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1

Deconstruction of 6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline moiety to separate P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity from ?2 receptor affinity in mixed P-gp/?2 receptor agents.  

PubMed

6,7-Dimethoxytetrahydroisoquinoline is widely used as basic moiety in ?2 receptor ligands, in order to provide ?2versus ?1 selectivity. This same moiety is also widely exploited in modulators of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump, so that mixed ?2/P-gp agents are often obtained. Deconstruction of 6,7-dimethoxytetrahydroisoquinoline moiety present in the potent mixed ?2/P-gp agent 6,7-dimethoxy-2-[4-[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-indol-3-yl]butyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (1) could lead to the separation of ?2 affinity from P-gp activity. Therefore, phenethylamino-, benzylamino- and indanamine series were obtained. The NH group was also methylated in the N-phenethylamino series, and ethylated in the benzylamino series, to better match 6,7-dimethoxytetrahydroisoquinoline. The ?2 affinity drastically decreased with the increase of conformational freedom, whereas alkylation of the NH-group was beneficial for ?2 receptor interaction. By contrast, deconstruction of 6,7-dimethoxytetrahydroisoquinoline slightly reduced P-gp activity, with dimethoxy-substituted derivatives displaying potent P-gp interaction. Therefore, 'ring-opened' 6,7-dimethoxytetrahydroisoquinoline derivatives represent a promising strategy to obtain P-gp selective agents devoid of ?2 receptor affinity. PMID:25462276

Pati, Maria Laura; Abate, Carmen; Contino, Marialessandra; Ferorelli, Savina; Luisi, Renzo; Carroccia, Laura; Niso, Mauro; Berardi, Francesco

2015-01-01

2

Imaging P-glycoprotein Transport Activity at the Human Blood-brain Barrier with Positron Emission Tomography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Numerous knockout mouse studies have revealed that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) significantly limits drug distribution across the mouse blood-brain barrier (BBB). To determine the importance of P-gp at the human BBB, we developed a state-of-the-art, noninvasive, quantitative imaging technique to measure P-gp activity by use of carbon 11-labeled verapamil as the P-gp substrate and cyclosporine (INN, ciclosporin) as the P-gp inhibitor.Methods:

Lucy Sasongko; Jeanne M. Link; Mark Muzi; David A. Mankoff; Xiaodong Yang; Ann C. Collier; Steven C. Shoner; Jashvant D. Unadkat

2005-01-01

3

Localization and Differential Activity of P-glycoprotein in the Bovine Olfactory and Nasal Respiratory Mucosae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is localized in the olfactory mucosa and is capable of limiting the nose-to-brain transport of substrates. Bovine olfactory and nasal respiratory mucosae were compared to both localize P-gp and to measure its activity within the epithelia. Methods. Immunolocalization was performed on the bovine olfactory and nasal respiratory mucosa

Karunya K. Kandimalla; Maureen D. Donovan

2005-01-01

4

P-glycoprotein Inhibition Increases the Brain Distribution and Antidepressant-Like Activity of Escitalopram in Rodents  

PubMed Central

Despite the clinical prevalence of the antidepressant escitalopram, over 30% of escitalopram-treated patients fail to respond to treatment. Recent gene association studies have highlighted a potential link between the drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and response to escitalopram. The present studies investigated pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between P-gp and escitalopram. In vitro bidirectional transport studies revealed that escitalopram is a transported substrate of human P-gp. Microdialysis-based pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that administration of the P-gp inhibitor cyclosporin A resulted in increased brain levels of escitalopram without altering plasma escitalopram levels in the rat, thereby showing that P-gp restricts escitalopram transport across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) in vivo. The tail suspension test (TST) was carried out to elucidate the pharmacodynamic impact of P-gp inhibition on escitalopram effect in a mouse model of antidepressant activity. Pre-treatment with the P-gp inhibitor verapamil enhanced the response to escitalopram in the TST. Taken together, these data indicate that P-gp may restrict the BBB transport of escitalopram in humans, potentially resulting in subtherapeutic brain concentrations in certain patients. Moreover, by verifying that increasing escitalopram delivery to the brain by P-gp inhibition results in enhanced antidepressant-like activity, we suggest that adjunctive treatment with a P-gp inhibitor may represent a beneficial approach to augment escitalopram therapy in depression. PMID:23670590

O'Brien, Fionn E; O'Connor, Richard M; Clarke, Gerard; Dinan, Timothy G; Griffin, Brendan T; Cryan, John F

2013-01-01

5

Liquorice reduced cyclosporine bioavailability by activating P-glycoprotein and CYP 3A.  

PubMed

Liquorice (root of Glycyrrhiza uralensis FISCH) is an ingredient of candies and used as a popular medicine in Europe and oriental countries. Cyclosporine (CsA), an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window, is widely used in transplant patients. The absorption and disposition of CsA were associated with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). This study investigated the effects of liquorice extract (LE) and its major ingredient, glycyrrhizin (GZ), on CsA pharmacokinetics in rats. The results indicated that LE and GZ significantly decreased the peak blood concentration and the areas under the curves of CsA in rats. Mechanism studies revealed that glycyrrhetic acid (GA), the major metabolite of GZ, significantly activated the functions of P-gp and CYP3A4. In conclusion, liquorice significantly reduced the oral bioavailability of CsA through activating P-gp and CYP3A4. PMID:22980806

Hou, Yu-Chi; Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee

2012-12-15

6

Loss of Cyclosporin and Azidopine Binding Are Associated with Altered ATPase Activity by a Mutant P-glycoprotein with  

E-print Network

Loss of Cyclosporin and Azidopine Binding Are Associated with Altered ATPase Activity by a Mutant P a mutant P-glycoprotein (P-gp) that has a deletion of Phe335 and is resistant to inhibition by cyclosporins. Photoaffinity labeling with [3 H]cyclosporine and [3 H]azidopine revealed markedly decreased binding

Ford, James

7

Changes in P-glycoprotein activity are mediated by the growth of a tumour cell line as multicellular spheroids  

PubMed Central

Background Expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the multidrug resistance (MDR) 1 gene product, can lead to multidrug resistance in tumours. However, the physiological role of P-gp in tumours growing as multicellular spheroids is not well understood. Recent evidence suggests that P-gp activity may be modulated by cellular components such as membrane proteins, membrane-anchoring proteins or membrane-lipid composition. Since, multicellular spheroids studies have evidenced alterations in numerous cellular components, including those related to the plasma membrane function, result plausible that some of these changes might modulate P-gp function and be responsible for the acquisition of multicellular drug resistance. In the present study, we asked if a human lung cancer cell line (INER-51) grown as multicellular spheroids can modify the P-gp activity to decrease the levels of doxorubicin (DXR) retained and increase their drug resistance. Results Our results showed that INER-51 spheroids retain 3-folds lower doxorubicin than the same cells as monolayers however; differences in retention were not observed when the P-gp substrate Rho-123 was used. Interestingly, neither the use of the P-gp-modulating agent cyclosporin-A (Cs-A) nor a decrease in ATP-pools were able to increase DXR retention in the multicellular spheroids. Only the lack of P-gp expression throughout the pharmacological selection of a P-gp negative (P-gpneg) mutant clone (PSC-1) derived from INER-51 cells, allow increase of DXR retention in spheroids. Conclusion Thus, multicellular arrangement appears to alter the P-gp activity to maintain lower levels of DXR. However, the non expression of P-gp by cells forming multicellular spheroids has only a minor impact in the resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:16001980

Valeria, Ponce de León; Raúl, Barrera-Rodríguez

2005-01-01

8

Development of Novel Rifampicin-Derived P-Glycoprotein Activators/Inducers. Synthesis, In Silico Analysis and Application in the RBE4 Cell Model, Using Paraquat as Substrate  

PubMed Central

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a 170 kDa transmembrane protein involved in the outward transport of many structurally unrelated substrates. P-gp activation/induction may function as an antidotal pathway to prevent the cytotoxicity of these substrates. In the present study we aimed at testing rifampicin (Rif) and three newly synthesized Rif derivatives (a mono-methoxylated derivative, MeORif, a peracetylated derivative, PerAcRif, and a reduced derivative, RedRif) to establish their ability to modulate P-gp expression and activity in a cellular model of the rat’s blood–brain barrier, the RBE4 cell line P-gp expression was assessed by western blot using C219 anti-P-gp antibody. P-gp function was evaluated by flow cytometry measuring the accumulation of rhodamine123. Whenever P-gp activation/induction ability was detected in a tested compound, its antidotal effect was further tested using paraquat as cytotoxicity model. Interactions between Rif or its derivatives and P-gp were also investigated by computational analysis. Rif led to a significant increase in P-gp expression at 72 h and RedRif significantly increased both P-gp expression and activity. No significant differences were observed for the other derivatives. Pre- or simultaneous treatment with RedRif protected cells against paraquat-induced cytotoxicity, an effect reverted by GF120918, a P-gp inhibitor, corroborating the observed P-gp activation ability. Interaction of RedRif with P-gp drug-binding pocket was consistent with an activation mechanism of action, which was confirmed with docking studies. Therefore, RedRif protection against paraquat-induced cytotoxicity in RBE4 cells, through P-gp activation/induction, suggests that it may be useful as an antidote for cytotoxic substrates of P-gp. PMID:23991219

Vilas-Boas, Vânia; Silva, Renata; Palmeira, Andreia; Sousa, Emília; Ferreira, Luísa Maria; Branco, Paula Sério; Carvalho, Félix; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Remião, Fernando

2013-01-01

9

Effects of steroids and verapamil on P-glycoprotein ATPase activity: progesterone, desoxycorticosterone, corticosterone and verapamil are mutually non-exclusive modulators.  

PubMed Central

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a membranous ATPase responsible for the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype. Using membrane vesicles prepared from the highly resistant cell line DC-3F/ADX we studied the influence of P-gp ATPase activity of four progesterone derivatives which specifically bind to P-gp and reverse MDR. Progesterone and desoxycorticosterone stimulate P-gp ATPase activity with, respectively, apparent concentrations giving half-maximal activation of 20-25 microM and 40-50 microM, and activation factors of 2.3 (at 100 microM progesterone) and 1.8 (at 170 microM desoxycorticosterone). Hydrocortisone above 100 microM stimulates P-gp ATPase activity while corticosterone has no apparent stimulating effect. Our data are consistent with the location of the binding sites for the progesterone derivatives on the P-gp membranous domain. The effects of these steroids on verapamil-stimulated P-gp ATPase activity support a non-competitive mechanism, i.e. the binding sites for verapamil and steroids are mutually non-exclusive for P-gp ATPase modulation. A similar non-competitive inhibition of progesterone-stimulated P-gp ATPase activity by desoxycorticosterone or by corticosterone leads to the conclusion that these steroids, although sharing related structures, have distinct modulating sites on P-gp. As expected from their mutually non-exclusive interactions on P-gp, progesterone and verapamil when mixed induce a synergistic modulation of P-gp ATPase activity. Since drug transport by P-gp is believed to be coupled to its ATPase activity, a corresponding synergistic effect of these two modulators for the inhibition of P-gp-mediated drug resistance can be expected. PMID:8713080

Orlowski, S; Mir, L M; Belehradek, J; Garrigos, M

1996-01-01

10

Activation of ?-catenin signalling by GSK-3 inhibition increases p-glycoprotein expression in brain endothelial cells  

PubMed Central

This study investigates involvement of ?-catenin signalling in regulation of p-glycoprotein (p-gp) expression in endothelial cells derived from brain vasculature. Pharmacological interventions that enhance or that block ?-catenin signalling were applied to primary rat brain endothelial cells and to immortalized human brain endothelial cells, hCMEC/D3, nuclear translocation of ?-catenin being determined by immunocytochemistry and by western blot analysis to confirm effectiveness of the manipulations. Using the specific glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) inhibitor 6-bromoindirubin-3?-oxime enhanced ?-catenin and increased p-gp expression including activating the MDR1 promoter. These increases were accompanied by increases in p-gp-mediated efflux capability as observed from alterations in intracellular fluorescent calcein accumulation detected by flow cytometry. Similar increases in p-gp expression were noted with other GSK-3 inhibitors, i.e. 1-azakenpaullone or LiCl. Application of Wnt agonist [2-amino-4-(3,4-(methylenedioxy) benzylamino)-6-(3-methoxyphenyl)pyrimidine] also enhanced ?-catenin and increased transcript and protein levels of p-gp. By contrast, down-regulating the pathway using Dickkopf-1 or quercetin decreased p-gp expression. Similar changes were observed with multidrug resistance protein 4 and breast cancer resistance protein, both known to be present at the blood–brain barrier. These results suggest that regulation of p-gp and other multidrug efflux transporters in brain vasculature can be influenced by ?-catenin signalling. PMID:18624906

Lim, Joseph C.; Kania, Katarzyna D.; Wijesuriya, Hasini; Chawla, Sangeeta; Sethi, Jaswinder K.; Pulaski, Lukasz; Romero, Ignacio A.; Couraud, Pierre O.; Weksler, Babette B.; Hladky, Stephen B.; Barrand, Margery A.

2015-01-01

11

Geneva Cocktail for Cytochrome P450 and P-Glycoprotein Activity Assessment Using Dried Blood Spots  

PubMed Central

The suitability of the capillary dried blood spot (DBS) sampling method was assessed for simultaneous phenotyping of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) using a cocktail approach. Ten volunteers received an oral cocktail capsule containing low doses of the probes bupropion (CYP2B6), flurbiprofen (CYP2C9), omeprazole (CYP2C19), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), midazolam (CYP3A), and fexofenadine (P-gp) with coffee/Coke (CYP1A2) on four occasions. They received the cocktail alone (session 1), and with the CYP inhibitors fluvoxamine and voriconazole (session 2) and quinidine (session 3). In session 4, subjects received the cocktail after a 7-day pretreatment with the inducer rifampicin. The concentrations of probes/metabolites were determined in DBS and plasma using a single liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method. The pharmacokinetic profiles of the drugs were comparable in DBS and plasma. Important modulation of CYP and P-gp activities was observed in the presence of inhibitors and the inducer. Minimally invasive one- and three-point (at 2, 3, and 6?h) DBS-sampling methods were found to reliably reflect CYP and P-gp activities at each session. PMID:24722393

Bosilkovska, M; Samer, C F; Déglon, J; Rebsamen, M; Staub, C; Dayer, P; Walder, B; Desmeules, J A; Daali, Y

2014-01-01

12

Geneva cocktail for cytochrome p450 and P-glycoprotein activity assessment using dried blood spots.  

PubMed

The suitability of the capillary dried blood spot (DBS) sampling method was assessed for simultaneous phenotyping of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) using a cocktail approach. Ten volunteers received an oral cocktail capsule containing low doses of the probes bupropion (CYP2B6), flurbiprofen (CYP2C9), omeprazole (CYP2C19), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), midazolam (CYP3A), and fexofenadine (P-gp) with coffee/Coke (CYP1A2) on four occasions. They received the cocktail alone (session 1), and with the CYP inhibitors fluvoxamine and voriconazole (session 2) and quinidine (session 3). In session 4, subjects received the cocktail after a 7-day pretreatment with the inducer rifampicin. The concentrations of probes/metabolites were determined in DBS and plasma using a single liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The pharmacokinetic profiles of the drugs were comparable in DBS and plasma. Important modulation of CYP and P-gp activities was observed in the presence of inhibitors and the inducer. Minimally invasive one- and three-point (at 2, 3, and 6 h) DBS-sampling methods were found to reliably reflect CYP and P-gp activities at each session. PMID:24722393

Bosilkovska, M; Samer, C F; Déglon, J; Rebsamen, M; Staub, C; Dayer, P; Walder, B; Desmeules, J A; Daali, Y

2014-09-01

13

Opioids and efflux transporters. Part 4: influence of N-substitution on P-glycoprotein substrate activity of noroxymorphone analogues.  

PubMed

The efflux transporter protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is capable of affecting the central distribution of diverse neurotherapeutics, including opioid analgesics, through their active removal from the brain. P-gp located at the blood brain barrier has been implicated in the development of tolerance to opioids and demonstrated to be up-regulated in rats tolerant to morphine and oxycodone. We have previously examined the influence of hydrogen-bonding oxo-substitutents on the P-gp-mediated efflux of 4,5-epoxymorphinan analgesics, as well as that of N-substituted analogues of meperidine. Structure-activity relationships (SAR) governing N-substituent effects on opioid efficacy is well-established, however the influence of such structural modifications on P-gp-mediated efflux is unknown. Here, we present SAR describing P-gp recognition of a short series of N-modified 4,5-epoxymorphinans. Oxymorphone, naloxone, naltrexone, and nalmexone all failed to demonstrate P-gp substrate activity, indicating these opioid scaffolds contain structural features that preclude recognition by the transporter. These results are examined using mathematical molecular modeling and discussed in comparison to other opioid scaffolds bearing similar N-substituents. PMID:24915880

Metcalf, Matthew D; Rosicky, Andrew D; Hassan, Hazem E; Eddington, Natalie D; Coop, Andrew; Cunningham, Christopher W; Mercer, Susan L

2014-08-01

14

Impact of P-glycoprotein on clopidogrel absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The antiplatelet activity of clopidogrel is characterized by considerable interindividual differences. Variable intestinal absorption is suggested to contribute to the inconsistencies in response. We tested the hypothesis that the intestinal efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) limits the oral bioavailability of clopidogrel and that variance in the MDR1 gene encoding P-gp predicts absorption variability.Methods and Results: P-gp–mediated transport of clopidogrel was

Dirk Taubert; Nicolas von Beckerath; Gundula Grimberg; Andreas Lazar; Norma Jung; Tobias Goeser; Adnan Kastrati; Albert Schömig; Edgar Schömig

2006-01-01

15

A bitter melon extract inhibits the P-glycoprotein activity in intestinal Caco-2 cells: monoglyceride as an active compound.  

PubMed

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a 170 kDa membrane protein that belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. In normal tissues, P-gp functions as an ATP-dependent efflux pump that excretes highly hydrophobic xenobiotic compounds, playing an important role in protecting the cells/tissues from xenobiotics. In the present study, chemical substances that could directly modulate the intestinal P-gp activity were searched in vegetables and fruits. By using human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells as a model of the small intestinal cells, we observed that a bitter melon fraction extracted from 40% methanol showed the greatest increase of the rhodamine-123 accumulation by Caco-2 cells. Inhibitory compounds in the bitter melon fraction were then isolated by HPLC using Pegasil C4 and Pegasil ODS columns. The HPLC fraction having the highest activity was analyzed by (1)H-NMR and FAB-MS, and the active compound was identified as 1-monopalmitin. It is interesting that certain types of monoglyceride might be involved in the drug bioavailability by specifically inhibiting the efflux mediated by P-gp. PMID:15630255

Konishi, Tomoko; Satsu, Hideo; Hatsugai, Yasuo; Aizawa, Koichi; Inakuma, Takahiro; Nagata, Shinji; Sakuda, Sho-hei; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Shimizu, Makoto

2004-01-01

16

Examination of the functional activity of P-glycoprotein in the rat placental barrier using rhodamine 123.  

PubMed

Rhodamine 123 (Rho123), a model substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), was used to evaluate the functional activity of P-gp efflux transporter in the rat placental barrier. The dually perfused rat-term placenta method was used. In our experiments, the materno-fetal transplacental passage of Rho123 did not meet the criteria of the first-order pharmacokinetics, suggesting an involvement of transporter-mediated process. Inhibitors of P-gp, such as [3'-keto-Bmt1]-[Val2]-cyclosporine (PSC833), cyclosporine (CsA), quinidine, and chlorpromazine, increased significantly the materno-fetal transplacental passage of Rho123 in the experiments under steady-state conditions. On the other hand, PSC833, CsA, and quinidine decreased the feto-maternal passage of Rho123. Similarly, in the experiments carried out under nonsteady-state conditions, CsA accelerated the passage of Rho123 in the materno-fetal direction and decreased its passage in the opposite direction. Feto-maternal transplacental clearances of Rho123 were found to be considerably higher than those in the materno-fetal course. Potent P-gp inhibitors, such as PSC833 or CsA, partially canceled the asymmetry. Negligible metabolism of Rho123 into its major demethylated metabolite rhodamine 110 was observed in the rat placenta. Expression of P-gp genes was detected using immunohistochemical, Western blotting, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction methods preferentially in the second rat syncytiotrophoblast layer. In conclusion, these data suggest that P-gp limits the entry of Rho123 into fetuses and at the same time it accelerates the feto-maternal elimination of the model compound. Therefore, it seems plausible that pharmacokinetics of xenobiotics in the rat placental barrier could be controlled by P-gp in both directions. PMID:12626638

Pavek, Petr; Staud, Frantisek; Fendrich, Zdenek; Sklenarova, Hana; Libra, Antonin; Novotna, Martina; Kopecky, Martin; Nobilis, Milan; Semecky, Vladimir

2003-06-01

17

Inhibitory effect of a bitter melon extract on the P-glycoprotein activity in intestinal Caco-2 cells.  

PubMed

Extracts of bitter melon, soybean, dokudami and welsh onion by 40% methanol increased the accumulation of rhodamine-123 by Caco-2 cells, suggesting that these extracts inhibited P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The extract of bitter melon was separated in a tC18 cartridge column and the eluate from 80% acetonitrile most markedly increased the [(3)H]-daunomycin accumulation by Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory compounds in the bitter melon fraction were isolated by HPLC with Pegasil C4 and Pegasil ODS columns. The HPLC fraction having the highest activity was analyzed by (1)H-NMR and FAB-MS, and the active compound was identified as 1-monopalmitin. The inhibitory activities of 1-monopalmitin and its related compounds suggested that the inhibition of P-gp activity was not dependent on the degree of unsaturation of fatty acid in the monoglyceride, but on the chain length. It was also suggested that the monoglyceride structure played an important role in the inhibition of P-gp activity. Monoglycerides could therefore alter the pharmacokinetics of drugs by inhibiting the P-gp-mediated efflux. PMID:15351776

Konishi, Tomoko; Satsu, Hideo; Hatsugai, Yasuo; Aizawa, Koichi; Inakuma, Takahiro; Nagata, Shinji; Sakuda, Sho-Hei; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Shimizu, Makoto

2004-10-01

18

Inhibitory effect of a bitter melon extract on the P-glycoprotein activity in intestinal Caco-2 cells  

PubMed Central

Extracts of bitter melon, soybean, dokudami and welsh onion by 40% methanol increased the accumulation of rhodamine-123 by Caco-2 cells, suggesting that these extracts inhibited P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The extract of bitter melon was separated in a tC18 cartridge column and the eluate from 80% acetonitrile most markedly increased the [3H]-daunomycin accumulation by Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory compounds in the bitter melon fraction were isolated by HPLC with Pegasil C4 and Pegasil ODS columns. The HPLC fraction having the highest activity was analyzed by 1H-NMR and FAB-MS, and the active compound was identified as 1-monopalmitin. The inhibitory activities of 1-monopalmitin and its related compounds suggested that the inhibition of P-gp activity was not dependent on the degree of unsaturation of fatty acid in the monoglyceride, but on the chain length. It was also suggested that the monoglyceride structure played an important role in the inhibition of P-gp activity. Monoglycerides could therefore alter the pharmacokinetics of drugs by inhibiting the P-gp-mediated efflux. PMID:15351776

Konishi, Tomoko; Satsu, Hideo; Hatsugai, Yasuo; Aizawa, Koichi; Inakuma, Takahiro; Nagata, Shinji; Sakuda, Sho-hei; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Shimizu, Makoto

2004-01-01

19

Comparative effects of drugs on P-glycoprotein expression and activity using rat and human trophoblast models.  

PubMed

The drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an active component of the placental barrier which protects the fetus against maternal xenobiotics. The goal of the study was to compare species difference between human and rat in terms of susceptibility to drugs at the level of the placental barrier using in vitro models in order to improve translation from rat to human. Effects of selected drugs (Aspirin, Methadone, a Cardiovascular Proprietary Compound, Thalidomide) on cytotoxicity and P-gp expression and activity were compared using human and rat trophoblast cultures. No direct cytotoxicity of drugs on trophoblasts was noted in both invitro models, but for Thalidomide a proliferative effect on human trophoblast primocultures was observed. All tested drugs induced changes towards P-gp; for each drug the same profile was noted in both human and rat trophoblast models except for Thalidomide. Observation of this similar response between these two in vitro trophoblast models is promising for assessment between P-gp expression and activity of drugs towards placental function. PMID:19840843

Beghin, D; Delongeas, J-L; Claude, N; Farinotti, R; Forestier, F; Gil, S

2010-03-01

20

In vitro activity of uva-ursi against cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and P-glycoprotein.  

PubMed

Some natural health products (NHPs) affect drug metabolism enzymes and transport proteins, potentially affecting the safety and efficacy of the drug or other NHPs. This study was undertaken to characterize the effect of uva-ursi (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) on cytochrome P450 isozyme (3A4, 3A5, 3A7, 2C19, and 19)-mediated metabolism and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transport. Three bulk and 2 capsulated uva-ursi samples were obtained from commercial outlets. The capsules were batched, and herbal samples were ground to a common consistency. Aqueous and methanol extracts were freshly prepared. Cytochrome P450 isozyme-mediated metabolism was determined by using in vitro bioassays. P-gp transport function was determined by using a rhodamine 123 (Rh123) uptake test in human (THP-1) monocytes and human Caco-2 cells. All products were analyzed by HPLC for arbutin, gallic acid, myricitrin, and isoquercetin. A large variation was observed in the biomarkers found between the bulk and capsulated samples. Our data indicate that both the aqueous and methanol extracts of all 5 uva-ursi products showed high cytochrome P450 isozyme inhibition, with the exception of the methanol extracts against cytochromes P3A4 and P19, which had low to moderate activity. The aqueous extracts of uva-ursi showed an inhibitory effect on Rh123 efflux by P-gp at 1 h and an inductive effect at 18 h for both cell lines. Our results show that the uva-ursi herbal products tested here have pharmacological properties, including the potential capacity to affect drug safety and efficacy. Further studies are warranted against a wider range of cytochrome P450 isozymes and to determine whether these effects are clinically significant. PMID:18066112

Chauhan, B; Yu, C; Krantis, A; Scott, I; Arnason, J T; Marles, R J; Foster, B C

2007-11-01

21

P-glycoprotein function in peripheral T lymphocyte subsets of myasthenia gravis patients: Clinical implications and influence of glucocorticoid administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an autoimmune neuromuscular disorder with a chronic clinical course that requires long-term glucocorticoid (GC) therapy. A drug efflux pump, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), actively transports GC out of target cells, thereby reducing its efficacy. We evaluated the P-gp function of peripheral-blood mononuclear cells in 59 MG patients. P-gp function was estimated from a decrease in fluorescent P-gp substrate

Sachiko Tanaka; Masayuki Masuda; Kanako Nakajima; Nobuhiro Ido; Takao Ohtsuka; Masashi Nishida; Hiroya Utsumi; Toshihiko Hirano

2009-01-01

22

Effect of organophosphate pesticide diazinon on expression and activity of intestinal P-glycoprotein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organophosphate insecticide diazinon is widely used in agricultural practices, submitting farmers to repeated exposure. Because efflux pumps, as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), serve both as natural defense mechanisms and influence the bioavailability and disposition of drugs, we analyzed the ability of diazinon to act as efflux modulator. Oral administration of diazinon (2–20mg\\/kg, 5 days, or 10mg\\/kg, 2–12 days) increased intestinal mdr1a mRNA

Sylvaine Lecoeur; Bernadette Videmann; Michèle Mazallon

2006-01-01

23

Mechanism of inhibition of P-glycoprotein mediated efflux by Pluronic P123/F127 block copolymers: relationship between copolymer concentration and inhibitory activity.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between the concentration of Pluronic P123/F127 block copolymers and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitory potency. Modulation of multidrug resistance (MDR) by Pluronic P123/F127 was evaluated in P-gp over-expressing human breast cancer cell line MCF-7/ADR and its non-P-gp over-expressing counterpart MCF-7 cells. Four different probes (known as P-gp substrates) including rhodamine 123 (R-123), rhodamine 6G (R-6G), doxorubicin (DOX), and paclitaxel (PTX) were applied to investigate the impact of Pluronic P123/F127 copolymers with different concentrations on the intracellular accumulation of these probes. Additionally, the intracellular ATP and mitochondrial transmembrane potential in MCF-7/ADR cells were determined over a wide concentration range of Pluronic P123/F127. Furthermore, the endocytic mechanisms of Pluronic micelles were performed. It was suggested that P-gp substrate hydrophobicity and the concentration of P123/F127 copolymers had little impact on P-gp inhibitory activity of Pluronic P123/F127 itself. Intracellular ATP depletion was the main mechanism of Pluronic P123/F127 for P-gp inhibition. In vitro cytotoxicity study was also conducted in order to compare cytotoxic effect among different PTX formulations. It indicated that the IC50 of PTX-loaded Pluronic P123/F127 mixed micelles was 6.3-fold lower than free PTX and 2.3-fold lower than Taxol, respectively. Therefore, Pluronic P123/F127 polymeric micelles could be considered a promising drug delivery system to overcome MDR in cancer therapy. PMID:23089310

Wei, Zhang; Yuan, Shi; Hao, Junguo; Fang, Xiaoling

2013-02-01

24

Demethoxycurcumin Modulates Human P-Glycoprotein Function via Uncompetitive Inhibition of ATPase Hydrolysis Activity.  

PubMed

Curcuminoids are major components of Curcuma longa L., which is widely used as spice in food. This study aimed at identifying whether curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin could modulate efflux function of human P-glycoprotein and be used as chemosensitizers in cancer treatments. Without altering P-glycoprotein expression levels and conformation, the purified curcuminoids significantly inhibited P-glycoprotein efflux function. In rhodamine 123 efflux and calcein-AM accumulation assays, demethoxycurcumin demonstrated the highest inhibition potency (inhibitory IC50 = 1.56 ± 0.13 ?M) among the purified curcuminoids, as well as in the fold of reversal assays. Demethoxycurcumin inhibited P-glycoprotein-mediated ATP hydrolysis under concentrations of <1 ?M and efficiently inhibited 200 ?M verapamil-stimulated ATPase activity, indicating a high affinity of demethoxycurcumin for P-glycoprotein. These results suggested that demethoxycurcumin may be a potential additive natural product in combination with chemotherapeutic agents in drug-resistant cancers. PMID:25594233

Teng, Yu-Ning; Hsieh, Yow-Wen; Hung, Chin-Chuan; Lin, Hui-Yi

2015-01-28

25

The ATPase Activity of the P-glycoprotein Drug Pump Is Highly Activated When the N-terminal and Central Regions of the Nucleotide-binding Domains Are Linked Closely Together*  

PubMed Central

The P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) drug pump protects us from toxic compounds and confers multidrug resistance. Each of the homologous halves of P-gp is composed of a transmembrane domain (TMD) with 6 TM segments followed by a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). The predicted drug- and ATP-binding sites reside at the interface between the TMDs and NBDs, respectively. Crystal structures and EM projection images suggest that the two halves of P-gp are separated by a central cavity that closes upon binding of nucleotide. Binding of drug substrates may induce further structural rearrangements because they stimulate ATPase activity. Here, we used disulfide cross-linking with short (8 ?) or long (22 ?) cross-linkers to identify domain-domain interactions that activate ATPase activity. It was found that cross-linking of cysteines that lie close to the LSGGQ (P517C) and Walker A (I1050C) sites of NBD1 and NBD2, respectively, as well as the cytoplasmic extensions of TM segments 3 (D177C or L175C) and 9 (N820C) with a short cross-linker activated ATPase activity over 10-fold. A pyrylium compound that inhibits ATPase activity blocked cross-linking at these sites. Cross-linking between the NBDs was not inhibited by tariquidar, a drug transport inhibitor that stimulates P-gp ATPase activity but is not transported. Cross-linking between extracellular cysteines (T333C/L975C) predicted to lock P-gp into a conformation that prevents close NBD association inhibited ATPase activity. The results suggest that trapping P-gp in a conformation in which the NBDs are closely associated likely mimics the structural rearrangements caused by binding of drug substrates that stimulate ATPase activity. PMID:22700974

Loo, Tip W.; Bartlett, M. Claire; Detty, Michael R.; Clarke, David M.

2012-01-01

26

Susceptibility of juvenile and adult blood–brain barrier to endothelin-1: regulation of P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein expression and transport activity  

PubMed Central

Background P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) play a critical role in keeping neurotoxic substances from entering the brain. We and others have previously reported an impact of inflammation on the regulation of adult blood–brain barrier (BBB) efflux transporters. However, studies in children have not been done. From the pediatric clinical perspective, it is important to understand how the central nervous system (CNS) and BBB drug efflux transporters differ in childhood from those of adults under normal and inflammatory conditions. Therefore, we examined and compared the regulation of P-gp and BCRP expression and transport activity in young and adult BBB and investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying inflammatory responses. Methods Rats at postnatal day (P) P21 and P84, corresponding to the juvenile and adult stages of human brain maturation, respectively, were treated with endothelin-1 (ET-1) given by the intracerebroventricular (icv) route. Twenty-four hours later, we measured P-gp and BCRP protein expression in isolated brain capillary by immunoblotting as well as by transport activity in vivo by measuring the unbound drug partitioning coefficient of the brain (Kp,uu,brain) of known efflux transporter substrates administered intravenously. Glial activation was measured by immunohistochemistry. The release of cytokines/chemokines (interleukins-1?, 1-? (IL-1?), -6 (IL-6), -10 (IL-10), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1/CCL2), fractalkine and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1)) were simultaneously measured in brain and serum samples using the Agilent Technology cytokine microarray. Results We found that juvenile and adult BBBs exhibited similar P-gp and BCRP transport activities in the normal physiological conditions. However, long-term exposure of the juvenile brain to low-dose of ET-1 did not change BBB P-gp transport activity but tended to decrease BCRP transport activity in the juvenile brain, while a significant increase of the activity of both transporters was evidenced at the BBB in the adult brain. Moreover, juvenile and adult brain showed differences in their expression profiles of cytokines and chemokines mediated by ET-1. Conclusions BBB transporter activity during neuroinflammation differs between the juvenile and adult brains. These findings emphasize the importance of considering differential P-gp and BCRP transport regulation mechanisms between adult and juvenile BBB in the context of neuroinflammation. PMID:23253775

2012-01-01

27

Sphingolipid signaling reduces basal P-glycoprotein activity in renal proximal tubule.  

PubMed

P-glycoprotein is an ATP-driven xenobiotic export pump that is highly expressed in barrier and excretory tissues, where it greatly influences drug pharmacokinetics. Recent studies in the blood-brain and spinal cord barriers identified a sphingolipid-based signaling pathway that regulates basal activity of P-glycoprotein. Here we use an established comparative renal model that permits direct measurement of P-glycoprotein activity to determine whether such signaling occurs in another tissue, killifish renal proximal tubule. Isolated killifish tubules exposed to 0.01-1.0 ?M sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) exhibited a profound decrease in P-glycoprotein transport activity, measured as specific accumulation of a fluorescent cyclosporine A derivative in the tubule lumen. Loss of activity had a rapid onset and was fully reversible when the S1P was removed. Transport mediated by multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) or a teleost fish organic anion transporter (Oat) was not affected. S1P effects were blocked by a specific S1P receptor 1 (S1PR1) antagonist and mimicked by a S1PR agonist. Sphingosine also reduced P-glycoprotein transport activity and those effects were blocked by an inhibitor of sphingosine kinase and by the S1PR1 antagonist. These results for a comparative renal model suggest that sphingolipid signaling to P-glycoprotein is not just restricted to the blood-brain and blood-spinal cord barriers, but occurs in other excretory and barrier tissues. PMID:24385389

Miller, David S

2014-03-01

28

Fas signaling promotes chemoresistance in gastrointestinal cancer by up-regulating P-glycoprotein  

PubMed Central

Fas signaling promotes metastasis of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer cells by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and EMT acquisition has been found to cause cancer chemoresistance. Here, we demonstrated that the response to chemotherapy of GI cancer patients with higher expression of FasL was significantly worse than patients with lower expression. Fas-induced activation of the ERK1/2-MAPK pathway decreased the sensitivity of GI cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents and promoted the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). FasL promoted chemoresistance of GI cancer cell via upregulation of P-gp by increasing ?-catenin and decreasing miR-145. ?-catenin promoted P-gp gene transcription by binding with P-gp promoter while miR-145 suppressed P-gp expression by interacting with the mRNA 3?UTR of P-gp. Immunostaining and qRT-PCR analysis of human GI cancer samples revealed a positive association among FasL, ?-catenin, and P-gp, but a negative correlation between miR-145 and FasL or P-gp. Altogether, our results showed Fas signaling could promote chemoresistance in GI cancer through modulation of P-gp expression by ?-catenin and miR-145. Our findings suggest that Fas signaling-based cancer therapies should be administered cautiously, as activation of this pathway may not only lead to apoptosis but also induce chemoresistance. PMID:25333257

Wang, Yadong; Lin, Shiyong; Chen, Jinmin; Wang, Jing; Wang, Zhiqing; Jiang, Bo

2014-01-01

29

Investigation of the Functional Role of P-Glycoprotein in Limiting the Oral Bioavailability of Lumefantrine  

PubMed Central

In the quest to explore the reason for the low and variable bioavailability of lumefantrine, we investigated the possible role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in lumefantrine intestinal absorption. An in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion study in rats with the P-gp inhibitor verapamil or quinidine and an ATPase assay with human P-gp membranes indicated that lumefantrine is a substrate of P-gp which limits its intestinal absorption. To confirm these findings, an in vivo pharmacokinetic study was performed in rats. The oral administration of verapamil (10 mg/kg of body weight) along with lumefantrine caused a significant increase in its bioavailability with a concomitant decrease in clearance. The increase in bioavailability of lumefantrine could be due to inhibition of P-gp and/or cytochrome P450 3A in the intestine/liver by verapamil. However, in a rat intestinal microsomal stability study, lumefantrine was found to be resistant to oxidative metabolism. Further, an in situ permeation study clearly showed a significant role of P-gp in limiting the oral absorption of lumefantrine. Thus, the increase in lumefantrine bioavailability with verapamil is attributed in part to the P-gp-inhibitory ability of verapamil. In conclusion, lumefantrine is a substrate of P-gp, and active efflux by P-gp across the intestine partly contributed to the low/variable bioavailability of lumefantrine. PMID:24189249

Raju, Kanumuri S. R.; Singh, Sheelendra P.; Taneja, Isha

2014-01-01

30

Rhodamine Inhibitors of P-glycoprotein: An Amide/Thioamide “Switch” for ATPase Activity  

PubMed Central

We have examined 46 tetramethylrosamine/rhodamine derivatives with structural diversity in the heteroatom of the xanthylium core, the amino substituents of the 3- and 6-positions, and the alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl group at the 9-substituent. These compounds were examined for affinity and ATPase stimulation in isolated MDR3 CL P-gp and human P-gp-His10, for their ability to promote uptake of calcein AM and vinblastine in multidrug-resistant MDCKII-MDR1 cells, and for transport in monolayers of MDCKII-MDR1 cells. Thioamide 31-S gave KM of 0.087 ?M in human P-gp. Small changes in structure among this set of compounds affected affinity as well as transport rate (or flux) even though all derivatives examined were substrates for P-gp. With isolated protein, tertiary amide groups dictate high affinity and high stimulation while tertiary thioamide groups give high affinity and inhibition of ATPase activity. In MDCKII-MDR1 cells, the tertiary thioamide-containing derivatives promote uptake of calcein AM and have very slow passive, absorptive, and secretory rates of transport relative to transport rates for tertiary amide-containing derivatives. Thioamide 31-S promoted uptake of calcein AM and inhibited efflux of vinblastine with IC50’s of ~2 ?M in MDCKII-MDR1 cells. PMID:19402665

Gannon, Michael K.; Holt, Jason J.; Bennett, Stephanie M.; Wetzel, Bryan R.; Loo, Tip W.; Bartlett, M. Claire; Clarke, David M.; Sawada, Geri A.; Higgins, J. William; Tombline, Gregory; Raub, Thomas J.; Detty, Michael R.

2012-01-01

31

Structure–Activity Relationships, Ligand Efficiency, and Lipophilic Efficiency Profiles of Benzophenone-Type Inhibitors of the Multidrug Transporter P-Glycoprotein  

PubMed Central

The drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) has been shown to promote multidrug resistance (MDR) in tumors as well as to influence ADME properties of drug candidates. Here we synthesized and tested a series of benzophenone derivatives structurally analogous to propafenone-type inhibitors of P-gp. Some of the compounds showed ligand efficiency and lipophilic efficiency (LipE) values in the range of compounds which entered clinical trials as MDR modulators. Interestingly, although lipophilicity plays a dominant role for P-gp inhibitors, all compounds investigated showed LipE values below the threshold for promising drug candidates. Docking studies of selected analogues into a homology model of P-glycoprotein suggest that benzophenones show an interaction pattern similar to that previously identified for propafenone-type inhibitors. PMID:22452412

2012-01-01

32

From mixed sigma-2 receptor/P-glycoprotein targeting agents to selective P-glycoprotein modulators: Small structural changes address the mechanism of interaction at the efflux pump.  

PubMed

Generations of modulators of the efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) have been produced as tools to counteract the Multidrug Resistance (MDR) phenomenon in tumor therapy, but clinical trials were not successful so far. With the aim of contributing to the development of novel P-gp modulators, we started from recently studied high-affinity sigma-2 (?2) receptor ligands that showed also potent interaction with P-gp. For ?2 receptors high-affinity binding, a basic N-atom is a strict requirement. Therefore, we reduced the basic character of the N-atom present in these ligands, and we obtained potent P-gp modulators with poor or null ?2 receptor affinity. We also evaluated whether modulation of P-gp by these novel compounds involved consumption of ATP (as P-gp substrates do), as a source of energy to support the efflux. Surprisingly, even small structural changes resulted in opposite behavior, with amide 13 depleting ATP, in contrast to its isomer 18. Two compounds, 15 and 25, emerged for their potent activity at P-gp, and deserve further investigations as tools for P-gp modulation. PMID:25462269

Abate, Carmen; Pati, Maria Laura; Contino, Marialessandra; Colabufo, Nicola Antonio; Perrone, Roberto; Niso, Mauro; Berardi, Francesco

2015-01-01

33

Functional impact of ABCB1 variants on interactions between P-glycoprotein and methadone.  

PubMed

Methadone is a widely used substitution therapy for opioid addiction. Large inter-individual variability has been observed in methadone maintenance dosages and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was considered to be one of the major contributors. To investigate the mechanism of P-gp's interaction with methadone, as well as the effect of genetic variants on the interaction, Flp-In™-293 cells stably transfected with various genotypes of human P-gp were established in the present study. The RNA and protein expression levels of human P-gp were confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. Utilizing rhodamine 123 efflux assay and calcein-AM uptake study, methadone was demonstrated to be an inhibitor of wild-type human P-gp via non-competitive kinetic (IC50?=?2.17±0.10 µM), while the variant-type human P-gp, P-gp with 1236T-2677T-3435T genotype and P-gp with 1236T-2677A-3435T genotype, showed less inhibition potency (IC50?=?2.97±0.09 µM and 4.43±1.10 µM, respectively) via uncompetitive kinetics. Methadone also stimulated P-gp ATPase and inhibited verapamil-stimulated P-gp ATPase activity under therapeutic concentrations. These results may provide a possible explanation for higher methadone dosage requirements in patients carrying variant-type of P-gp and revealed the possible drug-drug interactions in patients who receive concomitant drugs which are also P-gp substrates. PMID:23527191

Hung, Chin-Chuan; Chiou, Mu-Han; Teng, Yu-Ning; Hsieh, Yow-Wen; Huang, Chieh-Liang; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

2013-01-01

34

Functional Impact of ABCB1 Variants on Interactions between P-Glycoprotein and Methadone  

PubMed Central

Methadone is a widely used substitution therapy for opioid addiction. Large inter-individual variability has been observed in methadone maintenance dosages and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was considered to be one of the major contributors. To investigate the mechanism of P-gp’s interaction with methadone, as well as the effect of genetic variants on the interaction, Flp-In™-293 cells stably transfected with various genotypes of human P-gp were established in the present study. The RNA and protein expression levels of human P-gp were confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. Utilizing rhodamine 123 efflux assay and calcein-AM uptake study, methadone was demonstrated to be an inhibitor of wild-type human P-gp via non-competitive kinetic (IC50?=?2.17±0.10 µM), while the variant-type human P-gp, P-gp with 1236T-2677T-3435T genotype and P-gp with 1236T-2677A-3435T genotype, showed less inhibition potency (IC50?=?2.97±0.09 µM and 4.43±1.10 µM, respectively) via uncompetitive kinetics. Methadone also stimulated P-gp ATPase and inhibited verapamil-stimulated P-gp ATPase activity under therapeutic concentrations. These results may provide a possible explanation for higher methadone dosage requirements in patients carrying variant-type of P-gp and revealed the possible drug-drug interactions in patients who receive concomitant drugs which are also P-gp substrates. PMID:23527191

Hung, Chin-Chuan; Chiou, Mu-Han; Teng, Yu-Ning; Hsieh, Yow-Wen; Huang, Chieh-Liang; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

2013-01-01

35

The P-glycoprotein Inhibitor GF120918 Modulates Ca2+-Dependent Processes and Lipid Metabolism in Toxoplasma Gondii  

PubMed Central

Up-regulation of the membrane-bound efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is associated with the phenomenon of multidrug-resistance in pathogenic organisms, including protozoan parasites. In addition, P-gp plays a role in normal physiological processes, however our understanding of these P-gp functions remains limited. In this study we investigated the effects of the P-gp inhibitor GF120918 in Toxoplasma gondii, a model apicomplexan parasite and an important human pathogen. We found that GF120918 treatment severely inhibited parasite invasion and replication. Further analyses of the molecular mechanisms involved revealed that the P-gp inhibitor modulated parasite motility, microneme secretion and egress from the host cell, all cellular processes known to depend on Ca2+ signaling in the parasite. In support of a potential role of P-gp in Ca2+-mediated processes, immunoelectron and fluorescence microscopy showed that T. gondii P-gp was localized in acidocalcisomes, the major Ca2+ storage in the parasite, at the plasma membrane, and in the intravacuolar tubular network. In addition, metabolic labeling of extracellular parasites revealed that inhibition or down-regulation of T. gondii P-gp resulted in aberrant lipid synthesis. These results suggest a crucial role of T. gondii P-gp in essential processes of the parasite biology and further validate the potential of P-gp activity as a target for drug development. PMID:20386707

Bottova, Iveta; Sauder, Ursula; Olivieri, Vesna; Hehl, Adrian B.; Sonda, Sabrina

2010-01-01

36

Astroglial expression of the P-glycoprotein is controlled by intracellular CNTF  

PubMed Central

Background The P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP binding cassette transmembrane transporter, is expressed by astrocytes in the adult brain, and is positively modulated during astrogliosis. In a search for factors involved in this modulation, P-gp overexpression was studied in long-term in vitro astroglial cultures. Results Surprisingly, most factors that are known to induce astroglial activation in astroglial cultures failed to increase P-gp expression. The only effective proteins were IFN? and those belonging to the IL-6 family of cytokines (IL-6, LIF, CT-1 and CNTF). As well as P-gp expression, the IL-6 type cytokines - but not IFN? - stimulated the expression of endogenous CNTF in astrocytes. In order to see whether an increased intracellular level of CNTF was necessary for induction of P-gp overexpression by IL-6 type cytokines, by the same cytokines analysis was carried out on astrocytes obtained from CNTF knockout mice. In these conditions, IFN? produced increased P-gp expression, but no overexpression of P-gp was observed with either IL-6, LIF or CT-1, pointing to a role of CNTF in the intracellular signalling pathway leading to P-gp overexpression. In agreement with this suggestion, application of exogenous CNTF -which is internalised with its receptor - produced an overexpression of P-gp in CNTF-deficient astrocytes. Conclusions These results reveal two different pathways regulating P-gp expression and activity in reactive astrocytes, one of which depends upon the intracellular concentration of CNTF. This regulation of P-gp may be one of the long searched for physiological roles of CNTF. PMID:12150717

Monville, Christelle; Fages, Christiane; Feyens, Anne-Marie; d'Hondt, Véronique; Guillet, Catherine; Vernallis, Ann; Gascan, Hugues; Peschanski, Marc

2002-01-01

37

Small molecules that dramatically alter multidrug resistance phenotype by modulating the substrate specificity of P-glycoprotein  

PubMed Central

By screening a chemical library for the compounds protecting cells from adriamycin (Adr), a series of small molecules was isolated that interfered with the accumulation of Adr in mouse fibroblasts by enhancing efflux of the drug. Isolated compounds also stimulated efflux of Rhodamine 123 (Rho-123), another substrate of multidrug transporters. Stimulation of drug efflux was detectable in the cells expressing P-glycoprotein (P-gp), but not in their P-gp-negative variants, and was completely reversible by the P-gp inhibitors. A dramatic stimulation of P-gp activity against Adr and Rho-123 by the identified compounds was accompanied by suppression of P-gp-mediated efflux of other substrates, such as Taxol (paclitaxel) or Hoechst 33342, indicating that they act as modulators of substrate specificity of P-gp. Consistently, P-gp modulators dramatically altered the pattern of cross-resistance of P-gp-expressing cells to different P-gp substrates: an increase in resistance to Adr, daunorubicin, and etoposide was accompanied by cell sensitization to Vinca alkaloids, gramicidin D, and Taxol with no effect on cell sensitivity to colchicine, actinomycin D, puromycin, and colcemid, as well as to several non-P-gp substrates. The relative effect of P-gp modulators against different substrates varied among the isolated compounds that can be used as fine tools for analyzing mechanisms of drug selectivity of P-gp. These results raise the possibility of a rational control over cell sensitivity to drugs and toxins through modulation of P-gp activity by small molecules. PMID:11707575

Kondratov, Roman V.; Komarov, Pavel G.; Becker, Yigal; Ewenson, Ariel; Gudkov, Andrei V.

2001-01-01

38

Differential involvement of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) in permeability, tissue distribution, and antinociceptive activity of methadone, buprenorphine, and diprenorphine: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.  

PubMed

Conclusions based on either in vitro or in vivo approach to evaluate the P-gp affinity status of opioids may be misleading. For example, in vitro studies indicated that fentanyl is a P-gp inhibitor while in vivo studies indicated that it is a P-gp substrate. Quite the opposite was evident for meperidine. The objective of this study was to evaluate the P-gp affinity status of methadone, buprenorphine and diprenorphine to predict P-gp-mediated drug-drug interactions and to determine a better candidate for management of opioid dependence. Two in vitro (P-gp ATPase and monolayer efflux) assays and two in vivo (tissue distribution and antinociceptive evaluation in mdr1a/b (-/-) mice) assays were used. Methadone stimulated the P-gp ATPase activity only at higher concentrations, while verapamil and GF120918 inhibited its efflux (p < 0.05). The brain distribution and antinociceptive activity of methadone were enhanced (p < 0.05) in P-gp knockout mice. Conversely, buprenorphine and diprenorphine were negative in all assays. P-gp can affect the PK/PD of methadone, but not buprenorphine or diprenorphine. Our report is in favor of buprenorphine over methadone for management of opioid dependence. Buprenorphine most likely is not a P-gp substrate and concerns regarding P-gp-mediated drug-drug interaction are not expected. PMID:19370547

Hassan, Hazem E; Myers, Alan L; Coop, Andrew; Eddington, Natalie D

2009-12-01

39

Effects of P-glycoprotein and its inhibitors on apoptosis in K562 cells.  

PubMed

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a major factor in multidrug resistance (MDR) which is a serious obstacle in chemotherapy. P-gp has also been implicated in causing apoptosis of tumor cells, which was shown to be another important mechanism of MDR recently. To study the influence of P-gp in tumor cell apoptosis, K562/A cells (P-gp+) and K562/S cells (P-gp-) were subjected to doxorubicin (Dox), serum withdrawal, or independent co-incubation with multiple P-gp inhibitors, including valspodar (PSC833), verapamil (Ver) and H108 to induce apoptosis. Apoptosis was simultaneously detected by apoptotic rate, cell cycle by flow cytometry and cysteine aspartic acid-specific protease 3 (caspase 3) activity by immunoassay. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by PSC833 were evaluated through an MTT method and apoptosis rate, and cell cycle combined with caspase 3 activity, respectively. The results show that K562/A cells are more resistant to apoptosis and cell cycle arrest than K562/S cells after treatment with Dox or serum deprivation. The apoptosis of K562/A cells increased after co-incubation with each of the inhibitors of P-gp. P-gp inhibitors also enhanced cell cycle arrest in K562/A cell. PSC833 most strikingly decreased viability and led to apoptosis and S phase arrest of cell cycle in K562/A cells. Our study demonstrates that P-gp inhibits the apoptosis of tumor cells in addition to participating in the efflux of intracellular chemotherapy drugs. The results of the caspase 3 activity assay also suggest that the role of P-gp in apoptosis avoidance is caspase-related. PMID:25157469

Zu, Yaqiong; Yang, Zhiyong; Tang, Songshan; Han, Ying; Ma, Jun

2014-01-01

40

Functional characterization of P-glycoprotein in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus and its potential role in remediating metal pollution.  

PubMed

The intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus has been widely used in aquatic toxicity testing for diverse environmental pollutants including metals. Despite relatively well-characterized in vivo physiological modulations in response to aquatic pollutants, the molecular mechanisms due to toxicity and detoxification are still unclear. To better understand the mechanisms of metal transport and further detoxification, T. japonicus P-glycoprotein (TJ-P-gp) with conserved motifs/domains was cloned and measured for protein activity against the transcript and protein expression profiles in response to metal exposure. Specifically, we characterized the preliminary efflux activity and membrane topology of TJ-P-gp protein that supports a transport function for chemicals. To uncover whether the efflux activity of TJ-P-gp protein would be modulated by metal treatment, copepods were exposed to three metals (Cd, Cu, and Zn), and were observed for both dose- and time-dependency on the efflux activity of TJ-P-gp protein with or without 10?M of P-gp-specific inhibitors verapamil and zosuquidar (LY335979) for 24h over a wide range of metal concentrations. In particular, treatment with zosuquidar induced metal accumulation in the inner body of T. japonicus. In addition, three metals significantly induced the transporting activity of TJ-P-gp in a concentration-dependent manner in both transcript and protein levels within 24h. Together these data indicate that T. japonicus has a conserved P-gp-mediated metal defense system through the induction of transcriptional up-regulation of TJ-P-gp gene and TJ-P-gp protein activity. This finding provides further understanding of the molecular defense mechanisms involved in P-glycoprotein-mediated metal detoxification in copepods. PMID:25198425

Jeong, Chang-Bum; Kim, Bo-Mi; Kim, Rae-Kwon; Park, Heum Gi; Lee, Su-Jae; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Leung, Kenneth Mei Yee; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Lee, Jae-Seong

2014-11-01

41

P-glycoprotein associates with Anxa2 and promotes invasion in multidrug resistant breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

Several recent studies have suggested that the acquisition of the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype is associated with elevated invasion and metastasis of tumor cells. P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the major determinant in the generation of the MDR phenotype, was reported to be correlated with a more aggressive phenotype and poor prognosis in many forms of malignancies. However, a clear understanding of the association is still lacking. We previously showed that Anxa2, a calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding protein, interacts with P-gp and contributes to the invasiveness of MDR breast cancer cells. In the present study, a strong positive correlation between MDR1 and Anxa2 mRNA expression in invasive breast cancer tissues during cancer progression was observed. In addition, exposure to adriamycin significantly enhanced motility in breast cancer cells and increased levels of P-gp and Anxa2. Moreover, inhibition of P-gp activity, using selective P-gp modulators, was found to significantly inhibit the invasive capacity of MCF-7/ADR cells without affecting the interaction and co-localization between P-gp and Anxa2. However, suppression of P-gp pump activity and knockdown of MDR1 expression both disrupted adriamycin-induced Anxa2 phosphorylation. Interestingly, P-gp was further demonstrated to interact with Src, a tyrosine kinase upstream of Anxa2. Taken together, our results indicate that P-gp may promote the invasion of MDR breast cancer cells by modulating the tyrosine phosphorylation of Anxa2. The interaction between Anxa2 and P-gp is possibly, at least in part, responsible for the association between MDR and invasive potential in breast cancer cells. PMID:24239898

Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Haichang; Wang, Zhiyong; Yu, Man; Tian, Ran; Ji, Wei; Yang, Yi; Niu, Ruifang

2014-01-15

42

Use of chemical chaperones in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to enhance heterologous membrane protein expression: high-yield expression and purification of human P-glycoprotein.  

PubMed

Utilizing human P-glycoprotein (P-gp), we investigated methods to enhance the heterologous expression of ATP-binding cassette transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Human multidrug resistance gene MDR1 cDNA was placed in a high-copy 2 mu yeast expression plasmid under the control of the inducible GAL1 promoter or the strong constitutive PMA1 promoter from which P-gp was expressed in functional form. Yeast cells expressing P-gp were valinomycin resistant. Basal ATPase activity of P-gp in yeast membranes was 0. 4-0.7 micromol/mg/min indicating excellent functionality. P-glycoprotein expressed in the protease-deficient strain BJ5457 was found in the plasma membrane and was not N-glycosylated. By use of the PMA1 promoter, P-gp could be expressed at 3% of total membrane protein. The expression level could be further enhanced to 8% when cells were grown in the presence of 10% glycerol as a chemical chaperone. Similarly, glycerol enhanced protein levels of P-gp expressed under control of the GAL1 promoter. Glycerol was demonstrated to enhance posttranslational stability of P-gp. Polyhistidine-tagged P-gp was purified by metal affinity chromatography and reconstituted into proteoliposomes in milligram quantities and its ATPase activity was characterized. Turnover numbers as high as 12 s(-1) were observed. The kinetic parameters K(MgATP)(M), V(max), and drug activation were dependent on the lipid composition of proteoliposomes and pH of the assay and were similar to P-gp purified from mammalian sources. In conclusion, we developed a system for cost-effective, high-yield, heterologous expression of functional P-gp useful in producing large quantities of normal and mutant P-gp forms for structural and mechanistic studies. PMID:10729188

Figler, R A; Omote, H; Nakamoto, R K; Al-Shawi, M K

2000-04-01

43

The elimination of P-glycoprotein over-expressing cancer cells by antimicrobial cationic peptide NK-2: the unique way of multi-drug resistance modulation.  

PubMed

Most chemotherapeutics harm normal cells causing severe side effects and induce the development of resistance in cancer cells. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), recognized as anti-cancer agents, may overcome these limitations. The most studied mechanism underlying multi-drug resistance (MDR) is the over-expression of cell membrane transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which extrudes a variety of hydrophobic drugs. Additionally, P-gp contributes to cell membrane composition and increases the net negative charge on cell surface. We postulated that NK-lysin derived cationic peptide NK-2 might discriminate and preferentially eliminate P-gp over-expressing cancer cells. To test this hypothesis, we employed MDR non-small cell lung carcinoma (NCI-H460/R) and colorectal carcinoma (DLD1-TxR) cell lines with high P-gp expression. MDR cancer cells that survived NK-2 treatment had decreased P-gp expression and were more susceptible to doxorubicin. We found that NK-2 more readily eliminated P-gp high-expressing cells. Acting in 'carpet-like' manner NK-2 co-localized with P-gp on the MDR cancer cell membrane. The inhibition of P-gp reduced the NK-2 effect in MDR cancer cells and, vice versa, NK-2 decreased P-gp transport activity. In conclusion, NK-2 could modulate MDR in unique way, eliminating the P-gp high-expressing cells from heterogeneous cancers and making them more vulnerable to classical drug treatment. PMID:23298945

Bankovi?, Jasna; Andrä, Jörg; Todorovi?, Nataša; Podolski-Reni?, Ana; Miloševi?, Zorica; Miljkovi?, Dor?e; Krause, Jannike; Ruždiji?, Sabera; Tani?, Nikola; Peši?, Milica

2013-04-15

44

Zinc Finger Nuclease-Mediated Gene Knockout Results in Loss of Transport Activity for P-Glycoprotein, BCRP, and MRP2 in Caco-2 Cells.  

PubMed

Membrane transporters P-glycoprotein [P-gp; multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1)], multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 2, and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) affect drug absorption and disposition and can also mediate drug-drug interactions leading to safety/toxicity concerns in the clinic. Challenges arise with interpreting cell-based transporter assays when substrates or inhibitors affect more than one actively expressed transporter and when endogenous or residual transporter activity remains following overexpression or knockdown of a given transporter. The objective of this study was to selectively knock out three drug efflux transporter genes (MDR1, MRP2, and BCRP), both individually as well as in combination, in a subclone of Caco-2 cells (C2BBe1) using zinc finger nuclease technology. The wild-type parent and knockout cell lines were tested for transporter function in Transwell bidirectional assays using probe substrates at 5 or 10 ?M for 2 hours at 37°C. P-gp substrates digoxin and erythromycin, BCRP substrates estrone 3-sulfate and nitrofurantoin, and MRP2 substrate 5-(and-6)-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescein each showed a loss of asymmetric transport in the MDR1, BCRP, and MRP2 knockout cell lines, respectively. Furthermore, transporter interactions were deduced for cimetidine, ranitidine, fexofenadine, and colchicine. Compared with the knockout cell lines, standard transporter inhibitors showed substrate-specific variation in reducing the efflux ratios of the test compounds. These data confirm the generation of a panel of stable Caco-2 cell lines with single or double knockout of human efflux transporter genes and a complete loss of specific transport activity. These cell lines may prove useful in clarifying complex drug-transporter interactions without some of the limitations of current chemical or genetic knockdown approaches. PMID:25388687

Sampson, Kathleen E; Brinker, Amanda; Pratt, Jennifer; Venkatraman, Neetu; Xiao, Yongling; Blasberg, Jim; Steiner, Toni; Bourner, Maureen; Thompson, David C

2015-02-01

45

Hydrogel-assisted functional reconstitution of human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) in giant liposomes.  

PubMed

This paper describes the formation of giant proteoliposomes containing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) from a solution of small proteoliposomes that had been deposited and partially dried on a film of agarose. This preparation method generated a significant fraction of giant proteoliposomes that were free of internalized vesicles, making it possible to determine the accessible liposome volume. Measuring the intensity of the fluorescent substrate rhodamine 123 (Rho123) inside and outside these giant proteoliposomes determined the concentration of transported substrates of P-gp. Fitting a kinetic model to the fluorescence data revealed the rate of passive diffusion as well as active transport by reconstituted P-gp in the membrane. This approach determined estimates for the membrane permeability coefficient (Ps) of passive diffusion and rate constants of active transport (kT) by P-gp as a result of different experimental conditions. The Ps value for Rho123 was larger in membranes containing P-gp under all assay conditions than in membranes without P-gp indicating increased leakiness in the presence of reconstituted transmembrane proteins. For P-gp liposomes, the kT value was significantly higher in the presence of ATP than in its absence or in the presence of ATP and the competitive inhibitor verapamil. This difference in kT values verified that P-gp was functionally active after reconstitution and quantified the rate of active transport. Lastly, patch clamp experiments on giant proteoliposomes showed ion channel activity consistent with a chloride ion channel protein that co-purified with P-gp. Together, these results demonstrate several advantages of using giant rather than small proteoliposomes to characterize transport properties of transport proteins and ion channels. PMID:25450342

Horger, Kim S; Liu, Haiyan; Rao, Divya K; Shukla, Suneet; Sept, David; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Mayer, Michael

2015-02-01

46

Grape Seed Procyanidin Reversal of P-glycoprotein Associated Multi-Drug Resistance via Down-regulation of NF-?B and MAPK/ERK Mediated YB-1 Activity in A2780/T Cells  

PubMed Central

The expression and function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is associated with the phenotype of multi-drug resistance (MDR), leading chemotherapy failure of patients suffered with cancer. Grape seed procyanidin(GSP) is a natural polyphenol supplement with anti-inflammatory effect. Present study assessed a new use of GSP on the MDR reversal activity and its possible molecular mechanisms in MDR1-overpressing paclitaxel resistant ovarian cancer cells. Our results showed GSP significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel and adriamycin in paclitaxel resistant A2780/T cells but its parental A2780 cells. Furthermore, GSP strongly inhibited P-gp expression by blocking MDR1 gene transcription, as well as, increased the intracellular accumulation of the P-gp substrate rhodamine-123 in A2780/T cells. Nuclear factor-?B(NF-?B) activity, I?B degradation level and NF-?B/p65 nuclear translocation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and receptor activator for nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL) were markedly inhibited by pre-treatment with GSP. Meanwhile, GSP inhibited MAPK/ERK pathway by decreasing the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, resulting in reduced the Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) activation with blocking its nuclear translocation. Moreover, the up-regulation of P-gp expression, the activation of AKT/NF-?B and MAPK/ERK pathway induced by LPS was attenuated by GSP administration. Compared with PDTC and U1026, inhibitor of NF-?B and MAPK/ERK respectively, GSP showed the same tendency of down-regulating NF-?B and MAPK/ERK mediated YB-1 activities. Thus, GSP reverses P-gp associated MDR by inhibiting the function and expression of P-gp through down-regulation of NF-?B activity and MAPK/ERK pathway mediated YB-1 nuclear translocation, offering insight into the mechanism of reversing MDR by natural polyphenol supplement compounds. GSP could be a new potential MDR reversal agent used for combination therapy with chemotherapeutics in clinic. PMID:23967153

Wang, Sheng-qi; Duan, Lian; Huo, Qi-lu; Ren, Fei; Li, Guo-feng

2013-01-01

47

Correlations between natural resistance to doxorubicin, proliferative activity, and expression of P-glycoprotein 170 in human kidney tumor cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The natural resistance to doxorubicin of 15 human renal carcinoma cell lines was analyzed and compared to proliferative activity and expression of P-glycoprotein. We found a significant negative correlation between proliferative activity and natural resistance to doxorubicin, as well as between proliferative activity and the expression of P-glycoprotein. A positive correlation between resistance and expression of P-glycoprotein was found.

T. Efferth; H. Löhrke; M. Volm

1990-01-01

48

Discovery of novel P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance inhibitors bearing triazole core via click chemistry.  

PubMed

A novel series of P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) inhibitors bearing a triazol-phenethyl-tetrahydroisoquinoline scaffold were designed and synthesized via click chemistry. Most of the synthesized compounds showed higher reversal activity than verapamil (VRP). Among them, the most potent compound 5 showed a comparable activity with the known potent P-gp inhibitor WK-X-34 with lower cytotoxicity (IC50s > 100 ?m). Compared with VRP, compound 5 exhibited more potency in increasing drug accumulation in K562/A02 MDR cells. Moreover, compound 5 persisted longer chemo-sensitizing effect (>24 h) than VRP (<6 h) with reversibility. Given the low intrinsic cytotoxicity and the potent reversal activity, compound 5 may represent a promising candidate for developing P-gp-mediated MDR inhibitor. PMID:24750961

Liu, Baomin; Qiu, Qianqian; Zhao, Tianxiao; Jiao, Lei; Hou, Jianyu; Li, Yunman; Qian, Hai; Huang, Wenlong

2014-08-01

49

Biochemical interaction of anti-HCV telaprevir with the ABC transporters P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein  

PubMed Central

Background The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/ABCB1 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)/ABCG2 are involved in the intestinal absorption and renal excretion of various substrate drugs. Their activities affect sub-therapeutic drug concentrations and excretion of natural transporter substrates. The new oral anti-HCV drug telaprevir has dramatically improved the efficacy of hepatitis-C virus (HCV) treatment, and recent studies have suggested a possible pharmacological interaction between telaprevir and P-gp. We studied the kinetics of in vitro interactions between telaprevir and P-gp and BCRP to understand the molecular basis of that interaction. Findings The effect of telaprevir on P-gp- and BCRP-mediated transport was evaluated by an in vitro vesicle transporter assay using different transport substrates, and the kinetics of transporter inhibition was determined. The results showed that telaprevir could inhibit P-gp- and BCRP-mediated transport in the in vitro vesicle transport assay, with each IC50 values of???7 ?mol/L and???30 ?mol/L, respectively. Analyses of Lineweaver–Burk plots showed that telaprevir was likely to be a competitive inhibitor against P-gp and BCRP. Photoaffinity labeling experiments were employed to observe competitive inhibition by telaprevir using iodoarylazidoprazosin (IAAP) as a binding substrate for P-gp and BCRP. These experiments revealed that telaprevir inhibited [125I]-IAAP-binding with P-gp and BCRP. Conclusion Telaprevir competitively inhibited P-gp and BCRP, and P-gp-mediated transport was more sensitive to telaprevir compared with BCRP-mediated transport. These data suggest that telaprevir represses the transporter functions of P-gp and BCRP via direct inhibition. PMID:24196382

2013-01-01

50

Trantinterol, a Novel ?2-Adrenoceptor Agonist, Noncompetitively Inhibits P-Glycoprotein Function in Vitro and in Vivo.  

PubMed

P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated drug-drug interactions are important factors causing adverse effects of drugs in clinical use. The aim of this study was to determine whether trantinterol (also known as SPFF), a novel ?2-adrenoceptor agonist, was a P-gp inhibitor or substrate. The results showed that trantinterol was not a substrate of P-gp but increased rhodamine 123 (Rho 123) uptake by MDCK-MDR1 cells and decreased the efflux transport of both Rho 123 and cyclosporine A (CsA) in bidirectional transport studies across MDCK-MDR1 cell monolayers. This suggested that trantinterol was a P-gp inhibitor but not a P-gp substrate. The mechanism of inhibition was investigated in the P-gp-Glo assay system, where it was found that trantinterol inhibited P-gp ATPase activity in a dose-dependent manner. A subsequent study using the antibody binding assay with the conformation-sensitive P-gp-specific antibody UIC2 confirmed that trantinterol decreased UIC2 binding at 10 ?M in contrast to the competitive inhibitor, verapamil. This suggested that trantinterol was a noncompetitive inhibitor of P-gp. Finally, a pharmacokinetic study in rat showed that trantinterol significantly increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of digoxin and paclitaxel (PAC), and the Cmax of cyclosporine A (CsA). In summary, trantinterol is a potent noncompetitive P-gp inhibitor which may increase the bioavailability of other P-gp substrate drugs coadministered with it. PMID:25389765

Wang, Tingting; Sun, Yantong; Ma, Wenxiao; Yang, Zhichao; Yang, Junfeng; Liu, Jingrui; Fan, Hongbo; Yang, Yan; Gu, Jingkai; Fawcett, John Paul; Guo, Yingjie

2015-01-01

51

P-gp efflux pump inhibition potential of common environmental contaminants determined in vitro.  

PubMed

Across different species, cellular efflux pumps such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp; also termed multidrug resistance protein 1 [MDR1]) serve as a first line of defense by transporting toxic xenobiotics out of the cell. This mechanism is also active in aquatic organisms such as mussels, fish, and their larvae. Modulation of this resistance mechanism by chemical agents occurring in the environment could result in either higher or lower internal concentrations of toxic or endogenous compounds in cells. The aim of the present study was to explore and quantify the inhibition of the P-gp efflux pumps by several ubiquitous aquatic contaminants. The calcein-acetoxymethyl ester (calcein-AM) assay commonly used in pharmacological research was established with P-gp-overexpressing Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCKII-MDR1) in a 96-well plate, avoiding extra washing, centrifugation, and lysis steps. This calcein-AM-based P-gp cellular efflux pump inhibition assay (CEPIA) was used to study the inhibition by commonly occurring environmental contaminants. Among others, the compounds pentachlorophenol, perfluorooctane sulfonate, and perfluorooctanoate strongly inhibited the P-gp-mediated efflux of calcein-AM while the chloninated alkanes did not seem to interact with the transporter. The fact that common pollutants can be potent modulators of the efflux transporters is a motive to further study whether this increases the toxicity of other contaminants present in the same matrices. PMID:24375866

Georgantzopoulou, Anastasia; Skoczy?ska, Ewa; Van den Berg, Johannes H J; Brand, Walter; Legay, Sylvain; Klein, Sebastian G; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Murk, Albertinka J

2014-04-01

52

Inhibitory Effects of Daiokanzoto (Da-Huang-Gan-Cao-Tang) on P-Glycoprotein  

PubMed Central

We have studied the effects of various Kampo medicines on P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a drug transporter, in vitro. The present study focused on Daiokanzoto (Da-Huang-Gan-Cao-Tang), which shows the most potent inhibitory effects on P-gp among the 50 Kampo medicines studied, and investigated the P-gp inhibitory effects of Daiokanzoto herbal ingredients (rhubarb and licorice root) and their components by an ATPase assay using human P-gp membrane. Both rhubarb and licorice root significantly inhibited ATPase activity, and the effects of rhubarb were more potent than those of licorice root. The content of rhubarb in Daiokanzoto is double that in licorice root, and the inhibition patterns of Daiokanzoto and rhubarb involve both competitive and noncompetitive inhibition, suggesting that the inhibitory effects of Daiokanzoto are mainly due to rhubarb. Concerning the components of rhubarb, concentration-dependent inhibitory effects were observed for (?)-catechin gallate, (?)-epicatechin gallate, and (?)-epigallocatechin gallate. In conclusion, rhubarb may cause changes in the drug dispositions of P-gp substrates through the inhibition of P-gp. It appears that attention should be given to the interactions between these drugs and Kampo medicines containing rhubarb as an herbal ingredient. PMID:22969825

Watanabe, Yuka; Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Satoh, Toshiyuki; Ito, Kiyomi; Ochiai, Wataru; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

2012-01-01

53

Oral cyclosporin A inhibits CD4 T cell P-glycoprotein activity in HIV-infected adults initiating treatment with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  P-glycoprotein limits the tissue penetration of many antiretroviral drugs. The aim of our study was to characterize the effects\\u000a of the P-glycoprotein substrate cyclosporin A on T cell P-glycoprotein activity in human immunodeficiency virus-infected participants\\u000a in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group study A5138.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We studied P-glycoprotein activity on CD4 and CD8 T cells in 16 participants randomized to receive oral

Todd Hulgan; John P. Donahue; Laura Smeaton; Minya Pu; Hongying Wang; Michael M. Lederman; Kimberly Smith; Hernan Valdez; Christopher Pilcher; David W. Haas

2009-01-01

54

Endoxifen, the active metabolite of tamoxifen, is a substrate of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (multidrug resistance 1).  

PubMed

Tamoxifen is widely prescribed to patients with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, and it is a prodrug that requires bioactivation by cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2D6 and 3A4 to generate the active metabolite, endoxifen. Large interpatient variability in endoxifen plasma levels has been reported, and polymorphisms in CYP2D6 have been implicated as a major determinant of such variability. However, little is known regarding the role of drug transporters such as P-glycoprotein [multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1), ATP-binding cassette B1 (ABCB1)] to endoxifen disposition and response. Therefore, we determined the ability of P-glycoprotein to transport endoxifen in vitro, using a polarized human P-glycoprotein-overexpressing cell line. Markedly higher transport of endoxifen was observed in the basal-to-apical direction, which was abrogated in the presence of the potent and specific P-glycoprotein inhibitor (2R)-anti-5-{3-[4-(10,11-difluoromethanodibenzo-suber-5-yl)piperazin-1-yl]-2-hydroxypropoxy}quinoline trihydrochloride (LY335979). To validate the in vivo relevance of P-glycoprotein to endoxifen disposition, plasma and tissue concentrations were also determined in Mdr1a-deficient mice after oral administration of endoxifen. Plasma endoxifen levels did not significantly differ between wild-type and Mdr1a-deficient mice. However, brain concentrations of endoxifen were nearly 20-fold higher in Mdr1a-deficient mice compared to wild-type mice. Because P-glycoprotein is highly expressed at the blood-brain barrier and in some breast cancer tumors, variation in expression and function of this transporter may alter central nervous system entry and the attained intracellular concentration in such breast cancer cells and therefore may prove to be of relevance to therapeutic outcome. PMID:21148080

Teft, Wendy A; Mansell, Sara E; Kim, Richard B

2011-03-01

55

7-Ketocholesterol induces P-glycoprotein through PI3K/mTOR signaling in hepatoma cells  

PubMed Central

7-Ketocholesterol (7-KC) is found at an elevated level in patients with cancer and chronic liver disease. The up-regulation of an efflux pump, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) leads to drug resistance. To elucidate the effect of 7-KC on P-gp, P-gp function and expression were investigated in hepatoma cell lines Huh-7 and HepG2 and in primary hepatocyte-derived HuS-E/2 cells. At a subtoxic concentration, 48-h exposure to 7-KC reduced the intracellular accumulation and cytotoxicity of P-gp substrate doxorubicin in hepatoma cells, but not in HuS-E/2 cells. In Huh-7 cells, 7-KC elevated efflux function through the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. 7-KC activated the downstream protein synthesis initiation factor 4E-BP1 and induced P-gp expression post-transcriptionally. The stimulation of efflux was reversible and could not be prevented by N-acetyl cysteine. Total cellular ATP content remained the same, whereas the lactate production was increased and fluorescence lifetime of protein-bound NADH was shortened. These changes suggested a metabolic shift to glycolysis, but glycolytic inhibitors did not eliminate 7-KC-mediated P-gp induction. These results demonstrate that 7-KC induces P-gp through PI3K/mTOR signaling and decreased the cell-killing efficacy of doxorubicin in hepatoma cells. PMID:23792120

Wang, Sheng-Fan; Chou, Yueh-Ching; Mazumder, Nirmal; Kao, Fu-Jen; Nagy, Leslie D.; Guengerich, F. Peter; Huang, Cheng; Lee, Hsin-Chen; Lai, Ping-Shan; Ueng, Yune-Fang

2014-01-01

56

Determination of P-glycoprotein surface expression and functional ability after in vitro treatment with darunavir or raltegravir in lymphocytes of healthy donors.  

PubMed

It has been shown that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) can greatly affect the cell uptake of antiretroviral drugs, thus hampering their access to HIV-1 replication sites. Lymphocytes are important sites of replication of HIV and target of other drugs, modification on these cells of P-gp could have an effect on pharmacokinetic of antiretrovirals and drug substrates. Blood samples from 16 healthy volunteers were used to determine the expression of P-gp on total, T and T helper lymphocytes after exposure to darunavir, a second generation protease inhibitor, and raltegravir, the first approved integrase inhibitor. Moreover, the effect of the drugs on P-gp functional activity was also studied by the rhodamine-123 efflux test. Darunavir, but not raltegravir, exposure caused a moderate, dose-dependent increment in P-gp expression in total, T and T helper lymphocytes, as demonstrated by the relative frequency of P-gp+ cells and by the amount of P-gp molecules present on cell surface. Functionally, incubation with darunavir led to a marked inhibition of P-gp activity measured by the efflux of rhodamine-123 similar to that observed by verapamil, a specific P-gp inhibitor. Raltegravir was not able to modify the efflux of rhodamine-123 level. Data show that darunavir, unlike raltegravir, may modify the expression and functionality of P-gp on human lymphocytes, thus leading to potential changes in intracellular concentrations of darunavir in patients treated with other drugs substrate of P-gp and vice versa. Our study highlights the need for studies on drug interactions via the P-gp modulation mechanism, especially with the current multi-drug regimens. PMID:23707228

Tempestilli, Massimo; Gentilotti, Elisa; Tommasi, Chiara; Nicastri, Emanuele; Martini, Federico; De Nardo, Pasquale; Narciso, Pasquale; Pucillo, Leopoldo P

2013-08-01

57

Structure-activity relationships of the inhibitory effects of flavonoids on P-glycoprotein-mediated transport in KB-C2 cells.  

PubMed

We studied the effects of flavonoids, naringenin (flavanone), baicalein (flavone), kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin, morin, and fisetin (flavonols) as well as two glycosides of quercetin on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function in multidrug-resistant P-gp overexpressing KB-C2 cells. Flavonoids such as kaempferol and quercetin increased the accumulation of rhodamine-123 dependent on their chemical structure. Analysis by flow cytometry indicated that the increase in substrate accumulation was due to the inhibition of substrate efflux. Naringenin, which lacks the 2,3-double bond in the C ring, had no effect, although it was more hydrophobic than myricetin, fisetin and morin. Therefore, the planar structure of the flavonoids seemed to be important for their interaction with P-gp. The effects of other flavonoids on the accumulation of daunorubicin were in the order of kaempferol>quercetin, baicalein>myricetin>fisetin, morin. Quercetin-3-O-glucoside and rutin had no effect. The order of the effects corresponded with that of the partition coefficients. Difference in the number and position of hydroxyl groups in flavonoid molecules by themselves seemed to have little effect. These results suggested that hydrophobicity as well as planar structure is important for the inhibitory effects of flavonoids on P-gp-mediated transport. PMID:16327165

Kitagawa, Shuji; Nabekura, Tomohiro; Takahashi, Tomoharu; Nakamura, Yutaka; Sakamoto, Hiromi; Tano, Hiromi; Hirai, Midori; Tsukahara, Go

2005-12-01

58

P-glycoprotein trafficking as a therapeutic target to optimize CNS drug delivery  

PubMed Central

The primary function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) /neurovascular unit is to protect the CNS from potentially harmful xenobiotic substances and maintain CNS homeostasis. Restricted access to the CNS is maintained via a combination of tight junction proteins as well as a variety of efflux and influx transporters that limits the transcellular and paracellular movement of solutes. Of the transporters identified at the BBB, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) has emerged as the transporter that is the greatest obstacle to effective CNS drug delivery. In this chapter we provide data to support intracellular protein trafficking of P-gp within cerebral capillary microvessels as a potential target for improved drug delivery. We show that pain induced changes in P-gp trafficking are associated with changes in P-gp’s association with caveolin-1, a key scaffolding/trafficking protein that co-localizes with P-gp at the luminal membrane of brain microvessels. Changes in co-localization with the phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of caveolin-1, by pain, are accompanied by dynamic changes in the distribution, relocalization and activation of P-gp “pools” between microvascular endothelial cell subcellular compartments. Since redox sensitive processes may be involved in signaling disassembly of higher order structures of P-gp, we feel that manipulating redox signaling, via specific protein targeting at the BBB, may protect disulfide bond integrity of P-gp reservoirs and control trafficking to the membrane surface providing improved CNS drug delivery. The advantage of therapeutic drug “relocalization” of a protein is that the physiological impact can be modified, temporarily or long term, despite pathology-induced changes in gene transcription. PMID:25307213

Davis, Thomas P.; Sanchez-Covarubias, Lucy; Tome, Margaret E.

2014-01-01

59

Oral Cyclosporin A Inhibits CD4 T cell P-glycoprotein Activity in HIV-Infected Adults Initiating Treatment with Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Purpose P-glycoprotein limits tissue penetration of many antiretroviral drugs. We characterized effects of the P-glycoprotein substrate cyclosporin A on T cell P-glycoprotein activity in HIV-infected AIDS Clinical Trials Group study A5138 participants. Methods We studied P-glycoprotein activity on CD4 and CD8 T cells in 16 participants randomized to receive oral cyclosporin A (n=9) or not (n=7) during initiation antiretroviral therapy (ART) that did not include protease or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Results CD4 T cell P-glycoprotein activity decreased by a median of 8 percentage points with cyclosporin A/ART (difference between cyclosporin A/ART versus ART only P=0.001). Plasma trough cyclosporin A concentrations correlated with change in P-glycoprotein activity in several T cell subsets. Conclusions Oral cyclosporin A can inhibit peripheral blood CD4 T cell P-glycoprotein activity. Targeted P-glycoprotein inhibition might enhance delivery of ART to T cells. PMID:19779705

Hulgan, Todd; Donahue, John P.; Smeaton, Laura; Pu, Minya; Wang, Hongying; Lederman, Michael M.; Smith, Kimberly; Valdez, Hernan; Pilcher, Christopher; Haas, David W.

2010-01-01

60

Modulation of P-glycoprotein function by sphingosine kinase-1 in brain endothelial cells.  

PubMed

P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ABC-transporter highly expressed in brain capillaries, protects the brain by extruding xenobiotics. However, its overexpression has also been associated with the multidrug resistance phenotype in tumors. Here, we have investigated the regulation of P-gp transport activity by sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK-1) in brain endothelial cells. We first demonstrated that SphK-1 is overexpressed in endothelial cells (EC) isolated from rat brain tumors compared with EC from normal brain. We also provide evidence that the overexpression of SphK-1 in the cerebral EC line RBE4 leads to the up-regulation of P-gp, both at the gene and protein levels, and that this modulation depends on the catalytic activity of SphK-1. Moreover, we determined the effect of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), the product of SphK-1, on P-gp function. S1P strongly stimulates P-gp transport activity, without modulating its expression. Finally, we found that the S1P-mediated stimulation of P-gp activity is mediated by S1P-1 and S1P-3 receptors at the RBE4 cell surface. Altogether, these results indicate that SphK-1 and its product S1P are involved in the control of P-gp activity in RBE4 cells. Since SphK-1 is overexpressed in EC from brain tumors, these data also suggest that this kinase and its product could contribute to the acquisition and the maintenance of the multidrug resistance phenotype in brain tumor-derived endothelial cells. PMID:17316399

Pilorget, Anthony; Demeule, Michel; Barakat, Stéphane; Marvaldi, Jacques; Luis, José; Béliveau, Richard

2007-03-01

61

Reaction Dynamics of ATP Hydrolysis Catalyzed by P-Glycoprotein  

PubMed Central

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a member of the ABC transporter family that confers drug resistance to many tumors by catalyzing their efflux, and it is a major component of drug–drug interactions. P-gp couples drug efflux with ATP hydrolysis by coordinating conformational changes in the drug binding sites with the hydrolysis of ATP and release of ADP. To understand the relative rates of the chemical step for hydrolysis and the conformational changes that follow it, we exploited isotope exchange methods to determine the extent to which the ATP hydrolysis step is reversible. With ?18O4-labeled ATP, no positional isotope exchange is detectable at the bridging ?-phosphorus–O??-phosphorus bond. Furthermore, the phosphate derived from hydrolysis includes a constant ratio of three 18O/two 18O/one 18O that reflects the isotopic composition of the starting ATP in multiple experiments. Thus, H2O-exchange with HPO42– (Pi) was negligible, suggesting that a [P-gp·ADP·Pi] is not long-lived. This further demonstrates that the hydrolysis is essentially irreversible in the active site. These mechanistic details of ATP hydrolysis are consistent with a very fast conformational change immediately following, or concomitant with, hydrolysis of the ?-phosphate linkage that ensures a high commitment to catalysis in both drug-free and drug-bound states. PMID:24506763

2015-01-01

62

Effects of Sertraline and Fluoxetine on P-Glycoprotein at Barrier Sites: In Vivo and In Vitro Approaches  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Retention of substances from systemic circulation in the brain and testes are limited due to high levels of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the luminal membranes of brain and testes capillary endothelial cells. From a clinical perspective, P-gp rapidly extrudes lipophilic therapeutic agents, which then fail to reach efficacious levels. Recent studies have demonstrated that acute administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) can affect P-gp function, in vitro and in vivo. However, little is known concerning the time-course of these effects or the effects of different SSRI in vivo. Experimental Approach The P-gp substrate, tritiated digoxin ([3H] digoxin), was co-administered with fluoxetine or sertraline to determine if either compound increased drug accumulation within the brains and testes of mice due to inhibition of P-gp activity. We undertook parallel studies in endothelial cells derived from brain microvessels to determine the dose-response and time-course of effects. Key Results In vitro, sertraline resulted in rapid and potent inhibition of P-gp function in brain endothelial cells, as determined by cellular calcein accumulation. In vivo, a biphasic effect was demonstrated. Brain accumulation of [3H] digoxin was increased 5 minutes after treatment with sertraline, but by 60 minutes after sertraline treatment, brain accumulation of digoxin was reduced compared to control. By 240 minutes after sertraline treatment brain digoxin accumulation was elevated compared to control. A similar pattern of results was obtained in the testes. There was no significant effect of fluoxetine on P-gp function, in vitro or in vivo. Conclusions and Implications Acute sertraline administration can modulate P-gp activity in the blood-brain barrier and blood-testes barrier. This clearly has implications for the ability of therapeutic agents that are P-gp substrates, to enter the brain when co-administered with SSRI. PMID:23468867

Kapoor, Amita; Iqbal, Majid; Petropoulos, Sophie; Ho, Hay Lam; Gibb, William; Matthews, Stephen G.

2013-01-01

63

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of phenylbutenoid dimers as inhibitors of P-glycoprotein.  

PubMed

The expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP-dependent efflux transporter, is closely associated with the failure of chemotherapy and drug absorption. Two synthesized optically active phenylbutenoid dimers, 3S-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4R-{(E)-3,4-dimethoxystyryl}cyclohex-1-ene (1) and 3R-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-4S-{(E)-3,4-dimethoxystyryl}cyclohex-1-ene (2), were tested for their P-gp inhibitory effects by measuring cellular accumulation and efflux of daunomycin in P-gp-overexpressed human breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR). Compound 2 significantly increased the accumulation of daunomycin (539%) and decreased the efflux of this compound (55.4%), and similar results were observed for 1. ATPase assays and Western blot analysis were performed to identify the mechanisms by which compounds 1 and 2 inhibit P-gp. In addition, changes in the pharmacokinetic profile of paclitaxel coadministered with 2 in rats were evaluated. Paclitaxel (25 mg/kg) when orally administered with 2 (5 mg/kg) improved its relative bioavailability by 185%. Compound 2 effectively improved cellular accumulation by reducing the efflux of daunomycin and significantly enhanced oral exposure to paclitaxel. Therefore, compound 2 may be useful for improving oral exposure and cellular availability of drugs that are also substrates of P-gp. PMID:24266329

Chae, Song Wha; Han, Ah-Reum; Park, Jung Hyun; Rhie, Jeong Yeon; Lim, Hee-Jong; Seo, Eun-Kyoung; Lee, Hwa Jeong

2013-12-27

64

Expression of multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein in kidney allografts from cyclosporine A-treated patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

Expression of multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein in kidney allografts from cyclosporine A-treated patients.BackgroundThe multidrug resistance (MDR) gene product P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a transmembrane efflux pump for hydrophobic, potentially toxic compounds, including the immunosuppressant cyclosporine A (CsA). We have previously shown that CsA increases P-gp expression in proximal tubule and endothelial cells in vitro. The aim of the present study was to

Michael J Koziolek; Regine Riess; Helmut Geiger; Frank Thévenod; Ingeborg A Hauser

2001-01-01

65

Effect of Emergence of Fluoroquinolone Resistance on Intrinsic Expression of P-Glycoprotein Phenotype in Corneal Epithelial Cells  

PubMed Central

Abstract Purpose Multidrug resistance (MDR) represents a major obstacle to the success of antimicrobial fluoroquinolone (FQ) therapy. MDR-associated efflux protein pumps antimicrobial agents out of the corneal cells, leading to suboptimal eradication of microbes. This article examines whether long-term FQ (levofloxacin, ofloxacin, and gatifloxacin) therapy can modify the MDR phenotype (P-glycoprotein [P-gp]) on corneal epithelial cells (Statens Seruminstitut Rabbit Cornea [SIRC]). Methods To study the effect of FQ, SIRC cells without any exposure to FQ (control) were compared with the cells exposed to ofloxacin, levofloxacin, and gatifloxacin at a concentration of 10??g/mL for 3 weeks. Efflux activity of P-gp was assessed by in vitro uptake studies (fluorescent and radioactive), flow cytometry, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results In the presence of FQ, elevated P-gp expression was noted with uptake, flow cytometry, and qRT-PCR analyses. This study confirms that long-term exposure to antibiotics, particularly FQ, can induce overexpression of P-gp efflux transporter present on the corneal cells. P-gp overexpression is commonly noticed in anticancer drug resistance cell lines; however, for the first time, this report describes overexpression of P-gp due to FQ exposure. Conclusions Based on this result, it is suggested that strategies should be developed and implemented not only to overcome resistance to ocular pathogen but also to FQ-induced cellular resistance. PMID:21830912

Barot, Megha; Gokulgandhi, Mitan R.; Haghnegahdar, Megan; Dalvi, Pranjali

2011-01-01

66

Astragaloside ? reduces the expression level of P-glycoprotein in multidrug-resistant human hepatic cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

Astragaloside is a saponin widely used in traditional Chinese medicine and has been reported to be a potent multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal agent. The present study investigated the role of astragaloside ? (ASIV) in the regulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, encoded by the mdr1 gene) and its effect on the reversal of MDR. The activity of ASIV was evaluated using human hepatic cancer cells Bel-7402 and the corresponding 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) resistant cells Bel-7402/FU. ASIV (0.08 mg/ml) potentiated the cytotoxicity of 5-FU which was demonstrated using the MTT assay on Bel-7402/FU cells. ASIV reduced the expression of P-gp as was revealed by immunocytochemistry. Accumulation and efflux studies with the P-gp substrate, rhodamine 123 (Rh123), demonstrated that ASIV inhibited P-gp-mediated drug efflux. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that AS? enhanced the drug accumulation of 5-FU using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay for drug resistant cells. Furthermore, ASIV may downregulate the expression of P-gp, which was examined using western blot analysis and polymerase chain reaction. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that ASIV reverses the drug resistance of Bel-7402/FU cells by downregulating the expression of mdr1. ASIV may represent a potent modulator of P-gp-mediated MDR in hepatic cancer therapy. PMID:24676670

Wang, Pei-Pei; Xu, Du-Juan; Huang, Can; Wang, Wei-Ping; Xu, Wen-Ke

2014-06-01

67

In silico structure-based screening of versatile P-glycoprotein inhibitors using polynomial empirical scoring functions  

PubMed Central

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP (adenosine triphosphate)-binding cassette transporter that causes multidrug resistance of various chemotherapeutic substances by active efflux from mammalian cells. P-gp plays a pivotal role in limiting drug absorption and distribution in different organs, including the intestines and brain. Thus, the prediction of P-gp–drug interactions is of vital importance in assessing drug pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. To find the strongest P-gp blockers, we performed an in silico structure-based screening of P-gp inhibitor library (1,300 molecules) by the gradient optimization method, using polynomial empirical scoring (POLSCORE) functions. We report a strong correlation (r2=0.80, F=16.27, n=6, P<0.0157) of inhibition constants (Kiexp or pKiexp; experimental Ki or negative decimal logarithm of Kiexp) converted from experimental IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) values with POLSCORE-predicted constants (KiPOLSCORE or pKiPOLSCORE), using a linear regression fitting technique. The hydrophobic interactions between P-gp and selected drug substances were detected as the main forces responsible for the inhibition effect. The results showed that this scoring technique might be useful in the virtual screening and filtering of databases of drug-like compounds at the early stage of drug development processes. PMID:24711707

Shityakov, Sergey; Förster, Carola

2014-01-01

68

Effects of curcumin on the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen and its active metabolite, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, in rats: possible role of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein inhibition by curcumin.  

PubMed

The effects of curcumin, a natural anti-cancer compound, on the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen and its metabolite, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, were investigated in rats. Tamoxifen and curcumin interact with cytochrom P450 (CYP) enzymes and P-glycoprotein, and the increase in the use of health supplements may result in curcumin being taken concomitantly with tamoxifen as a combination therapy to treat or prevent cancer. A single dose of tamoxifen was administered orally (9 mg x kg(-1)) with or without curcumin (0.5, 2.5 and 10 mg x kg(-1)) and intravenously (2mg x kg(-1)) with or without curcumin (2.5 and 10 mg x kg(-1)) to rats. The effects of curcumin on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and CYP3A4 activity were also evaluated. Curcumin inhibited CYP3A4 activity with 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) values of 2.7 microM. In addition, curcumin significantly (P < 0.01 at 10 microM) enhanced the cellular accumulation of rhodamine-123 in MCF-7/ADR cells overexpressing P-gp in a concentration-dependent manner. This result suggested that curcumin significantly inhibited P-gp activity. Compared to the oral control group (given tamoxifen alone), the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-infinity)) and the peak plasma concentration (C(max)) of tamoxifen were significantly (P < 0.05 for 2.5 mg x kg(-1); P < 0.01 for 10 mg x kg(-1)) increased by 33.1-64.0% and 38.9-70.6%, respectively, by curcumin. Consequently, the absolute bioavailability of tamoxifen in the presence of curcumin (2.5 and 10 mg x kg(-1)) was 27.2-33.5%, which was significantly enhanced (P < 0.05 for 2.5 mg x kg(-1); P < 0.01 for 10 mg x kg(-1)) compared to that in the oral control group (20.4%). Moreover, the relative bioavailability of tamoxifen was 1.12- to 1.64-fold greater than that in the control group. Furthermore, concurrent use of curcumin significantly decreased (P < 0.05 for 10 mg x kg(-1)) the metabolite-parent AUC ratio (MR), implying that curcumin may inhibit the CYP-mediated metabolism of tamoxifen to its active metabolite, 4-hydroxytamoxifen. The enhanced bioavailability of tamoxifen by curcumin may be mainly due to inhibition of the CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of tamoxifen in the small intestine and/or in the liver and to inhibition of the P-gp efflux transporter in the small intestine rather than to reduction of renal elimination of tamoxifen, suggesting that curcumin may reduce the first-pass metabolism of tamoxifen in the small intestine and/or in the liver by inhibition of P-gp or CYP3A4 subfamily. PMID:22512082

Cho, Y A; Lee, W; Choi, J S

2012-02-01

69

Quantitative Evaluation of the Function of Small Intestinal P-Glycoprotein: Comparative Studies Between in Situ and in Vitro  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. The extent of intestinal absorption of MDR1 P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate drugs may be affected by interindividual differences in the expression level of P-gp, and\\/or by simultaneously administered P-gp substrates\\/inhibitors. The purpose of the present study is to examine whether the extent to which the intestinal absorption is affected by P-gp can be predicted from in vitro experiments.

Yasuhisa Adachi; Hiroshi Suzuki; Yuichi Sugiyama

2003-01-01

70

The novel bis-benzylisoquinoline PY35 reverses P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance.  

PubMed

Multidrug resistance (MDR) to chemotherapeutic drugs is the main cause of chemotherapy failure in cancer treatment, and it generally results from expression of ATP-dependent efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp). MDR reversal agents typically act by inhibiting the drug efflux activity of P-gp, thereby increasing intracellular drug levels. PY35 is a novel 5-substituted tetrandrine (Tet) derivative (CN Application No. 201210238709.6). The present study was performed to investigate the ability of PY35 to reverse P-gp-mediated MDR and its mechanism in resistant K562/Adriamycin (ADM), MCF-7/ADM cells and their sensitive cell lines K562 and MCF-7. The ability of PY35 to reverse drug resistance was evaluated by MTT assay. The results showed that PY35 can reverse MDR more effectively than the drug prototype?Tet. The P-gp function was assessed by the Rhodamine 123 (Rho-123; a P-gp substrate) uptake assay with flow cytometry (FCM) and laser scanning confocal microscopes (LSCM); it showed that the MDR cells pumped Rho-123 out the cells, while their sensitive cells scarcely showed efflux. The presence of PY35 efficiently decreased the efflux of the Rho-123, showing that PY35 can reverse P-gp-mediated MDR by increasing the intracellular concentration of Rho-123. The intracellular accumulation of ADM was analyzed by FCM and showed that the coadministration of PY35 and ADM had clearer accumulation than the treatment of Tet and ADM, and was also more evident than treatment with only ADM. The effect of PY35 on the expression of P-gp was assessed by western blotting. The results indicated that PY35 does not inhibit the expression level of the P-gp. This study indicated that PY35 can effectively reverse P-gp-mediated MDR, not by inhibiting the expression of P-gp, but by the coadministration of PY35 and ADM that could increase the intracellular accumulation of drugs. Thus, PY35 may be a potential inhibitor to overcome drug resistance. PMID:25017650

Cao, Zhonglian; Wright, Meredith; Cheng, Jiekai; Huang, Xiaoxing; Liu, Li; Wu, Lixing; Yang, Ping

2014-09-01

71

Overcoming tumor multidrug resistance using drugs able to evade P-glycoprotein or to exploit its expression.  

PubMed

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle to the effective treatment of cancer. Cellular overproduction of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which acts as an efflux pump for various anticancer drugs (e.g. anthracyclines, Vinca alkaloids, taxanes, epipodophyllotoxins, and some of the newer antitumor drugs) is one of the more relevant mechanisms underlying MDR. P-gp belongs to the superfamily of ATP-binding cassette transporters and is encoded by the ABCB1 gene. Its overexpression in cancer cells has become a therapeutic target for circumventing MDR. As an alternative to the classical pharmacological strategy of the coadministration of pump inhibitors and cytotoxic substrates of P-gp and to other approaches applied in experimental tumor models (e.g. P-gp-targeting antibodies, ABCB1 gene silencing strategies, and transcriptional modulators) and in the clinical setting (e.g. incapsulation of P-gp substrate anticancer drugs into liposomes or nanoparticles), a more intriguing strategy for circumventing MDR is represented by the development of new anticancer drugs which are not substrates of P-gp (e.g. epothilones, second- and third-generation taxanes and other microtubule modulators, topoisomerase inhibitors). Some of these drugs have already been tested in clinical trials and, in most of cases, show relevant activity in patients previously treated with anticancer agents which are substrates of P-gp. Of these drugs, ixabepilone, an epothilone, was approved in the United States for the treatment of breast cancer patients pretreated with an anthracycline and a taxane. Another innovative approach is the use of molecules whose activity takes advantage of the overexpression of P-gp. The possibility of overcoming MDR using the latter two approaches is reviewed herein.? PMID:21374643

Nobili, Stefania; Landini, Ida; Mazzei, Teresita; Mini, Enrico

2012-11-01

72

Functional Characterization of Glycosylation-Deficient Human P-Glycoprotein Using A Vaccinia Virus Expression System  

Microsoft Academic Search

.   P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the product of human MDR1 gene, which functions as an ATP-dependent drug efflux pump, is N-linked glycosylated at asparagine residues 91, 94, and\\u000a 99 located within the first extracellular loop. We report here the biochemical characterization of glycosylation-deficient\\u000a (Gly?) P-gp using a vaccinia virus based transient expression system. The staining of HeLa cells expressing Gly? P-gp (91,

J. J. Gribar; M. Ramachandra; C. A. Hrycyna; S. Dey; S. V. Ambudkar

2000-01-01

73

Drug-transport and volume-activated chloride channel functions in human erythroleukemia cells: Relation to expression level of P-glycoprotein  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of volume-activated chloride currents, drug transport function and levels of P-glycoprotein (PgP) expression were compared between two human chronic erythroleukemia cell lines: a parental (K562) cell line and a derivative obtained by vinblastine selection (K562 VBL400). Parental K562 cells showed no detectable P-glycoprotein expression, measured at the protein level (immunofluorescence labeling with monoclonal antibodies), and had very low

F. Viana; K. Van Acker; C. De Greef; J. Eggermont; L. Raeymaekers; G. Droogmans; B. Nilius

1995-01-01

74

Integration of in silico and in vitro tools for scaffold optimization during drug discovery: predicting P-glycoprotein efflux.  

PubMed

In silico tools are regularly utilized for designing and prioritizing compounds to address challenges related to drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics (DMPK) during the process of drug discovery. P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters with broad substrate specificity that plays a significant role in absorption and distribution of drugs that are P-gp substrates. As a result, screening for P-gp transport has now become routine in the drug discovery process. Typically, bidirectional permeability assays are employed to assess in vitro P-gp efflux. In this article, we use P-gp as an example to illustrate a well-validated methodology to effectively integrate in silico and in vitro tools to identify and resolve key barriers during the early stages of drug discovery. A detailed account of development and application of in silico tools such as simple guidelines based on physicochemical properties and more complex quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models is provided. The tools were developed based on structurally diverse data for more than 2000 compounds generated using a robust P-gp substrate assay over the past several years. Analysis of physicochemical properties revealed a significantly lower proportion (<10%) of P-gp substrates among the compounds with topological polar surface area (TPSA) <60 Å(2) and the most basic cpKa <8. In contrast, this proportion of substrates was greater than 75% for compounds with TPSA >60 Å(2) and the most basic cpKa >8. Among the various QSAR models evaluated to predict P-gp efflux, the Bagging model provided optimum prediction performance for prospective validation based on chronological test sets. Four sequential versions of the model were built with increasing numbers of compounds to train the models as new data became available. Except for the first version with the smallest training set, the QSAR models exhibited robust prediction profiles with positive prediction values (PPV) and negative prediction values (NPV) exceeding 80%. The QSAR model demonstrated better concordance with the manual P-gp substrate assay than an automated P-gp substrate screen. The in silico and the in vitro tools have been effectively integrated during early stages of drug discovery to resolve P-gp-related challenges exemplified by several case studies. Key learning based on our experience with P-gp can be widely applicable across other DMPK-related challenges. PMID:23363443

Desai, Prashant V; Sawada, Geri A; Watson, Ian A; Raub, Thomas J

2013-04-01

75

Marine Natural Products with P-Glycoprotein Inhibitor Properties  

PubMed Central

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a protein belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters superfamily that has clinical relevance due to its role in drug metabolism and multi-drug resistance (MDR) in several human pathogens and diseases. P-gp is a major cause of drug resistance in cancer, parasitic diseases, epilepsy and other disorders. This review article aims to summarize the research findings on the marine natural products with P-glycoprotein inhibitor properties. Natural compounds that modulate P-gp offer great possibilities for semi-synthetic modification to create new drugs and are valuable research tools to understand the function of complex ABC transporters. PMID:24451193

Lopez, Dioxelis; Martinez-Luis, Sergio

2014-01-01

76

P-glycoprotein Modulates Morphine Uptake into the CNS: A Role for the Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drug Diclofenac  

PubMed Central

Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that peripheral inflammatory pain (PIP), induced by subcutaneous plantar injection of ?-carrageenan, results in increased expression and activity of the ATP-dependent efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) that is endogenously expressed at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The result of increased P-gp functional expression was a significant reduction in CNS uptake of morphine and, subsequently, reduced morphine analgesic efficacy. A major concern in the treatment of acute pain/inflammation is the potential for drug-drug interactions resulting from P-gp induction by therapeutic agents co-administered with opioids. Such effects on P-gp activity can profoundly modulate CNS distribution of opioid analgesics and alter analgesic efficacy. In this study, we examined the ability of diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that is commonly administered in conjunction with the opioids during pain therapy, to alter BBB transport of morphine via P-gp and whether such changes in P-gp morphine transport could alter morphine analgesic efficacy. Administration of diclofenac reduced paw edema and thermal hyperalgesia in rats subjected to PIP, which is consistent with the known mechanism of action of this NSAID. Western blot analysis demonstrated an increase in P-gp expression in rat brain microvessels not only following PIP induction but also after diclofenac treatment alone. Additionally, in situ brain perfusion studies showed that both PIP and diclofenac treatment alone increased P-gp efflux activity resulting in decreased morphine brain uptake. Critically, morphine analgesia was significantly reduced in animals pretreated with diclofenac (3 h), as compared to animals administered diclofenac and morphine concurrently. These novel findings suggest that administration of diclofenac and P-gp substrate opioids during pain pharmacotherapy may result in a clinically significant drug-drug interaction. PMID:24520393

Sanchez-Covarrubias, Lucy; Slosky, Lauren M.; Thompson, Brandon J.; Zhang, Yifeng; Laracuente, Mei-Li; DeMarco, Kristin M.; Ronaldson, Patrick T.; Davis, Thomas P.

2014-01-01

77

Relationship between P-glycoprotein and second-generation antipsychotics.  

PubMed

The membrane transport protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an interesting candidate for individual differences in response to antipsychotics. To present an overview of the current knowledge of P-gp and its interaction with second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs), an internet search for all relevant English original research articles concerning P-gp and SGAs was conducted. Several SGAs are substrates for P-gp in therapeutic concentrations. These include amisulpride, aripiprazole, olanzapine, perospirone, risperidone and paliperidone. Clozapine and quetiapine are not likely to be substrates of P-gp. However, most antipsychotics act as inhibitors of P-gp, and can therefore influence plasma and brain concentrations of other substrates. No information was available for sertindole, ziprasidone or zotepine. Research in animal models demonstrated significant differences in antipsychotic brain concentration and behavior owing to both P-gp knockout and inhibition. Results in patients are less clear, as several external factors have to be accounted for. Patients with polymorphisms which decrease P-gp functionality tend to perform better in clinical settings. There is some variability in the findings concerning adverse effects, and no definitive conclusions can be drawn at this point. PMID:21843066

Moons, Tim; de Roo, Mariska; Claes, Stephan; Dom, Geert

2011-08-01

78

Tetrandrine potentiates the hypoglycemic efficacy of berberine by inhibiting P-glycoprotein function.  

PubMed

This study was designed to improve the absorption and hypoglycemic efficacy of berberine (BBR), which is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), by combination with a P-gp inhibitor tetrandrine (Tet). Flow cytometry and LC-MS/MS were used to determine the cellular efflux or retention of chemicals. Pharmacokinetic study was performed in ICR mice following oral administration of the study compounds. The hypoglycemic efficacies of the compounds were evaluated in diabetic KK-Ay mice. In the in vitro experiments, Tet significantly inhibited the efflux and increased the uptake of P-gp substrates rhodamine-123 as well as BBR in MCF7/DOX cells and Caco-2 intestinal cells. Meanwhile, Tet greatly reduced the expression of P-gp in Caco-2 cells. The inhibition of BBR efflux by Tet was translated into improved pharmacokinetics in vivo. When co-administered, Tet dose-dependently increased the average maximum concentration (C(max)) and area under concentration-time curve (AUC????) of BBR in mice. Tet itself had no impact on glucose metabolism. However, it greatly potentiated the hypoglycemic efficacy of BBR in diabetic KK-Ay mice. In addition, we found that Tet had moderate inhibitory effect on the catalytic activity of CYP3A4, which played a role in the bio-transformation of BBR, and this may also take part in the improvement of the pharmacokinetics of BBR. In summary, combination with P-gp inhibitors such as Tet can improve the pharmacokinetics and hypoglycemic efficacy of BBR greatly; this implicates a feasible strategy for exploring the therapeutic effects of BBR and other pharmaceuticals which are substrates of P-gp. PMID:23924821

Shan, Yong-Qiang; Zhu, Yan-Ping; Pang, Jing; Wang, Yan-Xiang; Song, Dan-Qing; Kong, Wei-Jia; Jiang, Jian-Dong

2013-01-01

79

P-glycoprotein inhibitors of natural origin as potential tumor chemo-sensitizers: A review  

PubMed Central

Resistance of solid tumors to treatment is significantly attributed to pharmacokinetic reasons at both cellular and multi-cellular levels. Anticancer agent must be bio-available at the site of action in a cytotoxic concentration to exert its proposed activity. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a member of the ATP-dependent membrane transport proteins; it is known to pump substrates out of cells in ATP-dependent mechanism. The over-expression of P-gp in tumor cells reduces the intracellular drug concentrations, which decreases the cytotoxicity of a broad spectrum of antitumor drugs. Accordingly, P-gp inhibitors/blockers are potential enhancer for the cellular bioavailability of several clinically important anticancer drugs such as, anthracyclines, taxanes, vinca alkaloids, and podophyllotoxins. Besides several chemically synthesized P-gp inhibitors/blockers, some naturally occurring compounds and plant extracts were reported for their modulation of multidrug resistance; however, this review will focus only on major classes of naturally occurring inhibitors viz., flavonoids, coumarins, terpenoids, alkaloids and saponins.

Abdallah, Hossam M.; Al-Abd, Ahmed M.; El-Dine, Riham Salah; El-Halawany, Ali M.

2014-01-01

80

Aspirin decreases systemic exposure to clopidogrel through modulation of P-glycoprotein but does not alter its antithrombotic activity.  

PubMed

Decreased oral clopidogrel absorption caused by induction of intestinal permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) expression after aspirin administration was observed in rats. This study evaluated the effect of aspirin coadministration on the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of clopidogrel in humans. A single 75-mg dose of clopidogrel was orally administered before and after 2 and 4 weeks of once-daily 100-mg aspirin administration in 18 healthy volunteers who were recruited based on CYP2C19 and PON1 genotypes. Plasma concentrations of clopidogrel and its active metabolite, H4, and relative platelet inhibition (RPI) were determined. The P-gp microRNA miR-27a increased by up to 7.67-fold (P = 0.004) and the clopidogrel area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) decreased by 14% (P > 0.05), but the AUC of H4 remained unchanged and RPI increased by up to 15% (P = 0.002) after aspirin administration. These findings indicate low-dose aspirin coadministration may decrease clopidogrel bioavailability but does not decrease its efficacy. PMID:24566733

Oh, J; Shin, D; Lim, K S; Lee, S; Jung, K-H; Chu, K; Hong, K S; Shin, K-H; Cho, J-Y; Yoon, S H; Ji, S C; Yu, K-S; Lee, H; Jang, I-J

2014-06-01

81

Effect of coumarin derivative-mediated inhibition of P-glycoprotein on oral bioavailability and therapeutic efficacy of paclitaxel.  

PubMed

Since P-glycoprotein (P-gp) acts as a barrier to intestinal absorption of various drugs, P-gp inhibitors have been studied as oral absorption enhancers of P-gp substrate drugs. Here, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo effects of a novel coumarin derivative (LL-348) for its P-gp inhibitory activity. With LL-348, accumulation of daunomycin (DNM) increased 270% and efflux of DNM decreased 63% compared to that of DNM alone. Paclitaxel (PTX, 25mg/kg) after oral administration with LL-348 (5mg/kg), the optimal dose of LL-348 as an oral absorption enhancer of PTX, improved the relative bioavailability (RB) of PTX to 961%. In a xenograft animal model, PTX (40mg/kg) treated with LL-348 (10mg/kg) significantly increased the efficacy of PTX. The results collectively demonstrate that LL-348 can provide a therapeutic benefit in the oral absorption of P-gp substrate anticancer drugs. PMID:24252806

Lee, Kyeong; Chae, Song Wha; Xia, Yan; Kim, Na Hyung; Kim, Hyun Ju; Rhie, Sandy; Lee, Hwa Jeong

2014-01-15

82

Limited Oral Bioavailability and Active Epithelial Excretion of Paclitaxel (Taxol) Caused by P-glycoprotein in the Intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In mice, the mdr1a and mdr1b genes encode drug-transporting proteins that can cause multidrug resistance in tumor cells by lowering intracellular drug levels. These P-glycoproteins are also found in various normal tissues such as the intestine. Because mdr1b P-glycoprotein is not detectable in the intestine, mice with a homozygously disrupted mdr1a gene [mdr1a(-\\/-) mice] do not contain functional P-glycoprotein in

Alex Sparreboom; Judith van Asperen; Ulrich Mayer; Alfred H. Schinkel; Johan W. Smit; Dirk K. F. Meijer; Piet Borst; Willem J. Nooijen; Jos H. Beijnen; Olaf van Tellingen

1997-01-01

83

Functional expression of P-glycoprotein in primary cultures of human cytotrophoblasts and BeWo cells  

E-print Network

The objective of this study was to investigate the functional expression of the efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), in primary cultures of human cytotrophoblasts and BeWo cell monolayers. Uptake studies with primary ...

Utoguchi, Naoki; Chandorkar, Gurudatt A.; Avery, Michael; Audus, Kenneth L.

2000-01-01

84

Mitochondrial localization of P-glycoprotein and peptide transporters in corneal epithelial cells –Novel strategies for intracellular drug targeting  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE This study was designed to investigate functional localization of both efflux (P-glycoprotein, P-gp) and influx (peptide) transporters in the mitochondrial membrane of cultured rabbit primary corneal epithelial cells (rPCECs). METHODS Isolation and purification of mitochondria was performed by optimized cell fractionation method. Mitochondrial integrity was measured by JC-1 uptake experiment. The efflux activity of P-gp was assessed by performing in vitro uptake studies on isolated mitochondria with Rhodamine 123 (Rho-123) alone and in the presence of P-gp inhibitors (quinidine and cyclosporine A) using fluorimetry and flow cytometry analysis. Functional activity of peptide transporter was assessed by performing in vitro uptake studies of [3H] Gly-sar on isolated mitochondria in the presence or absence of peptide transporter substrate (Val-Val). Molecular characterization of P-gp and peptide transporter was assessed by western blot and confocal analysis. RESULTS Enhanced JC-1 accumulation in the isolated fraction confirmed mitochondrial membrane integrity. Significantly higher uptake of Rho-123 on isolated mitochondria was observed in the presence of quinidine (75 and 100 ?M) and cyclosporine A (10?M). Significantly lower uptake of [3H] Gly-sar was observed in the presence of val-val due to competitive inhibition of peptide transporter on isolated mitochondria. Western blot and confocal analysis further confirmed the presence of P-gp and peptide transporter on the mitochondrial membrane of rPCECs. CONCLUSIONS The present study demonstrates the functional and molecular characterization of P-gp and peptide transporters in the mitochondrial membranes of rPCECs. This knowledge of mitochondrial existence of P-gp and peptide transporter will aid in the development of subcellular ocular drug delivery strategies. PMID:23116562

Barot, Megha; Gokulgandhi, Mitan R.; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

2012-01-01

85

Hyperammonemia enhances the function and expression of P-glycoprotein and Mrp2 at the blood-brain barrier through NF-?B.  

PubMed

Ammonia is considered to be the main neurotoxin responsible for hepatic encephalopathy resulting from liver failure. Liver failure has been reported to alter expression and activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of this study was to investigate whether ammonia is involved in abnormalities of expression and activity of P-gp and Mrp2 at the BBB. Hyperammonemic rats were developed by an intraperitoneal injection of ammonium acetate (NH4 Ac, 4.5 mmol/kg). Results showed that Mrp2 function markedly increased in cortex and hippocampus of rats at 6 h following NH4 Ac administration. Significant increase in function of P-gp was observed in hippocampus of rats. Meanwhile, such alterations were in line with the increase in mRNA and protein levels of P-gp and Mrp2. Significant increase in levels of nuclear amount of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) p65 was also observed. Primarily cultured rat brain microvessel endothelial cells (rBMECs) were used for in vitro study. Data indicated that 24 h exposure to ammonia significantly increased function and expression of P-gp and Mrp2 in rBMECs, accompanied with activation of NF-?B. Furthermore, such alterations induced by ammonia were reversed by NF-?B inhibitor. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that hyperammonemia increases the function and expression of P-gp and Mrp2 at the BBB via activating NF-?B pathway. Hyperammonemia, a proverbial main factor responsible for neurocognitive disorder and blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction resulting from liver failure, could increase the expression and activity of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) at the BBB both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, the NF-?B activation stimulated by hyperammonemia may be the potential mechanism underlying such abnormalities induced by hyperammonemia. PMID:25200138

Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Mian; Sun, Binbin; Li, Ying; Xu, Ping; Liu, Can; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiaodong

2014-12-01

86

Rapid and simultaneous measurement of midazolam, 1'-hydroxymidazolam and digoxin by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry: application to an in vivo study to simultaneously measure P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A activity.  

PubMed

In order to simultaneously determine in vivo P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and Cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) activity, a new, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed and fully validated to simultaneously determine midazolam (MDZ, as CYP3A substrate), 1'-hydroxymidazolam (1'-OHMDZ) and digoxin (DG, as P-gp substrate) in rat plasma using digitoxin as the internal standard (IS). After a single step liquid-liquid extraction with tert-butyl methyl ether/dichloromethane (75:25, v/v), analytes were subjected to LC-MS/MS analysis using positive electro-spray ionization (ESI(+)) under selected reaction monitoring mode (SRM). Chromatographic separation was performed on an XTerra MS C18 column (50mm×2.1mm, i.d. 3.5?m). The MS/MS detection was conducted by monitoring the fragmentation of 326.05 ? 244.00 (m/z) for MDZ, 342.02 ?168.01 (m/z) for 1'-OHMDZ, 798.33 ? 651.36(m/z) for DG and 782.67 ? 635.24 (m/z) for IS. The method had a chromatographic running time of 3min and linear calibration curves over the concentrations of 2-400ng/mL for MDZ and 1'-OHMDZ and 0.5-100ng/mL for DG. The recoveries of the method were 86.8-96.3% for MDZ, 84.6-86.4% for 1'-OH MDZ, and 81.7-85.1% for DG. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of the method was 2ng/mL for MDZ and 1'-OHMDZ and 0.5ng/mL for DG. The intra- and inter-batch precision were less than 15% for all quality control samples at concentrations of 5, 50 and 320ng/mL for MDZ and 1'-OHMDZ and 1, 10 and 80ng/mL for DG. The validated LC-MS/MS method has been successfully used to analyze the concentrations of MDZ, 1'-OH MDZ and DG in rat plasma for simultaneous measurement of in vivo P-gp and CYP 3A activity. PMID:21316177

Xue, Xinping; Huang, Min; Xiao, Huanyu; Qin, Xiaoling; Huang, Ling; Zhong, Guoping; Bi, Huichang

2011-04-28

87

Cannabidiol changes P-gp and BCRP expression in trophoblast cell lines.  

PubMed

Objectives. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug during pregnancy. Due to high lipophilicity, cannabinoids can easily penetrate physiological barriers like the human placenta and jeopardize the developing fetus. We evaluated the impact of cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychoactive cannabinoid, on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP) expression, and P-gp function in a placental model, BeWo and Jar choriocarcinoma cell lines (using P-gp induced MCF7 cells (MCF7/P-gp) for comparison). Study design. Following the establishment of the basal expression of these transporters in the membrane fraction of all three cell lines, P-gp and BCRP protein and mRNA levels were determined following chronic (24-72 h) exposure to CBD, by Western Blot and qPCR. CBD impact on P-gp efflux function was examined by uptake of specific P-gp fluorescent substrates (calcein-AM, DiOC2(3) and rhodamine123(rh123)). Cyclosporine A (CsA) served as a positive control. Results. Chronic exposure to CBD resulted in significant changes in the protein and mRNA levels of both transporters. While P-gp was down-regulated, BCRP levels were up-regulated in the choriocarcinoma cell lines. CBD had a remarkably different influence on P-gp and BCRP expression in MCF7/P-gp cells, demonstrating that these are cell type specific effects. P-gp dependent efflux (of calcein, DiOC2(3) and rh123) was inhibited upon short-term exposure to CBD. Conclusions. Our study shows that CBD might alter P-gp and BCRP expression in the human placenta, and inhibit P-gp efflux function. We conclude that marijuana use during pregnancy may reduce placental protective functions and change its morphological and physiological characteristics. PMID:24058883

Feinshtein, Valeria; Erez, Offer; Ben-Zvi, Zvi; Erez, Noam; Eshkoli, Tamar; Sheizaf, Boaz; Sheiner, Eyal; Huleihel, Mahmud; Holcberg, Gershon

2013-01-01

88

Upregulation of P-glycoprotein by probiotics in intestinal epithelial cells and in the dextran sulfate sodium model of colitis in mice.  

PubMed

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediates efflux of xenobiotics and bacterial toxins from the intestinal mucosa into the lumen. Dysregulation of P-gp has been implicated in inflammatory bowel disease. Certain probiotics have been shown to be effective in treating inflammatory bowel disease. However, direct effects of probiotics on P-gp are not known. Current studies examined the effects of Lactobacilli on P-gp function and expression in intestinal epithelial cells. Caco-2 monolayers and a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis were utilized. P-gp activity was measured as verapamil-sensitive [(3)H]digoxin transepithelial flux. Multidrug resistant 1 (MDR1)/P-gp expression was measured by real-time quantitative PCR and immunoblotting. Culture supernatant (CS; 1:10 or 1:50, 24 h) of Lactobacillus acidophilus or Lactobacillus rhamnosus treatment of differentiated Caco-2 monolayers (21 days postplating) increased (?3-fold) MDR1/P-gp mRNA and protein levels. L. acidophilus or L. rhamnosus CS stimulated P-gp activity (?2-fold, P < 0.05) via phosphoinositide 3-kinase and ERK1/2 MAPK pathways. In mice, L. acidophilus or L. rhamnosus treatment (3 × 10(9) colony-forming units) increased mdr1a/P-gp mRNA and protein expression in the ileum and colon (2- to 3-fold). In the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model (3% DSS in drinking water for 7 days), the degree of colitis as judged by histological damage and myeloperoxidase activity was reduced by L. acidophilus. L. acidophilus treatment to DSS-treated mice blocked the reduced expression of mdr1a/P-gp mRNA and protein in the distal colon. These findings suggest that Lactobacilli or their soluble factors stimulate P-gp expression and function under normal and inflammatory conditions. These data provide insights into a novel mechanism involving P-gp upregulation in beneficial effects of probiotics in intestinal inflammatory disorders. PMID:21350189

Saksena, Seema; Goyal, Sonia; Raheja, Geetu; Singh, Varsha; Akhtar, Maria; Nazir, Talat M; Alrefai, Waddah A; Gill, Ravinder K; Dudeja, Pradeep K

2011-06-01

89

Increased P-glycoprotein expression and decreased phenobarbital distribution in the brain of pentylenetetrazole-kindled rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purposes of this study were to investigate whether P-glycoprotein (P-GP) is overexpressed in the brain of pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-kindled rats, and to investigate the effects of P-GP up-regulation on the distribution of phenobarbital (PB) in brain and its antiepileptic effects. Kindled rats were developed using a subconvulsive dose of PTZ (30mg\\/kg, once every 2 days, i.p.) for 24 days. P-GP

Xiaodong Liu; Zhihong Yang; Jiansong Yang; Huiwen Yang

2007-01-01

90

Assessing drug distribution in tissues expressing P-glycoprotein through physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling: model structure and parameters determination  

PubMed Central

Background The expression and activity of P-glycoproteins due to genetic or environmental factors may have a significant impact on drug disposition, drug effectiveness or drug toxicity. Hence, characterization of drug disposition over a wide range of conditions of these membrane transporters activities is required to better characterize drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. This work aims to improve our understanding of the impact of P-gp activity modulation on tissue distribution of P-gp substrate. Methods A PBPK model was developed in order to examine activity and expression of P-gp transporters in mouse brain and heart. Drug distribution in these tissues was first represented by a well-stirred (WS) model and then refined by a mechanistic transport-based (MTB) model that includes P-gp mediated transport of the drug. To estimate transport-related parameters, we developed an original three-step procedure that allowed extrapolation of in vitro measurements of drug permeability to the in vivo situation. The model simulations were compared to a limited set of data in order to assess the model ability to reproduce the important information of drug distributions in the considered tissues. Results This PBPK model brings insights into the mechanism of drug distribution in non eliminating tissues expressing P-gp. The MTB model accounts for the main transport mechanisms involved in drug distribution in heart and brain. It points out to the protective role of P-gp at the blood-brain barrier and represents thus a noticeable improvement over the WS model. Conclusion Being built prior to in vivo data, this approach brings an interesting alternative to fitting procedures, and could be adapted to different drugs and transporters. The physiological based model is novel and unique and brought effective information on drug transporters. PMID:19146691

Fenneteau, Frédérique; Turgeon, Jacques; Couture, Lucie; Michaud, Véronique; Li, Jun; Nekka, Fahima

2009-01-01

91

Clin Pharmacol Ther . Author manuscript Donor P-gp polymorphisms strongly influence renal function and graft  

E-print Network

3A and the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp; ), bothABCB1 abundantly expressed in the kidney. We retrospectively investigated the role of polymorphisms in , andCYP3A4 CYP3A5 ABCB1 kidney graft-Meiers Estimate ; Kidney ; physiology ; Kidney Function Tests ; Kidney Transplantation ; physiology ; Male

Boyer, Edmond

92

Predicting Binding to P-Glycoprotein by Flexible Receptor Docking  

Microsoft Academic Search

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP-dependent transport protein that is selectively expressed at entry points of xenobiotics where, acting as an efflux pump, it prevents their entering sensitive organs. The protein also plays a key role in the absorption and blood-brain barrier penetration of many drugs, while its overexpression in cancer cells has been linked to multidrug resistance in tumors. The

Elena Dolghih; Clifford Bryant; Adam R. Renslo; Matthew P. Jacobson

2011-01-01

93

Mutational analysis of the P-glycoprotein first intracellular loop and flanking transmembrane domains.  

PubMed

The role of individual intracellular (IC) loops linking transmembrane (TM) domains in P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function remains largely unknown. The high degree of sequence conservation of these regions in the P-gp family and other ABC transporters suggests an important role in a common mechanism of action of these proteins. To gain insight into this problem, we have randomly mutagenized a portion of TM2, the entire IC1 loop, TM3, the entire extracellular loop (EC2), and part of TM4, and analyzed the effect of such mutations on P-gp function. Random mutagenesis was carried out using Taq DNA polymerase and dITP under conditions of low polymerase fidelity, and the mutagenized segments were reintroduced in the full length mdr3 cDNA by homologous recombination in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain JPY201. The biological activity of mutant P-gp variants was analyzed in yeast by their ability to confer cellular resistance to the antifungal drug FK506 and the peptide ionophore valinomycin, and by their ability to complement the yeast Ste6 gene and restore mating in a yeast strain bearing a null mutation [Raymond, M., et al. (1992) Science 256, 232-4] at this locus. The analysis of 782 independent yeast transformants allowed the identification of 49 independent mutants bearing single amino acid substitutions in the mutagenized segment resulting in an altered P-gp function. The mutants could be phenotypically classified into two major groups, those that resulted in partial or complete overall loss of function and those that seemed to affect substrate specificity. Several of the mutants affecting overall activity mapped in IC1; in particular we identified a segment of four consecutive mutation sensitive residues (TRLT, positions 169-172) with such a phenotype. On the other hand, we identified a cluster of mutants affecting substrate specificity within the short EC2 segment and in the adjacent portion of the neighboring TM4 domain. Expression and partial purification of a representative subset of these mutants showed that in all but two cases, loss of function was associated with loss of drug-induced ATPase activity of P-gp. Therefore, it appears that TM domains, IC and EC loops, are structurally and functionally tightly coupled in the process of drug stimulatable ATPase characteristic of P-gp. PMID:9521654

Kwan, T; Gros, P

1998-03-10

94

P-glycoprotein recognition of substrates and circumvention through rational drug design.  

PubMed

It is now well recognized that membrane efflux transporters, especially P-glycoprotein (P-gp; ABCB1), play a role in determining the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicology behaviors of some drugs and molecules in development. An investment in screening structure-activity relationship (SAR) is warranted in early discovery when exposure and/or target activity in an in vivo efficacy model is not achieved and P-gp efflux is identified as a rate-limiting factor. However, the amount of investment in SAR must be placed into perspective by assessing the risks associated with the intended therapeutic target, the potency and margin of safety of the compound, the intended patient population(s), and the market competition. The task of rationally designing a chemistry strategy for circumventing a limiting P-gp interaction can be daunting. The necessity of retaining biological potency and metabolic stability places restrictions on what can be done, and the factors for P-gp recognition of substrates are complicated and poorly understood. The parameters within the assays that affect overall pump efficiency or net efflux, such as passive diffusion, membrane partitioning, and molecular interaction between pump and substrate, should be understood when interpreting data sets associated with chemistry around a scaffold. No single, functional group alone is often the cause, but one group can accentuate the recognition points existing within a scaffold. This can be likened to a rheostat, rather than an on/off switch, where addition or removal of a key group can increase or decrease the pumping efficiency. The most practical approach to de-emphasize the limiting effects of P-gp on a particular scaffold is to increase passive diffusion. Efflux pumping efficiency may be overcome when passive diffusion is fast enough. Eliminating, or substituting with fewer, groups that solvate in water, or decreasing their hydrogen bonding capacity, and adding halogen groups can increase passive diffusion. Reducing molecular size, replacing electronegative atoms, blocking or masking H-bond donors with N-alkylation or bulky flanking groups, introducing constrained conformation, or by promoting intramolecular hydrogen bonds are all examples of steps to take. This review discusses our understanding of how P-gp recognizes and pumps compounds as substrates and describes cases where structural changes were made in a chemical scaffold to circumvent the effects of P-gp interactions. PMID:16686365

Raub, Thomas J

2006-01-01

95

Absence of P-Glycoprotein Transport in the Pharmacokinetics and Toxicity of the Herbicide Paraquat  

PubMed Central

Genetic variation in the multidrug resistance gene ABCB1, which encodes the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), has been associated with Parkinson disease. Our goal was to investigate P-gp transport of paraquat, a Parkinson-associated neurotoxicant. We used in vitro transport models of ATPase activity, xenobiotic-induced cytotoxicity, transepithelial permeability, and rhodamine-123 inhibition. We also measured paraquat pharmacokinetics and brain distribution in Friend leukemia virus B-type (FVB) wild-type and P-gp-deficient (mdr1a?/?/mdr1b?/?) mice following 10, 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg oral doses. In vitro data showed that: 1) paraquat failed to stimulate ATPase activity; 2) resistance to paraquat-induced cytotoxicity was unchanged in P-gp-expressing cells in the absence or presence of P-gp inhibitors GF120918 [N-(4-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2-isoquinolinyl)ethyl]-phenyl)-9,10-dihydro-5-methoxy-9-oxo-4-acridine carboxamide] and verapamil—37.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 33.2–41.4], 46.2 (42.5–50.2), and 34.1 µM (31.2–37.2)—respectively; 3) transepithelial permeability ratios of paraquat were the same in P-gp-expressing and nonexpressing cells (1.55 ± 0.39 and 1.39 ± 0.43, respectively); and 4) paraquat did not inhibit rhodamine-123 transport. Population pharmacokinetic modeling revealed minor differences between FVB wild-type and mdr1a?/?/mdr1b?/? mice: clearances of 0.47 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.42–0.52] and 0.78 l/h (0.58–0.98), respectively, and volume of distributions of 1.77 (95% CI: 1.50–2.04) and 3.36 liters (2.39–4.33), respectively; however, the change in clearance was in the opposite direction of what would be expected. It is noteworthy that paraquat brain-to-plasma partitioning ratios and total brain accumulation were the same across doses between FVB wild-type and mdr1a?/?/mdr1b?/? mice. These studies indicate that paraquat is not a P-gp substrate. Therefore, the association between ABCB1 pharmacogenomics and Parkinson disease is not attributed to alterations in paraquat transport. PMID:24297779

Lacher, Sarah E.; Gremaud, Julia N.; Skagen, Kasse; Steed, Emily; Dalton, Rachel; Sugden, Kent D.; Cardozo-Pelaez, Fernando; Sherwin, Catherine M. T.

2014-01-01

96

The P-glycoprotein inhibitor cyclosporin A differentially influences behavioural and neurochemical responses to the antidepressant escitalopram.  

PubMed

Recent studies have raised the possibility that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibition may represent a putative augmentation strategy for treatment with certain antidepressants. Indeed, we have previously shown that administration of the P-gp inhibitor verapamil increased the brain distribution and behavioural effects of the antidepressant escitalopram. The aim of the current study was to investigate if similar effects occur with another P-gp inhibitor, cyclosporin A (CsA). CsA pre-treatment exacerbated the severity of behaviours in an escitalopram-induced mouse model of serotonin syndrome, a potentially life-threatening adverse drug reaction associated with serotonergic drugs. P-gp inhibition by CsA enhanced the brain distribution of escitalopram by 70-80%. Serotonin (5-HT) turnover in the prefrontal cortex was reduced by escitalopram, and this effect was augmented by CsA. However, CsA pre-treatment did not augment the effect of escitalopram in the tail suspension test (TST) of antidepressant-like activity. Microdialysis experiments revealed that pre-treatment with CsA failed to augment, but blunted, the increase in extracellular 5-HT in response to escitalopram administration. This blunting effect may contribute to the lack of augmentation in the TST. Taken together, the present studies demonstrate that co-administration of CsA and escitalopram produces differential effects depending on the behavioural and neurochemical assays employed. Thus, the results highlight the need for further studies involving more selective pharmacological tools to specifically evaluate the impact of P-gp inhibition on behavioural responses to antidepressants which are subject to efflux by P-gp. PMID:24280122

O'Brien, Fionn E; O'Connor, Richard M; Clarke, Gerard; Donovan, Maria D; Dinan, Timothy G; Griffin, Brendan T; Cryan, John F

2014-03-15

97

P-gp activity is a critical resistance factor against AVE9633 and DM4 cytotoxicity in leukaemia cell lines, but not a major mechanism of chemoresistance in cells from acute myeloid leukaemia patients  

PubMed Central

Background AVE9633 is a new immunoconjugate comprising a humanized monoclonal antibody, anti-CD33 antigen, linked through a disulfide bond to the maytansine derivative DM4, a cytotoxic agent and potent tubulin inhibitor. It is undergoing a phase I clinical trial. Chemoresistance to anti-mitotic agents has been shown to be related, in part, to overexpression of ABC proteins. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential roles of P-gp, MRP1 and BCRP in cytotoxicity in AVE9633-induced acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Methods This study used AML cell lines expressing different levels of P-gp, MRP1 or BCRP proteins and twenty-five samples from AML patients. Expression and functionality of the transporter protein were analyzed by flow cytometry. The cytotoxicity of the drug was evaluated by MTT and apoptosis assays. Results P-gp activity, but not MRP1 and BCRP, attenuated AVE9633 and DM4 cytotoxicity in myeloid cell lines. Zosuquidar, a potent specific P-gp inhibitor, restored the sensitivity of cells expressing P-gp to both AVE9633 and DM4. However, the data from AML patients show that 10/25 samples of AML cells (40%) were resistant to AVE9633 or DM4 (IC50 > 500 nM), and this was not related to P-gp activity (p-Value: 0.7). Zosuquidar also failed to re-establish drug sensitivity. Furthermore, this resistance was not correlated with CD33 expression (p-Value: 0.6) in those cells. Conclusion P-gp activity is not a crucial mechanism of chemoresistance to AVE9633. For patients whose resistance to conventional anthracycline AML regimens is related to ABC protein expression, a combination with AVE9633 could be beneficial. Other mechanisms such as microtubule alteration could play an important role in chemoresistance to AVE9633. PMID:19549303

2009-01-01

98

P-glycoprotein Inhibition for Optimal Drug Delivery  

PubMed Central

P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux membrane transporter, is widely distributed throughout the body and is responsible for limiting cellular uptake and the distribution of xenobiotics and toxic substances. Hundreds of structurally diverse therapeutic agents are substrates to it and it impedes the absorption, permeability, and retention of the drugs, extruding them out of the cells. It is overexpressed in cancer cells and accountable for obstructing cell internalization of chemotherapeutic agents and for developing transporter mediated resistance by cancer cells during anti-tumor treatments. As it jeopardizes the success of drug delivery and cancer targeting, strategies are being developed to overcome P-gp mediated drug transport. This concise review represents a brief discussion on P-gp mediated drug transport and how it hinders the success of various therapies. Its main focus is on various strategies used to tackle this curb in the field of drug delivery and targeting. PMID:24023511

Amin, Md. Lutful

2013-01-01

99

ADMET evaluation in drug discovery. 13. Development of in silico prediction models for P-glycoprotein substrates.  

PubMed

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) actively transports a wide variety of chemically diverse compounds out of cells. It is highly associated with the ADMET properties of drugs and drug candidates and, moreover, plays a major role in the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenomenon, which leads to the failure of chemotherapy in cancer treatments. Therefore, the recognition of potential P-gp substrates at the early stages of the drug discovery process is quite important. Here, we compiled an extensive data set containing 423 P-gp substrates and 399 nonsubstrates, which is the largest P-gp substrate/nonsubstrate data set yet published. Comparison of the distributions of eight important physicochemical properties for the substrates and nonsubstrates reveals that molecular weight and molecular solubility are the informative attributes differentiating P-gp substrates from nonsubstrates. Examination of the distributions of eight physicochemical properties for 735 P-gp inhibitors and 423 substrates gives the fact that inhibitors are significantly more hydrophobic than substrates while substrates tend to have more H-bond donors than inhibitors. Then, the classification models based on simple molecular properties, topological descriptors, and molecular fingerprints were developed using the naive Bayesian classification technique. The best naive Bayesian classifier yields a Matthews correlation coefficient of 0.824 and a prediction accuracy of 91.2% for the training set from a 5-fold cross-validation procedure, and a Matthews correlation coefficient of 0.667 and a prediction accuracy of 83.5% for the test set containing 200 molecules. Analysis of the important structural fragments given by the Bayesian classifier shows that the essential H-bond acceptors arranged in distinct spatial patterns and flexibility are quite essential for P-gp substrate-likeness, which affords a deeper understanding on the molecular basis of substrate/P-gp interaction. Finally, the reasons for mispredictions were discussed. It turns out that the presented classifier could be used as a reliable virtual screening tool for identifying potential substrates of P-gp. PMID:24499501

Li, Dan; Chen, Lei; Li, Youyong; Tian, Sheng; Sun, Huiyong; Hou, Tingjun

2014-03-01

100

Estrogen-mediated post transcriptional down-regulation of P-glycoprotein in MDR1-transduced human breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

The human multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1) encodes the plasma membrane P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) that functions as an efflux pump for various anticancer agents. We recently reported that estrogens down-regulate the expression of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2). In our present study we demonstrate that estrogens also down-regulate P-gp expression in the MDR1-transduced, estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha)-positive human breast cancer cells, MCF-7/MDR and T-47D/MDR. The P-gp expression levels in MCF-7/MDR cells treated with 100 pM estradiol were found to be 10-20-fold lower than the levels in these same cells that were cultured without estradiol. In contrast, estradiol did not affect the P-gp expression levels in the ER-alpha-negative cancer cells, MDA-MB-231/MDR and NCI/ADR-RES. Estrone and diethylstilbestrol were also found to down-regulate P-gp in MCF-7/MDR cells, but progesterone treatment did not produce this effect. Tamoxifen reversed the estradiol-mediated down-regulation of P-gp in MCF-7/MDR cells, suggesting that ER-alpha activity is necessary for the effects of estradiol upon P-gp. However, estradiol was found not to alter the MDR1 transcript levels in either MCF-7/MDR and T-47D/MDR cells, suggesting that post-transcriptional mechanisms underlie its effects upon P-gp down-regulation. MCF-7/MDR cells also showed eight-fold higher sensitivity to vincristine when treated with 100 pM estradiol, than when treated with 1 pM estradiol. These results may serve to provide a better understanding of the expression control of ABC transporters, and possibly allow for the establishment of new cancer chemotherapy strategies that would control P-gp expression in breast cancer cells and thereby increase their sensitivity to MDR1-related anticancer agents. PMID:16925584

Mutoh, Kazuyoshi; Tsukahara, Satomi; Mitsuhashi, Junko; Katayama, Kazuhiro; Sugimoto, Yoshikazu

2006-11-01

101

Protoberberine alkaloids and their reversal activity of P-gp expressed multidrug resistance (MDR) from the rhizome of Coptis japonica Makino.  

PubMed

Six protoberberine alkaloids were isolated from the chloroform layer of the rhizome of Coptis japonica Makino (Ranunculaceae). The structures of the isolated compounds were determined to be 6-([1,3]dioxolo[4,5-g]isoquinoline-5-carbonyl)-2,3-dimethoxy-benzoic acid methyl ester (1), oxyberberine (2), 8-oxo-epiberberine (3), 8-oxocoptisine (4), berberine (5) and palmatine (6) by physicochemical and spectroscopic methods. The compound 3 (8-oxo-epiberberine) was first isolated from natural sources. The compounds were tested for cytotoxicity against five tumor cell lines in vitro by SRB method, and also tested for the MDR reversal activities. Compound 4 was of significant P-gp MDR inhibition activity with ED50 value 0.018 microg/mL in MES-SA/DX5 cell and 0.0005 microg/mL in HCT15 cell, respectively. PMID:17024849

Min, Yong Deuk; Yang, Min Cheol; Lee, Kyu Ha; Kim, Kyung Ran; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Kang Ro

2006-09-01

102

P-gp localization in mitochondria and its functional characterization in multiple drug-resistant cell lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype is characterized by the over-expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) on cell plasma membranes that extrudes several drugs out of cells. Cells that express the MDR phenotype are resistant to the mitochondrial related apoptosis and to several anticancer drugs.This study assessed the presence of P-gp in mitochondria and its role in parental drug-sensitive (P5) and in P5-derived MDR1

Michela Solazzo; Ornella Fantappiè; Nadia Lasagna; Chiara Sassoli; Daniele Nosi; Roberto Mazzanti

2006-01-01

103

Cargoing P-gp inhibitors via nanoparticle sensitizes tumor cells against doxorubicin.  

PubMed

Inhibitors against multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux transporters have failed in most clinical settings due to unfavorable pharmacokinetic interactions with co-administered anti-cancer drug and their inherent toxicities. Nanoparticles (NPs) have shown potential to overcome drug efflux by delivering and localizing therapeutic molecules within tumor mass. In this work, we investigated effect of nanocarrier surface charge and formulation parameters for a hydrophilic and lipophilic MDR inhibitor on their ability to reverse drug resistance. Active inhibition of efflux pumps was achieved by encapsulating first and third generation P-gp inhibitors- verapamil and elacridar respectively in non-ionic, anionic and cationic surfactant-based NPs. The ability of NPs to reverse P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated MDR efflux was evaluated in sensitive (A2780) and resistant (A2780Adr) ovarian cancer cell lines by various in vitro accumulation and cytotoxicity assays. Uptake mechanism for NP appears to be caveolae-dependent with 20%-higher internalization in A2780Adr than A2780 cell lines which can be co-related to the biophysical membrane composition. Cationic- CTAB NPs showed highest reversal efficacy followed by PVA and SDS-NP (P+S NP) and PVA-NPs. As compared to doxorubicin treated drug resistant cells lines, blank-, verapamil- and elacridar-CTAB-NPs showed 2.6-, 20- and 193-fold lower IC50 values. This work highlights the importance of inhibitor-loaded charged particles to overcome cancer drug resistance. PMID:25437111

Singh, Manu Smriti; Lamprecht, Alf

2015-01-30

104

Protein contacts and ligand binding in the inward-facing model of human P-glycoprotein.  

PubMed

The primary aim of this work was to analyze the contacts between residues in the nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) and at the interface between the transmembrane domains (TMDs) and the NBDs in the inward-open homology model of human P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The analysis revealed communication nets through hydrogen bonding in the NBD and at the NBD-TMD interface of each half involving residues from the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) motifs and the coupling helices of the intracellular loops. Similar networks have been identified in P-gp conformations generated by molecular dynamics simulation. Differences have been recorded in the networking between both halves of P-gp. Many of the residue contacts have also been observed in the X-ray crystal structures of other ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, which confirms their validity. Next, possible binding pockets involving residues of importance for the TMD-NBD communication were identified. By studying these pockets, binding sites were suggested for rhodamine?123 (R-site) and prazosin (regulatory site) at the NBD-TMD interface that agreed with the experimental data on their location. Additionally, one more R-site in the protein cavity was proposed, in accordance with the available biochemical data. Together with the previously suggested Hoechst?33342 site (H-site), all sites were interpreted with respect to their effects on the protein ATPase activity, in correspondence with the experimental observations. Several residues involved in key contacts in the P-gp NBDs were proposed for further targeted mutagenesis experiments. PMID:23564544

Pajeva, Ilza K; Hanl, Markus; Wiese, Michael

2013-05-01

105

Exhaustive Sampling of Docking Poses Reveals Binding Hypotheses for Propafenone Type Inhibitors of P-Glycoprotein  

PubMed Central

Overexpression of the xenotoxin transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) represents one major reason for the development of multidrug resistance (MDR), leading to the failure of antibiotic and cancer therapies. Inhibitors of P-gp have thus been advocated as promising candidates for overcoming the problem of MDR. However, due to lack of a high-resolution structure the concrete mode of interaction of both substrates and inhibitors is still not known. Therefore, structure-based design studies have to rely on protein homology models. In order to identify binding hypotheses for propafenone-type P-gp inhibitors, five different propafenone derivatives with known structure-activity relationship (SAR) pattern were docked into homology models of the apo and the nucleotide-bound conformation of the transporter. To circumvent the uncertainty of scoring functions, we exhaustively sampled the pose space and analyzed the poses by combining information retrieved from SAR studies with common scaffold clustering. The results suggest propafenone binding at the transmembrane helices 5, 6, 7 and 8 in both models, with the amino acid residue Y307 playing a crucial role. The identified binding site in the non-energized state is overlapping with, but not identical to, known binding areas of cyclic P-gp inhibitors and verapamil. These findings support the idea of several small binding sites forming one large binding cavity. Furthermore, the binding hypotheses for both catalytic states were analyzed and showed only small differences in their protein-ligand interaction fingerprints, which indicates only small movements of the ligand during the catalytic cycle. PMID:21589945

Klepsch, Freya; Chiba, Peter; Ecker, Gerhard F.

2011-01-01

106

Pharmacokinetic Interactions of Herbs with Cytochrome P450 and P-Glycoprotein  

PubMed Central

The concurrent use of drugs and herbal products is becoming increasingly prevalent over the last decade. Several herbal products have been known to modulate cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which are recognized as representative drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporter, respectively. Thus, a summary of knowledge on the modulation of CYP and P-gp by commonly used herbs can provide robust fundamentals for optimizing CYP and/or P-gp substrate drug-based therapy. Herein, we review ten popular medicinal and/or dietary herbs as perpetrators of CYP- and P-gp-mediated pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. The main focus is placed on previous works on the ability of herbal extracts and their phytochemicals to modulate the expression and function of CYP and P-gp in several in vitro and in vivo animal and human systems. PMID:25632290

Cho, Hyun-Jong

2015-01-01

107

Reversal of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance is induced by mollugin in MCF-7/adriamycin cells.  

PubMed

P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an important efflux transporter, is encoded by the MDR1 class of genes and is a central element of the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenomenon in cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated whether mollugin, purified from roots of Rubica cordifolia L., down-regulated MDR1 expression in MCF-7/adriamycin (MCF-7/adr) cells, a human breast multidrug-resistant cancer cell line. Mollugin treatment significantly inhibited MDR1 expression by blocking MDR1 transcription. Mollugin treatment also significantly increased intracellular accumulation of the fluorescently-tagged P-gp substrate, rhodamine-123. The suppression of MDR1 promoter activity and protein expression was mediated through mollugin-induced activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Furthermore, mollugin inhibited MDR1 expression through the suppression of NF-?B and CREB activation. Interestingly, mollugin also inhibited COX-2 expression. These results suggest that mollugin treatment enhanced suppression of P-gp expression by inhibiting the NF-?B signaling pathway and COX-2 expression, as well as attenuating CRE transcriptional activity through AMPK activation. PMID:23466342

Tran, Thu Phuong; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Choi, Jae Ho; Na, Min-Kyun; Jeong, Hye Gwang

2013-05-15

108

Characterization of Cyclosporin A Transport in Cultured Rabbit Corneal Epithelial Cells: P-Glycoprotein Transport Activity and Binding to Cyclophilin  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. The purpose of this study was to characterize cyclosporin A (CsA) uptake and transport in cultured rabbit corneal epithelial cells (RCECs) . METHODS. CsA uptake was evaluated by measuring time-dependent 3H-CsA accumulation in con- fluent RCECs. Bidirectional 3H-CsA fluxes were measured across the RCEC layers grown on Transwell-COL culture plate inserts. The anti-P-gp monoclonal antibody C219 was used in

Kouichi Kawazu; Kazuhito Yamada; Masatsugu Nakamura; Atsutoshi Ota

109

Relationship between the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 and MDR1\\/P-glycoprotein in invasive breast cancers and their prognostic significance  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Recent reports suggest that expression of the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) enzyme may up-regulate expression of MDR1\\/P-glycoprotein (MDR1\\/P-gp), an exponent of resistance to cytostatic drugs. The present study aimed at examining the relationship between the expression of COX-2 and of MDR1\\/P-gp in a group of breast cancer cases. METHODS: Immunohistochemical reactions were performed using monoclonal antibodies against COX-2 and MDR1\\/P-gp

Pawel Surowiak; Verena Materna; Rafal Matkowski; Katarzyna Szczuraszek; Jan Kornafel; Andrzej Wojnar; Marek Pudelko; Manfred Dietel; Carsten Denkert; Maciej Zabel; Hermann Lage

2005-01-01

110

Involvement of PtdIns(4,5)P2 in the regulatory mechanism of small intestinal P-glycoprotein expression.  

PubMed

Previously, we reported that repeated oral administration of etoposide (ETP) activates the ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) scaffold proteins for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) via Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA)/Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK) signaling, leading to increased ileal P-gp expression. Recent studies indicate that phosphatidyl inositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2] regulates the plasma-membrane localization of certain proteins, and its synthase, the type I phosphatidyl inositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase (PI4P5K), is largely controlled by RhoA/ROCK. Here, we examined whether PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PI4P5K are involved in the increased expression of ileal P-gp following the ERM activation by ETP treatment. Male ddY mice (4-week-old) were treated with ETP (10 mg/kg/day, per os, p.o.) for 5 days. Protein-expression levels were measured by either western blot or dot blot analysis and molecular interactions were assessed using immunoprecipitation assays. ETP treatment significantly increased PI4P5K, ERM, and P-gp expression in the ileal membrane. This effect was suppressed following the coadministration of ETP with rosuvastatin (a RhoA inhibitor) or fasudil (a ROCK inhibitor). Notably, the PtdIns(4,5)P2 expression in the ileal membrane, as well as both P-gp and ERM levels coimmunoprecipitated with anti-PtdIns(4,5)P2 antibody, were increased by ETP treatment. PtdIns(4,5)P2 and PI4P5K may contribute to the increase in ileal P-gp expression observed following the ETP treatment, possibly through ERM activation via the RhoA/ROCK pathway. PMID:24311454

Kobori, Takuro; Harada, Shinichi; Nakamoto, Kazuo; Tokuyama, Shogo

2014-02-01

111

Multiple Transport-Active Binding Sites Are Available for a Single Substrate on Human P-Glycoprotein (ABCB1)  

PubMed Central

P-glycoprotein (Pgp, ABCB1) is an ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter that is associated with the development of multidrug resistance in cancer cells. Pgp transports a variety of chemically dissimilar amphipathic compounds using the energy from ATP hydrolysis. In the present study, to elucidate the binding sites on Pgp for substrates and modulators, we employed site-directed mutagenesis, cell- and membrane-based assays, molecular modeling and docking. We generated single, double and triple mutants with substitutions of the Y307, F343, Q725, F728, F978 and V982 residues at the proposed drug-binding site with cys in a cysless Pgp, and expressed them in insect and mammalian cells using a baculovirus expression system. All the mutant proteins were expressed at the cell surface to the same extent as the cysless wild-type Pgp. With substitution of three residues of the pocket (Y307, Q725 and V982) with cysteine in a cysless Pgp, QZ59S-SSS, cyclosporine A, tariquidar, valinomycin and FSBA lose the ability to inhibit the labeling of Pgp with a transport substrate, [125I]-Iodoarylazidoprazosin, indicating these drugs cannot bind at their primary binding sites. However, the drugs can modulate the ATP hydrolysis of the mutant Pgps, demonstrating that they bind at secondary sites. In addition, the transport of six fluorescent substrates in HeLa cells expressing triple mutant (Y307C/Q725C/V982C) Pgp is also not significantly altered, showing that substrates bound at secondary sites are still transported. The homology modeling of human Pgp and substrate and modulator docking studies support the biochemical and transport data. In aggregate, our results demonstrate that a large flexible pocket in the Pgp transmembrane domains is able to bind chemically diverse compounds. When residues of the primary drug-binding site are mutated, substrates and modulators bind to secondary sites on the transporter and more than one transport-active binding site is available for each substrate. PMID:24349290

Chufan, Eduardo E.; Kapoor, Khyati; Sim, Hong-May; Singh, Satyakam; Talele, Tanaji T.; Durell, Stewart R.; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

2013-01-01

112

Multiple transport-active binding sites are available for a single substrate on human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1).  

PubMed

P-glycoprotein (Pgp, ABCB1) is an ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter that is associated with the development of multidrug resistance in cancer cells. Pgp transports a variety of chemically dissimilar amphipathic compounds using the energy from ATP hydrolysis. In the present study, to elucidate the binding sites on Pgp for substrates and modulators, we employed site-directed mutagenesis, cell- and membrane-based assays, molecular modeling and docking. We generated single, double and triple mutants with substitutions of the Y307, F343, Q725, F728, F978 and V982 residues at the proposed drug-binding site with cys in a cysless Pgp, and expressed them in insect and mammalian cells using a baculovirus expression system. All the mutant proteins were expressed at the cell surface to the same extent as the cysless wild-type Pgp. With substitution of three residues of the pocket (Y307, Q725 and V982) with cysteine in a cysless Pgp, QZ59S-SSS, cyclosporine A, tariquidar, valinomycin and FSBA lose the ability to inhibit the labeling of Pgp with a transport substrate, [(125)I]-Iodoarylazidoprazosin, indicating these drugs cannot bind at their primary binding sites. However, the drugs can modulate the ATP hydrolysis of the mutant Pgps, demonstrating that they bind at secondary sites. In addition, the transport of six fluorescent substrates in HeLa cells expressing triple mutant (Y307C/Q725C/V982C) Pgp is also not significantly altered, showing that substrates bound at secondary sites are still transported. The homology modeling of human Pgp and substrate and modulator docking studies support the biochemical and transport data. In aggregate, our results demonstrate that a large flexible pocket in the Pgp transmembrane domains is able to bind chemically diverse compounds. When residues of the primary drug-binding site are mutated, substrates and modulators bind to secondary sites on the transporter and more than one transport-active binding site is available for each substrate. PMID:24349290

Chufan, Eduardo E; Kapoor, Khyati; Sim, Hong-May; Singh, Satyakam; Talele, Tanaji T; Durell, Stewart R; Ambudkar, Suresh V

2013-01-01

113

Involvement of P-glycoprotein on ivermectin kinetic behaviour in sheep: itraconazole-mediated changes on gastrointestinal disposition.  

PubMed

Different pharmacological approaches have been used in an attempt to increase the systemic availability of anthelmintic drugs. The comparative effect of the itraconazole (ITZ)-mediated modulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity on the in vivo kinetic behaviour of ivermectin (IVM) administered by the intravenous (i.v.) and intraruminal (i.r.) routes to sheep was assessed in the current work. Corriedale sheep received IVM (50 microg/kg) by the i.v. route either alone (group A) or co-administered with the P-gp modulator ITZ (100 mg orally three times every 12 h) (group B). Animals in groups C and D were intraruminally treated with IVM (50 microg/kg) alone or co-administered with ITZ (100 mg orally three times every 12 h) respectively. Jugular blood and gastrointestinal tissue samples (animals treated by the i.r. route) were collected. The samples were analysed by HPLC using fluorescence detection. The plasma disposition of IVM given intravenously was unaffected by the presence of ITZ. However, after the i.r. treatment the co-administration with ITZ resulted in markedly higher IVM plasma concentration profiles compared to the control group. Likewise, the presence of ITZ enhanced the IVM concentration profiles measured in the gastrointestinal mucosal tissues. An ITZ-induced reduction on the P-gp efflux activity at the intestinal lining may have accounted for the greater absorption and enhanced systemic availability observed for IVM in the intraruminally treated animals. PMID:17472656

Ballent, M; Lifschitz, A; Virkel, G; Sallovitz, J; Lanusse, C

2007-06-01

114

A semisynthetic taxane Yg-3-46a effectively evades P-glycoprotein and ?-III tubulin mediated tumor drug resistance in vitro.  

PubMed

Tumor resistance, especially that mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and ?-III tubulin, is a major obstacle to the efficacy of most microtubule-targeting anticancer drugs in clinics. A novel semisynthetic taxane, 2-debenzoyl-2-(3-azidobenzyl)-10-propionyldocetaxel (Yg-3-46a) was shown to be highly cytotoxic to breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MCF/ADR which overexpressed P-gp via long term culture with doxorubicin, and cervical cancer cell lines Hela and Hela/?III which overexpressed ?III-tubulin via stable transfection with TUBB3 gene. siRNA transfection experiments also confirmed that Yg-3-46a can circumvent P-gp and ?-III tubulin mediated drug resistance. In addition, its cytotoxicity was lower than that of paclitaxel in the human mammary cell line HBL-100 and the human telomerase-immortalized retinal pigment epithelium cell line (hTERT-RPE1), suggesting a better safety margin for this compound in vivo. It exhibited more potent microtubule polymerization ability than paclitaxel in vitro, and also induced G2/M phase arrest in MCF-7/ADR cells. Moreover, it was found to induce apoptosis in MCF-7/ADR cells through the caspase-dependent death-receptor pathway by enhancing levels of Fas and FasL, and activating caspase-8 and 3. Yg-3-46a was found to be a poorer substrate of P-gp compared to paclitaxel, in both binding and ATPase experiments, which is likely responsible for its ability to circumvent P-gp mediated multidrug resistance (MDR). All of these results indicate that Yg-3-46a is a novel microtubule-stabilizing agent that has the potential to evade drug resistance mediated by P-gp and ?-III tubulin overexpression. PMID:23941826

Cai, Pei; Lu, Peihua; Sharom, Frances J; Fang, Wei-Shuo

2013-12-01

115

Molecular insight into conformational transmission of human P-glycoprotein.  

PubMed

P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a kind of ATP-binding cassette transporter, can export candidates through a channel at the two transmembrane domains (TMDs) across the cell membranes using the energy released from ATP hydrolysis at the two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). Considerable evidence has indicated that human P-gp undergoes large-scale conformational changes to export a wide variety of anti-cancer drugs out of the cancer cells. However, molecular mechanism of the conformational transmission of human P-gp from the NBDs to the TMDs is still unclear. Herein, targeted molecular dynamics simulations were performed to explore the atomic detail of the conformational transmission of human P-gp. It is confirmed that the conformational transition from the inward- to outward-facing is initiated by the movement of the NBDs. It is found that the two NBDs move both on the two directions (x and y). The movement on the x direction leads to the closure of the NBDs, while the movement on the y direction adjusts the conformations of the NBDs to form the correct ATP binding pockets. Six key segments (KSs) protruding from the TMDs to interact with the NBDs are identified. The relative movement of the KSs along the y axis driven by the NBDs can be transmitted through ?-helices to the rest of the TMDs, rendering the TMDs to open towards periplasm in the outward-facing conformation. Twenty eight key residue pairs are identified to participate in the interaction network that contributes to the conformational transmission from the NBDs to the TMDs of human P-gp. In addition, 9 key residues in each NBD are also identified. The studies have thus provided clear insight into the conformational transmission from the NBDs to the TMDs in human P-gp. PMID:24329094

Chang, Shan-Yan; Liu, Fu-Feng; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Yan

2013-12-14

116

Molecular insight into conformational transmission of human P-glycoprotein  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a kind of ATP-binding cassette transporter, can export candidates through a channel at the two transmembrane domains (TMDs) across the cell membranes using the energy released from ATP hydrolysis at the two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). Considerable evidence has indicated that human P-gp undergoes large-scale conformational changes to export a wide variety of anti-cancer drugs out of the cancer cells. However, molecular mechanism of the conformational transmission of human P-gp from the NBDs to the TMDs is still unclear. Herein, targeted molecular dynamics simulations were performed to explore the atomic detail of the conformational transmission of human P-gp. It is confirmed that the conformational transition from the inward- to outward-facing is initiated by the movement of the NBDs. It is found that the two NBDs move both on the two directions (x and y). The movement on the x direction leads to the closure of the NBDs, while the movement on the y direction adjusts the conformations of the NBDs to form the correct ATP binding pockets. Six key segments (KSs) protruding from the TMDs to interact with the NBDs are identified. The relative movement of the KSs along the y axis driven by the NBDs can be transmitted through ?-helices to the rest of the TMDs, rendering the TMDs to open towards periplasm in the outward-facing conformation. Twenty eight key residue pairs are identified to participate in the interaction network that contributes to the conformational transmission from the NBDs to the TMDs of human P-gp. In addition, 9 key residues in each NBD are also identified. The studies have thus provided clear insight into the conformational transmission from the NBDs to the TMDs in human P-gp.

Chang, Shan-Yan; Liu, Fu-Feng; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Yan

2013-12-01

117

P-glycoprotein in the developing human brain: a review of the effects of ontogeny on the safety of opioids in neonates.  

PubMed

The human blood brain barrier is responsible for maintaining brain homeostasis and protecting against potentially toxic substances. The ATP-binding cassette drug efflux protein, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a key player in actively extruding a wide range of xenobiotics such as opioids from the brain. Because the blood brain barrier is structurally and functionally immature in neonates, opioids may have a greater penetration to the central nervous system. This may influence the efficacy and safety of opioids in the newborn. Understanding the extent of P-gp's expression in the brain in the embryo, fetus, and newborn will facilitate rational opioid use during pregnancy and the neonatal period. This review aims to summarize the current evidence that associates the ontogeny of P-gp and the susceptibility to opioid-induced adverse respiratory effects in neonates. To date, evidence suggests that the expression of P-gp in the human brain is low at birth, contributing to increased susceptibility. PMID:24819966

Lam, Jessica; Koren, Gideon

2014-12-01

118

Design, synthesis and evaluation of novel triazole core based P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance reversal agents.  

PubMed

A novel series of triazol-N-ethyl-tetrahydroisoquinoline based compounds were designed and synthesized via click chemistry. Most of the synthesized compounds showed P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal activities. Among them, compound 7 with little cytotoxicity towards GES-1 cells (IC50 >80?M) and K562/A02 cells (IC50 >80?M) exhibited more potency than verapamil (VRP) on increasing anticancer drug accumulation in K562/A02 cells. Moreover, compound 7 could significantly reverse MDR in a dose-dependent manner and also persist longer chemo-sensitizing effect than VRP with reversibility. Further mechanism studies revealed that compound 7 in reversing MDR revealed that it could remarkably increase the intracellular accumulation of both rhodamine-123 (Rh123) and adriamycin (ADM) in K562/A02 cells as well as inhibit their efflux from the cells. These results suggested that compound 7 showed more potency than the classical P-gp inhibitor VRP under the same conditions, which may be a promising P-gp-mediated MDR modulator for further development. PMID:25464884

Jiao, Lei; Qiu, Qianqian; Liu, Baomin; Zhao, Tianxiao; Huang, Wenlong; Qian, Hai

2014-12-15

119

The H2 receptor antagonist nizatidine is a P-glycoprotein substrate: characterization of its intestinal epithelial cell efflux transport.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to elucidate the intestinal epithelial cell efflux transport processes that are involved in the intestinal transport of the H(2) receptor antagonist nizatidine. The intestinal epithelial efflux transport mechanisms of nizatidine were investigated and characterized across Caco-2 cell monolayers, in the concentration range 0.05-10 mM in both apical-basolateral (AP-BL) and BL-AP directions, and the transport constants of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux activity were calculated. The concentration-dependent effects of various P-gp (verapamil, quinidine, erythromycin, ketoconazole, and cyclosporine A), multidrug resistant-associated protein 2 (MRP2; MK-571, probenecid, indomethacin, and p-aminohipuric acid), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; Fumitremorgin C) inhibitors on nizatidine bidirectional transport were examined. Nizatidine exhibited 7.7-fold higher BL-AP than AP-BL Caco-2 permeability, indicative of net mucosal secretion. All P-gp inhibitors investigated displayed concentration-dependent inhibition on nizatidine secretion in both directions. The IC(50) of verapamil on nizatidine P-gp secretion was 1.2 x 10(-2) mM. In the absence of inhibitors, nizatidine displayed concentration-dependent secretion, with one saturable (J(max) = 5.7 x 10(-3) nmol cm(-2) s(-1) and K(m) = 2.2 mM) and one nonsaturable component (K(d) = 7 x 10(-4) microL cm(-2) s(-1)). Under complete P-gp inhibition, nizatidine exhibited linear secretory flux, with a slope similar to the nonsaturable component. V(max) and K(m) estimated for nizatidine P-gp-mediated secretion were 4 x 10(-3) nmol cm(-2) s(-1) and 1.2 mM, respectively. No effect was obtained with the MRP2 or the BCRP inhibitors. Being a drug commonly used in pediatrics, adults, and elderly, nizatidine susceptibility to efflux transport by P-gp revealed in this paper may be of significance in its absorption, distribution, and clearance, as well as possible drug-drug interactions. PMID:19319690

Dahan, Arik; Sabit, Hairat; Amidon, Gordon L

2009-06-01

120

Enhanced Brain Disposition and Effects of ?9Tetrahydrocannabinol in P-Glycoprotein and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Knockout Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ABC transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp, Abcb1) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp, Abcg2) regulate the CNS disposition of many drugs. The main psychoactive constituent of cannabis ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has affinity for P-gp and Bcrp, however it is unknown whether these transporters modulate the brain accumulation of THC and its functional effects on the CNS. Here we aim to show that

Adena S. Spiro; Alexander Wong; Aurélie A. Boucher; Jonathon C. Arnold

2012-01-01

121

Expression and significance of glucose transporter-1, P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated protein and glutathione S-transferase-? in laryngeal carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Increasing glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) activity is one of the most important ways to increase the cellular influx of glucose. We previously demonstrated that increased GLUT-1 expression was an independent predictor of survival in patients with laryngeal carcinoma. Thus, GLUT-1 may present a novel therapeutic target in laryngeal carcinoma. In this study, the expression of GLUT-1, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) and glutathione S-transferase-? (GST-?) in laryngeal carcinomas was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Additionally, possible correlations between GLUT-1 and P-gp, MRP1 and GST-? and various clinicopathological parameters were analyzed. In this study, 52.9% (18/34), 58.8% (20/34), 20.6% (7/34) and 58.8% (20/34) of the laryngeal carcinomas were positive for GLUT-1, P-gp, MRP1 and GST-?, respectively. The expression of GLUT-1, P-gp, MRP1 and GST-? was higher in laryngeal carcinoma specimens when compared with laryngeal precancerous lesions (P<0.05). Pearson’s correlation analysis showed correlations between GLUT-1 and P-gp (r=0.364; P=0.034), GLUT-1 and MRP1 (r=0.359; P=0.037) and P-gp and GST-? (r=0.426; P=0.012). GLUT-1 expression was found to significantly correlate with tumor-node-metastasis classification (P=0.02) and clinical stage (P=0.037). Furthermore, P-gp was found to significantly correlate with clinical stage (P=0.026). Univariate analysis showed that MRP1 expression was significantly associated with poor survival (c2=5.16; P=0.023). Multivariate analysis revealed that lymph node metastasis (P=0.009) and MRP1 overexpression (P=0.023) were significant predictors of poor survival. In the present study, the expression of GLUT-1, P-gp, MRP1 and GST-? in laryngeal carcinomas was investigated, as well as the correlations between these proteins. P-gp was found to significantly correlate with clinical stage, while MRP1 overexpression was significantly associated with poor survival.

MAO, ZHONG-PING; ZHAO, LI-JUN; ZHOU, SHUI-HONG; LIU, MENG-QIN; TAN, WEI-FENG; YAO, HONG-TIAN

2015-01-01

122

Differential chemosensitization of P-glycoprotein overexpressing K562/Adr cells by withaferin A and Siamois polyphenols  

PubMed Central

Background Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle in cancer treatment and is often the result of overexpression of the drug efflux protein, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), as a consequence of hyperactivation of NF?B, AP1 and Nrf2 transcription factors. In addition to effluxing chemotherapeutic drugs, P-gp also plays a specific role in blocking caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways. One feature that cytotoxic treatments of cancer have in common is activation of the transcription factor NF?B, which regulates inflammation, cell survival and P-gp expression and suppresses the apoptotic potential of chemotherapeutic agents. As such, NF?B inhibitors may promote apoptosis in cancer cells and could be used to overcome resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Results Although the natural withanolide withaferin A and polyphenol quercetin, show comparable inhibition of NF?B target genes (involved in inflammation, angiogenesis, cell cycle, metastasis, anti-apoptosis and multidrug resistance) in doxorubicin-sensitive K562 and -resistant K562/Adr cells, only withaferin A can overcome attenuated caspase activation and apoptosis in K562/Adr cells, whereas quercetin-dependent caspase activation and apoptosis is delayed only. Interestingly, although withaferin A and quercetin treatments both decrease intracellular protein levels of Bcl2, Bim and P-Bad, only withaferin A decreases protein levels of cytoskeletal tubulin, concomitantly with potent PARP cleavage, caspase 3 activation and apoptosis, at least in part via a direct thiol oxidation mechanism. Conclusions This demonstrates that different classes of natural NF?B inhibitors can show different chemosensitizing effects in P-gp overexpressing cancer cells with impaired caspase activation and attenuated apoptosis. PMID:20438634

2010-01-01

123

Variability in P-Glycoprotein Inhibitory Potency (IC50) Using Various in Vitro Experimental Systems: Implications for Universal Digoxin Drug-Drug Interaction Risk Assessment Decision Criteria  

PubMed Central

A P-glycoprotein (P-gp) IC50 working group was established with 23 participating pharmaceutical and contract research laboratories and one academic institution to assess interlaboratory variability in P-gp IC50 determinations. Each laboratory followed its in-house protocol to determine in vitro IC50 values for 16 inhibitors using four different test systems: human colon adenocarcinoma cells (Caco-2; eleven laboratories), Madin-Darby canine kidney cells transfected with MDR1 cDNA (MDCKII-MDR1; six laboratories), and Lilly Laboratories Cells—Porcine Kidney Nr. 1 cells transfected with MDR1 cDNA (LLC-PK1-MDR1; four laboratories), and membrane vesicles containing human P-glycoprotein (P-gp; five laboratories). For cell models, various equations to calculate remaining transport activity (e.g., efflux ratio, unidirectional flux, net-secretory-flux) were also evaluated. The difference in IC50 values for each of the inhibitors across all test systems and equations ranged from a minimum of 20- and 24-fold between lowest and highest IC50 values for sertraline and isradipine, to a maximum of 407- and 796-fold for telmisartan and verapamil, respectively. For telmisartan and verapamil, variability was greatly influenced by data from one laboratory in each case. Excluding these two data sets brings the range in IC50 values for telmisartan and verapamil down to 69- and 159-fold. The efflux ratio-based equation generally resulted in severalfold lower IC50 values compared with unidirectional or net-secretory-flux equations. Statistical analysis indicated that variability in IC50 values was mainly due to interlaboratory variability, rather than an implicit systematic difference between test systems. Potential reasons for variability are discussed and the simplest, most robust experimental design for P-gp IC50 determination proposed. The impact of these findings on drug-drug interaction risk assessment is discussed in the companion article (Ellens et al., 2013) and recommendations are provided. PMID:23620485

Bentz, Joe; O’Connor, Michael P.; Bednarczyk, Dallas; Coleman, JoAnn; Lee, Caroline; Palm, Johan; Pak, Y. Anne; Perloff, Elke S.; Reyner, Eric; Balimane, Praveen; Brännström, Marie; Chu, Xiaoyan; Funk, Christoph; Guo, Ailan; Hanna, Imad; Herédi-Szabó, Krisztina; Hillgren, Kate; Li, Libin; Hollnack-Pusch, Evelyn; Jamei, Masoud; Lin, Xuena; Mason, Andrew K.; Neuhoff, Sibylle; Patel, Aarti; Podila, Lalitha; Plise, Emile; Rajaraman, Ganesh; Salphati, Laurent; Sands, Eric; Taub, Mitchell E.; Taur, Jan-Shiang; Weitz, Dietmar; Wortelboer, Heleen M.; Xia, Cindy Q.; Xiao, Guangqing; Yabut, Jocelyn; Yamagata, Tetsuo; Zhang, Lei

2013-01-01

124

Inhibition of Wnt/?-catenin signaling downregulates P-glycoprotein and reverses multi-drug resistance of cholangiocarcinoma.  

PubMed

The development of multi-drug resistance (MDR) represents a major obstacle in the successful treatment of cancers. However, the factors and mechanisms that lead to MDR in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA), a chemoresistant bile duct carcinoma with a poor prognosis, remain unclear. In this study, we established a human MDR CCA cell line QBC939/5-FU. Compared with QBC939 cells, a rounder shape, a higher nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, a shorter cell cycle, faster growth and resistance to chemotherapeutics are major characteristics of QBC939/5-FU cells. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and ?-catenin were upregulated in QBC939/5-FU cells. Furthermore, the drug susceptibility of QBC939 cells to common chemotherapeutics was significantly decreased after Wnt3a treatment, whereas inhibition of Wnt/?-catenin pathway by ?-catenin siRNA reversed the MDR of QBC939/5-FU cells to chemotherapeutics. Molecular study revealed that activation of Wnt/?-catenin pathway resulted in upregulation of P-gp and contributed to MDR of QBC939/5-FU cells. Extraction of Siamese Crocodile 3 (ESC-3) bile enhanced the drug sensitivity of QBC939/5-FU cells to 5-FU, paralleled with downregulation of ?-catenin and P-gp. The association of Wnt/?-catenin pathway and P-gp was further confirmed by the clinical data for CCA tissues. Our study represents the first implication of Wnt/?-catenin activation in the MDR of CCA, which may be a beneficial target for the clinical treatment of CCA. PMID:23822562

Shen, Dong-Yan; Zhang, Wei; Zeng, Xin; Liu, Chang-Qin

2013-10-01

125

Expression of P-gp in acute myeloid leukemia and the reversal function of As2O3 on drug resistance  

PubMed Central

To study the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and the reversal function of As2O3, the active ingredient of arsenic, on drug resistance in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, P-gp and cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34) were examined in primary mononuclear and resistant cells, with or without As2O3. In addition, multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1) mRNA expression was investigated in K562/D cells and AML patients. In total, 28.6% of newly-treated (NT) patients and 59.1% of relapsed/refractory (RR) patients were P-gpfunction+, and 31.7% of NT patients and 59.1% of RR patients were CD34+. The positivity rate of P-gpfunction and CD34+ expression in the RR group were significantly higher compared with that in the NT group (P<0.05). In addition, higher CD34+, P-gpexpression+ and P-gpfunction+ values were observed in older patients compared with younger patients. MDR1 expression was downregulated in certain patients following treatment with AS2O3. In the present study, the overexpression of P-gp was the primary cause of drug resistance in the AML patients, and MDR1 expression was downregulated by As2O3 in primary leukemia and drug-resistant cells. PMID:25435954

GAO, FENG; DONG, WANWEI; YANG, WEI; LIU, JIA; ZHENG, ZHIHONG; SUN, KAILAI

2015-01-01

126

Expression of P-gp in acute myeloid leukemia and the reversal function of As2O3 on drug resistance.  

PubMed

To study the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and the reversal function of As2O3, the active ingredient of arsenic, on drug resistance in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, P-gp and cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34) were examined in primary mononuclear and resistant cells, with or without As2O3. In addition, multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1) mRNA expression was investigated in K562/D cells and AML patients. In total, 28.6% of newly-treated (NT) patients and 59.1% of relapsed/refractory (RR) patients were P-gpfunction (+), and 31.7% of NT patients and 59.1% of RR patients were CD34(+). The positivity rate of P-gpfunction and CD34(+) expression in the RR group were significantly higher compared with that in the NT group (P<0.05). In addition, higher CD34(+), P-gpexpression (+) and P-gpfunction (+) values were observed in older patients compared with younger patients. MDR1 expression was downregulated in certain patients following treatment with AS2O3. In the present study, the overexpression of P-gp was the primary cause of drug resistance in the AML patients, and MDR1 expression was downregulated by As2O3 in primary leukemia and drug-resistant cells. PMID:25435954

Gao, Feng; Dong, Wanwei; Yang, Wei; Liu, Jia; Zheng, Zhihong; Sun, Kailai

2015-01-01

127

Predicting Efflux Ratios and Blood-Brain Barrier Penetration from Chemical Structure: Combining Passive Permeability with Active Efflux by P-Glycoprotein  

PubMed Central

In order to reach their pharmacologic targets, successful central nervous system (CNS) drug candidates have to cross a complex protective barrier separating brain from the blood. Being able to predict a priori which molecules can successfully penetrate this barrier could be of significant value in CNS drug discovery. Herein we report a new computational approach that combines two mechanism-based models, for passive permeation and for active efflux by P-glycoprotein, to provide insight into the multiparameter optimization problem of designing small molecules able to access the CNS. Our results indicate that this approach is capable of distinguishing compounds with high/low efflux ratios as well as CNS+/CNS– compounds and provides advantage over estimating P-glycoprotein efflux or passive permeability alone when trying to predict these emergent properties. We also demonstrate that this method could be useful for rank-ordering chemically similar compounds and that it can provide detailed mechanistic insight into the relationship between chemical structure and efflux ratios and/or CNS penetration, offering guidance as to how compounds could be modified to improve their access into the brain. PMID:23421687

2012-01-01

128

P-glycoprotein expression and distribution in the rat placenta during pregnancy.  

PubMed

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a drug efflux transporter that limits the entry of various potentially toxic drugs and xenobiotics into the fetus and is thus considered a placental protective mechanism. In this study, P-gp expression was investigated in the rat chorioallantoic placenta over the course of pregnancy. Three methods have been employed: real-time RT-PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The expression of mdr1a and mdr1b genes was demonstrated as early as on the 11th gestation day (gd) and increased with advancing gestation. Western blotting analysis revealed the presence of P-gp in the rat placenta starting from gd 13 onwards. P-gp was localized in the developing labyrinth zone of the placenta on gd 13; from gd 15 up to the term P-gp was seen as a dot like continuous line in the syncytiotrophoblast layers. Our data confirm the presence of P-gp in the rat chorioallantoic placenta starting soon after its development, which may signify the involvement of P-gp in transplacental pharmacokinetics during the whole period of placental maturing. PMID:15279876

Novotna, Martina; Libra, Antonin; Kopecky, Martin; Pavek, Petr; Fendrich, Zdenek; Semecky, Vladimir; Staud, Frantisek

2004-01-01

129

Anti-AIDS agents 89. Identification of DCX derivatives as anti-HIV and chemosensitizing dual function agents to overcome P-gp-mediated drug resistance for AIDS therapy  

PubMed Central

In this study, 19 dicamphanoyl-dihydropyranochromone (DCP) and dicamphanoyl-dihydropyranoxanthone (DCX) derivatives, previously discovered as novel anti-HIV agents, were evaluated for their potential to reverse multi-drug resistance (MDR) in a cancer cell line over-expressing P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Seven compounds fully reversed resistance to vincristine (VCR) at 4 ?M, a 20-fold enhancement compared to the first generation chemosensitizer, verapamil (4 ?M). The mechanism of action of DCPs and DCXs was also resolved, since the most active compounds (3, 4, and 7) significantly increased intracellular drug accumulation due, in part, to inhibiting the P-gp mediated drug efflux from cells. We conclude that DCPs (3 and 4) and DCXs (7, 11, and 17) can exhibit polypharmacologic behavior by acting as dual inhibitors of HIV replication and chemoresistance mediated by P-gp. As such, they may be useful in combination therapy to overcome P-gp-associated drug resistance for AIDS treatment. PMID:22465634

Zhou, Ting; Ohkoshi, Emika; Shi, Qian; Bastow, Kenneth F.; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

2012-01-01

130

Expression of MDR1/P glycoprotein in human sarcomas.  

PubMed

Conflicting reports of MDR1 gene expression in human tumours are observed according to whether studies are performed at the mRNA or P-glycoprotein level. We have investigated this expression in 22 clinically drug-resistant sarcomas at the mRNA level by Northern blot (NB), Dot blot (DB), in situ hybridisation (ISH), and at the protein level by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using three monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs): C219, JSB1, MRK16. Increased MDR1 mRNA expression was detected by NB, DB, and ISH in 1/22 sarcoma (an Ewing's sarcoma). ISH was perfectly correlated with DB hybridisation and confirmed the expression of tumoral cells alone. Specific staining of 100% of tumoral cells was obtained with the three MoAbs in the same sarcoma. Expression in tumoral cells of 12 other sarcomas was detected with MRK16, and positive staining of stromal cells with both C219 (1/22) and MRK16 (8/22) was observed. This study confirms that MDR1 overexpression occurs in human sarcomas but is not the principal mechanism of drug-resistance. Furthermore, positivity with one antibody does not necessarily imply the presence of P glycoprotein (P-gp) and a disparity may exist between the levels of P-gp and its mRNA in the same sample. So care must be taken in interpreting results and more sensitive techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) could prove useful. PMID:7903154

Vergier, B; Cany, L; Bonnet, F; Robert, J; de Mascarel, A; Coindre, J M

1993-12-01

131

P-gp modulating drugs greatly potentiate the in vitro effect of ivermectin against resistant larvae of Haemonchus placei.  

PubMed

Since its production in the 1980s, ivermectin (IVM) has been used indiscriminately and the selection pressure to which bovine gastrointestinal nematodes have been exposed has been intense, resulting in considerable economic losses due to parasitic resistance. One possibility for the control of resistant parasites is the use of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) modulators, because one of the main biochemical changes in ivermectin-resistant parasites is the increased activity of membrane proteins responsible for the efflux of drugs and xenobiotics. This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro effect of eight P-gp modulating drugs to potentiate IVM efficacy against an IVM-resistant field isolate of Haemonchus placei (Nematoda: Trichostrongylidae). The association of IVM with cyclosporin-A, ceftriaxone, dexamethasone, diminazene aceturate, quercetin, trifluoperazine, verapamil, or vinblastine resulted in increased IVM (10(-4)M) efficacy of 5.1%, 49.06%, 76.42%, 3.31%, 28.85%, 13.74%, 45.64% and 43.61%, respectively, and reduced the IVM half maximal effective concentration (EC50) from 4.381×10(-6)M to 9.877×10(-8), 2.739×10(-7), 1.240×10(-6), 1.651×10(-6), 2.710×10(-7), 1.159×10(-7), 1.026×10(-6) and 7.136×10(-7)M, respectively. Only diminazene aceturate did not significantly reduce the number of migrating larvae when associated with IVM (P>0.05). The effect of P-gp modulating drugs depended on IVM concentration, with greater potentiating effect at lower IVM concentrations. The in vitro application of trifluoperazine, dexamethasone, quercetin, verapamil, cyclosporin A, vinblastine, and ceftriaxone potentiated IVM efficacy against an IVM-resistant field isolate of H. placei, resulting in higher efficacy and lower IVM EC50. PMID:25178553

Heckler, R P; Almeida, G D; Santos, L B; Borges, D G L; Neves, J P L; Onizuka, M K V; Borges, F A

2014-10-15

132

Construction and application of double-transfected cells expressing the human transporter P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A4.  

PubMed

Intestinal P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes are known to influence oral bioavailabilities of drugs. Recombinant plasmids pcDNA3.1/Hypgro/CYP3A4 were transfected into MDCK and MDCK-MDR1 cells to construct the single-transfected cell line MDCK-CYP3A4 and double-transfected cell line MDCK-MDR1/CYP3A4. The expression of CYP3A4 in the double-transfected cell line was determined by Western blot and its activity was detected by the metabolism assays of three substrates of CYP3A4, which were 7-benzyloxy-4-trifluoro-methylcoumarin (BFC), testosterone and midazolam. In addition, the selection of monoclones with high CYP3A4 activities in the single-tranfected cell line was performed by the P450 Glo CYP3A4 assay. Through MTT assay, the interaction between P-gp and CYP3A4 was preliminarily determined based on the changes of IC50 values. The results showed that paclitaxel detoxified in the single-transfected MDCK-MDR1 cell because of P-gp efflux. And it was also less toxic in the single-transfected CYP3A4 cell line due to the metabolism by CYP3A4. In the double-transfected MDCK-MDR1/CYP3A4 cell line, the toxicity decreased dramatically because of the interplay between P-gp and CYP3A4. Therefore, the cell model could be applied to study the toxicity and detoxification of chemicals due to the metabolism by CYP3A4 and the efflux through P-gp. PMID:24273886

Hu, H H; Su, C; Jiang, Y; Yu, L S; Liu, Y; Tian, Y; Xu, S Y; Zhou, H; He, X; Jiang, H D; Zeng, S

2013-10-01

133

The expression of P-glycoprotein does influence the distribution of novel fluorescent compounds in solid tumour models  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid tumours display a complex drug resistance phenotype that involves inherent and acquired mechanisms. Multicellular resistance is an inherent feature of solid tumours and is known to present significant barriers to drug permeation in tumours. Given this barrier, do acquired resistance mechanisms such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) contribute significantly to resistance? To address this question, the multicellular tumour spheroid (MCTS) model

C Martin; J Walker; A Rothnie; R Callaghan

2003-01-01

134

The co-delivery of a low-dose P-glycoprotein inhibitor with doxorubicin sterically stabilized liposomes against breast cancer with low P-glycoprotein expression  

PubMed Central

Introduction P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors are usually used to treat tumors that overexpress P-gps. However, most common types of breast cancers, such as Luminal A, are low-P-gp expressing, at least during the initial phases of treatment. Therefore, it would be interesting to know if P-gp inhibitors are still useful in treating low-P-gp-expressing tumors. Methods In the study reported here, the human breast-cancer cell line MCF-7, chosen as a model of Luminal A, was found to be low-P-gp expressing. We designed a novel doxorubicin (DOX) sterically stabilized liposome system co-loaded with the low-dose P-gp inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA) (DOX/CsA/SSL). Results The co-delivery system showed good size uniformity, high encapsulation efficiency, and a desirable release profile. The cell-uptake and cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that CsA could significantly enhance the intracellular accumulation and toxicity of free DOX and the liposomal DOX in MCF-7 cells. The confocal microscopy and in vivo imaging study confirmed the intracellular and in vivo targeting effect of DOX/CsA/SSL, respectively. Finally, the in vivo study proved that DOX/CsA/SSL could achieve significantly better antitumor effect against MCF-7 tumor than controls, without inducing obvious systemic toxicity. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the co-delivery of a low-dose P-gp inhibitor and liposomal DOX could improve the therapy of low-P-gp-expressing cancer, which is of significance in clinical tumor therapy. PMID:25092974

Gao, Wei; Lin, Zhiqiang; Chen, Meiwan; Yang, Xiucong; Cui, Zheng; Zhang, Xiaofei; Yuan, Lan; Zhang, Qiang

2014-01-01

135

P-glycoprotein- and organic anion-transporting polypeptide-mediated transport of periplocin may lead to drug–herb/drug–drug interactions  

PubMed Central

Periplocin, an active and toxic component of the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Periploca sepium Bge, is a cardiac glycoside compound that has been implicated in various clinical accidents. This study investigated the role of transporters in the intestinal absorption and biliary excretion of periplocin, as well as the possible metabolic mechanism of periplocin in liver S9. In a bidirectional transport assay using Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and MDCK multidrug-resistance protein (MRP)-1 cell monolayers, both in situ intestinal and liver-perfusion models were used to evaluate the role of efflux and uptake transporters on the absorption and biliary excretion of periplocin. In addition, in vitro metabolism of periplocin was investigated by incubating with human/rat liver S9 homogenate fractions to evaluate its metabolic mechanisms in liver metabolic enzymes. The results showed that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was involved in the intestinal absorption of periplocin, whereas MRP2 and breast cancer-resistance protein were not. The efflux function of P-gp may be partly responsible for the low permeability and bioavailability of periplocin. Moreover, both inhibitors of P-gp and organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) increased periplocin biliary excretion. No obvious indications of metabolism were observed in the in vitro incubation system, which suggests that periplocin did not interact with the hepatic drug metabolic enzymes. The results of this study showed that the efflux and uptake transporters P-gp and OATPs were involved in the absorption and biliary excretion of periplocin, which may partially account for its low permeability and bioavailability. As a toxic compound, potential drug–herb/herb–herb interactions based on OATPs and P-gp should be taken into account when using P. sepium Bge in the clinic. PMID:24872678

Liang, Sheng; Deng, Fengchun; Xing, Haiyan; Wen, He; Shi, Xiaoyan; Martey, Orleans Nii; Koomson, Emmanuel; He, Xin

2014-01-01

136

Inhibition of P-glycoprotein-mediated transport by extracts of and monoterpenoids contained in Zanthoxyli Fructus  

SciTech Connect

Citrus (rutaceous) herbs are often used in traditional medicine and Japanese cuisine and can be taken concomitantly with conventional medicine. In this study, the effect of various citrus-herb extracts on P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated transport was examined in vitro to investigate a possible interaction with P-gp substrates. Component monoterpenoids of the essential oil in Zanthoxyli Fructus was screened to find novel P-gp inhibitors. LLC-GA5-COL150 cells transfected with human MDR1 cDNA encoding P-gp were used. Cellular accumulation of [{sup 3}H]digoxin was measured in the presence or absence of P-gp inhibitors or test samples. Aurantii Fructus, Evodiae Fructus, Aurantii Fructus Immaturus, Aurantii Nobilis Pericarpium, Phellodendri Cortex, and Zanthoxyli Fructus were extracted with hot water (decocted) and then fractionated with ethyl acetate. The cell to medium ratio of [{sup 3}H]digoxin accumulation increased significantly in the presence of the decoction of Evodiae Fructus, Aurantii Nobilis Pericarpium, and Zanthoxyli Fructus, and the ethyl acetate fraction of all citrus herbs used. The ethyl acetate fraction of Zanthoxyli Fructus exhibited the strongest inhibition of P-gp among tested samples with an IC{sub 5} value of 166 {mu}g/mL. Then its component monoterpenoids, geraniol, geranyl acetate (R)-(+)-limonene, (R)-(+)-linalool, citronellal (R)-(+)-citronellal, DL-citronellol (S)-(-)-{beta}-citronellol, and cineole, were screened. (R)-(+)-citronellal and (S)-(-)-{beta}-citronellol inhibited P-gp with IC{sub 5} values of 167 {mu}M and 504 {mu}M, respectively. These findings suggest that Zanthoxyli Fructus may interact with P-gp substrates and that some monoterpenoids with the relatively lower molecular weight of about 150 such as (R)-(+)-citronellal can be potent inhibitors of P-gp.

Yoshida, Naoko [Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Takagi, Akiyoshi [Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Kitazawa, Hidenori [Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan); Kawakami, Junichi [Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan)]. E-mail: kawakami-tym@umin.ac.jp; Adachi, Isao [Department of Hospital Pharmacy, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, 2630 Sugitani, Toyama 930-0194 (Japan)

2005-12-01

137

Thunbergia laurifolia extract minimizes the adverse effects of toxicants by regulating P-glycoprotein activity, CYP450, and lipid metabolism gene expression in HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

Thunbergia laurifolia (TL) is widely used as an antidote in Thai traditional medicine against toxic substances such as alcohol, pesticides, arsenic, and strychnine. We found that the lyophilized form of TL in 80% ethanol possessed the antioxidant levels within the range 23,163.9 ± 1457.4 Trolox equivalents mM/kg dry mass and 899.8 ± 14.5 gallic acid equivalents mM/kg dry mass using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay and the Folin Ciocalteu phenol assay, respectively. TL extract (TLE) at a high dose (3000 mg/L) induced cytotoxicity according to the neutral red assay and the MTT assay. However, TLE doses of 800-3000 mg/L could reduce intracellular oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05) using the dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate assay. TLE significantly enhanced the mRNA expression of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP3A4, and PPARg, but it significantly inhibited the mRNA expression of CYP3A7, CYP2D6, and CYP2E1 (P < 0.05) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Moreover, TLE could increase the activity of a multidrug transporter, P-glycoprotein, which accelerated the excretion of toxic substances from HepG2 cells. It is suggested that TLE may be beneficial for detoxification by reducing oxidative stress, minimizing toxicity by regulating the expression CYP450 mRNAs for suitable production of CYP450 isoenzymes, and increasing PPAR? mRNA expression and P-glycoprotein activity in HepG2 cells, thereby maintaining xenobiotic biotransformation balance. PMID:24446304

Rocejanasaroj, A; Tencomnao, T; Sangkitikomol, W

2014-01-01

138

Drug-transport and volume-activated chloride channel functions in human erythroleukemia cells: relation to expression level of P-glycoprotein.  

PubMed

The characteristics of volume-activated chloride currents, drug transport function and levels of P-glycoprotein (PgP) expression were compared between two human chronic erythroleukemia cell lines: a parental (K562) cell line and a derivative obtained by vinblastine selection (K562 VBL400). Parental K562 cells showed no detectable P-glycoprotein expression, measured at the protein level (immunofluorescence labeling with monoclonal antibodies), and had very low levels of MDR-1 mRNA expression (RT-PCR analysis), when compared with levels measured in K562 VBL400. Differences in Pgp-mediated transport were estimated by comparing the rates of Fluo3 accumulation. The higher drug-transport function of K562 VBL400 cells (e.g., lower Fluo3 accumulation) correlated with their elevated levels of MDR-1. The rate of dye transport was sensitive to verapamil but was not affected by the tonicity of the extracellular medium. In contrast to the clear differences in transport function, the characteristics of chloride currents induced by cell swelling were indistinguishable between the two cell lines. Currents measured in the whole-cell configuration were outwardly rectifying, had a higher permeability to iodide than to chloride (SCN- > I- > Cl- > gluconate), were potently blocked by NPPB and were unresponsive to verapamil. The percentage of responding cells and the mean current density were nearly identical in both cell lines. In addition, activation of the volume-sensitive current was not prevented during whole-cell recordings obtained with pipettes containing high concentration of cytotoxic drugs (vincristine or vinblastine). These results do not lend support to the previously reported association between Pgp expression and volume-sensitive chloride channels, and suggest that a different protein is responsible for this type of chloride channel in K562 cells. PMID:7636888

Viana, F; Van Acker, K; De Greef, C; Eggermont, J; Raeymaekers, L; Droogmans, G; Nilius, B

1995-05-01

139

The alpha 1-adrenergic photoaffinity probe [125I]arylazidoprazosin binds to a specific peptide of P-glycoprotein in multidrug-resistant cells.  

PubMed

Much evidence suggests that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) confers multidrug-resistance (MDR) in tumor cells by energy-dependent efflux of hydrophobic cytotoxic agents. In this study, we have used the alpha 1-adrenergic photoaffinity probe, [125I]arylazidoprazosin ([125I]AAP), and identified P-gp as a specific acceptor for prazosin. Drugs to which MDR cells are resistant, including vincristine, vinblastine, doxorubicin, actinomycin D and colchicine as well as agents reversing MDR, including verapamil, nicardipine, prenylamine, diltiazem, trifluoperazine, dibucaine, reserpine, monensin, and progesterone, differentially reduced [125I]AAP photolabeling of P-gp. We also analyzed the influence of alpha 2-adrenergic drugs and dopaminergic drugs on [125I]AAP photolabeling of P-gp. Limited proteolysis of [125I]AAP photolabeled P-gp with Staphylococcus aureus V8 protease revealed that prazosin binds to a single 8 kDa fragment of P-gp. PMID:1967938

Safa, A R; Agresti, M; Tamai, I; Mehta, N D; Vahabi, S

1990-01-15

140

Role of P-glycoproteins in the transepithelial transport of indoline alkaloids isolated from Vinca herbaceae  

Microsoft Academic Search

The permeability of anti-arrhythmic crude alkaloids (Vingerbine preparation) from Vinca herbaceae W. et Kit. across rat intestine has been demonstrated for the first time. The results suggest that P-glycoproteins (P-gps)\\u000a are involved in the preferential transport of vincarine and herbadine, compounds bearing a hydrogen atom on a secondary N\\u000a (N?H), in the basolateral to apical direction. However, P-gp\\/MDR1 play a

L. K. Tsiklauri; H. Hoyer; G. V. Chkhikvadze; V. Yu. Vachnadze; G. V. Tsagareishvili; A. Bernkop-Schnurch

2008-01-01

141

The effects of cannabinoids on P-glycoprotein transport and expression in multidrug resistant cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world. Cannabinoids are used therapeutically by some patients as they have analgesic, anti-emetic and appetite stimulant properties which palliate adverse symptoms. Use of these agents in an oncology setting raises the question of whether they act to modulate the effectiveness of concurrently administered anti-cancer drugs. The transporter, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) confers

M. L. Holland; J. A. Panetta; J. M. Hoskins; M. Bebawy; B. D. Roufogalis; J. D. Allen; J. C. Arnold

2006-01-01

142

The network of P-glycoprotein and microRNAs interactions.  

PubMed

Overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) contributes to the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype found in many cancer cells. P-gp has been identified as a promising molecular target, although attempts to find successful therapies to counteract its function as a drug efflux pump have largely failed to date. Apart from its role in drug efflux, P-gp may have other cellular functions such as being involved in apoptosis, and is found in various locations in the cell. Its expression is highly regulated, namely by microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs). In addition, P-gp may regulate the expression of miRs in the cell. Furthermore, both P-gp and miRs may be found in microvesicles or exosomes and may be transported to neighboring, drug-sensitive cells. Here, we review this current issue together with recent evidence of this network of interactions between P-gp and miRs. PMID:24122334

Lopes-Rodrigues, Vanessa; Seca, Hugo; Sousa, Diana; Sousa, Emília; Lima, Raquel T; Vasconcelos, M Helena

2014-07-15

143

Down-regulation of c-fos by shRNA sensitizes adriamycin-resistant MCF-7/ADR cells to chemotherapeutic agents via P-glycoprotein inhibition and apoptosis augmentation.  

PubMed

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major hurdle in the treatment of cancer. Research indicated that the main mechanisms of most cancers included so-called "pump" (P-glycoprotein, P-gp) and "non-pump" (apoptosis) resistance. Identification of novel signaling molecules associated with both P-gp and apoptosis will facilitate the development of more effective strategies to overcome MDR in tumor cells. Since the proto-oncogene c-fos has been implicated in cell adaptation to environmental changes, we analyzed its role in mediating "pump" and "non-pump" resistance in MCF-7/ADR, an adriamycin (ADR)-selected human breast cancer cell line with the MDR phenotype. Elevated expression of c-fos in MCF-7/ADR cells and induction of c-fos by ADR in the parental drug-sensitive MCF-7 cells suggested a link between c-fos and MDR phenotype. Down-regulation of c-fos expression via shRNA resulted in sensitization of MCF-7/ADR cells to chemotherapeutic agents, including both P-gp and non-P-gp substrates. Further results proved that c-fos down-regulation in MCF-7/ADR cells resulted in decreased P-gp expression and activity, enhanced apoptosis, and altered expression of apoptosis-associated proteins (i.e., Bax, Bcl-2, p53, and PUMA). All above facts indicate that c-fos is involved in both P-gp- and anti-apoptosis-mediated MDR of MCF-7/ADR cells. Based on these results, we propose that c-fos may represent a potential molecular target for resistant cancer therapy, and suppressing c-fos gene expression may therefore be an effective means to temper breast cancer cell's MDR to cytotoxic chemotherapy. PMID:23494858

Shi, Ruizan; Peng, Hongwei; Yuan, Xiangfei; Zhang, Xiuli; Zhang, Yanjun; Fan, Dongmei; Liu, Xuyi; Xiong, Dongsheng

2013-08-01

144

6,7-Dimethoxy-2-{2-[4-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)phenyl]ethyl}-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines as Superior Reversal Agents for P-Glycoprotein-Mediated Multidrug Resistance.  

PubMed

P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle for successful cancer chemotherapy. Based on our previous study, 17 novel compounds with the 6,7-dimethoxy-2-{2-[4-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)phenyl]ethyl}-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline scaffold were designed and synthesized. Among them, 2-[(1-{4-[2-(6,7-dimethoxy-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2(1H)-yl)ethyl]phenyl}-1H-1,2,3-triazol-4-yl)methoxy]-N-(p-tolyl)benzamide (compound 7?h) was identified as a potent modulator of P-gp-mediated MDR, with high potency (EC50 =127.5±9.1?nM), low cytotoxicity (TI>784.3), and long duration (>24?h) in reversing doxorubicin (DOX) resistance in K562/A02 cells. Compound 7?h also enhanced the effects of other MDR-related cytotoxic agents (paclitaxel, vinblastine, and daunorubicin), increased the accumulation of DOX and blocked P-gp-mediated rhodamine?123 efflux function in K562/A02 MDR cells. Moreover, 7?h did not have any effect on cytochrome (CYP3A4) activity. These results indicate that 7?h is a relatively safe modulator of P-gp-mediated MDR that has good potential for further development. PMID:25470220

Liu, Baomin; Qiu, Qianqian; Zhao, Tianxiao; Jiao, Lei; Li, Yunman; Huang, Wenlong; Qian, Hai

2015-02-01

145

Docking Applied to the Prediction of the Affinity of Compounds to P-Glycoprotein  

PubMed Central

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is involved in the transport of xenobiotic compounds and responsible for the decrease of the drug accumulation in multi-drug-resistant cells. In this investigation we compare several docking algorithms in order to find the conditions that are able to discriminate between P-gp binders and nonbinders. We built a comprehensive dataset of binders and nonbinders based on a careful analysis of the experimental data available in the literature, trying to overcome the discrepancy noticeable in the experimental results. We found that Autodock Vina flexible docking is the best choice for the tested options. The results will be useful to filter virtual screening results in the rational design of new drugs that are not expected to be expelled by P-gp. PMID:24982867

Palestro, Pablo H.; Gavernet, Luciana; Estiu, Guillermina L.; Bruno Blanch, Luis E.

2014-01-01

146

Reversion of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance by diallyl trisulfide in a human osteosarcoma cell line.  

PubMed

Diallyl trisulfide (DATS), the main sulfuric compound in garlic, has been shown to have antitumor effects. The present study aimed to ascertain whether DATS reverses the drug resistance of human osteosarcoma cells in vitro and to investigate its potential mechanisms. Human osteosarcoma U2-OS cells were treated with different concentrations of DATS. Cell proliferation was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, while P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression and the proportion of apoptotic cells were measured by flow cytometry. Morphological changes were observed under an optical microscope. ?uclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and inhibitor of NF-?B (I?B) activities were measured by PCR and western blot analysis. Results showed that the proliferation of U2-OS cells treated with different concentrations of DATS was significantly decreased in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. DATS increased the toxic effect of adriamycin on U2-OS cells. Moreover, P-gp expression was decreased and the apoptosis rate was increased in a concentration-dependent manner following treatment of DATS. Additionally, NF-?B activity was inhibited by DATS while expression of I?B was increased. Our data clearly suggest that DATS has significant anticancer effects on human osteosarcoma cells. The potential mechanisms include reducing the multidrug resistance and inducing apoptosis. NF-?B suppression may be involved in DATS-induced inhibition of cell proliferation. PMID:24788927

Wang, Zhiyong; Xia, Qing; Cui, Jia; Diao, Yutao; Li, Jianmin

2014-06-01

147

In silico modeling for the nonlinear absorption kinetics of UK-343,664: a P-gp and CYP3A4 substrate.  

PubMed

The aim of this work was to extrapolate in vitro and preclinical animal data to simulate the pharmacokinetic parameters of UK-343,664, a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and CYP3A4 substrate, in human. In addition, we aimed to develop a simulation model to demonstrate the involvement and the controversial complex interaction of intestinal P-gp and CYP3A4 in its nonlinear absorption, first-pass extraction, and pharmacokinetics using the advanced compartmental absorption and transit (ACAT) model. Finally, we aimed to compare the results predicted from the model to the reported findings in human clinical studies. In situ perfusion, allometric scaling, PBPK Rodger mechanistic approach, in vitro metabolism, and fitting to in vivo data were used to mechanistically explain the absorption, distribution and metabolism, respectively. GastroPlus was used to build the integrated simulation model in human for UK-343,664 to mechanistically explain the observed clinical data at 30, 100, 200, 400, and 800 mg oral doses. The measured in vitro value for CYP3A4 K(m) (465 ?M) in rCYPs was converted to units of ?g/mL, corrected for assumed microsomal binding (17.8%) and applied to all metabolic processes. The measured in vitro values of V(max) for CYP3A4 (38.9 pmol/min/pmol), 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, and 2D6 were used along with the in vitro CYP3A4 K(m) to simulate liver first pass extraction and systemic clearance. The measured in vitro values of V(max) for CYP3A4 and 2D6 were used along with the in vitro CYP3A4 K(m) to simulate gut first pass extraction. V(max) and K(m) values for P-gp were obtained by fitting to in vivo data and used to simulate gut efflux transport activity. Investigation of the interaction mechanism of P-gp and CYP3A4 in the intestine was achieved by comparing the influence of a virtual knockout of P-gp or gut metabolism on the fraction absorbed, fraction reaching the portal vein, and fraction metabolized in the gut. Comparison between simulation and in vivo results showed that the in silico simulation provided a mechanistic explanation of the observed nonlinear absorption kinetics of UK-343,664 in human following its administration in the range of 30-800 mg as oral solutions. The simulation results of the pharmacokinetic parameters, AUC and C(max), by GastroPlus were comparable with those observed in vivo. This simulation model is one possible mechanistic explanation of the observed in vivo data and suggests that the nonlinear dose dependence could be attributed to saturation of both the efflux transport by P-gp and the intestinal metabolism. However, the concentration ranges for either protein saturation did not overlap and resulted in much greater than dose proportional increases in AUC. At low doses, producing intraenterocyte concentrations below the fitted value of K(m) for P-gp, the influence of P-gp appears to be protective and results in a lower fraction of gut 3A4 metabolism. At higher doses, as P-gp becomes saturated the fraction of gut 3A4 extraction increases, and eventually at the highest doses, where 3A4 becomes saturated, the fraction of gut 3A4 extraction again decreases. Such a complex interpretation of this in vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) is another example of the value and insight obtained by physiologically based absorption simulation. PMID:22264132

Abuasal, Bilal S; Bolger, Michael B; Walker, Don K; Kaddoumi, Amal

2012-03-01

148

First evidence of the P-glycoprotein gene expression and multixenobiotic resistance modulation in earthworm.  

PubMed

Multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) is an important mechanism of cellular efflux mediated by ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters that bind and actively remove toxic substrates from the cell. This study was the first to identify ABC transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) as a representative of the MXR phenotype in earthworm (Eisenia fetida). The identified partial cDNA sequence of ABCB1 overlapped with ABCB1 homologues of other organisms from 58.5 % to 72.5 %. We also studied the effect of five modulators (verapamil, cyclosporine A, MK571, probenecid, and orthovanadate) on the earthworm's MXR activity by measuring the accumulation of model substrates rhodamine B and rhodamine 123 in whole body tissue of the adult earthworm. MK571, orthovanadate, and verapamil significantly inhibited MXR activity, and rhodamine 123 turned out to better reflect MXR activity in that species than rhodamine B. Our results show that E. fetida can serve well as a test organism for environmental pollutants that inhibit MXR activity. PMID:24622780

Bošnjak, Ivana; Bielen, Ana; Babi?, Sanja; Sver, Lidija; Popovi?, Natalija Topi?; Strunjak-Perovi?, Ivan?ica; Což-Rakovac, Rozelinda; Klobu?ar, Roberta Sauerborn

2014-03-01

149

The Functional Influences of Common ABCB1 Genetic Variants on the Inhibition of P-glycoprotein by Antrodia cinnamomea Extracts  

PubMed Central

Antrodia cinnamomea is a traditional healthy food that has been demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and anticacer effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the ethanolic extract of A. cinnamomea (EEAC) can affect the efflux function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and the effect of ABCB1 genetic variants on the interaction between EEAC and P-gp. To investigate the mechanism of this interaction, Flp-In™-293 cells stably transfected with various genotypes of human P-gp were established and the expression of P-gp was confirmed by Western blot. The results of the rhodamine 123 efflux assay demonstrated that EEAC efficiently inhibited wild-type P-gp function at an IC50 concentration of 1.51±0.08 µg/mL through non-competitive inhibition. The IC50 concentrations for variant-type 1236T-2677T-3435T P-gp and variant-type 1236T-2677A-3435T P-gp were 5.56±0.49 µg/mL and 3.33±0.67 µg/mL, respectively. In addition, the inhibition kinetics of EEAC also changed to uncompetitive inhibition in variant-type 1236T-2677A-3435T P-gp. The ATPase assay revealed that EEAC was an ATPase stimulator and was capable of reducing verapamil-induced ATPase levels. These results indicate that EEAC may be a potent P-gp inhibitor and higher dosages may be required in subjects carrying variant-types P-gp. Further studies are required to translate this basic knowledge into clinical applications. PMID:24586917

Chen, Ying-Yi; Hung, Chin-Chuan

2014-01-01

150

Comparative study of the effects of antituberculosis drugs and antiretroviral drugs on cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-glycoprotein.  

PubMed

Predicting drug-drug interactions (DDIs) related to cytochrome P450 (CYP), such as CYP3A4 and one of the major drug transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), is crucial in the development of future chemotherapeutic regimens to treat tuberculosis (TB) and TB/AIDS coinfection cases. We evaluated the effects of 30 anti-TB drugs, novel candidates, macrolides, and representative antiretroviral drugs on human CYP3A4 activity using a commercially available screening kit for CYP3A4 inhibitors and a human hepatocyte, HepaRG. Moreover, in order to estimate the interactions of these drugs with human P-gp, screening for substrates was performed. For some substrates, P-gp inhibition tests were carried out using P-gp-expressing MDCK cells. As a result, almost all the compounds showed the expected effects on human CYP3A4 both in the in vitro screening and in HepaRG cells. Importantly, the unproven mechanisms of DDIs caused by WHO group 5 drugs, thioamides, and p-aminosalicylic acid were elucidated. Intriguingly, clofazimine (CFZ) exhibited weak inductive effects on CYP3A4 at >0.25 ?M in HepaRG cells, while an inhibitory effect was observed at 1.69 ?M in the in vitro screening, suggesting that CFZ autoinduces CYP3A4 in the human liver. Our method, based on one of the pharmacokinetics parameters in humans, provides more practical information associated with not only DDIs but also with drug metabolism. PMID:24663015

Horita, Yasuhiro; Doi, Norio

2014-06-01

151

Comparative Study of the Effects of Antituberculosis Drugs and Antiretroviral Drugs on Cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-Glycoprotein  

PubMed Central

Predicting drug-drug interactions (DDIs) related to cytochrome P450 (CYP), such as CYP3A4 and one of the major drug transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), is crucial in the development of future chemotherapeutic regimens to treat tuberculosis (TB) and TB/AIDS coinfection cases. We evaluated the effects of 30 anti-TB drugs, novel candidates, macrolides, and representative antiretroviral drugs on human CYP3A4 activity using a commercially available screening kit for CYP3A4 inhibitors and a human hepatocyte, HepaRG. Moreover, in order to estimate the interactions of these drugs with human P-gp, screening for substrates was performed. For some substrates, P-gp inhibition tests were carried out using P-gp-expressing MDCK cells. As a result, almost all the compounds showed the expected effects on human CYP3A4 both in the in vitro screening and in HepaRG cells. Importantly, the unproven mechanisms of DDIs caused by WHO group 5 drugs, thioamides, and p-aminosalicylic acid were elucidated. Intriguingly, clofazimine (CFZ) exhibited weak inductive effects on CYP3A4 at >0.25 ?M in HepaRG cells, while an inhibitory effect was observed at 1.69 ?M in the in vitro screening, suggesting that CFZ autoinduces CYP3A4 in the human liver. Our method, based on one of the pharmacokinetics parameters in humans, provides more practical information associated with not only DDIs but also with drug metabolism. PMID:24663015

Horita, Yasuhiro

2014-01-01

152

Potential P-Glycoprotein-Mediated Drug-Drug Interactions of Antimalarial Agents in Caco-2 cells  

PubMed Central

Antimalarials are widely used in African and Southeast Asian countries, where they are combined with other drugs for the treatment of concurrent ailments. The potential for P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between antimalarials and P-gp substrates was examined using a Caco-2 cell-based model. Selected antimalarials were initially screened for their interaction with P-gp based on the inhibition of rhodamine-123 (Rho-123) transport in Caco-2 cells. Verapamil (100 ?M) and quinidine (1 ?M) were used as positive inhibition controls. Lumefantrine, amodiaquin, and artesunate all showed blockade of Rho-123 transport. Subsequently, the inhibitory effect of these antimalarials on the bi-directional passage of digoxin (DIG) was examined. All of the drugs decreased basal-to-apical (B-A) P-gp-mediated DIG transport at concentrations of 100 ?M and 1 mM. These concentrations may reflect therapeutic doses for amodiaquin and artesunate. Therefore, clinically relevant DDIs may occur between certain antimalarials and P-gp substrates in general. PMID:22764293

Oga, Enoche F.; Sekine, Shuichi; Shitara, Yoshihisa; Horie, Toshiharu

2012-01-01

153

Nanoparticle Mediated P-Glycoprotein Silencing for Improved Drug Delivery across the Blood-Brain Barrier: A siRNA-Chitosan Approach  

PubMed Central

The blood-brain barrier (BBB), composed of tightly organized endothelial cells, limits the availability of drugs to therapeutic targets in the central nervous system. The barrier is maintained by membrane bound efflux pumps efficiently transporting specific xenobiotics back into the blood. The efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp), expressed at high levels in brain endothelial cells, has several drug substrates. Consequently, siRNA mediated silencing of the P-gp gene is one possible strategy how to improve the delivery of drugs to the brain. Herein, we investigated the potential of siRNA-chitosan nanoparticles in silencing P-gp in a BBB model. We show that the transfection of rat brain endothelial cells mediated effective knockdown of P-gp with subsequent decrease in P-gp substrate efflux. This resulted in increased cellular delivery and efficacy of the model drug doxorubicin. PMID:23372682

Malmo, Jostein; Sandvig, Axel; Vårum, Kjell M.; Strand, Sabina P.

2013-01-01

154

Nanoparticle mediated P-glycoprotein silencing for improved drug delivery across the blood-brain barrier: a siRNA-chitosan approach.  

PubMed

The blood-brain barrier (BBB), composed of tightly organized endothelial cells, limits the availability of drugs to therapeutic targets in the central nervous system. The barrier is maintained by membrane bound efflux pumps efficiently transporting specific xenobiotics back into the blood. The efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp), expressed at high levels in brain endothelial cells, has several drug substrates. Consequently, siRNA mediated silencing of the P-gp gene is one possible strategy how to improve the delivery of drugs to the brain. Herein, we investigated the potential of siRNA-chitosan nanoparticles in silencing P-gp in a BBB model. We show that the transfection of rat brain endothelial cells mediated effective knockdown of P-gp with subsequent decrease in P-gp substrate efflux. This resulted in increased cellular delivery and efficacy of the model drug doxorubicin. PMID:23372682

Malmo, Jostein; Sandvig, Axel; Vårum, Kjell M; Strand, Sabina P

2013-01-01

155

Cell-Free Microfluidic Determination of P-glycoprotein Interactions with Substrates and Inhibitors.  

PubMed

The membrane protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays key roles in the oral bioavailability of drugs, their blood brain barrier passage as well as in multidrug resistance. For new drug candidates it is mandatory to study their interaction with P-gp, according to FDA and EMA regulations. The vast majority of these tests are performed using confluent cell layers of P-gp overexpressing cell lines that render these tests laborious. In this study, we introduce a cell-free microfluidic assay for the rapid testing of drug- P-gp interactions. Cell-derived vesicles are prepared from MDCKII-MDR1 overexpressing cells and immobilized on the surface of a planar microfluidic device. The drug is delivered continuously to the vesicles and calcein accumulation is monitored by means of a fluorescence assay and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. Only small amounts of compounds (~10 ?l) are required in concentrations of 5, 25 and 50 ?M for a test that provides within 5 min information on the apparent dissociation constant of the drug and P-gp. We tested 10 drugs on-chip, 9 of which are inhibitors or substrates of P-glycoprotein and one negative control. We benchmarked the measured apparent dissociation constants against an alternative assay on a plate reader and reference data from FDA. These comparisons revealed good correlations between the logarithmic apparent dissociation constants (R(2)?=?0.95 with ATPase assay, R(2)?=?0.93 with FDA data) and show the reliability of the rapid on-chip test. The herein presented assay has an excellent screening window factor (Z'-factor) of 0.8, and is suitable for high-throughput testing. PMID:24928366

Eyer, Klaus; Herger, Michael; Krämer, Stefanie D; Dittrich, Petra S

2014-12-01

156

Digoxin and ouabain induce P-glycoprotein by activating calmodulin kinase II and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in human colon cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Digoxin and ouabain are cardioactive glycosides, which inhibit the Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase pump and in this way they increase the intracellular concentration of cytosolic calcium ([Ca{sup ++}]{sub i}). They are also strong inducers of the P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a transmembrane transporter which extrudes several drugs, including anticancer agents like doxorubicin. An increased amount of Pgp limits the absorption of drugs through epithelial cells, thus inducing resistance to chemotherapy. The mechanism by which cardioactive glycosides increase Pgp is not known and in this work we investigated whether digoxin and ouabain elicited the expression of Pgp with a calcium-driven mechanism. In human colon cancer HT29 cells both glycosides increased the [Ca{sup ++}]{sub i} and this event was dependent on the calcium influx via the Na{sup +}/Ca{sup ++} exchanger. The increased [Ca{sup ++}]{sub i} enhanced the activity of the calmodulin kinase II enzyme, which in turn activated the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha. This one was responsible for the increased expression of Pgp, which actively extruded doxorubicin from the cells and significantly reduced the pro-apoptotic effect of the drug. All the effects of glycosides were prevented by inhibiting the Na{sup +}/Ca{sup ++} exchanger or the calmodulin kinase II. This work clarified the molecular mechanisms by which digoxin and oubain induce Pgp and pointed out that the administration of cardioactive glycosides may widely affect the absorption of drugs in colon epithelia. Moreover, our results suggest that the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agent substrates of Pgp may be strongly reduced in patients taking digoxin.

Riganti, Chiara, E-mail: chiara.riganti@unito.i [Department of Genetics, Biology and Biochemistry, University of Torino, Via Santena, 5/bis, 10126, Torino (Italy); Research Center on Experimental Medicine (CeRMS), Via Santena, 5/bis, 10126, Torino (Italy); Campia, Ivana; Polimeni, Manuela [Department of Genetics, Biology and Biochemistry, University of Torino, Via Santena, 5/bis, 10126, Torino (Italy); Pescarmona, Gianpiero; Ghigo, Dario; Bosia, Amalia [Department of Genetics, Biology and Biochemistry, University of Torino, Via Santena, 5/bis, 10126, Torino (Italy); Research Center on Experimental Medicine (CeRMS), Via Santena, 5/bis, 10126, Torino (Italy)

2009-11-01

157

Etoposide nanocarriers suppress glioma cell growth by intracellular drug delivery and simultaneous P-glycoprotein inhibition.  

PubMed

In cancer treatment, efficient therapeutic strategies could be impeded by cellular mechanisms such as the multidrug resistance. Recently, drug-loaded nanoparticles have been reported to be useful, since they allow entering the cancer cell and act as an intracellular anti-cancer drug reservoir. A new approach is proposed here by the use of lipid nanocapsules (LNC) which were hypothesized to reverse multidrug resistance additionally by their P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibiting surfactant. LNC (mean diameter 25 to 100 nm) were loaded with etoposide, tested for the drug release and their efficiency to reduce cell growth in cell culture for C6, F98, and 9L glioma cell lines. Sustained etoposide release can be provided over a period of 1 week (t10%: 1.4+/-0.1h; t50%: 15.9+/-2.8h). The P-gp inhibiting activity in-vitro was found to be independent from the LNC size. In cell culture, an internalization of LNC was observed in all glioma cell types. Etoposide LNC showed a generally higher efficiency than the drug solution while blank LNC were found to be less inhibitory than the pure drug at equivalent concentrations (IC50: C6: etoposide: 25.2 microM; LNC: 2.6-8.9 microM, F98: etoposide: 46.5 microM; LNC: 1.4-14.7 microM, 9L: etoposide: 58.2 microM; LNC: 4.4-12.7 microM). This effect was found to be particle size dependent within a range of an 8- (C6) to 33-fold (F98) increased cytotoxicity for smallest particles. When cells were incubated with etoposide solution in the presence of blank LNC, a slight growth inhibition was observed, however, distinctly lower than the drug-trapping particles. Moreover, cell toxicity on astrocytes was similar for etoposide LNC and etoposide solution. The mechanism of action of etoposide LNC was proposed to be a cell uptake followed by a sustained drug release from the LNC in combination with an intracellular P-gp inhibition ensuring a higher anticancer drug concentration inside the cancer cells. PMID:16574265

Lamprecht, Alf; Benoit, Jean-Pierre

2006-05-15

158

Acridones circumvent P-glycoprotein-associated multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells.  

PubMed

Multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by overexpression of MDR1 P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one of the best characterized transporter-mediated barriers to successful chemotherapy in cancer patients. Chemosensitizers are the agents that increase the sensitivity of multidrug-resistant cells to the toxic influence of previously less effective drugs. In an attempt to find such vital chemosensitizers, a series of N(10)-substituted-2-chloroacridone analogous (1-17) have been synthesized. Compound 1 was prepared by the Ullmann condensation of o-chlorobenzoic acid and p-chloroaniline followed by cyclization. The N-(omega-chloroalkyl) analogues were found to undergo iodide catalyzed nucleophilic substitution reaction with secondary amines and the resultant products were characterized by spectral methods. The lipophilicity expressed in log(10)P and pK(a) of compounds has been determined. All compounds were examined for their ability to increase the uptake of vinblastine (VLB) in MDR KBCh(R)-8-5 cells and the results showed that the compounds 6, 8, 11-14, 16, and 17 at their respective IC(50) concentrations caused a 1.0- to 1.7-fold greater accumulation of VLB than did a similar concentration of the standard modulator, verapamil (VRP). Results of the efflux experiment showed that VRP and each of the modulators significantly inhibited the efflux of VLB, suggesting that they may be competitors for P-gp. All modulators effectively competing with [(3)H]azidopine for binding to P-gp pointed out this transport membrane protein as their likely site of action. Compounds at IC(10) were evaluated for their efficacy to modulate the cytotoxicity of VLB and the results showed that modulators 11, 13, 14, 16, and 17 were able to completely reverse the 25-fold resistance of KBCh(R)-8-5 cells to VLB. Examination of the relationship between lipophilicity and antagonism of MDR showed a reasonable correlation suggesting that hydrophobicity is one of the determinants of potency for anti-MDR activity of 2-chloroacridones. The results allowed us to draw preliminary conclusions about structural features of 2-chloroacridones important for MDR modulation. PMID:17933543

Gopinath, Vadiraj S; Thimmaiah, Padma; Thimmaiah, Kuntebommanahalli N

2008-01-01

159

Optimization of irinotecan chronotherapy with P-glycoprotein inhibition  

SciTech Connect

The relevance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) for irinotecan chronopharmacology was investigated in female B6D2F{sub 1} mice. A three-fold 24 h change in the mRNA expression of Abcb1b was demonstrated in ileum mucosa, with a maximum at Zeitgeber Time (ZT) 15 (p < 0.001). No rhythm was found for abcb1a in ileum mucosa, or for Abcb1a/b in Glasgow osteosarcoma (GOS), a mouse tumor cell line moderately sensitive to irinotecan. Non-tumor-bearing mice received irinotecan (50 mg/kg/day i.v. × 4 days) as a single agent or combined with P-gp inhibitor PSC833 (6.25 mg/kg/day i.p. × 4 days) at ZT3 or ZT15, respectively corresponding to the worst or the best irinotecan tolerability. Endpoints involved survival, body weight change and hematologic toxicity. Antitumor efficacy was studied in GOS-bearing mice receiving irinotecan (25, 30 or 40 mg/kg/day × 4 days) and +/? PSC833 at ZT3 or ZT15, with survival, body weight change, and tumor growth inhibition as endpoints. Non-tumor bearing mice lost an average of 17% or 9% of their body weight according to irinotecan administration at ZT3 or ZT15 respectively (p < 0.001). Dosing at ZT15 rather than ZT3 reduced mean leucopenia (9% vs 53%; p < 0.001). PSC833 aggravated irinotecan lethal toxicity from 4 to ? 60%. In tumor-bearing mice, body weight loss was ? halved in the mice on irinotecan or irinotecan–PSC833 combination at ZT15 as compared to ZT3 (p < 0.001). PSC833–irinotecan at ZT15 increased tumor inhibition by ? 40% as compared to irinotecan only at ZT15. In conclusion, P-gp was an important determinant of the circadian balance between toxicity and efficacy of irinotecan. - Highlights: • Irinotecan chronotolerance and chronoefficacy change as drug was applied with PSC833. • P-glycoprotein is an important player of the toxicity and efficacy of irinotecan. • Timing should be considered if chemotherapy is performed with a MDR1 inhibitor.

Filipski, Elisabeth; Berland, Elodie [INSERM, U776 “Rythmes biologiques et cancers”, CAMPUS CNRS, 7 rue Guy Môquet, F-94801 Villejuif (France); Univ Paris-Sud, UMR-S0776, Orsay F-91405 (France); Ozturk, Narin [INSERM, U776 “Rythmes biologiques et cancers”, CAMPUS CNRS, 7 rue Guy Môquet, F-94801 Villejuif (France); Univ Paris-Sud, UMR-S0776, Orsay F-91405 (France); Istanbul University Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology, Beyazit TR-34116, Istanbul (Turkey); Guettier, Catherine [Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Unité de Chronothérapie, Département de Cancérologie, Hôpital Paul Brousse, Villejuif F-94807 (France); Horst, Gijsbertus T.J. van der [Department of Genetics, Erasmus University Medical Center, 3000 CA Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lévi, Francis [INSERM, U776 “Rythmes biologiques et cancers”, CAMPUS CNRS, 7 rue Guy Môquet, F-94801 Villejuif (France); Univ Paris-Sud, UMR-S0776, Orsay F-91405 (France); Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Unité de Chronothérapie, Département de Cancérologie, Hôpital Paul Brousse, Villejuif F-94807 (France); and others

2014-02-01

160

Modulation of multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein activity by antiemetic compounds in human doxorubicin-resistant sarcoma cells (MES-SA/Dx-5): implications on cancer therapy.  

PubMed

Multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells is often caused by the high expression of the plasma membrane drug transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) associated with an elevated intracellular glutathione (GSH) content in various human tumors. Several chemosensitizers reverse MDR but have significant toxicities. Antiemetic medications are often used for controlling chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in cancer patient. In this in vitro study we investigated if the effects of two common antiemetic drugs such as dimenhydrinate (dime) and ondansentron (onda) and a natural compound (6)-gingerol (ginger), the active principle of ginger root, interfere on Pgp activity and intracellular GSH content in order to evaluate their potential use as chemosensitizing agents in anticancer chemotherapy. The human doxorubicin (doxo) resistant uterine sarcoma cells (MES-SA/Dx5) that overexpress Pgp, were treated with each antiemetic alone (1, 10 and 20 microM) or in combination with different doxo concentrations (2, 4, and 8 microM). We measured the intracellular accumulation and cytotoxicity of doxo (MTT assay), the cellular GSH content (GSH assay) and ROS production (DFC-DA assay), in comparison with verapamil (Ver), a specific inhibitor for Pgp, used as reference molecule. We found that exposure at 2, 4 and 8 microM doxo concentrations in the presence of dime, onda and ginger enhanced significantly doxo accumulation and cytotoxicity on resistant MES-SA/Dx5 cells when compared with doxo alone. Moreover, treatment with ginger (20 microM) increased cellular GSH content (greater than 10 percent) in resistant cells, while ROS production remained below the control values for all antiemetic compounds at all concentrations. These findings provide the rationale for innovative clinical trials of antiemetics or their derivatives as a new potential generation of chemosensitizers to improve effectiveness of the anticancer drugs in MDR human tumours. PMID:24382184

Angelini, A; Conti, P; Ciofani, G; Cuccurullo, F; Di Ilio, C

2013-01-01

161

Effects of quercetin on the bioavailability of doxorubicin in rats: role of CYP3A4 and P-gp inhibition by quercetin.  

PubMed

Quercetin, a flavonoid, is an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux transport, and its oxidative metabolism is catalyzed by CYP enzymes. Thus, it is expected that the pharmacokinetics of both intravenous and oral doxorubicin can be changed by quercetin. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of oral quercetin on the bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of orally and intravenously administered doxorubicin in rats. The effects of quercetin on the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and CYP3A4 activities were also evaluated. Quercetin inhibited CYP3A4 enzyme activity in a concentration-dependent manner with a 50% inhibition concentration (IC(50)) of 1.97 ?M. In addition, quercetin significantly enhanced the intracellular accumulation of rhodamine-123 in MCF-7/ADR cells overexpressing P-gp. The pharmacokinetic parameters of doxorubicin were determined in rats after oral (50 mg/kg) or intravenous (10 mg/kg) administration of doxorubicin to rats in the presence and absence of quercetin (0.6, 3 or 15 mg/kg). Compared to control, quercetin significantly (p < 0.05 for 0.6 mg/kg, p < 0.01 for 3 and 15 mg/kg) increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-?), 31.2-136.0% greater) of oral doxorubicin. Quercetin also significantly increased the peak plasma concentration (C(max)) of doxorubicin, while there was no significant change in T(max) and T(1/2) of doxorubicin. Consequently, the absolute bioavailability of doxorubicin was increased by quercetin compared to control, and the relative bioavailability of oral doxorubicin was increased by 1.32 to 2.36 fold. In contrast, the pharmacokinetics of intravenous doxorubicin were not affected by quercetin. These results suggest that the quercetin-induced increase in bioavailability of oral doxorubicin can be attributed to enhanced doxorubicin absorption in the gastrointestinal tract via quercetin-induced inhibition of P-gp and reduced first-pass metabolism of doxorubicin due to quercetin-induced inhibition of CYP3A in the small intestine and/or in the liver rather than reduced renal and/or hepatic elimination of doxorubicin. Therefore, it appears that the development of oral doxorubicin preparations is possible, which will be more convenient than the intravenous dosage forms. Therefore, concurrent use of quercetin provides a therapeutic benefit - it increases the bioavailability of doxorubicin administered orally. PMID:21544726

Choi, Jun-Shik; Piao, Yong-Ji; Kang, Keon Wook

2011-04-01

162

Lysosomal trapping of a radiolabeled substrate of P-glycoprotein as a mechanism for signal amplification in PET  

PubMed Central

The radiotracer [11C]N-desmethyl-loperamide (dLop) images the in vivo function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a transporter that blocks the entry of drugs that are substrates into brain. When P-gp is inhibited, [11C]dLop, a potent opiate agonist, enters and becomes trapped in the brain. This trapping is beneficial from an imaging perspective, because it amplifies the PET signal, essentially by accumulating radioactivity over time. As we previously demonstrated that this trapping was not caused by binding to opiate receptors, we examined whether [11C]dLop, a weak base, is ionically trapped in acidic lysosomes. To test this hypothesis, we measured [3H]dLop accumulation in human cells by using lysosomotropics. Because the in vivo trapping of dLop was seen after P-gp inhibition, we also measured [3H]dLop uptake in P-gp–expressing cells treated with the P-gp inhibitor tariquidar. All lysosomotropics decreased [3H]dLop accumulation by at least 50%. In P-gp–expressing cells, tariquidar (and another P-gp inhibitor) surprisingly decreased [3H]dLop uptake. Consequently, we measured [11C]dLop uptake before and after tariquidar preadministration in lysosome-rich organs of P-gp KO mice and humans. After tariquidar pretreatment in both species, radioactivity uptake in these organs decreased by 35% to 40%. Our results indicate that dLop is trapped in lysosomes and that tariquidar competes with dLop for lysosomal accumulation in vitro and in vivo. Although tariquidar and dLop compete for lysosomal trapping in the periphery, such competition does not occur in brain because tariquidar has negligible entry into brain. In summary, tariquidar and [11C]dLop can be used in combination to selectively measure the function of P-gp at the blood–brain barrier. PMID:21262843

Kannan, Pavitra; Brimacombe, Kyle R.; Kreisl, William C.; Liow, Jeih-San; Zoghbi, Sami S.; Telu, Sanjay; Zhang, Yi; Pike, Victor W.; Halldin, Christer; Gottesman, Michael M.; Innis, Robert B.; Hall, Matthew D.

2011-01-01

163

Critical role for P-glycoprotein expression in hematopoietic cells in the FVB.mdr1a?/? model of colitis  

PubMed Central

Objective P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the functional product of the multi-drug resistance gene (mdr), is a transmembrane protein that extrudes substrates from the intracellular environment. P-gp is expressed on the apical surface of epithelial cells and on cells from the hematopoietic lineage. Human MDR polymorphisms have been associated with increased risk inflammatory bowel disease, and FVB/N animals deficient in mdr1a expression develop spontaneous colitis. Previous studies utilizing adult bone marrow chimeras indicated colitis development in this animal model was contingent on P-gp deficiency in radiation resistant epithelial cells. However, the use of adult animals may mask the role of hematopoietic immune cells in colitis initiation, due to pre-existing epithelial abnormalities. Methods To assess the importance of P-gp expression in intestinal epithelial and hematopoietic derived cells on colitis induction in FVB.mdr1a?/?animal we developed a neonatal model of bone marrow reconstitution. FVB/N and FVB.mdr1a?/?adult and neonatal animals were lethally irradiated and reconstituted with bone marrow from FVB/N or FVB.mdr1a?/?donors. Animals were observed for 20 weeks. Results Adult FVB/N animals deficient in P-gp expression in hematopoietically derived immune cells developed colitis similar to adult animals deficient in P-gp expression in radiation resistant epithelial/stromal cells. However, neonatal animals deficient in P-gp expression in hematopoietically derived immune cells developed a more histologically significant colitis than those deficient in P-gp expression in epithelial tissue. Conclusions The use of a neonatal model of bone marrow reconstitution has revealed a critical role for P-gp expression in hematopoietically derived immune cells in colitis development in the FVB.mdr1a?/? model. PMID:21681110

Staley, Elizabeth M.; Dimmitt, Reed A.; Schoeb, Trenton R.; Tanner, Scott M.; Lorenz, Robin G.

2013-01-01

164

Interaction between CD147 and P-Glycoprotein and Their Regulation by Ubiquitination in Breast Cancer Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Multidrug-resistant cancer cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) display variations in invasive and metastatic ability through the upregulation of the extracellular matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inducer (CD147). However, the direct linkage between these two proteins is still unclear. Methods: We used immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence analysis, migration and invasion assays, drug sensitivity assay and Western blot to measure the physical and functional interaction between

Wen-Juan Wang; Qing-Quan Li; Jing-Da Xu; Xi-Xi Cao; Hai-Xia Li; Feng Tang; Qi Chen; Jin-Ming Yang; Zu-De Xu; Xiu-Ping Liu

2008-01-01

165

Factors That Limit Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of P-Glycoprotein Density at the Blood–Brain Barrier  

PubMed Central

Efflux transporters located at the blood–brain barrier, such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), regulate the passage of many drugs in and out of the brain. Changes in the function and density of these proteins, in particular P-gp, may play a role in several neurological disorders. Several radioligands have been developed for measuring P-gp function at the blood–brain barrier of human subjects with positron emission tomography (PET). However, attempts to measure P-gp density with radiolabeled inhibitors that bind to these proteins in vivo have not thus far provided useful, quantifiable PET signals. Herein, we argue that not only the low density of transporters in the brain as a whole but also their very high density in brain capillaries act to lower the concentration of ligand in the plasma and thereby contribute to absent or low signals in PET studies of P-gp density. Our calculations, based on published data and theoretical approximations, estimate that whole brain densities of many efflux transporters at the blood–brain barrier range from 0.04 to 5.19 nM. We conclude that the moderate affinities (>5 nM) of currently labeled inhibitors may not allow measurement of efflux transporter density at the blood–brain barrier, and inhibitors with substantially higher affinity will be needed for density imaging of P-gp and other blood–brain barrier transporters. PMID:23597242

2013-01-01

166

Functional polymorphisms of the human multidrug-resistance gene: Multiple sequence variations and correlation of one allele with P-glycoprotein expression and activity in vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate whether alterations in the multidrug-resistance (MDR)-1 gene correlate with intestinal MDR-1 expression and uptake of orally administered P-glycoprotein (PGP) substrates, we analyzed the MDR-1 sequence in 21 volunteers whose PGP expression and function in the duodenum had been determined by Western blots and quantitative immunohistology (n = 21) or by plasma concentrations after orally administered digoxin (n =

S. Hoffmeyer; O. Burk; O. von Richter; H. P. Arnold; J. Brockmöller; A. Johne; I. Cascorbi; T. Gerloff; I. Roots; M. Eichelbaum; U. Brinkmann

2000-01-01

167

Differential effects of the organochlorine pesticide DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE on p-glycoprotein activity and expression  

SciTech Connect

1,1-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT) is an organochlorine pesticide. Its metabolite, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethene (p,p'-DDE) is a persistent environmental contaminant and both compounds accumulate in animals. Because multidrug resistance transporters, such as p-glycoprotein, function as a defense against xenobiotic exposure, we analyzed the ability of DDT and p,p'-DDE to act as efflux modulators. Using a competitive intact cell assay based on the efflux of the fluorescent dye rhodamine 123, we found that DDT, but not p,p'-DDE, stimulated dye retention. Subsequent studies using verapamil as competitor suggested that DDT is a weak p-glycoprotein inhibitor. Further studies addressed the ability of DDT and p,p'-DDE to induce MDR1, the gene encoding p-glycoprotein. In HepG2 cells, we found that both compounds induced MDR1 by twofold to threefold. Similar results were observed in mouse liver after a single dose of p,p'-DDE, although some gender-specific induction differences were noted. By contrast, p,p'-DDE failed to induce MDR1 in HeLa cells, indicating some cell-specific effects for induction. Further expression studies demonstrated increased levels of the endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperone, Bip, in response to DDT, but not p,p'-DDE. These results suggest that DDT, but not p,p'-DDE, induces an endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

Shabbir, Arsalan [Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); DiStasio, Susan [Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Zhao, Jingbo [Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Cardozo, Christopher P. [Department of Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); VA Medical Center, Bronx, NY 10468 (United States); Wolff, Mary S. [Department of Community and Preventative Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Caplan, Avrom J. [Department of Pharmacology and Biological Chemistry, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY 10029 (United States)]. E-mail: avrom.caplan@mssm.edu

2005-03-01

168

Pro-Inflammatory Cytokine Regulation of P-glycoprotein in the Developing Blood-Brain Barrier  

PubMed Central

Placental P-glycoprotein (P-gp) acts to protect the developing fetus from exogenous compounds. This protection declines with advancing gestation leaving the fetus and fetal brain vulnerable to these compounds and potential teratogens in maternal circulation. This vulnerability may be more pronounced in pregnancies complicated by infection, which is common during pregnancy. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (released during infection) have been shown to be potent inhibitors of P-gp, but nothing is known regarding their effects at the developing blood-brain barrier (BBB). We hypothesized that P-gp function and expression in endothelial cells of the developing BBB will be inhibited by pro-inflammatory cytokines. We have derived brain endothelial cell (BEC) cultures from various stages of development of the guinea pig: gestational day (GD) 50, 65 (term ?68 days) and postnatal day (PND) 14. Once these cultures reached confluence, BECs were treated with various doses (100–104 pg/mL) of pro-inflammatory cytokines: interleukin-1? (IL-1?), interleukin-6 (IL-6) or tumor necrosis factor- ? (TNF-?). P-gp function or abcb1 mRNA (encodes P-gp) expression was assessed following treatment. Incubation of GD50 BECs with IL-1?, IL-6 or TNF-? resulted in no change in P-gp function. GD65 BECs displayed a dose-dependent decrease in function with all cytokines tested; maximal effects at 42%, 65% and 34% with IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? treatment, respectively (P<0.01). Inhibition of P-gp function by IL-1?, IL-6 and TNF-? was even greater in PND14 BECs; maximal effects at 36% (P<0.01), 84% (P<0.05) and 55% (P<0.01), respectively. Cytokine-induced reductions in P-gp function were associated with decreased abcb1 mRNA expression. These data suggest that BBB P-gp function is increasingly responsive to the inhibitory effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines, with increasing developmental age. Thus, women who experience infection and take prescription medication during pregnancy may expose the developing fetal brain to greater amounts of exogenous compounds – many of which are considered potentially teratogenic. PMID:22973436

Iqbal, Majid; Ho, Hay Lam; Petropoulos, Sophie; Moisiadis, Vasilis G.; Gibb, William; Matthews, Stephen G.

2012-01-01

169

The connection between the toxicity of anthracyclines and their ability to modulate the P-glycoprotein-mediated transport in A549, HepG2, and MCF-7 cells.  

PubMed

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle to the successful chemotherapy of solid tumors. We compared the resistance of the most popular solid tumors, breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7 cell line) and nonsmall cell lung (A549 cell line) hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2 cells), to aclarubicin (ACL) and doxorubicin (DOX). This research aimed at determining the relation between the toxicity of ACL and DOX, their cell accumulation, and then effect on P-glycoprotein functionality. ACL is more cytotoxic for tumor cells compared to DOX. The intracellular concentration of drugs in cancer cells was dependent on the dose of the drugs and the time of incubation. The P-gp inhibitor Verapamil (V) increased DOX accumulation in all tested cell lines. By contrast, the intracellular level of ACL was not affected by this modifying agent. The assessment of the uptake of 5,5',6,6'-tetrachloro-1,1',3,3'-tetraethylbenzimidazolocarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) or Rhodamine 123 (R123) allows the evaluation of the different influence of drugs on P-gp activity which is in agreement with the estimation of expression measured by MDR-1 shift assay. These data suggest that ACL is less P-gp dependent than DOX and consequently may be used in a clinical setting to increase treatment efficacy in resistant human tumors. PMID:24574923

Rogalska, Aneta; Szwed, Marzena; Rychlik, B?a?ej

2014-01-01

170

The Connection between the Toxicity of Anthracyclines and Their Ability to Modulate the P-Glycoprotein-Mediated Transport in A549, HepG2, and MCF-7 Cells  

PubMed Central

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle to the successful chemotherapy of solid tumors. We compared the resistance of the most popular solid tumors, breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7 cell line) and nonsmall cell lung (A549 cell line) hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2 cells), to aclarubicin (ACL) and doxorubicin (DOX). This research aimed at determining the relation between the toxicity of ACL and DOX, their cell accumulation, and then effect on P-glycoprotein functionality. ACL is more cytotoxic for tumor cells compared to DOX. The intracellular concentration of drugs in cancer cells was dependent on the dose of the drugs and the time of incubation. The P-gp inhibitor Verapamil (V) increased DOX accumulation in all tested cell lines. By contrast, the intracellular level of ACL was not affected by this modifying agent. The assessment of the uptake of 5,5?,6,6?-tetrachloro-1,1?,3,3?-tetraethylbenzimidazolocarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) or Rhodamine 123 (R123) allows the evaluation of the different influence of drugs on P-gp activity which is in agreement with the estimation of expression measured by MDR-1 shift assay. These data suggest that ACL is less P-gp dependent than DOX and consequently may be used in a clinical setting to increase treatment efficacy in resistant human tumors. PMID:24574923

Szwed, Marzena; Rychlik, B?a?ej

2014-01-01

171

Endomorphins, Met-enkephalin, Tyr-MIF-1, and the P-glycoprotein efflux system.  

PubMed

The P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transport system, responsible for the efflux of many therapeutic drugs out of the brain, recently has been shown to transport the endogenous brain opiate endorphin. We used P-gp knockout mice (Mdr1a) and their controls to determine where P-gp is involved in the saturable efflux systems of four other endogenous opiate-modulating peptides across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). After injection of endomorphin-1 (Tyr-Pro-Trp-Phe-NH(2)), endomorphin-2 (Tyr-Pro-Phe-Phe-NH(2)), Met-enkephalin (Tyr-Gly-Gly-Phe-Met-OH), and Tyr-MIF-1 (Tyr-Pro-Leu-Gly-NH(2)) into the lateral ventricle of the mouse brain, residual radioactivity was measured at 0, 2, 5, 10, and 20 min later. The results showed no difference in the disappearance of any of these peptides from the brains of knockout mice compared with their controls. This demonstrates that unlike endorphin and morphine, P-gp does not seem to be required for the brain-to-blood transport of the endomorphins, Met-enkephalin, or Tyr-MIF-1 across the BBB. PMID:11854138

Kastin, Abba J; Fasold, Melita B; Zadina, James E

2002-03-01

172

Verapamil and Rifampin Effect on P-Glycoprotein Expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma  

PubMed Central

Background: High expression of p-glycoprotein (P-gp) has been associated with a poor prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is likely that P-gp overexpression is responsible for multidrug resistance in HCC. Objectives: The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of potent carcinogen nitrosamine with and without verapamil and rifampin drugs on P-gp expression at the mRNA level in HCC. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats (n = 5) were selected with different treatments and one group as control. mRNA concentration changes were monitored using quantitative PCR (QPCR). Results: A significant difference was found between verapamil treated group and the control regarding the mRNA level. The mdr1a mRNA was significantly decreased in the verapamil group (P ? 0.001). Rifampin administrated group had a decreased level of the mdr1a mRNA compared to the control group (P ? 0.006). No significant changes were observed in HCC induced rats regarding the mdr1a mRNA level when treated with verapamil and rifampin. An enhanced expression of the mdr1a gene was found In the HCC induced animals when treated with drugs. Conclusions: Verapamil and rifampin were found specific and effective against P-gp expression in HCC. In conclusion, treatment efficacy of most anticancer drugs is increased in combination with verapamil and rifampin against most advanced HCC.

Jalali, Amir; Ghasemian, Sepideh; Najafzadeh, Hossein; Galehdari, Hamid; Seifi, Masoud Reza; Zangene, Fateme; Dehdardargahi, Shaiesteh

2014-01-01

173

Effect of three fatty acids from the leaf extract of Tiliacora triandra on P-glycoprotein function in multidrug-resistant A549RT-eto cell line  

PubMed Central

Background: Cancer cells have the ability to develop resistance to chemotherapy drugs, which then leads to a reduced effectiveness and success of the treatment. Multidrug resistance (MDR) involves the resistance in the same cell/tissue to a diverse range of drugs of different structures. One of the characteristics of MDR is an overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which causes the efflux of the accumulated drug out of the cell. The MDR human non-small cell lung carcinoma cell line with a high P-gp expression level (A549RT-eto) was used to investigate the bioactive compounds capable of reversing the etoposide resistance in this cell line. Materials and Methods: The leaves of Tiliacora triandra were sequentially extracted with hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. Only the hexane extract reduced the etoposide resistance of the A549RT-eto cell line, and was further fractionated by column chromatography using the TLC-pattern and the restoration of etoposide sensitivity as the selection criteria. Results: The obtained active fraction (F22) was found by nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analyses to be comprised of a 49.5:19.6:30.9 (w/w/w) mixture of hexadecanoic: octadecanoic acid: (Z)-6-octadecenoic acids. This stoichiometric mixture was recreated using pure fatty acids (MSFA) and gave a similar sensitization to etoposide and enhanced the relative rate of rhodamine-123 accumulation to a similar extent as F22, supporting the action via reducing P-gp activity. In contrast, the fatty acids alone did not show this effect. Conclusion: This is the first report of the biological activity from the leaves of T. triandra as a potential source of a novel chemosensitizer. PMID:25298673

Kaewpiboon, Chutima; Winayanuwattikun, Pakorn; Yongvanich, Tikamporn; Phuwapraisirisan, Preecha; Assavalapsakul, Wanchai

2014-01-01

174

Coadministration of P-glycoprotein modulators on loperamide pharmacokinetics and brain distribution.  

PubMed

The efflux transporter P-glycoprotein, expressed at high levels at the blood-brain barrier, exerts a profound effect on the disposition of various therapeutic compounds in the brain. A rapid and efficient modulation of this efflux transporter could enhance the distribution of its substrates and thereby improve central nervous system pharmacotherapies. This study explored the impact of the intravenous coadministration of two P-glycoprotein modulators, tariquidar and elacridar, on the pharmacokinetics and brain distribution of loperamide, a P-glycoprotein substrate probe, in rats. After 1 hour postdosing, tariquidar and elacridar, both at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg, increased loperamide levels in the brain by 2.3- and 3.5-fold, respectively. However, the concurrent administration of both P-glycoprotein modulators, each at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg, increased loperamide levels in the brain by 5.8-fold and resulted in the most pronounced opioid-induced clinical signs. This phenomenon may be the result of a combined noncompetitive modulation by tariquidar and elacridar. Besides, the simultaneous administration of elacridar and tariquidar did not significantly modify the pharmacokinetic parameters of loperamide. This observation potentially allows the concurrent use of low but therapeutic doses of P-gp modulators to achieve full inhibitory effects. PMID:24398461

Montesinos, Rita Nieto; Moulari, Brice; Gromand, Jessica; Beduneau, Arnaud; Lamprecht, Alf; Pellequer, Yann

2014-04-01

175

Vincristine-induced expression of P-glycoprotein in MOLM-13 and SKM-1 acute myeloid leukemia cell lines is associated with coexpression of nestin transcript.  

PubMed

Nestin is a class 6 filament protein typically expressed in neural stem/progenitor cells. However, nestin expression has been observed in other tissues during mammalian embryogenesis. In human neural stem/progenitor cells, coexpression of nestin and P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1 member of the ABC transporter family) was detected. P-gp-mediated drug efflux is the most common molecular cause of multidrug resistance in neoplastic cells. Nestin expression has also been detected in various human solid tumours as well as in the corresponding established cell lines. Interestingly, expression of nestin in different leukemia cells has been recently reported. Here, we show that expression of P-gp is associated with the simultaneous expression of nestin in acute myeloid leukemia cell lines (MOLM-13 and SKM-1) under the selective pressure of vincristine, a substance that may induce P-gp expression in neoplastic cells. PMID:24968412

Imrichova, Denisa; Coculova, Martina; Messingerova, Lucia; Sulova, Zdena; Breier, Albert

2014-10-01

176

Reversal of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance by CD44 antibody-targeted nanocomplexes for short hairpin RNA-encoding plasmid DNA delivery.  

PubMed

Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains one of the major reasons for the reductions in efficacy of many chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy. As a classical MDR phenotype of human malignancies, the adenosine triphosphate binding cassette (ABC)-transporter P-glycoprotein (MDR1/P-gp) is an efflux protein with aberrant activity that has been linked to multidrug resistance in cancer. For the reversal of MDR by RNA interference (RNAi) technology, an U6-RNA gene promoter-driven expression vector encoding anti-MDR1/P-gp short hairpin RNA (shRNA) molecules was constructed (abbreviated pDNA-iMDR1-shRNA). This study explored the feasibility of using Pluronic P123-conjugated polypropylenimine (PPI) dendrimer (P123-PPI) as a carrier for pDNA-iMDR1-shRNA to overcome tumor drug resistance in breast cancer cells. P123-PPI functionalized with anti-CD44 monoclonal antibody (CD44 receptor targeting ligand) (anti-CD44-P123-PPI) can efficiently condense pDNA into nanocomplexes to achieve efficient delivery of pDNA, tumor specificity and long circulation. The in vitro studies methodically evaluated the effect of P123-PPI and anti-CD44-P123-PPI on pDNA-iMDR1-shRNA delivery and P-gp downregulation. Our in vitro results indicated that the P123-PPI/pDNA and anti-CD44-P123-PPI/pDNA nanocomplexes with low cytotoxicity revealed higher transfection efficiency compared with the PPI/pDNA nanocomplexes and Lipofectamine™ 2000 in the presence of serum. The nanocomplexes loaded with pDNA-iMDR1-shRNA against P-gp could reverse MDR accompanied by the suppression of MDR1/P-gp expression at the mRNA and protein levels and improve the internalization and cytotoxicity of Adriamycin (ADR) in the MCF-7/ADR multidrug-resistant cell line. BALB/c nude mice bearing MCF-7/ADR tumor were utilized as a xenograft model to assess antitumor efficacy in vivo. The results demonstrated that the administration of anti-CD44-P123-PPI/pDNA-iMDR1-shRNA nanocomplexes combined with ADR could inhibit tumor growth more efficiently than ADR alone. The enhanced therapeutic efficacy of ADR may be correlated with increased accumulation of ADR in drug-resistant tumor cells. Consequently, these results suggested that the use of pDNA-iMDR1-shRNA-loaded nanocomplexes may be a promising gene delivery strategy to reverse MDR and improve the effectiveness of chemotherapy. PMID:25662500

Gu, Jijin; Fang, Xiaoling; Hao, Junguo; Sha, Xianyi

2015-03-01

177

Novel flavonoid-based biodegradable nanoparticles for effective oral delivery of etoposide by P-glycoprotein modulation: an in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo investigations.  

PubMed

Abstract A receptor level interaction of etoposide with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and subsequent intestinal efflux has an adverse effect on its oral absorption. The present work is aimed to enhance the bioavailability of etoposide by co-administering it with quercetin (a P-gp inhibitor) in dual-loaded polymeric nanoparticle formulation. Poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles were optimized for various parameters like o/w phase volume ratio, poly-vinyl alcohol concentration, PLGA concentration and sonication time. The cytotoxicity studies (MTT assay) revealed a 9- and 11-fold decrease in the IC 50 values for etoposide-loaded nanoparticles (ENP) and etoposide?+?quercetin dual-loaded nanoparticles (EQNP) when compared to that of free etoposide, respectively, and the results were further supported by florescent-activated cell sorter studies. The confocal imaging of the intestinal sections treated with ENP and EQNP containing fluorescent probe (rhodamine) showed the superiority of the EQNP to permeate deeper. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic studies on rats revealed that EQNP exhibited a 2.4-fold increase in bioavailability of etoposide than ENP with no quercetin. The developed loaded nanoparticles have the high potential to enhance the bioavailability of the etoposide and sensitize the resistant cells. PMID:24937381

Fatma, Sharmeen; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Iqbal, Zeenat; Panda, Amulya Kumar; Negi, Lalit Mohan; Goswami, Dinesh Giri; Tariq, Mohammad

2014-06-17

178

The use of microdialysis techniques in mice to study P-gp function at the blood-brain barrier.  

PubMed

An integrated assay system involving dual/triple-probe microdialysis techniques in rats was developed earlier for testing interactions with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) at the blood-brain barrier using quinidine/PSC-833 as a P-gp substrate/inhibitor combination. The aim of the present study was to expand our assay system to mice using microdialysis with simultaneous sampling of blood and brain and to compare the result with a primary mouse brain endothelial cell monolayer (pMBMEC) assay. Brain penetration of quinidine was dose dependent in both anesthetized and awake mice after intraperitoneal drug administration. PSC-833 pretreatment caused a 2.5- to 3.4-fold increase in quinidine levels of brain dialysate samples in anesthetized or awake animals, after single or repeated administration of PSC-833. In pMBMEC, a 2.0- to 2.5-fold efflux ratio was observed in the transcellular transport of quinidine. The P-gp-mediated vectorial transport of quinidine was eliminated by PSC-833. These results indicate that quinidine with PSC-833 is a good probe substrate-reference inhibitor combination for testing drug-drug interactions with P-gp in the in vivo and in vitro mouse systems. With increasing number of humanized transgenic mice, a test system with mouse microdialysis experimentation becomes more important to predict drug-drug interactions in humans. PMID:23204072

Sziráki, István; Erd?, Franciska; Trampus, Péter; Sike, Mirabella; Molnár, Petra Magdolna; Rajnai, Zsuzsanna; Molnár, Judit; Wilhelm, Imola; Fazakas, Csilla; Kis, Emese; Krizbai, István; Krajcsi, Péter

2013-04-01

179

Modification of marine natural product ningalin B and SAR study lead to potent P-glycoprotein inhibitors.  

PubMed

In this study, new marine ningalin B analogues containing a piperazine or a benzoloxy group at ring C have been synthesized and evaluated on their P-gp modulating activity in human breast cancer and leukemia cell lines. Their structure-activity relationship was preliminarily studied. Compounds 19 and 20 are potent P-gp inhibitors. These two synthetic analogues of permethyl ningalin B may be potentially used as effective modulators of P-gp-mediated drug resistance in cancer cells. PMID:25329704

Yang, Chao; Wong, Iris L K; Jin, Wen Bin; Jiang, Tao; Chow, Larry M C; Wan, Sheng Biao

2014-10-01

180

Reversal of P-glycoprotein-medicated multidrug resistance by LBM-A5 in vitro and a study of its pharmacokinetics in vivo.  

PubMed

The overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in tumors leads to multidrug resistance (MDR), which is a significant obstacle in clinical cancer chemotherapy. The co-administration of anticancer drugs and MDR modulators is a promising strategy for overcoming this problem. Our study aimed to explore the reversal mechanism and safety of the MDR modulator LBM-A5 in vitro, and evaluate its pharmacokinetics and effects on doxorubicin metabolism in vivo. We evaluated an MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay of anticancer agents mediated by LBM-A5, the effect of LBM-A5 on rhodamine123 intracellular accumulation, and the efflux in K562/DOX cells to investigate the reversal mechanisms of LBM-A5. The results showed that LBM-A5 inhibits rhodamine123 efflux and increases intracellular accumulation by inhibiting the efflux pump function of P-gp. Furthermore, the therapeutic index and CYP3A4 activity analysis in vitro suggested that LBM-A5 is reasonably safe to use. Also, LBM-A5 (10 mg/kg body mass) achieved the required plasma concentration in sufficient time to reverse MDR in vivo. Importantly, the LBM-A5 treatment group shared similar doxorubicin (DOX) pharmacokinetics with the free DOX group. Our results suggest that LBM-A5 effectively reverses MDR (EC50 = 483.6 ± 81.7 nmol·L(-1)) by inhibiting the function of P-gp, with relatively ideal pharmacokinetics and in a safe manner, and so may be a promising candidate for cancer chemotherapy research. PMID:25427107

Zhao, Tianxiao; Song, Yun; Liu, Baomin; Qiu, Qianqian; Jiao, Lei; Li, Yunman; Huang, Wenlong; Qian, Hai

2015-01-01

181

Relationship between the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 and MDR1/P-glycoprotein in invasive breast cancers and their prognostic significance  

PubMed Central

Introduction Recent reports suggest that expression of the cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) enzyme may up-regulate expression of MDR1/P-glycoprotein (MDR1/P-gp), an exponent of resistance to cytostatic drugs. The present study aimed at examining the relationship between the expression of COX-2 and of MDR1/P-gp in a group of breast cancer cases. Methods Immunohistochemical reactions were performed using monoclonal antibodies against COX-2 and MDR1/P-gp on samples originating from 104 cases of primary invasive breast cancer. Results COX-2-positive cases were shown to demonstrate higher expression of MDR1/P-gp (P < 0.0001). The studies also demonstrate that COX-2 expression was typical for cases of a higher grade (P = 0.01), a shorter overall survival time (P < 0.0001) and a shorter progression-free time (P < 0.0001). In the case of MDR1/P-gp, its higher expression characterised cases of a higher grade (P < 0001), with lymph node involvement (P < 0001), and shorter overall survival (P < 0.0001) and progression-free time (P < 0.0001). Conclusion Our studies confirmed the unfavourable prognostic significance of COX-2 and MDR1/P-gp. We also document a relationship between COX-2 and MDR1/P-gp, which suggests that COX-2 inhibitors should be investigated in trials as a treatment supplementary to chemotherapy of breast cancers. PMID:16168133

Surowiak, Pawel; Materna, Verena; Matkowski, Rafal; Szczuraszek, Katarzyna; Kornafel, Jan; Wojnar, Andrzej; Pudelko, Marek; Dietel, Manfred; Denkert, Carsten; Zabel, Maciej; Lage, Hermann

2005-01-01

182

Inhibition of P-glycoprotein and glutathione S-transferase-pi mediated resistance by fluoxetine in MCF-7/ADM cells.  

PubMed

Chemotherapy is important in the systematic treatment of breast cancer. While multidrug resistance (MDR) is the main obstacle in chemotherapy, a reversal reagent with high reversal effect but low toxicity is the hotspot issue at present to overcome MDR. Antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX) is a potential new highly effective chemosensitizer, however, the possible mechanism is unclear. In this study, the effect of FLX on multidrug resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and glutathione S-transferase-pi (GST-?) were researched in resistant/sensitive breast cancer cells. 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) was used to determine the cells viability after being incubated with FLX/Adriamycin (ADM)/Paclitaxel (PTX) alone or FLX-ADM, FLX-PTX combination. Western blot was performed to assay the expression of P-gp and GST-? proteins. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) were performed to assay the level of MDR1 mRNA. The results showed that pre-treatment with FLX enhance cytotoxicity significantly both on resistant and sensitive cells, downregulated the expression of P-gp and GST-? proteins in resistance cells, decreased the MDR1 mRNA by FLX-PTX combination only. No P-gp and GST-? were detected in sensitive cells. Our research thus indicated that FLX reverse the breast cancer cell's resistance and enhance the chemosensitivity by regulating P-gp and GST-? levels. PMID:23731711

Zhang, Ye; Zhou, Ting; Duan, Jingjing; Xiao, Zhijun; Li, Guihua; Xu, Feng

2013-10-01

183

Curcuma drugs and curcumin regulate the expression and function of P-gp in Caco-2 cells in completely opposite ways.  

PubMed

Curcumin is a phenolic compound isolated from rhizomes of C. longa, C. aromatica and other Curcumas except C. zedoaria. Recently, both curcumin and Curcumas have become prevalent as supplement. P-gp has been reported as an important determinant for drug absorption in small intestine. In this study, Caco-2 cell monolayers were treated with methanol extracts of Curcumas (0.1 mg/ml) or curcumin (30 microM) for 72h to investigate the relationship between the potential affects of Curcumas and curcumin on P-gp. [(3)H]-digoxin and rhodamine 123 were used to evaluate P-gp activity. All Curcumas significantly increased the activity of P-gp by up-regulating the expressions of P-gp protein and MDR1 mRNA levels. Interestingly, contrary to Curcumas, curcumin treatment inhibited the activity of P-gp with a decrease in P-gp protein and MDR1 mRNA expression levels. Curcumas might alter the pharmacokinetics of co-administrated drugs by up-regulating the function and expression levels of intestinal P-gp. However, curcumin has no relationship with the inductive effect of Curcumas since curcumin showed an opposite effects. Caution should be exercised when Curcumas or curcumin are to be consumed with drugs that are P-gp substrates because Curcumas and curcumin might regulate the function of P-gp in completely opposite ways. PMID:18439772

Hou, Xiao-Long; Takahashi, Kyoko; Tanaka, Ken; Tougou, Katsuhiko; Qiu, Feng; Komatsu, Katsuko; Takahashi, Koichi; Azuma, Junichi

2008-06-24

184

Reversal Effect of ST6GAL 1 on Multidrug Resistance in Human Leukemia by Regulating the PI3K/Akt Pathway and the Expression of P-gp and MRP1  

PubMed Central

?-galactoside ?2, 6-sialyltransferse gene (ST6GAL) family has two members, which encode corresponding enzymes ST6Gal I and ST6Gal II. The present atudy was to investigate whether and how ST6GAL family involved in multidrug resistance (MDR) in human leukemia cell lines and bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMC) of leukemia patients. Real-time PCR showed a high expression level of ST6GAL1 gene in both MDR cells and BMMCs (*P<0.05). Alternation of ST6GAL1 levels had a significant impact on drug-resistant phenotype changing of K562 and K562/ADR cells both in vitro and in vivo. However, no significant changes were observed of ST6GAL2 gene. Further data revealed that manipulation of ST6GAL1 modulated the activity of phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling and consequently regulated the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, *P<0.05) and multidrug resistance related protein 1 (MRP1, *P<0.05), which are both known to be associated with MDR. Therefore we postulate that ST6GAL1 is responsible for the development of MDR in human leukemia cells probably through medicating the activity of PI3K/Akt signaling and the expression of P-gp and MRP1. PMID:24454800

Hao, Keji; Li, Yanping; Song, Xiaobo; Zhou, Huimin; Jia, Li

2014-01-01

185

Decreased cortisol secretion by adrenal glands perfused with the P-glycoprotein inhibitor valspodar and mitotane or doxorubicin.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the adrenal gland. It has been presumed that P-gp, rather than being involved in physiological cortisol secretion, plays a role in protecting the adrenacortical cells from xenobiotics. To explore this a study was performed on perfused bovine adrenal glands. Individual experimental groups were perfused with either a selective P-gp blocker (valspodar) alone, with a xenobiotic (mitotane or doxorubicin) alone or with both valspodar and a xenobiotic. The cumulative amounts of cortisol secreted in each individual group were calculated and the two-sample t-test was used to compare the mean values of cumulative amounts. The mean value of cortisol secreted from the group of adrenals perfused with the P-gp blocker was not significantly different from that of the control group. Treatment with either mitotane or doxorubicin decreased the amount of cortisol secreted but not significantly when compared to the amount of cortisol secreted in basal conditions. However, treatment with the P-gp blocker valspodar in addition to either mitotane or doxorubicin significantly decreased cortisol secreted compared to the amount of cortisol secreted by the glands treated with either mitotane (p=0.009) or doxorubicin (p=0.017) alone. The regressive changes discovered in all experimental groups were most prominent when valspodar was used with either mitotane or doxorubicin. We found that P-gp blockade increases by xenobiotic (mitotane and doxorubicin)-induced damage of adrenocortical cells, which points to a role of P-gp in the protection of adrenal gland from xenobiotics. PMID:10898547

Cufer, T; Pfeifer, M; Vrhovec, I; Frangez, R; Kosec, M; Mrhar, A; Grabnar, I; Golouh, R; Vogric, S; Sikic, B I

2000-04-01

186

Doxorubicin delivery enhanced by electroporation to gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma cells with P-gp overexpression.  

PubMed

Electroporation (EP) can effectively support the penetration of macromolecules from the extracellular space into cells. Electropores induced by the influence of electromagnetic field generate additional paths of transport for macromolecules. The aim of this study was evaluation of the electroporation effect on doxorubicin transport efficiency to human colon (LoVo and LoVo/DX) and gastric (EPG85-257/P and EPG85-257/RDB) adenocarcinoma cells with overexpression of P-glycoprotein and murine macrophage cell line (P388/D1). In our EP experiments cells were placed into a cuvette with aluminum electrodes and pulsed with five square electric pulses of 1300 V/cm and duration of 50 ?s each. Cells were also treated with low doxorubicin concentration ([DOX]=1.7 ?M). The ultrastructure (TEM) and changes of P-glycoprotein expression of tumor cells subjected to electric field were monitored. The mitochondrial cell function and trypan blue staining were evaluated after 24h. Our results indicate the most pronounced effect of EP with DOX and disturbed ultrastructure in resistant gastric and colon cells with decrease of P-gp expression. Electroporation may be an attractive delivery method of cytostatic drugs in chemotherapy, enabling reduction of drug dose, exposure time and side effects. PMID:24767854

Kulbacka, Julita; Daczewska, Ma?gorzata; Dubi?ska-Magiera, Magda; Choroma?ska, Anna; Rembia?kowska, Nina; Surowiak, Pawe?; Kulbacki, Marek; Kotulska, Ma?gorzata; Saczko, Jolanta

2014-12-01

187

Restoration of chemosensitivity by multifunctional micelles mediated by P-gp siRNA to reverse MDR.  

PubMed

One of the main obstacles in tumor therapy is multiple drug resistance (MDR) and an underlying mechanism of MDR is up-regulation of the transmembrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins, especially P-glycoprotein (P-gp). In the synergistic treatment of siRNA and anti-cancer drug doxorubicin, it is crucial that both the siRNA and doxorubicin are simultaneously delivered to the tumor cells and the siRNA can fleetly down-regulate P-g before doxorubicin inactivates the P-gp and is pumped out. Herein, a type of micelles comprising a polycationic PEI-CyD shell to condense the siRNA and hydrophobic core to package doxorubicin is reported. The structure of the polymer is determined by (1)H NMR, FT-IR, DSC, and XRD and the micelles are characterized by DLS, 2D-NOESY NMR, and TEM to study the self-assembly of the micelles with siRNA and drugs. In vitro studies demonstrate controlled release and temporal enhancement of the therapeutic efficacy of P-gp siRNA and doxorubicin. Release of siRNA down-regulates the mRNA and protein levels of P-gp in the MCF-7/ADR cell lines effectively and the accumulated doxorubicin facilitates apoptosis of the cells to reverse MDR. Moreover, in vivo research reveals that the siRNA and doxorubicin loaded micelles induce tumor cell apoptosis and inhibit the growth of MDR tumor. The western blotting and RT-PCR results illustrate that the synergistic treatment of siRNA and doxorubicin leads to efficient reduction of the P-gp expression as well as cell apoptotic induction in MDR tumors at a small dosage of 0.5 mg/kg. The micelles have large clinical potential in drug/RNAi synergistic treatment via restoration of the chemosensitivity in MDR cancer therapy. PMID:25002258

Shen, Jie; Wang, Qiwen; Hu, Qida; Li, Yongbing; Tang, Guping; Chu, Paul K

2014-10-01

188

Changes in PtdIns(4,5)P2 induced by etoposide treatment modulates small intestinal P-glycoprotein via radixin.  

PubMed

Previously, we reported that repeated oral administration of etoposide (ETP) increases P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression in association with activation of ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) via Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA)/Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK) signaling in the small intestine. However, the detailed mechanisms of this pathway have yet to be fully elucidated. Recently, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate [PtdIns(4,5)P2], one of the most abundant phosphoinositides in the plasma membrane, has attracted attention regarding its involvement in the plasma membrane localization of various membrane proteins. PtdIns(4,5)P2 is an essential factor in the dissociation and subsequent membrane translocation (activation) of ERM, and its synthetic pathway is known to be highly regulated by RhoA/ROCK signaling. Here, we examined the involvement of PtdIns(4,5)P2 in the mechanism by which ETP treatment increases small intestinal P-gp levels, and we determined which protein within ERM contributes to this phenomenon. Repeated oral treatment with ETP (10 mg/kg/d) over 5 d significantly increased PtdIns(4,5)P2 expression in the ileal membrane as measured by dot blot. Furthermore, this increase was suppressed by co-administration of a RhoA inhibitor, rosuvastatin (5 mg/kg/d, per os (p.o.)), or a ROCK inhibitor, fasudil (5 mg/kg/d, p.o.). In immunoprecipitation assays, radixin (but not ezrin or moesin) binding to PtdIns(4,5)P2 was observed to increase in association with the up-regulation of P-gp in the same fraction, and immunofluorescence studies indicated that radixin co-localized with PtdIns(4,5)P2 in the ileal tissue. In conclusion, ETP treatment appears to up-regulate PtdIns(4,5)P2 expression via RhoA/ROCK signaling, leading to the activation of ERM, presumably through the physical interaction of radixin with PtdIns(4,5)P2. This in turn increases the expression of ileal P-gp. PMID:24989004

Kobori, Takuro; Harada, Shinichi; Nakamoto, Kazuo; Tokuyama, Shogo

2014-01-01

189

Identification of P-Glycoprotein and Transport Mechanism of Paclitaxel in Syncytiotrophoblast Cells  

PubMed Central

When chemotherapy is administered during pregnancy, it is important to consider the fetus chemotherapy exposure, because it may lead to fetal consequences. Paclitaxel has become widely used in the metastatic and adjuvant settings for woman with cancer including breast and ovarian cancer. Therefore, we attempted to clarify the transport mechanisms of paclitaxel through blood-placenta barrier using rat conditionally immortalized syncytiotrophoblast cell lines (TR-TBTs). The uptake of paclitaxel was time- and temperature-dependent. Paclitaxel was eliminated about 50% from the cells within 30 min. The uptake of paclitaxel was saturable with Km of 168 ?M and 371 ?M in TR-TBT 18d-1 and TR-TBT 18d-2, respectively. [3H]Paclitaxel uptake was markedly inhibited by cyclosporine and verapamil, well-known substrates of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transporter. However, several MRP substrates and organic anions had no effect on [3H]paclitaxel uptake in TR-TBT cells. These results suggest that P-gp may be involved in paclitaxel transport at the placenta. TR-TBT cells expressed mRNA of P-gp. These findings are important for therapy of breast and ovarian cancer of pregnant women, and should be useful data in elucidating teratogenicity of paclitaxel during pregnancy. PMID:24596624

Lee, Na-Young; Lee, Ha-Eun; Kang, Young-Sook

2014-01-01

190

Active secretion and enterocytic drug metabolism barriers to drug absorption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intestinal phase I metabolism and active extrusion of absorbed drug have only recently been recognized as major determinants of oral drug bioavailability. Both CYP3A4, the major phase I drug metabolizing enzyme in humans, and the multidrug efflux pump, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), are present at high levels in the villus enterocytes of the small intestine, the primary site of absorption for orally

Vincent J. Wacher; Laurent Salphati; Leslie Z. Benet

1996-01-01

191

Brain penetration of emodepside is increased in P-glycoprotein-deficient mice and leads to neurotoxicosis.  

PubMed

The antiparasitic drug emodepside (EMO) is a substrate of the P-glycoprotein multidrug efflux carrier (P-gp; syn. MDR1, ABCB1), which has an important function in protecting the brain from potentially toxic compounds by functional drug efflux at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Many dogs of the Collie breed and even dogs of many other breeds have a loss-of-function 4-bp deletion mutation in the MDR1 gene. In these dogs, brain penetration of many P-gp-transported drugs is increased and so their therapeutic usage is restricted. To elucidate the role of P-gp at the BBB for the brain penetration of EMO, we applied EMO at 1 mg/kg to mdr1-deficient (PGP(mut) ) and mdr1-intact (PGP(WT) ) CF1 mice. Whereas in the brain of the PGP(WT) mice, EMO was below the detection level of 10 ng/g, its concentration was at 43.7 ng/g in the PGP(mut) mice. Furthermore, appearance of neurological toxicity was analyzed in these mice after application of 1 mg/kg EMO using a rotarod setup. In all PGP(mut) mice, but not in the PGP(WT) mice, the walking performance on the rotarod was impaired by EMO with clear differences in the degree and duration of neurological toxicity. Some of the mice were completely unable to walk on the rotarod already at 2 h after drug application and showed long-lasting ataxia over >24 h. Others even showed significantly reduced walking performance, but completely recovered within 1 day. In conclusion, P-gp restricts brain penetration of EMO and prevents neurological toxicity of this drug in mice. PMID:25131706

Elmshäuser, S; Straehle, L C; Kranz, J; Krebber, R; Geyer, J

2015-02-01

192

Differential Susceptibility of P-glycoprotein Deficient Mice to Colitis Induction by Environmental Insults  

PubMed Central

Background P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the product of the multi-drug resistance gene (MDR), is an ATP-dependent transmembrane pump, which is expressed in multiple cell lineages including epithelial and hematopoetic cells. The human MDR gene is located on chromosome 7 (7q21.1), a susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A significant number of IBD patients carry mutations in this gene and P-gp deficient FVB/N mice develop a severe spontaneous colitis, characterized by impaired intestinal barrier function and immune reactivity to intestinal bacterial antigens. Methods In this work we explored the role of mouse strain, as well as environmental insults on the development of colonic inflammation in the absence of P-gp. Among the induction methods utilized, dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) disrupts the intestinal epithelium, while Piroxicam is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) drug which inhibits prostaglandin production, and initiates colitis in IL10 deficient animals. Helicobacter bilis (H.bilis) is a known mediator of bacterial induced colitis. Results We demonstrate that crossing this mutation onto the C57BL/6 strain confers protection from spontaneous colitis. C57BL/6.mdr1a deficient animals demonstrated increased histological inflammation, colonic shortening, fecal blood, and reduced body weight after 7 days of treatment with 2.25% DSS. C57BL/6.mdr1a deficient mice treated with piroxicam or infected with H. bilis showed no weight loss, or alterations in colonic histology. Conclusions These data indicate that the effects of P-gp deficiency are significantly modulated by background strain influences, but that the epithelium continues to have increased susceptibility to chemical injury in the C57BL/6 model. PMID:19067430

Staley, Elizabeth M.; Schoeb, Trenton R.; Lorenz, Robin G.

2009-01-01

193

Identification of potential biomarkers of P-glycoprotein substrate neurotoxicity in transgenic mice expressing the mutated canine ABCB1 gene.  

PubMed

Objective-To identify biomarkers of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate neurotoxicity in transgenic mice expressing the mutant canine ABCB1 gene (ABCB1-1?). Animals-8 ABCB1 knock-in and knock-out transgenic mice expressing the ABCB1-1? gene and 8 control mice expressing the wild-type canine ABCB1 gene (ABCB1-WT). Procedures-Groups including 2 ABCB1-1? mutant mice and 2 ABCB1-WT mice were administered the P-gp substrates ivermectin (10 mg/kg, SC), doramectin (10 mg/kg, SC), moxidectin (10 mg/kg, PO), or digoxin (1.53 mg/kg, SC). A toxicogenomic approach based on DNA microarrays was used to examine whole-genome expression changes in mice administered P-gp substrates. Results-Compared with control ABCB1-WT mice, ABCB1-1? mutant mice developed neurotoxic signs including ataxia, lethargy, and tremors similar to those reported for dogs with the ABCB1-1? mutation. Microarray analysis revealed that gene expression was altered in ABCB1-1? mutant mice, compared with findings for ABCB1-WT mice, following administration of the same P-gp substrates. Gene pathway analysis revealed that genes with a ? 2-fold gene expression change were associated with behavior and nervous system development and function. Moreover, 34 genes were altered in the ABCB1-1? mutant mice in all 4 drug treatment groups. These genes were also associated with behavior, which was identified as the top-ranked gene network. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-These study data have facilitated understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neurotoxicosis in ABCB1-1? mutant mice following exposure to various P-gp substrates. Some genes appear to be potential biomarkers of P-gp substrate neurotoxicity that might be used to predict the safety of those drugs in dogs with the ABCB1-1? mutation. PMID:25419811

Zhu, Min; Ming, Yi; Swaim, Heidi; Swain, Marla D; Myers, Michael J; Deaver, Christine; Wu, Xiaolin; Jones, Yolanda L; Yancy, Haile F

2014-12-01

194

Investigating the binding interactions of the anti-Alzheimer's drug donepezil with CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein.  

PubMed

The anti-Alzheimer's agent donepezil is known to bind to the hepatic enzyme CYP3A4, but its relationship with the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is not as well elucidated. We conducted in vitro inhibition studies of donepezil using human recombinant CYP3A4 and P-gp. These studies show that donepezil is a weak inhibitor of CYP3A4 (IC50=54.68±1.00?M) whereas the reference agent ketoconazole exhibited potent inhibition (CYP3A4 IC50=0.20±0.01?M). P-gp inhibition studies indicate that donepezil exhibits better inhibition relative to CYP3A4 (P-gp EC50=34.85±4.63?M) although it was less potent compared to ketoconazole (P-gp EC50=9.74±1.23?M). At higher concentrations, donepezil exhibited significant inhibition of CYP3A4 (69%, 84% and 87% inhibition at 100, 250 and 500?M, respectively). This indicates its potential to cause drug-drug interactions with other CYP3A4 substrates upon co-administration; however, this scenario is unlikely in vivo due to the low therapeutic concentrations of donepezil. Similarly, donepezil co-administration with P-gp substrates or inhibitors is unlikely to result in beneficial or adverse drug interactions. The molecular docking studies show that the 5,6-dimethoxyindan-1-one moiety of donepezil was oriented closer to the heme center in CYP3A4 whereas in the P-gp binding site, the protonated benzylpiperidine pharmacophore of donepezil played a major role in its binding ability. Energy parameters indicate that donepezil complex with both CYP3A4 and P-gp was less stable (CDOCKER energies=-15.05 and -4.91kcal/mol, respectively) compared to the ketoconazole-CYP3A4 and P-gp complex (CDOCKER energies=-41.89 and -20.03kcal/mol, respectively). PMID:25499431

McEneny-King, Alanna; Edginton, Andrea N; Rao, Praveen P N

2015-01-15

195

Sex-related differences in the gastrointestinal disposition of ivermectin in the rat: P-glycoprotein involvement and itraconazole modulation.  

PubMed

Ivermectin (IVM), a macrocyclic lactone used as antiparasite agent, has been reported as a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate. The participation of P-gp in the IVM excretion process has been previously demonstrated. Sex-related differences in the kinetic behaviour of some macrocyclic lactone compounds have been observed. The aim of this work was to characterize in-vivo the comparative gastrointestinal disposition of IVM in male and female rats. The sex-related influence on the itraconazole (ITZ) modulation of P-gp-mediated IVM intestinal transport was also assessed. Sixty Wistar rats (30 male, 30 female) received IVM alone or co-administered with ITZ. Rats were killed between 6 and 72 h after treatment and blood, gastrointestinal tissues and lumen contents were collected. IVM concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Substantial sex-related differences in the IVM disposition kinetics were observed. Higher IVM systemic availability was observed in female rats. The ITZ-mediated modulation of the IVM disposition kinetics had a differential impact between male and female rats. Co-administration with ITZ resulted in a marked increase in the IVM concentrations in the wall tissue from different portions of the gastrointestinal tract of male rats. The presence of ITZ induced drastic sex-related changes on the P-gp-mediated IVM gastrointestinal disposition. PMID:16872551

Lifschitz, A; Ballent, M; Virkel, G; Sallovitz, J; Lanusse, C

2006-08-01

196

Clinical drug-drug interaction assessment of ivacaftor as a potential inhibitor of cytochrome P450 and P-glycoprotein.  

PubMed

Ivacaftor is approved in the USA for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) in patients with a G551D-CFTR mutation or one of eight other CFTR mutations. A series of in vitro experiments conducted early in the development of ivacaftor indicated ivacaftor and metabolites may have the potential to inhibit cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8, CYP2C9, CYP3A, and CYP2D6, as well as P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Based on these results, a series of clinical drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of ivacaftor on sensitive substrates of CYP2C8 (rosiglitazone), CYP3A (midazolam), CYP2D6 (desipramine), and P-gp (digoxin). In addition, a DDI study was conducted to evaluate the effect of ivacaftor on a combined oral contraceptive, as this is considered an important comedication in CF patients. The results indicate ivacaftor is a weak inhibitor of CYP3A and P-gp, but has no effect on CYP2C8 or CYP2D6. Ivacaftor caused non-clinically significant increases in ethinyl estradiol and norethisterone exposure. Based on these results, caution and appropriate monitoring are recommended when concomitant substrates of CYP2C9, CYP3A and/or P-gp are used during treatment with ivacaftor, particularly drugs with a narrow therapeutic index, such as warfarin. PMID:25103957

Robertson, Sarah M; Luo, Xia; Dubey, Neeraj; Li, Chonghua; Chavan, Ajit B; Gilmartin, Geoffrey S; Higgins, Mark; Mahnke, Lisa

2015-01-01

197

Inhibition of Multidrug Resistance-Linked P-Glycoprotein (ABCB1) Function by 5?-Fluorosulfonylbenzoyl 5?-Adenosine: Evidence for an ATP Analog That Interacts With Both Drug-Substrate- and Nucleotide-Binding Sites†  

PubMed Central

5?-fluorosulfonylbenzonyl 5?-adenosine (FSBA) is an ATP analog that covalently modifies several residues in the nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) of several ATPases, kinases and other proteins. P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily that utilizes energy from ATP hydrolysis for the efflux of amphipathic anticancer agents from cancer cells. We investigated the interactions of FSBA with P-gp to study the catalytic cycle of ATP hydrolysis. Incubation of P-gp with FSBA inhibited ATP hydrolysis (IC50= 0.21 mM) and the binding of 8-azido[?–32P]ATP (IC50= 0.68 mM). In addition, 14C-FSBA crosslinks to P-gp, suggesting that FSBA-mediated inhibition of ATP hydrolysis is irreversible due to covalent modification of P-gp. However, when the NBDs were occupied with a saturating concentration of ATP prior to treatment, FSBA stimulated ATP hydrolysis by P-gp. Furthermore, FSBA inhibited the photocrosslinking of P-gp with [125I]-Iodoaryl-azidoprazosin (IAAP; IC50 = 0.17 mM). As IAAP is a transport substrate for P-gp, this suggests that FSBA affects not only the NBDs, but also the transport-substrate site in the transmembrane domains. Consistent with these results, FSBA blocked efflux of rhodamine 123 from P-gp-expressing cells. Additionally, mass spectrometric analysis identified FSBA crosslinks to residues within or nearby the NBDs but not in the transmembrane domains and docking of FSBA in a homology model of human P-gp NBDs supports the biochemical studies. Thus, FSBA is an ATP analog that interacts with both the drug-binding and ATP-binding sites of P-gp, but fluorosulfonyl-mediated crosslinking is observed only at the NBDs. PMID:21452853

Ohnuma, Shinobu; Chufan, Eduardo; Nandigama, Krishnamachary; Miller Jenkins, Lisa M.; Durell, Stewart R.; Appella, Ettore; Sauna, Zuben E.; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

2011-01-01

198

In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the effects of piperine on P-gp function and expression  

SciTech Connect

Piperine, a major component of black pepper, is used as spice and nutrient enhancer. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of acute and prolonged piperine exposure on cellular P-gp expression and function in vitro and in vivo. Piperine at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 {mu}M, determined by MTT assay to be non-cytotoxic, was observed to inhibit P-gp mediated efflux transport of [{sup 3}H]-digoxin across L-MDR1 and Caco-2 cell monolayers. The acute inhibitory effect was dependent on piperine concentration, with abolishment of [{sup 3}H]-digoxin polarized transport attained at 50 {mu}M of piperine. In contrast, prolonged (48 and 72 h) co-incubation of Caco-2 cell monolayers with piperine (50 and 100 {mu}M) increased P-gp activity through an up-regulation of cellular P-gp protein and MDR1 mRNA levels. The up-regulated protein was functionally active, as demonstrated by a higher degree of [{sup 3}H]-digoxin efflux across the cell monolayers, but the induction was readily reversed by the removal of the spice from the culture medium. Peroral administration of piperine at the dose of 112 {mu}g/kg body weight/day to male Wistar rats for 14 consecutive days also led to increased intestinal P-gp levels. However, there was a concomitant reduction in the rodent liver P-gp although the kidney P-gp level was unaffected. Our data suggest that caution should be exercised when piperine is to be co-administered with drugs that are P-gp substrates, particularly for patients whose diet relies heavily on pepper.

Han Yi [Department of Pharmacy, National University of Singapore, 18 Science Drive 4, 117543 (Singapore); Chin Tan, Theresa May [Department of Biochemistry, National University of Singapore, 18 Science Drive 4, 117543 (Singapore); Lim, Lee-Yong [Pharmacy, School of Biomedical, Biomolecular and Chemical Sciences, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)], E-mail: limly@cyllene.uwa.edu.au

2008-08-01

199

The coordinated role of CYP450 enzymes and P-gp in determining cancer resistance to chemotherapy.  

PubMed

The relationship between CYP450 and P-gp occurs at different levels. It is known that certain substrates of P-gp undergo metabolic transformations by various CYP450 isoforms; in addition some of them demonstrated to be activators of both P-gp and CYP450. The majority of such compounds are well-known chemotherapeutics, therefore the purpose of this review is to clarify whether there is a relationship between the simultaneous modulation of CYP450 and P-gp and the onset of drug resistance in tumors treatment. Here, we discuss the biological aspects of the topic in relation to the various tissues distribution of CYP450 and P-gp, the recent findings regarding the ability of some chemotherapeutics in modulating both P-gp and CYP450, whether this modulation is ultimately responsible for the onset of drug resistance in cancer treatment and the promising role of gene polymorphisms in determining the interindividual variability in drug responses in clinical practice. PMID:21434858

Azzariti, Amalia; Porcelli, Letizia; Quatrale, Anna Elisa; Silvestris, Nicola; Paradiso, Angelo

2011-10-01

200

Ursodeoxycholic acid inhibits overexpression of P-glycoprotein induced by doxorubicin in HepG2 cells.  

PubMed

The hepatoprotective action of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) was previously suggested to be partially dependent on its antioxidative effect. Doxorubicin (DOX) and reactive oxygen species have also been implicated in the overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which is encoded by the MDR1 gene and causes antitumor multidrug resistance. In the present study, we assessed the effects of UDCA on the expression of MDR1 mRNA, P-gp, and intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in DOX-treated HepG2 cells and compared them to those of other bile acids. DOX-induced increases in reactive oxygen species levels and the expression of MDR1 mRNA were inhibited by N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, and the DOX-induced increase in reactive oxygen species levels and DOX-induced overexpression of MDR1 mRNA and P-gp were inhibited by UDCA. Cells treated with UDCA showed improved rhodamine 123 uptake, which was decreased in cells treated with DOX alone. Moreover, cells exposed to DOX for 24h combined with UDCA accumulated more DOX than that of cells treated with DOX alone. Thus, UDCA may have inhibited the overexpression of P-gp by suppressing DOX-induced reactive oxygen species production. Chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) also exhibited these effects, whereas deoxycholic acid and litocholic acid were ineffective. In conclusion, UDCA and CDCA had an inhibitory effect on the induction of P-gp expression and reactive oxygen species by DOX in HepG2 cells. The administration of UDCA may be beneficial due to its ability to prevent the overexpression of reactive oxygen species and acquisition of multidrug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. PMID:24370495

Komori, Yuki; Arisawa, Sakiko; Takai, Miho; Yokoyama, Kunihiro; Honda, Minako; Hayashi, Kazuhiko; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Katano, Yoshiaki; Goto, Hidemi; Ueyama, Jun; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Wakusawa, Shinya

2014-02-01

201

Function of P-glycoprotein expressed in placenta and mole.  

PubMed

We examined the expression of P-glycoprotein in human placentas and hydatidiform moles. Trophoblasts in all the examined placentas and moles expressed P-glycoprotein, and the size of the P-glycoprotein was smaller than that in multidrug-resistant human epidermoid carcinoma KB cells. The P-glycoprotein in the placenta and mole was photolabeled with [3H]azidopine, and [3H]vincristine was transported in an ATP-dependent manner into membrane vesicles prepared from trophoblasts that expressed P-glycoprotein. These findings indicate that P-glycoprotein expressed in trophoblasts has a drug binding site(s) and the ability to transport vincristine, suggesting that P-glycoprotein in the placenta protects the fetus from xenobiotics and confers drug resistance on moles. PMID:9207250

Nakamura, Y; Ikeda, S; Furukawa, T; Sumizawa, T; Tani, A; Akiyama, S; Nagata, Y

1997-06-27

202

Reversion of P-Glycoprotein-Mediated Multidrug Resistance in Human Leukemic Cell Line by Diallyl Trisulfide  

PubMed Central

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the major obstacle in chemotherapy, which involves multiple signaling pathways. Diallyl trisulfide (DATS) is the main sulfuric compound in garlic. In the present study, we aimed to explore whether DATS could overcome P-glycoprotein-(P-gp-)mediated MDR in K562/A02 cells, and to investigate whether NF-?B suppression is involved in DATS-induced reversal of MDR. MTT assay revealed that cotreatment with DATS increased the response of K562/A02 cells to adriamycin (the resistance reversal fold was 3.79) without toxic side effects. DATS could enhance the intracellular concentration of adriamycin by inhibiting the function and expression of P-gp, as shown by flow cytometry, RT-PCR, and western blot. In addition, DATS resulted in more K562/A02 cell apoptosis, accompanied by increased expression of caspase-3. The expression of NF-?B/p65 (downregulation) was significantly linked to the drug-resistance mechanism of DATS, whereas the expression of I?B? was not affected by DATS. Our findings demonstrated that DATS can serve as a novel, nontoxic modulator of MDR, and can reverse the MDR of K562/A02 cells in vitro by increasing intracellular adriamycin concentration and inducing apoptosis. More importantly, we proved for the first time that the suppression of NF-?B possibly involves the molecular mechanism in the course of reversion by DATS. PMID:22919419

Xia, Qing; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Li, Hui-Qing; Diao, Yu-Tao; Li, Xiao-Li; Cui, Jia; Chen, Xue-Liang; Li, Hao

2012-01-01

203

Encapsulation of P-glycoprotein inhibitors by polymeric micelles can reduce their pharmacokinetic interactions with doxorubicin.  

PubMed

Co-administration of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors such as cyclosporine A (CyA) and its analogue valspodar with doxorubicin (DOX) can result in diminished clearance of DOX, leading to accentuated toxicity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the effect of these P-gp inhibitors on the pharmacokinetics of DOX can be avoided through their encapsulation in polymeric micelles. Cyclosporine A or valspodar was physically encapsulated in methoxypoly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(?-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL) micelles using co-solvent evaporation method. The commercially available DOX was administered as a single dose of 5mg/kg intravenously to Sprague-Dawley rats either alone or 30min following a single intravenous dose (10mg/kg) of either CyA or valspodar as part of conventional or polymeric micellar formulation. Co-administration of DOX with either Sandimmune® or valspodar in the conventional Cremophor EL-based formulation was associated with greater than 50% reduction in DOX clearance (CL). Although there was nearly 40% reduction in the CL of DOX with the polymeric micellar formulation of CyA, there was only 6% reduction in CL of DOX upon co-administration with the polymeric micellar formulation of valspodar. In conclusion, encapsulation of cyclosporines, particularly valspodar, in polymeric micelles was shown to reduce their effects on the pharmacokinetics of DOX in rat. PMID:22361031

Binkhathlan, Ziyad; Shayeganpour, Anooshirvan; Brocks, Dion R; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh

2012-05-01

204

Modulators of P-glycoprotein-associated multidrug resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Multidrug resistance associated with overexpression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp-MDR) is a well-documented experimental phenomenon\\u000a whose pharmacologic, biochemical, and molecular basis is known. Its importance resides in the fact that it appears to have\\u000a clinical correlates, so attempts to reverse or circumvent Pgp-MDR clearly assume high priority. There is a considerable body\\u000a of experimental work showing that certain classes of membrane-active drugs

William T. Beck

205

Playing with opening and closing of heterocycles: using the cusmano-ruccia reaction to develop a novel class of oxadiazolothiazinones, active as calcium channel modulators and P-glycoprotein inhibitors.  

PubMed

As a result of the ring-into-ring conversion of nitrosoimidazole derivatives, we obtained a molecular scaffold that, when properly decorated, is able to decrease inotropy by blocking L-type calcium channels. Previously, we used this scaffold to develop a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model, and we used the most potent oxadiazolothiazinone as a template for ligand-based virtual screening. Here, we enlarge the diversity of chemical decorations, present the synthesis and in vitro data for 11 new derivatives, and develop a new 3D-QSAR model with recent in silico techniques. We observed a key role played by the oxadiazolone moiety: given the presence of positively charged calcium ions in the transmembrane channel protein, we hypothesize the formation of a ternary complex between the oxadiazolothiazinone, the Ca2+ ion and the protein. We have supported this hypothesis by means of pharmacophore generation and through the docking of the pharmacophore into a homology model of the protein. We also studied with docking experiments the interaction with a homology model of P-glycoprotein, which is inhibited by this series of molecules, and provided further evidence toward the relevance of this scaffold in biological interactions. PMID:25317581

Spinelli, Domenico; Budriesi, Roberta; Cosimelli, Barbara; Severi, Elda; Micucci, Matteo; Baroni, Massimo; Fusi, Fabio; Ioan, Pierfranco; Cross, Simon; Frosini, Maria; Saponara, Simona; Matucci, Rosanna; Rosano, Camillo; Viale, Maurizio; Chiarini, Alberto; Carosati, Emanuele

2014-01-01

206

Enhanced Brain Disposition and Effects of ?9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in P-Glycoprotein and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Knockout Mice  

PubMed Central

The ABC transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp, Abcb1) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp, Abcg2) regulate the CNS disposition of many drugs. The main psychoactive constituent of cannabis ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has affinity for P-gp and Bcrp, however it is unknown whether these transporters modulate the brain accumulation of THC and its functional effects on the CNS. Here we aim to show that mice devoid of Abcb1 and Abcg2 retain higher brain THC levels and are more sensitive to cannabinoid-induced hypothermia than wild-type (WT) mice. Abcb1a/b (?/?), Abcg2 (?/?) and wild-type (WT) mice were injected with THC before brain and blood were collected and THC concentrations determined. Another cohort of mice was examined for THC-induced hypothermia by measuring rectal body temperature. Brain THC concentrations were higher in both Abcb1a/b (?/?) and Abcg2 (?/?) mice than WT mice. ABC transporter knockout mice exhibited delayed elimination of THC from the brain with the effect being more prominent in Abcg2 (?/?) mice. ABC transporter knockout mice were more sensitive to THC-induced hypothermia compared to WT mice. These results show P-gp and Bcrp prolong the brain disposition and hypothermic effects of THC and offer a novel mechanism for both genetic vulnerability to the psychoactive effects of cannabis and drug interactions between CNS therapies and cannabis. PMID:22536451

Spiro, Adena S.; Wong, Alexander; Boucher, Aurélie A.; Arnold, Jonathon C.

2012-01-01

207

Stereoselective evasion of P-glycoprotein, cytochrome P450 3A, and hydrolases by peptide prodrug modification of saquinavir.  

PubMed

In an approach to overcome biological barriers mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A), a series of stereoisomeric valine-valine prodrugs of saquinavir (SQV) were synthesized and investigated with respect to affinity for efflux pump P-gp, and resistance to oxidative and hydrolytic enzymes. Cellular uptake and bidirectional transport in Caco-2 cells indicated that all peptide SQV conjugates can bypass P-gp-mediated efflux significantly, regardless of stereochemistry in promoieties. In comparison with D-configuration, L-configuration was favored for the interaction between prodrugs and rat hepatic CYP3A enzymes, and resulted in a relatively rapid clearance by CYP3A. Elimination half-life of SQV in rat liver microsomes was prolonged dramatically by sevenfold to 40-fold because of the prodrug modification with the rank order of D-valine-D-valine-SQV > D-valine-L-valine-SQV > L-valine-D-valine-SQV > L-valine-L-valine-SQV > D-valine-SQV > L-valine-SQV > SQV. Results of hydrolysis studies performed in rat intestinal homogenates and plasma indicated that prodrugs attached with D-valine exhibited significantly reduced biodegradation. In conclusion, the enhanced transepithelial accumulation and enzymatic stability observed by SQV peptide prodrug modification are found to be stereoselective. Specific stereoisomeric dipeptide prodrugs with optimized metabolic stability can be employed to improve oral bioavailability of SQV. PMID:22611042

Wang, Zhiying; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

2012-09-01

208

Pro-inflammatory human Th17 cells selectively express P-glycoprotein and are refractory to glucocorticoids  

PubMed Central

IL-17A–expressing CD4+ T cells (Th17 cells) are generally regarded as key effectors of autoimmune inflammation. However, not all Th17 cells are pro-inflammatory. Pathogenic Th17 cells that induce autoimmunity in mice are distinguished from nonpathogenic Th17 cells by a unique transcriptional signature, including high Il23r expression, and these cells require Il23r for their inflammatory function. In contrast, defining features of human pro-inflammatory Th17 cells are unknown. We show that pro-inflammatory human Th17 cells are restricted to a subset of CCR6+CXCR3hiCCR4loCCR10?CD161+ cells that transiently express c-Kit and stably express P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/multi-drug resistance type 1 (MDR1). In contrast to MDR1? Th1 or Th17 cells, MDR1+ Th17 cells produce both Th17 (IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22) and Th1 (IFN-?) cytokines upon TCR stimulation and do not express IL-10 or other anti-inflammatory molecules. These cells also display a transcriptional signature akin to pathogenic mouse Th17 cells and show heightened functional responses to IL-23 stimulation. In vivo, MDR1+ Th17 cells are enriched and activated in the gut of Crohn’s disease patients. Furthermore, MDR1+ Th17 cells are refractory to several glucocorticoids used to treat clinical autoimmune disease. Thus, MDR1+ Th17 cells may be important mediators of chronic inflammation, particularly in clinical settings of steroid resistant inflammatory disease. PMID:24395888

Ramesh, Radha; Kozhaya, Lina; McKevitt, Kelly; Djuretic, Ivana M.; Carlson, Thaddeus J.; Quintero, Maria A.; McCauley, Jacob L.; Abreu, Maria T.; Unutmaz, Derya

2014-01-01

209

Annotating Human P-Glycoprotein Bioassay Data.  

PubMed

Huge amounts of small compound bioactivity data have been entering the public domain as a consequence of open innovation initiatives. It is now the time to carefully analyse existing bioassay data and give it a systematic structure. Our study aims to annotate prominent in vitro assays used for the determination of bioactivities of human P-glycoprotein inhibitors and substrates as they are represented in the ChEMBL and TP-search open source databases. Furthermore, the ability of data, determined in different assays, to be combined with each other is explored. As a result of this study, it is suggested that for inhibitors of human P-glycoprotein it is possible to combine data coming from the same assay type, if the cell lines used are also identical and the fluorescent or radiolabeled substrate have overlapping binding sites. In addition, it demonstrates that there is a need for larger chemical diverse datasets that have been measured in a panel of different assays. This would certainly alleviate the search for other inter-correlations between bioactivity data yielded by different assay setups. PMID:23293680

Zdrazil, Barbara; Pinto, Marta; Vasanthanathan, Poongavanam; Williams, Antony J; Balderud, Linda Zander; Engkvist, Ola; Chichester, Christine; Hersey, Anne; Overington, John P; Ecker, Gerhard F

2012-08-01

210

Annotating Human P-Glycoprotein Bioassay Data  

PubMed Central

Abstract Huge amounts of small compound bioactivity data have been entering the public domain as a consequence of open innovation initiatives. It is now the time to carefully analyse existing bioassay data and give it a systematic structure. Our study aims to annotate prominent in vitro assays used for the determination of bioactivities of human P-glycoprotein inhibitors and substrates as they are represented in the ChEMBL and TP-search open source databases. Furthermore, the ability of data, determined in different assays, to be combined with each other is explored. As a result of this study, it is suggested that for inhibitors of human P-glycoprotein it is possible to combine data coming from the same assay type, if the cell lines used are also identical and the fluorescent or radiolabeled substrate have overlapping binding sites. In addition, it demonstrates that there is a need for larger chemical diverse datasets that have been measured in a panel of different assays. This would certainly alleviate the search for other inter-correlations between bioactivity data yielded by different assay setups. PMID:23293680

Zdrazil, Barbara; Pinto, Marta; Vasanthanathan, Poongavanam; Williams, Antony J; Balderud, Linda Zander; Engkvist, Ola; Chichester, Christine; Hersey, Anne; Overington, John P; Ecker, Gerhard F

2012-01-01

211

A novel approach to overcome multidrug resistance: utilization of P-gp mediated efflux of paclitaxel to attack neighboring vascular endothelial cells in tumors.  

PubMed

We tried to overcome the paclitaxel (PTX) resistance of cancer cells due to P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpression in the in vivo anti-tumor chemotherapy by utilizing polyethylene glycol-modified liposomal paclitaxel (PL-PTX). First of all, established were PTX-resistant Colon-26 cancer cells (C26/PTX) overexpressing P-gp, which provided IC50 value of PTX solution about 30 times larger than that obtained for control C26 (C26/control) in the in vitro MTT assay. Western blot analysis confirmed P-gp expression in C26/PTX 10 times higher than that in C26/control, indicating that the resistance acquisition of C26/PTX to PTX would be ascribed to the enhanced efflux of PTX by P-gp overexpressed in C26/PTX. However, the in vivo anti-tumor effect of PL-PTX in C26/PTX-bearing mice was similar to that in C26/control-bearing mice. Double immunohistochemical staining of vascular endothelial cells and apoptotic cells within tumor tissues demonstrated that the apoptotic cell death was preferentially observed in vascular endothelial cells in C26/PTX tumors after intravenous administration of PL-PTX, while that was in tumor cells in C26/control tumors. These results suggest that the in vivo anti-tumor effect of PL-PTX in C26/PTX-bearing mice would be ascribed to the cytotoxic action of PTX pumped out of tumor cells by overexpressed P-gp to vascular endothelial cells in tumor tissues. PMID:24956463

Yoshizawa, Yuta; Ogawara, Ken-ichi; Kimura, Toshikiro; Higaki, Kazutaka

2014-10-01

212

Haemonchus contortus P-glycoprotein-2: in situ localisation and characterisation of macrocyclic lactone transport.  

PubMed

Haemonchus contortus is a veterinary nematode that infects small ruminants, causing serious decreases in animal production worldwide. Effective control through anthelmintic treatment has been compromised by the development of resistance to these drugs, including the macrocyclic lactones. The mechanisms of resistance in H. contortus have yet to be established but may involve efflux of the macrocyclic lactones by nematode ATP-binding-cassette transporters such as P-glycoproteins. Here we report the expression and functional activity of H. contortus P-glycoprotein 2 expressed in mammalian cells and characterise its interaction with the macrocyclic lactones, ivermectin, abamectin and moxidectin. The ability of H. contortus P-glycoprotein 2 to transport different fluorophore substrates was markedly inhibited by ivermectin and abamectin in a dose-dependent and saturable way. The profile of transport inhibition by moxidectin was markedly different. H. contortus P-glycoprotein 2 was expressed in the pharynx, the first portion of the worm's intestine and perhaps in adjacent nervous tissue, suggesting a role for this gene in regulating the uptake of avermectins and in protecting nematode tissues from the effects of macrocyclic lactone anthelmintic drugs. H. contortus P-glycoprotein 2 may thus contribute to resistance to these drugs in H. contortus. PMID:25486495

Godoy, Pablo; Lian, Jing; Beech, Robin N; Prichard, Roger K

2015-01-01

213

Verapamil and cyclosporin a sensitize human kidney tumor cells to vincristine in absence of membrane P-glycoprotein and without apparent changes in the cytoplasmic free Ca 2+ concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vincristine (Vcr) dose dependently inhibited growth of the kidney adenocarcinoma cell line ACHN during 4 days of culture. Verapamil (Ver) at 10 µM and cyclosporin A (CsA) at 1 µg\\/ml had no effect on cell growth but significantly potentiated the action of Vcr, despite the absence of the multidrug resistance associated membrane P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Neither Ver nor CsA had any

P. Nygren; R. Larsson

1990-01-01

214

Identification of new P-glycoprotein inhibitors derived from cardiotonic steroids.  

PubMed

P-glycoprotein (ABCB1, MDR1) is capable of extruding chemotherapeutics outside the cell and its overexpression in certain cancer cells may cause failure of chemotherapy. Many attempts were carried out to identify potent inhibitors of this transporter and numerous compounds were shown to exert inhibitory effects in vitro, but so far none were able to make their way to the clinic due to serious complications. Natural compounds represent a great source of therapeutics, which are believed to be safe and effective. Therefore, we have screened a large library of naturally occurring cardiotonic steroids and their derivatives using high throughput flow cytometry. We were able to identify six compounds capable of modulating P-glycoprotein activity. By using P-glycoprotein ATPase assays, molecular docking in silico studies and resazurin reduction assays, the outcome of this high throughput screening platform has been validated. These novel compounds may serve as candidates to reverse doxorubicin resistance in leukemia cells. PMID:25451686

Zeino, Maen; Paulsen, Malte S; Zehl, Martin; Urban, Ernst; Kopp, Brigitte; Efferth, Thomas

2015-01-01

215

P-Glycoprotein Mediated Efflux Limits the Transport of the Novel Anti-Parkinson's Disease Candidate Drug FLZ across the Physiological and PD Pathological In Vitro BBB Models  

PubMed Central

FLZ, a novel anti-Parkinson's disease (PD) candidate drug, has shown poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration based on the pharmacokinetic study using rat brain. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) are two important transporters obstructing substrates entry into the CNS as well as in relation to PD neuropathology. However, it is unclear whether P-gp and BCRP are involved in low BBB permeability of FLZ and what the differences of FLZ brain penetration are between normal and Parkinson's conditions. For this purpose, in vitro BBB models mimicking physiological and PD pathological-related BBB properties were constructed by C6 astroglial cells co-cultured with primary normal or PD rat cerebral microvessel endothelial cells (rCMECs) and in vitro permeability experiments of FLZ were carried out. High transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and low permeability for sodium fluorescein (NaF) confirmed the BBB functionality of the two models. Significantly greater expressions of P-gp and BCRP were detected in PD rCMECs associated with the lower in vitro BBB permeability of FLZ in pathological BBB model compared with physiological model. In transport studies only P-gp blocker effectively inhibited the efflux of FLZ, which was consistent with the in vivo permeability data. This result was also confirmed by ATPase assays, suggesting FLZ is a substrate for P-gp but not BCRP. The present study first established in vitro BBB models reproducing PD-related changes of BBB functions in vivo and demonstrated that poor brain penetration of FLZ and low BBB permeability were due to the P-gp transport. PMID:25036090

Liu, Qian; Hou, Jinfeng; Chen, Xiaoguang; Liu, Gengtao; Zhang, Dan; Sun, Hua; Zhang, Jinlan

2014-01-01

216

In Vitro and In Vivo Evidence for Amphotericin B as a P-Glycoprotein Substrate on the Blood-Brain Barrier  

PubMed Central

Amphotericin B (AMB) has been a mainstay therapy for fungal infections of the central nervous system, but its use has been limited by its poor penetration into the brain, the mechanism of which remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in AMB crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The uptake of AMB by primary brain capillary endothelial cells in vitro was significantly enhanced after inhibition of P-gp by verapamil. The impact of two model P-gp inhibitors, verapamil and itraconazole, on brain/plasma ratios of AMB was examined in both uninfected CD-1 mice and those intracerebrally infected with Cryptococcus neoformans. In uninfected mice, the brain/plasma ratios of AMB were increased 15 min (3.5 versus 2.0; P < 0.05) and 30 min (5.2 versus 2.8; P < 0.05) after administration of verapamil or 45 min (6.0 versus 3.9; P < 0.05) and 60 min (5.4 versus 3.8; P < 0.05) after itraconazole administration. The increases in brain/plasma ratios were also observed in infected mice treated with AMB and P-gp inhibitors. The brain tissue fungal CFU in infected mice were significantly lower in AMB-plus-itraconazole or verapamil groups than in the untreated group (P < 0.005), but none of the treatments protected the mice from succumbing to the infection. In conclusion, we demonstrated that P-gp inhibitors can enhance the uptake of AMB through the BBB, suggesting that AMB is a P-gp substrate. PMID:24867970

Wu, Ji-Qin; Shao, Kun; Wang, Xuan; Wang, Rui-Ying; Cao, Ya-Hui; Yu, Yun-Qiu; Lou, Jin-Ning; Chen, Yan-Qiong; Zhao, Hua-Zhen; Zhang, Qiang-Qiang; Weng, Xin-Hua

2014-01-01

217

Understanding polyspecificity within the substrate-binding cavity of the human multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein.  

PubMed

Human P-glycoprotein (P-gp) controls drugs bioavailability by pumping structurally unrelated drugs out of cells. The X-ray structure of the mouse P-gp ortholog has been solved, with two SSS enantiomers or one RRR enantiomer of the selenohexapeptide inhibitor QZ59, found within the putative drug-binding pocket (Aller SG, Yu J, Ward A, Weng Y, Chittaboina S, Zhuo R, Harrell PM, Trinh YT, Zhang Q, Urbatsch IL et al. (2009). Science 323, 1718-1722). This offered the first opportunity to localize the well-known H and R drug-binding sites with respect to the QZ59 inhibition mechanisms of Hoechst 33342 and daunorubicin transports, characterized here in cellulo. We found that QZ59-SSS competes efficiently with both substrates, with K(I,app) values of 0.15 and 0.3 ?M, which are 13 and 2 times lower, respectively, than the corresponding K(m,app) values. In contrast, QZ59-RRR non-competitively inhibited daunorubicin transport with moderate efficacy (K(I,app) = 1.9 ?M); it also displayed a mixed-type inhibition of the Hoechst 33342 transport, resulting from a main non-competitive tendency (K(i2,app) = 1.6 ?M) and a limited competitive tendency (K(i1,app) = 5 ?M). These results suggest a positional overlap of QZ59 and drugs binding sites: full for the SSS enantiomer and partial for the RRR enantiomer. Crystal structure analysis suggests that the H site overlaps both QZ59-SSS locations while the R site overlaps the most embedded location. PMID:24219411

Martinez, Lorena; Arnaud, Ophélie; Henin, Emilie; Tao, Houchao; Chaptal, Vincent; Doshi, Rupak; Andrieu, Thibault; Dussurgey, Sébastien; Tod, Michel; Di Pietro, Attilio; Zhang, Qinghai; Chang, Geoffrey; Falson, Pierre

2014-02-01

218

Cetuximab increases concentrations of irinotecan and of its active metabolite SN-38 in plasma and tumour of human colorectal carcinoma-bearing mice.  

PubMed

In a previous study, we showed that cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody directed towards epidermal growth factor receptor, could inhibit P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux protein of ATP-binding cassette family, and lead to an increased P-gp substrate intracellular concentration. Cetuximab is given with irinotecan to patients with metastasis colorectal cancer who did not respond to irinotecan-based therapy. The mechanism of this successful clinical reversion remains unknown. As irinotecan is a P-gp substrate, we tested here whether cetuximab could modify irinotecan concentration in mice. Therefore, concentrations of irinotecan and of its active metabolite SN-38 were measured by HPLC in plasma and tumour of mice bearing a human colorectal carcinoma xenograft when irinotecan is given orally alone or after a pretreatment with cetuximab. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed no significant modification of irinotecan concentrations but a significant increase (1.7-fold) in SN-38 AUCs in plasma and in tumour after a pretreatment with cetuximab. Those results suggest that cetuximab influence irinotecan distribution into tissues probably due to inhibition of P-gp. As SN-38 is 200-fold more potent than irinotecan, cetuximab could reverse irinotecan resistance by an effect on its active metabolite. Inhibiting SN-38 efflux by P-gp drug transporters in biliary system and tumour can lead to pharmacokinetic modification and a higher anticancer efficacy. PMID:24588516

Chu, Céline; Abbara, Chadi; Tandia, Mahamadou; Polrot, Mélanie; Gonin, Patrick; Farinotti, Robert; Bonhomme-Faivre, Laurence

2014-12-01

219

A tamoxifen derivative, N,N-diethyl-2-[4-(phenylmethyl) phenoxy] ethanamine, selectively targets P-glycoprotein-positive multidrug resistant Chinese hamster cells.  

PubMed

DPPE, a tamoxifen derivative with antihistamine activity, was previously shown to potentiate the toxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs. Recently, a Phase III clinical study using doxorubicin with DPPE demonstrated significant increase in the overall survival of breast cancer patients. In this study we examined the effects of DPPE alone on the growth of drug sensitive and P-gp positive CHO cell line. Our results demonstrate DPPE is selectively toxic to P-gp positive cells and the sensitivity to DPPE alone correlated with the levels of P-gp expression. Moreover, in MDR cells, DPPE-induced apoptosis was significantly reduced with Bcl2 overexpression and in the presence of P-gp ATPase inhibitor, PSC833. Furthermore, knockdown of P-gp expression in MDR cells with P-gp-siRNA reversed DPPE sensitivity and increased their sensitivity to doxorubicin and taxol but not to cisplatin. The addition of DPPE to membrane fractions led to dose-dependent increase in P-gp ATPase that was inhibited with PSC833. Moreover, incubation of P-gp positive cells with DPPE led to a significant increase in superoxide levels and a drop in cellular ATP and GSH pools that were reversible with inhibitors of P-gp ATPase. The combined presence of DPPE and the mitochondria electron transport complex III inhibitor, antimycin A, synergized in their effects on the growth of MDR cells but had no effect on the growth of parental drug sensitive cells. Collectively, the results of this study provide a possible mechanism that may be relevant to the clinical results of DPPE in breast cancer trial and demonstrates DPPE as P-gp collateral sensitivity drug. PMID:24821111

Georges, Elias; Lian, Jing; Laberge, Remi

2014-07-15

220

Stereoselective Property of 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol Ocotillol Type Epimers Affects Its Absorption and Also the Inhibition of P-Glycoprotein  

PubMed Central

Stereoselectivity has been proved to be tightly related to drug action including pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. (20S,24R)-epoxy-dammarane-3,12,25-triol (24R-epimer) and (20S,24S)-epoxy-dammarane-3,12,25-triol (24S-epimer), a pair of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) ocotillol type epimers, were the main metabolites of PPD. Previous studies have shown that 24R-epimer and 24S-epimer had stereoselectivity in pharmacological action and pharmacokinetics. In the present study, the aim was to further study the pharmacokinetic characteristics of both epimers, investigate their absorption mechanism and analyze the selectivity effects of ocotillol type side chain and C24 stereo-configuration on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in vivo and in vitro. Results showed that the absolute bioavailability of 24R-epimer was about 14-fold higher than that of 24S-epimer, and a linear kinetic characteristic was acquired in doses of 5–20 mg/kg for both epimers after oral administration. Furthermore, the apparent permeability coefficients of 24R-epimer were 5–7 folds higher than that of 24S-epimer having lower efflux ratios in Caco-2 cell models. Moreover, both 24R-epimer and 24S-epimer had similar inhibitory effects on P-gp by increasing cellular retention of rhodamine 123 in Caco-2 cells and decreasing efflux of digoxin across Caco-2 cell monolayers. In situ in vivo experiments showed that the inhibition of 24R-epimer on P-gp was stronger than that of 24S-epimer by single-pass intestinal perfusion of rhodamine 123 in rats. Western blot analyses demonstrated that both epimers had no action on P-gp expression in Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, with respect to the stereoselectivity, C24 S-configuration of the ocotillol type epimers processed a poor transmembrane permeability and could be distinguished by P-gp. Sharing a dammarane skeleton, both 24R-epimer and 24S-epimer were potent inhibitors of P-gp. This study provides a new case of stereoselective pharmacokinetics of chiral compounds which contributes to know the chiral characteristics of P-gp and structure-action relationship of PPD type and ocotillol type ginsenosides as a P-gp inhibitor. PMID:24887182

Wang, Wenyan; Wu, Xiangmeng; Wang, Li; Meng, Qingguo; Liu, Wanhui

2014-01-01

221

Interaction of insecticides with mammalian P-glycoprotein and their effect on its transport function.  

PubMed

We studied the effects of four commonly used insecticides (methylparathion, endosulfan, cypermethrin and fenvalerate) on P-glycoprotein isolated from multidrug-resistant cells. All the pesticides stimulated P-glycoprotein ATPase activity, with maximum stimulation of up to 213% in a detergent-solubilized preparation, and up to 227% in reconstituted liposomes. The ATPase stimulation profiles were biphasic, displaying lower stimulation, and in the case of methylparathion, inhibition of activity, at higher insecticide concentrations. Quenching of the intrinsic Trp fluorescence of purified P-glycoprotein was used to quantitate insecticide binding; the estimated K(d) values fell in the range 4-6 microM. Transport of the fluorescent substrate tetramethylrosamine (TMR) into proteoliposomes containing P-glycoprotein was monitored in real time. The TMR concentration gradient generated by the transporter was collapsed by the addition of insecticides, and prior addition of these compounds prevented its formation. The rate of TMR transport was inhibited in a saturable fashion by all the compounds, indicating that they compete with the substrate for membrane translocation. Taken together, these data suggest that the insecticides bind to Pgp with high affinity and effectively block drug transport. Inhibition of Pgp by pesticides may compromise its ability to clear xenobiotics from the body, leading to a higher risk of toxicity. PMID:17490606

Sreeramulu, K; Liu, Ronghua; Sharom, Frances J

2007-07-01

222

Refined structures of mouse P-glycoprotein  

PubMed Central

The recently determined C. elegans P-glycoprotein (Pgp) structure revealed significant deviations compared to the original mouse Pgp structure, which suggested possible misinterpretations in the latter model. To address this concern, we generated an experimental electron density map from single-wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing of an original mouse Pgp dataset to 3.8 Å resolution. The map exhibited significantly more detail compared to the original MAD map and revealed several regions of the structure that required de novo model building. The improved drug-free structure was refined to 3.8 Å resolution with a 9.4 and 8.1% decrease in Rwork and Rfree, respectively, (Rwork = 21.2%, Rfree = 26.6%) and a significant improvement in protein geometry. The improved mouse Pgp model contains ?95% of residues in the favorable Ramachandran region compared to only 57% for the original model. The registry of six transmembrane helices was corrected, revealing amino acid residues involved in drug binding that were previously unrecognized. Registry shifts (rotations and translations) for three transmembrane (TM)4 and TM5 and the addition of three N-terminal residues were necessary, and were validated with new mercury labeling and anomalous Fourier density. The corrected position of TM4, which forms the frame of a portal for drug entry, had backbone atoms shifted >6 Å from their original positions. The drug translocation pathway of mouse Pgp is 96% identical to human Pgp and is enriched in aromatic residues that likely play a collective role in allowing a high degree of polyspecific substrate recognition. PMID:24155053

Li, Jingzhi; Jaimes, Kimberly F; Aller, Stephen G

2014-01-01

223

Role of P-glycoprotein in Haemonchus contortus anthelmintic resistance.  

E-print Network

, imidazothiazoles and macrocyclic lactones, that are currently used for treatment. One of the mechanisms proposed to be involved in this resistance is the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp). In this study, the resistance status of several strains of H...

Garretson, Pamela Donn

2009-05-15

224

P-glycoprotein is responsible for the poor intestinal absorption and low toxicity of oral aconitine: in vitro, in situ, in vivo and in silico studies.  

PubMed

Aconitine (AC) is a highly toxic alkaloid from bioactive plants of the genus Aconitum, some of which have been widely used as medicinal herbs for thousands of years. In this study, we systematically evaluated the potential role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the mechanisms underlying the low and variable bioavailability of oral AC. First, the bidirectional transport of AC across Caco-2 and MDCKII-MDR1 cells was investigated. The efflux of AC across monolayers of these two cell lines was greater than its influx. Additionally, the P-gp inhibitors, verapamil and cyclosporin A, significantly decreased the efflux of AC. An in situ intestinal perfusion study in rats showed that verapamil co-perfusion caused a significant increase in the intestinal permeability of AC, from 0.22×10(-5) to 2.85×10(-5) cm/s. Then, the pharmacokinetic profile of orally administered AC with or without pre-treatment with verapamil was determined in rats. With pre-treatment of verapamil, the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of AC increased sharply, from 39.43 to 1490.7 ng/ml. Accordingly, a 6.7-fold increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-12h) of AC was observed when co-administered with verapamil. In silico docking analyses suggested that AC and verapamil possess similar P-gp recognition mechanisms. This work demonstrated that P-gp is involved in limiting the intestinal absorption of AC and attenuating its toxicity to humans. Our data indicate that potential P-gp-mediated drug-drug interactions should be considered carefully in the clinical application of aconite and formulations containing AC. PMID:24120885

Yang, Cuiping; Zhang, Tianhong; Li, Zheng; Xu, Liang; Liu, Fei; Ruan, Jinxiu; Liu, Keliang; Zhang, Zhenqing

2013-12-15

225

Comparison of 99mTc-Tetrofosmin and 99mTc-Sestamibi Uptake in Glioma Cell Lines: The Role of P-Glycoprotein Expression  

PubMed Central

99mTc-Tetrofosmin (99mTc-TF) and 99mTc-Sestamibi (99mTc-MIBI) are SPECT tracers that have been used for brain tumor imaging. Tumor's multidrug resistance phenotype, namely, P-glycoprotein (p-gp), and the multidrug resistance related proteins (MRPs) expression have been suggested to influence both tracers' uptake. In the present study we set out to compare 99mTc-TF and 99mTc-MIBI uptake in high-grade glioma cell lines and to investigate the influence of gliomas p-gp expression on both tracers' uptake. We used four glioma cell lines (U251MG, A172, U87MG, and T98G). The expression of p-gp protein was evaluated by flow cytometry. Twenty ?Ci (7.4·105?Bq) of 99mTc-TF and 99mTc-MIBI were used. The radioactivity in the cellular lysate was measured with a dose calibrator. P-gp was significantly expressed only in the U251MG cell line (P < 0.001). In all gliomas cell lines (U251MG, U87MG, A172, and T98G) the 99mTc-TF uptake was significantly higher than 99mTc-sestamibi. The U251MG cell line, in which significant p-gp expression was documented, exhibited the strongest uptake difference. 99mTc-TF uptake was higher than 99mTc-MIBI in all studied high-grade glioma cell lines. Thus, 99mTc-TF may be superior to 99mTc-MIBI for glioma imaging in vivo. PMID:25436147

Alexiou, George A.; Xourgia, Xanthi; Vartholomatos, Evrysthenis; Kalef-Ezra, John A.; Fotopoulos, Andreas D.; Kyritsis, Athanasios P.

2014-01-01

226

Comparison of (99m)tc-tetrofosmin and (99m)tc-sestamibi uptake in glioma cell lines: the role of p-glycoprotein expression.  

PubMed

(99m)Tc-Tetrofosmin ((99m)Tc-TF) and (99m)Tc-Sestamibi ((99m)Tc-MIBI) are SPECT tracers that have been used for brain tumor imaging. Tumor's multidrug resistance phenotype, namely, P-glycoprotein (p-gp), and the multidrug resistance related proteins (MRPs) expression have been suggested to influence both tracers' uptake. In the present study we set out to compare (99m)Tc-TF and (99m)Tc-MIBI uptake in high-grade glioma cell lines and to investigate the influence of gliomas p-gp expression on both tracers' uptake. We used four glioma cell lines (U251MG, A172, U87MG, and T98G). The expression of p-gp protein was evaluated by flow cytometry. Twenty ?Ci (7.4·10(5)?Bq) of (99m)Tc-TF and (99m)Tc-MIBI were used. The radioactivity in the cellular lysate was measured with a dose calibrator. P-gp was significantly expressed only in the U251MG cell line (P < 0.001). In all gliomas cell lines (U251MG, U87MG, A172, and T98G) the (99m)Tc-TF uptake was significantly higher than (99m)Tc-sestamibi. The U251MG cell line, in which significant p-gp expression was documented, exhibited the strongest uptake difference. (99m)Tc-TF uptake was higher than (99m)Tc-MIBI in all studied high-grade glioma cell lines. Thus, (99m)Tc-TF may be superior to (99m)Tc-MIBI for glioma imaging in vivo. PMID:25436147

Alexiou, George A; Xourgia, Xanthi; Vartholomatos, Evrysthenis; Tsiouris, Spyridon; Kalef-Ezra, John A; Fotopoulos, Andreas D; Kyritsis, Athanasios P

2014-01-01

227

Application of permeability-limited physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models: part I-digoxin pharmacokinetics incorporating P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux.  

PubMed

A prerequisite for the prediction of the magnitude of P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated drug-drug interactions between digoxin and P-gp inhibitors (e.g. verapamil and its metabolite norverapamil) or P-gp inducers (e.g. rifampicin) is a predictive pharmacokinetic model for digoxin itself. Thus, relevant in vitro metabolic, transporter and inhibitory data incorporated into permeability-limited models, such as the "advanced dissolution, absorption and metabolism" (ADAM) module and the permeability-limited liver (PerL) module, integrated with a mechanistic physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model such as that of the Simcyp Simulator (version 12.2) are necessary. Simulated concentration-time profiles of digoxin generated using the developed model were consistent with observed data across 31 independent studies [13 intravenous single dose (SD), 12 per oral SD and six multiple dose studies]. The fact that predicted tmax (time of maximum plasma concentration observed) and Cmax (maximum plasma concentration observed) of oral digoxin were similar to observed values indicated that the relative contributions of permeation and P-gp-mediated efflux in the model were appropriate. There was no indication of departure from dose proportionality over the dose range studied (0.25-1.5 mg). All dose normalised area under the plasma concentration-time curve profiles (AUCs) for the 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 mg doses resembled each other. Thus, PBPK modelling in conjunction with mechanistic absorption and distribution models and reliable in vitro transporter data can be used to assess the impact of dose on P-gp-mediated efflux (or otherwise). PMID:23703021

Neuhoff, Sibylle; Yeo, Karen Rowland; Barter, Zoe; Jamei, Masoud; Turner, David B; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin

2013-09-01

228

Application of permeability-limited physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models: part II - prediction of P-glycoprotein mediated drug-drug interactions with digoxin.  

PubMed

Digoxin is the recommended substrate for assessment of P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs) in vivo. The overall aim of our study was to investigate the inhibitory potential of both verapamil and norverapamil on the P-gp-mediated efflux of digoxin in both gut and liver. Therefore, a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for verapamil and its primary metabolite was developed and validated through the recovery of observed clinical plasma concentration data for both moieties and the reported interaction with midazolam, albeit a cytochrome P450 3A4-mediated DDI. The validated inhibitor model was then used in conjunction with the model developed previously for digoxin. The range of values obtained for the 10 trials indicated that increases in area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) profiles and maximum plasma concentration observed (Cmax ) values of digoxin following administration of verapamil were more comparable with in vivo observations, when P-gp inhibition by the metabolite, norverapamil, was considered as well. The predicted decrease in AUC and Cmax values of digoxin following administration of rifampicin because of P-gp induction was 1.57- (range: 1.42-1.77) and 1.62-fold (range: 1.53-1.70), which were reasonably consistent with observed values of 1.4- and 2.2-fold, respectively. This study demonstrates the application of permeability-limited models of absorption and distribution within a PBPK framework together with relevant in vitro data on transporters to assess the clinical impact of modulated P-gp-mediated efflux by drugs in development. PMID:23686764

Neuhoff, Sibylle; Yeo, Karen Rowland; Barter, Zoe; Jamei, Masoud; Turner, David B; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin

2013-09-01

229

Sucrose esters increase drug penetration, but do not inhibit p-glycoprotein in caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells.  

PubMed

Sucrose fatty acid esters are increasingly used as excipients in pharmaceutical products, but few data are available on their toxicity profile, mode of action, and efficacy on intestinal epithelial models. Three water-soluble sucrose esters, palmitate (P-1695), myristate (M-1695), laurate (D-1216), and two reference absorption enhancers, Tween 80 and Cremophor RH40, were tested on Caco-2 cells. Caco-2 monolayers formed a good barrier as reflected by high transepithelial resistance and positive immunostaining for junctional proteins claudin-1, ZO-1, and ?-catenin. Sucrose esters in nontoxic concentrations significantly reduced resistance and impedance, and increased permeability for atenolol, fluorescein, vinblastine, and rhodamine 123 in Caco-2 monolayers. No visible opening of the tight junctions was induced by sucrose esters assessed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, but some alterations were seen in the structure of filamentous actin microfilaments. Sucrose esters fluidized the plasma membrane and enhanced the accumulation of efflux transporter ligands rhodamine 123 and calcein AM in epithelial cells, but did not inhibit the P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated calcein AM accumulation in MES-SA/Dx5 cell line. These data indicate that in addition to their dissolution-increasing properties sucrose esters can enhance drug permeability through both the transcellular and paracellular routes without inhibiting P-gp. PMID:25042090

Kiss, Lóránd; Hellinger, Éva; Pilbat, Ana-Maria; Kittel, Ágnes; Török, Zsolt; Füredi, András; Szakács, Gergely; Veszelka, Szilvia; Sipos, Péter; Ózsvári, Béla; Puskás, László G; Vastag, Monika; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Deli, Mária A

2014-10-01

230

Involvement of CUL4A in regulation of multidrug resistance to P-gp substrate drugs in breast cancer cells.  

PubMed

CUL4A encodes a core component of a cullin-based E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that regulates many critical processes such as cell cycle progression, DNA replication, DNA repair and chromatin remodeling by targeting a variety of proteins for ubiquitination and degradation. In the research described in this report we aimed to clarify whether CUL4A participates in multiple drug resistance (MDR) in breast cancer cells. We first transfected vectors carrying CUL4A and specific shCUL4A into breast cancer cells and corresponding Adr cells respectively. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions and western blots, we found that overexpression of CUL4A in MCF7 and MDA-MB-468 cells up-regulated MDR1/P-gp expression on both the transcription and protein levels, which conferred multidrug resistance to P-gp substrate drugs, as determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. On the other hand, silencing CUL4A in MCF7/Adr and MDA-MB-468/Adr cells led to the opposite effect. Moreover, ERK1/2 in CUL4A-overexpressing cells was highly activated and after treatment with PD98059, an ERK1/2-specific inhibitor, CUL4A-induced expression of MDR1/P-gp was decreased significantly. Lastly, immunohistochemistry in breast cancer tissues showed that P-gp expression had a positive correlation with the expression of CUL4A and ERK1/2. Thus, these results implied that CUL4A and ERK1/2 participated in multi-drug resistance in breast cancer through regulation of MDR1/P-gp expression. PMID:24368600

Wang, Yunshan; Ma, Guangxin; Wang, Qin; Wen, Mingxin; Xu, Yangyang; He, Xiuquan; Zhang, Pengju; Wang, Yuli; Yang, Taomei; Zhan, Panpan; Wei, Guangwei

2013-01-01

231

The inhibitory and combinative mechanism of HZ08 with P-glycoprotein expressed on the membrane of Caco-2 cell line  

SciTech Connect

Recently, the research and development of agents to reverse the phenomenon of multidrug resistance has been an attractive goal as well as a key approach to elevating the clinical survival of cancer patients. Although three generations of P-glycoprotein modulators have been identified, poor clearance and metabolism render these agents too toxic to be used in clinical application. HZ08, which has been under investigation for several years, shows a dramatic reversal effect with low cytotoxicity. For the first time, we aimed to describe the interaction between HZ08 and P-glycoprotein in Caco-2 cell line in which P-glycoprotein is overexpressed naturally. Cytotoxicity and multidrug resistance reversal assays, together with flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy and siRNA interference as well as Caco-2 monolayer transport model were employed in this study to evaluate the interaction between HZ08 and P-glycoprotein. This study revealed that HZ08 was capable of reversing adriamycin resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein as a result of intracellular enhancement of adriamycin accumulation, which was found to be superior to verapamil. In addition, we confirmed that HZ08 suppressed the transport of Rhodamine123 in the Caco-2 monolayer model but had little effect on P-glycoprotein expression. The transport of HZ08 was diminished by P-glycoprotein inhibitors (verapamil and LY335979) and its accumulation was increased via siRNA targeting MDR1 in Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, considering the binding site of P-glycoprotein, verapamil performed as a competitive inhibitor with HZ08. In conclusion, as a P-glycoprotein substrate, HZ08 inhibited P-glycoprotein activity and may share the same binding site of verapamil to P-glycoprotein. - Highlights: • The cytotoxicity and reversing effect of HZ08 was measured in Caco-2 cell line. • HZ08 inhibited the transport of Rhodamine123 across Caco-2 cell monolayer. • The efflux ratio of HZ08 was dropped when combined with P-glycoprotein inhibitors. • The accumulation of HZ08 increased via gene interference targeting P-glycoprotein. • HZ08 competitively bound to P-glycoprotein under the presence of verapamil.

Zhang, Yanyan; Hu, Yahui; Feng, Yidong; Kodithuwakku, Nandani Darshika; Fang, Weirong [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Physiology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Li, Yunman, E-mail: yunmanlicpu@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Physiology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Huang, Wenlong [Center of Drug Discovery, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

2014-01-15

232

Synthesis and structure-activity evaluation of isatin-?-thiosemicarbazones with improved selective activity towards multidrug-resistant cells expressing P-glycoproteina  

PubMed Central

Cancer multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters presents a significant unresolved clinical challenge. One strategy to resolve MDR is to develop compounds that selectively kill cells over-expressing the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (MDR1, P-gp, ABCB1). We have previously reported structure-activity studies based around the lead compound NSC73306 (1, 1-isatin-4-(4?-methoxyphenyl)-3-thiosemicarbazone, 4.3-fold selective). Here we sought to extend this work on MDR1-selective analogs by establishing whether 1 showed ‘robust’ activity against a range of cell lines expressing P-gp. We further aimed to synthesize and test analogs with varied substitution at the N4-position, and substitution around the N4-phenyl ring of isatin-?-thiosemicarbazones (IBTs), to identify compounds with increased MDR1-selectivity. Compound 1 demonstrated MDR1-selectivity against all P-gp-expressing cell lines examined. This selectivity was reversed by inhibitors of P-gp ATPase activity. Structural variation at the 4?-phenyl position of 1 yielded compounds of greater MDR1-selectivity. Two of these analogs, 1-isatin-4-(4?-nitrophenyl)-3-thiosemicarbazone (22, 8.3-fold selective) and 1-isatin-4-(4?-tert-butyl phenyl)-3-thiosemicarbazone (32, 14.8-fold selective), were selected for further testing, and were found to retain the activity profile of 1. These compounds are the most active IBTs identified to date. PMID:21721528

Hall, Matthew D.; Brimacombe, Kyle R.; Varonka, Matthew S.; Pluchino, Kristen M.; Monda, Julie K.; Li, Jiayang; Walsh, Martin J.; Boxer, Matthew B.; Warren, Timothy H.; Fales, Henry M.; Gottesman, Michael M.

2011-01-01

233

A novel compound RY10-4 downregulates P-glycoprotein expression and reverses multidrug-resistant phenotype in human breast cancer MCF-7/ADR cells.  

PubMed

P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an important efflux transporter, is encoded by the MDR1 class of genes and is a major element of the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenomenon in breast cancers. The most common approved cause of MDR in cancer tissues is the over-expression of P-gp. At present, a novel potent anti-tumor compound RY10-4 has been synthesized by our team, which has a similar structure close to protoapigenone. We chose MCF-7/ADR cells, an adriamycin (ADR) - selected human breast tumor cell line with the MDR phenotype, to study the anticancer features of this novel compound in our experiments. In cytotoxicity and apoptosis tests, it was shown that RY10-4 significantly inhibited cell growth, induced apoptosis, potentiated ADR cytotoxicity and restored chemotherapy sensitivity in the MDR cancer cells. Furthermore, our results suggested that RY10-4 reversed MDR partially by down-regulation of P-gp and MDR1 expressions in the MCF-7/ADR cell line. Besides, it is seen that RY10-4 could reduce the intracellular ATP level. Our studies give the theoretical basis for the possible clinical applications of RY10-4 alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic drugs in the treatment of MDR tumors. PMID:25455158

Xue, Pingping; Yang, Xiaofan; Liu, Yang; Xiong, Chaomei; Ruan, Jinlan

2014-10-01

234

The Inhibitory Effect of Pseudolaric Acid B on Gastric Cancer and Multidrug Resistance via Cox-2/PKC-?/P-gp Pathway  

PubMed Central

Aim To investigate the inhibitory effect of pseudolaric acid B on subcutaneous xenografts of human gastric adenocarcinoma and the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in its multidrug resistance. Methods Human gastric adenocarcinoma SGC7901 cells and drug-resistant SGC7901/ADR cells were injected into nude mice to establish a subcutaneous xenograft model. The effects of pseudolaric acid B with or without adriamycin treatment were compared by determining the tumor size and weight. Cyclo-oxygenase-2, protein kinaseC-? and P-glycoprotein expression levels were determined by immunohistochemistry and western blot. Results Pseudolaric acid B significantly suppressed the tumor growth induced by SGC7901 cells and SGC7901/ADR cells. The combination of pseudolaric acid B and the traditional chemotherapy drug adriamycin exhibited more potent inhibitory effects on the growth of gastric cancer in vivo than treatment with either pseudolaric acid B or adriamycin alone. Protein expression levels of cyclo-oxygenase-2, protein kinaseC-? and P-glycoprotein were inhibited by pseudolaric acid B alone or in combination with adriamycin in SGC7901/ADR cell xenografts. Conclusion Pseudolaric acid B has a significant inhibitory effect and an additive inhibitory effect in combination with adriamycin on the growth of gastric cancer in vivo, which reverses the multidrug resistance of gastric neoplasm to chemotherapy drugs by downregulating the Cox-2/PKC-?/P-gp/mdr1 signaling pathway. PMID:25250794

Sun, Qian; Li, Yan

2014-01-01

235

Pregnane X receptor up-regulation of P-glycoprotein expression and transport function at the blood-brain barrier.  

PubMed

P-glycoprotein, an ATP-driven drug export pump, is a critical, selective component of the blood-brain barrier responsible for the poor penetration of many therapeutic drugs. In liver, ligand-activated, nuclear receptors are transcriptional regulators of drug metabolizing enzymes and drug export pumps, but only one, the pregnane X receptor (PXR in rodents, SXR in humans), regulates p-glycoprotein expression. We report for the first time that PXR is expressed in rat brain capillaries. Moreover, exposing isolated capillaries to the PXR ligands pregnenolone-16alpha-carbonitrile (PCN) and dexamethasone increased p-glycoprotein expression and p-glycoprotein-specific transport of a fluorescent cyclosporine A derivative into capillary lumens. Dosing rats with PCN and dexamethasone increased p-glycoprotein expression in liver plasma membranes and in brain capillaries and up-regulated specific transport in capillaries. This is the first evidence for PXR expression in brain and for regulation by nuclear receptors of a xenobiotic export pump at the blood-brain barrier. These results imply selective tightening of the barrier in patients exposed to the wide range of xenobiotics that are PXR/SXR ligands, including drugs, dietary constituents, and toxicants. PMID:15322232

Bauer, Björn; Hartz, Anika M S; Fricker, Gert; Miller, David S

2004-09-01

236

P-glycoprotein is responsible for the poor intestinal absorption and low toxicity of oral aconitine: In vitro, in situ, in vivo and in silico studies  

SciTech Connect

Aconitine (AC) is a highly toxic alkaloid from bioactive plants of the genus Aconitum, some of which have been widely used as medicinal herbs for thousands of years. In this study, we systematically evaluated the potential role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the mechanisms underlying the low and variable bioavailability of oral AC. First, the bidirectional transport of AC across Caco-2 and MDCKII-MDR1 cells was investigated. The efflux of AC across monolayers of these two cell lines was greater than its influx. Additionally, the P-gp inhibitors, verapamil and cyclosporin A, significantly decreased the efflux of AC. An in situ intestinal perfusion study in rats showed that verapamil co-perfusion caused a significant increase in the intestinal permeability of AC, from 0.22 × 10{sup ?5} to 2.85 × 10{sup ?5} cm/s. Then, the pharmacokinetic profile of orally administered AC with or without pre-treatment with verapamil was determined in rats. With pre-treatment of verapamil, the maximum plasma concentration (C{sub max}) of AC increased sharply, from 39.43 to 1490.7 ng/ml. Accordingly, a 6.7-fold increase in the area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC{sub 0–12} {sub h}) of AC was observed when co-administered with verapamil. In silico docking analyses suggested that AC and verapamil possess similar P-gp recognition mechanisms. This work demonstrated that P-gp is involved in limiting the intestinal absorption of AC and attenuating its toxicity to humans. Our data indicate that potential P-gp-mediated drug–drug interactions should be considered carefully in the clinical application of aconite and formulations containing AC. - Highlights: • Verapamil and cyclosporin A decreased the efflux of aconitine across Caco-2 cells. • Both inhibitors decreased the efflux of aconitine across MDCKII-MDR1 cells. • Co-perfusion with verapamil increased the intestinal permeability of aconitine. • Co-administration with verapamil sharply increased the C{sub max} and AUC of aconitine. • P-gp interacted with both verapamil and aconitine and recognized them similarly.

Yang, Cuiping, E-mail: yangsophia76@hotmail.com; Zhang, Tianhong, E-mail: wdzth@sina.com; Li, Zheng, E-mail: lizh2524@126.com; Xu, Liang, E-mail: wj24998@163.com; Liu, Fei, E-mail: liufeipharm@163.com; Ruan, Jinxiu, E-mail: ruanjx1936@yahoo.com.cn; Liu, Keliang, E-mail: keliangliu55@126.com; Zhang, Zhenqing, E-mail: zhangzhenqingpharm@163.com

2013-12-15

237

Role of P-glycoprotein in the intestinal absorption and clinical effects of morphine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: There is considerable and unexplained individual variability in the morphine dose-effect relationship. The efflux pump P-glycoprotein regulates brain access and intestinal absorption of numerous drugs. Morphine is a P-glycoprotein substrate in vitro, and P-glycoprotein affects morphine brain access and pharmacodynamics in animals. However, the role of P-glycoprotein in human morphine disposition and clinical effects is unknown. This investigation tested

Evan D. Kharasch; Christine Hoffer; Dale Whittington; Pam Sheffels

2003-01-01

238

The role of the transporter P-glycoprotein for disposition and effects of centrally acting drugs and for the pathogenesis of CNS diseases.  

PubMed

The MDR1 gene product P-glycoprotein is an ATP-dependent efflux pump, which transports its substrates out of cells. It is not only expressed in tumor cells, but also in cells of normal tissues. For example, it is located in the apical membrane of enterocytes, in endothelial cells forming the blood-brain and blood-testis barriers and in the apical membrane of placental syncytiotrophoblast. Since P-glycoprotein transports a wide range of drugs (e.g. antidepressants, antiepileptics, HIV protease inhibitors, cyclosporine, digoxin), its location in these tissues limits bioavailability of orally administered drugs and prevents entry of xenobiotics into the brain, testis and the fetus. Recent data highlight the role of intestinal P-glycoprotein for drug interactions (e.g. digoxin), of P-glycoprotein expressed in the blood-brain barrier for drug penetration into the CNS (e.g. loperamide, amitriptyline), the role of pharmacological inhibition of P-glycoprotein function to increases drug concentrations in sanctuary sites (e.g. for the HI virus) and for the potential role of MDR1 polymorphisms for P-glycoprotein expression, drug disposition, adverse drug reactions and disease risk. Taken together, active drug transport is now considered as an important additional mechanism limiting drug accumulation in multiple tissues including the CNS. PMID:16783494

Thuerauf, Norbert; Fromm, Martin Friedrich

2006-08-01

239

P-glycoprotein expression in Ehrlich ascites tumour cells after in vitro and in vivo selection with daunorubicin.  

PubMed Central

Fluctuation analysis experiments were performed to assess whether selection or induction determines expression of P-glycoprotein and resistance in the murine Ehrlich ascites tumour cell line (EHR2) after exposure to daunorubicin. Thirteen expanded populations of EHR2 cells were exposed to daunorubicin 7.5 x 10(-9) M or 10(-8) M for 2 weeks. Surviving clones were scored and propagated. Only clones exposed to daunorubicin 7.5 x 10(-9) M could be expanded for investigation. Drug resistance was assessed by the tetrazolium dye (MTT) cytotoxicity assay. Western blot was used for determination of P-glycoprotein. Compared with EHR2, the variant cells were 2.5- to 5.2-fold resistant to daunorubicin (mean 3.6-fold). P-glycoprotein was significantly increased in 11 of 25 clones (44%). Analysis of variance supported the hypothesis that spontaneous mutations conferred drug resistance in EHR2 cells exposed to daunorubicin 7.5 x 10(-9) M. At this level (5 log cell killing) of drug exposure, the mutation rate was estimated at 4.1 x 10(-6) per cell generation. In contrast, induction seemed to determine resistance in EHR2 cells in vitro exposed to daunorubicin 10(-8) M. The revertant EHR2/0.8/R was treated in vivo with daunorubicin for 24 h. After treatment, P-glycoprotein increased in EHR2/0.8/R (sevenfold) and the cell line developed resistance to daunorubicin (12-fold), suggesting that in EHR2/0.8/R the mdr1 gene was activated by induction. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that P-glycoprotein expression and daunorubicin resistance are primarily acquired by selection of spontaneously arising mutants. However, under certain conditions the mdr1 gene may be activated by induction. PMID:9820176

Nielsen, D.; Eriksen, J.; Maare, C.; Jakobsen, A. H.; Skovsgaard, T.

1998-01-01

240

Randomized use of cyclosporin A (CsA) to modulate P-glycoprotein in children with AML in remission: Pediatric Oncology Group Study 9421  

PubMed Central

Relapse is a major obstacle in the cure of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The Pediatric Oncology Group AML Study 9421 tested 2 different strategies to improve event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS). Patients were randomized to receive standard-dose DAT (daunorubicin, cytarabine, and thioguanine) or high-dose DAT during induction. To interfere with P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-dependent drug efflux, the second randomization tested the benefit of cyclosporine (CsA) added to consolidation chemotherapy. Of the 282 children randomly assigned to receive standard DAT induction, 248 (87.9%) achieved remission compared to 253 (91%) of the 278 receiving high-dose DAT (P = ns). Children with HLA-identical sibling donors who achieved a complete remission received an allogeneic bone marrow transplant as consolidation. For the 83 patients receiving a matched related donor bone marrow transplantation (BMT), the 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) is 67%. Of the 418 children who achieved remission and went on to consolidation with and without CsA, the DFS was 40.6% and 33.9%, respectively (P = .24). Overexpression of P-gp was infrequent (14%) in this pediatric population. In this study, intensifying induction with high-dose DAT and the addition of CsA to consolidation chemotherapy did not prolong the durations of remission or improve overall survival for children with AML. PMID:16254147

Becton, David; Dahl, Gary V.; Ravindranath, Yaddanapudi; Chang, Myron N.; Behm, Fred G.; Raimondi, Susana C.; Head, David R.; Stine, Kimo C.; Lacayo, Norman J.; Sikic, Branimir Ivan; Arceci, Robert J.; Weinstein, Howard

2006-01-01

241

Effects of lipid vehicle and P-glycoprotein inhibition on the mesenteric lymphatic transport of paclitaxel in unconscious, lymph duct-cannulated rats.  

PubMed

Abstract The present study examined the effects of lipid vehicle and intestinally based efflux processes on intestinal lymphatic transport of paclitaxel (PTX) in the mesenteric lymph duct-cannulated anesthetized rat model. PTX solution alone, PTX solution pretreated with the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor verapamil and/or PTX and a 2:1 (w/w) mixture of linoleic acid:glycerol monooleate were administered intraduodenally to anesthetized rats. Coadministration of a mixture of linoleic acid-monoolein significantly increased the extent of intestinal lymphatic transport of PTX, but it had little impact on the absolute oral bioavailability of PTX. In contrast, pretreatment with verapamil increased both the extent of lymphatic transport (3.5-fold) and absolute oral bioavailability (1.8-fold). Further increase in the lymphatic transport (6.5-fold) and absolute oral bioavailability (1.8-fold) was achieved by the combination of pretreatment with verapamil and coadministration with the linoleic acid-monoolein mixture. These data indicate that the application of lipid vehicle holds promise for selectively targeted lymphatic delivery of PTX. P-gp inhibition can result in both increased intestinal lymphatic levels and absolute oral bioavailability of PTX. PMID:24786483

Cai, Qingqing; Deng, Xinxian; Li, Zhongdong; An, Dianyun; Shen, Teng; Zhong, Mingkang

2014-04-30

242

Effect of bisphenol A on P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux and ultrastructure of the sea urchin embryo.  

PubMed

Usage of bisphenol A (BPA) in production of polycarbonate plastics has resulted in global distribution of BPA in the environment. These high concentrations cause numerous negative effects to the aquatic biota, among which the most known is the induction of endocrine disruption. The focus of this research was to determine the effects of two experimentally determined concentrations of BPA (100nM and 4?M) on cellular detoxification mechanisms during the embryonic development (2-cell, pluteus) of the rocky sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus), primarily the potential involvement of multidrug efflux transport in the BPA intercellular efflux. The results of transport assay, measurements of the intracellular BPA and gene expression surveys, for the first time indicate the importance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) in defense against BPA. Cytotoxic effects of BPA, validated by the immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM), induced the aberrant karyokinesis, and consequently, the impairment of embryo development through the first cell division and retardation. PMID:25127357

Bošnjak, Ivana; Borra, Marco; Iamunno, Franco; Benvenuto, Giovanna; Ujevi?, Ivana; Bušeli?, Ivana; Roje-Busatto, Romana; Mladineo, Ivona

2014-11-01

243

Enhanced oral bioavailability of felodipine by naringenin in Wistar rats and inhibition of P-glycoprotein in everted rat gut sacs in vitro.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of naringenin on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of felodipine in rats and membrane permeability across rat everted gut sacs in vitro. Rats were simultaneously co-administered with felodipine 10?mg/kg, p.o. and naringenin (25, 50 and 100?mg/kg, p.o.) for 15 consecutive days. Rats of the control groups received the corresponding volume of vehicle. Blood samples were withdrawn from retro-orbital plexus on first day in single dose PK study (SDS) and on 15th day in multiple dosing PK study (MDS). The PK parameters were calculated using Thermo kinetica. The co-administration of naringenin significantly elevated the Cmax and increased the AUCtotal of felodipine in dose-dependent manner. The Cmax of felodipine was increased from 173.25?±?14.65 to 275.61?±?44.62 and 223.26?±?26.35 to 561.32?±?62.53?ng/mL in SDS and MDS, respectively, at the dose of naringenin 100?mg/kg. The AUCtotal of felodipine was significantly (p?P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and Cytochrome P450 (CYP)3A4 inhibitor). Felodipine is a substrate of CYP3A4, and naringenin was reported to be a modulator of P-gp and CYP3A4. These results suggest that naringenin significantly increased the Cmax and AUC of felodipine is due to P-gp and CYP3A4 inhibition. PMID:23883365

Surya Sandeep, M; Sridhar, V; Puneeth, Y; Ravindra Babu, P; Naveen Babu, K

2014-10-01

244

Co-delivery of doxorubicin and P-gp inhibitor by a reduction-sensitive liposome to overcome multidrug resistance, enhance anti-tumor efficiency and reduce toxicity.  

PubMed

Abstract To overcome multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer chemotherapy with high efficiency and safety, a reduction-sensitive liposome (CL-R8-LP), which was co-modified with reduction-sensitive cleavable PEG and octaarginine (R8) to increase the tumor accumulation, cellular uptake and lysosome escape, was applied to co-encapsulate doxorubicin (DOX) and a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor of verapamil (VER) in this study. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) of DOX and VER in the binary-drug loaded CL-R8-LP (DOX?+?VER) was about 95 and 70% (w/w), respectively. The uptake efficiencies, the cytotoxicity, and the apoptosis and necrosis-inducing efficiency of CL-R8-LP (DOX?+?VER) were much higher than those of DOX and the other control liposomes in MCF-7/ADR cells or tumor spheroids. Besides, CL-R8-LP (DOX?+?VER) was proven to be uptaken into MCF-7/ADR cells by clathrin-mediated and macropinocytosis-mediated endocytosis, followed by efficient lysosomal escape. In vivo, CL-R8-LP (DOX?+?VER) effectively inhibited the growth of MCF-7/ADR tumor and reduce the toxicity of DOX and VER, which could be ascribed to increased accumulation of drugs in drug-resistant tumor cells and reduced distribution in normal tissues. In summary, the co-delivery of chemotherapeutics and P-gp inhibitors by our reduction-sensitive liposome was a promising approach to overcome MDR, improve anti-tumor effect and reduce the toxicity of chemotherapy. PMID:25491241

Tang, Jie; Zhang, Li; Gao, Huile; Liu, Yayuan; Zhang, Qianyu; Ran, Rui; Zhang, Zhirong; He, Qin

2014-12-10

245

Behavioral effects and central nervous system levels of the broadly available ?-agonist hallucinogen salvinorin A are affected by P-glycoprotein modulation in vivo.  

PubMed

Active blood-brain barrier mechanisms, such as the major efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (mdr1), modulate the in vivo/central nervous system (CNS) effects of many pharmacological agents, whether they are used for nonmedical reasons or in pharmacotherapy. The powerful, widely available hallucinogen salvinorin A (from the plant Salvia divinorum) is a high-efficacy, selective ?-opioid agonist and displays fast-onset behavioral effects (e.g., within 1 min of administration) and relatively short duration of action. In vitro studies suggest that salvinorin A may be a P-glycoprotein substrate; thus, the functional status of P-glycoprotein may influence the behavioral effects of salvinorin A or its residence in CNS after parenteral administration. We therefore studied whether a competing P-glycoprotein substrate (the clinically available agent loperamide; 0.032-0.32 mg/kg) or a selective P-glycoprotein blocker, tariquidar (0.32-3.2 mg/kg) could enhance unconditioned behavioral effects (ptosis and facial relaxation, known to be caused by ?-agonists in nonhuman primates) of salvinorin A, as well as its entry and residence in the CNS, as measured by cerebrospinal fluid sampling. Pretreatment with either loperamide or tariquidar dose-dependently enhanced salvinorin A-induced ptosis, but not facial relaxation. In a control study, loperamide and tariquidar were inactive when given as a pretreatment to ((+)-(5?,7?,8?)-N-methyl-N-[7-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-oxaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]-benzeneacetamide (U69,593), a ?-agonist known to be a very poor P-glycoprotein substrate. Furthermore, pretreatment with tariquidar (3.2 mg/kg) also enhanced peak levels of salvinorin A in cerebrospinal fluid after intravenous administration. These are the first studies in vivo showing the sensitivity of salvinorin A effects to modulation by the P-glycoprotein transporter, a major functional component of the blood-brain barrier. PMID:22434677

Butelman, Eduardo R; Caspers, Michael; Lovell, Kimberly M; Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Prisinzano, Thomas E

2012-06-01

246

Modulatory Effects of Natural Curcuminoids on P-Glycoprotein ATPase of Insecticide-Resistant Pest Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidopetera: Noctüidae)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three major curcuminoids (I, II and III) were purified from turmeric and tested for their ability to modulate the function\\u000a of P-glycoprotein ATPase of the insecticide-resistant pest Helicoverpa armigera (Ha-Pgp). The curcumin mixture inhibited the activity of Ha-Pgp ATPase by 80–90% at 100 ?M concentration. Along with curcuminoids\\u000a I, II and III, it inhibited the verapamil- and ethylparaoxon-stimulated Ha-Pgp ATPase activity.

Ravindra M. Aurade; Senigala K. Jayalakshmi; Kuruba Sreeramulu

2010-01-01

247

ECHINACEA SANGUINEA AND ECHINACEA PALLIDA EXTRACTS STIMULATE GLUCURONIDATION AND BASOLATERAL TRANSFER OF BAUER ALKAMIDES 8 AND 10 AND KETONE 24 AND INHIBIT P-GLYCOPROTEIN TRANSPORTER IN CACO-2 CELLS  

PubMed Central

The use of Echinacea as a medicinal herb is prominent in the United States, and many studies have assessed the effectiveness of Echinacea as an immunomodulator. We hypothesized that Bauer alkamides 8, 10 and 11 and ketone 24 were absorbed similarly either as pure compounds or from Echinacea sanguinea and Echinacea pallida ethanol extracts, and that these Echinacea extracts could inhibit P-glycoprotein transporter (P-gp) in Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells. Using HPLC analysis, the permeation rate of Bauer alkamides by passive diffusion across Caco-2 cells corresponded with compound hydrophilicity (alkamide 8 > 10 > 11), independent of the plant extract matrix. Both Echinacea ethanol extracts stimulated apparent glucuronidation and basolateral efflux of glucuronides of alkamides 8 and 10 but not alkamide 11. Bauer ketone 24 was totally metabolized to more hydrophilic metabolites when administered as a single compound, but was also glucuronidated when present in Echinacea extracts. Bauer alkamides 8, 10 and 11 (175–230 ?M) and ethanol extracts of E. sanguinea (1 mg/mL, containing ~90 ?M total alkamides) and E. pallida (5 mg/mL, containing 285 ?M total alkamides) decreased the efflux of the P-gp probe calcein-AM from Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that other constituents in these Echinacea extracts facilitated the metabolism and efflux of alkamides and ketones, which might improve therapeutic benefits. Alkamides and Echinacea extracts might be useful in potentiating some chemotherapeutics which are substrates for P-gp. PMID:23408271

Qiang, Zhiyi; Hauck, Cathy; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Widrlechner, Mark P.; Reddy, Manju B.; Murphy, Patricia A.; Hendrich, Suzanne

2013-01-01

248

P-gp expression in brown trout erythrocytes: evidence of a detoxification mechanism in fish erythrocytes  

PubMed Central

Blood is a site of physiological transport for a great variety of molecules, including xenobiotics. Blood cells in aquatic vertebrates, such as fish, are directly exposed to aquatic pollution. P-gp are ubiquitous “membrane detoxification proteins” implicated in the cellular efflux of various xenobiotics, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which may be pollutants. The existence of this P-gp detoxification system inducible by benzo [a] pyrene (BaP), a highly cytotoxic PAH, was investigated in the nucleated erythrocytes of brown trout. Western blot analysis showed the expression of a 140-kDa P-gp in trout erythrocytes. Primary cultures of erythrocytes exposed to increasing concentrations of BaP showed no evidence of cell toxicity. Yet, in the same BaP-treated erythrocytes, P-gp expression increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Brown trout P-gp erythrocytes act as membrane defence mechanism against the pollutant, a property that can be exploited for future biomarker development to monitor water quality. PMID:24305632

Valton, Emeline; Amblard, Christian; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Bamdad, Mahchid

2013-01-01

249

A novel anthracene derivative, MHY412, induces apoptosis in doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7/Adr human breast cancer cells through cell cycle arrest and downregulation of P-glycoprotein expression.  

PubMed

New potential chemotherapeutic strategies are required to overcome multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer. This study investigated the anticancer effect of a novel anthracene derivative MHY412 on doxorubicin-resistant human breast cancer (MCF-7/Adr) cells. We measured cell viability and the expression of apoptosis-related genes; in addition, the antitumor activity of MHY412 was confirmed using an in vivo tumor xenograft model. MHY412 significantly inhibited the proliferation of MCF-7/Adr and MCF-7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Notably, the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of MHY412 in MCF-7/Adr (0.15 µM) and MCF-7 (0.26 µM) cells were lower than those of doxorubicin (MCF-7/Adr, 13.6 µM and MCF-7, 1.26 µM) after treatment for 48 h. MHY412 at low concentrations induced S phase arrest, but at high concentrations, the number of MCF-7/Adr cells in the sub-G1 phase significantly increased. MHY412-induced sub-G1 phase arrest was associated with inhibition of cyclin, cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and p21 expression in MCF-7/Adr cells. MHY412 markedly reduced P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression and increased apoptotic cell death in MCF-7/Adr cells. Cleavage of poly-ADP ribose polymerase, reduced Bcl-2 expression, and increased in cytochrome c release in MCF-7/Adr cells confirmed the above results. In addition, MHY412 markedly inhibited tumor growth in a tumor xenograft model of MCF-7/Adr cells. Our data suggest that MHY412 exerts antitumor effects by selectively modulating the genes related to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. In particular, MHY412 is a new candidate agent for the treatment of Bcl-2 overexpressed doxorubicin-resistant human breast cancer. PMID:24190517

De, Umasankar; Chun, Pusoon; Choi, Wahn Soo; Lee, Byung Mu; Kim, Nam Deuk; Moon, Hyung Ryong; Jung, Jee H; Kim, Hyung Sik

2014-01-01

250

Relationship between expression of P-glycoprotein and efficacy of chemo- therapy in gastric cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM:To investigate the significance of the expression of P- glycoprotein and the relationship between its expression and the efficacy of chemotherapy in patients with gastric cancer. METHODS:P-glycoprotein was examined by immunohis- tochemical staining in 101 specimens of paraffin embedded gastric cancer tissues. RESULTS:The expression rates of P-glycoprotein in normal gastric mucosa, paracancerous tissues and gastric cancer tissues were 13 %,

Chun-Yan Chen; Zhao-Hua Zhu

2003-01-01

251

Drug-selected coexpression of human glucocerebrosidase and P-glycoprotein using a bicistronic vector.  

PubMed Central

Bicistronic cassettes under control of a single promoter have recently been suggested as useful tools for coordinate expression of two different foreign proteins in mammalian cells. Using the long 5' untranslated region of encephalomyocarditis virus as translational enhancer of the second gene, a bicistronic unit composed of cDNA for human P-glycoprotein [the product of the multidrug resistance gene, MDR1 (also called PGY1)] as selectable marker and cDNA for human glucocerebrosidase (GC; EC 3.2.1.45) (a membrane-associated lysosomal hydrolase) was constructed. NIH 3T3 cells transfected with a Harvey murine sarcoma virus retroviral vector carrying this bicistronic cassette (pHaMCG) express active P-glycoprotein and GC and expression of both proteins augments coordinately with selection for increased colchicine resistance. Percoll gradient analysis of homogenates showed that GC was targeted to the lysosomal fraction. The ability to select for expression of GC with natural product drugs after introduction of the pHaMCG retroviral vector may be useful in gene therapy strategies for Gaucher disease. Images PMID:7909160

Aran, J M; Gottesman, M M; Pastan, I

1994-01-01

252

Role of intestinal P-glycoprotein (mdr1) in interpatient variation in the oral bioavailability of cyclosporine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interpatient differences in the oral clearance of cyclosporine (INN, ciclosporin) have been partially attributed to variation in the activity of a single liver enzyme termed CYP3A4. Recently it has been shown that small bowel also contains CYP3A4, as well as P-glycoprotein, a protein able to transport cyclosporine. To assess the importance of these intestinal proteins, the oral pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine

Kenneth S. Lown; Robert R. Mayo; Alan B. Leichtman; Hsiu-ling Hsiao; D. Kim Turgeon; Phyllissa Schmiedlin-Ren; Morton B. Brown; Wensheng Guo; Stephen J. Rossi; Leslie Z. Benet; Paul B. Watkins

1997-01-01

253

Role of P-Glycoprotein in the Distribution of the HIV Protease Inhibitor Atazanavir in the Brain and Male Genital Tract  

PubMed Central

The blood-testis barrier and blood-brain barrier are responsible for protecting the male genital tract and central nervous system from xenobiotic exposure. In HIV-infected patients, low concentrations of antiretroviral drugs in cerebrospinal fluid and seminal fluid have been reported. One mechanism that may contribute to reduced concentrations is the expression of ATP-binding cassette drug efflux transporters, such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The objective of this study was to investigate in vivo the tissue distribution of the HIV protease inhibitor atazanavir in wild-type (WT) mice, P-gp/breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp)-knockout (Mdr1a?/?, Mdr1b?/?, and Abcg2?/? triple-knockout [TKO]) mice, and Cyp3a?/? (Cyp) mice. WT mice and Cyp mice were pretreated with a P-gp/Bcrp inhibitor, elacridar (5 mg/kg of body weight), and the HIV protease inhibitor and boosting agent ritonavir (2 mg/kg intravenously [i.v.]), respectively. Atazanavir (10 mg/kg) was administered i.v. Atazanavir concentrations in plasma (Cplasma), brain (Cbrain), and testes (Ctestes) were quantified at various times by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. In TKO mice, we demonstrated a significant increase in atazanavir Cbrain/Cplasma (5.4-fold) and Ctestes/Cplasma (4.6-fold) ratios compared to those in WT mice (P < 0.05). Elacridar-treated WT mice showed a significant increase in atazanavir Cbrain/Cplasma (12.3-fold) and Ctestes/Cplasma (13.5-fold) ratios compared to those in vehicle-treated WT mice. In Cyp mice pretreated with ritonavir, significant (P < 0.05) increases in atazanavir Cbrain/Cplasma (1.8-fold) and Ctestes/Cplasma (9.5-fold) ratios compared to those in vehicle-treated WT mice were observed. These data suggest that drug efflux transporters, i.e., P-gp, are involved in limiting the ability of atazanavir to permeate the rodent brain and genital tract. Since these transporters are known to be expressed in humans, they could contribute to the low cerebrospinal and seminal fluid antiretroviral concentrations reported in the clinic. PMID:24379203

Robillard, Kevin R.; Chan, Gary N. Y.; Zhang, Guijin; la Porte, Charles; Cameron, William

2014-01-01

254

Lysosomal trapping of a radiolabeled substrate of P-glycoprotein as a mechanism for signal  

E-print Network

-gp at the blood­brain barrier may contribute to drug resistance in epilepsy or to decreased drug effectiveness-glycoprotein (P-gp), a transporter that blocks the entry of drugs that are substrates into brain. When P-gp function can also impede the delivery of therapeutic drugs to the brain: overexpression of P

Shen, Jun

255

Effects of ?-cyclodextrin on the intestinal absorption of berberine hydrochloride, a P-glycoprotein substrate.  

PubMed

The major objective of this work is to investigate the enhancing effect of ?-cyclodextrin on the intestinal absorption of berberine hydrochloride, a P-glycoprotein (Pgp) substrate. The inclusion complexation behavior of BBH with ?-CD was investigated by phase-solubility diagram, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray powder diffractometry, NMR spectroscopy, and molecular modeling studies. Results indicated that the 1,3-benzodioxole of BBH was included into the cavity of ?-CD to form an inclusion complex which exhibited higher dissolution rate than BBH in vitro. The intestinal absorption of the inclusion complex in rats was significantly higher than the free drug due to its solubilizing effect and Pgp modulatory activity. The mechanisms of ?-CD on Pgp modulation were demonstrated by modifying the Pgp ATPase activity, the Pgp mRNA level and the Pgp expression. PMID:23664937

Zhang, Ye; Cui, Yuan-Lu; Gao, Li-Na; Jiang, Heng-Li

2013-08-01

256

Grapefruit juice-drug interactions: Grapefruit juice and its components inhibit P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) mediated transport of talinolol in Caco-2 cells.  

PubMed

To investigate the potential interaction between selected ingredients of grapefruit juice and, the transport of talinolol, a P-gp substrate, across Caco-2 cells monolayers was determined in the absence and presence of distinct concentrations of grapefruit juice, bergamottin, 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin, 6',7'-epoxybergamottin, naringin, and naringenin. Talinolol permeability was selectively inhibited by grapefruit juice and its components. The furano coumarin, 6',7'-epoxybergamottin, was the most potent inhibitor (IC(50) = 0.7 microM), followed by 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (IC(50) = 34 microM) and bergamottin that did not show any inhibition at concentrations up to 10 microM. The flavonoid aglycone naringenin was around 10-fold more potent than its glycoside naringin with IC(50) values of 236 and 2409 microM, respectively. The flavonoids and furanocoumarins tested in this study are in the same range of concentration they are present in the juice contributing, therefore, for the overall inhibitory effect of GFJ on P-gp activity. The in vitro data suggest that compounds present in grapefruit juice are able to inhibit the P-gp activity modifying the disposition of drugs that are P-gp substrates such as talinolol. PMID:17542018

de Castro, Whocely Victor; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne; Derendorf, Hartmut; Butterweck, Veronika

2007-10-01

257

Effects of P-glycoprotein and Mrp2 inhibitors on the hepatobiliary disposition of Rhodamine 123 and its glucuronidated metabolite in isolated perfused rat livers.  

PubMed

The hepatobiliary disposition of rhodamine 123 (RH-123) and its glucuronidated (RH-Glu) and deacylated (RH-110) metabolites were studied in an isolated perfused rat liver (IPRL) model in the presence and absence of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and Mrp2 inhibitors. A single dose (180 microg) of RH-123 was added to a recirculating perfusate in the absence (Control) or presence of cyclosporine A (CyA) or dibromosulfophthalein (DBSP) in the perfusate. Serial (0-90 min) perfusate and bile and terminal liver samples were collected for analysis by HPLC. In the Control livers, 25.4 +/- 2.2% (mean +/- SD) of the dose was recovered as RH-123 (11.7 +/- 2.0%) and RH-Glu (13.2 +/- 0.9%) in the bile. Whereas CyA substantially (90%) reduced (p < 0.001) the biliary excretion of RH-123 without affecting the excretion of RH-Glu, DBSP reduced the biliary excretion of RH-Glu by >80% (p < 0.001) with no effect on the biliary excretion of RH-123. Mass balance studies showed that DBSP, in addition to reducing the biliary clearance of RH-Glu, also strongly inhibited the glucuronidation of RH-123, an effect that was confirmed in vitro using the glucuronidation marker umbelliferone. It is concluded that the use of RH-123 in an IPRL model may serve as a dual marker for the determination of the altered functions of P-gp and/or Mrp2. PMID:19499568

Parasrampuria, Ridhi; Mehvar, Reza

2010-01-01

258

Transport proteins and intestinal metabolism: P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P4503A.  

PubMed

Although traditionally the liver was considered the main site of pharmacokinetic drug interactions, this view has been reexamined in light of the finding that cytochrome P4503A4 (CYP3A) enzymes are expressed at high levels in mature villus tip enterocytes. Because of their topographic location in small intestinal enterocytes and their overlap in substrates, functional interactions between P-glycoprotein and CYP3A were suggested. Although the functional interaction between CYP3A and P-glycoprotein is not yet completely understood, experimental evidence suggests several mechanisms: (1) CYP3A and P-glycoprotein are coregulated via the orphan nuclear receptor SXR/PXR; (2) drugs are repeatedly taken up and pumped out of the enterocytes by P-glycoprotein, and repeated exposure to CYP3A enzymes increases the probability of a drug being metabolized; (3) P-glycoprotein keeps intracellular drug concentrations within the linear range of CYP3A enzymes; (4) metabolism results in better substrates for P-glycoprotein; and (5) metabolism shifts affinity to other intestinal efflux transporters to avoid competitive interaction of metabolites with P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux of the parent drug. PMID:15228147

Christians, Uwe

2004-04-01

259

Polymethoxylated flavones and other phenolic derivates from citrus in their inhibitory effects on P-glycoprotein-mediated transport of talinolol in Caco-2 cells.  

PubMed

Many studies investigating drug interactions with citrus compounds focus on the major grapefruit furanocoumarins bergamottin, dihydroxybergamottin, and the flavonoid naringenin. This study evaluated the influence of polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs), tangeretin, nobiletin, 3,5,6,7,8,3,4'-heptamethoxyflavone, and sinensetin, as well as other minor occurring citrus phenols, hesperetin, limettin, 7-OH-coumarin, 7-geranyloxycoumarin, and eriodictyol, on P-glycoprotein-mediated transport of the beta-blocker talinolol using the Caco-2 cell monolayer model and was used to determine the structure-function aspects of the interaction. The transport of talinolol across Caco-2 cells monolayers was determined in the absence and presence of distinct concentrations of the calcium-channel blocker verapamil (a known inhibitor of P-glycoprotein) and citrus compounds. A sigmoid dose-response model was used to fit the data and to estimate the IC50 values of the potential inhibitors. Results from this study show that PMFs significantly decreased talinolol transport from the basolateral to apical side, where tangeretin had the lowest IC50 of 3.2 micromol/L, followed by nobiletin, heptamethoxyflavone, and sinensetin with IC50 values of 3.5, 3.8, and 3.9 micromol/L, respectively. However, the efficacy of the compounds did not appear to be dependent on the number of methoxy groups. Other citrus compounds did not have any significant effect on the transport of talinolol. This study suggests that PMFs have a high potential in the interaction with P-gp-mediated talinolol transport in Caco-2 cells. Based on their relatively low concentrations (< or =3 microg/mL) in citrus, the clinical relevance of these interactions needs to be further elucidated in in vivo studies. PMID:17348674

Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U; De Castro, Whocely Victor; Manthey, John A; Derendorf, Hartmut; Butterweck, Veronika

2007-04-01

260

Cytotoxic and multidrug resistance reversal activities of novel 1,4-dihydropyridines against human cancer cells.  

PubMed

Multidrug resistance (MDR) caused by P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1, MDR-1) transporter over-expression in cancer cells substantially limits the effectiveness of chemotherapy. 1,4-Dihydropyridines (DHPs) derivatives possess several pharmacological activities. In this study, 18 novel asymmetrical DHPs bearing 3-pyridyl methyl carboxylate and alkyl carboxylate moieties at C3 and C5 positions, respectively, as well as nitrophenyl or hetero aromatic rings at C4 were synthesized and tested for MDR reversal with the aim of establishing a structure-activity relationship (SAR) for these agents. Effect of these compounds on P-gp mediated MDR was assessed in P-gp over-expressing MES-SA/DX5 doxorubicin resistant cells by flow cytometric detection of rhodamine 123 efflux. MDR reversal was further examined as the alteration of doxorubicin?s IC50 in MES-SA/DX5 cells in the presence of DHPs by MTT assay and was compared to nonresistant MES-SA cells. Direct anticancer effect was examined against 4 human cancer cells including HL-60, K562, MCF-7 and LS180. Calcium channel blocking (CCB) activity was also measured as a potential side effect. Most DHPs, particularly compounds bearing 3-nitrophenyl (A2B2 and A3B2) and 4-nitrophenyl (A3B1 and A4B1) moieties at C4 significantly inhibited rhodamine 123 efflux at 5-25µM, showing that the mechanism of MDR reversal by these agents is P-gp transporter modulation. Same derivatives were also able to selectively lower the resistance of MES-SA/DX5 to doxorubicin. A2B2 bearing ethyl carboxylate at C5 had also high direct antitumoral effect (IC50 range: 3.77-15.60?M). Our findings suggest that SAR studies of DHPs may lead to the discovery of novel MDR reversal agents. PMID:25445037

Shekari, Farnaz; Sadeghpour, Hossein; Javidnia, Katayoun; Saso, Luciano; Nazari, Farhad; Firuzi, Omidreza; Miri, Ramin

2015-01-01

261

Identification of the cyclosporin-binding site in P-glycoprotein.  

PubMed

The binding site of cyclosporin A to P-glycoprotein was characterized by using a multidrug-resistant Chinese hamster ovary cell line. P-glycoprotein photolabeled with diazirine-cyclosporin A analogue was purified by a two-step process involving continuous elution electrophoresis followed by wheat germ agglutinin-agarose precipitation. The cyclosporin A covalently bound to P-glycoprotein and to subsequent proteolytic fragments was detected by Western blot analysis using a monoclonal antibody against cyclosporin A. Proteolytic digestion of purified P-glycoprotein by V8 generated a major fragment of 15 kDa photolabeled by cyclosporin A, while proteolysis of P-glycoprotein photolabeled by [125I]-iodoaryl azidoprazosin generated a major fragment of 7 kDa. Limited proteolysis of cyclosporin A-photolabeled P-glycoprotein with trypsin indicated that the major binding site for cyclosporin A was in the C-terminal half of the protein. This cyclosporin A binding site was further characterized with chemical agents (N-chlorosuccinimide, cyanogen bromide, and 2-nitro-5-thiocyanobenzoate). These three chemical agents established a proteolytic profile of P-glycoprotein for fragments photolabeled with cyclosporin A and for fragments that contained the C494 and C219 epitopes. The smallest fragments generated by these chemical agents include the transmembrane domains (TMs) 10, 11, and 12 of P-glycoprotein. When the fragments generated by these chemical agents are aligned, the region that binds cyclosporin A is reduced to the 953-1007 residues. These combined results suggest that the major binding site of cyclosporin A occurs between the end of TM 11 and the end of TM 12. PMID:9922180

Demeule, M; Laplante, A; Murphy, G F; Wenger, R M; Béliveau, R

1998-12-22

262

The barrier function of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein in the small bowel  

Microsoft Academic Search

CYP3A4 present in small bowel enterocytes can catalyze substantial metabolism of some orally administered drugs and, thus, exerts a first-pass effect. Recent data indicate that the P-glycoprotein (the MDR 1 gene product) in the enterocyte brush border also limits the bioavailability of many of the same drugs that interact with CYP3A. It has been proposed that P-glycoprotein and CYP3A4 may

Paul B Watkins

1997-01-01

263

Increased drug delivery to the brain by P-glycoprotein inhibition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although the antidiarrheal loperamide is a potent opiate, it does not produce opioid central nervous system effects at usual doses in patients. On the basis of in vitro studies demonstrating that loperamide is a substrate for the adenosine triphosphate–dependent efflux membrane transporter P-glycoprotein, we postulated that inhibition of P-glycoprotein with quinidine would increase entry of loperamide into the central

Abu J. M. Sadeque; Christoph Wandel; Hauibing He; Selina Shah; Alastair J. J. Wood

2000-01-01

264

P-Glycoprotein Is a Major Determinant of Norbuprenorphine Brain Exposure and Antinociception  

PubMed Central

Norbuprenorphine is a major metabolite of buprenorphine and potent agonist of ?, ?, and ? opioid receptors. Compared with buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine causes minimal antinociception but greater respiratory depression. It is unknown whether the limited antinociception is caused by low efficacy or limited brain exposure. Norbuprenorphine is an in vitro substrate of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (Mdr1), but the role of P-glycoprotein in norbuprenorphine transport in vivo is unknown. This investigation tested the hypothesis that limited norbuprenorphine antinociception results from P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux and limited brain access. Human P-glycoprotein-mediated transport in vitro of buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, and their respective glucuronide conjugates was assessed by using transfected cells. P-glycoprotein-mediated norbuprenorphine transport and consequences in vivo were assessed by using mdr1a(+/+) and mdr1a(?/?) mice. Antinociception was determined by hot-water tail-flick assay, and respiratory effects were determined by unrestrained whole-body plethysmography. Brain and plasma norbuprenorphine and norbuprenorphine-3-glucuronide were quantified by mass spectrometry. In vitro, the net P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux ratio for norbuprenorphine was nine, indicating significant efflux. In contrast, the efflux ratio for buprenorphine and the two glucuronide conjugates was unity, indicating absent transport. The norbuprenorphine brain/plasma concentration ratio was significantly greater in mdr1a(?/?) than mdr1a(+/+) mice. The magnitude and duration of norbuprenorphine antinociception were significantly increased in mdr1a(?/?) compared with mdr1a(+/+) mice, whereas the reduction in respiratory rate was similar. Results show that norbuprenorphine is an in vitro and in vivo substrate of P-glycoprotein. P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux influences brain access and antinociceptive, but not the respiratory, effects of norbuprenorphine. PMID:22739506

Brown, Sarah M.; Campbell, Scott D.; Crafford, Amanda; Regina, Karen J.; Holtzman, Michael J.

2012-01-01

265

Discovery of a new series of jatrophane and lathyrane diterpenes as potent and specific P-glycoprotein modulators.  

PubMed

A new series of diterpenes, the jatrophanes euphoscopin M (1), euphoscopin N (2) and euphornin L (3), and the lathyrane euphohelioscopin C (7) were isolated from plants of Euphorbia helioscopia L., together with four other known analogues, euphoscopin C (4), euphornin (5), epieuphoscopin B (6) and euphohelioscopin A (8). The new compound stereostructures were elucidated by NMR analysis and computational data. The resulting isolated diterpenes were found to be potent inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), while showing an absence of significant activity against BCRP (ABCG2), despite the high substrate overlapping of these transporters, thus including them in the third-generation class of specific multidrug transporter modulators. PMID:18452010

Barile, Elisa; Borriello, Marianna; Di Pietro, Attilio; Doreau, Agnès; Fattorusso, Caterina; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Lanzotti, Virginia

2008-05-21

266

8-Prenylnaringenin is an inhibitor of multidrug resistance-associated transporters, P-glycoprotein and MRP1.  

PubMed

Flavonoids with hydrophobic e.g. prenyl substituents might constitute the promising candidates for multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal agents. The interaction of 8-prenylnaringenin (8-isopentenylnaringenin), a potent phytoestrogen isolated from common hop (Humulus lupulus), with two multidrug resistance-associated ABC transporters of cancer cells, P-glycoprotein and MRP1, has been studied for the first time. Functional test based on the transport of fluorescent substrate BCECF revealed that the flavonoid strongly inhibited MRP1 transport activity in human erythrocytes (IC(50)=5.76+/-1.80muM). Expression of MDR-related transporters in drug-sensitive (LoVo) and doxorubicin-resistant (LoVo/Dx) human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines was characterized by RT-PCR and immunochemical methods and elevated expression of P-glycoprotein in resistant cells was found to be the main difference between these two cell lines. By means of flow cytometry it was shown that 8-prenylnaringenin significantly increased the accumulation of rhodamine 123 in LoVo/Dx cells. Doxorubicin accumulation in both LoVo and LoVo/Dx cells observed by confocal microscopy was also altered in the presence of 8-prenylnaringenin. However, the presence of the studied compound did not increase doxorubicin cytotoxicity to LoVo/Dx cells. It was concluded that 8-prenylnaringenin was not able to modulate MDR in human adenocarcinoma cell line in spite of the ability to inhibit both P-glycoprotein and MRP1 activities. To our best knowledge, this is the first report of 8-prenylnaringenin interaction with clinically important ABC transporters. PMID:20633549

Weso?owska, Olga; Wi?niewski, Jerzy; Sroda, Kamila; Krawczenko, Agnieszka; Bielawska-Pohl, Aleksandra; Paprocka, Maria; Du?, Danuta; Michalak, Krystyna

2010-10-10

267

Poly(styrene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymers: From "classical" chemotherapeutic nanocarriers to active cell-response inducers.  

PubMed

Two poly(styrene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PSO-PEO) triblock copolymers with different chain lengths were analyzed as potential chemotherapeutic nanocarriers, and their ability to inhibit the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump in a multidrug resistant (MDR) cell line were measured in order to establish possible cell-responses induced by the presence of the copolymer molecules. Thus, EO33SO14EO33 and EO38SO10EO38 polymeric micelles were tested regarding doxorubicin (DOXO) entrapment efficiency (solubilization test), physical stability (DLS), cytocompatibility (fibroblasts), release profiles at various pHs (in vitro tests), as well as P-gp inhibition and evasion and cytotoxicity of the DOXO-loaded micelles in an ovarian MDR NCI-ADR/RES cell line and in DOXO-sensitive MCF-7 cells. EO33SO14EO33 and EO38SO10EO38 formed spherical micelles (~13nm) at lower concentration than other copolymers under clinical evaluation (e.g. Pluronic®), exhibited 0.2% to 1.8% loading capacity, enhancing more than 60 times drug apparent solubility, and retained the cargo for long time. The copolymer unimers inhibited P-gp ATPase activity in a similar way as Pluronic P85, favoring DOXO accumulation in the resistant cell line, but not in the sensitive cell line. DOXO loaded in the micelles accumulated more slowly inside the cells, but caused greater cytotoxicity than free drug solutions in the NCI-ADR-RES cell line, which overexpressed P-gp. Hence, PSO-PEO block copolymers offer interesting features as new biological response modifiers to be used in the design of efficient nanocarriers for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:23352909

Cambón, A; Rey-Rico, A; Barbosa, S; Soltero, J F A; Yeates, S G; Brea, J; Loza, M I; Alvarez-Lorenzo, C; Concheiro, A; Taboada, P; Mosquera, V

2013-04-10

268

P-glycoprotein function at the blood-brain barrier in humans can be quantified with the substrate radiotracer 11C-N-desmethyl-loperamide  

PubMed Central

Permeability-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux transporter in several organs, acts at the blood-brain barrier to protect the brain from exogenous toxins. P-gp almost completely blocks brain entry of the positron emission tomographic (PET) radiotracer 11C-N-desmethyl-loperamide (11C-dLop). We examined the ability of 11C-dLop to quantify P-gp function in humans after increasing doses of tariquidar, an inhibitor of P-gp. Methods Seventeen healthy volunteers had a total of twenty-three PET scans with 11C-dLop at baseline and after increasing doses of tariquidar (2, 4, and 6 mg/kg i.v.). A subset of subjects received PET imaging with 15O-H2O to measure cerebral blood flow. Brain uptake of 11C-dLop was quantified in two ways. Without blood data, uptake was measured as area under the time-activity curve in brain from 10 to 30 min (AUC10-30). With arterial blood data, brain uptake was quantified with compartmental modeling to estimate the rates of entry into (K1) and efflux from (k2) brain. Results Brain uptake of radioactivity was negligible at baseline and increased only slightly (?30%) after 2 mg/kg tariquidar. In contrast, 4 and 6 mg/kg tariquidar increased brain uptake 2- and 4-fold, respectively. Greater brain uptake reflected greater brain entry (K1), since efflux (k2) and cerebral blood flow did not differ between tariquidar-treated and untreated subjects. In the subjects that received the highest dose of tariquidar (and had the highest brain uptake), regional values of K1 correlated linearly with absolute cerebral blood flow, consistent with high single pass-extraction of 11C-dLop. AUC10-30 correlated linearly with K1. Conclusion P-gp function at the blood-brain barrier in humans can be quantified using PET and 11C-dLop. A simple measure of brain uptake (AUC10-30) may be used as a surrogate of the fully-quantified rate constant for brain entry (K1) and thereby avoids arterial sampling. However, to dissect the function of P-gp itself, both brain uptake and the influx rate constant must be corrected for radiotracer delivery (blood flow). PMID:20237038

Kreisl, William C.; Liow, Jeih-San; Kimura, Nobuyo; Seneca, Nicholas; Zoghbi, Sami S.; Morse, Cheryl L.; Herscovitch, Peter; Pike, Victor W.; Innis, Robert B.

2010-01-01

269

Potential P-glycoprotein pharmacokinetic interaction of telaprevir with morphine or methadone.  

PubMed

Telaprevir (TVR) effects on P-glycloprotein and cytochrome P450 (CYP) may significantly elevate serum levels of morphine and methadone. Recent literature points to major interactions when combining TVR with warfarin or rifampin. Opioid interactions are especially dangerous in hepatitis C patients, as coinfection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) occurs in 50-90% of HIV-infected drug users that are prescribed opioids for chronic pain and/or methadone for maintenance. TVR has been shown to significantly inhibit the active transport enzyme pGP and may therefore increase intestinal morphine absorption. TVR also inhibits hepatic CYP3A4 that are responsible for metabolizing methadone. Patients requiring opioid analgesics must be carefully monitored because of potential for elevated opioid levels and overdose risk. Current recommendations minimize potential drug interactions between telaprevir and opioids, especially methadone, based on a single 7-day trial. We outline the various pharmacokinetic mechanisms involved when combining TVR with methadone or morphine and recommend that current data are not sufficiently robust to minimize the potentially significant interaction with opioids, especially methadone. Clinicians must be mindful of these understated interactions, know that the opioid dose may need to be significantly increased or reduced, and use caution during upward titration of opioids affected by these enzyme systems. PMID:23879227

Fudin, Jeffrey; Fontenelle, Dania Vanesta; Fudin, Hannah Rebecca; Carlyn, Cynthia; Hinden, Debra Ann; Ashley, Christopher C

2013-08-01

270

Increase in multidrug transport activity is associated with oocyte maturation in sea stars*  

PubMed Central

In this study, we report on the presence of efflux transporter activity before oocyte maturation in sea stars and its upregulation after maturation. This activity is similar to the multidrug resistance (MDR) activity mediated by ATP binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporters. In sea star oocytes the efflux activity, as measured by exclusion of calcein-am, increased two-fold 3 h post-maturation. Experiments using specific and non-specific dyes and inhibitors demonstrated that the increase in transporter activity involves an ABCB protein, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and an ABCC protein similar to the MDR-associated protein (MRP)-like transporters. Western blots using an antibody directed against mammalian P-gp recognized a 45 kDa protein in sea star oocytes that increased in abundance during maturation. An antibody directed against sea urchin ABCC proteins (MRP) recognized three proteins in immature oocytes and two in mature oocytes. Experiments using inhibitors suggest that translation and microtubule function are both required for post-maturation increases in transporter activity. Immunolabeling revealed translocation of stored ABCB proteins to the plasma cell membrane during maturation, and this translocation coincided with increased transport activity. These MDR transporters serve protective roles in oocytes and eggs, as demonstrated by sensitization of the oocytes to the maturation inhibitor, vinblastine, by MRP and PGP-specific transporter inhibitors. PMID:17118011

Roepke, Troy A.; Hamdoun, Amro M.; Cherr, Gary N.

2011-01-01

271

Increase in multidrug transport activity is associated with oocyte maturation in sea stars.  

PubMed

In this study, we report on the presence of efflux transporter activity before oocyte maturation in sea stars and its upregulation after maturation. This activity is similar to the multidrug resistance (MDR) activity mediated by ATP binding cassette (ABC) efflux transporters. In sea star oocytes the efflux activity, as measured by exclusion of calcein-am, increased two-fold 3 h post-maturation. Experiments using specific and non-specific dyes and inhibitors demonstrated that the increase in transporter activity involves an ABCB protein, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and an ABCC protein similar to the MDR-associated protein (MRP)-like transporters. Western blots using an antibody directed against mammalian P-gp recognized a 45 kDa protein in sea star oocytes that increased in abundance during maturation. An antibody directed against sea urchin ABCC proteins (MRP) recognized three proteins in immature oocytes and two in mature oocytes. Experiments using inhibitors suggest that translation and microtubule function are both required for post-maturation increases in transporter activity. Immunolabeling revealed translocation of stored ABCB proteins to the plasma cell membrane during maturation, and this translocation coincided with increased transport activity. These MDR transporters serve protective roles in oocytes and eggs, as demonstrated by sensitization of the oocytes to the maturation inhibitor, vinblastine, by MRP and PGP-specific transporter inhibitors. PMID:17118011

Roepke, Troy A; Hamdoun, Amro M; Cherr, Gary N

2006-12-01

272

Signal peptide fragments of preprolactin and HIV-1 p-gp160 interact with calmodulin.  

PubMed Central

Secretory proteins and most membrane proteins are synthesized with a signal sequence that is usually cleaved from the nascent polypeptide during transport into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. Using site-specific photo-crosslinking we have followed the fate of the signal sequence of preprolactin in a cell-free system. This signal sequence has an unusually long hydrophilic n-region containing several positively charged amino acid residues. We found that after cleavage by signal peptidase the signal sequence is in contact with lipids and subunits of the signal peptidase complex. The cleaved signal sequence is processed further and an N-terminal fragment is released into the cytosol. This signal peptide fragment was found to interact efficiently with calmodulin. Similar to preprolactin, the signal sequence of the HIV-1 envelope protein p-gp160 has the characteristic feature for calmodulin binding in its n-region. We found that a signal peptide fragment of p-gp160 was released into the cytosol and interacts with calmodulin. Our results suggest that signal peptide fragments of some cellular and viral proteins can interact with cytosolic target molecules. The functional consequences of such interactions remain to be established. However, our data suggest that signal sequences may be functionally more versatile than anticipated up to now. PMID:9362478

Martoglio, B; Graf, R; Dobberstein, B

1997-01-01

273

Characterization of multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein transport function with an organotechnetium cation  

SciTech Connect

Multidrug resistance (MDR) in mammalian cells and tumors is associated with overexpression of an {approximately}170 integral membrane efflux transporter, the MDR1 P-glycoprotein. Hexakis(2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile) technetium(I) (Tc-SESTAMIBI), a {gamma}-emitting lipophilic cationic metallopharmaceutical, has recently been shown to be a P-glycoprotein transport substrate. Exploiting the negligible lipid membrane adsorption properties of this organometallic substrate, we studied the transport kinetics, pharmacology, drug binding, and modulation of P-glycoprotein in cell preparations derived from a variety of species and selection strategies, including SW-1573, V79, Alex, and CHO drug-sensitive cells and in 77A, LZ-8, and Alex/A.5 MDR cells. Rapid cell accumulation (T{sub 1/2} {approx} 6 min) of the agent to a steady state was observed which was inversely proportional to immunodetectable levels of P-glycoprotein. Many MDR cytotoxic agents inhibited P-glycoprotein-mediated Tc-SESTAMIBI efflux, thereby enhancing organometallic cation accumulation. 70 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

Piwnica-Worms, D.; Vallabhaneni, V.R. [Washington Univ. Medical School, St. Louis, MO (United States); Kronauge, J.F. [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

1995-09-26

274

The effect of P-glycoprotein on methadone hydrochloride flux in equine intestinal mucosa.  

PubMed

Methadone is an effective analgesic opioid that may have a place for the treatment of pain in horses. However, its absorption seems to be impaired by the presence of a transmembrane protein, P-glycoprotein, present in different tissues including the small intestine in other species. This study aims to determine the effect of the P-glycoprotein on methadone flux in the equine intestinal mucosa, as an indicator of in vivo drug absorption. Jejunum tissues from five horses were placed into the Ussing chambers and exposed to methadone solution in the presence or absence of Rhodamine 123 or verapamil. Electrical measurements demonstrated tissue viability for 120 min, and the flux of methadone across the jejunal membrane (mucosal to submucosal direction) was calculated based on the relative drug concentration measured by ELISA. The flux of methadone was significantly higher only in the presence of verapamil. P-glycoprotein was immunolocalized in the apical membrane of the jejunal epithelial cells (enterocytes), mainly located in the tip of the villi compared to cells of the crypts. P-glycoprotein is present in the equine jejunum and may possibly mediate the intestinal transport of methadone. This study suggests that P-glycoprotein may play a role in the poor intestinal absorption of methadone in vivo. PMID:22428876

Linardi, R L; Stokes, A M; Andrews, F M

2013-02-01

275

A novel application of t-statistics to objectively assess the quality of IC50 fits for P-glycoprotein and other transporters  

PubMed Central

Current USFDA and EMA guidance for drug transporter interactions is dependent on IC50 measurements as these are utilized in determining whether a clinical interaction study is warranted. It is therefore important not only to standardize transport inhibition assay systems but also to develop uniform statistical criteria with associated probability statements for generation of robust IC50 values, which can be easily adopted across the industry. The current work provides a quantitative examination of critical factors affecting the quality of IC50 fits for P-gp inhibition through simulations of perfect data with randomly added error as commonly observed in the large data set collected by the P-gp IC50 initiative. The types of errors simulated were (1) variability in replicate measures of transport activity; (2) transformations of error-contaminated transport activity data prior to IC50 fitting (such as performed when determining an IC50 for inhibition of P-gp based on efflux ratio); and (3) the lack of well defined “no inhibition” and “complete inhibition” plateaus. The effect of the algorithm used in fitting the inhibition curve (e.g., two or three parameter fits) was also investigated. These simulations provide strong quantitative support for the recommendations provided in Bentz et al. (2013) for the determination of IC50 values for P-gp and demonstrate the adverse effect of data transformation prior to fitting. Furthermore, the simulations validate uniform statistical criteria for robust IC50 fits in general, which can be easily implemented across the industry. A calibration of the t-statistic is provided through calculation of confidence intervals associated with the t-statistic. PMID:25692007

O'Connor, Michael; Lee, Caroline; Ellens, Harma; Bentz, Joe

2015-01-01

276

In vivo P-glycoprotein function before and after epilepsy surgery  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To study the functional activity of the multidrug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) at the blood-brain barrier of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy using (R)-[11C]verapamil (VPM)-PET before and after temporal lobe surgery to assess whether postoperative changes in seizure frequency and antiepileptic drug load are associated with changes in Pgp function. Methods: Seven patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy underwent VPM-PET scans pre- and postsurgery. Patients were followed up for a median of 6 years (range 4–7) after surgery. Pgp immunoreactivity in surgically resected hippocampal specimens was determined with immunohistochemistry. Results: Optimal surgical outcome, defined as seizure freedom and withdrawal of antiepileptic drugs, was associated with higher temporal lobe Pgp function before surgery, higher Pgp-positive staining in surgically resected hippocampal specimens, and reduction in global Pgp function postoperatively, compared with nonoptimal surgery outcome. Conclusions: The data from our pilot study suggest that Pgp overactivity in epilepsy is dynamic, and complete seizure control and elimination of antiepileptic medication is associated with reversal of overactivity, although these findings will require confirmation in a larger patient cohort. PMID:25186858

Bauer, Martin; Karch, Rudolf; Zeitlinger, Markus; Liu, Joan; Koepp, Matthias J.; Asselin, Marie-Claude; Sisodiya, Sanjay M.; Hainfellner, Johannes A.; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Mitterhauser, Markus; Müller, Markus; Pataraia, Ekaterina

2014-01-01

277

Hypoxia-induced drug resistance: comparison to P-glycoprotein-associated drug resistance.  

PubMed

In this report, we investigate several examples of hypoxia-induced drug resistance and compare them with P-glycoprotein associated multidrug resistance (MDR). EMT6/Ro cells exposed to drugs in air immediately after hypoxic treatment developed resistance to adriamycin, 5-fluorouracil, and actinomycin D. However, these cells did not develop resistance to colchicine, vincristine or cisplatin. When the cells were returned to a normal oxygen environment, they lost resistance. There was no correlation between the content of adriamycin and the development of adriamycin resistance induced by hypoxia. There was no difference between the efflux of adriamycin from aerobic cells and that from hypoxia-treated cells. The mRNA for P-glycoprotein was not detected in the hypoxia-treated cells. These results suggest that hypoxia-induced drug resistance is different from P-glycoprotein associated multidrug resistance. PMID:1681885

Sakata, K; Kwok, T T; Murphy, B J; Laderoute, K R; Gordon, G R; Sutherland, R M

1991-11-01

278

Limbic seizures induce P-glycoprotein in rodent brain: functional implications for pharmacoresistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

The causes and mechanisms underlying multidrug resistance (MDR) in epilepsy are still elusive and may depend on inade- quate drug concentration in crucial brain areas. We studied whether limbic seizures or anticonvulsant drug treatments in rodents enhance the brain expression of the MDR gene (mdr) encoding a permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) involved in MDR to various cancer chemotherapeutic agents. We also

Massimo Rizzi; Silvio Caccia; Giovanna Guiso; Cristina Richichi; Jan A. Gorter; Eleonora Aronica; Marisa Aliprandi; Renzo Bagnati; Roberto Fanelli; Maurizio D'Incalci; Rosario Samanin; Annamaria Vezzani

2002-01-01

279

IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL DETECTION OF P-GLYCOPROTEIN IN TELEOST TISSUES USING MAMMALIAN POLYCLONAL AND MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Mammalian P-glycoprotein is a highly conserved 170 kD integral plasma membrane protein functioning as an energy dependent efflux pump of exogenous and endogenous lipophilic aromatic compounds entering the cell by diffusion. n this study, the tissue specificity of one polyclonal (...

280

Blood Brain Barrier group Multi drug resistance and P-glycoprotein efflux transporter: physiological roles and  

E-print Network

1 Blood Brain Barrier group Multi drug resistance and P-glycoprotein efflux transporter-binding cassette) transporter family expressed in many tissue barriers (e.g. gut, lung, blood-brain barrier) and secretory epithelia (e.g. kidney, bile ducts, blood-CSF barrier). Pgp can transport a wide variety

Applebaum, David

281

Development of peptide-based reversing agents for p-glycoprotein-mediated resistance to carfilzomib.  

PubMed

Carfilzomib is a novel class of peptidyl epoxyketone proteasome inhibitor and has demonstrated promising activity in multiple clinical trials to treat patients with multiple myeloma and other types of cancers. Here, we investigated molecular mechanisms underlying acquired resistance to carfilzomib and a potential strategy to restore cellular sensitivity to carfilzomib. H23 and DLD-1 cells (human lung and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines) with acquired resistance to carfilzomib displayed marked cross-resistance to YU-101, a closely related proteasome inhibitor, and paclitaxel, a known substrate of Pgp. However, carfilzomib-resistant cells remained sensitive to bortezomib, a clinically used dipeptide with boronic acid pharmacophore. In accordance with these observations, carfilzomib-resistant H23 and DLD-1 cells showed marked upregulation of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) as compared to their parental controls, and coincubation with verapamil, a Pgp inhibitor, led to an almost complete restoration of cellular sensitivity to carfilzomib. These results indicate that Pgp upregulation plays a major role in the development of carfilzomib resistance in these cell lines. In developing a potential strategy to overcome carfilzomib resistance, we as a proof of concept prepared a small library of peptide analogues derived from the peptide backbone of carfilzomib and screened these molecules for their activity to restore carfilzomib sensitivity when cotreated with carfilzomib. We found that compounds as small as dipeptides are sufficient in restoring carfilzomib sensitivity. Taken together, we found that Pgp upregulation plays a major role in the development of resistance to carfilzomib in lung and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines and that small peptide analogues lacking the pharmacophore can be used as agents to reverse acquired carfilzomib resistance. Our findings may provide important information in developing a potential strategy to overcome drug resistance. PMID:22734651

Ao, Lin; Wu, Ying; Kim, Donghern; Jang, Eun Ryoung; Kim, Kyunghwa; Lee, Do-Min; Kim, Kyung Bo; Lee, Wooin

2012-08-01

282

Development of peptide-based reversing agents for P-glycoprotein-mediated resistance to carfilzomib  

PubMed Central

Carfilzomib is a novel class of peptidyl epoxyketone proteasome inhibitor and has demonstrated promising activity in multiple clinical trials to treat patients with multiple myeloma and other types of cancers. Here, we investigated molecular mechanisms underlying acquired resistance to carfilzomib and a potential strategy to restore cellular sensitivity to carfilzomib. H23 and DLD-1 cells (human lung and colon adenocarcinomas cell lines) with acquired resistance to carfilzomib displayed marked cross-resistance to YU-101, a closely related proteasome inhibitor and paclitaxel, a known substrate of Pgp. However, carfilzomib-resistant cells remained sensitive to bortezomib, a clinically used dipeptide with boronic acid pharmacophore. In accordance with these observations, carfilzomib-resistant H23 and DLD-1 cells showed marked upregulation of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) compared to their parental controls and co-incubation with verapamil, a Pgp inhibitor, led to an almost complete restoration of cellular sensitivity to carfilzomib. These results indicate that Pgp upregulation plays a major role in the development of carfilzomib resistance in these cell lines. In developing a potential strategy to overcome carfilzomib resistance, we as a proof of concept prepared a small library of peptide analogs derived from the peptide backbone of carfilzomib and screened these molecules for their activity to restore carfilzomib sensitivity when co-treated with carfilzomib. We found that compounds as small as dipeptides are sufficient in restoring carfilzomib sensitivity. Taken together, we found that Pgp upregulation plays a major role in the development of resistance to carfilzomib in lung and colon adenocarcinomas cell lines and that small peptide analogs lacking the pharmacophore can be used as agents to reverse acquired carfilzomib resistance. Our findings may provide important information in developing a potential strategy to overcome drug resistance. PMID:22734651

Ao, Lin; Wu, Ying; Kim, Donghern; Jang, Eun Ryoung; Kim, Kyunghwa; Lee, Do-min; Kim, Kyung Bo; Lee, Wooin

2012-01-01

283

Amino acid prodrug of quinidine: an approach to circumvent P-glycoprotein mediated cellular efflux.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated the effect of large neutral amino acid modification in overcoming P-gp mediated cellular efflux of quinidine. L-isoleucine ester prodrug of quinidine (Ile-quinidine) was synthesized in our laboratory. [14C]-erythromycin was selected as a model substrate to study interaction of quinidine and Ile-quinidine with P-gp. Transport studies were conducted to study translocation kinetics of quinidine and Ile-quinidine in MDCK-MDR1 cells. In cellular accumulation study, uptake rate of [14C]-erythromycin elevated drastically in presence of cyclosporine A and GF 120918. This result indicates that [14C]-erythromycin is an excellent substrate of P-gp. Similarly, uptake rate of [14C]-erythromycin was enhanced significantly in presence of quinidine (25 and 50 ?M). However, [14C]-erythromycin uptake rate remained fairly constant in presence of Ile-quinidine (25 ?M). Apparent A-B and B-A permeability of quinidine observed in MDCK-MDR1 cells were 1.6 ± 0.2 × 10(-6) and 7.0 ± 0.4 × 10(-6)cm/s, a 4.4-fold difference. Moreover, A-B permeability of quinidine increased dramatically in the presence of cyclosporine A and GF 120918. Apparent permeability values of Ile-quinidine observed from A-B and B-A direction were 4.3 ± 0.9 × 10(-6) and 5.5 ± 0.4 × 10(-6)cm/s, a 1.3-fold difference. Importantly, A-B transport of Ile-quinidine did not change dramatically in the presence of cyclosporine and GF 120918. Based on these results, it was apparent that quinidine displayed higher substrate affinity toward P-gp relative to Ile-quinidine. Chemical or enzymatic hydrolysis of Ile-quinidine resulted in regeneration of low quantities of quinidine during transport studies. Competitive inhibition studies demonstrated that Ile-quinidine was recognized by multiple amino acid transporters such as LAT1, LAT2 and cationic amino acid transporter. In conclusion, chemical modification of quinidine with neutral amino acids results in circumvention of P-gp mediated drug efflux. Hence, amino acid transporter targeted prodrug delivery seems to be a viable strategy for improving drug accumulation in P-gp overexpressing cells. PMID:24440401

Patel, Mitesh; Mandava, Nanda K; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

2014-04-10

284

A Gene Optimization Strategy that Enhances Production of Fully Functional P-Glycoprotein in Pichia pastoris  

PubMed Central

Background Structural and biochemical studies of mammalian membrane proteins remain hampered by inefficient production of pure protein. We explored codon optimization based on highly expressed Pichia pastoris genes to enhance co-translational folding and production of P-glycoprotein (Pgp), an ATP-dependent drug efflux pump involved in multidrug resistance of cancers. Methodology/Principal Findings Codon-optimized “Opti-Pgp” and wild-type Pgp, identical in primary protein sequence, were rigorously analyzed for differences in function or solution structure. Yeast expression levels and yield of purified protein from P. pastoris (?130 mg per kg cells) were about three-fold higher for Opti-Pgp than for wild-type protein. Opti-Pgp conveyed full in vivo drug resistance against multiple anticancer and fungicidal drugs. ATP hydrolysis by purified Opti-Pgp was strongly stimulated ?15-fold by verapamil and inhibited by cyclosporine A with binding constants of 4.2±2.2 µM and 1.1±0.26 µM, indistinguishable from wild-type Pgp. Maximum turnover number was 2.1±0.28 µmol/min/mg and was enhanced by 1.2-fold over wild-type Pgp, likely due to higher purity of Opti-Pgp preparations. Analysis of purified wild-type and Opti-Pgp by CD, DSC and limited proteolysis suggested similar secondary and ternary structure. Addition of lipid increased the thermal stability from Tm ?40°C to 49°C, and the total unfolding enthalpy. The increase in folded state may account for the increase in drug-stimulated ATPase activity seen in presence of lipids. Conclusion The significantly higher yields of protein in the native folded state, higher purity and improved function establish the value of our gene optimization approach, and provide a basis to improve production of other membrane proteins. PMID:21826197

Protasevich, Irina I.; Brouillette, Christie G.; Harrell, Patina M.; Hildebrandt, Ellen; Gasser, Brigitte; Mattanovich, Diethard; Ward, Andrew; Chang, Geoffrey; Urbatsch, Ina L.

2011-01-01

285

P-glycoprotein-dependent resistance of cancer cells toward the extrinsic TRAIL apoptosis signaling pathway.  

PubMed

The TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL or Apo2L) preferentially cause apoptosis of malignant cells in vitro and in vivo without severe toxicity. Therefore, TRAIL or agonist antibodies to the TRAIL DR4 and DR5 receptors are used in cancer therapy. However, many malignant cells are intrinsically resistant or acquire resistance to TRAIL. It has been previously proposed that the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) might play a role in resistance of cells to intrinsic apoptotic pathways by interfering with components of ceramide metabolism or by modulating the electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane. In this study we investigated whether Pgp also confers resistance toward extrinsic death ligands of the TNF family. To this end we focused our study on HeLa cells carrying a tetracycline-repressible plasmid system which shuts down Pgp expression in the presence of tetracycline. Our findings demonstrate that expression of Pgp is a significant factor conferring resistance to TRAIL administration, but not to other death ligands such as TNF-? and Fas ligand. Moreover, blocking Pgp transport activity sensitizes the malignant cells toward TRAIL. Therefore, Pgp transport function is required to confer resistance to TRAIL. Although the resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis is Pgp specific, TRAIL itself is not a direct substrate of Pgp. Pgp expression has no effect on the level of the TRAIL receptors DR4 and DR5. These findings might have clinical implications since the combination of TRAIL therapy with administration of Pgp modulators might sensitize TRAIL resistant tumors. PMID:23774624

Galski, Hanan; Oved-Gelber, Tamar; Simanovsky, Masha; Lazarovici, Philip; Gottesman, Michael M; Nagler, Arnon

2013-09-01

286

P-glycoprotein-dependent resistance of cancer cells toward the extrinsic TRAIL apoptosis signaling pathway  

PubMed Central

The TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL or Apo2L) preferentially cause apoptosis of malignant cells in vitro and in vivo without severe toxicity. Therefore, TRAIL or agonist antibodies to the TRAIL DR4 and DR5 receptors are used in cancer therapy. However, many malignant cells are intrinsically resistant or acquire resistance to TRAIL. It has been previously proposed that the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) might play a role in resistance of cells to intrinsic apoptotic pathways by interfering with components of ceramide metabolism or by modulating the electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane. In this study we investigated whether Pgp also confers resistance toward extrinsic death ligands of the TNF family. To this end we focused our study on HeLa cells carrying a tetracycline-repressible plasmid system which shuts down Pgp expression in the presence of tetracycline. Our findings demonstrate that expression of Pgp is a significant factor conferring resistance to TRAIL administration, but not to other death ligands such as TNF-? and Fas ligand. Moreover, blocking Pgp transport activity sensitizes the malignant cells toward TRAIL. Therefore, Pgp transport function is required to confer resistance to TRAIL. Although the resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis is Pgp specific, TRAIL itself is not a direct substrate of Pgp. Pgp expression has no effect on the level of the TRAIL receptors DR4 and DR5. These findings might have clinical implications since the combination of TRAIL therapy with administration of Pgp modulators might sensitize TRAIL resistant tumors. PMID:23774624

Galski, Hanan; Oved-Gelber, Tamar; Simanovsky, Masha; Lazarovici, Philip; Gottesman, Michael M.; Nagler, Arnon

2014-01-01

287

Modulation and prevention of multidrug resistance by inhibitors of P-glycoprotein  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intrinsic and acquired multidrug resistance (MDR) in many human cancers may be due to expression of the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp), which is encoded by the mdr1 gene. There is substantial evidence that Pgp is expressed both as an acquired mechanism (e.g., in leukemias, lymphomas, myeloma, and breast and ovarian carcinomas) and constitutively (e.g., in colorectal and renal cancers) and

B. I. Sikic; George A. Fisher; Bert L. Lum; Joanne Halsey; Lidija Beketic-Oreskovic; Gang Chen

1997-01-01

288

Functional Imaging of Multidrug-resistant P-Glycoprotein with an Organotechnetium Complex1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The multidrug-resistant P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a M, 170,000 plasma membrane protein encoded by the mammalian multidrug resistance gene (MI)Kl ), appears to function as an energy-dependent efflux pump. Many of the drugs that interact with Pgp are lipophilic and cationic at physio logical pH. We tested the hypothesis that the synthetic -\\/-emitting organ- otechnetium complex, hexakis(2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile)technetium(I) ((\\

David Piwnica-Worms; Mark Budding; James F. Kronauge; Robert A. Kramer; James M. Croop

1993-01-01

289

P-Glycoprotein, a gatekeeper in the blood–brain barrier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The blood–brain barrier is a major impediment to the entry of many therapeutic drugs into the brain. P-Glycoprotein is an ATP-dependent drug transport protein that is predominantly found in the apical membranes of a number of epithelial cell types in the body, including the blood luminal membrane of the brain capillary endothelial cells that make up the blood–brain barrier. Since

Alfred H Schinkel

1999-01-01

290

P-glycoprotein-like protein contributes to cadmium resistance in Euglena gracilis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selective pressures from polluted environments have led to the development of resistance systems in aquatic organisms. Using different techniques, this study examined a cadmium defense mechanism of the freshwater unicellular protozoa Euglena gracilis, and found it to be an efflux pump similar to the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein. Cd 2+-treated E. gracilis were able to extrude Rhodamine 123 at 21 °C, but not at

M. Einicker-Lamas; M. M. Morales; K. Miranda; J. Garcia-Abreu; A. J. F. Oliveira; F. L. S. Silva; M. M. Oliveira

2003-01-01

291

Cell Surface P-Glycoprotein Associated with Multidrug Resistance in Mammalian Cell Lines  

Microsoft Academic Search

The plasma membranes of hamster, mouse, and human tumor cell lines that display multiple resistance to drugs were examined by gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. In every case, increased expression of a 170,000-dalton surface antigen was found to be correlated with multidrug resistance. This membrane component is of identical molecular size and shares some immunogenic homology with the previously characterized P-glycoprotein

Norbert Kartner; John R. Riordan; Victor Ling

1983-01-01

292

Serum concentrations of anthraquinones after intake of Folium Sennae and potential modulation on P-glycoprotein.  

PubMed

Folium Sennae (leaves of Cassia angustifolia or senna) is a laxative and a component in diets for weight control. It contains a variety of anthranoids such as sennosides, aloe-emodin, and rhein. In order to measure the serum concentrations of senna anthranoids, Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered with single dose and multiple doses of Folium Sennae. The concentrations of anthranoids in serum were determined by HPLC method before and after hydrolysis with sulfatase and ?-glucuronidase. The results showed that in the serum, aloe-emodin glucuronides and rhein glucuronides were the major metabolites. Traces of rhein free form were present transiently during the early phase, whereas the free form of aloe-emodin was not detected. We also evaluated the modulation effect of Folium Sennae on P-glycoprotein by using the LS 180 cell model which showed that it significantly inhibited P-glycoprotein by 16-46?%. In conclusion, senna anthranoids were rapidly and extensively metabolized to rhein glucuronides and aloe-emodin glucuronides in rats. Folium Sennae ingestion inhibited the efflux function of P-glycoprotein in the intestine. PMID:25177847

Peng, Yu-Hsuan; Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Yu, Chung-Ping; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Chen, Min-Yu; Hou, Yu-Chi; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee

2014-10-01

293

Multidrug-Resistance Gene (P-glycoprotein) is Expressed by Endothelial Cells at Blood--Brain Barrier Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Endothelial cells of human capillary blood vessels at the blood--brain and other blood--tissue barrier sites express P-glycoprotein as detected by mouse monoclonal antibodies against the human multidrug-resistance gene product. This pattern of endothelial cell expression may indicate a physiological role for P-glycoprotein in regulating the entry of certain molecules into the central nervous system and other anatomic compartments, such as

Carlos Cordon-Cardo; James P. O'Brien; Dolors Casals; Lana Rittman-Grauer; June L. Biedler; Myron R. Melamed; Joseph R. Bertino

1989-01-01

294

Involvement of the Drug Transporters P Glycoprotein and Multidrug Resistance-Associated Protein Mrp2 in Telithromycin Transport  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study aims to investigate the role of P glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein (Mrp2) in the transport of telithromycin, a newly developed ketolide antibiotic, in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro experiments revealed that the intracellular accumulation of telithromycin in adriamycin-resistant human chronic myelogenous leukemia cells (K562\\/ADR) overexpressing P glycoprotein was significantly lower than that in human

Shoji Yamaguchi; Ying Lan Zhao; Masayuki Nadai; Hideo Yoshizumi; Xiaobo Cen; Shoko Torita; Kenji Takagi; Kenzo Takagi; Takaaki Hasegawa

2006-01-01

295

siRNA-based targeting of antiapoptotic genes can reverse chemoresistance in P-glycoprotein expressing chondrosarcoma cells  

PubMed Central

Background High expression of P-glycoprotein is one of the well-known mechanisms of chemoresistance in chondrosarcomas. However, the role of antiapoptotic proteins, a common mechanism responsible for chemoresistance in other tumors, has not been well studied in chondrosarcomas. We examined the importance of P-glycoprotein and antiapoptotic proteins in the chemoresistance to doxorubicin of two Grade II chondrosarcoma cell lines, JJ012 and SW1353. Results We confirmed that both chondrosarcoma cell types expressed P-glycoprotein and antiapoptotic proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and XIAP). siRNA knockdown as well as pharmacologic inhibitors of cell survival proteins (Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and XIAP) enhanced apoptosis of chemoresistant chondrosarcoma cells by up to 5.5 fold at 0.1 ?mol and 5.5 fold at 1 ?mol doxorubicin. These chemosensitizing effects were comparable to those of P-glycoprotein inhibition by siRNA or pharmacologic inhibitor. Conclusion These findings suggest that antiapoptotic proteins play a significant role in the chemoresistance of chondrosarcoma cells independent of P-glycoprotein. Based on the results, a new siRNA-based therapeutic strategy targeting antiapoptotic genes can be designed to overcome the chemoresistance of chondrosarcomas which is often conferred by P-glycoprotein. PMID:19445670

Kim, Dae Won; Kim, Kyung-Ok; Shin, Mike J; Ha, Jung Hee; Seo, Sung Wook; Yang, Jay; Lee, Francis Y

2009-01-01

296

Coniferyl Ferulate, a Strong Inhibitor of Glutathione S-Transferase Isolated from Radix Angelicae sinensis, Reverses Multidrug Resistance and Downregulates P-Glycoprotein  

PubMed Central

Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is the key enzyme in multidrug resistance (MDR) of tumour. Inhibition of the expression or activity of GST has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for the reversal of MDR. Coniferyl ferulate (CF), isolated from the root of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (Radix Angelicae sinensis, RAS), showed strong inhibition of human placental GST. Its 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) was 0.3??M, which was greater than a known GSTP1-1 inhibitor, ethacrynic acid (EA), using the established high-throughput screening model. Kinetic analysis and computational docking were used to examine the mechanism of GST inhibition by CF. Computational docking found that CF could be fully docked into the gorge of GSTP1-1. The further exploration of the mechanisms showed that CF was a reversible noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to GSH and CDNB, and it has much less cytotoxicity. Apoptosis and the expression of P-gp mRNA were evaluated in the MDR positive B-MD-C1 (ADR+/+) cell line to investigate the MDR reversal effect of CF. Moreover, CF showed strong apoptogenic activity and could markedly decrease the overexpressed P-gp. The results demonstrated that CF could inhibit GST activity in a concentration-dependent manner and showed a potential MDR reversal effect for antitumour adjuvant therapy. PMID:24058374

Chen, Chang; Wu, Chuanhong; Lu, Xinhua; Yan, Zhiyong; Gao, Jian; Zhao, Hui; Li, Shaojing

2013-01-01

297

Investigating the enteroenteric recirculation of apixaban, a factor Xa inhibitor: administration of activated charcoal to bile duct-cannulated rats and dogs receiving an intravenous dose and use of drug transporter knockout rats.  

PubMed

The study described here investigated the impact of intestinal excretion (IE; excretion of drug directly from circulation to intestinal lumen), enteroenteric recirculation (EER), and renal tubule recirculation (RTR) on apixaban pharmacokinetics and disposition. The experimental approaches involve integrating apixaban elimination pathways with pharmacokinetic profiles obtained from bile duct-cannulated (BDC) rats and dogs receiving i.v. doses together with oral administration of activated charcoal (AC). Additionally, the role of P-gp (P-glycoprotein; abcb1) and BCRP (breast cancer resistance protein; abcg2) in apixaban disposition was evaluated in experiments using transporter inhibitors and transporter knockout (KO) rats. Approximately 20-50% of an apixaban i.v. dose was found in feces of BDC rats and dogs, suggesting IE leading to fecal elimination and intestinal clearance (IC). The fecal elimination, IC, and systemic clearance of apixaban were increased upon AC administration in both BDC rats and dogs and were decreased in BDC rats dosed with GF-120918, a dual BCRP and P-gp inhibitor). BCRP appeared to play a more important role for absorption and intestinal and renal elimination of apixaban than P-gp in transporter-KO rats after oral and i.v. dosing, which led to a higher level of active renal excretion in rat than other species. These data demonstrate that apixaban undergoes IE, EER, and RTR that are facilitated by efflux transporters. Intestinal reabsorption of apixaban could be interrupted by AC even at 3 hours post-drug dose in dogs (late charcoal effect). This study demonstrates that the intestine is an organ for direct clearance and redistribution of apixaban. The IE, EER, and RTR contribute to overall pharmacokinetic profiles of apixaban. IE as a clearance pathway, balanced with metabolism and renal excretion, helps decrease the impacts of intrinsic (renal or hepatic impairment) and extrinsic (drug-drug interactions) factors on apixaban disposition. PMID:23386703

Zhang, Donglu; Frost, Charles E; He, Kan; Rodrigues, A David; Wang, Xiaoli; Wang, Lifei; Goosen, Theunis C; Humphreys, W Griffith

2013-04-01

298

Enhanced oral bioavailability of paclitaxel by concomitant use of absorption enhancers and P-glycoprotein inhibitors in rats.  

PubMed

Paclitaxel (PCT) is a cytotoxic agent with a broad antineoplastic activity. IV formulation of PCT causes hypersensitivity reactions in some patients and oral administration is an alternative to decrease the side effects. PCT is not orally available because of low solubility, lack of intestinal permeability, and efflux by pumps in intestinal wall. PCT solution in cremophor EL: ethanol (100 mg/kg) was administered orally to rats after pre-treatment by mefenamic acid, ibuprofen, verapamil, cyclosporine, and verapamil+ibuprofen in individual groups. Ibuprofen presented positive effect on intestinal permeation of PCT. C(max) and area under the serum concentration versus time curve (AUC) after pre-treatment by ibuprofen was decreased when the oral dose of PCT was decreased to 50 and 25 mg/kg, while dose-blood concentration relationship was nonlinear. Rise in oral bioavailability of PCT after pre-treatment by cyclosporine was lower than ibuprofen. It seems that by using ibuprofen in concomitant with potent P-gp inhibitors before PCT solution, oral delivery of PCT could be promising. PMID:24090921

Montaseri, Hashem; Mohammadi-Samani, Soleiman; Zarea, Bijan; Sobhani, Zahra; Ahmadi, Fatemeh

2013-12-01

299

Digoxin net secretory transport in bronchial epithelial cell layers is not exclusively mediated by P-glycoprotein/MDR1.  

PubMed

The impact of P-glycoprotein (MDR1, ABCB1) on drug disposition in the lungs as well as its presence and activity in in vitro respiratory drug absorption models remain controversial to date. Hence, we characterised MDR1 expression and the bidirectional transport of the common MDR1 probe (3)H-digoxin in air-liquid interfaced (ALI) layers of normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells and of the Calu-3 bronchial epithelial cell line at different passage numbers. Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCKII) cells transfected with the human MDR1 were used as positive controls. (3)H-digoxin efflux ratio (ER) was low and highly variable in NHBE layers. In contrast, ER=11.4 or 3.0 were measured in Calu-3 layers at a low or high passage number, respectively. These were, however, in contradiction with increased MDR1 protein levels observed upon passaging. Furthermore, ATP depletion and the two MDR1 inhibitory antibodies MRK16 and UIC2 had no or only a marginal impact on (3)H-digoxin net secretory transport in the cell line. Our data do not support an exclusive role of MDR1 in (3)H-digoxin apparent efflux in ALI Calu-3 layers and suggest the participation of an ATP-independent carrier. Identification of this transporter might provide a better understanding of drug distribution in the lungs. PMID:23816640

Hutter, Victoria; Chau, David Y S; Hilgendorf, Constanze; Brown, Alan; Cooper, Anne; Zann, Vanessa; Pritchard, David I; Bosquillon, Cynthia

2014-01-01

300

Examination of Glucocorticoid receptor alpha-mediated transcriptional regulation of P-glycoprotein, CYP3A4, and CYP2C9 genes in placental trophoblast cell lines.  

PubMed

The placental trophoblast at different stages of pregnancy contains some drug transporters and xenobiotic-metabolising enzymes, as well as ligand-activated nuclear receptors, which control their inducible transcriptional regulation. Glucocorticoid receptor alpha (GRalpha) is expressed in both placental syncytiotrophoblast and cytotrophoblast. GRalpha was shown to control inducible expression of several enzymes of the cytochrome P-450 family (CYP) and the drug transporter P-glycoprotein in the liver. However, GRalpha-mediated transcriptional regulation of drug transporters and CYPs has not been studied in the placental trophoblast. In this study, we examined the expression and activity of GRalpha in the transcriptional regulation of P-glycoprotein, CYP3A4, and CYP2C9 in placental trophoblast cell lines. Employing RT-PCR, Western blotting, and luciferase gene reporter assay, we detected the expression and activity of GRalpha in JEG3 and BeWo cell lines. However, we observed that only MDR1 mRNA was up-regulated after treatment of placental cells with dexamethasone. Accordingly, only the promoter of the MDR1 gene was activated by dexamethasone in gene reporter assays in placental cells and the activation was abolished by RU486, an antagonist of GRalpha. CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 promoters were activated in placental cells only after co-transfection with hepatocyte nuclear factor 4alpha (HNF4alpha), which indicates the hepatocyte-specific character of GRalpha-mediated regulation of the genes. On the other hand, coexpression of HNF4alpha had no effect on the activation of the MDR1 gene promoter, suggesting HNF4alpha-independent regulation via GRalpha. We conclude that GRalpha may be involved in the transcriptional regulation of P-glycoprotein in the placental trophoblast. We also indicate that the CYP3A4 and CYP2C9 genes are not inducible through GRalpha in placental cell lines, due to the lack of HNF4alpha expression and possibly some additional hepatocyte-specific transcriptional factors. PMID:17572486

Pavek, P; Cerveny, L; Svecova, L; Brysch, M; Libra, A; Vrzal, R; Nachtigal, P; Staud, F; Ulrichova, J; Fendrich, Z; Dvorak, Z

2007-10-01

301

A novel approach for predicting P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) inhibition using molecular interaction fields.  

PubMed

P-glycoprotein (Pgp or ABCB1) is an ABC transporter protein involved in intestinal absorption, drug metabolism, and brain penetration, and its inhibition can seriously alter a drug's bioavailability and safety. In addition, inhibitors of Pgp can be used to overcome multidrug resistance. Given this dual purpose, reliable in silico procedures to predict Pgp inhibition are of great interest. A large and accurate literature collection yielded more than 1200 structures; a model was then constructed using various molecular interaction field-based technologies, considering pharmacophoric features and those physicochemical properties related to membrane partitioning. High accuracy was demonstrated internally with two different validation sets and, moreover, using a number of molecules, for which Pgp inhibition was not experimentally available but was evaluated in-house. All of the validations confirmed the robustness of the model and its suitability to help medicinal chemists in drug discovery. The information derived from the model was rationalized as a pharmacophore for competitive Pgp inhibition. PMID:21341745

Broccatelli, Fabio; Carosati, Emanuele; Neri, Annalisa; Frosini, Maria; Goracci, Laura; Oprea, Tudor I; Cruciani, Gabriele

2011-03-24

302

A Novel Approach for Predicting P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) Inhibition Using Molecular Interaction Fields  

PubMed Central

P-glycoprotein (Pgp or ABCB1) is an ABC transporter protein involved in intestinal absorption, drug metabolism and brain penetration, and its inhibition can seriously alter a drug's bioavailability and safety. In addition, inhibitors of Pgp can be used to overcome multidrug resistance. Given this dual-purpose, reliable in silico procedures to predict Pgp inhibition are of great interest. A large and accurate literature collection yielded more than 1200 structures; a model was then constructed using various MIF-based technologies, considering pharmacophoric features and those physico-chemical properties related to membrane partitioning. High accuracy was demonstrated internally, with two different validation sets, and moreover using a number of molecules, for which Pgp inhibition was not experimentally available but was evaluated `in-house'. All the validations confirmed the robustness of the model and its suitability to help medicinal chemists in drug discovery. The information derived from the model was rationalized as a pharmacophore for competitive Pgp inhibition. PMID:21341745

Broccatelli, Fabio; Carosati, Emanuele; Neri, Annalisa; Frosini, Maria; Goracci, Laura; Oprea, Tudor I.; Cruciani, Gabriele

2011-01-01

303

Structural Characterization of Two Metastable ATP-Bound States of P-Glycoprotein  

PubMed Central

ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters couple the binding and hydrolysis of ATP to the transport of substrate molecules across the membrane. The mechanism by which ATP binding and/or hydrolysis drives the conformational changes associated with substrate transport has not yet been characterized fully. Here, changes in the conformation of the ABC export protein P-glycoprotein on ATP binding are examined in a series of molecular dynamics simulations. When one molecule of ATP is placed at the ATP binding site associated with each of the two nucleotide binding domains (NBDs), the membrane-embedded P-glycoprotein crystal structure adopts two distinct metastable conformations. In one, each ATP molecule interacts primarily with the Walker A motif of the corresponding NBD. In the other, the ATP molecules interacts with both Walker A motif of one NBD and the Signature motif of the opposite NBD inducing the partial dimerization of the NBDs. This interaction is more extensive in one of the two ATP binding site, leading to an asymmetric structure. The overall conformation of the transmembrane domains is not altered in either of these metastable states, indicating that the conformational changes associated with ATP binding observed in the simulations in the absence of substrate do not lead to the outward-facing conformation and thus would be insufficient in themselves to drive transport. Nevertheless, the metastable intermediate ATP-bound conformations observed are compatible with a wide range of experimental cross-linking data demonstrating the simulations do capture physiologically important conformations. Analysis of the interaction between ATP and its cofactor Mg2+ with each NBD indicates that the coordination of ATP and Mg2+ differs between the two NBDs. The role structural asymmetry may play in ATP binding and hydrolysis is discussed. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our results are not heavily influenced by the crystal structure chosen for initiation of the simulations. PMID:24632881

O’Mara, Megan L.; Mark, Alan E.

2014-01-01

304

Interindividual Variability in Hepatic Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptides and P-Glycoprotein (ABCB1) Protein Expression: Quantification by Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectroscopy and Influence of Genotype, Age, and Sex  

PubMed Central

Interindividual variability in protein expression of organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1, and multidrug resistance-linked P-glycoprotein (P-gp) or ABCB1 was quantified in frozen human livers (n = 64) and cryopreserved human hepatocytes (n = 12) by a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) method. Membrane isolation, sample workup, and LC-MS/MS analyses were as described before by our laboratory. Briefly, total native membrane proteins, isolated from the liver tissue and cryopreserved hepatocytes, were trypsin digested and quantified by LC-MS/MS using signature peptide(s) unique to each transporter. The mean ± S.D. (maximum/minimum range in parentheses) protein expression (fmol/µg of membrane protein) in human liver tissue was OATP1B1- 2.0 ± 0.9 (7), OATP1B3- 1.1 ± 0.5 (8), OATP2B1- 1 1.7 ± 0.6 (5), and P-gp- 0.4 ± 0.2 (8). Transporter expression in the liver tissue was comparable to that in the cryopreserved hepatocytes. Most important is that livers with SLCO1B1 (encoding OATP1B1) haplotypes *14/*14 and *14/*1a [i.e., representing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), c.388A > G, and c.463C > A] had significantly higher (P < 0.0001) protein expression than the reference haplotype (*1a/*1a). Based on these genotype-dependent protein expression data, we predicted (using Simcyp) an up to ?40% decrease in the mean area under the curve of rosuvastatin or repaglinide in subjects harboring these variant alleles compared with those harboring the reference alleles. SLCO1B3 (encoding OATP1B3) SNPs did not significantly affect protein expression. Age and sex were not associated with transporter protein expression. These data will facilitate the prediction of population-based human transporter-mediated drug disposition, drug-drug interactions, and interindividual variability through physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling. PMID:24122874

Prasad, Bhagwat; Evers, Raymond; Gupta, Anshul; Hop, Cornelis E. C. A.; Salphati, Laurent; Shukla, Suneet; Ambudkar, Suresh V.

2014-01-01

305

Interindividual variability in hepatic organic anion-transporting polypeptides and P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) protein expression: quantification by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy and influence of genotype, age, and sex.  

PubMed

Interindividual variability in protein expression of organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1, and multidrug resistance-linked P-glycoprotein (P-gp) or ABCB1 was quantified in frozen human livers (n = 64) and cryopreserved human hepatocytes (n = 12) by a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) method. Membrane isolation, sample workup, and LC-MS/MS analyses were as described before by our laboratory. Briefly, total native membrane proteins, isolated from the liver tissue and cryopreserved hepatocytes, were trypsin digested and quantified by LC-MS/MS using signature peptide(s) unique to each transporter. The mean ± S.D. (maximum/minimum range in parentheses) protein expression (fmol/µg of membrane protein) in human liver tissue was OATP1B1- 2.0 ± 0.9 (7), OATP1B3- 1.1 ± 0.5 (8), OATP2B1- 1 1.7 ± 0.6 (5), and P-gp- 0.4 ± 0.2 (8). Transporter expression in the liver tissue was comparable to that in the cryopreserved hepatocytes. Most important is that livers with SLCO1B1 (encoding OATP1B1) haplotypes *14/*14 and *14/*1a [i.e., representing single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), c.388A > G, and c.463C > A] had significantly higher (P < 0.0001) protein expression than the reference haplotype (*1a/*1a). Based on these genotype-dependent protein expression data, we predicted (using Simcyp) an up to ?40% decrease in the mean area under the curve of rosuvastatin or repaglinide in subjects harboring these variant alleles compared with those harboring the reference alleles. SLCO1B3 (encoding OATP1B3) SNPs did not significantly affect protein expression. Age and sex were not associated with transporter protein expression. These data will facilitate the prediction of population-based human transporter-mediated drug disposition, drug-drug interactions, and interindividual variability through physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling. PMID:24122874

Prasad, Bhagwat; Evers, Raymond; Gupta, Anshul; Hop, Cornelis E C A; Salphati, Laurent; Shukla, Suneet; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Unadkat, Jashvant D

2014-01-01

306

Multidrug-resistant Human Sarcoma Cells with a Mutant P-Glycoprotein, Altered Phenotype, and Resistance to Cyclosporins*  

E-print Network

, and Resistance to Cyclosporins* (Received for publication, August 22, 1996, and in revised form, December 10 and the cyclosporin D analogue PSC 833, a potent inhibitor of the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein. The variant Dx. The multidrug resistance phenotype of DxP cells is not mod- ulated by 2 M PSC 833 or cyclosporine. DxP cells man

Ford, James

307

Modulation of P-glycoprotein expression and function by curcumin in multidrug-resistant human KB cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a phenomenon that is often associated with decreased intracellular drug accumulation in the tumor cells of a patient, resulting from enhanced drug efflux. It is often related to the overexpression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) on the surface of tumor cells, thereby reducing drug cytotoxicity. In this study, curcumin was tested for its potential ability to modulate the

Songyot Anuchapreeda; Pranee Leechanachai; Melissa M Smith; Suresh V Ambudkar; Porn-ngarm Limtrakul

2002-01-01

308

Caco-2 permeability, P-glycoprotein transport ratios and brain penetration of heterocyclic drugs.  

PubMed

In this study the gastrointestinal absorption and P-glycoprotein (Pgp) efflux transport of heterocyclic drugs was investigated with the Caco-2 cell model. Based on the calculation of the physico-chemical properties a good oral absorption was predicted for all the drugs tested in this study which corresponded well with the measured Caco-2 permeabilities (Papp). Generally a high permeability of the tested heterocyclic drugs was measured being in agreement with earlier published human in vivo absorption data. Based on the transport data of domperidone and verapamil it was found that the Pgp efflux transporter was expressed in the Caco-2 cells. Many of the drugs tested were indicated to be potential Pgp efflux substrates. Since Pgp is expressed at the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) as well, it was expected that CNS penetration will be impaired if a drug is a Pgp substrate. However, no correlation could be found between brain penetration in rats and the Pgp efflux ratio as measured with the Caco-2 cells. From the data it is concluded that Pgp efflux ratio's as determined in in vitro High Throughput Screening (HTS) tests, where the transport conditions are fixed (pH gradient, concentration, etc.), cannot routinely be used to predict a possible limited brain penetration. PMID:12954186

Faassen, Fried; Vogel, Gerard; Spanings, Henry; Vromans, Herman

2003-09-16

309

Differential effects of mitomycin C and doxorubicin on P-glycoprotein expression.  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have demonstrated that mitomycin C (MMC) and other DNA cross-linking agents can suppress MDR1 (multidrug resistance 1) gene expression and subsequent functional P-glycoprotein (Pgp) expression, whereas doxorubicin and other anthracyclines increase MDR1 gene expression. In the present study, with stably transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney C7 epithelial cells expressing a human Pgp tagged with green fluorescent protein under the proximal human MDR1 gene promoter, we demonstrated that MMC and doxorubicin have differential effects on Pgp expression and function. Doxorubicin caused a progressive increase in the cell-surface expression of Pgp and function. In contrast, MMC initially increased plasma membrane expression and function at a time when total cellular Pgp was constant and Pgp mRNA expression had been shown to be suppressed. This was followed by a rapid and sustained decrease in cell-surface expression at later times, presumably as a consequence of the initial decrease in mRNA expression. These studies imply that there are at least two independent chemosensitive steps that can alter Pgp biogenesis: one at the level of mRNA transcription and the other at the level of Pgp trafficking. Understanding the combined consequences of these two mechanisms might lead to novel chemotherapeutic approaches to overcoming drug resistance in human cancers by altering either Pgp mRNA expression or trafficking to the membrane. PMID:11311122

Maitra, R; Halpin, P A; Karlson, K H; Page, R L; Paik, D Y; Leavitt, M O; Moyer, B D; Stanton, B A; Hamilton, J W

2001-01-01

310

Correlation between loss of efficacy of macrocyclic lactone heartworm anthelmintics and P-glycoprotein genotype.  

PubMed

Macrocyclic lactone (ML) molecules have been used for heartworm control for more than 25 years. However, in recent years, there have been reports of loss of efficacy of ML heartworm preventatives against Dirofilaria immitis in some locations in the United States. Macrocyclic lactone resistance is a common problem in nematode parasites of livestock, and more recently, evidence of ivermectin resistance has been reported in the human filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus. In this study, four D. immitis sample groups from the United States with different treatment histories were investigated for evidence of ML-driven genetic selection. DNA from individual adult worms and microfilariae was amplified by polymerase chain reaction to investigate a gene encoding a P-glycoprotein, a protein class known to be involved in ML pharmacology. A significant correlation of a GG-GG genotype with ivermectin response phenotype was found. Moreover, a significant loss of heterozygosity was found in a low responder group; loss of heterozygosity is commonly seen in loci when a population has been under selection. Further studies are required to confirm ML resistance in heartworm populations. However, the genetic changes observed in this study may be useful as a marker to monitor for ML resistance in D. immitis. PMID:21300438

Bourguinat, Catherine; Keller, Kathy; Blagburn, Byron; Schenker, Rudolf; Geary, Timothy G; Prichard, Roger K

2011-03-22

311

Evaluation of the role of P-glycoprotein in ivermectin uptake by primary cultures of bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells  

E-print Network

.4. Cells were maintained at 37°C with 95% humidity and 5% CO2 and were subcultured every 3-4 days at a split ratio of 1:2 to 1:3. Rose, J.M., Peckham, S.L., Scism, J.L., and Audus, K.L. (1998) Evaluation of the role of P-glycoprotein in ivermectin...://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/dspace/. 26 Rose et al., Figure 3 Control CsA Verap A m ou nt ( nm ol /m g) 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 Rose, J.M., Peckham, S.L., Scism, J.L., and Audus, K.L. (1998) Evaluation of the role of P-glycoprotein in ivermectin uptake by primary cultures of bovine...

Rose, Jayna M.; Peckham, Sara L.; Scism, Jamie L.; Audus, Kenneth L.

1998-01-01

312

Multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein hampers the access of cortisol but not of corticosterone to mouse and human brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, we investigated the role of the multidrug resistance (mdr) P-glycoprotein (Pgp) at the blood-brain barrier in the control of access of cortisol and corticosterone to the mouse and human brain. (3H)Cortisol poorly penetrated the brain of adrenalectomized wild- type mice, but the uptake was 3.5-fold enhanced after disruption of Pgp expression in mdr 1a2\\/2 mice. In

A. M. Karssen; O. C. Meijer; Sant van der I. C; P. J. Lucassen; Lange de E. C. M; Boer de A. G. E. M; E. R. Kloet de

2001-01-01

313

Contributions of hepatic and intestinal metabolism and P-glycoprotein to cyclosporine and tacrolimus oral drug delivery  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this section is to evaluate the contributions of hepatic metabolism, intestinal metabolism and intestinal p-glycoprotein to the pharmacokinetics of orally administered cyclosporine and tacrolimus. Cyclosporine and tacrolimus are metabolized primarily by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) in the liver and small intestine. There is also evidence that cyclosporine is metabolized to a lesser extent by cytochrome P450 3A5

M. F Hebert

1997-01-01

314

The Antidepressant Desipramine Requires the ABCB1 (Mdr1)Type p-Glycoprotein to Upregulate the Glucocorticoid Receptor in Mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mechanisms by which antidepressants regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are still unknown. The ABCB1-type multiple drug resistance (MDR) p-glycoprotein (PGP) regulates the HPA axis by limiting the access of glucocorticoids to the brain in mice and humans. Previous work in cell cultures has found that antidepressants enhance glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function in vitro by inhibiting MDR PGP, and therefore

Joyce L W Yau; June Noble; Sarah Thomas; Robert Kerwin; Phillip E Morgan; Stafford Lightman; Jonathan R Seckl; Carmine M Pariante

2007-01-01

315

Amphiphilic carboxymethyl chitosan-quercetin conjugate with P-gp inhibitory properties for oral delivery of paclitaxel.  

PubMed

An amphiphilic carboxymethyl chitosan-quercetin (CQ) conjugate was designed and synthesized for oral delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) to improve its oral bioavailability by increasing its water solubility and bypassing the P-gp drug efflux pumps. CQ conjugate had low critical micelle concentration (55.14 ?g/mL), and could self assemble in aqueous condition to form polymeric micelles (PMs). PTX-loaded CQ PMs displayed a particle size of 185.8 ± 4.6 nm and polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.134 ± 0.056. The drug-loading content (DL) and entrapment efficiency (EE) were 33.62 ± 1.34% and 85.63 ± 1.26%, respectively. Moreover, PTX-loaded CQ PMs displayed similar sustained-release profile in simulated gastrointestinal fluids (pH 1.2/pH 6.8) and PBS (pH 7.4). In situ intestinal absorption experiment showed that PTX-loaded CQ PMs significantly improved the effective permeability of PTX as compared to verapamil (P < 0.01). Likewise, PTX-loaded CQ PMs significantly enhanced the oral bioavailability of PTX, resulting in strong antitumor efficacy against tumor xenograft models with better safety profile as compared to Taxol(®) and Taxol(®) with verapamil. Overall, the results implicate that CQ PMs are promising vehicles for the oral delivery of water-insoluble anticancer drugs. PMID:24927684

Wang, Xiaoying; Chen, Yihang; Dahmani, Fatima Zohra; Yin, Lifang; Zhou, Jianping; Yao, Jing

2014-08-01

316

Identification of an ABCB/P-glycoprotein-specific Inhibitor of Auxin Transport by Chemical Genomics*  

PubMed Central

Plant development and physiology are widely determined by the polar transport of the signaling molecule auxin. This process is controlled on the cellular efflux level catalyzed by members of the PIN (pin-formed) and ABCB (ATP-binding cassette protein subfamily B)/P-glycoprotein family that can function independently and coordinately. In this study, we have identified by means of chemical genomics a novel auxin transport inhibitor (ATI), BUM (2-[4-(diethylamino)-2-hydroxybenzoyl]benzoic acid), that efficiently blocks auxin-regulated plant physiology and development. In many respects, BUM resembles the functionality of the diagnostic ATI, 1-N-naphtylphtalamic acid (NPA), but it has an IC50 value that is roughly a factor 30 lower. Physiological analysis and binding assays identified ABCBs, primarily ABCB1, as key targets of BUM and NPA, whereas PIN proteins are apparently not directly affected. BUM is complementary to NPA by having distinct ABCB target spectra and impacts on basipetal polar auxin transport in the shoot and root. In comparison with the recently identified ATI, gravacin, it lacks interference with ABCB membrane trafficking. Individual modes or targets of action compared with NPA are reflected by apically shifted root influx maxima that might be the result of altered BUM binding preferences or affinities to the ABCB nucleotide binding folds. This qualifies BUM as a valuable tool for auxin research, allowing differentiation between ABCB- and PIN-mediated efflux systems. Besides its obvious application as a powerful weed herbicide, BUM is a bona fide human ABCB inhibitor with the potential to restrict multidrug resistance during chemotherapy. PMID:20472555

Kim, Jun-Young; Henrichs, Sina; Bailly, Aurélien; Vincenzetti, Vincent; Sovero, Valpuri; Mancuso, Stefano; Pollmann, Stephan; Kim, Daehwang; Geisler, Markus; Nam, Hong-Gil

2010-01-01

317

Grapefruit juice enhances intestinal absorption of the P-glycoprotein substrate talinolol.  

PubMed

Grapefruit juice (GFJ) is known to affect the pharmacokinetics of various drugs, presumably mainly via inhibition of oxidative metabolism. In order to evaluate the effect of GFJ on P-glycoprotein-related transport processes, measurements of transport characteristics through Caco-2 monolayers and in vivo drug absorption studies were performed with the transported, yet not metabolized model compound talinolol. Apical-to-basolateral talinolol transport in the Caco-2 model at 1 mM racemate concentration was increased almost 3-fold when GFJ was present (S-talinolol P(eff): 0.16 x 10(-6) vs. 0.61 x 10(-6) cm/s without vs. with GFJ; R-talinolol P(eff): 0.19 x 10(-6) vs. 0.71 x 10(-6) cm/s without vs. with GFJ). In vivo in rats, doubled maximum plasma concentrations, enhanced AUC values (C(max) of S-talinolol: control, 77.5 ng/ml vs. GFJ, 163.6 ng/ml; C(max) of R-talinolol: control, 79.5 ng/ml vs. GFJ, 163.0 ng/ml; AUC of S-talinolol: control, 19.3 microg ml(-1)min vs. GFJ, 29.9 microg ml(-1)min; AUC of R-talinolol: control, 22.2 microg ml(-1)min vs. GFJ, 30.1 microg ml(-1)min), and decreased apparent oral clearances were found for both talinolol enantiomers when GFJ was administered together with a racemic 10 mg/kg b.w. p.o. dose. Furthermore, GFJ tended to accelerate the rate of talinolol input, but did not significantly affect terminal talinolol half-lives. It is concluded that inhibition of intestinal secretion may contribute to bioavailability enhancement upon GFJ intake. PMID:11231102

Spahn-Langguth, H; Langguth, P

2001-02-01

318

P-glycoprotein Mediates Drug Resistance via a Novel Mechanism Involving Lysosomal Sequestration*  

PubMed Central

Localization of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) to the plasma membrane is thought to be the only contributor of Pgp-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR). However, very little work has focused on the contribution of Pgp expressed in intracellular organelles to drug resistance. This investigation describes an additional mechanism for understanding how lysosomal Pgp contributes to MDR. These studies were performed using Pgp-expressing MDR cells and their non-resistant counterparts. Using confocal microscopy and lysosomal fractionation, we demonstrated that intracellular Pgp was localized to LAMP2-stained lysosomes. In Pgp-expressing cells, the Pgp substrate doxorubicin (DOX) became sequestered in LAMP2-stained lysosomes, but this was not observed in non-Pgp-expressing cells. Moreover, lysosomal Pgp was demonstrated to be functional because DOX accumulation in this organelle was prevented upon incubation with the established Pgp inhibitors valspodar or elacridar or by silencing Pgp expression with siRNA. Importantly, to elicit drug resistance via lysosomes, the cytotoxic chemotherapeutics (e.g. DOX, daunorubicin, or vinblastine) were required to be Pgp substrates and also ionized at lysosomal pH (pH 5), resulting in them being sequestered and trapped in lysosomes. This property was demonstrated using lysosomotropic weak bases (NH4Cl, chloroquine, or methylamine) that increased lysosomal pH and sensitized only Pgp-expressing cells to such cytotoxic drugs. Consequently, a lysosomal Pgp-mediated mechanism of MDR was not found for non-ionizable Pgp substrates (e.g. colchicine or paclitaxel) or ionizable non-Pgp substrates (e.g. cisplatin or carboplatin). Together, these studies reveal a new mechanism where Pgp-mediated lysosomal sequestration of chemotherapeutics leads to MDR that is amenable to therapeutic exploitation. PMID:24062304

Yamagishi, Tetsuo; Sahni, Sumit; Sharp, Danae M.; Arvind, Akanksha; Jansson, Patric J.; Richardson, Des R.

2013-01-01

319

Pharmacokinetic drug interactions between apigenin, rutin and paclitaxel mediated by P-glycoprotein in rats.  

PubMed

The aim of present study was to investigate the effects of apigenin and rutin on the pharmacokinetics of paclitaxel after oral administration of paclitaxel with apigenin and rutin to rats. Paclitaxel (40 mg/kg) was administered orally alone and in combination with apigenin and rutin (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) for 15 consecutive days. In the single-dose pharmacokinetic study (SDS), blood samples were collected on 1st day whereas on 15th day in the multiple-dose pharmacokinetic study (MDS). The plasma concentrations of paclitaxel were increased dose-dependently in the combination of apigenin and rutin compared to that of paclitaxel control in SDS and MDS (p < 0.01). The areas under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and the plasma peak concentrations (C max) of paclitaxel with apigenin and rutin were significantly higher (p < 0.01) than that of the control. The AUCs and C max of paclitaxel were increased with apigenin and rutin in the dose-dependent manner. The half-life (t 1/2) was significantly longer than that of the control. Non-everted sacs were filled with paclitaxel 100 ?M in the presence and absence of verapamil (50 ?M), apigenin, and rutin (50, 100 ?M) and incubated at 37 ºC for 60 min. The absorption of paclitaxel was increased in the presence of apigenin, rutin, and verapamil, a typical P-glycoprotein and Cyp3A4 inhibitor. If these results are confirmed in humans in a clinical setting, the paclitaxel dose should be adjusted when it is given concomitantly with apigenin and rutin. PMID:24871039

Kumar, K Kishore; Priyanka, Leena; Gnananath, K; Babu, P Ravindra; Sujatha, S

2014-05-29

320

Heterocyclic cyclohexanone monocarbonyl analogs of curcumin can inhibit the activity of ATP-binding cassette transporters in cancer multidrug resistance.  

PubMed

Curcumin (CUR) is a phytochemical that inhibits the xenobiotic ABC efflux transporters implicated in cancer multidrug resistance (MDR), such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins 1 and 5 (MRP1 and MRP5). The use of CUR in the clinic however, is complicated by its instability and poor pharmacokinetic profile. Monocarbonyl analogs of CUR (MACs) are compounds without CUR's unstable ?-diketone moiety and were reported to have improved stability and in vivo disposition. Whether the MACs can be used as MDR reversal agents is less clear, as the absence of a ?-diketone may negatively impact transporter inhibition. In this study, we investigated 23 heterocyclic cyclohexanone MACs for inhibitory effects against P-gp, BCRP, MRP1 and MRP5. Using flow cytometry and resistance reversal assays, we found that many of these compounds inhibited the transport activity of the ABC transporters investigated, often with much greater potency than CUR. Overall the analogs were most effective at inhibiting BCRP and we identified three compounds, A12 (2,6-bis((E)-2,5-dimethoxy-benzylidene)cyclohexanone), A13 (2,6-bis((E)-4-hydroxyl-3-methoxybenzylidene)-cyclohexanone) and B11 (3,5-bis((E)-2-fluoro-4,5-dimethoxybenzylidene)-1-methylpiperidin-4-one), as the most promising BCRP inhibitors. These compounds inhibited BCRP activity in a non-cell line, non-substrate-specific manner. Their inhibition occurred by direct transporter interaction rather than modulating protein or cell surface expression. From these results, we concluded that MACs, such as the heterocyclic cyclohexanone analogs in this study, also have potential as MDR reversal agents and may be superior alternatives to the unstable parent compound, CUR. PMID:25543853

Revalde, Jezrael L; Li, Yan; Hawkins, Bill C; Rosengren, Rhonda J; Paxton, James W

2015-02-01

321

Tissue Distribution of P-Glycoprotein Encoded by a Multidrug-resistant Gene as Revealed by a Monoclonal Antibody, MRK 16  

Microsoft Academic Search

A monoclonal antibody, MRK 16, specific to a human myelogenous leukemia cell line, K-S62, and resistant to Adriamycin, was used to determine the localization of the antigen molecules (P-glycoprotein) recognized by the monoclonal antibody. P-glycoprotein was found to be expressed very strongly in the adrenal cortex and medulla of adults and strongly in the renal tubules of the kidney and

Isamu Sugawara; Yasuyuki Morishita; Hirofumi Hamad; Takashi Tsuruo; Shinji Itoyama; Shigeo Mori

1988-01-01

322

Expression of the multidrug resistance gene product (P-glycoprotein) in human normal and tumor tissues.  

PubMed

We have characterized the normal human tissue distribution and tumor expression of the human multidrug resistance gene (MDR1) product P-glycoprotein (Pgp) by immunohistochemical staining of frozen tissue sections of human normal and tumor tissues, using three mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAb) which recognize at least two different epitopes of Pgp. Pgp expression on normal human tissues was detected in specialized epithelial cells with secretory/excretory functions, trophoblasts in the placenta, and on endothelial cells of capillary blood vessels at blood-tissue barrier sites. There were significant differences in the staining patterns of these MAb. Mouse MAb HYB-241 and HYB-612 each recognize an extracellular epitope of Pgp, whereas mouse MAb C219 detects a carboxy terminal intracellular epitope and has recently been reported to crossreact with the MDR3 gene product. HYB-241 and HYB-612 strongly stain endothelial cells and trophoblasts, whereas C219 is weakly positive or unreactive on these cells. Likewise, C219 strongly stains the biliary pole of hepatocytes, skeletal and heart muscle fibers, whereas HYB-241 and HYB-612 are unreactive on these cells. Immunopathological studies were performed on a wide variety of human tumors. Pgp expression on human tumors was most commonly detected in colon. renal, and adrenal carcinomas; rarely in lung and gastric carcinomas and certain germ cell tumors; and was undetectable in breast and endometrial carcinomas tested. Few sarcomas and none of the melanomas, neuroblastomas, gliomas, and pheochromocytomas had detectable Pgp expression. Intensity and pattern of staining varied among different cases of a given tumor type; although homogeneous immunoreactivity was observed, heterogeneity of expression in a single histological section was more common. The finding of Pgp expression in a variety of normal tissues with diverse physiological functions suggests that the role of Pgp may not be limited to excretion of xenobiotics. Pgp expression in capillaries of the brain and testis may explain the failure of drugs such as vincristine and actinomycin-D to penetrate into these tissues, allowing them to remain as pharmacological sanctuaries for malignant cells. Although Pgp expression can now be detected in a variety of human tumors, further studies are needed to establish the possible significance of this finding. PMID:1974900

Cordon-Cardo, C; O'Brien, J P; Boccia, J; Casals, D; Bertino, J R; Melamed, M R

1990-09-01

323

Cerebral uptake of mefloquine enantiomers with and without the P-gp inhibitor elacridar (GF1210918) in mice  

PubMed Central

Mefloquine is a chiral neurotoxic antimalarial agent showing stereoselective brain uptake in humans and rats. It is a substrate and an inhibitor of the efflux protein P-glycoprotein. We investigated the stereoselective uptake and efflux of mefloquine in mice, and the consequences of the combination with an efflux protein inhibitor, elacridar (GF120918) on its brain transport. Racemic mefloquine (25 mg kg?1) was administered intraperitoneally with or without elacridar (10 mg kg?1). Six to seven mice were killed at each of 11 time-points between 30 min and 168 h after administration. Blood and brain concentrations of mefloquine enantiomers were determined using liquid chromatography. A three-compartment model with zero-order absorption from the injection site was found to best represent the pharmacokinetics of both enantiomers in blood and brain. (?)Mefloquine had a lower blood and brain apparent volume of distribution and a lower efflux clearance from the brain, resulting in a larger brain/blood ratio compared to (+)mefloquine. Elacridar did not modify blood concentrations or the elimination rate from blood for either enantiomers. However, cerebral AUCinf of both enantiomers were increased, with a stronger effect on (+)mefloquine. The efflux clearance from the brain decreased for both enantiomers, with a larger decrease for (+)mefloquine. After administration of racemic mefloquine in mice, blood and brain pharmacokinetics are stereoselective, (+)mefloquine being excreted from brain more rapidly than its antipode, showing that mefloquine is a substrate of efflux proteins and that mefloquine enantiomers undergo efflux in a stereoselective manner. Moreover, pretreatment with elacridar reduced the brain efflux clearances with a more pronounced effect on (+)mefloquine. PMID:15023856

de Lagerie, Sylvie Barraud; Comets, Emmanuelle; Gautrand, Céline; Fernandez, Christine; Auchere, Daniel; Singlas, Eric; Mentre, France; Gimenez, François

2004-01-01

324

Cytotoxic activity of topotecan in human tumour cell lines and primary cultures of human tumour cells from patients.  

PubMed Central

The cytotoxic activity and cross-resistance pattern of the novel topoisomerase I inhibitor topotecan (Topo) were investigated in ten cell lines, representing different mechanisms of cytotoxic drug resistance, and in 218 fresh human tumour samples using the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA). Resistance to Topo in the cell lines was associated with expression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP), whereas the cell lines with P-glycoprotein (P-gp), topoisomerase II and glutathione-associated resistance did not show decreased sensitivity to the drug. Topo was more active in haematological than in solid tumour samples, but substantial activity was observed in carcinomas of the ovary and breast, sarcoma and childhood solid tumours. Cross-resistance to standard drugs representing different mechanisms of action was generally low in patient cells. The effect of Topo was better after longer exposure, but this time-dependent effect was largely abolished when adjustment for in vitro exposure was made. Topo showed activity both in proliferative and non-proliferative cell systems. The results indicate that Topo is insensitive to major mechanisms of resistance except for MRP. Proliferation does not seem to be necessary for the effect of Topo, and no superiority for protracted dosing schedules was observed. The results also suggest that, for example, leukaemias, lymphomas, sarcomas and childhood solid tumours may be suitable targets for future phase II trials. PMID:9231921

Jonsson, E.; Fridborg, H.; Csóka, K.; Dhar, S.; Sundström, C.; Nygren, P.; Larsson, R.

1997-01-01

325

P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) inhibited network of mitochondrion transport along microtubule and BMP signal-induced cell shape in chimpanzee left cerebrum by systems-theoretical analysis.  

PubMed

We constructed the significant low-expression P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) inhibited transport and signal network in chimpanzee compared with high-expression (fold change ?2) the human left cerebrum in GEO data set, by using integration of gene regulatory activated and inhibited network inference method with gene ontology (GO) analysis. Our result showed that ABCB1 transport and signal upstream network RAB2A inhibited ABCB1, and downstream ABCB1-inhibited SMAD1_2, NCK2, SLC25A46, GDF10, RASGRP1, EGFR, LRPPRC, RASSF2, RASA4, CA2, CBLB, UBR5, SLC25A16, ITGB3BP, DDIT4, PDPN, RAB2A in chimpanzee left cerebrum. We obtained that the different biological processes of ABCB1 inhibited transport and signal network repressed carbon dioxide transport, ER to Golgi vesicle-mediated transport, folic acid transport, mitochondrion transport along microtubule, water transport, BMP signaling pathway, Ras protein signal transduction, transforming growth factor beta receptor signaling pathway in chimpanzee compared with the inhibited network of the human left cerebrum, as a result of inducing inhibition of mitochondrion transport along microtubule and BMP signal-induced cell shape in chimpanzee left cerebrum. Our hypothesis was verified by the same and different biological processes of ABCB1 inhibited transport and signal network of chimpanzee compared with the corresponding activated network of chimpanzee and the human left cerebrum, respectively. PMID:22674380

Lin, Hong; Wang, Lin; Jiang, Minghu; Huang, Juxiang; Qi, Lianxiu

2012-10-01

326

Volume regulation in NIH/3T3 cells not expressing P-glycoprotein. I. Regulatory volume decrease.  

PubMed

Exposure of NIH/3T3 fibroblasts not expressing P-glycoprotein to 50, 30, 20, and 10% hyposmotic solutions led to cell volume increases of 70, 32, 21, and 12%, respectively. After swelling, NIH/3T3 cells exhibited regulatory volume decrease (RVD), attaining complete volume recovery after 30 min except in 50% hyposmotic solution, in which volume recovery was 76%. RVD was accelerated by gramicidin and inhibited by the Cl channel blockers 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid, 1,9-dideoxyforskolin, dipyridamole, and niflumic acid and by the K channel, blocker quinidine. RVD was reduced 15% by removal of extracellular Ca. The pathway opened by hypotonicity was highly permeable to K and Rb and only partly permeable to other cations. Most anions were able to permeate, with a permeability ranking of nitrate > benzoate = iodide > thiocyanate > chloride > > gluconate. The pathway was permeable to neutral amino acids, with a permeability ranking of glycine > alanine > glutamate > taurine > gamma-aminobutyric acid > glutamine. The pathway was not permeable to basic amino acids. These results show that, despite the absence of P-glycoprotein, NIH/3T3 cells exhibit RVD with properties similar to those expressed in most cell types. PMID:9227407

Pasantes-Morales, H; Sánchez Olea, R; Miranda, D; Morán, J

1997-06-01

327

Multidrug resistance proteins: role of P-glycoprotein, MRP1, MRP2, and BCRP (ABCG2) in tissue defense  

SciTech Connect

In tumor cell lines, multidrug resistance is often associated with an ATP-dependent decrease in cellular drug accumulation which is attributed to the overexpression of certain ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins. ABC proteins that confer drug resistance include (but are not limited to) P-glycoprotein (gene symbol ABCB1), the multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1, gene symbol ABCC1), MRP2 (gene symbol ABCC2), and the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, gene symbol ABCG2). In addition to their role in drug resistance, there is substantial evidence that these efflux pumps have overlapping functions in tissue defense. Collectively, these proteins are capable of transporting a vast and chemically diverse array of toxicants including bulky lipophilic cationic, anionic, and neutrally charged drugs and toxins as well as conjugated organic anions that encompass dietary and environmental carcinogens, pesticides, metals, metalloids, and lipid peroxidation products. P-glycoprotein, MRP1, MRP2, and BCRP/ABCG2 are expressed in tissues important for absorption (e.g., lung and gut) and metabolism and elimination (liver and kidney). In addition, these transporters have an important role in maintaining the barrier function of sanctuary site tissues (e.g., blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebral spinal fluid barrier, blood-testis barrier and the maternal-fetal barrier or placenta). Thus, these ABC transporters are increasingly recognized for their ability to modulate the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, and toxicity of xenobiotics. In this review, the role of these four ABC transporter proteins in protecting tissues from a variety of toxicants is discussed. Species variations in substrate specificity and tissue distribution of these transporters are also addressed since these properties have implications for in vivo models of toxicity used for drug discovery and development.

Leslie, Elaine M. [Division of Drug Delivery and Disposition, School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 27599 (United States); Deeley, Roger G. [Cancer Research Laboratories, Queen's University, 3rd Floor, Botterell Hall, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada); Cole, Susan P.C. [Cancer Research Laboratories, Queen's University, 3rd Floor, Botterell Hall, Kingston, Ontario, K7L 3N6 (Canada)]. E-mail: coles@post.queensu.ca

2005-05-01

328

Temozolomide downregulates P-glycoprotein expression in glioblastoma stem cells by interfering with the Wnt3a/glycogen synthase-3 kinase/?-catenin pathway  

PubMed Central

Background Glioblastoma multiforme stem cells display a highly chemoresistant phenotype, whose molecular basis is poorly known. We aim to clarify this issue and to investigate the effects of temozolomide on chemoresistant stem cells. Methods A panel of human glioblastoma cultures, grown as stem cells (neurospheres) and adherent cells, was used. Results Neurospheres had a multidrug resistant phenotype compared with adherent cells. Such chemoresistance was overcome by apparently noncytotoxic doses of temozolomide, which chemosensitized glioblastoma cells to doxorubicin, vinblastine, and etoposide. This effect was selective for P-glycoprotein (Pgp) substrates and for stem cells, leading to an investigation of whether there was a correlation between the expression of Pgp and the activity of typical stemness pathways. We found that Wnt3a and ABCB1, which encodes for Pgp, were both highly expressed in glioblastoma stem cells and reduced by temozolomide. Temozolomide-treated cells had increased methylation of the cytosine–phosphate–guanine islands in the Wnt3a gene promoter, decreased expression of Wnt3a, disrupted glycogen synthase-3 kinase/?-catenin axis, reduced transcriptional activation of ABCB1, and a lower amount and activity of Pgp. Wnt3a overexpression was sufficient to transform adherent cells into neurospheres and to simultaneously increase proliferation and ABCB1 expression. On the contrary, glioblastoma stem cells silenced for Wnt3a lost the ability to form neurospheres and reduced at the same time the proliferation rate and ABCB1 levels. Conclusions Our work suggests that Wnt3a is an autocrine mediator of stemness, proliferation, and chemoresistance in human glioblastoma and that temozolomide may chemosensitize the stem cell population by downregulating Wnt3a signaling. PMID:23897632

Riganti, Chiara; Salaroglio, Iris Chiara; Caldera, Valentina; Campia, Ivana; Kopecka, Joanna; Mellai, Marta; Annovazzi, Laura; Bosia, Amalia; Ghigo, Dario; Schiffer, Davide

2013-01-01

329

Co-amplification of double minute chromosomes, multiple drug resistance, and cell surface P-glycoprotein in DNA-mediated transformants of mouse cells.  

PubMed Central

A genetic system comprised of mammalian cell mutants which demonstrate concomitant resistance to a number of unrelated drugs has been described previously. The resistance is due to reduced cell membrane permeability and is correlated with the presence of large amounts of a plasma membrane glycoprotein termed P-glycoprotein. This system could represent a model for multiple drug resistance which develops in cancer patients treated with chemotherapeutic drugs. We demonstrate here that the multiple drug resistance phenotype can be transferred to mouse cells with DNA from a drug-resistant mutant and then amplified quantitatively by culture in media containing increasing concentrations of drug. The amount of P-glycoprotein was correlated directly with the degree of drug resistance in the transformants and amplified transformants. In addition, the drug resistance and expression of P-glycoprotein of the transformants were unstable and associated quantitatively with the number of double minute chromosomes. We suggest that the gene for multiple drug resistance and P-glycoprotein is contained in these extrachromosomal particles and is amplified by increases in double minute chromosome number. The potential use of this system for manipulation of mammalian genes in general is discussed. Images PMID:6144041

Robertson, S M; Ling, V; Stanners, C P

1984-01-01

330

Predicting P-Glycoprotein Effects on Oral Absorption: Correlation of Transport in Caco-2 with Drug Pharmacokinetics in Wild-Type and mdr1a(-\\/-) Mice in Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose. Cell-based permeability screens are widely used to identify drug-P-glycoprotein (PGP) interaction in vitro. However, their reliability in predicting the impact of PGP on human drug pharmacokinetics is poorly defined. The aim was to determine whether a quantitative relationship exists between PGP-mediated alterations in Caco-2 permeability and oral pharmacokinetics in mice.

Andrew Collett; Jolanta Tanianis-Hughes; David Hallifax; Geoff Warhurst

2004-01-01

331

BBA, a Synthetic Derivative of 23-hydroxybutulinic Acid, Reverses Multidrug Resistance by Inhibiting the Efflux Activity of MRP7 (ABCC10)  

PubMed Central

Natural products are frequently used for adjuvant chemotherapy in cancer treatment. 23-O-(1,4'-bipiperidine-1-carbonyl) betulinic acid (BBA) is a synthetic derivative of 23-hydroxybutulinic acid (23-HBA), which is a natural pentacyclic triterpene and the major active constituent of the root of Pulsatillachinensis. We previously reported that BBA could reverse P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1)-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR). In the present study, we investigated whether BBA has the potential to reverse multidrug resistance protein 7 (MRP7/ABCC10)-mediated MDR. We found that BBA concentration-dependently enhanced the sensitivity of MRP7-transfected HEK293 cells to paclitaxel, docetaxel and vinblastine. Accumulation and efflux experiments demonstrated that BBA increased the intracellular accumulation of [3H]-paclitaxel by inhibiting the efflux of [3H]-paclitaxel from HEK293/MRP7 cells. In addition, immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analyses indicated no significant alteration of MRP7 protein expression and localization in plasma membranes after treatment with BBA. These results demonstrate that BBA reverses MRP7-mediated MDR through blocking the drug efflux function of MRP7 without affecting the intracellular ATP levels. Our findings suggest that BBA has the potential to be used in combination with conventional chemotherapeutic agents to augment the response to chemotherapy. PMID:24069321

Chen, Jun-Jiang; Patel, Atish; Sodani, Kamlesh; Xiao, Zhi-Jie; Tiwari, Amit K.; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Li, Ying-Jie; Yang, Dong-Hua; Ye, Wen-Cai; Chen, Si-Dong; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

2013-01-01

332

Identification of an ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein)-positive carfilzomib-resistant myeloma subpopulation by the pluripotent stem cell fluorescent dye CDy1.  

PubMed

Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by the malignant expansion of differentiated plasma cells. Although many chemotherapeutic agents display cytotoxic activity toward MM cells, patients inevitably succumb to their disease because the tumor cells become resistant to the anticancer drugs. The cancer stem cell hypothesis postulates that a small subpopulation of chemotherapy-resistant cancer cells is responsible for propagation of the tumor. Herein we report that efflux of the pluripotent stem cell dye CDy1 identifies a subpopulation in MM cell lines characterized by increased expression of P-glycoprotein, a member of the ABC (ATP-binding cassette) superfamily of transporters encoded by ABCB1. We also demonstrate that ABCB1-overexpressing MM cells are resistant to the second-generation proteasome inhibitor carfilzomib that recently received accelerated approval for the treatment of therapy-refractive MM by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Moreover, increased resistance to carfilzomib in sensitive MM cells following drug selection was associated with upregulation of ABCB1 cell-surface expression which correlated with increased transporter activity as measured by CDy1 efflux. We further show that chemosensitization of MM cells to carfilzomib could be achieved in vitro by cotreatment with vismodegib, a hedgehog pathway antagonist which is currently in MM clinical trials. CDy1 efflux may therefore be a useful assay to determine whether high expression of ABCB1 is predictive of poor clinical responses in MM patients treated with carfilzomib. Our data also suggest that inclusion of vismodegib might be a potential strategy to reverse ABCB1-mediated drug resistance should it occur. PMID:23475625

Hawley, Teresa S; Riz, Irene; Yang, Wenjing; Wakabayashi, Yoshiyuki; Depalma, Louis; Chang, Young-Tae; Peng, Weiqun; Zhu, Jun; Hawley, Robert G

2013-04-01

333

Alkyl-Lysophospholipid Resistance in Multidrug-Resistant Leishmania tropica and Chemosensitization by a Novel P-Glycoprotein-Like Transporter Modulator  

PubMed Central

Drug resistance has emerged as a major impediment in the treatment of leishmaniasis. Alkyl-lysophospholipids (ALP), originally developed as anticancer drugs, are considered to be the most promising antileishmanial agents. In order to anticipate probable clinical failure in the near future, we have investigated possible mechanisms of resistance to these drugs in Leishmania spp. The results presented here support the involvement of a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily, the Leishmania P-glycoprotein-like transporter, in the resistance to ALP. (i) First, a multidrug resistance (MDR) Leishmania tropica line overexpressing a P-glycoprotein-like transporter displays significant cross-resistance to the ALP miltefosine and edelfosine, with resistant indices of 9.2- and 7.1-fold, respectively. (ii) Reduced expression of P-glycoprotein in the MDR line correlates with a significant decrease in ALP resistance. (iii) The ALP were able to modulate the P-glycoprotein-mediated resistance to daunomycin in the MDR line. (iv) We have found a new inhibitor of this transporter, the sesquiterpene C-3, that completely sensitizes MDR parasites to ALP. (v) Finally, the MDR line exhibits a lower accumulation than the wild-type line of bodipy-C5-PC, a fluorescent analogue of phosphatidylcholine that has a structure resembling that of edelfosine. Also, C-3 significantly increases the accumulation of the fluorescent analogue to levels similar to those of wild-type parasites. The involvement of the Leishmania P-glycoprotein-like transporter in resistance to drugs used in the treatment of leishmaniasis also supports the importance of developing new specific inhibitors of this ABC transporter. PMID:11502516

Pérez-Victoria, José M.; Pérez-Victoria, F. Javier; Parodi-Talice, Adriana; Jiménez, Ignacio A.; Ravelo, Angel G.; Castanys, Santiago; Gamarro, Francisco

2001-01-01

334

Reduced ABCB1 Expression and Activity in the Presence of Acrylic Copolymers  

PubMed Central

Purpose: P-glycoprotein (P-gp; ABCB1), an integral membrane protein in the apical surface of human intestinal epithelial cells, plays a crucial role in the intestinal transport and efflux leading to changes in the bioavailability of oral pharmaceutical compounds. This study was set to examine the potential effects of three Eudragits RL100, S100 and L100 on the intestinal epithelial membrane transport of rhodammine-123 (Rho-123), a substrate of P-gp using a monolayer of human colon cancer cell line (Caco-2). Methods: The least non-cytotoxic concentrations of the excipients were assessed in Caco-2 cells by the MTT assay. Then the transepithelial transport of Rho-123 across Caco-2 monolayers was determined with a fluorescence spectrophotometer. Besides, the expression of the P-gp in cells exposed to the polymers was demonstrated using Western-blotting analysis. Results: Treatment of cells with Eudragit RL100 and L100 led to a very slight change while Eudragit S100 showed 61% increase in Rho-123 accumulation (P<0.001) and also reduced transporter expression. Conclusion: Our studies suggest that using proper concentrations of the Eudragit S100 in drug formulation would improve intestinal permeability and absorption of p-gp substrate drugs. PMID:24754004

Mohammadzadeh, Ramin; Baradaran, Behzad; Valizadeh, Hadi; Yousefi, Bahman; Zakeri-Milani, Parvin

2014-01-01

335

P-glycoprotein overexpression cannot explain the complete doxorubicin-resistance phenotype in rat glioblastoma cell lines.  

PubMed

We have associated pharmacological studies to a semi-quantitative evaluation of P-glycoprotein(s) expression, to establish if classical multidrug resistance (MDR) could account for the complete resistance phenotype exhibited by progressively doxorubicin-resistant rat glioblastoma cells. Three resistant variants (C6 0.001, C6 0.1 and C6 0.5) of the C6 glioblastoma cell line (C6 S) were selected by long-term culture in the presence of three concentrations of doxorubicin (0.001, 0.1 and 0.5 microgram.ml-1 respectively). The degree of doxorubicin resistance was respectively 7, 33 and 400, and all the cell variants were cross-resistant to m-AMSA, etoposide and vincristine. Doxorubicin incorporation was reduced similarly in all resistant cells, irrespective of the level of resistance. When exposed to their respective doxorubicin IC50, the 7-fold resistant cells had the same intracellular drug incorporation as the sensitive cells, whereas the 33-fold and 400-fold resistant cells could incorporate respectively 3.7 and 17 times more drug. The ratio of doxorubicin exposures required for 50% DNA synthesis inhibition and 50% growth inhibition was dependent on the degree of resistance; this ratio was 12.8 in C6 S, 11.6 in C6 0.001, 6.3 in C6 0.1 and 1.8 in C6 0.5. P-glycoprotein(s) overexpression was of the same magnitude as the resistance factor in variants C6 0.001 and C6 0.1, but was lower than resistance factor in variant C6 0.5. Reversal of drug incorporation by verapamil was complete in all resistant cell lines; however, reversal of doxorubicin cytotoxicity was complete only in the 7-fold resistant line and was only partial in the most resistant lines, which remained 10-fold and 20-fold resistant to doxorubicin. These results suggest that classical MDR was the first phenotype selected by doxorubicin in C6 0.001, whereas mechanism(s) of doxorubicin resistance other than classical MDR are added in the most resistant lines. PMID:1348623

Huet, S; Schott, B; Robert, J

1992-04-01

336

P-glycoprotein overexpression cannot explain the complete doxorubicin-resistance phenotype in rat glioblastoma cell lines.  

PubMed Central

We have associated pharmacological studies to a semi-quantitative evaluation of P-glycoprotein(s) expression, to establish if classical multidrug resistance (MDR) could account for the complete resistance phenotype exhibited by progressively doxorubicin-resistant rat glioblastoma cells. Three resistant variants (C6 0.001, C6 0.1 and C6 0.5) of the C6 glioblastoma cell line (C6 S) were selected by long-term culture in the presence of three concentrations of doxorubicin (0.001, 0.1 and 0.5 microgram.ml-1 respectively). The degree of doxorubicin resistance was respectively 7, 33 and 400, and all the cell variants were cross-resistant to m-AMSA, etoposide and vincristine. Doxorubicin incorporation was reduced similarly in all resistant cells, irrespective of the level of resistance. When exposed to their respective doxorubicin IC50, the 7-fold resistant cells had the same intracellular drug incorporation as the sensitive cells, whereas the 33-fold and 400-fold resistant cells could incorporate respectively 3.7 and 17 times more drug. The ratio of doxorubicin exposures required for 50% DNA synthesis inhibition and 50% growth inhibition was dependent on the degree of resistance; this ratio was 12.8 in C6 S, 11.6 in C6 0.001, 6.3 in C6 0.1 and 1.8 in C6 0.5. P-glycoprotein(s) overexpression was of the same magnitude as the resistance factor in variants C6 0.001 and C6 0.1, but was lower than resistance factor in variant C6 0.5. Reversal of drug incorporation by verapamil was complete in all resistant cell lines; however, reversal of doxorubicin cytotoxicity was complete only in the 7-fold resistant line and was only partial in the most resistant lines, which remained 10-fold and 20-fold resistant to doxorubicin. These results suggest that classical MDR was the first phenotype selected by doxorubicin in C6 0.001, whereas mechanism(s) of doxorubicin resistance other than classical MDR are added in the most resistant lines. Images Figure 3 PMID:1348623

Huet, S.; Schott, B.; Robert, J.

1992-01-01

337

Novel tablet formulation of amorphous candesartan cilexetil solid dispersions involving P-gp inhibition for optimal drug delivery: in vitro and in vivo evaluation.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to develop a novel tablet formulation of amorphous candesartan cilexetil (CAN) solid dispersion involving effective P-gp inhibition for optimal drug delivery by direct compression (DC) method. Methods: To accomplish DC, formulation blends were evaluated for micromeritic properties. The Carr index, Hausner ratio, flow rate and cotangent of the angle ? were determined. The tablets with and without naringin prepared by DC technique were evaluated for average weight, hardness, disintegration time and friability assessments. The drug release profiles were determined to study the dissolution kinetics. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies were conducted in rabbits. Accelerated stability studies were performed for tablets at 40?±?2?°C/75% RH?±?5% for 6 months. Results: FTIR studies confirmed no discoloration, liquefaction and physical interaction between naringin and drug. The results indicated that tablets prepared from naringin presented a dramatic release (82%) in 30?min with a similarity factor (76.18), which is most likely due to the amorphous nature of drug and the higher micromeritic properties of blends. Our findings noticed 1.7-fold increase in oral bioavailability of tablet prepared from naringin with mean Cmax and AUC0-12?h values as 35.81?±?0.13??g/mL and 0.14?±?0.09??g h/mL, respectively. The tablets with and without naringin prepared by DC technique were physically and chemically stable under accelerated stability conditions upon storage for 6 months. Conclusion: These results are attractive for further development of an oral tablet formulation of CAN through P-gp inhibition using naringin, a natural flavonoid as a pharmaceutical excipient. PMID:25080228

Surampalli, Gurunath; Nanjwade, Basavaraj K; Patil, P A; Chilla, Rakesh

2014-07-31

338

Transport of phosphatidylserine via MDR1 (multidrug resistance 1)P-glycoprotein in a human gastric carcinoma cell line.  

PubMed Central

The ATP-binding cassette transporter multidrug resistance 1 P-glycoprotein (MDR1 Pgp) has been implicated with the transport of lipids from the inner to the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane. While this has been unambigously shown for the fluorescent lipid analogues [N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino]hexanoyl (C6-NBD)-phosphatidylcholine, -phosphatidylethanolamine, -sphingomyelin and -glucosylceramide, by using a novel approach we have now found significantly increased outward transport also for C6-NBD-phosphatidylserine (C6-NBD-PS) in EPG85-257 human gastric carcinoma cells overexpressing MDR1 (coding for MDR1 Pgp). The increased transport of C6-NBD-PS is mediated by MDR1 Pgp, shown by transport reduction nearly to the level of controls in the presence of MDR1 Pgp inhibitors [PSC 833, cyclosporin A and dexniguldipine hydrochloride (Dex)]. Addition of MK 571, a specific inhibitor of the MDR protein MRP1, does not decrease transport in either of the two cell lines. The plasma-membrane association of FITC-annexin V, a fluorescent protein conjugate binding PS, is significantly increased in MDR1-overexpressing cells as compared with controls, and can be reduced by an MDR1 Pgp inhibitor. This suggests that MDR1 Pgp transports endogenous PS, the lipid exhibiting the most pronounced transverse asymmetry in the plasma membrane. PMID:12071854

Pohl, Antje; Lage, Hermann; Müller, Peter; Pomorski, Thomas; Herrmann, Andreas

2002-01-01

339

Mitochondrial P-glycoprotein ATPase contributes to insecticide resistance in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera).  

PubMed

Cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is one of the most damaging polyphagous pests worldwide, which has developed high levels of resistance to commonly applied insecticides. Mitochondrial P-glycoprotein (Pgp) was detected in the insecticide-resistant strain of H. armigera using C219 antibodies, and its possible role was demonstrated in the efflux of xenobiotic compounds using spectrofluorometer. The TMR accumulated in mitochondria in the absence of ATP, and effluxed out in presence of ATP; the process of efflux was inhibited in the presence of ortho-vandate, an inhibitor of Pgp, in insecticide-resistant larvae of H. armigera. The mitochondria isolated from insecticide-resistant larvae were resistant to insecticide-induced inhibition of oxygen consumption and cytochrome c release. Membrane potential decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of higher concentration of insecticides (>50 µM) in mitochondria of insecticide-resistant larvae. In conclusion, mitochondrial Pgp ATPase detected in the insecticide-resistant larvae influenced the efflux of xenobiotic compounds. Pgp might be involved in protecting the mitochondrial DNA and the components of the electron transport chain from damage due to insecticides, and contributing to the resistance to the deleterious effects of insecticides on the growth of insecticide-resistant H. armigera larvae. PMID:24756730

Akbar, S Md; Aurade, Ravindra M; Sharma, H C; Sreeramulu, K

2014-09-01

340

Modulation of the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein: Detection with technetium-99m-sestamibi in vivo  

SciTech Connect

Overexpression of the multidrug resistance (MDR1) P-glycoprotein (Pgp) has been documented in nearly all forms of human cancers and increased levels of Pgp in some tumors correlate with poor response to treatment. Technetium-99m-sestamibi has recently been validated as a Pgp transport substrate. Pgp is also normally expressed along the biliary canalicular surface of hepatocytes and the luminal side of proximal tubule cells in the kidney, while not expressed in heart. Focused on these organs with known Pgp status, we present the findings on {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi showed normal, prompt clearance of the radiotracer from the liver and kidneys relative to the heart. After administration of the Pgp modulator, {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi was selectively retained in the liver and kidneys. Hepatobiliary and renal clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi are Pgp-mediated, and inhibition of Pgp transport in these organs can be successfully imaged using {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi in patients. Similar results might be expected with this and related radiopharmaceuticals for functional imaging of Pgp transport and modulation in tumors. 34 refs., 2 figs.

Luker, G.D.; Fracasso, P.M.; Dobkin, J.; Piwnica-Worms, D. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

1997-03-01

341

Multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein hampers the access of cortisol but not of corticosterone to mouse and human brain.  

PubMed

In the present study, we investigated the role of the multidrug resistance (mdr) P-glycoprotein (Pgp) at the blood-brain barrier in the control of access of cortisol and corticosterone to the mouse and human brain. [(3)H]Cortisol poorly penetrated the brain of adrenalectomized wild-type mice, but the uptake was 3.5-fold enhanced after disruption of Pgp expression in mdr 1a(-/-) mice. In sharp contrast, treatment with [(3)H]corticosterone revealed high labeling of brain tissue without difference between both genotypes. Interestingly, human MDR1 Pgp also differentially transported cortisol and corticosterone. LLC-PK1 monolayers stably transfected with MDR1 complementary DNA showed polar transport of [(3)H]cortisol that could be blocked by a specific Pgp blocker, whereas [(3)H]corticosterone transport did not differ between transfected and host cells. Determination of the concentration of both steroids in extracts of human postmortem brain tissue using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry revealed that the ratio of corticosterone over cortisol in the brain was significantly increased relative to plasma. In conclusion, the data demonstrate that in both mouse and human brain the penetration of cortisol is less than that of corticosterone. This finding suggests a more prominent role for corticosterone in control of human brain function than hitherto recognized. PMID:11356720

Karssen, A M; Meijer, O C; van der Sandt, I C; Lucassen, P J; de Lange, E C; de Boer, A G; de Kloet, E R

2001-06-01

342

PGP4, an ATP Binding Cassette P-Glycoprotein, Catalyzes Auxin Transport in Arabidopsis thaliana RootsW?  

PubMed Central

Members of the ABC (for ATP binding cassette) superfamily of integral membrane transporters function in cellular detoxification, cell-to-cell signaling, and channel regulation. More recently, members of the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (MDR/PGP) subfamily of ABC transporters have been shown to function in the transport of the phytohormone auxin in both monocots and dicots. Here, we report that the Arabidopsis thaliana MDR/PGP PGP4 functions in the basipetal redirection of auxin from the root tip. Reporter gene studies showed that PGP4 was strongly expressed in root cap and epidermal cells. PGP4 exhibits apolar plasma membrane localization in the root cap and polar localization in tissues above. Root gravitropic bending and elongation as well as lateral root formation were reduced in pgp4 mutants compared with the wild type. pgp4 exhibited reduced basipetal auxin transport in roots and a small decrease in shoot-to-root transport consistent with a partial loss of the redirective auxin sink in the root. Seedlings overexpressing PGP4 exhibited increased shoot-to-root auxin transport. Heterologous expression of PGP4 in mammalian cells resulted in 1-N-naphthylthalamic acid–reversible net uptake of [3H]indole-3-acetic acid. These results indicate that PGP4 functions primarily in the uptake of redirected or newly synthesized auxin in epidermal root cells. PMID:16243904

Terasaka, Kazuyoshi; Blakeslee, Joshua J.; Titapiwatanakun, Boosaree; Peer, Wendy A.; Bandyopadhyay, Anindita; Makam, Srinivas N.; Lee, Ok Ran; Richards, Elizabeth L.; Murphy, Angus S.; Sato, Fumihiko; Yazaki, Kazufumi

2005-01-01

343

99mTc-MIBI whole body scintigraphy and P-glycoprotein for the prediction of multiple drug resistance in multiple myeloma patients.  

PubMed

Multi-drug resistance (MDR) is a major challenge in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). There is low sensitivity of technetium-99m methoxy isobutyl isonitrile ((99m)Tc-MIBI) whole body scan (WBS) in the detection of active MM lesions, because (99m)Tc-MIBI is washed out from malignant cells in the presence of P-glycoprotein (PGP). The objective of the present cohort study was to evaluate of (99m)Tc-MIBI WBS in the prediction of MDR in MM patients during a course of one year follow up. Thirty four patients with MM (25 male, 9 female of mean age 54.12+/-11.46 years) entered the study. Thirteen patients had no previous history of treatment and 21 had a history of previous chemo-radiotherapy. The diagnosis and staging of the disease were based upon routine laboratory and clinical criteria like bone marrow plasma cell count, serum M component, calcium, albumin, beta(2)-microglobulin. Measurements of PGP and WBS using (99m)Tc-MIBI were performed before initialization of treatment and the response to treatment was assessed one year later. The baseline (99m)Tc-MIBI WBS were considered positive for the detection of active lesions when at least one area of non-physiologic increased activity was noted. The follow up (99m)Tc-MIBI WBS was positive for MDR when the patient had active disease but normal WBS. Our results showed that for WBS, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy in active state for the diagnosis of MDR were 38.9%, 62.5%, 70%, 31.2% and 46.1%, respectively. Also the above values for the detection of MDR, using PGP values were 50%, 50%, 69.2%, 30.8% and 50%, respectively. The relative risk of resistant to multiple regimens of chemotherapy after one year follow up in patients with negative to patients with positive (99m)Tc-MIBI WBS was 1.02 (0.60-1.72). In conclusion, we found a low sensitivity of WBS and of PGP in the detection of MDR in patients with active MM. However, both WBS and PGP have 70% and 69% positive predictive value for MDR. PMID:19936339

Fallahi, Babak; Beiki, Davood; Mousavi, Seyed Asadollah; Gholamrezanezhad, Ali; Eftekhari, Mohammad; Fard-Esfahani, Armaghan; Alimoghaddam, Kamran; Mirpour, Sahar; Eskandarian, Alireza; Saghari, Mohsen

2009-01-01

344

Effect of resveratrol on the pharmacokinetics of oral and intravenous nicardipine in rats: possible role of P-glycoprotein inhibition by resveratrol.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to assess the effect of resveratrol on the bioavailability of nicardipine in rats. Nicardipine was administered orally (12 mg kg(-1)) or intravenously (4 mg kg(-1)) with or without oral administration of resveratrol (0.5, 2.5 or 10 mg kg(-1)). The oral administration of 2.5 or 10 mg kg(-1) of resveratrol significantly increased both the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) (P < 0.01, 111-126%) and the peak plasma concentration (Cmax) (P < 0.01, 105-121%), and significantly decreased the total body clearance (CL/F) (P < 0.01, 52.8-55.8%) of orally administered nicardipine. In contrast, resveratrol did not significantly change the pharmacokinetic parameters of i.v. nicardipine. Resveratrol significantly reduced rhodamine123 efflux via P-gp in MCF-7/ADR cells overexpressing P-gp. Resveratrol also inhibits CYP3A4, suggesting that the enhanced oral bioavailability of nicardipine by resveratrol may result from decreased P-gp-mediated efflux or inhibition of intestinal CYP3A4 metabolism. Based on these results, nicardipine dosage should be adjusted when given with supplements containing resveratrol. PMID:19216231

Choi, Jun-Shik; Choi, Byung-Chul; Kang, Keon Wook

2009-01-01

345

Experimental estimation of the role of P-Glycoprotein in the pharmacokinetic behaviour of telithromycin, a novel ketolide, in comparison with roxithromycin and other macrolides using the Caco-2 cell model  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to examine the transport mechanism of telithromycin in comparison with erythromycin, azithromycin, clarithromy- cin and roxithromycin. METHODS: These antibiotics were examined in Caco-2 cell monolayers in order to dem- onstrate the potential involvement of P-GP in the absorp- tion process, using verapamil as a P-GP competitor. A model using concentration equilibrium conditions was

Jean I. Pachot; Roger P. Botham; Klaus D. Haegele; KinKai Hwang; Rubinah K Chowdhary; Isha Shariff; David Dolphin

2003-01-01

346

Tissue accumulation and toxicity of isothiazolinone in Ctenopharyngodon idellus (grass carp): association with P-glycoprotein expression and location within tissues.  

PubMed

Isothiazolinone is widely used as a broad-spectrum fungicide in various industries, such as oil, paper, pesticide, dyes, tanning and cosmetics. There is an increasing concern over protection of the aquatic environment due to its large-scale use. The acute toxicity (LC50) of isothiazolinone in Ctenopharyngodon idellus was investigated. The residual time and accumulation in tissues, P-glycoprotein mRNA level and localization of P-glycoprotein in the liver and kidney were also analyzed. The LC50 (48 h) values of isothiazolinone to C. idellus were 0.53±0.17 mg/L and 0.41±0.08 mg/L at 15 °C and 25 °C, respectively. The LC50 values decreased as the temperature increased. The accumulation of isothiazolinone in livers and kidneys in the high temperature group (25 °C) was significantly greater than that of the low temperature group (15 °C). Prolonged tissue residual time of isothiazolinone was seen in all the groups. There were significant differences in P-glycoprotein mRNA expression between isothiazolinone-treated groups and control samples (P<0.05-0.01). Temperature affected accumulation and toxicity of isothiazolinone. PMID:24561531

Hu, Kun; Li, Hao-Ran; Ou, Ren-Jian; Li, Chun-Zeng; Yang, Xian-Le

2014-03-01

347

Binding diversity of antibodies against external and internal epitopes of the multidrug resistance gene product P-glycoprotein  

SciTech Connect

P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is a trans-membraneous protein that is associated with multidrug resistance (MDR) in human cancer, including hepatocellular carcinomas and leukemia. There is no consensus regarding methods of choice for analysis of Pgp expression, and development of reliable analytical methods is now essential. We have studied the Pgp expression in human hepatoma and leukemia cell lines using flow cytometry. The aim of the study was to compare binding properties of anti-Pgp antibodies reacting with surface (MRK16, UIC2) and cytoplasmic (C219, JSB-1) epitopes to assess which antibody performed best with respect to fluorescence discrimination. By histogram subtraction the fractions of resistant human hepatoma cells positive for Pgp were 99% (MRK16), 97% (UIC2), 77% (USB-1), and 51% (C219), demonstrating variations in antibody reactivity. The resolution in detecting decreasing levels of Pgp in hepatoma cells was superior for the externally binding antibodies, showing that there is a correlation between antibody reactivity and fluorescence discrimination. Similar results were obtained for parental and resistant KG1a human leukemia cell lines. The Pgp epitopes remained reactive to the anti-Pgp MAbs after methanol fixation and cryopreservation. By dual parameter flow cytometry it was shown that Pgp expression in viable cells may be assessed together with uptake of epirubicin, which was low in cells expressing high levels of Pgp and vice versa. In conclusion, all tested antibodies proved useful for flow cytometric detection of high levels of Pgp, but the externally binding ones were superior in detection of low and variable levels of Pgp. 36 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Lehne, G.; De Angelis, P.; Clausen, O.P.F.; Egeland, T.; Rugstad, H.E. [National Hospital, Oslo (Norway)] [and others

1995-07-01

348

Cytotoxic effect of the cyclosporin PSC 833 in multidrug-resistant leukaemia cells with increased expression of P-glycoprotein.  

PubMed Central

Multidrug resistance (MDR) to anti-cancer agents is frequently associated with overexpression of the drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) in cancer cells, ensuing drug expulsion and maintenance of tolerable intracellular levels of certain cytotoxic drugs. Pgp may also be present in normal tissue, providing protection against toxic substances, but the physiological role of Pgp is not fully understood. Recently, it was shown that Pgp also takes part in the transport of certain growth-regulating cytokines (Drach et al, 1996; Raghu et al, 1996). Therefore, we studied the effect of the highly potent Pgp inhibitor PSC 833 on proliferation of three pairs of MDR and parental human cell lines (HB8065 hepatoma cells, KG1a and K562 leukaemia cells). The MDR phenotypes were characterized by Pgp overexpression, which was demonstrated by flow cytometry using the anti-Pgp antibody MRK16. Electronic cell counting of 72-96 h cultures revealed a dose-dependent antiproliferative effect of PSC 833 in the resistant KG1a/200 and K562/150 cells. The half-maximal growth inhibitory concentrations (GI50) were 0.2 microM and 0.7 microM respectively. Exposure to PSC 833 induced cell death by apoptosis in both cell types, as revealed by flow cytometry and detection of 3'-hydroxy ends of DNA (the result of DNA fragmentation associated with apoptosis), by terminal transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labelling (TUNEL). Similar effects were not found in the hepatoma cell lines or the parental leukaemia lines. These results demonstrated a discriminating cytotoxicity of PSC 833 in two human leukaemia MDR variants, representing a possible therapeutic indication which warrants consideration during the ongoing clinical evaluation of this drug. Images Figure 8 PMID:9744497

Lehne, G.; Rugstad, H. E.

1998-01-01

349

Genetic Variants and Increased Expression of Parascaris equorum P-glycoprotein-11 in Populations with Decreased Ivermectin Susceptibility  

PubMed Central

Macrocyclic lactones (MLs) represent the major drug class for control of parasitic infections in humans and animals. However, recently reports of treatment failures became more frequent. In addition to human and ruminant parasitic nematodes this also is the case for the horse-nematode Parascaris equorum. Nevertheless, to date the molecular basis of ML resistance is still not understood. Unspecific resistance mechanisms involving transporters such as P-glycoproteins (Pgps) are expected to contribute to ML resistance in nematodes. Here, complete sequences of two P. equorum Pgps were cloned and identified as orthologs of Caenorhabditis elegans Ppg-11 and an unnamed Caenorhabditis briggsae Pgp designated as Pgp-16 using phylogenetic analysis. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to compare expression between tissues. Significantly higher PeqPgp-11 expression was found in the gut for both genders, whereas for PeqPgp-16 the body wall was identified as predominant expression site. Furthermore, Pgps were analyzed regarding their participation in resistance development. Using SeqDoC analyses, Pgp-sequences of P. equorum populations with different ML susceptibility were compared. This approach revealed three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) causing missense mutations in the PeqPgp-11 sequence which correlated with decreased ML susceptibility. However, no resistance associated differences in mRNA expression levels were detected between embryonated eggs of these populations. In contrast, comparison of two pre-adult groups with different ivermectin (IVM) susceptibility revealed the presence of the three SNPs and in addition statistically significant PeqPgp-11 overexpression in the group of worms with reduced susceptibility. These results indicate that Pgp-11 might be involved in IVM resistance in P. equorum as it shows increased expression in an IVM exposed life-cycle stage of an IVM resistant population as well as occurrence of putatively resistance associated SNPs in populations with reduced IVM susceptibility. These SNPs are promising diagnostic candidates for detection of ML resistance with potential also for other parasitic nematode species. PMID:23637871

Janssen, I. Jana I.; Krücken, Jürgen; Demeler, Janina; Basiaga, Marta; Korna?, S?awomir; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

2013-01-01

350

The Dual Cyclooxygenase/5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitor Licofelone Attenuates P-Glycoprotein-Mediated Drug Resistance in the Injured Spinal Cord  

PubMed Central

Abstract There are currently no proven effective treatments that can improve recovery of function in spinal cord injury (SCI) patients. Many therapeutic compounds have shown promise in pre-clinical studies, but clinical trials have been largely unsuccessful. P-glycoprotein (Pgp, Abcb1b) is a drug efflux transporter of the blood–spinal cord barrier that limits spinal cord penetration of blood-borne xenobiotics. Pathological Pgp upregulation in diseases such as cancer causes heightened resistance to a broad variety of therapeutic drugs. Importantly, several drugs that have been evaluated for the treatment of SCI, such as riluzole, are known substrates of Pgp. We therefore examined whether Pgp-mediated pharmacoresistance diminishes delivery of riluzole to the injured spinal cord. Following moderate contusion injury at T10 in male Sprague–Dawley rats, we observed a progressive, spatial spread of increased Pgp expression from 3 days to 10 months post-SCI. Spinal cord uptake of i.p.-delivered riluzole was significantly reduced following SCI in wild type but not Abcb1a-knockout rats, highlighting a critical role for Pgp in mediating drug resistance following SCI. Because inflammation can drive Pgp upregulation, we evaluated the ability of the new generation dual anti-inflammatory drug licofelone to promote spinal cord delivery of riluzole following SCI. We found that licofelone both reduced Pgp expression and enhanced riluzole bioavailability within the lesion site at 72?h post-SCI. This work highlights Pgp-mediated drug resistance as an important obstacle to therapeutic drug delivery for SCI, and suggests licofelone as a novel combinatorial treatment strategy to enhance therapeutic drug delivery to the injured spinal cord. PMID:22947335

Dulin, Jennifer N.; Moore, Meredith L.

2013-01-01

351

Development and characterization of P-glycoprotein 1 (Pgp1, ABCB1)-mediated doxorubicin-resistant PLHC-1 hepatoma fish cell line  

SciTech Connect

The development of the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype in mammals is often mediated by the overexpression of the P-glycoprotein1 (Pgp, ABCB1) or multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP)-like ABC transport proteins. A similar phenomenon has also been observed and considered as an important part of the multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) defence system in aquatic organisms. We have recently demonstrated the presence of ABC transporters in the widely used in vitro fish model, the PLHC-1 hepatoma cell line. In the present study we were able to select a highly resistant PLHC-1 sub-clone (PLHC-1/dox) by culturing the wild-type cells in the presence of 1 {mu}M doxorubicin. Using quantitative PCR a 42-fold higher expression of ABCB1 gene was determined in the PLHC-1/dox cells compared to non-selected wild-type cells (PLHC-1/wt). The efflux rates of model fluorescent Pgp1 substrates rhodamine 123 and calcein-AM were 3- to 4-fold higher in the PLHC-1/dox in comparison to the PLHC-1/wt cells. PLHC-1/dox were 45-fold more resistant to doxorubicin cytotoxicity than PLHC-1/wt. Similarly to mammalian cell lines, typical cross-resistance to cytotoxicity of other chemotherapeutics such as daunorubicin, vincristine, vinblastine, etoposide and colchicine, occurred. Furthermore, cyclosporine A, verapamil and PSC833, specific inhibitors of Pgp1 transport activity, completely reversed resistance of PLHC-1/dox cells to all tested drugs, resulting in EC50 values similar to the EC50 values found for PLHC-1/wt. In contrast, MK571, a specific inhibitor of MRP type of efflux transporters, sensitized PLHC-1/dox cells, neither to doxorubicin, nor to any other of the chemotherapeutics used in the study. These data demonstrate for the first time that a specific Pgp1-mediated doxorubicin resistance mechanism is present in the PLHC-1 fish hepatoma cell line. In addition, the fact that low micromolar concentrations of specific inhibitors may completely reverse a highly expressed doxorubicin resistance points to the fragility of Pgp1-mediated MXR defence mechanism in fish.

Zaja, Roko [Laboratory for Molecular Ecotoxicology, Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Caminada, Daniel [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Institute of Ecopreneurship, Gruendenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); University of Zuerich, Institute of Plant Biology, Division of Limnology, Seestrasse 187, CH-8802 Kilchberg (Switzerland); Loncar, Jovica [Laboratory for Molecular Ecotoxicology, Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Fent, Karl [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Institute of Ecopreneurship, Gruendenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Department of Environmental Sciences, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Smital, Tvrtko [Laboratory for Molecular Ecotoxicology, Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail: smital@irb.hr

2008-03-01

352

Nucleotide-induced conformational changes in P-glycoprotein and in nucleotide binding site mutants monitored by trypsin sensitivity.  

PubMed

Limited trypsin digestion was used to monitor nucleotide-induced conformational changes in wild-type P-glycoprotein (Pgp) as well as in nucleotide binding domain (NBD) Pgp mutants. Purified and reconstituted wild-type or mutant mouse Mdr3 Pgps were preincubated with different hydrolyzable or nonhydrolyzable nucleotides, followed by limited proteolytic cleavage at different trypsin:protein ratios. The Pgp tryptic digestion products were separated by SDS-PAGE followed by immunodetection with the mouse monoclonal anti-Pgp antibody C219, which recognizes a conserved epitope (VVQE/AALD) in each half of the protein. Different trypsin digestion patterns were observed for wild-type Pgp incubated with MgCl(2) alone, MgADP, MgAMP.PNP, MgATP, and MgATP + vanadate. A unique trypsin digestion profile suggestive of enhanced resistance to trypsin was observed under conditions of vanadate-induced trapping of nucleotides (MgATP + vanadate). The trypsin sensitivity profiles of Pgp mutants bearing either single or double mutations in Walker A (K429R, K1072R) and Walker B (D551N, D1196N) sequence signatures of NBD1 and NBD2 were analyzed under conditions of vanadate-induced trapping of nucleotides. The proteolytic cleavage pattern observed for the double mutants K429R/K1072R and D551N/D1196N, and for the single mutants K429R, K1072R, and D1196N were similar and clearly distinct from wild-type Pgp under the same conditions. This is consistent with the absence of ATP hydrolysis and of vanadate-induced trapping of 8-azido-ADP previously reported for these mutants [Urbatsch et al. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 4592-4602]. Interestingly, the trypsin digestion profiles observed under vanadate-induced trapping for the D551N and D1196N mutants were quite different, with the D551N mutant showing a profile resembling that seen for wild-type Pgp. The different sensitivity profiles of Pgp mutants bearing mutations at the homologous residue in NBD1 (D551N) and NBD2 (D1196N) suggest possible structural and functional differences between the two sites. PMID:10758006

Julien, M; Gros, P

2000-04-18

353

Flavonoids: A class of modulators with bifunctional interactions at vicinal ATP- and steroid-binding sites on mouse P-glycoprotein  

PubMed Central

A hexahistidine-tagged C-terminal nucleotide-binding domain (H6-NBD2) from mouse P-glycoprotein was designed, overexpressed, and purified as a highly soluble recombinant protein. Intrinsic fluorescence of its single tryptophan residue allowed monitoring of high-affinity binding of 2?(3?)-N-methylanthraniloyl-ATP (MANT-ATP), a fluorescent ATP derivative that induces a marked quenching correlated to fluorescence resonance-energy transfer. H6-NBD2 also bound all flavonoids known to modulate the multidrug resistance phenotype of P-glycoprotein-positive cancer cells, with similar affinities and relative efficiencies. Flavones (like quercetin or apigenin) bound more strongly than flavanones (naringenin), isoflavones (genistein), or glycosylated derivatives (rutin). Kaempferide, a 4?-methoxy 3,5,7-trihydroxy flavone, was even more reactive and induced a complete quenching of H6-NBD2 intrinsic fluorescence. Kaempferide binding was partly prevented by preincubation with ATP, or partly displaced upon ATP addition. Interestingly, kaempferide was also able to partly prevent the binding of the antiprogestin RU 486 to a hydrophobic region similar to that recently found, close to the ATP site, in the N-terminal cytosolic domain. Conversely, RU 486 partly prevented kaempferide binding, the effect being additive to the partial prevention by ATP. Furthermore, MANT-ATP binding, which occurred at the ATP site and extended to the vicinal steroid-interacting hydrophobic region, was completely prevented or displaced by kaempferide. All results indicate that flavonoids constitute a new class of modulators with bifunctional interactions at vicinal ATP-binding site and steroid-interacting region within a cytosolic domain of P-glycoprotein. PMID:9707561

Conseil, Gwenaelle; Baubichon-Cortay, Helene; Dayan, Guila; Jault, Jean-Michel; Barron, Denis; Di Pietro, Attilio

1998-01-01

354

Effect of high-dose cyclosporine on etoposide pharmacodynamics in a trial to reverse P-glycoprotein ( MDR1 gene) mediated drug resistance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The consequences of using cyclosporine (CsA) therapy to modulate P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance include increased\\u000a myelosuppression, hyperbilirubinemia, and altered disposition of the cytotoxin. The purpose of this study was to analyze further\\u000a the relationship between the degree of leukopenia, and etoposide pharmacokinetic factors. Methods: Each patient initially received intravenously-administered etoposide alone (150–200?mg\\/m2\\/d?×?3). Later it was given in combination with CsA

Bert L. Lum; Sonja Kaubisch; George A. Fisher; Byron W. Brown; Branimir I. Sikic

2000-01-01

355

Alternation of adriamycin penetration kinetics in MCF-7 cells from 2D to 3D culture based on P-gp expression through the Chk2/p53/NF-?B pathway.  

PubMed

Monolayer cells are largely different from tumor masses, and might misguide drug screenings. 3D in vitro cell culture models simulate the characteristics of tumor masses in vivo and have recently been used in many studies of anti-cancer drugs. Among various 3D cell culture models, multi-cellular layer (MCL) models allow for the direct quantitative assessment of the penetration of chemotherapeutic agents through solid tissue environments without requiring the use of fluorescently labeled drugs or imaging molecules. Therefore, in our present study, a 3D-no base and embedded MCF-7 MCL model was successfully developed for a 14-day culture. Over time, its thickness and cell layers increased and exhibited highly proliferative properties and drug resistance to adriamycin (ADR) with markedly elevated IC50 values. Meanwhile, G2/M stage cycle arrest was also observed, which likely up-regulated P-gp expression through the Chk2/p53/NF-?B pathway. The elevated P-gp expression altered the ADR penetration kinetics in MCF-7 MCLs in vitro by accelerating the apparent penetration of ADR through the intercellular spaces of the MCLs. Additionally, a decreased ADR retention within tumor cells was observed, but could be significantly reversed by a P-gp inhibitor. The attenuated ADR retention in the deeper cells of tumor masses was confirmed in xenografted mice in vivo. This phenomenon could be elucidated by the mathematical modeling of penetration kinetics parameters. Our study provided a new model that evaluated and improved the quantification of the drug penetration kinetics, revealed the relationship between P-gp and drug penetration through tumor masses, and suggested the potential molecular mechanisms. PMID:25478729

Lu, Meng; Zhou, Fang; Hao, Kun; Liu, Jiali; Chen, Qianying; Ni, Ping; Zhou, Honghao; Wang, Guangji; Zhang, Jingwei

2015-01-15

356

Discovery of novel second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase mimetics as selective inhibitor of apoptosis protein inhibitors.  

PubMed

Inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP) proteins are widely considered as promising cancer drug targets, especially for drug-resistant tumors. Mimicking the IAP-binding motif of second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (SMAC) is a rational strategy to design potential IAP inhibitors. In this report, we used the bioactive conformation of AVPI tetrapeptide in the N terminus of SMAC as a template and performed a shape-based virtual screening against a drug-like compound library to identify novel IAP inhibitors. Top hits were subsequently docked to available IAP crystal structures as a secondary screening followed by validation using in vitro biologic assays. Four novel hit compounds were identified to potently inhibit cell growth in two human melanoma (A375 and M14) and two human prostate (PC-3 and DU145) cancer cell lines. The best compound, UC-112 [5-((benzyloxy)methyl)-7-(pyrrolidin-1-ylmethyl)quinolin-8-ol], has IC50 values ranging from 0.7 to 3.4 µM. UC-112 also potently inhibits the growth of P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-overexpressed multidrug-resistant cancer cells, strongly activates caspase-3/7 and caspase-9 activities, and selectively downregulates survivin level at a concentration as low as 1 µM. Coincubation of UC-112 with a known proteasome inhibitor Z-Leu-Leu-Leu-CHO (MG-132) rescued survivin inhibition, consistent with the anticipated mechanism of action for UC-112. As a single agent, UC-112 strongly inhibits tumor growth and reduces both X chromosome-linked IAP and survivin levels in an A375 human melanoma xenograft model in vivo. Overall, our study identified novel scaffolds, especially UC-112, as new platforms on which potent and selective IAP antagonists can be developed. PMID:24623800

Wang, Jin; Li, Wei

2014-05-01

357

Nrf2 Upregulates ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Expression and Activity at the Blood–Brain and Blood–Spinal Cord Barriers  

PubMed Central

Activation of nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), a sensor of oxidative stress, is neuroprotective in animal models of cerebral ischemia, traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and spinal cord injury. We show here that Nrf2 activation with sulforaphane (SFN) in vivo or in vitro increases expression and transport activity of three ATP-driven drug efflux pumps at the blood–brain barrier [P-glycoprotein, ATP binding cassette b1 (Abcb1); multidrug resistance-associated protein-2 (Mrp2), Abcc2; and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), Abcg2]. Dosing rats with SFN increased protein expression of all three transporters in brain capillaries and decreased by 50% brain accumulation of the P-glycoprotein substrate verapamil. Exposing rat or mouse brain capillaries to SFN increased P-glycoprotein, Bcrp, and Mrp2 transport activity and protein expression; SFN increased P-glycoprotein activity in mouse spinal cord capillaries. Inhibiting transcription or translation abolished upregulation of P-glycoprotein activity. No such effects were seen in brain capillaries from Nrf2-null mice, indicating Nrf2 dependence. Nrf2 signaled indirectly to increase transporter activity/expression. The p53 inhibitor pifithrin abolished the SFN-induced increase in transporter activity/expression, and the p53-activator nutlin-3 increased P-glycoprotein activity. SFN did not alter P-glycoprotein transport activity in brain and spinal cord capillaries from p53-null mice. Inhibitors of p38 MAPK and nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) blocked the effects of SFN and nutlin-3 on P-glycoprotein activity. These results implicate Nrf2, p53, and NF-?B in the upregulation of P-glycoprotein, Bcrp, and Mrp2 at blood–CNS barriers. They imply that the barriers are tightened selectively (efflux transporter upregulation) by oxidative stress, providing increased neuroprotection, but also reduced penetration of many therapeutic drugs. PMID:24948812

Wang, Xueqian; Campos, Christopher R.; Peart, John C.; Smith, Lindsay K.; Boni, Jessica L.; Cannon, Ronald E.

2014-01-01

358

Some monoclonal antibody reagents (C219 and JSB-1) to P-glycoprotein contain antibodies to blood group A carbohydrate determinants: a problem of quality control for immunohistochemical analysis.  

PubMed

Monoclonal antibodies (MAb) C219 and JSB-1 have been used extensively in the analysis of P-glycoprotein expression in normal and malignant tissues. This study demonstrates that some commercial lots of these MAb, even those supplied as purified immunoglobulins, contain contaminating anti-A blood group antibodies. In both sources of reagent, the antibody was specific for a particular A structure, known as repetitive or Type 3 A. These observations may account for earlier studies showing polymorphic variation in P-glycoprotein expression in epithelial tissues and an apparent correlation with the A blood type of the donor. Such reactivity can be eliminated by absorption of anti-P-glycoprotein reagents with A erythrocytes. These data re-emphasize the importance of evaluating MAb samples for unsuspected contaminating antibodies. PMID:1682363

Finstad, C L; Yin, B W; Gordon, C M; Federici, M G; Welt, S; Lloyd, K O

1991-12-01

359

Apoptosis induction and modulation of P-glycoprotein mediated multidrug resistance by new macrocyclic lathyrane-type diterpenoids.  

PubMed

The macrocyclic lathyrane diterpenes, latilagascenes D-F (1-3) and jolkinol B (4), were isolated from the methanol extract of Euphorbia lagascae, and evaluated for multidrug resistance reversing activity on mouse lymphoma cells. All compounds displayed very strong activity compared with that of the positive control, verapamil. The structure-activity relationship is discussed. The evaluation of compounds 1 and 4, and of latigascenes A-C (5-7), isolated from the same species, as apoptosis-inducers was also carried out. Compound 1 was the most active. Furthermore, in the model of combination chemotherapy, the interaction between the doxorubicine and latilagascene B (6) was studied in vitro, on human MDR1 gene transfected mouse lymphoma cells, showing that the type of interaction was synergistic. Latilagascenes D-F (1-3) are new compounds whose structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR experiments (COSY, HMQC, HMBC and NOESY). PMID:17035027

Duarte, Noélia; Varga, Andras; Cherepnev, Georg; Radics, Rita; Molnár, Joseph; Ferreira, Maria-José U

2007-01-01

360

Effects of rhinacanthin-C on function and expression of drug efflux transporters in Caco-2 cells.  

PubMed

Rhinacanthin-C is a bioactive naphthoquinone ester found in Rhinacanthus nasutus Kurz (Acanthaceae). This compound has potential therapeutic value as an anticancer and antiviral agent. The purposes of this study were to determine the effects of this compound on the function and the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), using the in vitro model of Caco-2 cells. The activities of P-gp and MRP2 were determined by following the intracellular accumulation of calcein and 5(6)-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorofluorescein in the uptake assays with fluorescence spectroscopy. The expression of P-gp after prolonged exposure was evaluated by flow cytometry with the use of a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated anti-human P-gp antibody. Our results showed that the inhibitory effect of rhinacanthin-C was more potent toward P-gp than MRP2, and was reversible. Short-term exposure of Caco-2 cells with rhinacanthin-C (100 ?M) resulted in increase in P-gp expression without any significant change in its function. Extended exposure of Caco-2 cells to the naphthoquinone at the highest non-cytotoxic concentration (0.625 ?M) for 7 days had no effect on the expression and the function of P-gp. These findings suggested that rhinacanthin-C might raise the problem of herb-drug interaction when co-administered with other P-gp substrates. PMID:23742857

Wongwanakul, Ratjika; Vardhanabhuti, Nontima; Siripong, Pongpun; Jianmongkol, Suree

2013-09-01

361

Effect of anthracycline analogs on photolabelling of p-glycoprotein by [125I]iodomycin and [3H]azidopine: relation to lipophilicity and inhibition of daunorubicin transport in multidrug resistant cells.  

PubMed Central

Eight anthracycline analogs that have been shown to modulate multidrug resistance (Friche et al., Biochem. Pharmacol., 39, 1721-1726; 1990) were tested for their inhibitory effect on the photolabelling of P-glycoprotein. We photoaffinity labelled P-glycoprotein in daunorubicin (DNR) resistant Ehrlich ascites tumour cells (EHR2/DNR +) with a [125I]iodinated Bolton-Hunter derivative of daunorubicin ([125I]iodomycin) and with [3H]azidopine. The photolabelling of P-glycoprotein by [125I]iodomycin was inhibited more than 50% by 10 microM (1000-fold molar excess) of DNR (52%), N,N-dibenzyl-DNR (52%), and N-benzyladriamycin-14-valerate (AD-198) (85%). Vincristine at 10 microM inhibited [125I]iodomycin labelling of P-glycoprotein by 95%. Thus vincristine was more potent than any of the eight anthracyclines tested, despite its relatively low lipophilicity. Increasing the concentration of DNR, AD-198 and N,N-dibenzyl-DNR to 40 microM resulted in 90, 99.5 and 99.5% inhibition of P-glycoprotein labelling by [125I]iodomycin, respectively. In comparison with the other anthracycline analogs, N,N-dibenzyl-DNR and Ad-198 were also found to exert the greatest inhibition of [3H]azidopine labelling of P-glycoprotein (about 90% at 100-fold molar excess). The solvents Cremophor EL and Tween 80 (30 micrograms ml-1; 0.003% v/v), which are modulators of multidrug resistance in EHR2/DNR + cells, also inhibited [125I]iodomycin labelling > 90%. We showed earlier that there is a correlation between the lipid solubility within the anthracycline group of MDR-associated drugs and their ability to enhance DNR accumulation in EHR2/DNR + cells but a corresponding correlation to lipophilicity when it comes to the inhibitory effect on the specific photolabelling of Pgp ligand binding sites could not be demonstrated. Neither could a correlation between the modulating effect of the analogs on DNR accumulation and inhibition on the labelling of Pgp be demonstrated. With increasing lipophilicity of the analogs it seems that the chemical structure plays a lesser role, and the degree of lipophilicity becomes a more important feature. Images Figure 2 PMID:8094288

Friche, E.; Demant, E. J.; Sehested, M.; Nissen, N. I.

1993-01-01

362

Bap29varP, a variant of Bap29, influences the cell surface expression of the human P-glycoprotein.  

PubMed

P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a plasma membrane (PM) glycoprotein, is responsible for the development of multidrug resistance. The mechanism by which Pgp is targeted to the PM is not defined. To identify proteins that influence Pgp trafficking, we utilized the yeast two-hybrid analysis procedure, which identified a new isoform of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-bound Bap29, termed Bap29varP, as an interacting protein with the N-terminus of Pgp. The drug-resistant human breast cancer MCF-7 (MCF-7/Adr(R)) cells express both Bap29varP and approximately 170 kDa Pgp, which are however absent in the drug-sensitive MCF-7 cells. When Bap29varP was overexpressed in MCF-7/Adr(R) cells, Pgp was predominantly localized in the ER and intracellular vesicles, suggesting Bap29varP influences Pgp trafficking. When Pgp was expressed in MCF-7 cells, it was exclusively found in the ER with a molecular mass of approximately 160 kDa slightly smaller than that of the molecular mass of Pgp expressed in MCF-7/Adr(R) cells. On the other hand, when Pgp was expressed in Bap29varP-containing human colon adenocarcinoma HT-29 cells, it was localized at the PM. These findings together suggest that Bap29varP acts as an essential chaperone, influencing the processing and trafficking of Pgp to the cell surface. PMID:18097552

Rao, Prema S; Bickel, Ulrich; Srivenugopal, Kalkunte S; Rao, U Subrahmanyeswara

2008-01-01<