Sample records for p-glycoprotein p-gp activity

  1. Risperidone and Paliperidone Inhibit P-Glycoprotein Activity In Vitro

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hao-Jie Zhu; Jun-Sheng Wang; John S Markowitz; Jennifer L Donovan; Bryan B Gibson; C Lindsay DeVane

    2007-01-01

    Risperidone (RSP) and its major active metabolite, 9-hydroxy-risperidone (paliperidone, PALI), are substrates of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The goal of this study was to examine the in vitro effects of RSP and PALI on P-gp-mediated transport. The intracellular accumulation of rhodamine123 (Rh123) and doxorubicin (DOX) were examined in LLC-PK1\\/MDR1 cells to evaluate P-gp inhibition by RSP and PALI. Both

  2. Multidrug-resistance gene 1-type p-glycoprotein (MDR1 p-gp) inhibition by tariquidar impacts on neuroendocrine and behavioral processing of stress

    PubMed Central

    Thoeringer, Christoph K.; Wultsch, Thomas; Shahbazian, Anaid; Painsipp, Evelin; Holzer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The multidrug-resistance gene 1-type p-glycoprotein (MDR1 p-gp) is a major gate-keeper at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), protecting the central nervous system from accumulation of toxic xenobiotics and drugs. In addition, MDR1 p-gp has been found to control the intracerebral access of glucocorticoid hormones and thus to modulate the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. In view of the implication of glucocorticoids in the control of behavior, we examined how acute pharmacological inhibition of MDR1 p-gp at the BBB by tariquidar (XR9576; 12 mg/kg, PO) impacts on the neuroendocrine and behavioral processing of stress in C57BL/6JIcoHim inbred mice. Inhibition of MDR1 p-gp at the BBB did not alter emotional behavior at baseline. However, mice that were sensitized by water-avoidance stress, a mild psychological stressor, displayed significantly reduced anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus-maze test when treated with tariquidar. Tariquidar, however, had no effect on stress-coping performance assessed in the forced swim test. Investigating the impact of acute MDR1 p-gp inhibition on the glucocorticoid system, we observed a significant attenuation of the mild stress-induced increase of plasma corticosterone after tariquidar administration. In order to examine whether the anti-anxiety effect of tariquidar in sensitized animals is mediated by glucocorticoids, the animals were treated with corticosterone (1 mg/kg, SC immediately after exposure to water-avoidance stress. Corticosterone caused a significant anxiolytic-like effect in this stress-related anxiety protocol, whereas tariquidar could not further enhance corticosterone’s anti-anxiety effects. The current data show for the first time that pharmacological inhibition of MDR1 p-gp at the murine BBB by tariquidar alters emotional behavior and HPA axis activity. By facilitating the entry of corticosterone into the brain, tariquidar enhances feedback inhibition of the HPA system and in this way improves anxiety-related stress processing. These findings highlight a novel approach to the treatment of stress-related affective disorders in humans. PMID:17881135

  3. Localization and Differential Activity of P-glycoprotein in the Bovine Olfactory and Nasal Respiratory Mucosae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karunya K. Kandimalla; Maureen D. Donovan

    2005-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is localized in the olfactory mucosa and is capable of limiting the nose-to-brain transport of substrates. Bovine olfactory and nasal respiratory mucosae were compared to both localize P-gp and to measure its activity within the epithelia. Methods. Immunolocalization was performed on the bovine olfactory and nasal respiratory mucosa

  4. Induction of expression and functional activity of P-glycoprotein efflux transporter by bioactive plant natural products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alaa H. Abuznait; Hisham Qosa; Nicholas D. O’Connell; Jessica Akbarian-Tefaghi; Paul W. Sylvester; Khalid A. El Sayed; Amal Kaddoumi

    2011-01-01

    The effect of bioactive plant natural products on the expression and functional activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is poorly understood. Interactions of bioactive plant-based food and dietary supplements with P-gp can cause significant alteration of pharmacokinetic properties of P-gp substrate drugs when used in combination. This can augment toxicity and\\/or interfere with the drug’s therapeutic outcomes. This study investigated the effects

  5. P-glycoprotein and alloimmune T-cell activation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shona S. Pendse; David M. Briscoe; Markus H. Frank

    2003-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the human multidrug resistant (MDR1) gene product and cancer multidrug resistance-associated adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, is physiologically expressed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells, but its role in cellular immunity is only beginning to be elucidated. A role of P-gp in the secretion of several T-cell and antigen presenting cell-derived cytokines has been described, and additional functions

  6. Overcoming treatment unresponsiveness mediated by P-glycoprotein overexpression on lymphocytes in refractory active systemic lupus erythematosus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shizuyo Tsujimura; Kazuyoshi Saito; Mikiko Tokunaga; Keisuke Nakatsuka; Shingo Nakayamada; Kazuhisa Nakano; Yoshiya Tanaka

    2005-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expels various drugs from cells, resulting in multidrug resistance, including against glucocorticoids. Here, we present a case of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) that suggests the importance of initial intensive treatment in overcoming unresponsiveness due to P-gp overexpression on activated lymphocytes. A 28-year-old woman had been diagnosed with highly active SLE including severe pericarditis, hemolytic anemia, lupus nephritis, and

  7. P-glycoprotein Inhibition Increases the Brain Distribution and Antidepressant-Like Activity of Escitalopram in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Fionn E; O'Connor, Richard M; Clarke, Gerard; Dinan, Timothy G; Griffin, Brendan T; Cryan, John F

    2013-01-01

    Despite the clinical prevalence of the antidepressant escitalopram, over 30% of escitalopram-treated patients fail to respond to treatment. Recent gene association studies have highlighted a potential link between the drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and response to escitalopram. The present studies investigated pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between P-gp and escitalopram. In vitro bidirectional transport studies revealed that escitalopram is a transported substrate of human P-gp. Microdialysis-based pharmacokinetic studies demonstrated that administration of the P-gp inhibitor cyclosporin A resulted in increased brain levels of escitalopram without altering plasma escitalopram levels in the rat, thereby showing that P-gp restricts escitalopram transport across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) in vivo. The tail suspension test (TST) was carried out to elucidate the pharmacodynamic impact of P-gp inhibition on escitalopram effect in a mouse model of antidepressant activity. Pre-treatment with the P-gp inhibitor verapamil enhanced the response to escitalopram in the TST. Taken together, these data indicate that P-gp may restrict the BBB transport of escitalopram in humans, potentially resulting in subtherapeutic brain concentrations in certain patients. Moreover, by verifying that increasing escitalopram delivery to the brain by P-gp inhibition results in enhanced antidepressant-like activity, we suggest that adjunctive treatment with a P-gp inhibitor may represent a beneficial approach to augment escitalopram therapy in depression. PMID:23670590

  8. Modulation of P-glycoprotein activity by cannabinoid molecules in HK-2 renal cells

    PubMed Central

    Nieri, Paola; Romiti, Nadia; Adinolfi, Barbara; Chicca, Andrea; Massarelli, Ilaria; Chieli, Elisabetta

    2006-01-01

    Endogenous and synthetic cannabinoid molecules have been investigated as possible MDR-1/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) modulators in HK-2-immortalized renal cells, using calcein acetoxymethylester (calcein-AM) as a P-gp substrate. Among the endocannabinoid molecules tested, anandamide (AEA), but not 2-arachidonoyl-glycerol (2-AG) or palmitoyl-ethanolamide (PEA), increased the intracellular fluorescence emitted by calcein, a metabolic derivative of the P-gp substrate calcein-AM, indicative of a reduction in transport capacity. All the three synthetic cannabimimetics tested, that is, R-(+)-methanandamide (R(+)-MET), AM 251 and CP55,940 significantly increased calcein accumulation in the cytosol. RT–PCR demonstrated that HK-2 cells do not express CB1 or CB2 cannabinoid receptors. R(+)-MET, AM251 and CP55,940 were also evaluated as modulators of P-gp expression, by Western blot analysis. Only AM251 weakly enhanced the protein levels (by 1.2-fold) after a 4-day-long incubation with the noncytotoxic drug concentration 2??M. The present data provide the first evidence that the endocannabinoid AEA and different synthetic cannabinoids may inhibit the P-gp activity in vitro via a cannabinoid receptor-independent mechanism. PMID:16715117

  9. Changes in P-glycoprotein activity are mediated by the growth of a tumour cell line as multicellular spheroids

    PubMed Central

    Valeria, Ponce de León; Raúl, Barrera-Rodríguez

    2005-01-01

    Background Expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the multidrug resistance (MDR) 1 gene product, can lead to multidrug resistance in tumours. However, the physiological role of P-gp in tumours growing as multicellular spheroids is not well understood. Recent evidence suggests that P-gp activity may be modulated by cellular components such as membrane proteins, membrane-anchoring proteins or membrane-lipid composition. Since, multicellular spheroids studies have evidenced alterations in numerous cellular components, including those related to the plasma membrane function, result plausible that some of these changes might modulate P-gp function and be responsible for the acquisition of multicellular drug resistance. In the present study, we asked if a human lung cancer cell line (INER-51) grown as multicellular spheroids can modify the P-gp activity to decrease the levels of doxorubicin (DXR) retained and increase their drug resistance. Results Our results showed that INER-51 spheroids retain 3-folds lower doxorubicin than the same cells as monolayers however; differences in retention were not observed when the P-gp substrate Rho-123 was used. Interestingly, neither the use of the P-gp-modulating agent cyclosporin-A (Cs-A) nor a decrease in ATP-pools were able to increase DXR retention in the multicellular spheroids. Only the lack of P-gp expression throughout the pharmacological selection of a P-gp negative (P-gpneg) mutant clone (PSC-1) derived from INER-51 cells, allow increase of DXR retention in spheroids. Conclusion Thus, multicellular arrangement appears to alter the P-gp activity to maintain lower levels of DXR. However, the non expression of P-gp by cells forming multicellular spheroids has only a minor impact in the resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:16001980

  10. The Transmission Interfaces Contribute Asymmetrically to the Assembly and Activity of Human P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Loo, Tip W; Clarke, David M

    2015-07-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp; ABCB1) is an ABC drug pump that protects us from toxic compounds. It is clinically important because it confers multidrug resistance. The homologous halves of P-gp each contain a transmembrane (TM) domain (TMD) with 6 TM segments followed by a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). The drug- and ATP-binding sites reside at the interface between the TMDs and NBDs, respectively. Each NBD is connected to the TMDs by a transmission interface involving a pair of intracellular loops (ICLs) that form ball-and-socket joints. P-gp is different from CFTR (ABCC7) in that deleting NBD2 causes misprocessing of only P-gp. Therefore, NBD2 might be critical for stabilizing ICLs 2 and 3 that form a tetrahelix bundle at the NBD2 interface. Here we report that the NBD1 and NBD2 transmission interfaces in P-gp are asymmetric. Point mutations to 25 of 60 ICL2/ICL3 residues at the NBD2 transmission interface severely reduced P-gp assembly while changes to the equivalent residues in ICL1/ICL4 at the NBD1 interface had little effect. The hydrophobic nature at the transmission interfaces was also different. Mutation of Phe-1086 or Tyr-1087 to arginine at the NBD2 socket blocked activity or assembly while the equivalent mutations at the NBD1 socket had only modest effects. The results suggest that the NBD transmission interfaces are asymmetric. In contrast to the ICL2/3-NBD2 interface, the ICL1/4-NBD1 transmission interface is more hydrophilic and insensitive to mutations. Therefore the ICL2/3-NBD2 transmission interface forms a precise hydrophobic connection that acts as a linchpin for assembly and trafficking of P-gp. PMID:25987565

  11. Modulation of P-glycoprotein efflux pump: induction and activation as a therapeutic strategy.

    PubMed

    Silva, Renata; Vilas-Boas, Vânia; Carmo, Helena; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Carvalho, Félix; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Remiăo, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP-dependent efflux pump encoded by the MDR1 gene in humans, known to mediate multidrug resistance of neoplastic cells to cancer therapy. For several decades, P-gp inhibition has drawn many significant research efforts in an attempt to overcome this phenomenon. However, P-gp is also constitutively expressed in normal human epithelial tissues and, due to its broad substrate specificity, to its cellular polarized expression in many excretory and barrier tissues, and to its great efflux capacity, it can play a crucial role in limiting the absorption and distribution of harmful xenobiotics, by decreasing their intracellular accumulation. Such a defense mechanism can be of particular relevance at the intestinal level, by significantly reducing the intestinal absorption of the xenobiotic and, consequently, avoiding its access to the target organs. In this review, the current knowledge on this important efflux pump is summarized, and a new focus is brought on the therapeutic interest of inducing and/or activating P-gp for limiting the toxicity caused by its substrates. Several in vivo and in vitro studies validating the use of such a therapeutic strategy are discussed. An extensive literature search for reported P-gp inducers/activators and for the experimental models used in their characterization was conducted. Those studies demonstrate that effective antidotal pathways can be achieved by efficiently promoting the P-gp-mediated efflux of deleterious xenobiotics, resulting in a significant reduction in their intracellular levels and, consequently, in a significant reduction of their toxicity. PMID:25435018

  12. P-glycoprotein in sheep liver and small intestine: gene expression and transport efflux activity.

    PubMed

    Ballent, M; Wilkens, M R; Maté, L; Muscher, A S; Virkel, G; Sallovitz, J; Schröder, B; Lanusse, C; Lifschitz, A

    2013-12-01

    The role of the transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the disposition kinetics of different drugs therapeutically used in veterinary medicine has been demonstrated. Considering the anatomo-physiological features of the ruminant species, the constitutive expression of P-gp (ABCB1) along the sheep gastrointestinal tract was studied. Additionally, the effect of repeated dexamethasone (DEX) administrations on the ABCB1 gene expression in the liver and small intestine was also assessed. The ABCB1 mRNA expression was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. P-gp activity was evaluated in diffusion chambers to determine the efflux of rhodamine 123 (Rho 123) in the ileum from experimental sheep. The constitutive ABCB1 expression was 65-fold higher in the liver than in the intestine (ileum). The highest ABCB1 mRNA expression along the small intestine was observed in the ileum (between 6- and 120-fold higher). The treatment with DEX did not elicit a significant effect on the P-gp gene expression levels in any of the investigated gastrointestinal tissues. Consistently, no significant differences were observed in the intestinal secretion of Rho 123, between untreated control (Peff S-M = 3.99 × 10(-6)  ± 2.07 × 10(-6) ) and DEX-treated animals (Peff S-M = 6.00 × 10(-6)  ± 2.5 × 10(-6) ). The understanding of the efflux transporters expression and activity along the digestive tract may help to elucidate clinical implications emerging from drug interactions in livestock. PMID:23409949

  13. The putative P-gp inhibitor telmisartan does not affect the transcellular permeability and cellular uptake of the calcium channel antagonist verapamil in the P-glycoprotein expressing cell line MDCK II MDR1

    PubMed Central

    Saaby, Lasse; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Brodin, Birger

    2015-01-01

    Verapamil is used in high doses for the treatment of cluster headache. Verapamil has been described as a P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) substrate. We wished to evaluate in vitro whether co administration of a P-gp inhibitor with verapamil could be a feasible strategy for increasing CNS uptake of verapamil. Fluxes of radiolabelled verapamil across MDCK II MDR1 monolayers were measured in the absence and presence of the putative P-gp inhibitor telmisartan (a clinically approved drug compound). Verapamil displayed a vectorial basolateral-to-apical transepithelial efflux across the MDCK II MDR1 monolayers with a permeability of 5.7 × 10?5 cm sec?1 compared to an apical to basolateral permeability of 1.3 × 10?5 cm sec-1. The efflux could be inhibited with the P-gp inhibitor zosuquidar. Zosuquidar (0.4 ?mol/L) reduced the efflux ratio (PB-A/PA-B) for verapamil 4.6–1.6. The presence of telmisartan, however, only caused a slight reduction in P-gp-mediated verapamil transport to an efflux ratio of 3.4. Overall, the results of the present in vitro approach indicate, that clinical use of telmisartan as a P-gp inhibitor may not be an effective strategy for increasing brain uptake of verapamil by co-administration with telmisartan. PMID:26171231

  14. Induction of Expression and Functional Activity of P-glycoprotein Efflux Transporter by Bioactive Plant Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Abuznait, Alaa H.; Qosa, Hisham; O’Connell, Nicholas D.; Akbarian-Tefaghi, Jessica; Sylvester, Paul W.; El Sayed, Khalid A.; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2011-01-01

    The effect of bioactive plant natural products on the expression and functional activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is poorly understood. Interactions of bioactive plant-based food and dietary supplements with P-gp can cause significant alteration of pharmacokinetic properties of P-gp substrate drugs when used in combination. This can augment toxicity and/or interfere with the drug’s therapeutic outcomes. This study investigated the effects of diverse commonly used plant natural products on the expression and activity of P-gp in human adenocarcinoma cells (LS-180). These natural products included the tobacco cembranoid (1S,2E,4R,6R,7E,11E)-2,7,11-cembratriene-4,6-diol (cembratriene), the palm oil-derived ?-tocotrienol, the extra-virgin olive oil-derived secoiridoid oleocanthal, and the triterpene acid asiatic acid derived from Melaleuca ericifolia and abundant in several other common plant dietary supplements. Treatment with 25 ?M of cembratriene, oleocanthal, ?-tocotrienol, or asiatic acid showed 2.3-3.0-fold increase in P-gp expression as demonstrated by Western blotting. These results were consistent with those obtained by quantitative analysis of fluorescent micrographs for P-gp. Accumulation studies demonstrated 31-38% decrease in rhodamine 123 intracellular levels when LS-180 cells were treated with the investigated compounds as a result of P-gp induction. Bioactive natural products can up-regulate the P-gp expression and functionality, which may induce herb/food-drug interactions when concomitantly used with P-gp substrate drugs. PMID:21851848

  15. Induction of expression and functional activity of P-glycoprotein efflux transporter by bioactive plant natural products.

    PubMed

    Abuznait, Alaa H; Qosa, Hisham; O'Connell, Nicholas D; Akbarian-Tefaghi, Jessica; Sylvester, Paul W; El Sayed, Khalid A; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2011-11-01

    The effect of bioactive plant natural products on the expression and functional activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is poorly understood. Interactions of bioactive plant-based food and dietary supplements with P-gp can cause significant alteration of pharmacokinetic properties of P-gp substrate drugs when used in combination. This can augment toxicity and/or interfere with the drug's therapeutic outcomes. This study investigated the effects of diverse commonly used plant natural products on the expression and activity of P-gp in human adenocarcinoma cells (LS-180). These natural products included the tobacco cembranoid (1S,2E,4R,6R,7E,11E)-2,7,11-cembratriene-4,6-diol (cembratriene), the palm oil-derived ?-tocotrienol, the extra-virgin olive oil-derived secoiridoid oleocanthal, and the triterpene acid asiatic acid derived from Melaleuca ericifolia and abundant in several other common plant dietary supplements. Treatment with 25?M of cembratriene, oleocanthal, ?-tocotrienol, or asiatic acid showed 2.3-3.0-fold increase in P-gp expression as demonstrated by Western blotting. These results were consistent with those obtained by quantitative analysis of fluorescent micrographs for P-gp. Accumulation studies demonstrated 31-38% decrease in rhodamine 123 intracellular levels when LS-180 cells were treated with the investigated compounds as a result of P-gp induction. Bioactive natural products can up-regulate the P-gp expression and functionality, which may induce herb/food-drug interactions when concomitantly used with P-gp substrate drugs. PMID:21851848

  16. Active brain targeting of a fluorescent P-gp substrate using polymeric magnetic nanocarrier system.

    PubMed

    Kirthivasan, B; Singh, D; Bommana, M M; Raut, S L; Squillante, E; Sadoqi, M

    2012-06-29

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NP) were developed for the active brain targeting of water-soluble P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate rhodamine 123 (Rh123). The NP matrix of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and methoxy poly(ethyleneglycol)-poly(lactic acid) (M-PEG-PLA) was prepared by single emulsion solvent evaporation of polymers with oleic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles (OAMNP) and Rh123. All formulations were characterized in terms of morphology, particle size, magnetic content and Rh123 encapsulation efficiency. The maximum encapsulation efficiency of Rh123 was 45 ± 3% and of OAMNP was 42 ± 4%. The brain targeting and biodistribution study was performed on Sprague Dawley rats (3 groups, n = 6). Rh123 (0.4 mg kg(-1)) was administered in saline form, NP containing Rh123, and NP containing Rh123 in the presence of a magnetic field (0.8 T). The fluorimetric analysis of brain homogenates revealed a significant uptake (p < 0.05) of Rh123 in the magnetically targeted group relative to controls. These results were supported by fluorescence microscopy. This study reveals the ability of magnetically targeted nanoparticles to deliver substances to the brain, the permeation of which would otherwise be inhibited by the P-gp system. PMID:22652439

  17. The Changes of P-glycoprotein Activity by Interferon-? and Tumor Necrosis Factor-? in Primary and Immortalized Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Na-Young; Rieckmann, Peter; Kang, Young-Sook

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the modification of expression and functionality of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and interferon-gamma (IFN-?) at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We used immortalized human brain microvessel endothelial cells (iHBMEC) and primary human brain microvessel endothelial cells (pHBMEC) as in vitro BBB model. To investigate the change of p-gp expression, we carried out real time PCR analysis and Western blotting. To test the change of p-gp activity, we performed rhodamin123 (Rh123) accumulation study in the cells. In results of real time PCR analysis, the P-gp mRNA expression was increased by TNF-? or IFN-? treatment for 24 hr in both cell types. However, 48 hr treatment of TNF-? or IFN-? did not affect P-gp mRNA expression. In addition, co-treatment of TNF-? and IFN-? markedly increased the P-gp mRNA expression in both cells. TNF-? or IFN-? did not influence P-gp protein expression whatever the concentration of cytokines or duration of treatment in both cells. However, P-gp expression was increased after treatments of both cytokines together in iHBMEC cells only compared with untreated control. Furthermore, in both cell lines, TNF-? or IFN-? induced significant decrease of P-gp activity for 24 hr treatment. And, both cytokines combination treatment also decreased significantly P-gp activity. These results suggest that P-gp expression and function at the BBB is modulated by TNF-? or/and IFN-?. Therefore, the distribution of P-gp depending drugs in the central nervous system can be modulated by neurological inflammatory diseases. PMID:24130926

  18. In vitro effects of standardized extract of Bacopa monniera and its five individual active constituents on human P-glycoprotein activity.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajbir; Rachumallu, Ramakrishna; Bhateria, Manisha; Panduri, Jagadeesh; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar

    2015-08-01

    1.?For centuries Bacopa monniera (BM) has been used as an herbal drug for the treatment of various mental ailments. A chemically standardized alcoholic extract of BM is clinically available over the counter herbal remedy for memory enhancement in children and adults. Consumption of herbal preparations has been reported to alter the function of membrane transporters, especially P-glycoprotein (P-gp), ATP-dependent drug efflux transporter responsible for the development of herb-drug interactions. 2.?In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro effect of BM extract and its five individual active constituents (namely, bacopaside I, bacopaside II and bacopasaponin C, bacoside A and bacoside A3) on P-gp function using luminescent P-gp ATPase assay and Rh123 transport assay across human MDR1 gene transfected LLC-GA5-COL150 cell line. 3.?It was observed that BM extract and its five individual constituents inhibited both basal activity as well as verapamil-stimulated ATPase activity, suggesting their affinity towards P-gp. Further, BM and its five active constituents inhibited the rhodamine 123 (Rh123) transport across LLC-GA5-COL150 cell monolayer with bacopaside II being the most potent inhibitor of P-gp, which decreased P-gp efflux ratio of Rh123 by fourfold in comparison to control. 4.?Our finding may prove beneficial in predicting the potential herb-drug interactions of BM on concomitant medication with P-gp substrate drugs in clinical settings. PMID:25869246

  19. The Extracellular Loop between TM5 and TM6 of P-Glycoprotein Is Required for Reactivity with Monoclonal Antibody UIC2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Zhou; Michael M. Gottesman; Ira Pastan

    1999-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), encoded by the MDR1 gene, is a plasma membrane transporter which confers resistance to many chemotherapeutic drugs. Monoclonal antibodies raised against P-gp have been used as tools to study P-gp topology and activity. Monoclonal antibody UIC2 recognizes a functional conformation of P-gp on the cell surface and blocks P-gp-mediated drug transport. Knowledge about the UIC2 epitope and the

  20. In vitro activity of uva-ursi against cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, B; Yu, C; Krantis, A; Scott, I; Arnason, J T; Marles, R J; Foster, B C

    2007-11-01

    Some natural health products (NHPs) affect drug metabolism enzymes and transport proteins, potentially affecting the safety and efficacy of the drug or other NHPs. This study was undertaken to characterize the effect of uva-ursi (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi) on cytochrome P450 isozyme (3A4, 3A5, 3A7, 2C19, and 19)-mediated metabolism and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transport. Three bulk and 2 capsulated uva-ursi samples were obtained from commercial outlets. The capsules were batched, and herbal samples were ground to a common consistency. Aqueous and methanol extracts were freshly prepared. Cytochrome P450 isozyme-mediated metabolism was determined by using in vitro bioassays. P-gp transport function was determined by using a rhodamine 123 (Rh123) uptake test in human (THP-1) monocytes and human Caco-2 cells. All products were analyzed by HPLC for arbutin, gallic acid, myricitrin, and isoquercetin. A large variation was observed in the biomarkers found between the bulk and capsulated samples. Our data indicate that both the aqueous and methanol extracts of all 5 uva-ursi products showed high cytochrome P450 isozyme inhibition, with the exception of the methanol extracts against cytochromes P3A4 and P19, which had low to moderate activity. The aqueous extracts of uva-ursi showed an inhibitory effect on Rh123 efflux by P-gp at 1 h and an inductive effect at 18 h for both cell lines. Our results show that the uva-ursi herbal products tested here have pharmacological properties, including the potential capacity to affect drug safety and efficacy. Further studies are warranted against a wider range of cytochrome P450 isozymes and to determine whether these effects are clinically significant. PMID:18066112

  1. P-glycoprotein-evading anti-tumor activity of a novel tubulin and HSP90 dual inhibitor in a non-small-cell lung cancer model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiu; Zhai, Shumei; Li, Liwen; Li, Xiue; Jiang, Cuijuan; Zhang, Chengke; Yan, Bing

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-induced drug resistance is a major road block for successful cancer chemotherapy. Through phenotypic screening, the compound 2-(2-chlorophenylimino)-5-(4-dimethylaminobenzylidene) thiazolidin-4-one (CDBT) was discovered to have potent anti-tumor activity in P-gp over-expressing drug-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) H460TaxR cells. Here, we report mechanistic investigations of the P-gp-evading anti-tumor activity of CDBT. CDBT is evidently not a P-gp substrate and escapes the P-gp efflux pump. As a novel microtubule and heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) dual targeting inhibitor, CDBT causes the destabilization of microtubules and degradation of HSP90 client proteins CRAF-1 and ERBB2, resulting in cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase and apoptosis. Furthermore, CDBT effectively inhibits tumor growth by 60.4% relative to the vehicle control after intraperitoneal administration at 30 mg/kg for 11 days and shows no toxicity in normal tissues in the NSCLC H460TaxR xenograft mouse model. Our data suggest a novel drug discovery strategy to combat P-gp over-expressing drug-resistant NSCLC cancer cells with a single therapeutic agent. PMID:25185500

  2. Expression of P-glycoprotein in southeastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica.

    PubMed

    Keppler, C J; Ringwood, A H

    2001-07-01

    These studies provide important fundamental information regarding the expression of P-glycoprotein (p-gp) in southeastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica). Using rhodamine transport studies, p-gp activity was detected in newly fertilized embryos. A monoclonal antibody (C219) was used to evaluate p-gp expression in oyster tissues. On the basis of laboratory studies, p-gp expression tended to be higher in gill tissues than mantle tissues, and was generally not related to salinity differences. Seasonal studies were conducted with oysters collected monthly for 1 year from Lighthouse Creek, an unpolluted site. There was a general pattern of higher p-gp expression in the warmer months and lower expression in the colder months. In contrast, total gill protein concentrations decreased during the warmer months and increased during the colder months. These studies indicate that there are seasonal patterns in p-gp expression which may represent an adaptive response to natural stressors associated with summer conditions. PMID:11488357

  3. Regional P-Glycoprotein Activity and Inhibition at the Human Blood–Brain Barrier as Imaged by Positron Emission Tomography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S Eyal; B Ke; M Muzi; J M Link; D A Mankoff; A C Collier; J D Unadkat

    2010-01-01

    We used positron emission tomography (PET) to evaluate the contribution of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), present at the human blood–brain barrier (BBB), to regional drug distribution in the brain. Eleven healthy volunteers underwent PET imaging with [11C]-verapamil before and during cyclosporine A infusion. Regional P-gp inhibition was expressed as cyclosporine A-induced percentage change in the distributional clearance of verapamil (K1) in the

  4. Amine linked flavonoid dimers as modulators for P-glycoprotein-based multidrug resistance: structure-activity relationship and mechanism of modulation.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kin-Fai; Wong, Iris L K; Kan, Jason W Y; Yan, Clare S W; Chow, Larry M C; Chan, Tak Hang

    2012-03-01

    Here we report a great improvement in reversal potency of cancer drug resistance when flavonoid dimers possess a functionally substituted aminopolyethylene glycol linker. The most potent compound, 18, contains a N-benzyl group at the linker. It has many advantages including (1) high potencies in reversing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated resistance in LCC6MDR cells to various anticancer drugs with EC(50) in the nanomolar range, (2) low toxicity and high therapeutic index, and (3) preferential inhibition of P-gp over multidrug resistance protein 1 and breast cancer resistance protein. Compound 18 stimulates P-gp-ATPase activity by 2.7-fold and mediates a dose-dependent inhibition of doxorubicin (DOX) transport activity. Lineweaver-Burk and Dixon plots suggest that 18 is a competitive inhibitor to DOX in binding to P-gp with a K(i) of 0.28-0.34 ?M and a Hill coefficient of 1.17. Moreover, the LCC6MDR cell displays about 2.1-fold lower intracellular accumulation of 18 compared to the wild type, suggesting that 18 is a P-gp substrate as well. PMID:22320402

  5. Mechanism of inhibition of P-glycoprotein mediated efflux by Pluronic P123/F127 block copolymers: relationship between copolymer concentration and inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Zhang; Yuan, Shi; Hao, Junguo; Fang, Xiaoling

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between the concentration of Pluronic P123/F127 block copolymers and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitory potency. Modulation of multidrug resistance (MDR) by Pluronic P123/F127 was evaluated in P-gp over-expressing human breast cancer cell line MCF-7/ADR and its non-P-gp over-expressing counterpart MCF-7 cells. Four different probes (known as P-gp substrates) including rhodamine 123 (R-123), rhodamine 6G (R-6G), doxorubicin (DOX), and paclitaxel (PTX) were applied to investigate the impact of Pluronic P123/F127 copolymers with different concentrations on the intracellular accumulation of these probes. Additionally, the intracellular ATP and mitochondrial transmembrane potential in MCF-7/ADR cells were determined over a wide concentration range of Pluronic P123/F127. Furthermore, the endocytic mechanisms of Pluronic micelles were performed. It was suggested that P-gp substrate hydrophobicity and the concentration of P123/F127 copolymers had little impact on P-gp inhibitory activity of Pluronic P123/F127 itself. Intracellular ATP depletion was the main mechanism of Pluronic P123/F127 for P-gp inhibition. In vitro cytotoxicity study was also conducted in order to compare cytotoxic effect among different PTX formulations. It indicated that the IC50 of PTX-loaded Pluronic P123/F127 mixed micelles was 6.3-fold lower than free PTX and 2.3-fold lower than Taxol, respectively. Therefore, Pluronic P123/F127 polymeric micelles could be considered a promising drug delivery system to overcome MDR in cancer therapy. PMID:23089310

  6. [Sex differences of P-glycoprotein functional activity and expression in rabbits].

    PubMed

    Iakusheva, E N; Chernykh, I V; Shchul'kin, A V; Kotliarova, A A; Nikiforov, A A

    2014-08-01

    The research consists in the investigation of the sex differences of P-glycoprotein functional activity and expression in Chinchilla rabbits. P-glycoprotein functional activity was assessed by the pharmacokinetics of its probe substrate--fexofenadine after its single oral administration. P-glycoprotein expression was investigated by immunohistochemistry method. It is shown that male's maximal concentration of fexofenadine, its areas under concentration-time curves, half-life and retention time were higher and its clearance was lower than female's. The efficient differences in pharmacokinetic parameters of fexofenadine confirm more intensive excretion and less intensive absorption in gastro-intestinal tract of fexofenadine. This data indicate that P-glycoprotein activity is more active in female than in male. Immunohistochemistry analysis shows that total liver and intestine P-glycoprotein expression is more intensive in females, than in males that correlates with its more active functioning. PMID:25682686

  7. Placental transfer of quetiapine in relation to P-glycoprotein activity.

    PubMed

    Rahi, Melissa; Heikkinen, Tuija; Härtter, Sebastian; Hakkola, Jukka; Hakala, Kristo; Wallerman, Ola; Wadelius, Mia; Wadelius, Claes; Laine, Kari

    2007-09-01

    Atypical antipsychotic drugs are well tolerated and thus often preferred in women of fertile age; yet the information on their placental transfer and use during the prenatal period is limited. The aim of this study was to study the placental transfer of quetiapine, a widely used atypical antipsychotic, with special reference to the role of the placental transporter protein, P-glycoprotein (P-gp). This was performed in 18 dually perfused placentas, using the well established P-gp inhibitors PSC833 (valspodar) and GG918 to inhibit the function of P-gp. We also aimed to clarify the significance of two potentially functional ABCB1 single nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs), 2677G>T/A and 3435C>T, on the transplacental transfer (TPT) of quetiapine. The placental transfer of quetiapine in the control group as measured by TPT(AUC) % (absolute fraction of the dose crossing placenta) was 3.7%, which is 29% less than the transfer of the freely diffusible antipyrine, which was 5.2%. The P-gp inhibitors had no significant effect on the transfer of quetiapine as measured by TPT(AUC) % (P = 0.77). No correlation was found between the transplacental transfer of quetiapine (TPT(AUC) %) and placental P-gp expression (P = 0.61). The 3435T allele in exon 26 was associated with significantly higher placental transfer of quetiapine (P = 0.04). We conclude that quetiapine passes the human placenta but that the blood-placental barrier partially limits the transplacental transfer of quetiapine. Administration of P-gp inhibiting drugs with quetiapine is not likely to increase fetal exposure to quetiapine, although the ABCB1 C3435T polymorphism may contribute to inter-individual variation in fetal exposure to quetiapine. PMID:17259208

  8. Discovery of substituted 1,4-dihydroquinolines as novel promising class of P-glycoprotein inhibitors: First structure-activity relationships and bioanalytical studies.

    PubMed

    Hemmer, Marc; Krawczyk, Sören; Simon, Ina; Hilgeroth, Andreas

    2015-08-01

    Multidrug resistance (mdr) is the most important problem in the therapeutical treatment of cancer. One central problem in the resistance proceeding is the expression of transmembrane efflux pumps which transport drugs out of the cells. We developed novel substituted 1,4-dihydroquinolines as inhibitors of the transmembrane efflux pump P-glycoprotein. Structure-activity relationships are discussed for this first series. Promising active inhibitors have been identified and first bioanalytical studies have been carried out to address questions of cellular toxicity, P-gp substrate as well as mdr reversal properties. PMID:26048803

  9. Repeated dosing of piperine induced gene expression of P-glycoprotein via stimulated pregnane-X-receptor activity and altered pharmacokinetics of diltiazem in rats.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Fu; Kang, Keon-Wook; Han, Hyo-Kyung

    2012-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of piperine on the gene expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) as well as pregnane-X-receptor (PXR) activity and also its implication on the bioavailability of diltiazem, a P-gp substrate. The effect of piperine on the systemic exposure of diltiazem was examined in rats after the intravenous and oral administration of diltiazem with/without 2 week pretreatment with piperine. Compared with the control group given diltiazem (20 mg/kg) alone, the pretreatment with piperine (10 or 20 mg/kg, once daily for 2 weeks) decreased the oral exposure of diltiazem by 36-48% in rats. Consequently, the bioavailability of oral diltiazem was significantly lower (p < 0.05) after the 2 week pretreatment with piperine. The pretreatment with piperine for 2 weeks also reduced the systemic exposure of desacetyldiltiazem, a major active metabolite of diltiazem by approximately 73%, accompanied by a significant decrease in the metabolite-parent ratio. In contrast to the oral pharmacokinetics, piperine did not affect the intravenous pharmacokinetics of diltiazem in rats. Immunoblot analysis indicated that the protein expression level of intestinal P-gp was significantly enhanced after the 2 week pretreatment with piperine in rats. In addition, piperine increased the PXR reporter activity in human hepatoma cells. Taken together, the 2 week pretreatment with piperine significantly induced intestinal P-gp expression in conjunction with stimulated PXR activity and decreased the oral exposure of diltiazem and desacetyldiltiazem in rats. PMID:22927137

  10. Lathyrol diterpenes as modulators of P-glycoprotein dependent multidrug resistance: structure-activity relationship studies on Euphorbia factor L3 derivatives.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Wei; Wan, Zhongmin; Chen, Shuang; Lu, Runhua; Chen, Xiaozhen; Fang, Dongmei; Wang, Jiufeng; Pu, Shengcai; Huang, Xin; Gao, Haixiang; Shao, Huawu

    2015-05-14

    Five series of 37 new acylate and epoxide derivatives (3-39) of Euphorbia factor L3, a lathyrol diterpene isolated from Euphorbia lathyris, were designed by modifying the hydroxyl moiety of C-3, C-5, or C-15. Chemoreversal effects of the acylates on multidrug resistance (MDR) were evaluated in breast cancer multidrug-resistant MCF-7/ADR cells that overexpress P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Eight derivatives exhibited greater chemoreversal ability than verapamil (VRP) against adriamycin (ADR) resistance. Compounds 19 and 25 exhibited 4.8 and 4.0 times, respectively, more effective reversal ability than VRP against ADR resistance. To determine the key characteristics of Euphorbia factor L3 derivatives that contribute to MDR reversal, we conducted a structure-activity relationship study of these compounds. The simulation studies indicated different possible mechanisms and revealed the important influence of hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds in the flexible cavity of P-gp. PMID:25856545

  11. Modulation of P-glycoprotein activity in Calu-3 cells using steroids and ?-ligands

    E-print Network

    Hamilton, Karen O.; Yazdanian, Mehran; Audus, Kenneth L.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate if P-glycoprotein (Pgp) efflux pump activity could be inhibited in the sub-bronchial epithelial cell line, Calu-3, by glucocorticosteroids and ?-ligands. The Pgp modulation ...

  12. Colchicine derivatives with potent anticancer activity and reduced P-glycoprotein induction liability.

    PubMed

    Singh, Baljinder; Kumar, Ashok; Joshi, Prashant; Guru, Santosh K; Kumar, Suresh; Wani, Zahoor A; Mahajan, Girish; Hussain, Aashiq; Qazi, Asif Khurshid; Kumar, Ajay; Bharate, Sonali S; Gupta, Bishan D; Sharma, Parduman R; Hamid, Abid; Saxena, Ajit K; Mondhe, Dilip M; Bhushan, Shashi; Bharate, Sandip B; Vishwakarma, Ram A

    2015-05-28

    Colchicine (1), a nature-derived microtubule polymerization inhibitor, develops multi-drug resistance in tumor cells due to its P-gp substrate and induction activity, which in turn leads to its rapid efflux from tumor cells. This auto-induction of the efflux of colchicine remains a major challenge to medicinal chemists. Based on structure-based molecular modeling, a series of new colchicine derivatives were designed and synthesized with a potential for reduced P-gp induction liability. Screening of the prepared derivatives for P-gp induction activity revealed that a number of derivatives possess remarkably lower P-gp-induction activity (>90% intracellular accumulation of rhodamine 123 in LS-180 cells) compared to the parent natural product colchicine (62% Rh123 accumulation in LS-180 cells). The reduced P-gp-induction activity of new derivatives may be due to their reduced ability to interact and change the conformation of P-gp. The synthesized derivatives were then screened for antiproliferative activity against two colon cancer cell lines including HCT-116 and Colo-205. The derivative 4o showed potent cytotoxicity in HCT-116 cells with IC50 of 0.04 ?M with significantly reduced P-gp induction liability. Compound 4o also inhibited microtubule assembly and induced expression of pro-apoptotic protein p21. In an Ehrlich solid tumor mice model, compound 4o showed 38% TGI with no mortality at 2 mg kg(-1) dose (oral). Compound 4o, with potent in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity, significantly reduced P-gp induction activity and its excellent physicochemical and pharmacokinetic properties open up new opportunities for the colchicine scaffold. PMID:25895604

  13. The small GTPases Rab5 and RalA regulate intracellular traffic of P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Fu, Dong; van Dam, Ellen M; Brymora, Adam; Duggin, Iain G; Robinson, Phillip J; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2007-07-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a plasma membrane glycoprotein that can cause multidrug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells by acting as an ATP-dependent drug efflux pump. The regulatory effects of the small GTPases Rab5 and RalA on the intracellular trafficking of P-gp were investigated in HeLa cells. As expected, overexpressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-tagged P-gp (P-gp-EGFP) is mainly localised to the plasma membrane. However, upon cotransfection of either dominant negative Rab5 (Rab5-S34N) or constitutively active RalA (RalA-G23V) the intracellular P-gp-EGFP levels increased approximately 9 and 13 fold, respectively, compared to control P-gp-EGFP cells. These results suggest that Rab5 and RalA regulate P-gp trafficking between the plasma membrane and an intracellular compartment. In contrast, coexpression of constitutively active Rab5 (Rab5-Q79L) or dominant negative RalA (RalA-S28N) had no effect on the localisation of P-gp-EGFP. Furthermore, the intracellular accumulation of daunorubicin, a substrate for P-gp, increased significantly with an increased intracellular localisation of P-gp-EGFP. These results imply that it may be possible to overcome MDR by controlling the plasma membrane localisation of P-gp. PMID:17524504

  14. Rat precision-cut intestinal slices to study P-gp activity and the potency of its inhibitors ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; de Graaf, Inge A M; de Jager, Marina H; Groothuis, Geny M M

    2015-08-01

    Rat Precision-Cut Intestinal Slices (PCIS) were evaluated as ex vivo model to study the regional gradient of P-gp activity, and to investigate whether the rank order of inhibitory potency of P-gp inhibitors can be correctly reproduced in this model with more accurate IC50 values than with current in vitro models. PCIS were prepared from small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum) and colon. Rhodamine 123 (R123) was used as P-gp substrate, while verapamil, cyclosporine A, quinidine, ketoconazole, PSC833 and CP100356 were employed as P-gp inhibitors. Increase in tissue accumulation of R123 in the presence of the inhibitors was considered as an indication of the inhibitory effect. The P-gp inhibitors increased the tissue accumulation of R123 in a concentration dependent manner. Fluorescence microscopy elucidated that this increase occurred predominantly in the enterocytes. The rank order of the corresponding IC50 values agreed well with reported values from cell lines expressing rat P-gp. The activity of and inhibitory effects on P-gp were significantly higher in ileum compared to the other regions. These data suggest that rat PCIS are a reliable ex vivo model to study the activity of intestinal P-gp and the inhibitory effect of drugs. PCIS have potential as ex vivo model for the prediction of transporter-mediated drug-drug interactions. PMID:25917215

  15. P-Glycoprotein - Implications of Metabolism of Neoplastic Cells and Cancer Therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert Breier; Miroslav Barancik; Zdenka Sulova; Branislav Uhrik

    2005-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) of neoplastic tissues is a major obstacle in cancer chemotherapy. The predominant cause of MDR is the overexpression and drug transport activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, a product of the MDR gene). P-gp is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters family, with broad substrate specificity for several substances including anticancer drugs, linear and cyclic peptides,

  16. A kinetic study of Rhodamine123 pumping by P-glycoprotein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yulin Wang; DaCheng Hao; Wilfred D. Stein; Ling Yang

    2006-01-01

    The MDR1 P-glycoprotein (P-gp) actively extrudes a wide variety of structurally diverse cytotoxic compounds out of the cell, is widely expressed in the epithelial cells of kidney, liver and intestine, and in the endothelial cells of brain and placenta, and plays an important role in drug resistance. We measured the accumulation of Rhodamine 123 (Rho123), a substrate of P-gp, into

  17. Oral and inhaled corticosteroids: Differences in P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) mediated efflux

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, Andrew, E-mail: a.p.crowe@curtin.edu.au; Tan, Ai May

    2012-05-01

    There is concern that P-glycoprotein mediated efflux contributes to steroid resistance. Therefore, this study examined bidirectional corticosteroid transport and induction capabilities for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) to understand which of the systemic and inhaled corticosteroids interacted with P-gp to the greatest extent. Hydrocortisone, prednisolone, prednisone, methylprednisolone, and dexamethasone represented systemically active drugs, while fluticasone propionate, beclomethasone dipropionate, ciclesonide and budesonide represented inhaled corticosteroids. Aldosterone and fludrocortisone represented mineralocorticoids. All drugs were detected using individually optimised HPLC protocols. Transport studies were conducted through Caco-2 monolayers. Hydrocortisone and aldosterone had efflux ratios below 1.5, while prednisone showed a P-gp mediated efflux ratio of only 1.8 compared to its active drug, prednisolone, with an efflux ratio of 4.5. Dexamethasone and beclomethasone had efflux ratios of 2.1 and 3.3 respectively, while this increased to 5.1 for methylprednisolone. Fluticasone showed an efflux ratio of 2.3. Protein expression studies suggested that all of the inhaled corticosteroids were able to induce P-gp expression, from 1.6 to 2 times control levels. Most of the systemic corticosteroids had higher passive permeability (> 20 × 10{sup ?6} cm/s) compared to the inhaled corticosteroids (> 5 × 10{sup ?6} cm/s), except for budesonide, with permeability similar to the systemic corticosteroids. Inhaled corticosteroids are not transported by P-gp to the same extent as systemic corticosteroids. However, they are able to induce P-gp production. Thus, inhaled corticosteroids may have greater interactions with other P-gp substrates, but P-gp itself is less likely to influence resistance to the drugs. -- Highlights: ? Inhaled corticosteroids are only weak substrates for P-gp, including budesonide. ? Inhaled corticosteroid potent P-gp inducers especially fluticasone and beclomethasone. ? Systemic corticosteroids are weak P-gp inducers. ? Mineralocorticoids not affected by P-gp mediated efflux.

  18. Thyroid Hormone and P-Glycoprotein in Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Paul J.; Lin, Hung-Yun; Sudha, Thangirala; Mousa, Shaker A.

    2015-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp; multidrug resistance pump 1, MDR1; ABCB1) is a plasma membrane efflux pump that when activated in cancer cells exports chemotherapeutic agents. Transcription of the P-gp gene (MDR1) and activity of the P-gp protein are known to be affected by thyroid hormone. A cell surface receptor for thyroid hormone on integrin ?v?3 also binds tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac), a derivative of L-thyroxine (T4) that blocks nongenomic actions of T4 and of 3,5,3?-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) at ?v?3. Covalently bound to a nanoparticle, tetrac as nanotetrac acts at the integrin to increase intracellular residence time of chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin and etoposide that are substrates of P-gp. This action chemosensitizes cancer cells. In this review, we examine possible molecular mechanisms for the inhibitory effect of nanotetrac on P-gp activity. Mechanisms for consideration include cancer cell acidification via action of tetrac/nanotetrac on the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE1) and hormone analogue effects on calmodulin-dependent processes and on interactions of P-gp with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and osteopontin (OPN), apparently via ?v?3. Intracellular acidification and decreased H+ efflux induced by tetrac/nanotetrac via NHE1 is the most attractive explanation for the actions on P-gp and consequent increase in cancer cell retention of chemotherapeutic agent-ligands of MDR1 protein. PMID:25866761

  19. Rapid identification of P-glycoprotein substrates and inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng; Bahadduri, Praveen M; Polli, James E; Swaan, Peter W; Ekins, Sean

    2006-12-01

    Identifying molecules that interact with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is important for drug discovery but is also generally reliant on time-consuming in vitro and in vivo studies. As an alternative approach, the current study applied pharmacophore models and database screening to rapidly retrieve molecules that bind as substrates or inhibitors for P-gp from commercial databases and then confirmed their affinity as inhibitors in vitro. Seven molecules (acitretin, cholecalciferol, misoprostol, nafcillin, repaglinide, salmeterol, and telmisartan) with no published details for P-gp affinity, one positive control inhibitor (miconazole), and two negative control molecules (phenelzine and zonisamide) were selected for testing. The MDCK-MDR1 in vitro cell model was used to confirm their inhibitory effect on [3H]digoxin transport, and the ATPase assay was used as an additional in vitro tool to indicate P-gp activation. All seven test drugs were confirmed to have P-gp affinity. Additionally, our experimental results provided plausible explanations for the published pharmacokinetic profiles of the tested drugs and their classification according to the biopharmaceutics and drug disposition classification system. In this study, we showed the successful application of pharmacophore models to accurately predict P-gp binding, which holds promise to anticipate drug-drug interactions from screening drug databases and a priori prediction of novel P-gp inhibitors or substrates. PMID:16997908

  20. HZ08 Reverse P-Glycoprotein Mediated Multidrug Resistance In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zheyi; Zhou, Zaigang; Hu, Yahui; Wu, Jinhui; Li, Yunman; Huang, Wenlong

    2015-01-01

    Background Multidrug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is highly expressed on membrane of tumor cells and is implicated in resistance to tumor chemotherapy. HZ08 is synthesized and studied in order to find a novel P-gp inhibitor. Methods MDCK-MDR1 monolayer transport, calcein-AM P-gp inhibition and P-gp ATPase assays were used to confirm the P-gp inhibition capability of HZ08. Furthermore, KB-WT and KB-VCR cells were used to evaluate the P-gp inhibitory activity of HZ08 both in vitro and in vivo. Results Results showed that HZ08 was more potent than verapamil in MDCK-MDR1 monolayer transportation model. Meanwhile, P-gp ATPase assay and calcein-AM P-gp inhibition assay confirmed that HZ08 inhibited P-gp ATPase with a calcein-AM IC50 of 2.44±0.31?M. In addition, significantly greater in vitro multidrug resistance reversing effects were observed when vincristine or paclitaxel was used in combination with 10?M HZ08 compared with 10?M verapamil. Moreover, HZ08 could significantly enhance the sensitivity of vincristine with a similar effect like verapamil in both KB-WT and KB-VCR tumor xenograft models. Conclusions The novel structure HZ08 could be a potent P-gp inhibitor. PMID:25689592

  1. Sphingolipid Signaling Reduces Basal P-Glycoprotein Activity in Renal Proximal Tubule

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein is an ATP-driven xenobiotic export pump that is highly expressed in barrier and excretory tissues, where it greatly influences drug pharmacokinetics. Recent studies in the blood-brain and spinal cord barriers identified a sphingolipid-based signaling pathway that regulates basal activity of P-glycoprotein. Here we use an established comparative renal model that permits direct measurement of P-glycoprotein activity to determine whether such signaling occurs in another tissue, killifish renal proximal tubule. Isolated killifish tubules exposed to 0.01–1.0 ?M sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) exhibited a profound decrease in P-glycoprotein transport activity, measured as specific accumulation of a fluorescent cyclosporine A derivative in the tubule lumen. Loss of activity had a rapid onset and was fully reversible when the S1P was removed. Transport mediated by multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) or a teleost fish organic anion transporter (Oat) was not affected. S1P effects were blocked by a specific S1P receptor 1 (S1PR1) antagonist and mimicked by a S1PR agonist. Sphingosine also reduced P-glycoprotein transport activity and those effects were blocked by an inhibitor of sphingosine kinase and by the S1PR1 antagonist. These results for a comparative renal model suggest that sphingolipid signaling to P-glycoprotein is not just restricted to the blood-brain and blood–spinal cord barriers, but occurs in other excretory and barrier tissues. PMID:24385389

  2. Fas signaling promotes chemoresistance in gastrointestinal cancer by up-regulating P-glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yadong; Lin, Shiyong; Chen, Jinmin; Wang, Jing; Wang, Zhiqing; Jiang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Fas signaling promotes metastasis of gastrointestinal (GI) cancer cells by inducing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and EMT acquisition has been found to cause cancer chemoresistance. Here, we demonstrated that the response to chemotherapy of GI cancer patients with higher expression of FasL was significantly worse than patients with lower expression. Fas-induced activation of the ERK1/2-MAPK pathway decreased the sensitivity of GI cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents and promoted the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). FasL promoted chemoresistance of GI cancer cell via upregulation of P-gp by increasing ?-catenin and decreasing miR-145. ?-catenin promoted P-gp gene transcription by binding with P-gp promoter while miR-145 suppressed P-gp expression by interacting with the mRNA 3?UTR of P-gp. Immunostaining and qRT-PCR analysis of human GI cancer samples revealed a positive association among FasL, ?-catenin, and P-gp, but a negative correlation between miR-145 and FasL or P-gp. Altogether, our results showed Fas signaling could promote chemoresistance in GI cancer through modulation of P-gp expression by ?-catenin and miR-145. Our findings suggest that Fas signaling-based cancer therapies should be administered cautiously, as activation of this pathway may not only lead to apoptosis but also induce chemoresistance. PMID:25333257

  3. Synthesis and biological evaluation of novel bifendate derivatives bearing 6,7-dihydro-dibenzo[c,e]azepine scaffold as potent P-glycoprotein inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaoke; Ren, Zhiguang; Tang, Xiaobo; Peng, Hui; Zhao, Qing; Lai, Yisheng; Peng, Sixun; Zhang, Yihua

    2012-05-01

    Overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one of the major problems in successful treatment of cancers. To find new P-gp inhibitors, a series of bifendate (DDB) derivatives bearing dibenzo[c,e]azepine scaffold were synthesized and evaluated. Compound 4i more potently reversed P-gp-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) than DDB and verapamil (VRP) by blocking P-gp mediated drug efflux function and increasing drug accumulation in K562/A02 MDR cells, and persisted longer chemo-sensitizing effect (>24 h) than VRP (<6 h). Interestingly, unlike VRP, 4i showed no stimulation on the P-gp ATPase activity, suggesting it is not a substrate of P-gp. Given the low intrinsic cytotoxicity of 4i in vitro, it may represent a promising lead for developing therapeutics targeting P-gp-mediated MDR in combinational cancer chemotherapy. PMID:22405646

  4. Regulation of brain endothelial cells migration and angiogenesis by P-glycoprotein/caveolin-1 interaction.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Stéphane; Turcotte, Sandra; Demeule, Michel; Lachambre, Marie-Paule; Régina, Anthony; Baggetto, Loris G; Béliveau, Richard

    2008-08-01

    We have investigated the involvement of P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/caveolin-1 interaction in the regulation of brain endothelial cells (EC) migration and tubulogenesis. P-gp overexpression in MDCK-MDR cells was correlated with enhanced cell migration whereas treatment with P-gp inhibitors CsA or PSC833 reduced it. Transfection of RBE4 rat brain endothelial cells with mutated versions of MDR1, in the caveolin-1 interaction motif, decreased the interaction between P-gp and caveolin-1, enhanced P-gp transport activity and cell migration. Moreover, down-regulation of caveolin-1 in RBE4 cells by siRNA against caveolin-1 stimulated cell migration. Interestingly, the inhibition of P-gp/caveolin-1 interaction increased also EC tubulogenesis. Furthermore, decrease of P-gp expression by siRNA inhibited EC tubulogenesis. These data indicate that the level of P-gp/caveolin-1 interaction can modulate brain endothelial angiogenesis and P-gp dependent cell migration. PMID:18485890

  5. P-glycoprotein and Drug Therapy in Organ Transplantation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agnes Lo; Gilbert J. Burckart

    1999-01-01

    The role of multidrug resistance and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the development of drug-resistant tumor cells has been extensively studied. As more knowledge on the physiological functions of P-gp has accumulated, the effects of P-gp modulation on the pharmacokinetics and the pharmacodynamics of many drugs have become apparent. Solid organ transplant recipients receive numerous medications that are substrates for P-gp. The

  6. Functional Impact of ABCB1 Variants on Interactions between P-Glycoprotein and Methadone

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chin-Chuan; Chiou, Mu-Han; Teng, Yu-Ning; Hsieh, Yow-Wen; Huang, Chieh-Liang; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Methadone is a widely used substitution therapy for opioid addiction. Large inter-individual variability has been observed in methadone maintenance dosages and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was considered to be one of the major contributors. To investigate the mechanism of P-gp’s interaction with methadone, as well as the effect of genetic variants on the interaction, Flp-In™-293 cells stably transfected with various genotypes of human P-gp were established in the present study. The RNA and protein expression levels of human P-gp were confirmed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. Utilizing rhodamine 123 efflux assay and calcein-AM uptake study, methadone was demonstrated to be an inhibitor of wild-type human P-gp via non-competitive kinetic (IC50?=?2.17±0.10 µM), while the variant-type human P-gp, P-gp with 1236T-2677T-3435T genotype and P-gp with 1236T-2677A-3435T genotype, showed less inhibition potency (IC50?=?2.97±0.09 µM and 4.43±1.10 µM, respectively) via uncompetitive kinetics. Methadone also stimulated P-gp ATPase and inhibited verapamil-stimulated P-gp ATPase activity under therapeutic concentrations. These results may provide a possible explanation for higher methadone dosage requirements in patients carrying variant-type of P-gp and revealed the possible drug-drug interactions in patients who receive concomitant drugs which are also P-gp substrates. PMID:23527191

  7. Synthesis and biological evaluation of bifendate-chalcone hybrids as a new class of potential P-glycoprotein inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaoke; Ren, Zhiguang; Tang, Xiaobo; Peng, Hui; Ma, Yuanfang; Lai, Yisheng; Peng, Sixun; Zhang, Yihua

    2012-04-15

    Overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one of the major problems to successful cancer chemotherapy. To find novel effective P-gp inhibitors, a series of bifendate-chalcone hybrids were synthesized and evaluated. Among them, the most active compound 8g had little intrinsic cytotoxicity (IC(50)>200 ?M), and could increase accumulation of Rhodamine 123 in K562/A02 cells more potently than bifendate and verapamil (VRP) by inhibiting P-gp efflux function. And 8g displayed potent chemo-sensitizing effect and persisted for much longer time (>24h) compared with VRP (<6h). In addition, 8g, unlike VRP, showed no stimulation on the P-gp ATPase activity, suggesting it is not a P-gp substrate. Therefore, 8g may represent a promising lead to develop MDR reversal agents for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:22429509

  8. Xanthone analogues as potent modulators of intestinal P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Chae, Song Wha; Woo, Sangwook; Park, Jung Hyun; Kwon, Youngjoo; Na, Younghwa; Lee, Hwa Jeong

    2015-03-26

    Intestinal P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a limiting step for oral absorption of drugs. Therefore, P-gp inhibitors have been studied as enhancers of oral absorption of drugs that are P-gp substrates. We investigated the in vitro and in vivo P-gp inhibitory activity of synthesized xanthone analogues. With 3-(3-chloro-2-hydroxypropoxy)-1-hydroxy-9H-thioxanthen-9-one, compound 13, accumulation of daunomycin (DNM) increased 707% and efflux of DNM decreased 66% compared to DNM alone. Relative bioavailability (RB) of paclitaxel (PTX, 25 mg/kg) increased 2.5-fold after oral administration with 13 (5 mg/kg). In a xenograft animal model, oral administration of PTX (40 mg/kg) with 13 (10 mg/kg) significantly inhibited tumour growth and was more effective than intravenously administered PTX (10 mg/kg) alone. Therefore, the synthesized xanthone analogue 13 might have therapeutic benefits for oral absorption of P-gp substrate anticancer drugs. PMID:25686592

  9. New insight into p-glycoprotein as a drug target.

    PubMed

    Breier, Albert; Gibalova, Lenka; Seres, Mario; Barancik, Miroslav; Sulova, Zdenka

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) of cancer tissue is a phenomenon in which cancer cells exhibit reduced sensitivity to a large group of unrelated drugs with different mechanisms of pharmacological activity. Mechanisms that reduce cell sensitivity to damage induced by a variety of chemicals were found to be caused by diverse, albeit well-defined, phenotypic alterations. The molecular basis of MDR commonly involves overexpression of the plasma membrane drug efflux pump - P-glycoprotein (P-gp). This glycoprotein is an ABCB1 member of the ABC transporter family. Cells that develop MDR of this type express massive amounts of P-gp that can induce a drug resistance of more than 100 times higher than normal cells to several drugs, which are substrates of P-gp. Expression of P-gp could be inherent to cancer cells with regard to the specialized tissues from which the cells originated. This is often designated as intrinsic Pgp- mediated MDR. However, overexpression of P-gp may be induced by selection and/or adaptation of cells during exposure to anticancer drugs; this particular example is known as acquired P-gp-mediated MDR. Drugs that are potential inducers of P-gp are often substrates of this transporter. However, several substances that have been proven to not be transportable by P-gp (such as cisplatin or alltrans retinoic acid) could induce minor improvements in P-gp overexpression. It is generally accepted that the drug efflux activity of Pgp is a major cause of reduced cell sensitivity to several compounds. However, P-gp may have side effects that are independent of its drug efflux activity. Several authors have described a direct influence of P-gp on the function of proteins involved in regulatory pathways, including apoptotic progression (such as p53, caspase-3 and Pokemon). Moreover, alterations of cell regulatory pathways, including protein expression, glycosylation and phosphorylation, have been demonstrated in cells overexpressing P-gp, which may consequently induce changes in cell sensitivity to substances that are not P-gp substrates or modulators. We recently reported that P-gppositive L1210 cells exhibit reduced sensitivity to cisplatin, concanavalin A, thapsigargin and tunicamycin. Thus, P-gp-mediated MDR represents a more complex process than was expected, and the unintended effects of P-gp overexpression should be considered when describing this phenotype. The present review aims to provide the most current informations about P-gp-mediated MDR while paying particular attention to the possible dual function of this protein as a drug efflux pump and a regulatory protein that influences diverse cell processes. From a clinical standpoint, overexpression of P-gp in cancer cells represents a real obstacle to effective chemotherapy for malignant diseases. Therefore, this protein should be considered as a viable target for pharmaceutical design. PMID:22931413

  10. Effects of P-glycoprotein and its inhibitors on apoptosis in K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Zu, Yaqiong; Yang, Zhiyong; Tang, Songshan; Han, Ying; Ma, Jun

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a major factor in multidrug resistance (MDR) which is a serious obstacle in chemotherapy. P-gp has also been implicated in causing apoptosis of tumor cells, which was shown to be another important mechanism of MDR recently. To study the influence of P-gp in tumor cell apoptosis, K562/A cells (P-gp+) and K562/S cells (P-gp-) were subjected to doxorubicin (Dox), serum withdrawal, or independent co-incubation with multiple P-gp inhibitors, including valspodar (PSC833), verapamil (Ver) and H108 to induce apoptosis. Apoptosis was simultaneously detected by apoptotic rate, cell cycle by flow cytometry and cysteine aspartic acid-specific protease 3 (caspase 3) activity by immunoassay. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis induced by PSC833 were evaluated through an MTT method and apoptosis rate, and cell cycle combined with caspase 3 activity, respectively. The results show that K562/A cells are more resistant to apoptosis and cell cycle arrest than K562/S cells after treatment with Dox or serum deprivation. The apoptosis of K562/A cells increased after co-incubation with each of the inhibitors of P-gp. P-gp inhibitors also enhanced cell cycle arrest in K562/A cell. PSC833 most strikingly decreased viability and led to apoptosis and S phase arrest of cell cycle in K562/A cells. Our study demonstrates that P-gp inhibits the apoptosis of tumor cells in addition to participating in the efflux of intracellular chemotherapy drugs. The results of the caspase 3 activity assay also suggest that the role of P-gp in apoptosis avoidance is caspase-related. PMID:25157469

  11. Tetrandrine and fangchinoline, bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloids from Stephania tetrandra can reverse multidrug resistance by inhibiting P-glycoprotein activity in multidrug resistant human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan Fang; Wink, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The overexpression of ABC transporters is a common reason for multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells. In this study, we found that the isoquinoline alkaloids tetrandrine and fangchinoline from Stephania tetrandra showed a significant synergistic cytotoxic effect in MDR Caco-2 and CEM/ADR5000 cancer cells in combination with doxorubicin, a common cancer chemotherapeutic agent. Furthermore, tetrandrine and fangchinoline increased the intracellular accumulation of the fluorescent P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate rhodamine 123 (Rho123) and inhibited its efflux in Caco-2 and CEM/ADR5000 cells. In addition, tetrandrine and fangchinoline significantly reduced P-gp expression in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that tetrandrine and fangchinoline can reverse MDR by increasing the intracellular concentration of anticancer drugs, and thus they could serve as a lead for developing new drugs to overcome P-gp mediated drug resistance in clinic cancer therapy. PMID:24856768

  12. Silencing of P-glycoprotein increases mortality in temephos-treated Aedes aegypti larvae.

    PubMed

    Figueira-Mansur, J; Ferreira-Pereira, A; Mansur, J F; Franco, T A; Alvarenga, E S L; Sorgine, M H F; Neves, B C; Melo, A C A; Leal, W S; Masuda, H; Moreira, M F

    2013-12-01

    Re-emergence of vector-borne diseases such as dengue and yellow fever, which are both transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, has been correlated with insecticide resistance. P-glycoproteins (P-gps) are ATP-dependent efflux pumps that are involved in the transport of substrates across membranes. Some of these proteins have been implicated in multidrug resistance (MDR). In this study, we identified a putative P-glycoprotein in the Ae.?aegypti database based on its significantly high identity with Anopheles gambiae, Culex quinquefasciatus, Drosophila melanogaster and human P-gps. The basal ATPase activity of ATP-binding cassette transporters in larvae was significantly increased in the presence of MDR modulators (verapamil and quinidine). An eightfold increase in Ae.?aegypti P-gp (AaegP-gp) gene expression was detected in temephos-treated larvae as determined by quantitative PCR. To analyse the potential role of AaegP-gp in insecticide efflux, a temephos larvicide assay was performed in the presence of verapamil. The results showed an increase of 24% in temephos toxicity, which is in agreement with the efflux reversing effect. RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated silencing of the AaegP-gp gene caused a significant increase in temephos toxicity (57%). In conclusion, we have demonstrated for the first time in insects that insecticide-induced P-gp expression can be involved in the modulation of insecticide efflux. PMID:23980723

  13. Abraxane, the Nanoparticle Formulation of Paclitaxel Can Induce Drug Resistance by Up-Regulation of P-gp

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Xiangli; Ma, Huailei; Gong, He; Liu, Juan; Fang, Xiangdong; Hu, Zhiyuan; Fang, Qiaojun

    2015-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) can actively pump paclitaxel (PTX) out of cells and induces drug resistance. Abraxane, a nanoparticle (NP) formulation of PTX, has multiple clinical advantages over the single molecule form. However, it is still unclear whether Abraxane overcomes the common small molecule drug resistance problem mediated by P-gp. Here we were able to establish an Abraxane-resistant cell line from the lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. We compared the transcriptome of A549/Abr resistant cell line to that of its parental cell line using RNA-Seq technology. Several pathways were found to be up or down regulated. Specifically, the most significantly up-regulated gene was ABCB1, which translates into P-glycoprotein. We verified the overexpression of P-glycoprotein and confirmed its function by reversing the drug resistance with P-gp inhibitor Verapamil. The results suggest that efflux pathway plays an important role in the Abraxane-resistant cell line we established. However, the relevance of this P-gp mediated Abraxane resistance in tumors of lung cancer patients remains unknown. PMID:26182353

  14. Homology modeling and structural analysis of human P-glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Hideaki; Kidachi, Yumi; Kamiie, Katsuyoshi; Noshita, Toshiro; Umetsu, Hironori

    2012-01-01

    Homology modeling and structural analysis of human P-glycoprotein (hP-gp) were performed with a software package the Molecular Operating Environment (MOE). A mouse P-gp (mP-gp; PDB code: 3G5U) was selected as a template for the 3D structure modeling of hP-gp. The modeled hP-gp showed significant 3D similarities at the drug biding site (DBS) to the mP-gp structure. The contact energy profiles of the hP-gp model were in good agreement with those of the mP-gp structure. Ramachandran plots revealed that only 3.5% of the amino acid residues were in the disfavored region for hP-gp. Further, docking simulations between 6-(methylsulfinyl)hexyl isothiocyanate (6-MITC) and the P-gp models revealed the similarity of the ligand-receptor bound location between the hP-gp and mP-gp models. These results indicate that the hP-gp model was successfully modeled and analyzed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a hP-gp model with a naturally occurring isothiocyanate, and our data verify that the model can be utilized for application to target hP-gp for the development of antitumor drugs. Abbreviations ABC - ATP-binding cassette, ASE-Dock - alpha sphere and excluded volume-based ligand-protein docking, DBS - drug biding site, MDR - multidrug resistance, MOE - Molecular Operating Environment, ITC - isothiocyanate, P-gp - P-glycoprotein. PMID:23251040

  15. P-glycoprotein interfering agents potentiate ivermectin susceptibility in ivermectin sensitive and resistant isolates of Teladorsagia circumcincta and Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Bartley, D J; McAllister, H; Bartley, Y; Dupuy, J; Ménez, C; Alvinerie, M; Jackson, F; Lespine, A

    2009-08-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) homologues, belonging to the ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) transporter family, are thought to play an important role in the resistance of gastro-intestinal nematode parasites against macrocyclic lactones. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of various P-gp interfering compounds on the efficacy of ivermectin (IVM) in sensitive and resistant nematode isolates. The feeding of IVM resistant and sensitive Teladorsagia circumcincta and Haemonchus contortus first-stage larvae (L1) was assessed using a range of IVM concentrations (0.08-40 nm) with or without P-gp inhibitors: valspodar, verapamil, quercetin, ketoconazole and pluronic P85. The P-gp inhibitors were selected on the basis of their ability to interfere with P-gp transport activity in an epithelial cell line over-expressing murine P-gp. In the presence of P-gp interfering agents, the in vitro susceptibility to IVM of both sensitive and resistant isolates of T. circumcincta and H. contortus was increased. These results show that compounds interfering with P-gp transport activity could enhance IVM efficacy in sensitive isolates, and also restore IVM sensitivity in resistant nematodes. These results support the view that ABC transporters can play an important role in resistance to IVM, at least in the free-living stages of these economically important gastro-intestinal nematodes. PMID:19549355

  16. Grape Seed Procyanidin Reversal of P-glycoprotein Associated Multi-Drug Resistance via Down-regulation of NF-?B and MAPK/ERK Mediated YB-1 Activity in A2780/T Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng-qi; Duan, Lian; Huo, Qi-lu; Ren, Fei; Li, Guo-feng

    2013-01-01

    The expression and function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is associated with the phenotype of multi-drug resistance (MDR), leading chemotherapy failure of patients suffered with cancer. Grape seed procyanidin(GSP) is a natural polyphenol supplement with anti-inflammatory effect. Present study assessed a new use of GSP on the MDR reversal activity and its possible molecular mechanisms in MDR1-overpressing paclitaxel resistant ovarian cancer cells. Our results showed GSP significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel and adriamycin in paclitaxel resistant A2780/T cells but its parental A2780 cells. Furthermore, GSP strongly inhibited P-gp expression by blocking MDR1 gene transcription, as well as, increased the intracellular accumulation of the P-gp substrate rhodamine-123 in A2780/T cells. Nuclear factor-?B(NF-?B) activity, I?B degradation level and NF-?B/p65 nuclear translocation induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and receptor activator for nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL) were markedly inhibited by pre-treatment with GSP. Meanwhile, GSP inhibited MAPK/ERK pathway by decreasing the phosphorylation of ERK1/2, resulting in reduced the Y-box binding protein 1 (YB-1) activation with blocking its nuclear translocation. Moreover, the up-regulation of P-gp expression, the activation of AKT/NF-?B and MAPK/ERK pathway induced by LPS was attenuated by GSP administration. Compared with PDTC and U1026, inhibitor of NF-?B and MAPK/ERK respectively, GSP showed the same tendency of down-regulating NF-?B and MAPK/ERK mediated YB-1 activities. Thus, GSP reverses P-gp associated MDR by inhibiting the function and expression of P-gp through down-regulation of NF-?B activity and MAPK/ERK pathway mediated YB-1 nuclear translocation, offering insight into the mechanism of reversing MDR by natural polyphenol supplement compounds. GSP could be a new potential MDR reversal agent used for combination therapy with chemotherapeutics in clinic. PMID:23967153

  17. Targeting blood-brain barrier sphingolipid signaling reduces basal P-glycoprotein activity and improves drug delivery to the brain.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Ronald E; Peart, John C; Hawkins, Brian T; Campos, Christopher R; Miller, David S

    2012-09-25

    P-glycoprotein, an ATP-driven drug efflux pump, is a major obstacle to the delivery of small-molecule drugs across the blood-brain barrier and into the CNS. Here we test a unique signaling-based strategy to overcome this obstacle. We used a confocal microscopy-based assay with isolated rat brain capillaries to map a signaling pathway that within minutes abolishes P-glycoprotein transport activity without altering transporter protein expression or tight junction permeability. This pathway encompasses elements of proinflammatory- (TNF-?) and sphingolipid-based signaling. Critical to this pathway was signaling through sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1PR1). In brain capillaries, S1P acted through S1PR1 to rapidly and reversibly reduce P-glycoprotein transport activity. Sphingosine reduced transport by a sphingosine kinase-dependent mechanism. Importantly, fingolimod (FTY720), a S1P analog recently approved for treatment of multiple sclerosis, also rapidly reduced P-glycoprotein activity; similar effects were found with the active, phosphorylated metabolite (FTY720P). We validated these findings in vivo using in situ brain perfusion in rats. Administration of S1P, FTY720, or FTY729P increased brain uptake of three radiolabeled P-glycoprotein substrates, (3)H-verapamil (threefold increase), (3)H-loperamide (fivefold increase), and (3)H-paclitaxel (fivefold increase); blocking S1PR1 abolished this effect. Tight junctional permeability, measured as brain (14)C-sucrose accumulation, was not altered. Therefore, targeting signaling through S1PR1 at the blood-brain barrier with the sphingolipid-based drugs, FTY720 or FTY720P, can rapidly and reversibly reduce basal P-glycoprotein activity and thus improve delivery of small-molecule therapeutics to the brain. PMID:22949658

  18. Discovery of novel P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance inhibitors bearing triazole core via click chemistry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Baomin; Qiu, Qianqian; Zhao, Tianxiao; Jiao, Lei; Hou, Jianyu; Li, Yunman; Qian, Hai; Huang, Wenlong

    2014-08-01

    A novel series of P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) inhibitors bearing a triazol-phenethyl-tetrahydroisoquinoline scaffold were designed and synthesized via click chemistry. Most of the synthesized compounds showed higher reversal activity than verapamil (VRP). Among them, the most potent compound 5 showed a comparable activity with the known potent P-gp inhibitor WK-X-34 with lower cytotoxicity (IC50s > 100 ?m). Compared with VRP, compound 5 exhibited more potency in increasing drug accumulation in K562/A02 MDR cells. Moreover, compound 5 persisted longer chemo-sensitizing effect (>24 h) than VRP (<6 h) with reversibility. Given the low intrinsic cytotoxicity and the potent reversal activity, compound 5 may represent a promising candidate for developing P-gp-mediated MDR inhibitor. PMID:24750961

  19. Oral cyclosporin A inhibits CD4 T cell P-glycoprotein activity in HIV-infected adults initiating treatment with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Todd Hulgan; John P. Donahue; Laura Smeaton; Minya Pu; Hongying Wang; Michael M. Lederman; Kimberly Smith; Hernan Valdez; Christopher Pilcher; David W. Haas

    2009-01-01

    Purpose  P-glycoprotein limits the tissue penetration of many antiretroviral drugs. The aim of our study was to characterize the effects\\u000a of the P-glycoprotein substrate cyclosporin A on T cell P-glycoprotein activity in human immunodeficiency virus-infected participants\\u000a in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group study A5138.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We studied P-glycoprotein activity on CD4 and CD8 T cells in 16 participants randomized to receive oral

  20. Saint John's wort: An in vitro analysis of P-glycoprotein induction due to extended exposure

    PubMed Central

    Perloff, Michael D; von Moltke, Lisa L; Störmer, Elke; Shader, Richard I; Greenblatt, David J

    2001-01-01

    Chronic use of Saint John's wort (SJW) has been shown to lower the bioavailability for a variety of co-administered drugs including indinavir, cyclosporin, and digoxin. Decreases in intestinal absorption through induction of the multidrug resistance transporter, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), may explain decreased bioavailability. The present study characterized the response of P-gp to chronic and acute exposure of SJW and hypericin (HYP, a presumed active moiety within SJW) in an in vitro system. Experiments were performed with 3 to 300??g?ml?1 of methanol-extracted SJW and 0.03 to 3??M HYP, representing low to high estimates of intestinal concentrations. In induction experiments, LS-180 intestinal carcinoma cells were exposed for 3 days to SJW, HYP, vehicle or a positive control (ritonavir). P-gp was quantified using Western blot analysis. P-gp expression was strongly induced by SJW (400% increase at 300??g?ml?1) and by HYP (700% at 3??M) in a dose-dependent fashion. Cells chronically treated with SJW had decreased accumulation of rhodamine 123, a P-gp substrate, that was reversed with acute verapamil, a P-gp inhibitor. Fluorescence microscopy of intact cells validated these findings. In Caco-2 cell monolayers, SJW and HYP caused moderate inhibition of P-gp-attributed transport at the maximum concentrations tested. SJW and HYP significantly induced P-gp expression at low, clinically relevant concentrations. Similar effects occurring in vivo may explain the decreased bioavailability of P-gp substrate drugs when co-administered with SJW. PMID:11739235

  1. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein Gene Expression and Function Enhances Triptolide-induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kong, Ling-Lei; Zhuang, Xiao-Mei; Yang, Hai-Ying; Yuan, Mei; Xu, Liang; Li, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Triptolide (TP) is the major active principle of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f. and very effective in treatment of autoimmune diseases. However, TP induced hepatotoxicity limited its clinical applications. Our previous study found that TP was a substrate of P-glycoprotein and its hepatobiliary clearance was markedly affected by P-gp modulation in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes. In this study, small interfering RNA (siRNA) and specific inhibitor tariquidar were used to investigate the impact of P-gp down regulation on TP-induced hepatotoxicity. The results showed that when the function of P-gp was inhibited by mdr1a-1 siRNA or tariquidar, the systemic and hepatic exposures of TP were significantly increased. The aggravated hepatotoxicity was evidenced with the remarkably lifted levels of serum biomarkers (ALT and AST) and pathological changes in liver. The other toxicological indicators (MDA, SOD and Bcl-2/Bax) were also significantly changed by P-gp inhibition. The data analysis showed that the increase of TP exposure in mice was quantitatively correlated to the enhanced hepatotoxicity, and the hepatic exposure was more relevant to the toxicity. P-gp mediated clearance played a significant role in TP detoxification. The risk of herb-drug interaction likely occurs when TP is concomitant with P-gp inhibitors or substrates in clinic. PMID:26134275

  2. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein Gene Expression and Function Enhances Triptolide-induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ling-Lei; zhuang, Xiao-Mei; Yang, Hai-Ying; Yuan, Mei; Xu, Liang; Li, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Triptolide (TP) is the major active principle of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f. and very effective in treatment of autoimmune diseases. However, TP induced hepatotoxicity limited its clinical applications. Our previous study found that TP was a substrate of P-glycoprotein and its hepatobiliary clearance was markedly affected by P-gp modulation in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes. In this study, small interfering RNA (siRNA) and specific inhibitor tariquidar were used to investigate the impact of P-gp down regulation on TP-induced hepatotoxicity. The results showed that when the function of P-gp was inhibited by mdr1a-1 siRNA or tariquidar, the systemic and hepatic exposures of TP were significantly increased. The aggravated hepatotoxicity was evidenced with the remarkably lifted levels of serum biomarkers (ALT and AST) and pathological changes in liver. The other toxicological indicators (MDA, SOD and Bcl-2/Bax) were also significantly changed by P-gp inhibition. The data analysis showed that the increase of TP exposure in mice was quantitatively correlated to the enhanced hepatotoxicity, and the hepatic exposure was more relevant to the toxicity. P-gp mediated clearance played a significant role in TP detoxification. The risk of herb-drug interaction likely occurs when TP is concomitant with P-gp inhibitors or substrates in clinic. PMID:26134275

  3. Circadian modulation in the intestinal absorption of p-glycoprotein substrates in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Masaru; Koyanagi, Satoru; Suzuki, Norio; Katamune, Chiharu; Matsunaga, Naoya; Watanabe, Nobuaki; Takahashi, Masayuki; Izumi, Takashi; Ohdo, Shigehiro

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies in laboratory rodents have revealed that circadian oscillation in the physiologic functions affecting drug disposition underlies the dosing time-dependent change in pharmacokinetics. However, it is difficult to predict the circadian change in the drug pharmacokinetics in a diurnal human by using the data collected from nocturnal rodents. In this study, we used cynomolgus monkeys, diurnal active animals, to evaluate the relevance of intestinal expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) to the dosing time dependency of the pharmacokinetics of its substrates. The rhythmic phases of circadian gene expression in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (the mammalian circadian pacemaker) of cynomolgus monkeys were similar to those reported in nocturnal rodents. On the other hand, the expression of circadian clock genes in the intestinal epithelial cells of monkeys oscillated at opposite phases in rodents. The intestinal expression of P-gp in the small intestine of monkeys was also oscillated in a circadian time-dependent manner. Furthermore, the intestinal absorption of P-gp substrates (quinidine and etoposide) was substantially suppressed by administering the drugs at the times of day when P-gp levels were abundant. By contrast, there was no significant dosing time-dependent difference in the absorption of the non-P-gp substrate (acetaminophen). The oscillation in the intestinal expression of P-gp appears to affect the pharmacokinetics of its substrates. Identification of circadian factors affecting the drug disposition in laboratory monkeys may improve the predictive accuracy of pharmacokinetics in humans. PMID:25901027

  4. P-gp efflux pump inhibition potential of common environmental contaminants determined in vitro.

    PubMed

    Georgantzopoulou, Anastasia; Skoczy?ska, Ewa; Van den Berg, Johannes H J; Brand, Walter; Legay, Sylvain; Klein, Sebastian G; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Murk, Albertinka J

    2014-04-01

    Across different species, cellular efflux pumps such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp; also termed multidrug resistance protein 1 [MDR1]) serve as a first line of defense by transporting toxic xenobiotics out of the cell. This mechanism is also active in aquatic organisms such as mussels, fish, and their larvae. Modulation of this resistance mechanism by chemical agents occurring in the environment could result in either higher or lower internal concentrations of toxic or endogenous compounds in cells. The aim of the present study was to explore and quantify the inhibition of the P-gp efflux pumps by several ubiquitous aquatic contaminants. The calcein-acetoxymethyl ester (calcein-AM) assay commonly used in pharmacological research was established with P-gp-overexpressing Madin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCKII-MDR1) in a 96-well plate, avoiding extra washing, centrifugation, and lysis steps. This calcein-AM-based P-gp cellular efflux pump inhibition assay (CEPIA) was used to study the inhibition by commonly occurring environmental contaminants. Among others, the compounds pentachlorophenol, perfluorooctane sulfonate, and perfluorooctanoate strongly inhibited the P-gp-mediated efflux of calcein-AM while the chloninated alkanes did not seem to interact with the transporter. The fact that common pollutants can be potent modulators of the efflux transporters is a motive to further study whether this increases the toxicity of other contaminants present in the same matrices. PMID:24375866

  5. 7-Ketocholesterol induces P-glycoprotein through PI3K/mTOR signaling in hepatoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng-Fan; Chou, Yueh-Ching; Mazumder, Nirmal; Kao, Fu-Jen; Nagy, Leslie D.; Guengerich, F. Peter; Huang, Cheng; Lee, Hsin-Chen; Lai, Ping-Shan; Ueng, Yune-Fang

    2014-01-01

    7-Ketocholesterol (7-KC) is found at an elevated level in patients with cancer and chronic liver disease. The up-regulation of an efflux pump, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) leads to drug resistance. To elucidate the effect of 7-KC on P-gp, P-gp function and expression were investigated in hepatoma cell lines Huh-7 and HepG2 and in primary hepatocyte-derived HuS-E/2 cells. At a subtoxic concentration, 48-h exposure to 7-KC reduced the intracellular accumulation and cytotoxicity of P-gp substrate doxorubicin in hepatoma cells, but not in HuS-E/2 cells. In Huh-7 cells, 7-KC elevated efflux function through the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. 7-KC activated the downstream protein synthesis initiation factor 4E-BP1 and induced P-gp expression post-transcriptionally. The stimulation of efflux was reversible and could not be prevented by N-acetyl cysteine. Total cellular ATP content remained the same, whereas the lactate production was increased and fluorescence lifetime of protein-bound NADH was shortened. These changes suggested a metabolic shift to glycolysis, but glycolytic inhibitors did not eliminate 7-KC-mediated P-gp induction. These results demonstrate that 7-KC induces P-gp through PI3K/mTOR signaling and decreased the cell-killing efficacy of doxorubicin in hepatoma cells. PMID:23792120

  6. 7-Ketocholesterol induces P-glycoprotein through PI3K/mTOR signaling in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Fan; Chou, Yueh-Ching; Mazumder, Nirmal; Kao, Fu-Jen; Nagy, Leslie D; Guengerich, F Peter; Huang, Cheng; Lee, Hsin-Chen; Lai, Ping-Shan; Ueng, Yune-Fang

    2013-08-15

    7-Ketocholesterol (7-KC) is found at an elevated level in patients with cancer and chronic liver disease. The up-regulation of an efflux pump, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) leads to drug resistance. To elucidate the effect of 7-KC on P-gp, P-gp function and expression were investigated in hepatoma cell lines Huh-7 and HepG2 and in primary hepatocyte-derived HuS-E/2 cells. At a subtoxic concentration, 48-h exposure to 7-KC reduced the intracellular accumulation and cytotoxicity of P-gp substrate doxorubicin in hepatoma cells, but not in HuS-E/2 cells. In Huh-7 cells, 7-KC elevated efflux function through the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. 7-KC activated the downstream protein synthesis initiation factor 4E-BP1 and induced P-gp expression post-transcriptionally. The stimulation of efflux was reversible and could not be prevented by N-acetyl cysteine. Total cellular ATP content remained the same, whereas the lactate production was increased and fluorescence lifetime of protein-bound NADH was shortened. These changes suggested a metabolic shift to glycolysis, but glycolytic inhibitors did not eliminate 7-KC-mediated P-gp induction. These results demonstrate that 7-KC induces P-gp through PI3K/mTOR signaling and decreased the cell-killing efficacy of doxorubicin in hepatoma cells. PMID:23792120

  7. A role for P-glycoprotein in regulating cell growth and survival

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Astrid A Ruefli; Ricky W Johnstone

    2003-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent drug efflux protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp), is a major obstacle to the successful treatment of cancer. P-gp is expressed in many types of cancers and the clinical success of chemotherapeutic treatment often correlates inversely with the level of P-gp expression. P-gp is a 170–180 kD cell-surface transporter protein and has historically been

  8. Irradiation of rat brain reduces P-glycoprotein expression and function

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bart; W. B. Nagengast; R. P. Coppes; T. D. Wegman; H J M Groen; W. Vaalburg; E. G. F. de Vries; N. H. Hendrikse; EGE de Vries

    2007-01-01

    The blood–brain barrier (BBB) hampers delivery of several drugs including chemotherapeutics to the brain. The drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp), expressed on brain capillary endothelial cells, is part of the BBB. P-gp expression on capillary endothelium decreases 5 days after brain irradiation, which may reduce P-gp function and increase brain levels of P-gp substrates. To elucidate whether radiation therapy reduces

  9. PHYSIO-PHARMACOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF P-GLYCOPROTEIN IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Trabajos de Revisión; M Ballent; A Lifschitz; G Virkel; C Lanusse

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a transporter protein associated with multidrug resis- tance to certain anticancer drugs (MDR). Initially P-gp was identified by its overexpression in multidrug resistant tumor cells. P-gp is also expressed in a wide range of normal tissues including liver, intestines, blood-brain barrier and kidneys. P-gp secrets a large number of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds from the intracellular to

  10. Oral Cyclosporin A Inhibits CD4 T cell P-glycoprotein Activity in HIV-Infected Adults Initiating Treatment with Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hulgan, Todd; Donahue, John P.; Smeaton, Laura; Pu, Minya; Wang, Hongying; Lederman, Michael M.; Smith, Kimberly; Valdez, Hernan; Pilcher, Christopher; Haas, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose P-glycoprotein limits tissue penetration of many antiretroviral drugs. We characterized effects of the P-glycoprotein substrate cyclosporin A on T cell P-glycoprotein activity in HIV-infected AIDS Clinical Trials Group study A5138 participants. Methods We studied P-glycoprotein activity on CD4 and CD8 T cells in 16 participants randomized to receive oral cyclosporin A (n=9) or not (n=7) during initiation antiretroviral therapy (ART) that did not include protease or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Results CD4 T cell P-glycoprotein activity decreased by a median of 8 percentage points with cyclosporin A/ART (difference between cyclosporin A/ART versus ART only P=0.001). Plasma trough cyclosporin A concentrations correlated with change in P-glycoprotein activity in several T cell subsets. Conclusions Oral cyclosporin A can inhibit peripheral blood CD4 T cell P-glycoprotein activity. Targeted P-glycoprotein inhibition might enhance delivery of ART to T cells. PMID:19779705

  11. Effect of FosPeg® mediated photoactivation on P-gp/ABCB1 protein expression in human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, R W K; Chu, E S M; Huang, Z; Xu, C S; Ip, C W; Yow, C M N

    2015-07-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) refers to the ability of cancer cells to develop cross resistance to a range of anticancer drugs which are structurally and functionally unrelated. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is the best studied MDR phenotype in photodynamic therapy (PDT) treated cells. Our pervious study demonstrated that FosPeg® mediated PDT is effective to NPC cell line models. In this in vitro study, the expression of MDR1 gene and its product P-gp in undifferentiated, poorly differentiated and well differentiated human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cells were investigated. The influence of P-gp efflux activities on photosensitizer FosPeg® was also examined. Regardless of the differentiation status, PDT tested NPC cell lines all expressed P-gp protein. Results indicated that FosPeg® photoactivation could heighten the expression of MDR1 gene and P-gp transporter protein in a dose dependent manner. Up to 2-fold increase of P-gp protein expression were seen in NPC cells after FosPeg® mediated PDT. Interestingly, our finding demonstrated that FosPeg® mediated PDT efficiency is independent to the MDR1 gene and P-gp protein expression in NPC cells. FosPeg® itself is not the substrate of P-gp transporter protein and no efflux of FosPeg® were observed in NPC cells. Therefore, the PDT efficiency would not be affected even though FosPeg® mediated PDT could induce MDR1 gene and P-gp protein expression in NPC cells. FosPeg® mediated PDT could be a potential therapeutic approach for MDR cancer patients. PMID:25900553

  12. Blood-brain barrier pharmacoproteomics-based reconstruction of the in vivo brain distribution of P-glycoprotein substrates in cynomolgus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Yasuo; Wakayama, Kentaro; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Chiba, Masato; Ohe, Tomoyuki; Ishii, Yasuyuki; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether in vivo drug distribution in brain in monkeys can be reconstructed by integrating four factors: protein expression levels of P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/multidrug resistance protein 1 at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), in vitro transport activity per P-gp molecule, and unbound drug fractions in plasma and brain. For five P-gp substrates (indinavir, quinidine, loperamide, paclitaxel, and verapamil) and one nonsubstrate (diazepam), in vitro P-gp transport activities were determined by measuring transcellular transport across monolayers of cynomolgus monkey P-gp-transfected LLC-PK1 and parental cells. In vivo P-gp functions at the BBB were reconstructed from in vitro P-gp transport activities and P-gp expression levels in transfected cells and cynomolgus brain microvessels. Brain-to-plasma concentration ratios (Kp,brain) were reconstructed by integrating the reconstructed in vivo P-gp functions with drug unbound fractions in plasma and brain. For all compounds, the reconstructed Kp,brain values were within a 3-fold range of observed values, as determined by constant intravenous infusion in adult cynomolgus monkeys. Among four factors, plasma unbound fraction was the most sensitive factor to species differences in Kp,brain between monkeys and mice. Unbound brain-to-plasma concentration ratios (Kp,uu,brain) were reconstructed as the reciprocal of the reconstructed in vivo P-gp functions, and the reconstructed Kp,uu,brain values were within a 3-fold range of in vivo values, which were estimated from observed Kp,brain and unbound fractions. This study experimentally demonstrates that brain distributions of P-gp substrates and nonsubstrate can be reconstructed on the basis of pharmacoproteomic concept in monkeys, which serve as a robust model of drug distribution in human brain. PMID:24947467

  13. p53 and P-glycoprotein are often co-expressed and are associated with poor prognosis in breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Linn, S. C.; Honkoop, A. H.; Hoekman, K.; van der Valk, P.; Pinedo, H. M.; Giaccone, G.

    1996-01-01

    Expression of both P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and mutant p53 have recently been reported to be associated with poor prognosis of breast cancer. The expression of P-gp is associated in vitro and in vivo with cross-resistance to several anti-cancer drugs. p53 plays a regulatory role in apoptosis, and mutant p53 has been suggested to be involved in drug resistance. Interestingly, in vitro experiments have shown that mutant p53 can activate the promoter of the MDR1 gene, which encodes P-gp. We investigated whether p53 and P-gp are simultaneously expressed in primary breast cancer cells and analysed the impact of the co-expression on patients prognosis. Immunohistochemistry was used to investigate P-gp expression (JSB-1, C219) and nuclear p53 accumulation (DO-7) in 20 operable chemotherapy untreated and 30 locally advanced breast cancers undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide. Double immunostaining showed that P-gp expression and nuclear p53 accumulation often occur concomitantly in the same tumour cells. A correlation between p53 and P-gp expression was found in all 50 breast cancers (P = 0.003; Fisher's exact test). P-gp expression, nuclear p53 accumulation, and co-expression of p53 and P-gp were more frequently observed in locally advanced breast cancers than in operable breast cancers (P = 0.0004, P = 0.048; P = 0.002 respectively. Fisher's exact test). Co-expression of p53 and P-gp was the strongest prognostic factor for shorter survival by multivariate analysis (P = 0.004) in the group of locally advanced breast cancers (univariate analysis: P = 0.0007). Only 3 out of 13 samples sequentially taken before and after chemotherapy displayed a change in P-gp or p53 staining. In conclusion, nuclear p53 accumulation is often associated with P-gp expression in primary breast cancer, and simultaneous expression of p53 and P-gp is associated with shorter survival in locally advanced breast cancer patients. Co-expression of P-gp and mutant p53 belong to a series of molecular events resulting in a more aggressive phenotype, drug resistance and poor prognosis. Images Figure 1 PMID:8679460

  14. Consequences of cell-to-cell P-glycoprotein transfer on acquired multidrug resistance in breast cancer: a cell population dynamics model

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cancer is a proliferation disease affecting a genetically unstable cell population, in which molecular alterations can be somatically inherited by genetic, epigenetic or extragenetic transmission processes, leading to a cooperation of neoplastic cells within tumoural tissue. The efflux protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is overexpressed in many cancer cells and has known capacity to confer multidrug resistance to cytotoxic therapies. Recently, cell-to-cell P-gp transfers have been shown. Herein, we combine experimental evidence and a mathematical model to examine the consequences of an intercellular P-gp trafficking in the extragenetic transfer of multidrug resistance from resistant to sensitive cell subpopulations. Methodology and Principal Findings We report cell-to-cell transfers of functional P-gp in co-cultures of a P-gp overexpressing human breast cancer MCF-7 cell variant, selected for its resistance towards doxorubicin, with the parental sensitive cell line. We found that P-gp as well as efflux activity distribution are progressively reorganized over time in co-cultures analyzed by flow cytometry. A mathematical model based on a Boltzmann type integro-partial differential equation structured by a continuum variable corresponding to P-gp activity describes the cell populations in co-culture. The mathematical model elucidates the population elements in the experimental data, specifically, the initial proportions, the proliferative growth rates, and the transfer rates of P-gp in the sensitive and resistant subpopulations. Conclusions We confirmed cell-to-cell transfer of functional P-gp. The transfer process depends on the gradient of P-gp expression in the donor-recipient cell interactions, as they evolve over time. Extragenetically acquired drug resistance is an additional aptitude of neoplastic cells which has implications in the diagnostic value of P-gp expression and in the design of chemotherapy regimens. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Leonid Hanin, Anna Marciniak-Czochra and Marek Kimmel. PMID:21269489

  15. Effects of Sertraline and Fluoxetine on P-Glycoprotein at Barrier Sites: In Vivo and In Vitro Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Amita; Iqbal, Majid; Petropoulos, Sophie; Ho, Hay Lam; Gibb, William; Matthews, Stephen G.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Retention of substances from systemic circulation in the brain and testes are limited due to high levels of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the luminal membranes of brain and testes capillary endothelial cells. From a clinical perspective, P-gp rapidly extrudes lipophilic therapeutic agents, which then fail to reach efficacious levels. Recent studies have demonstrated that acute administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) can affect P-gp function, in vitro and in vivo. However, little is known concerning the time-course of these effects or the effects of different SSRI in vivo. Experimental Approach The P-gp substrate, tritiated digoxin ([3H] digoxin), was co-administered with fluoxetine or sertraline to determine if either compound increased drug accumulation within the brains and testes of mice due to inhibition of P-gp activity. We undertook parallel studies in endothelial cells derived from brain microvessels to determine the dose-response and time-course of effects. Key Results In vitro, sertraline resulted in rapid and potent inhibition of P-gp function in brain endothelial cells, as determined by cellular calcein accumulation. In vivo, a biphasic effect was demonstrated. Brain accumulation of [3H] digoxin was increased 5 minutes after treatment with sertraline, but by 60 minutes after sertraline treatment, brain accumulation of digoxin was reduced compared to control. By 240 minutes after sertraline treatment brain digoxin accumulation was elevated compared to control. A similar pattern of results was obtained in the testes. There was no significant effect of fluoxetine on P-gp function, in vitro or in vivo. Conclusions and Implications Acute sertraline administration can modulate P-gp activity in the blood-brain barrier and blood-testes barrier. This clearly has implications for the ability of therapeutic agents that are P-gp substrates, to enter the brain when co-administered with SSRI. PMID:23468867

  16. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein activity and reversal of cancer multidrug resistance by Momordica charantia extract

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pornngarm Limtrakul; Orawan Khantamat; Komsak Pintha

    2004-01-01

    Purpose Multidrug resistance (MDR) is known as a problem limiting the success of therapy in patients treated long term with chemotherapeutic drugs. The drug resistance is mainly due to the overexpression of the 170 kDa P-glycoprotein (Pgp), which causes a reduction in drug accumulation in the cancer cells. In this study, novel chemical modulator(s) from bitter melon ( Momordica charantia L.)

  17. Astragaloside ? reduces the expression level of P-glycoprotein in multidrug-resistant human hepatic cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pei-Pei; Xu, Du-Juan; Huang, Can; Wang, Wei-Ping; Xu, Wen-Ke

    2014-06-01

    Astragaloside is a saponin widely used in traditional Chinese medicine and has been reported to be a potent multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal agent. The present study investigated the role of astragaloside ? (ASIV) in the regulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, encoded by the mdr1 gene) and its effect on the reversal of MDR. The activity of ASIV was evaluated using human hepatic cancer cells Bel-7402 and the corresponding 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) resistant cells Bel-7402/FU. ASIV (0.08 mg/ml) potentiated the cytotoxicity of 5-FU which was demonstrated using the MTT assay on Bel-7402/FU cells. ASIV reduced the expression of P-gp as was revealed by immunocytochemistry. Accumulation and efflux studies with the P-gp substrate, rhodamine 123 (Rh123), demonstrated that ASIV inhibited P-gp-mediated drug efflux. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that AS? enhanced the drug accumulation of 5-FU using a high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay for drug resistant cells. Furthermore, ASIV may downregulate the expression of P-gp, which was examined using western blot analysis and polymerase chain reaction. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that ASIV reverses the drug resistance of Bel-7402/FU cells by downregulating the expression of mdr1. ASIV may represent a potent modulator of P-gp-mediated MDR in hepatic cancer therapy. PMID:24676670

  18. Structures of P-glycoprotein reveal its conformational flexibility and an epitope on the nucleotide-binding domain

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Andrew B.; Szewczyk, Paul; Grimard, Vinciane; Lee, Chang-Wook; Martinez, Lorena; Doshi, Rupak; Caya, Alexandra; Villaluz, Mark; Pardon, Els; Cregger, Cristina; Swartz, Douglas J.; Falson, Pierre Guy; Urbatsch, Ina L.; Govaerts, Cedric; Steyaert, Jan; Chang, Geoffrey

    2013-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one of the best-known mediators of drug efflux-based multidrug resistance in many cancers. This validated therapeutic target is a prototypic, plasma membrane resident ATP-Binding Cassette transporter that pumps xenobiotic compounds out of cells. The large, polyspecific drug-binding pocket of P-gp recognizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds. The transport of these drugs across the membrane is coincident with changes in the size and shape of this pocket during the course of the transport cycle. Here, we present the crystal structures of three inward-facing conformations of mouse P-gp derived from two different crystal forms. One structure has a nanobody bound to the C-terminal side of the first nucleotide-binding domain. This nanobody strongly inhibits the ATP hydrolysis activity of mouse P-gp by hindering the formation of a dimeric complex between the ATP-binding domains, which is essential for nucleotide hydrolysis. Together, these inward-facing conformational snapshots of P-gp demonstrate a range of flexibility exhibited by this transporter, which is likely an essential feature for the binding and transport of large, diverse substrates. The nanobody-bound structure also reveals a unique epitope on P-gp. PMID:23901103

  19. Spinosad is a potent inhibitor of canine P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Schrickx, Johannes A

    2014-04-01

    Inhibition of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) by the oral flea preventative spinosad has been suggested as the underlying cause of the drug-drug interaction with ivermectin. In this study, an in vitro model consisting of canine cells was validated to describe the inhibitory effect of drugs on canine P-gp. In this model, ivermectin, cyclosporin, verapamil, loperamide and ketoconazole inhibited P-gp function with IC50 values ranging from 0.1 to 3.7 ?mol/L. Spinosad was a potent inhibitor of canine P-gp with an IC50 value of 0.27 ?mol/L or 0.2 ?g/mL. The risk of spinosad causing P-gp related drug-drug interactions in the dog could be predicted by the IC50 value, the oral dosage and plasma concentrations. PMID:24582422

  20. Acetaminophen Modulates P-Glycoprotein Functional Expression at the Blood-Brain Barrier by a Constitutive Androstane Receptor–Dependent Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Brandon J.; Sanchez-Covarrubias, Lucy; Zhang, Yifeng; Laracuente, Mei-Li; Vanderah, Todd W.; Ronaldson, Patrick T.; Davis, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    Effective pharmacologic treatment of pain with opioids requires that these drugs attain efficacious concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS). A primary determinant of CNS drug permeation is P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an endogenous blood-brain barrier (BBB) efflux transporter that is involved in brain-to-blood transport of opioid analgesics (i.e., morphine). Recently, the nuclear receptor constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) has been identified as a regulator of P-gp functional expression at the BBB. This is critical to pharmacotherapy of pain/inflammation, as patients are often administered acetaminophen (APAP), a CAR-activating ligand, in conjunction with an opioid. Our objective was to investigate, in vivo, the role of CAR in regulation of P-gp at the BBB. Following APAP treatment, P-gp protein expression was increased up to 1.4–1.6-fold in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, APAP increased P-gp transport of BODIPY-verapamil in freshly isolated rat brain capillaries. This APAP-induced increase in P-gp expression and activity was attenuated in the presence of CAR pathway inhibitor okadaic acid or transcriptional inhibitor actinomycin D, suggesting P-gp regulation is CAR-dependent. Furthermore, morphine brain accumulation was enhanced by P-gp inhibitors in APAP-treated animals, suggesting P-gp–mediated transport. A warm-water (50°C) tail-flick assay revealed a significant decrease in morphine analgesia in animals treated with morphine 3 or 6 hours after APAP treatment, as compared with animals treated concurrently. Taken together, our data imply that inclusion of APAP in a pain treatment regimen activates CAR at the BBB and increases P-gp functional expression, a clinically significant drug-drug interaction that modulates opioid analgesic efficacy. PMID:24019224

  1. Reversal of P-glycoprotein-mediated multi-drug resistance by the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b in human gastric adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Qu, Xiujuan; Hu, Xuejun; Yang, Xianghong; Hou, Kezuo; Teng, Yuee; Zhang, Jingdong; Sada, Kiyonao; Liu, Yunpeng

    2009-06-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated multi-drug resistance (MDR) is a major barrier to the effective chemotherapy of many cancers. Recent studies have shown that inhibition of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway can reverse P-gp-mediated MDR. We investigated the expression of activated Akt (p-Akt) in 124 human gastric carcinoma tissue samples. Ubiquitous p-Akt expression was recorded in the majority (88/124). There was a significant correlation between p-Akt expression and the expression of P-gp. In the adriamycin-resistant MDR gastric carcinoma cell line SGC7901/ADR, p-Akt expression was increased in comparison with the parental cell line SGC7901. Treatment of SGC7901/ADR cells with the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 reduced the expression of both p-Akt and P-gp. To explore the role of ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b in this regulatory pathway, SGC7901/ADR cells were transfected with a plasmid overexpressing wild-type Cbl-b. This down-regulated the expression of both p-Akt and P-gp. Furthermore, resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs was partially reversed. These results demonstrate an important role for Cbl-b in reversing P-gp-mediated gastric cancer MDR through suppression of the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway and the down-regulation of P-gp expression. PMID:19274672

  2. The novel bis-benzylisoquinoline PY35 reverses P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhonglian; Wright, Meredith; Cheng, Jiekai; Huang, Xiaoxing; Liu, Li; Wu, Lixing; Yang, Ping

    2014-09-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) to chemotherapeutic drugs is the main cause of chemotherapy failure in cancer treatment, and it generally results from expression of ATP-dependent efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp). MDR reversal agents typically act by inhibiting the drug efflux activity of P-gp, thereby increasing intracellular drug levels. PY35 is a novel 5-substituted tetrandrine (Tet) derivative (CN Application No. 201210238709.6). The present study was performed to investigate the ability of PY35 to reverse P-gp-mediated MDR and its mechanism in resistant K562/Adriamycin (ADM), MCF-7/ADM cells and their sensitive cell lines K562 and MCF-7. The ability of PY35 to reverse drug resistance was evaluated by MTT assay. The results showed that PY35 can reverse MDR more effectively than the drug prototype?Tet. The P-gp function was assessed by the Rhodamine 123 (Rho-123; a P-gp substrate) uptake assay with flow cytometry (FCM) and laser scanning confocal microscopes (LSCM); it showed that the MDR cells pumped Rho-123 out the cells, while their sensitive cells scarcely showed efflux. The presence of PY35 efficiently decreased the efflux of the Rho-123, showing that PY35 can reverse P-gp-mediated MDR by increasing the intracellular concentration of Rho-123. The intracellular accumulation of ADM was analyzed by FCM and showed that the coadministration of PY35 and ADM had clearer accumulation than the treatment of Tet and ADM, and was also more evident than treatment with only ADM. The effect of PY35 on the expression of P-gp was assessed by western blotting. The results indicated that PY35 does not inhibit the expression level of the P-gp. This study indicated that PY35 can effectively reverse P-gp-mediated MDR, not by inhibiting the expression of P-gp, but by the coadministration of PY35 and ADM that could increase the intracellular accumulation of drugs. Thus, PY35 may be a potential inhibitor to overcome drug resistance. PMID:25017650

  3. CJY, an isoflavone, interacts with ATPase of P-glycoprotein in the rat brain microvessel endothelial cells (RBMECs).

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Shan; Cen, Juan; He, Ling; Liu, Lu; Ji, Bian-Sheng

    2013-12-01

    Our previous study reported CJY, an isoflavone, can reverse P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux activity in rat brain microvessel endothelial cells (RBMECs). In the present report, by assessment of ATPase activity of RBMECs, we gained further insight into the nature of the CJY interactions with P-gp. The results revealed that the basal P-gp ATPase activity was increased by CJY. Kinetic studies on ATPase activity showed the effects of Tetrandrine (Tet) on CJY-stimulated, CsA on CJY-stimulated, and CsA on Tet-stimulated P-gp ATPase activity were all non-competitive inhibition, indicating that these substrates can simultaneously but independently bind to diverse sites on P-gp. Furthermore, the combined effects of CJY with Tet, and CJY with CsA were also evaluated isobolographically. The results showed synergistic interactions in both combinations, implying that combined treatment of CJY with other modulators may exert synergistic interactions for the drug's penetration into the brain and the treatment of neurological disorders. PMID:24090809

  4. RhoGDI2 up-regulates P-glycoprotein expression via Rac1 in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhong; Liu, Bingya; Wu, Xiaohua

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major clinical obstacle in treatment of gastric cancer. Previously, using 2D electrophoresis-mass spectrometry, we identified RhoGDI2 as a contributor to 5-FU resistance in colon cancer cells, and also confer gastric cancer cells resistance to 5-FU. Here, we reported RhoGDI2 also induced MDR in gastric cancer cell line (MKN-45). To explore the underlining mechanism, we detected the mRNA, protein expression, activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in MKN-45 stably transfected with RhoGDI2 expressing or control vector. All the mRNA, protein level, activity were increased by 130%, 230%, 35% respectively after ectopic expression of RhoGDI2. RhoGDI2 was correlated with P-gp expression in gastric cancer tissues as detected by immunohistochemistry. To further study how RhoGDI2 up-regulates P-gp expression, we tested the activity of Rac1 in MKN-45/RhoGDI2 and MKN-45/GFP. Ectopic expression of RhoGDI2 increased Rac1 activity (P?P-gp expression to undetectable level. Overall, these findings suggest that RhoGDI2 up-regulates P-gp expression via Rac1 to induce MDR. PMID:25901126

  5. Tumor P-Glycoprotein Correlates with Efficacy of PF-3758309 in in vitro and in vivo Models of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw-Pierce, Erica Lynn; Pitts, Todd M.; Tan, Aik-Choon; McPhillips, Kelly; West, Mark; Gustafson, Daniel L.; Halsey, Charles; Nguyen, Leslie; Lee, Nathan V.; Kan, Julie L. C.; Murray, Brion William; Eckhardt, S. Gail

    2013-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family, is overexpressed in a number of different cancers and some studies show that P-gp overexpression can be correlated to poor prognosis or therapeutic resistance. Here we sought to elucidate if PF-3758309 (PF-309), a novel p-21 activated kinase inhibitor, efficacy was influenced by tumor P-gp. Based on in vitro proliferation data, a panel of colorectal cancer cell lines were ranked as sensitive or resistant and ABCB1 (P-gp) expression was evaluated by microarray for these cell lines. P-gp expression was determined by western blot and activity determined by rhodamine efflux assay. Knock down of P-gp and pharmacologic inhibition of P-gp to restore PF-309 activity was performed in vitro. PF-309 activity was evaluated in vivo in cell line xenograft models and in primary patient derived tumor xenografts (PDTX). Mice were treated with 25?mg/kg PF-309 orally, twice daily. On the last day of treatment, tumor and plasma were collected for PF-309 analysis. Here we show that ABCB1 gene expression correlates with resistance to PF-309 treatment in vitro and the expression and activity of P-gp was verified in a panel of resistant cells. Furthermore, inhibition of P-gp increased the sensitivity of resistant cells, resulting in a 4–100-fold decrease in the IC50s. Eleven cell line xenografts and 12 PDTX models were treated with PF-309. From the cell line xenografts, we found a significant correlation between ABCB1 gene expression profiles and tumor response. We evaluated tumor and plasma concentrations for eight tumor models (three cell line xenografts and five PDTX models) and a significant correlation was found between tumor concentration and response. Additionally, we show that tumor concentration is approximately fourfold lower in tumors that express P-gp, verified by western blot. Our in vitro and in vivo data strongly suggests that PF-309 efficacy is influenced by the expression of tumor P-gp. PMID:23524533

  6. Tetrandrine potentiates the hypoglycemic efficacy of berberine by inhibiting P-glycoprotein function.

    PubMed

    Shan, Yong-Qiang; Zhu, Yan-Ping; Pang, Jing; Wang, Yan-Xiang; Song, Dan-Qing; Kong, Wei-Jia; Jiang, Jian-Dong

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to improve the absorption and hypoglycemic efficacy of berberine (BBR), which is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), by combination with a P-gp inhibitor tetrandrine (Tet). Flow cytometry and LC-MS/MS were used to determine the cellular efflux or retention of chemicals. Pharmacokinetic study was performed in ICR mice following oral administration of the study compounds. The hypoglycemic efficacies of the compounds were evaluated in diabetic KK-Ay mice. In the in vitro experiments, Tet significantly inhibited the efflux and increased the uptake of P-gp substrates rhodamine-123 as well as BBR in MCF7/DOX cells and Caco-2 intestinal cells. Meanwhile, Tet greatly reduced the expression of P-gp in Caco-2 cells. The inhibition of BBR efflux by Tet was translated into improved pharmacokinetics in vivo. When co-administered, Tet dose-dependently increased the average maximum concentration (C(max)) and area under concentration-time curve (AUC????) of BBR in mice. Tet itself had no impact on glucose metabolism. However, it greatly potentiated the hypoglycemic efficacy of BBR in diabetic KK-Ay mice. In addition, we found that Tet had moderate inhibitory effect on the catalytic activity of CYP3A4, which played a role in the bio-transformation of BBR, and this may also take part in the improvement of the pharmacokinetics of BBR. In summary, combination with P-gp inhibitors such as Tet can improve the pharmacokinetics and hypoglycemic efficacy of BBR greatly; this implicates a feasible strategy for exploring the therapeutic effects of BBR and other pharmaceuticals which are substrates of P-gp. PMID:23924821

  7. P-glycoprotein interactions of novel psychoactive substances - stimulation of ATP consumption and transport across Caco-2 monolayers.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Markus R; Wagmann, Lea; Schneider-Daum, Nicole; Loretz, Brigitta; de Souza Carvalho, Cristiane; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Maurer, Hans H

    2015-04-01

    In contrast to drugs for therapeutic use, there are only few data available concerning interactions between P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and drugs of abuse (DOA). In this work, interactions between structurally diverse DOA and P-gp were investigated using different strategies. First, the effect on the P-gp ATPase activity was studied by monitoring of ATP consumption after addition to recombinant, human P-gp. Second, DOA showing an increased ATP consumption were further characterized regarding their transport across filter grown Caco-2- monolayers. Analyses were performed by luminescence and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. Among the nine DOA initially screened, benzedrone, diclofensine, glaucine, JWH-200, MDBC, WIN-55,212-2 showed an increase of ATP consumption in the ATPase stimulation assay. In Caco-2 transport studies, Glaucine, JWH-200, mitragynine, WIN-55,212-2 could moreover be identified as non-transported substrates, but inhibitors of P-gp activity. Thus, drug-drug or drug-food interactions should be very likely for these compounds. PMID:25637762

  8. P-glycoprotein inhibitors of natural origin as potential tumor chemo-sensitizers: A review

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Hossam M.; Al-Abd, Ahmed M.; El-Dine, Riham Salah; El-Halawany, Ali M.

    2014-01-01

    Resistance of solid tumors to treatment is significantly attributed to pharmacokinetic reasons at both cellular and multi-cellular levels. Anticancer agent must be bio-available at the site of action in a cytotoxic concentration to exert its proposed activity. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a member of the ATP-dependent membrane transport proteins; it is known to pump substrates out of cells in ATP-dependent mechanism. The over-expression of P-gp in tumor cells reduces the intracellular drug concentrations, which decreases the cytotoxicity of a broad spectrum of antitumor drugs. Accordingly, P-gp inhibitors/blockers are potential enhancer for the cellular bioavailability of several clinically important anticancer drugs such as, anthracyclines, taxanes, vinca alkaloids, and podophyllotoxins. Besides several chemically synthesized P-gp inhibitors/blockers, some naturally occurring compounds and plant extracts were reported for their modulation of multidrug resistance; however, this review will focus only on major classes of naturally occurring inhibitors viz., flavonoids, coumarins, terpenoids, alkaloids and saponins. PMID:25685543

  9. Limited Oral Bioavailability and Active Epithelial Excretion of Paclitaxel (Taxol) Caused by P-glycoprotein in the Intestine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alex Sparreboom; Judith van Asperen; Ulrich Mayer; Alfred H. Schinkel; Johan W. Smit; Dirk K. F. Meijer; Piet Borst; Willem J. Nooijen; Jos H. Beijnen; Olaf van Tellingen

    1997-01-01

    In mice, the mdr1a and mdr1b genes encode drug-transporting proteins that can cause multidrug resistance in tumor cells by lowering intracellular drug levels. These P-glycoproteins are also found in various normal tissues such as the intestine. Because mdr1b P-glycoprotein is not detectable in the intestine, mice with a homozygously disrupted mdr1a gene [mdr1a(-\\/-) mice] do not contain functional P-glycoprotein in

  10. Cyclosporin A has low potency as a calcineurin inhibitor in cells expressing high levels of P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Fakata, K L; Elmquist, W F; Swanson, S A; Vorce, R L; Prince, C; Stemmer, P M

    1998-01-01

    Cyclosporin A (CsA) is a widely-used immunosuppressant drug whose therapeutic and toxic actions are mediated through inhibition of calcineurin (CN), a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent phosphatase. Inhibition of CN by CsA requires drug binding to its protein cofactor in the inhibition, cyclophilin. Because cyclophilin is a high affinity target for CsA it is expected that this protein can act as a reservoir for the drug in the cell and may be able to inhibit cellular efflux of CsA. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is known to increase the rate of CsA efflux from CsA loaded cells but it is not clear if the P-gp drug efflux pump can compete effectively with cyclophilin at therapeutically relevant concentrations of CsA. To test the hypothesis that increased expression of P-gp confers protection against CsA-dependent inhibition of CN phosphatase activity, KB-V cells expressing varying levels of P-gp were analyzed to determine the potency of CsA as a CN inhibitor. When intact cells were treated with CsA, a positive correlation was observed between P-gp expression and resistance to CsA-dependent inhibition of CN: the IC50 is approximately 20-fold higher in the multidrug resistant epidermal carcinoma cell line, KB-V, which expresses P-gp at a high level than in the parental, KB, cell line expressing very low levels of P-gp. The resistance displayed by KB-V cells is abrogated by co-administration of the P-gp inhibitor verapamil, whereas verapamil has no effect on CsA potency in control KB cells. In cell lysates from KB-V cells with different amounts of P-gp CsA exhibits equivalent potency, indicating that the difference in sensitivity to CsA among the cell types requires maintenance of cell integrity. These observations support the view that resistance to CN inhibition by CsA occurs in cells with moderately elevated P-gp activity. Therefore, P-gp activity appears to be an important determinant of CsA cellular specificity for both therapeutic and toxic effects. PMID:9651111

  11. 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh2 noncompetitively inhibits P-glycoprotein in vitro and in vivo: a case for herb-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingwei; Zhou, Fang; Wu, Xiaolan; Gu, Yi; Ai, Hua; Zheng, Yuanting; Li, Yannan; Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Hao, Gang; Sun, Jianguo; Peng, Ying; Wang, Guangji

    2010-12-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP-dependent efflux transporter highly expressed in gastrointestinal tract and multidrug resistance tumor cells. Inhibition or induction of P-gp can cause drug-drug interactions and thus influence the effects of P-gp substrate drugs. Previous studies indicated that 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh2 [20(S)-Rh2] could synergistically enhance the anticancer effects of conventional chemotherapeutic agents at a nontoxic dose. The aim of present study was to investigate in vitro and in vivo whether 20(S)-Rh2 was a P-gp inhibitor and analyze the possible inhibitory mechanisms and potential herb-drug interactions. Results showed that in vitro, 20(S)-Rh2 significantly enhanced rhodamine 123 retention in cells and decreased the efflux ratio of digoxin, fexofenadine, and etoposide, which were comparable to the effects of the established P-gp inhibitor verapamil. However, the transport of 20(S)-Rh2 suggested that 20(S)-Rh2 was not a P-gp substrate. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect persisted for at least 3 h after removal of 20(S)-Rh2. Unlike P-gp substrates, 20(S)-Rh2 inhibited both basal and verapamil-stimulated P-gp ATPase activities. It also significantly decreased UIC2 binding fluorescence, a marker for conformational change of P-gp. In situ and in vivo experiments showed that 20(S)-Rh2 increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve and maximum plasma concentration of digoxin, fexofenadine, and etoposide significantly without affecting terminal elimination half-time. Long-term treatment with 20(S)-Rh2 failed to affect intestinal P-gp expression in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, 20(S)-Rh2 is a potent noncompetitive P-gp inhibitor, which indicates a potential herb-drug interaction when 20(S)-Rh2 is coadministered with P-gp substrate drugs. It could increase the absorption of P-gp substrate drugs without long-term induction of P-gp expression in rats. PMID:20837659

  12. Overcoming multidrug-resistance in vitro and in vivo using the novel P-glycoprotein inhibitor 1416.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Zhi, Feng; Xu, Guangming; Tang, Xiaolei; Lu, Sheng; Wu, Jinhui; Hu, Yiqiao

    2012-12-01

    MDR (multidrug-resistance) represents a major obstacle to successful cancer chemotherapy and is usually accomplished by overexpression of P-gp (P-glycoprotein). Much effort has been devoted to developing P-gp inhibitors to modulate MDR. However, none of the inhibitors on the market have been successful. 1416 [1-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenylethylamino)propane hydrochloride (phenoprolamine hydrochloride)] is a new VER (verapamil) analogue with a higher IC50 for blocking calcium channel currents than VER. In the present paper, we examined the inhibition effect of 1416 on P-gp both in vitro and in vivo. 1416 significantly enhanced cytotoxicity of VBL (vinblastine) in P-gp-overexpressed human multidrug-resistant K562/ADM (adriamycin) and KBV cells, but had no such effect on the parent K562 and KB cells. The MDR-modulating function of 1416 was further confirmed by increasing intracellular Rh123 (rhodanmine123) content in MDR cells. Human K562/ADM xenograft-nude mice model verified that 1416 potentiates the antitumour activity of VBL in vivo. RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-PCR) and FACS analysis demonstrated that the expression of MDR1/P-gp was not affected by 1416 treatment. All these observations suggest that 1416 could be a promising agent for overcoming MDR in cancer chemotherapy. PMID:22757751

  13. [11C]sorafenib: radiosynthesis and preliminary PET study of brain uptake in P-gp/Bcrp knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Chiharu; Ogawa, Masanao; Kumata, Katsushi; Fujinaga, Masayuki; Kato, Koichi; Yamasaki, Tomoteru; Yui, Joji; Kawamura, Kazunori; Hatori, Akiko; Fukumura, Toshimitsu; Zhang, Ming-Rong

    2011-04-15

    Sorafenib (Nexavar, BAY43-9006, 1) is a second-generation, orally active multikinase inhibitor that is approved for the treatment of some cancers in patients. In this Letter, we developed [(11)C]1 as a novel positron emission tomography (PET) probe, and evaluated the influence of ABC transporters-mediated efflux on brain uptake using PET with [(11)C]1 in P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) knockout mice versus wild-type mice. [(11)C]1 was synthesized by the reaction of hydrochloride of aniline 2 with [(11)C]phosgene ([(11)C]COCl(2)) to give isocyanate [(11)C]6, followed by reaction with another aniline 3. Small-animal PET study with [(11)C]1 indicated that the radioactivity level (AUC(0-60 min), SUV×min) in the brains of P-gp/Bcrp knockout mice was about three times higher than in wild-type mice. PMID:21419625

  14. Ivermectin induces P-glycoprotein expression and function through mRNA stabilization in murine hepatocyte cell line.

    PubMed

    Ménez, Cécile; Mselli-Lakhal, Laďla; Foucaud-Vignault, Magali; Balaguer, Patrick; Alvinerie, Michel; Lespine, Anne

    2012-01-15

    Ivermectin is widely used in human and veterinary medicine for the control of helminth infections. Ivermectin is known to interact with P-glycoprotein (P-gp/MDR1), being a good substrate and a potent inhibitor, however, the influence of ivermectin on the expression of the transporter has not been investigated. Expression of P-glycoprotein was investigated in cultured mouse hepatocytes acutely exposed to ivermectin. The two P-glycoprotein murine isoforms, Mdr1a and Mdr1b, mRNA levels were assessed by real-time RT-PCR. Ivermectin induced a clear time- and concentration-dependent up-regulation of Mdr1a and Mdr1b mRNA levels (as early as a 12-h exposure and up to 2.5-fold at 10?M). Moreover, ivermectin-treated cells displayed enhanced cellular efflux of the P-glycoprotein substrate calcein that was inhibited by the P-glycoprotein blocker valspodar, providing evidence that the ivermectin-induced P-glycoprotein was functional. The mechanisms underlying these effects were investigated. Ivermectin-mediated Mdr1 mRNA induction was independent of the two nuclear receptors CAR and PXR, which are known to be involved in drug transporters regulation. Moreover, by using reporter cell lines that detects specific ligand-activated transcription factors, we showed that ivermectin did not displayed CAR, PXR or AhR ligand activities. However, studies with actinomycin D revealed that the half-life of Mdr1a and Mdr1b mRNA were significantly prolonged by two-fold in ivermectin-treated cells suggesting a post-transcriptional mode of ivermectin regulation. This study demonstrates for the first time that ivermectin induces P-glycoprotein overexpression through post-transcriptional mRNA stabilization, thus offering insight into the mechanism of reduced therapeutic efficacy and development of ivermectin-resistant parasites. PMID:22024132

  15. Michaelis-Menten kinetic analysis of drugs of abuse to estimate their affinity to human P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Markus R; Orschiedt, Tina; Maurer, Hans H

    2013-02-27

    The pharmacokinetics of various important drugs are known to be significantly influenced by the human ABC transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which may lead to clinically relevant drug-drug interactions. In contrast to therapeutic drugs, emerging drugs of abuse (DOA) are sold and consumed without any safety pharmacology testing. Only some studies on their metabolism were published, but none about their affinity to the transporter systems. Therefore, 47 DOAs from various classes were tested for their P-gp affinity using human P-gp (hP-gp) to predict possible drug-drug interactions. DOAs were initially screened for general hP-gp affinity and further characterized by modeling classic Michaelis-Menten kinetics and assessing their K(m) and V(max) values. Among the tested drugs, 12 showed a stimulation of ATPase activity. The most intensive stimulating DOAs were further investigated and compared with the known P-gp model substrates sertraline and verapamil. ATPase stimulation kinetics could be modeled for the entactogen 3,4-methylenedioxy-?-ethylphenethylamine (3,4-BDB), the hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI), the abused alkaloid glaucine, the opioid-like drugs N-iso-propyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine (NPDPA), and N-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)-3-ethoxypropanamine (PCEPA), with K(m) and V(max) values within the same range as for verapamil or sertraline. As a consequence interactions with other drugs being P-gp substrates might be considered to be very likely and further studies should be encouraged. PMID:23273999

  16. Imaging of P-glycoprotein of H69\\/VP small-cell lung cancer lines by scanning near-field optical microscopy and confocal laser microspectrofluorometer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weihong Qiao; Guangyi Shang; Franck H. Lei; Aurélie Trussardi-Regnier; Jean-F. Angiboust; Jean-M. Millot; Michel Manfait

    2005-01-01

    Chemoresistance remains the major obstacle to successful therapy of the lung cancer. The multi-drug resistance (MDR) is generally associated with altered expression of drug transporter proteins, such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp). So the distribution of P-gp on the membrane is of great importance to further study the interaction between drug and P-gp. In the present work, the P-gp of the H69\\/VP

  17. MAPK1 of Leishmania donovani Modulates Antimony Susceptibility by Downregulating P-Glycoprotein Efflux Pumps.

    PubMed

    Garg, Mansi; Goyal, Neena

    2015-07-01

    Emergence of resistance to pentavalent antimonials has become a severe obstacle in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian subcontinent. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are well-known mediators of signal transduction of eukaryotes, regulating important processes, like proliferation, differentiation, stress response, and apoptosis. In Leishmania, MAPK1 has been shown to be consistently downregulated in antimony-resistant field isolates, suggesting that it has a role in antimony resistance. The present work investigates the molecular mechanism of MAPK1 in antimony resistance in Leishmania donovani. The L. donovani MAPK1 (LdMAPK1) single-allele replacement mutants exhibited increased resistance to Sb(III) (5.57-fold) compared to wild-type promastigotes, while overexpressing parasites became much more susceptible to antimony. The LdMAPK1-mediated drug sensitivity was directly related to antimony-induced apoptotic death of the parasite, as was evidenced by a 4- to 5-fold decrease in cell death parameters in deletion mutants and a 2- to 3-fold increase in MAPK1-overexpressing cells. LdMAPK1-underexpressing parasites also exhibited increased P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux pump activity, while a significant decrease in pump activity was observed in overexpressing cells. This change in efflux pump activity was directly related to expression levels of P-gp in all cell lines. However, episomal complementation of the gene restored normal growth, drug sensitivity, P-gp expression, and efflux pump activity. The data indicate that LdMAPK1 negatively regulates the expression of P-glycoprotein-type efflux pumps in the parasite. The decrease in efflux pump activity with an increase in LdMAPK1 expression may result in increased antimony accumulation in the parasite, making it more vulnerable to the drug. PMID:25870075

  18. P-Glycoprotein Function at the BloodBrain Barrier Imaged Using 11C-N-Desmethyl-

    E-print Network

    Shen, Jun

    P-Glycoprotein Function at the Blood­Brain Barrier Imaged Using 11C-N-Desmethyl- Loperamide, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 11C-Loperamide is an avid substrate for P-glycoprotein (P-gp), but it is rapidly metabolized to 11C-N-desmethyl-loperamide (11C-dLop), which is also a substrate for P

  19. Raltegravir does not revert efflux activity of MDR1-P-glycoprotein in human MDR cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Raltegravir (Isentress®)(RALT) has demonstrated excellent efficacy in both treatment-experienced and naďve patients with HIV-1 infection, and is the first strand transfer integrase inhibitor to be approved for use in HIV infected adults worldwide. Since the in vivo efficacy of this class of antiviral drugs depends on their access to intracellular sites where HIV-1 replicates, we analyzed the biological effects induced by RALT on human MDR cell systems expressing multidrug transporter MDR1-P-glycoprotein (MDR1-Pgp). Methods Our study about RALT was performed by using a set of consolidated methodologies suitable for evaluating the MDR1-Pgp substrate nature of chemical and biological agents, namely: i) assay of drug efflux function; ii) analysis of MDR reversing capability by using cell proliferation assays; iii) monoclonal antibody UIC2 (mAb) shift test, as a sensitive assay to analyze conformational transition associated with MDR1-Pgp function; and iv) induction of MDR1-Pgp expression in MDR cell variant subjected to RALT exposure. Results Functional assays demonstrated that the presence of RALT does not remarkably interfere with the efflux mechanism of CEM-VBL100 and HL60 MDR cells. Accordingly, cell proliferation assays clearly indicated that RALT does not revert MDR phenotype in human MDR1-Pgp expressing cells. Furthermore, exposure of CEM-VBL10 cells to RALT does not induce MDR1-Pgp functional conformation intercepted by monoclonal antibody (mAb) UIC2 binding; nor does exposure to RALT increase the expression of this drug transporter in MDR1-Pgp expressing cells. Conclusions No evidence of RALT interaction with human MDR1-Pgp was observed in the in vitro MDR cell systems used in the present investigation, this incorporating all sets of studies recommended by the FDA guidelines. Taken in aggregate, these data suggest that RALT may express its curative potential in all sites were HIV-1 penetrates, including the MDR1-Pgp protected blood/tissue barrier. Moreover RALT, evading MDR1-Pgp drug efflux function, would not interfere with pharmacokinetic profiles of co-administered MDR1-Pgp substrate antiretroviral drugs. PMID:24053678

  20. Zosuquidar, a novel modulator of P-glycoprotein, does not improve the outcome of older patients with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 3999

    PubMed Central

    Uno, Hajime; Paietta, Elisabeth M.; Litzow, Mark R.; Ketterling, Rhett P.; Bennett, John M.; Rowe, Jacob M.; Lazarus, Hillard M.; Luger, Selina; Tallman, Martin S.

    2010-01-01

    Zosuquidar, which modulates P-glycoprotein (P-gp) with minimal delay of anthracycline clearance, may reverse P-gp–mediated resistance in acute myeloid leukemia without increased toxicity. A total of 449 adults older than 60 years with acute myeloid leukemia or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome enrolled in a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 3999). Overall survival was compared between patients receiving conventional-dose cytarabine and daunorubicin and either zosuquidar (550 mg; 212 patients) or placebo (221 patients). Median and 2-year overall survival values were 7.2 months and 20% on zosuquidar and 9.4 months and 23% on placebo, respectively (P = .281). Remission rate was 51.9% on zosuquidar and 48.9% on placebo. All cause mortality to day 42 was not different (zosuquidar 22.2% vs placebo 16.3%; P = .158). In vitro modulation of P-gp activity by zosuquidar and expression of P-gp, multidrug resistance-related protein 1, lung resistance protein, and breast cancer resistance protein, were comparable in the 2 arms. Poor-risk cytogenetics were more common in P-gp+ patients. P-gp expression and cytogenetics were correlated, though independent prognostic factors. We conclude that zosuquidar did not improve outcome in older acute myeloid leukemia, in part, because of the presence P-gp independent mechanisms of resistance. This trial is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00046930. PMID:20716770

  1. P-Glycoprotein inhibitory activity of lipophilic constituents of Echinacea pallida roots in a human proximal tubular cell line.

    PubMed

    Romiti, Nadia; Pellati, Federica; Nieri, Paola; Benvenuti, Stefania; Adinolfi, Barbara; Chieli, Elisabetta

    2008-02-01

    The N-hexane root extracts from Echinacea pallida, Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea purpurea were evaluated for inhibition of the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) activity, the product of the ABCB1 gene, involved in cancer multidrug resistance (MDR) and in herb-drug or drug-drug interactions. The biological assay was performed using the human proximal tubule HK-2 cell line that constitutively expresses ABCB1. The N-hexane extracts of all three species reduced the efflux of the Pgp probe calcein-AM from HK-2 cells two-fold in a concentration-dependent manner, and E. pallida was found to be the most active species. For the first time, two polyacetylenes and three polyenes, isolated from the N-hexane extract of E. pallida roots by a bioassay-guided fractionation, were found to be able to reduce Pgp activity. Pentadeca-(8 Z,13 Z)-dien-11-yn-2-one was the most efficient compound, being able to decrease the calcein-AM efflux about three-fold with respect to the control at 30 microg/mL. PMID:18425719

  2. P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein influence brain distribution of dasatinib.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Agarwal, Sagar; Shaik, Naveed M; Chen, Cliff; Yang, Zheng; Elmquist, William F

    2009-09-01

    The novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib (Sprycel; BMS-354825) is approved for use in imatinib (Gleevec; STI 571)-resistant or -intolerant chronic myelogenous leukemia and may be useful for other tumors in the central nervous system (CNS). The objective of this study was to investigate the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) in modulating the CNS penetration of dasatinib. Results from the in vitro studies indicate that cellular delivery of dasatinib is significantly limited by active efflux due to both P-gp and BCRP. Permeability studies indicated greater permeability in the basolateral-to-apical direction than in the apical-to-basolateral direction due to active efflux by P-gp or BCRP. Selective inhibitors of P-gp and BCRP, such as (R)-4-((1aR,6R,10bS)-1,2-difluoro-1,1a,6,10b-tetrahydrodibenzo-(a,e)cyclopropa(c) cycloheptan-6-yl)-alpha-((5-quinoloyloxy)methyl)-1-piperazineethanol, trihydrochloride (zosuquidar; LY335979) and 3-(6-isobutyl-9-methoxy-1,4-dioxo-1,2,3,4,6,7,12,12alpha-octahydropyrazino1',2': 1,6pryrido3,4-bindol-3-yl)-propionic acid tert-butyl ester (Ko143), were able to restore the intracellular accumulation and abolish the directionality in net flux of dasatinib. In vivo brain distribution studies showed that the CNS distribution of dasatinib is limited, with the brain-to-plasma concentration ratios less than 0.12 in wild-type mice, which increased approximately 8-fold in Mdr1a/b(-/-) Bcrp1(-/-) mice. Dasatinib brain distribution was significantly increased in Mdr1a/b(-/-) mice and when wild-type mice were pretreated with LY335979. Simultaneous inhibition of P-gp and BCRP by elacridar [N-(4-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2-isoquinolinyl)ethyl]-phenyl)-9,10-dihydro-5-methoxy-9-oxo-4-acridine carboxamide] (GF120918) resulted in a 5-fold increase in brain concentration. These in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate that dasatinib is a substrate for the important efflux transporters p-glycoprotein and BCRP. These transport systems play a significant role in limiting the CNS delivery of dasatinib and may have direct implications in the treatment of primary and metastatic brain tumors. PMID:19491323

  3. Evaluation of the near infrared compound indocyanine green as a probe substrate of p-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Portnoy, Emma; Gurina, Marina; Magdassi, Shlomo; Eyal, Sara

    2012-12-01

    The efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) affects the pharmacokinetics of many drugs. Currently used methods for characterization of P-gp's functional activity in vivo involve the use of radiolabeled substrates, are costly, and are technically demanding. Our objective was to evaluate whether the FDA-approved near-infrared compound indocyanine green (ICG) can be used as a probe substrate of P-gp. We also characterized the interaction of ICG with another efflux transporter, the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). We evaluated ICG accumulation and transport in MDCK cells overexpressing P-gp or BCRP (MDCK-MDR1 and MDCK-BCRP, respectively) compared to control MDCK cells, in the presence or the absence of transporter inhibitors. In vivo imaging of ICG biodistribution in mice was conducted over 3.5 h using valspodar as the P-gp inhibitor. The EC50 values for ICG accumulation in control MDCK and MDCK-MDR1 cells were 9.0 × 10(-6) ± 5.7 × 10(-7) M and 1.5 × 10(-5) ± 1.1 × 10(-6) M, respectively. The efflux ratio for ICG in MDCK-MDR1 cells was 6.8-fold greater than in control cells. P-gp inhibition attenuated ICG efflux from MDR1-MDCK cells, and their effects in those cells were greater than in control MDCK cells. In contrast, BCRP level of expression or pharmacological inhibition did not significantly affect ICG cellular accumulation. In vivo imaging indicated enhanced cerebral ICG distribution with valspodar (brain - foot area under the concentration-time curves of 3.0 × 10(10), 5.6 × 10(10) and 3.7 × 10(10) h·[p/s/sr]/?W in valspodar-treated mice vs 9.0 × 10(9) and 5.3 × 10(9) h·[p/s/sr]/?W in controls). The findings from this pilot study suggest that near-infrared imaging using ICG as the probe substrate should be further characterized as a methodology for in vivo evaluation of P-gp activity. PMID:23098218

  4. P-glycoprotein Inhibition for Optimal Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Md. Lutful

    2013-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux membrane transporter, is widely distributed throughout the body and is responsible for limiting cellular uptake and the distribution of xenobiotics and toxic substances. Hundreds of structurally diverse therapeutic agents are substrates to it and it impedes the absorption, permeability, and retention of the drugs, extruding them out of the cells. It is overexpressed in cancer cells and accountable for obstructing cell internalization of chemotherapeutic agents and for developing transporter mediated resistance by cancer cells during anti-tumor treatments. As it jeopardizes the success of drug delivery and cancer targeting, strategies are being developed to overcome P-gp mediated drug transport. This concise review represents a brief discussion on P-gp mediated drug transport and how it hinders the success of various therapies. Its main focus is on various strategies used to tackle this curb in the field of drug delivery and targeting. PMID:24023511

  5. Evaluation of antipsychotic drugs as inhibitors of multidrug resistance transporter P-glycoprotein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jun-Sheng Wang; Hao-Jie Zhu; John S. Markowitz; Jennifer L. Donovan; C. Lindsay DeVane

    2006-01-01

    Rationale  The multidrug resistance transporter, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), is involved in efflux transport of several antipsychotics in the blood–brain barrier (BBB).Objectives  In the present study, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of the antipsychotics, i.e., risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, clozapine, haloperidol, chlorpromazine, a major metabolite of risperidone, 9-OH-risperidone, and a positive control inhibitor, PSC833, on the cellular uptake of a prototypic substrate of P-gp, rhodamine

  6. The antiepileptic and anticancer agent, valproic acid, induces P-glycoprotein in human tumour cell lines and in rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Eyal, S; Lamb, J G; Smith-Yockman, M; Yagen, B; Fibach, E; Altschuler, Y; White, H S; Bialer, M

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: The antiepileptic drug valproic acid, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, is currently being tested as an anticancer agent. However, HDAC inhibitors may interact with anticancer drugs through induction of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, MDR1) expression. In this study we assessed whether valproic acid induces P-gp function in tumour cells. We also investigated effects of valproic acid on the mRNA for P-gp and the cytochrome P450, CYP3A, in rat livers. >Experimental approach: Effects of valproic acid on P-gp were assessed in three tumour cell lines, SW620, KG1a and H4IIE. Accumulation of acetylated histone H3 in rats' livers treated for two or seven days with valproic acid was evaluated using a specific antibody. Hepatic expression of the P-gp genes, mdr1a, mdr1b and mdr2, was determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The effects of valproic acid on CYP3A were assessed by Northern blot analysis and CYP3A activity assays. Key results: Valproic acid (0.5–2.0?mM) induced P-gp expression and function up to 4-fold in vitro. The effect of a series of valproic acid derivatives on P-gp expression in SW620 and KG1a cells correlated with their HDAC inhibition potencies. Treatment of rats with 1?mmol kg?1 valproic acid for two and seven days increased hepatic histone acetylation (1.3- and 3.5-fold, respectively) and the expression of mdr1a and mdr2 (2.2–4.1-fold). Valpromide (0.5–2.0?mM) did not increase histone acetylation or P-gp expression in rat livers, but induced CYP3A expression. Conclusions: Valproic acid increased P-gp expression and function in human tumour cell lines and in rat liver. The clinical significance of this increase merits further investigation. PMID:16894351

  7. Synthesis and characterization of macromolecular rhodamine tethers and their interactions with P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Lindsey; Putnam, David

    2014-08-20

    Rhodamine dyes are well-known P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates that have played an important role in the detection of inhibitors and other substrates of P-gp, as well as in the understanding of P-gp function. Macromolecular conjugates of rhodamines could prove useful as tethers for further probing of P-gp structure and function. Two macromolecular derivatives of rhodamine, methoxypolyethylene glycol-rhodamine6G and methoxypolyethylene glycol-rhodamine123, were synthesized through the 2'-position of rhodamine6G and rhodamine123, thoroughly characterized, and then evaluated by inhibition with verapamil for their ability to interact with P-gp and to act as efflux substrates. To put the results into context, the P-gp interactions of the new conjugates were compared to the commercially available methoxypolyethylene glycol-rhodamineB. FACS analysis confirmed that macromolecular tethers of rhodamine6G, rhodamine123, and rhodamineB were accumulated in P-gp expressing cells 5.2 ± 0.3%, 26.2 ± 4%, and 64.2 ± 6%, respectively, compared to a sensitive cell line that does not overexpress P-gp. Along with confocal imaging, the efflux analysis confirmed that the macromolecular rhodamine tethers remain P-gp substrates. These results open potential avenues for new ways to probe the function of P-gp both in vitro and in vivo. PMID:25050613

  8. Interaction of structurally diverse pesticides with the human MDR1 gene product P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Bain, L J; LeBlanc, G A

    1996-11-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a 170-kDa membrane-bound glycoprotein shown to efflux a wide variety of chemicals, such as chemotherapeutic agents and carcinogens. Experiments were conducted using B16/F10 murine melanoma cells transfected with the human MDR1 gene (B16/hMDR1 cells), which codes for P-gp, to determine whether this transporter may contribute to the cellular efflux of some pesticides. Thirty-eight pesticides representing several classes of compounds were evaluated for their potential to bind to P-gp, as measured by the inhibition of efflux of the P-gp substrate doxorubicin. Carbamate and pyrethroid insecticides exhibited little interaction with P-gp, while many of the organophosphorus and organochlorine pesticides significantly inhibited the efflux of doxorubicin. Pesticides that significantly inhibited the efflux of doxorubicin were then assessed for P-gp-mediated efflux. One pesticide, endosulfan, exhibited slight though significant transport mediated by P-gp. Competition experiments performed with the P-glycoprotein ligand [3H]azidopine demonstrated that the P-gp inhibitory pesticides bound to P-gp. Both lipophilicity and molecular mass were major physical/chemical determinants in dictating pesticide binding to P-gp, with optimum binding occurring with compounds having a log Kow value of 3.6-4.5 and a molecular weight of 391-490 Da. The transport substrate endosulfan possessed optimal binding characteristics. These results demonstrated that many pesticides are capable of binding to P-gp; however, binding does not infer transport. PMID:8917702

  9. Up-regulation of P-glycoprotein by HIV protease inhibitors in a human brain microvessel endothelial cell line.

    PubMed

    Zastre, Jason A; Chan, Gary N Y; Ronaldson, Patrick T; Ramaswamy, Manisha; Couraud, Pierre O; Romero, Ignacio A; Weksler, Babette; Bendayan, Moise; Bendayan, Reina

    2009-03-01

    A major concern regarding the chronic administration of antiretroviral drugs is the potential for induction of drug efflux transporter expression (i.e., P-glycoprotein, P-gp) at tissue sites that can significantly affect drug distribution and treatment efficacy. Previous data have shown that the inductive effect of human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitors (PIs) is mediated through the human orphan nuclear receptor, steroid xenobiotic receptor (SXR or hPXR). The objectives of this study were to investigate transport and inductive properties on efflux drug transporters of two PIs, atazanavir and ritonavir, at the blood-brain barrier by using a human brain microvessel endothelial cell line, hCMEC/D3. Transport properties of PIs by the drug efflux transporters P-gp and multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) were assessed by measuring the cellular uptake of (3)H-atazanavir or (3)H-ritonavir in P-gp and MRP1 overexpressing cells as well as hCMEC/D3. Whereas the P-gp inhibitor, PSC833, increased atazanavir and ritonavir accumulation in hCMEC/D3 cells by 2-fold, the MRP inhibitor MK571 had no effect. P-gp, MRP1, and hPXR expression and localization were examined by Western blot analysis and immunogold cytochemistry at the electron microscope level. Treatment of hCMEC/D3 cells for 72 hr with rifampin or SR12813 (two well-established hPXR ligands) or PIs (atazanavir or ritonavir) resulted in an increase in P-gp expression by 1.8-, 6-, and 2-fold, respectively, with no effect observed for MRP1 expression. In hCMEC/D3 cells, cellular accumulation of these PIs appears to be primarily limited by P-gp efflux activity. Long-term exposure of atazanavir or ritonavir to brain microvessel endothelium may result in further limitations in brain drug permeability as a result of the up-regulation of P-gp expression and function. PMID:18855943

  10. P-glycoprotein restricts the penetration of oseltamivir across the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Ose, Atsushi; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Yamatsugu, Kenzo; Kanai, Motomu; Shibasaki, Masakatsu; Fujita, Takuya; Yamamoto, Akira; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2008-02-01

    Oseltamivir is an ethyl ester prodrug of [3R,4R,5S]-4-acetamido-5-amino-3-(1-ethylpropoxy)-1-cyclohexene-1-carboxylate phosphate (Ro 64-0802), the anti-influenza drug. Abnormal behavior has been suspected to be associated with oseltamivir medication in Japan. The purpose of the present study is to examine the involvement of transporters in the brain distribution of oseltamivir and its active form Ro 64-0802 across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The brain-to-plasma concentration ratio (K(p,brain)) of oseltamivir after i.v. infusion of oseltamivir in FVB mice was increased by pretreatment with N-(4-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2-isoquinolinyl)ethyl]-phenyl)-9,10-dihydro-5-methoxy-9-oxo-4-acridine carboxamide (GF120918), a dual inhibitor for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp), whereas that of Ro 64-0802 was only slightly increased. Furthermore, the distribution volume of Ro 64-0802 following i.v. administration of Ro 64-0802 in the brain was similar to the capillary volume, suggesting its minimal distribution. The K(p,brain) value of oseltamivir in multidrug-resistant (Mdr) 1a/1b P-gp knockout mice was 5.5-fold higher than that in wild-type mice and comparable with that obtained by pretreatment with GF120918, whereas it was unchanged in Bcrp knockout mice. The K(p,brain) value of oseltamivir was significantly higher in newborn rats, which is in good agreement with the ontogenetic expression profile of P-gp. Intracellular accumulation of oseltamivir was lower in human and mouse P-gp-expressing cells, which was reversed by P-gp inhibitor valspodar (PSC833). These results suggest that P-gp limits the brain uptake of oseltamivir at the BBB and that Ro 64-0802 itself barely crosses the BBB. However, it may be possible that Ro 64-0802 is formed in the brain from the oseltamivir, considering the presence of carboxylesterase in the brain endothelial cells. PMID:18039806

  11. A review on the impact of P-glycoprotein on the penetration of drugs into the brain. Focus on psychotropic drugs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristian Linnet; Thomas Broeng Ejsing

    2008-01-01

    In recent years there has been increasing focus on the role of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) with regard to drug penetration into the brain. Studies using mice devoid of functional P-gp have revealed that P-gp at the blood–brain barrier (BBB) can exert a profound effect on the ability of some drugs to enter the brain, e.g. cardiovascular drugs (digoxin,

  12. Evaluation of In Vivo P-Glycoprotein Function at the Blood-Brain Barrier Among MDR1 Gene Polymorphisms by Using 11C-Verapamil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Akihiro Takano; Hiroyuki Kusuhara; Tetsuya Suhara; Ichiro Ieiri; Takuya Morimoto; Young-Joo Lee; Jun Maeda; Yoko Ikoma; Hiroshi Ito; Kazutoshi Suzuki; Yuichi Sugiyama

    2006-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a membrane protein that functions as an adenosine triphosphate-dependent efflux pump for xenobiotics at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Polymorphisms of MDR1 gene have been reported to be associated with the expression level of P-gp. 11C-Verapamil is considered to be one of the suitable radio- ligands for evaluating P-gp functions. However, the metabolites of verapamil might complicate the

  13. Evaluation of [11C]laniquidar as a tracer of P-glycoprotein: radiosynthesis and biodistribution in rats.

    PubMed

    Luurtsema, Gert; Schuit, Robert C; Klok, Rob P; Verbeek, Joost; Leysen, Josée E; Lammertsma, Adriaan A; Windhorst, Albert D

    2009-08-01

    At present, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function can be studied using positron emission tomography (PET) together with a labelled P-gp substrate such as R-[11C]verapamil. Such a tracer is, however, less suitable for investigating P-gp (over)expression. Laniquidar is a third-generation P-gp inhibitor, which has been used in clinic trials for modulating multidrug resistance transporters. The purpose of the present study was to develop the radiosynthesis of [11C]laniquidar and to assess its suitability as a tracer of P-gp expression. The radiosynthesis of [11C]laniquidar was performed by methylation of the carboxylic acid precursor with [11C]CH3I. The product was purified by HPLC and reformulated over a tC18 Seppak, yielding a sterile solution of [11C]laniquidar in saline. For evaluating [11C]laniquidar, rats were injected with 20 MBq [11C]laniquidar via a tail vein and sacrificed at 5, 15, 30 and 60 min after injection. Several tissues and distinct brain regions were dissected and counted for radioactivity. In addition, uptake of [11C]laniquidar in rats pretreated with cyclosporine A and valspodar (PSC 833) was determined at 30 min after injection. Finally, the metabolic profile of [11C]laniquidar in plasma was determined. [11C]Laniquidar could be synthesized in moderate yields with high specific activity. Uptake in brain was low, but significantly increased after administration of cyclosporine A. Valspodar did not have any effect on cerebral uptake of [11C]laniquidar. In vivo rate of metabolism was relatively low. Further kinetic studies are needed to investigate the antagonistic behaviour of [11C]laniquidar at tracer level. PMID:19647170

  14. Evaluation of P-glycoprotein (abcb1a/b) modulation of [(18)F]fallypride in MicroPET imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Piel, Markus; Schmitt, Ulrich; Bausbacher, Nicole; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Gründer, Gerhard; Hiemke, Christoph; Rösch, Frank

    2014-09-01

    [(18)F]Fallypride ([(18)F]FP) is an important and routinely used D2/D3 antagonist for quantitative imaging of dopaminergic neurotransmission in vivo. Recently it was shown that the brain uptake of the structurally related [(11)C]raclopride is modulated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an important efflux transporter at the blood-brain barrier. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the brain uptake of [(18)F]FP is influenced by P-gp. For examination of this possible modulation microPET studies were performed in a rat and a mouse model. Hence, [(18)F]FP was applied to Sprague Dawley rats, half of them being treated with the P-gp inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA). In a second experimental series the tracer was applied to three different groups of FVB/N mice: wild type, P-gp double knockout (abcb1a/1b (-/-)) and CsA-treated mice. In CsA-treated Sprague Dawley rats [(18)F]FP showed an elevated standard uptake value in the striatum compared to the control animals. In FVB/N mice a similar effect was observed, showing an increasing uptake from wild type to CsA-treated and double knockout mice. Since genetically or pharmacologically induced reduction of P-gp activity increased the uptake of [(18)F]FP markedly, we conclude that [(18)F]FP is indeed a substrate of P-gp and that the efflux pump modulates its brain uptake. This effect - if true for humans - may have particular impact on clinical studies using [(18)F]FP for assessment of D2/3 receptor occupancy by antipsychotic drugs. This article is part of the Special Issue Section entitled 'Neuroimaging in Neuropharmacology'. PMID:23994301

  15. P-glycoprotein mediates the collateral sensitivity of multidrug resistant cells to steroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Laberge, Rémi-Martin; Ambadipudi, Raghuram; Georges, Elias

    2014-05-16

    The overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) in cancer cells often leads to multidrug resistance (MDR) through reduced drug accumulation. However, certain P-gp-positive cells display hypersensitivity, or collateral sensitivity, to certain compounds that are believed to induce Pgp-dependent oxidative stress. We have previously reported that MDR P-gp-positive CHO cells are collaterally sensitive to verapamil (VRP; Laberge et al. (2009) [1]). In this report we extend our previous findings and show that drug resistant CHO cells are also collaterally sensitive to physiologic levels of progesterone (PRO) and deoxycorticosterone (DOC). Both PRO and DOC collateral sensitivities in CH(R)C5 cells are dependent on P-gp-expression and ATPase, as knockdown of P-gp expression with siRNA or inhibition of P-gp-ATPase with PSC833 reverses PRO- and DOC-induced collateral sensitivity. Moreover, the mitochondrial complexes I and III inhibitors (antimycin-A and rotenone, respectively) synergize with PRO and DOC-induced collateral sensitivity. We also show that VRP inhibits PRO and DOC collateral sensitivity, consistent with earlier findings relating to the VRP's modulation of PRO and DOC-stimulation of P-gp ATPase. The findings of this study demonstrate a P-gp-dependent collateral sensitivity of MDR cells in the presence of physiologically achievable concentrations of progesterone and deoxycorticosterone. PMID:24747077

  16. Fingerprint-based in silico models for the prediction of P-glycoprotein substrates and inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Poongavanam, Vasanthanathan; Haider, Norbert; Ecker, Gerhard F.

    2012-01-01

    P-Glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) plays a significant role in determining the ADMET properties of drugs and drug candidates. Substrates of P-gp are not only subject to multidrug resistance (MDR) in tumor therapy, they are also associated with poor pharmacokinetic profiles. In contrast, inhibitors of P-gp have been advocated as modulators of MDR. However, due to the polyspecificity of P-gp, knowledge on the molecular basis of ligand–transporter interaction is still poor, which renders the prediction of whether a compound is a P-gp substrate/non-substrate or an inhibitor/non-inhibitor quite challenging. In the present investigation, we used a set of fingerprints representing the presence/absence of various functional groups for machine learning based classification of a set of 484 substrates/non-substrates and a set of 1935 inhibitors/non-inhibitors. Best models were obtained using a combination of a wrapper subset evaluator (WSE) with random forest (RF), kappa nearest neighbor (kNN) and support vector machine (SVM), showing accuracies >70%. Best P-gp substrate models were further validated with three sets of external P-gp substrate sources, which include Drug Bank (n = 134), TP Search (n = 90) and a set compiled from literature (n = 76). Association rule analysis explores the various structural feature requirements for P-gp substrates and inhibitors. PMID:22595422

  17. Design, synthesis and evaluation of novel triazole core based P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance reversal agents.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Lei; Qiu, Qianqian; Liu, Baomin; Zhao, Tianxiao; Huang, Wenlong; Qian, Hai

    2014-12-15

    A novel series of triazol-N-ethyl-tetrahydroisoquinoline based compounds were designed and synthesized via click chemistry. Most of the synthesized compounds showed P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal activities. Among them, compound 7 with little cytotoxicity towards GES-1 cells (IC50 >80?M) and K562/A02 cells (IC50 >80?M) exhibited more potency than verapamil (VRP) on increasing anticancer drug accumulation in K562/A02 cells. Moreover, compound 7 could significantly reverse MDR in a dose-dependent manner and also persist longer chemo-sensitizing effect than VRP with reversibility. Further mechanism studies revealed that compound 7 in reversing MDR revealed that it could remarkably increase the intracellular accumulation of both rhodamine-123 (Rh123) and adriamycin (ADM) in K562/A02 cells as well as inhibit their efflux from the cells. These results suggested that compound 7 showed more potency than the classical P-gp inhibitor VRP under the same conditions, which may be a promising P-gp-mediated MDR modulator for further development. PMID:25464884

  18. Therapeutic potential of nanocarrier for overcoming to P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Vimratjeet; Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit K

    2014-12-01

    Enhancement of targeted therapeutic effect in the body and achievement of high bioavailability are major concern for the researchers due to the complex physiology of human body. There are so many barriers that hinder the absorption and permeation of drugs from the body, thus influencing the bioavailability of therapeutics. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one of such barrier present on the apical membranes of various organs such as small intestine, brain, kidney and liver. This protein interacts with vast variety of therapeutics and efflux out them preventing their entrance to the desired site, thus modulating their pharmacokinetic properties. To address this, a concerned number of approaches have been used such as the use of chemo sensitizers along with the therapeutics and various novel techniques. In this review, we are going to discuss the basic introduction to this protein and overview of various strategies used earlier to tackle the problem of P-gp efflux as well as the role of nanocarriers in confronting this issue. Nanocarriers have played great role in the enhancement of the bioavailability of many antineoplastic agents as well as other P-gp substrates. Encapsulation of P-gp inhibitors in the nanocarrier system prevents toxicity and gives site-specific action. PMID:25101945

  19. Expression and significance of glucose transporter-1, P-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance-associated protein and glutathione S-transferase-? in laryngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    MAO, ZHONG-PING; ZHAO, LI-JUN; ZHOU, SHUI-HONG; LIU, MENG-QIN; TAN, WEI-FENG; YAO, HONG-TIAN

    2015-01-01

    Increasing glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) activity is one of the most important ways to increase the cellular influx of glucose. We previously demonstrated that increased GLUT-1 expression was an independent predictor of survival in patients with laryngeal carcinoma. Thus, GLUT-1 may present a novel therapeutic target in laryngeal carcinoma. In this study, the expression of GLUT-1, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) and glutathione S-transferase-? (GST-?) in laryngeal carcinomas was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Additionally, possible correlations between GLUT-1 and P-gp, MRP1 and GST-? and various clinicopathological parameters were analyzed. In this study, 52.9% (18/34), 58.8% (20/34), 20.6% (7/34) and 58.8% (20/34) of the laryngeal carcinomas were positive for GLUT-1, P-gp, MRP1 and GST-?, respectively. The expression of GLUT-1, P-gp, MRP1 and GST-? was higher in laryngeal carcinoma specimens when compared with laryngeal precancerous lesions (P<0.05). Pearson’s correlation analysis showed correlations between GLUT-1 and P-gp (r=0.364; P=0.034), GLUT-1 and MRP1 (r=0.359; P=0.037) and P-gp and GST-? (r=0.426; P=0.012). GLUT-1 expression was found to significantly correlate with tumor-node-metastasis classification (P=0.02) and clinical stage (P=0.037). Furthermore, P-gp was found to significantly correlate with clinical stage (P=0.026). Univariate analysis showed that MRP1 expression was significantly associated with poor survival (c2=5.16; P=0.023). Multivariate analysis revealed that lymph node metastasis (P=0.009) and MRP1 overexpression (P=0.023) were significant predictors of poor survival. In the present study, the expression of GLUT-1, P-gp, MRP1 and GST-? in laryngeal carcinomas was investigated, as well as the correlations between these proteins. P-gp was found to significantly correlate with clinical stage, while MRP1 overexpression was significantly associated with poor survival. PMID:25621055

  20. Where is it and How Does it Get There – Intracellular Localization and Traffic of P-glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Dong

    2013-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP-binding cassette, is able to transport structurally and chemically unrelated substrates. Over-expression of P-gp in cancer cells significantly decreases the intercellular amount of anticancer drugs, and results in multidrug resistance in cancer cells, a major obstacle in cancer chemotherapy. P-gp is mainly localized on the plasma membrane and functions as a drug efflux pump; however, P-gp is also localized in many intracellular compartments, such as endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi, endosomes, and lysosomes. P-gp moves between the intracellular compartments and the plasma membrane in a microtubule-actin dependent manner. This review highlights our current understanding of (1) the intracellular localization of P-gp; (2) the traffic and cycling pathways among the cellular compartments as well as between these compartments and the plasma membrane; and (3) the cellular factors regulating P-gp traffic and cycling. This review also presents a potential implication in overcoming P-gp-mediated multidrug resistance by targeting P-gp traffic and cycling pathways and impairing P-gp localization on the plasma membrane. PMID:24416721

  1. Resveratrol and P-glycoprotein Inhibitors Enhance the Anti-skin Cancer Effects of Ursolic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Junco, Jacob J.; Mancha, Anna; Malik, Gunjan; Wei, Sung-Jen; Kim, Dae Joon; Liang, Huiyun; Slaga, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Ursolic acid (UA), present in apples, rosemary, and other sources, is known to inhibit tumor formation and tumor cell viability in multiple systems, including skin. However, various cancers are resistant to UA treatment. Herein, skin carcinoma cells (Ca3/7) as compared to skin papilloma cells (MT1/2) displayed more resistance to UA-induced cytotoxicity. Interestingly, Ca3/7 cells had elevated levels of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP-dependent efflux pump that mediates resistance to chemotherapy in pre-clinical and clinical settings, and not only accumulated less but also more rapidly expelled the P-gp substrate Rhodamine 123 (Rh123) indicating UA is transported by P-gp. To determine if P-gp inhibition can enhance UA-mediated cytotoxicity, cells were challenged with P-gp inhibitors verapamil (VRP) or cyclosporin A (CsA). Alternatively, cells were pre-treated with the natural compound resveratrol (RES), a known chemotherapy sensitizer. VRP and RES enhanced the effects of UA in both cell lines, while CsA only did so in Ca3/7 cells. Similarly, VRP inhibited Rh123 efflux in both lines, while CsA only inhibited Rh123 efflux in Ca3/7 cells. RES did not inhibit Rh123 efflux in either line, indicating the synergistic effects of RES and UA are not manifest by inhibition of P-gp-mediated efflux of UA. These results indicate that the anti-skin cancer effects of UA are enhanced with P-gp inhibitors. In addition, RES and UA interact synergistically, but not through inhibition of P-gp. Implications Resveratrol and/or p-glycoprotein inhibitors in combination with ursolic acid are an effective anti-skin cancer regimen. PMID:24072817

  2. Effect of lyophilized grapefruit juice on P-glycoprotein-mediated drug transport in-vitro and in-vivo.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Iman S; Hassan, Mariame A; Kondo, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    The administration of grapefruit juice (GFJ) has been postulated to inhibit the activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transport system and thus can enhance the uptake of substrate drugs. However, for various reasons, the results obtained have been always swaying between confirmation and refutation. This study aims at re-evaluating the effect of lyophilized freshly-prepared grapefruit juice (LGFJ) prepared from the whole peeled fruit on P-gp activity using the model drug doxorubicin (DOX) in-vitro and timolol maleate (TM) in-vivo. Human uterine sarcoma MES-SA/DX5v cells, grown under nanomolar concentration of DOX and highly expressing P-gp, were used as model cells for in-vitro studies whereas white New Zealand male rabbits were used for in-vivo studies. Results showed that the accumulation of DOX in MES-SA/DX5v cells was increased by 18.3 ± 2.0% in presence of LGFJ compared to control experiments. Results from in-vivo absorption studies showed that the relative oral bioavailability of TM ingested with LGFJ was significantly higher by 70% and 43% compared to the oral bioavailability of TM ingested with saline and a commercial GFJ, respectively. This study as such confirms the inhibitory effects of LGFJ on P-gp efflux proteins and highlights the superiority of using lyophilized freshly prepared juices over the commercially available juices in research studies. Also, the results call for further studies to assess the possibility of co-administrating LGFJ with anti-cancer agents to modulate multidrug resistance in their cellular environment or incorporating LGFJ in solid dosage forms to improve oral bioavailability of drugs. PMID:24303901

  3. Optimization of 2,4-diamino-5-fluoropyrimidine derivatives as protein kinase C theta inhibitors with mitigated time-dependent drug-drug interactions and P-gp liability.

    PubMed

    Kunikawa, Shigeki; Tanaka, Akira; Mukoyoshi, Koichiro; Nagashima, Shinya; Tominaga, Hiroaki; Chida, Noboru; Tasaki, Mamoru; Shirai, Fumiyuki

    2015-07-01

    Protein kinase C theta (PKC?) plays a critical role in T cell signaling and has therapeutic potential for T cell-mediated diseases such as transplant rejection and rheumatoid arthritis. Here, a series of 2,4-diamino-5-fluoropyrimidine derivatives were prepared and evaluated for their inhibition of PKC?. Of these compounds, 14f was found to exhibit potent PKC? inhibitory activity and significantly weak CYP3A4 time-dependent inhibition (TDI) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) liability. PMID:25982074

  4. Nilotinib Counteracts P-Glycoprotein-Mediated Multidrug Resistance and Synergizes the Antitumoral Effect of Doxorubicin in Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Villar, Victor Hugo; Vögler, Oliver; Martínez-Serra, Jordi; Ramos, Rafael; Calabuig-Farińas, Silvia; Gutiérrez, Antonio; Barceló, Francisca

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of doxorubicin (DXR) in the treatment of soft tissue sarcomas (STS) is limited by its toxicity and the development of multidrug resistance (MDR), the latter mainly induced by high expression of efflux pumps (e.g., P-glycoprotein [P-gp]). Therefore, the search for alternative therapies, which sensitize these tumors to chemotherapy while maintaining a low toxicity profile, is a rational approach. We assessed efficacy and molecular mechanisms involved in the antiproliferative effects of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, nilotinib and imatinib, as single agents or in combination with DXR, in human synovial sarcoma SW982 and leiomyosarcoma SK-UT-1 cells. As single compound nilotinib (1–10 µM) was more potent than imatinib inhibiting the growth of SK-UT-1 and SW982 cells by 33.5–59.6%, respectively. Importantly, only nilotinib synergized the antitumoral effect of DXR (0.05–0.5 µM) by at least 2-fold, which clearly surpassed the mere sum of effects according to isobolographic analysis. Moreover, nilotinib in combination with DXR had a sustained effect on cell number (?70.3±5.8%) even 12 days after withdrawal of drugs compared to DXR alone. On the molecular level, only nilotinib fully blocked FBS-induced ERK1 and p38 MAPK activation, hence, reducing basal and DXR-induced up-regulation of P-gp levels. Moreover, efflux activity of the MDR-related proteins P-gp and MRP-1 was inhibited, altogether resulting in intracellular DXR retention. In high-risk STS tumors 53.8% and 15.4% were positive for P-gp and MRP-1 expression, respectively, with high incidence of P-gp in synovial sarcoma (72.7%). In summary, nilotinib exhibits antiproliferative effects on cellular models of STS and sensitizes them to DXR by reverting DXR-induced P-gp-mediated MDR and inhibiting MRP-1 activity, leading to a synergistic effect with potential for clinical treatment. PMID:22662203

  5. Expression of P-gp in acute myeloid leukemia and the reversal function of As2O3 on drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    GAO, FENG; DONG, WANWEI; YANG, WEI; LIU, JIA; ZHENG, ZHIHONG; SUN, KAILAI

    2015-01-01

    To study the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and the reversal function of As2O3, the active ingredient of arsenic, on drug resistance in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients, P-gp and cluster of differentiation 34 (CD34) were examined in primary mononuclear and resistant cells, with or without As2O3. In addition, multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1) mRNA expression was investigated in K562/D cells and AML patients. In total, 28.6% of newly-treated (NT) patients and 59.1% of relapsed/refractory (RR) patients were P-gpfunction+, and 31.7% of NT patients and 59.1% of RR patients were CD34+. The positivity rate of P-gpfunction and CD34+ expression in the RR group were significantly higher compared with that in the NT group (P<0.05). In addition, higher CD34+, P-gpexpression+ and P-gpfunction+ values were observed in older patients compared with younger patients. MDR1 expression was downregulated in certain patients following treatment with AS2O3. In the present study, the overexpression of P-gp was the primary cause of drug resistance in the AML patients, and MDR1 expression was downregulated by As2O3 in primary leukemia and drug-resistant cells. PMID:25435954

  6. The Elementary Mass Action Rate Constants of P-gp Transport for a Confluent Monolayer of MDCKII-hMDR1 Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thuy Thanh Tran; Aditya Mittal; Tanya Aldinger; Joseph W. Polli; Andrew Ayrton; Harma Ellens; Joe Bentz

    2005-01-01

    The human multi-drug resistance membrane transporter, P-glycoprotein, or P-gp, has been extensively studied due to its importance to human health and disease. Thus far, the kinetic analysis of P-gp transport has been limited to steady-state Michaelis-Menten approaches or to compartmental models, neither of which can prove molecular mechanisms. Determination of the elementary kinetic rate constants of transport will be essential

  7. Human Jejunal Permeability of Cyclosporin A: Influence of Surfactants on P-Glycoprotein Efflux in Caco-2 Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Yuan Chiu; Kazutaka Higaki; Brien L. Neudeck; Jeffrey L. Barnett; Lynda S. Welage; Gordon L. Amidon

    2003-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this work was to determine the jejunal permeability of cyclosporin A (CsA) in humans and whether formulation variables modulate the effects of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) on the permeability of CsA in Caco-2 cells.

  8. Inhibitory effects of pomelo on the metabolism of tacrolimus and the activities of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Egashira, Kanoko; Ohtani, Hisakazu; Itoh, Suwako; Koyabu, Noriko; Tsujimoto, Masayuki; Murakami, Hideyasu; Sawada, Yasufumi

    2004-08-01

    We recently reported a case of increase in the blood level of tacrolimus following intake of pomelo in a renal transplant recipient. To clarify the mechanism of this increase in the blood level of tacrolimus, we investigated the effect of pomelo juice extract on the activities of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein, in comparison with that of extract of grapefruit juice (GFJ). The 10% ethyl acetate extracts of the juice of three pomelos of different origins (Banpeiyu, pomelo I; Hirado Buntan, pomelo II; and Tosa Buntan, pomelo III) and GFJ significantly inhibited 6beta-hydroxylation of testosterone in human liver microsomes by 76.4, 67.2, 37.5, and 83.9%, respectively. The extract of pomelo I was as potent as that of GFJ. The metabolism of tacrolimus itself was also inhibited by the extract of pomelo I, as well as that of GFJ. Furthermore, the inhibition of both 6beta-hydroxylation of testosterone and metabolism of tacrolimus by pomelo I and GFJ was preincubation time-dependent. On the other hand, the extract of pomelo I had little effect on the transcellular transport of tacrolimus or [(3)H]digoxin across a monolayer of LLC-GA5-COL150 cells (a porcine kidney epithelial cell line, LLC-PK1, transfected with human MDR1 cDNA and overexpressing human P-glycoprotein). In conclusion, pomelo constituents inhibit the activity of CYP3A4 and may thereby produce an increase in the blood level of tacrolimus. PMID:15258108

  9. The co-delivery of a low-dose P-glycoprotein inhibitor with doxorubicin sterically stabilized liposomes against breast cancer with low P-glycoprotein expression

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Lin, Zhiqiang; Chen, Meiwan; Yang, Xiucong; Cui, Zheng; Zhang, Xiaofei; Yuan, Lan; Zhang, Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Introduction P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors are usually used to treat tumors that overexpress P-gps. However, most common types of breast cancers, such as Luminal A, are low-P-gp expressing, at least during the initial phases of treatment. Therefore, it would be interesting to know if P-gp inhibitors are still useful in treating low-P-gp-expressing tumors. Methods In the study reported here, the human breast-cancer cell line MCF-7, chosen as a model of Luminal A, was found to be low-P-gp expressing. We designed a novel doxorubicin (DOX) sterically stabilized liposome system co-loaded with the low-dose P-gp inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA) (DOX/CsA/SSL). Results The co-delivery system showed good size uniformity, high encapsulation efficiency, and a desirable release profile. The cell-uptake and cytotoxicity studies demonstrated that CsA could significantly enhance the intracellular accumulation and toxicity of free DOX and the liposomal DOX in MCF-7 cells. The confocal microscopy and in vivo imaging study confirmed the intracellular and in vivo targeting effect of DOX/CsA/SSL, respectively. Finally, the in vivo study proved that DOX/CsA/SSL could achieve significantly better antitumor effect against MCF-7 tumor than controls, without inducing obvious systemic toxicity. Conclusion This study demonstrated that the co-delivery of a low-dose P-gp inhibitor and liposomal DOX could improve the therapy of low-P-gp-expressing cancer, which is of significance in clinical tumor therapy. PMID:25092974

  10. Overexpression of P-glycoprotein, STAT3, phospho-STAT3 and KIT in spontaneous canine cutaneous mast cell tumours before and after prednisolone treatment.

    PubMed

    Teng, Shr-Ping; Hsu, Wei-Li; Chiu, Cheng-Yang; Wong, Min-Liang; Chang, Shih-Chieh

    2012-08-01

    Prednisolone is a glucocorticoid (GC) commonly used in the treatment of canine mast cell tumours (MCTs); however, resistance to GCs develops in many MCTs following repeated treatment. P-glycoprotein (P-gp), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and KIT (CD117) are involved in GC resistance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response to prednisolone treatment in canine cutaneous MCTs and to investigate the levels of P-gp, STAT3, phospho-STAT3 (pSTAT3) and KIT proteins in MCTs with or without prednisolone treatment. Immunohistochemistry was performed on tumour samples from 41 dogs with cutaneous MCTs. The overall objective response rate (including complete and partial responses) was 51.8% for dogs treated with prednisolone; poorly differentiated or higher stage MCTs had a lower response rate. The median time-span of tumours to reach maximal tumour regression was 14 d (range 3-77 d); 22 (81.5%) reached maximal regression at 21 d. The majority of MCTs overexpressed both P-gp and STAT3 before and after prednisolone treatment. Reduced expression of pSTAT3 and alterations in the KIT expression pattern were observed in MCTs post-treatment. Prednisolone treatment that caused a marked reduction in tumour volume was correlated with reduced pSTAT3 expression. A cytoplasmic KIT staining pattern was correlated with a lower tumour response rate to prednisolone treatment. PMID:22398132

  11. Docking Applied to the Prediction of the Affinity of Compounds to P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Palestro, Pablo H.; Gavernet, Luciana; Estiu, Guillermina L.; Bruno Blanch, Luis E.

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is involved in the transport of xenobiotic compounds and responsible for the decrease of the drug accumulation in multi-drug-resistant cells. In this investigation we compare several docking algorithms in order to find the conditions that are able to discriminate between P-gp binders and nonbinders. We built a comprehensive dataset of binders and nonbinders based on a careful analysis of the experimental data available in the literature, trying to overcome the discrepancy noticeable in the experimental results. We found that Autodock Vina flexible docking is the best choice for the tested options. The results will be useful to filter virtual screening results in the rational design of new drugs that are not expected to be expelled by P-gp. PMID:24982867

  12. SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38MAPK pathway, is a new reversal agent of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miroslav Baran???k; Vierka Bohá?ová; Janka Kva?kajová; So?a Hudecová; Ol’ga Križanová; Albert Breier

    2001-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is the plasma membrane transport pump responsible for efflux of chemotherapeutic agents from cells and is one of the systems that secures multidrug resistance (MDR) of neoplastic cells. In the present study, drug sensitive L1210 and multidrug resistant L1210\\/VCR (characterized by overexpression of P-gp) mouse leukemic cell lines were used as an experimental model. We have found that

  13. Inhibitory effects of neochamaejasmin B on P-glycoprotein in MDCK-hMDR1 cells and molecular docking of NCB binding in P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lanying; Hu, Haihong; Wang, Xiangjun; Yu, Lushan; Jiang, Huidi; Chen, Jianzhong; Lou, Yan; Zeng, Su

    2015-01-01

    Stellera chamaejasme L. (Thymelaeaceae) is widely distributed in Mongolia, Tibet and the northern parts of China. Its roots are commonly used as "Langdu", which is embodied in the Pharmacopoeia of the P.R. China (2010) as a toxic Traditional Chinese Medicine. It is claimed to have antivirus, antitumor and antibacterial properties in China and other Asian countries. Studies were carried out to characterize the inhibition of neochamaejasmin B (NCB) on P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1, MDR1). Rhodamine-123 (R-123) transport and accumulation studies were performed in MDCK-hMDR1 cells. ABCB1 (MDR1) mRNA gene expression and P-gp protein expression were analyzed. Binding selectivity studies based on molecular docking were explored. R-123 transport and accumulation studies in MDCK-hMDR1 cells indicated that NCB inhibited the P-gp-mediated efflux in a concentration-dependent manner. RT-PCR and Western blot demonstrated that the P-gp expression was suppressed by NCB. To investigate the inhibition type of NCB on P-gp, Ki and Ki' values were determined by double-reciprocal plots in R-123 accumulation studies. Since Ki was greater than Ki', the inhibition of NCB on P-gp was likely a mixed type of competitive and non-competitive inhibition. The results were confirmed by molecular docking in our current work. The docking data indicated that NCB had higher affinity to P-gp than to Lig1 ((S)-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)chroman-4-one). PMID:25679052

  14. Lamellarins as inhibitors of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance in a human colon cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Plisson, Fabien; Huang, Xiao-Cong; Zhang, Hua; Khalil, Zeinab; Capon, Robert J

    2012-06-01

    Chemical analysis of a Didemnum sp. (CMB-01656) collected during scientific Scuba operations off Wasp Island, New South Wales, yielded five new lamellarins A1 (1), A2 (2), A3 (3), A4 (4) and A5 (5) and eight known lamellarins C (6), E (7), K (8), M (9), S (10), T (11), X (12) and ? (13). Analysis of a second Didemnum sp. (CMB-02127) collected during scientific trawling operations along the Northern Rottnest Shelf, Western Australia, yielded the new lamellarin A6 (14) and two known lamellarins G (15) and Z (16). Structures were assigned to 1-16 on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis with comparison to literature data and authentic samples. Access to this unique library of natural lamellarins (1-16) provided a rare opportunity for structure-activity relationship (SAR) investigations, probing interactions between lamellarins and the ABC transporter efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp) with a view to reversing multidrug resistance in a human colon cancer cell line (SW620 Ad300). These SAR studies, which were expanded to include the permethylated lamellarin derivative (17) and a series of lamellarin-inspired synthetic coumarins (19-24) and isoquinolines (25-26), successfully revealed 17 as a promising new non-cytotoxic P-gp inhibitor pharmacophore. PMID:22473938

  15. Influence of P-glycoprotein on embryotoxicity of the antifouling biocides to sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus intermedius).

    PubMed

    Xu, Xue; Fu, Jingxuan; Wang, Heng; Zhang, Baidong; Wang, Xia; Wang, Yonghua

    2011-03-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), as an ATP-binding cassette transporter, transports a wide variety of substrates varying from small molecules like steroids to large polypeptides across the cell membrane in human and animals, even in aquatic animals. Although P-gp protein has attracted much attention of research, its effect on the toxicity of environmental toxicants such as antifouling biocides is still poorly understood. The goal of this study is to evaluate whether copper pyrithione (CuPT), Sea-Nine 211, dichlofluanid and tolylfluanid, four widely used antifouling agents, can be transported by P-gp in embryos of sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius in the presence and absence of the P-gp inhibitor verapamil. Cytotoxcicities of Sea-Nine 211 (EC50 = 99 nM, at 4-arm pluteus) and dichlofluanid (EC50 = 144 nM, at multi-cell) are enhanced by the addition of the P-gp inhibitor, indicating that the two biocides are potential P-gp substrates. Tolylfluanid and CuPT are not transported by P-gp out of the cell, since no obvious changes in the cytotoxicities of the two biocides are observed no matter whether verapamil is added or not. In addition, to understand the mechanisms of ligand binding and its interaction with P-gp, a three-dimensional model of the sea urchin P-gp is generated based on the mouse crystal structure by using homology modeling approach. With this model, a flexible docking is performed and the results indicate that Sea-Nine 211 and dichlofluanid share the same binding site with verapamil, composed of key residues Lys677, Lys753, Thr756, Ala780, Met1033 and Phe1037, whereas tolylfluanid and CuPT display totally different binding modes to P-gp. This further demonstrates that Sea-Nine 211 and dichlofluanid are P-gp substrates, which provides us with new insights into the interactions of P-gp with the antifouling contaminants in aquatic invertebrate embryos. PMID:21229388

  16. Pharmacokinetic Compatibility of Ginsenosides and Schisandra Lignans in Shengmai-san: From the Perspective of P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yan; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Jingwei; Rao, Tai; Zhou, Lijun; Xing, Rong; Wang, Qian; Fu, Hanxu; Hao, Kun; Xie, Lin; Wang, Guangji

    2014-01-01

    Background Phytochemical-mediated alterations in P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity may result in herb-drug interactions by altering drug pharmacokinetics. Shengmai-san, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine composed by Panax Ginseng, Ophiopogon Japonicus, and Schisandra Chinensis, is routinely being used for treating various coronary heart diseases. In our previous studies, Schisandra Lignans Extract (SLE) was proved as a strong P-gp inhibitor, and herein, the compatibility of Shengmai-san was studied by investigating the influence of SLE on the pharmacokinetics of the ginsenosides from the perspective of P-gp. Methodology Pharmacokinetic experiments were firstly performed based on in vitro uptake, efflux and transport experiments in Caco-2, LLC-PK1 wild-type and MDR1-overexpressing L-MDR1 cells. During the whole experiment, digoxin, a classical P-gp substrate, was used as a positive control drug to verify the cells used are the valid models. Meanwhile, the effects of SLE on the pharmacokinetics of ginsenosides were further investigated in rats after single-dose and multi-dose of SLE. Results and Conclusions The efflux ratios of ginsenoside Rb2, Rc, Rg2, Rg3, Rd and Rb1 were found more than 3.5 in L-MDR1 cells and can be decreased significantly by verapamil (a classical P-gp inhibitor). Contrarily, the efflux ratios of other ginsenosides (Rh1, F1, Re, and Rg1) were lower than 2.0 and not affected by verapamil. Then, the effects of SLE on the uptake and transport of ginsenosides were investigated, and SLE was found can significantly enhance the uptake and inhibit the efflux ratio of ginsenoside Rb2, Rc, Rg2, Rg3, Rd and Rb1 in Caco-2 and L-MDR1 cells. Besides, In vivo experiments showed that single-dose and multi-dose of SLE at 500 mg/kg could increase the area under the plasma concentration time curve of Rb2, Rc and Rd significantly without affecting terminal elimination half-time. In conclusion, SLE could enhance the exposure of ginsenosides Rb2, Rc, Rg2, Rg3, Rd and Rb1 significantly. PMID:24922060

  17. SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38-MAPK pathway, is a new reversal agent of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Barancík, M; Bohácová, V; Kvackajová, J; Hudecová, S; Krizanová, O; Breier, A

    2001-08-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is the plasma membrane transport pump responsible for efflux of chemotherapeutic agents from cells and is one of the systems that secures multidrug resistance (MDR) of neoplastic cells. In the present study, drug sensitive L1210 and multidrug resistant L1210/VCR (characterized by overexpression of P-gp) mouse leukemic cell lines were used as an experimental model. We have found that SB203580, a specific inhibitor of p38-MAPK pathway, significantly reduced the degree of the vincristine resistance in L1210/VCR cells. This phenomenon was accompanied by a decrease in the LC(50) value of vincristine from 3.203+/-0.521 to 0.557+/-0.082 microM. The LC(50) value of sensitive cells for vincristine was about 0.011 microM. The effect of SB203580 on L1210/VCR cells was associated with significantly increased intracellular accumulation of [3H]-vincristine in the concentration dependent manner. Prolonged exposure of resistant cells to 30 microM SB203580 did neither significantly influence the gene expression of P-gp, nor change the protein levels of p38-MAPK. Western blot analysis revealed that the MDR phenotype in L1210/VCR cells was associated with increased level and activity of cytosolic p38-MAPK. In resistant cells, the enhanced phosphorylation of both, p38-MAPK and ATF-2 (endogenous substrate for p38-MAPK) was found as well. In conclusion we could remark that SB203580, an inhibitor of p38 kinase pathway, reversed the MDR resistance of L1210/VCR cells. MDR phenotype of these cells is connected with increased levels and activities of p38-MAPK. These findings point to the possible involvement of the p38-MAPK pathway in the modulation of P-gp mediated multidrug resistance in the L1210/VCR mouse leukemic cell line. However, the mechanisms of SB203580 action should be further investigated. PMID:11457647

  18. Population pharmacokinetic modelling of non-linear brain distribution of morphine: influence of active saturable influx and P-glycoprotein mediated efflux

    PubMed Central

    Groenendaal, D; Freijer, J; de Mik, D; Bouw, M R; Danhof, M; de Lange, E C M

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Biophase equilibration must be considered to gain insight into the mechanisms underlying the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) correlations of opioids. The objective was to characterise in a quantitative manner the non-linear distribution kinetics of morphine in brain. Experimental approach: Male rats received a 10-min infusion of 4 mg kg?1 of morphine, combined with a continuous infusion of the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) inhibitor GF120918 or vehicle, or 40 mg kg?1 morphine alone. Unbound extracellular fluid (ECF) concentrations obtained by intracerebral microdialysis and total blood concentrations were analysed using a population modelling approach. Key results: Blood pharmacokinetics of morphine was best described with a three-compartment model and was not influenced by GF120918. Non-linear distribution kinetics in brain ECF was observed with increasing dose. A one compartment distribution model was developed, with separate expressions for passive diffusion, active saturable influx and active efflux by Pgp. The passive diffusion rate constant was 0.0014 min?1. The active efflux rate constant decreased from 0.0195 min?1 to 0.0113 min?1 in the presence of GF120918. The active influx was insensitive to GF120918 and had a maximum transport (Nmax/Vecf) of 0.66 ng min?1 ml?1 and was saturated at low concentrations of morphine (C50=9.9 ng ml?1). Conclusions and implications: Brain distribution of morphine is determined by three factors: limited passive diffusion; active efflux, reduced by 42% by Pgp inhibition; low capacity active uptake. This implies blood concentration-dependency and sensitivity to drug-drug interactions. These factors should be taken into account in further investigations on PK-PD correlations of morphine. PMID:17471182

  19. Artemisinin induces doxorubicin resistance in human colon cancer cells via calcium-dependent activation of HIF-1? and P-glycoprotein overexpression

    PubMed Central

    Riganti, C; Doublier, S; Viarisio, D; Miraglia, E; Pescarmona, G; Ghigo, D; Bosia, A

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Artemisinin is an antimalarial drug exerting pleiotropic effects, such as the inhibition of the transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B and of the sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca++-ATPase (SERCA) of P. falciparum. As the sesquiterpene lactone thapsigargin, a known inhibitor of mammalian SERCA, enhances the expression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) by increasing the intracellular Ca++ ([Ca++]i) level, we investigated whether artemisinin and its structural homologue parthenolide could inhibit SERCA in human colon carcinoma HT29 cells and induce a resistance to doxorubicin. Experimental approach: HT29 cells were incubated with artemisinin or parthenolide and assessed for SERCA activity, [Ca++]i levels, Pgp expression, doxorubicin accumulation and toxicity, and translocation of the hypoxia-inducible factor, HIF-1?. Key results: Artemisinin and parthenolide, like the specific SERCA inhibitors thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid, reduced the activity of SERCA. They also increased intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca++]i) and Pgp expression and decreased doxorubicin accumulation and cytotoxicity. The intracellular Ca++ chelator, 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N?,N?-tetraacetic acid, and the inhibitor of calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) KN93 prevented these effects. CaMKII is known to promote the phosphorylation and the activation of HIF-1?, which may induce Pgp. In HT29 cells, artemisinin and parthenolide induced the phosphorylation of HIF-1?, which was inhibited by KN93. Conclusions and implications: Our results suggest that artemisinin and parthenolide may act as SERCA inhibitors and, like other SERCA inhibitors, induce resistance to doxorubicin in human colon cancer cells, via the CaMKII-dependent activation of HIF-1? and the induction of Pgp. PMID:19298255

  20. Interaction of hydrophobic components in female urine before and after childbirth with P-glycoprotein in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yokooji, T; Kameda, Y; Utsumi, M; Mori, N; Murakami, T

    2014-06-01

    The first urine in the morning (total 15 samples) and whole day urine (total 4 days, 17 samples) were collected from a young healthy woman during the pregnancy and lactation period, to examine the possible interactions of urine components (methanol extracts) with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs). The interaction was evaluated by measuring the intracellular accumulation of rhodamine123, a P-gp substrate, in LLC-GA5-COL150 cells, or calcein, an MRP substrate, in Caco-2 cells in the absence and presence of urine components. Four first urine samples out of 12 collected before childbirth and one sample out of three collected after childbirth suppressed P-gp function significantly. The effect of pregnancy and lactation on P-gp inhibitory potencies of urine components was not observed. The whole day urine samples showed a clear circadian rhythm, in which three first urine samples in the morning out of four showed greater P-gp inhibitory potencies than other daytime samples. Interaction of urine components with MRPs was not detected. In conclusion, the concentration of endogenous P-gp inhibitor(s) was higher in the first urine in the morning, showing a clear circadian rhythm. Normal pregnancy and lactation appeared not to significantly affect the P-gp inhibitory potencies of urine components. PMID:24974576

  1. Optimization of irinotecan chronotherapy with P-glycoprotein inhibition.

    PubMed

    Filipski, Elisabeth; Berland, Elodie; Ozturk, Narin; Guettier, Catherine; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T J; Lévi, Francis; Okyar, Alper

    2014-02-01

    The relevance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) for irinotecan chronopharmacology was investigated in female B6D2F1 mice. A three-fold 24h change in the mRNA expression of Abcb1b was demonstrated in ileum mucosa, with a maximum at Zeitgeber Time (ZT) 15 (p<0.001). No rhythm was found for abcb1a in ileum mucosa, or for Abcb1a/b in Glasgow osteosarcoma (GOS), a mouse tumor cell line moderately sensitive to irinotecan. Non-tumor-bearing mice received irinotecan (50mg/kg/day i.v.×4days) as a single agent or combined with P-gp inhibitor PSC833 (6.25mg/kg/day i.p.×4 days) at ZT3 or ZT15, respectively corresponding to the worst or the best irinotecan tolerability. Endpoints involved survival, body weight change and hematologic toxicity. Antitumor efficacy was studied in GOS-bearing mice receiving irinotecan (25, 30 or 40mg/kg/day×4days) and +/-PSC833 at ZT3 or ZT15, with survival, body weight change, and tumor growth inhibition as endpoints. Non-tumor bearing mice lost an average of 17% or 9% of their body weight according to irinotecan administration at ZT3 or ZT15 respectively (p<0.001). Dosing at ZT15 rather than ZT3 reduced mean leucopenia (9% vs 53%; p<0.001). PSC833 aggravated irinotecan lethal toxicity from 4 to ~60%. In tumor-bearing mice, body weight loss was ~halved in the mice on irinotecan or irinotecan-PSC833 combination at ZT15 as compared to ZT3 (p<0.001). PSC833-irinotecan at ZT15 increased tumor inhibition by ~40% as compared to irinotecan only at ZT15. In conclusion, P-gp was an important determinant of the circadian balance between toxicity and efficacy of irinotecan. PMID:24380837

  2. Cell-free microfluidic determination of P-glycoprotein interactions with substrates and inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Eyer, Klaus; Herger, Michael; Krämer, Stefanie D; Dittrich, Petra S

    2014-12-01

    The membrane protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays key roles in the oral bioavailability of drugs, their blood brain barrier passage as well as in multidrug resistance. For new drug candidates it is mandatory to study their interaction with P-gp, according to FDA and EMA regulations. The vast majority of these tests are performed using confluent cell layers of P-gp overexpressing cell lines that render these tests laborious. In this study, we introduce a cell-free microfluidic assay for the rapid testing of drug- P-gp interactions. Cell-derived vesicles are prepared from MDCKII-MDR1 overexpressing cells and immobilized on the surface of a planar microfluidic device. The drug is delivered continuously to the vesicles and calcein accumulation is monitored by means of a fluorescence assay and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. Only small amounts of compounds (~10 ?l) are required in concentrations of 5, 25 and 50 ?M for a test that provides within 5 min information on the apparent dissociation constant of the drug and P-gp. We tested 10 drugs on-chip, 9 of which are inhibitors or substrates of P-glycoprotein and one negative control. We benchmarked the measured apparent dissociation constants against an alternative assay on a plate reader and reference data from FDA. These comparisons revealed good correlations between the logarithmic apparent dissociation constants (R(2)?=?0.95 with ATPase assay, R(2)?=?0.93 with FDA data) and show the reliability of the rapid on-chip test. The herein presented assay has an excellent screening window factor (Z'-factor) of 0.8, and is suitable for high-throughput testing. PMID:24928366

  3. [Altered intestinal P-glycoprotein expression levels affect pharmacodynamics under diabetic condition].

    PubMed

    Nawa, Ayaka; Fujita-Hamabe, Wakako; Kisioka, Shiroh; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2012-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), one of the important drug-efflux pumps, is known to affect pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of P-gp substrate drugs. We have previously reported that intestinal P-gp expression levels are transiently decreased in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic mouse model. Herein, we examined the analgesic effects of orally administered morphine and its pharmacokinetic properties under diabetic conditions, specifically focusing on the involvement of intestinal P-gp in a type 1 diabetic mouse model. Type 1 diabetes was induced in male ddY mice by an i.p. injection of STZ (230 mg/kg). We assessed the oral morphine analgesia using the tail-flick test. Serum and brain morphine content were determined on a HPLC-ECD system. Intestinal P-gp expression levels were significantly decreased on day 9 after STZ administration. On the other hands, oral morphine analgesia, and serum and brain morphine content were significantly increased on day 9 after STZ administration. The decrease in the intestinal P-gp expression levels were suppressed by aminoguanidine, a specific iNOS inhibitor. Interestingly, the increase in the analgesic effect of morphine, as well as serum and brain morphine content, was suppressed by aminoguanidine. Conversely, there was no change in the analgesic effect obtained with subcutaneous morphine in STZ-treated mice. In conclusions, our findings suggest that the oral morphine analgesia is dependent on intestinal P-gp expression, and that may be one of the problems against obtaining stable pharmacological effects of morphine in diabetic patients. PMID:22293693

  4. Coordinate activation of multidrug-resistance (P-glycoprotein) genes mdr2 and mdr3 during mouse liver regeneration.

    PubMed

    Teeter, L D; Chan, J Y; Kuo, M T

    1991-01-01

    We previously reported that only one of the three mouse multidrug-resistance (mdr) genes, mdr3, is activated in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). The present study examined the expression of mdr family members during mouse liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy to determine whether the regeneration that occurs during hepatic tumorigenesis is responsible for mdr3 elevation in HCC. We demonstrated that in both C3H/HeN and B6C3/F1 mice strains, the levels of both mdr2 and mdr3 mRNAs coordinately increased five- to sevenfold 24 h after partial hepatectomy, whereas the levels of mdr1 mRNA were not statistically different from those in the controls. Forty-eight hours after partial hepatectomy, mdr mRNA levels decreased and in most cases returned to normal levels after 72 h. These results indicate that mdr3 induction during hepatocarcinogenesis is not due to liver regeneration alone. PMID:1680339

  5. Optimization of irinotecan chronotherapy with P-glycoprotein inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Filipski, Elisabeth; Berland, Elodie [INSERM, U776 “Rythmes biologiques et cancers”, CAMPUS CNRS, 7 rue Guy Môquet, F-94801 Villejuif (France); Univ Paris-Sud, UMR-S0776, Orsay F-91405 (France); Ozturk, Narin [INSERM, U776 “Rythmes biologiques et cancers”, CAMPUS CNRS, 7 rue Guy Môquet, F-94801 Villejuif (France); Univ Paris-Sud, UMR-S0776, Orsay F-91405 (France); Istanbul University Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology, Beyazit TR-34116, Istanbul (Turkey); Guettier, Catherine [Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Unité de Chronothérapie, Département de Cancérologie, Hôpital Paul Brousse, Villejuif F-94807 (France); Horst, Gijsbertus T.J. van der [Department of Genetics, Erasmus University Medical Center, 3000 CA Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lévi, Francis [INSERM, U776 “Rythmes biologiques et cancers”, CAMPUS CNRS, 7 rue Guy Môquet, F-94801 Villejuif (France); Univ Paris-Sud, UMR-S0776, Orsay F-91405 (France); Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Unité de Chronothérapie, Département de Cancérologie, Hôpital Paul Brousse, Villejuif F-94807 (France); and others

    2014-02-01

    The relevance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) for irinotecan chronopharmacology was investigated in female B6D2F{sub 1} mice. A three-fold 24 h change in the mRNA expression of Abcb1b was demonstrated in ileum mucosa, with a maximum at Zeitgeber Time (ZT) 15 (p < 0.001). No rhythm was found for abcb1a in ileum mucosa, or for Abcb1a/b in Glasgow osteosarcoma (GOS), a mouse tumor cell line moderately sensitive to irinotecan. Non-tumor-bearing mice received irinotecan (50 mg/kg/day i.v. × 4 days) as a single agent or combined with P-gp inhibitor PSC833 (6.25 mg/kg/day i.p. × 4 days) at ZT3 or ZT15, respectively corresponding to the worst or the best irinotecan tolerability. Endpoints involved survival, body weight change and hematologic toxicity. Antitumor efficacy was studied in GOS-bearing mice receiving irinotecan (25, 30 or 40 mg/kg/day × 4 days) and +/? PSC833 at ZT3 or ZT15, with survival, body weight change, and tumor growth inhibition as endpoints. Non-tumor bearing mice lost an average of 17% or 9% of their body weight according to irinotecan administration at ZT3 or ZT15 respectively (p < 0.001). Dosing at ZT15 rather than ZT3 reduced mean leucopenia (9% vs 53%; p < 0.001). PSC833 aggravated irinotecan lethal toxicity from 4 to ? 60%. In tumor-bearing mice, body weight loss was ? halved in the mice on irinotecan or irinotecan–PSC833 combination at ZT15 as compared to ZT3 (p < 0.001). PSC833–irinotecan at ZT15 increased tumor inhibition by ? 40% as compared to irinotecan only at ZT15. In conclusion, P-gp was an important determinant of the circadian balance between toxicity and efficacy of irinotecan. - Highlights: • Irinotecan chronotolerance and chronoefficacy change as drug was applied with PSC833. • P-glycoprotein is an important player of the toxicity and efficacy of irinotecan. • Timing should be considered if chemotherapy is performed with a MDR1 inhibitor.

  6. Analysis of the Chinese hamster P-glycoprotein/multidrug resistance gene pgp1 reveals that the AP-1 site is essential for full promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Teeter, L D; Eckersberg, T; Tsai, Y; Kuo, M T

    1991-09-01

    Recent studies have revealed that the expression of P-glycoprotein/multidrug resistance genes is crucial for the development of resistance to a number of lipophilic cancer chemotherapeutic agents. To better understand the regulatory mechanisms of pgp gene expression, we isolated and characterized a DNA fragment containing the 5' portion of a Chinese hamster pgp gene. DNA sequence analysis revealed that this gene is pgp1, the hamster homologue of murine mdr3/mdr1a. This gene is expressed at a higher level in intestines than in kidney and liver, consistent with the expression pattern for the murine mdr3/mdr1a gene. The major transcription start site, determined by the S1 nuclease protection, RNase protection, and primer extension methods, lies 67 nucleotides upstream of the murine and human downstream transcription start site. A chimera containing 101 base pairs upstream from this start site and the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene was able to direct CAT expression in transient transfection experiments. The AP-1 site, located at -48 base pairs, was crucial for the full pgp1 promoter activity, as demonstrated by site-directed mutagenesis of this site, enhancement of the CAT expression by cotransfection with the expression vectors encoding c-Jun/c-Fos genes, but sequestration with those containing retinoic acid receptor genes. The sequestration effect could be partially abolished when c-Jun/c-Fos genes were also included in cotransfection. An AP-1 or AP-1-like site is also present at the same location in both human and mouse mdr homologues. The involvement of AP-1 in the expression of mammalian pgp1-class genes is discussed. PMID:1661134

  7. Influence of breast cancer resistance protein (Abcg2) and p-glycoprotein (Abcb1a) on the transport of imatinib mesylate (Gleevec) across the mouse blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Bihorel, Sébastien; Camenisch, Gian; Lemaire, Michel; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel

    2007-09-01

    Imatinib, a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, may prevent the growth of glioblastoma cells. Unfortunately, its brain distribution is restricted by p-glycoprotein (p-gp or multidrug resistance protein Mdr1a), and probably by breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1), two efflux pumps expressed at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We have used in situ brain perfusion to investigate the mechanisms of imatinib transport across the mouse BBB. The brain uptake of imatinib in wild-type mice was limited by saturable efflux processes. The inhibition of p-gp, by valspodar and zosuquidar, increased imatinib uptake (2.5-fold), as did the deficiency of p-gp in Mdr1a/1b(-/-) mice (5.5-fold). Perfusing imatinib with the p-gp/Bcrp1 inhibitor, elacridar, enhanced the brain uptake of imatinib in wild-type (4.1-fold) and Mdr1a/1b(-/-) mice (1.2-fold). However, the brain uptake of imatinib was similar in wild-type and Bcrp1(-/-) mice when it was perfused at a non-saturating concentration. The brain uptake of CGP74588, an active metabolite of imatinib, was low. It was increased by perfusion with elacridar (twofold), but not with valspodar and zosuquidar. CGP74588 uptake was 1.5 times greater in Bcrp1(-/-) mice than in wild-type mice. These data suggest that imatinib transport at the mouse BBB is limited by p-gp and probably by Bcrp1, and that CGP74588 transport is restricted by Bcrp1. PMID:17696988

  8. The role of P-glycoprotein in intestinal transport versus the BBB transport of tetraphenylphosphonium.

    PubMed

    Swed, Avi; Eyal, Sara; Madar, Igal; Zohar-Kontante, Hila; Weiss, Lola; Hoffman, Amnon

    2009-01-01

    Tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP), a phosphonium cation, is a promising means for tumor imaging. A major contributor to the pharmacokinetics of phosphonium cations is the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). For this application it is important to ascertain the influence of the multidrug resistance system on TPP. Therefore, our aim was to characterize the interaction of TPP with P-gp, in vitro and in in vivo models. P-gp-mediated transport of [3H]-TPP was assessed in Caco-2 cells and ex vivo in rat intestinal wall by the use of a diffusion cell system. The distribution of [3H]-TPP across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was studied in rats and mice treated with P-gp modulators and in Mdr-1a/b((-/-)) knockout mice. The in vitro permeability coefficient of basolateral-to-apical transfer (PappB-A) of [3H]-TPP was 8-fold greater than apical-to-basolateral (PappA-B) coefficient, indicative of net mucosal secretion. A concentration dependent decrease of this secretion was obtained by the P-gp substrate verapamil, while no effect was evident by the MRP2 inhibitor MK-571 and the BCRP inhibitor FTC. [3H]-TPP transfer across rat jejunum wall was directional and concentration-dependent. 2,4-Dinitrophenol, cyclosporin A (CsA), verapamil and PSC-833 enhanced A-B transport of TPP 3.6-fold, 4-fold, 4.6-fold and 5.3-fold respectively. Likewise, PappA-B of [3H]-TPP was 5-fold greater in P-gp knockout mice than in controls. In vivo, PSC-833, P-gp inhibitor, significantly increased the uptake of [3H]-TPP in the liver, heart, small intestine and the lungs but not the brain. Similar results were obtained in P-gp knockout mice. Our study demonstrates that P-gp mediates TPP efflux in vitro and in vivo; however, the consistently poor BBB permeation of TPP in all in vivo studies including P-gp knockout animals indicates that it is most likely mediated by other mechanisms. These findings are important for optimized clinical application of TPP as an imaging agent in cancer. PMID:19722701

  9. Ginsenoside metabolites inhibit P-glycoprotein in vitro and in situ using three absorption models.

    PubMed

    Li, Na; Wang, Dandan; Ge, Guangbo; Wang, Xiuli; Liu, Yong; Yang, Ling

    2014-03-01

    P-glycoprotein, an ATP-dependent transporter expressed in the gastrointestinal tract and tumor cells, mediates the efflux transport of multiple drugs. Inhibition or induction of P-glycoprotein by herbal ingredients can lead to herb-drug interactions and thus influence the activities of P-glycoprotein substrate drugs. The present study aimed to explore the effect of nine naturally occurring ginsenosides and their intestinal bacterial metabolites on P-glycoprotein-mediated transport. The results showed that three ginsenoside metabolites (CK, Ppd, and Ppt) formed by intestinal bacteria significantly enhanced rhodamine 123 retention in Caco-2 cells, increased the absorptive permeability of rhodamine 123, and decreased the efflux ratio of digoxin in two absorption models, which were comparable to the effects of the known P-glycoprotein inhibitor verapamil. However, the prototype ginsenosides such as Rb1, Rb2, and Re showed no inhibitory effect on P-glycoprotein activity. In situ intestinal perfusion experiments also showed that CK, Ppd, and Ppt increased the absorption rate constant and permeability coefficient of rhodamine 123. Long-term treatment with CK, Ppd, and Ppt had no effect on P-glycoprotein mRNA expression in Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, CK, Ppd, and Ppt are potent P-glycoprotein inhibitors, indicating an unpredictable herb-drug interaction when ginsenosides are coadministered orally with P-glycoprotein substrate drugs. PMID:24493631

  10. Role of P-glycoprotein in the uptake/efflux transport of oral vitamin K antagonists and rivaroxaban through the Caco-2 cell model.

    PubMed

    Gschwind, Liliane; Rollason, Victoria; Daali, Youssef; Bonnabry, Pascal; Dayer, Pierre; Desmeules, Jules Alexandre

    2013-10-01

    Vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) are prescribed worldwide and remain the oral anticoagulant of choice. These drugs are characterized by a narrow therapeutic index and a large inter- and intra-individual variability. P-glycoprotein could contribute to this variability. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of P-gp in the transport of acenocoumarol, phenprocoumon and warfarin using an in vitro Caco-2 cell monolayer model. These results were compared with those obtained with rivaroxaban, a new oral anticoagulant known to be a P-gp substrate. The transport of these four drugs was assessed at pH conditions 6.8/7.4 in the presence or absence of the P-gp inhibitor cyclosporine A (10 ?M) and the more potent and specific P-gp inhibitor valspodar (5 ?M). Analytical quantification was performed by LC/MS. With an efflux ratio of 1.7 and a significant decrease in the efflux (Papp B-A), in the presence of P-gp inhibitors at a concentration of 50 ?M, acenocoumarol can be considered as a weak P-gp substrate. Concerning phenprocoumon, the results suggest that this molecule is a poor P-gp substrate. The P-gp inhibitors did not affect significantly the transport of warfarin. The efflux of rivaroxaban was strongly inhibited by the two P-gp inhibitors. In conclusion, none of the three VKAs tested are strong P-gp substrates. However, acenocoumarol can be considered as a weak P-gp substrate and phenprocoumon as a poor P-gp substrate. PMID:23663291

  11. Positron Emission Tomography Studies on Binding of Central Nervous System Drugs and P-Glycoprotein Function in the Rodent Brain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philip H. Elsinga; N. Harry Hendrikse; Joost Bart; Aren van Waarde; Willem Vaalburg

    2005-01-01

    The permeability of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) is one of the factors determining the bioavailability of drugs in the brain. The BBB only allows passage of lipophilic drugs by passive diffusion. However, some lipophilic drugs hardly enter the brain. The transmembrane protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one of the carrier systems that is responsible for transportation of drugs out of the

  12. Nilotinib Counteracts P-Glycoprotein-Mediated Multidrug Resistance and Synergizes the Antitumoral Effect of Doxorubicin in Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Victor Hugo Villar; Oliver Vögler; Jordi Martínez-Serra; Rafael Ramos; Silvia Calabuig-Farińas; Antonio Gutiérrez; Francisca Barceló; Javier Martín-Broto; Regina Alemany

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of doxorubicin (DXR) in the treatment of soft tissue sarcomas (STS) is limited by its toxicity and the development of multidrug resistance (MDR), the latter mainly induced by high expression of efflux pumps (e.g., P-glycoprotein [P-gp]). Therefore, the search for alternative therapies, which sensitize these tumors to chemotherapy while maintaining a low toxicity profile, is a rational

  13. Cbl-b inhibits P-gp transporter function by preventing its translocation into caveolae in multiple drug-resistant gastric and breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Qu, Xiujuan; Teng, Yuee; Li, Zhi; Xu, Ling; Liu, Jing; Ma, Yanju; Fan, Yibo; Li, Ce; Liu, Shizhou; Wang, Zhenning; Hu, Xuejun; Zhang, Jingdong; Liu, Yunpeng

    2015-03-30

    The transport function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) requires its efficient localization to caveolae, a subset of lipid rafts, and disruption of caveolae suppresses P-gp transport function. However, the regulatory molecules involved in the translocation of P-gp into caveolae remain unknown. In the present study, we showed that c-Src dependent Caveolin-1 phosphorylation promoted the translocation of P-gp into caveolae, resulting in multidrug resistance in adriamycin resistant gastric cancer SGC7901/Adr and breast cancer MCF-7/Adr cells. In a negative feedback loop, the translocation of Cbl-b from the nucleus to the cytoplasm prevented the localization of P-gp to caveolae resulting in the reversal of MDR through the ubiquitination and degradation of c-Src. Clinical data showed a significant positive relationship between Cbl-b expression and survival in P-gp positive breast cancer patients who received anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Our findings identified a new regulatory mechanism of P-gp transport function in multiple drug-resistant gastric and breast cancers. PMID:25788263

  14. Cbl-b inhibits P-gp transporter function by preventing its translocation into caveolae in multiple drug-resistant gastric and breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ye; Qu, Xiujuan; Teng, Yuee; Li, Zhi; Xu, Ling; Liu, Jing; Ma, Yanju; Fan, Yibo; Li, Ce; Liu, Shizhou; Wang, Zhenning; Hu, Xuejun; Zhang, Jingdong; Liu, Yunpeng

    2015-01-01

    The transport function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) requires its efficient localization to caveolae, a subset of lipid rafts, and disruption of caveolae suppresses P-gp transport function. However, the regulatory molecules involved in the translocation of P-gp into caveolae remain unknown. In the present study, we showed that c-Src dependent Caveolin-1 phosphorylation promoted the translocation of P-gp into caveolae, resulting in multidrug resistance in adriamycin resistant gastric cancer SGC7901/Adr and breast cancer MCF-7/Adr cells. In a negative feedback loop, the translocation of Cbl-b from the nucleus to the cytoplasm prevented the localization of P-gp to caveolae resulting in the reversal of MDR through the ubiquitination and degradation of c-Src. Clinical data showed a significant positive relationship between Cbl-b expression and survival in P-gp positive breast cancer patients who received anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Our findings identified a new regulatory mechanism of P-gp transport function in multiple drug-resistant gastric and breast cancers. PMID:25788263

  15. Factors That Limit Positron Emission Tomography Imaging of P-Glycoprotein Density at the Blood–Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Efflux transporters located at the blood–brain barrier, such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), regulate the passage of many drugs in and out of the brain. Changes in the function and density of these proteins, in particular P-gp, may play a role in several neurological disorders. Several radioligands have been developed for measuring P-gp function at the blood–brain barrier of human subjects with positron emission tomography (PET). However, attempts to measure P-gp density with radiolabeled inhibitors that bind to these proteins in vivo have not thus far provided useful, quantifiable PET signals. Herein, we argue that not only the low density of transporters in the brain as a whole but also their very high density in brain capillaries act to lower the concentration of ligand in the plasma and thereby contribute to absent or low signals in PET studies of P-gp density. Our calculations, based on published data and theoretical approximations, estimate that whole brain densities of many efflux transporters at the blood–brain barrier range from 0.04 to 5.19 nM. We conclude that the moderate affinities (>5 nM) of currently labeled inhibitors may not allow measurement of efflux transporter density at the blood–brain barrier, and inhibitors with substantially higher affinity will be needed for density imaging of P-gp and other blood–brain barrier transporters. PMID:23597242

  16. Verapamil and Rifampin Effect on P-Glycoprotein Expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jalali, Amir; Ghasemian, Sepideh; Najafzadeh, Hossein; Galehdari, Hamid; Seifi, Masoud Reza; Zangene, Fateme; Dehdardargahi, Shaiesteh

    2014-01-01

    Background: High expression of p-glycoprotein (P-gp) has been associated with a poor prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is likely that P-gp overexpression is responsible for multidrug resistance in HCC. Objectives: The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect of potent carcinogen nitrosamine with and without verapamil and rifampin drugs on P-gp expression at the mRNA level in HCC. Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats (n = 5) were selected with different treatments and one group as control. mRNA concentration changes were monitored using quantitative PCR (QPCR). Results: A significant difference was found between verapamil treated group and the control regarding the mRNA level. The mdr1a mRNA was significantly decreased in the verapamil group (P ? 0.001). Rifampin administrated group had a decreased level of the mdr1a mRNA compared to the control group (P ? 0.006). No significant changes were observed in HCC induced rats regarding the mdr1a mRNA level when treated with verapamil and rifampin. An enhanced expression of the mdr1a gene was found In the HCC induced animals when treated with drugs. Conclusions: Verapamil and rifampin were found specific and effective against P-gp expression in HCC. In conclusion, treatment efficacy of most anticancer drugs is increased in combination with verapamil and rifampin against most advanced HCC. PMID:25625052

  17. Coadministration of P-glycoprotein modulators on loperamide pharmacokinetics and brain distribution.

    PubMed

    Montesinos, Rita Nieto; Moulari, Brice; Gromand, Jessica; Beduneau, Arnaud; Lamprecht, Alf; Pellequer, Yann

    2014-04-01

    The efflux transporter P-glycoprotein, expressed at high levels at the blood-brain barrier, exerts a profound effect on the disposition of various therapeutic compounds in the brain. A rapid and efficient modulation of this efflux transporter could enhance the distribution of its substrates and thereby improve central nervous system pharmacotherapies. This study explored the impact of the intravenous coadministration of two P-glycoprotein modulators, tariquidar and elacridar, on the pharmacokinetics and brain distribution of loperamide, a P-glycoprotein substrate probe, in rats. After 1 hour postdosing, tariquidar and elacridar, both at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg, increased loperamide levels in the brain by 2.3- and 3.5-fold, respectively. However, the concurrent administration of both P-glycoprotein modulators, each at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg, increased loperamide levels in the brain by 5.8-fold and resulted in the most pronounced opioid-induced clinical signs. This phenomenon may be the result of a combined noncompetitive modulation by tariquidar and elacridar. Besides, the simultaneous administration of elacridar and tariquidar did not significantly modify the pharmacokinetic parameters of loperamide. This observation potentially allows the concurrent use of low but therapeutic doses of P-gp modulators to achieve full inhibitory effects. PMID:24398461

  18. P-glycoprotein in autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    García-Carrasco, M; Mendoza-Pinto, C; Macias Díaz, S; Vera-Recabarren, M; Vázquez de Lara, L; Méndez Martínez, S; Soto-Santillán, P; González-Ramírez, R; Ruiz-Arguelles, A

    2015-07-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is a transmembrane protein of 170 kD encoded by the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR-1) gene, localized on chromosome 7. More than 50 polymorphisms of the MDR-1 gene have been described; a subset of these has been shown to play a pathophysiological role in the development of inflammatory bowel disease, femoral head osteonecrosis induced by steroids, lung cancer and renal epithelial tumors. Polymorphisms that have a protective effect on the development of conditions such as Parkinson disease have also been identified. P-glycoprotein belongs to the adenosine triphosphate binding cassette transporter superfamily and its structure comprises a chain of approximately 1280 aminoacid residues with an N-C terminal structure, arranged as 2 homologous halves, each of which has 6 transmembrane segments, with a total of 12 segments with 2 cytoplasmic nucleotide binding domains. Many cytokines like interleukin 2 and tumor necrosis factor alpha increase Pgp expression and activity. Pgp functions as an efflux pump for a variety of toxins in order to protect particular organs and tissues as the central nervous system. Pgp transports a variety of substrates including glucocorticoids while other drugs such as tacrolimus and cyclosporine A act as modulators of this protein. The most widely used method to measure Pgp activity is flow cytometry using naturally fluorescent substrates such as anthracyclines or rhodamine 123. The study of drug resistance and its association to Pgp began with the study of resistance to chemotherapy in the treatment of cancer and antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus; however, the role of Pgp in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis has been a focus of study lately and has emerged as an important mechanism by which treatment failure occurs. The present review analyzes the role of Pgp in these autoimmune diseases. PMID:25712147

  19. Stereoselective regulations of P-glycoprotein by ginsenoside Rh2 epimers and the potential mechanisms from the view of pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingwei; Zhou, Fang; Niu, Fang; Lu, Meng; Wu, Xiaolan; Sun, Jianguo; Wang, Guangji

    2012-01-01

    Chirality is an interesting topic and it is meaningful to explore the interactions between chiral small molecules and stereoselective biomacromolecules, with pre-clinical and clinical significances. We have previously demonstrated that 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh2 is an effective P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor in vitro and in vivo. Considering the stereochemistry of ginsenoside Rh2, in our present study, the regulatory effects of 20(R)-Rh2 on P-gp were assayed in vivo, and the differential regulations of P-gp by ginsenoside Rh2 epimers in vivo were compared and studied. Results showed that 20(S)-Rh2 enhanced the oral absorption of digoxin in rats in a dose-dependent manner; 20(R)-Rh2 at low dosage increased the oral absorption of digoxin, but this effect diminished with elevated dosage of 20(R)-Rh2. Further studies indicated stereoselective pharmacokinetic profiles and intestinal biotransformations of Rh2 epimers. In vitro studies showed that Rh2 epimers and their corresponding deglycosylation metabolites protopanaxadiol (Ppd) epimers all exhibited stereoselective regulations of P-gp. In conclusion, in view of the in vitro and in vivo dispositions of Rh2 and the regulations of P-gp by Rh2 and Ppd, it is suggested that the P-gp regulatory effect of Rh2 in vivo actually is a double actions of both Rh2 and Ppd, and the net effect is determined by the relative balance between Rh2 and Ppd with the same configuration. Our study provides new evidence of the chiral characteristics of P-gp, and is helpful to elucidate the stereoselective P-gp regulation mechanisms of ginsenoside Rh2 epimers in vivo from a pharmacokinetic view. PMID:22530069

  20. Novel flavonoid-based biodegradable nanoparticles for effective oral delivery of etoposide by P-glycoprotein modulation: an in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo investigations.

    PubMed

    Fatma, Sharmeen; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Iqbal, Zeenat; Panda, Amulya Kumar; Negi, Lalit Mohan; Goswami, Dinesh Giri; Tariq, Mohammad

    2014-06-17

    Abstract A receptor level interaction of etoposide with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and subsequent intestinal efflux has an adverse effect on its oral absorption. The present work is aimed to enhance the bioavailability of etoposide by co-administering it with quercetin (a P-gp inhibitor) in dual-loaded polymeric nanoparticle formulation. Poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles were optimized for various parameters like o/w phase volume ratio, poly-vinyl alcohol concentration, PLGA concentration and sonication time. The cytotoxicity studies (MTT assay) revealed a 9- and 11-fold decrease in the IC 50 values for etoposide-loaded nanoparticles (ENP) and etoposide?+?quercetin dual-loaded nanoparticles (EQNP) when compared to that of free etoposide, respectively, and the results were further supported by florescent-activated cell sorter studies. The confocal imaging of the intestinal sections treated with ENP and EQNP containing fluorescent probe (rhodamine) showed the superiority of the EQNP to permeate deeper. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic studies on rats revealed that EQNP exhibited a 2.4-fold increase in bioavailability of etoposide than ENP with no quercetin. The developed loaded nanoparticles have the high potential to enhance the bioavailability of the etoposide and sensitize the resistant cells. PMID:24937381

  1. Interaction of forskolin with the P-glycoprotein multidrug transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Ming s, D.I.; Seamon, K.B. (Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, MD (United States)); Speicher, L.A.; Tew, K.D. (Fox Chase Cancer Research Center, Philadelphia, PA (United States)); Ruoho, A.E. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

    1991-08-27

    Forskolin and 1,9-dideoxyforskolin, an analogue that does not activate adenylyl cyclase, were tested for their ability to enhance the cytotoxic effects of adriamycin in human ovarian carcinoma cells, SKOV3, which are sensitive to adriamycin and express low levels of P-glycoprotein, and a variant cell line, SKVLB, which overexpresses the P-glycoprotein and has the multidrug reing ance (MDR) phenotype. Forskolin and 1,9-dideoxyforskolin both increased the cytotoxic effects of adriamycin in SKVLB cells, yet had no effect on SKOV3 cells. Two photoactive derivatives of forskolin have been synthesized, 7-O-((2-(3-(4-azido-3-({sup 125}I)iodophenyl)propionamido)ethyl)carbamyl)forskolin, {sup 125}I-6-AIPP-Fsk, and 6-O-((2-(3-(4-azido-3-({sup 125}I)iodophenyl)propionamido)ethyl)carbamyl)forskolin, {sup 125}I-6-AIPP-Fsk, which exhibit specificity for labeling the glucose transporter and aing lyl cyclase, respectively. Both photolabels identified a 140-kDa protein in membranes from SKVLB cells whose labeling was inhibited by forskolin and 1,9-dideoxyforskolin. The data are consistent with forskolin binding to the P-glycoprotein analogous to that of other chemosensitizing drugs that have been shown to partially reverse MDR. The ability of forskolin photolabels to specifically label the transporter, the adenylyl cyclase, and the P-glycoprotein suggests that these proteins may share a common biing g domain for forskolin analogues.

  2. The use of microdialysis techniques in mice to study P-gp function at the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Sziráki, István; Erd?, Franciska; Trampus, Péter; Sike, Mirabella; Molnár, Petra Magdolna; Rajnai, Zsuzsanna; Molnár, Judit; Wilhelm, Imola; Fazakas, Csilla; Kis, Emese; Krizbai, István; Krajcsi, Péter

    2013-04-01

    An integrated assay system involving dual/triple-probe microdialysis techniques in rats was developed earlier for testing interactions with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) at the blood-brain barrier using quinidine/PSC-833 as a P-gp substrate/inhibitor combination. The aim of the present study was to expand our assay system to mice using microdialysis with simultaneous sampling of blood and brain and to compare the result with a primary mouse brain endothelial cell monolayer (pMBMEC) assay. Brain penetration of quinidine was dose dependent in both anesthetized and awake mice after intraperitoneal drug administration. PSC-833 pretreatment caused a 2.5- to 3.4-fold increase in quinidine levels of brain dialysate samples in anesthetized or awake animals, after single or repeated administration of PSC-833. In pMBMEC, a 2.0- to 2.5-fold efflux ratio was observed in the transcellular transport of quinidine. The P-gp-mediated vectorial transport of quinidine was eliminated by PSC-833. These results indicate that quinidine with PSC-833 is a good probe substrate-reference inhibitor combination for testing drug-drug interactions with P-gp in the in vivo and in vitro mouse systems. With increasing number of humanized transgenic mice, a test system with mouse microdialysis experimentation becomes more important to predict drug-drug interactions in humans. PMID:23204072

  3. Restricted brain penetration of the tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib due to the drug transporters P-gp and BCRP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nienke A. de Vries; Tessa Buckle; Jin Zhao; Jos H. Beijnen; Jan H. M. Schellens; Olaf van Tellingen

    Summary  \\u000a Purpose Erlotinib (Tarceva®, OSI-774) is a small molecule inhibitor of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase.\\u000a As high-grade gliomas frequently show amplification, overexpression and\\/or mutation of EGFR, this drug has been tested in\\u000a several clinical trials with glioblastoma patients, but unfortunately, with little success. As erlotinib is a known substrate\\u000a of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and Breast Cancer Resistance

  4. Guggulsterone regulates the function and expression of P-glycoprotein in rat brain microvessel endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xian-Zhen; Xu, Hong-Bin; Xu, Lu-Zhong; Mao, Xia-Ping; Li, Ling

    2013-10-15

    Our previous studies found that guggulsterone could inhibit P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance in P-glycoprotein over-expressed human cancer cell lines. However, the effects of guggulsterone on the ;P-glycoprotein function and expression in rat brain microvessel endothelial cells (rBMECs) are poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated whether guggulsterone has a modulative effect on the function and expression of P-glycoprotein in rBMECs. rhodamine 123 acts as a good substrate for P-glycoprotein, and agents that block P-glycoprotein have been found to increase the retention of rhodamine in cells. The results showed that the accumulation of rhodamine 123 in rBMECs was potentiated in a time-dependent manner after incubation with 30, 100 ?M guggulsterone (P<0.05). Efflux of intracellular rhodamine 123 was decreased in a time-dependent manner from after 30, 100 ?M guggulsterone treatment. The inhibitory effect of guggulsterone on P-glycoprotein function was reversible and remained at 120 min after removal of 30, 100 ?M guggulsterone from the medium. Further results showed that guggulsterone (30, 100 ?M) down-regulated the expression of P-glycoprotein, and had no influence on the expression of breast cancer resistance protein in rBMECs. In addition, the present study revealed that guggulsterone promoted the activity of P-glycoprotein ATPase in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicated that guggulsterone suppressed the function and expression of P-glycoprotein in rBMECs primary cultures. PMID:24041929

  5. No inhibitory effect on P-glycoprotein function at blood–brain barrier by clinical dose of clarithromycin: a human PET study with [ 11 C]verapamil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ryosuke Arakawa; Hiroshi Ito; Masaki Okumura; Takuya Morimoto; Chie Seki; Hidehiko Takahashi; Akihiro Takano; Tetsuya Suhara

    2010-01-01

    Objective  To investigate the effects of the clinical dose of clarithromycin, a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), on P-gp function\\u000a using positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C]verapamil.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Two PET scanning with [11C]verapamil were performed before and after administration of 400 mg\\/day of clarithromycin on each of four healthy male subjects.\\u000a The rate constant of transfer from plasma to brain (K\\u000a 1) was estimated

  6. Parguerenes: Marine red alga bromoditerpenes as inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) in multidrug resistant human cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Cong; Sun, Yue-Li; Salim, Angela A; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Capon, Robert J

    2013-05-01

    High intrinsic or acquired expression of membrane spanning, adenosine triphosphate binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins, such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), in cancers represents a major impediment to chemotherapy, with accelerated drug efflux leading to multi-drug resistance (MDR). Although ABC transporter inhibitors offer the prospect of reversing the MDR phenotype, no inhibitors have advanced to the clinic. We employed a range of intracellular fluorescence and radio-ligand accumulation and efflux assays, together with cytotoxicity and MDR reversal assays, as well as flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy and radioimmunoprecipitation, to discover and evaluate new P-gp inhibitors from a unique library of southern Australian and Antarctic marine natural products. This study successfully characterized two rare bromoditerpenes, parguerenes I and II, sourced from a southern Australian collection of the red alga Laurencia filiformis, as P-gp inhibitors. We determined that the parguerenes were non-cytotoxic, dose-dependent inhibitors of P-gp mediated drug efflux, that modify the extracellular antibody binding epitope of P-gp in a manner that differs markedly from that of the known inhibitors verapamil and cyclosporine A. We confirmed that parguerenes were capable of reversing P-gp mediated vinblastine, doxorubicin and paclitaxel MDR, that inhibitory properties span both P-gp and multidrug resistant protein 1 (MRP1), but do not extend to breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and that parguerene II is superior (more potent) to verapamil. Our investigations validate the proposition that marine natural products can deliver new ABC transporter inhibitor scaffolds, with structure characteristics fundamentally different from existing inhibitor classes. PMID:23415901

  7. Macelignan: a new modulator of P-glycoprotein in multidrug-resistant cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Im, Young Bin; Ha, Ilho; Kang, Keon Wook; Lee, Moo-Yeol; Han, Hyo-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    The effect of macelignan, a phytoestrogen, on P-gp function was investigated using multidrug resistant cancer cells overexpressing P-gp (NCI/ADR-RES) and the fluorescent P-gp substrates, daunorubicin and rhodamine 123. Macelignan (40 microM) increased the cellular accumulation of daunorubicin by approximately threefold in NCI/ADR-RES cells, whereas it did not alter the cellular accumulation of daunorubicin in MCF-7/sensitive cells. Similarly, the presence of macelignan also enhanced significantly (P < 0.05) the cellular accumulation of rhodamine 123 in a concentration-dependent manner in NCI/ADR-RES cells. Furthermore, cancer cells were more susceptible to the cytotoxicity of vinblastine, a P-gp substrate, in the presence of macelignan. Those results suggest that macelignan has inhibitory effects on P-gp mediated cellular efflux. However, P-gp activity did not affect the cellular accumulation of macelignan itself. Taken all together, macelignan was identified as a novel inhibitor of P-gp activity and may be a promising lead compound for the rational design of more efficacious drugs to reverse multidrug resistance in cancer. PMID:19838926

  8. P-glycoprotein mediates resistance to A3 adenosine receptor agonist 2-chloro-N6-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5'-n-methyluronamide in human leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Mlejnek, Petr; Dolezel, Petr; Kosztyu, Petr

    2012-02-01

    We studied effects of 2-chloro-N(6)-(3-iodobenzyl)-adenosine-5'-N-methyluronamide (Cl-IB-MECA) on apoptosis induction in the K562/Dox cell line, which overexpressed P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1, MDR1). We found that the K562/Dox cell line was significantly more resistant to Cl-IB-MECA than the maternal cell line K562, which did not express P-gp. Although both cell lines expressed the A3 adenosine receptor (A3AR), cytotoxic effects of Cl-IB-MECA were not prevented by its selective antagonist MRS1523 (3-propyl-6-ethyl-5-[(ethylthio)carbonyl]-2 phenyl-4-propyl-3-pyridine carboxylate). Analysis of cell extracts revealed that the intracellular level of Cl-IB-MECA was significantly lower in the K562/Dox cell line than in the maternal cell line K562. The downregulation of P-gp expression using shRNA targeting ABCB1 gene led to increased intracellular level of Cl-IB-MECA and restored cell sensitivity to this drug. Similarly, valspodar (PSC-833), a specific inhibitor of P-gp, restored sensitivity of the K562/Dox cell line to Cl-IB-MECA with concomitant increase of intracellular level of Cl-IB-MECA in the resistant cell line, while it affected cytotoxicity of Cl-IB-MECA in the sensitive cell line only marginally. An enzyme based assay provided evidence for interaction of P-gp with Cl-IB-MECA. We further observed that cytotoxic effects of Cl-IB-MECA could be augmented by activation of extrinsic cell death pathway by Apo-2L (TRAIL) but not FasL or TNF-?. Our results revealed that Cl-IB-MECA induced an increase in expression of TRAIL receptors in K562 cells, which could sensitize cells to apoptosis induction via an extrinsic cell death pathway. Importantly, these effects were inversely related to P-gp expression. In addition, MRS1523 did not affect Cl-IB-MECA induced expression of TRAIL receptors. PMID:21520073

  9. Beneficial effect of tetrandrine on refractory epilepsy via suppressing P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yinghui; Xiao, Xia; Wang, Cuicui; Jiang, Huiyuan; Hong, Zhen; Xu, Guoxiong

    2014-10-22

    Patients with refractory epilepsy are resistance to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). The mechanisms of drug resistance are varied, but one of them is the overexpression of multidrug transporters, such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), in the brain. Tetrandrine (TTD) is a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid isolated from the root of Stephania tetrandra (S, Moore) and is found to have a favorable effect against multidrug resistance (MDR) in chemotherapy. However, whether TTD affects AEDs in refractory epilepsy is unknown. In this study, we investigated the change in AED treatment efficacy in doxorubicin-induced drug resistant cells after TTD administration. We also examined the effect of TTD on seizure behaviors in the refractory epileptic rats, specifically the expression of MDR1 mRNA and P-gp protein in the cortex and hippocampus of the refractory epileptic rats. Our results demonstrated that TTD decreased cell resistance to phenytoin and valproate. TTD decreased seizure rate and increased the treatment efficacy of AEDs by reducing the expression of P-gp at mRNA and protein levels in vivo. These data support the use of TTD as an adjuvant drug for treating refractory epilepsy. PMID:25233150

  10. Brain penetration of emodepside is increased in P-glycoprotein-deficient mice and leads to neurotoxicosis.

    PubMed

    Elmshäuser, S; Straehle, L C; Kranz, J; Krebber, R; Geyer, J

    2015-02-01

    The antiparasitic drug emodepside (EMO) is a substrate of the P-glycoprotein multidrug efflux carrier (P-gp; syn. MDR1, ABCB1), which has an important function in protecting the brain from potentially toxic compounds by functional drug efflux at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Many dogs of the Collie breed and even dogs of many other breeds have a loss-of-function 4-bp deletion mutation in the MDR1 gene. In these dogs, brain penetration of many P-gp-transported drugs is increased and so their therapeutic usage is restricted. To elucidate the role of P-gp at the BBB for the brain penetration of EMO, we applied EMO at 1 mg/kg to mdr1-deficient (PGP(mut) ) and mdr1-intact (PGP(WT) ) CF1 mice. Whereas in the brain of the PGP(WT) mice, EMO was below the detection level of 10 ng/g, its concentration was at 43.7 ng/g in the PGP(mut) mice. Furthermore, appearance of neurological toxicity was analyzed in these mice after application of 1 mg/kg EMO using a rotarod setup. In all PGP(mut) mice, but not in the PGP(WT) mice, the walking performance on the rotarod was impaired by EMO with clear differences in the degree and duration of neurological toxicity. Some of the mice were completely unable to walk on the rotarod already at 2 h after drug application and showed long-lasting ataxia over >24 h. Others even showed significantly reduced walking performance, but completely recovered within 1 day. In conclusion, P-gp restricts brain penetration of EMO and prevents neurological toxicity of this drug in mice. PMID:25131706

  11. Investigating the binding interactions of the anti-Alzheimer's drug donepezil with CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    McEneny-King, Alanna; Edginton, Andrea N; Rao, Praveen P N

    2015-01-15

    The anti-Alzheimer's agent donepezil is known to bind to the hepatic enzyme CYP3A4, but its relationship with the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is not as well elucidated. We conducted in vitro inhibition studies of donepezil using human recombinant CYP3A4 and P-gp. These studies show that donepezil is a weak inhibitor of CYP3A4 (IC50=54.68±1.00?M) whereas the reference agent ketoconazole exhibited potent inhibition (CYP3A4 IC50=0.20±0.01?M). P-gp inhibition studies indicate that donepezil exhibits better inhibition relative to CYP3A4 (P-gp EC50=34.85±4.63?M) although it was less potent compared to ketoconazole (P-gp EC50=9.74±1.23?M). At higher concentrations, donepezil exhibited significant inhibition of CYP3A4 (69%, 84% and 87% inhibition at 100, 250 and 500?M, respectively). This indicates its potential to cause drug-drug interactions with other CYP3A4 substrates upon co-administration; however, this scenario is unlikely in vivo due to the low therapeutic concentrations of donepezil. Similarly, donepezil co-administration with P-gp substrates or inhibitors is unlikely to result in beneficial or adverse drug interactions. The molecular docking studies show that the 5,6-dimethoxyindan-1-one moiety of donepezil was oriented closer to the heme center in CYP3A4 whereas in the P-gp binding site, the protonated benzylpiperidine pharmacophore of donepezil played a major role in its binding ability. Energy parameters indicate that donepezil complex with both CYP3A4 and P-gp was less stable (CDOCKER energies=-15.05 and -4.91kcal/mol, respectively) compared to the ketoconazole-CYP3A4 and P-gp complex (CDOCKER energies=-41.89 and -20.03kcal/mol, respectively). PMID:25499431

  12. P-glycoprotein is functionally expressed in the placenta-derived bovine caruncular epithelial cell line 1 (BCEC-1).

    PubMed

    Waterkotte, B; Hambruch, N; Döring, B; Geyer, J; Tinneberg, H-R; Pfarrer, C

    2011-02-01

    Drug treatment is critical in pregnant cows due to the possibility of a maternal-to-fetal drug transfer across the placenta. Since the (syn)epitheliochorial bovine placental barrier includes an intact uterine epithelium, which in general limits drug transfer to the fetal trophoblast, the establishment of a species- and organ-specific in vitro model like the bovine caruncular epithelial cell line 1 (BCEC-1) for testing bovine placental drug transport is desirable. P-glycoprotein (P-gp or ABCB1) is an important efflux carrier that limits drug permeability across blood-tissue barriers such as the placenta and transports a wide range of structurally unrelated compounds including many drugs commonly used in veterinary medicine. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the suitability of BCEC-1 as an appropriate in vitro model for P-gp mediated drug transport in the bovine placenta. P-gp mRNA expression was detected by RT-PCR in BCEC-1 and placental tissue. Additionally, the carrier protein was localised in the apical membrane of BCEC-1 by immunofluorescence staining with the mouse monoclonal antibody C494. Drug transport in BCEC-1 was investigated by FACS analysis using the fluorescent P-gp substrate Rhodamine 123. Inhibition of Rhodamine 123 efflux by the P-gp inhibitors Verapamil and PSC833 confirmed functional expression of P-gp in BCEC-1. Furthermore, transport measurements in the transwell-system revealed a basal-to-apical net flux of the P-gp substrate digoxin at concentrations ranging from 10nM to 10 ?M. This transwell digoxin flux was inhibited by Verapamil. In conclusion, P-gp is functionally expressed in BCEC-1 and mediates a basal-to-apical flux of digoxin indicating dominant apical localization of P-gp in this cell culture model. Therefore, BCEC-1 may be an appropriate in vitro model to study drug transport across the maternal epithelium as part of the epitheliochorial placental barrier of the cow. PMID:21145107

  13. Clinical drug-drug interaction assessment of ivacaftor as a potential inhibitor of cytochrome P450 and P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Sarah M; Luo, Xia; Dubey, Neeraj; Li, Chonghua; Chavan, Ajit B; Gilmartin, Geoffrey S; Higgins, Mark; Mahnke, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Ivacaftor is approved in the USA for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) in patients with a G551D-CFTR mutation or one of eight other CFTR mutations. A series of in vitro experiments conducted early in the development of ivacaftor indicated ivacaftor and metabolites may have the potential to inhibit cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C8, CYP2C9, CYP3A, and CYP2D6, as well as P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Based on these results, a series of clinical drug-drug interaction (DDI) studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of ivacaftor on sensitive substrates of CYP2C8 (rosiglitazone), CYP3A (midazolam), CYP2D6 (desipramine), and P-gp (digoxin). In addition, a DDI study was conducted to evaluate the effect of ivacaftor on a combined oral contraceptive, as this is considered an important comedication in CF patients. The results indicate ivacaftor is a weak inhibitor of CYP3A and P-gp, but has no effect on CYP2C8 or CYP2D6. Ivacaftor caused non-clinically significant increases in ethinyl estradiol and norethisterone exposure. Based on these results, caution and appropriate monitoring are recommended when concomitant substrates of CYP2C9, CYP3A and/or P-gp are used during treatment with ivacaftor, particularly drugs with a narrow therapeutic index, such as warfarin. PMID:25103957

  14. Neferine increases STI571 chemosensitivity via inhibition of P-gp expression in STI571-resistant K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qun; Chen, Xiao-Ping; Yang, Zhou-Sheng; Xiao, Yu-Hang; Min, Hui; Li, Yuan-Jian

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the effects of neferine (Nef) on STI571 sensitivity and the possible mechanism in STI571-resistant K562/G01 cells. We observed cell proliferation by the modified MTT (methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium) assay. We determined the intracellular concentration of STI571 in K562/G01 cells by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) by Western blotting, and the expression of MDR-1 mRNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We observed that drug resistance to STI571 for K562/G01 cells was 43.99-fold higher than that for K562 cells. We also observed that a low concentration of Nef (<8 ?M) and verapamil hydrochloride (VRP) (<10 ?M) showed no direct cytotoxicity but significantly reduced the 50% cell growth inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) values of STI571 in K562/G01 cells. The reverse multiples for 8 ?M Nef and 10 ?M VRP were approximately two-fold. Both Nef (8 ?M) and VRP (10 ?M) decreased MDR-1 mRNA and P-gp protein expression and increased intracellular STI57I concentrations significantly in K562/G01 cells. Nef is a candidate chemical that can increase STI571 chemosensitivity in STI571-resistant K562 cells by inhibition of P-gp expression and increasing intracellular STI571 accumulation. PMID:21261505

  15. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein leads to improved oral bioavailability of compound K, an anticancer metabolite of red ginseng extract produced by gut microflora.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Wang, Jing-Rong; Niu, Tao; Gao, Song; Yin, Taijun; You, Ming; Jiang, Zhi-Hong; Hu, Ming

    2012-08-01

    Ginsenosides are hydrolyzed extensively by gut microflora after oral administration, and their metabolites are pharmacologically active against lung cancer cells. In this study, we measured the metabolism of various ginsenosides by gut microflora and determined the mechanisms responsible for the observed pharmacokinetic behaviors of its active metabolite, Compound K (C-K). The results showed that biotransformation into C-K is the major metabolic pathway of ginsenosides after the oral administration of the red ginseng extract containing both protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol ginsenosides. Pharmacokinetic studies in normal mice showed that C-K exhibited low oral bioavailability. To define the mechanisms responsible for this low bioavailability, two P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors, verapamil and cyclosporine A, were used, and their presence substantially decreased C-K's efflux ratio in Caco-2 cells (from 26.6 to <3) and significantly increased intracellular concentrations (by as much as 40-fold). Similar results were obtained when transcellular transport of C-K was determined using multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1)-overexpressing Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells. In MDR1a/b(-/-) FVB mice, its plasma C(max) and AUC(0-24h) were increased substantially by 4.0- and 11.7-fold, respectively. These increases appear to be due to slower elimination and faster absorption of C-K in MDR1a/b(-/-) mice. In conclusion, C-K is the major active metabolite of ginsenosides after microflora hydrolysis of primary ginsenosides in the red ginseng extract, and inhibition/deficiency of P-gp can lead to large enhancement of its absorption and bioavailability. PMID:22584255

  16. Inhibition of P-Glycoprotein Leads to Improved Oral Bioavailability of Compound K, an Anticancer Metabolite of Red Ginseng Extract Produced by Gut Microflora

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhen; Wang, Jing-Rong; Niu, Tao; Gao, Song; Yin, Taijun; You, Ming; Jiang, Zhi-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Ginsenosides are hydrolyzed extensively by gut microflora after oral administration, and their metabolites are pharmacologically active against lung cancer cells. In this study, we measured the metabolism of various ginsenosides by gut microflora and determined the mechanisms responsible for the observed pharmacokinetic behaviors of its active metabolite, Compound K (C-K). The results showed that biotransformation into C-K is the major metabolic pathway of ginsenosides after the oral administration of the red ginseng extract containing both protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol ginsenosides. Pharmacokinetic studies in normal mice showed that C-K exhibited low oral bioavailability. To define the mechanisms responsible for this low bioavailability, two P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors, verapamil and cyclosporine A, were used, and their presence substantially decreased C-K's efflux ratio in Caco-2 cells (from 26.6 to <3) and significantly increased intracellular concentrations (by as much as 40-fold). Similar results were obtained when transcellular transport of C-K was determined using multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1)-overexpressing Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells. In MDR1a/b(?/?) FVB mice, its plasma Cmax and AUC0–24h were increased substantially by 4.0- and 11.7-fold, respectively. These increases appear to be due to slower elimination and faster absorption of C-K in MDR1a/b(?/?) mice. In conclusion, C-K is the major active metabolite of ginsenosides after microflora hydrolysis of primary ginsenosides in the red ginseng extract, and inhibition/deficiency of P-gp can lead to large enhancement of its absorption and bioavailability. PMID:22584255

  17. P-glycoprotein ABCB1: a major player in drug handling by mammals.

    PubMed

    Borst, Piet; Schinkel, Alfred H

    2013-10-01

    Mammalian P-glycoproteins are active drug efflux transporters located in the plasma membrane. In the early nineties, we generated knockouts of the three P-glycoprotein genes of mice, the Mdr1a, Mdr1b, and Mdr2 P-glycoproteins, now known as Abcb1a, Abcb1b, and Abcb4, respectively. In the JCI papers that are the subject of this Hindsight, we showed that loss of Mdr1a (Abcb1a) had a profound effect on the tissue distribution and especially the brain accumulation of a range of drugs frequently used in humans, including dexamethasone, digoxin, cyclosporin A, ondansetron, domperidone, and loperamide. All drugs were shown to be excellent substrates of the murine ABCB1A P-glycoprotein and its human counterpart, the MDR1 P-glycoprotein, ABCB1. We found that the ability of ABCB1 to prevent accumulation of some drugs in the brain is a prerequisite for their clinical use, as absence of the transporter led to severe toxicity or undesired CNS pharmacodynamic effects. Subsequent work has fully confirmed the profound effect of the drug-transporting ABCB1 P-glycoprotein on the pharmacokinetics of drugs in humans. In fact, every new drug is now screened for transport by ABCB1, as this limits oral availability and penetration into sanctuaries protected by ABCB1, such as the brain. PMID:24084745

  18. The B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2)-inhibitors, ABT-737 and ABT-263, are substrates for P-glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Vogler, Meike, E-mail: mv62@le.ac.uk [MRC Toxicology Unit, University of Leicester, LE1 9HN Leicester (United Kingdom)] [MRC Toxicology Unit, University of Leicester, LE1 9HN Leicester (United Kingdom); Dickens, David, E-mail: David.Dickens@liverpool.ac.uk [Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, L69 3GL Liverpool (United Kingdom)] [Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, L69 3GL Liverpool (United Kingdom); Dyer, Martin J.S., E-mail: mjsd1@le.ac.uk [MRC Toxicology Unit, University of Leicester, LE1 9HN Leicester (United Kingdom); Owen, Andrew, E-mail: aowen@liverpool.ac.uk [Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, L69 3GL Liverpool (United Kingdom)] [Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, L69 3GL Liverpool (United Kingdom); Pirmohamed, Munir, E-mail: munirp@liv.ac.uk [Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, L69 3GL Liverpool (United Kingdom)] [Department of Molecular and Clinical Pharmacology, Institute of Translational Medicine, University of Liverpool, L69 3GL Liverpool (United Kingdom); Cohen, Gerald M., E-mail: gmc2@le.ac.uk [MRC Toxicology Unit, University of Leicester, LE1 9HN Leicester (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} The BCL2-inhibitor ABT-263 is a substrate for P-glycoprotein. {yields} Apoptosis is inhibited by P-glycoprotein expression. {yields} Overexpression of P-glycoprotein may contribute to resistance to ABT-263 or ABT-737. -- Abstract: Inhibition of BCL2 proteins is one of the most promising new approaches to targeted cancer therapy resulting in the induction of apoptosis. Amongst the most specific BCL2-inhibitors identified are ABT-737 and ABT-263. However, targeted therapy is often only effective for a limited amount of time because of the occurrence of drug resistance. In this study, the interaction of BCL2-inhibitors with the drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein was investigated. Using {sup 3}H labelled ABT-263, we found that cells with high P-glycoprotein activity accumulated less drug. In addition, cells with increased P-glycoprotein expression were more resistant to apoptosis induced by either ABT-737 or ABT-263. Addition of tariquidar or verapamil sensitized the cells to BCL2-inhibitor treatment, resulting in higher apoptosis. Our data suggest that the BCL2-inhibitors ABT-737 and ABT-263 are substrates for P-glycoprotein. Over-expression of P-glycoprotein may be, at least partly, responsible for resistance to these BCL2-inhibitors.

  19. Analysis of catalytic carboxylate mutants E552Q and E1197Q suggests asymmetric ATP hydrolysis by the two nucleotide-binding domains of P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Carrier, Isabelle; Julien, Michel; Gros, Philippe

    2003-11-11

    In the nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) of ABC transporters, such as mouse Mdr3 P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an invariant carboxylate residue (E552 in NBD1; E1197 in NBD2) immediately follows the Walker B motif (hyd(4)DE/D). Removal of the negative charge in mutants E552Q and E1197Q abolishes drug-stimulated ATPase activity measured by P(i) release. Surprisingly, drug-stimulated trapping of 8-azido-[alpha-(32)P]ATP is still observed in the mutants in both the presence and absence of the transition-state analogue vanadate (V(i)), and ADP can be recovered from the trapped enzymes. The E552Q and E1197Q mutants show characteristics similar to those of the wild-type (WT) enzyme with respect to 8-azido-[alpha-(32)P]ATP binding and 8-azido-[alpha-(32)P]nucleotide trapping, with the latter being both Mg(2+) and temperature dependent. Importantly, drug-stimulated nucleotide trapping in E552Q is stimulated by V(i) and resembles the WT enzyme, while it is almost completely V(i) insensitive in E1197Q. Similar nucleotide trapping properties are observed when aluminum fluoride or beryllium fluoride is used as an alternate transition-state analogue. Partial proteolytic cleavage of photolabeled enzymes indicates that, in the absence of V(i), nucleotide trapping occurs exclusively at the mutant NBD, whereas in the presence of V(i), nucleotide trapping occurs at both NBDs. Together, these results suggest that there is single-site turnover occurring in the E552Q and E1197Q mutants and that ADP release from the mutant site, or another catalytic step, is impaired in these mutants. Furthermore, our results support a model in which the two NBDs of P-gp are not functionally equivalent. PMID:14596601

  20. Increased Expression of P-Glycoprotein and Doxorubicin Chemoresistance of Metastatic Breast Cancer Is Regulated by miR-298

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Lili; Hazari, Sidhartha; Mehra, Smriti; Kaushal, Deepak; Moroz, Krzysztof; Dash, Srikanta

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, noncoding RNA molecules that regulate the expression of a number of genes involved in cancer; therefore, they offer great diagnostic and therapeutic targets. We have developed doxorubicin-resistant and -sensitive metastatic human breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231) to study the chemoresistant mechanisms regulated by miRNAs. We found that doxorubicin localized exclusively to the cytoplasm and was unable to reach the nuclei of resistant tumor cells because of the increased nuclear expression of MDR1/P-glycoprotein (P-gp). An miRNA array between doxorubicin-sensitive and -resistant breast cancer cells showed that reduced expression of miR-298 in doxorubicin-resistant human breast cancer cells was associated with increased expression of P-gp. In a transient transfection experiment, miR-298 directly bound to the MDR1 3? untranslated region and regulated the expression of firefly luciferase reporter in a dose-dependent manner. Overexpression of miR-298 down-regulated P-gp expression, increasing nuclear accumulation of doxorubicin and cytotoxicity in doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer cells. Furthermore, down-regulation of miR-298 increased P-gp expression and induced doxorubicin resistance in sensitive breast cancer cells. In summary, these results suggest that miR-298 directly modulates P-gp expression and is associated with the chemoresistant mechanisms of metastatic human breast cancer. Therefore, miR-298 has diagnostic and therapeutic potential for predicting doxorubicin chemoresistance in human breast cancer. PMID:22521303

  1. Encapsulation of P-glycoprotein inhibitors by polymeric micelles can reduce their pharmacokinetic interactions with doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Binkhathlan, Ziyad; Shayeganpour, Anooshirvan; Brocks, Dion R; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh

    2012-05-01

    Co-administration of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors such as cyclosporine A (CyA) and its analogue valspodar with doxorubicin (DOX) can result in diminished clearance of DOX, leading to accentuated toxicity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the effect of these P-gp inhibitors on the pharmacokinetics of DOX can be avoided through their encapsulation in polymeric micelles. Cyclosporine A or valspodar was physically encapsulated in methoxypoly(ethylene oxide)-b-poly(?-caprolactone) (PEO-b-PCL) micelles using co-solvent evaporation method. The commercially available DOX was administered as a single dose of 5mg/kg intravenously to Sprague-Dawley rats either alone or 30min following a single intravenous dose (10mg/kg) of either CyA or valspodar as part of conventional or polymeric micellar formulation. Co-administration of DOX with either Sandimmune® or valspodar in the conventional Cremophor EL-based formulation was associated with greater than 50% reduction in DOX clearance (CL). Although there was nearly 40% reduction in the CL of DOX with the polymeric micellar formulation of CyA, there was only 6% reduction in CL of DOX upon co-administration with the polymeric micellar formulation of valspodar. In conclusion, encapsulation of cyclosporines, particularly valspodar, in polymeric micelles was shown to reduce their effects on the pharmacokinetics of DOX in rat. PMID:22361031

  2. Interaction of drugs of abuse and maintenance treatments with human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2).

    PubMed

    Tournier, Nicolas; Chevillard, Lucie; Megarbane, Bruno; Pirnay, Stéphane; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Declčves, Xavier

    2010-08-01

    Drug interaction with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) may influence its tissue disposition including blood-brain barrier transport and result in potent drug-drug interactions. The limited data obtained using in-vitro models indicate that methadone, buprenorphine, and cannabinoids may interact with human P-gp; but almost nothing is known about drugs of abuse and BCRP. We used in vitro P-gp and BCRP inhibition flow cytometric assays with hMDR1- and hBCRP-transfected HEK293 cells to test 14 compounds or metabolites frequently involved in addiction, including buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, methadone, ibogaine, cocaine, cocaethylene, amphetamine, N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, nicotine, ketamine, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), naloxone, and morphine. Drugs that in vitro inhibited P-gp or BCRP were tested in hMDR1- and hBCRP-MDCKII bidirectional transport studies. Human P-gp was significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by norbuprenorphine>buprenorphine>methadone>ibogaine and THC. Similarly, BCRP was inhibited by buprenorphine>norbuprenorphine>ibogaine and THC. None of the other tested compounds inhibited either transporter, even at high concentration (100 microm). Norbuprenorphine (transport efflux ratio approoximately 11) and methadone (transport efflux ratio approoximately 1.9) transport was P-gp-mediated; however, with no significant stereo-selectivity regarding methadone enantiomers. BCRP did not transport any of the tested compounds. However, the clinical significance of the interaction of norbuprenorphine with P-gp remains to be evaluated. PMID:19887017

  3. HIF-1? Inhibition Reverses Multidrug Resistance in Colon Cancer Cells via Downregulation of MDR1/P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Yonghai; Pan, Feng; Li, Jianjun; Zou, Lan; Zhang, Yanling; Liang, Houjie

    2014-01-01

    Background Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the major reasons chemotherapy-based treatments fail. Hypoxia is generally associated with tumor chemoresistance. However, the correlation between the heterodimeric hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) and the multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene/transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) remains unclear. This study aims to explore the molecular mechanisms of reversing colon cancer MDR by focusing on the target gene HIF-1?. Methods A chemotherapeutic sensitivity assay was used to observe the efficiency of MDR reversal in LoVo multicellular spheroids (MCS). The apoptotic level induced by different drugs was examined by flow cytometry (FCM). Binding of HIF-1? to the MDR1 gene promoter was evaluated by Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). The relationship between HIF-1?/P-gp expression and sensitivity to chemotherapy was analyzed. Results The sensitivity of LoVo MCS to all four chemotherapy drugs was decreased to varying degrees under hypoxic conditions. After silencing the HIF-1? gene, the sensitivities of LoVo MCS to all four chemotherapy drugs were restored. The apoptotic levels that all the drugs induced were all decreased to various extents in the hypoxic group. After silencing HIF-1?, the apoptosis level induced by all four chemotherapy drugs increased. The expression of HIF-1? and P-gp was significantly enhanced in LoVo MCS after treatment with hypoxia. Inhibiting HIF-1? significantly decreased the expression of MDR1/P-gp mRNA or protein in both the LoVo monolayers and LoVo MCS. The ChIP assay showed that HIF-1? was bound to the MDR1 gene promoter. Advanced colon carcinoma patients with expression of both HIF-1? and P-gp were more resistant to chemotherapy than that with non expression. Conclusions HIF-1? inhibition reverses multidrug resistance in colon cancer cells via downregulation of MDR1/P-gp. The expression of HIF-1? and MDR1/P-gp can be used as a predictive marker for chemotherapy resistance in colon cancer. PMID:24901645

  4. Effect of P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein inhibition on the pharmacokinetics of sunitinib in rats.

    PubMed

    Kunimatsu, Sachiko; Mizuno, Tomoyuki; Fukudo, Masahide; Katsura, Toshiya

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the roles of P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) in the plasma concentration, biliary excretion, and distribution to the liver, kidney, and brain of sunitinib. The pharmacokinetics of sunitinib was examined in rats treated with PSC833 (valspodar) and pantoprazole, potent inhibitors of P-gp and BCRP, respectively. The sunitinib concentrations in plasma, bile, liver, kidney, and brain were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. It was found that the area under the concentration-time curve for 4 hours (AUC0-4) and maximum concentration (Cmax) of sunitinib administered intraintestinally were significantly increased by pretreatment with PSC833 or pantoprazole. Each inhibitor markedly reduced the biliary excretion of sunitinib for 60 minutes after an intravenous administration and significantly increased the distribution of sunitinib to the liver as well as kidney. In addition, the brain distribution of sunitinib was significantly increased by PSC833 but not pantoprazole, and coadministration of both inhibitors further enhanced the accumulation of sunitinib in the brain. These results demonstrate that plasma concentrations of sunitinib and the biliary excretion and distribution to the kidney, liver, and brain of sunitinib are influenced by pharmacologic inhibition of P-gp and/or BCRP. PMID:23749551

  5. Identification of Possible Binding Sites for Morphine and Nicardipine on the Multidrug Transporter P-Glycoprotein Using Umbrella Sampling Techniques.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Nandhitha; Condic-Jurkic, Karmen; Mark, Alan E; O'Mara, Megan L

    2015-06-22

    The multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is central to the development of multidrug resistance in cancer. While residues essential for transport and binding have been identified, the location, composition, and specificity of potential drug binding sites are uncertain. Here molecular dynamics simulations are used to calculate the free energy profile for the binding of morphine and nicardipine to P-gp. We show that morphine and nicardipine primarily interact with key residues implicated in binding and transport from mutational studies, binding at different but overlapping sites within the transmembrane pore. Their permeation pathways were distinct but involved overlapping sets of residues. The results indicate that the binding location and permeation pathways of morphine and nicardipine are not well separated and cannot be considered as unique. This has important implications for our understanding of substrate uptake and transport by P-gp. Our results are independent of the choice of starting structure and consistent with a range of experimental studies. PMID:25938863

  6. Nano scale self-emulsifying oil based carrier system for improved oral bioavailability of camptothecin derivative by P-Glycoprotein modulation.

    PubMed

    Negi, Lalit Mohan; Tariq, Mohammad; Talegaonkar, Sushama

    2013-11-01

    Irinotecan is a camptothecin derivative with low oral bioavailability due to active efflux by intestinal P-glycoprotein receptors. Hence, no oral formulation is marketed for Irinotecan till date. However, an optimized Self micro emulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS), formulated to produce nano range oil droplets by using P-gp modulator excipients can tackle the issue and elevate the systemic availability of Irinotecan. The present work focuses on the development of SMEDDS for Irinotecan and evaluation of its in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo potentials. The SMEDDS were developed using Capmul MCM-C8, Cremophor EL and Pluronic L-121 as oil, surfactant and co-surfactant respectively and has good oil carrying capacity (30%) with competence to produce nano-scale oil droplets (130 ± 2.13 nm) on spontaneous emulsification. A much deeper penetration to the intestine was observed with SMEDDS by using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Flow-cytometric studies also revealed the greater uptake of fluorescent probe in Caco-2 cell-lines with the use of SMEDDS. Biochemical estimation of LDH from the intestinal tissues treated with SMEDDS and free drug suspension confirmed that the developed formulation is safe for use. Furthermore, the AUC0 ? t of Irinotecan from the optimized SMEDDS formulation was found to be 4 folds higher than that from Irinotecan suspension on oral administration. The optimized SMEDDS formulation was found to be capable of maintaining the sustained plasma drug level of Irinotecan with better bioavailability. PMID:23850745

  7. P-glycoprotein, but not Multidrug Resistance Protein 4, Plays a Role in the Systemic Clearance of Irinotecan and SN-38 in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tagen, Michael; Zhuang, Yanli; Zhang, Fan; Harstead, K. Elaine; Shen, Jun; Schaiquevich, Paula; Fraga, Charles H.; Panetta, John C.; Waters, Christopher M.; Stewart, Clinton F.

    2015-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transporters P-glycoprotein (ABCB1, MDR1) and multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) efflux irinotecan and its active metabolite SN-38 in vitro, and thus may contribute to system clearance of these compounds. Mdr1a/b?/?, Mrp4?/?, and wild-type mice were administered 20 or 40 mg/kg irinotecan, and plasma samples were collected for 6 hours. Irinotecan and SN-38 lactone and carboxylate were quantitated and data were analyzed with nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. Mdr1a/b genotype was a significant covariate for the clearance of both irinotecan lactone and SN-38 lactone. Exposures to irinotecan lactone and SN-38 lactone after a 40 mg/kg dose were 1.6-fold higher in Mdr1a/b?/? mice compared to wild-type mice. Plasma concentrations of irinotecan lactone, irinotecan carboxylate, and SN-38 lactone in Mrp4?/? mice were similar to the wild-type controls. These results suggest that P-gp plays a role in irinotecan and SN-38 elimination, but Mrp4 does not affect irinotecan or SN-38 plasma pharmacokinetics. PMID:20583968

  8. Differential effect of P-gp and MRP2 on cellular translocation of gemifloxacin

    PubMed Central

    Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Kwatra, Deep; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2011-01-01

    Fluoroquinolones are broad spectrum antibiotics widely indicated in the treatment of both human and animal diseases. The primary objective of this study was to assess short and long term affinity of gemifloxacin towards efflux transporters (P-gp, MRP2) and nuclear hormone receptor (PXR). Uptake and dose dependent inhibition studies were performed with [14C] erythromycin (0.25?Ci/ml) on MDCKII-MDR1 and MDCKII-MRP2 cells. Cellular accumulation of calcein-AM was further determined to confirm the affinity of gemifloxacin towards P-gp and MRP2. Transport studies were conducted to determine bi-directional permeability and to assess efflux ratio of gemifloxacin. LS-180 cells were treated with three different concentrations of gemifloxacin for 72hrs and real-time PCR analysis was performed to study the quantitative gene expression levels of PXR, MDR1 and MRP2. Further, [14C] erythromycin uptake was also performed on LS-180 treated cells to better delineate the functional activity of efflux transporters. Results from our study suggest that gemifloxacin may be a substrate of both the efflux transporters studied. This compound inhibited both P-gp and MRP2 mediated efflux of [14C] erythromycin in a dose dependent manner with IC50 values of 123 ± 2?M and 16 ± 2?M, respectively. The efflux ratio of [14C] erythromycin lowered from 3.56 to 1.63 on MDCKII-MDR1 cells and 4.93 to 1.26 on MDCKII-MRP2 cells. This significant reduction in efflux ratio further confirmed the substrate specificity of gemifloxacin towards P-gp and MRP2. Long term exposure significantly induced the expression of PXR (18 fold), MDR1 (6 fold) and MRP2 (6 fold). A decrease (20%) in [14C] erythromycin uptake further confirmed the elevated functional activity of P-gp and MRP2. In conclusion, our studies demonstrated that gemifloxacin is effluxed by both P-gp and MRP2. Long term exposure induced their gene expression and functional activity. This substrate specificity of gemifloxacin towards these efflux transporters may be one of the major factors accounting for low oral bioavailability (71%). Better understanding of these mechanistic interactions may aid in the development of newer strategies to achieve adequate therapeutic levels and higher bioavailability. PMID:21864659

  9. Quantification of proteins by flow cytometry: Quantification of human hepatic transporter P-gp and OATP1B1 using flow cytometry and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hogg, Karen; Thomas, Jerry; Ashford, David; Cartwright, Jared; Coldwell, Ruth; Weston, Daniel J; Pillmoor, John; Surry, Dominic; O'Toole, Peter

    2015-07-01

    Flow cytometry is a powerful tool for the quantitation of fluorescence and is proven to be able to correlate the fluorescence intensity to the number of protein on cells surface. Mass spectroscopy can also be used to determine the number of proteins per cell. Here we have developed two methods, using flow cytometry and mass spectroscopy to quantify number of transporters in human cells. These two approaches were then used to analyse the same samples so that a direct comparison could be made. Transporters have a major impact on the behaviour of a diverse number of drugs in human systems. While active uptake studies by transmembrane protein transporters using model substrates are routinely undertaken in human cell lines and hepatocytes as part of drug discovery and development, the interpretation of these results is currently limited by the inability to quantify the number of transporters present in the test samples. Here we provide a flow cytometric method for accurate quantification of transporter levels both on the cell surface and within the cell, and compare this to a quantitative mass spectrometric approach. Two transporters were selected for the study: OATP1B1 (also known as SLCO1B1, LST-1, OATP-C, OATP2) due to its important role in hepatic drug uptake and elimination; P-gp (also known as P-glycoprotein, MDR1, ABCB1) as a well characterised system and due to its potential impact on oral bioavailability, biliary and renal clearance, and brain penetration of drugs that are substrates for this transporter. In all cases the mass spectrometric method gave higher levels than the flow cytometry method. However, the two methods showed very similar trends in the relative ratios of both transporters in the hepatocyte samples investigated. The P-gp antibody allowed quantitative discrimination between externally facing transporters located in the cytoplasmic membrane and the total number of transporters on and in the cell. The proportion of externally facing transporter varied considerably in the four hepatocyte samples analysed, ranging from only 6% to 35% of intact and viable cells. The sample with only 6% externally facing transporter was further analysed by confocal microscopy which qualitatively confirmed the low level of transporter in the membrane and the large internal population. Here we prove that flow cytometry is an important tool for future protein analysis as it can not only quantify the number of proteins that a cell express but also identify the number of proteins on the surface and it is easy to apply for routine assays. PMID:25916617

  10. In Vitro and In Vivo Evidence for Amphotericin B as a P-Glycoprotein Substrate on the Blood-Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ji-Qin; Shao, Kun; Wang, Xuan; Wang, Rui-Ying; Cao, Ya-Hui; Yu, Yun-Qiu; Lou, Jin-Ning; Chen, Yan-Qiong; Zhao, Hua-Zhen; Zhang, Qiang-Qiang; Weng, Xin-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Amphotericin B (AMB) has been a mainstay therapy for fungal infections of the central nervous system, but its use has been limited by its poor penetration into the brain, the mechanism of which remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in AMB crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The uptake of AMB by primary brain capillary endothelial cells in vitro was significantly enhanced after inhibition of P-gp by verapamil. The impact of two model P-gp inhibitors, verapamil and itraconazole, on brain/plasma ratios of AMB was examined in both uninfected CD-1 mice and those intracerebrally infected with Cryptococcus neoformans. In uninfected mice, the brain/plasma ratios of AMB were increased 15 min (3.5 versus 2.0; P < 0.05) and 30 min (5.2 versus 2.8; P < 0.05) after administration of verapamil or 45 min (6.0 versus 3.9; P < 0.05) and 60 min (5.4 versus 3.8; P < 0.05) after itraconazole administration. The increases in brain/plasma ratios were also observed in infected mice treated with AMB and P-gp inhibitors. The brain tissue fungal CFU in infected mice were significantly lower in AMB-plus-itraconazole or verapamil groups than in the untreated group (P < 0.005), but none of the treatments protected the mice from succumbing to the infection. In conclusion, we demonstrated that P-gp inhibitors can enhance the uptake of AMB through the BBB, suggesting that AMB is a P-gp substrate. PMID:24867970

  11. Danshen extract does not alter pharmacokinetics of docetaxel and clopidogrel, reflecting its negligible potential in P-glycoprotein- and cytochrome P4503A-mediated herb-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo Hyun; Shin, Yong-Jun; Kim, Hye Jin; Oh, Ju-Hee; Jang, Young Pyo; Lee, Young-Joo

    2011-05-30

    Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) contains tanshinones, which inhibit P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system. In the present study, we evaluated the possible pharmacokinetic interactions of Danshen extract with docetaxel and clopidogrel in rats. Docetaxel (5 mg/kg intravenously and 40 mg/kg orally) or clopidogrel (30 mg/kg orally) was administered to rats with or without oral co-administration of Danshen (400 mg/kg). Co-administration of Danshen did not affect the plasma concentration profiles and pharmacokinetic parameters of docetaxel and clopidogrel, whereas cyclosporine A, a P-gp and CYP3A inhibitor, significantly influenced the pharmacokinetics of co-administered docetaxel and clopidogrel. Orally administered Danshen had no substantial effect on the pharmacokinetics of docetaxel and clopidogrel, suggesting the negligible safety concern of Danshen in P-gp- and CYP3A-mediated interactions in vivo. PMID:21421030

  12. Synthesis and Preclinical Evaluation of Three Novel Fluorine-18 Labeled Radiopharmaceuticals for P-Glycoprotein PET Imaging at the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    PubMed

    Savolainen, Heli; Cantore, Mariangela; Colabufo, Nicola A; Elsinga, Philip H; Windhorst, Albert D; Luurtsema, Gert

    2015-07-01

    P-Glycoprotein (P-gp), along with other transporter proteins at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), limits the entry of many pharmaceuticals into the brain. Altered P-gp function has been found in several neurological diseases. To study the P-gp function, many positron emission tomography (PET) radiopharmaceuticals have been developed. Most P-gp radiopharmaceuticals are labeled with carbon-11, while labeling with fluorine-18 would increase their applicability due to longer half-life. Here we present the synthesis and in vivo evaluation of three novel fluorine-18 labeled radiopharmaceuticals: 4-((6,7-dimethoxy-3,4-dihydroisoquinolin-2(1H)-yl)methyl)-2-(4-fluorophenyl)oxazole (1a), 2-biphenyl-4-yl-2-fluoroethoxy-6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinoline (2), and 5-(1-(2-fluoroethoxy))-[3-(6,7-dimethoxy-3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinolin-2-yl)-propyl]-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen (3). Compounds were characterized as P-gp substrates in vitro, and Mdr1a/b((-/-))Bcrp1((-/-)) and wild-type mice were used to assess the substrate potential in vivo. Comparison was made to (R)-[(11)C]verapamil, which is currently the most frequently used P-gp substrate. Compound [(18)F]3 was performing the best out of the new radiopharmaceuticals; it had 2-fold higher brain uptake in the Mdr1a/b((-/-))Bcrp1((-/-)) mice compared to wild-type and was metabolically quite stable. In the plasma, 69% of the parent compound was intact after 45 min and 96% in the brain. Selectivity of [(18)F]3 to P-gp was tested by comparing the uptake in Mdr1a/b((-/-)) mice to uptake in Mdr1a/b((-/-))Bcrp1((-/-)) mice, which was statistically not significantly different. Hence, [(18)F]3 was found to be selective for P-gp and is a promising new radiopharmaceutical for P-gp PET imaging at the BBB. PMID:26043236

  13. Gauging the clinical significance of P-glycoprotein-mediated herb-drug interactions: Comparative effects of St. John's wort, echinacea, clarithromycin, and rifampin on digoxin pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Gurley, Bill J.; Swain, Ashley; Williams, D. Keith; Barone, Gary; Battu, Sunil Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Concomitant administration of botanical supplements with drugs that are P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates may produce clinically significant herb-drug interactions. This study evaluated the effects of St. John's wort and Echinacea on the pharmacokinetics of digoxin, a recognized P-gp substrate. Eighteen healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive a standardized St. John's wort (300 mg three times daily) or Echinacea (267 mg three times daily) supplement for 14 days, followed by a 30-day washout period. Subjects were also randomized to receive rifampin (300 mg twice daily, 7 days) and clarithromycin (500 mg twice daily, 7 days) as positive controls for P-gp induction and inhibition, respectively. Digoxin (Lanoxin® 0.25 mg) was administered orally before and after each supplementation and control period. Serial digoxin plasma concentrations were obtained over 24 hours and analyzed by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Comparisons of AUC(0-3), AUC(0-24), T1/2, and Cmax, were used to assess the effects of St. John's wort, Echinacea, rifampin, and clarithromycin on digoxin disposition. St. John's wort and rifampin both produced significant reductions (p<0.05) in AUC(0-3), AUC(0-24), and Cmax, while clarithromycin increased these parameters significantly (p<0.05). Echinacea supplementation did not affect digoxin pharmacokinetics. Clinically significant P-gp-mediated herb-drug interactions are more likely to occur with St. John's wort than with Echinacea. PMID:18214850

  14. Synergistic effect of folate-mediated targeting and verapamil-mediated P-gp inhibition with paclitaxel -polymer micelles to overcome multi-drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feihu; Zhang, Dianrui; Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Yuxuan; Zheng, Dandan; Hao, Leilei; Duan, Cunxian; Jia, Lejiao; Liu, Guangpu; Liu, Yue

    2011-12-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in tumor cells is a significant obstacle for successful cancer chemotherapy. Overexpression of drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a key factor contributing to the development of tumor drug resistance. Verapamil (VRP), a P-gp inhibitor, has been reported to be able to reverse completely the resistance caused by P-gp. For optimal synergy, the drug and inhibitor combination may need to be temporally colocalized in the tumor cells. Herein, we investigated the effectiveness of simultaneous and targeted delivery of anticancer drug, paclitaxel (PTX), along with VRP, using DOMC-FA micelles to overcome tumor drug resistance. The floate-functionalized dual agent loaded micelles resulted in the similar cytotoxicity to PTX-loaded micelles/free VRP combination and co-administration of two single-agent loaded micelles, which was higher than that of PTX-loaded micelles. Enhanced therapeutic efficacy of dual agent micelles could be ascribe to increased accumulation of PTX in drug-resistant tumor cells. We suggest that the synergistic effect of folate receptor-mediated internalization and VRP-mediated overcoming MDR could be beneficial in treatment of MDR solid tumors by targeting delivery of micellar PTX into tumor cells. As a result, the difunctional micelle systems is a very promising approach to overcome tumor drug resistance. PMID:21903258

  15. Identification of key structural characteristics of Schisandra chinensis lignans involved in P-glycoprotein inhibition.

    PubMed

    Slanina, Ji?í; Páchniková, Gabriela; Carnecká, Martina; Porubová Koubíková, Ludmila; Adámková, Lenka; Humpa, Otakar; Smejkal, Karel; Slaninová, Iva

    2014-10-24

    The aim of the present study was to determine the structural requirements for dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans essential for P-glycoprotein inhibition. Altogether 15 structurally related lignans isolated from Schisandra chinensis or prepared by modification of their backbone were investigated, including three pairs of enantiomers. P-Glycoprotein inhibition was quantified using a doxorubicin accumulation assay in human promyelotic leukemia HL60/MDR cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein. A preliminary quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis revealed three main structural features involved in P-glycoprotein inhibition: a 1,2,3-trimethoxy moiety, a 6-acyloxy group, and the absence of a 7-hydroxy group. The most effective inhibitors, (-)-gomisin N (1) and (+)-deoxyschizandrin [(+)-2], were selected for further evaluation of their effects. Both these lignans restored the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin in HL60/MDR cells and when combined with a subtoxic concentration of this compound increased the proportion of G2/M cells significantly, which is a usual response to treatment with this anticancer drug. PMID:25302569

  16. Refined structures of mouse P-glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingzhi; Jaimes, Kimberly F; Aller, Stephen G

    2014-01-01

    The recently determined C. elegans P-glycoprotein (Pgp) structure revealed significant deviations compared to the original mouse Pgp structure, which suggested possible misinterpretations in the latter model. To address this concern, we generated an experimental electron density map from single-wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing of an original mouse Pgp dataset to 3.8 Ĺ resolution. The map exhibited significantly more detail compared to the original MAD map and revealed several regions of the structure that required de novo model building. The improved drug-free structure was refined to 3.8 Ĺ resolution with a 9.4 and 8.1% decrease in Rwork and Rfree, respectively, (Rwork = 21.2%, Rfree = 26.6%) and a significant improvement in protein geometry. The improved mouse Pgp model contains ?95% of residues in the favorable Ramachandran region compared to only 57% for the original model. The registry of six transmembrane helices was corrected, revealing amino acid residues involved in drug binding that were previously unrecognized. Registry shifts (rotations and translations) for three transmembrane (TM)4 and TM5 and the addition of three N-terminal residues were necessary, and were validated with new mercury labeling and anomalous Fourier density. The corrected position of TM4, which forms the frame of a portal for drug entry, had backbone atoms shifted >6 Ĺ from their original positions. The drug translocation pathway of mouse Pgp is 96% identical to human Pgp and is enriched in aromatic residues that likely play a collective role in allowing a high degree of polyspecific substrate recognition. PMID:24155053

  17. Role of P-glycoprotein in Haemonchus contortus anthelmintic resistance.

    E-print Network

    Garretson, Pamela Donn

    2009-05-15

    , imidazothiazoles and macrocyclic lactones, that are currently used for treatment. One of the mechanisms proposed to be involved in this resistance is the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp). In this study, the resistance status of several strains of H...

  18. Role of P-glycoprotein in Haemonchus contortus anthelmintic resistance. 

    E-print Network

    Garretson, Pamela Donn

    2009-05-15

    , imidazothiazoles and macrocyclic lactones, that are currently used for treatment. One of the mechanisms proposed to be involved in this resistance is the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp). In this study, the resistance status of several strains of H...

  19. Thyroxine (T4) transfer from CSF to choroid plexus and ventricular brain regions in rabbit: contributory role of P-glycoprotein and organic anion transporting polypeptides.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Nouhad A; Deane, Rashid; Segal, Malcolm B; Chen, RuoLi; Preston, Jane E

    2007-11-21

    This study investigated the transfer of T4 from cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) into the choroid plexuses (CP) and ventricular brain regions, and the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance protein 1 (mrp1) and organic anion transporting polypeptides (oatps). During in vivo ventriculo-cisternal (V-C) perfusion in the anesthetized rabbit (meditomidine hydrochloride 0.5 mg kg(-1), pentobarbitone 10 mg kg(-1) i.v.), 125I-T4 was perfused continuously into ventricular CSF with reference molecules 14C-mannitol and blue dextran. Over 2 h, 36.9+/-4.6% 125I-T4 was recovered in cisternal CSF. Addition of P-gp substrate verapamil increased CSF 125I-T4 recovery to 51.4+/-2.8%, although mrp1 and oatp substrates had no significant effect. In brain, 125I-T4 showed greatest accumulation in the CP (1.52+/-0.31 ml g(-1)), followed by ventricular regions (caudate putamen, ependyma, hippocampus, 0.05-0.14 ml g(-1)). At the CP, verapamil and probenecid (but not indomethacin) significantly increased 125I-T4 accumulation, implicating a role for P-gp and oatps. Of other brain regions, all three drugs increased accumulation in caudate putamen 3-5 times, and indomethacin and probenecid increased accumulation in ependyma 4-5 times. The role of P-gp was investigated further in isolated incubated CPs using 5 microg/ml C219 anti-P-gp antibody. Both 125I-T4 and 3H-cyclosporin accumulation increased by 80%, suggesting that P-gp is functional in the CP and has a role in removal of T4. Combined with the in vivo results, these studies suggest that P-gp provides a local homeostatic mechanism, maintaining CSF T4 levels. We conclude that P-gp and oatps contribute to the transfer of 125I-T4 between the CSF, CP and brain, hence regulating 125I-T4 availability in CSF. PMID:17915195

  20. Stereoselective Property of 20(S)-Protopanaxadiol Ocotillol Type Epimers Affects Its Absorption and Also the Inhibition of P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenyan; Wu, Xiangmeng; Wang, Li; Meng, Qingguo; Liu, Wanhui

    2014-01-01

    Stereoselectivity has been proved to be tightly related to drug action including pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. (20S,24R)-epoxy-dammarane-3,12,25-triol (24R-epimer) and (20S,24S)-epoxy-dammarane-3,12,25-triol (24S-epimer), a pair of 20(S)-protopanaxadiol (PPD) ocotillol type epimers, were the main metabolites of PPD. Previous studies have shown that 24R-epimer and 24S-epimer had stereoselectivity in pharmacological action and pharmacokinetics. In the present study, the aim was to further study the pharmacokinetic characteristics of both epimers, investigate their absorption mechanism and analyze the selectivity effects of ocotillol type side chain and C24 stereo-configuration on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in vivo and in vitro. Results showed that the absolute bioavailability of 24R-epimer was about 14-fold higher than that of 24S-epimer, and a linear kinetic characteristic was acquired in doses of 5–20 mg/kg for both epimers after oral administration. Furthermore, the apparent permeability coefficients of 24R-epimer were 5–7 folds higher than that of 24S-epimer having lower efflux ratios in Caco-2 cell models. Moreover, both 24R-epimer and 24S-epimer had similar inhibitory effects on P-gp by increasing cellular retention of rhodamine 123 in Caco-2 cells and decreasing efflux of digoxin across Caco-2 cell monolayers. In situ in vivo experiments showed that the inhibition of 24R-epimer on P-gp was stronger than that of 24S-epimer by single-pass intestinal perfusion of rhodamine 123 in rats. Western blot analyses demonstrated that both epimers had no action on P-gp expression in Caco-2 cells. In conclusion, with respect to the stereoselectivity, C24 S-configuration of the ocotillol type epimers processed a poor transmembrane permeability and could be distinguished by P-gp. Sharing a dammarane skeleton, both 24R-epimer and 24S-epimer were potent inhibitors of P-gp. This study provides a new case of stereoselective pharmacokinetics of chiral compounds which contributes to know the chiral characteristics of P-gp and structure-action relationship of PPD type and ocotillol type ginsenosides as a P-gp inhibitor. PMID:24887182

  1. The inhibitory and combinative mechanism of HZ08 with P-glycoprotein expressed on the membrane of Caco-2 cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanyan; Hu, Yahui; Feng, Yidong; Kodithuwakku, Nandani Darshika; Fang, Weirong [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Physiology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Li, Yunman, E-mail: yunmanlicpu@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Natural Medicines, Department of Physiology, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Huang, Wenlong [Center of Drug Discovery, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Recently, the research and development of agents to reverse the phenomenon of multidrug resistance has been an attractive goal as well as a key approach to elevating the clinical survival of cancer patients. Although three generations of P-glycoprotein modulators have been identified, poor clearance and metabolism render these agents too toxic to be used in clinical application. HZ08, which has been under investigation for several years, shows a dramatic reversal effect with low cytotoxicity. For the first time, we aimed to describe the interaction between HZ08 and P-glycoprotein in Caco-2 cell line in which P-glycoprotein is overexpressed naturally. Cytotoxicity and multidrug resistance reversal assays, together with flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy and siRNA interference as well as Caco-2 monolayer transport model were employed in this study to evaluate the interaction between HZ08 and P-glycoprotein. This study revealed that HZ08 was capable of reversing adriamycin resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein as a result of intracellular enhancement of adriamycin accumulation, which was found to be superior to verapamil. In addition, we confirmed that HZ08 suppressed the transport of Rhodamine123 in the Caco-2 monolayer model but had little effect on P-glycoprotein expression. The transport of HZ08 was diminished by P-glycoprotein inhibitors (verapamil and LY335979) and its accumulation was increased via siRNA targeting MDR1 in Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, considering the binding site of P-glycoprotein, verapamil performed as a competitive inhibitor with HZ08. In conclusion, as a P-glycoprotein substrate, HZ08 inhibited P-glycoprotein activity and may share the same binding site of verapamil to P-glycoprotein. - Highlights: • The cytotoxicity and reversing effect of HZ08 was measured in Caco-2 cell line. • HZ08 inhibited the transport of Rhodamine123 across Caco-2 cell monolayer. • The efflux ratio of HZ08 was dropped when combined with P-glycoprotein inhibitors. • The accumulation of HZ08 increased via gene interference targeting P-glycoprotein. • HZ08 competitively bound to P-glycoprotein under the presence of verapamil.

  2. A tamoxifen derivative, N,N-diethyl-2-[4-(phenylmethyl) phenoxy] ethanamine, selectively targets P-glycoprotein-positive multidrug resistant Chinese hamster cells.

    PubMed

    Georges, Elias; Lian, Jing; Laberge, Remi

    2014-07-15

    DPPE, a tamoxifen derivative with antihistamine activity, was previously shown to potentiate the toxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs. Recently, a Phase III clinical study using doxorubicin with DPPE demonstrated significant increase in the overall survival of breast cancer patients. In this study we examined the effects of DPPE alone on the growth of drug sensitive and P-gp positive CHO cell line. Our results demonstrate DPPE is selectively toxic to P-gp positive cells and the sensitivity to DPPE alone correlated with the levels of P-gp expression. Moreover, in MDR cells, DPPE-induced apoptosis was significantly reduced with Bcl2 overexpression and in the presence of P-gp ATPase inhibitor, PSC833. Furthermore, knockdown of P-gp expression in MDR cells with P-gp-siRNA reversed DPPE sensitivity and increased their sensitivity to doxorubicin and taxol but not to cisplatin. The addition of DPPE to membrane fractions led to dose-dependent increase in P-gp ATPase that was inhibited with PSC833. Moreover, incubation of P-gp positive cells with DPPE led to a significant increase in superoxide levels and a drop in cellular ATP and GSH pools that were reversible with inhibitors of P-gp ATPase. The combined presence of DPPE and the mitochondria electron transport complex III inhibitor, antimycin A, synergized in their effects on the growth of MDR cells but had no effect on the growth of parental drug sensitive cells. Collectively, the results of this study provide a possible mechanism that may be relevant to the clinical results of DPPE in breast cancer trial and demonstrates DPPE as P-gp collateral sensitivity drug. PMID:24821111

  3. Application of permeability-limited physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models: part II - prediction of P-glycoprotein mediated drug-drug interactions with digoxin.

    PubMed

    Neuhoff, Sibylle; Yeo, Karen Rowland; Barter, Zoe; Jamei, Masoud; Turner, David B; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin

    2013-09-01

    Digoxin is the recommended substrate for assessment of P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs) in vivo. The overall aim of our study was to investigate the inhibitory potential of both verapamil and norverapamil on the P-gp-mediated efflux of digoxin in both gut and liver. Therefore, a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for verapamil and its primary metabolite was developed and validated through the recovery of observed clinical plasma concentration data for both moieties and the reported interaction with midazolam, albeit a cytochrome P450 3A4-mediated DDI. The validated inhibitor model was then used in conjunction with the model developed previously for digoxin. The range of values obtained for the 10 trials indicated that increases in area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) profiles and maximum plasma concentration observed (Cmax ) values of digoxin following administration of verapamil were more comparable with in vivo observations, when P-gp inhibition by the metabolite, norverapamil, was considered as well. The predicted decrease in AUC and Cmax values of digoxin following administration of rifampicin because of P-gp induction was 1.57- (range: 1.42-1.77) and 1.62-fold (range: 1.53-1.70), which were reasonably consistent with observed values of 1.4- and 2.2-fold, respectively. This study demonstrates the application of permeability-limited models of absorption and distribution within a PBPK framework together with relevant in vitro data on transporters to assess the clinical impact of modulated P-gp-mediated efflux by drugs in development. PMID:23686764

  4. Application of permeability-limited physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models: part I-digoxin pharmacokinetics incorporating P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux.

    PubMed

    Neuhoff, Sibylle; Yeo, Karen Rowland; Barter, Zoe; Jamei, Masoud; Turner, David B; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin

    2013-09-01

    A prerequisite for the prediction of the magnitude of P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated drug-drug interactions between digoxin and P-gp inhibitors (e.g. verapamil and its metabolite norverapamil) or P-gp inducers (e.g. rifampicin) is a predictive pharmacokinetic model for digoxin itself. Thus, relevant in vitro metabolic, transporter and inhibitory data incorporated into permeability-limited models, such as the "advanced dissolution, absorption and metabolism" (ADAM) module and the permeability-limited liver (PerL) module, integrated with a mechanistic physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model such as that of the Simcyp Simulator (version 12.2) are necessary. Simulated concentration-time profiles of digoxin generated using the developed model were consistent with observed data across 31 independent studies [13 intravenous single dose (SD), 12 per oral SD and six multiple dose studies]. The fact that predicted tmax (time of maximum plasma concentration observed) and Cmax (maximum plasma concentration observed) of oral digoxin were similar to observed values indicated that the relative contributions of permeation and P-gp-mediated efflux in the model were appropriate. There was no indication of departure from dose proportionality over the dose range studied (0.25-1.5 mg). All dose normalised area under the plasma concentration-time curve profiles (AUCs) for the 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 mg doses resembled each other. Thus, PBPK modelling in conjunction with mechanistic absorption and distribution models and reliable in vitro transporter data can be used to assess the impact of dose on P-gp-mediated efflux (or otherwise). PMID:23703021

  5. Comparison of (99m)tc-tetrofosmin and (99m)tc-sestamibi uptake in glioma cell lines: the role of p-glycoprotein expression.

    PubMed

    Alexiou, George A; Xourgia, Xanthi; Vartholomatos, Evrysthenis; Tsiouris, Spyridon; Kalef-Ezra, John A; Fotopoulos, Andreas D; Kyritsis, Athanasios P

    2014-01-01

    (99m)Tc-Tetrofosmin ((99m)Tc-TF) and (99m)Tc-Sestamibi ((99m)Tc-MIBI) are SPECT tracers that have been used for brain tumor imaging. Tumor's multidrug resistance phenotype, namely, P-glycoprotein (p-gp), and the multidrug resistance related proteins (MRPs) expression have been suggested to influence both tracers' uptake. In the present study we set out to compare (99m)Tc-TF and (99m)Tc-MIBI uptake in high-grade glioma cell lines and to investigate the influence of gliomas p-gp expression on both tracers' uptake. We used four glioma cell lines (U251MG, A172, U87MG, and T98G). The expression of p-gp protein was evaluated by flow cytometry. Twenty ?Ci (7.4·10(5)?Bq) of (99m)Tc-TF and (99m)Tc-MIBI were used. The radioactivity in the cellular lysate was measured with a dose calibrator. P-gp was significantly expressed only in the U251MG cell line (P < 0.001). In all gliomas cell lines (U251MG, U87MG, A172, and T98G) the (99m)Tc-TF uptake was significantly higher than (99m)Tc-sestamibi. The U251MG cell line, in which significant p-gp expression was documented, exhibited the strongest uptake difference. (99m)Tc-TF uptake was higher than (99m)Tc-MIBI in all studied high-grade glioma cell lines. Thus, (99m)Tc-TF may be superior to (99m)Tc-MIBI for glioma imaging in vivo. PMID:25436147

  6. Comparison of 99mTc-Tetrofosmin and 99mTc-Sestamibi Uptake in Glioma Cell Lines: The Role of P-Glycoprotein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Alexiou, George A.; Xourgia, Xanthi; Vartholomatos, Evrysthenis; Kalef-Ezra, John A.; Fotopoulos, Andreas D.; Kyritsis, Athanasios P.

    2014-01-01

    99mTc-Tetrofosmin (99mTc-TF) and 99mTc-Sestamibi (99mTc-MIBI) are SPECT tracers that have been used for brain tumor imaging. Tumor's multidrug resistance phenotype, namely, P-glycoprotein (p-gp), and the multidrug resistance related proteins (MRPs) expression have been suggested to influence both tracers' uptake. In the present study we set out to compare 99mTc-TF and 99mTc-MIBI uptake in high-grade glioma cell lines and to investigate the influence of gliomas p-gp expression on both tracers' uptake. We used four glioma cell lines (U251MG, A172, U87MG, and T98G). The expression of p-gp protein was evaluated by flow cytometry. Twenty ?Ci (7.4·105?Bq) of 99mTc-TF and 99mTc-MIBI were used. The radioactivity in the cellular lysate was measured with a dose calibrator. P-gp was significantly expressed only in the U251MG cell line (P < 0.001). In all gliomas cell lines (U251MG, U87MG, A172, and T98G) the 99mTc-TF uptake was significantly higher than 99mTc-sestamibi. The U251MG cell line, in which significant p-gp expression was documented, exhibited the strongest uptake difference. 99mTc-TF uptake was higher than 99mTc-MIBI in all studied high-grade glioma cell lines. Thus, 99mTc-TF may be superior to 99mTc-MIBI for glioma imaging in vivo. PMID:25436147

  7. E. coli Infection Modulates the Pharmacokinetics of Oral Enrofloxacin by Targeting P-Glycoprotein in Small Intestine and CYP450 3A in Liver and Kidney of Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Mengjie; Sun, Yong; Zhang, Yu; Bughio, Shamsuddin; Dai, Xiaohua; Ren, Weilong; Wang, Liping

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression determines the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of many drugs in the body. Also, up-regulation of P-gp acts as a defense mechanism against acute inflammation. This study examined expression levels of abcb1 mRNA and localization of P-gp protein in the liver, kidney, duodenum, jejunum and ileum in healthy and E. coli infected broilers by real time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Meanwhile, pharmacokinetics of orally administered enrofloxacin was also investigated in healthy and infected broilers by HPLC. The results indicated that E. coli infection up-regulated expression of abcb1 mRNA levels significantly in the kidney, jejunum and ileum (P<0.05), but not significantly in the liver and duodenum (P>0.05). However, the expression level of CYP 3A37 mRNA were observed significantly decreased only in liver and kidney of E. coli infected broilers (P<0.05) compared with healthy birds. Furthermore, the infection reduced absorption of orally administered enrofloxacin, significantly decreased Cmax (0.34 vs 0.98 µg mL?1, P?=?0.000) and AUC0-12h (4.37 vs 8.88 µg mL?1 h, P?=?0.042) of enrofloxacin, but increased Tmax (8.32 vs 3.28 h, P?=?0.040), T1/2a(2.66 vs 1.64 h?1, P?=?0.050) and V/F (26.7 vs 5.2 L, P?=?0.040). Treatment with verapamil, an inhibitor of P-gp, significantly improved the absorption of enrofloxacin in both healthy and infected broilers. The results suggest that the E. coli infection induces intestine P-gp expression, altering the absorption of orally administered enrofloxacin in broilers. PMID:24498193

  8. Natural lignans from Arctium lappa modulate P-glycoprotein efflux function in multidrug resistant cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Shan; Cheng, Xinlai; Wink, Michael

    2015-02-15

    Arctium lappa is a well-known traditional medicinal plant in China (TCM) and Europe that has been used for thousands of years to treat arthritis, baldness or cancer. The plant produces lignans as secondary metabolites which have a wide range of bioactivities. Yet, their ability to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells has not been explored. In this study, we isolated six lignans from A. lappa seeds, namely arctigenin, matairesinol, arctiin, (iso)lappaol A, lappaol C, and lappaol F. The MDR reversal potential of the isolated lignans and the underlying mechanism of action were studied using two MDR cancer cell lines, CaCo2 and CEM/ADR 5000 which overexpress P-gp and other ABC transporters. In two-drug combinations of lignans with the cytotoxic doxorubicin, all lignans exhibited synergistic effects in CaCo2 cells and matairesinol, arctiin, lappaol C and lappaol F display synergistic activity in CEM/ADR 5000 cells. Additionally, in three-drug combinations of lignans with the saponin digitonin and doxorubicin MDR reversal activity was even stronger enhanced. The lignans can increase the retention of the P-gp substrate rhodamine 123 in CEM/ADR 5000 cells, indicating that lignans can inhibit the activity of P-gp. Our study provides a first insight into the potential chemosensitizing activity of a series of natural lignans, which might be candidates for developing novel adjuvant anticancer agents. PMID:25765837

  9. Brain penetration of WEB 2086 (Apafant) and dantrolene in Mdr1a (P-glycoprotein) and Bcrp knockout rats.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Holger; Kishimoto, Wataru; Gansser, Dietmar; Tanswell, Paul; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2014-10-01

    Transporter gene knockout rat models are attracting increasing interest for mechanistic studies of new drugs as transporter substrates or inhibitors in vivo. However, limited data are available on the functional validity of such models at the blood-brain barrier. Therefore, the present study evaluated Mdr1a [P-glycoprotein (P-gp)], Bcrp, and combined Mdr1a/Bcrp knockout rat strains for the influence of P-gp and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) transport proteins on brain penetration of the selective test substrates [(14)C]WEB 2086 (3-[4-(2-chlorophenyl)-9-methyl-6H-thieno[3,2-f][1,2,4]triazolo-[4,3-a][1,4]-diazepin-2-yl]-1-(4-morpholinyl)-1-propanon) for P-gp and dantrolene for BCRP. Brain-to-plasma concentration ratios (BPR) were measured after intravenous coinfusions of 5.5 µmol/kg per hour [(14)C]WEB 2086 and 2 µmol/kg per hour dantrolene for 2 hours in groups of knockout or wild-type rats. Compared with wild-type controls, mean BPR of [(14)C]WEB 2086 increased 8-fold in Mdr1a knockouts, 9.5-fold in double Mdr1a/Bcrp knockouts, and 7.3-fold in zosuquidar-treated wild-type rats, but was unchanged in Bcrp knockout rats. Mean BPR of dantrolene increased 3.3-fold in Bcrp knockouts and 3.9-fold in double Mdr1a/Bcrp knockouts compared with wild type, but was unchanged in the Mdr1a knockouts. The human intestinal CaCo-2 cell bidirectional transport system in vitro confirmed the in vivo finding that [(14)C]WEB 2086 is a substrate of P-gp but not of BCRP. Therefore, Mdr1a, Bcrp, and combined Mdr1a/Bcrp knockout rats provide functional absence of these efflux transporters at the blood-brain barrier and are a suitable model for mechanistic studies on the brain penetration of drug candidates. PMID:25053619

  10. Effects of third generation P-glycoprotein inhibitors on the sensitivity of drug-resistant and -susceptible isolates of Haemonchus contortus to anthelmintics in vitro.

    PubMed

    Raza, Ali; Kopp, Steven R; Jabbar, Abdul; Kotze, Andrew C

    2015-06-30

    P-glycoproteins (P-gps) play an important role in the sensitivity of nematodes to anthelmintic drugs. They have been implicated in a number of anthelmintic resistances, particularly for macrocyclic lactone drugs. Hence, inhibition of nematode P-gps has been suggested as a means of reversing some types of anthelmintic resistance. The present study aimed to investigate the ability of the most-recently developed group of P-gp inhibitors (the so-called 'third generation' of inhibitors) including tariquidar, zosuquidar and elacridar, to increase the sensitivity of Haemonchus contortus larvae to various anthelmintics (ivermectin, levamisole and thiabendazole) in vitro. We compared these compounds to some older P-gp inhibitors (e.g. verapamil and valspodar). Larval migration and development assays were used to measure the sensitivity of larvae to anthelmintics alone, or in combination with P-gp inhibitors. Significant increases in sensitivity to ivermectin were observed with zosuquidar and tariquidar in larval migration assays (synergism ratios up to 6-fold). Several of the inhibitors increased the sensitivity of both the drug-resistant and -susceptible isolates (e.g. tariquidar with ivermectin in migration assays, zosuquidar with ivermectin in larval development assays), while others had significant effects on the resistant isolate only (e.g. zosuquidar with ivermectin in migration assays, verapamil with ivermectin in development assays). This suggests that some of the inhibitors interact with P-gps representing intrinsic pathways present across nematode populations with quite different drug sensitivities, while other inhibitors interact with P-gps of significance only to resistant nematodes, and hence most likely representing an acquired resistance mechanism. The study highlights the potential of the third generation of P-gp inhibitors for increasing the sensitivity of nematodes to anthelmintics. PMID:25986327

  11. Crystal Structure of an EAL Domain in Complex with Reaction Product 5?-pGpG

    PubMed Central

    Robert-Paganin, Julien; Nonin-Lecomte, Sylvie; Réty, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    FimX is a large multidomain protein containing an EAL domain and involved in twitching motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present here two crystallographic structures of the EAL domain of FimX (residues 438–686): one of the apo form and the other of a complex with 5?-pGpG, the reaction product of the hydrolysis of c-di-GMP. In both crystal forms, the EAL domains form a dimer delimiting a large cavity encompassing the catalytic pockets. The ligand is trapped in this cavity by its sugar phosphate moiety. We confirmed by NMR that the guanine bases are not involved in the interaction in solution. We solved here the first structure of an EAL domain bound to the reaction product 5?-pGpG. Though isolated FimX EAL domain has a very low catalytic activity, which would not be significant compared to other catalytic EAL domains, the structure with the product of the reaction can provides some hints in the mechanism of hydrolysis of the c-di-GMP by EAL domains. PMID:23285035

  12. Crystal structure of an EAL domain in complex with reaction product 5'-pGpG.

    PubMed

    Robert-Paganin, Julien; Nonin-Lecomte, Sylvie; Réty, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    FimX is a large multidomain protein containing an EAL domain and involved in twitching motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present here two crystallographic structures of the EAL domain of FimX (residues 438-686): one of the apo form and the other of a complex with 5'-pGpG, the reaction product of the hydrolysis of c-di-GMP. In both crystal forms, the EAL domains form a dimer delimiting a large cavity encompassing the catalytic pockets. The ligand is trapped in this cavity by its sugar phosphate moiety. We confirmed by NMR that the guanine bases are not involved in the interaction in solution. We solved here the first structure of an EAL domain bound to the reaction product 5'-pGpG. Though isolated FimX EAL domain has a very low catalytic activity, which would not be significant compared to other catalytic EAL domains, the structure with the product of the reaction can provides some hints in the mechanism of hydrolysis of the c-di-GMP by EAL domains. PMID:23285035

  13. An electrically tight in vitro blood-brain barrier model displays net brain-to-blood efflux of substrates for the ABC transporters, P-gp, Bcrp and Mrp-1.

    PubMed

    Helms, Hans Christian; Hersom, Maria; Kuhlmann, Louise Borella; Badolo, Lasina; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger

    2014-09-01

    Efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily including breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp/Abcg2), P-glycoprotein (P-gp/Abcb1) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrp's/Abcc's) are expressed in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of this study was to investigate if a bovine endothelial/rat astrocyte in vitro BBB co-culture model displayed polarized transport of known efflux transporter substrates. The co-culture model displayed low mannitol permeabilities of 0.95?±?0.1?·?10(-6) cm·s(-1) and high transendothelial electrical resistances of 1,177?±?101 ?·cm(2). Bidirectional transport studies with (3)H-digoxin, (3)H-estrone-3-sulphate and (3)H-etoposide revealed polarized transport favouring the brain-to-blood direction for all substrates. Steady state efflux ratios of 2.5?±?0.2 for digoxin, 4.4?±?0.5 for estrone-3-sulphate and 2.4?±?0.1 for etoposide were observed. These were reduced to 1.1?±?0.08, 1.4?±?0.2 and 1.5?±?0.1, by addition of verapamil (digoxin), Ko143 (estrone-3-sulphate) or zosuquidar?+?reversan (etoposide), respectively. Brain-to-blood permeability of all substrates was investigated in the presence of the efflux transporter inhibitors verapamil, Ko143, zosuquidar, reversan and MK 571 alone or in combinations. Digoxin was mainly transported via P-gp, estrone-3-sulphate via Bcrp and Mrp's and etoposide via P-gp and Mrp's. The expression of P-gp, Bcrp and Mrp-1 was confirmed using immunocytochemistry. The findings indicate that P-gp, Bcrp and at least one isoform of Mrp are functionally expressed in our bovine/rat co-culture model and that the model is suitable for investigations of small molecule transport. PMID:24934296

  14. PET Studies on P-glycoprotein function in the blood-brain barrier: how it affects uptake and binding of drugs within the CNS.

    PubMed

    Elsinga, Philip H; Hendrikse, N Harry; Bart, Joost; Vaalburg, Willem; van Waarde, Aren

    2004-01-01

    Permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is one of the factors determining the bioavailability of therapeutic drugs. The BBB only allows entry of lipophilic compounds with low molecular weights by passive diffusion. However, many lipophilic drugs show negligible brain uptake. They are substrates for transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug-resistance associated protein (MRP) and organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs). The action of these carrier systems results in rapid efflux of xenobiotics from the central nervous system (CNS). Classification of candidate drugs as substrates or inhibitors of such carrier proteins is of crucial importance in drug development. Positron emission tomography (PET) can play an important role in the screening process by providing in vivo information, after the putative drug has passed in vitro tests. Although radiolabeled probes for MRP and OATP function are not yet available, many radiotracers have been prepared to study P-glycoprotein function in vivo with PET. These include alkaloids ((11)C-colchicine), antineoplastic agents ((11)C-daunorubicin, (18)F-paclitaxel), modulators of L-type calcium channels ((11)C-(+/-)verapamil, (11)C-R(+)-verapamil), beta-adrenoceptor antagonists ((11)C-(S)-carazolol, (18)F-(S)-1'-fluorocarazolol, (11)C-carvedilol), serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptor antagonists ((18)F-MPPF), opioid receptor antagonists ((11)C-loperamide, (11)C-carfentanyl), and various (64)Cu-labeled copper complexes. Studies in experimental animals have indicated that it is possible to assess P-glycoprotein function in the BBB and its effect on the uptake and binding of drugs within the intact CNS, using suitable P-gp modulators labeled with positron emitters. Provided that radiopharmaceuticals (and P-gp modulators) can be developed for human use, several exciting fields of study may be explored, viz. (i) direct evaluation of the effect of modulators on the cerebral uptake of therapeutic drugs; (ii) assessment of mechanisms underlying drug resistance in epilepsy; (iii) examination of the role of the BBB in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative and affective disorders; and (iv) exploration of the relationship between polymorphisms of transporter genes and the pharmacokinetics of test compounds within the CNS. PMID:15134571

  15. P-glycoprotein is responsible for the poor intestinal absorption and low toxicity of oral aconitine: In vitro, in situ, in vivo and in silico studies

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Cuiping, E-mail: yangsophia76@hotmail.com; Zhang, Tianhong, E-mail: wdzth@sina.com; Li, Zheng, E-mail: lizh2524@126.com; Xu, Liang, E-mail: wj24998@163.com; Liu, Fei, E-mail: liufeipharm@163.com; Ruan, Jinxiu, E-mail: ruanjx1936@yahoo.com.cn; Liu, Keliang, E-mail: keliangliu55@126.com; Zhang, Zhenqing, E-mail: zhangzhenqingpharm@163.com

    2013-12-15

    Aconitine (AC) is a highly toxic alkaloid from bioactive plants of the genus Aconitum, some of which have been widely used as medicinal herbs for thousands of years. In this study, we systematically evaluated the potential role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the mechanisms underlying the low and variable bioavailability of oral AC. First, the bidirectional transport of AC across Caco-2 and MDCKII-MDR1 cells was investigated. The efflux of AC across monolayers of these two cell lines was greater than its influx. Additionally, the P-gp inhibitors, verapamil and cyclosporin A, significantly decreased the efflux of AC. An in situ intestinal perfusion study in rats showed that verapamil co-perfusion caused a significant increase in the intestinal permeability of AC, from 0.22 × 10{sup ?5} to 2.85 × 10{sup ?5} cm/s. Then, the pharmacokinetic profile of orally administered AC with or without pre-treatment with verapamil was determined in rats. With pre-treatment of verapamil, the maximum plasma concentration (C{sub max}) of AC increased sharply, from 39.43 to 1490.7 ng/ml. Accordingly, a 6.7-fold increase in the area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC{sub 0–12} {sub h}) of AC was observed when co-administered with verapamil. In silico docking analyses suggested that AC and verapamil possess similar P-gp recognition mechanisms. This work demonstrated that P-gp is involved in limiting the intestinal absorption of AC and attenuating its toxicity to humans. Our data indicate that potential P-gp-mediated drug–drug interactions should be considered carefully in the clinical application of aconite and formulations containing AC. - Highlights: • Verapamil and cyclosporin A decreased the efflux of aconitine across Caco-2 cells. • Both inhibitors decreased the efflux of aconitine across MDCKII-MDR1 cells. • Co-perfusion with verapamil increased the intestinal permeability of aconitine. • Co-administration with verapamil sharply increased the C{sub max} and AUC of aconitine. • P-gp interacted with both verapamil and aconitine and recognized them similarly.

  16. Role of P-glycoprotein in the intestinal absorption and clinical effects of morphine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Evan D. Kharasch; Christine Hoffer; Dale Whittington; Pam Sheffels

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: There is considerable and unexplained individual variability in the morphine dose-effect relationship. The efflux pump P-glycoprotein regulates brain access and intestinal absorption of numerous drugs. Morphine is a P-glycoprotein substrate in vitro, and P-glycoprotein affects morphine brain access and pharmacodynamics in animals. However, the role of P-glycoprotein in human morphine disposition and clinical effects is unknown. This investigation tested

  17. Effect of levothyroxine administration on intestinal P-glycoprotein expression: Consequences for drug disposition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Werner Siegmund; Stephan Altmannsberger; Andrea Paneitz; Ute Hecker; Michael Zschiesche; Gerd Franke; Wieland Meng; Rolf Warzok; Eike Schroeder; Bernhard Sperker; Bernd Terhaag; Ingolf Cascorbi; Heyo K. Kroemer

    2002-01-01

    Objective: Thyroid function alters the pharmacokinetics of many drugs; one example is the cardiac glycoside digoxin. Because digoxin disposition is affected by intestinal expression of P-glycoprotein, we hypothesized that thyroid hormones may regulate P-glycoprotein and influence disposition of P-glycoprotein substrates.Methods: Duodenal expression of P-glycoprotein measured by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction of MDR1 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and by immunohistochemical examination

  18. The role of the transporter P-glycoprotein for disposition and effects of centrally acting drugs and for the pathogenesis of CNS diseases.

    PubMed

    Thuerauf, Norbert; Fromm, Martin Friedrich

    2006-08-01

    The MDR1 gene product P-glycoprotein is an ATP-dependent efflux pump, which transports its substrates out of cells. It is not only expressed in tumor cells, but also in cells of normal tissues. For example, it is located in the apical membrane of enterocytes, in endothelial cells forming the blood-brain and blood-testis barriers and in the apical membrane of placental syncytiotrophoblast. Since P-glycoprotein transports a wide range of drugs (e.g. antidepressants, antiepileptics, HIV protease inhibitors, cyclosporine, digoxin), its location in these tissues limits bioavailability of orally administered drugs and prevents entry of xenobiotics into the brain, testis and the fetus. Recent data highlight the role of intestinal P-glycoprotein for drug interactions (e.g. digoxin), of P-glycoprotein expressed in the blood-brain barrier for drug penetration into the CNS (e.g. loperamide, amitriptyline), the role of pharmacological inhibition of P-glycoprotein function to increases drug concentrations in sanctuary sites (e.g. for the HI virus) and for the potential role of MDR1 polymorphisms for P-glycoprotein expression, drug disposition, adverse drug reactions and disease risk. Taken together, active drug transport is now considered as an important additional mechanism limiting drug accumulation in multiple tissues including the CNS. PMID:16783494

  19. P-glycoprotein contributes to the blood-brain, but not blood-cerebrospinal fluid, barrier in a spontaneous canine p-glycoprotein knockout model.

    PubMed

    Mealey, Katrina L; Greene, Stephen; Bagley, Rodney; Gay, John; Tucker, Russ; Gavin, Patrick; Schmidt, Kari; Nelson, Frederick

    2008-06-01

    P-glycoprotein is considered to be a major factor impeding effective drug therapy for many diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). Thus, efforts are being made to gain a better understanding of P-glycoprotein's role in drug distribution to brain parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The goal of this study was to validate and introduce a novel P-glycoprotein-deficient (ABCB1-1Delta) canine model for studying P-glycoprotein-mediated effects of drug distribution to brain tissue and CSF. CSF concentrations of drug are often used to correlate efficacy of CNS drug therapy as a surrogate for determining drug concentration in brain tissue. A secondary goal of this study was to investigate the validity of using CSF concentrations of P-glycoprotein substrates to predict brain tissue concentrations. Loperamide, an opioid that is excluded from the brain by P-glycoprotein, was used to confirm a P-glycoprotein-null phenotype in the dog model. ABCB1-1Delta dogs experienced CNS depression following loperamide administration, whereas ABCB1 wild-type dogs experienced no CNS depression. In summary, we have validated a novel P-glycoprotein-deficient canine model and have used the model to investigate transport of the P-glycoprotein substrate (99m)Tc-sestamibi at the blood-brain barrier and blood-CSF barrier. PMID:18332085

  20. Effects of dietary chemopreventive phytochemicals on P-glycoprotein function.

    PubMed

    Nabekura, Tomohiro; Kamiyama, Shizu; Kitagawa, Shuji

    2005-02-18

    The effects of dietary phytochemicals on P-glycoprotein function were investigated using human multidrug-resistant carcinoma KB-C2 cells and the fluorescent P-glycoprotein substrates daunorubicin and rhodamine 123. The effects of natural chemopreventive compounds, capsaicin found in chilli peppers, curcumin in turmeric, [6]-gingerol in ginger, resveratrol in grapes, sulforaphane in broccoli, 6-methylsulfinyl hexyl isothiocyanate (6-HITC) in Japanese horseradish wasabi, indole-3-carbinol (I3C) in cabbage, and diallyl sulfide and diallyl trisulfide in garlic, were examined. The accumulation of daunorubicin in KB-C2 cells increased in the presence of capsaicin, curcumin, [6]-gingerol, and resveratrol in a concentration-dependent manner. The accumulation of rhodamine 123 in KB-C2 cells was also increased, and the efflux of rhodamine 123 from KB-C2 cells was decreased by these phytochemicals. Sulforaphane, 6-HITC, I3C, and diallyl sulfide and diallyl trisulfide had no effect. These results suggest that dietary phytochemicals, such as capsaicin, curcumin, [6]-gingerol, and resveratrol, have inhibitory effects on P-glycoprotein and potencies to cause drug-food interactions. PMID:15649425

  1. In vitro evaluation of human cytochrome P450 and P-glycoprotein-mediated metabolism of some phytochemicals in extracts and formulations of African potato.

    PubMed

    Nair, Vipin D P; Foster, Brian C; Thor Arnason, J; Mills, Edward J; Kanfer, Isadore

    2007-08-01

    African potato (Hypoxis hemerocallidea, AP) is a traditional herbal medicine widely used as an immune booster and also for the treatment of various ailments such as urinary diseases, prostrate hypertrophy and cancer. Amongst the chemical components contained in AP, the norlignan glycoside, hypoxoside (HYP) is purported to be the most important phytochemical in terms of AP's medicinal value. Additional constituents in AP include the sterols, beta-sitosterol (BSS), stigmasterol (STG), and the stanol, stigmastanol (STN). The potential of extracts of AP, AP formulations as well as HYP, its aglycone rooperol (ROP) and the sterols to inhibit in vitro metabolism of drug marker substrates by human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes such as CYP3A4, 3A5 and CYP19 were investigated. Samples were also assessed for their effect on drug transport proteins such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The effects on CYP-mediated metabolism were studied by fluorometric microtitre plate assay. The potential interaction with P-gp was investigated by measuring the efflux of the fluorescent dye rhodamine 123 (Rh 123) in the CaCo-2 (colon carcinoma) cell line. Various extracts of AP, AP formulations, only STG and the norlignans, in particular the aglycone ROP, exhibited inhibitory effects on CYP3A4-, 3A5- and 19-mediated metabolism. The extracts and the formulations that contained a significant amount of HYP showed high induction of P-gp compared to the positive control, ritonavir. Whilst extrapolation of the current in vitro findings to clinical effects may well be considered speculative, these in vitro data should be heeded as a signal of possible in vivo interactions. Appropriate measures are therefore necessary to explore the possibility of such in vitro-in vivo correlations. PMID:17336049

  2. Expression and localization of p-glycoprotein, multidrug resistance protein 4, and breast cancer resistance protein in the female lower genital tract of human and pigtailed macaque.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tian; Hu, Minlu; Pearlman, Andrew; Patton, Dorothy; Rohan, Lisa

    2014-11-01

    Antiretroviral drug absorption and disposition in cervicovaginal tissue is important for the effectiveness of vaginally or orally administered drug products in preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of HIV-1 sexual transmission to women. Therefore, it is imperative to understand critical determinants of cervicovaginal tissue pharmacokinetics. This study aimed to examine the mRNA expression and protein localization of three efflux transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), in the lower genital tract of premenopausal women and pigtailed macaques. Along the human lower genital tract, the three transporters were moderately to highly expressed compared to colorectal tissue and liver, as revealed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In a given genital tract segment, the transporter with the highest expression level was either BCRP or P-gp, while MRP4 was always expressed at the lowest level among the three transporters tested. The immunohistochemical staining showed that P-gp and MRP4 were localized in multiple cell types including epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells. BCRP was predominantly localized in the vascular endothelial cells. Differences in transporter mRNA level and localization were observed among endocervix, ectocervix, and vagina. Compared to human tissues, the macaque cervicovaginal tissues displayed comparable expression and localization patterns of the three transporters, although subtle differences were observed between the two species. The role of these cervicovaginal transporters in drug absorption and disposition warrants further studies. The resemblance between human and pigtailed macaque in transporter expression and localization suggests the utility of the macaque model in the studies of human cervicovaginal transporters. PMID:24803409

  3. Behavioral effects and central nervous system levels of the broadly available ?-agonist hallucinogen salvinorin A are affected by P-glycoprotein modulation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Butelman, Eduardo R; Caspers, Michael; Lovell, Kimberly M; Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Prisinzano, Thomas E

    2012-06-01

    Active blood-brain barrier mechanisms, such as the major efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (mdr1), modulate the in vivo/central nervous system (CNS) effects of many pharmacological agents, whether they are used for nonmedical reasons or in pharmacotherapy. The powerful, widely available hallucinogen salvinorin A (from the plant Salvia divinorum) is a high-efficacy, selective ?-opioid agonist and displays fast-onset behavioral effects (e.g., within 1 min of administration) and relatively short duration of action. In vitro studies suggest that salvinorin A may be a P-glycoprotein substrate; thus, the functional status of P-glycoprotein may influence the behavioral effects of salvinorin A or its residence in CNS after parenteral administration. We therefore studied whether a competing P-glycoprotein substrate (the clinically available agent loperamide; 0.032-0.32 mg/kg) or a selective P-glycoprotein blocker, tariquidar (0.32-3.2 mg/kg) could enhance unconditioned behavioral effects (ptosis and facial relaxation, known to be caused by ?-agonists in nonhuman primates) of salvinorin A, as well as its entry and residence in the CNS, as measured by cerebrospinal fluid sampling. Pretreatment with either loperamide or tariquidar dose-dependently enhanced salvinorin A-induced ptosis, but not facial relaxation. In a control study, loperamide and tariquidar were inactive when given as a pretreatment to ((+)-(5?,7?,8?)-N-methyl-N-[7-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-oxaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]-benzeneacetamide (U69,593), a ?-agonist known to be a very poor P-glycoprotein substrate. Furthermore, pretreatment with tariquidar (3.2 mg/kg) also enhanced peak levels of salvinorin A in cerebrospinal fluid after intravenous administration. These are the first studies in vivo showing the sensitivity of salvinorin A effects to modulation by the P-glycoprotein transporter, a major functional component of the blood-brain barrier. PMID:22434677

  4. Structural basis for gating mechanisms of a eukaryotic P-glycoprotein homolog.

    PubMed

    Kodan, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Tomohiro; Nakatsu, Toru; Sakiyama, Keita; Hipolito, Christopher J; Fujioka, Akane; Hirokane, Ryo; Ikeguchi, Keiji; Watanabe, Bunta; Hiratake, Jun; Kimura, Yasuhisa; Suga, Hiroaki; Ueda, Kazumitsu; Kato, Hiroaki

    2014-03-18

    P-glycoprotein is an ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporter that actively transports chemically diverse substrates across the lipid bilayer. The precise molecular mechanism underlying transport is not fully understood. Here, we present crystal structures of a eukaryotic P-glycoprotein homolog, CmABCB1 from Cyanidioschyzon merolae, in two forms: unbound at 2.6-Ĺ resolution and bound to a unique allosteric inhibitor at 2.4-Ĺ resolution. The inhibitor clamps the transmembrane helices from the outside, fixing the CmABCB1 structure in an inward-open conformation similar to the unbound structure, confirming that an outward-opening motion is required for ATP hydrolysis cycle. These structures, along with site-directed mutagenesis and transporter activity measurements, reveal the detailed architecture of the transporter, including a gate that opens to extracellular side and two gates that open to intramembranous region and the cytosolic side. We propose that the motion of the nucleotide-binding domain drives those gating apparatuses via two short intracellular helices, IH1 and IH2, and two transmembrane helices, TM2 and TM5. PMID:24591620

  5. Chitosan Influences the Expression of P-gp and Metabolism of Norfloxacin in Grass Carp.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kun; Xie, Xinyan; Zhao, Yi-Ni; Li, Yi; Ruan, Jiming; Li, Hao-Ran; Jin, Tianyi; Yang, Xian-Le

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the administration of chitosan (CTS), expression of permeability glycoprotein (P-gp), and the metabolism of norfloxacin (NOR) in Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Fish were administrated with a single dose of either NOR, CTS, 1:5 NOR-CTS or 1:10 NOR-CTS. The P-gp expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and real time-PCR. The concentration of NOR was determined using HPLC. The mRNA and protein expression of P-gp in the fish intestine was significantly enhanced following a single dosage of 40 mg/kg NOR, and peak expression occurred at 3 h after drug administration (P < 0.05). A single dosage of both 1:5 NOR-CTS and 1:10 NOR-CTS reduced the intestinal P-gp expression to levels significantly lower than that from NOR alone (P < 0.05), but significantly higher than that from the control (P < 0.05). Interestingly, CTS alone also led to a slight decrease in P-gp expression. In addition, pharmacokinetic assays revealed a marked increase in area under the curve (AUC) of NOR with 1:5 and 1:10 NOR-CTS, by approximately 1.5-fold and threefold, respectively. Finally, the relative bioavailability of NOR after a single oral dosage of 1:5 and 1:10 NOR-CTS was enhanced to 148.02% and 304.98%, respectively. In this study, we demonstrated that the transmembrane glycoprotein P-gp regulates NOR metabolism in the intestine of Grass Carp, suggesting that NOR may be a direct substrate of P-gp. More importantly, we showed that CTS can inhibit P-gp expression in a dose-dependent manner and improve the relative bioavailability of NOR in this species. Received August 25, 2014; accepted November 12, 2014. PMID:25997556

  6. Macelignan: A New Modulator of P-Glycoprotein in Multidrug-Resistant Cancer Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young Bin Im; Ilho Ha; Keon Wook Kang; Moo-Yeol Lee; Hyo-Kyung Han

    2009-01-01

    The effect of macelignan, a phytoestrogen, on P-gp function was investigated using multidrug resistant cancer cells overexpressing P-gp (NCI\\/ADR-RES) and the fluorescent P-gp substrates, daunorubicin and rhodamine 123. Macelignan (40 ?M) increased the cellular accumulation of daunorubicin by approximately threefold in NCI\\/ADR-RES cells, whereas it did not alter the cellular accumulation of daunorubicin in MCF-7\\/sensitive cells. Similarly, the presence of

  7. Co-delivery of doxorubicin and P-gp inhibitor by a reduction-sensitive liposome to overcome multidrug resistance, enhance anti-tumor efficiency and reduce toxicity.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jie; Zhang, Li; Gao, Huile; Liu, Yayuan; Zhang, Qianyu; Ran, Rui; Zhang, Zhirong; He, Qin

    2014-12-10

    Abstract To overcome multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer chemotherapy with high efficiency and safety, a reduction-sensitive liposome (CL-R8-LP), which was co-modified with reduction-sensitive cleavable PEG and octaarginine (R8) to increase the tumor accumulation, cellular uptake and lysosome escape, was applied to co-encapsulate doxorubicin (DOX) and a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor of verapamil (VER) in this study. The encapsulation efficiency (EE) of DOX and VER in the binary-drug loaded CL-R8-LP (DOX?+?VER) was about 95 and 70% (w/w), respectively. The uptake efficiencies, the cytotoxicity, and the apoptosis and necrosis-inducing efficiency of CL-R8-LP (DOX?+?VER) were much higher than those of DOX and the other control liposomes in MCF-7/ADR cells or tumor spheroids. Besides, CL-R8-LP (DOX?+?VER) was proven to be uptaken into MCF-7/ADR cells by clathrin-mediated and macropinocytosis-mediated endocytosis, followed by efficient lysosomal escape. In vivo, CL-R8-LP (DOX?+?VER) effectively inhibited the growth of MCF-7/ADR tumor and reduce the toxicity of DOX and VER, which could be ascribed to increased accumulation of drugs in drug-resistant tumor cells and reduced distribution in normal tissues. In summary, the co-delivery of chemotherapeutics and P-gp inhibitors by our reduction-sensitive liposome was a promising approach to overcome MDR, improve anti-tumor effect and reduce the toxicity of chemotherapy. PMID:25491241

  8. ECHINACEA SANGUINEA AND ECHINACEA PALLIDA EXTRACTS STIMULATE GLUCURONIDATION AND BASOLATERAL TRANSFER OF BAUER ALKAMIDES 8 AND 10 AND KETONE 24 AND INHIBIT P-GLYCOPROTEIN TRANSPORTER IN CACO-2 CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Zhiyi; Hauck, Cathy; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Widrlechner, Mark P.; Reddy, Manju B.; Murphy, Patricia A.; Hendrich, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    The use of Echinacea as a medicinal herb is prominent in the United States, and many studies have assessed the effectiveness of Echinacea as an immunomodulator. We hypothesized that Bauer alkamides 8, 10 and 11 and ketone 24 were absorbed similarly either as pure compounds or from Echinacea sanguinea and Echinacea pallida ethanol extracts, and that these Echinacea extracts could inhibit P-glycoprotein transporter (P-gp) in Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells. Using HPLC analysis, the permeation rate of Bauer alkamides by passive diffusion across Caco-2 cells corresponded with compound hydrophilicity (alkamide 8 > 10 > 11), independent of the plant extract matrix. Both Echinacea ethanol extracts stimulated apparent glucuronidation and basolateral efflux of glucuronides of alkamides 8 and 10 but not alkamide 11. Bauer ketone 24 was totally metabolized to more hydrophilic metabolites when administered as a single compound, but was also glucuronidated when present in Echinacea extracts. Bauer alkamides 8, 10 and 11 (175–230 ?M) and ethanol extracts of E. sanguinea (1 mg/mL, containing ~90 ?M total alkamides) and E. pallida (5 mg/mL, containing 285 ?M total alkamides) decreased the efflux of the P-gp probe calcein-AM from Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that other constituents in these Echinacea extracts facilitated the metabolism and efflux of alkamides and ketones, which might improve therapeutic benefits. Alkamides and Echinacea extracts might be useful in potentiating some chemotherapeutics which are substrates for P-gp. PMID:23408271

  9. C-di-GMP Hydrolysis by Pseudomonas aeruginosa HD-GYP Phosphodiesterases: Analysis of the Reaction Mechanism and Novel Roles for pGpG

    PubMed Central

    Stelitano, Valentina; Giardina, Giorgio; Paiardini, Alessandro; Castiglione, Nicoletta; Cutruzzolŕ, Francesca; Rinaldo, Serena

    2013-01-01

    In biofilms, the bacterial community optimizes the strategies to sense the environment and to communicate from cell to cell. A key player in the development of a bacterial biofilm is the second messenger c-di-GMP, whose intracellular levels are modulated by the opposite activity of diguanylate cyclases and phosphodiesterases. Given the huge impact of bacterial biofilms on human health, understanding the molecular details of c-di-GMP metabolism represents a critical step in the development of novel therapeutic approaches against biofilms. In this study, we present a detailed biochemical characterization of two c-di-GMP phosphodiesterases of the HD-GYP subtype from the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, namely PA4781 and PA4108. Upstream of the catalytic HD-GYP domain, PA4781 contains a REC domain typical of two-component systems, while PA4108 contains an uncharacterized domain of unknown function. Our findings shed light on the activity and catalytic mechanism of these phosphodiesterases. We show that both enzymes hydrolyse c-di-GMP in a two-step reaction via the linear intermediate pGpG and that they produce GMP in vitro at a surprisingly low rate. In addition, our data indicate that the non-phosphorylated REC domain of PA4781 prevents accessibility of c-di-GMP to the active site. Both PA4108 and phosphorylated PA4781 are also capable to use pGpG as an alternative substrate and to hydrolyse it into GMP; the affinity of PA4781 for pGpG is one order of magnitude higher than that for c-di-GMP. These results suggest that these enzymes may not work (primarily) as genuine phosphodiesterases. Moreover, the unexpected affinity of PA4781 for pGpG may indicate that pGpG could also act as a signal molecule in its own right, thus further widening the c-di-GMP-related signalling scenario. PMID:24066157

  10. Role of intestinal P-glycoprotein (mdr1) in interpatient variation in the oral bioavailability of cyclosporine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth S. Lown; Robert R. Mayo; Alan B. Leichtman; Hsiu-ling Hsiao; D. Kim Turgeon; Phyllissa Schmiedlin-Ren; Morton B. Brown; Wensheng Guo; Stephen J. Rossi; Leslie Z. Benet; Paul B. Watkins

    1997-01-01

    Interpatient differences in the oral clearance of cyclosporine (INN, ciclosporin) have been partially attributed to variation in the activity of a single liver enzyme termed CYP3A4. Recently it has been shown that small bowel also contains CYP3A4, as well as P-glycoprotein, a protein able to transport cyclosporine. To assess the importance of these intestinal proteins, the oral pharmacokinetics of cyclosporine

  11. Increased P-glycoprotein expression in mitochondria is related to acquired multidrug resistance in human hepatoma cells depleted of mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xianlong; He, Yuqi; Zhang, Guoqiao; Zhou, Yuan; Yan, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA-depleted ?0 cells are resistant to apoptosis, but the mechanism remains unclear. A human hepatoma cell line (SK-Hep1) depleted of mtDNA (?0SK-Hep1) was induced by ethidium bromide treatment. The ?0SK-Hep1 cells were resistant to both doxorubicin- and cisplatin-induced apoptosis, while cybrids (SK-Hep1Cyb) prepared by fusing ?0SK-Hep1 cells with platelets showed restored susceptibility to both drugs. We observed P-glycoprotein and MRP1 were both overexpressed in ?0 cells, and more P-glycoproteins were localized in the mitochondria and were functionally active. ?0 cells showed resistance to chemotherapeutic drug-induced apoptosis. The increased expression and localization of P-glycoproteins in the mitochondria of ?0 cells may facilitate the exclusion of chemotherapeutic drugs from the mitochondria to the cytosol. PMID:21887461

  12. Uptake and binding of the serotonin 5-HT1A antagonist [18F]-MPPF in brain of rats: effects of the novel P-glycoprotein inhibitor tariquidar.

    PubMed

    la Fougčre, Christian; Böning, Guido; Bartmann, Hero; Wängler, Björn; Nowak, Sebastian; Just, Theresa; Wagner, Erika; Winter, Petra; Rominger, Axel; Förster, Stefan; Gildehaus, Franz-Josef; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Minuzzi, Luciano; Bartenstein, Peter; Potschka, Heidrun; Cumming, Paul

    2010-01-15

    We used microPET to map the dose-response to the novel P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor tariquidar (TQD) of the initial influx of the P-gp substrate [(18)F]-MPPF in rat brain, and to test for effects of P-gp inhibition on the subsequent binding of [(18)F]-MPPF to serotonin 5-HT(1A) receptors. Summation maps of [(18)F]-MPPF uptake during the first 100 seconds after intravenous injection were calculated in groups of rats with vehicle (glucose 5%) pretreatment, or following pretreatment with TQD at doses of 5, 15, or 30 mg/kg. The early summation image (K(1)-weighted), were validated as a surrogate marker for the physiological blood-brain clearance (K(1); ml g(-)(1) min(-1)) by linear graphic analysis of the unidirectional blood-brain clearance relative to an image-based arterial input measured in the left ventricle of the heart. In the same animals, parametric maps of the [(18)F]-MPPF binding potential (BP(ND)) were calculated from the entire 60-minute emission recordings using conventional reference tissue methods. All [(18)F]-MPPF recordings were followed by an [(18)F]-FDG emission recording, the summation of which was used for spatial normalization to a rat brain atlas. Test-retest variability of K(1)-weighted uptake and BP(ND) was 25%. TQD treatment evoked a global dose-dependent increase in K(1)-weighted summation, which increased 2.5-fold with TQD (30 mg/kg), suggesting an IC(50) of 5 mg/kg TQD. All TQD doses increased the apparent [(18)F]-MPPF BP(ND) calculated by the Logan method by 30%-40%, a bias likely arising due to increased free [(18)F]-MPPF concentrations in brain. TQD (15 mg/kg) evoked a 45% global increase in [(18)F]-FDG uptake, suggesting perturbation of brain energy metabolism due to P-gp blockade. PMID:19796699

  13. Roles of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance protein in transporting para-aminosalicylic acid and its N-acetylated metabolite in mice brain

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Lan; Xu, Cong; O'Neal, Stefanie; Bi, Hui-chang; Huang, Min; Zheng, Wei; Zeng, Su

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) is effective in the treatment of manganism-induced neurotoxicity (manganism). In this study we investigated the roles of P-glycoprotein (MDR1a) and multidrug resistance protein (MRP) in transporting PAS and its N-acetylated metabolite AcPAS through blood-brain barrier. Methods: MDR1a-null or wild-type mice were intravenously injected with PAS (200 mg/kg). Thirty minutes after the injection, blood samples and brains were collected, and the concentrations of PAS and AcPAS in brain capillaries and parenchyma were measured using HPLC. Both MDCK-MDR1 and MDCK-MRP1 cells that overexpressed P-gp and MRP1, respectively, were used in two-chamber Transwell transport studies in vitro. Results: After injection of PAS, the brain concentration of PAS was substantially higher in MDR1a-null mice than in wild-type mice, but the brain concentration of AcPAS had no significant difference between MDR1a-null mice and wild-type mice. Concomitant injection of PAS with the MRP-specific inhibitor MK-571 (50 mg/kg) further increased the brain concentration of PAS in MDR1a-null mice, and increased the brain concentration of AcPAS in both MDR1a-null mice and wild-type mice. Two-chamber Transwell studies with MDCK-MDR1 cells demonstrated that PAS was not only a substrate but also a competitive inhibitor of P-gp, while AcPAS was not a substrate of P-gp. Two-chamber Transwell studies with the MDCK-MRP1 cells showed that MRP1 had the ability to transport both PAS and AcPAS across the BBB. Conclusion: P-gp plays a major role in the efflux of PAS from brain parenchyma into blood in mice, while MRP1 is involved in both PAS and AcPAS transport in the brain. PMID:25418377

  14. Role of P-glycoprotein in the intestinal absorption and clinical effects of morphine

    E-print Network

    Steinbach, Joe Henry

    : There is considerable and unexplained individual variability in the morphine dose-effect rela- tionship. The efflux pumpRole of P-glycoprotein in the intestinal absorption and clinical effects of morphine Introduction P-glycoprotein regulates brain access and intestinal absorption of numerous drugs. Morphine is a P

  15. P-gp expression in brown trout erythrocytes: evidence of a detoxification mechanism in fish erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Valton, Emeline; Amblard, Christian; Wawrzyniak, Ivan; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Bamdad, Mahchid

    2013-01-01

    Blood is a site of physiological transport for a great variety of molecules, including xenobiotics. Blood cells in aquatic vertebrates, such as fish, are directly exposed to aquatic pollution. P-gp are ubiquitous "membrane detoxification proteins" implicated in the cellular efflux of various xenobiotics, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which may be pollutants. The existence of this P-gp detoxification system inducible by benzo [a] pyrene (BaP), a highly cytotoxic PAH, was investigated in the nucleated erythrocytes of brown trout. Western blot analysis showed the expression of a 140-kDa P-gp in trout erythrocytes. Primary cultures of erythrocytes exposed to increasing concentrations of BaP showed no evidence of cell toxicity. Yet, in the same BaP-treated erythrocytes, P-gp expression increased significantly in a dose-dependent manner. Brown trout P-gp erythrocytes act as membrane defence mechanism against the pollutant, a property that can be exploited for future biomarker development to monitor water quality. PMID:24305632

  16. Tanshinone IIA potentiates the efficacy of 5-FU in Colo205 colon cancer cells in vivo through downregulation of P-gp and LC3-II

    PubMed Central

    SU, CHIN-CHENG

    2012-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal medicines are widely accepted as an option for the treatment of colorectal cancers. Danshen (Salviae miltiorrhizae Radix) is widely prescribed in traditional Chinese medicine for cardiovascular diseases. Tanshinone IIA (Tan-IIA) is extracted from Danshen. Our previous studies have shown that Tan-IIA induces apoptosis in Colo205 human colon cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the efficacy of Tan-IIA and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in a Colo205 cell xenograft model. For in vivo studies, SCID mice were engrafted with Colo205 cells and from day 10 onwards were randomly divided into 3 groups and treated with 5-FU plus Tan-IIA, 5-FU plus corn oil, and the vehicle alone. At the end of a 4-week dosing schedule, the SCID mice were sacrificed and xenograft tumors were dissected for protein western blot analysis. Our results showed that the Colo205 xenograft model co-treated with Tan-IIA plus 5-FU caused a reduction in the xenograft tumor volumes and decreased P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3)-II expression compared to 5-FU alone. Based on these observations, it may be possible to develop Tan-IIA plus 5-FU as therapeutic agents for human colon cancer. PMID:22969929

  17. Coexisted components of Salvia miltiorrhiza enhance intestinal absorption of cryptotanshinone via inhibition of the intestinal P-gp.

    PubMed

    Dai, Haixue; Li, Xiaorong; Li, Xiaoli; Bai, Lu; Li, Yuhang; Xue, Ming

    2012-11-15

    Cryptotanshinone, derived from the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge and Salvia przewalskii Maxim, is the major active component and possesses significant antibacterial, antidermatophytic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the intestinal absorptive characteristics of cryptotanshinone as well as the absorptive behavior influenced by co-administration of the diterpenoid tanshinones and danxingfang using an in vitro everted rat gut sac model. The results showed a good linear correlation between cryptotanshinone of absorption and the incubation time from 10 to 70min. The concentration dependence showed that a non-linear correlation existed between the cryptotanshinone absorption and the concentration at 100 ?g/ml. Coexisting diterpenoid tanshinones and danxingfang could significantly enhance the absorption of cryptotanshinone. Coexisting diterpenoid tanshinones and danxingfang, which influenced cryptotanshinone's absorption, manifested as similar to that of the P-glycoprotein inhibitor. The underlying mechanism of the improvement of oral bioavailability was proposed that coexisting diterpenoid tanshinones and danxingfang could decrease the efflux transport of cryptotanshinone by P-glycoprotein. PMID:23041420

  18. Teasing apart activities of different types of ABC efflux pumps in bivalve gills using the concepts of independent action and concentration addition.

    PubMed

    Luckenbach, Till; Altenburger, Rolf; Epel, David

    2008-07-01

    Fluorescent dyes and inhibitor compounds are commonly used to detect activity of multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) efflux pumps in marine invertebrates. We here address the question whether compounds acting as specific inhibitors of certain mammalian transporters can be used in dye efflux assays to distinguish different transporter activities in gill tissue from a marine mussel. We quantified effects of PSC833, a specific inhibitor of mammalian P-gp (P-glycoprotein, ABCB1), and MK571, which blocks MRP (Multidrug resistance associated protein, ABCC) type transporters, on calcein-am efflux in gill tissue of Mytilus californianus. Calcein-am acts as a substrate of both P-gp and MRP. Effects of single compounds and mixtures were determined and combined effect models predicting independent action (IA) and concentration addition (CA) of the chemicals were applied. Effect values predicted by IA showed better correspondence with the experimentally obtained data. This indicates that the inhibitor compounds target different mechanisms of calcein-am efflux and points to P-gp and MRP activities in mussel gills. Our approach could be a simple way for identifying the efflux transporter types targeted by chemosensitizers, including environmentally relevant compounds, in native tissues from marine invertebrates. PMID:18396325

  19. Multiple efflux pumps are involved in the transepithelial transport of colchicine: combined effect of p-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 leads to decreased intestinal absorption throughout the entire small intestine.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Arik; Sabit, Hairat; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to thoroughly characterize the efflux transporters involved in the intestinal permeability of the oral microtubule polymerization inhibitor colchicine and to evaluate the role of these transporters in limiting its oral absorption. The effects of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) inhibitors on colchicine bidirectional permeability were studied across Caco-2 cell monolayers, inhibiting one versus multiple transporters simultaneously. Colchicine permeability was then investigated in different regions of the rat small intestine by in situ single-pass perfusion. Correlation with the P-gp/MRP2 expression level throughout different intestinal segments was investigated by immunoblotting. P-gp inhibitors [N-(4-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2-isoquinolinyl)ethyl]-phenyl)-9,10-dihydro-5-methoxy-9-oxo-4-acridine carboxamide (GF120918), verapamil, and quinidine], and MRP2 inhibitors [3-[[3-[2-(7-chloroquinolin-2-yl)vinyl]phenyl]-(2-dimethylcarbamoylethylsulfanyl)methylsulfanyl] propionic acid (MK571), indomethacin, and p-aminohippuric acid (p-AH)] significantly increased apical (AP)-basolateral (BL) and decreased BL-AP Caco-2 transport in a concentration-dependent manner. No effect was obtained by the BCRP inhibitors fumitremorgin C (FTC) and pantoprazole. P-gp/MRP2 inhibitors combinations greatly reduced colchicine mucosal secretion, including complete abolishment of efflux (GF120918/MK571). Colchicine displayed low (versus metoprolol) and constant permeability along the rat small-intestine. GF120918 significantly increased colchicine permeability in the ileum with no effect in the jejunum, whereas MK571 augmented jejunal permeability without changing the ileal transport. The GF120918/MK571 combination caused an effect similar to that of MK571 alone in the jejunum and to that of GF120918 alone in the ileum. P-gp expression followed a gradient increasing from proximal to distal segments, whereas MRP2 decreased from proximal to distal small intestinal regions. Overall, it was revealed that the combined effect of P-gp and MRP2, but not BCRP, dominates colchicine transepithelial transport, leading to complete coverage of the entire small intestine, and makes the efflux transport dominate the intestinal permeability process. PMID:19589874

  20. Impact of p-glycoprotein inhibition and lipopolysaccharide administration on blood-brain barrier transport of colistin in mice.

    PubMed

    Jin, Liang; Li, Jian; Nation, Roger L; Nicolazzo, Joseph A

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factors limiting the blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport of colistin in healthy mice and to assess the impact of systemic inflammation on the transport of this antibiotic across the BBB. Colistin sulfate (40 mg/kg) was administered subcutaneously to Swiss outbred mice as single and multiple doses to determine any relationship between brain uptake and plasma concentrations of colistin. To assess the effect of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) on BBB transport, colistin sulfate (5 mg/kg) was concomitantly administered intravenously with PSC833 or GF120918 (10 mg/kg). Systemic inflammation was induced by three intraperitoneal injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 3 mg/kg), and BBB transport of colistin was subsequently measured following subcutaneous administration and by an in situ brain perfusion. The brain uptake of colistin was low following single and multiple subcutaneous doses, with brain-to-plasma concentration ratios ranging between 0.021 and 0.037, and this was not significantly enhanced by coadministration of GF120918 or PSC833 (P > 0.05). LPS significantly increased the brain uptake of subcutaneously administered colistin with area under the brain concentration time curve (AUC(brain)) values of 11.7 ± 2.7 ?g·h/g and 4.0 ± 0.3 ?g·h/g for LPS- and saline-treated mice, respectively (mean ± standard deviation). Similarly, in situ perfusion of colistin led to higher antibiotic brain concentrations in LPS-treated animals than in saline-treated animals, with colistin brain-to-perfusate concentration ratios of 0.019 ± 0.001 and 0.014 ± 0.001, respectively. This study demonstrates that the BBB transport of colistin is negligible in healthy mice; however, brain concentrations of colistin can be significantly enhanced during systemic inflammation, as might be observed in infected patients. PMID:21115788

  1. Relevance of p-glycoprotein for the enteral absorption of cyclosporin A: in vitro-in vivo correlation.

    PubMed Central

    Fricker, G.; Drewe, J.; Huwyler, J.; Gutmann, H.; Beglinger, C.

    1996-01-01

    1. The interaction of cyclosporin A (CyA) with p-glycoprotein during intestinal uptake was investigated by a combination of in vitro experiments with human Caco-2 cells and an intubation study in healthy volunteers. 2. CyA uptake into the cells was not saturable and exhibited only a low temperature sensitivity, suggesting passive diffusion. When the permeation of CyA across Caco-2 monolayers from the apical to the basolateral side was determined, overall transport had an apparently saturable component up to a concentration of 1 microM. At higher concentrations permeation increased over-proportionally. Calculation of the kinetic parameters of apical to basolateral permeation suggested a diffusional process with a KD of 0.5 microliter min-1 per filter, which was overlayed by an active system in basolateral to apical direction with a KM of 3.8 microM and a Jmax of 6.5 picomol min-1 per filter. 3. CyA permeation was significantly higher when the drug was given from the basolateral side as compared to the permeation from the apical side. Apical to basolateral transport of CyA was increased in the presence of vinblastine, daunomycin and a non-immunosuppressive CyA-derivative. All compounds inhibit p-glycoprotein-mediated transport processes. Basolateral to apical permeation of CyA showed a dose-dependent decrease in the presence of vinblastine. Permeation of daunomycin across Caco-2 cell monolayers was also higher from the basolateral to the apical side than vice versa. Basolateral to apical permeation was decreased in the presence of SDZ PSC 833 and cyclosporin A. 4. Western blot analysis of Caco-2 cells with the monoclonal antibody C219 confirmed the presence of p-glycoprotein in the used cell system. 5. When the absorption of CyA in the gastrointestinal (GI)-tract of healthy volunteers was determined, a remarkable decrease of the plasma AUC could be observed dependent on the location of absorption in the rank order stomach > jejunum/ileum > colon. The decrease in absorption exhibited a marked correlation (r = 0.994) to the expression of mRNA for p-glycoprotein over the GI-tract (stomach < jejunum < colon). 6. All data provide evidence that CyA is a substrate of p-glycoprotein in the GI-tract, which might explain the local differences and the high variability in cyclosporin absorption found in vivo. PMID:8842452

  2. P-glycoprotein inhibition potentiates the behavioural and neurochemical actions of risperidone in rats.

    PubMed

    Pacchioni, Alejandra M; Gabriele, Amanda; Donovan, Jennifer L; DeVane, C Lindsay; See, Ronald E

    2010-09-01

    Antipsychotic drugs are the mainstay pharmacotherapy for schizophrenia and related psychiatric disorders. While the metabolic pathways of antipsychotic drugs have been well defined, the role of drug transporters in the disposition and effects of antipsychotic drugs has not been systematically explored. P-glycoprotein has ubiquitous expression in brain endothelial cells and plays a protective role by effluxing substrates for elimination and by limiting their accumulation in the central nervous system. Risperidone and several other antipsychotic drugs are substrates of P-glycoprotein. Increased antipsychotic drug entry into the brain via blockade of the P-glycoprotein transporter may facilitate the amount of available drug to its targets, particularly dopamine receptors. By increasing available antipsychotic drug concentrations, P-glycoprotein inhibition offers a novel means of enhanced drug delivery. This study evaluated whether selective P-glycoprotein transporter inhibition would increase the effects of risperidone on relevant indices of behaviour (catalepsy and locomotion) and neurochemistry (dopamine release and metabolism as measured by in-vivo microdialysis). We administered the P-glycoprotein inhibitor, PSC 833 (100 mg/kg p.o.), to rats prior to administration of risperidone at varying doses (0.01-4.0 mg/kg s.c.). P-glycoprotein inhibition significantly increased risperidone-induced cataleptic effects, blockade of amphetamine-induced locomotion, and effects on dopamine turnover as seen by increased striatal dopamine metabolite levels. These results provide functional evidence concordant with prior data for increased brain levels of risperidone following PSC 833 treatment. PMID:19835667

  3. Increased paracellular absorption by bile salts and P-glycoprotein stimulated efflux of otilonium bromide in Caco-2 cells monolayers as a model of intestinal barrier.

    PubMed

    Catalioto, Rose-Marie; Triolo, Antonio; Giuliani, Sandro; Altamura, Maria; Evangelista, Stefano; Maggi, Carlo Alberto

    2008-09-01

    The present study investigates the intestinal permeability of otilonium bromide, a spasmolytic drug used to treat irritable bowel syndrome, across Caco-2 cell monolayers. The amount of otilonium bromide transported was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Epithelial barrier integrity was estimated by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance and the transport of reference compounds, P-glycoprotein activity by measuring rhodamine 123 efflux. Results showed that the apparent permeability of otilonium bromide was comparable to that of our zero permeability marker, inulin, in the apical-to-basal direction and similar to that of rhodamine 123 in the basal-to-apical direction. The P-glycoprotein substrate, verapamil, prevented otilonium bromide efflux and, conversely, otilonium bromide inhibited P-glycoprotein activity. Bile salts induced a transient opening of tight junctions, as measured by selective increase of paracellular transport, and significantly enhanced the absorption of otilonium bromide. In turn otilonium bromide potentiates the effect of bile salts on tight junctions without modifying their critical micellar concentration or altering cell viability. In conclusion, otilonium bromide is a paracellularly transported drug whose absorption, in amounts sufficient to exert a spasmolytic effect, is favoured by bile salts. P-glycoprotein, by stimulating efflux, contributes to remove excess compound, restraining its distribution and site of action to the intestinal wall. PMID:18200532

  4. Interrelationship Between Substrates and Inhibitors of Human CYP3A and P-Glycoprotein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard B. Kirn; Christoph Wandel; Brenda Leake; Mirjana Cvetkovic; Martin F. Fromm; Peter J. Dempsey; Mark M. Roden; Frank Belas; Ajai K. Chaudhary; Dan M. Roden; Alastair J. J. Wood; Grant R. Wilkinson

    1999-01-01

    Purpose. CYP3A and P-gp both function to reduce the intracellular concentration of drug substrates, one by metabolism and the other by transmembrane efflux. Moreover, it has been serendipitously noted that the two proteins have many common substrates and inhibitors. In order to test this notion more fully, systematic studies were undertaken to determine the P-gp-mediated transport and inhibitory characteristics of

  5. Increased drug delivery to the brain by P-glycoprotein inhibition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abu J. M. Sadeque; Christoph Wandel; Hauibing He; Selina Shah; Alastair J. J. Wood

    2000-01-01

    Background: Although the antidiarrheal loperamide is a potent opiate, it does not produce opioid central nervous system effects at usual doses in patients. On the basis of in vitro studies demonstrating that loperamide is a substrate for the adenosine triphosphate–dependent efflux membrane transporter P-glycoprotein, we postulated that inhibition of P-glycoprotein with quinidine would increase entry of loperamide into the central

  6. MDR1 gene polymorphisms and disposition of the P-glycoprotein substrate fexofenadine

    PubMed Central

    Drescher, Siegfried; Schaeffeler, Elke; Hitzl, Monika; Hofmann, Ute; Schwab, Matthias; Brinkmann, Ulrich; Eichelbaum, Michel; Fromm, Martin F

    2002-01-01

    Aims The C3435T polymorphism in the human MDR1 gene is associated with lower intestinal P-glycoprotein expression, reduced protein function in peripheral blood cells and higher plasma concentrations of the P-glycoprotein substrate digoxin. Using fexofenadine, a known P-glycoprotein substrate, the hypothesis was tested whether this polymorphism also affects the disposition of other drugs in humans. Methods Ten Caucasian subjects homozygous for the wild-type allele at position 3435 (CC) and 10 individuals homozygous for T at position 3435 participated in this study. A single oral dose of 180 mg fexofenadine HCl was administered. Plasma and urine concentrations of fexofenadine were measured up to 72 h using a sensitive LC/MS method. In addition, P-glycoprotein function was assessed using efflux of the P-glycoprotein substrate rhodamine 123 from CD56+ cells. Results Fexofenadine plasma concentrations varied considerably among the study population. However, fexofenadine disposition was not significantly different between the CC and TT groups (e.g. AUC(0,?) CC vs TT: 3567.1±1535.5 vs 3910.1±1894.8 ng ml?1 h, NS; 95% CI on the difference ?1364.9, 2050.9). In contrast, P-glycoprotein function was significantly decreased in CD56+ cells of the TT compared with the CC group (rhodamine fluorescence CC vs TT: 45.6±7.2% vs 61.1±12.3%, P<0.05; 95% CI on the difference 5.6, 25.5). Conclusions In spite of MDR1 genotype-dependent differences in P-glycoprotein function in peripheral blood cells, there was no association of the C3435T polymorphism with the disposition of the P-glycoprotein substrate fexofenadine in this German Caucasian study population. These data indicate that other mechanisms including uptake transporter function are likely to play a role in fexofenadine disposition. PMID:11994059

  7. Discovery of a new series of jatrophane and lathyrane diterpenes as potent and specific P-glycoprotein modulators.

    PubMed

    Barile, Elisa; Borriello, Marianna; Di Pietro, Attilio; Doreau, Agnčs; Fattorusso, Caterina; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Lanzotti, Virginia

    2008-05-21

    A new series of diterpenes, the jatrophanes euphoscopin M (1), euphoscopin N (2) and euphornin L (3), and the lathyrane euphohelioscopin C (7) were isolated from plants of Euphorbia helioscopia L., together with four other known analogues, euphoscopin C (4), euphornin (5), epieuphoscopin B (6) and euphohelioscopin A (8). The new compound stereostructures were elucidated by NMR analysis and computational data. The resulting isolated diterpenes were found to be potent inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), while showing an absence of significant activity against BCRP (ABCG2), despite the high substrate overlapping of these transporters, thus including them in the third-generation class of specific multidrug transporter modulators. PMID:18452010

  8. Distinct P-glycoprotein precursors are overproduced in independently isolated drug-resistant cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Greenberger, L M; Lothstein, L; Williams, S S; Horwitz, S B

    1988-01-01

    A family of P-glycoproteins are overproduced in multidrug-resistant cells derived from the murine macrophage-like line J774.2. To determine whether individual family members are overproduced in response to different drugs, the P-glycoprotein precursors in several independently isolated cell lines, which were selected for resistance to vinblastine or taxol, were compared. Individual cell lines selected with vinblastine overproduced P-glycoprotein precursors of either 120 or 125 kDa. Taxol-selected cell lines overproduced either the 125-kDa precursor or both precursors simultaneously. Two similar but distinct peptide maps for the mature P-glycoproteins were observed. These maps corresponded to each precursor regardless of the drug used for selection. One vinblastine-resistant cell line switched from the 125- to the 120-kDa precursor when grown in increasing concentrations of drug. This change coincided with the overexpression of a distinct subset of mRNA species that code for P-glycoprotein. It is concluded that precursor expression is not drug-specific. These data suggest that individual overproduced P-glycoprotein family members are translated as distinct polypeptides. The results may help to explain the diversity in the multidrug-resistant phenotype. Images PMID:2897689

  9. Self-nanoemulsifying lipid carrier system for enhancement of oral bioavailability of etoposide by P-glycoprotein modulation: in vitro cell line and in vivo pharmacokinetic investigation.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Naseem; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Khar, Roop K; Jaggi, Manu

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this work is intended to investigate the potential of self-nanoemulsifying (SNE) drug delivery system for enhanced oral bioavailability of etoposide by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) modulation. The components of SNE formulation were optimized by their solubilization and emulsification efficiency. The ternary phase diagrams provided nanoemulsion existence ranges and the corresponding formulations were developed and evaluated via thermodynamic and dispersibility tests. The successful formulations were characterized for various parameters including time required for self-emulsification, percentage transmittance, droplet size, surface morphology, zeta potential and in vitro release. The etoposide loaded SNE9 formulation showed 2.6- and 11-fold higher permeability coefficient in apical to basolateral direction across Caco-2 monolayers as compared to the Etosid and plain drug solution, respectively. The etoposide loaded SNE9 formulation showed a higher cytotoxicity at the highest tested concentration compared to the blank SNE9 formulation and the free etoposide. Furthermore, an in vivo pharmacokinetic study of etoposide in SNE9 formulation showed 3.2- and 7.9-fold increase in relative oral bioavailability compared with that of etoposide in Etosid and drug suspension, respectively. Thus, the developed SNE drug delivery system could be a valuable tool for the effective oral delivery of etoposide. PMID:23909136

  10. Interactions of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder therapeutic agents with the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hao-Jie; Wang, Jun-Sheng; Donovan, Jennifer L; Jiang, Yan; Gibson, Bryan B; DeVane, C Lindsay; Markowitz, John S

    2008-01-14

    The objective of this study was to assess the potential interactions of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) therapeutic agents atomoxetine--and the individual isomers of methylphenidate, amphetamine, and modafinil utilizing established in vitro assay. An initial ATPase assay indicated that both d- and l-methylphenidate have weak affinity for P-glycoprotein. The intracellular accumulation of P-glycoprotein substrates doxorubicin and rhodamine123 in the P-glycoprotein overexpressing cell line LLC-PK1/MDR1 was determined to evaluate potential inhibitory effects on P-glycoprotein. The results demonstrated that all compounds, except both modafinil isomers, significantly increased doxorubicin and rhodamine123 accumulation in LLC-PK1/MDR1 cells at higher concentrations. To investigate the P-glycoprotein substrate properties, the intracellular concentrations of the tested compounds in LLC-PK1/MDR1 and P-glycoprotein negative LLC-PK1 cells were measured in the presence and absence of the P-glycoprotein inhibitor PSC833. The results indicate that the accumulation of d-methylphenidate in LLC-PK1 cells was 32.0% higher than in LLC-PK1/MDR1 cells. Additionally, coadministration of PSC833 leads to 52.9% and 45.6% increases in d-modafinil and l-modafinil accumulation, respectively, in LLC-PK1/MDR1 cells. Further studies demonstrated that l-modafinil transport across LLC-PK1/MDR1 cell monolayers in the basolateral-to-apical (B-A) direction was significantly higher than in the apical-to-basolateral (A-B) direction. PSC833 treatment significantly decreased the transport of l-modafinil in B-A direction. In conclusion, our results suggest that all tested agents with the exception of modafinil isomers are relatively weak P-glycoprotein inhibitors. Furthermore, P-glycoprotein may play a minor role in the transport of d-methylphenidate, d-modafinil, and l-modafinil. PMID:17963743

  11. Liquid Chromatographic Method for Irinotecan Estimation: Screening of P-gp Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, M.; Negi, L. M.; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Ahmad, F. J.; Iqbal, Zeenat; Khan, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The present work is aimed to develop a simple, sensitive, robust and reliable HPLC method for the estimation of irinotecan in the physiological media in order to assess the permeability profile of irinotecan, using the everted gut sac, in the presence of various P-gp modulators. Separation was achieved using, C18 column with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.045 µM sodium dihydrogen phosphate dihydrate buffer containing ion pair agent heptane sulphonic acid sodium salt (0.0054 µM), pH 3. The flow rate was maintained at 1 ml/min and analysis was performed at 254.9 nm using PDA detector. Calibration data showed an excellent linear relationship between peak-area verses drug concentration (r2, 0.9999). Linearity was found to be in the range of 0.060-10.0 µg/ml. Limits of detection and quantification were found to ~0.020 µg/ml and ~0.060 µg/ml, respectively. The developed method was found to be precise (RSD < 1.5%, for repeatability and <2.55% for intermediate precision, acceptable ranges of precision), accurate (The recovered content of irinotecan in the presence of various P-gp modulators varied from 96.11-101.51%, within acceptable range, 80-120%), specific and robust (% RSD < 2). Developed method has been applied successfully for the evaluation of eleven P-gp modulators from diverse chemical class. PMID:25767314

  12. Regulation of mdr2 P-glycoprotein expression by bile salts.

    PubMed Central

    Frijters, C M; Ottenhoff, R; van Wijland, M J; van Nieuwkerk, C M; Groen, A K; Oude Elferink, R P

    1997-01-01

    The phosphatidyl translocating activity of the mdr2 P-glycoprotein (Pgp) in the canalicular membrane of the mouse hepatocyte is a rate-controlling step in the biliary secretion of phospholipid. Since bile salts also regulate the secretion of biliary lipids, we investigated the influence of the type of bile salt in the circulation on mdr2 Pgp expression and activity. Male mice were led a purified diet to which either 0.1% (w/w) cholate or 0.5% (w/w) ursodeoxycholate was added. This led to a near-complete replacement of the endogenous bile salt pool (mainly tauromuricholate) by taurocholate or tauroursodeoxycholate respectively. The phospholipid secretion capacity was then determined by infusion of increasing amounts of tauroursodeoxycholate. Cholate feeding resulted in a 55% increase in maximal phospholipid secretion compared with that in mice on the control diet. Northern blotting revealed that cholate feeding increased mdr2 Pgp mRNA levels by 42%. Feeding with ursodeoxycholate did not influence the maximum rate of phospholipid output or the mdr2 mRNA content. Female mice had a higher basal mdr2 Pgp mRNA level than male mice, and this was also correlated with a higher phospholipid secretion capacity. This could be explained by the 4-fold higher basal cholate content in the bile of female compared with male mice. Our results suggest that the type of bile salts in the circulation influences the expression of the mdr2 gene. PMID:9020871

  13. Taxol Resistance Mediated by Transfection of the Liver-specific Sister Gene of P-Glycoprotein1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah Childs; Richard Lin Yeh; David Hui; Victor Ling

    The sister gene of P-glycoprotein (Spgp) is a liver-specific ATP-binding cassette protein highly related to the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) family (S. Childs et al, Cancer Res., 55: 2029-2034, 1995). Spgp appears to be related to the Pgp family by an ancient duplication occurring before the division of fish and mammals. P-Glycoproteins have diverse functions including broad specificity multidrug resistance in cell

  14. Compartmental models for apical efflux by P-glycoprotein. Part 1. Evaluation of model complexity

    PubMed Central

    Nagar, Swati; Tucker, Jalia; Weiskircher, Erica A.; Bhoopathy, Siddhartha; Hidalgo, Ismael J.; Korzekwa, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Purpose With the goal of quantifying P-gp transport kinetics, Part 1 of these manuscripts evaluates different compartmental models and Part 2 applies these models to kinetic data. Methods Models were developed to simulate the effect of apical efflux transporters on intracellular concentrations of six drugs. The effect of experimental variability on model predictions was evaluated. Several models were evaluated, and characteristics including membrane configuration, lipid content, and apical surface area (asa) were varied. Results Passive permeabilities from MDCK-MDR1 cells in the presence of cyclosporine gave lower model errors than from MDCK control cells. Consistent with the results in Part 2, model configuration had little impact on calculated model errors. The 5-compartment model was the simplest model that reproduced experimental lag times. Lipid content and asa had minimal effect on model errors, predicted lag times, and intracellular concentrations. Including endogenous basolateral uptake activity can decrease model errors. Models with and without explicit membrane barriers differed markedly in their predicted intracellular concentrations for basolateral drug exposure. Single point data resulted in clearances similar to time course data. Conclusions Compartmental models are useful to evaluate the impact of efflux transporters on intracellular concentrations. Whereas a 3-compartment model may be sufficient to predict the impact of transporters that efflux drugs from the cell, a 5-compartment model with explicit membranes may be required to predict intracellular concentrations when efflux occurs from the membrane. More complex models including additional compartments may be unnecessary. PMID:24019023

  15. Drug transport mechanism of P-glycoprotein monitored by single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, S.; Verhalen, B.; Zarrabi, N.; Wilkens, S.; Börsch, M.

    2011-03-01

    In this work we monitor the catalytic mechanism of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) using single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). Pgp, a member of the ATP binding cassette family of transport proteins, is found in the plasma membrane of animal cells where it is involved in the ATP hydrolysis driven export of hydrophobic molecules. When expressed in the plasma membrane of cancer cells, the transport activity of Pgp can lead to the failure of chemotherapy by excluding the mostly hydrophobic drugs from the interior of the cell. Despite ongoing effort, the catalytic mechanism by which Pgp couples MgATP binding and hydrolysis to translocation of drug molecules across the lipid bilayer is poorly understood. Using site directed mutagenesis, we have introduced cysteine residues for fluorescence labeling into different regions of the nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) of Pgp. Double-labeled single Pgp molecules showed fluctuating FRET efficiencies during drug stimulated ATP hydrolysis suggesting that the NBDs undergo significant movements during catalysis. Duty cycle-optimized alternating laser excitation (DCO-ALEX) is applied to minimize FRET artifacts and to select the appropriate molecules. The data show that Pgp is a highly dynamic enzyme that appears to fluctuate between at least two major conformations during steady state turnover.

  16. Interactions among PIN-FORMED and P-Glycoprotein Auxin Transporters in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Blakeslee, Joshua J.; Bandyopadhyay, Anindita; Lee, Ok Ran; Mravec, Jozef; Titapiwatanakun, Boosaree; Sauer, Michael; Makam, Srinivas N.; Cheng, Yan; Bouchard, Rodolphe; Adamec, Ji?í; Geisler, Markus; Nagashima, Akitomo; Sakai, Tatsuya; Martinoia, Enrico; Friml, Ji?í; Peer, Wendy Ann; Murphy, Angus S.

    2007-01-01

    Directional transport of the phytohormone auxin is established primarily at the point of cellular efflux and is required for the establishment and maintenance of plant polarity. Studies in whole plants and heterologous systems indicate that PIN-FORMED (PIN) and P-glycoprotein (PGP) transport proteins mediate the cellular efflux of natural and synthetic auxins. However, aromatic anion transport resulting from PGP and PIN expression in nonplant systems was also found to lack the high level of substrate specificity seen in planta. Furthermore, previous reports that PGP19 stabilizes PIN1 on the plasma membrane suggested that PIN–PGP interactions might regulate polar auxin efflux. Here, we show that PGP1 and PGP19 colocalized with PIN1 in the shoot apex in Arabidopsis thaliana and with PIN1 and PIN2 in root tissues. Specific PGP–PIN interactions were seen in yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation assays. PIN–PGP interactions appeared to enhance transport activity and, to a greater extent, substrate/inhibitor specificities when coexpressed in heterologous systems. By contrast, no interactions between PGPs and the AUXIN1 influx carrier were observed. Phenotypes of pin and pgp mutants suggest discrete functional roles in auxin transport, but pin pgp mutants exhibited phenotypes that are both additive and synergistic. These results suggest that PINs and PGPs characterize coordinated, independent auxin transport mechanisms but also function interactively in a tissue-specific manner. PMID:17237354

  17. Influence of Intermittent Hypoxia on Myocardial and Hepatic P-glycoprotein Expression

    PubMed Central

    Dopp, John M.; Moran, John J.; Abel, Nicole J.; Wiegert, Nicholas A.; Cowgill, John B.; Olson, E. Burt; Sims, J. Jason

    2010-01-01

    Study Objective The purpose of this study was to determine if intermittent hypoxia that mimics obstructive sleep apnea would upregulate myocardial and hepatic p-glycoprotein protein and Abcb1a/Abcb1b mRNA expression. Design Prospective, randomized, blinded, parallel designed animal study Setting University Research Laboratory Participants Thirty adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats Intervention We assigned rats to either two weeks of intermittent hypoxia similar to sleep apnea (N=12) or control treatment (N=18) (no hypoxia). Measurements and Main Results After intermittent hypoxia or normoxia exposure, rats were anesthetized and the heart and liver were harvested and small samples were taken from the left ventricle (heart) and the liver for analysis. P-glycoprotein protein expression was measured by Western blotting, while Abcb1a/Abcb1b mRNA expression (genes that code for P-glycoprotein) was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Band density of myocardial (but not hepatic) p-glycoprotein protein expression (standardized by ?-actin) was higher in hypoxic compared to control rats (p=0.03). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed that myocardial and hepatic Abcb1a and myocardial Abcb1b mRNA expression were increased in hypoxic rats compared to controls. Conclusions Myocardial P-glycoprotein expression and myocardial and hepatic Abcb1a mRNA expression are significantly increased by two weeks of intermittent hypoxia. Hypoxia-induced increases in p-glycoprotein expression may partially explain drug resistant cardiovascular disease in OSA. PMID:19323616

  18. P-Glycoprotein/MDR1 regulates pokemon gene transcription through p53 expression in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    He, Shengnan; Liu, Feng; Xie, Zhenhua; Zu, Xuyu; Xu, Wei; Jiang, Yuyang

    2010-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp), encoded by the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene, is an efflux transporter and plays an important role in pharmacokinetics. In this study, we demonstrated that the pokemon promoter activity, the pokemon mRNA and protein expression can be significantly inhibited by Pgp. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that Pgp can bind the pokemon prompter to repress pokemon transcription activity. Furthermore, Pgp regulated pokemon transcription activity through expression of p53 as seen by use of p53 siRNA transfected MCF-7 cells or p53 mutated MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, p53 was detected to bind with Pgp in vivo using immunoprecipitation assay. Taken together, we conclude that Pgp can regulate the expression of pokemon through the presence of p53, suggesting that Pgp is a potent regulator and may offer an effective novel target for cancer therapy. PMID:20957096

  19. Epithelial transport of deoxynivalenol: involvement of human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (ABCC2).

    PubMed

    Videmann, Bernadette; Tep, Jonathan; Cavret, Séverine; Lecoeur, Sylvaine

    2007-10-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a major mycotoxic contaminant of cereal grains in Europe and North America. Human and animal contamination occurs mainly orally, and the toxin must traverse the intestinal epithelial barrier before inducing potential health effects. This study investigates the mechanisms of DON transepithelial transfer. Investigations using the human intestinal Caco-2 cell line showed a basal-to-apical polarized transport of the toxin. Both apical-basolateral (AP-BL) and basolateral-apical (BL-AP) transfers were time- and concentration-dependent, and not saturable between 5 and 30 microM DON. Arrhenius plot analysis revealed that transfer of 10 microM DON was temperature-dependent, with apparent activation energy E(a)=3.2 kcal mol(-1) in the AP-BL direction, and E(a)=10.4 kcal mol(-1) in the BL-AP direction. Intracellular DON accumulation was increased and DON efflux was decreased by ATP depletion, by P-glycoprotein inhibitor valspodar and by MRP2 inhibitor MK571, but not by BCRP inhibitor Ko143. Intracellular DON accumulation was then investigated using epithelial cell lines transfected with human P-glycoprotein or MRP2. This accumulation was decreased in LLCPK1-MDR1 and MDCKII-MRP2 cells, compared to wild-type cells, and the decrease could be reversed by valspodar or MK571. Taken together, these results suggest that DON is a substrate for both P-glycoprotein and MRP2. PMID:17543436

  20. Blood Brain Barrier group Multi drug resistance and P-glycoprotein efflux transporter: physiological roles and

    E-print Network

    Applebaum, David

    1 Blood Brain Barrier group Multi drug resistance and P-glycoprotein efflux transporter-binding cassette) transporter family expressed in many tissue barriers (e.g. gut, lung, blood-brain barrier of many drugs to the brain and has been the subject of intensive research in the last 10 years

  1. P-Glycoprotein Function at the BloodBrain Barrier in Humans Can Be Quantified with

    E-print Network

    Baker, Chris I.

    Radiotracer 11C-N-Desmethyl- Loperamide William C. Kreisl1, Jeih-San Liow1, Nobuyo Kimura1, Nicholas Seneca1-gp almost completely blocks brain entry of the PET radiotracer 11C-N-desmethyl-loperamide (11C-dLop). We for radiotracer delivery (blood flow). Key Words: P-glycoprotein; positron emission tomography; N-desmethyl-loperamide

  2. Nocardioazines: a novel bridged diketopiperazine scaffold from a marine-derived bacterium inhibits P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Raju, Ritesh; Piggott, Andrew M; Huang, Xiao-Cong; Capon, Robert J

    2011-05-20

    An Australian marine sediment-derived isolate, Nocardiopsis sp. (CMB-M0232), yielded a new class of prenylated diketopiperazine, indicative of the action of a uniquely regioselective diketopiperazine indole prenyltransferase. The bridged scaffold of nocardioazine A proved to be a noncytotoxic inhibitor of the membrane protein efflux pump P-glycoprotein, reversing doxorubicin resistance in a multidrug resistant colon cancer cell. PMID:21513295

  3. Comparative tissue pharmacokinetics and efficacy of moxidectin, abamectin and ivermectin in lambs infected with resistant nematodes: Impact of drug treatments on parasite P-glycoprotein expression?

    PubMed Central

    Lloberas, Mercedes; Alvarez, Luis; Entrocasso, Carlos; Virkel, Guillermo; Ballent, Mariana; Mate, Laura; Lanusse, Carlos; Lifschitz, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    The high level of resistance to the macrocyclic lactones has encouraged the search for strategies to optimize their potential as antiparasitic agents. There is a need for pharmaco-parasitological studies addressing the kinetic-dynamic differences between various macrocyclic lactones under standardized in vivo conditions. The current work evaluated the relationship among systemic drug exposure, target tissue availabilities and the pattern of drug accumulation within resistant Haemonchus contortus for moxidectin, abamectin and ivermectin. Drug concentrations in plasma, target tissues and parasites were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, the efficacy of the three molecules was evaluated in lambs infected with resistant nematodes by classical parasitological methods. Furthermore, the comparative determination of the level of expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp2) in H. contortus recovered from lambs treated with each drug was performed by real time PCR. A longer persistence of moxidectin (P < 0.05) concentrations in plasma was observed. The concentrations of the three compounds in the mucosal tissue and digestive contents were significant higher than those measured in plasma. Drug concentrations were in a range between 452 ng/g (0.5 day post-treatment) and 32 ng/g (2 days post-treatment) in the gastrointestinal (GI) contents (abomasal and intestinal). Concentrations of the three compounds in H. contortus were in a similar range to those observed in the abomasal contents (positive correlation P = 0.0002). Lower moxidectin concentrations were recovered within adult H. contortus compared to abamectin and ivermectin at day 2 post-treatment. However, the efficacy against H. contortus was 20.1% (ivermectin), 39.7% (abamectin) and 89.6% (moxidectin). Only the ivermectin treatment induced an enhancement on the expression of P-gp2 in the recovered adult H. contortus, reaching higher values at 12 and 24 h post-administration compared to control (untreated) worms. This comparative pharmacological evaluation of three of the most used macrocyclic lactones compounds provides new insights into the action of these drugs. PMID:24533290

  4. Comparative tissue pharmacokinetics and efficacy of moxidectin, abamectin and ivermectin in lambs infected with resistant nematodes: Impact of drug treatments on parasite P-glycoprotein expression.

    PubMed

    Lloberas, Mercedes; Alvarez, Luis; Entrocasso, Carlos; Virkel, Guillermo; Ballent, Mariana; Mate, Laura; Lanusse, Carlos; Lifschitz, Adrian

    2013-12-01

    The high level of resistance to the macrocyclic lactones has encouraged the search for strategies to optimize their potential as antiparasitic agents. There is a need for pharmaco-parasitological studies addressing the kinetic-dynamic differences between various macrocyclic lactones under standardized in vivo conditions. The current work evaluated the relationship among systemic drug exposure, target tissue availabilities and the pattern of drug accumulation within resistant Haemonchus contortus for moxidectin, abamectin and ivermectin. Drug concentrations in plasma, target tissues and parasites were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, the efficacy of the three molecules was evaluated in lambs infected with resistant nematodes by classical parasitological methods. Furthermore, the comparative determination of the level of expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp2) in H. contortus recovered from lambs treated with each drug was performed by real time PCR. A longer persistence of moxidectin (P < 0.05) concentrations in plasma was observed. The concentrations of the three compounds in the mucosal tissue and digestive contents were significant higher than those measured in plasma. Drug concentrations were in a range between 452 ng/g (0.5 day post-treatment) and 32 ng/g (2 days post-treatment) in the gastrointestinal (GI) contents (abomasal and intestinal). Concentrations of the three compounds in H. contortus were in a similar range to those observed in the abomasal contents (positive correlation P = 0.0002). Lower moxidectin concentrations were recovered within adult H. contortus compared to abamectin and ivermectin at day 2 post-treatment. However, the efficacy against H. contortus was 20.1% (ivermectin), 39.7% (abamectin) and 89.6% (moxidectin). Only the ivermectin treatment induced an enhancement on the expression of P-gp2 in the recovered adult H. contortus, reaching higher values at 12 and 24 h post-administration compared to control (untreated) worms. This comparative pharmacological evaluation of three of the most used macrocyclic lactones compounds provides new insights into the action of these drugs. PMID:24533290

  5. Integrated assessment of ivermectin pharmacokinetics, efficacy against resistant Haemonchus contortus and P-glycoprotein expression in lambs treated at three different dosage levels.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Luis; Suarez, Gonzalo; Ceballos, Laura; Moreno, Laura; Canton, Candela; Lifschitz, Adrián; Maté, Laura; Ballent, Mariana; Virkel, Guillermo; Lanusse, Carlos

    2015-05-30

    The main goals of the current work were: (a) to assess the ivermectin (IVM) systemic exposure and plasma disposition kinetics after its administration at the recommended dose, x5 and x10 doses to lambs, (b) to compare the clinical efficacy of the same IVM dosages in lambs infected with an IVM-resistant isolate of Haemonchus contortus, and (c) to assess the expression of the transporter protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in H. contortus recovered at 14 days after administration of the IVM dose regimens. There were two separated trials where IVM was administered either subcutaneously (SC, Experiment I) or intraruminally (IR, Experiment II). Each experiment involved twenty-four (24) lambs artificially infected with a highly resistant H. contortus isolate. Animals were allocated into 4 groups (n=6) and treated with IVM at either 0.2 (IVMx1), 1 (IVMx5) or 2mg/kg (IVMx10). Plasma samples were collected up to 12 days post-treatment and analysed by HPLC. An untreated-control Group was included to assess the comparative anthelmintic efficacy of the different treatments. The level of expression of Pgp in H. contortus specimens obtained from lambs both untreated and IR treated with the different IVM doses was quantified by real time PCR. Parametric and non-parametric tests were used to compare the statistical significance of the results (P<0.05). After the SC treatment, the IVM plasma area under the concentration-time curve (AUC0-LOQ) increased from 41.9 (IVMSCx1) up to 221 (IVMSCx5) and 287 (IVMSCx10)ng.day/mL and after the IR treatment from 20.8 (IVMIRx1) up to 121 (IVMIRx5) and 323 (IVMIRx10)ng.day/mL. Dose-adjusted AUC0-LOQ and Cmax were similar among doses, demonstrating dose proportionality for IVM after both SC and IR administration at the three different doses. The efficacies against resistant H. contortus after the SC treatment were 42% (IVMSC1), 75% (IVMSCx5) and 75% (IVMSCx10). However, the IR IVM treatment reached clinical efficacies ranging from 48% (IVMIRx1) up to 96% (IVMIRx5) and 98% (IVMIRx10). None of the IR IVM treatments increased the expression of P-gp in adult H. contortus at 14 days post-treatment compared to samples collected from the untreated control group. An enhanced parasite exposure of the drug at the abomasum may explain the improved efficacy against this recalcitrant H. contortus isolate observed only after the IR administration at 5- and 10-fold the IVM therapeutic dosage. PMID:25841863

  6. P-glycoprotein expression and pharmacological modulation in larval stages of Echinococcus granulosus.

    PubMed

    Nicolao, María Celeste; Denegri, Guillermo M; Cárcamo, Juan Guillermo; Cumino, Andrea C

    2014-02-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is an ATP-dependent transporter involved in the efflux of a wide variety of lipophilic substrates, such as toxins and xenobiotics, out of cells. Pgp expression level is associated with the ineffective therapeutic treatment of cancer cells and microbial pathogens which gives it high clinical importance. Research on these transporters in helminths is limited. This work describes for the first time the Echinococcus granulosus Pgp (Eg-Pgp) expression, in a model cestode parasite and an important human pathogen. Based on calcein efflux assays in the presence of common Pgp modulators, we demonstrated the occurrence of active Eg-Pgp in protoscoleces and metacestodes. Eg-Pgp, which showed a molecular mass of ~130 kDa in western blots, is localized in the suckers and the tegument of control protoscoleces as well as in the subtegument or all parenchymatous cells of protoscoleces treated with Pgp-interfering agents. We also identified five genes encoding Pgp which are constitutively expressed in protoscoleces and metacestodes. We showed that the Eg-pgp1 and Eg-pgp2 transcripts were up-regulated in response to in vitro drug treatment with amiodarone and loperamide, in agreement with the increased polypeptide levels. Finally, in vitro treatment of protoscoleces and metacestodes with trifluoperazine and loperamide was lethal to the parasites. This indicates that both drugs as well as cyclosporine A negatively modulate the E. granulosus Pgp efflux activity, favoring the retention of these drugs in the larval tissue. These events could be associated with the reduction in protoscolex and metacestode viability. PMID:24120508

  7. Astragalus polysaccharides can regulate cytokine and P-glycoprotein expression in H22 tumor-bearing mice

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Qing-E; Li, Huan-De; Yan, Miao; Cai, Hua-Lin; Tan, Qin-You; Zhang, Wen-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the adjunct anticancer effect of Astragalus polysaccharides in H22 tumor-bearing mice. METHODS: To establish a solid tumor model, 5.0 × 106/mL H22 hepatoma cells were inoculated subcutaneously into the right armpit region of Kunming mice (6-12 wk old, 18-22 g). When the tumors reached a size of 100 mm3, the animals were treated as indicated, and the mice were randomly assigned to seven groups (n = 10 each). After ten days of treatment, blood samples were collected from mouse eyes, and serum was harvested by centrifugation. Mice were sacrificed, and the whole body, tumor, spleen and thymus were weighed immediately. The rate of tumor inhibition and organ indexes were calculated. The expression levels of serum cytokines, P-glycoprotein (P-GP) and multidrug resistance (MDR) 1 mRNA in tumor tissues were detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, and quantitative myeloid-derived suppressor cells reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, respectively. RESULTS: The tumor inhibition rates in the treatment groups of Adriamycin (ADM) + Astragalus polysaccharides (APS) (50 mg/kg), ADM + APS (100 mg/kg), and ADM + APS (200 mg/kg) were significantly higher than in the ADM group (72.88% vs 60.36%, P = 0.013; 73.40% vs 60.36%, P = 0.010; 77.57% vs 60.36%, P = 0.001). The spleen indexes of the above groups were also significantly higher than in the ADM group (0.65 ± 0.22 vs 0.39 ± 0.17, P = 0.023; 0.62 ± 0.34 vs 0.39 ± 0.17, P = 0.022; 0.67 ± 0.20 vs 0.39 ± 0.17, P = 0.012), and the thymus indexes of the ADM + APS (100 mg/kg) and ADM + APS (200 mg/kg) groups were significantly higher than in the ADM group (0.20 ± 0.06 vs 0.13 ± 0.04, P = 0.029; 0.47 ± 0.12 vs 0.13 ± 0.04, P = 0.000). APS was found to exert a synergistic anti-tumor effect with ADM and to alleviate the decrease in the sizes of the spleen and thymus induced by AMD. The expression of interleukin-1? (IL-1?), IL-2, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) was significantly higher in the ADM + APS (50 mg/kg), ADM + APS (100 mg/kg) and ADM + APS (200 mg/kg) groups than in the ADM group; and IL-10 was significantly lower in the above groups than in the ADM group. APS could increase IL-1?, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-? expression and decrease IL-10 levels. Compared with the ADM group, APS treatment at a dose of 50-200 mg/kg could down-regulate MDR1 mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner (0.48 ± 0.13 vs 4.26 ± 1.51, P = 0.000; 0.36 ± 0.03 vs 4.26 ± 1.51, P = 0.000; 0.21 ± 0.04 vs 4.26 ± 1.51, P = 0.000). The expression level of P-GP was significantly lower in the ADM + APS (200 mg/kg) group than in the ADM group (137.35 ± 9.20 mg/kg vs 282.19 ± 20.54 mg/kg, P = 0.023). CONCLUSION: APS exerts a synergistic anti-tumor effect with ADM in H22 tumor-bearing mice. This may be related to its ability to enhance the expression of IL-1?, IL-2, IL-6, and TNF-?, decrease IL-10, and down-regulate MDR1 mRNA and P-GP expression levels. PMID:23323011

  8. P-glycoprotein-dependent resistance of cancer cells toward the extrinsic TRAIL apoptosis signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Galski, Hanan; Oved-Gelber, Tamar; Simanovsky, Masha; Lazarovici, Philip; Gottesman, Michael M; Nagler, Arnon

    2013-09-01

    The TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL or Apo2L) preferentially cause apoptosis of malignant cells in vitro and in vivo without severe toxicity. Therefore, TRAIL or agonist antibodies to the TRAIL DR4 and DR5 receptors are used in cancer therapy. However, many malignant cells are intrinsically resistant or acquire resistance to TRAIL. It has been previously proposed that the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) might play a role in resistance of cells to intrinsic apoptotic pathways by interfering with components of ceramide metabolism or by modulating the electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane. In this study we investigated whether Pgp also confers resistance toward extrinsic death ligands of the TNF family. To this end we focused our study on HeLa cells carrying a tetracycline-repressible plasmid system which shuts down Pgp expression in the presence of tetracycline. Our findings demonstrate that expression of Pgp is a significant factor conferring resistance to TRAIL administration, but not to other death ligands such as TNF-? and Fas ligand. Moreover, blocking Pgp transport activity sensitizes the malignant cells toward TRAIL. Therefore, Pgp transport function is required to confer resistance to TRAIL. Although the resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis is Pgp specific, TRAIL itself is not a direct substrate of Pgp. Pgp expression has no effect on the level of the TRAIL receptors DR4 and DR5. These findings might have clinical implications since the combination of TRAIL therapy with administration of Pgp modulators might sensitize TRAIL resistant tumors. PMID:23774624

  9. P-glycoprotein alters blood–brain barrier penetration of antiepileptic drugs in rats with medically intractable epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Aimei; Wang, Cuicui; Chen, Yinghui; Yuan, Weien

    2013-01-01

    P-glycoprotein is one of the earliest known multidrug transporters and plays an important role in resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. In this study, we detected levels of P-glycoprotein and its mRNA expression in a rat brain model of medically intractable epilepsy established by amygdala kindling and drug selection. We investigated whether inhibition of P-glycoprotein affects the concentration of antiepileptic drugs in cortical extracellular fluid. We found that levels of P-glycoprotein and its mRNA expression were upregulated in epileptic cerebral tissue compared with cerebral tissue from normal rats. The concentrations of two antiepileptic drugs, carbamazepine and phenytoin, were very low in the cortical extracellular fluid of rats with medically intractable epilepsy, and were restored after blockade of P-glycoprotein by verapamil. These results show that increased P-glycoprotein levels alter the ability of carbamazepine and phenytoin to penetrate the blood–brain barrier and reduce the concentrations of these agents in extracellular cortical fluid. High P-glycoprotein levels may be involved in resistance to antiepileptic drugs in medically intractable epilepsy. PMID:24348021

  10. Transition state analysis of the coupling of drug transport to ATP hydrolysis by P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Al-Shawi, Marwan K; Polar, Mark K; Omote, Hiroshi; Figler, Robert A

    2003-12-26

    ATPase activity associated with P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is characterized by three drug-dependent phases: basal (no drug), drug-activated, and drug-inhibited. To understand the communication between drug-binding sites and ATP hydrolytic sites, we performed steady-state thermodynamic analyses of ATP hydrolysis in the presence and absence of transport substrates. We used purified human Pgp (ABCB1, MDR1) expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Figler, R. A., Omote, H., Nakamoto, R. K., and Al-Shawi, M. K. (2000) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 376, 34-46) as well as Chinese hamster Pgp (PGP1). Between 23 and 35 degrees C, we obtained linear Arrhenius relationships for the turnover rate of hydrolysis of saturating MgATP in the presence of saturating drug concentrations (kcat), from which we calculated the intrinsic enthalpic, entropic, and free energy terms for the rate-limiting transition states. Linearity of the Arrhenius plots indicated that the same rate-limiting step was being measured over the temperature range employed. Using linear free energy analysis, two distinct transition states were found: one associated with uncoupled basal activity and the other with coupled drug transport activity. We concluded that basal ATPase activity associated with Pgp is not a consequence of transport of an endogenous lipid or other endogenous substrates. Rather, it is an intrinsic mechanistic property of the enzyme. We also found that rapidly transported substrates bound tighter to the transition state and required fewer conformational alterations by the enzyme to achieve the coupling transition state. The overall rate-limiting step of Pgp during transport is a carrier reorientation step. Furthermore, Pgp is optimized to transport drugs out of cells at high rates at the expense of coupling efficiency. The drug inhibition phase was associated with low affinity drug-binding sites. These results are consistent with an expanded version of the alternating catalytic site drug transport model (Senior, A. E., Al-Shawi, M. K., and Urbatsch, I. L. (1995) FEBS Lett. 377, 285-289). A new kinetic model of drug transport is presented. PMID:14551217

  11. Overexpression of P-glycoprotein in L1210/VCR cells is associated with changes in several endoplasmic reticulum proteins that may be partially responsible for the lack of thapsigargin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Seres, M; Poláková, E; Krizanová, O; Hudecová, S; Klymenko, S V; Breier, A; Sulová, Z

    2008-09-01

    L1210/VCR cells, which express an abundant amount of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), were found to be resistant to thapsigargin--an inhibitor of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA). In the current paper, we have studied the possible differences among L1210 and L1210/VCR cells in expression of endoplasmic reticulum proteins involved in the regulation of calcium homeostasis and calcium-dependent processes. Amounts of mRNA encoding both calcium release channels (ryanodine receptor channels--RyR and IP3-receptor channels--IP3R) were found to be at similar levels in sensitive and resistant cells. However, mRNAs encoding IP3R1 or 2 were decreased in resistant cells cultivated in the presence of VCR (1.08 micromol/l), while mRNA encoding RyR remained unchanged. The amount of mRNA for SERCA2 was decreased in resistant cells when compared with sensitive cells. This decrease was more pronounced when resistant cells were cultivated in the presence of vincristine (VCR). Calnexin was found to be less expressed at the protein level in resistant as in sensitive cells. The level of mRNA encoding calnexin was decreased only when resistant cells were cultivated in the presence of VCR. Calnexin was found to be associated with immature P-gp in resistant cells. Thus, differences exist between sensitive and resistant cells in the expression of endoplasmic reticulum proteins involved in the control of intracellular calcium homeostasis or calcium-dependent processes. These changes may be at least partially responsible for the lack of sensitivity of resistant cells to thapsigargin. PMID:18981537

  12. Progesterone-adenine hybrids as bivalent inhibitors of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug efflux: design, synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zeinyeh, Waël; Mahiout, Zahia; Radix, Sylvie; Lomberget, Thierry; Dumoulin, Axel; Barret, Roland; Grenot, Catherine; Rocheblave, Luc; Matera, Eva-Laure; Dumontet, Charles; Walchshofer, Nadia

    2012-10-01

    Bivalent ligands were designed on the basis of the described close proximity of the ATP-site and the putative steroid-binding site of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1). The syntheses of 19 progesterone-adenine hybrids are described. Their abilities to inhibit P-glycoprotein-mediated daunorubicin efflux in K562/R7 human leukemic cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein were evaluated versus progesterone. The hybrid with a hexamethylene linker chain showed the best inhibitory potency. The efficiency of these progesterone-adenine hybrids depends on two main factors: (i) the nature of the linker and (ii) its attachment point on the steroid skeleton. PMID:22868178

  13. Effect of clarithromycin on renal excretion of digoxin: Interaction with P-glycoprotein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroko Wakasugi; Ikuko Yano; Tatsuya Ito; Tohru Hashida; Takahiro Futami; Ryuji Nohara; Shigetake Sasayama; Ken-ichi Inui

    1998-01-01

    We present a digoxin-clarithromycin interaction in two patients in whom digoxin concentrations were unexpectedly increased. The ratio of renal digoxin clearance to creatinine clearance in one patient was lower during the concomitant administration of clarithromycin (0.64 and 0.73) than that after cessation of clarithromycin administration (1.30 ± 0.20; mean ± SD). Because P-glycoprotein could play an important role in the

  14. Ritonavir increases loperamide plasma concentrations without evidence for P-glycoprotein involvement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yorki Tayrouz; Beate Ganssmann; Reinhard Ding; Andrea Klingmann; Rolf Aderjan; Jürgen Burhenne; Walter Emil Haefeli; Gerd Mikus

    2001-01-01

    Background: The antidiarrheal drug loperamide is frequently used to treat ritonavir-associated diarrhea in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. The absence of marked central opioid effects has been attributed to its low bioavailability and its poor penetration of the blood-brain barrier, both of which might be altered by ritonavir, a potent P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P4503A inhibitor.Methods: A 16-mg dose of loperamide

  15. Functional Imaging of Multidrug-resistant P-Glycoprotein with an Organotechnetium Complex1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Piwnica-Worms; Mark Budding; James F. Kronauge; Robert A. Kramer; James M. Croop

    1993-01-01

    The multidrug-resistant P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a M, 170,000 plasma membrane protein encoded by the mammalian multidrug resistance gene (MI)Kl ), appears to function as an energy-dependent efflux pump. Many of the drugs that interact with Pgp are lipophilic and cationic at physio logical pH. We tested the hypothesis that the synthetic -\\/-emitting organ- otechnetium complex, hexakis(2-methoxyisobutylisonitrile)technetium(I) ((\\

  16. Modulation and prevention of multidrug resistance by inhibitors of P-glycoprotein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. I. Sikic; George A. Fisher; Bert L. Lum; Joanne Halsey; Lidija Beketic-Oreskovic; Gang Chen

    1997-01-01

    Intrinsic and acquired multidrug resistance (MDR) in many human cancers may be due to expression of the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp), which is encoded by the mdr1 gene. There is substantial evidence that Pgp is expressed both as an acquired mechanism (e.g., in leukemias, lymphomas, myeloma, and breast and ovarian carcinomas) and constitutively (e.g., in colorectal and renal cancers) and

  17. Serum concentrations of anthraquinones after intake of Folium Sennae and potential modulation on P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yu-Hsuan; Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Yu, Chung-Ping; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Chen, Min-Yu; Hou, Yu-Chi; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee

    2014-10-01

    Folium Sennae (leaves of Cassia angustifolia or senna) is a laxative and a component in diets for weight control. It contains a variety of anthranoids such as sennosides, aloe-emodin, and rhein. In order to measure the serum concentrations of senna anthranoids, Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered with single dose and multiple doses of Folium Sennae. The concentrations of anthranoids in serum were determined by HPLC method before and after hydrolysis with sulfatase and ?-glucuronidase. The results showed that in the serum, aloe-emodin glucuronides and rhein glucuronides were the major metabolites. Traces of rhein free form were present transiently during the early phase, whereas the free form of aloe-emodin was not detected. We also evaluated the modulation effect of Folium Sennae on P-glycoprotein by using the LS 180 cell model which showed that it significantly inhibited P-glycoprotein by 16-46?%. In conclusion, senna anthranoids were rapidly and extensively metabolized to rhein glucuronides and aloe-emodin glucuronides in rats. Folium Sennae ingestion inhibited the efflux function of P-glycoprotein in the intestine. PMID:25177847

  18. Photoaffinity labeling of the multidrug-resistance-related P-glycoprotein with photoactive analogs of verapamil

    SciTech Connect

    Safa, A.R. (Univ. of Chicago Medical Centers, IL (USA))

    1988-10-01

    Verapamil, a phenylalkylamine calcium channel blocker, has been shown to reverse multidrug resistance in tumor cells, possibly by increasing drug retention through interaction with an outward drug transporter of the resistant cells. In this study two photoactive radioactive analogs of verapamil, N-(p-azido(3,5-{sup 3}H)benzoyl)aminomethyl verapamil and N-(p-azido(3-{sup 125}I)salicyl)aminomethyl verapamil, were synthesized and used to identify the possible biochemical target(s) for verapamil in multidrug-resistance DC-3F/VCRd-5L Chinese hamster lung cells selected for resistance to vincristine. The results show that a specifically labeled 150- to 180-kDa membrane protein in resistant cells was immunoprecipitated with a monoclonal antibody specific for P-glycoprotein. Phenylalkylamine binding specificity was established by competitive blocking of specific photolabeling with the nonradioactive photoactive analogs as well as with verapamil. Photoaffinity labeling was also inhibited by 50 {mu}M concentrations of the calcium channel blockers nimodipine, nifedipine, nicardipine, azidopine, bepridil, and diltiazem and partially by prenylamine. Moreover, P-glycoprotein labeling was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by vinblastine with half-maximal inhibition at 0.2 {mu}M compared to that by verapamil at 8 {mu}M. These data provide direct evidence that P-glycoprotein has broad drug recognition capacity and that it serves as a molecular target for calcium channel blocker action in reversing multidrug resistance.

  19. Multidrug-Resistance Gene (P-glycoprotein) is Expressed by Endothelial Cells at Blood--Brain Barrier Sites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carlos Cordon-Cardo; James P. O'Brien; Dolors Casals; Lana Rittman-Grauer; June L. Biedler; Myron R. Melamed; Joseph R. Bertino

    1989-01-01

    Endothelial cells of human capillary blood vessels at the blood--brain and other blood--tissue barrier sites express P-glycoprotein as detected by mouse monoclonal antibodies against the human multidrug-resistance gene product. This pattern of endothelial cell expression may indicate a physiological role for P-glycoprotein in regulating the entry of certain molecules into the central nervous system and other anatomic compartments, such as

  20. Frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the P-glycoprotein drug transporter MDR1 gene in white subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingolf Cascorbi; Thomas Gerloff; Andreas Johne; Christian Meisel; Sven Hoffmeyer; Matthias Schwab; Elke Schaeffeler; Michel Eichelbaum; Ulrich Brinkmann; Ivar Roots

    2001-01-01

    Background: P-glycoprotein, the gene product of MDR1, confers multidrug resistance against antineoplastic agents but also plays an important role in the bioavailability of common drugs in medical treatment. Various polymorphisms in the MDR1 gene were recently identified. A silent mutation in exon 26 (C3435T) was correlated with intestinal P-glycoprotein expression and oral bioavailability of digoxin.Objective: We wanted to establish easy-to-use

  1. eEF-2 Phosphorylation Down-Regulates P-Glycoprotein Over-Expression in Rat Brain Microvessel Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xing Hua; Wu, Xun Yi; Xu, Lan; Fang, You Xin; Wang, Ping; Zhu, Guo Xing; Hong, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Objective We investigated whether glutamate, NMDA receptors, and eukaryote elongation factor-2 kinase (eEF-2K)/eEF-2 regulate P-glycoprotein expression, and the effects of the eEF-2K inhibitor NH125 on the expression of P-glycoprotein in rat brain microvessel endothelial cells (RBMECs). Methods Cortex was obtained from newborn Wistar rat brains. After surface vessels and meninges were removed, the pellet containing microvessels was resuspended and incubated at 37°C in culture medium. Cell viability was assessed by the MTT assay. RBMECs were identified by immunohistochemistry with anti-vWF. P-glycoprotein, phospho-eEF-2, and eEF-2 expression were determined by western blot analysis. Mdr1a gene expression was analyzed by RT-PCR. Results Mdr1a mRNA, P-glycoprotein and phospho-eEF-2 expression increased in L-glutamate stimulated RBMECs. P-glycoprotein and phospho-eEF-2 expression were down-regulated after NH125 treatment in L-glutamate stimulated RBMECs. Conclusions eEF-2K/eEF-2 should have played an important role in the regulation of P-glycoprotein expression in RBMECs. eEF-2K inhibitor NH125 could serve as an efficacious anti-multidrug resistant agent. PMID:25962137

  2. Quantitative investigation of the brain-to-cerebrospinal fluid unbound drug concentration ratio under steady-state conditions in rats using a pharmacokinetic model and scaling factors for active efflux transporters.

    PubMed

    Kodaira, Hiroshi; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Fuse, Eiichi; Ushiki, Junko; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2014-06-01

    A pharmacokinetic model was constructed to explain the difference in brain- and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-to-plasma and brain-to-CSF unbound drug concentration ratios (Kp,uu,brain, Kp,uu,CSF, and Kp,uu,CSF/brain, respectively) of drugs under steady-state conditions in rats. The passive permeability across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), PS1, was predicted by two methods using log(D/molecular weight(0.5)) for PS1(1) or the partition coefficient in octanol/water at pH 7.4 (LogD), topologic van der Waals polar surface area, and van der Waals surface area of the basic atoms for PS1(2). The coefficients of each parameter were determined using previously reported in situ rat BBB permeability. Active transport of drugs by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) measured in P-gp- and Bcrp-overexpressing cells was extrapolated to in vivo by introducing scaling factors. Brain- and CSF-to-plasma unbound concentration ratios (Kp,uu,brain and Kp,uu,CSF, respectively) of 19 compounds, including P-gp and Bcrp substrates (daidzein, dantrolene, flavopiridol, genistein, loperamide, quinidine, and verapamil), were simultaneously fitted to the equations in a three-compartment model comprising blood, brain, and CSF compartments. The calculated Kp,uu,brain and Kp,uu,CSF of 17 compounds were within a factor of three of experimental values. Kp,uu,CSF values of genistein and loperamide were outliers of the prediction, and Kp,uu,brain of dantrolene also became an outlier when PS1(2) was used. Kp,uu,CSF/brain of the 19 compounds was within a factor of three of experimental values. In conclusion, the Kp,uu,CSF/brain of drugs, including P-gp and Bcrp substrates, could be successfully explained by a kinetic model using scaling factors combined with in vitro evaluation of P-gp and Bcrp activities. PMID:24644297

  3. [(11)C-carbonyl]CEP-32496: radiosynthesis, biodistribution and PET study of brain uptake in P-gp/BCRP knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Shimoda, Yoko; Yui, Joji; Fujinaga, Masayuki; Xie, Lin; Kumata, Katsushi; Ogawa, Masanao; Yamasaki, Tomoteru; Hatori, Akiko; Kawamura, Kazunori; Zhang, Ming-Rong

    2014-08-01

    CEP-32496 is a novel, orally active serine/threonine-protein kinase B-raf (BRAF) (V600E) kinase inhibitor that is being investigated in clinical trials for the treatment of some cancers in patients. In this study, we developed [(11)C-carbonyl]CEP-32496 as a novel positron emission tomography (PET) probe to study its biodistribution in the whole bodies of mice. [(11)C]CEP-32496 was synthesized by the reaction of 5-(1,1,1-trifluoro-2-methylpropan-2-yl)isoxazol-3-amine hydrochloride (1·HCl) with [(11)C]phosgene, followed by treatment with 3-(6,7-dimethoxyquinozolin-4-yloxy)aniline (2). Small-animal PET studies with [(11)C]CEP-32496 indicated that radioactivity levels (AUC0-90 min, SUV×min) accumulated in the brains of P-gp/BCRP knockout mice at a 8-fold higher rate than in the brains of wild-type mice. PMID:24930831

  4. Coniferyl Ferulate, a Strong Inhibitor of Glutathione S-Transferase Isolated from Radix Angelicae sinensis, Reverses Multidrug Resistance and Downregulates P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang; Wu, Chuanhong; Lu, Xinhua; Yan, Zhiyong; Gao, Jian; Zhao, Hui; Li, Shaojing

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is the key enzyme in multidrug resistance (MDR) of tumour. Inhibition of the expression or activity of GST has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for the reversal of MDR. Coniferyl ferulate (CF), isolated from the root of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (Radix Angelicae sinensis, RAS), showed strong inhibition of human placental GST. Its 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) was 0.3??M, which was greater than a known GSTP1-1 inhibitor, ethacrynic acid (EA), using the established high-throughput screening model. Kinetic analysis and computational docking were used to examine the mechanism of GST inhibition by CF. Computational docking found that CF could be fully docked into the gorge of GSTP1-1. The further exploration of the mechanisms showed that CF was a reversible noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to GSH and CDNB, and it has much less cytotoxicity. Apoptosis and the expression of P-gp mRNA were evaluated in the MDR positive B-MD-C1 (ADR+/+) cell line to investigate the MDR reversal effect of CF. Moreover, CF showed strong apoptogenic activity and could markedly decrease the overexpressed P-gp. The results demonstrated that CF could inhibit GST activity in a concentration-dependent manner and showed a potential MDR reversal effect for antitumour adjuvant therapy. PMID:24058374

  5. Thyroid Hormone Regulates the Expression and Function of P-glycoprotein in Caco-2 Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoki Nishio; Toshiya Katsura; Ken-ichi Inui

    2008-01-01

    Purpose  In patients with thyroid disorders, abnormalities in the pharmacokinetics of various drugs including digoxin, a substrate\\u000a of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) which plays a crucial role in drug absorption and disposition, have been reported. In this study,\\u000a we examined the effect of 3,5,3?-l-triiodothyronine (T3) on the function and expression of Pgp using the human intestinal epithelial cell line Caco-2.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods  The

  6. SAR studies of dihydro-beta-agarofuran sesquiterpenes as inhibitors of the multidrug-resistance phenotype in a Leishmania tropica line overexpressing a P-glycoprotein-like transporter.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Selva, Fernando; Campillo, Mercedes; Reyes, Carolina P; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Castanys, Santiago; Bazzocchi, Isabel L; Pardo, Leonardo; Gamarro, Francisco; Ravelo, Angel G

    2004-01-29

    A series of dihydro-beta-agarofuran sesquiterpenes isolated from the leaves of Maytenus cuzcoina (1-10) or semisynthetic derivatives (11-30) have been tested on a multidrug-resistant Leishmania tropica line overexpressing a P-glycoprotein-like transporter to determine their ability to revert the resistance phenotype and to modulate intracellular drug accumulation. Almost all natural compounds showed potent reversal activity with different degrees of selectivity. Compounds 2, 7, and 8 are the most effective reversal agents tested against the multidrug resistance phenotype of Leishmania. Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationships using the comparative molecular similarity indices analysis (CoMSIA) were employed to characterize the steric (contribution of 5.4%), electrostatic (58.9%), lipophilic (10.0%), and hydrogen-bond-donor (13.3%) and -acceptor (7.5%) requirements of these sesquiterpenes as modulators at the P-glycoprotein-like transporter. The most salient features of these requirements are the H-bond interaction between the substituents at the C-2 and C-6 positions with the receptor. PMID:14736239

  7. Enhanced oral bioavailability of paclitaxel by concomitant use of absorption enhancers and P-glycoprotein inhibitors in rats.

    PubMed

    Montaseri, Hashem; Mohammadi-Samani, Soleiman; Zarea, Bijan; Sobhani, Zahra; Ahmadi, Fatemeh

    2013-12-01

    Paclitaxel (PCT) is a cytotoxic agent with a broad antineoplastic activity. IV formulation of PCT causes hypersensitivity reactions in some patients and oral administration is an alternative to decrease the side effects. PCT is not orally available because of low solubility, lack of intestinal permeability, and efflux by pumps in intestinal wall. PCT solution in cremophor EL: ethanol (100 mg/kg) was administered orally to rats after pre-treatment by mefenamic acid, ibuprofen, verapamil, cyclosporine, and verapamil+ibuprofen in individual groups. Ibuprofen presented positive effect on intestinal permeation of PCT. C(max) and area under the serum concentration versus time curve (AUC) after pre-treatment by ibuprofen was decreased when the oral dose of PCT was decreased to 50 and 25 mg/kg, while dose-blood concentration relationship was nonlinear. Rise in oral bioavailability of PCT after pre-treatment by cyclosporine was lower than ibuprofen. It seems that by using ibuprofen in concomitant with potent P-gp inhibitors before PCT solution, oral delivery of PCT could be promising. PMID:24090921

  8. Temozolomide down-regulates P-glycoprotein in human blood-brain barrier cells by disrupting Wnt3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Riganti, Chiara; Salaroglio, Iris C; Pinzňn-Daza, Martha L; Caldera, Valentina; Campia, Ivana; Kopecka, Joanna; Mellai, Marta; Annovazzi, Laura; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Bosia, Amalia; Ghigo, Dario; Schiffer, Davide

    2014-02-01

    Low delivery of many anticancer drugs across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a limitation to the success of chemotherapy in glioblastoma. This is because of the high levels of ATP-binding cassette transporters like P-glycoprotein (Pgp/ABCB1), which effluxes drugs back to the bloodstream. Temozolomide is one of the few agents able to cross the BBB; its effects on BBB cells permeability and Pgp activity are not known. We found that temozolomide, at therapeutic concentration, increased the transport of Pgp substrates across human brain microvascular endothelial cells and decreased the expression of Pgp. By methylating the promoter of Wnt3 gene, temozolomide lowers the endogenous synthesis of Wnt3 in BBB cells, disrupts the Wnt3/glycogen synthase kinase 3/?-catenin signaling, and reduces the binding of ?-catenin on the promoter of mdr1 gene, which encodes for Pgp. In co-culture models of BBB cells and human glioblastoma cells, pre-treatment with temozolomide increases the delivery, cytotoxicity, and antiproliferative effects of doxorubicin, vinblastine, and topotecan, three substrates of Pgp that are usually poorly delivered across BBB. Our work suggests that temozolomide increases the BBB permeability of drugs that are normally effluxed by Pgp back to the bloodstream. These findings may pave the way to new combinatorial chemotherapy schemes in glioblastoma. PMID:23771630

  9. Piperine, a piperidine alkaloid from Piper nigrum re-sensitizes P-gp, MRP1 and BCRP dependent multidrug resistant cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sen Li; Yu Lei; Yingjie Jia; Na Li; Michael Wink; Yonggang Ma

    Over-expression of P-gp, MRP1 and BCRP in tumor cells is one of the important mechanisms leading to multidrug resistance (MDR), which impairs the efficacy of chemotherapy. P-gp, MRP1 and BCRP are ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) transporters, which can expel a variety of lipophilic anti-cancer drugs and protect tumor cells. During a screening of MDR reversal agents among alkaloids of various structural

  10. Poloxamines display a multiple inhibitory activity of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Cuestas, María L; Sosnik, Alejandro; Mathet, Verónica L

    2011-08-01

    Primary hepatocellular carcinoma is the third most common fatal cancer worldwide with more than 500,000 annual deaths. Approximately 40% of the patients with HCC showed tumoral overexpression of transmembrane proteins belonging to the ATP-binding cassette protein superfamily (ABC) which pump drugs out of cells. The overexpression of these efflux transporters confers on the cells a multiple drug resistance phenotype, which is considered a crucial cause of treatment refractoriness in patients with cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effect of different concentrations of pH- and temperature-responsive X-shaped poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide) block copolymers (poloxamines, Tetronic, PEO-PPO) showing a wide range of molecular weights and EO/PO ratios on the functional activity of three different ABC proteins, namely P-glycoprotein (P-gp or MDR1), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), and multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP1, in two human hepatocarcinoma cell lines, HepG2 and Huh7. First, the cytotoxicity of the different copolymers (at different concentrations) on both liver carcinoma cell lines was thoroughly evaluated by means of apoptosis analysis using annexin V and propidium iodide (PI). Thus, viable cells (AV-/PI-), early apoptotic cells (AV+/PI-) and late apoptotic cells (V-FITC+/PI+) were identified. Results pointed out copolymers of intermediate to high hydrophobicity and intermediate molecular weight (e.g., T904) as the most cytotoxic. Then, DiOC2, rhodamine 123 and vinblastine were used as differential substrates of these pumps. HeLa, an epithelial cell line of human cervical cancer that does not express P-gp, was used exclusively as a control and enabled the discerning between P-gp and MRP1 inhibition. Moderate to highly hydrophobic poloxamines T304, T904 and T1301 showed inhibitory activity against P-gp and BCRP but not against MRP1 in both hepatic cell lines. A remarkable dependence of this effect on the copolymer concentration and hydrophobicity was found. No inhibitory effect against these ABC pumps was observed with the hydrophilic T1107. These findings further evidence the potential usefulness of these Trojan horses as both drug nanocarriers and ABC inhibitors in hepatic MDR tumors and infections that involve the activity of these efflux transporters. PMID:21591727

  11. Relationship between expression of P-glycoprotein and efficacy of trifluoperazine in multidrug-resistant cells.

    PubMed

    Ganapathi, R; Kuo, T; Teeter, L; Grabowski, D; Ford, J

    1991-01-01

    Tumor cell resistance due to enhanced efflux of drugs with diverse structures and/or mechanisms of action is termed multidrug resistance (MDR), and modulation of the MDR phenotype by calcium blockers or calmodulin inhibitors is suggested to involve P-glycoprotein. In drug-sensitive (S) and 5-fold doxorubicin (DOX)-resistant (R0) L1210 mouse leukemia cells, no obvious differences in mdr mRNA or P-glycoprotein expression or alterations in cellular uptake, retention, or cytotoxicity of vincristine (VCR) were observed. However, in the 10-fold (R1) and 40-fold (R2) DOX-resistant sublines, expression of P-glycoprotein was correlated with the level of resistance (R2 greater than R1). An RNase protection assay revealed that elevated levels of mdr1 and mdr2 mRNA were detected in R1 and R2 cells, with an additional increase in mdr3 mRNA in the R2 subline. Further, in the R1 and R2 sublines, no VCR dose-dependent cytotoxicity was apparent, and cell kill of greater than 40% was not achievable following a 3-hr drug exposure. Cellular uptake and retention of VCR were 2- to 4-fold lower in the R1 and R2 sublines, compared with similarly treated S or R0 cells. Potentiation of VCR cytotoxicity by a noncytotoxic concentration of 5 microM trifluoperazine (TFP) was greater than 2-fold in S and R0 cells and less than 1.3-fold in the R1 and R2 sublines. Modulation of VCR uptake by 5 microM TFP in the S and R0 cells was 2-fold and it was 4- to 7-fold in the R1 and R2 sublines. The presence of 5 microM TFP, by competing for efflux, enhanced VCR retention 1.5-fold in S and R0 cells and 2- to 4-fold in the R1 and R2 sublines. In contrast to these results with VCR, dose-dependent cytotoxicity of DOX was apparent in all the resistant sublines, and modulation of DOX cytotoxicity by 5 microM TFP was dependent on the level of resistance. Cellular accumulation of DOX was 20 and 50% lower in the R1 and R2 sublines, respectively, compared with similarly treated S or R0 cells. Marked increases (greater than 1.5-fold) in cellular accumulation of DOX by TFP were apparent only in the R2 subline. Results suggest that a relationship between overexpression of P-glycoprotein isoforms and their role in affecting cellular drug levels and consequent cytotoxicity in MDR L1210 cells determines resistance to VCR but not DOX.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:1670962

  12. Transgenically expressed Parascaris P-glycoprotein-11 can modulate ivermectin susceptibility in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Janssen, I Jana I; Krücken, Jürgen; Demeler, Janina; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2015-08-01

    P-glycoproteins (Pgps) are suspected to mediate drug extrusion in nematodes contributing to macrocyclic lactone resistance. This association was recently shown for Parascaris Pgp-11. Ivermectin resistance was correlated with the presence of three pgp-11 single nucleotide polymorphisms and/or increased pgp-11 mRNA levels. In the present study, the ability of Pgp-11 to modulate ivermectin susceptibility was investigated by its expression in a pgp-11-deficient Caenorhabditis elegans strain. Expression of Parascaris pgp-11 in two transgenic lines significantly decreased ivermectin susceptibility in a motility (thrashing) assay conducted in liquid medium. The EC50 values increased by 3.2- and 4.6-fold in the two lines relative to a transgenic control strain. This is the first report on the successful functional analysis of a parasitic nematode Pgp in the model organism C.?elegans. PMID:25905032

  13. P-Glycoprotein Does Not Reduce Substrate Concentration from the Extracellular Leaflet of the Plasma Membrane in Living Cells1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Chen; Alok C. Pant; Sanford M. Simon

    2001-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a member of the ATP-binding cassette family of transporters, is an important mediator of multidrug resistance in cancer. Pgp exhibits a very broad specificity for substrates. These substrates share a common feature of being amphipathic and can orient into either leaflet of the membrane bilayer. Current evidence suggests that Pgp recognizes and extracts substrates from the membrane bilayer,

  14. High multidrug resistance (P-glycoprotein 170) expression in inflammatory bowel disease patients who fail medical therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard J. Farrell; Ann Murphy; Aideen Long; Suzanne Donnelly; Anil Cherikuri; Dermot O'Toole; Nasir Mahmud; Paul W. N. Keeling; Donald G. Weir; Dermot Kelleher

    2000-01-01

    Background & Aims: The multidrug resistance (MDR) gene codes for a drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein 170 (Pgp-170) expressed on the surface of lymphocytes and intestinal epithelial cells. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) poorly responsive to medical therapy may relate to MDR expression because glucocorticoids are known Pgp-170 substrates. Methods: Using flow cytometry, we measured peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) MDR in 153

  15. Modulation of P-glycoprotein expression and function by curcumin in multidrug-resistant human KB cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Songyot Anuchapreeda; Pranee Leechanachai; Melissa M Smith; Suresh V Ambudkar; Porn-ngarm Limtrakul

    2002-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a phenomenon that is often associated with decreased intracellular drug accumulation in the tumor cells of a patient, resulting from enhanced drug efflux. It is often related to the overexpression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) on the surface of tumor cells, thereby reducing drug cytotoxicity. In this study, curcumin was tested for its potential ability to modulate the

  16. Evaluation of Memory Enhancing Clinically Available Standardized Extract of Bacopa monniera on P-Glycoprotein and Cytochrome P450 3A in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rajbir; Panduri, Jagadeesh; Kumar, Devendra; Kumar, Deepak; Chandsana, Hardik; Ramakrishna, Rachumallu; Bhatta, Rabi Sankar

    2013-01-01

    Bacopa monniera is a traditional Ayurvedic herbal medicine used to treat various mental ailments from ancient times. Recently, chemically standardized alcoholic extract of Bacopa monniera (BM) has been developed and currently available as over the counter herbal remedy for memory enhancement in children and adults. However, the consumption of herbal drugs has been reported to alter the expression of drug metabolizing enzymes and membrane transporters. Present study in male Sprague-Dawley rat was performed to evaluate the effect of memory enhancing standardized extract of BM on hepatic and intestinal cytochrome P450 3A and P-glycoprotein expression and activity. The BM (31 mg/kg/day) was orally administered for one week in BM pre-treated group while the control group received the same amount of vehicle for the same time period. The BM treatment decreased the cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) mediated testosterone 6?-hydroxylation activity of the liver and intestine by 2 and 1.5 fold, respectively compared to vehicle treated control. Similarly pretreatment with BM extract decreased the expression of intestinal P-glycoprotein (Pgp) as confirmed by Western blot analysis but did not alter the expression of hepatic Pgp. To investigate whether this BM pretreatment mediated decrease in activity of CYP3A and Pgp would account for the alteration of respective substrate or not, pharmacokinetic study with carbamazepine and digoxin was performed in BM pre-treated rats and vehicle treated rats. Carbamazepine and digoxin were used as CYP3A and Pgp probe drugs, respectively. Significant increase in AUC and Cmax of carbamazepine (4 and 1.8 fold) and digoxin (1.3 and 1.2 fold), respectively following the BM pre-treatment confirmed the down regulation of CYP3A and Pgp. PMID:24015255

  17. Icaritin reverses multidrug resistance of HepG2/ADR human hepatoma cells via downregulation of MDR1 and P?glycoprotein expression.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Chen, Weigang; Qu, Lili; Wu, Jie; Si, Jin

    2013-12-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) of tumor cells is a serious obstacle encountered in cancer treatment. In the current study a multiple drug?resistant HepG2/adriamycin (HepG2/ADR) cell line was established and its MDR was characterized. Icaritin, an active ingredient isolated from the medical plant Herba Epimedium, was observed to reverse MDR in the present model. Icaritin significantly increased the intracellular accumulation of ADR and decreased the expression of the MDR1 gene in HepG2/ADR cells compared with drug?sensitive HepG2 cells. In addition, the present results showed that icaritin may significantly downregulate the expression of P?glycoprotein. These results indicate that icaritin is a novel and potent MDR reversal agent and may be a promising drug for tumor chemotherapy. PMID:24145579

  18. Doxorubicin and Paclitaxel-loaded Lipid-based Nanoparticles Overcome Multi-Drug Resistance by Inhibiting P-gp and Depleting ATP

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xiaowei; Mattingly, Cynthia A.; Tseng, Michael T.; Cho, Moo J.; Liu, Yang; Adams, Val R.; Mumper, Russell J.

    2009-01-01

    To test the ability of nanoparticle (NP) formulations to overcome P-gp-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR), several different doxorubicin (Dox) and paclitaxel (PX)-loaded solid lipid NPs were prepared. Dox NPs showed 6-8-fold lower IC50 values in Pgp overexpressing human cancer cells than those of free Dox. The IC50 value of PX NPs was over 9-fold lower than that of Taxol® in P-gp-overexpressing cells. A series of in-vitro cell assays were used including quantitative studies on uptake and efflux, inhibition of calcein acetoxymethylester (Calcein AM) efflux, alteration of ATP levels, membrane integrity, mitochondrial membrane potential, apoptosis and cytotoxicity. Enhanced uptake and prolonged retention of Dox were observed with NP-based formulations in P-gp-overexpressing cells. Calcein AM and ATP assays confirmed that blank NPs inhibited P-gp and transiently depleted ATP. Intravenous injection of pegylated PX BTM NPs showed marked anticancer efficacy in nude mice bearing resistant NCI/ADR-RES tumors versus all control groups. NPs may be used to both target drug and biological mechanisms to overcome MDR via P-gp inhibition and ATP depletion. PMID:19383919

  19. BioMed Central Page 1 of 9

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    -gp expression is stimulated in astrocytes activated by various brain insults [5]. P-gp consists of a group: The P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP binding cassette transmembrane transporter, is expressed by astrocytes in the adult brain, and is positively modulated during astrogliosis. In a search for factors involved

  20. Alopecurone B reverses doxorubicin-resistant human osteosarcoma cell line by inhibiting P-glycoprotein and NF-kappa B signaling.

    PubMed

    Xia, Yuan-Zheng; Ni, Kai; Guo, Chao; Zhang, Chao; Geng, Ya-Di; Wang, Zhen-Dong; Yang, Lei; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2015-03-15

    Doxorubicin (DOX) was first used in osteosarcoma in the early 1970s as a first-line antineoplastic drug. However, the occurrence of drug resistance in chemotherapeutic treatment has greatly restricted its use. When resistance to DOX treatment occurs, osteosarcoma may become not only resistant to the drug originally administered but also to a wide variety of structurally and mechanistically unrelated drugs. Thus, there is an urgent need to find ways of reversing DOX chemotherapy resistance in osteosarcoma. Plant-derived agents have great potential in preventing the onset of the carcinogenic process and enhancing the efficacy of conventional antitumor drugs. Alopecurone B (ALOB), a flavonoid, is isolated from Traditional Chinese Medicine Sophora alopecuroides L., and is reported to have potent inhibitory effect on multidrug resistance associated protein 1. In this study, a DOX-resistant osteosarcoma cell line (MG-63/DOX) was established by increasing the concentration gradient of DOX in a stepwise manner. MTT assay, flow cytometry analysis, dual-luciferase reporter gene assay, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis were applied to investigate the reversing effect of ALOB and its underlying mechanisms. The results indicated that ALOB mediated the resistance of MG-63/DOX cells to DOX by inhibiting P-glycoprotein function, transcription and expression. Besides, ALOB also enhanced the sensitivity of MG-63/DOX cells to other conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. Cell viability assay confirmed the reversing activity of ALOB. Furthermore, ALOB increased DOX-induced apoptosis at nontoxic concentration. In addition, ALOB showed inhibitory effect on NF-?B transcription in a DOX-independent manner. Furthermore, NF-?B signaling was suppressed by ALOB in an IKK-dependent manner. These studies not only demonstrate that ALOB is a potential agent for reversal of drug resistant cancers, but also testify that ALOB reverses multidrug resistance by inhibiting P-glycoprotein via NF-?B signaling. PMID:25837271

  1. Rhodamine-123: a p-glycoprotein marker complex with sodium lauryl sulfate.

    PubMed

    Al-Mohizea, Abdullah M; Al-Jenoobi, Fahad Ibrahim; Alam, Mohd Aftab

    2015-03-01

    Aim of this study was to investigate the role of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) as P-glycoprotein inhibitor. The everted rat gut sac model was used to study in-vitro mucosal to serosal transport of Rhodamine-123 (Rho-123). Surprisingly, SLS decreases the serosal absorption of Rho-123 at all investigated concentrations. Investigation reveals complex formation between Rhodamine-123 and sodium lauryl sulfate. Interaction profile of SLS & Rho-123 was studied at variable SLS concentrations. The SLS concentration higher than critical micelle concentration (CMC) increases the solubility of Rho-123 but could not help in serosal absorption, on the contrary the absorption of Rho-123 decreased. Rho-123 and SLS form pink color complex at sub-CMC. The SLS concentrations below CMC decrease the solubility of Rho-123. For further studies, Rho-123 & SLS complex was prepared by using solvent evaporation technique and characterized by using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC). Thermal analysis also proved the formation of complex between SLS & Rho-123. The P values were found to be significant (<0.05) except group comprising 0.0001% SLS, and that is because 0.0001% SLS is seems to be very low to affect the solubility or complexation of Rho-123. PMID:25730814

  2. De Novo Prediction of P-Glycoprotein-Mediated Efflux Liability for Druglike Compounds

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is capable of recognizing and transporting a wide range of chemically diverse compounds in vivo. Overcoming Pgp-mediated efflux can represent a significant challenge when penetration into the central nervous system is required or within the context of developing anticancer therapies. While numerous in silico models have been developed to predict Pgp-mediated efflux, these models rely on training sets and are best suited to make interpolations. Therefore, it is desirable to develop ab initio models that can be used to predict efflux liabilities. Herein, we present a de novo method that can be used to predict Pgp-mediated efflux potential for druglike compounds. A model, which correlates the computed solvation free energy differences obtained in water and chloroform with Pgp-mediated efflux (in logarithmic scale), was successful in predicting Pgp efflux ratios for a wide range of chemically diverse compounds with a R2 and root-mean-square error of 0.65 and 0.29, respectively. PMID:24900570

  3. Characterizing the binding interactions between P-glycoprotein and eight known cardiovascular transport substrates.

    PubMed

    Jagodinsky, Justin C; Akgun, Ugur

    2015-03-01

    The multidrug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is upregulated in cardiomyocytes following chronic ischemia from infarction and hypoxia caused by sleep apnea. This report summarizes the molecular dynamic studies performed on eight cardiovascular drugs to determine their corresponding binding sites on mouse Pgp. Selected Pgp transport ligands include: Amiodarone, Bepridil, Diltiazem, Dipyridamole, Nicardipine, Nifedipine, Propranolol, and Quinidine. Extensive molecular dynamic equilibration simulations were performed to determine drug docking interactions. Distinct binding sites were not observed, but rather a binding belt was seen with multiple residues playing a role in each studied drug's stable docking. Three key drug-protein interactions were identified: hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic packing, and the formation of a "cage" of aromatic residues around the drug. After drug stabilization, water molecules were observed to leak into the binding belt and condense around the drug. Water influx into the binding domain of Pgp may play a role in catalytic transition and drug expulsion. The cytoplasmic recruitment theory was also tested, and the drugs were observed to interact with conserved loops of residues with a strong affinity. A free energy change of astronomical value is required to recruit the drug from the cytoplasm to the binding belt within the transmembrane domain of Pgp. PMID:25729581

  4. Interaction of LDS-751 with the drug-binding site of P-glycoprotein: A Trp fluorescence steady-state and lifetime study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel R. Lugo; Frances J. Sharom

    2009-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) is an ATP-driven efflux pump which binds drugs within a large flexible binding pocket. Intrinsic Trp fluorescence was used to probe the interactions of LDS-751 (2-[4-(4-[dimethylamino]phenyl)-1,3-butadienyl]-3-ethylbenzo-thiazolium perchlorate) with purified P-glycoprotein, using steady-state\\/lifetime measurements and collisional quenching. The fast decay component of P-glycoprotein intrinsic fluorescence (?1=0.97ns) was unaffected by LDS-751 binding, while the slow decay component (?2=4.02ns) was quenched

  5. Differences in the transport of the antiepileptic drugs phenytoin, levetiracetam and carbamazepine by human and mouse P-glycoprotein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steffen Baltes; Alexandra M. Gastens; Maren Fedrowitz; Heidrun Potschka; Volkhard Kaever; Wolfgang Löscher

    2007-01-01

    In view of the important role of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and other drug efflux transporters for drug distribution and resistance, the identification of compounds as substrates of Pgp-mediated transport is one of the key issues in drug discovery and development, particularly for compounds acting on the central nervous system. In vitro transport assays with Pgp-transfected kidney cell lines are widely used

  6. Identification of a P-Glycoprotein-Deficient Subpopulation in the CF1 Mouse Strain Using a Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diane R. Umbenhauer; George R. Lankas; Todd R. Pippert; L. David Wise; Mark E. Cartwright; Steven J. Hall; Carolann M. Beare

    1997-01-01

    There is a subpopulation of the CF-1 mouse strain that is very sensitive to the neurotoxicity induced by the avermectins, a class of natural products widely used in veterinary and human medicine as anti-parasitic agents. This sensitivity results from a lack of P-glycoprotein in the intestine and brain of sensitive animals, allowing increased penetration of these compounds in the blood

  7. Effect of intestinal P-glycoprotein on daily tacrolimus trough level in a living-donor small bowel recipient

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Satohiro Masuda; Shinji Uemoto; Tohru Hashida; Yukihiro Inomata; Koichi Tanaka; Ken-ichi Inui

    2000-01-01

    We have examined whether the expression levels of the intestinal absorptive barriers, MDR1 gene product P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 IIIA4 (CYP3A4), correlate with the trough levels of orally administered tacrolimus in a recipient of small bowel transplant for 4 months. By using a competitive polymerase chain reaction, the expression of MDR1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and CYP3A4 mRNA by intestinal cells

  8. Contributions of hepatic and intestinal metabolism and P-glycoprotein to cyclosporine and tacrolimus oral drug delivery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. F Hebert

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this section is to evaluate the contributions of hepatic metabolism, intestinal metabolism and intestinal p-glycoprotein to the pharmacokinetics of orally administered cyclosporine and tacrolimus. Cyclosporine and tacrolimus are metabolized primarily by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) in the liver and small intestine. There is also evidence that cyclosporine is metabolized to a lesser extent by cytochrome P450 3A5

  9. Selective inhibition of MDR1 P-glycoprotein-mediated transport by the acridone carboxamide derivative GG918

    PubMed Central

    Wallstab, A; Koester, M; Böhme, M; Keppler, D

    1999-01-01

    The acridone carboxamide derivative GG918 (N-{4-[2-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-6,7-dimethoxy-2-isoquinolinyl)-ethyl]-phenyl}-9,10-dihydro-5-methoxy-9-oxo-4-acridine carboxamide) is a potent inhibitor of MDR1 P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance. Direct measurements of ATP-dependent MDR1 P-glycoprotein-mediated transport in plasma membrane vesicles from human and rat hepatocyte canalicular membranes indicated 50% inhibition at GG918 concentrations between 8 nM and 80 nM using N-pentyl-[3H]quinidinium, [14C]doxorubicin and [3H]daunorubicin as substrates. The inhibition constant Ki for GG918 was 35 nM in rat hepatocyte canalicular membrane vesicles with [3H]daunorubicin as the substrate. Photoaffinity labelling of canalicular and recombinant rat Mdr1b P-glycoprotein by [3H]azidopine was suppressed by 10 ?M and 40 ?M GG918. The high selectivity of GG918-induced inhibition was demonstrated in canalicular membrane vesicles and by analysis of the hepatobiliary elimination in rats using [3H]daunorubicin, [3H]taurocholate and [3H]cysteinyl leukotrienes as substrates for three distinct ATP-dependent export pumps. Almost complete inhibition of [3H]daunorubicin transport was observed at GG918 concentrations that did not affect the other hepatocyte canalicular export pumps. The high potency and selectivity of GG918 for the inhibition of human MDR1 and rat Mdr1b P-glycoprotein may serve to interfere with this type of multidrug resistance and provides a tool for studies on the function of these ATP-dependent transport proteins. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10098736

  10. Primary breast cancer imaging with technetium-99m sestamibi and its relation with P-glycoprotein overexpression

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-Luc Moretti; Hervé Azaloux; Dominique Boisseron; Jean-Claude Kouyoumdjian; Jacques Vilcog

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate retrospectively sestamibi scintigraphy in relation to the presence of the 170-kDa P-glycoprotein (Pgp), which represents an expression of multidrug resistance in patients with primary breast cancer. Fifteen women (age range 37–76 years) were referred for technetium-99m sestamibi scintigraphy because of suspicious breast lesions detected by mammography and ultrasonography, and subsequently assessed

  11. The Antidepressant Desipramine Requires the ABCB1 (Mdr1)Type p-Glycoprotein to Upregulate the Glucocorticoid Receptor in Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joyce L W Yau; June Noble; Sarah Thomas; Robert Kerwin; Phillip E Morgan; Stafford Lightman; Jonathan R Seckl; Carmine M Pariante

    2007-01-01

    The mechanisms by which antidepressants regulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis are still unknown. The ABCB1-type multiple drug resistance (MDR) p-glycoprotein (PGP) regulates the HPA axis by limiting the access of glucocorticoids to the brain in mice and humans. Previous work in cell cultures has found that antidepressants enhance glucocorticoid receptor (GR) function in vitro by inhibiting MDR PGP, and therefore

  12. Characterization of a novel brain barrier ex vivo insect-based P-glycoprotein screening model.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Olga; Badisco, Liesbeth; Hansen, Ane Hĺkansson; Hansen, Steen Honoré; Hellman, Karin; Nielsen, Peter Aadal; Olsen, Line Rřrbćk; Verdonck, Rik; Abbott, N Joan; Vanden Broeck, Jozef; Andersson, Gunnar

    2014-08-01

    In earlier studies insects were proposed as suitable models for vertebrate blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability prediction and useful in early drug discovery. Here we provide transcriptome and functional data demonstrating the presence of a P-glycoprotein (Pgp) efflux transporter in the brain barrier of the desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria). In an in vivo study on the locust, we found an increased uptake of the two well-known Pgp substrates, rhodamine 123 and loperamide after co-administration with the Pgp inhibitors cyclosporine A or verapamil. Furthermore, ex vivo studies on isolated locust brains demonstrated differences in permeation of high and low permeability compounds. The vertebrate Pgp inhibitor verapamil did not affect the uptake of passively diffusing compounds but significantly increased the brain uptake of Pgp substrates in the ex vivo model. In addition, studies at 2°C and 30°C showed differences in brain uptake between Pgp-effluxed and passively diffusing compounds. The transcriptome data show a high degree of sequence identity of the locust Pgp transporter protein sequences to the human Pgp sequence (37%), as well as the presence of conserved domains. As in vertebrates, the locust brain-barrier function is morphologically confined to one specific cell layer and by using a whole-brain ex vivo drug exposure technique our locust model may retain the major cues that maintain and modulate the physiological function of the brain barrier. We show that the locust model has the potential to act as a robust and convenient model for assessing BBB permeability in early drug discovery. PMID:25505597

  13. P-glycoprotein mediates drug resistance via a novel mechanism involving lysosomal sequestration.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Tetsuo; Sahni, Sumit; Sharp, Danae M; Arvind, Akanksha; Jansson, Patric J; Richardson, Des R

    2013-11-01

    Localization of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) to the plasma membrane is thought to be the only contributor of Pgp-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR). However, very little work has focused on the contribution of Pgp expressed in intracellular organelles to drug resistance. This investigation describes an additional mechanism for understanding how lysosomal Pgp contributes to MDR. These studies were performed using Pgp-expressing MDR cells and their non-resistant counterparts. Using confocal microscopy and lysosomal fractionation, we demonstrated that intracellular Pgp was localized to LAMP2-stained lysosomes. In Pgp-expressing cells, the Pgp substrate doxorubicin (DOX) became sequestered in LAMP2-stained lysosomes, but this was not observed in non-Pgp-expressing cells. Moreover, lysosomal Pgp was demonstrated to be functional because DOX accumulation in this organelle was prevented upon incubation with the established Pgp inhibitors valspodar or elacridar or by silencing Pgp expression with siRNA. Importantly, to elicit drug resistance via lysosomes, the cytotoxic chemotherapeutics (e.g. DOX, daunorubicin, or vinblastine) were required to be Pgp substrates and also ionized at lysosomal pH (pH 5), resulting in them being sequestered and trapped in lysosomes. This property was demonstrated using lysosomotropic weak bases (NH4Cl, chloroquine, or methylamine) that increased lysosomal pH and sensitized only Pgp-expressing cells to such cytotoxic drugs. Consequently, a lysosomal Pgp-mediated mechanism of MDR was not found for non-ionizable Pgp substrates (e.g. colchicine or paclitaxel) or ionizable non-Pgp substrates (e.g. cisplatin or carboplatin). Together, these studies reveal a new mechanism where Pgp-mediated lysosomal sequestration of chemotherapeutics leads to MDR that is amenable to therapeutic exploitation. PMID:24062304

  14. Polymorphism in the P-glycoprotein drug transporter MDR1 gene: a possible link between environmental and genetic factors in Parkinson's disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Krystyna Honczarenko; Jan Stankiewicz; Zbigniew Sych

    2003-01-01

    P-glycoprotein is a membrane protein encoded by the MDR1 gene, which demonstrates functional polymorphism. It is present in endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier, thus limiting accumulation of its substrates in the central nervous system. Many epidemiological studies suggest an association between pesticides, which are substrates for P-glycoprotein, and Parkinson's disease. It was hypothesized that polymorphism of the MDR1 gene

  15. Binary and ternary combinations of anti-HIV protease inhibitors: effect on gene expression and functional activity of CYP3A4 and efflux transporters

    PubMed Central

    Kwatra, Deep; Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Khurana, Varun; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to identify the effect of binary and ternary combinations of anti-HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) on the expression of metabolizing enzyme (CYP3A4) and efflux transporters [multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistant protein (BCRP)] in a model intestinal cell line (LS-180). Methods LS-180 cells were treated with various combinations of PIs (amprenavir, indinavir, saquinavir and lopinavir), and the mRNA expression levels of metabolizing enzyme and efflux transporters were measured using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The alteration of gene expression was further correlated to the expression of nuclear hormone receptor PXR. Uptake of fluorescent and radioactive substrates was carried out to study the functional activity of these proteins. Cytotoxicity and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) assays were carried out to measure stress responses. Results Binary and ternary combinations of PIs appeared to modulate the expression of CYP3A4, MRP2, P-gp and BCRP in a considerable manner. Unlike the individual PIs, their binary combinations showed much greater induction of metabolizing enzyme and efflux proteins. However, such pronounced induction was not observed in the presence of ternary combinations. The observed trend of altered mRNA expression was found to correlate well with the change in expression levels of PXR. The gene expression was found to correlate with activity assays. Lack of cytotoxicity and ATP activity was observed in the treatment samples, suggesting that these alterations in expression levels were probably not stress responses. Conclusions In the present study, we demonstrated that combinations of drugs can have serious consequences toward the treatment of HIV infection by altering their bioavailability and disposition. PMID:24399676

  16. Accumulation of lactosylceramide and overexpression of a PSC833-resistant P-glycoprotein in multidrug-resistant human sarcoma cells.

    PubMed

    Aouali, Nassera; El Btaouri, Hassan; Dumontet, Charles; Eddabra, Lahcen; Malagarie-Cazenave, Sophie; Madoulet, Claudie; Morjani, Hamid

    2011-04-01

    The selection pressure for resistance to chemotherapy is accompanied by the enhanced expression of ABC proteins and increased cellular glycosphingolipid content. Thus, a possible connection between glycosphingolipid metabolism and ABC proteins in drug resistance has been suggested. In the present study, we established two human multidrug-resistant (MDR) cell lines derived from MESSA sarcoma cells by culturing with increasing concentrations of doxorubicin (DX5 cells) or doxorubicin together with cyclosporin A (GARF cells). Both resistant cell lines overexpressed the MDR1 gene and the wild-type P-glycoprotein at the same level. The cyclosporin derivative PSC833, a potent inhibitor of P-glycoprotein, sensitized DX5 but not GARF cells to the cytotoxic effects of daunorubicin. Moreover, PSC833 increased the nuclear accumulation of daunorubicin and the cellular accumulation of [3H]vinblastine in the DX5 but not in the GARF cells. The cellular incorporation of [3H]-cyclosporin A was lower in DX5 cells compared to MESSA and GARF cells, which incorporated the same level of [3H]-cyclosporin A. Sphingolipid analysis showed that the lactosylceramide level was 2.5- and 5-fold higher in DX5 and GARF cells, respectively, than in MESSA cells. Whereas the pharmacological inhibition of lactosylceramide synthesis was able to reverse only partially the resistance of GARF cells to daunorubicin without significant increase in nuclear accumulation of the drug, the same treatment before the co-treatment with PSC833 and daunorubicin increased the cytotoxic effect of daunorubicin and its nuclear accumulation. These data suggest a possible relationship between lactosylceramide levels and the resistance of P-glycoprotein to modulation by MDR modulators. PMID:21318225

  17. Dual approach utilizing self microemulsifying technique and novel P-gp inhibitor for effective delivery of taxanes.

    PubMed

    Chaurasiya, Akash; Singh, Ajeet K; Jain, Gaurav K; Warsi, Musarrat H; Sublet, Emmanuelle; Ahmad, Farhan J; Borchard, Gerrit; Khar, Roop K

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, concomitant use of self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) and a novel third-generation P-gp inhibitor, GF120918 (elacridar), for the effective transport of taxanes (paclitaxel and docetaxel) across an in vitro model of the intestinal epithelium and uptake into tumor cells were investigated. On the basis of solubility studies and ternary phase diagrams, different SMEDDS formulations of taxanes were prepared and characterized. In caco-2 cell permeation study, paclitaxel-loaded SMEDDS along with GF120918 showed a four-fold increase in apparent permeability, while docetaxel-loaded SMEDDS in combination with GF120918 showed a nine-fold increase in permeability, as compared to plain drug solution. Cell uptake studies on A549 cells were performed with microemulsions formed from both SMEDDS formulations loaded with rhodamine 123 dye and showed good uptake than plain dye solution. Confocal laser scanning microscopic images further confirmed the higher uptake of both SMEDDS formulations in the presence of GF120918. PMID:22439872

  18. Impact of the Herbal Medicine Sophora flavescens on the Oral Pharmacokinetics of Indinavir in Rats: The Involvement of CYP3A and P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jia-Ming; Ip, Siu-Po; Xian, Yanfang; Zhao, Ming; Lin, Zhi-Xiu; Yeung, John Hok Keung; Chan, Raphael Chiu Yeung; Lee, Shui-Shan; Che, Chun-Tao

    2012-01-01

    Sophora flavescens is a Chinese medicinal herb used for the treatment of gastrointestinal hemorrhage, skin diseases, pyretic stranguria and viral hepatitis. In this study the herb-drug interactions between S. flavescens and indinavir, a protease inhibitor for HIV treatment, were evaluated in rats. Concomitant oral administration of Sophora extract (0.158 g/kg or 0.63 g/kg, p.o.) and indinavir (40 mg/kg, p.o.) in rats twice a day for 7 days resulted in a dose-dependent decrease of plasma indinavir concentrations, with 55%–83% decrease in AUC0-? and 38%–78% reduction in Cmax. The CL (Clearance)/F (fraction of dose available in the systemic circulation) increased up to 7.4-fold in Sophora-treated rats. Oxymatrine treatment (45 mg/kg, p.o.) also decreased indinavir concentrations, while the ethyl acetate fraction of Sophora extract had no effect. Urinary indinavir (24-h) was reduced, while the fraction of indinavir in faeces was increased after Sophora treatment. Compared to the controls, multiple dosing of Sophora extract elevated both mRNA and protein levels of P-gp in the small intestine and liver. In addition, Sophora treatment increased intestinal and hepatic mRNA expression of CYP3A1, but had less effect on CYP3A2 expression. Although protein levels of CYP3A1 and CYP3A2 were not altered by Sophora treatment, hepatic CYP3A activity increased in the Sophora-treated rats. All available data demonstrated that Sophora flavescens reduced plasma indinavir concentration after multiple concomitant doses, possibly through hepatic CYP3A activity and induction of intestinal and hepatic P-gp. The animal study would be useful for predicting potential interactions between natural products and oral pharmaceutics and understanding the mechanisms prior to human studies. Results in the current study suggest that patients using indinavir might be cautioned in the use of S. flavescens extract or Sophora-derived products. PMID:22359586

  19. Evaluation of the role of P-glycoprotein in ivermectin uptake by primary cultures of bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells

    E-print Network

    Rose, Jayna M.; Peckham, Sara L.; Scism, Jamie L.; Audus, Kenneth L.

    1998-01-01

    Rose, J.M., Peckham, S.L., Scism, J.L., and Audus, K.L. (1998) Evaluation of the role of P-glycoprotein in ivermectin uptake by primary cultures of bovine brain microvessel endothelial cells. Neurochem. Res. 23, 203-209. PMID: 9475515. Publisher...’s official version: . Open Access version: http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/dspace/. 1 Pl ea se n ot e th at t hi s is a n au th or -p ro du ce d PD F of a n ar ti cl e ac ce pt ed fo r pu bl ic at io...

  20. Effect of furanocoumarin derivatives in grapefruit juice on the uptake of vinblastine by Caco-2 cells and on the activity of cytochrome P450 3A4

    PubMed Central

    Ohnishi, Ayako; Matsuo, Hirotami; Yamada, Shiho; Takanaga, Hitomi; Morimoto, Satoshi; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Ohtani, Hisakazu; Sawada, Yasufumi

    2000-01-01

    The presence of inhibitors of drug efflux transporters, such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), in grapefruit juice (GFJ) was confirmed based on the uptake of [3H]-vinblastine (VBL) by Caco-2 cells.The uptake of [3H]-VBL by Caco-2 cells was significantly increased by the ethyl acetate extract of GFJ as well as by cyclosporin A. The extract was separated on a Cosmosil column and the eluate with 60% methanol increased [3H]-VBL uptake, while the activity to inhibit CYP3A4 was greatest in the 70 and 80% eluates.These results show that the major inhibitor of efflux transport of VBL is different from that of CYP3A4.Further separation of the 60% methanol eluate afforded dihydroxybergamottin (DHBG). Both ethyl acetate extract of GFJ and DHBG increased steady-state [3H]-VBL uptake by LLC-GA5-COL300 cells. Besides DHBG, other furanocoumarins contained in GFJ, such as bergamottin, FC726, bergaptol and bergapten, increased the steady-state uptake of [3H]-VBL by Caco-2 cells.The order of inhibitory potency of these compounds was FC726>DHBG>bergamottin>bergapten>bergaptol. While, the IC50 values for inhibition of CYP3A4 were 0.075, 0.45, 1.0, 1.0 and >20??M, respectively. Bergaptol specifically inhibited VBL efflux.DHBG was thus identified as a candidate for inhibitors of VBL transport, together with other furanocoumarins. Moreover, partly involvement of the P-gp inhibition was suggested.Therefore, the inhibition of efflux transport of drugs as well as of drug metabolism by CYP3A4 could be an important cause of drug-GFJ interaction. PMID:10903978

  1. The multi-xenobiotic resistance (MXR) efflux activity in hemocytes of Mytilus edulis is mediated by an ATP binding cassette transporter of class C (ABCC) principally inducible in eosinophilic granulocytes.

    PubMed

    Rioult, Damien; Pasquier, Jennifer; Boulangé-Lecomte, Céline; Poret, Agnčs; Abbas, Imane; Marin, Matthieu; Minier, Christophe; Le Foll, Frank

    2014-08-01

    In marine and estuarine species, immunotoxic and/or immunomodulatory mechanisms are the crossroad of interactions between xenobiotics, microorganisms and physicochemical variations of the environment. In mussels, immunity relies exclusively on innate responses carried out by cells collectively called hemocytes and found in the open hemolymphatic circulatory system of these organisms. However, hemocytes do not form a homogenous population of immune cells since distinct subtypes of mussel blood cells can be distinguished by cytochemistry, flow cytometry or cell motility analysis. Previous studies have also shown that these cells are able to efflux xenobiotics by means of ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter activities conferring a multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) phenotype. ABC transporters corresponding to vertebrate class B/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and to class C/multidrug resistance related protein (MRP) are characterized in Mytilidae. Herein, we have investigated the relative contributions of ABCB- and ABCC-mediated efflux within the different hemocyte subpopulations of Mytilus edulis mussels, collected from areas differentially impacted by chemical contaminants in Normandy (France). RT-PCR analyses provide evidence for the presence of ABCB and ABCC transporters transcripts in hemocytes. Immunodetection of ABCB/P-gp with the monoclonal antibody UIC2 in living hemocytes revealed that expression was restricted to granular structures of spread cells. Efflux transporter activities, with calcein-AM as fluorescent probe, were measured by combining flow cytometry to accurate Coulter cell size measurements in order to get a cell-volume normalized fluorescence concentration. In these conditions, basal fluorescence levels were higher in hemocytes originating from Yport (control site) than in cells collected from the harbor of Le Havre, where mussels are more exposed to with persistent pollutants. By using specific ABCB/P-gp (verapamil, PSC833, zosuquidar) and ABCC/MRP (MK571) blockers, we show that MXR activity is only carried out by MRP-type transporters in M. edulis hemocytes. In addition, cell-type-gated flow cytometry and calculation of the MXR activity factor indicate that ABCC-efflux activity is higher and more inducible in eosinophilic granulocytes than in other hemocyte subtypes. We conclude that, in the hemocytes of M. edulis, MXR phenotype is mediated by an ABCC/MRP-type transporter activity principally supported by eosinophilic granulocytes. A role for ABC transporters in hemocyte migration is discussed. PMID:24345773

  2. Alkamides from Echinacea angustifolia Interact with P-glycoprotein of primary brain capillary endothelial cells isolated from porcine brain blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Mahringer, Anne; Ardjomand-Woelkart, Karin; Bauer, Rudolf; Fricker, Gert; Efferth, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    The blood-brain barrier prevents the passage of toxic compounds from blood circulation into brain tissue. Unfortunately, drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, brain tumors, and other diseases also do not cross the blood-brain barrier. In the present investigation, we used isolated porcine brain capillary endothelial cells and a flow cytometric calcein-AM assay to analyze inhibition of P-glycoprotein, a major constituent of the blood-brain barrier. We tested 8 alkamides isolated from Echinacea angustifolia and found that four of them inhibited P-glycoprotein-mediated calcein transport in porcine brain capillary endothelial cells. PMID:23322561

  3. P-glycoprotein down-regulates expression of breast cancer resistance protein in a drug-free state.

    PubMed

    Bark, Hyun; Xu, Hai-Dong; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Yun, Jisoo; Choi, Cheol-Hee

    2008-07-23

    This study investigated whether P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) are linked in terms of expression. RT-PCR and Western blot analyses showed that the lung cancer cell line SK-MES-1/WT expressed BCRP. In a drug-free state, BCRP expression was significantly down-regulated in doxorubicin-resistant SK-MES-1/DX1000 cells overexpressing Pgp. Pharmacological inhibitors (PSC833 or verapamil) or siRNA for Pgp inhibited the down-regulation of BCRP, which was confirmed by confocal microscopy. PSC833 induced the phosphorylation of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and c-Jun, while the JNK inhibitor SP600125 inhibited this effect. Dominant negative c-Jun decreased the expression of BCRP, but increased that of Pgp. These results indicate that Pgp down-regulates BCRP expression in a drug-free state in which JNK/c-Jun is involved. PMID:18588889

  4. XIAP and P-glycoprotein co-expression is related to imatinib resistance in chronic myeloid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Silva, Karina Lani; de Souza, Paloma Silva; Nestal de Moraes, Gabriela; Moellmann-Coelho, Arthur; Vasconcelos, Flavia da Cunha; Maia, Raquel Ciuvalschi

    2013-10-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and XIAP co-expression has been discussed in the process of the acquisition of multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer. Here, we evaluated XIAP and Pgp expression in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) samples, showing a positive correlation between them. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of imatinib in XIAP and Pgp expression using CML cell lines K562 (Pgp(-)) and K562-Lucena (Pgp(+)). Imatinib increased XIAP and Pgp expression in K562-Lucena cells, while in K562 cells a downregulation of these proteins was observed, suggesting that imatinib induces an increment of MDR phenotype of CML cells that previously exhibit high levels of Pgp/XIAP co-expression. PMID:23891189

  5. Drug Resistance in Cortical and Hippocampal Slices from Resected Tissue of Epilepsy Patients: No Significant Impact of P-Glycoprotein and Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sandow, Nora; Kim, Simon; Raue, Claudia; Päsler, Dennis; Klaft, Zin-Juan; Antonio, Leandro Leite; Hollnagel, Jan Oliver; Kovacs, Richard; Kann, Oliver; Horn, Peter; Vajkoczy, Peter; Holtkamp, Martin; Meencke, Heinz-Joachim; Cavalheiro, Esper A.; Pragst, Fritz; Gabriel, Siegrun; Lehmann, Thomas-Nicolas; Heinemann, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Drug resistant patients undergoing epilepsy surgery have a good chance to become sensitive to anticonvulsant medication, suggesting that the resected brain tissue is responsible for drug resistance. Here, we address the question whether P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) expressed in the resected tissue contribute to drug resistance in vitro. Effects of anti-epileptic drugs [carbamazepine (CBZ), sodium valproate, phenytoin] and two unspecific inhibitors of Pgp and MRPs [verapamil (VPM) and probenecid (PBN)] on seizure-like events (SLEs) induced in slices from 35 hippocampal and 35 temporal cortex specimens of altogether 51 patients (161 slices) were studied. Although in slice preparations the blood brain barrier is not functional, we found that SLEs predominantly persisted in the presence of anticonvulsant drugs (90%) and also in the presence of VPM and PBN (86%). Following subsequent co-administration of anti-epileptic drugs and drug transport inhibitors, SLEs continued in 63% of 143 slices. Drug sensitivity in slices was recognized either as transition to recurrent epileptiform transients (30%) or as suppression (7%), particularly by perfusion with CBZ in PBN containing solutions (43, 9%). Summarizing responses to co-administration from more than one slice per patient revealed that suppression of seizure-like activity in all slices was only observed in 7% of patients. Patients whose tissue was completely or partially sensitive (65%) presented with higher seizure frequencies than those with resistant tissue (35%). However, corresponding subgroups of patients do not differ with respect to expression rates of drug transporters. Our results imply that parenchymal MRPs and Pgp are not responsible for drug resistance in resected tissue. PMID:25741317

  6. Drug resistance in cortical and hippocampal slices from resected tissue of epilepsy patients: no significant impact of p-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated proteins.

    PubMed

    Sandow, Nora; Kim, Simon; Raue, Claudia; Päsler, Dennis; Klaft, Zin-Juan; Antonio, Leandro Leite; Hollnagel, Jan Oliver; Kovacs, Richard; Kann, Oliver; Horn, Peter; Vajkoczy, Peter; Holtkamp, Martin; Meencke, Heinz-Joachim; Cavalheiro, Esper A; Pragst, Fritz; Gabriel, Siegrun; Lehmann, Thomas-Nicolas; Heinemann, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Drug resistant patients undergoing epilepsy surgery have a good chance to become sensitive to anticonvulsant medication, suggesting that the resected brain tissue is responsible for drug resistance. Here, we address the question whether P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs) expressed in the resected tissue contribute to drug resistance in vitro. Effects of anti-epileptic drugs [carbamazepine (CBZ), sodium valproate, phenytoin] and two unspecific inhibitors of Pgp and MRPs [verapamil (VPM) and probenecid (PBN)] on seizure-like events (SLEs) induced in slices from 35 hippocampal and 35 temporal cortex specimens of altogether 51 patients (161 slices) were studied. Although in slice preparations the blood brain barrier is not functional, we found that SLEs predominantly persisted in the presence of anticonvulsant drugs (90%) and also in the presence of VPM and PBN (86%). Following subsequent co-administration of anti-epileptic drugs and drug transport inhibitors, SLEs continued in 63% of 143 slices. Drug sensitivity in slices was recognized either as transition to recurrent epileptiform transients (30%) or as suppression (7%), particularly by perfusion with CBZ in PBN containing solutions (43, 9%). Summarizing responses to co-administration from more than one slice per patient revealed that suppression of seizure-like activity in all slices was only observed in 7% of patients. Patients whose tissue was completely or partially sensitive (65%) presented with higher seizure frequencies than those with resistant tissue (35%). However, corresponding subgroups of patients do not differ with respect to expression rates of drug transporters. Our results imply that parenchymal MRPs and Pgp are not responsible for drug resistance in resected tissue. PMID:25741317

  7. Olomoucine II, but Not Purvalanol A, Is Transported by Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (ABCG2) and P-Glycoprotein (ABCB1)

    PubMed Central

    Hofman, Jakub; Ku?era, Radim; Cihalova, Daniela; Klimes, Jiri; Ceckova, Martina; Staud, Frantisek

    2013-01-01

    Purine cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors have been recognized as promising candidates for the treatment of various cancers; nevertheless, data regarding interaction of these substances with drug efflux transporters is still lacking. Recently, we have demonstrated inhibition of breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) by olomoucine II and purvalanol A and shown that these compounds are able to synergistically potentiate the antiproliferative effect of mitoxantrone, an ABCG2 substrate. In this follow up study, we investigated whether olomoucine II and purvalanol A are transported by ABCG2 and ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein). Using monolayers of MDCKII cells stably expressing human ABCB1 or ABCG2, we demonstrated that olomoucine II, but not purvalanol A, is a dual substrate of both ABCG2 and ABCB1. We, therefore, assume that pharmacokinetics of olomoucine II will be affected by both ABCB1 and ABCG2 transport proteins, which might potentially result in limited accumulation of the compound in tumor tissues or lead to drug-drug interactions. Pharmacokinetic behavior of purvalanol A, on the other hand, does not seem to be affected by either ABCG2 or ABCB1, theoretically favoring this drug in the potential treatment of efflux transporter-based multidrug resistant tumors. In addition, we observed intensive sulfatation of olomoucine II in MDCKII cell lines with subsequent active efflux of the metabolite out of the cells. Therefore, care should be taken when performing pharmacokinetic studies in MDCKII cells, especially if radiolabeled substrates are used; the generated sulfated conjugate may largely contaminate pharmacokinetic analysis and result in misleading interpretation. With regard to chemical structures of olomoucine II and purvalanol A, our data emphasize that even drugs with remarkable structure similarity may show different pharmacokinetic behavior such as interactions with ABC transporters or biotransformation enzymes. PMID:24116053

  8. P-glycoprotein versus MRP1 on transport kinetics of cationic lipophilic substrates: a comparative study using [99mTc]sestamibi and [99mTc]tetrofosmin.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Célia M F; Abrunhosa, Antero J; Pauwels, Ernest K J; Botelho, M Filomena

    2009-04-01

    The multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype in cancer is closely related with the overexpression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and multidrug resistance protein-1 (MRP1). Although conferring resistance to a similar spectrum of drugs, these proteins present distinct transport mechanisms and have their own substrates. In this work, we compared the functional properties of Pgp and MRP1 in the transport kinetics of two cationic lipophilic tracers, [(99m)Tc]sestamibi and [(99m)Tc]tetrofosmin, in cellular models of resistance. Cellular transport kinetics of both tracers was evaluated in Small-cell lung cancer cell line H69 and in its drug-resistant sublines, H69LX4 and H69AR, overexpressing Pgp and MRP1, respectively. Studies were performed in the absence and in the presence of MDR modulators. Kinetic parameters extracted from time-activity curves were analyzed through receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis. The uptake and the efflux rate of both radiotracers were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in sensitive cells. However, MRP1 was more effective than Pgp in removing tracers from the intracellular medium. The addition of verapamil and PSC833 significantly reduced the efflux rate and restored the accumulation of both tracers in H69LX4 cells. Only verapamil was effective in the inhibition of MRP1; however, the effects were more pronounced with [(99m)Tc]sestamibi, when compared to [(99m)Tc]tetrofosmin. Outward transport of radiotracers by MRP1 was dependent on the intracellular glutathione levels. We concluded that both tracers can detect Pgp- and MRP1-mediated drug resistance, based on transport kinetics; however, MRP1 is more effective than Pgp on outward transport of radiotracers. We postulate that this finding can be useful to distinguish between the two resistance mechanisms. PMID:19409044

  9. Quantitative fluorescence microscopy provides high resolution imaging of passive diffusion and P-gp mediated efflux at the in vivo blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Mittapalli, Rajendar K; Manda, Vamshi K; Bohn, Kaci A; Adkins, Chris E; Lockman, Paul R

    2013-09-30

    Quantitative fluorescent microscopy is an emerging technology that has provided significant insight into cellular dye accumulation, organelle function, and tissue physiology. However, historically dyes have only been used to qualitatively or semi-quantitatively (fold change) determine changes in blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity. Herein, we present a novel method to calculate the blood to brain transfer rates of the dyes rhodamine 123 and Texas red across the in situ BBB. We observed that rhodamine 123 is subject to p-glycoprotein mediated efflux at the rat BBB and can be increased nearly 20-fold with p-glycoprotein inhibition. However, Texas Red appears to not be subject to MRP2 mediated efflux at the rat BBB, agreeing with literature reports suggesting MRP2 may lack functionality at the normal rat BBB. Lastly, we present data demonstrating that once dyes have crossed the BBB, diffusion of the dye molecule is not as instantaneous as has been previously suggested. We propose that future work can now be completed to (1) match BBB transfer coefficients to interstitial diffusion constants and (2) use dyes with specific affinities to cellular organelles or that have specific properties (e.g., subject to efflux transporters) to more fully understand BBB physiology. PMID:23916719

  10. Analyzing conformational dynamics of single P-glycoprotein transporters by Förster resonance energy transfer using hidden Markov models

    PubMed Central

    Zarrabi, Nawid; Ernst, Stefan; Verhalen, Brandy; Wilkens, Stephan; Börsch, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Single-molecule Förster resonance energy (smFRET) transfer has become a powerful tool for observing conformational dynamics of biological macromolecules. Analyzing smFRET time trajectories allows to identify the state transitions occuring on reaction pathways of molecular machines. Previously, we have developed a smFRET approach to monitor movements of the two nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) during ATP hydrolysis driven drug transport in solution. One limitation of this initial work was that single-molecule photon bursts were analyzed by visual inspection with manual assignment of individual FRET levels. Here a fully automated analysis of Pgp smFRET data using hidden Markov models (HMM) for transitions up to 9 conformational states is applied. We propose new estimators for HMMs to integrate the information of fluctuating intensities in confocal smFRET measurements of freely diffusing lipid bilayer bound membrane proteins in solution. HMM analysis strongly supports that under conditions of steady state turnover, conformational states with short NBD distances and short dwell times are more populated compared to conditions without nucleotide or transport substrate present. PMID:23891547

  11. Mitochondrial P-glycoprotein ATPase contributes to insecticide resistance in the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera).

    PubMed

    Akbar, S Md; Aurade, Ravindra M; Sharma, H C; Sreeramulu, K

    2014-09-01

    Cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, is one of the most damaging polyphagous pests worldwide, which has developed high levels of resistance to commonly applied insecticides. Mitochondrial P-glycoprotein (Pgp) was detected in the insecticide-resistant strain of H. armigera using C219 antibodies, and its possible role was demonstrated in the efflux of xenobiotic compounds using spectrofluorometer. The TMR accumulated in mitochondria in the absence of ATP, and effluxed out in presence of ATP; the process of efflux was inhibited in the presence of ortho-vandate, an inhibitor of Pgp, in insecticide-resistant larvae of H. armigera. The mitochondria isolated from insecticide-resistant larvae were resistant to insecticide-induced inhibition of oxygen consumption and cytochrome c release. Membrane potential decreased in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of higher concentration of insecticides (>50 µM) in mitochondria of insecticide-resistant larvae. In conclusion, mitochondrial Pgp ATPase detected in the insecticide-resistant larvae influenced the efflux of xenobiotic compounds. Pgp might be involved in protecting the mitochondrial DNA and the components of the electron transport chain from damage due to insecticides, and contributing to the resistance to the deleterious effects of insecticides on the growth of insecticide-resistant H. armigera larvae. PMID:24756730

  12. Modulation of the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein: Detection with technetium-99m-sestamibi in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Luker, G.D.; Fracasso, P.M.; Dobkin, J.; Piwnica-Worms, D. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1997-03-01

    Overexpression of the multidrug resistance (MDR1) P-glycoprotein (Pgp) has been documented in nearly all forms of human cancers and increased levels of Pgp in some tumors correlate with poor response to treatment. Technetium-99m-sestamibi has recently been validated as a Pgp transport substrate. Pgp is also normally expressed along the biliary canalicular surface of hepatocytes and the luminal side of proximal tubule cells in the kidney, while not expressed in heart. Focused on these organs with known Pgp status, we present the findings on {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi showed normal, prompt clearance of the radiotracer from the liver and kidneys relative to the heart. After administration of the Pgp modulator, {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi was selectively retained in the liver and kidneys. Hepatobiliary and renal clearance of {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi are Pgp-mediated, and inhibition of Pgp transport in these organs can be successfully imaged using {sup 99m}Tc-sestamibi in patients. Similar results might be expected with this and related radiopharmaceuticals for functional imaging of Pgp transport and modulation in tumors. 34 refs., 2 figs.

  13. PARP Inhibitors as P-glyoprotein Substrates.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Denise; Martin, Patricia; Busschots, Steven; Thery, Julien; O'Leary, John J; Hennessy, Bryan T; Stordal, Britta

    2014-06-01

    The cytotoxicity of PARP inhibitors olaparib, veliparib, and CEP-8983 were investigated in two P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpressing drug-resistant cell models (IGROVCDDP and KB-8-5-11). IGROVCDDP and KB-8-5-11 were both resistant to olaparib and resistance was reversible with the P-gp inhibitors elacridar, zosuquidar, and valspodar. In contrast, the P-gp overexpressing models were not resistant to veliparib or CEP-8983. Olaparib and veliparib did not induce protein expression of P-gp in IGROVCDDP or KB-8-5-11 at doses that successfully inhibit PARP. Olaparib therefore appears to be a P-gp substrate. Veliparib and CEP-8983 do not appear to be substrates. Veliparib and CEP-8983 may therefore be more useful in combined chemotherapy regimens with P-gp substrates and may be active in platinum and taxane-resistant ovarian cancer. PMID:24700236

  14. The role of the transporter P-glycoprotein for disposition and effects of centrally acting drugs and for the pathogenesis of CNS diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norbert Thuerauf; Martin Friedrich Fromm

    2006-01-01

    The MDR1 gene product P-glycoprotein is an ATP-dependent efflux pump, which transports its substrates out of cells. It is not only\\u000a expressed in tumor cells, but also in cells of normal tissues. For example, it is located in the apical membrane of enterocytes,\\u000a in endothelial cells forming the blood–brain and blood–testis barriers and in the apical membrane of placental syncytiotrophoblast.

  15. Do P-glycoprotein and major vault protein (MVP\\/LRP) expression correlate with in vitro daunorubicin resistance in acute myeloid leukemia?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. J. Broxterman; P. Sonneveld; R. Pieters; J. Lankelma; C. A. Eekman; A. H. Loonen; M. Schoester; G. J. Ossenkoppele; B. Lowenberg; H. M. Pinedo; G. J. Schuurhuis

    1999-01-01

    Two proteins that have been correlated with the occurrence of multidrug resistance in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and the major vault protein (Mvp\\/LRP). With the purpose of further quantifying the potential contributions of Pgp-mediated drug efflux and Mvp\\/LRP to drug resistance in AML we have investigated whether the transport function of Pgp and the expression of Mvp\\/LRP

  16. 6?,7?-Dihydroxybergamottin in grapefruit juice and Seville orange juice: Effects on cyclosporine disposition, enterocyte CYP3A4, and P-glycoprotein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David J. Edwards; Michael E. Fitzsimmons; Erin G. Schuetz; Kazuto Yasuda; Murray P. Ducharme; Lawrence H. Warbasse; Patrick M. Woster; John D. Schuetz; Paul Watkins

    1999-01-01

    Background: 6?,7?-Dihydroxybergamottin is a furanocoumarin that inhibits CYP3A4 and is found in grapefruit juice and Seville orange juice. Grapefruit juice increases the oral bioavailability of many CYP3A4 substrates, including cyclosporine (INN, ciclosporin), but intestinal P-glycoprotein may be a more important determinant of cyclosporine availability. Objectives: To evaluate the contribution of 6?,7?-dihydroxybergamottin to the effects of grapefruit juice on cyclosporine disposition

  17. Kinetics of Doxorubicin Handling in the LLC-PK1 Kidney Epithelial Cell Line is Mediated by Both Vesicle Formation and P-glycoprotein Drug Transport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Enrico Crivellato; Luigi Candussio; Anna M. Rosati; Giuliana Decorti; Fiora B. Klugmann; Franco Mallardi

    1999-01-01

    The subcellular distribution of doxorubicin was evaluated in living non-fixed LLC-PK1 cells, which maintain the structural and functional characteristics of the kidney proximal tubule epithelium and also express P-glycoprotein. After 10min incubation, doxorubicin fluorescence was detectable in the nucleus. The intensity of nuclear fluorescence progressively increased, reaching the maximum at the end of the first hour. Then, the nuclear signal

  18. The effect of pomelo mix ethyl acetate extract on CYP3A6 and P-glycoprotein gene transcripts in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Irshaid, Yacoub M; Zihlef, Malek A; Zmeili, Suheil M; Al-Antary, Eman T; Zmaily, Mais G; Al-Embideen, Somya N; Amireh, Abdallah O

    2014-07-01

    Pomelo fruit juice and pomelo ethylacetate extract have been shown to increase the bioavailability of some CYP3A substrates. The purpose of this study was to investigate if this effect might be contributed to by changes in CYP3A and p-glycoprotein mRNAs levels in the liver and proximal small intestine. The ethyl acetate extract of pomelo mix was administered for 7 days to 10 rabbits. Nine rabbits were administered tap water for 7 days. The administration was through oral intubation to the stomach. On the 8(th) day, the rabbits were sacrificed, and the liver and the proximal 15 cm of the small intestine were dissected. Total RNA was extracted from the specimens and cDNA was prepared by quantitative real-time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific primers. The ethyl acetate extract of pomelo mix reduced the mRNA expression of CYP3A6 almost 5-folds in the intestine and 2-folds in the liver. In contrast, a 1-fold increase to the p-glycoprotein mRNA expression was observed under the same experimental conditions. In conclusion, the ethyl acetate extract of pomelo mix reduced the mRNA expression of CYP3A6 in both intestine and liver but to different degrees, while the p-glycoprotein mRNA expression was not reduced. PMID:24856265

  19. Interaction of Ritonavir-Boosted Tipranavir with Loperamide Does Not Result in Loperamide-Associated Neurologic Side Effects in Healthy Volunteers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey Mukwaya; Thomas MacGregor; David Hoelscher; Thomas Heming; Daniel Legg; Kelli Kavanaugh; Phillip Johnson; John P. Sabo; Scott McCallister

    2005-01-01

    Loperamide (LOP) is a peripherally acting opioid receptor agonist used for the management of chronic diarrhea through the reduction of gut motility. The lack of central opioid effects is partly due to the efflux activity of the multidrug resistance transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) at the blood-brain barrier. The protease inhibitors are substrates for P-gp and have the potential to cause increased

  20. The value of Tc-99m tetrofosmin scintimammography in the assessment of P-glycoprotein in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Silov, Güler; Erdo?an, Zeynep; Özdal, Ay?egül; Tutu?, Ahmet; Tekin, Yücel; Karaman, Hatice; Turhal, Özgül

    2013-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) overexpression has been shown to be correlated with resistance to chemotherapy in patients with malignant breast tumors. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of technetium-99m-tetrofosmin (99mTc-TF) as a functional imaging agent reflecting Pgp expression in these tumors. We prospectively studied 28 patients (26 females, 2 males; mean age, 53.07±9.88 years; range, 38 to 70 years) with breast cancer to ascertain the relationship between the degree of accumulation (lesion/nonlesion=L/NL) and percentage washout (WO%) rate of 99mTc-TF and expression of Pgp in tumor tissues. All patients received 555-740 MBq of 99mTc-TF intravenously at the arm controlateral to the suffering breast. Planar images were obtained 10 and 120 min post injection from prone lateral and anterior views with an acquisition time of 5 min. Visual and semiquantitative measurements were performed. The L/NL ratios and WO% rates were calculated semiquantitatively. Immunohistochemical studies were performed on paraffin sections using a monoclonal antibody, JSB-1. The L/NL ratios and WO% rates were related with the level of Pgp determined immunohistochemically. Our results showed an inverse correlation between the L/NL ratios of 99mTc-TF and the density of Pgp expression in tumor tissues, whereas there was no appreciable correlation between the tumor WO% rates of 99mTc-TF and the level of Pgp expression (P=0.275). The values for the L/NL ratios were significantly lower for those tumors expressing Pgp at high levels than those with intermediate or no Pgp expression (P<0.002 and P<0.04). In conclusion, although our results warrant further studies, our data strongly suggest that 99mTc-TF imaging is useful to noninvasively determine the presence of multidrug resistance in patients with breast cancer. PMID:24137583

  1. 2'[(18)F]-fluoroethylrhodamine B is a promising radiotracer to measure P-glycoprotein function.

    PubMed

    Trencsényi, György; Kertész, István; Krasznai, Zoárd T; Máté, Gábor; Szalóki, Gábor; Szabó Judit, P; Kárpáti, Levente; Krasznai, Zoltán; Márián, Teréz; Goda, Katalin

    2015-07-10

    In vivo detection of the emergence of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) mediated multidrug resistance in tumors could be beneficial for patients treated with anticancer drugs. PET technique in combination with appropriate radiotracers could be the most convenient method for detection of Pgp function. Rhodamine derivatives are validated fluorescent probes for measurement of mitochondrial membrane potential and also Pgp function. The aim of this study was to investigate whether 2'[(18)F]-fluoroethylrhodamine B ((18)FRB) a halogenated rhodamine derivative previously synthesized for PET assessment of myocardial perfusion preserved its Pgp substrate character. ATPase assay as well as accumulation experiments carried out using Pgp(+) and Pgp(-) human gynecologic (A2780/A2780(AD) and KB-3-1/KB-V1) and a mouse fibroblast cell pairs (NIH 3T3 and NIH 3T3 MDR1) were applied to study the interaction of (18)FRB with Pgp. ATPase assay proved that (18)FRB is a high affinity substrate of Pgp. Pgp(-) cells accumulated the (18)FRB rapidly in accordance with its lipophilic character. Dissipation of the mitochondrial proton gradient by a proton ionophore CCCP decreased the accumulation of rhodamine 123 (R123) and (18)FRB into Pgp(-) cells. Pgp(+) cells exhibited very low R123 and (18)FRB accumulation (around 1-8% of the Pgp(-) cell lines) which was not sensitive to the mitochondrial proton gradient; rather it was increased by the Pgp inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA). Based on the above data we conclude that (18)FRB is a high affinity Pgp substrate and consequently a potential PET tracer to detect multidrug resistant tumors as well as the function of physiological barriers expressing Pgp. PMID:25857708

  2. Effects of nonionic surfactants on membrane transporters in Caco-2 cell monolayers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bhagwant D Rege; Joseph P. Y Kao; James E Polli

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate the transporter inhibition activity of three nonionic surfactants on P-glycoprotein, the human intestinal peptide transporter, and the monocarboxylic acid transporter in Caco-2 cell monolayers, and (2) to evaluate the role of membrane fluidity and protein kinase C in surfactant-induced transporter inhibition. All three surfactants inhibited P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Over a range from

  3. Effect of a P-glycoprotein inhibitor, cyclosporin A, on the disposition in rodent brain and blood of the 5HT1A receptor radioligand, [11C](R)-(––)-RWAY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeih-San Liow; Shuiyu Lu; Julie A. McCarron; Jinsoo Hong; John L. Musachio; Victor W. Pike; Robert B. Innis; Sami S. Zoghbi

    2007-01-01

    Limited brain uptake of radioligands with otherwise optimal proper- ties for imaging brain receptors can be improved by blocking the effect of P-glycopro- tein (P-gp), an efflux pump at the blood-brain barrier. Using small animal positron emission tomography (PET), we investigated how P-gp and its blockade with Cyclospo- rin A (CsA) affect rodent brain uptake of ( 11 C)(R)-(? )-RWAY,

  4. Development and characterization of P-glycoprotein 1 (Pgp1, ABCB1)-mediated doxorubicin-resistant PLHC-1 hepatoma fish cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Zaja, Roko [Laboratory for Molecular Ecotoxicology, Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Caminada, Daniel [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Institute of Ecopreneurship, Gruendenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); University of Zuerich, Institute of Plant Biology, Division of Limnology, Seestrasse 187, CH-8802 Kilchberg (Switzerland); Loncar, Jovica [Laboratory for Molecular Ecotoxicology, Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Fent, Karl [University of Applied Sciences Northwestern Switzerland, School of Life Sciences, Institute of Ecopreneurship, Gruendenstrasse 40, CH-4132 Muttenz (Switzerland); Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Department of Environmental Sciences, CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Smital, Tvrtko [Laboratory for Molecular Ecotoxicology, Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)], E-mail: smital@irb.hr

    2008-03-01

    The development of the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenotype in mammals is often mediated by the overexpression of the P-glycoprotein1 (Pgp, ABCB1) or multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP)-like ABC transport proteins. A similar phenomenon has also been observed and considered as an important part of the multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) defence system in aquatic organisms. We have recently demonstrated the presence of ABC transporters in the widely used in vitro fish model, the PLHC-1 hepatoma cell line. In the present study we were able to select a highly resistant PLHC-1 sub-clone (PLHC-1/dox) by culturing the wild-type cells in the presence of 1 {mu}M doxorubicin. Using quantitative PCR a 42-fold higher expression of ABCB1 gene was determined in the PLHC-1/dox cells compared to non-selected wild-type cells (PLHC-1/wt). The efflux rates of model fluorescent Pgp1 substrates rhodamine 123 and calcein-AM were 3- to 4-fold higher in the PLHC-1/dox in comparison to the PLHC-1/wt cells. PLHC-1/dox were 45-fold more resistant to doxorubicin cytotoxicity than PLHC-1/wt. Similarly to mammalian cell lines, typical cross-resistance to cytotoxicity of other chemotherapeutics such as daunorubicin, vincristine, vinblastine, etoposide and colchicine, occurred. Furthermore, cyclosporine A, verapamil and PSC833, specific inhibitors of Pgp1 transport activity, completely reversed resistance of PLHC-1/dox cells to all tested drugs, resulting in EC50 values similar to the EC50 values found for PLHC-1/wt. In contrast, MK571, a specific inhibitor of MRP type of efflux transporters, sensitized PLHC-1/dox cells, neither to doxorubicin, nor to any other of the chemotherapeutics used in the study. These data demonstrate for the first time that a specific Pgp1-mediated doxorubicin resistance mechanism is present in the PLHC-1 fish hepatoma cell line. In addition, the fact that low micromolar concentrations of specific inhibitors may completely reverse a highly expressed doxorubicin resistance points to the fragility of Pgp1-mediated MXR defence mechanism in fish.

  5. (R)-[11C]verapamil is selectively transported by murine and human P-glycoprotein at the blood–brain barrier, and not by MRP1 and BCRP

    PubMed Central

    Römermann, Kerstin; Wanek, Thomas; Bankstahl, Marion; Bankstahl, Jens P.; Fedrowitz, Maren; Müller, Markus; Löscher, Wolfgang; Kuntner, Claudia; Langer, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Positron emission tomography (PET) with [11C]verapamil, either in racemic form or in form of the (R)-enantiomer, has been used to measure the functional activity of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) at the blood–brain barrier (BBB). There is some evidence in literature that verapamil inhibits two other ABC transporters expressed at the BBB, i.e. multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). However, previous data were obtained with micromolar concentrations of verapamil and do not necessarily reflect the transporter selectivity of verapamil at nanomolar concentrations, which are relevant for PET experiments. The aim of this study was to assess the selectivity of verapamil, in nanomolar concentrations, for Pgp over MRP1 and BCRP. Methods Concentration equilibrium transport assays were performed with [3H]verapamil (5 nM) in cell lines expressing murine or human Pgp, human MRP1, and murine Bcrp1 or human BCRP. Paired PET scans were performed with (R)-[11C]verapamil in female FVB/N (wild-type), Mrp1(?/?), Mdr1a/b(?/?), Bcrp1(?/?) and Mdr1a/b(?/?)Bcrp1(?/?) mice, before and after Pgp inhibition with 15 mg/kg tariquidar. Results In vitro transport experiments exclusively showed directed transport of [3H]verapamil in Mdr1a- and MDR1-overexpressing cells which could be inhibited by tariquidar (0.5 ?M). In PET scans acquired before tariquidar administration, brain-to-blood ratio (Kb,brain) of (R)-[11C]verapamil was low in wild-type (1.3 ± 0.1), Mrp1(?/?) (1.4 ± 0.1) and Bcrp1(?/?) mice (1.8 ± 0.1) and high in Mdr1a/b(?/?) (6.9 ± 0.8) and Mdr1a/b(?/?)Bcrp1(?/?) mice (7.9 ± 0.5). In PET scans after tariquidar administration, Kb,brain was significantly increased in Pgp-expressing mice (wild-type: 5.0 ± 0.3-fold, Mrp1(?/?): 3.2 ± 0.6-fold, Bcrp1(?/?): 4.3 ± 0.1-fold) but not in Pgp knockout mice (Mdr1a/b(?/?) and Mdr1a/b(?/?)Bcrp1(?/?)). Conclusion Our combined in vitro and in vivo data demonstrate that verapamil, in nanomolar concentrations, is selectively transported by Pgp and not by MRP1 and BCRP at the BBB, which supports the use of (R)-[11C]verapamil or racemic [11C]verapamil as PET tracers of cerebral Pgp function. PMID:23845421

  6. Alkaline phosphatase from rat liver and kidney is differentially modulated 1 1 Abbreviations: ABC, ATP binding cassette; ALP, alkaline phosphatase; ATP-DPH, ATP-diphosphohydrolase; DMSO, dimethylsulphoxide; GALP, germ-cell alkaline phosphatase; IBMX, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine; IntALP, intestinal alkaline phosphatase; MRP, multidrug resistance protein; PBS, phosphate buffered saline; PALP, placental alkaline phosphatase; Pgp, P-glycoprotein; p-NPL, p-nitrophenol; p-NPP, p-nitrophenylphosphate; theophylline, 1,3-dimethylxanthine; TNALP, tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria J Martins; Maria R Negrăo; Cândido Hipólito-Reis

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of inhibitors of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and modulators of P-glycoprotein (Pgp), multidrug resistance protein (MRP) and hepatic taurocholate uptake on the activity of tissue-nonspecific ALP (TNALP) in liver and kidney.Design and Results: ALP activity was determined in rat liver and kidney homogenates. Levamisole had a stronger inhibitory effect on renal TNALP than on the hepatic

  7. Systemic and CNS activity of the RET inhibitor vandetanib combined with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus in KIF5B-RET re-arranged non-small cell lung cancer with brain metastases.

    PubMed

    Subbiah, Vivek; Berry, Jenny; Roxas, Michael; Guha-Thakurta, Nandita; Subbiah, Ishwaria Mohan; Ali, Siraj M; McMahon, Caitlin; Miller, Vincent; Cascone, Tina; Pai, Shobha; Tang, Zhenya; Heymach, John V

    2015-07-01

    In-frame fusion KIF5B (the-kinesin-family-5B-gene)-RET transcripts have been characterized in 1-2% of non-small cell lung cancers and are known oncogenic drivers. The RET tyrosine kinase inhibitor, vandetanib, suppresses fusion-induced, anchorage-independent growth activity. In vitro studies have shown that vandetanib is a high-affinity substrate of breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1/Abcg2) but is not transported by P-glycoprotein (P-gp), limiting its blood-brain barrier penetration. A co-administration strategy to enhance the brain accumulation of vandetanib by modulating P-gp/Abcb1- and Bcrp1/Abcg2-mediated efflux with mTOR inhibitors, specifically everolimus, was shown to increase the blood-brain barrier penetration. We report the first bench-to-bedside evidence that RET inhibitor combined with an mTOR inhibitor is active against brain-metastatic RET-rearranged lung cancer and the first evidence of blood-brain barrier penetration. A 74-year-old female with progressive adenocarcinoma of the lung (wild-type EGFR and no ALK rearrangement) presented for therapy options. A deletion of 5'RET was revealed by FISH assay, indicating RET-gene rearrangement. Because of progressive disease in the brain, she was enrolled in a clinical trial with vandetanib and everolimus (NCT01582191). Comprehensive genomic profiling revealed fusion of KIF5B (the-kinesin-family-5B-gene) and RET, in addition to AKT2 gene amplification. After two cycles of therapy a repeat MRI brain showed a decrease in the intracranial disease burden and PET/CT showed systemic response as well. Interestingly, AKT2 amplification seen is a critical component of the PI3K/mTOR pathway, alterations of which has been associated with both de novo and acquired resistance to targeted therapy. The addition of everolimus may have both overcome the AKT2 amplification to produce a response in addition to its direct effects on the RET gene. Our case report forms the first evidence of blood-brain barrier penetration by vandetanib in combination with everolimus. Further research is required in this setting. PMID:25982012

  8. Approaching complete inhibition of P-glycoprotein at the human blood-brain barrier: an (R)-[11C]verapamil PET study.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Martin; Karch, Rudolf; Zeitlinger, Markus; Philippe, Cécile; Römermann, Kerstin; Stanek, Johann; Maier-Salamon, Alexandra; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Jäger, Walter; Hacker, Marcus; Müller, Markus; Langer, Oliver

    2015-05-01

    As P-glycoprotein (Pgp) inhibition at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) after administration of a single dose of tariquidar is transient, we performed positron emission tomography (PET) scans with the Pgp substrate (R)-[(11)C]verapamil in five healthy volunteers during continuous intravenous tariquidar infusion. Total distribution volume (VT) of (R)-[(11)C]verapamil in whole-brain gray matter increased by 273 ± 78% relative to baseline scans without tariquidar, which was higher than previously reported VT increases. During tariquidar infusion whole-brain VT was comparable to VT in the pituitary gland, a region not protected by the BBB, which suggested that we were approaching complete Pgp inhibition at the human BBB. PMID:25669913

  9. Approaching complete inhibition of P-glycoprotein at the human blood–brain barrier: an (R)-[11C]verapamil PET study

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Martin; Karch, Rudolf; Zeitlinger, Markus; Philippe, Cécile; Römermann, Kerstin; Stanek, Johann; Maier-Salamon, Alexandra; Wadsak, Wolfgang; Jäger, Walter; Hacker, Marcus; Müller, Markus; Langer, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    As P-glycoprotein (Pgp) inhibition at the blood–brain barrier (BBB) after administration of a single dose of tariquidar is transient, we performed positron emission tomography (PET) scans with the Pgp substrate (R)-[11C]verapamil in five healthy volunteers during continuous intravenous tariquidar infusion. Total distribution volume (VT) of (R)-[11C]verapamil in whole-brain gray matter increased by 273±78% relative to baseline scans without tariquidar, which was higher than previously reported VT increases. During tariquidar infusion whole-brain VT was comparable to VT in the pituitary gland, a region not protected by the BBB, which suggested that we were approaching complete Pgp inhibition at the human BBB. PMID:25669913

  10. Interrogation of multidrug resistance (MDR1) P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) expression in human pancreatic carcinoma cells: correlation of 99mTc-Sestamibi uptake with western blot analysis.

    PubMed

    Harpstrite, Scott E; Gu, Hannah; Natarajan, Radhika; Sharma, Vijay

    2014-10-01

    Histopathological studies indicate that ?63% of pancreatic tumors express multidrug resistance (MDR1) P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and its polymorphic variants. However, Pgp expression detected at the mRNA or protein level does not always correlate with functional transport activity. Because Pgp transport activity is affected by specific mutations and the phosphorylation state of the protein, altered or less active forms of Pgp may also be detected by PCR or immunohistochemistry, which do not accurately reflect the status of tumor cell resistance. To interrogate the status of the functional expression of MDR1 Pgp in MiaPaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells, cellular transport studies using Tc-Sestamibi were performed and correlated with western blot analysis. Biochemical transport assays in human pancreatic carcinoma MiaPaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells, human epidermal carcinoma drug-sensitive KB-3-1 cells, and human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells (negative controls), and human epidermal carcinoma drug-resistant KB-8-5 cells, human breast carcinoma stably transfected with Pgp MCF-7/MDR1Pgp cells, and liver carcinoma HepG2 cells (positive controls) were performed. Protein levels were determined using a monoclonal antibody C219. Tc-Sestamibi demonstrates accumulation in human pancreatic carcinoma MiaPaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells. Uptake profiles are not affected by treatment with LY335979, a Pgp inhibitor, and correlate with western blot analysis. These cellular transport studies indicate an absence of Pgp at a functional level in MiaPaCa-2 and PANC-1 cells. Because major pancreatic tumors originate from the pancreatic duct and Tc-Sestamibi undergoes a dominant hepatobiliary mode of excretion, it would not be a sensitive probe for imaging pancreatic adenocarcinomas. Following interrogation of the functional status of Pgp in other pancreatic carcinoma cells, chemotherapeutic drugs that are also MDR1 substrates could offer alternative therapeutics for treating pancreatic adenocarcinomas. PMID:25036383

  11. The Pim kinase inhibitor SGI-1776 decreases cell surface expression of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) and drug transport by Pim-1-dependent and -independent mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Natarajan, Karthika; Bhullar, Jasjeet; Shukla, Suneet; Burcu, Mehmet; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Baer, Maria R.

    2013-01-01

    Overexpression of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug efflux proteins P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2) on malignant cells is associated with inferior chemotherapy outcomes. Both, ABCB1 and ABCG2, are substrates of the serine/threonine kinase Pim-1; Pim-1 knockdown decreases their cell surface expression, but SGI-1776, the first clinically tested Pim inhibitor, was shown to reverse drug resistance by directly inhibiting ABCB1-mediated transport. We sought to characterize Pim-1-dependent and -independent effects of SGI-1776 on drug resistance. SGI-1776 at the Pim-1-inhibitory and non-cytotoxic concentration of 1 ?M decreased the IC50s of the ABCG2 and ABCB1 substrate drugs in cytotoxicity assays in resistant cells, with no effect on the IC50 of non-substrate drug, nor in parental cells. SGI-1776 also increased apoptosis of cells overexpressing ABCG2 or ABCB1 exposed to substrate chemotherapy drugs and decreased their colony formation in the presence of substrate, but not non-substrate, drugs, with no effect on parental cells. SGI-1776 decreased ABCB1 and ABCG2 surface expression on K562/ABCB1 and K562/ABCG2 cells, respectively, with Pim-1 overexpression, but not HL60/VCR and 8226/MR20 cells, with lower-level Pim-1 expression. Finally, SGI-1776 inhibited uptake of ABCG2 and ABCB1 substrates in a concentration-dependent manner irrespective of Pim-1 expression, inhibited ABCB1 and ABCG2 photoaffinity labeling with the transport substrate [125I]iodoarylazidoprazosin ([125I]IAAP) and stimulated ABCB1 and ABCG2 ATPase activity. Thus SGI-1776 decreases cell surface expression of ABCB1 and ABCG2 and inhibits drug transport by Pim-1-dependent and -independent mechanisms, respectively. Decrease in ABCB1 and ABCG2 cell surface expression mediated by Pim-1 inhibition represents a novel mechanism of chemosensitization. PMID:23261525

  12. Expression of MDR1 mRNA and encoding P-glycoprotein in archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gall bladder cancer tissues.

    PubMed

    Cao, L; Duchrow, M; Windhövel, U; Kujath, P; Bruch, H P; Broll, R

    1998-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the expression of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and MDR1 mRNA, in gall bladder carcinoma, a chemo-resistant tumour. 26 cases of gall bladder cancer and nine samples of normal gall bladder archival paraffin blocks were investigated for the presence of Pgp protein with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and MDR1 RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Monoclonal antibodies JSB-1 and UIC-2, recognising separate epitopes of Pgp, were used for IHC. For RT-PCR, total RNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded tissue. After RT, the samples were subjected to nested PCR (NPCR) using primers specific for the MDR1 gene, and evaluated by electrophoresis. In gall bladder carcinoma, the percentage of positive cases expressing Pgp (77% for JSB-1, 69% for UIC-2) and MDR1 mRNA (52%) was significantly higher than those in normal gall bladder. In earlier TNM stages Pgp and MDR1 mRNA were more frequently expressed (non-significant) than in advanced stages. The results of this study suggested that overexpression of MDR1 mRNA and Pgp in gall bladder carcinoma tissue probably is a very important reason why gall bladder cancer is generally not responsive to chemotherapy. PMID:9893638

  13. Di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT) overcomes multidrug resistance by a novel mechanism involving the hijacking of lysosomal P-glycoprotein (Pgp).

    PubMed

    Jansson, Patric J; Yamagishi, Tetsuo; Arvind, Akanksha; Seebacher, Nicole; Gutierrez, Elaine; Stacy, Alexandra; Maleki, Sanaz; Sharp, Danae; Sahni, Sumit; Richardson, Des R

    2015-04-10

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle in cancer treatment. More than half of human cancers express multidrug-resistant P-glycoprotein (Pgp), which correlates with a poor prognosis. Intriguingly, through an unknown mechanism, some drugs have greater activity in drug-resistant tumor cells than their drug-sensitive counterparts. Herein, we investigate how the novel anti-tumor agent di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone (Dp44mT) overcomes MDR. Four different cell types were utilized to evaluate the effect of Pgp-potentiated lysosomal targeting of drugs to overcome MDR. To assess the mechanism of how Dp44mT overcomes drug resistance, cellular studies utilized Pgp inhibitors, Pgp silencing, lysosomotropic agents, proliferation assays, immunoblotting, a Pgp-ATPase activity assay, radiolabeled drug uptake/efflux, a rhodamine 123 retention assay, lysosomal membrane permeability assessment, and DCF (2',7'-dichlorofluorescin) redox studies. Anti-tumor activity and selectivity of Dp44mT in Pgp-expressing, MDR cells versus drug-sensitive cells were studied using a BALB/c nu/nu xenograft mouse model. We demonstrate that Dp44mT is transported by the lysosomal Pgp drug pump, causing lysosomal targeting of Dp44mT and resulting in enhanced cytotoxicity in MDR cells. Lysosomal Pgp and pH were shown to be crucial for increasing Dp44mT-mediated lysosomal damage and subsequent cytotoxicity in drug-resistant cells, with Dp44mT being demonstrated to be a Pgp substrate. Indeed, Pgp-dependent lysosomal damage and cytotoxicity of Dp44mT were abrogated by Pgp inhibitors, Pgp silencing, or increasing lysosomal pH using lysosomotropic bases. In vivo, Dp44mT potently targeted chemotherapy-resistant human Pgp-expressing xenografted tumors relative to non-Pgp-expressing tumors in mice. This study highlights a novel Pgp hijacking strategy of the unique dipyridylthiosemicarbazone series of thiosemicarbazones that overcome MDR via utilization of lysosomal Pgp transport activity. PMID:25720491

  14. Water-soluble and cleavable quercetin-amino acid conjugates as safe modulators for P-glycoprotein-based multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Kyoung; Choo, Hyunah; Chong, Youhoon

    2014-09-11

    Quercetin-amino acid conjugates with alanine or glutamic acid moiety attached at 7-O and/or 3-O position of quercetin were prepared, and their multidrug resistance (MDR)-modulatory effects were evaluated. A quercetin-glutamic acid conjugate, 7-O-Glu-Q (3a), was as potent as verapamil in reversing MDR and sensitized MDR MES-SA/Dx5 cells to various anticancer drugs with EC50 values of 0.8-0.9 ?M. Analysis on Rh-123 accumulation confirmed that 3a inhibits drug efflux by Pgp, and Pgp ATPase assay showed that 3a interacts with the drug-binding site of Pgp to stimulate its ATPase activity. Physicochemical analysis of 3a revealed that solubility, stability, and cellular uptake of quercetin were significantly improved by the glutamic acid promoiety, which eventually dissociates from 3a to produce quercetin and quercetin metabolites in intracellular milieu. Taken together, potent MDR-modulating activity along with intracellular conversion into the natural flavonoid quercetin warrants development of the quercetin-amino acid conjugates as safe MDR modulators. PMID:25122155

  15. Enhanced gene delivery efficiency of cationic liposomes coated with PEGylated hyaluronic acid for anti P-glycoprotein siRNA: a potential candidate for overcoming multi-drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Ran, Rui; Liu, Yayuan; Gao, Huile; Kuang, Qifang; Zhang, Qianyu; Tang, Jie; Huang, Kai; Chen, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Zhirong; He, Qin

    2014-12-30

    RNA interference is an effective method to achieve highly specific gene regulation. However, the commonly used cationic liposomes have poor biocompatibility, which may lead to systematic siRNA delivery of no avail. PEGylation is a good strategy in shielding the positive charge of cationic liposomes, but the enhanced serum stability is often in company with compromised cellular uptake and endosome escape. In this study, PEG was covalently linked to negatively charged hyaluronic acid and it was used to coat the liposome-siRNA nanoparticles. The resulting PEG-HA-NP complex had a diameter of 188.6 ± 10.8 nm and a dramatically declined zeta-potential from +34.9 ± 4.0 mV to -18.2 ± 2.2 mV. Owing to the reversed surface charge, PEG-HA-NP could remain stable in fetal bovine serum (FBS) to up to 24h. In contrast with normal PEGylation, hyaluronic acid and PEG co-modified PEG-HA-NP provided comparable cellular uptake and P-glycoprotein downregulation efficacy in MCF-7/ADR cells compared with Lipofectamine RNAiMAX and naked NP regardless of its anionic charged surface. Because of its good biocompatibility in serum, PEG-HA-NP possessed the best tumor accumulation, cellular uptake and subsequently the strongest P-glycoprotein silencing capability in tumor bearing mice compared with naked NP and HA-NP after i.v. injection, with a 34% P-glycoprotein downregulation. Therefore, PEG-HA coated liposomal complex was demonstrated to be a promising siRNA delivery system in adjusting solid tumor P-glycoprotein expression, which may become a potential carrier in reversing MDR for breast cancer therapy. PMID:25448564

  16. Crizotinib (PF-02341066) reverses multidrug resistance in cancer cells by inhibiting the function of P-glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wen-jing; Zhang, Xu; Cheng, Chao; Wang, Fang; Wang, Xiao-kun; Liang, Yong-ju; To, Kenneth Kin Wah; Zhou, Wang; Huang, Hong-bing; Fu, Li-wu

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Besides targeting the well-known oncogenic c-Met, crizotinib is the first oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor inhibiting anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) in clinical trials for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. Here, we assessed the possible reversal of multidrug resistance (MDR) by crizotinib in vitro and in vivo. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH 1-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5- diphenylformazan was used in vitro and xenografts in nude mice were used in vivo to investigate reversal of MDR by crizotinib. To understand the mechanisms for MDR reversal, the alterations of intracellular doxorubicin or rhodamine 123 accumulation, doxorubicin efflux, ABCB1 expression level, ATPase activity of ABCB1 and crizotinib-induced c-Met, Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation were examined. KEY RESULTS Crizotinib significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents which are also ABCB1 substrates, in MDR cells with no effect found on sensitive cells in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, crizotinib significantly increased intracellular accumulation of rhodamine 123 and doxorubicin and inhibited the drug efflux in ABCB1-overexpressing MDR cells. Further studies showed that crizotinib enhanced the ATPase activity of ABCB1 in a concentration-dependent manner. However, expression of ABCB1 was not affected, and reversal of MDR by crizotinib was not related to the phosphorylation of c-Met, Akt or ERK1/2. Importantly, crizotinib significantly enhanced the effect of paclitaxel against KBv200 cell xenografts in nude mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Crizotinib reversed ABCB1-mediated MDR by inhibiting ABCB1 transport function without affecting ABCB1 expression or blocking the Akt or ERK1/2 pathways. These findings are useful for planning combination chemotherapy of crizotinib with conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:22233293

  17. Inhibitory effects of ginsenosides and their hydrolyzed metabolites on daunorubicin transport in KB-C2 cells.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Shuji; Takahashi, Tomoharu; Nabekura, Tomohiro; Tachikawa, Eiichi; Hasegawa, Hideo

    2007-10-01

    We studied the effects of ginsenosides and their metabolites on daunorubicin transport in multidrug-resistant P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-overexpressing KB-C2 cells. Ginsenoside Rg1, which is a protopanaxatriol-type ginseng saponin, did not have any effects on the accumulation of P-gp substrate daunorubicin. On the other hand, its metabolite M4, which has no sugar moiety, increased the accumulation 3.6-fold at 5 microM. Metabolites of protoanaxadiol-type saponin M1 and M12 also increased accumulation, but the effects were less than that of M4. The findings showed larger effects of metabolites without glucose moieties. Analysis of verapamil-stimulated ATPase activity in membrane vesicles expressing human P-gp suggested that the increased daunorubicin accumulation by M4 was at least partly due to ATPase inhibition of P-gp. PMID:17917277

  18. The antiepileptic drug mephobarbital is not transported by P-glycoprotein or multidrug resistance protein 1 at the blood-brain barrier: a positron emission tomography study

    PubMed Central

    Mairinger, Severin; Bankstahl, Jens P.; Kuntner, Claudia; Römermann, Kerstin; Bankstahl, Marion; Wanek, Thomas; Stanek, Johann; Löscher, Wolfgang; Müller, Markus; Erker, Thomas; Langer, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Summary Aim of this study was to determine whether the carbon-11-labelled antiepileptic drug [11C]mephobarbital is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and can be used to assess Pgp function at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) with positron emission tomography (PET). We performed paired PET scans in rats, wild-type (FVB) and Mdr1a/b(?/?) mice, before and after intravenous administration of the Pgp inhibitor tariquidar (15 mg/kg). Brain-to-blood AUC0-60 ratios in rats and brain AUC0-60 values of [11C]mephobarbital in wild-type and Mdr1a/b(?/?) mice were similar in scan 1 and scan 2, respectively, suggesting that in vivo brain distribution of [11C]mephobarbital is not influenced by Pgp efflux. Absence of Pgp transport was confirmed in vitro by performing concentration equilibrium transport assay in cell lines transfected with MDR1 or Mdr1a. PET experiments in wild-type mice, with and without pretreatment with the multidrug resistance protein (MRP) inhibitor MK571 (20 mg/kg), and in Mrp1(?/?) mice suggested that [11C]mephobarbital is also not transported by MRPs at the murine BBB, which was also supported by in vitro transport experiments using human MRP1-transfected cells. Our results are surprising as phenobarbital, the N-desmethyl derivative of mephobarbital, has been shown to be a substrate of Pgp, which suggests that N-methylation abolishes Pgp affinity of barbiturates. PMID:22342565

  19. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1)- and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (ABCC1)-mediated transport by the orally administered inhibitor, CBT-1((R)).

    PubMed

    Robey, Robert W; Shukla, Suneet; Finley, Elizabeth M; Oldham, Robert K; Barnett, Daryl; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Fojo, Tito; Bates, Susan E

    2008-03-15

    Cellular expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport proteins, such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp), multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1), or ABCG2, is known to confer a drug-resistant phenotype. Thus, the development of effective transporter inhibitors could be of value to cancer treatment. CBT-1 is a bisbenzylisoquinoline plant alkyloid currently in development as a Pgp inhibitor. We characterized its interactions with the three major ABC transporters associated with drug resistance - Pgp, MRP1 and ABCG2 - and compared it to other known inhibitors. CBT-1 completely inhibited rhodamine 123 transport from Pgp-overexpressing cells at a concentration of 1muM. Additionally, 1 microM completely reversed Pgp-mediated resistance to vinblastine, paclitaxel and depsipeptide in SW620 Ad20 cells. CBT-1 was found to compete [(125)I]-IAAP labeling of Pgp with an IC(50) of 0.14 microM, and low concentrations of CBT-1 (<1 microM) stimulated Pgp-mediated ATP hydrolysis. In MRP1-overexpressing cells, 10 microM CBT-1 was found to completely inhibit MRP1-mediated calcein transport. CBT-1 at 25 microM did not have a significant effect on ABCG2-mediated pheophorbide a transport. Serum levels of CBT-1 in samples obtained from eight patients receiving CBT-1 increased intracellular rhodamine 123 levels in CD56+ cells 2.1- to 5.7-fold in an ex vivo assay. CBT-1 is able to inhibit the ABC transporters Pgp and MRP1, making it an attractive candidate for clinical trials in cancers where Pgp and/or MRP1 might be overexpressed. Further clinical studies with CBT-1 are warranted. PMID:18234154

  20. Impact of P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein on the brain distribution of antiepileptic drugs in knockout mouse models.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Haruka; Yonezawa, Atsushi; Matsubara, Kazuo; Yano, Ikuko

    2013-06-15

    Refractory epilepsy is reportedly associated with an overexpression of ATP-binding cassette transporters such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp). In this study, we examined the contribution of Pgp and Bcrp to the brain distribution of 12 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in Mdr1a/1b(-/-) and Mdr1a/1b(-/-)/Bcrp(-/-) mice within a therapeutic concentration range. The blood concentrations were sequentially determined, and the brain concentrations were measured at 60 min after intravenous administration. The plasma concentration profiles for each AED in the Mdr1a/1b(-/-) mice were equivalent to those in the wild-type mice. In contrast, the plasma concentration profiles of phenytoin, lamotrigine, topiramate, tiagabine, and levetiracetam in the Mdr1a/1b(-/-)/Bcrp(-/-) mice were significantly lower than the corresponding ones in the wild-type mice. The brain-to-plasma concentration ratio (Kpbrain) values of phenytoin, topiramate, and tiagabine in the Mdr1a/1b(-/-) mice were significantly higher than the corresponding ones in the wild-type mice. In contrast, the Kpbrain values of phenobarbital, clobazam, zonisamide, gabapentin, tiagabine, and levetiracetam in the Mdr1a/1b(-/-)/Bcrp(-/-) mice were significantly higher than the corresponding ones in Mdr1a/1b(-/-) mice. The Kpbrain values of the 12 AEDs in the Mdr1a/1b(-/-)/Bcrp(-/-) mice, but not wild-type mice, significantly correlated with the corresponding molecular weight values. These findings suggest that both Pgp and Bcrp restrict brain access for several AEDs. Taken together, information on the contribution of each transporter may be useful in the development of strategic treatments of refractory epilepsy. PMID:23588114

  1. P-glycoproteins and other multidrug resistance transporters in the pharmacology of anthelmintics: Prospects for reversing transport-dependent anthelmintic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Lespine, Anne; Ménez, Cécile; Bourguinat, Catherine; Prichard, Roger K.

    2011-01-01

    Parasitic helminths cause significant disease in animals and humans. In the absence of alternative treatments, anthelmintics remain the principal agents for their control. Resistance extends to the most important class of anthelmintics, the macrocyclic lactone endectocides (MLs), such as ivermectin, and presents serious problems for the livestock industries and threatens to severely limit current parasite control strategies in humans. Understanding drug resistance is important for optimizing and monitoring control, and reducing further selection for resistance. Multidrug resistance (MDR) ABC transporters have been implicated in ML resistance and contribute to resistance to a number of other anthelmintics. MDR transporters, such as P-glycoproteins, are essential for many cellular processes that require the transport of substrates across cell membranes. Being overexpressed in response to chemotherapy in tumour cells and to ML-based treatment in nematodes, they lead to therapy failure by decreasing drug concentration at the target. Several anthelmintics are inhibitors of these efflux pumps and appropriate combinations can result in higher treatment efficacy against parasites and reversal of resistance. However, this needs to be balanced against possible increased toxicity to the host, or the components of the combination selecting on the same genes involved in the resistance. Increased efficacy could result from modifying anthelmintic pharmacokinetics in the host or by blocking parasite transporters involved in resistance. Combination of anthelmintics can be beneficial for delaying selection for resistance. However, it should be based on knowledge of resistance mechanisms and not simply on mode of action classes, and is best started before resistance has been selected to any member of the combination. Increasing knowledge of the MDR transporters involved in anthelmintic resistance in helminths will play an important role in allowing for the identification of markers to monitor the spread of resistance and to evaluate new tools and management practices aimed at delaying its spread. PMID:24533264

  2. Echinacea sanguinea and Echinacea pallida extracts stimulate glucuronidation and basolateral transfer of Bauer alkamides 8 and 10 and ketone 24 and inhibit P-glycoprotein transporter in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Zhiyi; Hauck, Cathy; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Widrlechner, Mark P; Reddy, Manju B; Murphy, Patricia A; Hendrich, Suzanne

    2013-03-01

    The use of Echinacea as a medicinal herb is prominent in the United States, and many studies have assessed the effectiveness of Echinacea as an immunomodulator. We hypothesized that Bauer alkamides 8, 10, and 11 and ketone 24 were absorbed similarly either as pure compounds or from Echinacea sanguinea and Echinacea pallida ethanol extracts, and that these Echinacea extracts could inhibit the P-glycoprotein transporter in Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells. Using HPLC analysis, the permeation rate of Bauer alkamides by passive diffusion across Caco-2 cells corresponded with compound hydrophilicity (alkamide 8 > 10 > 11), independent of the plant extract matrix. Both Echinacea ethanol extracts stimulated apparent glucuronidation and basolateral efflux of glucuronides of alkamides 8 and 10 but not alkamide 11. Bauer ketone 24 was totally metabolized to more hydrophilic metabolites when administered as a single compound, but was also glucuronidated when present in Echinacea extracts. Bauer alkamides 8, 10, and 11 (175-230 µM) and ethanol extracts of E. sanguinea (1 mg/mL, containing ~ 90 µM total alkamides) and E. pallida (5 mg/mL, containing 285 µM total alkamides) decreased the efflux of the P-glycoprotein transporter probe calcein-AM from Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that other constituents in these Echinacea extracts facilitated the metabolism and efflux of alkamides and ketones, which might improve therapeutic benefits. Alkamides and Echinacea extracts might be useful in potentiating some chemotherapeutics, which are substrates for the P-glycoprotein transporter. PMID:23408271

  3. Boosting of HIV protease inhibitors by ritonavir in the intestine: the relative role of cytochrome P450 and P-glycoprotein inhibition based on Caco-2 monolayers versus in situ intestinal perfusion in mice.

    PubMed

    Holmstock, Nico; Annaert, Pieter; Augustijns, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    HIV protease inhibitors are essential components of most recommended treatment regimens for HIV infection. They are always coadministered with ritonavir as a pharmacokinetic booster. Their bioavailability may be impaired because they are substrates of CYP3A4 and several transporters, including P-glycoprotein. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of ritonavir on the intestinal absorption of HIV protease inhibitors in two models: the Caco-2 system and the in situ intestinal perfusion model with mesenteric blood sampling in mice. Using the Caco-2 system, the effect of ritonavir on the permeability of the other HIV protease inhibitors was significant for saquinavir (2-fold increase) and indinavir (3-fold increase), negligible for darunavir and amprenavir, and nonexistent for nelfinavir, lopinavir, tipranavir, and atazanavir. However, performing the in situ intestinal perfusion technique in mice for three selected HIV protease inhibitors showed a significant increase in the intestinal permeability for all: indinavir (3.2-fold), lopinavir (2.3-fold), and darunavir (3-fold). The effect of aminobenzotriazole (a nonspecific cytochrome P450 inhibitor) on lopinavir permeability was comparable with using ritonavir, whereas there was no effect for indinavir and darunavir. We conclude that ritonavir can boost drug absorption by inhibiting P-glycoprotein and/or metabolism, in a compound-specific manner. The results of this study illustrate that a combination of absorption models needs to be considered to elucidate drug-drug interactions at the level of the intestinal mucosa. PMID:22550269

  4. Mechanisms of pharmacokinetic enhancement between ritonavir and saquinavir; micro/small dosing tests using midazolam (CYP3A4), fexofenadine (p-glycoprotein), and pravastatin (OATP1B1) as probe drugs.

    PubMed

    Ieiri, Ichiro; Tsunemitsu, Shyohei; Maeda, Kazuya; Ando, Yukie; Izumi, Noritomo; Kimura, Miyuki; Yamane, Naoe; Okuzono, Tsuyoshi; Morishita, Mariko; Kotani, Naoki; Kanda, Eri; Deguchi, Mariko; Matsuguma, Kyoko; Matsuki, Shunji; Hirota, Takeshi; Irie, Shin; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the mechanisms of ritonavir-mediated enhancement effect on the pharmacokinetics of saquinavir using in vivo probes for CYP3A4 (midazolam), p-glycoprotein (fexofenadine), and OATP1B1 (pravastatin) following oral micro/small dosing. A cocktail of the drugs (2?mg of saquinavir, 100?µg of each probe) was administered to eight healthy volunteers (phase 1), and then coadministered with 20?mg (phase 2) and 100?mg (phase 3) of ritonavir. Plasma concentrations of the drugs were measured by validated LC-MS/MS methods. The mean plasma AUC0-24 (pg?hour/mL) of saquinavir at phases 1, 2, and 3 was 101, 2?540, and 23?900 (P?p-glycoprotein-mediated efflux of saquinavir, but not OATP1B1, is involved in the enhancement mechanism. Micro/small dosing is useful for examining the mechanism of drug interactions without safety concern. PMID:23381882

  5. THE USE OF NANOPARTICLE-MEDIATED TARGETED GENE SILENCING AND DRUG DELIVERY TO OVERCOME TUMOR DRUG RESISTANCE

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Yogesh; Swaminathan, Suresh; Sadhukha, Tanmoy; Ma, Linan; Panyam, Jayanth

    2009-01-01

    Overexpression of drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) enables cancer cells to develop resistance to multiple anticancer drugs. Functional inhibitors of P-gp have shown promising efficacy in early clinical trials, but their long-term safety is yet to be established. A novel approach to overcome drug resistance is to use siRNA-mediated RNA interference to silence the expression of the efflux transporter. Because P-gp plays an important role in the physiological regulation of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds in the body, it is important to deliver P-gp targeted siRNA and anticancer drug specifically to tumor cells. Further, for optimal synergy, both the drug and siRNA may need to be temporally colocalized in the tumor cells. In the current study, we investigated the effectiveness of simultaneous and targeted delivery of anticancer drug, paclitaxel, along with P-gp targeted siRNA, using poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles to overcome tumor drug resistance. Nanoparticles were surface functionalized with biotin for active tumor targeting. Dual agent nanoparticles encapsulating the combination of paclitaxel and P-gp targeted siRNA showed significantly higher cytotoxicity in vitro than nanoparticles loaded with paclitaxel alone. Enhanced therapeutic efficacy of dual agent nanoparticles could be correlated with effective silencing of the MDR1 gene that encodes for P-gp and with increased accumulation of paclitaxel in drug-resistant tumor cells. In vivo studies in a mouse model of drug-resistant tumor demonstrated significantly greater inhibition of tumor growth following treatment with biotin-functionalized nanoparticles encapsulating both paclitaxel and P-gp targeted siRNA at a paclitaxel dose that was ineffective in the absence of gene silencing. These results suggest that that the combination of P-gp gene silencing and cytotoxic drug delivery using targeted nanoparticles can overcome tumor drug resistance. PMID:19800114

  6. Casein Kinase 2 (CK2)-mediated Phosphorylation of Hsp90? as a Novel Mechanism of Rifampin-induced MDR1 Expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Won; Hasanuzzaman, Md; Cho, Munju; Heo, Ye Rang; Ryu, Min-Jung; Ha, Na-Young; Park, Hyun June; Park, Hyung-Yeon; Shin, Jae-Gook

    2015-07-01

    The P-glycoprotein (P-gp) encoded by the MDR1 gene is a drug-exporting transporter located in the cellular membrane. P-gp induction is regarded as one of the main mechanisms underlying drug-induced resistance. Although there is great interest in the regulation of P-gp expression, little is known about its underlying regulatory mechanisms. In this study, we demonstrate that casein kinase 2 (CK2)-mediated phosphorylation of heat shock protein 90? (Hsp90?) and subsequent stabilization of PXR is a key mechanism in the regulation of MDR1 expression. Furthermore, we show that CK2 is directly activated by rifampin. Upon exposure to rifampin, CK2 catalyzes the phosphorylation of Hsp90? at the Ser-225/254 residues. Phosphorylated Hsp90? then interacts with PXR, causing a subsequent increase in its stability, leading to the induction of P-gp expression. In addition, inhibition of CK2 and Hsp90? enhances the down-regulation of PXR and P-gp expression. The results of this study may facilitate the development of new strategies to prevent multidrug resistance and provide a plausible mechanism for acquired drug resistance by CK2-mediated regulation of P-gp expression. PMID:25995454

  7. Orally active microtubule-targeting agent, MPT0B271, for the treatment of human non-small cell lung cancer, alone and in combination with erlotinib.

    PubMed

    Tsai, A-C; Wang, C-Y; Liou, J-P; Pai, H-C; Hsiao, C-J; Chang, J-Y; Wang, J-C; Teng, C-M; Pan, S-L

    2014-01-01

    Microtubule-binding agents, such as taxanes and vinca alkaloids, are used in the treatment of cancer. The limitations of these treatments, such as resistance to therapy and the need for intravenous administration, have encouraged the development of new agents. MPT0B271 (N-[1-(4-Methoxy-benzenesulfonyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-indol-7-yl]-1-oxy-isonicotinamide), an orally active microtubule-targeting agent, is a completely synthetic compound that possesses potent anticancer effects in vitro and in vivo. Tubulin polymerization assay and immunofluorescence experiment showed that MPT0B271 caused depolymerization of tubulin at both molecular and cellular levels. MPT0B271 reduced cell growth and viability at nanomolar concentrations in numerous cancer cell lines, including a multidrug-resistant cancer cell line NCI/ADR-RES. Further studies indicated that MPT0B271 is not a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), as determined by flow cytometric analysis of rhodamine-123 (Rh-123) dye efflux and the calcein acetoxymethyl ester (calcein AM) assay. MPT0B271 also caused G2/M cell-cycle arrest, accompanied by the up-regulation of cyclin B1, p-Thr161 Cdc2/p34, serine/threonine kinases polo-like kinase 1, aurora kinase A and B and the downregulation of Cdc25C and p-Tyr15 Cdc2/p34 protein levels. The appearance of MPM2 and the nuclear translocation of cyclin B1 denoted M phase arrest in MPT0B271-treated cells. Moreover, MPT0B271 induced cell apoptosis in a concentration-dependent manner; it also reduced the expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, and Mcl-1 and increased the cleavage of caspase-3 and -7 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Finally, this study demonstrated that MPT0B271 in combination with erlotinib significantly inhibits the growth of the human non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells as compared with erlotinib treatment alone, both in vitro and in vivo. These findings identify MPT0B271 as a promising new tubulin-binding compound for the treatment of various cancers. PMID:24722287

  8. P-glycoprotein inhibition using valspodar (PSC-833) does not improve outcomes for patients younger than age 60 years with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia: Cancer and Leukemia Group B study 19808.

    PubMed

    Kolitz, Jonathan E; George, Stephen L; Marcucci, Guido; Vij, Ravi; Powell, Bayard L; Allen, Steven L; DeAngelo, Daniel J; Shea, Thomas C; Stock, Wendy; Baer, Maria R; Hars, Vera; Maharry, Kati; Hoke, Eva; Vardiman, James W; Bloomfield, Clara D; Larson, Richard A

    2010-09-01

    Cancer and Leukemia Group B 19808 (CALGB 19808) is the only randomized trial of a second-generation P-glycoprotein (Pgp) modulator in untreated patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) younger than age 60 years. We randomly assigned 302 patients to receive induction chemotherapy regimens consisting of cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C; A), daunorubicin (D), and etoposide (E), without (ADE) or with (ADEP) PSC-833 (P). The incidence of complete remission was 75% with both regimens. Reversible grade 3 and 4 liver and mucosal toxicities were significantly more common with ADEP. Therapy-related mortality was 7% and did not differ by induction arm. Excess cardiotoxicity was not seen with high doses of D in ADE. The median disease-free survival was 1.34 years in the ADE arm and 1.09 years in the ADEP arm (P = .74, log-rank test); the median overall survival was 1.86 years in the ADE arm and 1.69 years in the ADEP arm (P = .82). There was no evidence of a treatment difference within any identifiable patient subgroup. Inhibition of Pgp-mediated drug efflux by PSC-833 did not improve clinical outcomes in younger patients with untreated AML. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00006363. PMID:20522709

  9. Development and characterisation of a new model of rat trophoblasts.

    PubMed

    Beghin, D; Delongeas, J-L; Claude, N; Forestier, F; Farinotti, R; Gil, S

    2009-02-01

    The placenta plays a key role during pregnancy. In vitro models have proven to assess the role of placental transporters in the exchange of nutrients, waste products and the distribution of drugs between the maternal and fetal compartments. Therefore, a primoculture of Wistar rat trophoblasts from the labyrinth zone was developed and characterised. Expression of placental transporters including P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and bcrp was evaluated by western blot and their activity using different inhibitors. A time-dependent increase in P-gp expression was noted from primocultures Day 2 to Day 4 followed by a plateau thereafter, whereas bcrp expression was stable throughout the culture period. P-gp and bcrp expression was maintained after seven passages in primocultures and in cryopreserved trophoblasts (up to 3 freezings and 10 passages). Activity of efflux transporters was confirmed in both placental primocultures and cryopreserved trophoblasts by an approximately 60% inhibition with cyclosporin A and valspodar for P-gp and 55% with elacridar for bcrp. In sum, this new in vitro model seems promising for a better understanding of the role of P-gp and bcrp in the toxicity of drugs during pregnancy and could be considered as an additional step towards the minimization of animal testing during drug development. PMID:19013229

  10. Tesmilifene may enhance breast cancer chemotherapy by killing a clone of aggressive, multi-drug resistant cells through its action on the p-glycoprotein pump.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Tesmilifene is a novel potentiator of chemotherapy which, when added to doxorubicin, achieved an unexpected and very large survival advantage over doxorubicin alone in a randomized trial in advanced breast cancer. This trial was unusual in that the early endpoints (response rate and median progression-free survival) were equivalent in the two arms, despite the ultimate survival difference. These aspects, coupled with the absence of a coherent molecular mechanism of action, and a pending confirmatory trial, have led oncologists to hold judgement on this drug. This paper reacts to this in three ways: firstly, a forensic subgroup analysis is presented with an explanation as to why it strongly supports the veracity of the survival difference; secondly a novel cellular explanation is provided for the decoupling of the early and late (survival) endpoints; finally, a molecular mechanism of action is proposed, for the first time, which reconciles the peculiarities of the trial with the laboratory data and background literature. This hypothesis explains how tesmilifene could meld two of the apparent strengths of the cancer cell (drug resistance pumps, and hypoxia-adapted energetics) into a potent weapon of self-destruction. Tesmilifene is proposed to allow chemotherapy (e.g. anthracycline or taxane) to additionally kill a small but critical population (clone) of aggressive, multi-drug resistant cells, the benefits of which cannot be appreciated until a period of time (about 6-8 months) has elapsed. These cells, present in women with more rapidly relapsing disease, very likely carry an energy-dependent extrusion pump which is paradoxically activated by tesmilifene plus the chemotherapy. The result is that, despite the chemotherapy's remaining extracellular, the cell dies from reactive oxygen species leaking from the electron chain transport in the abnormal mitochondria which characterize cancer. These mitochondria are activated in response to the ATP cost of this pump activation, in these predominantly glycolytic cells. PMID:16413681

  11. Modulation of multidrug resistance 1 expression and function in retinoblastoma cells by curcumin

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivasan, Seethalakshmi; Ravichandran, Sathyabaarathi; Vetrivel, Umashankar; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the possible interaction of curcumin with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression and function by in vitro and in silico studies. Materials and Methods: In this study, curcumin was compared for its potential to modulate the expression and function of P-gp in Y79 RB cells by western blot, RT-PCR (reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) and functional assay. Further, in silico molecular modeling and docking simulations were performed to deduce the inhibitory binding mode of curcumin. Results: Western blot and RT-PCR analysis decreased the expression of P-gp in a dose-dependent manner. The effect of curcumin on P-gp function was demonstrated by Rhodamine 123 (Rh123) accumulation and efflux study. Curcumin increased the accumulation of Rh123 and decreased its efflux in retinoblastoma (RB) cells. In addition, curcumin inhibited verapamil stimulated ATPase activity and photoaffinity labeling study showed no effect on the binding of 8-azido-ATP-biotin, indicating its interaction at the substrate binding site. Moreover, molecular docking studies concurrently infer the binding of curcumin into the substrate binding site of P-gp with a binding energy of -7.66 kcal/mol. Conclusion: These findings indicate that curcumin suppresses the MDR1 expression and function, and therefore may be useful as modulators of multidrug resistance in RB tumor. PMID:23761708

  12. Lack of modulation of MDR1 gene expression by dominant inhibition of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in doxorubicin-resistant MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Parissenti, A M; Gannon, B R; Villeneuve, D J; Kirwan-rhude, A F; Chadderton, A; Glück, S

    1999-09-01

    The drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) appears to play an important role in the ability of tumor cells to evade killing by chemotherapeutic agents. Using pharmacological inhibitors of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), it has been suggested that, similar to rodent model systems, the human P-gp gene (MDR1) is also under PKA-dependent control and that PKA inhibition may prove useful in reducing drug resistance in human cancer cells. To test this hypothesis, we stably transformed doxorubicin (Adriamycin)-resistant human MCF-7 breast cancer cells (MCF-7(ADR)) with a vector that inhibits PKA activity by inducing over-expression of mutant type Ialpha PKA regulatory (RIalpha) subunits. Two transformants (MCF-7(ADR-A) and MCF-7(ADR-B)) were found to express mutant RIalpha subunits and to possess markedly reduced PKA activity; another transformant (MCF-7(ADR-9)) lacked mutant RIalpha subunit expression and exhibited no inhibition of PKA activity. In contrast with findings in Chinese hamster ovary and Y1 adrenal cells, P-gp levels and cellular sensitivity to drugs which are P-gp substrates were unchanged in the PKA-inhibited transformants, suggesting that P-gp expression and function are not under PKA-dependent control in MCF-7(ADR) cells. Growth and saturation densities of the cell lines were highly correlated with level of PKA catalytic activity, suggesting that PKA inhibition may prove useful in inhibiting growth of breast tumor cells, even upon establishment of resistance to doxorubicin. However, our results challenge current proposals that drug sensitivity in P-gp-expressing human tumor cells may be restored by blocking MDR1 gene expression through inhibition of PKA activity. PMID:10446459

  13. Preface: the concept and consequences of multidrug resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonathan A. Sheps; Victor Ling

    2007-01-01

    The problem of multidrug resistance (MDR) in human cancers led to the discovery 30 years ago of a single protein P-glycoprotein\\u000a (P-gp), capable of mediating resistance to multiple structurally diverse drugs. P-gp became the archetypal eukaryotic ABC\\u000a transporter gene, and studies of P-gp and related ABC transporters in both eukaryotes and bacteria have led to a basic mechanistic\\u000a understanding of the

  14. Antidepressants and ABCB1 Gene C3435T Functional Polymorphism: A Naturalistic Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Menu; Florence Gressier; Céline Verstuyft; Patrick Hardy; Laurent Becquemont; Emmanuelle Corruble

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Pharmacogenetic factors may explain some of the interindividual variability of response to antidepressants in depressed patients. We focused on P-glycoprotein (P-GP), whose expression depends on a functional polymorphism of the ABCB1 gene (C3435T variants: dbSNP: rs1045642), the 3435CC genotype being linked to a high level of P-GP expression. Acting as an efflux pump at the blood-brain barrier, P-GP reduces

  15. ?-escin reverses multidrug resistance through inhibition of the GSK3?/?-catenin pathway in cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Gui-Li; Shen, Dong-Yan; Cai, Cheng-Fu; Zhang, Qiu-Yan; Ren, Hong-Yue; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To develop a safe and effective agent for cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) chemotherapy. METHODS: A drug combination experiment was conducted to determine the effects of ?-escin in combination with chemotherapy on CCA cells. 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay was performed to determine the effects of ?-escin and common chemotherapeutics on the proliferation of human CCA cells (QBC939, Sk-ChA-1, and MZ-ChA-1). Immunocytochemistry was used to detect the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) protein. Luciferase reporter assay was used to detect the activation of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway. The protein levels of P-gp, pS9-GSK3?, pT216-GSK3?, GSK3?, ?-catenin, and p-?-catenin were further confirmed by western blotting. RESULTS: The drug sensitivity of QBC939 and QBC939/5-fluorouracil (5-FU) cells to 5-FU, vincristine sulfate (VCR), or mitomycin C was significantly enhanced by ?-escin compared with either agent alone (P < 0.05). In addition, the combination of ?-escin (20 ?mol/L) with 5-FU and VCR was synergic with a combination index < 1. Further investigation found that the mRNA and protein expression of P-gp was down-regulated by ?-escin. Moreover, ?-escin induced GSK3? phosphorylation at Tyr-216 and dephosphorylation at Ser-9, resulting in phosphorylation and degradation of ?-catenin. Interestingly, activation of the GSK3?/?-catenin pathway induced by Wnt3a resulted in up-regulation of P-gp, which was effectively abolished by ?-escin, indicating that ?-escin down-regulated P-gp expression in a GSK3?-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: ?-escin was a potent reverser of P-gp-dependent multidrug resistance, with said effect likely being achieved via inhibition of the GSK3?/?-catenin pathway and thus suggesting a promising strategy of developing combination drugs for CCA. PMID:25632187

  16. A novel chalcone derivative which acts as a microtubule depolymerising agent and an inhibitor of P-gp and BCRP in in-vitro and in-vivo glioblastoma models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahcene Boumendjel; Anne McLeer-Florin; Pierre Champelovier; Diane Allegro; Dima Muhammad; Florence Souard; Madiha Derouazi; Vincent Peyrot; Bertrand Toussaint; Jean Boutonnat

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Over the past decades, in spite of intensive search, no significant increase in the survival of patients with glioblastoma has been obtained. The role of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and especially the activity of efflux pumps belonging to the ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) family may, in part, explain this defect. METHODS: The in-vitro activities of JAI-51 on cell proliferation

  17. Nanoparticle-mediated simultaneous and targeted delivery of paclitaxel and tariquidar overcomes tumor drug resistance.

    PubMed

    Patil, Yogesh; Sadhukha, Tanmoy; Ma, Linan; Panyam, Jayanth

    2009-05-21

    Drug resistance is a major obstacle to the success of cancer chemotherapy. Overexpression of the drug-efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a key factor contributing to tumor drug resistance. Third generation P-gp inhibitors like tariquidar have shown promising efficacy in early clinical trials. However, for maximum efficacy, it is important to limit the exposure of normal cells and tissues to the efflux inhibitor and the anticancer drug, and temporally colocalize the drug-inhibitor combination in the tumor cells. In this study, we investigated simultaneous and targeted delivery of anticancer drug, paclitaxel, with P-gp modulator, tariquidar, using poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles to overcome tumor drug resistance. Nanoparticles were surface functionalized with biotin for active tumor targeting. Dual agent nanoparticles encapsulating the combination of paclitaxel and tariquidar showed significantly higher cytotoxicity in vitro than nanoparticles loaded with paclitaxel alone. Enhanced therapeutic efficacy of dual agent nanoparticles could be correlated with increased accumulation of paclitaxel in drug-resistant tumor cells. In vivo studies in a mouse model of drug-resistant tumor demonstrated significantly greater inhibition of tumor growth following treatment with biotin-functionalized nanoparticles encapsulating both paclitaxel and tariquidar at a paclitaxel dose that was ineffective in the absence of tariquidar. Taken together, these results suggest that the use of targeted, dual agent nanoparticles delivering a combination of P-gp modulator and anticancer drug is a very promising approach to overcome tumor drug resistance. PMID:19331851

  18. Coencapsulated doxorubicin and bromotetrandrine lipid nanoemulsions in reversing multidrug resistance in breast cancer in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xi; Luo, Jingwen; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhi-Rong; Sun, Xun; Fu, Yao

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance has remained a major cause of treatment failure in chemotherapy due to the presence of P-glycoproteins (P-gp) that actively pump drugs from inside the cell to the outside. P-gp inhibitors were developed and coadministered with chemotherapeutic drugs to overcome the effect of efflux pumps thus enhancing the chemosensitivity of therapeutics. Our study aimed at developing a lipid nanoemulsion system for the coencapsulation of doxorubicin (DOX) and bromotetrandrine (W198) to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) in breast cancer. W198 was a potent P-gp inhibitor, and DOX was selected as a model compound which is a common substrate for P-gp. Coencapsulated DOX and W198 lipid nanoemulsions (DOX/W198-LNs) displayed significantly enhanced cytotoxicity in DOX-resistant human breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR) compared with DOX loaded lipid nanoemulsions (DOX-LNs) (p < 0.05), which is due to the enhanced intracellular uptake of DOX in MCF-7/ADR cells. The biodistribution study was performed using a nude mice xenograft model, which demonstrates enhanced tumor uptake of DOX in the DOX/W198-LN treated group. Compared with DOX solution, DOX/W198-LNs showed reduced cardiac toxicity and gastrointestinal injury in rats. Taken together, DOX/W198-LNs represent a promising formulation for overcoming MDR in breast cancer. PMID:25469833

  19. 1?,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 reduces cerebral amyloid-? accumulation and improves cognition in mouse models of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Durk, Matthew R; Han, Kyung; Chow, Edwin C Y; Ahrens, Rosemary; Henderson, Jeffrey T; Fraser, Paul E; Pang, K Sandy

    2014-05-21

    We demonstrate a role of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in reducing cerebral soluble and insoluble amyloid-? (A?) peptides. Short-term treatment of two human amyloid precursor protein-expressing models, Tg2576 and TgCRND8 mice, with 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], the endogenous active ligand of VDR, resulted in higher brain P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and lower soluble A? levels, effects negated with coadministration of elacridar, a P-gp inhibitor. Long-term treatment of TgCRND8 mice with 1,25(OH)2D3 during the period of plaque formation reduced soluble and insoluble plaque-associated A?, particularly in the hippocampus in which the VDR is abundant and P-gp induction is greatest after 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment, and this led to improved conditioned fear memory. In mice fed a vitamin D-deficient diet, lower cerebral P-gp expression was observed, but levels were restored on replenishment with VDR ligands. The composite data suggest that the VDR is an important therapeutic target in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24849345

  20. Circadian variations in exsorptive transport: in situ intestinal perfusion data and in vivo relevance.

    PubMed

    Okyar, Alper; Dressler, Cornelia; Hanafy, Abeer; Baktir, Gül; Lemmer, Björn; Spahn-Langguth, Hilde

    2012-05-01

    The circadian timing system (CTS) governs the 24-h rhythm of the organism and, hence, also main pathways responsible for drug pharmacokinetics. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a drug transporter that plays a pivotal role in drug absorption, distribution, and elimination, and temporal changes in its activity may affect input, output, activity, and toxicity profile of drugs. In the current study, the influence of different circadian stages on the overall intestinal permeability (P(eff)) of the P-gp substrates talinolol and losartan was evaluated in in situ intestinal perfusion studies in rats. Additionally, in vivo studies in rats were performed by employing the P-gp probe talinolol during the day (nonactive) and night (active) period in rats. Effective intestinal permeabilities of talinolol and losartan were smaller in studies performed during the night (p < .05), indicating that P-gp-dependent intestinal secretion is greater during the nighttime activity span than daytime rest span of the animals. P-gp modulators vinblastine and PSC833 led to a significant decrease of talinolol and losartan exsorption in the intestinal segments as compared with control groups. Strikingly, the permeability-enhancing effect of vinblastine and PSC833 was higher with night perfusions, for both talinolol and losartan. In vivo studies performed with talinolol revealed-consistent with the in situ studies (P(eff) day > night)-a day vs. night difference in the oral availability of talinolol in the group of male rats in terms of the area under the curve (AUC) data (AUC(day) > AUC(night)). The P-gp modulator vinblastine significantly increased talinolol AUC(day) (p < .05), whereas only a weak vinblastine effect was seen in night. According to the in situ data, the functional activity of P-gp was regulated by the CTS in jejunum and ileum, which are major intestinal segments for energy-dependent efflux. In conclusion, circadian rhythms may affect carrier-mediated active efflux and play a role in the absorption process. In addition to daily rhythms in P-gp activity in rat intestine, the in vivo studies indicate that absorption-, distribution-, metabolism-, and elimination-relevant rhythms may be involved in the circadian kinetics of the drug, besides transporter-dependent efflux, such well-known aspects as metabolic or renal clearance or motility. Since this also holds true for a potentially interacting second compound (modulator), modulator effects should be evaluated carefully in transporter related drug-drug interactions. PMID:22489638

  1. N-[(3S)-Pyrrolidin-3-yl]benzamides as novel dual serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors: impact of small structural modifications on P-gp recognition and CNS penetration.

    PubMed

    Wakenhut, Florian; Allan, Gill A; Fish, Paul V; Fray, M Jonathan; Harrison, Anthony C; McCoy, Rachel; Phillips, Stephen C; Ryckmans, Thomas; Stobie, Alan; Westbrook, Dominique; Westbrook, Simon L; Whitlock, Gavin A

    2009-09-01

    The structure-activity relationship and the synthesis of novel N-[(3S)-pyrrolidin-3-yl]benzamides as dual serotonin and noradrenaline monoamine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI) is described. Preferred compound 9 aka PF-184,298 is a potent SNRI with good selectivity over dopamine reuptake inhibition (DRI), good in vitro metabolic stability, weak CYP inhibition and drug-like physicochemical properties consistent with CNS target space. Evaluation in an in vivo preclinical model of stress urinary incontinence showed 9 significantly increased urethral tone at free plasma concentrations consistent with its in vitro primary pharmacology. PMID:19647430

  2. Antitumor agents. 293. Nontoxic dimethyl-4,4'-dimethoxy-5,6,5',6'-dimethylenedioxybiphenyl-2,2'-dicarboxylate (DDB) analogues chemosensitize multidrug-resistant cancer cells to clinical anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Hung, Hsin-Yi; Ohkoshi, Emika; Goto, Masuo; Bastow, Kenneth F; Nakagawa-Goto, Kyoko; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2012-06-14

    Novel dimethyl-4,4'-dimethoxy-5,6,5',6'-dimethylenedioxybiphenyl-2,2'-dicarboxylate (DDB) analogues were designed and synthesized to improve their chemosensitizing action on KBvin (vincristine-resistant nasopharyngeal carcinoma) cells, a multidrug resistant cell line overexpressing P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Structure-activity relationship analysis showed that aromatic and bulky aliphatic side chains at the 2,2'-positions effectively and significantly sensitized P-gp overexpressing multidrug resistant (MDR) cells to anticancer drugs, such as paclitaxel (TAX), vincristine (VCR), and doxorubicin (DOX). DDB derivatives 16 and 23 showed 5-10 times more effective reversal ability than verapamil (VRP) for TAX and VCR. Analogue 6 also exhibited five times greater chemosensitizing effect against DOX than VRP. Importantly, no cytotoxicity was observed by the active DDB analogues against both non-MDR and MDR cells, suggesting that DDB analogues serve as novel lead compounds for the development of chemosensitizers to overcome the MDR phenotype. The mechanism of action studies demonstrated that effective inhibition of P-glycoprotein by DDB analogues dramatically elevated the cellular concentration of anticancer drugs. PMID:22612652

  3. Evaluation of drug interaction potential of Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah) and its constituents

    PubMed Central

    Manda, Vamshi K.; Dale, Olivia R.; Awortwe, Charles; Ali, Zulfiqar; Khan, Ikhlas A.; Walker, Larry A.; Khan, Shabana I.

    2014-01-01

    Labisia pumila (Kacip Fatimah) is a popular herb in Malaysia that has been traditionally used in a number of women’s health applications such as to improve libido, relieve postmenopausal symptoms, and to facilitate or hasten delivery in childbirth. In addition, the constituents of this plant have been reported to possess anticancer, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. Clinical studies have indicated that cytochrome P450s (CYPs), P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and Pregnane X receptor (PXR) are the three main modulators of drug-drug interactions which alter the absorption, distribution, and metabolism of drugs. Given the widespread use of Kacip Fatimah in dietary supplements, the current study focuses on determining the potential of its constituents to affect the activities of CYPs, P-gp, or PXR using in vitro assays which may provide useful information toward the risk of herb-drug interaction with concomitantly used drugs. Six compounds isolated from the roots of L. pumila (2 saponins and 4 alkyl phenols) were tested, in addition to the methanolic extract. The extract of L. pumila showed a significant time dependent inhibition (TDI) of CYP3A4, reversible inhibition of CYP2C9 and 2C19 and a weak inhibition of 1A2 and 2D6 as well as an inhibition of P-gp and rifampicin-induced PXR activation. The alkyl phenols inhibited CYP3A4 (TDI), CYP2C9, and 2C19 (reversible) while saponins inhibited P-gp and PXR. In conclusion, L. pumila and its constituents showed significant modulation of all three regulatory proteins (CYPs, P-gp, and PXR) suggesting a potential to alter the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of conventional drugs if used concomitantly. PMID:25152732

  4. Interaction Potential of the Multitargeted Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Dovitinib with Drug Transporters and Drug Metabolising Enzymes Assessed in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Johanna; Theile, Dirk; Dvorak, Zdenek; Haefeli, Walter Emil

    2014-01-01

    Dovitinib (TKI-258) is under development for the treatment of diverse cancer entities. No published information on its pharmacokinetic drug interaction potential is available. Thus, we assessed its interaction with important drug metabolising enzymes and drug transporters and its efficacy in multidrug resistant cells in vitro. P-glycoprotein (P-gp, MDR1, ABCB1) inhibition was evaluated by calcein assay, inhibition of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) by pheophorbide A efflux, and inhibition of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) by 8-fluorescein-cAMP uptake. Inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4, 2C19, and 2D6 was assessed by using commercial kits. Induction of transporters and enzymes was quantified by real-time RT-PCR. Possible aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activating properties were assessed by a reporter gene assay. Substrate characteristics were evaluated by growth inhibition assays in cells over-expressing P-gp or BCRP. Dovitinib weakly inhibited CYP2C19, CYP3A4, P-gp and OATPs. The strongest inhibition was observed for BCRP (IC50 = 10.3 ± 4.5 ?M). Among the genes investigated, dovitinib only induced mRNA expression of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, ABCC3 (coding for multidrug resistance-associated protein 3), and ABCG2 and suppressed mRNA expression of some transporters and drug metabolising enzymes. AhR reporter gene assay demonstrated that dovitinib is an activator of this nuclear receptor. Dovitinib retained its efficacy in cell lines over-expressing P-gp or BCRP. Our analysis indicates that dovitinib will most likely retain its efficacy in tumours over-expressing P-gp or BCRP and gives first evidence that dovitinib might act as a perpetrator drug in pharmacokinetic drug–drug interactions. PMID:25521244

  5. Enhanced effect of pH-sensitive mixed copolymer micelles for overcoming multidrug resistance of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lipeng; Qiao, Mingxi; Chen, Qing; Tian, Chenmin; Long, Miaomiao; Wang, Mingyue; Li, Zhen; Hu, Wen; Li, Gang; Cheng, Liang; Cheng, Lifang; Hu, Haiyang; Zhao, Xiuli; Chen, Dawei

    2014-12-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated drug efflux has been recognized as a key factor contributing to the multidrug resistance (MDR) in tumor cells. To address this issue, a new pH-sensitive mixed copolymer micelles system composed of hyaluronic acid-g-poly(l-histidine) (HA-PHis) and d-?-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 2000 (TPGS2k) copolymers was developed to co-deliver doxorubicin (DOX) and TPGS2k into drug-resistant breast cancer MCF-7 cells (MCF-7/ADR). The DOX-loaded HA-PHis/TPGS2k mixed micelles (HPHM/TPGS2k) were characterized to have a unimodal size distribution, high DOX loading content and a pH dependent drug release profile due to the protonation of poly(l-histidine). As compared to HA-PHis micelles (HPHM), the HPHM/TPGS2k showed higher and comparable cytotoxicity against MCF-7/ADR cells and MCF-7 cells, respectively. The enhanced MDR reversal effect was attributed to the higher amount of cellular uptake of HPHM/TPGS2k in MCF-7/ADR cells than HPHM, arising from the inhibition of P-gp mediated drug efflux by TPGS2k. The measurements of P-gp expression level and mitochondrial membrane potential indicate that the blank HPHM/TPGS2k inhibited P-gp activity by reducing mitochondrial membrane potential and depletion of ATP but without inhibition of P-gp expression. In vivo study of micelles in tumor-bearing mice indicate that HPHM/TPGS2k could reach the tumor site more effectively than HPHM. The pH-sensitive mixed micelles system has been demonstrated to be a promising approach for overcoming the MDR. PMID:25201738

  6. Carotenoids reverse multidrug resistance in cancer cells by interfering with ABC-transporters.

    PubMed

    Eid, Safaa Yehia; El-Readi, Mahmoud Zaki; Wink, Michael

    2012-08-15

    Proteins of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily, mainly P-glycoprotein (P-gp; MDR1), play an important role in the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells and thus in the potential failure of chemotherapy. A selection of carotenoids (?-carotene, crocin, retinoic acid, canthaxanthin, and fucoxanthin) was investigated whether they are substrates of P-gp, and if they can reverse MDR in resistant Caco-2 and CEM/ADR5000 cells as compared to the sensitive parent cell line CCRF-CEM. The activity of ABC transporter was determined in resistant and sensitive cells by spectrofluorometry and flow cytometry using the substrates doxorubicin, rhodamine 123, and calcein as fluorescent probes. The carotenoids increased accumulation of these P-gp substrates in a dose-dependent manner indicating that they themselves also function as substrates. Fucoxanthin and canthaxanthin (50-100 ?M) produced a 3-5-fold higher retention of the fluorescent probes than the known competitive inhibitor verapamil. Carotenoids showed a low cytotoxicity in cells with MDR with IC(50) values between 100 and 200 ?M. The combination of carotenoids with eight structurally different cytotoxic agents synergistically enhanced their cytotoxicity in Caco-2 cells, probably by inhibiting the function of the ABC transporters. For example, fucoxanthin synergistically enhanced the cytotoxicity of 5-FU 53.37-fold, of vinblastine 51.01-fold, and of etoposide 12.47-fold. RT-PCR was applied to evaluate the mRNA levels of P-gp in Caco-2 cells after treatment with carotenoids. Fucoxanthin and canthaxanthin significantly decreased P-gp levels to 12% and 24%, respectively as compared to untreated control levels (p<0.001). This study implies that carotenoids may be utilised as chemosensitisers, especially as adjuvants in chemotherapy. PMID:22770743

  7. Suppression of multidrug resistance by rosiglitazone treatment in human ovarian cancer cells through downregulation of FZD1 and MDR1 genes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Jing, Xuanxuan; Wu, Xiaojuan; Hu, Jing; Zhang, Xiaofang; Wang, Xiao; Su, Peng; Li, Weiwei; Zhou, Gengyin

    2015-08-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle in the successful treatment of ovarian cancer. One of the most common causes of MDR is overexpression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), encoded by the MDR1 gene. The MDR1 gene is a direct target of the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway, which plays an important role in ovarian cancer. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) ligands have been found to protect against development of cancer through the Wnt/?-catenin pathway. To investigate the effect of PPAR? ligands on MDR1/P-gp expression, we treated a MDR ovarian cancer cell subline, A2780/Taxol, with different concentrations of rosiglitazone (Rosi), a member of the synthetic PPAR? ligands. Rosi downregulated FZD1 and MDR1/P-gp expression in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, nuclear ?-catenin levels and its transcriptional activity decreased significantly. In conclusion, Rosi may reverse MDR of ovarian cancer cells by downregulating the Wnt/?-catenin pathway with the suppression of FZD1. PMID:26053275

  8. Effect of grapefruit juice, naringin, naringenin, and bergamottin on the intestinal carrier-mediated transport of talinolol in rats.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Whocely Victor; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne; Derendorf, Hartmut; Butterweck, Veronika

    2008-06-25

    The effect of two varieties of grapefruit juice (white and ruby red) and its selected components (naringin, naringenin, and bergamottin) was investigated on the activity of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Talinolol, a nonmetabolized P-gp substrate, was used as a marker compound. The white grapefruit juice (GFJ) had a minor effect on talinolol pharmacokinetics, but the ruby red GFJ reduced the C max and the AUC (0-infinity) by 60% and 50% of the control, respectively. However, among the GFJ constituents tested, bergamottin (0.22 mg/kg) was the most potent component augmenting the C max and the AUC (0-infinity) of talinolol by 2.4- and 1.8-fold, respectively, if compared to the control group. The flavonoids naringenin (0.7 mg/kg) and naringin (2.4 and 9.4 mg/kg) had a similar effect increasing the talinolol C max and AUC (0-infinity) by 1.5- to 1.8-fold, respectively. In conclusion, the effect of GFJ on P-gp activity seems to depend on the variety, the concentration of compounds in the juice, and the composition of different ingredients. PMID:18494494

  9. Combining PET biodistribution and equilibrium dialysis assays to assess the free brain concentration and BBB transport of CNS drugs.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Roger N; Summerfield, Scott G; Salinas, Cristian A; Read, Kevin D; Guo, Qi; Searle, Graham E; Parker, Christine A; Jeffrey, Phil; Laruelle, Marc

    2012-05-01

    The passage of drugs in and out of the brain is controlled by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), typically, using either passive diffusion across a concentration gradient or active transport via a protein carrier. In-vitro and preclinical measurements of BBB penetration do not always accurately predict the in-vivo situation in humans. Thus, the ability to assay the concentration of novel drug candidates in the human brain in vivo provides valuable information for de-risking of candidate molecules early in drug development. Here, positron emission tomography (PET) measurements are combined with in-vitro equilibrium dialysis assays to enable assessment of transport and estimation of the free brain concentration in vivo. The PET and equilibrium dialysis data were obtained for 36 compounds in the pig. Predicted P-glycoprotein (P-gp) status of the compounds was consistent with the PET/equilibrium dialysis results. In particular, Loperamide, a well-known P-gp substrate, exhibited a significant concentration gradient consistent with active efflux and after inhibition of the P-gp process the gradient was removed. The ability to measure the free brain concentration and assess transport of novel compounds in the human brain with combined PET and equilibrium dialysis assays can be a useful tool in central nervous system (CNS) drug development. PMID:22274741

  10. D-?-tocopherol polyethylene glycol succinate-based redox-sensitive paclitaxel prodrug for overcoming multidrug resistance in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yuling; Guo, Yuanyuan; Zhuang, Xiangting; Li, Dan; Cheng, Bolin; Tan, Songwei; Zhang, Zhiping

    2014-09-01

    To overcome the multidrug resistance (MDR) of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate anticancer drugs, such as paclitaxel (PTX), a novel dual-functional prodrug, D-?-tocopherol polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS) based PTX prodrug (TPGS-S-S-PTX), was synthesized here to fulfill the synergistic effect of P-gp inhibiting and intracellular redox-sensitive release. The prodrug could self-assemble into stable micelles in physiological environment with a diameter of ?140 nm, while it disassociated in reductive condition and released PTX and TPGS active derivatives rapidly. High cell cytotoxicity in PTX-resistant human ovarian cell line A2780/T was observed with enhanced PTX accumulation due to the P-gp inhibition by the TPGS moiety. The IC50 of TPGS-S-S-PTX was 55% and 91% more effective than that of Taxol (clinical formulation of PTX) and uncleavable TPGS-C-C-PTX prodrug, respectively. This was found to be related with the increased apoptosis/necrosis and cell arrest in G2/M phase. In vivo evaluation of the TPGS-S-S-PTX prodrug exhibited an extended half-life, increased AUC (area under the concentration-time curve), enhanced tumor distribution and significant tumor growth inhibition with reduced side effects as compared to Taxol and TPGS-C-C-PTX. This prodrug has great potential in improving efficiency in the treatment of MDR tumors. PMID:25102234

  11. Opioid transport by ATP-binding cassette transporters at the blood-brain barrier: implications for neuropsychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Tournier, Nicolas; Declčves, Xavier; Saubaméa, Bruno; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Cisternino, Salvatore

    2011-01-01

    Some of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters like P-glycoprotein (P-gp; ABCB1, MDR1), BCRP (ABCG2) and MRPs (ABCCs) that are present at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) influence the brain pharmacokinetics (PK) of their substrates by restricting their uptake or enhancing their clearance from the brain into the blood, which has consequences for their CNS pharmacodynamics (PD). Opioid drugs have been invaluable tools for understanding the PK-PD relationships of these ABC-transporters. The effects of morphine, methadone and loperamide on the CNS are modulated by P-gp. This review examines the ways in which other opioid drugs and some of their active metabolites interact with ABC transporters and suggests new mechanisms that may be involved in the variability of the response of the CNS to these drugs like carrier-mediated system belonging to the solute carrier (SLC) superfamily. Exposure to opioids may also alter the expression of ABC transporters. P-gp can be overproduced during morphine treatment, suggesting that the drug has a direct or, more likely, an indirect action. Variations in cerebral neurotransmitters during exposure to opioids and the release of cytokines during pain could be new endogenous stimuli affecting transporter synthesis. This review concludes with an analysis of the pharmacotherapeutic and clinical impacts of the interactions between ABC transporters and opioids. PMID:21827411

  12. Flavonol-stimulated Efflux of 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a)anthracene in Multidrug-resistant Breast Cancer Cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James M. Phang; C. Michael Poore; Joanna Lopaczynska; Grace Chao Yeh

    We used a series of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expressing multidrug-resis- tant (MDR) cells, developed from human breast cancer MCF-7 cells by exposure to Adriamycin, to investigate the effects of flavonoids on P-gp- mediated efflux mechanisms for chemical carcinogens. We previously showed that MDR cells derived from exposure to Adriamycin are cross- resistant to a chemical carcinogen, benzo(a)pyrene, due to its cellular

  13. Enhanced brain delivery of lamotrigine with Pluronic® P123-based nanocarrier

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jian-Sheng; Wang, Jian-Hong; Zhou, Jie; Tang, Xing-Hua; Xu, Lan; Shen, Teng; Wu, Xun-Yi; Hong, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    Background P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated drug efflux across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) is an important mechanism underlying poor brain penetration of certain antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Nanomaterials, as drug carriers, can overcome P-gp activity and improve the targeted delivery of AEDs. However, their applications in the delivery of AEDs have not been adequately investigated. The objective of this study was to develop a nano-scale delivery system to improve the solubility and brain penetration of the antiepileptic drug lamotrigine (LTG). Methods LTG-loaded Pluronic® P123 (P123) polymeric micelles (P123/LTG) were prepared by thin-film hydration, and brain penetration capability of the nanocarrier was evaluated. Results The mean encapsulating efficiency for the optimized formulation was 98.07%; drug-loading was 5.63%, and particle size was 18.73 nm. The solubility of LTG in P123/LTG can increase to 2.17 mg/mL, making it available as a solution. The in vitro release of LTG from P123LTG presented a sustained-release property. Compared with free LTG, the LTG-incorporated micelles accumulated more in the brain at 0.5, 1, and 4 hours after intravenous administration in rats. Pretreatment with systemic verapamil increased the rapid brain penetration of free LTG but not P123/LTG. Incorporating another P-gp substrate (Rhodamine 123) into P123 micelles also showed higher efficiency in penetrating the BBB in vitro and in vivo. Conclusion These results indicated that P123 micelles have the potential to overcome the activity of P-gp expressed on the BBB and therefore show potential for the targeted delivery of AEDs. Future studies are necessary to further evaluate the appropriateness of the nanocarrier to enhance the efficacy of AEDs. PMID:25152622

  14. Surface engineered nanostructured lipid carriers for targeting MDR tumor: Part I. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro investigation.

    PubMed

    Negi, Lalit Mohan; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Jaggi, Manu; Verma, Anita Kamra; Verma, Ritu; Dobhal, Sheetal; Kumar, Vijay

    2014-11-01

    Over expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in cancer cells often results in highly aggressive, multi-drug resistant (MDR) phenotype. Such tumors are very difficult to treat with conventional therapy and often lead to failure of the treatment. In this work, we fabricated surface engineered hybrid lipid nanoparticles grafted with novel AL-HA polymer by mineralization technique. AL-HA graft polymer was prepared by covalent conjugation of alendronate sodium and hyaluronic acid. Compritol ATO 888 and capmule MCM C8 hybrid lipid mix was employed to prepare irinotecan containing nanostructured lipid carrier (NLC) by using functional excipients with P-gp inhibition activity. AL-HA was successfully grafted over NLC-Ir (uncoated irinotecan loaded NLC) by calcium-assisted mineralization. HA-NLC-Ir (hyaluronic acid coated irinotecan loaded NLC) particles have a nanoscale size of 386±2.2 nm along with a zeta potential value of 19.7±1.2 mV. NLC-Ir as well as HA-NLC-Ir showed a slow and sustained drug release. In vitro cell line studies performed on HT-29 and Colo-320 colon cancer cells revealed a reduced IC50 even in MDR cells. Flowcytometry studies demonstrated the capability of the developed nanocarriers to deliver the P-gp substrate moieties in MDR cancer cells. Furthermore, the targeting potential of HA-NLC was confirmed by CLSM studies. The cell line studies also revealed that NLC formulation had a potential of inhibiting P-gp by affecting ATPase activity and MDR1 gene expression. PMID:25454761

  15. Pharmacokinetic interaction study between quercetin and valsartan in rats and in vitro models.

    PubMed

    Challa, Venkatesh R; Babu, P Ravindra; Challa, Siva R; Johnson, Benito; Maheswari, C

    2013-06-01

    Valsartan is a potent, orally active non-peptide tetrazole derivative and selectively inhibits angiotensin II receptor type 1 which causes reduction in blood pressure and is used in treatment of hypertension. The risk of heart disease mortality decreased significantly as flavonoid intake increased. Interestingly, the flavonoid-containing foods contain a high amount of Quercetin. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of quercetin on the pharmacokinetics of valsartan. In vivo studies were performed on rats. Rats were treated with quercetin (10 mg/kg) and valsartan (10 mg/kg), blood samples were collected at 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 4, 6 and 8 h. Plasma concentration of valsartan was estimated by Reverse Phase (RP-HPLC). Quercetin significantly increases the plasma concentration of valsartan and peak concentration (70.45 µg/mL) was achieved at 3.5 h. In vitro studies were performed on rat intestinal everted sacs. The transport of valsartan from serosal side to mucosal side decreased from 53.12 ± 1.27 to 40.15 ± 0.45 µg/mL in the presence of quercetin and from 53.12 ± 1.27 to 28.68 ± 0.31 µg/mL in the presence of verapamil (standard P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor) at 120 min. Verapamil is a potent P-gp and CYP3A4 inhibitor. Quercetin is a P-gp inhibitor and may be an inhibitor of CYP3A4. The simultaneous administration of quercetin significantly increases the intestinal absorption and decreases the efflux of valsartan. The observed effect may be beneficial to develop oral valsartan dosage forms using safe P-gp inhibitor (quercetin) to improve its oral bioavailability. PMID:22670860

  16. Ketoconazole-associated preferential increase in dopamine D2 receptor occupancy in striatum compared to pituitary in vivo: role for drug transporters?

    PubMed

    Reist, Christopher; Wu, Joseph C; Lilja, Ylva; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar; Gripeos, Dimitrios; Constantinescu, Cristian; Raggi, Maria Augusta; Mercolini, Laura; Ozdemir, Vural

    2012-02-01

    Membrane transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) are efflux pumps that remove drugs from the brain back to the peripheral blood compartment, serving as a functional component of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We report here that coadministration of the P-gp and BCRP inhibitor ketoconazole with risperidone may preferentially increase D2 receptor occupancy in the striatum compared to pituitary. Four male patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder who had received at least 4 prior injections of the long-acting risperidone at a stable dose of 25 to 50 mg participated in this positron emission tomography study. Multiple-dose ketoconazole coadministration reduced the P-gp activity as shown by fexofenadine oral challenge. Importantly, we found a strong statistical trend in this sample of 4 subjects who consistently showed a decrease in striatal fluorine 18 (F)-fallypride binding (an indication of increased D2 receptor occupancy) after ketoconazole coadministration (P = 0.057), whereas the pituitary (a region that lies outside the BBB) F-fallypride binding did not change (P = 0.99). These observations warrant further research with selective drug transporter inhibitors. We suggest that in neuroimaging studies, the pituitary drug occupancy can serve as a useful new "positive control" to evaluate whether drug occupancy is preferentially increased in brain regions that fall inside the BBB after cotreatment with P-gp and BCRP inhibitors. This is a noteworthy study design consideration regarding the future clinical testing of novel adjunct interventions aimed at modulating membrane transporter function at the BBB, with the goal of augmenting drug access into the brain compartment, particularly in treatment-resistant psychiatric illness. PMID:22198458

  17. Smart pH-sensitive and temporal-controlled polymeric micelles for effective combination therapy of doxorubicin and disulfiram.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiaopin; Xiao, Jisheng; Yin, Qi; Zhang, Zhiwen; Yu, Haijun; Mao, Shirui; Li, Yaping

    2013-07-23

    The combination of a chemotherapeutic drug with a multidrug resistance (MDR) modulator has emerged as a promising strategy for treating MDR cancer. To ensure two drugs could be simultaneously delivered to tumor region at the optimum ratio, and the MDR modulator could be released earlier and faster than the chemotherapeutic drug to inactivate P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and subsequently inhibit the pumping out of the chemotherapeutic drug, a smart pH-sensitive polymeric micelles system with high drug loading and precise drug ratio was designed and prepared by conjugating doxorubicin (DOX) to poly(styrene-co-maleic anhydride) (SMA) derivative with adipic dihydrazide (ADH) through a acid-cleavable hydrazone bond, and then encapsulating disulfiram (DSF), a P-gp inhibitor as well as an apoptosis inducer, into the micelles formed by the self-assembly of SMA-ADH-DOX (SAD) conjugate. The pH-sensitive polymeric micelles system enabled a temporal release of two drugs: encapsulated DSF was released fast to inhibit the activity of P-gp and restore cell apoptotic signaling pathways, while conjugated DOX was released in a sustained and pH-dependent manner and highly accumulated in drug resistant cells to exert therapeutic effect, due to the inactivation of P-gp by DSF. The smart co-delivery system was very effective in enhancing the cytotoxicity by increasing the intracellular accumulation of DOX and promoting the apoptotic response, and showed the most effective inhibitory effect on the growth of drug-resistant breast cancer xenografts as compared to other combinations of both drugs. In a word, this smart co-delivery system has significant promise for the clinical therapy of MDR cancer. PMID:23734880

  18. [Determinants of the stereoselective pharmacokinetics of fexofenadine].

    PubMed

    Akamine, Yumiko

    2015-01-01

    Drug transporters play an important role in the clinical pharmacokinetics of many therapeutic agents. Although it is estimated that about half of all therapeutic agents are chiral, there has been little information on the stereoselective pharmacokinetics related to drug transporters. This review focuses on the drug transporters contributing to the stereoselective pharmacokinetics of fexofenadine enantiomers in humans. Fexofenadine is administered clinically as a racemic mixture, and the plasma concentration of (R)-fexofenadine is about 1.5-fold higher than that of the (S)-enantiomer. Because fexofenadine is poorly metabolized by cytochrome P450s, its pharmacokinetics depends on its drug-transporter activities. First, we examined whether drug-transporter polymorphisms influence fexofenadine enantiomer pharmacokinetics. The findings suggested that a combination of multiple transporters involving organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 2B1, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) react to stereoselective fexofenadine exposure. Subsequently, we evaluated the roles of P-gp and OATPs in fexofenadine enantiomer pharmacokinetics using these inducer/inhibitors. Coadministration of P-gp inducer/inhibitors significantly altered the pharmacokinetics of fexofenadine enantiomers. In addition, the OATP inhibitors rifampicin and apple juice also affected fexofenadine enantiomer pharmacokinetics. Moreover, in in vitro studies, the uptake of both fexofenadine enantiomers into OATP2B1 cRNA-injected oocytes was significantly higher than that into water-injected oocytes, and this effect was greater for (R)-fexofenadine. Taken together, these studies indicated that multiple transporters including P-gp, OATPs, and MRP2 play important roles in fexofenadine enantiomer pharmacokinetics. Furthermore, OATP2B1 is a key determinant of the stereoselective pharmacokinetics of fexofenadine, and drug transporters may have chiral discrimination ability. PMID:25759055

  19. An ABC transporter with a secondary-active multidrug translocator domain.

    PubMed

    Venter, Henrietta; Shilling, Richard A; Velamakanni, Saroj; Balakrishnan, Lekshmy; Van Veen, Hendrik W

    2003-12-18

    Multidrug resistance, by which cells become resistant to multiple unrelated pharmaceuticals, is due to the extrusion of drugs from the cell's interior by active transporters such as the human multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein. Two major classes of transporters mediate this extrusion. Primary-active transporters are dependent on ATP hydrolysis, whereas secondary-active transporters are driven by electrochemical ion gradients that exist across the plasma membrane. The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter LmrA is a primary drug transporter in Lactococcus lactis that can functionally substitute for P-glycoprotein in lung fibroblast cells. Here we have engineered a truncated LmrA protein that lacks the ATP-binding domain. Surprisingly, this truncated protein mediates a proton-ethidium symport reaction without the requirement for ATP. In other words, it functions as a secondary-active multidrug uptake system. These findings suggest that the evolutionary precursor of LmrA was a secondary-active substrate translocator that acquired an ATP-binding domain to enable primary-active multidrug efflux in L. lactis. PMID:14685244

  20. Gene directed enzyme prodrug therapy for ovarian cancer: could GDEPT become a promising treatment against ovarian cancer?

    PubMed

    Nawa, Akihiro; Tanino, Tadatoshi; Luo, ChenHong; Iwaki, Masahiro; Kajiyama, Hiroaki; Shibata, Kiyosumi; Yamamoto, Eiko; Ino, Kazuhiko; Nishiyama, Yukihiro; Kikkawa, Fumitaka

    2008-02-01

    Gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy (GDEPT) involves the treatment concept of having maximal efficacy and minimal adverse effects. Several GDEPT strategies have been developed combining cytosine deaminase and 5-fluorocytosine, cytochrome P450 2B1 and cyclophosphamide, and carboxylesterase (CES) and irinotecan in experimental models. The active forms of these prodrugs, however, are not a frontline therapy for the treatment of ovarian cancer. It would be beneficial to develop a more effective prodrug-enzyme combination for the treatment of this disease. Paclitaxel (Taxol; TAX) is currently one of the most important anti-cancer drugs in chemotherapy of ovarian cancer. One of TAX prodrugs, 2'-ethylcarbonate-linked paclitaxel (TAX-2'-Et), was generated and examined regarding its pharmacological aspects. The prodrug of TAX-2'-Et converts into active form TAX by carboxylesterase (CES). TAX-2'-Et did not exhibit polarized transport in the Caco-2 cells expressing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the absence or presence of verapamil which is a inhibitor of P-gp, suggesting that TAX-2'-Et is not a target of P-gp like TAX and rhodamine123. Moreover, SKOV3/TAX60 cells which are overexpressing P-gp did not also exhibit any change in cellular uptake of TAX-2'-Et regardless of the absence or presence of verapamil. Consequently, the uptake of TAX-2'-Et into the TAX-resistant cells was quantitatively similar to that internalized in the parental SKOV3 cells which are P-gp-negative. In the CES-transfected SKOV3 cells, the EC50 value of TAX (10.6 nM) was approximately 4-fold higher than that of TAX-2'-Et (2.5 nM). We herein provide evidence that TAX-2'-Et could circumvent P-gp-associated cellular efflux of TAX, suggesting that this combination therapy is a potential GDEPT strategy for ovarian cancer in the future. Finally, this review focuses on the development, application and potential of various GDEPTs for treating ovarian cancer, and the scope and progress of new GDEPTs are discussed. PMID:18288924

  1. Calanquinone A induces anti-glioblastoma activity through glutathione-involved DNA damage and AMPK activation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fan-Lun; Hsu, Jui-Ling; Lee, Yean-Jang; Dong, Yu-Shun; Kung, Fan-Lu; Chen, Ching-Shih; Guh, Jih-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma, a highly malignant glioma, is resistant to both radiation and chemotherapy and is an intractable problem in clinical treatment. New therapeutic approaches are in urgent need. Calanquinone A, an herbal constituent, displayed anti-proliferative activity against glioblastoma cells, including A172, T98 and U87. Flow cytometric analysis showed an S phase arrest and a subsequent apoptosis to calanquinone A action. Further identification demonstrated a rapid increase of ?H2A.X formation at S phase. The data together with comet tail formation and Chk1 activation indicated DNA damage response. N-acetyl cysteine (an antioxidant and a glutathione precursor) and exogenously applied glutathione, but not trolox (an antioxidant), completely abolished calanquinone A-induced effects. Immunofluorescence assay revealed that calanquinone A decreased the intracellular glutathione levels in both A172 and T98 cells. However, calanquinone A, by itself, did not conjugate glutathione. The data suggested that the decrease of cellular glutathione predominantly contributed to the anticancer mechanism. Furthermore, calanquinone A induced the activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and the inhibition of p70S6K activity. Rhodamine efflux assay showed that calanquinone A did not block efflux activity, indicating that calanquinone A was not a P-glycoprotein substrate. In summary, the data suggest that calanquinone A displays anti-glioblastoma activity through a decrease of cellular glutathione levels that subsequently induces DNA damage stress and AMPK activation, leading to cell cycle arrest at S-phase and apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, calanquinone A does not serve as a P-glycoprotein substrate, suggesting a potential for further development in anti-glioblastoma therapy. PMID:24607408

  2. Codelivery of Chemotherapeutics via Crosslinked Multilamellar Liposomal Vesicles to Overcome Multidrug Resistance in Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Joo, Kye-Il; Wong, Michael K.; Wang, Pin

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a significant challenge to effective cancer chemotherapy treatment. However, the development of a drug delivery system that allows for the sustained release of combined drugs with improved vesicle stability could overcome MDR in cancer cells. To achieve this, we have demonstrated codelivery of doxorubicin (Dox) and paclitaxel (PTX) via a crosslinked multilamellar vesicle (cMLV). This combinatorial delivery system achieves enhanced drug accumulation and retention, in turn resulting in improved cytotoxicity against tumor cells, including drug-resistant cells. Moreover, this delivery approach significantly overcomes MDR by reducing the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in cancer cells, thus improving antitumor activity in vivo. Thus, by enhancing drug delivery to tumors and lowering the apoptotic threshold of individual drugs, this combinatorial delivery system represents a potentially promising multimodal therapeutic strategy to overcome MDR in cancer therapy. PMID:25330237

  3. Sigma-2 receptor agonists as possible antitumor agents in resistant tumors: hints for collateral sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Niso, Mauro; Abate, Carmen; Contino, Marialessandra; Ferorelli, Savina; Azzariti, Amalia; Perrone, Roberto; Colabufo, Nicola Antonio; Berardi, Francesco

    2013-12-01

    With the aim of contributing to the development of novel antitumor agents, high-affinity ?2 receptor agonists were developed, with 6,7-dimethoxy-2-[4-[1-(4-fluorophenyl)-1H-indol-3-yl]butyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (15) and 9-[4-(6,7-dimethoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-2-yl)butyl]-9H-carbazole (25) showing exceptional selectivity for the ?2 subtype. Most of the compounds displayed notable antiproliferative activity in human MCF7 breast adenocarcinoma cells, with similar activity in the corresponding doxorubicin-resistant MCF7adr cell line. Surprisingly, a few compounds, including 25, displayed enhanced activity in MCF7adr cells over parent cells, recalling the phenomenon of collateral sensitivity, which is under study for the treatment of drug-resistant tumors. All of the compounds showed interaction with P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and 15 and 25, with the greatest activity, were able to revert P-gp-mediated resistance and reestablish the antitumor effect of doxorubicin in MCF7adr cells. We therefore identified a series of ?2 receptor agonists endowed with intriguing antitumor properties; these compounds deserve further investigation for the development of alternate strategies against multidrug- resistant cancers. PMID:24106081

  4. Transport of Twelve Coumarins from Angelicae Pubescentis Radix across a MDCK-pHaMDR Cell Monolayer-An in Vitro Model for Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan-Fang; Xu, Wei; Song, Wei; Ye, Min; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Angelicae Pubescentis Radix (APR), a widely used traditional Chinese medicine, is reported to have central nervous system activities. The purpose of this study was to characterize the blood-brain barrier permeability of twelve coumarins from APR including umbelliferone (1), osthol (2), scopoletin (3), peucedanol (4), ulopterol (5), angepubebisin (6), psoralen (7), xanthotoxin (8), bergapten (9), isoimperatorin (10), columbianadin (11), and columbianetin acetate (12) with an in vitro model using a MDCK-pHaMDR cell monolayer. The cell monolayer was validated to be suitable for the permeation experiments. The samples' transports were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and their apparent permeability coefficients (Papp) were calculated. According to the Papp value, most coumarins could be characterized as well-absorbed compounds except for 4, 10 and 11 which were moderately absorbed ones, in concentration-dependent and time-dependent manners. The results of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor (verapamil) experiments showed that the transport of coumarin 4 was affected by the transport protein P-gp. Sigmoid functions between permeability log(Papp AP-BL*MW0.5) and log D (at pH 7.4) were established to analyze the structure-activity relationship of coumarins. The results provide useful information for discovering the substance basis for the central nervous system activities of APR, and predicting the permeability of other coumarins through BBB. PMID:26121397

  5. Gender differences in detoxification metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (chrysene) in scallop Chlamys farreri during the reproduction period.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Meng; Pan, Luqing; Jin, Qian; Miao, Jingjing

    2015-04-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of chrysene (CHR) on biotransformation and detoxification responses of mature scallop Chlamys farreri during the reproduction period. Scallops were exposed to 0.2, 0.8 and 3.2 ?g/L CHR for 21 days; at day 10 scallops were induced to spawn. At days 1, 3, 6, 10, 11, 15 and 21, enzymatic activities of 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST), related mRNA expression levels of CYP1A1, GST-pi and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in digestive glands and CHR bioaccumulation in tissues were examined by separately analyzing male and female scallops. During the pre-spawn period, CHR concentrations of the treated groups in tissues except the hemolymph increased rapidly. Levels of enzymatic activities and related gene expressions were all induced by the exposure to CHR for females and males. GST activity and GST-pi mRNA expression showed a good time- and dose-dependent relationship only in males, and P-gp mRNA expression exhibited a dose-dependent manner in both sexes. During the post-spawn period, spawning caused significant reductions of bioaccumulation in tissues but the gill and hemolymph. Enzymatic activities and related gene expressions were for females significantly depressed at day 21 at 0.8 or 3.2 ?g/L CHR. Overall, females accumulated more CHR than males, while males were more sensitive than females to CHR exposure in gene expressions and enzyme activities. P-gp mRNA expression seemed to be a potential biomarker for PAH exposure. These results will offer the information on CHR biotransformation in this species, and ensure the influence of gender and reproductive status on PAH detoxification metabolism. PMID:25728626

  6. Targeting Mitochondrial Cell Death Pathway to Overcome Drug Resistance with a Newly Developed Iron Chelate

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Avishek; Basu, Soumya; Chakraborty, Paramita; Chatterjee, Shilpak; Sarkar, Avijit; Chatterjee, Mitali; Choudhuri, Soumitra Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Background Multi drug resistance (MDR) or cross-resistance to multiple classes of chemotherapeutic agents is a major obstacle to successful application of chemotherapy and a basic problem in cancer biology. The multidrug resistance gene, MDR1, and its gene product P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are an important determinant of MDR. Therefore, there is an urgent need for development of novel compounds that are not substrates of P-glycoprotein and are effective against drug-resistant cancer. Methodology/Principal Findings In this present study, we have synthesized a novel, redox active Fe (II) complex (chelate), iron N- (2-hydroxy acetophenone) glycinate (FeNG). The structure of the complex has been determined by spectroscopic means. To evaluate the cytotoxic effect of FeNG we used doxorubicin resistant and/or sensitive T lymphoblastic leukemia cells and show that FeNG kills both the cell types irrespective of their MDR phenotype. Moreover, FeNG induces apoptosis in doxorubicin resistance T lymphoblastic leukemia cell through mitochondrial pathway via generation reactive oxygen species (ROS). This is substantiated by the fact that the antioxidant N-acetyle-cysteine (NAC) could completely block ROS generation and, subsequently, abrogated FeNG induced apoptosis. Therefore, FeNG induces the doxorubicin resistant T lymphoblastic leukemia cells to undergo apoptosis and thus overcome MDR. Conclusion/Significance Our study provides evidence that FeNG, a redox active metal chelate may be a promising new therapeutic agent against drug resistance cancers. PMID:20582168

  7. Purine Nucleoside Analog - Sulfinosine Modulates Diverse Mechanisms of Cancer Progression in Multi-Drug Resistant Cancer Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Da?evi?, Mirjana; Isakovi?, Aleksandra; Podolski-Reni?, Ana; Isakovi?, Andelka M.; Stankovi?, Tijana; Miloševi?, Zorica; Raki?, Ljubisav; Ruždiji?, Sabera; Peši?, Milica

    2013-01-01

    Achieving an effective treatment of cancer is difficult, particularly when resistance to conventional chemotherapy is developed. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity governs multi-drug resistance (MDR) development in different cancer cell types. Identification of anti-cancer agents with the potential to kill cancer cells and at the same time inhibit MDR is important to intensify the search for novel therapeutic approaches. We examined the effects of sulfinosine (SF), a quite unexplored purine nucleoside analog, in MDR (P-gp over-expressing) non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) and glioblastoma cell lines (NCI-H460/R and U87-TxR, respectively). SF showed the same efficacy against MDR cancer cell lines and their sensitive counterparts. However, it was non-toxic for normal human keratinocytes (HaCaT). SF induced caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death and autophagy in MDR cancer cells. After SF application, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were generated and glutathione (GSH) concentration was decreased. The expression of key enzyme for GSH synthesis, gamma Glutamyl-cysteine-synthetase (?GCS) was decreased as well as the expression of gst-? mRNA. Consequently, SF significantly decreased the expression of hif-1?, mdr1 and vegf mRNAs even in hypoxic conditions. SF caused the inhibition of P-gp (coded by mdr1) expression and activity. The accumulation of standard chemotherapeutic agent – doxorubicin (DOX) was induced by SF in concentration- and time-dependent manner. The best effect of SF was obtained after 72 h when it attained the effect of known P-gp inhibitors (Dex-verapamil and tariquidar). Accordingly, SF sensitized the resistant cancer cells to DOX in subsequent treatment. Furthermore, SF decreased the experssion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on mRNA and protein level and modulated its secretion. In conclusion, the effects on P-gp (implicated in pharmacokinetics and MDR), GSH (implicated in detoxification) and VEGF (implicated in tumor-angiogenesis and progression) qualify SF as multi-potent anti-cancer agent, which use must be considered, in particular for resistant malignancies. PMID:23326571

  8. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modelling and in vivo [I]/Ki accurately predict P-glycoproteinmediated drug-drug interactions with dabigatran etexilate

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuansheng; Hu, Zhe-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose In vitro inhibitory potency (Ki)-based predictions of P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated drug-drug interactions (DDIs) are hampered by the substantial variability in inhibitory potency. In this study, in vivo-based [I]/Ki values were used to predict the DDI risks of a P-gp substrate dabigatran etexilate (DABE) using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling. Experimental approach A baseline PBPK model was established with digoxin, a known P-gp substrate. The Km (P-gp transport) of digoxin in the baseline PBPK model was adjusted to Kmi to fit the change of digoxin pharmacokinetics in the presence of a P-gp inhibitor. Then ‘in vivo’ [I]/Ki of this P-gp inhibitor was calculated using Kmi/Km. Baseline PBPK model was developed for DABE, and the ‘in vivo’ [I]/Ki was incorporated into this model to simulate the static effect of P-gp inhibitor on DABE pharmacokinetics. This approach was verified by comparing the observed and the simulated DABE pharmacokinetics in the presence of five different P-gp inhibitors. Key results This approach accurately predicted the effects of five P-gp inhibitors on DABE pharmacokinetics (98–133% and 89–104% for the ratios of AUC and Cmax respectively). The effects of 16 other P-gp inhibitors on the pharmacokinetics of DABE were also confidently simulated. Conclusions and implications ‘In vivo’ [I]/Ki and PBPK modelling, used in combination, can accurately predict P-gp-mediated DDIs. The described framework provides a mechanistic basis for the proper design of clinical DDI studies, as well as avoiding unnecessary clinical DDI studies. PMID:24283665

  9. Different influences on tacrolimus pharmacokinetics by coadministrations of zhi ke and zhi shi in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Wu, Ping-Ping; Hou, Yu-Chi; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Wang, Meng-Ju; Fang, Shih-Hua; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee

    2011-01-01

    Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window, has been used widely in transplant patients. Grapefruit juice and pomelo have been reported to increase the blood levels of tacrolimus. Zhi Ke and Zhi Shi, the ripe peels and unripe fruits of Citrus aurantium which is chemotaxonomically related to grapefruit and pomelo, are in wide use in clinical Chinese medicine. To investigate the possible interaction of these two Citrus herbs with tacrolimus, male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally given tacrolimus (1.5?mg/kg) with and without Zhi Ke and Zhi Shi decoctions in a cross-over design. Blood samples were withdrawn via cardiopuncture at specific time and quantitated by a microparticle enzyme immunoassay. In addition, to explore the mechanism of interaction, LS 180 cell line was used for the transport study of rhodamine 123, a typical substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The results showed that Zhi Shi significantly decreased the C(max) and AUC(0-t) of tacrolimus by 72.4% and 72.0%, respectively, whereas Zhi Ke did not affect tacrolimus pharmacokinetics. LS 180 cell line study indicated that Zhi Shi increased the efflux activity of P-gp, enabling us to explain the decreased oral bioavailability of tacrolimus caused by Zhi Shi. Hence, we suggest that Zhi Shi be contraindicated for transplant patients treated with tacrolimus to reduce the risk of allograft rejection. PMID:21318106

  10. Different Influences on Tacrolimus Pharmacokinetics by Coadministrations of Zhi Ke and Zhi Shi in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Wu, Ping-Ping; Hou, Yu-Chi; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Wang, Meng-Ju; Fang, Shih-Hua; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee

    2011-01-01

    Tacrolimus, an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window, has been used widely in transplant patients. Grapefruit juice and pomelo have been reported to increase the blood levels of tacrolimus. Zhi Ke and Zhi Shi, the ripe peels and unripe fruits of Citrus aurantium which is chemotaxonomically related to grapefruit and pomelo, are in wide use in clinical Chinese medicine. To investigate the possible interaction of these two Citrus herbs with tacrolimus, male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally given tacrolimus (1.5?mg/kg) with and without Zhi Ke and Zhi Shi decoctions in a cross-over design. Blood samples were withdrawn via cardiopuncture at specific time and quantitated by a microparticle enzyme immunoassay. In addition, to explore the mechanism of interaction, LS 180 cell line was used for the transport study of rhodamine 123, a typical substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The results showed that Zhi Shi significantly decreased the Cmax and AUC0?t of tacrolimus by 72.4% and 72.0%, respectively, whereas Zhi Ke did not affect tacrolimus pharmacokinetics. LS 180 cell line study indicated that Zhi Shi increased the efflux activity of P-gp, enabling us to explain the decreased oral bioavailability of tacrolimus caused by Zhi Shi. Hence, we suggest that Zhi Shi be contraindicated for transplant patients treated with tacrolimus to reduce the risk of allograft rejection. PMID:21318106

  11. Proteome analysis of multidrug-resistant, breast cancer–derived microparticles

    PubMed Central

    Pokharel, Deep; Padula, Matthew P.; Lu, Jamie F.; Tacchi, Jessica L.; Luk, Frederick; Djordjevic, Steven P.; Bebawy, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Cancer multidrug resistance (MDR) occurs when cancer cells evade the cytotoxic actions of chemotherapeutics through the active efflux of drugs from within the cells. Our group have previously demonstrated that multidrug-resistant breast cancer cells spontaneously shed microparticles (MPs) and that these MPs can transfer resistance to drug-responsive cells and confer MDR on those cells in as little as 4 h. Furthermore, we also showed that, unlike MPs derived from leukaemia cells, breast cancer–derived MPs display a tissue selectivity in the transfer of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), transferring the resistance protein only to malignant breast cells. This study aims to define the proteome of breast cancer–derived MPs in order to understand the differences in protein profiles between those shed from drug-resistant versus drug-sensitive breast cancer cells. In doing so, we detail the protein cargo required for the intercellular transfer of MDR to drug-sensitive recipient cells and the factors governing the transfer selectivity to malignant breast cells. We describe the first proteomic analysis of MPs derived from human breast cancer cells using SDS PAGE and liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), in which we identify 120 unique proteins found only in drug-resistant, breast cancer–derived MPs. Our results demonstrate that the MP-mediated transfer of P-gp to recipient cells occurs alongside CD44; the Ezrin, Radixin and Moesin protein family (ERM); and cytoskeleton motor proteins within the MP cargo. PMID:25206959

  12. Metformin reverses multidrug resistance in human hepatocellular carcinoma Bel-7402/5-fluorouracil cells

    PubMed Central

    LING, SUNBIN; TIAN, YU; ZHANG, HAIQUAN; JIA, KAIQI; FENG, TINGTING; SUN, DEGUANG; GAO, ZHENMING; XU, FEI; HOU, ZHAOYUAN; LI, YAN; WANG, LIMING

    2014-01-01

    Metformin exhibits anti-proliferative effects in tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. The present study investigated the ability of metformin to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) in human hepatocellular carcinoma Bel-7402/5-fluorouracil (5-Fu; Bel/Fu) cells. The synergistic anti-proliferative effect of metformin combined with 5-Fu was evaluated using a Cell Counting kit-8 assay. The variation in apoptotic rates and cell cycle distribution were evaluated using a flow cytometric assay and variations in target gene and protein expression were monitored using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that metformin had a synergistic anti-proliferative effect with 5-Fu in the Bel/Fu cells. The variations in the number of apoptotic cells and distribution of the cell cycle were consistent with the variability in cell viability. Metformin targeted the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, suppressed the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and transcriptionally downregulated the expression of multidrug resistance protein 1/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1). Collectively, these findings suggested that metformin may target the AMPK/mTOR/HIF-1?/P-gp and MRP1 pathways to reverse MDR in hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:25310259

  13. Accumulation of simple organic cations correlates with differential cytotoxicity in multidrug-resistant and -sensitive human and rodent cells.

    PubMed

    Lampidis, T J; Shi, Y F; Calderon, C L; Kolonias, D; Tapiero, H; Savaraj, N

    1997-07-01

    Structure/functional studies previously reported showed that in a series of simple organic cations in which the charge is delocalized, an aromatic ring and a minimal degree of lipophilicity (log P > -1) were required for recognition by murine cells which express P-glycoprotein (p-gp)-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR). In the present report we find that 3H-octylpyridinium, the simple aromatic cation which has been shown to be preferentially toxic to MDR- as compared to MDR+ cells, accumulates 4.7-fold greater in the MDR- cell line. In contrast, we find that 3H-guanidinium which displays no selective toxicity between MDR+ and MDR- cells, shows no significant uptake differences between these two cell types. We also present data which demonstrate that other organic cations which contain aromatic rings, a minimal degree of lipophilicity (log P> -1) and carry a delocalized (Rho 123) or shielded (triphenylmethyl phosphonium) positive charge, also accumulate to a greater degree in MDR- vs MDR+ cells. Additionally, we find that human cells which express p-gp MDR, have similar requirements for recognition of these simple compounds. In fact, the sensitivity profiles of these compounds closely correlate between murine and human cell lines. It was also found that none of the series of simple organic compounds tested showed modulatory activity in MDR+ cells, as assayed by monitoring retention of Rho 123. Thus, the requirements for MDR recognition vs those for MDR modulation are clearly distinguished with these simple structured compounds. In comparison, the calcium channel antagonist, verapamil, and a calcium channel agonist, Bay K 8644, both showed modulatory activity by increasing Rho 123 retention in MDR+ cells, further supporting the interpretation that verapamil's modulation of MDR is unrelated to its action on calcium flux. Overall, the data presented here add further information for defining the structural requirements of compounds for their recognition by, or modulation of, human cells expressing p-gp-mediated MDR. PMID:9205005

  14. Characterization of inducible nature of MRP3 in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, K; Suzuki, H; Hirohashi, T; Ishikawa, T; Meier, P J; Hirose, K; Akizawa, T; Yoshioka, M; Sugiyama, Y

    2000-03-01

    We found previously that expression of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP) 3 is induced in a mutant rat strain (Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats) whose canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT/MRP2) function is hereditarily defective and in normal Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats after ligation of the common bile duct. In the present study, the inducible nature of MRP3 was examined, using Northern and Western blot analyses, in comparison with that of other secondary active [Na(+)-taurocholic acid cotransporting polypeptide (Ntcp), organic anion transporting polypeptide 1 (oatp1), and organic cation transporter (OCT1)] and primary active [P-glycoprotein (P-gp), cMOAT/MRP2, and MRP6] transporters. alpha-Naphthylisothiocyanate treatment and common bile duct ligation induced expression of P-gp and MRP3, whereas expression of Ntcp, oatp1, and OCT1 was reduced by the same treatment. Although expression of MRP3 was also induced by administration of phenobarbital, that of cMOAT/MRP2, MRP1, and MRP6 was not affected by any of these treatments. Moreover, the mRNA level of MRP3, but not that of P-gp, was increased in SD rats after administration of bilirubin and in Gunn rats whose hepatic bilirubin concentration is elevated because of a defect in the expression of UDP-glucuronosyl transferase. However, the MRP3 protein level was not affected by bilirubin administration. Although the increased MRP3 mRNA level was associated with the increased concentration of bilirubin and/or its glucuronides in mutant rats and in SD rats that had undergone common bile duct ligation or alpha-naphthylisothiocyanate treatment, we must assume that factor(s) other than these physiological substances are also involved in the increased protein level of MRP3. PMID:10712264

  15. Function of the Blood-Brain Barrier and Restriction of Drug Delivery to Invasive Glioma Cells: Findings in an Orthotopic Rat Xenograft Model of Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Sagar; Manchanda, Pooja; Vogelbaum, Michael A.; Ohlfest, John R.

    2013-01-01

    Despite aggressive treatment with radiation and chemotherapy, recurrence of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is inevitable. The objective of this study was to show that the blood-brain barrier (BBB), through a combination of tight junctions and active efflux transporters in the brain microvasculature, can significantly restrict delivery of molecularly targeted agents to invasive glioma cells. Transgenic mice lacking P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) were used to study efflux of erlotinib at the BBB. A U87 rat xenograft model of GBM was used to investigate the regional distribution of erlotinib to the tumor, and brain regions surrounding the tumor. The effect of concurrent administration of elacridar on regional tumor distribution of erlotinib was evaluated. We show that erlotinib transport across an intact BBB is significantly restricted due to P-gp- and Bcrp-mediated efflux transport. We then show that the BBB is sufficiently intact in areas of brain adjacent to the tumor core to significantly restrict erlotinib delivery. Inhibition of P-gp and Bcrp by the dual inhibitor elacridar dramatically increased erlotinib delivery to the tumor core, rim, and normal brain. These results provide conclusive evidence of the impact that active efflux at the BBB has on the delivery of molecularly targeted therapy to different tumor regions in glioma. These data also support the possibility that the repeated failure of clinical trials of new drugs for gliomas may be in part due to a failure to achieve effective concentrations in invasive tumor cells that reside behind an intact BBB. PMID:23014761

  16. Evaluation of the Transport, In Vitro Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics of Salvinorin A, a Potent Hallucinogen

    PubMed Central

    Teksin, Zeynep S.; Lee, Insong J.; Nemieboka, Noble N.; Othman, Ahmed A.; Upreti, Vijay V.; Hassan, Hazem E.; Syed, Shariq S.; Prisinzano, Thomas E.; Eddington, Natalie D.

    2009-01-01

    Salvinorin A is an unregulated potent hallucinogen isolated from the leaves of Salvia divinorum. It is the only known non-nitrogenous kappa-opioid selective agonist and rivals synthetic lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in potency. This objective of this study was to characterize the in vitro transport, in vitro metabolism, and pharmacokinetic properties of Salvinorin A. The transport characteristics of Salvinorin A were assessed using MDCK-MDR1 cell monolayers. The P-glycoprotein (P-gp) affinity status was assessed by the P-gp ATPase assay. In vitro metabolism studies were performed with various specific human CYP450 isoforms and UGT2B7 to assess the metabolic characteristics of Salvinorin A. Cohorts (n=3) of male Sprague Dawley rats were used to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and brain distribution of Salvinorin A (10 mg/kg, intraperitonal (i.p.) over a 240 min period. A validated UV-HPLC and LC/MS/MS method was used to quantify the hallucinogen concentrations obtained from the in vitro and in vivo studies, respectively. Salvinorin A displayed a high secretory transport in the MDCK-MDR1 cells (4.07±1.34 × 10-5 cm/s). Salvinorin A also stimulated the P-gp ATPase activity in a concentration (5-10 ?m) dependent manner, suggesting that it may be a substrate of P-gp. A significant decrease in Salvinorin A concentration ranging from 14.7±0.80 % to 31.1±1.20 % was observed after incubation with CYP2D6, CYP1A1, CYP2C18, and CYP2E1, respectively. A significant decrease was also observed after incubation with UGT2B7. These results suggest that Salvinorin A may be a substrate of UGT2B7, CYP2D6, CYP1A1, CYP2E1 and CYP2C18. The in vivo pharmacokinetic study showed a relatively fast elimination with a half-life (t1/2) of 75 min and a clearance (Cl/F) of 26 L/h/kg. The distribution was extensive (Vd of 47.1 L/kg), however the brain to plasma ratio was 0.050. Accordingly, the brain half life was relatively short, 36 min. Salvinorin A is rapidly eliminated after i.p. dosing, in accordance with its fast onset and short duration of action. Further, it appears to be a substrate for various oxidative enzymes and multi-drug resistant protein, P-gp. PMID:19462483

  17. Swelling-activated chloride channels in multidrug-sensitive and - resistant cells

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Resistance to chemotherapeutic agents in neoplastic cells is often mediated by expression of P-glycoprotein, which functions as a drug- efflux pump for a broad range of substrates. We have used a combination of patch clamp and video-imaging techniques to examine the expression and drug-efflux function of P-glycoprotein and to determine the possible correlation with swelling-activated chloride channels in drug- sensitive and -resistant cell lines. Two pairs of cell lines were used in these experiments: (a) control NIH-3T3 cells and a corresponding MDR1-transfectant; and (b) control 8226 myeloma cells and a derivative cell line selected for resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Control cells lacked detectable P-glycoprotein expression based on Western blotting, immunofluorescence staining with a specific monoclonal antibody, and a functional assay of rhodamine-123 (R123) efflux. Resistant cells expressed P-glycoprotein at high levels and rapidly exported R123. During whole-cell recording using either hyperosmotic pipette solution or hypoosmotic Ringer solution, cell swelling was accompanied by Cl- channel opening in all four cell lines. The rates of induction, biophysical properties and magnitudes of Cl conductance (gCl) were indistinguishable between control and corresponding multidrug-resistant cells: gCl reached 0.96 +/- 0.31 (n = 14) and 0.83 +/- 0.31 nS/pF (mean +/- SD; n = 31) in NIH-3T3 and NIH-3T3/MDR cells, respectively; and 0.31 +/- 0.20 (n = 9) and 0.37 +/- 0.22 nS/pF (n = 7) in 8226 and 8226/Dox40 cells, respectively. gCl exhibited moderate outward rectification in symmetrical Cl- solutions, with a rectification ratio of 1.4 at +/- 50 mV. Cl- channels slowly closed during strong depolarization beyond +60 mV. Using video-imaging techniques with SPQ as a fluorescent probe, we monitored Cl(-)-channel opening in intact drug-sensitive and -resistant cells. gCl, measured either with whole-cell recording or SPQ imaging, was blocked by DIDS (voltage-dependent Kd < 50 microM at +40 mV), NPPB (Kd approximately 30 microM), and tamoxifen (complete and irreversible block approximately 10 microM). None of these blockers inhibited R123 efflux. NPPB accelerated R123 efflux, an effect that was mimicked by CCP, a mitochondrial uncoupler. In contrast, verapamil selectively blocked R123 efflux (Kd = 0.3 to 0.5 microM); 10 microM left gCl unaltered. Induction of gCl was not affected by vincristine or doxorubicin in the pipette solution. Moreover, the rate of R123 efflux did not change during cell swelling. We conclude that P-glycoprotein and swelling- activated chloride channels function independently and are separable by expression and by pharmacological sensitivities. PMID:7699367

  18. Olive-oil-derived oleocanthal enhances ?-amyloid clearance as a potential neuroprotective mechanism against Alzheimer's disease: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Abuznait, Alaa H; Qosa, Hisham; Busnena, Belnaser A; El Sayed, Khalid A; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2013-06-19

    Oleocanthal, a phenolic component of extra-virgin olive oil, has been recently linked to reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative disease that is characterized by accumulation of ?-amyloid (A?) and tau proteins in the brain. However, the mechanism by which oleocanthal exerts its neuroprotective effect is still incompletely understood. Here, we provide in vitro and in vivo evidence for the potential of oleocanthal to enhance A? clearance from the brain via up-regulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and LDL lipoprotein receptor related protein-1 (LRP1), major A? transport proteins, at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Results from in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated similar and consistent pattern of oleocanthal in controlling A? levels. In cultured mice brain endothelial cells, oleocanthal treatment increased P-gp and LRP1 expression and activity. Brain efflux index (BEI%) studies of (125)I-A?40 showed that administration of oleocanthal extracted from extra-virgin olive oil to C57BL/6 wild-type mice enhanced (125)I-A?40 clearance from the brain and increased the BEI% from 62.0 ± 3.0% for control mice to 79.9 ± 1.6% for oleocanthal treated mice. Increased P-gp and LRP1 expression in the brain microvessels and inhibition studies confirmed the role of up-regulation of these proteins in enhancing (125)I-A?40 clearance after oleocanthal treatment. Furthermore, our results demonstrated significant increase in (125)I-A?40 degradation as a result of the up-regulation of A? degrading enzymes following oleocanthal treatment. In conclusion, these findings provide experimental support that potential reduced risk of AD associated with extra-virgin olive oil could be mediated by enhancement of A? clearance from the brain. PMID:23414128

  19. Synthesis and Evaluation of 1,5-Disubstituted Tetrazoles as Rigid Analogues of Combretastatin A-4 with Potent Antiproliferative and Antitumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Romagnoli, Romeo; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Salvador, Maria Kimatrai; Preti, Delia; Tabrizi, Mojgan Aghazadeh; Brancale, Andrea; Fu, Xian-Hua; Li, Jun; Zhang, Su-Zhan; Hamel, Ernest; Bortolozzi, Roberta; Basso, Giuseppe; Viola, Giampietro

    2012-01-01

    Tubulin, the major structural component of microtubules, is a target for the development of anticancer agents. Two series of 1,5-diaryl substituted 1,2,3,4-tetrazoles were concisely synthesized, using a palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction, and identified as potent antiproliferative agents and novel tubulin polymerization inhibitors that act at the colchicine site. SAR analysis indicated that compounds with a 4-ethoxyphenyl group at the N-1 or C-5 position of the 1,2,3,4-tetrazole ring exhibited maximal activity. Several of these compounds also had potent activity in inhibiting the growth of multidrug resistant cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein. Active compounds induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway with activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. Furthermore, compound 4l significantly reduced in vivo the growth of the HT-29 xenograft in a nude mouse model, suggesting that 4l is a promising new antimitotic agent with clinical potential. PMID:22136312

  20. Subscriber access provided by NATIONAL INST OF HEALTH Journal of Medicinal Chemistry is published by the American Chemical Society.

    E-print Network

    Shen, Jun

    and Evaluation of [N-methyl- 11 C]N-Desmethyl-loperamide as a New and Improved PET Radiotracer for Imaging P this article #12;Synthesis and Evaluation of [N-methyl-11 C]N-Desmethyl-loperamide as a New and Improved PET ReceiVed May 2, 2008 [11 C]Loperamide has been proposed for imaging P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function

  1. Accumulation of simple organic cations correlates with differential cytotoxicity in multidrug-resistant and -sensitive human and rodent cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TJ Lampidis; Y-F Shi; CL Calderon; D Kolonias; H Tapiero; N Savaraj

    1997-01-01

    Structure\\/functional studies previously reported showed that in a series of simple organic cations in which the charge is delocalized, an aromatic ring and a minimal degree of lipophilicity (log P > ?1) were required for recognition by murine cells which express P-glycoprotein (p-gp)-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR). In the present report we find that 3H-octylpyridinium, the simple aromatic cation which has

  2. EXPRESSION OF THE MULTDORUG RESISTANCE GLYCOPROTEIN 170 IN THE PERIPHERAL BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES OF RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS PATIENTS. THE PERCENTAGE OF LYMPHOCYTES EXPRESSING GLYCOPROTEIN 170 IS INCREASED IN PATIENTS TREATED WITH PREDNISOLONE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. F. MATLLEFERT; M. MAYNADDE; J. G. TEBEB; S. AHO; P. WALKER; C. CHATARD; V. DULIEU; M. BOUVIER; P. M. CARLI; C. TAVERNIER

    1996-01-01

    SUMMARY The objective was to evaluate the expression of the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). PBL from 68 RA patients and 44 controls were evaluated. RA patients had a mean disease duration of 10.7 yr, with a mean number of past resistances to DMARDs of 0.82, and were treated with

  3. Targeted dual agent nanoparticles to overcome tumor drug resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yogesh B Patil

    2008-01-01

    Tumor drug resistance is a major challenge for the success of chemotherapy in cancer. Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug transporters, such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) confers resistance to a broad range of chemically diverse anticancer drugs. The objective of this research was to develop a delivery system that will overcome drug resistance in tumor cells. It was hypothesized that ligand-functionalized,

  4. Reversal of multidrug resistance by small interfering RNA (siRNA) in doxorubicin-resistant MCF7 breast cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yaprak Dönmez; Ufuk Gündüz

    2011-01-01

    PurposeResistance to anticancer drugs is a serious obstacle to cancer chemotherapy. A common form of multidrug resistance (MDR) is caused by the overexpression of transmembrane transporter proteins P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein-1 (MRP1), encoded by MDR1 and MRP1 genes, respectively. These proteins lead to reduced intracellular drug concentration and decreased cytotoxicity by means of their ability to pump the

  5. Rifampin's Acute Inhibitory and Chronic Inductive Drug Interactions: Experimental and Model-Based Approaches to Drug–Drug Interaction Trial Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M L Reitman; X Chu; X Cai; J Yabut; R Venkatasubramanian; S Zajic; J A Stone; Y Ding; R Witter; C Gibson; K Roupe; R Evers; J A Wagner; A Stoch

    2011-01-01

    We studied the time course for the reversal of rifampin's effect on the pharmacokinetics of oral midazolam (a cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 substrate) and digoxin (a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate). Rifampin increased midazolam metabolism, greatly reducing the area under the concentration–time curve (AUC0–?). The midazolam AUC0–? returned to baseline with a half-life of ~8 days. Rifampin's effect on the AUC0–3 h

  6. From MDR to MXR: new understanding of multidrug resistance systems, their properties and clinical significance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Litman; T. E. Druley; W. D. Stein; S. E. Bates

    2001-01-01

    :   The ATP binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of membrane transporters is one of the largest protein classes known, and counts\\u000a numerous proteins involved in the trafficking of biological molecules across cell membranes. The first known human ABC transporter\\u000a was P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which confers multidrug resistance (MDR) to anticancer drugs. In recent years, we have obtained\\u000a an increased understanding of the

  7. Multidrug Resistance in Brain Tumors: Roles of the Blood–brain Barrier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony Régina; Michel Demeule; Alain Laplante; Julie Jodoin; Claude Dagenais; France Berthelet; Albert Moghrabi; Richard Béliveau

    2001-01-01

    Malignant brain tumors and brain metastases present a formidable clinical challenge against which no significant advances have been made over the last decade. Multidrug resistance (MDR) is one of the main factors in the failure of chemotherapy against central nervous system tumors. The MDR1 gene encoding P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a drug efflux pump which plays a significant role in modulating MDR

  8. Targeting Mitochondrial Cell Death Pathway to Overcome Drug Resistance with a Newly Developed Iron Chelate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Avishek Ganguly; Soumya Basu; Paramita Chakraborty; Shilpak Chatterjee; Avijit Sarkar; Mitali Chatterjee; Soumitra Kumar Choudhuri; Maxim Antopolsky

    2010-01-01

    BackgroundMulti drug resistance (MDR) or cross-resistance to multiple classes of chemotherapeutic agents is a major obstacle to successful application of chemotherapy and a basic problem in cancer biology. The multidrug resistance gene, MDR1, and its gene product P-glycoprotein (P-gp) are an important determinant of MDR. Therefore, there is an urgent need for development of novel compounds that are not substrates

  9. Evaluation of herbal products as potential inhibitors of MDR1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. K. Dresser; W. McDonald; R. B. Kim; D. G. Bailey

    2004-01-01

    Herb-drug interactions are increasingly noted to be a potentially preventable cause of drug toxicity or loss of therapeutic efficacy. In addition to their effects on CYP enzymes, phytochemicals in St. John's wort and grapefruit juice are reported to interact with the drug efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein (P-gp)\\/MDR1. However, the potential effects of other popular, phytochemical rich herbs on MDR1 function have

  10. Sensitive and Specific Fluorescent Probes for Functional Analysis of the Three Major Types of Mammalian ABC Transporters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Irina V. Lebedeva; Praveen Pande; Wayne F. Patton

    2011-01-01

    An underlying mechanism for multi drug resistance (MDR) is up-regulation of the transmembrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins. ABC transporters also determine the general fate and effect of pharmaceutical agents in the body. The three major types of ABC transporters are MDR1 (P-gp, P-glycoprotein, ABCB1), MRP1\\/2 (ABCC1\\/2) and BCRP\\/MXR (ABCG2) proteins. Flow cytometry (FCM) allows determination of the functional expression

  11. Solute Carrier Family of the Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptides 1A2- Madin-Darby Canine Kidney II: A Promising In Vitro System to Understand the Role of Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptide 1A2 in Blood-Brain Barrier Drug Penetration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Houfu; Yu, Na; Lu, Sijie; Ito, Sumito; Zhang, Xuan; Prasad, Bhagwat; He, Enuo; Lu, Xinyan; Li, Yang; Wang, Fei; Xu, Han; An, Gang; Unadkat, Jashvant D; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Sahi, Jasminder

    2015-07-01

    Organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1A2 has the potential to be a target for central nervous system drug delivery due to its luminal localization at the human blood-brain barrier and broad substrate specificity. We found OATP1A2 mRNA expression in the human brain to be comparable to breast cancer resistance protein and OATP2B1 and much higher than P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and confirmed greater expression in the brain relative to other tissues. The goal of this study was to establish a model system to explore OATP1A2-mediated transcellular transport of substrate drugs and the interplay with P-gp. In vitro (human embryonic kidney 293 cells stably expressing Oatp1a4, the closest murine isoform) and in vivo (naďve and Oatp1a4 knock-out mice) studies with OATP1A2 substrate triptan drugs demonstrated that these drugs were not Oatp1a4 substrates. This species difference demonstrates that the rodent is not a good model to investigate the active brain uptake of potential OATP1A2 substrates. Thus, we constructed a novel OATP1A2 expressing Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) II wild type and an MDCKII-multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) system using BacMam virus transduction. The spatial expression pattern of OATP1A2 after transduction in MDCKII-MDR1 cells was superimposed to P-gp, confirming apical membrane localization. OATP1A2-mediated uptake of zolmitriptan, rosuvastatin, and fexofenadine across monolayers increased with increasing OATP1A2 protein expression. OATP1A2 counteracted P-gp efflux for cosubstrates zolmitriptan and fexofenadine. A three-compartment model incorporating OATP1A2-mediated influx was used to quantitatively describe the time- and concentration-dependent apical-to-basolateral transcellular transport of rosuvastatin across OATP1A2 expressing the MDCKII monolayer. This novel, simple and versatile experimental system is useful for understanding the contribution of OATP1A2-mediated transcellular transport across barriers, such as the blood-brain barrier. PMID:25908246

  12. Ecto-5?-nucleotidase expression is associated with the progression of renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    YU, YI; WANG, WEI; SONG, LEI; HU, WENTAO; DONG, CHI; PEI, HAILONG; ZHOU, GUANGMING; YUE, ZHONGJIN

    2015-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a common tissue tumor that occurs across all age groups and has become one of the types of cancer with the fastest increasing incidence. Due to the resistance of RCC chemo- and radiotherapy, surgery is the only currently effective treatment. Therefore, specific markers for the diagnosis and prognosis of RCC are expected to result in novel methods of treatment. Ecto-5?-nucleotidase, also termed cluster of differentiation (CD)73, is a protein that is activated in several types of aggressive cancer and may promote cancer progression. CD73 was examined in the present study to determine the association between the protein and RCC. The expression levels of CD73 in 159 RCC tissue sections and 30 paratumorous normal renal tissue samples obtained from 235 patients that underwent nephrectomy were examined by immunohistochemical staining. By contrast, the expression level of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a potential prognostic factor in RCC, was also examined in 85 RCC and 13 normal tissue samples. Intense CD73 expression was identified in 75 out of 159 RCC cell membranes compared with normal renal tissues. In contrast, there was high P-gp expression in the blood vessels of 42 out of 85 RCC tissues and there was no significant difference between the P-gp expression identified in RCC cells (34 out of 85) and the cell membrane of normal renal cells (2 out of 13). The expression level of CD73 in RCC cells was significantly associated with tumor type, tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage, and tumor grade. However, the expression of P-gp in RCC cells was only associated with the TNM stage and tumor grade. Using a multivariable Cox regression analysis, it was found that the median survival rate of RCC patients with intense CD73 expression in RCC cells was 62.06±5.35 months, which was drastically shorter compared with rare CD73 expression (103.72±3.67 months). In conclusion, the expression level of CD73 is significantly associated with RCC tumor progression and may serve as a favorable marker for the diagnosis and prognosis of RCC, in addition to being a therapeutic target for the treatment of RCC.

  13. Altered glycaemia differentially modulates efflux transporter expression and activity in hCMEC/D3 cell line.

    PubMed

    Sajja, Ravi K; Cucullo, Luca

    2015-06-26

    The unique phenotype of blood-brain barrier (BBB) endothelium is partly maintained by abundant expression of ATP-binding cassette superfamily of efflux transporters that strictly restrict the CNS access to toxic substances including xenobiotics in circulation. Previously, we have shown that diabetes-related altered glycemic conditions differentially affect and compromise BBB integrity. However, the impact of diabetes on BBB efflux transporters is less understood. In this study, we examined the effects of single or repeated episodes of hypo-and hyperglycemia on major BBB efflux transporters expression/function in human cerebromicrovascular endothelial cell line (hCMEC/D3). Cells were exposed to normal (5.5mM), hypo (2.2mM) or hyper (25 or 35mM)-glycemic media containing d-glucose for 12h (acute) or two 3h episodes/day of hypo- or hyperglycemia with an intercalated 2h normalglycemic exposure for 3 days ("glycemic variability", see Methods). Acute hypoglycemic exposure (12h) up-regulated BBB endothelial mRNA and protein expression of P-glycoprotein, BCRP and other multidrug resistance associated proteins (MRP1 and 4) paralleled by an increase in transporter-specific efflux activity (?2-fold vs. control). Although, 12h hyperglycemia did not affect the efflux transporter expression (except for MRP4), a significant increase in BCRP activity was observed. By contrast, DNA microarray data revealed that repeated hyperglycemic episodes (but not hypoglycemia) significantly up-regulate P-glycoprotein expression and activity. Thus, this study suggests a differential impact of altered glycemic conditions on major BBB drug efflux transporters expression/function, sensitive to the length of exposure (acute vs. repeated), with an implication for altered CNS drug disposition in diabetic population. PMID:25982326

  14. Changes of Absorptive and Secretory Transporting System of (1 ? 3) ?-D-glucan Based on Efflux Transporter in Indomethacin-induced Rat.

    PubMed

    Iida, Aiko; Ouchi, Shohei; Oda, Toshio; Aketagawa, Jun; Ito, Yasuhiko; Takizawa, Yusuke; Tomita, Mikio; Hayashi, Masahiro

    2015-03-01

    Infection and inflammation suppress the expression and activity of several drug transporters in liver. In the intestine, P-glycoprotein (P-gp/MDR1), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) are important barriers to the absorption of many clinically important drugs. The expression and activity of these proteins were examined under inflammation. Drug transport was determined in jejunum and ileum segments isolated from 1.0 mg/kg, 5.0 mg/kg, and 7.5 mg/kg indomethacin-treated or control rats in diffusion chambers. Transport of laminaran, used as a model compound of (1-3) ?-D-glucan, was measured for 120 min in the presence or absence of inhibitors. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to measure mRNA levels. Compared with controls, levels of Mdr1a mRNA were significantly decreased in the jejunum and ileum of 7.5 mg/kg indomethacin-treated rats. Both reductions in the basolateral to apical efflux of laminaran and increases in the apical to basolateral influx of laminaran were observed, resulting in significant increases in the apical to basolateral absorption of laminaran in 7.5 mg/kg indomethacin-treated rats. The inhibitory effect of verapamil on laminaran transport was observed in control rats but not in indomethacin-treated rats. Fluorescein isothiocyanate dextran 40,000 permeability, membrane resistance, and claudin-4 mRNA level were not altered, indicating no change in the paracellular pathway. These results indicate that indomethacin-induced inflammation reduces the intestinal expression and activity of P-gp in rats, which elicits corresponding changes in the intestinal transport of laminaran. Hence, inflammatory diseases may impose variability in drug bioavailability through alterations in the intestinal expression and activity of drug transporters. PMID:24515798

  15. Suppression of MAPK Signaling and Reversal of mTOR-Dependent MDR1-Associated Multidrug Resistance by 21?-Methylmelianodiol in Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Aldonza, Mark Borris Docdoc; Hong, Ji-Young; Bae, Song Yi; Song, Jayoung; Kim, Won Kyung; Oh, Jedo; Shin, Yoonho; Lee, Seung Ho; Lee, Sang Kook

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide and remains the most prevalent. Interplay between PI3K/AMPK/AKT and MAPK pathways is a crucial effector in lung cancer growth and progression. These signals transduction protein kinases serve as good therapeutic targets for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) which comprises up to 90% of lung cancers. Here, we described whether 21?-Methylmelianodiol (21?-MMD), an active triterpenoid derivative of Poncirus trifoliate, can display anticancer properties by regulating these signals and modulate the occurrence of multidrug resistance in NSCLC cells. We found that 21?-MMD inhibited the growth and colony formation of lung cancer cells without affecting the normal lung cell phenotype. 21?-MMD also abrogated the metastatic activity of lung cancer cells through the inhibition of cell migration and invasion, and induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest with increased intracellular ROS generation and loss of mitochondrial membrane integrity. 21?-MMD regulated the expressions of PI3K/AKT/AMPK and MAPK signaling which drove us to further evaluate its activity on multidrug resistance (MDR) in lung cancer cells by specifying on P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/MDR1-association. Employing the established paclitaxel-resistant A549 cells (A549-PacR), we further found that 21?-MMD induced a MDR reversal activity through the inhibition of P-gp/MDR1 expressions, function, and transcription with regained paclitaxel sensitivity which might dependently correlate to the regulation of PI3K/mTOR signaling pathway. Taken together, these findings demonstrate, for the first time, the mechanistic evaluation in vitro of 21?-MMD displaying growth-inhibiting potential with influence on MDR reversal in human lung cancer cells. PMID:26098947

  16. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of a water-soluble antofine analogue with high antiproliferative and antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yongseok; Song, Jayoung; Lee, Boeun; In, Jinkyung; Song, Hohyun; Chung, Hwa-Jin; Lee, Sang Kook; Kim, Sanghee

    2013-02-15

    New water soluble antofine C-13a analogues were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for antiproliferative activity against cancer cells. Particularly, (-)-(R)-13a-hydroxymethylantofine ((-)-(R)-4b) demonstrated notable growth inhibition against a panel of human cancer cell lines. This growth inhibition was associated with the arrest of the cell cycle in the G0/G1 phases and suppression of mTOR signaling in human lung A549 cancer cells. Compound (-)-(R)-4b also overcame paclitaxel-resistance in human lung cancer cells (A549-Pa) by suppressing P-glycoprotein expression. Furthermore, compound (-)-(R)-4b significantly inhibited the tumor growth of A549 and A549-Pa xenografts in a nude mouse model, which suggests it is a promising novel antitumor agent with sufficient aqueous solubility. PMID:23294831

  17. Mitochondria of a human multidrug-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cell line constitutively express inducible nitric oxide synthase in the inner membrane

    PubMed Central

    Fantappič, Ornella; Sassoli, Chiara; Tani, Alessia; Nosi, Daniele; Marchetti, Serena; Formigli, Lucia; Mazzanti, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria play a crucial role in pathways of stress conditions. They can be transported from one cell to another, bringing their features to the cell where they are transported. It has been shown in cancer cells overexpressing multidrug resistance (MDR) that mitochondria express proteins involved in drug resistance such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistant protein and multiple resistance protein-1. The MDR phenotype is associated with the constitutive expression of COX-2 and iNOS, whereas celecoxib, a specific inhibitor of COX-2 activity, reverses drug resistance of MDR cells by releasing cytochrome c from mitochondria. It is possible that COX-2 and iNOS are also expressed in mitochondria of cancer cells overexpressing the MDR phenotype. This study involved experiments using the human HCC PLC/PRF/5 cell line with and without MDR phenotype and melanoma A375 cells that do not express the MDR1 phenotype but they do iNOS. Western blot analysis, confocal immunofluorescence and immune electron microscopy showed that iNOS is localized in mitochondria of MDR1-positive cells, whereas COX-2 is not. Low and moderate concentrations of celecoxib modulate the expression of iNOS and P-gp in mitochondria of MDR cancer cells independently from inhibition of COX-2 activity. However, A375 cells that express iNOS also in mitochondria, were not MDR1 positive. In conclusion, iNOS can be localized in mitochondria of HCC cells overexpressing MDR1 phenotype, however this phenomenon appears independent from the MDR1 phenotype occurrence. The presence of iNOS in mitochondria of human HCC cells phenotype probably concurs to a more aggressive behaviour of cancer cells. PMID:25691007

  18. Mitochondria of a human multidrug-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cell line constitutively express inducible nitric oxide synthase in the inner membrane.

    PubMed

    Fantappič, Ornella; Sassoli, Chiara; Tani, Alessia; Nosi, Daniele; Marchetti, Serena; Formigli, Lucia; Mazzanti, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    Mitochondria play a crucial role in pathways of stress conditions. They can be transported from one cell to another, bringing their features to the cell where they are transported. It has been shown in cancer cells overexpressing multidrug resistance (MDR) that mitochondria express proteins involved in drug resistance such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistant protein and multiple resistance protein-1. The MDR phenotype is associated with the constitutive expression of COX-2 and iNOS, whereas celecoxib, a specific inhibitor of COX-2 activity, reverses drug resistance of MDR cells by releasing cytochrome c from mitochondria. It is possible that COX-2 and iNOS are also expressed in mitochondria of cancer cells overexpressing the MDR phenotype. This study involved experiments using the human HCC PLC/PRF/5 cell line with and without MDR phenotype and melanoma A375 cells that do not express the MDR1 phenotype but they do iNOS. Western blot analysis, confocal immunofluorescence and immune electron microscopy showed that iNOS is localized in mitochondria of MDR1-positive cells, whereas COX-2 is not. Low and moderate concentrations of celecoxib modulate the expression of iNOS and P-gp in mitochondria of MDR cancer cells independently from inhibition of COX-2 activity. However, A375 cells that express iNOS also in mitochondria, were not MDR1 positive. In conclusion, iNOS can be localized in mitochondria of HCC cells overexpressing MDR1 phenotype, however this phenomenon appears independent from the MDR1 phenotype occurrence. The presence of iNOS in mitochondria of human HCC cells phenotype probably concurs to a more aggressive behaviour of cancer cells. PMID:25691007

  19. Sensitization of Chemo-Resistant Human Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Stem-Like Cells to Hsp90 Inhibitor by SIRT1 Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hak-Bong; Lee, Su-Hoon; Um, Jee-Hyun; Kim, Mi-Ju; Hyun, Suh-Kyung; Gong, Eun-Ji; Oh, Won Keun; Kang, Chi-Dug; Kim, Sun-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Development of effective therapeutic strategies to eliminate cancer stem-like cells (CSCs), which play a major role in drug resistance and disease recurrence, is critical to improve cancer treatment outcomes. The current investigation was undertaken to examine the effectiveness of the combination treatment of Hsp90 inhibitor and SIRT1 inhibitor in inhibiting the growth of chemo-resistant stem-like cells isolated from human chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells. Inhibition of SIRT1 by use of SIRT1 siRNA or SIRT1 inhibitors (amurensin G and EX527) effectively potentiated sensitivity of Hsp90 inhibitors (17-AAG and AUY922) in CD44high K562 stem-like cells expressing high levels of CSC-related molecules including Oct4, CD34, ?-catenin, c-Myc, mutant p53 (mut p53), BCRP and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) as well as CD44. SIRT1 depletion caused significant down-regulation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1)/heat shock proteins (Hsps) as well as these CSC-related molecules, which led to the sensitization of CD44high K562 cells to Hsp90 inhibitor by SIRT1 inhibitor. Moreover, 17-AAG-mediated activation of HSF1/Hsps and P-gp-mediated efflux, major causes of Hsp90 inhibitor resistance, was suppressed by SIRT1 inhibitor in K562-CD44high cells. Our data suggest that combined treatment with Hsp90 inhibitor and SIRT1 inhibitor could be an effective therapeutic approach to target CSCs that are resistant to current therapies.

  20. Pharmacokinetic Comparison To Determine the Mechanisms Underlying the Differential Efficacies of Cationic Diamidines against First- and Second-Stage Human African Trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Sihyung; Wenzler, Tanja; Miller, Patrik N.; Wu, Huali; Boykin, David W.; Brun, Reto

    2014-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), a neglected tropical disease, is fatal without treatment. Pentamidine, a cationic diamidine, has been used to treat first-stage (hemolymphatic) HAT since the 1940s, but it is ineffective against second-stage (meningoencephalitic, or central nervous system [CNS]) infection. Novel diamidines (DB75, DB820, and DB829) have shown promising efficacy in both mouse and monkey models of first-stage HAT. However, only DB829 cured animals with second-stage infection. In this study, we aimed to determine the mechanisms underlying the differential efficacies of these diamidines against HAT by conducting a comprehensive pharmacokinetic characterization. This included the determination of metabolic stability in liver microsomes, permeability across MDCK and MDR1-MDCK cell monolayers, interaction with the efflux transporter MDR1 (P-glycoprotein 1 or P-gp), drug binding in plasma and brain, and plasma and brain concentration-time profiles after a single dose in mice. The results showed that DB829, an azadiamidine, had the highest systemic exposure and brain-to-plasma ratio, whereas pentamidine and DB75 had the lowest. None of these diamidines was a P-gp substrate, and the binding of each to plasma proteins and brain differed greatly. The brain-to-plasma ratio best predicted the relative efficacies of these diamidines in mice with second-stage infection. In conclusion, pharmacokinetics and CNS penetration influenced the in vivo efficacies of cationic diamidines against first- and second-stage HAT and should be considered when developing CNS-active antitrypanosomal diamidines. PMID:24798280

  1. In vitro metabolism, permeability, and efflux of bazedoxifene in humans.

    PubMed

    Shen, Li; Ahmad, Syed; Park, SeongHee; DeMaio, William; Oganesian, Aram; Hultin, Theresa; Scatina, JoAnn; Bungay, Peter; Chandrasekaran, Appavu

    2010-09-01

    Bazedoxifene (BZA) acetate, a novel estrogen receptor modulator being developed for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis, undergoes extensive metabolism in women after oral administration. In this study, the in vitro metabolism of [(14)C]BZA was determined in human hepatocytes and hepatic and intestinal microsomes, and the UDP glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) isozymes involved in the glucuronidation of BZA were identified. In addition, BZA was evaluated for its potential as a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transporter in Caco-2 cell monolayers. BZA was metabolized to two monoglucuronides, BZA-4'-glucuronide and BZA-5-glucuronide, in hepatocytes and in liver and intestinal microsomes including jejunum, duodenum, and ileum. Both BZA-4'-glucuronide and BZA-5-glucuronide were major metabolites in the intestinal microsomes, whereas BZA-4'-glucuronide was the predominant metabolite in liver microsomes and hepatocytes. The kinetic parameters of BZA-4'-glucuronide formation were determined in liver, duodenum, and jejunum microsomes and with UGT1A1, 1A8, and 1A10, the most active UGT isoforms involved in the glucuronidation of BZA, whereas those of BZA-5-glucuronide were determined with all the enzyme systems except in liver microsomes and in UGT1A1 because the formation of the BZA-5-glucuronide was too low. K(m) values in liver, duodenum, and jejunum microsomes and UGT1A1, 1A8, and 1A10, were similar and ranged from 5.1 to 33.1 microM for BZA-4'-glucuronide formation and from 2.5 to 11.1 microM for BZA-5-glucuronide formation. V(max) values ranged from 0.8 to 2.9 nmol/(min . mg) protein for BZA-4'-glucuronide and from 0.1 to 1.2 nmol/(min . mg) protein for BZA-5-glucuronide. In Caco-2 cells, BZA appeared to be a P-gp substrate. PMID:20516255

  2. Gefitinib–phenytoin interaction is not correlated with the 14C-erythromycin breath test in healthy male volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Chhun, Stephanie; Verstuyft, Celine; Rizzo-Padoin, Nathalie; Simoneau, Guy; Becquemont, Laurent; Peretti, Ilana; Swaisland, Alan; Wortelboer, Robert; Bergmann, Jean Francois; Mouly, Stephane

    2009-01-01

    AIMS We aimed to describe the pharmacokinetic interaction between phenytoin, a potent CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (ABCB1) inducer, and gefitinib, a CYP3A4, CYP2D6 and P-gp substrate. METHODS An open-label, randomized, two-phase crossover study was conducted. Eighteen healthy male volunteers (nine homozygous CC and nine homozygous TT as determined by their ABCB1 C3435T polymorphism in exon 26) received a single oral dose of 250 mg gefitinib alone or after 5 days treatment with phenytoin (5 mg kg?1 daily). Gefitinib plasma concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Hepatic CYP3A4 activity was evaluated by the 14C-erythromycin breath test (ERMBT) and the ABCB1 and CYP2D6 genetic polymorphisms were determined by the TaqMan allelic discrimination assay and long polymerase chain reaction, respectively. RESULTS Following treatment with phenytoin, mean gefitinib Cmax and AUC0–? decreased by 26 ± 44% [95% confidence interval (CI) for the difference 5–48%, P= 0.005] and 47 ± 26% (95% CI for the difference 34–60%, P= 0.001), respectively, and apparent oral clearance increased by 126 ± 93% (95% CI for the difference 80–172%, P= 0.004). Concomitantly, phenytoin increased the mean ERMBT by 91 ± 44% (95% CI 75–105%, P < 0.001) from baseline, but the extent of liver CYP3A4 induction was not correlated to the extent of interaction. Furthermore, this interaction was independent of ABCB1 genetic polymorphism. The CYP2D6 genotype was slightly but significantly related to gefitinib clearance (P= 0.04) during the control phase. CONCLUSIONS The significant interaction between gefitinib and phenytoin was not correlated with the erythromycin breath test and was independent of ABCB1 polymorphism, but may involve presystemic CYP3A-mediated intestinal first-pass. PMID:19694743

  3. Evaluation of the pharmacokinetics and cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin in rat receiving nilotinib

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Zhi-yong [Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China); School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 Shanghai (China); Wan, Li-li; Yang, Quan-jun; Han, Yong-long; Li, Yan; Yu, Qi [Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China); Guo, Cheng, E-mail: guochengphd@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Pharmacy, Affiliated Sixth People's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China); School of Pharmacy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200240 Shanghai (China); Li, Xiao, E-mail: lixiao3326@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Hematology, Affiliated Sixth people's Hospital, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 200233 Shanghai (China)

    2013-10-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent chemotherapy drug with a narrow therapeutic window. Nilotinib, a small-molecule Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor, was reported to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transmembrane transporters. The present study aimed to investigate nilotinib's affection on the steady-state pharmacokinetics, disposition and cardiotoxicity of DOX. A total of 24 male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomized into four groups (6 in each) and received the following regimens: saline, intravenous DOX (5 mg/kg) alone, and DOX co-administrated with either 20 or 40 mg/kg nilotinib. Blood was withdrawn at 12 time points till 72 h after DOX injection and the concentrations of DOX and its metabolite doxorubicinol (DOXol) in serum and cardiac tissue were assayed by LC–MS–MS method. To determine the cardiotoxicity, the following parameters were investigated: creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase. Histopathological examination of heart section was carried out to evaluate the extent of cardiotoxicity after treatments. The results showed that pretreatment of 40 mg/kg nilotinib increased the AUC{sub 0–t} and C{sub max} of DOX and DOXol. However, their accumulation in cardiac tissue was significantly decreased when compared with the group that received DOX alone. In addition, biochemical and histopathological results showed that 40 mg/kg nilotinib reduced the cardiotoxicity induced by DOX administration. In conclusion, co-administration of nilotinib increased serum exposure, but significantly decreased the accumulation of DOX in cardiac tissue. Consistent with in vitro profile, oral dose of 40 mg/kg nilotinib significantly decreased the cardiotoxicity of DOX in rat by enhancing P-gp activity in the heart.

  4. Antisense inhibition of P-glycoprotein expression using peptide–oligonucleotide conjugates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna Astriab-Fisher; Dimitri S Sergueev; Michael Fisher; Barbara Ramsay Shaw; Rudolph L Juliano

    2000-01-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides are potentially a powerful tool for the therapeutic manipulation of genes associated with cancer. However, pharmacological applications of oligonucleotides have been hindered by the inability to effectively deliver these compounds to their sites of action within cells. In this study, we have prepared peptide–oligonucleotide conjugates with the intent of improving intracellular delivery. The phosphorothioate oligonucleotide component of the

  5. 456 EUKARYOTICABC TRANSPORTERS [33] [33] Functional Expression of Human P-Glycoprotein

    E-print Network

    Hrycyna, Christine A.

    RAMACHANDRA, IRA PASTAN, and MICHAEL M. GOTTESMAN Introduction Transient expression of recombinant proteins chromatography to purify partially and enrich for transiently expressed protein for use in in vitro biochemical on a plasmid is expressed at high levels.4'7 For transient expression using the vaccinia-T7 system, virtually

  6. Masitinib reverses doxorubicin resistance in canine lymphoid cells by inhibiting the function of P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Zandvliet, M; Teske, E; Chapuis, T; Fink-Gremmels, J; Schrickx, J A

    2013-12-01

    Overexpression of ABC-transporters including Pgp, MRP1, and BCRP has been associated with multidrug resistance (MDR) in both human and canine oncology. Therapeutic interventions to reverse MDR are limited, but include multidrug protocols and the temporary concomitant use of inhibitors of ABC-transporters. Recently, the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors has been proposed to overcome MDR in human oncology. One of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, masitinib, is licensed for veterinary use in the treatment of canine mast cell tumors. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the potential of masitinib to revert MDR in canine malignant lymphoma using an in vitro model with canine lymphoid cell lines. Masitinib had a mild antiproliferative effect on lymphoid cells, inhibited Pgp function at concentrations equal to or exceeding 1 ?m and was able to reverse doxorubicin resistance. The current findings provide the rationale for a combined use of masitinib with doxorubicin in the treatment of dogs with doxorubicin-resistant malignant lymphoma but await confirmation in clinical trials. PMID:23363222

  7. Evaluation of acetaminophen P-glycoprotein-mediated salivary secretion by rat submandibular glands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paula Schaiquevich; Niselman Viviana; Tumilasci Omar; Rubio Modesto

    2004-01-01

    The constant ratio between saliva and plasma acetaminophen concentrations (S\\/P) during the elimination phase is assumed to result from the equilibrium established among the free-drug concentrations in the arterial blood, venous blood and saliva. Salivary secretion of acetaminophen is assumed to result from a passive diffusion of the drug to saliva from the blood that supplies the salivary glands. However,

  8. Nanolipoparticles-mediated MDR1 siRNA delivery reduces doxorubicin resistance in breast cancer cells and silences MDR1 expression in xenograft model of human breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nourbakhsh, Mahnaz; Jaafari, Mahmoud Reza; Lage, Hermann; Abnous, Khalil; mosaffa, Fatemeh; Badiee, Ali; Behravan, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an efflux protein, the overexpression of which has been associated with multidrug resistance in various cancers. Although siRNA delivery to reverse P-gp expression may be promising for sensitizing of tumor cells to cytotoxic drugs, the therapeutic use of siRNA requires effective carriers that can deliver siRNA intracellularly with minimal toxicity on target cells. We investigated a special class of PEGylated lipid-based nanoparticles (NP), named nanolipoparticles (NLPs), for siRNA-mediated P-gp downregulation. Materials and Methods: NLPs were prepared based on low detergent dialysis method. After characterization, we evaluated the effect of NLPs on siRNA delivery, and P-gp downregulation compared to oligofectamine™ (OFA) in vitro and in vivo. Results: Our results showed a significant decrease in P-gp expression and subsequent enhancement of chemosensitivity to doxorubicin in vitro. Although the effectiveness of NLPs for in vitro siRNA delivery compared to OFA was limited, the results of in vivo studies showed noticeable effectiveness of NLPs for systemic siRNA delivery. siRNA delivery using NLPs could downregulate MDR1 in tumor cells more than 80%, while OFA had a reverse effect on MDR1 expression in vivo. Conclusion: The results indicated that the prepared NLPs could be suitable siRNA delivery systems for tumor therapy. PMID:26019802

  9. Resistance factors and proliferative activity in childhood acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Sauerbrey, A; Zintl, F; Volm, M

    1994-10-01

    Thirty-four children with newly diagnosed acute nonlymphoblastic leukemia were analysed for the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-170), glutathione S-transferase-pi, (GST-pi) topoisomerase II (Topo II) and the proliferation antigen Ki-67 by the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method. Overexpression of P-170 was present in 26 cases (76%) and GST-pi overexpression was seen in 11 patients (32%). Down regulation of Topo II was found in 16 patients (47%) and Ki-67 positive cells (>5%) were detectable in 9 patients (26%). The remission rate was not influenced by P-170 or GST-pi expression, whereas patients with down regulation of Topo II or low Ki-67 expression had lower remission rates. The data were not significant. The probability of continuous first remission (CR) was lower in patients with P-170 expression (p=0.09). A significantly lower probability of CR was also seen in patients with low proliferative activity (p=0.03, log-rank test). The expression of the resistance proteins and the proliferative activity were found to be independent of the clinical parameters age, sex, FAB-type, and initial white blood cell count. PMID:21559650

  10. Effect of nitric oxide synthase on multiple drug resistance is related to Wnt signaling in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Ma, Chengyuan; Shi, Xu; Wen, Zhongmei; Li, Dan; Sun, Munan; Ding, Hui

    2014-10-01

    Multiple drug resistance (MDR) is considered a major challenge in the clinical treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Both nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and Wnt signaling pathway participate in the regulation of drug resistance, but the interaction between them remains unclear. In the present study, we detected the activation of Wnt/?-catenin signaling in iNOS-induced drug-resistant lung cancer cells, and compared the effect of canonical and noncanonical Wnt pathway on the level of iNOS. Moreover, we investigated the expression of Wnt/?-catenin signaling downstream factors and its main inhibitors. The results indicated iNOS-induced drug resistance was possibly mediated by glutathione S-transferase-? (GST-?) and topoisomerase II? (TOPO II?), but not P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and this process was closely associated with the activation of canonical Wnt/?-catenin signaling, but less with noncanonical pathways. The mechanism of iNOS promoting Wnt/?-catenin pathway was mainly dependent on the inverse regulation of Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) and secreted frizzled-related protein-1 (SFRP-1). Clarifying the relationship between iNOS and Wnt signaling may provide insight into a better understanding of the mechanism of drug resistance development in NSCLC. PMID:25070480

  11. Pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions: are preventive screenings necessary and appropriate?

    PubMed

    Butterweck, Veronika; Derendorf, Hartmut; Gaus, Wilhelm; Nahrstedt, Adolf; Schulz, Volker; Unger, Matthias

    2004-09-01

    Pharmacokinetic interactions often occur as a result of activity changes of drug-metabolizing and transporting proteins, especially cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzymes and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The activity of these enzymes and drug transporters can be enhanced or inhibited by synthetic drugs as well as by natural products. Since the number of herb-drug interactions has increased in recent years, systematic in vitro screenings and more clinical studies to identify such interactions were proposed for herbal medicinal products. However, previous results regarding this issue are not only contradictory but also of less predictability. One reason for the discrepancies could be the lack of validation of the recommended in vitro tests. Furthermore, it has to be considered that pharmacokinetic drug interactions are not only mediated by herbal medicines but also by several foods, beverages and life-style products. Since herbal medicines are considered to have a broad therapeutic range, a preventive risk assessment for pharmacokinetic drug interactions should first be realized for synthetic drugs with a narrow therapeutic index. Efforts to identify all possible interactions will lead to limitless investigations and to inconsistent decisions. PMID:15386186

  12. Transport characteristics of isorhamnetin across intestinal Caco-2 cell monolayers and the effects of transporters on it.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jingze; Xie, Yan; Luo, Huilin; Li, Guowen; Wu, Tao; Zhang, Tong

    2014-04-01

    Flavonoid isorhamnetin occurs in various plants and herbs, and demonstrates various biological effects in humans. This work will clarify the isorhamnetin absorption mechanism using the Caco-2 monolayer cell model. The isorhamnetin transport characteristics at different concentrations, pHs, temperatures, tight junctions and potential transporters were systemically investigated. Isorhamnetin was poorly absorbed by both passive diffusion and active transport mechanisms. Both trans- and paracellular pathways were involved during isorhamnetin transport. Active transport under an ATP-dependent transport mechanism was mediated by the organic anion transporting peptide (OATP); isorhamnetin's permeability from the apical to the basolateral side significantly decreased after estrone-3-sulfate was added (p<0.01). Efflux transporters, P-glycoproteins (P-gp), breast cancer resistance proteins (BCRP) and multidrug resistance proteins (MRPs) participated in the isorhamnetin transport process. Among them, the MRPs (especially MRP2) were the main efflux transporters for isorhamnetin; transport from the apical to the basolateral side increased 10.8-fold after adding an MRP inhibitor (MK571). This study details isorhamnetin's cellular transport and elaborates isorhamnetin's absorption mechanisms to provide a foundation for further studies. PMID:24525098

  13. Drug-drug interactions of silymarin on the perspective of pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jhy-Wen; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2009-01-21

    Silymarin, which is extracted from the milk thistle (Silybum marianum), has been used for centuries for treating hepatic disorders and its hepatoprotective effects have been known for hundreds of years. Silymarin is a mixture of polyphenoic flavonoids, which include silibinin (silybin A and silybin B), isosilyin A and B, silychristin A and B, silydianin and other phenol compounds. The pharmacokinetics of silibinin shows fast absorption and elimination. Silymarin undergoes phase I and phase II metabolism, especially phase II conjugation reactions, it undergoes multiple conjugation reactions, and is primarily excreted into bile and urine. Silymarin has a good safety profile, but little is known regarding its potential for drug interaction. Silymarin has limited effect on the pharmacokinetics of several drugs in vivo; despite silymarin decreasing the activity of cytochrome P-450 (CYPs) enzymes, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzyme, and reducing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transport. Health-care practitioners should caution patients against co-administration of silymarin and pharmaceutical drugs. PMID:19041708

  14. Detection of C1236T, G2677T/A, and C3435T polymorphism of MDR1 by amplification refractory mutation system PCR.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing; Fang, Jie; Zhang, Weixia; Jin, Zhao; Yu, Zichen; Cai, Weimin

    2009-01-01

    C1236T, G2677T/A, and C3435T polymorphism of the multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene have substantial impact on expression or activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp). We developed new methods based on amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) to detect these polymorphisms. Tetra-primers amplification in a single tube was established to detect C1236T and C3435T polymorphism. For G2677T/A polymorphism, a two-step allele-specific amplification method was used. MDR1 genotypes of 177 Chinese subjects were determined by the methods we established. The methods we established were verified with gene sequencing. Gene frequencies of 1236C and 1236T were 37.8 and 62.2%, respectively; gene frequencies of 2677G, 2677T and 2677A were 44.1, 38.4 and 17.5%, respectively; the gene frequencies of 3435C and 3435T were 65.0 and 35.0%, respectively. The results were similar with other studies on Oriental subjects. The methods we established are simple, accurate, and economical, and can provide reliable approaches for determining MDR1 polymorphism. PMID:19288456

  15. Blended nanoparticle system based on miscible structurally similar polymers: a safe, simple, targeted, and surprisingly high efficiency vehicle for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Tao, Wei; Zhang, Jinxie; Zeng, Xiaowei; Liu, Danny; Liu, Gan; Zhu, Xi; Liu, Yanlan; Yu, Qingtong; Huang, Laiqiang; Mei, Lin

    2015-06-01

    A novel blended nanoparticle (NP) system for the delivery of anticancer drugs and its surprisingly high efficacy for cancer chemotherapy by blending a targeting polymer folic acid-poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (FA-PEG-b-PLGA) and a miscible structurally similar polymer D-?-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate-poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (TPGS-PLGA) is reported. This blended NP system can be achieved through a simple and effective nanoprecipitation technique, and possesses unique properties: i) improved long-term compatibility brought by PEG-based polymers; ii) reduced multidrug resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in tumor cells and increased bioavailability of anticancer drugs by incorporation of TPGS; iii) the regulation of controlled release through polymer ratios and active targeting by FA. Both in vitro cell experiments and in vivo antitumor assays demonstrated the reported blended NP system can achieve the best therapeutic efficiency in an extremely safe, simple and highly efficient process for cancer therapy. Moreover, this NP system is highly efficient in forming NPs with multiple functions, without repeated chemical modification of polymers, which is sometimes complex, inefficient and high cost. Therefore, the development of this novel blended NP concept is extremely meaningful for the application of pharmaceutical nanotechnology in recent studies. PMID:25800699