  

PubMed

Effects of the dietary antioxidants alpha-tocopherol (alpha-Toc), t-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), propyl gallate (PG) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were examined using a multi-organ carcinogenesis model. Groups of 20 F344 male rats were treated with a single intragastric administration of 100 mg/kg body weight N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, a single intragastric administration of 750 mg/kg body weight N-ethyl-N-hydroxyethylnitrosamine, two subcutaneous injections of 0.5 mg/kg body weight N-methylbenzyl-nitrosamine and four subcutaneous injections of 40 mg/kg body weight 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. At the same time the rats were given 0.1% N-dibutylnitrosamine for 4 weeks and then 0.1% 2,2'-dihydroxy-di-n-propylnitrosamine for 2 weeks in the drinking water, for a total carcinogen exposure period of 6 weeks. Starting 3 days thereafter the rats received 1% alpha-Toc, 1% TBHQ, 1% PG or 0.7% BHT in the diet, or basal diet alone. Further groups of 10-15 animals each were treated with antioxidant alone or basal diet alone as controls. Surviving animals were killed at the end of week 36. Histopathological examination showed that alpha-Toc increased the incidence of glandular stomach atypical foci but reduced the incidence and multiplicity of kidney atypical tubules. TBHQ significantly elevated the incidences of esophageal papillary or nodular (PN) hyperplasias and papillomas, as well as forestomach papillomas, but significantly decreased the multiplicity of colon adenocarcinomas. PG was only effective in reducing the multiplicity of kidney atypical tubules. BHT enhanced the development of thyroid hyperplasias, but strongly reduced the incidence and multiplicity of colon adenocarcinomas. This compound was also associated with lowered incidence and multiplicity of renal cell tumors. None of the agents studied was unequivocal in exerting either positive or negative influence. PMID:8242867

Hirose, M; Yada, H; Hakoi, K; Takahashi, S; Ito, N

1993-11-01

142

Multielement trace analysis by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography followed by on-line column enrichment as 2-(5-nitro-2-pyridylazo)-5-[N-propyl-N-(3-sulphopropyl)amino] phenol chelates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the utilization of 2-(5-nitro-2-pyridylazo)-5-[N-propyl-N-sulphopropyl)amino phenol (Nitro-PAPS) as a chelating reagent using an ODS column for the preconcentration and the separation of metal ions by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) with ultraviolet-visible detection of 570 nm. Nitro-PAPS chelates were eluted within 12 min with tetrahydrofuran-acetonitrile-water (15:10:75, v\\/v) containing a 0.01 mol dm?3 phosphate buffer solution (pH 6.0) and

Okutani Tadao; Tsukada Yuuichi; Sakuragawa Akio; Yamaji Takehiro; Morita Shiho

1997-01-01

143

Theoretical investigations on the molecular structure, vibrational spectral, HOMO-LUMO and NBO analysis of 9-[3-(Dimethylamino)propyl]-2-trifluoro-methyl-9H-thioxanthen-9-ol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 9-[3-(Dimethylamino)propyl]-2-trifluoro-methyl-9H-thioxanthen-9-ol have been recorded. Quantum chemical calculations of geometry and vibrational wavenumbers of 9-[3-(Dimethylamino)propyl]-2-trifluoro-methyl-9H-thioxanthen-9-ol are carried out theoretically. Four possible stable conformations of the title compound were determined. In terms of the conformational analysis, one of the most interesting structural features of the title compound is the intra molecular Osbnd H⋯N hydrogen bond. The barrier of planarity between the most stable and planar form is also predicted. The optimized geometrical parameters obtained by B3LYP method show a good agreement with XRD data. The difference between the observed and theoretical wavenumbers is very small. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of potential energy distribution of the vibrational modes calculated theoretically. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies allow the calculation of atomic and molecular properties and they also showed that charge transfer occurs in the molecule. A detailed molecular picture of the title compound and its interactions were obtained from NBO analysis. As seen from the MEP map, negative potential regions are over the hydroxyl group and positive potential regions are over the methyl groups.

Mary, Y. Sheena; Panicker, C. Yohannan; Yamuna, T. S.; Siddegowda, M. S.; Yathirajan, H. S.; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A.; Van Alsenoy, Christian

2014-11-01

144

Theoretical investigations on the molecular structure, vibrational spectral, HOMO-LUMO and NBO analysis of 9-[3-(Dimethylamino)propyl]-2-trifluoro-methyl-9H-thioxanthen-9-ol.  

PubMed

The experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 9-[3-(Dimethylamino)propyl]-2-trifluoro-methyl-9H-thioxanthen-9-ol have been recorded. Quantum chemical calculations of geometry and vibrational wavenumbers of 9-[3-(Dimethylamino)propyl]-2-trifluoro-methyl-9H-thioxanthen-9-ol are carried out theoretically. Four possible stable conformations of the title compound were determined. In terms of the conformational analysis, one of the most interesting structural features of the title compound is the intra molecular OH?N hydrogen bond. The barrier of planarity between the most stable and planar form is also predicted. The optimized geometrical parameters obtained by B3LYP method show a good agreement with XRD data. The difference between the observed and theoretical wavenumbers is very small. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of potential energy distribution of the vibrational modes calculated theoretically. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies allow the calculation of atomic and molecular properties and they also showed that charge transfer occurs in the molecule. A detailed molecular picture of the title compound and its interactions were obtained from NBO analysis. As seen from the MEP map, negative potential regions are over the hydroxyl group and positive potential regions are over the methyl groups. PMID:24892527

Mary, Y Sheena; Panicker, C Yohannan; Yamuna, T S; Siddegowda, M S; Yathirajan, H S; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A; Van Alsenoy, Christian

2014-11-11

145

Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of 1-benzhydryl-sulfonyl-4-(3-(piperidin-4-yl) propyl)piperidine derivatives against pathogens of Lycopersicon esculentum: a structure-activity evaluation study.  

PubMed

Several 1-benzhydryl-sulfonyl-4-(3-(piperidin-4-yl)propyl)piperidine derivatives 8(a-j) were prepared by the treatment of substituted benzhydryl chlorides with 4-(3-(piperidin-4-yl)propyl)piperidine followed by N-sulfonation with sulfonyl chlorides in the presence of dry methylene dichloride and triethyl amine. The synthesized compounds were characterized by (1)H-NMR, IR, and elemental analysis. All the synthesized compounds were evaluated in vitro for their efficacy as antimicrobial agents by artificial inoculation technique against standard strains of two important bacterial viz., Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria and Ralstonia solanacearum as well as and two fungal pathogens namely Alternaria solani and Fusarium solani of tomato plants. We have briefly investigated the structure-activity relation studies and reveal that the nature of substitutions on benzhydryl ring and sulfonamide ring influences the antibacterial activity. Among the synthesized new compounds 8b, 8d, 8g, 8h, 8i, and 8j were showed significant potent antimicrobial activities compared to the standard drugs chloramphenicol, mancozeb. PMID:19183874

Vinaya, K; Kavitha, R; Ananda Kumar, C S; Benaka Prasad, S B; Chandrappa, S; Deepak, S A; Nanjunda Swamy, S; Umesha, S; Rangappa, K S

2009-01-01

146

Phosphatidylcholine and dihydrocaffeic acid amide mixture enhanced the thermo-oxidative stability of canola oil.  

PubMed

Recently, we reported the synthesis of a series of dihydrocaffeic acid amides and evaluated their performance as antioxidants for frying applications using a model frying. In the present study, the possibility of a synergy between the amide, N-propyl-N-benzyl-3-(3,4 dihydroxyphenyl)propanamide (DCA) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) was explored in a 6-day actual frying operation. As measured by the amount of polar components (TPC), anisidine value (AnV), changes in fatty acid composition, residual tocopherol and hydroxynonenal (HNE), canola oil containing the formulated antioxidant was twice as stable compared to the regular unfortified oil. At the end of the frying period, the amount of HNE detected in regular canola oil and the fortified sample was at 5.7 and 2.5?g/g, respectively. Thus, the mixture containing phosphatidylcholine and dihydrocaffeic acid amide is a promising antioxidant for frying application. PMID:24360481

Aladedunye, Felix; Przybylski, Roman

2014-05-01

147

Semiquantitative determination of water-soluble vitamins by circular thin-layer chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A method for semiquantitative determination of water-soluble vitamins such as thiamin hydrochloride, riboflavin, pyridoxine, choline chloride,p-aminobenzoic acid, cyanocobalamine, nicotinic acid and ascorbic acid is described. It involves making “circular spots” or rings on chromatoplates using circular thin-layer chromatographic apparatus. The method is based on sensitivity and specificity of spot reactions together with comparison of the color intensity of a

Manzur-ul-Haque Hashmi; Farhat Rafique Chughtai; M. I. D. Chughtai

1969-01-01

148

Tetra-kis(di-propyl-ammonium) tetra-kis(oxa-lato-?(2) O (1),O (2))stannate(IV) mono-hydrate: a complex with an eight-coordinate Sn(IV) atom.  

PubMed

In the title salt, [(CH3CH2CH2)2NH2]4[Sn(C2O4)4]·H2O, the Sn(IV) atom of the stannate anion is located on a special position with -42m symmetry. It is eight-coordinated by four chelating oxalate anions. The di-propyl-ammonium cation possesses mirror symmetry while the lattice water mol-ecule is disordered about a position with -42m symmetry and has an occupancy of 0.25. In the crystal, the anions and cations are linked by N-H?O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. This network is futher stabilized by weak O-H?O hydrogen bonds involving the water mol-ecules and oxalate O atoms. The crystal studied was refined as an inversion twin. PMID:24764818

Gueye, Ndongo; Diop, Libasse; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen

2014-02-01

149

Tetra-kis(di-propyl-ammonium) tetra-kis(oxa-lato-?2 O 1,O 2)stannate(IV) mono-hydrate: a complex with an eight-coordinate SnIV atom  

PubMed Central

In the title salt, [(CH3CH2CH2)2NH2]4[Sn(C2O4)4]·H2O, the SnIV atom of the stannate anion is located on a special position with -42m symmetry. It is eight-coordinated by four chelating oxalate anions. The di­propyl­ammonium cation possesses mirror symmetry while the lattice water mol­ecule is disordered about a position with -42m symmetry and has an occupancy of 0.25. In the crystal, the anions and cations are linked by N—H?O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. This network is futher stabilized by weak O—H?O hydrogen bonds involving the water mol­ecules and oxalate O atoms. The crystal studied was refined as an inversion twin. PMID:24764818

Gueye, Ndongo; Diop, Libasse; Stoeckli-Evans, Helen

2014-01-01

150

Effect of the Ruffled Porphyrin Ring on Electronic Structures: Structure and Characterization of [Fe(TalkylP)(OClO3)] and [Fe(TPrP)(THF)2]ClO4 (alkyl = Ethyl, Et and n-Propyl, Pr)  

PubMed Central

We report the synthesis of Fe(TalkylP)(OClO3)] (alkyl = ethyl and propyl) and [Fe(TPrP)(THF)2]ClO4, which are characterized by UV-vis, EPR, X-ray crystallography, and solid-state magnetic susceptibilities. The macrocycles of all three complexes are ruffled, all of the structural features for [Fe(TEtP(OClO3)] and [Fe(TPrP)(OClO3)] are characteristic of the nearly pure S = 3/2 state, while the structural parameters for [Fe(TPrP)(THF)2]ClO4 feature a pure intermediate-spin (S = 3/2) state, which are all consistent with EPR and magnetic data. It is clear from these studies that the ruffled conformation plays a significant role in affecting the extent of S = 3/2 character. PMID:23626455

Li, Ming; Oliver, Allen G.; Neal, Teresa J.

2013-01-01

151

Heterocyclic quinones. 17. A new in vivo active antineoplastic drug: 6,7-bis(1-aziridinyl)-4-[[3-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl]amino]-5,8- quinazolinedione.  

PubMed

A series of heterocyclic quinones, 6-substituted and 6,7-disubstituted 4-(alkylamino)-5,8-quinazolinediones, have been synthesized in order to evaluate their in vitro cytotoxicity on L1210 leukemia cells. Among 14 derivatives that have been prepared and studied for the structure-activity relationship, the most potent cytotoxic compound on L1210 leukemia cells was the 6,7-bis(1-aziridinyl)-4-[[3-(N,N-dimethylamino)propyl]amino]-5,8- quinazolinedione (24). This compound has been tested with the use of a cell-image processor on MCF-7 human mammary and HBL human melanoma cell lines. The results show that compound 24 influences cell proliferation and blocks both cells lines in the S phase. In vivo antineoplastic activity of compound 24 has been demonstrated on a broad spectrum of murine experimental models, but it was found highly toxic and produced long-delayed deaths. PMID:1992140

Giorgi-Renault, S; Renault, J; Gebel-Servolles, P; Baron, M; Paoletti, C; Cros, S; Bissery, M C; Lavelle, F; Atassi, G

1991-01-01

152

Structural and Magnetic Effects of meso-Substitution in Alkyl-Substituted Metalloporphyrinate ?-Cation Radicals: Characterization of [Fe-(TalkylP.)(Cl)]SbCl6 (alkyl = ethyl and n-propyl)  

PubMed Central

We report the preparation and characterization of two meso-alkyl substituted porphyrin ?-cation radical derivatives, [Fe(TalkylP.)(Cl)]SbCl6 (alkyl = ethyl or propyl). Both complexes have been characterized by UV/vis/near-IR, IR and Mössbauer spectroscopy, temperature-dependent solid-state magnetic susceptibility measurements and X-ray structure determinations. All data for both oxidized species are consistent with the formulation of the complexes as ring-oxidized iron(III) porphyrin species. The molecular structures of the two five-coordinate species have the typical square-pyramidal coordination group of high-spin iron(III) derivatives. The crystal structures also reveal that the species form cofacial ?–? dimers with lateral shifts of 1.44 Å and 3.22 Å, respectively, for the propyl and ethyl radical derivatives. Both radicals exhibit porphyrin cores with alternating bond distance patterns in the inner 16-membered ring. In addition, [Fe(TEtP.)(Cl)]SbCl6 and [Fe(TPrP.)(Cl)]SbCl6 have been characterized by temperature-dependent (6–300K) magnetic susceptibility studies, the best fitting of the temperature-dependent moments reveal strong coupling between iron spins and porphyrin radical, and a smaller magnitude of antiferromagnetic coupling between ring radicals, which are opposite to those found in the five-coordinate iron(III) OEP radicals. The differences in structure and properties of the cation radical meso-alkyl and ?-alkyl derivatives possibly reflect differences in properties of a 1u- and a 2u-forming radicals. PMID:20799740

Li, Ming; Neal, Teresa J.; Wyllie, Graeme R. A.; Schulz, Charles E.; Scheidt, W. Robert

2010-01-01

153

Time-dependent effects of the flame retardant tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP) on mRNA expression, in vitro and in ovo, reveal optimal sampling times for rapidly metabolized compounds.  

PubMed

The flame retardant, tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCPP), was previously shown to affect chicken embryo growth, gallbladder size, and lipid homeostasis. A microarray study, however, revealed only modest transcriptional alterations in liver tissue of pipping embryos (days 20-21), which was attributed to the rapid metabolism of TDCPP throughout incubation. To identify the most appropriate sampling time for rapidly metabolized compounds, the present study assessed the time-dependent effects of TDCPP on 27 genes, in ovo (50?µg [116 nmol] TDCPP/g egg) and in vitro (10?µM), using a chicken ToxChip polymerase chain reaction array. The greatest magnitude in dysregulation (up to 362-fold) occurred on day 8 of incubation (in ovo) with alterations of genes involved in phase I, II, and III metabolism, among others. Gallbladder hypotrophy was observed by embryonic day 12, corroborating the finding in pipping embryos from our previous study. From days 12 to 19, genes involved in lipid homeostasis, steroid hormone metabolism, and oxidative stress were affected. In chicken embryonic hepatoctyes (CEHs), TDCPP was completely metabolized to bis(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (BDCPP) within 36?h, but transcriptional changes remained significant up to 36?h. These changes were not attributed to BDCPP exposure as it only altered 1 gene (CYP1A4). An 18-h exposure in CEHs altered the greatest number of genes, making it an appropriate time point for high-throughput chemical screening; however, depending on the biological pathways of interest, shorter or longer incubation times may be more informative. Overall, TDCPP elicits the transcriptional and phenotypic alterations observed in vitro and in ovo, whereas its major metabolite, BDCPP, is far less biologically active. Environ Toxicol Chem 2014;33:2842-2849. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:25242413

Farhat, Amani; Crump, Doug; Porter, Emily; Chiu, Suzanne; Letcher, Robert J; Su, Guanyong; Kennedy, Sean W

2014-12-01

154

Structures of artificial sweeteners--cyclamic acid and sodium cyclamate with other cyclamates.  

PubMed

In the course of a study on artificial sweeteners, new crystal structures of cyclamic acid, sodium cyclamate, potassium cyclamate, ammonium cyclamate, rubidium cyclamate and tetra-n-propylammonium cyclamate have been determined. Cyclamic acid exists in its zwitterionic form in the crystalline state. The zwitterions are connected through hydrogen bonds of the N-H...O type to form two-dimensional sheets. The sodium, potassium, ammonium and rubidium cyclamates are isostructural, with the cyclamate moieties linked through hydrogen bonds into linear chains. Taking into account the connectivity through cations, two-dimensional layers with a hydrophobic surface are constructed. In tetra(n-propyl)ammonium cyclamate the large, non-coordinating cation apparently prevents the formation of chains and thereby facilitates the centrosymmetric head-to-head discrete dimeric arrangement of the cyclamate moieties. PMID:17507755

Leban, Ivan; Rudan-Tasic, Darja; Lah, Nina; Klofutar, Cveto

2007-06-01

155

Antinociceptive esters of N-methylanthranilic acid: Mechanism of action in heat-mediated pain.  

PubMed

Recently, we identified a new natural antinociceptive alkaloid ternanthranin, isopropyl N-methylanthranilate (ISOAN), from the plant species Choisya ternata Kunth (Rutaceae). In this work we concentrated on the elucidation of its mechanism of action in comparison with two other esters of this acid (methyl (MAN) and propyl (PAN)). Mice orally pre-treated with ISOAN, MAN or PAN (at 0.3, 1 and 3mg/kg) were less sensitive to chemical or thermal stimuli in different nociception models (formalin-, capsaicin- and glutamate-induced licking response, tail flick and hot plate). All compounds (1 and 3mg/kg) showed significant activity in the peripheral nociception models, as well as a dose-dependent spinal antinociceptive effect in the tail flick model. We observed that glibenclamide was able to reverse the antinociceptive effect of ISOAN in the hot plate model suggesting the involvement of K(+)ATP channels. The antinociceptive effect of MAN and PAN may be related to adrenergic, nitrergic and serotoninergic pathways. In addition, the antinociception of PAN was reverted by naloxone implying that the opioid pathway participates in its activity. The cholinergic and cannabinoid systems were found not be involved in the onset of the antinociceptive effects of any of the esters. In conclusion, isopropyl, methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilates produced significant peripheral and central antinociception at doses lower than that of morphine, the classical opioid analgesic drug, without causing toxicity. PMID:24486396

Pinheiro, Mariana Martins Gomes; Radulovi?, Niko S; Miltojevi?, Ana B; Boylan, Fabio; Dias Fernandes, Patrícia

2014-03-15

156

Acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid precipitation is a global problem. The effects were first seen in Europe; it affects the Great Lakes and the Midwest because higher-than-normal levels of acidity in rain are found in these areas. Several bays of the Great Lakes are now known to receive substantial runoff from freshwater streams that have been made acidic by acid rains. These areas may

1979-01-01

157

Study on brain uptake of local anesthetics in rats.  

PubMed

Brain uptake of local anesthetics under steady-state plasma condition and/or following intravenous bolus administration was investigated in rats. All ester-type anesthetics examined such as ethyl (Et), propyl (Pr), butyl (Bu) esters of p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA), and procaine disappeared rapidly from plasma in a dose-dependent manner. Plasma profiles of these compounds were well explained by a 2-compartment model with a Michaelis-Menten type elimination process from a central compartment. On the other hand, lidocaine, amide-type anesthetic, showed a linear pharmacokinetic characteristic and its half life in the elimination phase was far longer than those of ester type agents. Extents of brain uptake (brain-to-plasma partition coefficient, Kp value) of these drugs were determined at 3 different steady-state plasma concentrations (1-15 microM). The Kp value of each drug was similar under the three different steady-state plasma concentrations. The Kp value increased in the following order; procaine (1.1) less than PABA-Et (1.9) less than lidocaine (2.2) less than PABA-Pr (2.7) less than PABA-Bu (3.6). A linear relationship was observed between the Kp value and the logarithmic value of the partition coefficient obtained in n-heptane/water or n-octanol/water partition system. The value of PABA-Et and PABA-Bu following intravenous bolus administration were varied with time elapsed but the mean values were almost same with those obtained under steady-state plasma conditions. PMID:1808237

Nakazono, T; Murakami, T; Higashi, Y; Yata, N

1991-11-01

158

Rosmarinic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rosmarinic acid is an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid. It is commonly found in species of the Boraginaceae and the subfamily Nepetoideae of the Lamiaceae. However, it is also found in species of other higher plant families and in some fern and hornwort species. Rosmarinic acid has a number of interesting biological activities, e.g. antiviral, antibacterial, antiinflammatory and

Maike Petersen; Monique S. J Simmonds

2003-01-01

159

Peptide Coupling between Amino Acids and the Carboxylic Acid of a Functionalized Chlorido-gold(I)-phosphane.  

PubMed

We have developed a protocol for the direct coupling between methyl ester protected amino acids and the chlorido-gold(I)-phosphane (p-HOOC(C6H4)PPh2)AuCl. By applying the EDC·HCl/NHS strategy (EDC·HCl = N-ethyl-N'-(3-(dimethylamino)propyl)carbodiimide hydrochloride, NHS = N-hydroxysuccinimide), the methyl esters of l-phenylalanine, glycine, l-leucine, l-alanine, and l-methionine are coupled with the carboxylic acid of the gold complex in moderate to good yields (62-88%). All amino acid tagged gold complexes were characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and high-resolution mass spectrometry. As corroborated by measurement of the angle of optical rotation, no racemization occurred during the reaction. The molecular structure of the leucine derivative was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. In the course of developing an efficient coupling protocol, the acyl chlorides (p-Cl(O)C(C6H4)PPh2)AuX (X = Cl, Br) were also prepared and characterized. PMID:25203269

Kriechbaum, Margit; List, Manuela; Himmelsbach, Markus; Redhammer, Günther J; Monkowius, Uwe

2014-10-01

160

Shikimic Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The molecule for this month comes from the article Isolation of Shikimic Acid from Star Aniseed by Richard Payne and Michael Edmonds. Shikimic acid plays a key role in the biosynthesis of many important natural products including aromatic amino acids, alkaloids, phenolics, and phenylpropanoids. It plays such an important role that one of the key biosynthetic pathways is referred to as the shikimate pathway.

161

Acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

For the past five years, scientists at the Univ. of Colorado have been measuring acid precipitation in a subalpine watershed of the Colorado Rockies. Their measurements of snow and rain and creek water show a strong trend of increasing acidity that is traceable to the chemical reactions of burning fossil fuels. Possible effects of acid precipitation on the watershed's aquatic

Caile

2009-01-01

162

Inhibition of biofilm formation on silicone rubber samples using various antimicrobial agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-temperature-cured silicone rubber samples (silicone rubber (SIR) based on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)) and SIR samples containing three different antimicrobial agents, sodium benzoate (NaB), DCOIT (4,5 Dichloro-2-octyl-2H-isothiazolone-one) and p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) were inoculated with fungal spore suspensions and incubated for 28 days at 29±1°C and ?90% humidity, according to the ISO 846:1997(E) protocol. Prior to the biodegradation test, a powder test was

S. Atarijabarzadeh; E. Strömberg; S. Karlsson

2011-01-01

163

Quantitation of Red Blood Cell Folates by Stable Isotope Dilution Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Utilizing a Folate Internal Standard  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a new gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method of measurement of red blood cell folates utilizing a stable isotope-labeled bacterial synthesized folate internal standard. The GC-MS method exploits the fact that the common feature of all folate molecules is a p-aminobenzoic acid moiety sandwiched between a pteridine ring and a polyglutamate chain of varying length. In this method, red

C. R. Santhoshkumar; J. C. Deutsch; K. L. Hassell; N. M. Kolhouse; J. F. Kolhouse

1995-01-01

164

Synthesis and pharmacological profile of a new selective G protein-coupled receptor 119 agonist; 6-((2-fluoro-3-(1-(3-isopropyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)piperidin-4-yl)propyl)amino)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one.  

PubMed

6-((2-Fluoro-3-(1-(3-isopropyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)piperidin-4-yl)propyl)amino)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one is a potent drug-like G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) agonist. It is hoped that this compound would be instrumental in probing the pharmacological potential of GPR119 agonists. PMID:22976315

Sakairi, Masao; Kogami, Masakazu; Torii, Masafumi; Makino, Mitsuhiro; Kataoka, Daisuke; Okamoto, Ryuji; Miyazawa, Toshiyuki; Inoue, Megumi; Takahashi, Naoki; Harada, Satoko; Watanabe, Nobuhide

2012-01-01

165

Rosmarinic acid.  

PubMed

Rosmarinic acid is an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid. It is commonly found in species of the Boraginaceae and the subfamily Nepetoideae of the Lamiaceae. However, it is also found in species of other higher plant families and in some fern and hornwort species. Rosmarinic acid has a number of interesting biological activities, e.g. antiviral, antibacterial, antiinflammatory and antioxidant. The presence of rosmarinic acid in medicinal plants, herbs and spices has beneficial and health promoting effects. In plants, rosmarinic acid is supposed to act as a preformed constitutively accumulated defence compound. The biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid starts with the amino acids L-phenylalanine and L-tyrosine. All eight enzymes involved in the biosynthesis are known and characterised and cDNAs of several of the involved genes have been isolated. Plant cell cultures, e.g. from Coleus blumei or Salvia officinalis, accumulate rosmarinic acid in amounts much higher than in the plant itself (up to 36% of the cell dry weight). For this reason a biotechnological production of rosmarinic acid with plant cell cultures has been proposed. PMID:12482446

Petersen, Maike; Simmonds, Monique S J

2003-01-01

166

Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, calculational studies and in vitro antitumoral activity of 4-(3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl)-(thiophen-2-ylmethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

4-(3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl)-(thiophen-2-ylmethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazol-5(4H)-one (IPTT), C 13H 15N 5OS, was synthesized and characterized by 13C NMR, 1H NMR, IR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The structure of IPTT is stabilized by three intermolecular hydrogen bonds and by intermolecular C sbnd H⋯ ? interaction. The compound IPTT was modelled by using DFT method. Calculations of vibrational frequencies, gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO), 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of IPTT in the ground state, total electronic charge density map and frontier molecular orbitals were performed at B3LYP/6-31 G(d) level of theory were carried out by using DFT method with 6-31 G(d) basis set. The structural parameters obtained by geometry optimization, the theoretical vibrational frequencies and chemical shift values are in good agreement with experimental ones. FT-IR, NMR and X-ray analytical results of IPTT show that the compound exists as keto form, that was supported by DFT calculations. In addition, in vitro studies showed hopeful antitumoral activity of the title IPTT compound.

Süleymano?lu, Nevin; Ustaba?, Re?at; Alpaslan, Yelda Bingöl; Ünver, Yasemin; Turan, Mustafa; Sancak, Kemal

2011-03-01

167

Antiallodynic action of 1-(3-(9H-Carbazol-9-yl)-1-propyl)-4-(2-methyoxyphenyl)-4-piperidinol (NNC05-2090), a betaine/GABA transporter inhibitor.  

PubMed

The GABAergic system in the spinal cord has been shown to participate in neuropathic pain in various animal models. GABA transporters (GATs) play a role in controlling the synaptic clearance of GABA; however, their role in neuropathic pain remains unclear. In the present study, we compared the betaine/GABA transporter (BGT-1) with other GAT subtypes to determine its participation in neuropathic pain using a mouse model of sciatic nerve ligation. 1-(3-(9H-Carbazol-9-yl)-1-propyl)-4-(2-methyoxyphenyl)-4-piperidinol (NNC05-2090), an inhibitor that displays moderate selectivity for BGT-1, had an antiallodynic action on model mice treated through both intrathecally and intravenous administration routes. On the other hand, SKF89976A, a selective GAT-1 inhibitor, had a weak antiallodynic action, and (S)-SNAP5114, an inhibitor that displays selectivity for GAT-3, had no antiallodynic action. Systemic analysis of these compounds on GABA uptake in CHO cells stably expressing BGT-1 revealed that NNC05-2090 not only inhibited BGT-1, but also serotonin, noradrenaline, and dopamine transporters, using a substrate uptake assay in CHO cells stably expressing each transporter, with IC50: 5.29, 7.91, and 4.08 ?M, respectively. These values were similar to the IC50 value at BGT-1 (10.6 ?M). These results suggest that the antiallodynic action of NNC05-2090 is due to the inhibition of both BGT-1 and monoamine transporters. PMID:24881960

Jinzenji, Ayako; Sogawa, Chiharu; Miyawaki, Takuya; Wen, Xue-Fang; Yi, Dan; Ohyama, Kazumi; Kitayama, Shigeo; Sogawa, Norio; Morita, Katsuya

2014-06-19

168

Improving Efficiency of Poly(3-hexylthiophene):1-(3-Methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61-Based Organic Solar Cells by Heat-Treatment under Hydrostatic Pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot-pressing, which combined thermal annealing and the in situ application of hydrostatic pressure, was used to improve the efficiency of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 (PCBM)-based organic solar cells. When they were hot-pressed at 0.3 MPa and 160 °C for 5 min, their efficiency was approximately 20% higher than that of devices that only underwent heat-treatment. Open-circuit voltage (Voc) remained at around 0.62 V after hot-pressing, but short-circuit current (Jsc) and fill factor (FF) were significantly improved by hot-pressing. The hot-pressed devices have higher quantum efficiencies, higher electron mobility, and lower series resistance than those of devices that underwent treatment without pressure. The improvement in the transport of the carriers and the modification of the metal/organic interface properties by hot-pressing contributed to the fill factor, improving the efficiency of the solar cells. The proposed process can be applied to other organic solar cell systems to improve the conversion efficiency.

Shih, Chuan-Feng; Hung, Kuang-Teng; Wu, Jhen-Wei; Huang, Kuan-Ta; Wu, Shih-Hsiung

2010-04-01

169

Improving Efficiency of Poly(3-hexylthiophene):1-(3-Methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61-Based Organic Solar Cells by Heat-Treatment under Hydrostatic Pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hot-pressing, which combined thermal annealing and the in situ application of hydrostatic pressure, was used to improve the efficiency of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT):1-(3-methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 (PCBM)-based organic solar cells. When they were hot-pressed at 0.3 MPa and 160 °C for 5 min, their efficiency was approximately 20% higher than that of devices that only underwent heat-treatment. Open-circuit voltage (Voc) remained at around 0.62 V after hot-pressing, but short-circuit current (Jsc) and fill factor (\\mathit{FF}) were significantly improved by hot-pressing. The hot-pressed devices have higher quantum efficiencies, higher electron mobility, and lower series resistance than those of devices that underwent treatment without pressure. The improvement in the transport of the carriers and the modification of the metal/organic interface properties by hot-pressing contributed to the fill factor, improving the efficiency of the solar cells. The proposed process can be applied to other organic solar cell systems to improve the conversion efficiency.

Chuan-Feng Shih,; Kuang-Teng Hung,; Jhen-Wei Wu,; Kuan-Ta Huang,; Shih-Hsiung Wu,

2010-04-01

170

1-{(2-(2,4-DICHLOROPHENYL)-4PROPYL1,3-DIOXOLAN-2-YL)METHYL}- 1?-1,2,4TRIAZOLE AS SELECTIVE EXTRACTANT OF PALLADIUM(II) FROM NITRIC ACID AND NITRATE-NITRITE SOLUTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search and studying of new effective and selective extractants for extraction of platinum metals from nitrate solutions is caused by the necessity of the selective separation and recovery of platinum group metals from nitrate solutions of the affinage production of precious metals, as well as from solutions of processing of the spent catalysts and secondary raw materials. Especially this

Yu. I. Murinov; R. A. Khisamutdinov; G. R. Anpilogova

2009-01-01

171

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

This book presents the proceedings of the third annual conference sponsored by the Acid Rain Information Clearinghouse (ARIC). Topics covered include: Legal aspects of the source-receptor relationship: an energy perspective; Scientific uncertainty, agency inaction, and the courts; and Acid rain: the emerging legal framework.

White, J.C. (Cornell University, Ithaca, NY (US))

1988-01-01

172

Tranexamic Acid  

MedlinePLUS

Tranexamic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken with or without food three times a day for up to 5 days during monthly menstruation. You should begin taking this medication each month when your period starts. Do not take tranexamic acid when you do not have a period. Take ...

173

Acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The causes and effects of acid rain are detailed. Sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide emissions from anthropogenic sources are the primary causative agents. These emissions are transported over long distances and transformed into sulfates and nitrates and washed out of the atmosphere. Trends in acidity in precipitation water are reviewed for eastern portions of Canada and the U.S. Adverse effects

R. E. Ghelardi; B. L. Murphy

2009-01-01

174

Acid Rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the acidity of rain and snow reveal that in parts of the eastern U.S. and of western Europe precipitation has changed from a nearly neutral solution 200 years ago to a dilute solution of sulfuric and nitric acids today. The trend is a result of the emission of sulfur and nitrogen oxides to the atmosphere accompanying the rise

Gene E. Likens; Richard F. Wright; James N. Galloway; Thomas J. Butler

1979-01-01

175

Acid test  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Baking soda can be used as an indicator of how much acid a substance contains. Lemons and limes have more acid in them than grapefruits and oranges. Indophenol can be used as an indicator of how much vitamin C is in a substance.

Olivia Worland (Purdue University;Biological Sciences)

2008-06-06

176

Domoic Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This online student report discusses the chemistry of domoic acid, a biotoxin that is produced by the diatom Psuedo-nitzschia and associated with Amnesiac Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). In addition to a descriptive summary and images, the report links to other areas of interest related to domoic acid poisoning including signs and symptoms, modes of action, and treatment.

Bailey, Christina; Kohlen, Corinne

2010-02-10

177

Synthesis, characterization and anti proliferative effect of [Au(en) 2]Cl 3 and [Au(N- propyl-en) 2]Cl 3 on human cancer cell lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two Au(III) complexes of the type [Au(en) 2]Cl 3 ( 2a) and [Au(N-pr-en) 2]Cl 3 ( 3a) were synthesized by reacting Auric acid (HAuCl 4·3H 2O) with 2 equiv. ethylenediamine (en) or N-alkyl substituted ethylenediamine ligands. This metallodrug was characterized by various analytical and spectroscopic techniques such as elemental analysis, UV-Vis, Far-IR, 1H NMR and solution 13C as well as solid 13C and 15N NMR. Potentiality of [Au(en) 2]Cl 3 and [Au(N-pr-en) 2]Cl 3 as an anti-cancer agent were investigated by measuring some relevant physicochemical and biochemical properties such as stability of Au-N bonds by vibrational stretching from Far IR as well as cytotoxicity and stomach cancer cell inhibiting effect, respectively. The solid-state 15N NMR chemical shift shows that the ligand is strongly bound to gold(III) centre via N atoms. The computational study of 2a shows that the gold coordination sphere adopts distorted square planar geometry with bidentate ethylenediamine ligands acting as a tetradentate chelate. While stable in the solution state, the in vitro biological studies performed with these compounds 2a in solution showed higher activity towards the inhibitory effects of the human cancer cell lines such as prostate cancer (PC-3) and gastric carcinoma (SGC-7901) than that of the N-substituted gold(III) complex ( 3a). Cytotoxicity of the new compounds has also been estimated in PC-3 and SGC-7901 cells.

Isab, Anvarhusein A.; Shaikh, M. Nasiruzzaman; Monim-ul-Mehboob, M.; Al-Maythalony, Bassem A.; Wazeer, Mohammed I. M.; Altuwaijri, Saleh

2011-09-01

178

Asparagusic acid.  

PubMed

Asparagusic acid (1,2-dithiolane-4-carboxylic acid) is a simple sulphur-containing 5-membered heterocyclic compound that appears unique to asparagus, though other dithiolane derivatives have been identified in non-food species. This molecule, apparently innocuous toxicologically to man, is the most probable culprit responsible for the curious excretion of odorous urine following asparagus ingestion. The presence of the two adjacent sulphur atoms leads to an enhanced chemical reactivity, endowing it with biological properties including the ability to substitute potentially for ?-lipoic acid in ?-keto-acid oxidation systems. This brief review collects the scattered data available in the literature concerning asparagusic acid and highlights its properties, intermediary metabolism and exploratory applications. PMID:24099657

Mitchell, Stephen C; Waring, Rosemary H

2014-01-01

179

A targeted metabolomic protocol for short-chain fatty acids and branched-chain amino acids  

PubMed Central

Research in obesity and metabolic disorders that involve intestinal microbiota demands reliable methods for the precise measurement of the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) concentration. Here, we report a rapid method of simultaneously determining SCFAs and BCAAs in biological samples using propyl chloroformate (PCF) derivatization followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. A one-step derivatization using 100 µL of PCF in a reaction system of water, propanol, and pyridine (v/v/v = 8:3:2) at pH 8 provided the optimal derivatization efficiency. The best extraction efficiency of the derivatized products was achieved by a two-step extraction with hexane. The method exhibited good derivatization efficiency and recovery for a wide range of concentrations with a low limit of detection for each compound. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of all targeted compounds showed good intra- and inter-day (within 7 days) precision (< 10%), and good stability (< 20%) within 4 days at room temperature (23–25 °C), or 7 days when stored at ?20 °C. We applied our method to measure SCFA and BCAA levels in fecal samples from rats administrated with different diet. Both univariate and multivariate statistics analysis of the concentrations of these target metabolites could differentiate three groups with ethanol intervention and different oils in diet. This method was also successfully employed to determine SCFA and BCAA in the feces, plasma and urine from normal humans, providing important baseline information of the concentrations of these metabolites. This novel metabolic profile study has great potential for translational research. PMID:23997757

Zheng, Xiaojiao; Qiu, Yunping; Zhong, Wei; Baxter, Sarah; Su, Mingming; Li, Qiong; Xie, Guoxiang; Ore, Brandon M.; Qiao, Shanlei; Spencer, Melanie D.; Zeisel, Steven H.; Zhou, Zhanxiang; Zhao, Aihua; Jia, Wei

2013-01-01

180

Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Due to the presence of dissolved gases such as carbon dioxide, rainfall is naturally acidic. The release of other gases and chemicals such as sulfur dioxide during the combustion of coal and oil can cause rainfall to become even more acidic, sometimes to the point of toxicity. In this activity, students will measure the pH of local rainfall to see what effect these gases have in their region. They will also check an online resource to see how the releases of acid rain-causing chemicals have varied over the past 20 years, and answer questions about the information they uncover.

Fox, Chris

181

Acid fog  

SciTech Connect

Fog in areas of southern California previously thought to be pollution-free has been shown to have a pH as low as 1.69. It has been found to be most acidic after smoggy days, suggesting that it forms on the aerosol associated with the previously exiting smog. Studies on Whiteface Mountain in the Adirondacks show that fog water is often 10 times as acidic as rainwater. As a result of their studies, California plans to spend $4 million on acid deposition research in the coming year. (JMT)

Hileman, B.

1983-03-01

182

Experimental and theoretical studies of the molecular structure of 4-(3-(1 H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl)-5- p-tolyl-2 H-1,2,4-triazol-3(4 H)-one  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The triazol-imidazol compound, 4-(3-(1 H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl)-5- p-tolyl-2 H-1,2,4-triazol-3(4 H)-one ( 3), (C 15H 17N 5O), was prepared and characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. By using the density functional theory (DFT) method with 6-31G(d) basis set, the molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies and gauge including atomic orbital (GIAO) 1H and 13C NMR chemical shift values of the title compound ( 3) in the ground state were calculated and compared with the experimental data. The calculated results are show that the optimized geometry can well reproduce the crystal structure. X-ray, FT-IR and NMR spectral results of the title compound ( 3) indicate that the compound exists as keto form. To determine most favorable conformation as theoretically, molecular energy profile of the title compound ( 3) were obtained as a function of the selected torsion angles T(N1 sbnd C8 sbnd C7 sbnd C6), T1 and T(C8 sbnd N1 sbnd C10 sbnd C11), T2, which is varied from -180° to +180° in every 10 by semi-empirical (PM3) calculations. In addition, DFT calculations of the title compound ( 3), molecular electrostatic potential and frontier molecular orbitals were performed at B3LYP/6-31G(d) level of theory.

Ustaba?, Re?at; Süleymano?lu, Nevin; Tanak, Hasan; Alpaslan, Yelda Bingöl; Ünver, Yasemin; Sancak, Kemal

2010-12-01

183

Studies on the translational and rotational motions of ionic liquids composed of N-methyl-N-propyl-pyrrolidinium (P13) cation and bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide and bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide anions and their binary systems including lithium salts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTIL, IL) are stable liquids composed of anions and cations. N-methyl-N-propyl-pyrrolidinium (P13, Py13, PYR13, or mppy) is an important cation and produces stable ILs with various anions. In this study two amide-type anions, bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)amide [N(SO2CF3)2, TFSA, TFSI, NTf2, or Tf2N] and bis(fluorosulfonyl)amide [N(SO2F)2, FSA, or FSI], were investigated. In addition to P13-TFSA and P13-FSA, lithium salt doped samples were prepared (P13-TFSA-Li and P13-FSA-Li). The individual ion diffusion coefficients (D) and spin-lattice relaxation times (T1) were measured by H1, F19, and L7i NMR. At the same time, the ionic conductivity (?), viscosity (?), and density (?) were measured over a wide temperature range. The van der Waals volumes of P13, TFSA, FSA, Li(TFSA)2, and Li(FSA)3 were estimated by molecular orbital calculations. The experimental values obtained in this study were analyzed by the classical Stokes-Einstein, Nernst-Einstein (NE), and Stokes-Einstein-Debye equations and Walden plots were also made for the neat and binary ILs to clarify physical and mobile properties of individual ions. From the temperature-dependent velocity correlation coefficients for neat P13-TFSA and P13-FSA, the NE parameter 1-? was evaluated. The ionicity (electrochemical molar conductivity divided by the NE conductivity from NMR) and the 1-? had exactly the same values. The rotational and translational motions of P13 and jump of a lithium ion are also discussed.

Hayamizu, Kikuko; Tsuzuki, Seiji; Seki, Shiro; Fujii, Kenta; Suenaga, Masahiko; Umebayashi, Yasuhiro

2010-11-01

184

ACID RAIN  

EPA Science Inventory

Acid precipitation has become one of the major environmental problems of this decade. It is a challenge to scientists throughout the world. Researchers from such diverse disciplines as plant pathology, soil science, bacteriology, meteorology and engineering are investigating diff...

185

Acidic precipitation  

SciTech Connect

At the International Symposium on Acidic Precipitation, over 400 papers were presented, and nearly 200 of them are included here. They provide an overview of the present state of the art of acid rain research. The Conference focused on atmospheric science (monitoring, source-receptor relationships), aquatic effects (marine eutrophication, lake acidification, impacts on plant and fish populations), and terrestrial effects (forest decline, soil acidification, etc.).

Martin, H.C.

1987-01-01

186

Direct regulation of acetylcholine release by N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors in rat striatum.  

PubMed

The aziridinium ion of ethylcholine (AF64A), a cholinergic neurotoxin, was injected into the right striatum of a rat. The unilateral injection of 10 nmol AF64A reduced the activity of choline acetyltransferase (CAT) and the tissue content of acetylcholine (ACh) in the striatum. The striatal contents of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) were unchanged. These results suggest that the cholinospecificity in the striatal lesion was induced by the 10 nmol dose of AF64A. The number of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors in the striatum treated with 10 nmol AF64A was determined by a specific binding assay using [3H](+/-)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid ([3H]CPP), a selective ligand for NMDA receptors. The number of the NMDA receptors decreased significantly in the injected area. On the other hand, in a microdialysis using normal rats, the perfusion of 50 microM NMDA into the striatum increased ACh release. The perfusion of 100 microM MK801 which is the specific and non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, decreased the basal levels of ACh release and blocked NMDA-elicited ACh release. Taken together, the present results strongly suggest that a population of NMDA receptors exists on cholinergic interneurons within the striatum, and it directly regulates ACh release. PMID:9622635

Ikarashi, Y; Yuzurihara, M; Takahashi, A; Ishimaru, H; Shiobara, T; Maruyama, Y

1998-06-01

187

Solid phase extraction of petroleum carboxylic acids using a functionalized alumina as stationary phase.  

PubMed

Petroleum essentially consists of a mixture of organic compounds, mainly containing carbon and hydrogen, and, in minor quantities, compounds with nitrogen, sulphur, and oxygen. Some of these compounds, such as naphthenic acids, can cause corrosion in pipes and equipment used in processing plants. Considering that the methods of separation or clean up the target compounds in low concentrations and in complex matrix use large amounts of solvents or stationary phases, is necessary to study new methodologies that consume smaller amounts of solvent and stationary phases to identify the acid components present in complex matrix, such as crude oil samples. The proposed study aimed to recover acid compounds using the solid phase extraction method, employing different types of commercial stationary ion exchange phases (SAX and NH(2)) and new phase alumina functionalized with 1,4-bis(n-propyl)diazoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane chloride silsesquioxane (Dab-Al(2)O(3)), synthesized in this work. Carboxylic acids were used as standard mixture in the solid phase extraction for further calculation of recovery yield. Then, the real sample (petroleum) was fractionated into saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes, and the resin fraction of petroleum (B1) was eluted through stationary ion exchange phases. The stationary phase synthesized in this work showed an efficiency of ion exchange comparable to that of the commercial stationary phases. PMID:22589166

de Conto, Juliana Faccin; Nascimento, Juciara dos Santos; de Souza, Driele Maiara Borges; da Costa, Luiz Pereira; Egues, Silvia Maria da Silva; Freitas, Lisiane Dos Santos; Benvenutti, Edilson Valmir

2012-04-01

188

Stereospecific ligands and their complexes. Part XII. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro antiproliferative activity of platinum(IV) complexes with some O,O?-dialkyl esters of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N?-di-2-propanoic acid against colon cancer (HCT-116) and breast cancer (MDA-MB-231) cell lines  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Synthesis of three new platinum(IV) complexes C1-C3, with bidentate N,N?-ligand precursors, O,O?-dialkyl esters (alkyl = propyl, butyl and pentyl), of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N?-di-2-propanoic acid, H2-S,S-eddp were reported. The reported platinum(IV) complexes characterized by elemental analysis and their structures were discussed on the bases of their infrared, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. In vitro antiproliferative activity was determined on tumor cell lines: human colon carcinoma HCT-116 and human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231, using MTT test.

Stojkovi?, Danijela Lj.; Jevti?, Verica V.; Radi?, Gordana P.; ?a?i?, Dragana S.; ?ur?i?, Milena G.; Markovi?, Snežana D.; Ðinovi?, Vesna M.; Petrovi?, Vladimir P.; Trifunovi?, Sre?ko R.

2014-03-01

189

Lefetamine-derived designer drugs N-ethyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine (NEDPA) and N-iso-propyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine (NPDPA): metabolism and detectability in rat urine using GC-MS, LC-MSn and LC-HR-MS/MS.  

PubMed

N-Ethyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine (NEDPA) and N-iso-propyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine (NPDPA) are two designer drugs, which were confiscated in Germany in 2008. Lefetamine (N,N-dimethyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine, also named L-SPA), the pharmaceutical lead of these designer drugs, is a controlled substance in many countries. The aim of the present work was to study the phase I and phase II metabolism of these drugs in rats and to check for their detectability in urine using the authors' standard urine screening approaches (SUSA). For the elucidation of the metabolism, rat urine samples were worked up with and without enzymatic cleavage, separated and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and liquid chromatography-high resolution-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HR-MS/MS). According to the identified metabolites, the following metabolic pathways for NEDPA and NPDPA could be proposed: N-dealkylation, mono- and bis-hydroxylation of the benzyl ring followed by methylation of one of the two hydroxy groups, combinations of these steps, hydroxylation of the phenyl ring after N-dealkylation, glucuronidation and sulfation of all hydroxylated metabolites. Application of a 0.3 mg/kg BW dose of NEDPA or NPDPA, corresponding to a common lefetamine single dose, could be monitored in rat urine using the authors' GC-MS and LC-MS(n) SUSA. However, only the metabolites could be detected, namely N-deethyl-NEDPA, N-deethyl-hydroxy-NEDPA, hydroxy-NEDPA, and hydroxy-methoxy-NEDPA or N-de-iso-propyl-NPDPA, N-de-iso-propyl-hydroxy-NPDPA, and hydroxy-NPDPA. Assuming similar kinetics, an intake of these drugs should also be detectable in human urine. PMID:24591097

Wink, Carina S D; Meyer, Golo M J; Wissenbach, Dirk K; Jacobsen-Bauer, Andrea; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

2014-10-01

190

Acid sphingomyelinase.  

PubMed

The enzyme acid sphingomyelinase catalyzes the hydrolysis of sphingomyelin to ceramide. The importance of the enzyme for cell functions was first recognized in Niemann-Pick disease type A and B, the genetic disorders with a massive accumulation of sphingomyelin in many organs. Studies in the last years demonstrated that the enzyme also has an important role in cell signalling. Thus, the acid sphingomyelinase has a central function for the re-organization of molecules within the cell upon stimulation and thereby for the response of cells to stress and the induction of cell death but also proliferation and differentiation. Here, we discuss the current state of the art of the structure, regulation, and function of the acid sphingomyelinase. PMID:23579450

Henry, Brian; Ziobro, Regan; Becker, Katrin Anne; Kolesnick, Richard; Gulbins, Erich

2013-01-01

191

Salicylic acids  

PubMed Central

Salicylic acid is well known phytohormone, emerging recently as a new paradigm of an array of manifestations of growth regulators. The area unleashed yet encompassed the applied agriculture sector to find the roles to strengthen the crops against plethora of abiotic and biotic stresses. The skipped part of integrated picture, however, was the evolutionary insight of salicylic acid to either allow or discard the microbial invasion depending upon various internal factors of two interactants under the prevailing external conditions. The metabolic status that allows the host invasion either as pathogenesis or symbiosis with possible intermediary stages in close systems has been tried to underpin here. PMID:22301975

Hayat, Shamsul; Irfan, Mohd; Wani, Arif; Nasser, Alyemeni; Ahmad, Aqil

2012-01-01

192

Acid Stomach  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science NetLinks lesson is intended for a high-school, introductory chemistry class or health class. The lesson begins with an article on the history of the development of aspirin. Students will then complete a lab that compares the reaction of regular aspirin, buffered aspirin, and enteric aspirin in neutral, acidic, and basic solutions. They will then analyze the results of the experiment to gain insight into how this information was used by researchers to solve some of the problems associated with aspirin. To complete the lesson, students must understand acids and bases.

Science Netlinks;

2003-08-07

193

A validated spectrophotometric and liquid chromatography method for determination and purity evaluation of 4-methoxy-2-[2-hydroxy-3(4-phenyl-1-piperazinyl)]propyl-2,3-dihydro-6-methyl-1,3-dioxo-1 H-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyridine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spectrophotometric analysis of the UV-spectrum of 4-methoxy-2-[2-hydroxy-3(4-phenyl-1-piperazinyl)]propyl-2,3-dihydro-6-methyl-1,3-dioxo-1H-pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyridine (I) in 0.01 M HCl was performed by determining the values of specific absorption coefficients at the following analytical wavelengths: 224, 285 and 348 nm. The separation by means of TLC of compound I and of its five decomposition products was also studied. Silica gel coated plates (60 F254) were used and

Izabela Muszalska; Helena ?adowska; Dominika Szkatula

2003-01-01

194

Influence of the protein kinase C inhibitor 3-{1-[3-(amidinothio)propyl]-1 H-indoyl-3-yl}-3-(1-methyl-1 H-indoyl-3-yl)maleimide methane sulfonate (Ro318220) on surfactant secretion intype ii pneumocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have investigated the influence of 3-{1-[3-(amidinothio)propyl]-1H-indoyl-3-yl}-3-(1-methyl-1H-indoyl-3-yl)maleimide methane sulfonate (Ro-318220), a potent and selective inhibitor of protein kinase C, on phosphatidylcholine secretion in response to surfactant secretagogues in rat type II cells. Freshly isolated cells were cultured overnight with [3H]choline to label the phosphatidylcholine pool and were preincubated for 30 min in fresh medium with or without Ro-318220. Secretagogues were

Seamus A. Rooney; Laurice I. Gobran

1997-01-01

195

Influence of solvents on the molecular and crystal structure of the complex of 1,3-diallyl-5-[3-(diphenylphosphino)propyl]-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6(1 H ,3 H ,5 H )-trione with palladium(II) dichloride  

Microsoft Academic Search

X-ray diffraction study demonstrated that the molecular and crystal structures of the complexes of 1,3-diallyl-5-[3-(diphenylphosphino)propyl]-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6(1H,3H,5H)-trione (1) with PdCl2 are determined to a large degree by intra- and intermolecular short contacts between different-polarity groups of the complex\\u000a molecules. The strength and the existence of the complexes may be affected by the solvents from which the crystals are grown.

I. P. Romanova; A. T. Gubaidullin; I. A. Litvinov; S. G. Fattakhov; V. S. Reznik; O. G. Sinyashin

2000-01-01

196

Preventive effect of SA13353 [1-[2-(1-adamantyl)ethyl]-1-pentyl-3-[3-(4-pyridyl)propyl]urea], a novel transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 agonist, on ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal injury in rats.  

PubMed

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal injury. We demonstrated recently that the preischemic treatment with resiniferatoxin, a transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) agonist, attenuates renal TNF-alpha mRNA expression and improves ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal injury in rats. In addition, we found that SA13353 [1-[2-(1-adamantyl)ethyl]-1-pentyl-3-[3-(4-pyridyl)propyl]urea], a novel orally active TRPV1 agonist, inhibits TNF-alpha production through the activation of capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons and reduces the severity of symptoms in established rat collagen-induced arthritis. In the present study, we investigated effects of treatment with SA13353 on ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal injury in rats. Ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI) was induced by occlusion of the left renal artery and vein for 45 min followed by reperfusion, 2 weeks after contralateral nephrectomy. Renal function in vehicle-treated AKI rats markedly decreased at 24 h after reperfusion. Treatment with SA13353 (3, 10, and 30 mg/kg p.o.) 30 min before ischemia dose-dependently attenuated the ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal dysfunction. Histopathological examination of the kidney of AKI rats revealed severe renal damage, which were significantly suppressed by the SA13353 treatment. In renal tissues exposed to ischemia/reperfusion, neutrophil infiltration, superoxide production, TNF-alpha mRNA expression, and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 mRNA expression were augmented, but these alterations were attenuated by the treatment with SA13353. On the other hand, ischemia/reperfusion-enhanced renal interleukin-10 mRNA expression and its plasma concentration were further augmented by SA13353 treatment. These results demonstrate that the orally active TRPV1 agonist SA13353 prevents the ischemia/reperfusion-induced AKI. This renoprotective effects seem to be closely related to the inhibition of inflammatory response via TRPV1 activation. PMID:19147859

Ueda, Kyoko; Tsuji, Fumio; Hirata, Tomoko; Ueda, Kenji; Murai, Masaaki; Aono, Hiroyuki; Takaoka, Masanori; Matsumura, Yasuo

2009-04-01

197

Acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The book describes numerous environmental problems which are the result of emissions from coal combustion, petroleum products combustion, petroleum refining, and non-ferrous smelting. The effects of acid rain on soils, plants, water, aquatic ecosystems, and building materials are described. Studies are discussed which show that wind currents are carrying emissions to locations far from the source, with social, economic, and

Ostmann; R. Jr

1982-01-01

198

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

An overview is presented of acid rain and the problems it causes to the environment worldwide. The acidification of lakes and streams is having a dramatic effect on aquatic life. Aluminum, present in virtually all forest soils, leaches out readily under acid conditions and interferes with the gills of all fish, some more seriously than others. There is evidence of major damage to forests in European countries. In the US, the most severe forest damage appears to be in New England, New York's Adirondacks, and the central Appalachians. This small region is part of a larger area of the Northeast and Canada that appears to have more acid rainfall than the rest of the country. It is downwind from major coal burning states, which produce about one quarter of US SO/sub 2/ emissions and one sixth of nitrogen oxide emissions. Uncertainties exist over the causes of forest damage and more research is needed before advocating expensive programs to reduce rain acidity. The President's current budget seeks an expansion of research funds from the current $30 million per year to $120 million.

Not Available

1984-06-01

199

21 CFR 582.3660 - Propyl gallate.  

...as safe for use in food when the total content of antioxidants is not over 0.02 percent of fat or oil content, including essential (volatile) oil content of the food, provided the substance is used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

2014-04-01

200

21 CFR 184.1660 - Propyl gallate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...manufacturing practice results in a maximum total content of antioxidants of 0.02 percent of the fat or oil content, including the essential (volatile) oil content, of the food. (e) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses...

2013-04-01

201

21 CFR 582.3660 - Propyl gallate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...as safe for use in food when the total content of antioxidants is not over 0.02 percent of fat or oil content, including essential (volatile) oil content of the food, provided the substance is used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

2011-04-01

202

21 CFR 582.3660 - Propyl gallate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...as safe for use in food when the total content of antioxidants is not over 0.02 percent of fat or oil content, including essential (volatile) oil content of the food, provided the substance is used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

2012-04-01

203

21 CFR 582.3660 - Propyl gallate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...as safe for use in food when the total content of antioxidants is not over 0.02 percent of fat or oil content, including essential (volatile) oil content of the food, provided the substance is used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

2010-04-01

204

21 CFR 184.1660 - Propyl gallate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...manufacturing practice results in a maximum total content of antioxidants of 0.02 percent of the fat or oil content, including the essential (volatile) oil content, of the food. (e) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses...

2010-04-01

205

21 CFR 184.1660 - Propyl gallate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...manufacturing practice results in a maximum total content of antioxidants of 0.02 percent of the fat or oil content, including the essential (volatile) oil content, of the food. (e) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses...

2012-04-01

206

21 CFR 582.3660 - Propyl gallate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...as safe for use in food when the total content of antioxidants is not over 0.02 percent of fat or oil content, including essential (volatile) oil content of the food, provided the substance is used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

2013-04-01

207

21 CFR 184.1660 - Propyl gallate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...manufacturing practice results in a maximum total content of antioxidants of 0.02 percent of the fat or oil content, including the essential (volatile) oil content, of the food. (e) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses...

2011-04-01

208

21 CFR 184.1660 - Propyl gallate.  

...manufacturing practice results in a maximum total content of antioxidants of 0.02 percent of the fat or oil content, including the essential (volatile) oil content, of the food. (e) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses...

2014-04-01

209

Ultrathin layered myoglobin-polyion films functional and stable at acidic pH values.  

PubMed

Cross-linking of myoglobin (Mb) promoted by 1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-3-ethylcarbodiimide within films of polystyrene sulfonate after layer-by-layer self-assembly provided remarkable stabilization. Cross-linking greatly improved adhesion of the films to fused silica slides and allowed extensive optical studies over a wide pH range. Circular dichroism and visible absorbance spectra showed that Mb retained its native conformation when films were placed in solutions of pH as low as 2 and up to pH 11. Linear dichroism revealed an average orientation of the Mb iron heme cofactors of 58 degrees to the film normal. High concentrations of urea did denature the protein in the films, however. At pH 1, Mb in solution is fully unfolded but retained considerable alpha-helical content in the cross-linked films. Both the polyion film environment and cross-linking seem to play roles in stabilizing protein secondary structure and function at low pH. Cross-linked myoglobin-polyion films on pyrolytic graphite electrodes were used in strongly acidic solutions for the electrochemical catalytic reduction of trichloracetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and oxygen. The pH-dependent catalytic reduction of trichloracetic acid was faster in 0.1 M HCl than in the medium pH range. PMID:12381195

Panchagnula, Venkateswarlu; Kumar, Challa V; Rusling, James F

2002-10-23

210

Domoic Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This highly detailed chemical information page features domoic acid, a toxin associated with Amnesic shellfish poisoning and naturally produced by the red algae Chondria armata and diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitzschia. Created by the International Programme on Chemical Safety, this web page organizes information under the following sections: Name, Summary, Physio-Chemical Properties, Uses, Routes of Entry, Kinetics, Toxicology, Toxicological and Biomedical Investigations, Clinical Effects, Management, Illustrative Cases, Additional Information, References, and Authors.

Inchem; Safety, International P.

211

Initiation of Protein Synthesis Without Formylation in a Mutant of Escherichia coli That Grows in the Absence of Tetrahydrofolate  

PubMed Central

Starting from a p-aminobenzoate-requiring strain of Escherichia coli (E. coli K-12 AB3292), we have isolated mutants that can grow in the absence of p-aminobenzoate (and thus tetrahydrofolate). The following lines of evidence suggest that at least one of these mutants is capable of initiating protein synthesis without formylation of methionyl-transfer ribonucleic acid (methionyl-tRNAfMet). (i) tRNA isolated (and charged in vivo with [35S]methionine) from this mutant grown in a p-aminobenzoate-free medium contained less than 0.4% of the total methionine charged to the tRNA as formylmethionine. However, when the mutant was grown in the presence of p-aminobenzoate, 40 to 50% of the total [35S]methionine was detected as formylmethionine. (ii) Extracts of the mutant grown in the absence of p-aminobenzoate contained no formyl-tetrahydrofolate, but such extracts did contain formylatable methionyl-tRNA and a functional transformylase. (iii) Tetrahydrofolate-free extracts of the mutant were capable of supporting protein synthesis with viral RNA (from f2) as messenger, but the resulting synthesized proteins contained no formylmethionine, and methionine residues were detected where formylmethionine residues are normally found. In the presence of formyl-tetrahydrofolate, use of a similar extract resulted in the detection of 30 to 40% of the total polypeptide methionine as formylmethionine. (iv) Initiation of protein synthesis in vitro occurred more readily with formyl-tetrahydrofolate-free extracts of the mutant than with similar extracts prepared from the parent strain. However, in the presence of formyl-tetrahydrofolate, initiation of protein synthesis proceeded equally well with both kinds of extracts. tRNA from this mutant and another spontaneously derived mutant was found to be partially deficient in the modified nucleoside ribothymidine (rT). Analysis of extracts showed that the mutants contained decreased levels of the methylase that results in the formation of ribothymidine. In vivo studies with an independently isolated rT? strain suggest that the lack of rT in tRNA facilitates the growth of E. coli under conditions where protein synthesis is forced to take place without formylation. Images PMID:318648

Baumstark, Barbara R.; Spremulli, Linda L.; RajBhandary, Uttam L.; Brown, Gene M.

1977-01-01

212

Acid Ocean  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The I2I-Acid Ocean virtual lab is an e-learning activity where students become virtual scientists studying the impact of ocean acidification on sea urchin larval growth. Students recreate a real, up-to-date climate change experiment. They also learn important general scientific principles, such as the importance of sample size and numbers of replicates, and discuss what this research into a specific impact of climate change may mean for the future of our oceans. There is a French translation available.

213

Methylmalonic acid blood test  

MedlinePLUS

... acid is a substance produced when proteins (called amino acids) in the body break down. A test can ... Cederbaum S, Berry GT. Inborn errors of carbohydrate, ammonia, amino acid, and organic acid metabolism. In: Gleason CA, Devaskar ...

214

STUDIES ON THE SENSITIZATION OF ANIMALS WITH SIMPLE CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS  

PubMed Central

Sensitization of guinea pigs to picric acid was obtained by application of oil solutions to the skin, preferably on inflamed sites or by treatment with a compound of picric acid with n-butyl-p-aminobenzoate. The lesions obtained in sensitive animals on superficial administration bore resemblance to human eczema. It seems probable that picric acid sensitization is an instance where a substance does not sensitize directly but after conversion into a more reactive compound, a principle which should be of wider application to instances where the original substance does not readily form conjugates. PMID:19871030

Landsteiner, K.; Di Somma, A. A.

1940-01-01

215

Understanding Acid Rain  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

Damonte, Kathleen

2004-01-01

216

Brnsted Acids The Strongest Isolable Acid**  

E-print Network

Brønsted Acids The Strongest Isolable Acid** Mark Juhasz, Stephan Hoffmann, Evgenii Stoyanov, Kee-Chan Kim, and Christopher A. Reed* Acids based on carborane anions as conjugate bases (Figure 1) are a new class of Brønsted (protic) acids, notable for their "strong yet gentle" qualities.[1] For example

Reed, Christopher A.

217

Alkyl esters of hydroxycinnamic acids with improved antioxidant activity and lipophilicity protect PC12 cells against oxidative stress.  

PubMed

Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) are phenolic compounds present in dietary plants, which possess considerable antioxidant activity. In order to increase the lipophilicity of HCAs, with the aim of improving their cellular absorption and expansion of their use in lipophilic media, methyl, ethyl, propyl and butyl esters of caffeic acid and ferulic acid have been synthesized. All caffeate esters had a slightly lower DPPH IC(50) (13.5-14.5 ?M) and higher ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) values (1490-1588 mM quercetin/mole [mMQ/mole]) compared to caffeic acid (16.6 ?M and 1398 mMQ/mole, respectively) in antioxidant assays. In contrast, ferulate esters were less active in DPPH (56.3-74.7 ?M) and FRAP assays (193-262 mMQ/mole) compared to ferulic acid (44.6 ?M and 324 mMQ/mole, respectively). Redox properties of HCAs were in line with their antioxidant capacities, so that compounds with higher antioxidant activities had lower oxidation potentials. Measurement of partition coefficients disclosed the higher lipophilicity of the esters compared to parent compounds. All esters of caffeic acid significantly inhibited hydrogen peroxide-induced neuronal PC12 cell death assessed by MTT assay at 5 and 25 ?M. However, caffeic acid, ferulic acid and ferulate esters were not able to protect the cells. In conclusion, these findings suggest that alkyl esterification of some HCAs augments their antioxidant properties as well as their lipophilicity and as a consequence, improves their cell protective activity against oxidative stress. These compounds could have useful applications in conditions where oxidative stress plays a pathogenic role. PMID:22210493

Garrido, Jorge; Gaspar, Alexandra; Garrido, E Manuela; Miri, Ramin; Tavakkoli, Marjan; Pourali, Samaneh; Saso, Luciano; Borges, Fernanda; Firuzi, Omidreza

2012-04-01

218

Acid rain  

SciTech Connect

Acid rain, says Boyle is a chemical leprosy eating into the face of North America and Europe, perhaps the major ecological problem of our time. Boyle describes the causes and scope of the phenomenon; the effects on man, wildlife, water, and our cultural heritage. He probes the delays of politicians and the frequent self-serving arguments advanced by industry in the face of what scientists have proved. The solutions he offers are to strengthen the Clean Air Act and require emission reductions that can be accomplished by establishing emission standards on a regional or bubble basis, burn low-sulfur coal, install scrubbers at critical plants, and invest in alternative energy sources. 73 references, 1 figure.

Boyle, R.H.; Boyle, R.A.

1983-01-01

219

New method of acidizing or acid fracturing: crosslinked acid gels  

SciTech Connect

Acid polymer gels having pH less than one have been crosslinked for retarding the chemical and physical activity of hydrochloric acid on calcareous formations. Hydrochloric acid concentrations from .0025 to 28% have been successfully crosslinked. This stimulation fluid offers high viscosity with adequate shear stability, perfect support for proppants, and clay stabilization. Additionally, the fluid provides effective fluid loss control and retardation of acid reaction enabling live acid to penetrate deeper into the formation for better formation conductivity and practically a residue-free break for rapid clean-up of the well after the job. Results of lab and field tests show the acid crosslinked system to be an effective stimulation fluid for acidizing and acid fracturing in calcareous and sandstone formations having low formation permeability.

Pabley, A.S.; Holcomb, D.L.

1980-01-01

220

Homocysteic acid as a putative excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter: I. Postsynaptic characteristics at N-methyl-D-aspartate-type receptors on striatal cholinergic interneurons.  

PubMed

The actions of the stereoisomers of homocysteic acid (HCA) were characterized at N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type receptors which mediate excitatory amino acid-evoked [3H]acetylcholine ([3H]ACh) release from striatal cholinergic interneurons. Like NMDA, L-HCA and D-HCA evoked the release of [3H]ACh formed from [3H]choline in striatal slices. The concentration-response curve for L-HCA was virtually superimposable on that for NMDA, yielding an equal EC50 value (56.1 microM) and maximal response. However, D-HCA was weaker, with an EC50 value of 81.1 microM, and an apparently smaller maximal response. L-HCA-evoked [3H]ACh release was inhibited by the same categories of compounds which inhibit NMDA-evoked [3H]ACh release: the divalent ion Mg2+ (IC50 = 25.8 microM); competitive NMDA antagonists 2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoate (IC50 = 51.2 microM) and 3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)propyl-1-phosphonic acid (IC50 = 20.1 microM); and the dissociative anesthetics tiletamine (IC50 = 0.59 microM) and MK-801 (IC50 = 0.087 microM). Like NMDA, L-HCA produced a tachyphylaxis in this system. Tachyphylaxis to NMDA resulted in a decrease response to L-HCA, and conversely, tachyphylaxis to L-HCA resulted in a decrease response to NMDA. The results suggest that L-HCA is an agonist at the NMDA-type receptor and may represent an endogenous ligand for this excitatory amino acid receptor. PMID:2846784

Lehmann, J; Tsai, C; Wood, P L

1988-12-01

221

Rapid Stimulation of 5-Lipoxygenase Activity in Potato by the Fungal Elicitor Arachidonic Acid 1  

PubMed Central

The activity of lipoxygenase (LOX) in aged potato tuber discs increased by almost 2-fold following treatment of the discs with the fungal elicitor arachidonic acid (AA). Enzyme activity increased above that in untreated discs within 30 min after AA treatment, peaked at 1 to 3 h, and returned to near control levels by 6 h. The majority of the activity was detected in a soluble fraction (105,000g supernatant), but a minor portion was also associated with a particulate fraction enriched in microsomal membranes (105,000g pellet); both activities were similarly induced. 5-Hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid was the principal product following incubation of these extracts with AA. Antibodies to soybean LOX strongly reacted with a protein with a molecular mass of approximately 95-kD present in both soluble and particulate fractions whose abundance generally corresponded with LOX activity in extracts. LOX activity was not enhanced by treatment of the discs with nonelicitor fatty acids or by branched ?-glucans from the mycelium of Phytophthora infestans. Prior treatment of the discs with abscisic acid, salicylhydroxamic acid, or n-propyl gallate, all of which have been shown to suppress AA induction of the hypersensitive response, inhibited the AA-induced increment in LOX activity. Cycloheximide pretreatment, which abolishes AA elicitor activity for other responses such as phytoalexin induction, did not inhibit LOX activity in water- or elicitor-treated discs but enhanced activity similar to that observed by AA treatment. The elicitor-induced increase in 5-LOX activity preceded or temporally paralleled the induction of other studied responses to AA, including the accumulation of mRNAs for 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase reported here. The results are discussed in relation to the proposed role of the 5-LOX in signal-response coupling of arachidonate elicitation of the hypersensitive response. Images Figure 4 Figure 7 PMID:16653144

Bostock, Richard M.; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Choi, Doil; Ricker, Karin E.; Ward, Bernard L.

1992-01-01

222

5-Benzyl-4-[3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl]- 2H-1,2,4-triazol-3(4H)-ones: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, crystal structure and a comparison of theoretical and experimental IR results by DFT calculations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The synthesis and structural properties of novel compounds, 5-Benzyl- 4-[3-(1H-imidazol-1-yl)propyl]-2H-1,2,4-triazol-3(4H)-ones (3a- c) have been described. These products were obtained by the reaction of ethyl 2-[1-ethoxy-2-(phenyl or substituted phenyl)ethylidene]hydrazinecarboxylates (1) and N-(3-aminopropyl)imidazol (2). The structures of compounds 3a- c have been inferred through UV-vis, IR, 1H/ 13C NMR, mass spectrometry, elemental analyses, and X-ray crystallography. DFT level 6-31G?(d,p) calculations provided structural information and IR data that were in good agreement with experimental results for compound 3a. Additionally, the electronic structure of compound 3a has been studied by DFT level 6-31G?(d,p) calculations using the X-ray data.

Ünver, Yasemin; Sancak, Kemal; Tanak, Hasan; De?irmencio?lu, ?smail; Dü?dü, Esra; Er, Mustafa; I??k, ?amil

2009-11-01

223

Reversed-phase ion-pair HPLC determination of some water-soluble vitamins in pharmaceuticals  

Microsoft Academic Search

A reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatografic method (RP-IPC) was developed to assay some water-soluble vitamins in solution dosage forms. Vitamins of the B-group B1, B2, B3, and B6, including vitamin C were determined in Oligovit® coated tablets. In Beviplex® coated tablets the vitamins B1, B2, B3, B6 and p-aminobenzoic acid were analysed. Hexanesulphonic acid sodium salt and triethanolamine in water–methanol

D Ivanovi?; A Popovi?; D Radulovi?; M Medenica

1999-01-01

224

Contact sensitizers modulate the arachidonic acid metabolism of PMA-differentiated U-937 monocytic cells activated by LPS.  

PubMed

For the effective induction of a hapten-specific T cell immune response toward contact sensitizers, in addition to covalent-modification of skin proteins, the redox and inflammatory statuses of activated dendritic cells are crucial. The aim of this study was to better understand how sensitizers modulate an inflammatory response through cytokines production and COX metabolism cascade. To address this purpose, we used the human monocytic-like U-937 cell line differentiated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and investigated the effect of 6 contact sensitizers (DNCB, PPD, hydroquinone, propyl gallate, cinnamaldehyde and eugenol) and 3 non sensitizers (lactic acid, glycerol and tween 20) on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1? and TNF-?) and on the arachidonic acid metabolic profile after bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Our results showed that among the tested molecules, all sensitizers specifically prevent the production of PMA/LPS-induced COX-2 metabolites (PGE(2,) TxB(2) and PGD(2)), eugenol and cinnamaldehyde inhibiting also the production of IL-1? and TNF-?. We further demonstrated that there is no unique PGE(2) inhibition mechanism: while the release of arachidonic acid (AA) from membrane phospholipids does not appear do be a target of modulation, COX-2 expression and/or COX-2 enzymatic activity are the major steps of prostaglandin synthesis that are inhibited by sensitizers. Altogether these results add a new insight into the multiple biochemical effects described for sensitizers. PMID:21807015

Del Bufalo, Aurélia; Bernad, José; Dardenne, Christophe; Verda, Denis; Meunier, Jean Roch; Rousset, Françoise; Martinozzi-Teissier, Silvia; Pipy, Bernard

2011-10-01

225

Synthesis of highly phosphonic acid functionalized benzene-bridged periodic mesoporous organosilicas for use as efficient dye adsorbents.  

PubMed

Periodic mesoporous organosilicas (PMOs) with benzene bridging groups in the silica wall were functionalized with a tunable content of phosphonic acid groups. These bifunctional materials were synthesized by co-condensation of two different organosilane precursors, that is, 1,4-bis(triethoxysilyl)benzene (BTEB) and sodium 3-(trihydroxysilyl)propyl methyl phosphate (SPMP), under acidic conditions using nonionic surfactant Brij-S10 as template. The materials exhibited well-ordered mesostructures and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, nitrogen sorption, TEM, TGA, FTIR, and solid-state NMR measurements. The materials thus obtained were employed as adsorbents to remove different types of dyes, for example, cationic dyes methylene blue and phenosafranine, anionic orange II, and amphoteric rhodamine B, from aqueous solutions. The materials exhibited a remarkably high adsorption capacity than activated carbon due to their ordered mesostructures, a large number of phosphonic acid groups, and high surface areas. The adsorption was mainly governed by electrostatic interaction, but also involved ?-? stacking interaction as well as hydrogen bonding. The adsorption kinetics can be better fitted by the pseudo-second order model. The adsorption process was controlled by the mechanisms of external mass transfer and intraparticle diffusion. The materials retained more than 97% dye removal efficiency after use for five consecutive cycles. PMID:25010459

Deka, Juti Rani; Liu, Chia-Ling; Wang, Tzu-Hua; Chang, Wei-Chieh; Kao, Hsien-Ming

2014-08-15

226

Rediscovering Arsenoacetic Acid.  

E-print Network

??Arsonoacetic acid, H?O?As¹CH?COOH, and arsenoacetic acid, punitively [AsVCH?COOH]? have been synthesised according to historical literature methods, and have been characterised using modern techniques. Arsonoacetic acid… (more)

Wilson, Peter Stanley

2009-01-01

227

Organic acids tunably catalyze carbonic acid decomposition.  

PubMed

Density functional theory calculations predict that the gas-phase decomposition of carbonic acid, a high-energy, 1,3-hydrogen atom transfer reaction, can be catalyzed by a monocarboxylic acid or a dicarboxylic acid, including carbonic acid itself. Carboxylic acids are found to be more effective catalysts than water. Among the carboxylic acids, the monocarboxylic acids outperform the dicarboxylic ones wherein the presence of an intramolecular hydrogen bond hampers the hydrogen transfer. Further, the calculations reveal a direct correlation between the catalytic activity of a monocarboxylic acid and its pKa, in contrast to prior assumptions about carboxylic-acid-catalyzed hydrogen-transfer reactions. The catalytic efficacy of a dicarboxylic acid, on the other hand, is significantly affected by the strength of an intramolecular hydrogen bond. Transition-state theory estimates indicate that effective rate constants for the acid-catalyzed decomposition are four orders-of-magnitude larger than those for the water-catalyzed reaction. These results offer new insights into the determinants of general acid catalysis with potentially broad implications. PMID:24933150

Kumar, Manoj; Busch, Daryle H; Subramaniam, Bala; Thompson, Ward H

2014-07-10

228

Iophenoxic acid derivatives as markers of oral baits to wildlife. New tools for their detection in tissues of a game species and safety considerations for human exposure.  

PubMed

The bait-marker iophenoxic acid (IPA) and its derivatives are increasingly used for evaluating and optimizing the cost-effectiveness of baiting campaigns on wildlife, particularly on game species such as the wild boar. We aimed to determine whether concentrations of the three main IPA derivatives ethyl, methyl and propyl-IPA measured on thoracic liquid extracts (TLE) of hunted wild boars may be representative of two exposure doses, 40 and 200 mg, from 20 to 217 days after ingestion. Then we developed a method of detection of the three IPA derivatives by LC/ESI-MS-MS in muscle and liver to evaluate the suitability of these two other tissues for monitoring the marked bait consumption and for measuring available residues in the meat of marked animals. Three semi-captive wild boars received 40 mg of each IPA derivative, three received 200 mg, and three, as controls, did not receive IPA. Blood serum was sampled 20, 197 or 217 days after IPA exposure according to animals and to the derivative. Wild boars were shot by gun after the different times of serum sampling times, and TLE, muscle and liver were sampled. Our results suggest that TLE is not a relevant tissue for quantitatively expressing IPA exposure. Due to interference, no analytical method was validated on TLE containing digestive material. On the other hand, quantifications in the muscle and particularly in the liver could discriminate wild boars that had ingested the two IPA doses from 20 days until 7 months after exposure, especially for the two long term markers ethyl and propyl-IPA. So IPA quantifications in the liver sampled on hunted animals appear to be a reliable tool for monitoring bait consumption in the field at a large scale. Nevertheless, whatever the ingested dose, ethyl- and propyl-IPA concentrations measured in the muscle and the liver of tested animals until 217 days after exposure, remained higher than 0.01 mg/kg, the Maximal Residue Limit (MRL) is recommended for molecules for which no toxicological data are available. Based on the range of IPA residues available in these two tissues, implications for humans consuming marked animals are discussed. PMID:23001758

Sage, Mickael; Fourel, Isabelle; Lahoreau, Jennifer; Siat, Vivien; Berny, Philippe; Rossi, Sophie

2013-05-01

229

The intrathecal administration of excitatory amino acid receptor antagonists selectively attenuated carrageenan-induced behavioral hyperalgesia in rats.  

PubMed

A single unilateral injection of carrageenan (4.5-6.0 mg in 0.15-0.20 ml saline) into the rat hindpaw induced behavioral hyperalgesia as evidenced by a significant reduction in hindpaw withdrawal latency to a noxious thermal stimulus. The involvement of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in this model of hyperalgesia was examined by intrathecal administration of the selective excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptor antagonists: (+/-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP-5), (+/-)-3-(2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl)-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP), ketamine hydrochloride (ketamine), 7-chlorokynurenic acid (7-Cl kynurenic acid), and 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). The effects of dizocilpine maleate (MK-801) were studied under the same conditions and published previously (Ren et al., 1992) and the data are presented for comparison. While the withdrawal latencies of the non-injected paws and of the paws of naive rats were not significantly affected by application of the EAA receptor antagonists at doses tested, the paw withdrawal latencies of the carrageenan-injected paws were elevated dose dependently. The rank order of potency of these agents to reduce hyperalgesia was: MK-801 greater than or equal to AP-5 greater than or equal to CPP = 7-Cl kynurenic acid = ketamine much greater than CNQX greater than 0. In contrast, intrathecal injection of the opioid receptor agonists, [D-Ala2,MePhe4,Gly-ol5]enkephalin (DAMGO, mu-selective) and [D-Pen2,D-Pen5] enkephalin (DPDPE, delta-selective), produced antinociception in both injected and non-injected paws. DAMGO was much more potent, while DPDPE was less potent, than MK-801.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1358641

Ren, K; Williams, G M; Hylden, J L; Ruda, M A; Dubner, R

1992-08-25

230

Mono-/dihydroxybenzoic acid esters and phenol pyridinium derivatives as inhibitors of the mammalian carbonic anhydrase isoforms I, II, VII, IX, XII and XIV.  

PubMed

Using hydroxy-/dihydroxybenzoic acids as leads, a series of methyl, ethyl and iso-propyl esters of 4-hydroxy-benzoic acid, 2,4-, 2,5-, 2,6-, 3,4-, and 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acids and of coumaric acid, were obtained and investigated for the inhibition of six mammalian carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms, that is, the cytosolic CA I, II and VII, and the transmembrane CA IX, XII and XIV, many of which are established drug targets. Other compounds incorporating phenol/catechol moieties were obtained from dopamine by reaction with fluorescein isothiocyanate or with 2,4,6-trisubstituted pyrylium salts. Some aminophenols were also derivatized in a similar manner, by using pyrylium salts. Many of these compounds showed increased inhibitory action compared to the lead compounds from which they were obtained, with efficacy in the submicromolar range against most investigated CA isoforms. As phenols are a class of less investigated CA inhibitors (CAIs) compared to the sulfonamides, and their mechanism of inhibition is less well understood, compounds of the type designed here may be helpful in gaining more insights into these phenomena. PMID:22668600

Carta, Fabrizio; Vullo, Daniela; Maresca, Alfonso; Scozzafava, Andrea; Supuran, Claudiu T

2013-03-15

231

Acid Rain Study Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid

Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

232

Formic Acid Mechanical,  

E-print Network

and engineering. Products will range from starch, to polylactic acid, to corn fiber, to motor fuels. ProgressiveFormic Acid Fire Ant Starch Mechanical, Industrial Chemical, Petroleum Biological What Do systems. Fire ants make formic acid. U of I researchers are developing fuel cells that use formic acid (1

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

233

Sulphuric Acid Manufacture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The raw material for sulphuric acid manufacture is clean SO2 gas. It comes from (i) burning molten by-product sulphur; (ii) roasting or smelting metal sulphide concentrates, and (iii) decomposing contaminated organic chemical process sulphuric acid catalyst. Efficient gas cleaning is required for metallurgical and contaminated acid decomposition gases, especially the former. Sulphuric acid is made from SO2 gas by (i)

W. G. Davenport; M. J. King; B. Rogers; A. Weissenberger

2006-01-01

234

Pharmacokinetics and metabolism of N-[ N-[3-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl) propyl]-?-aspartyl]- l-phenylalanine 1-methyl ester, monohydrate (advantame) in the rat, dog, and man  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pharmacokinetics and metabolism of advantame were evaluated in rats, dogs, and humans. The oral pharmacokinetic studies using 14C-advantame showed that advantame undergoes rapid but incomplete absorption, with an oral bioavailability of total radioactivity in the range of 4–23%. Data indicated that absorption was mainly as ANS9801-acid (de-esterified advantame), which was formed in the gastrointestinal tract as a result of

K. Ubukata; A. Nakayama; R. Mihara

2011-01-01

235

Synthesis and theoretical calculations of carbazole substituted chalcone urea derivatives and studies their polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity.  

PubMed

Synthesis of carbazole substituted chalcone urea derivatives and their polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity effects on the diphenolase activity of banana tyrosinase were evaluated. Tyrosinase has been purified from banana on an affinity gel comprised of Sepharose 4B-L-tyrosine-p-aminobenzoic acid. The results showed that most of the compounds (3,4,5a,5d-h) inhibited and some of them (5c,5i-l) activated the tyrosinase enzyme activity. The molecular calculations were performed using Gaussian software for the synthesized compounds to explain the experimental results. PMID:22803668

Nixha, Arleta Rifati; Arslan, Mustafa; Atalay, Yusuf; Gençer, Nahit; Ergün, Adem; Arslan, Oktay

2013-08-01

236

Selective Adsorption and Chiral Amplification of Amino Acids in Vermiculite Clay -Implications for the origin of biochirality  

E-print Network

Smectite clays are hydrated layer silicates that, like micas, occur naturally in abundance. Importantly, they have readily modifiable interlayer spaces that provide excellent sites for nanochemistry. Vermiculite is one such smectite clay and in the presence of small chain-length alkyl-NH3Cl ions, forms sensitive, 1-D ordered model clay systems with expandable nano-pore inter-layer regions. These inter-layers readily adsorb organic molecules. N-propyl NH3Cl vermiculite clay gels were used to determine the adsorption of alanine, lysine and histidine by chiral HPLC. The results show that during reaction with fresh vermiculite interlayers, significant chiral enrichment of either L- and D-enantiomers occurs depending on the amino acid. Chiral enrichment of the supernatant solutions is up to about 1% per pass. In contrast, addition to clay interlayers already reacted with amino acid solutions resulted in little or no change in D/L ratio during the time of the experiment. Adsorption of small amounts of amphiphilic o...

Fraser, Donald G; Jakschitz, Thomas; Rode, Bernd M

2010-01-01

237

Asphaltene damage in matrix acidizing  

E-print Network

were acidized with three stage treatments of 15% hydrochloric acid (HCl), 12% HCL-3% hydrofluoric acid (HF) and 15% HCL. No additives were used in the acid. Comparisons were made between cores acidized with a variety of saturating fluids. Petrographic...

Hinojosa, Roberto Antonio

2012-06-07

238

Gender-Specific Protection of Estrogen against Gastric Acid-Induced Duodenal Injury: Stimulation of Duodenal Mucosal Bicarbonate Secretion  

PubMed Central

Because human duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion (DMBS) protects duodenum against acid-peptic injury, we hypothesize that estrogen stimulates DMBS, thereby attributing to the clinically observed lower incidence of duodenal ulcer in premenopausal women than the age-matched men. We found that basal and acid-stimulated DMBS responses were 1.5 and 2.4-fold higher in female than male mice in vivo, respectively. Acid-stimulated DMBS in both genders was abolished by ICI 182,780 and tamoxifen. Estradiol-17? (E2) and the selective estrogen receptor (ER) agonists of ER? [1,3,5-Tris(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4-propyl-1H-pyrazole] and ER? [2,3-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) propionitrile], but not progesterone, rapidly stimulated ER-dependent murine DMBS in vivo. E2 dose dependently stimulated murine DMBS, which was attenuated by a Cl?/HCO3? anion exchanger inhibitor 4,4?-didsothio- cyanostilbene-2, 2?-disulfonic acid, removal of extracellular Cl?, and in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator knockout female mice. E2 stimulated murine DMBS in vitro in both genders with significantly greater response in female than male mice (female to male ratio = 4.3). ER? and ER? mRNAs and proteins were detected in murine duodenal epithelium of both genders; however, neither ER? nor ER? mRNA and protein expression levels differed according to gender. E2 rapidly mobilized intracellular calcium in a duodenal epithelial SCBN cell line that expresses ER? and ER?, whereas BAPTA-AM abolished E2-stimulated murine DMBS. Thus, our data show that E2 stimulates DMBS via ER dependent mechanisms linked to intracellular calcium, cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator, and Cl?/HCO3? anion exchanger. Gender-associated differences in basal, acid- and E2-stimulated DMBS may have offered a reasonable explanation for the clinically observed lower incidence of duodenal ulcer in premenopausal women than age-matched men. PMID:18499763

Smith, Anders; Contreras, Cheyanne; Ko, Kwang Hyun; Chow, Jimmy; Dong, Xiao; Tuo, Biguang; Zhang, Hong-hai; Chen, Dong-bao; Dong, Hui

2008-01-01

239

Quantity of acid in acid fog  

SciTech Connect

This communication notes the actual magnitude of the acidity in acidic fog particles and suggests a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air.

Deal, W.J.

1983-07-01

240

Anti-inflammatory activity of a naphthyridine derivative (7-chloro-6-fluoro-N-(2-hydroxy-3-oxo-1-phenyl-3-(phenylamino)propyl)-4-oxo-1-(prop-2-yn-1-yl)-1,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxamide) possessing in vitro anticancer potential.  

PubMed

We have previously synthesized a series of 1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxamide derivatives to identify potential anti-cancer/anti-inflammatory compounds. Three derivatives, 7-chloro-N-(3-(cyclopentylamino)-3-oxo-1-phenylpropyl)-6-fluoro-4-oxo-1-(prop-2-yn-1-yl)-1,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxamide (C-22), 7-chloro-N-(2-hydroxy-3-oxo-1-phenyl-3-(phenylamino)propyl)-4-oxo-1-(prop-2-yn-1-yl)-1,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxamide (C-31) and 7-chloro-6-fluoro-N-(2-hydroxy-3-oxo-1-phenyl-3-(phenylamino)propyl)-4-oxo-1-(prop-2-yn-1-yl)-1,4-dihydro-1,8-naphthyridine-3-carboxamide (C-34) demonstrated high cytotoxicity against a number of cancer cell lines and inhibited secretion of IL-1-? and IL-6. In the present study, C-22, C-31 and C-34 were assessed for modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-? and IL-8, chemokine RANTES and NO produced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mouse Dendritic cells (DCs). Among the 3 compounds, C-34 showed the most potent inhibition of inflammatory markers in DC model at 0.2 and 2 ?M. C-34 also significantly downregulated the secretion of TNF-?, IL-1-? and IL-6 by murine splenocytes and THP-1 cells against LPS induced levels. In vitro effects of C-34 on bone marrow toxicity were assessed in CFU-GM assay. Human CFU-GM population was comparatively more sensitive to C-34 (0.1-10 ?M) than murine CFU-GM. IC50 values for murine and human CFU-GM were not attained. C-34 was further examined for in vivo suppression of LPS induced cytokines in a mice model. At doses ranging from 1.25 to 5 mg/kg, C-34 led to significant inhibition of TNF-?, IL-1-?, IL-6 and MIP-1-?. At the highest dose of 5 mg/kg, C-34 also protected LPS-treated mice against endotoxin-induced lethality. In conclusion, C-34 demonstrates anti-inflammatory activity in vitro and in vivo in addition to cytotoxic properties. This finding suggests its potential for further development as a synthetic naphthyridine derivative with dual anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory (cytokine inhibition) properties. PMID:23370301

Madaan, Alka; Kumar, Vivek; Verma, Ritu; Singh, Anu T; Jain, S K; Jaggi, Manu

2013-03-01

241

New bioactive fatty acids.  

PubMed

Many oxygenated fatty acids are bioactive compounds. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to the new compounds, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid (DOD) through 10-hydroxy-8-octadecenoic acid, and racinoleic acid to 7,10,12-trihydroxy-8-octadecenoic acid. DOD showed antibacterial activity including against food-borne pathogens. Bacillus megaterium ALA2 converted n-6 and n-3 PUFAs to many new oxygenated fatty acids. For example: linoleic acid was converted to12,13-epoxy-9-octadecenoic acid and then to 12,13-dihydroxy-9-octadecenoic acid (12,13-DHOA). From here, there are two bioconversion pathways. The major pathway is: 12,13-DHOA --> 12,13,17-trihydroxy-9(S)-octadecenoic acid (THOA) --> 12,17;13,17-diepoxy-16-hydroxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid (DEOA) --> 7-hydroxy-DEOA. The minor pathway is: 12,13-DHOA --> 12,13,16-THOA --> 12-hydroxy-13,16-epoxy-9(Z)-octadecenoic acid. 12,13,17-THOA has anti-plant pathogenic fungal activity. The tetrahydrofuranyl moiety is known in anti cancer drugs. Strain ALA2 also converts other n-3 and n-6 PUFAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA) to many new oxygenated unsaturated fatty acid products. All of these new products have high potential for antimicrobial agents or biomedical applications. We also screened 12 Mortierella fungal strains from the ARS Culture Collection for the production of bioactive fatty acids such as dihomo-gama-linolenic acid (DGLA) and arachidonic acid. All of the strains tested produced AA and DGLA from glucose or glycerol. The top five AA producers (mg AA/g CDW) were in the following order: M. alpina > M. zychae > M. hygrophila > M. minutissima > M. parvispora. Both AA and DGLA are important natural precursors of a large family of prostaglandin and thromboxane groups. PMID:18296335

Hou, Ching T

2008-01-01

242

Acid Functionalized Mesoporous Ordered Materials for the Production of 5-Hydroxymethyfurfural from Carbohydrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Solid acid catalysts were designed for the conversion of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Some of the catalysts incorporate thioether groups to promote the tautomerization of fructose to its furanose form, as well as sulfonic acid groups to catalyze its dehydration. A bifunctional silane, 3-((3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl)thio)propane-1-sulfonic acid (TESAS), was designed for incorporation into SBA-15-type silica by co-condensation. To achieve mesopore ordering in the functionalized silica, the standard SBA-15 synthetic protocol was modified, resulting in well-formed hexagonal particles. Functional groups incorporated into mesoporous silica by co-condensation are more robust under the reaction conditions than those grafted onto a non-porous silica. In a variation, the thioether group of TESAS was oxidized by H2O 2 to the sulfone during the synthesis of the modified SBA-15. The materials were tested in batch reactors and compared in the selective dehydration of fructose to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF). Compared to benchmark catalysts, the thioether-containing TESAS-SBA-15 showed the highest activity in the dehydration of aqueous fructose, as well as the highest selectivity towards HMF (71 % at 84 % conversion). In addition, the stability of several supported acid catalysts was evaluated in tubular reactors designed to produce 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) continuously. The reactors, packed with the solid catalysts, were operated at 403 K for extended periods, up to 180 h. The behaviors of three propylsulfonic acid-functionalized, ordered porous silicas (one inorganic SBA-15-type silica, and two ethane-bridged SBA-15-type organosilicas) were compared with that of a propylsulfonic acid-modified, non-ordered porous silica. The HMF selectivity of the catalysts with ordered pore structures ranged from 60 to 75 %, while the selectivity of the non-ordered catalyst peaked at 20 %. The latter was also the least stable, deactivating with a first-order rate constant of 0.152 h-1. The organosilicas are more hydrothermally stable and maintained a steady catalytic activity longer than inorganic SBA-15-type silica. The organosilica with an intermediate framework ethane content of 45 mol % was the most stable, with a first-order deactivation rate constant of only 0.012 h-1. Deactivation under flow conditions is caused primarily by hydrolytic cleavage of acid sites, which can be (to some extent) recaptured by the free surface hydroxyl groups of the silica surface.

Crisci, Anthony J.

243

Fatty acid analogs  

DOEpatents

In one aspect, a radioactively labeled analog of a fatty acid which is capable of being taken up by mammalian tissue and which exhibits an in vivo beta-oxidation rate below that with a corresponding radioactively labeled fatty acid.

Elmaleh, David R. (Newton Center, MA); Livni, Eli (Brookline, MA)

1985-01-01

244

Plasma amino acids  

MedlinePLUS

Plasma amino acids is a screening test done on infants that looks at the amounts of amino ... Laboratory error High or low amounts of individual plasma amino acids must be considered with other information. ...

245

Citric acid urine test  

MedlinePLUS

... usually done while you are on a normal diet. Ask your health care provider for more information. ... A low level of citric acid may mean renal tubular acidosis and a ... acid levels: A high carbohydrate diet Estrogen therapy Vitamin D

246

Plant fatty acid hydroxylases  

DOEpatents

This invention relates to plant fatty acyl hydroxylases. Methods to use conserved amino acid or nucleotide sequences to obtain plant fatty acyl hydroxylases are described. Also described is the use of cDNA clones encoding a plant hydroxylase to produce a family of hydroxylated fatty acids in transgenic plants. In addition, the use of genes encoding fatty acid hydroxylases or desaturases to alter the level of lipid fatty acid unsaturation in transgenic plants is described.

Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); Broun, Pierre (Burlingame, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

2001-01-01

247

Acid rain agreement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific working groups from Canada and the US have been established to prepare for acid rain negotiations scheduled for June 1981. The groups will take air samples and estimate impact of acid rain on the environment, determine the precise origin of acid rain, and develop a strategy for abatement. Some constraints on the negotiations are costs (potentially $400-500 million for

R. J. SMITH

1980-01-01

248

[alpha]-Oxocarboxylic Acids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several [alpha]-oxocarboxylic acids play key roles in metabolism in plants and animals. However, there are inconsistencies between the structures as commonly portrayed and the reported acid ionization constants, which result because the acids are predominantly hydrated in aqueous solution; that is, the predominant form is RC(OH)[subscript 2]COOH…

Kerber, Robert C.; Fernando, Marian S.

2010-01-01

249

What Is Acid Rain?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acid rain is the collective term for any type of acidified precipitation: rain, snow, sleet, and hail, as well as the presence of acidifying gases, particles, cloud water, and fog in the atmosphere. The increased acidity, primarily from sulfuric and nitric acids, is generated as a by-product of the combustion of fossil fuels such as coal and oil.…

Likens, Gene E.

2004-01-01

250

Acid (and Base) Rainbows  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners use red cabbage juice and pH indicator paper to test the acidity and basicity of household materials. The activity links this concept of acids and bases to acid rain and other pollutants. Resource contains vocabulary definitions and suggestions for assessment, extensions, and scaling for different levels of learners.

Kolenbrander, Amy; Yowell, Janet; Mach, Natalie; Zarske, Malinda S.; Carlson, Denise; Perez, Sharon

2004-01-01

251

Quantity of acid in acid fog  

SciTech Connect

The chemical composition of fog particles has become of considerable interest, because of both the possibility of interpreting atmospheric- chemistry processes in fog particles in terms of the principles of aqueous chemistry and the potential health effects of species present in fog particles. The acidity of fog particles has received wide attention. This communication noted the actual magnitude of the excess acidity in acidic fog particles and suggested a possible line of inquiry into the health effects of such fog so that it can be determined whether a typical fog is detrimental or beneficial relative to dry air. (DP)

Deal, W.J.

1983-07-01

252

Improved Cathode Interface Contact in Poly(3-hexylthiophene) and 1-(3-Methoxycarbonyl)-propyl-1-phenyl-(6,6)C61 Based Organic Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells by Introducing Compressive Stress  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The authors investigate the effects of compressive stress on the performance of organic solar cells based on poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) blends. The short-circuit current density is improved, and a maximum 16% enhancement in power conversion efficiency is achieved by introducing suitable a stress into the device. The improved performance is attributed to the formation of a good contact between the Al cathode and the P3HT:PCBM blend owing to the introduction of a suitable compressive stress. Meanwhile, the barrier height at Al/blend is lowered from 0.34 to 0.23 eV by evaluating the temperature dependence of the current-voltage characteristics.

Lou, Yanhui; Wang, Zhaokui; Naka, Shigeki; Okada, Hiroyuki

2012-07-01

253

Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman), first order hyperpolarizability, NBO analysis, HOMO and LUMO analysis of 1,7,8,9-tetrachloro-10,10-dimethoxy-4-[3-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)propyl]-4-azatricyclo[5.2.1.0(2,6)]dec-8-ene-3,5-dione by density functional methods.  

PubMed

The optimized molecular structure, vibrational frequencies, corresponding vibrational assignments of 1,7,8,9-tetrachloro-10,10-dimethoxy-4-[3-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)propyl]-4-azatricyclo[5.2.1.0(2,6)]dec-8-ene-3,5-dione (TDPPAD) have been investigated experimentally and theoretically using Gaussian09 software package. Gauge-including atomic orbital (1)H NMR chemical shifts calculations were carried out and compared with experimental data. The HOMO and LUMO analysis is used to determine the charge transfer within the molecule. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. Molecular Electrostatic Potential was performed by the DFT method and the infrared and Raman intensities have also been reported. Mulliken's net charges have been calculated and compared with the atomic natural charges. Fist hyperpolarizability is calculated in order to find its role in non-liner optics. The calculated geometrical parameters (SDD) are in agreement with that of similar derivatives. PMID:24508888

Renjith, R; Mary, Y Sheena; Panicker, C Yohannan; Varghese, Hema Tresa; Pakosi?ska-Parys, Magdalena; Van Alsenoy, C; Manojkumar, T K

2014-04-24

254

Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman) investigations and quantum chemical calculations of 1,7,8,9-tetrachloro-10,10-dimethoxy-4-{3-[4-(3-methoxyphenyl)piperazin-1-yl]propyl}-4-azatricyclo[5.2.1.02,6]dec-8-ene-3,5-dione  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The optimized molecular structure, vibrational frequencies, corresponding vibrational assignments of 1,7,8,9-tetrachloro-10,10-dimethoxy-4-{3-[4-(3-methoxyphenyl) piperazin-1-yl]propyl}-4-azatricyclo[5.2.1.02,6]dec-8-ene-3,5-dione have been investigated experimentally and theoretically using Gaussian09 software package. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. Gauge-including atomic orbital 1H NMR chemical shifts calculations were carried out and compared with experimental data. The HOMO and LUMO analysis is used to determine the charge transfer within the molecule. Molecular Electrostatic Potential was performed by the DFT method and the infrared and Raman intensities have also been reported. First hyperpolarizability is calculated in order to find its role in non-liner optics. The calculated geometrical parameters (SDD) are in agreement with that of similar derivatives. Mulliken’s net charges have been calculated and compared with the atomic natural charges.

Renjith, R.; Mary, Y. Sheena; Panicker, C. Yohannan; Varghese, Hema Tresa; Pakosi?ska-Parys, Magdalena; Van Alsenoy, C.; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A.

2014-08-01

255

4-[18F]Fluoro-N-methyl-N-(propyl-2-yn-1-yl)benzenesulfonamide ([18F]F-SA): a versatile building block for labeling of peptides, proteins and oligonucleotides with fluorine-18 via Cu(I)-mediated click chemistry.  

PubMed

Cu(I)-mediated [3+2]cycloaddition between azides and alkynes has evolved into a valuable bioconjugation tool in radiopharmaceutical chemistry. We have developed a simple, convenient and reliable radiosynthesis of 4-[18F]fluoro-N-methyl-N-(propyl-2-yn-1-yl)benzenesulfonamide ([18F]F-SA) as a novel aromatic sulfonamide-based click chemistry building block. [18F]F-SA could be prepared in a remotely controlled synthesis unit in 32 ± 5% decay-corrected radiochemical yield in a total synthesis time of 80 min. The determined lipophilicity of [18F]F-SA (logP = 1.7) allows handling of the radiotracer in aqueous solutions. The versatility of [18F]F-SA as click chemistry building block was demonstrated by the labeling of a model peptide (phosphopeptide), protein (HSA), and oligonucleotide (L-RNA). The obtained radiochemical yields were 77% (phosphopeptide), 55-60% (HSA), and 25% (L-RNA), respectively. Despite the recent emergence of a multitude of highly innovative novel bioconjugation methods for 18F labeling of biopolymers, Cu(I)-mediated click chemistry with [18F]F-SA represents a reliable, robust and efficient radiolabeling technique for peptides, proteins, and oligonucleotides with the short-lived positron emitter 18F. PMID:23306450

Ramenda, Theres; Steinbach, Jörg; Wuest, Frank

2013-04-01

256

Acid Strengths of Some Substituted Picric Acids.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aqueous dissociation constants for a number of substituted picric acids and related compounds were determined spectrophotometrically, and the values obtained correlated with the mid-equivalence potentials obtained by half-neutralization in acetone sol...

P. J. Pearce, R. J. J. Simkins

1968-01-01

257

Abscisic Acid ELISA: Organic Acid Interference 1  

PubMed Central

Consideration must be exercised in determination of buffers and solutions used when carrying out enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). A commercial monoclonal antibody kit for abscisic acid (Idetek, Inc.) gives significant false-positives with tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. The organic acids or contaminants interfered with ELISA assays for ABA as indicated by deviations in the slopes of standard curves of ABA in the organic acids. The interference, in the case of ?-ketoglutarate, was caused by a contaminant. Of the organic buffers tested—Tris, Tricine, and Hepes—only Hepes showed false-positive ABA. In addition, we present data indicating the presence of ABA in commercial mannitol and provide a simple procedure for removal of the ABA. PMID:16667202

Belefant, Helen; Fong, Franklin

1989-01-01

258

Editorial: Acid precipitation  

SciTech Connect

This editorial focuses on acid rain and the history of public and governmental response to acid rain. Comments on a book by Gwineth Howell `Acid Rain and Acid Waters` are included. The editor feels that Howells has provide a service to the environmental scientific community, with a textbook useful to a range of people, as well as a call for decision makers to learn from the acid rain issue and use it as a model for more sweeping global environmental issues. A balance is needed among several parameters such as level of evidence, probability that the evidence will lead to a specific direction and the cost to the global community. 1 tab.

NONE

1995-09-01

259

Amino acid analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The process and apparatus for qualitative and quantitative analysis of the amino acid content of a biological sample are presented. The sample is deposited on a cation exchange resin and then is washed with suitable solvents. The amino acids and various cations and organic material with a basic function remain on the resin. The resin is eluted with an acid eluant, and the eluate containing the amino acids is transferred to a reaction vessel where the eluant is removed. Final analysis of the purified acylated amino acid esters is accomplished by gas-liquid chromatographic techniques.

Winitz, M.; Graff, J. (inventors)

1974-01-01

260

EXTRACTIONOFTERVALENTLANTHANIDESWITH ACIDIC ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The equilibrium.extraction behavior for a series of tervalent lanthanide ions (Ln) using a chloroform solution containing di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), diphenylphosphinic acid (HDPP), dibutylphosphorothioic acid (HDBPT), di-n-octylphosphorodithoic acid (HDOPDT), or di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphorodithioic acid (HDEHPDT), either alone or combined with adduct forming agents is studied. The extracted species are Ln(DEHP) 3(HDEHP) 3, Ln(DPP)3 (HDPP)3, Ln(DBPT)3, and are Ln(DBPT)3(HDERP)3 in the presence of

Shoji Motomizu; Henry Freiser

1985-01-01

261

Selective extraction of succinic acid from binary mixture of succinic acid and acetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

In production of succinic acid by fermentation, succinic acid and acetic acid are co-produced. To purify the succinic acid from binary-acid mixture of succinic acid and acetic acid, the tertiary amine-based extraction was used. In 1-octanol, the selectivity for succinic acid was proportional to the chain length of tertiary amine. But, the distribution of acids into organic phase was low

Yeon Ki Hong; Won Hi Hong; Ho Nam Chang

2000-01-01

262

Demospongic Acids Revisited  

PubMed Central

The well-known fatty acids with a ?5,9 unsaturation system were designated for a long period as demospongic acids, taking into account that they originally occurred in marine Demospongia sponges. However, such acids have also been observed in various marine sources with a large range of chain-lengths (C16–C32) and from some terrestrial plants with short acyl chains (C18–C19). Finally, the ?5,9 fatty acids appear to be a particular type of non-methylene-interrupted fatty acids (NMA FAs). This article reviews the occurrence of these particular fatty acids in marine and terrestrial organisms and shows the biosynthetic connections between ?5,9 fatty acids and other NMI FAs. PMID:21116406

Kornprobst, Jean-Michel; Barnathan, Gilles

2010-01-01

263

NRPSs and amide ligases producing homopoly(amino acid)s and homooligo(amino acid)s.  

PubMed

Microorganisms are capable of producing a wide variety of biopolymers. Homopoly(amino acid)s and homooligo(amino acid)s, which are made up of only a single type of amino acid, are relatively rare; in fact, only two homopoly(amino acid)s have been known to occur in nature: poly(?-L-lysine) (?-PL) and poly(?-glutamic acid) (?-PGA). Bacterial enzymes that produce homooligo(amino acid)s, such as L-?-lysine-, L-valine-, L-leucine-, L-isoleucine-, L-methionine-, and L-glutamic acid-oligopeptides and poly(?-l-glutamic acid) (?-PGA) have recently been identified, as well as ?-PL synthetase and ?-PGA synthetase. This article reviews the current knowledge about these unique enzymes producing homopoly(amino acid)s and homooligo(amino acid)s. PMID:23817633

Hamano, Yoshimitsu; Arai, Toshinobu; Ashiuchi, Makoto; Kino, Kuniki

2013-08-01

264

Tyrosine-Based 1-(S)-[3-hydroxy-2-(phosphonomethoxy)propyl]cytosine and -adenine ((S)-HPMPC and (S)-HPMPA) Prodrugs: Synthesis, Stability, Antiviral Activity and in Vivo Transport Studies  

PubMed Central

Eight novel single amino acid (6–11) and dipeptide (12, 13) tyrosine P-O esters of cyclic cidofovir ((S)-cHPMPCa, 4) and its cyclic adenine analog ((S)-cHPMPA, 3) were synthesized and evaluated as prodrugs. In vitro IC50 values for the prodrugs vs vaccinia, cowpox, human cytomegalo- and herpes simplex type 1 viruses were similar to those for the parent drugs ((S)-HPMPC, 2, (S)-HPMPA, 1; IC50 0.3 – 30 µM); there were no cytoxicity with KB or HFF cells at ? 100 µM. The prodrugs exhibited a wide range of half-lives in rat intestinal homogenate at pH 6.5 (<30 – 1732 min) with differences of 3–10× between phostonate diastereomers. The tyrosine-alkylamide derivatives of 3 and 4 were the most stable. (L)-Tyr-NHiBu cHPMPA (11) was converted in rat or mouse plasma solely to two active metabolites and had significantly enhanced oral bioavailability vs parent drug 1 in a mouse model (39 % vs <5 %). PMID:21812420

Zakharova, Valeria M.; Serpi, Michaela; Krylov, Ivan S.; Peterson, Larryn W.; Breitenbach, Julie M.; Borysko, Katherine Z.; Drach, John C.; Collins, Mindy; Hilfinger, John M.; Kashemirov, Boris A.; McKenna, Charles E.

2011-01-01

265

Acid rain reports  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three independent reports on acid precipitation issued in June reinforce each other and, taken together, support those seeking immediate action to curb man-generated acid deposition in northeastern North America by reducing emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides. The Interagency Task Force on Acid Precipitation report concluded that manmade pollution is to blame for acid precipitation problems in the northeastern United States. A National Research Council (NRC) committee stated that reducing the manmade emissions of sulfur and nitrogen oxides will result in a proportional reduction in the deposition of acid precipitation. And an acid rain panel assembled by the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) called for immediate action to curb the emissions despite incomplete scientific data.

Richman, Barbara T.

266

Lewis acid organocatalysts.  

PubMed

Abstract The term Lewis acid catalysts generally refers to metal salts like aluminium chloride, titanium chloride and zinc chloride. Their application in asymmetric catalysis can be achieved by the addition of enantiopure ligands to these salts. However, not only metal centers can function as Lewis acids. Compounds containing carbenium, silyl or phosphonium cations display Lewis acid catalytic activity. In addition, hypervalent compounds based on phosphorus and silicon, inherit Lewis acidity. Furthermore, ionic liquids, organic salts with a melting point below 100 degrees C, have revealed the ability to catalyze a range of reactions either in substoichiometric amount or, if used as the reaction medium, in stoichiometric or even larger quantities. The ionic liquids can often be efficiently recovered. The catalytic activity of the ionic liquid is explained by the Lewis acidic nature of their cations. This review covers the survey of known classes of metal-free Lewis acids and their application in catalysis. PMID:21494948

Sereda, Oksana; Tabassum, Sobia; Wilhelm, René

2010-01-01

267

Lewis Acid Organocatalysts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The term Lewis acid catalysts generally refers to metal salts like aluminium chloride, titanium chloride and zinc chloride. Their application in asymmetric catalysis can be achieved by the addition of enantiopure ligands to these salts. However, not only metal centers can function as Lewis acids. Compounds containing carbenium, silyl or phosphonium cations display Lewis acid catalytic activity. In addition, hypervalent compounds based on phosphorus and silicon, inherit Lewis acidity. Furthermore, ionic liquids, organic salts with a melting point below 100 °C, have revealed the ability to catalyze a range of reactions either in substoichiometric amount or, if used as the reaction medium, in stoichiometric or even larger quantities. The ionic liquids can often be efficiently recovered. The catalytic activity of the ionic liquid is explained by the Lewis acidic nature of their cations. This review covers the survey of known classes of metal-free Lewis acids and their application in catalysis.

Sereda, Oksana; Tabassum, Sobia; Wilhelm, René

268

Acid Rain Learning Activities  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

These suggestions for activities allow students to learn about acid deposition in new and interactive ways, both in and out of the classroom. The suggestions are for individuals and small groups, the class as a whole, or for field trips. Students may contact local experts about acid rain issues, investigate the energy sources used to generate electricity by their local power companies, collect cartoons about acid rain and air pollution, or play the roles of scientists or interested parties involved in investigations of acid rain issues. Field trip ideas include visiting a local museum or science center to see exhibits or resources on acid rain, and visiting a local cemetary to examine the effects of acid rain on the headstones.

269

Bile Acid Metabolism  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Bile acids are physiological agents that facilitate biliary secretion of lipids and metabolites, and intestinal absorption\\u000a of fat and nutrients. Bile acids are also signaling molecules that activate nuclear receptors and cell signaling pathways\\u000a to regulate hepatic lipid metabolism and homeostasis. Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver, stored in\\u000a the gallbladder, secreted to the intestine and reabsorbed

John Y. L. Chiang

270

Acid rain on Bermuda  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increased acidity of precipitation due to combustion of fossil fuels has been well documented for both the eastern USA1 and Canada2. The SO2 and NOxemitted by the burning of coal, natural gas, fuel oil and petrol are oxidized in the atmosphere to sulphuric and nitric acids which subsequently give rise to acid precipitation1. However, the SO2 and NOx emitted, and

Timothy Jickells; Anthony Knap; Thomas Church; James Galloway; John Miller

1982-01-01

271

Acid-Base Solutions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How do strong and weak acids differ? Use lab tools on your computer to find out! Dip the paper or the probe into solution to measure the pH, or put in the electrodes to measure the conductivity. Then see how concentration and strength affect pH. Can a weak acid solution have the same pH as a strong acid solution?

Simulations, Phet I.; Lancaster, Kelly; Malley, Chris; Loeblein, Patricia; Parson, Robert; Perkins, Kathy

2010-09-01

272

DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDS OF ACETIC ACID BACTERIA  

PubMed Central

De Ley, J. (State University, Ghent, Belgium), and S. Friedman. Deoxyribonucleic acid hybrids of acetic acid bacteria. J. Bacteriol. 88:937–945. 1964.—Deuterated N15-labeled deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from Acetobacter aceti (mesoxydans 4) forms hybrids with ordinary DNA from other species of this genus (A. xylinum, A. pasteurianus, A. estunensis, and possibly A. xylinoides) when the guanine plus cytosine base composition does not vary by more than 1 to 2%. Beyond this limit (A. aceti Ch31 and A. muciparus 5) no hybrids are formed. The hybrids are apparently derived from an asymmetrical part of the compositional distribution. The results lend strength to the concept of a genetic species rather than to a division of a genus into sharply separated species, based on small phenotypic differences. Taxonomic implications are discussed. PMID:14219057

De Ley, J.; Friedman, S.

1964-01-01

273

Uric Acid Test  

MedlinePLUS

... purine metabolism . Metastatic cancer, multiple myeloma , leukemias , and cancer chemotherapy can cause increased production of uric acid. Chronic renal disease , acidosis , toxemia of pregnancy , and alcoholism can cause ...

274

Cytocompatibility and Mechanical Properties of Short Phosphate Glass Fibre Reinforced Polylactic Acid (PLA) Composites: Effect of Coupling Agent Mediated Interface  

PubMed Central

In this study three chemical agents Amino-propyl-triethoxy-silane (APS), sorbitol ended PLA oligomer (SPLA) and Hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) were identified to be used as coupling agents to react with the phosphate glass fibre (PGF) reinforcement and the polylactic acid (PLA) polymer matrix of the composite. Composites were prepared with short chopped strand fibres (l = 20 mm, ? = 20 µm) in a random arrangement within PLA matrix. Improved, initial composite flexural strength (~20 MPa) was observed for APS treated fibres, which was suggested to be due to enhanced bonding between the fibres and polymer matrix. Both APS and HDI treated fibres were suggested to be covalently linked with the PLA matrix. The hydrophobicity induced by these coupling agents (HDI, APS) helped to resist hydrolysis of the interface and thus retained their mechanical properties for an extended period of time as compared to non-treated control. Approximately 70% of initial strength and 65% of initial modulus was retained by HDI treated fibre composites in contrast to the control, where only ~50% of strength and modulus was retained after 28 days of immersion in PBS at 37 °C. All coupling agent treated and control composites demonstrated good cytocompatibility which was comparable to the tissue culture polystyrene (TCP) control, supporting the use of these materials as coupling agent’s within medical implant devices. PMID:24955744

Hasan, Muhammad Sami; Ahmed, Ifty; Parsons, Andrew; Walker, Gavin; Scotchford, Colin

2012-01-01

275

Amino acid sequence of mammalian elongation factor 2 deduced from the cDNA sequence: homology with GTP-binding proteins.  

PubMed Central

Complementary DNA clones, pHEW1 and pRE2, coding for hamster and rat polypeptide chain elongation factor 2 (EF-2), respectively, were isolated and sequenced. It was shown that the cDNA insert in pHEW1 contains a 2574-base-pair open reading frame coding for an 857-amino acid polypeptide with Mr 95,192, excluding the initiation methionine. Comparative studies of sequence homology among EF-2 and several GTP-binding proteins show that five regions in the amino-terminal position of EF-2, corresponding to about 160 amino acids, show homology with GTP-binding proteins, including protein synthesis elongation and initiation factors, mammalian ras proteins, and transducin. The carboxyl-terminal half of EF-2 contains several regions that have 34-75% homology with bacterial elongation factor G. These results suggest that the amino-terminal region of EF-2 participates in the GTP-binding and GTPase activity whereas the carboxyl-terminal region interacts with ribosomes. Finally, the sequence provides direct evidence that diphthamide (2-[3-carboxy-amido-3-(trimethylammonio)propyl]histidine), the site of ADP-ribosylation by diphtheria toxin, is produced by post-translational modification of a histidine residue in the primary translational product. PMID:3014523

Kohno, K; Uchida, T; Ohkubo, H; Nakanishi, S; Nakanishi, T; Fukui, T; Ohtsuka, E; Ikehara, M; Okada, Y

1986-01-01

276

Molecular Structure of Fumaric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Fumaric acid is odorless and colorless or white crystalline powder with a fruit acid taste. Fumaric acid is used as a substitute of tartaric acid in beverages and baking powders and as a replacement for citric acid in fruits drinks. It is also used as antioxidant to prevent rancidity in butter, cheese, powdered milk, and other foodstuff. In addition, fumaric acid is a chemical intermediate in the manufacture of pharmaceuticals, synthetic resins and plastics. Fumaric acid can be prepared by catalytic oxidation of benzene or by bacterial action on glucose and it is involved in the production of energy from food. Fumaric acid (known as trans-butanedioic acid) is the trans isomer of maleic acid (also called cis-butanedioic acid). Fumaric acid is more stable than maleic acid and can be prepared by heating maleic acid.

2004-11-05

277

Contact sensitizers modulate the arachidonic acid metabolism of PMA-differentiated U-937 monocytic cells activated by LPS  

SciTech Connect

For the effective induction of a hapten-specific T cell immune response toward contact sensitizers, in addition to covalent-modification of skin proteins, the redox and inflammatory statuses of activated dendritic cells are crucial. The aim of this study was to better understand how sensitizers modulate an inflammatory response through cytokines production and COX metabolism cascade. To address this purpose, we used the human monocytic-like U-937 cell line differentiated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and investigated the effect of 6 contact sensitizers (DNCB, PPD, hydroquinone, propyl gallate, cinnamaldehyde and eugenol) and 3 non sensitizers (lactic acid, glycerol and tween 20) on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha}) and on the arachidonic acid metabolic profile after bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Our results showed that among the tested molecules, all sensitizers specifically prevent the production of PMA/LPS-induced COX-2 metabolites (PGE{sub 2,} TxB{sub 2} and PGD{sub 2}), eugenol and cinnamaldehyde inhibiting also the production of IL-1{beta} and TNF-{alpha}. We further demonstrated that there is no unique PGE{sub 2} inhibition mechanism: while the release of arachidonic acid (AA) from membrane phospholipids does not appear do be a target of modulation, COX-2 expression and/or COX-2 enzymatic activity are the major steps of prostaglandin synthesis that are inhibited by sensitizers. Altogether these results add a new insight into the multiple biochemical effects described for sensitizers. - Highlights: > We investigated how contact sensitizers modulate an inflammatory response. > We used macrophage-differentiated cell line, U-937 treated with PMA/LPS. > Sensitizers specifically inhibit the production of COX metabolites (PGE2, TxB2). > Several mechanisms of inhibition: COX-2 expression/enzymatic activity, isomerases. > New insight in the biochemical properties of sensitizers.

Del Bufalo, Aurelia, E-mail: adelbufalo@rd.loreal.com [L'Oreal R and I, 93600 Aulnay-sous-Bois (France); Bernad, Jose; Dardenne, Christophe [UMD3, INSERM-IFR150, Universite de Toulouse, Universite Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse (France); Verda, Denis; Meunier, Jean Roch; Rousset, Francoise; Martinozzi-Teissier, Silvia [L'Oreal R and I, 93600 Aulnay-sous-Bois (France); Pipy, Bernard [UMD3, INSERM-IFR150, Universite de Toulouse, Universite Paul Sabatier, 31062 Toulouse (France)

2011-10-01

278

Regioselective hydroxylation of quinolinic acid, lutidinic acid and isocinchomeronic acid by resting cells of pyridine dicarboxylic acid-degrading microorganisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microorganisms aerobically degrading quinolinic acid, lutidinic acid or isocinchomeronic acid were isolated and the microbial regioselective hydroxylation of these pyridine dicarboxylic acids was studied. Alcaligenes sp. UK21 cells converted quinolinic acid into 6-hydroxypicolinic acid, suggesting the involvement of two enzyme reactions catalyzing hydroxylation at position C6 and decarboxylation at position C3 of quinolinic acid. Resting cells of Alcaligenes sp. UK21

A. Uchida; T. Yoshida; M. Ogawa; T. Nagasawa

2003-01-01

279

Versatile peroxidase of Bjerkandera fumosa: substrate and inhibitor specificity.  

PubMed

The inhibitor and substrate specificities of versatile peroxidase from Bjerkandera fumosa (VPBF) were studied. Two different effects were found: NaN(3), Tween-80, anthracene, and fluorene decreased the activity of VPBF, but p-aminobenzoic acid increased it. A mixed mechanism of effector influence on the activity of this enzyme was shown. The catalytic properties of VPBF in the oxidation of mono- and polycyclic aromatic compounds were studied also. 2,7-Diaminofluorene, ABTS, veratryl alcohol, and syringaldazine can be oxidized by VPBF in two ways: either directly by the enzyme or by diffusible chelated Mn(3+) as an oxidizing agent. During VPBF oxidation of 2,7-diaminofluorene, both with and without Mn(2+), biphasic kinetics with apparent saturation in both micromolar and millimolar ranges were obtained. In the case of ABTS, inhibition of VPBF activity by an excess of substrate was observed. Direct oxidation of p-aminobenzoic acid by versatile peroxidase was found for the first time. The oxidation of three- and four-ring PAHs by VPBF was investigated, and the oxidation of anthracene, phenanthrene, fluorene, pyrene, chrysene, and fluoranthene was shown. The products of PAH oxidation (9,10-anthraquinone, 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, and 9-fluorenone) catalyzed by VPBF were identified. PMID:23199738

Pozdnyakova, Natalia; Makarov, Oleg; Chernyshova, Marina; Turkovskaya, Olga; Jarosz-Wilkolazka, Anna

2013-01-10

280

Neutralizing Acids and Bases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will use their knowledge of color changes with red cabbage indicator to neutralize an acidic solution with a base and then neutralize a basic solution with an acid. This website includes a student activity sheet and additional student readings.

2010-01-01

281

(Acid rain workshop)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment

1990-01-01

282

Acid rain: Controllable?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain is one of a growing number of environmental issues in which impacts are far removed from the source o f the irritants. Those who suffer may differ in geographical area from those who benefit from the activity which releases pollution to the atmosphere. Like the issue concerning the depletion of ozone by manufactured chemicals, the acid rain issue

Lester Machta

1983-01-01

283

Mounting acid rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

The incidence of acid rain at some distance from the initial source of pollution is expected to increase as more plants are converted to burn coal and stacks are built higher to relieve local pollution problems. The alkaline soils of the West neutralize most of the effects of acid rain, making the problem less acute than in the eastern US.

1979-01-01

284

EFFECTS OF ACID PRECIPITATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent reviews of available data indicate that precipitation in a large region of North America is highly acidic when its pH is compared with the expected pH value of 5.65 for pure rain water in equilibrium with CO2. A growing body of evidence suggests that acid rain is responsib...

285

Iodinated humic acids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Humic acids are iodinated by elemental iodine and, if the iodine is present as iodide, by peroxidase-mediated reactions. It is demonstrated that iodination of humic acids leads to a product with a uniform distribution of iodine. It could not be unambiguously verified whether the enzymatically mediated iodination is a direct reaction between a peroxidase-iodine complex and the humic acid molecule or a two-step reaction in which the enzyme creates elemental iodine, which consecutively reacts with the humic acid. Based on a simple model of a reaction between sites in the humic acids available for iodination and the electrophilic iodinating species, it was concluded that the reaction should be described as an equilibrium with a logarithmic equilibrium constant of approximately 4. The number of sites available for iodination was, in the humic acids studied, determined to be approximately 4×10-4 per gram humic acid. The different parameters influencing the enzymatically controlled iodination of humic acids are discussed.

Christiansen, Jesper V.; Carlsen, Lars

286

Controlling acid rain  

E-print Network

High concentrations of sulfuric and nitric acid in raTn fn the northeastern USA are caused by the large scale combustion of fossil fuels within this region. Average precipitation acidity is pH 4.2, but spatial and temporal ...

Fay, James A.

1983-01-01

287

Bile acid transporters  

PubMed Central

In liver and intestine, transporters play a critical role in maintaining the enterohepatic circulation and bile acid homeostasis. Over the past two decades, there has been significant progress toward identifying the individual membrane transporters and unraveling their complex regulation. In the liver, bile acids are efficiently transported across the sinusoidal membrane by the Na+ taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide with assistance by members of the organic anion transporting polypeptide family. The bile acids are then secreted in an ATP-dependent fashion across the canalicular membrane by the bile salt export pump. Following their movement with bile into the lumen of the small intestine, bile acids are almost quantitatively reclaimed in the ileum by the apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter. The bile acids are shuttled across the enterocyte to the basolateral membrane and effluxed into the portal circulation by the recently indentified heteromeric organic solute transporter, OST?-OST?. In addition to the hepatocyte and enterocyte, subgroups of these bile acid transporters are expressed by the biliary, renal, and colonic epithelium where they contribute to maintaining bile acid homeostasis and play important cytoprotective roles. This article will review our current understanding of the physiological role and regulation of these important carriers. PMID:19498215

Dawson, Paul A.; Lan, Tian; Rao, Anuradha

2009-01-01

288

ACID AEROSOLS ISSUE PAPER  

EPA Science Inventory

The report evaluates scientific information on direct health effects associated with exposure to acid aerosols. The present report is not intended as a complete and detailed review of all literature pertaining to acid aerosols. Rather, an attempt has been made to focus on the eva...

289

Lead-acid batteries  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of producing a lead-acid battery capable of activation by the addition of electrolyte thereto, comprises the steps of: starting with a battery container accommodating at least one pack of battery plate grids having insulating separators interposed between adjacent grids, each of said grids carrying the lead-acid battery paste required to produce a positive or a negative battery plate

J. A. Bant; V. J. Raban

1980-01-01

290

Urobilinogen AscorbicAcid  

E-print Network

Date Lot # Bilirubin Urobilinogen Ketone AscorbicAcid Glucose Protein Blood pH Nitrite Leukocytes Specific Gravity hCG: Method Lot # Acetest® (Ketone): Lot # Clinitest® (Glucose): Lot # Ictotest®(Bilirubin AND DATA ENTRY FORMS #12;Date Lot # Bilirubin Urobilinogen Ketone AscorbicAcid Glucose Protein Blood p

Rodriguez, Carlos

291

Acid Rain Revisited  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The results of a long term study of the effects of acidic deposition in the Northeast were published in Bioscience this week, and they suggest that forests, lakes, and streams of the Northeastern US are not recovering from the toxic effects of acid rain despite significant cuts in the power plant emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide -- two major contributors to the problem. "Acid rain," more accurately called acidic deposition, causes toxic forms of aluminum to concentrate in soil and water, vital calcium and magnesium to be leached from trees, and surface waters to become inhospitable to aquatic biota. The study showed that, after 30 years of federally mandated air emission reductions, sulfur dioxide emissions have decreased while nitrogen oxide emissions have remained the same and that acidic deposition-related problems continue to plague New York and New England.

Sanders, Hilary C.

2001-01-01

292

Acid rain trends summarized  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the northeastern United States, the acidity of precipitation has changed little in recent years, although the acidity is increasing in other regions. That's the latest word from a comprehensive review by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of more than 200 published reports of acid rain research from the past 30 years. The report contributes to the controversy over whether increased sulfur emissions from Midwest powerplants increase the acidity of precipitation in the Northeast.“When the results of the many individual studies are combined, they show that acidification of precipitation in the Northeast, which has the most damaging level of acidity on a regional basis, occurred primarily before the mid-1950's and has been largely stabilized since the mid-1960s,” said John T. Turk, a research hydrologist at the USGS Denver office and author of the 18-page summary report.

293

Fatty Acid Production from Amino Acids and ?-Keto Acids by Brevibacterium linens BL2†  

PubMed Central

Low concentrations of branched-chain fatty acids, such as isobutyric and isovaleric acids, develop during the ripening of hard cheeses and contribute to the beneficial flavor profile. Catabolism of amino acids, such as branched-chain amino acids, by bacteria via aminotransferase reactions and ?-keto acids is one mechanism to generate these flavorful compounds; however, metabolism of ?-keto acids to flavor-associated compounds is controversial. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of Brevibacterium linens BL2 to produce fatty acids from amino acids and ?-keto acids and determine the occurrence of the likely genes in the draft genome sequence. BL2 catabolized amino acids to fatty acids only under carbohydrate starvation conditions. The primary fatty acid end products from leucine were isovaleric acid, acetic acid, and propionic acid. In contrast, logarithmic-phase cells of BL2 produced fatty acids from ?-keto acids only. BL2 also converted ?-keto acids to branched-chain fatty acids after carbohydrate starvation was achieved. At least 100 genes are potentially involved in five different metabolic pathways. The genome of B. linens ATCC 9174 contained these genes for production and degradation of fatty acids. These data indicate that brevibacteria have the ability to produce fatty acids from amino and ?-keto acids and that carbon metabolism is important in regulating this event. PMID:15528496

Ganesan, Balasubramanian; Seefeldt, Kimberly; Weimer, Bart C.

2004-01-01

294

Conjugated Fatty Acid Synthesis  

PubMed Central

Conjugated linolenic acids (CLNs), 18:3 ?9,11,13, lack the methylene groups found between the double bonds of linolenic acid (18:3 ?9,12,15). CLNs are produced by conjugase enzymes that are homologs of the oleate desaturases FAD2. The goal of this study was to map the domain(s) within the Momordica charantia conjugase (FADX) responsible for CLN formation. To achieve this, a series of Momordica FADX-Arabidopsis FAD2 chimeras were expressed in the Arabidopsis fad3fae1 mutant, and the transformed seeds were analyzed for the accumulation of CLN. These experiments identified helix 2 and the first histidine box as a determinant of conjugase product partitioning into punicic acid (18:3 ?9cis,11trans,13cis) or ?-eleostearic acid (18:3 ?9cis,11trans,13trans). This was confirmed by analysis of a FADX mutant containing six substitutions in which the sequence of helix 2 and first histidine box was converted to that of FAD2. Each of the six FAD2 substitutions was individually converted back to the FADX equivalent identifying residues 111 and 115, adjacent to the first histidine box, as key determinants of conjugase product partitioning. Additionally, expression of FADX G111V and FADX G111V/D115E resulted in an approximate doubling of eleostearic acid accumulation to 20.4% and 21.2%, respectively, compared with 9.9% upon expression of the native Momordica FADX. Like the Momordica conjugase, FADX G111V and FADX D115E produced predominantly ?-eleostearic acid and little punicic acid, but the FADX G111V/D115E double mutant produced approximately equal amounts of ?-eleostearic acid and its isomer, punicic acid, implicating an interactive effect of residues 111 and 115 in punicic acid formation. PMID:22451660

Rawat, Richa; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Sweet, Marie; Shanklin, John

2012-01-01

295

Total syntheses of cis-cyclopropane fatty acids: dihydromalvalic acid, dihydrosterculic acid, lactobacillic acid, and 9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid.  

PubMed

cis-Cyclopropane fatty acids (cis-CFAs) are widespread constituents of the seed oils of subtropical plants, membrane components of bacteria and protozoa, and the fats and phospholipids of animals. We describe a systematic approach to the synthesis of enantiomeric pairs of four cis-CFAs: cis-9,10-methylenehexadecanoic acid, lactobacillic acid, dihydromalvalic acid, and dihydrosterculic acid. The approach commences with Rh2(OAc)4-catalyzed cyclopropenation of 1-octyne and 1-decyne, and hinges on the preparative scale chromatographic resolution of racemic 2-alkylcycloprop-2-ene-1-carboxylic acids using a homochiral Evan's auxiliary. Saturation of the individual diastereomeric N-cycloprop-2-ene-1-carbonylacyloxazolidines, followed by elaboration to alkylcyclopropylmethylsulfones, allowed Julia-Kocienski olefination with various ?-aldehyde-esters. Finally, saponification and diimide reduction afforded the individual cis-CFA enantiomers. PMID:25321346

Shah, Sayali; White, Jonathan M; Williams, Spencer J

2014-12-14

296

Synthesis of (+)- and (?)-Phaselic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of both enantiomers of phaselic acid (2-O-caffeoylmalate) is described. The previously unreported acetate protected caffeic acid anhydride was used with appropriately protected malic acid derivatives as coupling partners to provide fully protected phaselic acid. Sequential unmasking of the protecting groups afforded phaselic acid in an acceptable overall yield.

Wayne E. Zeller

2012-01-01

297

Sulfuric Acid on Europa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Frozen sulfuric acid on Jupiter's moon Europa is depicted in this image produced from data gathered by NASA's Galileo spacecraft. The brightest areas, where the yellow is most intense, represent regions of high frozen sulfuric acid concentration. Sulfuric acid is found in battery acid and in Earth's acid rain.

This image is based on data gathered by Galileo's near infrared mapping spectrometer.

Europa's leading hemisphere is toward the bottom right, and there are enhanced concentrations of sulfuric acid in the trailing side of Europa (the upper left side of the image). This is the face of Europa that is struck by sulfur ions coming from Jupiter's innermost moon, Io. The long, narrow features that crisscross Europa also show sulfuric acid that may be from sulfurous material extruded in cracks.

Galileo, launched in 1989, has been orbiting Jupiter and its moons since December 1995. JPL manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington DC. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.

1999-01-01

298

Acid recovery from waste sulfuric acid by diffusion dialysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the process of sulfuric acid production from pyrite, there is a lot of waste acid produced in fume washing with dilute\\u000a acid. Acid recovery from this sort of waste sulfuric acid by diffusion dialysis is studied in the paper. The mass transfer\\u000a dialysis coefficient of sulfuric acid of the membrane AFX is measured, the effect of the flowrate of

Guiqing Zhang; Qixiu Zhang; Kanggen Zhou

1999-01-01

299

Strongly Acidic Auxin Indole-3-Methanesulfonic Acid  

PubMed Central

A radiochemical synthesis is described for [14C]indole-3-methanesulfonic acid (IMS), a strongly acidic auxin analog. Techniques were developed for fractionation and purification of IMS using normal and reverse phase chromatography. In addition, the utility of both Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry for analysis of IMS has been demonstrated. IMS was shown to be an active auxin, stimulating soybean hypocotyl elongation, bean first internode curvature, and ethylene production. IMS uptake by thin sections of soybean hypocotyl was essentially independent of solution pH and, when applied at a 100 micromolar concentration, IMS exhibited a basipetal polarity in its transport in both corn coleoptile and soybean hypocotyl sections. [14C]IMS should, therefore, be a useful compound to study fundamental processes related to the movement of auxins in plant tissues and organelles. PMID:16664007

Cohen, Jerry D.; Baldi, Bruce G.; Bialek, Krystyna

1985-01-01

300

Ceric acid decontamination of nuclear reactors  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a composition, it consists of water; about 0.5 to about 3% by weight of a ceric acid selected from the group consisting of tetrasulfato ceric acid, hexasulfamato ceric acid, hexaperchlorato ceric acid, and mixtures thereof; and about 1 to about 5% by weight of an inorganic acid. The inorganic acid is sulfuric acid when the ceric acid is tetrasulfato ceric acid, sulfamic acid when the ceric acid is hexasulfamato ceric acid, perchloric acid when the ceric acid is a mixture selected from the group consisting of tetrasulfato ceric acid, hexasulfamato ceric acid, and hexaperchlorato ceric acid.

Murray, A.P; Slater, C.G.; White, R.W.

1989-11-14

301

In vitro induction of micronuclei by monofunctional methanesulphonic acid esters: possible role of alkylation mechanisms.  

PubMed

Six monofunctional alkylating methanesulphonates of widely varying structures were investigated in the in vitro micronucleus assay with Syrian hamster embryo fibroblast cells. The results were compared with the alkylating activities measured in the 4-(nitrobenzyl)pyridine test (NBP-test) and the N-methyl mercaptoimidazole (MMI-test) as measures for S(N)2 reactivity as well as in the triflouoroacetic acid (TFA) solvolysis and the hydrolysis reaction as measures for S(N)1 reactivity in order to provide insights into the role of alkylation mechanisms on induction of micronuclei. Moreover we compared the results of micronucleus assay with those of the Ames tests in strain TA 100 and TA1535 and with those of the SOS chromotest with the strains PQ37, PQ243, PM21 and GC 4798. The potency of methanesulphonates to induce micronuclei depended only to a certain degree, on the total alkylating activity (S(N)1 and S(N)2 reactivity). An inverse, significant correlation between the Ames test and the micronucleus assay was observed and an inverse correlation between the micronucleus assay and the SOS chromotest with the different strains. The results indicate that the primary mechanism leading to induction of micronuclei is not O-alkylation in DNA as it is the case in the Ames test with the hisG46 strains TA1535 and TA100 and not N-alkylation as with the SOS chromotest. There is evidence that protein alkylation, e.g. in the spindle apparatus in mitosis is decisive for induction of micronuclei by alkylating compounds. The structurally voluminous methanesulphonates 2-phenyl ethyl methanesulphonate and 1-phenyl-2-propyl methanesulphonate show a clear higher micronuclei inducing potency than the other tested though the bulky methanesulphonates possess a lower total alkylating activity than the others. This effect can be explained by a higher disturbance during mitosis after alkylation of the spindle apparatus with the structurally more bulky methanesulphonates. PMID:17011536

Eder, Erwin; Kütt, Wolfgang; Deininger, Christoph

2006-12-01

302

Stomach acid test  

MedlinePLUS

Gastric acid secretion test ... The test is done after a period of not eating so that fluid is all that remains in the ... the stomach through the esophagus (food pipe). To test the ability of the cells in the stomach ...

303

ACID RAIN CONTROL OPTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The paper discusses acid rain control options available to the electric utility industry. They include coal switching, flue gas desulfurization, and such emerging lower cost technologies as Limestone Injection Multistage Burners (LIMB) and Advanced Silicate (ADVACATE) both develo...

304

Acid-Base Tutorial  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Website for anyone wanting to become more familiar with the physiology of acid-base balance in clinical medicine. Several pages are interactive. Numerical results are accompanied by text interpretations to facilitate recognition and understanding.

MD Alan W. Grogono (Tulane University School of Medicine Dept. of Anesthesiology)

2002-06-01

305

Folic acid in diet  

MedlinePLUS

... leafy vegetables Dried beans and peas (legumes) Citrus fruits and juices Fortified means that vitamins have been added to the food. Many foods are now fortified with folic acid, including enriched breads, cereals, flours, cornmeals, pastas, rice, ...

306

Acid Lipase Disease  

MedlinePLUS

... Acid Lipase Disease Information Page Synonym(s): Cholesterol Ester Storage Disease, Wolman’s Disease Table of Contents (click to ... include waxes, oils, and cholesterol. Two rare lipid storage diseases are caused by the deficiency of the ...

307

(Acid rain workshop)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler presented a paper entitled Susceptibility of Asian Ecosystems to Soil-Mediated Acid Rain Damage'' at the Second Workshop on Acid Rain in Asia. The workshop was organized by the Asian Institute of Technology (Bangkok, Thailand), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne, Illinois), and Resource Management Associates (Madison, Wisconsin) and was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the United Nations Environment Program, the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and the World Bank. Papers presented on the first day discussed how the experience gained with acid rain in North America and Europe might be applied to the Asian situation. Papers describing energy use projections, sulfur emissions, and effects of acid rain in several Asian countries were presented on the second day. The remaining time was allotted to discussion, planning, and writing plans for a future research program.

Turner, R.S.

1990-12-05

308

Aminolevulinic Acid Topical  

MedlinePLUS

... under the skin that result from exposure to sunlight and can develop into skin cancer) of the ... acid will make your skin very sensitive to sunlight (likely to get sunburn). Avoid exposure of treated ...

309

Fatty Acid Carcass Mapping  

E-print Network

FATTY ACID CARCASS MAPPING A Thesis by STACEY NICOLE TURK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 2008... Major Subject: Animal Science FATTY ACID CARCASS MAPPING A Thesis by STACEY NICOLE TURK Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE...

Turk, Stacey N.

2010-01-14

310

Acid-base chemistry  

SciTech Connect

The book is not a research compendium and there are no references to the literature. It is a teaching text covering the entire range of undergraduate subject matter dealing with acid-base chemistry (some of it remotely) as taught in inorganic, analytical, and organic chemistry courses. The excellent chapters VII through IX deal in detail with the quantitative aspects of aqueous acid-base equilibria (salt hydrolysis and buffer, titrations, polyprotic and amphoteric substances).

Hand, C.W.; Blewit, H.L.

1985-01-01

311

Acid Rain Lesson Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Five articulated lessons focus on air quality using classroom and field data collection activities. Case study in Great Smoky Mountains has broader application. Background and data for lessons on: the pH scale, understanding acid vs. base, collecting data, mapping relationship of weather events to acid rain. Links to NPS data on air quality, current values, atlas and reports, packaged datasets on ozone, meteorological conditions and other parameters. Also available: teacher resources; educator workshops.

312

Portable nucleic acid thermocyclers.  

PubMed

A nucleic acid thermal cycler is considered to be portable if it is under ten pounds, easily carried by one individual, and battery powered. Nucleic acid amplification includes both polymerase chain reaction (e.g. PCR, RT-PCR) and isothermal amplification (e.g. RPA, HDA, LAMP, NASBA, RCA, ICAN, SMART, SDA). There are valuable applications for portable nucleic acid thermocyclers in fields that include clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, and veterinary testing. A system that is portable allows for the distributed detection of targets at the point of care and a reduction of the time from sample to answer. The designer of a portable nucleic acid thermocycler must carefully consider both thermal control and the detection of amplification. In addition to thermal control and detection, the designer may consider the integration of a sample preparation subsystem with the nucleic acid thermocycler. There are a variety of technologies that can achieve accurate thermal control and the detection of nucleic acid amplification. Important evaluation criteria for each technology include maturity, power requirements, cost, sensitivity, speed, and manufacturability. Ultimately the needs of a particular market will lead to user requirements that drive the decision between available technologies. PMID:24030680

Almassian, David R; Cockrell, Lisa M; Nelson, William M

2013-11-21

313

Mammalian Fatty Acid Elongases  

PubMed Central

Summary Very long chain fatty acids confer functional diversity on cells by variations in their chain length and degree of unsaturation. Microsomal fatty acid elongation represents the major pathway for determining the chain length of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids in cellular lipids. The overall reaction for fatty acid elongation involves four enzymes and utilizes malonyl CoA, NADPH, and fatty acyl CoA as substrates. While the fundamental pathway and its requirements have been known for many years, recent advances have revealed a family of enzymes involved in the first step of the reaction, i.e., the condensation reaction. Seven fatty acid elongase subtypes (Elovl #1–7) have been identified in the mouse, rat, and human genomes. These enzymes determine the rate of overall fatty acid elongation. Moreover, these enzymes also display differential substrate specificity, tissue distribution, and regulation, making them important regulators of cellular lipid composition as well as specific cellular functions. Herein, methods are described to measure elongase activity, analyze elongation products, and alter cellular elongase expression. PMID:19763486

Jump, Donald B.

2009-01-01

314

Reaction of caffeic acid derivatives with acidic nitrite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caffeic derivatives were reacted with acidic nitrite at controlled pH in order to mimic the gastric juice conditions. At pH 2, whereas caffeic acid reacts exclusively on the side chain, its esters are readily nitrated. Under more acidic conditions (pH 1), caffeic acid methyl ester undergoes a dimerisation into a norlignan derivative.

Philippe Cotelle; Hervé Vezin

2001-01-01

315

Export of Acidity in Drainage Water from Acid Sulphate Soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Disturbed acid sulphate soils are potent sources of acidity in coastal waterways. Monitoring studies of the drainage water for sites at East Trinity, Cairns and Pimpama, south-east Queensland indicate that considerable acidity is found in the drainage water from these sites. Hydrogen (H+), ferrous (Fe2+) and aluminium (Al) ions are the dominant acid cations involved. When drainage water is mixed

F. J Cook; W Hicks; E. A Gardner; G. D Carlin; D. W Froggatt

2000-01-01

316

9034 Chem. Commun., 2010, 46, 90349036 This journal is c The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010 Sustained release of nucleic acids from polymeric nanoparticles using  

E-print Network

. For the non-viral methods the use of chemical conjugation, or incorporation into liposomes, lipoplexes)propyl]-N,N,N trimethylammonium methylsulfate, DOTAP) to form a hydrophobic ion-pair.4 Many of the commonly used transfection

Zare, Richard N.

317

What is Acid Rain? Explore the Acid Lake  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acid rain is a type of air pollution that occurs when certain chemicals mix with water in the air. Most chemicals that cause acid rain come from the emissions from factories and cars. Acid rain looks just like 'normal' rain but when it falls, it can hurt plants and animals. For example, when acid rain falls into a lake or river, it makes that body of water more acidic. Many plants and animals cannot live in acidic water. Play this game, from Earth Day Canada's EcoKids program, to learn more about acid rain and its impact on the environment.

Canada, Earth D.

2010-01-01

318

Domoic acid epileptic disease.  

PubMed

Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. PMID:24663110

Ramsdell, John S; Gulland, Frances M

2014-03-01

319

Electrochemical Determination of Lipoic Acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Procedures for determining lipoic acid by voltammetry and coulometric titration with electrogenerated halogens using the biamperometric indication of the titration end-point were developed. Possible mechanisms of lipoic acid oxidation with electrogenerated halogens are discussed. Microgram amounts of lipoic acid were determined in model solutions with an RSD of 1–2%. The analytical range of lipoic acid found by voltammetry at a

G. K. Ziyatdinova; G. K. Budnikov; V. I. Pogorel'tsev

2004-01-01

320

Atmospheric Dust and Acid Rain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Why is acid rain still an environmental problem in Europe and North America despite antipollution reforms? The answer really is blowing in the wind: atmospheric dust. These airborne particles can help neutralize the acids falling on forests, but dust levels are unusually low these days. In the air dust particles can neutralize acid rain. What can we do about acid

Lars O. Hedin; Gene E. Likens

1996-01-01

321

Acid Catalysis in Modern Organic  

E-print Network

Acid Catalysis in Modern Organic Synthesis "Acid is one of the oldest, but the most important follows their earlier book "Lewis Acids in Organic Synthesis (2000)", and covers the new developments of university studies, in which an evil-smelling carbox- ylic acid and an alcohol were converted into a fragrant

Snyder, Scott A.

322

Ursodeoxycholic acid, 7-ketolithocholic acid, and chenodeoxycholic acid are primary bile acids of the nutria (Myocastor coypus).  

PubMed

Because ursodeoxycholic and chenodeoxycholic acids are interconverted in humans via 7-ketolithocholic acid, bile acid metabolism was studied in the nutria (Myocastor coypus), the bile of which is known to contain these three bile acids. Relative concentrations of ursodeoxycholic (37% +/- 20%), 7-ketolithocholic (33% +/- 17%), and chenodeoxycholic (17% +/- 9%) acids in gallbladder bile were unchanged by 5-20 h of complete biliary diversion (n = 7). Injection of either [14C]cholesterol, [14C]ursodeoxycholic, [14C]7-ketolithocholic acid, or a mixture of [7 beta-3H]chenodeoxycholic acid and [14C]chenodeoxycholic acid into bile fistula nutria demonstrated that all three bile acids can be synthesized hepatically from cholesterol, that they are interconverted sparingly (2%-5%) by the liver, but that 7-ketolithocholic acid is an intermediate in the hepatic transformation of chenodeoxycholic acid to ursodeoxycholic acid. An animal that had been fed antibiotics showed an unusually elevated concentration of ursodeoxycholic acid in gallbladder and hepatic bile, suggesting that bacterial transformation of ursodeoxycholic acid in the intestine may be a source of some biliary chenodeoxycholic acid and 7-ketolithocholic acid. PMID:3943698

Tint, G S; Bullock, J; Batta, A K; Shefer, S; Salen, G

1986-03-01

323

Nucleophilic reactions of sorbic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conjugated dienoic acid structure of sorbic acid renders it susceptible to nucleophilic attack. Nucleophiles known to react with sorbic acid include sulphite ion and amines. These attack the molecule in position 5 and, in the cse of amines, cyclization to form substituted dihydropyridones may follow. Recent investigations show that thiols in general can also add to sorbic acid. Cysteine,

G. D. Khandelwal; B. L. Wedzicha

1990-01-01

324

DOCOSAHEXAENOIC ACID AND ARACHIDONIC ACID PREVENT ESSENTIAL FATTY ACID DEFICIENCY AND HEPATIC STEATOSIS  

PubMed Central

Objectives Essential fatty acids are important for growth, development, and physiologic function. Alpha-linolenic acid and linoleic acid are the precursors of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid, respectively, and have traditionally been considered the essential fatty acids. However, we hypothesized that docosahexaenoic acid and arachidonic acid can function as the essential fatty acids. Methods Using a murine model of essential fatty acid deficiency and consequent hepatic steatosis, we provided mice with varying amounts of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids to determine whether exclusive supplementation of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids could prevent essential fatty acid deficiency and inhibit or attenuate hepatic steatosis. Results Mice supplemented with docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids at 2.1% or 4.2% of their calories for 19 days had normal liver histology and no biochemical evidence of essential fatty acid deficiency, which persisted when observed after 9 weeks. Conclusion Supplementation of sufficient amounts of docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acids alone without alpha-linolenic and linoleic acids meets essential fatty acid requirements and prevents hepatic steatosis in a murine model. PMID:22038210

Le, Hau D.; Meisel, Jonathan A.; de Meijer, Vincent E.; Fallon, Erica M.; Gura, Kathleen M.; Nose, Vania; Bistrian, Bruce R.; Puder, Mark

2012-01-01

325

21 CFR 573.880 - Normal propyl alcohol.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Section 573.880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS...ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive...

2012-04-01

326

21 CFR 573.880 - Normal propyl alcohol.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Section 573.880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS...ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive...

2010-04-01

327

21 CFR 573.880 - Normal propyl alcohol.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... Section 573.880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS...ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive...

2013-04-01

328

21 CFR 573.880 - Normal propyl alcohol.  

... Section 573.880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS...ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive...

2014-04-01

329

21 CFR 573.880 - Normal propyl alcohol.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... Section 573.880 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS...ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive...

2011-04-01

330

Molecular Structure of Succinic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Succinic acid is an odorless and colorless crystal, triclinic or monoclinic prism with a very acid taste. Succinic acid is one of the natural acids found in broccoli, rhubarb, beets, asparagus, fresh meat extracts, sauerkraut and cheese. It is also a constituent of almost all plant and animal tissues and plays an important role in intermediary metabolism. Succinic acid is produced commercially by catalytic hydrogenation of maleic or fumaric acid or by acid hydrolysis of succinonitrile. Succinic acid is used in flavoring for food and beverages, and in the manufacture of lacquers, dyes, esters for perfumes, succinates, in photography and in foods as a sequestrant, buffer and neutralizing agent. Succinic acid has uses in certain drug compounds and in agricultural production. An interesting fact, succcinic acid has also been found in meteorites.

2004-11-11

331

Thiol modified mycolic acids.  

PubMed

Patient serum antibodies to mycolic acids have the potential to be surrogate markers of active tuberculosis (TB) when they can be distinguished from the ubiquitously present cross-reactive antibodies to cholesterol. Mycolic acids are known to interact more strongly with antibodies present in the serum of patients with active TB than in patients with latent TB or no TB. Examples of single stereoisomers of mycolic acids with chain lengths corresponding to major homologues of those present in Mycobacterium tuberculosis have now been synthesised with a sulfur substituent on the terminal position of the ?-chain; initial studies have established that one of these binds to a gold electrode surface, offering the potential to develop second generation sensors for diagnostic patient antibody detection. PMID:23603063

Balogun, Mohammed O; Huws, Enlli H; Sirhan, Muthana M; Saleh, Ahmed D; Al Dulayymi, Juma'a R; Pilcher, Lynne; Verschoor, Jan A; Baird, Mark S

2013-01-01

332

Molecular Structure of Citric Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Citric Acid was first isolated in 1734 by Carl Wilhelm Scheele. Citric acid is found in many fruits, in particular lemons, grapefruit, and oranges. Several types of bacteria and fungi are also known to produce citric acid. In fact, the fungus Aspergillus niger produces the vast majority of citric acid, which is used in almost all carbonated sodas. Additionally, citric acid is also used to clean stainless steel.

2002-08-13

333

Acid rain degradation of nylon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain, precipitation with a pH less than 5.6, is known to damage lakes, vegetation and buildings. Degradation of outdoor textiles by acid rain is strongly suspected but not well documented. This study reports the effects of sunlight, aqueous acid, heat and humidity (acid rain conditions) on spun delustered nylon 6,6 fabric. Untreated nylon and nylon treated with sulfuric acid

Kyllo

1984-01-01

334

Liposomal spherical nucleic acids.  

PubMed

A novel class of metal-free spherical nucleic acid nanostructures was synthesized from readily available starting components. These particles consist of 30 nm liposomal cores, composed of an FDA-approved 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) lipid monomer. The surface of the liposomes was functionalized with DNA strands modified with a tocopherol tail that intercalates into the phospholipid layer of the liposomal core via hydrophobic interactions. The spherical nucleic acid architecture not only stabilizes these constructs but also facilitates cellular internalization and gene regulation in SKOV-3 cells. PMID:24983505

Banga, Resham J; Chernyak, Natalia; Narayan, Suguna P; Nguyen, SonBinh T; Mirkin, Chad A

2014-07-16

335

Polyvalent nucleic acid nanostructures.  

PubMed

Polyvalent oligonucleotide-nanoparticle conjugates possess several unique emergent properties, including enhanced cellular uptake, high antisense bioactivity, and nuclease resistance, which hypothetically originate from the dense packing and orientation of oligonucleotides on the surface of the nanoparticle. In this Communication, we describe a new class of polyvalent nucleic acid nanostructures (PNANs), which are comprised of only cross-linked and oriented nucleic acids. We demonstrate that these particles are capable of effecting high cellular uptake and gene regulation without the need of a cationic polymer co-carrier. The PNANs also exhibit cooperative binding behavior and nuclease resistance properties. PMID:21630678

Cutler, Joshua I; Zhang, Ke; Zheng, Dan; Auyeung, Evelyn; Prigodich, Andrew E; Mirkin, Chad A

2011-06-22

336

Polyvalent Nucleic Acid Nanostructures  

PubMed Central

Polyvalent oligonucleotide-nanoparticle conjugates possess several unique emergent properties including enhanced cellular uptake, high antisense bioactivity, and nuclease resistance, which hypothetically originate from the dense packing and orientation of oligonucleotides on the surface of the nanoparticle. In this communication, we describe a new class of polyvalent nucleic acid nanostructures (PNANs), which comprise only crosslinked and oriented nucleic acids. We demonstrate that these particles are capable of effecting high cellular uptake and gene regulation without the need of a cationic polymer co-carrier. The PNANs also exhibit cooperative binding behavior and nuclease resistance properties. PMID:21630678

Cutler, Joshua I.; Zhang, Ke; Zheng, Dan; Auyeung, Evelyn; Prigodich, Andrew E.

2011-01-01

337

Sensitive Amino Acid Composition and Chirality Analysis in the Martian Regolith with a Microfabricated in situ Analyzer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in microfabricated "lab-on-a-chip" technologies have dramatically enhanced the capabilities of chemical and biochemical analyzers. The portability and sensitivity of these devices makes them ideal instruments for in situ chemical analysis on other planets. We have focused our initial studies on amino acid analysis because amino acids are more chemically resistant to decomposition than other biomolecules, and because amino acid chirality is a well-defined biomarker [1]. Previously, we developed a prototype electrophoresis chip, detection system and analysis method where the amino acids were labeled with fluorescein using FITC and then electrophoretically analyzed using g-cyclodextrin as the chiral resolution agent [2]. Extracts of the Murchison meteorite were analyzed, and the D/L ratios determined by microchip CE closely matched those from HPLC and GCMS and exhibited greater precision. Our microchip analyzer has now been further improved by establishing the capability of performing amino acid composition and chirality analyses using fluorescamine rather than FITC [3]. Fluorescamine is advantageous because it reacts more rapidly than FITC, and because excess reagent is hydrolyzed to a non-fluorescent product. Furthermore, the use of fluorescamine facilitates interfacing with the Mars Organic Detector (MOD) [4]. Fluorescamine-amino acids are separated using similar conditions as the FITC-aa, resulting in similar separation times and identical elution orders. Fluorescamine-aa are chirally resolved in the presence of hydroxy-propyl-b-cyclodextrin, and typical limits of detection are ˜ 50 nM. This work establishes the feasibility of combining fluorescamine labeling of amino acids with microfabricated CE devices to develop low-volume, high-sensitivity apparatus for extraterrestrial exploration. The stage is now set for the development of the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA), a portable analysis system for amino acid extraction and chiral analysis that will combine the capabilities of microchip CE with the previously developed extraction capabilities of MOD [4]. Amino acids are first extracted from soil by sublimation to a cold finger coated with fluorescamine for solid phase labeling. Sample transfer between MOD and the CE device is achieved through a capillary sipper driven by microfabricated valves and pumps [5]. The construction of a portable MOA instrument will facilitate in situ studies of amino acids in Mars analog sites such as the Atacama Desert in Chile. Preliminary chiral analyses of Atacama soil extracts on the microfabricated CE device have shown amino acid detection down to low ppb concentrations. Future field tests in the Atacama Desert will explore the feasibility of the portable CE device for performing in situ amino acid analysis. This work will provide the technology base for the development the Mars Organic Laboratory (MOL), a portable device that will analyze a broad suite of biomolecules, including nucleobases, sugars, and organic acids and bases [6]. [1]J.L. Bada, G.D. McDonald, Icarus 114 (1995) 139. [2]L.D. Hutt, D.P. Glavin, J.L. Bada, R.A. Mathies, Anal. Chem. 71 (1999) 4000. [3]A.M. Skelley, R.A. Mathies, J. Chromatogr. A (2003) in press. [4]G. Kminek, J.L. Bada, O. Botta, D.P. Glavin, F. Grunthaner, Planet. Space Sci. 48 (2000) 1087. [5]W.H. Grover, A.M. Skelley, C.N. Liu, E.T. Lagally, R.A. Mathies, Sens. Actuators B 89 (2003) 325. [6]A.M. Skelley, F.J. Grunthaner, J.F. Bada, R.A. Mathies, in SPIE: Proceedings of the In-Situ Instrument Technologies Meeting, Pasadena, CA, 2002.

Skelley, A. M.; Grunthaner, F. J.; Bada, J. L.; Mathies, R. A.

2003-12-01

338

The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

2012-01-01

339

[Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].  

PubMed

Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination. PMID:20649031

Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

2010-06-01

340

Plant fatty acid hydroxylase  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related thereto, and the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

Somerville, Chris (Portola Valley, CA); van de Loo, Frank (Lexington, KY)

2000-01-01

341

ACID AEROSOL MEASUREMENT WORKSHOP  

EPA Science Inventory

This report documents the discussion and results of the U.S. EPA Acid Aerosol Measurement Workshop, conducted February 1-3, 1989, in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. t was held in response to recommendations by the Clean Air Scientific Advisory Committee (CASAC) regarding ...

342

Deoxyribonucleic acid Genetic material  

E-print Network

salt to dissolve them) #12; Precipitate DNA (with ethanol) #12; Species identification VS. #12;Bag#12; Deoxyribonucleic acid Genetic material Chain of molecules linked together DNA contains in Protein Science Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. #12; Remove proteins that are bound to DNA (using

Rose, Michael R.

343

Federal Acid Rain Games  

Microsoft Academic Search

Federal environmental policy, designed to control acid rain, is shaped after the hierarchy of the system, and is controlled simultaneously by regional and central governments. Each governmental level controls one of two policy instruments: pollution abatement production and pollution tax. In a two-stage game where regional governments are Stackelberg leaders and control pollution taxes, the subgame perfect equilibrium is socially

Arthur J. Caplan; Emilson C. D. Silva

1999-01-01

344

Acid monitoring kit  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An acid monitoring kit is provided which is especially useful for monitoring acid rain. The kit includes a base plate having three discrete areas. One area is provided with a plurality of discrete separable bibulous pH indicator strips, each strip being impregnated with a selected acid-base indicator which is visually recognizable as at least one unique color in each such bibulous pH indicator strip when the bibulous strip is dry, and as a different color upon being wetted with water, the different color being dependent on the pH of the water. A second discrete area is provided with a plurality of color comparison reference standards in a plurality of zones, each zone being of a unique color which corresponds to the color of the water-wetted bibulous pH indictor strip, whereby comparison of the unique color of the pH indicator strip with the unique color of the reference standard provides an indication of the pH of the water. A third discrete area is also labelled to provide the requisite information for the use of such acid monitoring kit to correlate the unique color developed in the bibulous pH indicator strip to a unique color of the reference standard to provide an indication of the pH of the water.

1990-10-02

345

Plant fatty acid hydroxylase  

SciTech Connect

The present invention relates to the identification of nucleic acid sequences and constructs, and methods related to the use of these sequences and constructs to produce genetically modified plants for the purpose of altering the composition of plant oils, waxes and related compounds.

Somerville, C.; Loo, F. van de

2000-02-22

346

Alpha Hydroxy Acids  

MedlinePLUS

... skin or mucous membrane, such as the lips, bear a statement that conveys the following information: Sunburn Alert: This product contains an alpha hydroxy acid (AHA) that may increase your skin's sensitivity to the sun and particularly the possibility of sunburn. Use a ...

347

Molecular Structure of Aspartic Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Aspartate was first isolated in 1868 from legumin in plant seeds. Aspartic acid forms colorless crystals that are soluble in water and insoluble in alcohols and ethers. This is a naturally occurring nonessential amino acid that is produced in the liver from oxaloacetic acid, but is plentiful in meats and sprouting seeds. The amino acid is important in the Krebs cycle as well as the urea cycle, where it is vital in the elimination of dietary waste products. Aspartic acid is required for stamina, brain and neural health. This acid has been found to be important in the functioning of ribonucleic acid (RNA), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and in the production of immunoglobin and antibody synthesis. A deficiency of aspartate will lead to fatigue and depression. Aspartic acid has many uses that include biological and clinical studies, preparation of culture media, and it also functions as a detergent, fungicide, germicide, and metal complexation.

2002-08-20

348

Uric acid inhibits placental system A amino acid uptake.  

PubMed

Hyperuricemia, a common clinical characteristic of preeclamptic pregnancies, has historically been considered a marker of reduced renal function in preeclamptic women. More recently it has been suggested that uric acid may directly contribute to pathological cell signaling events involved in disease progression as well as maternal and fetal pregnancy outcomes including fetal growth restriction. We hypothesize that the increased frequency of restricted fetal growth seen in relation to increasing uric acid concentrations in preeclamptic women is in part the result of uric acid-induced reductions in amino acid transport across the placenta. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of uric acid on human placental System A amino acid transport using a primary placental villous explant model. Further, we examined the necessity of uric acid uptake and the role of redox signaling as a potential mechanism through which uric acid may attenuate System A activity. Placental uptake of a radiolabeled amino acid analogue, specific to the System A transporter, was reduced in a concentration-dependent fashion with increasing uric acid (0-7 mg/dL), corresponding to uric acid concentrations measured in healthy pregnant and preeclamptic women in the third trimester. Uric acid-induced reduction in System A activity was partially reversed by NADPH oxidase inhibition and completely eliminated by antioxidant treatment. This study demonstrates inhibition of placental System A amino acid transport with uric acid treatment, as a result of uric acid-induced stimulation of intracellular redox signaling cascades. These findings may be relevant to the increased frequency of fetal growth restriction observed in hyperuricemic preeclampsia. Additionally the results of this study, indicating a detrimental effect of hyperuricemia on amino acid transport in the placenta, at concentrations present in women with preeclampsia, also suggest a role for uric acid in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. PMID:19058847

Bainbridge, S A; von Versen-Höynck, F; Roberts, J M

2009-02-01

349

Uric Acid Inhibits Placental System A Amino Acid Uptake?  

PubMed Central

Hyperuricemia, a common clinical characteristic of preeclamptic pregnancies, has historically been considered a marker of reduced renal function in preeclamptic women. More recently it has been suggested that uric acid may directly contribute to pathological cell signaling events involved in disease progression as well as maternal and fetal pregnancy outcomes including fetal growth restriction. We hypothesize that the increased frequency of restricted fetal growth seen in relation to increasing uric acid concentrations in preeclamptic women is in part the result of uric acid-induced reductions in amino acid transport across the placenta. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of uric acid on human placental System A amino acid transport using a primary placental villous explant model. Further, we examined the necessity of uric acid uptake and the role of redox signaling as a potential mechanism through which uric acid may attenuate System A activity. Placental uptake of a radiolabeled amino acid analogue, specific to the System A transporter, was reduced in a concentration-dependent fashion with increasing uric acid (0?7 mg/dL), corresponding to uric acid concentrations measured in healthy pregnant and preeclamptic women in the third trimester. Uric acid-induced reduction in System A activity was partially reversed by NADPH oxidase inhibition and completely eliminated by antioxidant treatment. This study demonstrates inhibition of placental System A amino acid transport with uric acid treatment, as a result of uric acid-induced stimulation of intracellular redox signaling cascades. These findings may be relevant to the increased frequency of fetal growth restriction observed in hyperuricemic preeclampsia. Additionally the results of this study, indicating a detrimental effect of hyperuricemia on amino acid transport in the placenta, at concentrations present in women with preeclampsia, also suggest a role for uric acid in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. PMID:19058847

Bainbridge, S.A.; von Versen-Hoynck, F.; Roberts, J.M.

2009-01-01

350

Specific bile acids inhibit hepatic fatty acid uptake  

PubMed Central

Bile acids are known to play important roles as detergents in the absorption of hydrophobic nutrients and as signaling molecules in the regulation of metabolism. Here we tested the novel hypothesis that naturally occurring bile acids interfere with protein-mediated hepatic long chain free fatty acid (LCFA) uptake. To this end stable cell lines expressing fatty acid transporters as well as primary hepatocytes from mouse and human livers were incubated with primary and secondary bile acids to determine their effects on LCFA uptake rates. We identified ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA) as the two most potent inhibitors of the liver-specific fatty acid transport protein 5 (FATP5). Both UDCA and DCA were able to inhibit LCFA uptake by primary hepatocytes in a FATP5-dependent manner. Subsequently, mice were treated with these secondary bile acids in vivo to assess their ability to inhibit diet-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation. Administration of DCA in vivo via injection or as part of a high-fat diet significantly inhibited hepatic fatty acid uptake and reduced liver triglycerides by more than 50%. In summary, the data demonstrate a novel role for specific bile acids, and the secondary bile acid DCA in particular, in the regulation of hepatic LCFA uptake. The results illuminate a previously unappreciated means by which specific bile acids, such as UDCA and DCA, can impact hepatic triglyceride metabolism and may lead to novel approaches to combat obesity-associated fatty liver disease. PMID:22531947

Nie, Biao; Park, Hyo Min; Kazantzis, Melissa; Lin, Min; Henkin, Amy; Ng, Stephanie; Song, Sujin; Chen, Yuli; Tran, Heather; Lai, Robin; Her, Chris; Maher, Jacquelyn J.; Forman, Barry M.; Stahl, Andreas

2012-01-01

351

Fatty acid-producing hosts  

SciTech Connect

Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

2013-12-31

352

Acidizing of Sandstone Reservoirs Using HF and Organic Acids  

E-print Network

Mud acid, which is composed of HCl and HF, is commonly used to remove the formation damage in sandstone reservoirs. However, many problems are associated with HCl, especially at high temperatures. Formic-HF acids have served as an alternative...

Yang, Fei

2012-10-19

353

Thiobarbituric Acid Spray Reagent for Deoxy Sugars and Sialic Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

RECENTLY, new sensitive assays have been reported for deoxy sugars1, 2-keto,3-deoxy sugar acids2-4, and sialic acids5,6. In these assays, the products of periodate oxidation, malonaldehyde from deoxy sugars and beta-formylpyruvic acid from the latter two groups of compounds, are coupled with 2-thiobarbituric acid to produce a bright red chromophore. I wish to report an adaptation of these methods for spraying

Leonard Warren

1960-01-01

354

Preterm infant formula supplementation with ? linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To investigate if supplementation of preterm infant formula with a high docosahexaenoic acid\\/eicosapentaenoic acid (DHA\\/EPA) ratio together with ?-linolenic acid (ALA) was able to maintain plasma and red blood cell DHA levels similar to that obtained with breast milk feeding without altering n-6 fatty acid status.Design and subjects: Preterm infants of mothers who elected not to breast feed (n=13)

A Rodriguez; D Raederstorff; P Sarda; C Lauret; F Mendy; B Descomps

2003-01-01

355

Carboxylic Acid Unknowns and Titration 90 CARBOXYLIC ACID UNKNOWN  

E-print Network

Carboxylic Acid Unknowns and Titration 90 CARBOXYLIC ACID UNKNOWN A. Solubility Tests: Water, NaHCO3, and NaOH Test the solubility of your acid first in neutral water, in NaOH/H2O, and in NaHCO3 to 30 drops. Swirl/mix well. Use of small stir bar helps. · Water Test: Only acids with small numbers

Jasperse, Craig P.

356

Boswellic acid inhibits expression of acid sphingomyelinase in intestinal cells  

PubMed Central

Background Boswellic acid is a type of triterpenoids with antiinflammatory and antiproliferative properties. Sphingomyelin metabolism generates multiple lipid signals affecting cell proliferation, inflammation, and apoptosis. Upregulation of acid sphingomyelinase (SMase) has been found in several inflammation-related diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. Methods The present study is to examine the effect of 3-acetyl-11-keto-?-boswellic acids (AKBA), a potent boswellic acid, on acid SMase activity and expression in intestinal cells. Both transformed Caco-2 cells and non-transformed Int407 cells were incubated with AKBA. After incubation, the change of acid SMase activity was assayed biochemically, the enzyme protein was examined by Western blot, and acid SMase mRNA was quantified by qPCR. Results We found that AKBA decreased acid SMase activity in both intestinal cell lines in dose and time dependent manners without affecting the secretion of the enzyme to the cell culture medium. The effect of AKBA was more effective in the fetal bovine serum-free culture medium. Among different types of boswellic acid, AKBA was the most potent one. The inhibitory effect on acid SMase activity occurred only in the intact cells but not in cell-free extract in the test tubes. At low concentration, AKBA only decreased the acid SMase activity but not the quantity of the enzyme protein. However, at high concentration, AKBA decreased both the mass of acid SMase protein and the mRNA levels of acid SMase in the cells, as demonstrated by Western blot and qPCR, respectively. Under the concentrations decreasing acid SMase activity, AKBA significantly inhibited cell proliferation. Conclusion We identified a novel inhibitory effect of boswellic acids on acid SMase expression, which may have implications in human diseases and health. PMID:19951413

2009-01-01

357

Acid Earth--The Global Threat of Acid Pollution.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Acid pollution is a major international problem, but the debate it has elicited has often clouded the distinction between myth and facts. This publication attempts to concerning the acid pollution situation. This publication attempts to identify available facts. It is the first global review of the problem of acid pollution and the first to…

McCormick, John

358

Focus Sheet | Hydrofluoric Acid Health hazards of hydrofluoric acid  

E-print Network

characterized by weight loss, brittle bones, anemia, and general ill health. Safe use If possible, avoid workingFocus Sheet | Hydrofluoric Acid Health hazards of hydrofluoric acid Hydrofluoric acid (HF bone. Skin exposure to highly concentrated HF (48% or greater) immediately results in serious

Wilcock, William

359

Acid placement and coverage in the acid jetting process  

E-print Network

Many open-hole acid treatments are being conducted by pumping acid through jetting ports placed at the end of coiled tubing or drill pipe. The filter-cake on the bore-hole is broken by the jet; the acid-soluble material is dissolved, creating...

Mikhailov, Miroslav I.

2009-05-15

360

Autohydrolysis of phytic acid.  

PubMed

The autohydrolysis of phytic acid at 120 degrees C resulted in the formation of most of the phosphate esters of myo-inositol in varying amounts depending upon the reaction time. Eighteen of the 39 chromatographically distinct myo-inositol mono-, bis-, tris-, tetrakis-, pentakis-, and hexakisphosphates have been characterized using two different HPLC systems. These myo-inositol phosphates were partially purified by preparative anion-exchange chromatography under acidic and alkaline elution conditions. The combination of these two methods provides a two-tiered chromatographic approach to the rapid and sensitive identification of inositol phosphates in complex mixtures. Identification of the products was confirmed by 1D and 2D (1)H NMR analysis. The analytical procedure was applied to the autohydrolysis of the mixture of inositol phosphates from corn steep water. PMID:10469496

Hull, S R; Gray, J S; Montgomery, R

1999-09-10

361

Acid hydrolysis of cellulose  

SciTech Connect

One of the alternatives to increase world production of etha nol is by the hydrolysis of cellulose content of agricultural residues. Studies have been made on the types of hydrolysis: enzimatic and acid. Data obtained from the sulphuric acid hydrolysis of cellulose showed that this process proceed in two steps, with a yield of approximately 95% glucose. Because of increases in cost of alternatives resources, the high demand of the product and the more economic production of ethanol from cellulose materials, it is certain that this technology will be implemented in the future. At the same time further studies on the disposal and reuse of the by-products of this production must be undertaken.

Salazar, H.

1980-12-01

362

(Radioiodinated free fatty acids)  

SciTech Connect

The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

Knapp, Jr., F. F.

1987-12-11

363

(3S,4R,4aS,7aR,12bS)-3-Cyclo-propyl-meth-yl-4a,9-dihy-droxy-3-methyl-7-oxo-2,3,4,4a,5,6,7,7a-octa-hydro-1H-4,12-methano-1-benzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinolin-3-ium 2,2,2-trifluoro-acetate methanol solvate.  

PubMed

In the title compound, C(21)H(26)F(3)NO(6) (+)·CF(3)COO(-)·CH(3)OH or S-MNTX·CF(3)COO(-)·CH(3)OH (MNTX = methyl-naltrexone), the conformation of the polycyclic backbone of the noroxy-morphone skeleton can be simplified in terms of the angles between the least-squares planes of these rings. The dihedral angle between the cyclohexene and piperidine rings is 84.5?(6)°, while the dihedral angles between the planes of cyclohexane ring and the benzene, cyclohexene and piperidine rings, respectively, are 85.8?(6),80.0 ?(7) and 10.3?(7)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by O-H?O hydrogen bonds. The trifluoro-acetate F atoms are disordered in a 0.710?(14):0.710?(14) ratio. The absolute stereochemistry was inferred from the use of (4R,4aS,7aR,12bS)-3-(cyclo-propyl-meth-yl)-4a,9-dihy-droxy-2,3,4,4a,5,6-hexa-hydro-1H-4,12-meth-ano-benzofuro[3,2-e]isoquinolin-7(7aH)-one as one of the starting materials. PMID:21589050

Cai, Xu; Zhou, Xinbo; Zheng, Zhibing; Zhong, Wu; Li, Song

2010-01-01

364

The utilization of tricarboxylic acid cycle acids and the uptake of succinic acid by Neurospora crassa  

E-print Network

, Clavice s u urea and several species of ~dtlt . 1' ~ d 9' p ~ d t 1966 (69) th t ~C. PRL 1980 was able to grow with succinic acid as the sole carbon source in an acidic medium. The efficiency of total biomass synthesis on succinic acid was considerably..., Clavice s u urea and several species of ~dtlt . 1' ~ d 9' p ~ d t 1966 (69) th t ~C. PRL 1980 was able to grow with succinic acid as the sole carbon source in an acidic medium. The efficiency of total biomass synthesis on succinic acid was considerably...

Gilliland, Patti Lynn

2012-06-07

365

Organosoluble optically transparent poly(amide-imide)s based on 2,2-bis [ N -(3-carboxyphenyl)phthalimidyl]- hexafluoropropane and 2,2-bis [ N -(4-carboxyphenyl)phthalimidyl]- hexafluoropropane and various aromatic diamines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two diimide-dicarboxylic acids, 2,2-bis[N-(4-carboxyphenyl)phthalimidyl]hexafluoropropane (p-I) and 2,2,-bis[N-(3-carboxyphenyl)phthalimidyl]hexafluoropropane (m-I), were prepared by azeotropic condensation of 4,4?-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic anhydride and p-aminobenzoic acid or m-aminobenzoic acid at a 1:2 molar ratio in N,N-dimethylacetamide\\/toluene. Two series of organosoluble and colorless poly(amide–imide)s were synthesized from diimide–diacid\\u000a p-I or m-I with ten kinds of aromatic diamines by direct polycondensation using triphenyl phosphite and pyridine as condensing agents.

Chin-Ping Yang; Ruei-Shin Chen; Mao-Feng Hsu

2002-01-01

366

Molecular Structure of Sulfuric Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

H2SO4 was discovered by alchemists and made from heating a compound of iron sulfate. In 1740, sulfuric acid was produced for commercial sale. Sulfuric acid is a very strong acid which is used in car batteries. The acid disassociates in water to give two protons and sulfate. This acid can destroy flesh and cause blindness. It was discovered in the 19th century that adding sulfuric acid to soil produces phosphorus, which is beneficial to plants; hence, sulfuric acid is used as a fertilizer in the form of super phosphate and ammonium sulfate. Sulfuric acid is also used to refine petroleum and process metals, and is found in paints and car batteries.

2002-08-15

367

Molecular Structure of Maleic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Maleic acid is colorless to white crystals with a faint acidulous odor and a characteristic repulsive, astringent taste. Maleic acid is used in making polyesters, surface coatings, lubricant additives, agricultural chemicals and paint vehicles. It is used in organic synthesis of fumaric acid, succinic, aspartic, tartaric, propionic, lactic, malonic, acrylic and hydrocarylic acids. Maleic acid and its anhydride are prepared industrially by the catalytic oxidation of benzene. Maleic acid may be released into waste water during its production and used in the manufacture of polymer products. Dust of maleic acid is irritating to the eyes, nose and throat. The general population is exposed to maleic acid in areas with heavy traffic since it is found in aerosols from auto exhaust.

2004-11-10

368

Crosslinked acid gels offer advantages  

SciTech Connect

Acid polymer gels having a pH less than one have been crosslinked for retarding the chemical and physical activity of hydrochloric acid on calcareous formations. Hydrochloric acid concentrations from /one quarter/% to 28% have been successfully crosslinked. This unique stimulation fluid offers high viscosity with adequate shear stability, perfect support for propants, and clay stabilization. Additionally, the fluid provided effective fluid loss control and retardation of acid reaction enabling live acid to penetrate deeper into the formation for better conductivity; furthermore, there is practically a residue free break for rapid cleanup of the well after the job. Results of lab and field tests show this new acid crosslinked system to be an effective stimulation fluid for acidizing and acid fracturing in calcareous and sandstone formations having low permeability. 5 refs.

Pabley, A.S.; Holcomb, D.L.

1981-09-28

369

Molecular Structure of Glutaric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Glutaric acid is a colorless liquid and white crystals as a solid occurring in plants and animal tissues. It is used in organic synthesis and as an intermediate for the manufacture of polymers such as polyamides and polyesters, ester plasticizers and corrosion inhibitors. It is also useful in the application of decreasing polymer elasticity and in a variety of industrial applications. In addition glutaric acid plays an important role as an intermediary in the Krebs cycle and is used in medication against a large number of viruses and in animal diabetes. Glutaric acid can be prepared from cyclopentanone by oxidative ring fission with nitric acid and in the presence of a catalyst. Glutaric acid has the lowest melting point among dicarboxylic acids (98 C); it is very soluble in water and the solution in water is a medium strong acid. Short-term exposure to glutaric acid may cause irritation to the eyes, skin and the respiratory tract.

2004-11-10

370

Acid hydrolysis of chitosans  

Microsoft Academic Search

The hydrolysis of the O-glycosidic linkages (depolymerization) and the N-acetyl linkage (de-N-acetylation) of partially N-acetylated chitosans were studied in dilute and concentrated HCl. The rate of hydrolysis of the glycosidic linkages was found to be equal to the rate of de-N-acetylation in dilute acid, while the glycosidic linkages was hydrolysed more than 10 times faster than the N-acetyl linkage in

K. M. Vårum; M. H. Ottøy; O. Smidsrød

2001-01-01

371

Acid rain in Asia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain has been an issue of great concern in North America and Europe during the past several decades. However, due to\\u000a the passage of a number of recent regulations, most notably the Clean Air Act in the United States in 1990, there is an emerging\\u000a perception that the problem in these Western nations is nearing solution. The situation in

Neeloo Bhatti; David G. Streets; Wesley K. Foell

1992-01-01

372

Lipoic acid biosynthesis defects.  

PubMed

Lipoate is a covalently bound cofactor essential for five redox reactions in humans: in four 2-oxoacid dehydrogenases and the glycine cleavage system (GCS). Two enzymes are from the energy metabolism, ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase; and three are from the amino acid metabolism, branched-chain ketoacid dehydrogenase, 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenase, and the GCS. All these enzymes consist of multiple subunits and share a similar architecture. Lipoate synthesis in mitochondria involves mitochondrial fatty acid synthesis up to octanoyl-acyl-carrier protein; and three lipoate-specific steps, including octanoic acid transfer to glycine cleavage H protein by lipoyl(octanoyl) transferase 2 (putative) (LIPT2), lipoate synthesis by lipoic acid synthetase (LIAS), and lipoate transfer by lipoyltransferase 1 (LIPT1), which is necessary to lipoylate the E2 subunits of the 2-oxoacid dehydrogenases. The reduced form dihydrolipoate is reactivated by dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (DLD). Mutations in LIAS have been identified that result in a variant form of nonketotic hyperglycinemia with early-onset convulsions combined with a defect in mitochondrial energy metabolism with encephalopathy and cardiomyopathy. LIPT1 deficiency spares the GCS, and resulted in a combined 2-oxoacid dehydrogenase deficiency and early death in one patient and in a less severely affected individual with a Leigh-like phenotype. As LIAS is an iron-sulphur-cluster-dependent enzyme, a number of recently identified defects in mitochondrial iron-sulphur cluster synthesis, including NFU1, BOLA3, IBA57, GLRX5 presented with deficiency of LIAS and a LIAS-like phenotype. As in DLD deficiency, a broader clinical spectrum can be anticipated for lipoate synthesis defects depending on which of the affected enzymes is most rate limiting. PMID:24777537

Mayr, Johannes A; Feichtinger, René G; Tort, Frederic; Ribes, Antonia; Sperl, Wolfgang

2014-07-01

373

Acid Deposition Sampling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This learning activity from the Advanced Technology Environmental and Energy Center (ATEEC) provides students with the opportunity to use analytical meters and instruments and perform acid deposition sampling. Students will collect samples from various sources over a period of time, then measure pH and develop graphs or charts. Users must download this resource for viewing, which requires a free log-in. There is no cost to download the item.

Willey, Babe

2011-02-17

374

Modulation of membrane curvature by phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid.  

PubMed

The local generation of phosphatidic acid plays a key role in the regulation of intracellular membrane transport through mechanisms which are largely unknown. Phosphatidic acid may recruit and activate downstream effectors, or change the biophysical properties of the membrane and directly induce membrane bending and/or destabilization. To evaluate these possibilities, we determined the phase properties of phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid at physiological conditions of pH and ion concentrations. In single-lipid systems, unsaturated phosphatidic acid behaved as a cylindrical, bilayer-preferring lipid at cytosolic conditions (37 degrees C, pH 7.2, 0.5 mM free Mg2+), but acquired a type-II shape at typical intra-Golgi conditions, a mildly acidic pH and submillimolar free Ca2+ (pH 6.6-5.9, 0.3 mM Ca2+). Lysophosphatidic acid formed type-I lipid micelles in the absence of divalent cations, but anhydrous cation-lysophosphatidic acid bilayer complexes in their presence. These data suggest a similar molecular shape for phosphatidic acid and lysophosphatidic acid at cytosolic conditions; however, experiments in mixed-lipid systems indicate that their shape is not identical. Lysophosphatidic acid stabilized the bilayer phase of unsaturated phosphatidylethanolamine, while the opposite effect was observed in the presence of phosphatidic acid. These results support the hypothesis that a conversion of lysophosphatidic acid into phosphatidic acid by endophilin or BARS (50 kDa brefeldin A ribosylated substrate) may induce negative spontaneous monolayer curvature and regulate endocytic and Golgi membrane fission. Alternative models for the regulation of membrane fission based on the strong dependence of the molecular shape of (lyso)phosphatidic acid on pH and divalent cations are also discussed. PMID:12656989

Kooijman, Edgar E; Chupin, Vladimir; de Kruijff, Ben; Burger, Koert N J

2003-03-01

375

Exposures to acidic aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Ambient monitoring of acid aerosols in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. Measurements made in Kingston, TN, and Steubenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H+ ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/m/sup 3/ more than 10 times during summer months. Periods of elevated acidic aerosols occur less frequently in winter months. The H+ determined during episodic conditions in southern Ontario indicates that respiratory tract deposition can exceed the effects level reported in clinical studies. Observed 12-hr H+ concentrations exceeded 550 nmole/m/sup 3/ (approximately 27 micrograms/m/sup 3/ H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/). The maximum estimated 1-hr concentration exceeded 1500 nmole/m/sup 3/ for H+ ions. At these concentrations, an active child might receive more than 2000 nmole of H+ ion in 12 hr and in excess of 900 nmole during the hour when H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ exceeded 50 micrograms/m/sup 3/.

Spengler, J.D.; Keeler, G.J.; Koutrakis, P.; Ryan, P.B.; Raizenne, M.; Franklin, C.A.

1989-02-01

376

Exposures to acidic aerosols  

SciTech Connect

Ambient monitoring of acid aerosols in four U.S. cities and in a rural region of southern Ontario clearly show distinct periods of strong acidity. Measurements made in Kingston, TN, and Steubenville, OH, resulted in 24-hr H(+) ion concentrations exceeding 100 nmole/cu m more than 10 times during summer months. Periods of elevated acidic aerosols occur less frequently in winter months. The H(+) determined during episodic conditions in southern Ontario indicates that respiratory tract deposition can exceed the effects level reported in clinical studies. Observed 12-hr (H+) concentrations exceeded 550 nmole/cu m (approximately 27 microgram/cu m H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}). The maximum estimated 1-hr concentration exceeded 1500 nmole/cu m for H(+) ions. At these concentrations, an active child might receive more than 2000 nmole of H(+) ion in 12 hr and in excess of 900 nmole during the hour when H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} exceeded 50 microgram/cu m.

Spengler, J.D.; Keeler, G.J.; Koutrakis, P.; Ryan, P.B.; Raizenne, M.

1989-01-01

377

Grading acid rain research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing concern with the environmental effects of acid rain has spawned a number of study groups in recent years, and now the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP) has released what is essentially a study of a study. In January 1982, White House Science Advisor George Keyworth asked William Nierenberg, Director of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and a panel of nine scientists to conduct a peer review of three separate reports on acid deposition in eastern North America that had been turned in by U.S.-Canadian scientific working groups.Those studies had been requisitioned by a 1980 Memorandum of Intent between the United States and Canada regarding transboundary air pollution. Overall, the Nierenberg peer review panel was “impressed with the efforts of the United States-Canadian Working Groups,” (labeled Groups 1, 2, and 3B), but it also found problems. While applauding the work groups' exhaustive search through the acid rain literature, the Nierenberg panel cited what they call an “overdependence on ‘soft’ literature,” or writings such as in-house reports and personal communications, which are outside the publicly available (and carefully scrutinized) body of scientific literature.

378

Microbial naphthenic Acid degradation.  

PubMed

Naphthenic acids (NAs) are an important group of trace organic pollutants predominantly comprising saturated aliphatic and alicyclic carboxylic acids. NAs are ubiquitous; occurring naturally in hydrocarbon deposits (petroleum, oil sands, bitumen, and crude oils) and also have widespread industrial uses. Consequently, NAs can enter the environment from both natural and anthropogenic processes. NAs are highly toxic, recalcitrant compounds that persist in the environment for many years, and it is important to develop efficient bioremediation strategies to decrease both their abundance and toxicity in the environment. However, the diversity of microbial communities involved in NA-degradation, and the mechanisms by which NAs are biodegraded, are poorly understood. This lack of knowledge is mainly due to the difficulties in identifying and purifying individual carboxylic acid compounds from complex NA mixtures found in the environment, for microbial biodegradation studies. This paper will present an overview of NAs, their origin and fate in the environment, and their toxicity to the biota. The review describes the microbial degradation of both naturally occurring and chemically synthesized NAs. Proposed pathways for aerobic NA biodegradation, factors affecting NA biodegradation rates, and possible bioremediation strategies are also discussed. PMID:20359455

Whitby, Corinne

2010-01-01

379

Acid rain: Reign of controversy  

SciTech Connect

Acid Rain is a primer on the science and politics of acid rain. Several introductory chapters describe in simple terms the relevant principles of water chemistry, soil chemistry, and plant physiology and discuss the demonstrated or postulated effects of acid rain on fresh waters and forests as well as on statuary and other exposed objects. There follow discussions on the economic and social implications of acid rain (for example, possible health effects) and on the sources, transport, and distribution of air pollutants.

Kahan, A.M.

1986-01-01

380

Enviropedia: Introduction to Acid Rain  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource provides information about acid rain, a widespread term used to describe all forms of acid precipitation. The sources, nature, and chemistry of acid rain are discussed, along with its impact on buildings, soils, freshwater lakes, trees, and wildlife. Other topics include measuring, modeling, and monitoring acid rain; and vehicle and industrial emission controls. The problem of airborne pollutants migrating across international borders is also discussed.

381

Antioxidant properties of nitrocaffeic acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A series of nitrodihydroxybenzenes and nitrocaffeic acids were prepared and their hydroxyl radical (OH°) and superoxide anion (O2?) scavenging activities and xanthine oxidase inhibition activities were evaluated. 2-Nitrocaffeic acid is the more potent O2? scavenger. 2- (and 5)-Nitrocaffeic acids are the more potent xanthine oxidase inhibitors.

Jean-Luc Grenier; Nicole Cotelle; Philippe Cotelle; Jean-Pierre Catteau

1996-01-01

382

Acid rain and dry deposition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This book provides information on the formation of acid rain and the long-range transport of air pollutants. The effects of acid precipitation on both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are highlighted and technical and policy issues associated with the delineation and implementation of control strategies for acid rain and dry deposition are covered. Dry deposition is addressed, with emphasis given to

Canter

1985-01-01

383

Acid rain: the international response  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain or technically “acid deposition” has far reaching environmental, economic, political and international implications. It has been blamed for large?scale damage to aquatic ecosystems and forests in Scandinavia, southeastern Canada and the northeastern United States. A number of other countries have expressed concern about the possible affects of acid rain on water bodies, forests, agricultural crops and material structures.Never

Gordon L. Brady; Joseph C. Selle

1985-01-01

384

Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process  

DOEpatents

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine.

King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); Poole, Loree J. (Baton Rouge, LA)

1995-01-01

385

Do We Need Gastric Acid?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence from comparative anatomy and physiology studies indicates that gastric acid secretion developed during the evolution of vertebrates approximately 350 million years ago. The cellular mechanisms that produce gastric acid have been conserved over the millennia and therefore proton pump inhibitors have pharmacological effects in almost all relevant species. These observations suggest that gastric acid provides an important selective advantage;

D. Pohl; M. Fox; M. Fried; B. Göke; C. Prinz; H. Mönnikes; G. Rogler; M. Dauer; J. Keller; F. Lippl; I. Schiefke; U. Seidler; H. D. Allescher

2008-01-01

386

Carboxylic acid sorption regeneration process  

DOEpatents

Carboxylic acids are sorbed from aqueous feedstocks into an organic liquid phase or onto a solid adsorbent. The acids are freed from the sorbent phase by treating it with aqueous alkylamine thus forming an alkylammonium carboxylate which is dewatered and decomposed to the desired carboxylic acid and the alkylamine. 10 figs.

King, C.J.; Poole, L.J.

1995-05-02

387

Identification of genetically homozygous rapid and slow acetylators of drugs and environmental carcinogens among established inbred rabbit strains  

SciTech Connect

Liver and gut mucosa N-acetyltransferase (NAT) cytosol (105,000 x g) was prepared from selected lines of New Zealand White rapid and slow acetylator rabbits bred and housed at the University of Michigan, and from inbred and partially inbred rabbits obtained from The Jackson Laboratory. Liver NAT activity was determined with p-aminobenzoic acid, p-aminosalicylic acid, procainamide, sulfamethazine, isoniazid and 2-aminofluorene as substrates. Gut mucosal NAT activity was determined with 2-aminofluorene. A gene dose-response relationship was observed for both liver NAT and gut mucosa NAT with all substrates tested. Highest levels were always observed in homozygous rapid acetylator inbred strains (B/J, III/J, IIIC/J, III/DwJ, IIIEP/J and IIIVO/J), lower levels in obligate heterozygous rapid acetylator rabbits and lowest levels in homozygous slow acetylator inbred (ACEP/J, III/cdJ, IIIVO/ahJ, and IIIVO/vptJ) and outbred rabbits. The differences in magnitude of liver NAT activity level between acetylator genotypes was dependent on the substrate employed, progressively increasing in the following order: p-aminobenzoic acid, p-aminosalicyclic acid, procainamide, sulfamethazine, isoniazid, 2-aminofluorene. The determination of kinetic constants for liver p-aminosalicyclic acid NAT activity indicated a 2-fold difference in apparent Vmax between rapid acetylator genotypes and a 30-fold difference between rapid and slow acetylator phenotypes. In addition, the apparent Km for p-aminosalicyclic acid was significantly lower in the slow acetylators than in the rapid acetylators.

Hein, D.W.; Smolen, T.N.; Fox, R.R.; Weber, W.W.

1982-10-01

388

Determination of the solubility products of nitrilotriacetic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is described for the determination of solubility products for polyaminopolycarboxylic acids. The neutral protonated species of NTA (nitrilotriacetic acid), EDTA (ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) and DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) were precipitated at low pH values. The amount of precipitate was quantified by gravimetry and complexometric titrations with a standard zinc(II) solution. The following solubility products were obtained: SH3NTA=10?16.36, SH4EDTA=10?24.66 and SH5DTPA=10?30.43.

Jouni Karhu; Leo Harju; Ari Ivaska

1999-01-01

389

Solvent extraction of inorganic acids  

E-print Network

and solubility of nitric acid and sulfuric acid with organic solvents have been published Olander, Donadieu, and Benedict (12) studied the 'istributlon of nitric acid between water and tributyl phosphate-hexane solvent nd dcharf and Gean. . oplis (1...(. ) reported on the system nit ic acid-water-n-butyl alcohols Distribution of sulfuric acid was m-de oy Bchlea and Gean- koplis (19) with n-butyl alcohol, by Gibby ( 7) with nitro- benzene and by Peakin (14) with pyri 'in~. Baldwin, Biggies an" Soldano (2...

Ysrael, Miguel Curie

2012-06-07

390

The politics of acid rain  

SciTech Connect

This work examines and compares the acid rain policies through the different political systems of Canada, Great Britain and the United States. Because the flow of acid rain can transcend national boundaries, acid rain has become a crucial international problem. According to the author, because of differences in governmental institutions and structure, the extent of governmental intervention in the industrial economy, the degree of reliance on coal for power generation, and the extent of acid rain damage, national responses to the acid rain problem have varied.

Wilcher, M.E. (Pennsylvania State Univ., New Kensington, PA (US))

1989-01-01

391

Tested Demonstrations: Color Oscillations in the Formic Acid-Nitric Acid-Sulfuric Acid System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presented are procedures for demonstrating the production of color oscillations when nitric acid is added to a formic acid/concentrated sulfuric acid mixture. Because of safety considerations, "Super-8" home movie of the color changes was found to be satisfactory for demonstration purposes. (JN)

Raw, C. J. G.; And Others

1983-01-01

392

Amino acids in Arctic aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acids are significant components of atmospheric aerosols, affecting organic nitrogen input to marine ecosystems, atmospheric radiation balance, and the global water cycle. The wide range of amino acid reactivities suggest that amino acids may serve as markers of atmospheric transport and deposition of particles. Despite this potential, few measurements have been conducted in remote areas to assess amino acid concentrations and potential sources. Polar regions offer a unique opportunity to investigate atmospheric processes and to conduct source apportionment studies of such compounds. In order to better understand the importance of amino acid compounds in the global atmosphere, we determined free amino acids (FAAs) in seventeen size-segregated aerosol samples collected in a polar station in the Svalbard Islands from 19 April until 14 September 2010. We used an HPLC coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS) to analyze 20 amino acids to quantify compounds at fmol m-3 levels. Mean total FAA concentration was 1070 fmol m-3 where serine and glycine were the most abundant compounds in almost all samples and accounted for 45-60% of the total amino acid relative abundance. The other eighteen compounds had average concentrations between 0.3 and 98 fmol m-3. The higher amino acid concentrations were present in the ultrafine aerosol fraction (<0.49 ?m) and accounted for the majority of the total amino acid content. Local marine sources dominate the boreal summer amino acid concentrations, with the exception of the regional input from Icelandic volcanics.

Scalabrin, E.; Zangrando, R.; Barbaro, E.; Kehrwald, N. M.; Gabrieli, J.; Barbante, C.; Gambaro, A.

2012-07-01

393

Amino acids in Arctic aerosols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amino acids are significant components of atmospheric aerosols, affecting organic nitrogen input to marine ecosystems, atmospheric radiation balance, and the global water cycle. The wide range of amino acid reactivities suggest that amino acids may serve as markers of atmospheric transport and deposition of particles. Despite this potential, few measurements have been conducted in remote areas to assess amino acid concentrations and potential sources. Polar regions offer a unique opportunity to investigate atmospheric processes and to conduct source apportionment studies of such compounds. In order to better understand the importance of amino acid compounds in the global atmosphere, we determined free amino acids (FAAs) in seventeen size-segregated aerosol samples collected in a polar station in the Svalbard Islands from 19 April until 14 September 2010. We used an HPLC coupled with a tandem mass spectrometer (ESI-MS/MS) to analyze 20 amino acids and quantify compounds at fmol m-3 levels. Mean total FAA concentration was 1070 fmol m-3 where serine and glycine were the most abundant compounds in almost all samples and accounted for 45-60% of the total amino acid relative abundance. The other eighteen compounds had average concentrations between 0.3 and 98 fmol m-3. The higher amino acid concentrations were present in the ultrafine aerosol fraction (< 0.49 ?m) and accounted for the majority of the total amino acid content. Local marine sources dominate the boreal summer amino acid concentrations, with the exception of the regional input from Icelandic volcanic emissions.

Scalabrin, E.; Zangrando, R.; Barbaro, E.; Kehrwald, N. M.; Gabrieli, J.; Barbante, C.; Gambaro, A.

2012-11-01

394

Molecular Structure of Picric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Picric Acid was first discovered in 1771 by a British Chemist named Peter Woulfe by treatment of indigo with nitric acid. It is most commonly seen in its yellow, water-soluble, crystalline form. For this reason, picric acid first saw use as a dyeing agent in textiles. However, around 1849 it was discovered (for obvious reasons) that picric acid is a shock, heat, and friction-sensitive explosive. Its first use as an explosive material came in military weaponry: torpedoes in particular due to its shock-sensitive nature not requiring a detonator to explode on contact with a target. However, picric acid was found to be highly corrosive to metals, making the weapons very difficult to handle and the acid itself difficult to store. Today, picric acid is used more widely as an ingredient in the manufacture of inert dyes and stable explosives such as dynamite.

2002-09-23

395

Molecular Structure of Sorbic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sorbic acid is a colorless or white crystalline powder, with a weak characteristic odor and slightly acidic taste. It may be obtained from berries of the mountain ash or prepared synthetically by condensing crotonaldehyde and malonic acid in pyridine solution. Sorbic acid is a polyunsaturated fat used to inhibit molds and yeast, is a fungistatic agent for foods (especially cheeses, wine and baked goods). The main use of sorbic acid is as a preservative in foods, animal feeds, tobacco, cosmetics and pharmaceuticals, as well in packing materials for these substances and in other products that come in contact with human or animal skin in some way. Sorbic acid is also used as an intermediate for plasticizers and lubricants. Sorbic acid reacts with potassium to make potassium sorbate and with calcium to make calcium sorbate.

2004-11-11

396

Corals on Acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The objective of this inquiry-based lesson is for learners to gain an understanding of how increasing ocean acidity can affect the calcification of marine organisms. During this activity, learners: (1) design an experiment to quantify the CaCO3 concentration of two invertebrate skeletal samples, one that has been soaked in normal seawater and another in a low pH solution, and (2) use critical thinking and discussion to evaluate possible explanations for the difference in the skeletal CaCO3 compositions. This lesson plan includes a post-activity demonstration, which shows how the dissolution of CO2 into the ocean lowers pH.

Boleman, Casey L.; Gravinese, Philip M.; Muse, Ellen N.; Marston, Andrea E.; Windsor, John G.

2013-01-01

397

Microbial hyaluronic acid production.  

PubMed

Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a commercially valuable medical biopolymer increasingly produced through microbial fermentation. Viscosity limits product yield and the focus of research and development has been on improving the key quality parameters, purity and molecular weight. Traditional strain and process optimisation has yielded significant improvements, but appears to have reached a limit. Metabolic engineering is providing new opportunities and HA produced in a heterologous host is about to enter the market. In order to realise the full potential of metabolic engineering, however, greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying chain termination is required. PMID:15599518

Chong, Barrie Fong; Blank, Lars M; Mclaughlin, Richard; Nielsen, Lars K

2005-01-01

398

Action of picolinic acid and structurally related pyridine carboxylic acids on quinolinic acid-induced cortical cholinergic damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

Picolinic acid, a pyridine monocarboxylic acid derived from tryptophan metabolism by the kynurenine pathway, was shown to block cortical cholinergic neurotoxicity induced by quinolinic acid (QUIN), a pyridine dicarboxylic acid yielded by the same pathway. This study examined the specificity of the anti-toxic effect of picolinic acid by comparing its effect with several structurally related mono- and dicarboxylic acids, and

J. Cockhill; K. Jhamandas; R. J. Boegman; R. J. Beninger

1992-01-01

399

A 3(10)-helical pentapeptide in water: interplay of alpha,alpha-disubstituted amino acids and the central residue on structure formation.  

PubMed

C(alpha,alpha)-disubstituted amino acids (alphaalphaAAs) are widely used to conformationally constrain peptides. A series of pentapeptides containing dipropylglycine (Dpg) at alternating positions and their alpha-amino acid counterpart L-norvaline (Nva) analogues were synthesized to fully investigate the impact of Dpg on peptide backbone structure in aqueous solution. CD, VCD, and NMR spectral analysis suggest that Dpg containing peptides adopt more ordered structures relative to their Nva containing analogues. The central residues (Ala, Thr, Tyr, Val) and the charged side-chains of Glu and Lys play important roles in the degree of peptide folding. Hydrophobic and branched residues (Val, Tyr) at the central position of the peptide produce greater folding as judged by CD and NMR. Variation of the chemical shift with temperature (Deltadelta/DeltaT NH) of Ac-Glu-Dpg-Tyr-Dpg-Lys-NH(2) suggests a series of i --> i + 3 hydrogen bonds between the N-terminal acetyl carbonyl and the Tyr(3) NH, and the Glu(1) carbonyl and the Dpg(4) NH. The solution conformation of Ac-Glu-Dpg-Tyr-Dpg-Lys-NH(2) calculated from NMR-derived constraints shows a 3(10)-helical structure (two repetitive type-III beta-turns) at residues 1-4, which is supported by 2D NMR, CD, and VCD spectra. Analysis of NMR-derived models of these peptides suggest that there is a strong hydrophobic interaction of the pro-S propyl side chain of Dpg(2) and the Tyr(3) side-chain that may be a strong stabilizing force of the peptide folding in water. PMID:19489061

Wang, Jia; McElheny, Dan; Fu, Yanwen; Li, Guangyu; Kim, Joohyun; Zhou, Zhe; Wu, Ling; Keiderling, Timothy A; Hammer, Robert P

2009-01-01

400

Solid-phase extraction of acidic herbicides.  

PubMed

A discussion of solid-phase extraction method development for acidic herbicides is presented that reviews sample matrix modification, extraction sorbent selection, derivatization procedures for gas chromatographic analysis, and clean-up procedures for high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis. Acidic herbicides are families of compounds that include derivatives of phenol (dinoseb, dinoterb and pentachlorophenol), benzoic acid (acifluorfen, chloramben, dicamba, 3,5-dichlorobenzoic acid and dacthal--a dibenzoic acid derivative), acetic acid [2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T)], propanoic acid [dichlorprop, fluazifop, haloxyfop, 2-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)propanoic acid (MCPP) and silvex], butanoic acid [4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)butanoic acid (2,4-DB) and 4-(4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)butanoic acid (MCPB)], and other miscellaneous acids such as pyridinecarboxylic acid (picloram) and thiadiazine dioxide (bentazon). PMID:10941675

Wells, M J; Yu, L Z

2000-07-14

401

Nucleic Acid Detection Methods  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3'-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated.

Smith, Cassandra L. (Boston, MA); Yaar, Ron (Brookline, MA); Szafranski, Przemyslaw (Boston, MA); Cantor, Charles R. (Boston, MA)

1998-05-19

402

Nucleic acid detection methods  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to methods for rapidly determining the sequence and/or length a target sequence. The target sequence may be a series of known or unknown repeat sequences which are hybridized to an array of probes. The hybridized array is digested with a single-strand nuclease and free 3{prime}-hydroxyl groups extended with a nucleic acid polymerase. Nuclease cleaved heteroduplexes can be easily distinguish from nuclease uncleaved heteroduplexes by differential labeling. Probes and target can be differentially labeled with detectable labels. Matched target can be detected by cleaving resulting loops from the hybridized target and creating free 3-hydroxyl groups. These groups are recognized and extended by polymerases added into the reaction system which also adds or releases one label into solution. Analysis of the resulting products using either solid phase or solution. These methods can be used to detect characteristic nucleic acid sequences, to determine target sequence and to screen for genetic defects and disorders. Assays can be conducted on solid surfaces allowing for multiple reactions to be conducted in parallel and, if desired, automated. 18 figs.

Smith, C.L.; Yaar, R.; Szafranski, P.; Cantor, C.R.

1998-05-19

403

Growth of nitric acid hydrates on thin sulfuric acid films  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Type I polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) are thought to nucleate and grow on stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSAs). To model this system, thin sulfuric acid films were exposed to water and nitric acid vapors (1-3 x 10(exp -4) Torr H2O and 1-2.5 x 10(exp -6) Torr HNO3) and subjected to cooling and heating cycles. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to probe the phase of the sulfuric acid and to identify the HNO3/H2O films that condensed. Nitric acid trihydrate (NAT) was observed to grow on crystalline sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (SAT) films. NAT also condensed in/on supercooled H2SO4 films without causing crystallization of the sulfuric acid. This growth is consistent with NAT nucleation from ternary solutions as the first step in PSC formation.

Iraci, Laura T.; Middlebrook, Ann M.; Wilson, Margaret A.; Tolbert, Margaret A.

1994-01-01

404

Sedimentation of sulfuric acid in acid tars from current production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid tars obtained in treating T-750, KhF-12, and I-8A oils were investigated for purposes of recovering sulfuric acid and asphalt binders from the compositions and of determining the effects of storage time on the recovery. The consumption and sedimentation levels of sulfuric acid during storage for different periods and at different temperatures were assessed. The characteristics of an asphalt binder

T. L. Denisova; A. F. Frolov; A. N. Aminov; S. P. Novosel'tsev

1987-01-01

405

Conversion of phenolics to lignans: Sinapic acid to thomasidioic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in sinapic acid when exposed to aqueous alkaline conditions were elucidated. Sinapic acid was exposed to a volatile\\u000a buffer (pH 8.5) for 24 h, lyophilized, acidified, extracted, and characterized using nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy.\\u000a The product obtained was identified as the lignan thomasidioic acid. This identification was confirmed by comparison with\\u000a a synthesized authentic sample of thomasidioic

M. I. Rubino; S. D. Arntfield; J. L. Charlton

1995-01-01

406

Preparation of soluble p-aminobenzoyl chitosan ester by Schiff's base and antibacterial activity of the derivatives.  

PubMed

Schiff's base of chitosan (BCTS) was obtained by the reaction of chitosan (CTS) and benzaldehyde. Then BCTS reacted with acyl chloride which was synthesized by p-aminobenzoic acid and thionyl chloride to get N-benzoyl-O-aminobenzoyl chitosan ester (BABCTSE), removing the groups of amino protection of BABCTSE to get the final product (ABCTSE). The structures of the derivatives were characterized by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and elemental analysis. The elemental analysis results indicated that the degrees of substitution (DS) of the products were 16.8% and 40.4%. The synthesized compounds exhibited an excellent solubility in organic solvents. TG and DTG results showed that thermal stability of the derivatives was lower than that of chitosan. In addition, the existence of two different amido in the molecular structures contributed to forming more -NH(3)(+) in the acid solution which could make the derivatives have a greater advantage in the field of bacteriostasis. PMID:21277323

Wang, Jiangtao; Wang, Hedong

2011-04-01

407

Formic Hydrogenlyase and the Photoassimilation of Formate by a Strain of Rhodopseudomonas palustris  

PubMed Central

A photosynthetic bacterium isolated by enrichment on media containing formate as major source of cell carbon was identified as a strain of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. It grew on a wide range of simple organic compounds including alcohols, fatty acids, and hydroxyacids, on a chemically defined medium with biotin and p-aminobenzoic acid as essential growth factors. The organism grew on formate or photoautotrophically with molecular hydrogen or thiosulfate only in the presence of yeast extract. Ability to photoassimilate formate could be shown only in organisms grown in the presence of formate. The organism contained an inducible formic hydrogenlyase consisting of a soluble formic dehydrogenase, a particulate hydrogenase, and one or more intermediate, but as yet unidentified, electron carriers. The formic hydrogenlyase could be reconstituted from a particulate hydrogenase and a partially purified soluble formic dehydrogenase. Some properties of the formic dehydrogenase and hydrogenase have been compared with that of the formic hydrogenlyase system. Images PMID:5669906

Qadri, S. M. Hussain; Hoare, D. S.

1968-01-01

408

Molecular Structure of Butyric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

n-Butyric acid is a substance that was isolated from butter in 1869. Butyric acid means, in Latin, the acid of butter as it was first discovered in rancid butter. It is found most commonly in butter, but can also be present in some fruits. Butyric acid is also produced synthetically, through fermentation of various carbohydrates, to be used as a flavoring agent in various food products. Applications of butyric acid are as an additive to food, flavorings, varnishes, perfumes, pharmaceuticals and disinfectants. It is also used for the production of plastics, plasticizers, surfactants and textile auxiliaries. Butyric acid and its derivatives are also being seriously considered around the world as potential anticancer agents.

2002-10-11

409

Shaping up nucleic acid computation  

PubMed Central

Summary of recent advances (abstract) Nucleic acid-based nanotechnology has always been perceived as novel, but has begun to move from theoretical demonstrations to practical applications. In particular, the large address spaces available to nucleic acids can be exploited to encode algorithms and/or act as circuits, and thereby process molecular information. In this review we revisit several milestones in the field of nucleic acid-based computation, but also highlight how the prospects for nucleic acid computation go beyond just a large address space. Functional nucleic acid elements (aptamers, ribozymes, and deoxyribozymes) can serve as inputs and outputs to the environment, and can act as logical elements. Into the future, the chemical dynamics of nucleic acids may prove as useful as hybridization for computation. PMID:20538451

Chen, Xi

2010-01-01

410

Molecular Structure of Salicylic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Salicylic acid is a colorless to white crystalline powder with a sweetish acrid taste that occurs naturally in many microorganisms and plants in very small amounts. It is also made synthetically and used as preservative of food products in some countries and as an antiseptic in mouthwashes and toothpastes. This chemical is also used in the manufacture of methyl salicylates, acetylasalicylic acid (aspirin) and other salicylates. Salicylic acid is a chemical intermediate in the synthesis of dyestuff, salicylate esters and salts. It is prepared commercially by heating sodium phenolate (the sodium salt of phenol) with carbon dioxide under pressure to form sodium salicylate, which is treated with sulfuric acid to liberate salicylic acid. Salicylic acid is quite irritating to skin and mucosa and it destroys epithelial cells. Absorption of large amounts can cause vomiting, abdominal pain, acidosis and mental disturbances.

2004-11-11

411

Clinical use of acid steatocrit.  

PubMed

Malabsorption of fat is an important gastrointestinal cause of malnutrition and growth retardation in childhood. The gold standard for the evaluation of fat malabsorption is the faecal fat balance method. The acid steatocrit method has recently been introduced as a simple method to evaluate faecal fat. The present study was aimed at evaluating the acid steatocrit in clinical practice. Faecal fat excretion and acid steatocrit results were determined in 42 children, half with and half without fat malabsorption. Acid steatocrit results correlated significantly with both faecal fat excretion (p < 0.01) and faecal fat concentration (p < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of the acid steatocrit for the diagnosis of malabsorption were 90% and 100%, respectively. We consider the acid steatocrit method useful for the screening and monitoring of patients with steatorrhoea. PMID:9183483

Van den Neucker, A; Pestel, N; Tran, T M; Forget, P P; Veeze, H J; Bouquet, J; Sinaasappel, M

1997-05-01

412

Production of polymalic acid and malic acid by Aureobasidium pullulans fermentation and acid hydrolysis.  

PubMed

Malic acid is a dicarboxylic acid widely used in the food industry and also a potential C4 platform chemical that can be produced from biomass. However, microbial fermentation for direct malic acid production is limited by low product yield, titer, and productivity due to end-product inhibition. In this work, a novel process for malic acid production from polymalic acid (PMA) fermentation followed by acid hydrolysis was developed. First, a PMA-producing Aureobasidium pullulans strain ZX-10 was screened and isolated. This microbe produced PMA as the major fermentation product at a high-titer equivalent to 87.6?g/L of malic acid and high-productivity of 0.61?g/L?h in free-cell fermentation in a stirred-tank bioreactor. Fed-batch fermentations with cells immobilized in a fibrous-bed bioreactor (FBB) achieved the highest product titer of 144.2?g/L and productivity of 0.74?g/L?h. The fermentation produced PMA was purified by adsorption with IRA-900 anion-exchange resins, achieving a ?100% purity and a high recovery rate of 84%. Pure malic acid was then produced from PMA by hydrolysis with 2?M sulfuric acid at 85°C, which followed the first-order reaction kinetics. This process provides an efficient and economical way for PMA and malic acid production, and is promising for industrial application. PMID:23436475

Zou, Xiang; Zhou, Yipin; Yang, Shang-Tian

2013-08-01

413

Racemization of Meteoritic Amino Acids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Meteorites may have contributed amino acids to the prebiotic Earth, affecting the global ratio of right-handed to left-handed (D\\/L) molecules. We calculate D\\/L ratios for seven biological, alpha-hydrogen, protein amino acids over a variety of plausible parent body thermal histories, based on meteorite evidence and asteroid modeling. We show that amino acids in meteorites do not necessarily undergo complete racemization

Barbara A. Cohen; Christopher F. Chyba

2000-01-01

414

Certain derivatives of aminomethylphosphonic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary 1.Experiments on the acylatlon of aminomethylphosphonic acid show that it proceeds with greater difficulty than the acylation of glycine. Acetamidomethyl-, (chloroacetamido)methyl-, and phthalimidamethyl-phosphonic acids have been prepared.2.The methylation of aminomethylphosphonic acid has been effected by means of methyl iodide in a methanol mediums, and it has been shown that a quaternary iodide derived from the phosphonobetaine is formed. It

Me Io Kabachnik; T. Ya. Medved

1953-01-01

415

Polyaminopolycarboxylic Acids derived from Polyethyleneamines  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE effects of increasing length of the alkylene bridge on acid dissociation constants and metal chelate stability constants of homologues of ethylene-diaminetetra-acetic acid derived from polymethylene-diamines have been reported within recent years1. The effects of an increase in the polydentate and polyelectrolyte nature of polyaminopolycarboxylic acids derived from polyethylene polyamines have not been investigated except for a brief report on

Albert E. Frost

1956-01-01

416

All-trans retinoic acid regulates hepatic bile acid homeostasis.  

PubMed

Retinoic acid (RA) and bile acids share common roles in regulating lipid homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. In addition, the receptor for RA (retinoid x receptor) is a permissive partner of the receptor for bile acids, farnesoid x receptor (FXR/NR1H4). Thus, RA can activate the FXR-mediated pathway as well. The current study was designed to understand the effect of all-trans RA on bile acid homeostasis. Mice were fed an all-trans RA-supplemented diet and the expression of 46 genes that participate in regulating bile acid homeostasis was studied. The data showed that all-trans RA has a profound effect in regulating genes involved in synthesis and transport of bile acids. All-trans RA treatment reduced the gene expression levels of Cyp7a1, Cyp8b1, and Akr1d1, which are involved in bile acid synthesis. All-trans RA also decreased the hepatic mRNA levels of Lrh-1 (Nr5a2) and Hnf4? (Nr2a1), which positively regulate the gene expression of Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1. Moreover, all-trans RA induced the gene expression levels of negative regulators of bile acid synthesis including hepatic Fgfr4, Fxr, and Shp (Nr0b2) as well as ileal Fgf15. All-trans RA also decreased the expression of Abcb11 and Slc51b, which have a role in bile acid transport. Consistently, all-trans RA reduced hepatic bile acid levels and the ratio of CA/CDCA, as demonstrated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The data suggest that all-trans RA-induced SHP may contribute to the inhibition of CYP7A1 and CYP8B1, which in turn reduces bile acid synthesis and affects lipid absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. PMID:25175738

Yang, Fan; He, Yuqi; Liu, Hui-Xin; Tsuei, Jessica; Jiang, Xiaoyue; Yang, Li; Wang, Zheng-Tao; Wan, Yu-Jui Yvonne

2014-10-15

417

Organic Acid Production by Basidiomycetes  

PubMed Central

Sixty-seven strains belonging to 47 species of Basidiomycetes were examined for their acid-producing abilities in glucose media, in both the presence and absence of CaCO3, in stationary and shake cultures. Some strains were found to produce large quantities of oxalic acid. The oxalic acid-producing strains could be separated into two groups. Strains of one group (mostly brown-rot fungi) were able to produce oxalic acid, regardless of whether CaCO3 was present in the medium. Strains of the other group (mostly white-rot fungi) were characterized by their ability to produce oxalic acid only when CaCO3 was added to the medium. With the latter group, shake-culturing was generally more effective than stationary culturing in respect to acid production. In the CaCO3-containing media, Schizophyllum commune, Merulius tremellosus, and Porodisculus pendulus were found to produce substantial amounts of L-malic acid as a main metabolic product, along with small quantities of oxalic and other acids in shake cultures. Especially, S. commune and M. tremellosus may be employed as malic acid-producing species. PMID:5867653

Takao, Shoichi

1965-01-01

418

[Ulcer therapy without acid inhibition].  

PubMed

The mechanism of action of ulcer drugs without acid inhibition appears to involve improvement of defensive factors of the gastroduodenal mucosa. The concept of ulcer healing without acid inhibition is attractive for theoretical reasons, because doubts have arisen about the safety of elevation of intragastric pH, especially in long-term treatment of peptic ulcer disease. Ulcer drugs that do not affect gastric acidity may therefore be preferred, provided they compare favorably to the best acid inhibitors available in terms of efficacy, adverse effects and other requirements. Among these drugs, sucralfate fulfills these criteria to a large extent. PMID:6547542

Koelz, H R

1984-05-19

419

Molecular Structure of Lauric acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Lauric acid was first discovered in lauraceae seeds by Marsson T in 1849. The highest content of lauric acid is found in a mother's breast milk and lauraceae seeds. It is used in foods such as vegetable shortenings as a defoaming agent and industrially as a booster for soaps and detergents. Also it is used in cosmetics, insecticides, and food additives. Additionally, Lauric acid is a medium chain fatty acid, which forms monolaurin in the human or animal body. This compound is an antiviral, antibacterial, and antiprotozoal monoglyceride that destroys lipid coated viruses such as HIV, herpes, cytomegalovirus, and influenza.

2002-10-11

420

Acidic gas capture by diamines  

DOEpatents

Compositions and methods related to the removal of acidic gas. In particular, the present disclosure relates to a composition and method for the removal of acidic gas from a gas mixture using a solvent comprising a diamine (e.g., piperazine) and carbon dioxide. One example of a method may involve a method for removing acidic gas comprising contacting a gas mixture having an acidic gas with a solvent, wherein the solvent comprises piperazine in an amount of from about 4 to about 20 moles/kg of water, and carbon dioxide in an amount of from about 0.3 to about 0.9 moles per mole of piperazine.

Rochelle, Gary (Austin, TX); Hilliard, Marcus (Missouri City, TX)

2011-05-10

421

The History of Acid Inhibition  

E-print Network

I review here the history of inhibition of gastric acid. References are limited to books and reviews in which detailed citations can be found. ANTACIDS In ancient times, acids were not understood in the modem chemical sense but merely as bitter sour liquids [1]. Some foods were thought acidic, and if the stomach had an ulcer, everything acrid was to be avoided and soothing remedies such as starch and milk used. Antacids neutralize, rather than inhibit, acid secretion but could not be rationally prescribed until acids were understood in the modern chemical sense. Hydrochloric acid has been known since the early fifteenth century, thought to be in the stomach by Paracelsus in the sixteenth and by Van Helmont in the seventeenth century, but it was not until 1823 that Prout definitively identified free hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice of man and animals and made quantitative measurements of its concentration. Antacids became widely used only this century, especially in association with Sippytype diets for ulcers [2]. As recently as the 1960s, orthodox gastroenterologists believed that gastric acidity was reduced by minimizing the amount of acid-stimulating foods such

J. H. Barona

1994-01-01

422

Acid rain on acid soil: a new perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain is widely believed to be responsible for acidifying soil and water in areas of North America and northern Europe. However, factors commonly considered to make landscapes susceptible to acidification by acid rain are the same factors long known to strongly acidify soils through the natural processes of soil formation. Recovery from extreme and widespread careless land use has

E. C. Krug; C. R. Frink

1983-01-01

423

Acid zeta function and ajoint acid zeta function  

E-print Network

In this paper we set up the theory of acid zeta function and ajoint acid zeta function, based on the theory, we point out a reason to doubt the truth of the Riemann hypothesis and also as a consequence, we give out some new RH equivalences.

Jining Gao

2010-03-16

424

Peptidases and amino acid catabolism in lactic acid bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The conversion of peptides to free amino acids and their subsequent utilization is a central metabolic activity in prokaryotes. At least 16 peptidases from lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been characterized biochemically and\\/or genetically. Among LAB, the peptidase systems of Lactobacillus helveticus and Lactococcus lactis have been examined in greatest detail. While there are homologous enzymes common to both systems,

Jeffrey E. Christensen; Edward G. Dudley; Jeffrey A. Pederson; James L. Steele

1999-01-01

425

Fast HPLC-ECD analysis of ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid and uric acid.  

PubMed

A robust and rapid high-pressure liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection (HPLC-ECD) method was developed and validated for the accurate determination of ascorbic acid (AA) and uric acid (UA), in human plasma. Dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA) was indirectly measured by subtracting native ascorbic acid from total ascorbic acid concentrations; the latter was obtained after chemical reduction. A stable electrochemical active internal standard (homogentisic acid) was added for the accurate quantification of the analytes. The analyses were performed on a reverse-phase column with traditional HPLC and ultra-HPLC (UHPLC). The UHPLC method showed increased sensitivity with detection limit of 0.05ng for both AA and UA, 2 times lower compared to conventional HPLC. UHPLC also reduced run times fourfold with less waste generation. Both assays showed good accuracy and precision, the intra- and inter-day CVs of AA and UA analysis are less than 7%. PMID:19250886

Li, Xingnan; Franke, Adrian A

2009-04-01

426

Molecular Structure of Isophthalic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Isophthalic acid is one of the three simple aromatic dicarboxylic acids with the carboxyl groups in the meta postions. It is used to produce isophthalic polyester that together with other components is used in resin systems for flame retardants and in corrosion prevention.

2008-01-10

427

Acetic Acid Catalyzed Carbon Aerogels  

Microsoft Academic Search

We prepared carbon aerogels with a wide range of structural properties and densities using the weak acetic acid as a catalyst. Two series of acetic acid catalyzed carbon aerogels with different dilution of the catalyst and the monomers were investigated accurately. Structural investigation was performed via (U)SAXS, gas sorption and SEM. The pore and particle size can be tailored according

R. Brandt; R. Petricevic; H. Pröbstle; J. Fricke

2003-01-01

428

Acid rain & electric utilities II  

SciTech Connect

This document presents reports which were presented at the Acid Rain and Electric Utilities Conference. Topics include environmental issues and electric utilities; acid rain program overview; global climate change and carbon dioxide; emissions data management; compliance; emissions control; allowance and trading; nitrogen oxides; and assessment. Individual reports have been processed separately for the United States Department of Energy databases.

NONE

1997-12-31

429

Ricinoleic acid-based biopolymers.  

PubMed

Polyanhydrides synthesized from pure ricinoleic acid half-esters with maleic and succinic anhydrides possess desired physicochemical and mechanical properties for use as drug carriers. Ricinoleic acid maleate or succinate diacid half-esters were prepared from the reaction of crude ricinoleic acid (85% content) with succinic or maleic anhydride. The pure diacid monomers were obtained by chromatography purification through silica gel using petroleum ether/ethyl acetate/acetic acid (80/30/1 v/v/v) mixture as eluent. The pure diacid monomers (>99%) were polymerized by melt condensation to yield film-forming polymers with molecular weights exceeding 40,000 with a polydispersity of 2. Extensive biocompatibility study demonstrated their toxicological inertness and biodegradability. Their rate of elimination from rats in the course of about 4-6 weeks was faster than that found for similar fatty acid-based polyanhydrides previously tested. In vitro studies showed that these polymers underwent rapid hydrolytic degradation in 10 days. Methotrexate release from the polymers was not affected by the initial polymer molecular weight in the range of 10,000-35,000. The in vitro drug release correlated with the degradation of the polymers. The fatty acid ester monomers were further degraded to its counterparts, ricinoleic acid and succinic or maleic acid. PMID:10397984

Teomim, D; Nyska, A; Domb, A J

1999-06-01

430

Acid Precipitation: Causes and Consequences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article is the first of three articles in a series on the acid rain problem in recent years. Discussed are the causes of acid precipitation and its consequences for the abiotic and biotic components of the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, and for man-made materials. (Author/SA)

Babich, Harvey; And Others

1980-01-01

431

The Canadian acid rain strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In November 1994, Canadian Energy and Environment Ministers announced their intention to develop a long-term domestic acid rain strategy for post-2000. The strategy would address the need for further emission reductions within Canada as well as the need for further emission reductions in the United States for those sources and pollutants that result in continuing negative impacts from acid deposition

G Fenech

1998-01-01

432

The Acid Rain Differential Game  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers an acid rain differential game. Countries emit sulphur which is partly transferred to other countries. Depositions above critical loads ultimately destroy the soil. Countries face a trade-off between the costs of emission reductions and the damage to the soil due to the depletion of the acid buffers. Because of the transboundary externalities the outcome will depend on

Karl-Göran Mäler; Aart De Zeeuw

1998-01-01

433

Acid-Base Titration Applet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Acid-Base titration applet that plots pH changes as student adds acid or base. Gives choice of indicators (only two right now). Compares plots for titration of traditional solution and a buffered solution (several choices for comparison). Can alter starting concentrations.

Usc

434

Acid rain: facts and fallacies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acid rain is a complex environmental problem that is hard to define in terms of sources and effects. Major sources are thought to be atmospheric emissions, mostly from urban sources, although exact locations and the means by which emissions are transformed to acid rain are not entirely clear. Lack of long-term records has made it difficult to determine how fast

1981-01-01

435

Acid Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Responses to acid have been studied extensively in enteric pathogens, such as Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, and Heli- cobacter pylori that encounter the extremely low pH (pH 2 to 3) of the stomach during ingestion. In contrast, much less is known about how obligate or facultative intracellular bacterial pathogens like Mycobacterium tuberculosis respond, resist, and persist in the moderately acid

Omar H. Vandal; Carl F. Nathan; Sabine Ehrt

2009-01-01

436

Acid Rain: A Background Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Staff Brief was prepared for the Wisconsin Legislative Council's Special Committee on Acid Rain to provide an introduction to the issue of acid rain. It is divided into four parts. Part I provides an overview on the controversies surrounding the meas...

L. Glustrom, J. Stolzenberg

1982-01-01

437

Advanced Lead Acid Battery Development.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Researchers at the University of Idaho have been investigating the possibility of using lead acid batteries in electric and hybrid vehicles for more than ten years, and the funding from UTC Program helped support this continuing effort. The lead acid batt...

D. Edwards, C. Kinney

2001-01-01

438

SOIL REACTION AND ACIDIC DEPOSITION  

EPA Science Inventory

This chapter discusses the major chemical processes by which acidic deposition interacts with soils. he focus is on forest soils, as the effects of acidic deposition on soils used for production of food and fiber are generally small compared to effects of agricultural practices s...

439

SIMULATED ACID RAIN ON CROPS  

EPA Science Inventory

In 1981, simulated H2SO4 acid rain was applied to alfalfa and tall fescue and a 2:1 ratio of H2SO4:HNO3 acid rain was applied to alfalfa, tall fescue, barley, wheat, potato, tomato, radish, and corn crops growing in the open field at Corvallis, Oregon. Careful attention was given...

440

Bioelectric neutralization of acid waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

An apparatus is to be used in a process for bioelectric neutralization of a body of water having a bottom of anaerobic mud and an acid supernatant liquid. The apparatus comprises a buoy riding on the surface of the water, and upper electrode preferably of carbon suspended from the buoy in the acid supernatant liquid, a lower electrode preferably of

F. D. Sisler; F. E. Senftle

1978-01-01

441

Acetic acid bacteria in oenology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acetic acid bacteria have always been considered the bad mi- croorganisms of oenology; responsible for wine spoiling (vine- gary taint). The taxonomy and our knowledge of the metabo- lism of acetic acid bacteria are rapidly evolving, especially as new molecular biology techniques are applied to this fastidious group of microorganisms, which are still rather difficult to work with. The dramatic

A. Mas; M. J. Torija; A. González; M. Poblet; J. M. Guillamón

442

Acid Tests and Basic Fun.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Explores acids and bases using different indicators, such as turmeric, purple grape juice, and lichens. Because some of these indicators are not as sensitive as cabbage juice or litmus paper, determining to which acids and bases each indicator is sensitive presents an enjoyable, problem-solving challenge for students. Presents directions for…

McBride, John W.

1995-01-01

443

Molecular Structure of Formic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Formic Acid, also known as methanoic acid and hydrogencarboxylic acid, is the simplest organic acid. It is a colorless, toxic, corrosive liquid with a pungent, penetrating odor. In nature, it is found in the stings and bites of many insects of the order hymenoptera, including bees and ants. The principal use of formic acid is as a preservative and antibacterial agent in livestock feed. The largest single use of formic acid is as a silage additive in Europe, but this market hardly exists in the United States. When sprayed on fresh hay or other silage, it arrests certain decay processes and causes the feed to retain its nutritive value longer. In the poultry industry, it is sometimes added to silage to kill salmonella bacteria. It is also used in textile dyeing, leather tanning, as a solvent, in electroplating processes, in the manufacturing of lacquers, glass, vinyl resin plasticizers, and formate esters (for flavor and fragrance) and in the manufacture of fumigants. Formic acid is a strong reducing agent, and may act both as an acid and as an aldehyde because the carboxyl is bound to a hydrogen rather than an alkyl group.

2003-05-08

444

Acid precipitation in historical perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

The history of acid precipitation is traced from the first awareness of the problem in the mid-17th century to the present. An outline of the National Acid Precipitation Assessment program is also given, and the author makes recommendations for future research. (JMT)

Ellis B. Cowling

1982-01-01

445

BOTANICAL ASPECTS OF ACIDIC PRECIPITATION  

EPA Science Inventory

Acidic precipitation can be characterized as wet or frozen atmospheric deposition with a hydrogen ion concentration greater than 2.5 microequivalents liter-1. Acidic precipitation is perceived as a significant air pollution problem derived chiefly from combustion of fossil fuels,...

446

Distillation Separation of Hydrofluoric Acid and Nitric Acid from Acid Waste Using the Salt Effect on Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study presents the distillation separation of hydrofluoric acid with use of the salt effect on the vapor-liquid equilibrium for acid aqueous solutions and acid mixtures. The vapor-liquid equilibrium of hydrofluoric acid + salt systems (fluorite, potassium nitrate, cesium nitrate) was measured using an apparatus made of perfluoro alkylvinylether. Cesium nitrate showed a salting-out effect on the vapor-liquid equilibrium of the hydrofluoric acid-water system. Fluorite and potassium nitrate showed a salting-in effect on the hydrofluoric acid-water system. Separation of hydrofluoric acid from an acid mixture containing nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid was tested by the simple distillation treatment using the salt effect of cesium nitrate (45 mass%). An acid mixture of nitric acid (5.0 mol · dm-3) and hydrofluoric acid (5.0 mol · dm-3) was prepared as a sample solution for distillation tests. The concentration of nitric acid in the first distillate decreased from 5.0 mol · dm-3 to 1.13 mol · dm-3, and the concentration of hydrofluoric acid increased to 5.41 mol · dm-3. This first distillate was further distilled without the addition of salt. The concentrations of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid in the second distillate were 7.21 mol · dm-3 and 0.46 mol · dm-3, respectively. It was thus found that the salt effect on vapor-liquid equilibrium of acid mixtures was effective for the recycling of acids from acid mixture wastes.

Yamamoto, Hideki; Sumoge, Iwao

2011-03-01

447

Atmospheric dust and acid rain  

SciTech Connect

Why is acid rain still an environmental problem in Europe and North America despite antipollution reforms? The answer really is blowing in the wind: atmospheric dust. These airborne particles can help neutralize the acids falling on forests, but dust levels are unusually low these days. In the air dust particles can neutralize acid rain. What can we do about acid rain and atmospheric dust? Suggestions range from the improbable to the feasible. One reasonable suggestion is to reduce emissions of acidic pollutants to levels that can be buffered by natural quantities of basic compounds in the atmosphere; such a goal would mean continued reductions in sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, perhaps even greater than those prescribed in the 1990 Amendments to the Clean Air Act in the U.S. 5 figs.

Hedin, L.O.; Likens, G.E.

1996-12-01

448

Direct formic acid fuel cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performance of formic acid fuel oxidation on a solid PEM fuel cell at 60 °C is reported. We find that formic acid is an excellent fuel for a fuel cell. A model cell, using a proprietary anode catalyst produced currents up to 134 mA/cm 2 and power outputs up to 48.8 mW/cm 2. Open circuit potentials (OCPs) are about 0.72 V. The fuel cell runs successfully over formic acid concentrations between 5 and 20 M with little crossover or degradation in performance. The anodic polarization potential of formic acid is approximately 0.1 V lower than that for methanol on a standard Pt/Ru catalyst. These results show that formic acid fuel cells are attractive alternatives for small portable fuel cell applications.

Rice, C.; Ha, S.; Masel, R. I.; Waszczuk, P.; Wieckowski, A.; Barnard, Tom

449

Fumaric acid production by fermentation.  

PubMed

The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid from maleic anhydride and the fermentation process yields only 85% w/w from glucose, the latter raw material is three times cheaper. Besides, the fermentation fixes CO2. Production of fumaric acid by Rhizopus species and the involved metabolic pathways are reviewed. Submerged fermentation systems coupled with product recovery techniques seem to have achieved economically attractive yields and productivities. Future prospects for improvement of fumaric acid production include metabolic engineering approaches to achieve low pH fermentations. PMID:18214471

Roa Engel, Carol A; Straathof, Adrie J J; Zijlmans, Tiemen W; van Gulik, Walter M; van der Wielen, Luuk A M

2008-03-01

450

Fumaric acid production by fermentation  

PubMed Central

The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid from maleic anhydride and the fermentation process yields only 85% w/w from glucose, the latter raw material is three times cheaper. Besides, the fermentation fixes CO2. Production of fumaric acid by Rhizopus species and the involved metabolic pathways are reviewed. Submerged fermentation systems coupled with product recovery techniques seem to have achieved economically attractive yields and productivities. Future prospects for improvement of fumaric acid production include metabolic engineering approaches to achieve low pH fermentations. PMID:18214471

Roa Engel, Carol A.; Zijlmans, Tiemen W.; van Gulik, Walter M.; van der Wielen, Luuk A. M.

2008-01-01

451

Molecular Structure of Stearic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stearic acid is white leaflets, slightly yellow crystal masses or a white to slightly yellow powder. Stearic acid is a saturated fatty acid found in low percentages in cotton, coconut, palm kernel, corn, palm, castor, rapeseed, soybean, sunflower, herring, and tallow oils. It is also one of the fat components found in the cocoa butter of chocolate. It is prepared synthetically by hydrogenation of cottonseed and other vegetable oils or by treating animal fat with water at a high pressure and temperature. Stearic acid is useful as an ingredient in making candles, soaps, and for softening synthetic rubber. It is also a component of cosmetic formulations, pharmaceuticals creams and vanishing lotion. Stearic acid is practically nontoxic but the dust is irritating to eyes, nose, and throat and the solid is irritating to skin and eyes.

2004-11-11

452

Molecular Structure of Galacturonic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Galacturonic acid is the monobasic acid resulting from oxidation of the primary alcohol group of D-galactose to carboxyl. It is widely distributed as a constituent of pectins (compounds with heterogeneous grouping of acidic structural polysaccharides, found in fruit and vegetables), many plant gums, and mucilages (gummy substances obtained from certain plants, which are used as food stabilizers). Gums tend to be used as thickening and bulking agents in pharmaceutics, and they play a less obvious part in most plants. Once swallowed, their actions are no different from those of the mucilages. D-Galacturonic acid prepared from pectin can be used to synthesize vitamin C. Native pectin is a mixture of polysaccharides, with the major component a polymer of -D-galacturonic acid. Pectin has numerous other medical and pharmaceutical uses, for example in combination with plant hemicelluloses and lignin, may be useful dietary constituents in preventing coronary heart disease, diverticular disease, ulcerative colitis, and a variety of other Western diseases.

2003-05-08

453

Molecular Structure of Linoleic acid  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Linoleic acid is a polyunsaturated fatty acid occurring widely in plant glycerides or fats. Common sources include many vegetable oils such as flax seed, safflower, soybean, peanut, and corn; some margarines; and dairy fats. It is a colorless to straw-colored liquid, insoluble in water, but soluble in alcohol and ether. Linoleic acid is easily oxidized by air and is combustible. It also appears as an aluminum salt, in the form of yellow lumps or powder, that is practically insoluble in water but soluble in oils and fixed alkalai hydroxides. Linoleic acid is essential in human nutrition and is used also for soaps, animal feeds, paints, drying protective coatings, emulsifying or smoothing and wetting agents, and in biochemical research. The conjugated form of linoleic acid or CLA has been associated with health benefits such as lowered risk of cancer and atherosclerosis. Prepared CLA is available as a supplement. However, foods high in CLA content could be used.

2003-05-08

454

Synthesis of l-(+)-Tartaric Acid from l-Ascorbic Acid via 5-Keto-d-Gluconic Acid in Grapes  

PubMed Central

5-Keto-l-idionic acid (?5-keto-d-gluconic acid, d-xylo-5-hexulosonic acid) was found as a metabolic product of l-ascorbic acid in slices of immature grapes, Vitis labrusca L. cv `Delaware'. Specifically labeled compounds, recognized as metabolic products of l-ascorbic acid in grapes, were fed to young grape tissues to investigate the metabolic pathway from l-ascorbic acid to l-(+)-tartaric acid. Label from dehydro-l-[1-14C]ascorbic acid, 2-keto-l-[1-14C]idonic acid (l-xylo-2-hexulosonic acid), l-[1-14C]idonic acid, or 5-keto-l-[1-14C] idonic acid was incorporated into l-(+)-tartaric acid in high yields as it was in the l-[1-14C]ascorbic acid experiment. In a double label experiment involving a mixture of l-[1-14C]idonic acid and l-[2-3H]idonic acid, the 3H/14C ratios of 5-keto-l-idonic acid and l-(+)-tartaric acid synthesized in young grape leaves were almost the same as the value of the l-idonic acid fed. Label from 5-keto-l-[6-14C]idonic acid was incorporated into sugars and insoluble residue in the same way as l-[6-14C]ascorbic acid was metabolized in grapes. These results provide strong evidence that in grapes l-(+)-tartaric acid is synthesized from the C4 fragment that corresponds to the C1 to C4 group of the 5-keto-l-idonic acid derived from l-ascorbic acid via 2-keto-l-idonic acid and l-idonic acid. PMID:16663792

Saito, Kazumi; Kasai, Zenzaburo

1984-01-01

455

The ascorbic acid paradox.  

PubMed

Ascorbic acid (AA) is a common culture medium and dietary supplement. While AA is most commonly known for its antioxidant properties, it is also known to function as a pro-oxidant under select conditions. However, the complexity and often unknown composition of biological culture systems makes prediction of AA behaviour in supplemented cultures challenging. The frequent observation of outcomes inconsistent with antioxidant behaviour suggests that AA may be playing a pro-oxidant role more often than appreciated. In this work we explored the intracellular and extracellular impact of AA supplementation on KG1a myeloid leukaemia cells over a 24-h culture period following the addition of the AA supplement. At 24h we found that supplementation of AA up to 250?M resulted in intracellular antioxidant behaviour. However, when these same cultures were evaluated at 2 or 4h we observed pro-oxidant activity at the higher AA concentrations indicating that the outcome was very much time and dose dependent. In contrast, pro-oxidant activity was never observed in the extracellular medium. Paradoxically, and to our knowledge not previously reported, we observed that intracellular pro-oxidant activity and extracellular antioxidant activity could occur simultaneously. These results indicate that the precise activity of AA supplementation varies as a function of dose, time and cellular location. Further, these results demonstrate how in the absence of careful culture characterization the true impact of AA on cultures could be underappreciated. PMID:20732307

Osiecki, Michael; Ghanavi, Parisa; Atkinson, Kerry; Nielsen, Lars K; Doran, Michael R

2010-10-01

456

Lead-acid battery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A light weight lead-acid battery (30) having a positive terminal (36) and a negative terminal (34) and including one or more cells or grid stacks having a plurality of vertically stacked conductive monoplates (10, 20) with positive active material and negative active material deposited on alternating plates in the cell or grid stack. Electrolyte layers (26, 28) positioned between each monoplate are included to provide a battery cell having four sides which is capable of being electrically charged and discharged. Two vertical positive bus bars (42, 43) are provided on opposite sides of the battery cell for connecting the monoplates (10) with positive active material together in parallel current conducting relation. In addition, two negative bus bars (38, 39) on opposite sides of the battery cell each being adjacent the positive bus bars are provided for connecting the monoplates (20) with negative active material together in parallel current conducting relation. The positive (42, 43) and negative (38, 39) bus bars not only provide a low resistance method for connecting the plurality of conductive monoplates of their respective battery terminals (36, 34) but also provides support and structural strength to the battery cell structure. In addition, horizontal orientation of monoplates (10, 20) is provided in a vertical stacking arrangement to reduce electrolyte stratification and short circuiting due to flaking of positive and negative active materials from the monoplates.

Rowlette, John J. (Inventor)

1983-01-01

457

Acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse for lactic acid production.  

PubMed

In order to use sugarcane bagasse as a substrate for lactic acid production, optimum conditions for acid hydrolysis of the bagasse were investigated. After lignin extraction, the conditions were varied in terms of hydrochloric (HCl) or sulfuric (H(2)SO(4)) concentration (0.5-5%, v/v), reaction time (1-5h) and incubation temperature (90-120 degrees C). The maximum catalytic efficiency (E) was 10.85 under the conditions of 0.5% of HCl at 100 degrees C for 5h, which the main components (in gl(-1)) in the hydrolysate were glucose, 1.50; xylose, 22.59; arabinose, 1.29; acetic acid, 0.15 and furfural, 1.19. To increase yield of lactic acid production from the hydrolysate by Lactococcus lactis IO-1, the hydrolysate was detoxified through amberlite and supplemented with 7 g l(-1) of xylose and 7 g l(-1) of yeast extract. The main products (in gl(-1)) of the fermentation were lactic acid, 10.85; acetic acid, 7.87; formic acid, 6.04 and ethanol, 5.24. PMID:19766480

Laopaiboon, Pattana; Thani, Arthit; Leelavatcharamas, Vichean; Laopaiboon, Lakkana

2010-02-01

458

Formation of acrylic acid from lactic acid in supercritical water  

SciTech Connect

Supercritical (SC) water is an unusual medium in which fast and specific heterolytic reactions can be conducted at temperatures as high as 400{degree}C. In supercritical water, lactic acid decomposes into gaseous and liquid products via three primary reaction pathways. Products of the acid-catalyzed heterolytic decarbonylation pathway are carbon monoxide, water, and acetaldehyde. Products of the homolytic, decarboxylation pathway are carbon dioxide, hydrogen, and acetaldehyde. Products of the heterolytic, dehydration pathway are acrylic acid and water. The intramolecular nucleophilic displacement of the {alpha}-hydroxyl by the carbonyl group of lactic acid, producing {alpha}-propiolactone as an unstable intermediate which subsequently rearranges to become the unsaturated acid, is a likely mechanism for acrylic acid formation, although an intramolecular E2 elimination initiated by attack of the carbonyl oxygen on a methyl hydrogen cannot be ruled out. Support for the former mechanism comes in part from the observed 100% relative yield of acrylic acid from {beta}-propiolactone in SC water.

Mok, W.S.L.; Antal, M.J. Jr. (Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu (USA)); Jones, M. Jr. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA))

1989-09-15

459

Reduction of hypervalent chromium in acidic media by alginic acid.  

PubMed

Selective oxidation of carboxylate groups present in alginic acid by Cr(VI) affords CO2, oxidized alginic acid, and Cr(III) as final products. The redox reaction afforded first-order kinetics in [alginic acid], [Cr(VI)], and [H(+)], at fixed ionic strength and temperature. Kinetic studies showed that the redox reaction proceeds through a mechanism which combines Cr(VI)?Cr(IV)?Cr(II) and Cr(VI)?Cr(IV)?Cr(III) pathways. The mechanism was supported by the observation of free radicals, CrO2(2+) and Cr(V) as reaction intermediates. The reduction of Cr(IV) and Cr(V) by alginic acid was independently studied and it was found to occur more than 10(3) times faster than alginic acid/Cr(VI) reaction, in acid media. At pH 1-3, oxo-chromate(V)-alginic acid species remain in solution during several hours at 15°C. The results showed that this abundant structural polysaccharide present on brown seaweeds is able to reduce Cr(VI/V/IV) or stabilize high-valent chromium depending on pH value. PMID:25263857

Bertoni, Fernando A; Bellú, Sebastian E; González, Juan C; Sala, Luis F

2014-12-19