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Sample records for p-glycoprotein p-gp activity

  1. Inhibitory effects of herbal constituents on P-glycoprotein in vitro and in vivo: herb-drug interactions mediated via P-gp.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Hu, Jinping; Wang, Baolian; Sheng, Li; Liu, Zhihao; Yang, Shuang; Li, Yan

    2014-03-01

    Modulation of drug transporters via herbal medicines which have been widely used in combination with conventional prescription drugs may result in herb-drug interactions in clinical practice. The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effects of 50 major herbal constituents on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in vitro and in vivo as well as related inhibitory mechanisms. Among these herbal medicines, four constituents, including emodin, 18?-glycyrrhetic acid (18?-GA), dehydroandrographolide (DAG), and 20(S)-ginsenoside F? [20(S)-GF?] exhibited significant inhibition (>50%) on P-gp in MDR1-MDCKII and Caco-2 cells. Emodin was the strongest inhibitor of P-gp (IC??=9.42 ?M), followed by 18?-GA (IC??=21.78 ?M), 20(S)-GF? (IC??=76.08 ?M) and DAG (IC??=77.80 ?M). P-gp ATPase activity, which was used to evaluate the affinity of substrates to P-gp, was stimulated by emodin and DAG with Km and Vmax values of 48.61, 29.09 ?M and 71.29, 38.45 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. However, 18?-GA and 20(S)-GF? exhibited significant inhibition on both basal and verapamil-stimulated P-gp ATPase activities at high concentration. Molecular docking analysis (CDOCKER) further elucidated the mechanism for structure-inhibition relationships of herbal constituents with P-gp. When digoxin was co-administered to male SD rats with emodin or 18?-GA, the AUC(??t) and Cmax of digoxin were increased by approximately 51% and 58%, respectively. Furthermore, 18?-GA, DAG, 20(S)-GF? and Rh? at 10 ?M significantly inhibited CYP3A4/5 activity, while emodin activated the metabolism of midazolam in human liver microsomes. In conclusion, four herbal constituents demonstrated inhibition of P-gp to specific extents in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our findings provided the basis for the reliable assessment of the potential risks of herb-drug interactions in humans. PMID:24380838

  2. Inhibitory effects of herbal constituents on P-glycoprotein in vitro and in vivo: Herb–drug interactions mediated via P-gp

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xue Hu, Jinping Wang, Baolian Sheng, Li Liu, Zhihao Yang, Shuang Li, Yan

    2014-03-01

    Modulation of drug transporters via herbal medicines which have been widely used in combination with conventional prescription drugs may result in herb–drug interactions in clinical practice. The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effects of 50 major herbal constituents on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in vitro and in vivo as well as related inhibitory mechanisms. Among these herbal medicines, four constituents, including emodin, 18β-glycyrrhetic acid (18β-GA), dehydroandrographolide (DAG), and 20(S)-ginsenoside F{sub 1} [20(S)-GF{sub 1}] exhibited significant inhibition (> 50%) on P-gp in MDR1-MDCKII and Caco-2 cells. Emodin was the strongest inhibitor of P-gp (IC{sub 50} = 9.42 μM), followed by 18β-GA (IC{sub 50} = 21.78 μM), 20(S)-GF{sub 1} (IC{sub 50} = 76.08 μM) and DAG (IC{sub 50} = 77.80 μM). P-gp ATPase activity, which was used to evaluate the affinity of substrates to P-gp, was stimulated by emodin and DAG with K{sub m} and V{sub max} values of 48.61, 29.09 μM and 71.29, 38.45 nmol/min/mg protein, respectively. However, 18β-GA and 20(S)-GF{sub 1} exhibited significant inhibition on both basal and verapamil-stimulated P-gp ATPase activities at high concentration. Molecular docking analysis (CDOCKER) further elucidated the mechanism for structure–inhibition relationships of herbal constituents with P-gp. When digoxin was co-administered to male SD rats with emodin or 18β-GA, the AUC{sub 0−t} and Cmax of digoxin were increased by approximately 51% and 58%, respectively. Furthermore, 18β-GA, DAG, 20(S)-GF{sub 1} and Rh{sub 1} at 10 μM significantly inhibited CYP3A4/5 activity, while emodin activated the metabolism of midazolam in human liver microsomes. In conclusion, four herbal constituents demonstrated inhibition of P-gp to specific extents in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our findings provided the basis for the reliable assessment of the potential risks of herb–drug interactions in humans. - Highlights: • Emodin, 18β-GA, DAG, and 20(S)-GF{sub 1} significantly inhibited P-gp in vitro. • P-gp ATPase activity was stimulated by emodin and DAG. • 18β-GA and 20(S)-GF{sub 1} exhibited significant inhibition on P-gp ATPase activity. • Molecular docking analysis elucidated the SAR of herbal constituents with P-gp. • Pretreatment with emodin or 18β-GA increased the AUC and Cmax of digoxin in vivo.

  3. Multidrug-resistance gene 1-type p-glycoprotein (MDR1 p-gp) inhibition by tariquidar impacts on neuroendocrine and behavioral processing of stress.

    PubMed

    Thoeringer, Christoph K; Wultsch, Thomas; Shahbazian, Anaid; Painsipp, Evelin; Holzer, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The multidrug-resistance gene 1-type p-glycoprotein (MDR1 p-gp) is a major gate-keeper at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), protecting the central nervous system from accumulation of toxic xenobiotics and drugs. In addition, MDR1 p-gp has been found to control the intracerebral access of glucocorticoid hormones and thus to modulate the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. In view of the implication of glucocorticoids in the control of behavior, we examined how acute pharmacological inhibition of MDR1 p-gp at the BBB by tariquidar (XR9576; 12 mg/kg, PO) impacts the neuroendocrine and behavioral processing of stress in C57BL/6JIcoHim inbred mice. Inhibition of MDR1 p-gp at the BBB did not alter emotional behavior at baseline. However, mice that were sensitized by water-avoidance stress, a mild psychological stressor, displayed significantly reduced anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus-maze test when treated with tariquidar. Tariquidar, however, had no effect on stress-coping performance assessed in the forced swim test. Investigating the impact of acute MDR1 p-gp inhibition on the glucocorticoid system, we observed a significant attenuation of the mild stress-induced increase of plasma corticosterone after tariquidar administration. In order to examine whether the anti-anxiety effect of tariquidar in sensitized animals is mediated by glucocorticoids, the animals were treated with corticosterone (1mg/kg, SC) immediately after exposure to water-avoidance stress. Corticosterone caused a significant anxiolytic-like effect in this stress-related anxiety protocol, whereas tariquidar could not further enhance corticosterone's anti-anxiety effects. The current data show for the first time that pharmacological inhibition of MDR1 p-gp at the murine BBB by tariquidar alters emotional behavior and HPA axis activity. By facilitating the entry of corticosterone into the brain, tariquidar enhances feedback inhibition of the HPA system and in this way improves anxiety-related stress processing. These findings highlight a novel approach to the treatment of stress-related affective disorders in humans. PMID:17881135

  4. Multidrug-resistance gene 1-type p-glycoprotein (MDR1 p-gp) inhibition by tariquidar impacts on neuroendocrine and behavioral processing of stress

    PubMed Central

    Thoeringer, Christoph K.; Wultsch, Thomas; Shahbazian, Anaid; Painsipp, Evelin; Holzer, Peter

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The multidrug-resistance gene 1-type p-glycoprotein (MDR1 p-gp) is a major gate-keeper at the blood-brain barrier (BBB), protecting the central nervous system from accumulation of toxic xenobiotics and drugs. In addition, MDR1 p-gp has been found to control the intracerebral access of glucocorticoid hormones and thus to modulate the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. In view of the implication of glucocorticoids in the control of behavior, we examined how acute pharmacological inhibition of MDR1 p-gp at the BBB by tariquidar (XR9576; 12 mg/kg, PO) impacts on the neuroendocrine and behavioral processing of stress in C57BL/6JIcoHim inbred mice. Inhibition of MDR1 p-gp at the BBB did not alter emotional behavior at baseline. However, mice that were sensitized by water-avoidance stress, a mild psychological stressor, displayed significantly reduced anxiety-related behavior in the elevated plus-maze test when treated with tariquidar. Tariquidar, however, had no effect on stress-coping performance assessed in the forced swim test. Investigating the impact of acute MDR1 p-gp inhibition on the glucocorticoid system, we observed a significant attenuation of the mild stress-induced increase of plasma corticosterone after tariquidar administration. In order to examine whether the anti-anxiety effect of tariquidar in sensitized animals is mediated by glucocorticoids, the animals were treated with corticosterone (1 mg/kg, SC immediately after exposure to water-avoidance stress. Corticosterone caused a significant anxiolytic-like effect in this stress-related anxiety protocol, whereas tariquidar could not further enhance corticosterones anti-anxiety effects. The current data show for the first time that pharmacological inhibition of MDR1 p-gp at the murine BBB by tariquidar alters emotional behavior and HPA axis activity. By facilitating the entry of corticosterone into the brain, tariquidar enhances feedback inhibition of the HPA system and in this way improves anxiety-related stress processing. These findings highlight a novel approach to the treatment of stress-related affective disorders in humans. PMID:17881135

  5. Synthesis and P-glycoprotein induction activity of colupulone analogs.

    PubMed

    Bharate, Jaideep B; Batarseh, Yazan S; Wani, Abubakar; Sharma, Sadhana; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Kaddoumi, Amal; Kumar, Ajay; Bharate, Sandip B

    2015-05-21

    Brain amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques are one of the primary hallmarks associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Efflux pump proteins located at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) have been reported to play an important role in the clearance of brain Aβ, among which the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux transporter pump has been shown to play a crucial role. Thus, P-gp has been considered as a potential therapeutic target for treatment of AD. Colupulone, a prenylated phloroglucinol isolated from Humulus lupulus, is known to activate pregnane-X-receptor (PXR), which is a nuclear receptor controlling P-gp expression. In the present work, we aimed to synthesize and identify analogs of colupulone that are potent P-gp inducer(s) with an ability to enhance Aβ transport across the BBB. A series of colupulone analogs were synthesized by modifications at both prenyl as well as acyl domains. All compounds were screened for P-gp induction activity using a rhodamine 123 based efflux assay in the P-gp overexpressing human adenocarcinoma LS-180 cells, wherein all compounds showed significant P-gp induction activity at 5 μM. In the western blot studies in LS-180 cells, compounds 3k and 5f were able to induce P-gp as well as LRP1 at 1 μM. The effect of compounds on the Aβ uptake and transport was then evaluated. Among all tested compounds, diprenylated acyl phloroglucinol displayed a significant increase (29%) in Aβ transport across bEnd3 cells grown on inserts as a BBB model. The results presented here suggest the potential of this scaffold to enhance clearance of brain Aβ across the BBB and thus its promise for development as a potential anti-Alzheimer agent. PMID:25875530

  6. Glucosylceramide synthase inhibitors sensitise CLL cells to cytotoxic agents without reversing P-gp functional activity.

    PubMed

    Gerrard, Gareth; Butters, Terry D; Ganeshaguru, Kanagasabai; Mehta, Atul B

    2009-05-01

    Malignant B-cells from most chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) patients over-express MDR1 encoded P-glycoprotein (P-gp) multidrug efflux pump. Inhibition of glucosylceramide (GC) synthesis has been shown in cell lines to correlate with the expression and function of P-gp and sensitise cancer cells to cytotoxic agents. We investigated the hypothesis that reducing intracellular GC levels will reduce P-gp expression in malignant cells from CLL patients. We studied the ability of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) inhibitors N-butyl-deoxygalactonojirimycin (OGB-1) and N-nonyl-deoxygalactonojirimycin (OGB-2) to sensitise CLL cells to conventional cytotoxic drug 2-chlorodeoxyadenosine (CdA) and the cytostatic drugs chlorambucil and fludarabine. The effect on P-gp activity was analysed using the calcein-AM accumulation assay where a multidrug activity factor (MAF) of >10 in the presence of a P-gp inhibitor denotes P-gp functional activity. The P-gp over-expressing cell line CEM-VLB showed a MAF value of 96.4 with the P-gp inhibitor Z.3HCL, which fell to 15.7 after co-incubation with OGB-1 and 45.9 with OGB-2. The IC(50) for vincristine fell from >10 microg/ml to 55.5 ng/ml in the presence of OGB-2. In P-gp(+ve) peripheral blood mononuclear cells from three normal volunteers, the mean MAF values for Z.3HCL, OGB-1 and OGB-2 were 23.86, 1.83 and 16.2 respectively. In 9/13 CLL samples the mean P-gp functional activity was 22.15 and P-gp was over-expressed in 12/13 samples. However, the MAF value with OGB-1 and OGB-2 was <10. Nevertheless, sensitisation in CLL cells was observed by a reduction in the IC(50) in the presence of OGB-1 and OGB-2 with the conventional drugs. We conclude that although GCS inhibitors sensitize CLL cells to cytotoxic and cytostatic drugs, they do not appear to have any effect on P-gp functional activity. PMID:19285492

  7. Effects of norfloxacin on hepatic genes expression of P450 isoforms (CYP1A and CYP3A), GST and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in Swordtail fish (Xiphophorus Helleri).

    PubMed

    Liang, Ximei; Wang, Lan; Ou, Ruikang; Nie, Xiangping; Yang, YuFeng; Wang, Fang; Li, Kaibin

    2015-10-01

    The presence of antibiotics including norfloxacin in the aquatic environment may cause adverse effects in non-target organisms. But the toxic mechanisms of fluoroquinolone to fish species are still not completely elucidated. Thus, it is essential to investigate the response of fish to the exposure of fluoroquinolone at molecular or cellular level for better and earlier prediction of these environmental pollutants toxicity. The sub-chronic toxic effects of norfloxacin (NOR) on swordtail fish (Xiphophoru s helleri) were investigated by measuring mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and their corresponding enzyme activities (including ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase, erythromycin N-demethylase and GST. Results showed that NOR significantly affected the expression of CYP1A, CYP3A, GST and P-gp genes in swordtails. The gene expressions were more responsive to NOR exposure than their corresponding enzyme activities. Moreover, sexual differences were found in gene expression and enzyme activities of swordtails exposed to NOR. Females displayed more dramatic changes than males. The study further demonstrated that the combined biochemical and molecular parameters were considered as useful biomarkers to improve our understanding of potential ecotoxicological risks of NOR exposure to aquatic organisms. PMID:25893329

  8. Enhancing Activity of Anticancer Drugs in Multidrug Resistant Tumors by Modulating P-Glycoprotein through Dietary Nutraceuticals.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad; Maryam, Amara; Mehmood, Tahir; Zhang, Yaofang; Ma, Tonghui

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance is a principal mechanism by which tumors become resistant to structurally and functionally unrelated anticancer drugs. Resistance to chemotherapy has been correlated with overexpression of p-glycoprotein (p-gp), a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of membrane transporters. P-gp mediates resistance to a broad-spectrum of anticancer drugs including doxorubicin, taxol, and vinca alkaloids by actively expelling the drugs from cells. Use of specific inhibitors/blocker of p-gp in combination with clinically important anticancer drugs has emerged as a new paradigm for overcoming multidrug resistance. The aim of this paper is to review p-gp regulation by dietary nutraceuticals and to correlate this dietary nutraceutical induced-modulation of p-gp with activity of anticancer drugs. PMID:26514453

  9. The putative P-gp inhibitor telmisartan does not affect the transcellular permeability and cellular uptake of the calcium channel antagonist verapamil in the P-glycoprotein expressing cell line MDCK II MDR1

    PubMed Central

    Saaby, Lasse; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer; Brodin, Birger

    2015-01-01

    Verapamil is used in high doses for the treatment of cluster headache. Verapamil has been described as a P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) substrate. We wished to evaluate in vitro whether co administration of a P-gp inhibitor with verapamil could be a feasible strategy for increasing CNS uptake of verapamil. Fluxes of radiolabelled verapamil across MDCK II MDR1 monolayers were measured in the absence and presence of the putative P-gp inhibitor telmisartan (a clinically approved drug compound). Verapamil displayed a vectorial basolateral-to-apical transepithelial efflux across the MDCK II MDR1 monolayers with a permeability of 5.7נ10?5cmsec?1 compared to an apical to basolateral permeability of 1.3נ10?5cmsec-1. The efflux could be inhibited with the P-gp inhibitor zosuquidar. Zosuquidar (0.4?mol/L) reduced the efflux ratio (PB-A/PA-B) for verapamil 4.61.6. The presence of telmisartan, however, only caused a slight reduction in P-gp-mediated verapamil transport to an efflux ratio of 3.4. Overall, the results of the present in vitro approach indicate, that clinical use of telmisartan as a P-gp inhibitor may not be an effective strategy for increasing brain uptake of verapamil by co-administration with telmisartan. PMID:26171231

  10. The Transmission Interfaces Contribute Asymmetrically to the Assembly and Activity of Human P-glycoprotein*

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Tip W.; Clarke, David M.

    2015-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp; ABCB1) is an ABC drug pump that protects us from toxic compounds. It is clinically important because it confers multidrug resistance. The homologous halves of P-gp each contain a transmembrane (TM) domain (TMD) with 6 TM segments followed by a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). The drug- and ATP-binding sites reside at the interface between the TMDs and NBDs, respectively. Each NBD is connected to the TMDs by a transmission interface involving a pair of intracellular loops (ICLs) that form ball-and-socket joints. P-gp is different from CFTR (ABCC7) in that deleting NBD2 causes misprocessing of only P-gp. Therefore, NBD2 might be critical for stabilizing ICLs 2 and 3 that form a tetrahelix bundle at the NBD2 interface. Here we report that the NBD1 and NBD2 transmission interfaces in P-gp are asymmetric. Point mutations to 25 of 60 ICL2/ICL3 residues at the NBD2 transmission interface severely reduced P-gp assembly while changes to the equivalent residues in ICL1/ICL4 at the NBD1 interface had little effect. The hydrophobic nature at the transmission interfaces was also different. Mutation of Phe-1086 or Tyr-1087 to arginine at the NBD2 socket blocked activity or assembly while the equivalent mutations at the NBD1 socket had only modest effects. The results suggest that the NBD transmission interfaces are asymmetric. In contrast to the ICL2/3-NBD2 interface, the ICL1/4-NBD1 transmission interface is more hydrophilic and insensitive to mutations. Therefore the ICL2/3-NBD2 transmission interface forms a precise hydrophobic connection that acts as a linchpin for assembly and trafficking of P-gp. PMID:25987565

  11. Development of Novel Rifampicin-Derived P-Glycoprotein Activators/Inducers. Synthesis, In Silico Analysis and Application in the RBE4 Cell Model, Using Paraquat as Substrate

    PubMed Central

    Vilas-Boas, Vnia; Silva, Renata; Palmeira, Andreia; Sousa, Emlia; Ferreira, Lusa Maria; Branco, Paula Srio; Carvalho, Flix; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Remio, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a 170 kDa transmembrane protein involved in the outward transport of many structurally unrelated substrates. P-gp activation/induction may function as an antidotal pathway to prevent the cytotoxicity of these substrates. In the present study we aimed at testing rifampicin (Rif) and three newly synthesized Rif derivatives (a mono-methoxylated derivative, MeORif, a peracetylated derivative, PerAcRif, and a reduced derivative, RedRif) to establish their ability to modulate P-gp expression and activity in a cellular model of the rats bloodbrain barrier, the RBE4 cell line P-gp expression was assessed by western blot using C219 anti-P-gp antibody. P-gp function was evaluated by flow cytometry measuring the accumulation of rhodamine123. Whenever P-gp activation/induction ability was detected in a tested compound, its antidotal effect was further tested using paraquat as cytotoxicity model. Interactions between Rif or its derivatives and P-gp were also investigated by computational analysis. Rif led to a significant increase in P-gp expression at 72 h and RedRif significantly increased both P-gp expression and activity. No significant differences were observed for the other derivatives. Pre- or simultaneous treatment with RedRif protected cells against paraquat-induced cytotoxicity, an effect reverted by GF120918, a P-gp inhibitor, corroborating the observed P-gp activation ability. Interaction of RedRif with P-gp drug-binding pocket was consistent with an activation mechanism of action, which was confirmed with docking studies. Therefore, RedRif protection against paraquat-induced cytotoxicity in RBE4 cells, through P-gp activation/induction, suggests that it may be useful as an antidote for cytotoxic substrates of P-gp. PMID:23991219

  12. Modulation of P-glycoprotein efflux pump: induction and activation as a therapeutic strategy.

    PubMed

    Silva, Renata; Vilas-Boas, Vnia; Carmo, Helena; Dinis-Oliveira, Ricardo Jorge; Carvalho, Flix; de Lourdes Bastos, Maria; Remio, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP-dependent efflux pump encoded by the MDR1 gene in humans, known to mediate multidrug resistance of neoplastic cells to cancer therapy. For several decades, P-gp inhibition has drawn many significant research efforts in an attempt to overcome this phenomenon. However, P-gp is also constitutively expressed in normal human epithelial tissues and, due to its broad substrate specificity, to its cellular polarized expression in many excretory and barrier tissues, and to its great efflux capacity, it can play a crucial role in limiting the absorption and distribution of harmful xenobiotics, by decreasing their intracellular accumulation. Such a defense mechanism can be of particular relevance at the intestinal level, by significantly reducing the intestinal absorption of the xenobiotic and, consequently, avoiding its access to the target organs. In this review, the current knowledge on this important efflux pump is summarized, and a new focus is brought on the therapeutic interest of inducing and/or activating P-gp for limiting the toxicity caused by its substrates. Several in vivo and in vitro studies validating the use of such a therapeutic strategy are discussed. An extensive literature search for reported P-gp inducers/activators and for the experimental models used in their characterization was conducted. Those studies demonstrate that effective antidotal pathways can be achieved by efficiently promoting the P-gp-mediated efflux of deleterious xenobiotics, resulting in a significant reduction in their intracellular levels and, consequently, in a significant reduction of their toxicity. PMID:25435018

  13. Geneva Cocktail for Cytochrome P450 and P-Glycoprotein Activity Assessment Using Dried Blood Spots

    PubMed Central

    Bosilkovska, M; Samer, C F; Déglon, J; Rebsamen, M; Staub, C; Dayer, P; Walder, B; Desmeules, J A; Daali, Y

    2014-01-01

    The suitability of the capillary dried blood spot (DBS) sampling method was assessed for simultaneous phenotyping of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) using a cocktail approach. Ten volunteers received an oral cocktail capsule containing low doses of the probes bupropion (CYP2B6), flurbiprofen (CYP2C9), omeprazole (CYP2C19), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), midazolam (CYP3A), and fexofenadine (P-gp) with coffee/Coke (CYP1A2) on four occasions. They received the cocktail alone (session 1), and with the CYP inhibitors fluvoxamine and voriconazole (session 2) and quinidine (session 3). In session 4, subjects received the cocktail after a 7-day pretreatment with the inducer rifampicin. The concentrations of probes/metabolites were determined in DBS and plasma using a single liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method. The pharmacokinetic profiles of the drugs were comparable in DBS and plasma. Important modulation of CYP and P-gp activities was observed in the presence of inhibitors and the inducer. Minimally invasive one- and three-point (at 2, 3, and 6 h) DBS-sampling methods were found to reliably reflect CYP and P-gp activities at each session. PMID:24722393

  14. Active brain targeting of a fluorescent P-gp substrate using polymeric magnetic nanocarrier system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirthivasan, B.; Singh, D.; Bommana, M. M.; Raut, S. L.; Squillante, E.; Sadoqi, M.

    2012-06-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NP) were developed for the active brain targeting of water-soluble P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate rhodamine 123 (Rh123). The NP matrix of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) and methoxy poly(ethyleneglycol)-poly(lactic acid) (M-PEG-PLA) was prepared by single emulsion solvent evaporation of polymers with oleic acid-coated magnetic nanoparticles (OAMNP) and Rh123. All formulations were characterized in terms of morphology, particle size, magnetic content and Rh123 encapsulation efficiency. The maximum encapsulation efficiency of Rh123 was 45 ± 3% and of OAMNP was 42 ± 4%. The brain targeting and biodistribution study was performed on Sprague Dawley rats (3 groups, n = 6). Rh123 (0.4 mg kg-1) was administered in saline form, NP containing Rh123, and NP containing Rh123 in the presence of a magnetic field (0.8 T). The fluorimetric analysis of brain homogenates revealed a significant uptake (p < 0.05) of Rh123 in the magnetically targeted group relative to controls. These results were supported by fluorescence microscopy. This study reveals the ability of magnetically targeted nanoparticles to deliver substances to the brain, the permeation of which would otherwise be inhibited by the P-gp system.

  15. P-glycoprotein ATPase activity requires lipids to activate a switch at the first transmission interface.

    PubMed

    Loo, Tip W; Clarke, David M

    2016-04-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ABC (ATP-Binding Cassette) drug pump. A common feature of ABC proteins is that they are organized into two wings. Each wing contains a transmembrane domain (TMD) and a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). Drug substrates and ATP bind at the interface between the TMDs and NBDs, respectively. Drug transport involves ATP-dependent conformational changes between inward- (open, NBDs far apart) and outward-facing (closed, NBDs close together) conformations. P-gps crystallized in the presence of detergent show an open structure. Human P-gp is inactive in detergent but basal ATPase activity is restored upon addition of lipids. The lipids might cause closure of the wings to bring the NBDs close together to allow ATP hydrolysis. We show however, that cross-linking the wings together did not activate ATPase activity when lipids were absent suggesting that lipids may induce other structural changes required for ATPase activity. We then tested the effect of lipids on disulfide cross-linking of mutants at the first transmission interface between intracellular loop 4 (TMD2) and NBD1. Mutants L443C/S909C and L443C/R905C but not G471C/S909C and V472C/S909C were cross-linked with oxidant when in membranes. The mutants were then purified and cross-linked with or without lipids. Mutants G471C/S909C and V472C/S909C cross-linked only in the absence of lipids whereas mutants L443C/S909C and L443C/R905C were cross-linked only in the presence of lipids. The results suggest that lipids activate a switch at the first transmission interface and that the structure of P-gp is different in detergents and lipids. PMID:26944019

  16. Stereoselective Regulation of P-gp Activity by Clausenamide Enantiomers in Caco-2, KB/KBv and Brain Microvessel Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Chuan-jiang; Hua, Fang; Zhu, Xiao-lu; Li, Meng; Wang, Hong-xu; Yu, Xiao-ming; Li, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The (?)- and (+)-clausenamide (CLA) enantiomers have different pharmacokinetic effects in animals, but their association with putative stereoselective regulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) remains unclear. Using three cells expressing P-gpCaco-2, KBv and rat brain microvessel endothelial cells(RBMEC), this study investigated the association of CLA enantiomers with P-gp. The results showed that the rhodamine 123 (Rh123) accumulation, an indicator of P-gp activity, in Caco-2, KBv and RBMECs was increased by (?)CLA (1 or 5 ?mol/L) at 8.2%28.5%, but reduced by (+)CLA at 11.7%25.9%, showing stereoselectivity in their regulation of P-gp activity. Following co-treatment of these cells with each CLA enantiomer and verapamil as a P-gp inhibitor, the (+)-isomer clearly antagonized the inhibitory effects of verapamil on P-gp efflux, whereas the (?)-isomer had slightly synergistic or additive effects. When higher concentrations (5 or 10 ?mol/L) of CLA enantiomers were added, the stimulatory effects of the (+)-isomer were converted into inhibitory ones, leading to an enhanced intracellular uptake of Rh123 by 24.5%58.2%; but (?)-isomer kept its inhibition to P-gp activity, causing 30.0%63.0% increase in the Rh123 uptake. The biphasic effects of (+)CLA were confirmed by CLA uptake in the Caco-2 cells. (+)CLA at 1 ?mol/L had significantly lower intracellular uptake than (?)CLA with a ratio[(?)/(+)] of 2.593, which was decreased to 2.167 and 1.893 after CLA concentrations increased to 2.5 and 5 ?mol/L. Besides, in the non-induced KB cells, (+)CLA(5 ?mol/L) upregulated P-gp expression at 54.5% relative to vehicle control, and decreased Rh123 accumulation by 28.2%, while (?)CLA(5 ?mol/L) downregulated P-gp expression at 15.9% and increased Rh123 accumulation by 18.0%. These results suggested that (?)CLA could be a P-gp inhibitor and (+)CLA could be a modulator with concentration-dependent biphasic effects on P-gp activity, which may result in drugdrug interactions when combined with other P-gp substrate drugs. PMID:26295572

  17. The role of turmerones on curcumin transportation and P-glycoprotein activities in intestinal Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Yue, Grace G L; Cheng, Sau-Wan; Yu, Hua; Xu, Zi-Sheng; Lee, Julia K M; Hon, Po-Ming; Lee, Mavis Y H; Kennelly, Edward J; Deng, Gary; Yeung, Simon K; Cassileth, Barrie R; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Leung, Ping-Chung; Lau, Clara B S

    2012-03-01

    The rhizome of Curcuma longa (turmeric) is often used in Asia as a spice and as a medicine. Its most well-studied component, curcumin, has been shown to exhibit poor bioavailability in animal studies and clinical trials. We hypothesized that the presence of lipophilic components (e.g., turmerones) in turmeric extract would affect the absorption of curcumin. The effects of turmerones on curcumin transport were evaluated in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. The roles of turmerones on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activities and mRNA expression were also evaluated. Results showed that in the presence of ?- and aromatic turmerones, the amount of curcumin transported into the Caco-2 cells in 2 hours was significantly increased. ?-Turmerone and verapamil (a P-gp inhibitor) significantly inhibited the efflux of rhodamine-123 and digoxin (i.e., inhibited the activity of P-gp). It is interesting that aromatic turmerone significantly increased the rhodamine-123 efflux and P-gp (MDR1 gene) mRNA expression levels. The effects of ?- and aromatic turmerones on curcumin transport as well as P-gp activities were shown here for the first time. The presence of turmerones did affect the absorption of curcumin in vitro. These findings suggest the potential use of turmeric extract (including curcumin and turmerones), rather than curcumin alone, for treating diseases. PMID:22181075

  18. The Role of Turmerones on Curcumin Transportation and P-Glycoprotein Activities in Intestinal Caco-2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Grace G.L.; Cheng, Sau-Wan; Yu, Hua; Xu, Zi-Sheng; Lee, Julia K.M.; Hon, Po-Ming; Lee, Mavis Y.H.; Kennelly, Edward J.; Deng, Gary; Yeung, Simon K.; Cassileth, Barrie R.; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Leung, Ping-Chung

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The rhizome of Curcuma longa (turmeric) is often used in Asia as a spice and as a medicine. Its most well-studied component, curcumin, has been shown to exhibit poor bioavailability in animal studies and clinical trials. We hypothesized that the presence of lipophilic components (e.g., turmerones) in turmeric extract would affect the absorption of curcumin. The effects of turmerones on curcumin transport were evaluated in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells. The roles of turmerones on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activities and mRNA expression were also evaluated. Results showed that in the presence of α- and aromatic turmerones, the amount of curcumin transported into the Caco-2 cells in 2 hours was significantly increased. α-Turmerone and verapamil (a P-gp inhibitor) significantly inhibited the efflux of rhodamine-123 and digoxin (i.e., inhibited the activity of P-gp). It is interesting that aromatic turmerone significantly increased the rhodamine-123 efflux and P-gp (MDR1 gene) mRNA expression levels. The effects of α- and aromatic turmerones on curcumin transport as well as P-gp activities were shown here for the first time. The presence of turmerones did affect the absorption of curcumin in vitro. These findings suggest the potential use of turmeric extract (including curcumin and turmerones), rather than curcumin alone, for treating diseases. PMID:22181075

  19. A bitter melon extract inhibits the P-glycoprotein activity in intestinal Caco-2 cells: monoglyceride as an active compound.

    PubMed

    Konishi, Tomoko; Satsu, Hideo; Hatsugai, Yasuo; Aizawa, Koichi; Inakuma, Takahiro; Nagata, Shinji; Sakuda, Sho-hei; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Shimizu, Makoto

    2004-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a 170 kDa membrane protein that belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. In normal tissues, P-gp functions as an ATP-dependent efflux pump that excretes highly hydrophobic xenobiotic compounds, playing an important role in protecting the cells/tissues from xenobiotics. In the present study, chemical substances that could directly modulate the intestinal P-gp activity were searched in vegetables and fruits. By using human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells as a model of the small intestinal cells, we observed that a bitter melon fraction extracted from 40% methanol showed the greatest increase of the rhodamine-123 accumulation by Caco-2 cells. Inhibitory compounds in the bitter melon fraction were then isolated by HPLC using Pegasil C4 and Pegasil ODS columns. The HPLC fraction having the highest activity was analyzed by (1)H-NMR and FAB-MS, and the active compound was identified as 1-monopalmitin. It is interesting that certain types of monoglyceride might be involved in the drug bioavailability by specifically inhibiting the efflux mediated by P-gp. PMID:15630255

  20. Inhibitory effect of a bitter melon extract on the P-glycoprotein activity in intestinal Caco-2 cells

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Tomoko; Satsu, Hideo; Hatsugai, Yasuo; Aizawa, Koichi; Inakuma, Takahiro; Nagata, Shinji; Sakuda, Sho-hei; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Shimizu, Makoto

    2004-01-01

    Extracts of bitter melon, soybean, dokudami and welsh onion by 40% methanol increased the accumulation of rhodamine-123 by Caco-2 cells, suggesting that these extracts inhibited P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The extract of bitter melon was separated in a tC18 cartridge column and the eluate from 80% acetonitrile most markedly increased the [3H]-daunomycin accumulation by Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory compounds in the bitter melon fraction were isolated by HPLC with Pegasil C4 and Pegasil ODS columns. The HPLC fraction having the highest activity was analyzed by 1H-NMR and FAB-MS, and the active compound was identified as 1-monopalmitin. The inhibitory activities of 1-monopalmitin and its related compounds suggested that the inhibition of P-gp activity was not dependent on the degree of unsaturation of fatty acid in the monoglyceride, but on the chain length. It was also suggested that the monoglyceride structure played an important role in the inhibition of P-gp activity. Monoglycerides could therefore alter the pharmacokinetics of drugs by inhibiting the P-gp-mediated efflux. PMID:15351776

  1. New derivatives of silybin and 2,3-dehydrosilybin and their cytotoxic and P-glycoprotein modulatory activity.

    PubMed

    Dzubk, Petr; Hajdch, Marin; Gazk, Radek; Svobodov, Alena; Psotov, Jitka; Walterov, Daniela; Sedmera, Petr; Kren, Vladimr

    2006-06-01

    Large series of O-alkyl derivatives (methyl and benzyl) of silybin and 2,3-dehydrosilybin was prepared. Selective alkylation of the silybin molecule was systematically investigated. For the first time we present here, for example, preparation of 19-nor-2,3-dehydrosilybin. All prepared silybin/2,3-dehydrosilybin derivatives were tested for cytotoxicity on a panel of drugs sensitive against multidrug resistant cell lines and the ability to inhibit P-glycoprotein mediated efflux activity. We have identified effective and relatively non-cytotoxic inhibitors of P-gp derived from 2,3-dehydrosilybin. Some of them were more effective inhibitors at concentrations lower than a standard P-gp efflux inhibitor cyclosporin A. Another group of 2,3-dehydrosilybin derivatives also had better inhibitory effects on P-gp efflux but a cytotoxicity comparable with that of parent 2,3-dehydrosilybin. Structural requirements for improving inhibitory activity and reducing toxicity of 2,3-dehydrosilybin were established. Effect of E-ring substitution as well as an influence of the substituent size at the C-7-OH position of A-ring on P-gp-inhibitory activity was evaluated for the first time in this study. PMID:16466920

  2. Jatrophane diterpenoids from the latex of Euphorbia dendroides and their anti-P-glycoprotein activity in human multi-drug resistant cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jadranin, Milka; Pei?, Milica; Aljan?i?, Ivana S; Milosavljevi?, Slobodan M; Todorovi?, Nina M; Podolski-Reni?, Ana; Bankovi?, Jasna; Tani?, Nikola; Markovi?, Ivanka; Vajs, Vlatka E; Teevi?, Vele V

    2013-02-01

    Thirteen jatrophane diterpenoids (1-10, 13-15), three previously isolated (11, 12, 16) and a known tigliane (17) were isolated from the latex of Euphorbia dendroides. The structures and relative configurations of compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques. The P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibiting activities of the representative set of jatrophanes (1-6 and 11-16) have been assessed. Jatrophanes 2 and 5 demonstrated the most powerful inhibition of P-gp, higher than R(+)-verapamil and tariquidar in colorectal multi-drug resistant (MDR) cells (DLD1-TxR). PMID:23079764

  3. Quantitative distinctions of active site molecular recognition by P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A4.

    PubMed

    Wang, E; Lew, K; Barecki, M; Casciano, C N; Clement, R P; Johnson, W W

    2001-12-01

    The bulk of characterized xenobiotic defense and disposition is conferred by the abundant enzymes cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-glycoprotein. Although expressed in many tissues, these enzymes are most abundant in the liver and intestine and seem to share most substrates and inhibitors, with the apparent synergy between these two promiscuous enzymes asserted because of their extensive overlap of substrates and shared tissue location. Since the broad-spectrum tolerance to lipophilic compounds of various sizes naturally results in a similar pattern of substrate/inhibitor recognition, the cause or mechanism of many drug/drug and drug/herb interactions can be difficult to determine. These two seemingly indiscriminate enzymes, however, do not share some unique inhibitor selectivity. Particularly, we show various potent CYP3A4 inhibitors that do not affect P-gp active transport function. Remarkably, we have also identified several compounds-valinomycin, norverapamil, reserpine, nobiletin, emetine, gallopamil, fluphenazine-that uniquely inhibit P-gp function with affinities comparable to benchmark P-gp inhibitors despite a lack of effect on CYP3A4 function at physiologically relevant concentrations. Indeed, valinomycin inhibits P-gp with an IC(50) similar to cyclosporin A yet apparently does not affect CYP3A4 function, and emetine and nobiletin are also specific for interaction with P-gp. Additionally, norverapamil and reserpine have, respectively, a 60- and 40-fold preference for inhibition of P-gp over CYP3A4. Some striking structural analogies among these compounds are discussed. These distinguishing qualities of substrate recognition between CYP3A4 and P-gp should reveal nuances of active-site architecture unique to each and could serve as tools to probe for the specific discernment of P-gp-mediated drug/drug or drug/herb interactions. Learning more about binding distinctions and quantitative activity relationships of substrate/inhibitor interactions with these two enzymes and the differences between them may indicate how they recognize such a wide variety of molecules as substrates (and/or inhibitors). Moreover, identification of specific inhibitors will allow the determination of which enzyme is responsible for drug interactions and/or the extent of contribution in a multiple exposure situation. PMID:11743742

  4. Anthelmintics Are Substrates and Activators of Nematode P Glycoprotein?

    PubMed Central

    Kerboeuf, Dominique; Gugnard, Fabrice

    2011-01-01

    P glycoproteins (Pgp), members of the ABC transporter superfamily, play a major role in chemoresistance. In nematodes, Pgp are responsible for resistance to anthelmintics, suggesting that they are Pgp substrates, as they are in mammalian cells. However, their binding to nematode Pgp and the functional consequences of this interaction have not been investigated. Our study showed that levamisole and most of the macrocyclic lactones (MLs) are Pgp substrates in nematodes. Ivermectin, although a very good substrate in mammalian cells, is poorly transported. In contrast to their inhibitory effect on mammalian Pgp, these drugs had a stimulatory effect on the transport activity of the reference Pgp substrate rhodamine 123 (R123) in the nematode. This may be due to a specific sequence of nematode Pgp, which shares only 44% identity with mammalian Pgp. Other factors, such as the affinity of anthelmintics for Pgp and their concentration in the Pgp microenvironment, could also differ in nematodes, as suggested by the specific relationship observed between the octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) of MLs and R123 efflux. Nevertheless, some similarities were also observed in the functional activities of the mammalian and nematode Pgp. As in mammalian cells, substrates known to bind the H site (Hoechst 33342 and colchicine) activated the R site, resulting in an increased R123 efflux. Our findings thus show that ML anthelmintics, which inhibit Pgp-mediated efflux in mammals, activate transport activity in nematodes and suggest that several substituents in the ML structure are involved in modulating the stimulatory effect. PMID:21300828

  5. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein activity by limonin and other secondary metabolites from Citrus species in human colon and leukaemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    El-Readi, Mahmoud Zaki; Hamdan, Dalia; Farrag, Nawal; El-Shazly, Assem; Wink, Michael

    2010-01-25

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a membrane transporter encoded by the MDR1 gene in human cells, mediates drug efflux from cells and plays a major role in causing multidrug resistance; which is one of the most accepted mechanisms for failure of chemotherapy in cancer treatment. In this study, we investigated the effects of nine naturally occurring compounds isolated from Citrus jambhiri Lush and Citrus pyriformis Hassk (Rutaceae) for their potential to modulate the activity of P-gp in the multidrug-resistant human leukaemia cell line CEM/ADR5000. Limonin, deacetylnomilin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, stigmasterol and ss-sitosterol-O-glucoside inhibited the efflux of the P-gp substrate rhodamine 123 in a concentration-dependent manner. Some of these compounds were more active than verapamil, which was used as a positive control. Treatment of drug-resistant Caco-2 cells with the most active C. jambhiri and C. pyriformis compounds increased their sensitivity to doxorubicin and completely reversed doxorubicin resistance, which agrees with a decreased P-gp activity. Limonin was the most potent P-glycoprotein inhibitor - when it was applied at a non-toxic concentration of 20 microM, it significantly enhanced doxorubicin cytotoxicity 2.98-fold (P<0.001) and 2.2-fold (P<0.001) in Caco2 and CEM/ADR5000 cells, respectively. These isolated Citrus compounds could be considered as good candidates for the development of novel P-gp/MDR1 reversal agents which may enhance the accumulation and efficacy of chemotherapy agents. PMID:19782062

  6. Antisense to MDR1 mRNA reduces P-glycoprotein expression, swelling-activated C1- current and volume regulation in bovine ciliary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Chen, L; Walker, V; Jacob, T J

    1998-08-15

    Native ciliary epithelial cells from the ciliary epithelium of the eye exhibit anti-P-glycoprotein (P-gp) immunofluorescence. We have used an antisense 'knock-down' approach to investigate the relationship between P-gp and the volume-activated chloride current (IC1,swell) and its role in volume regulation. An antisense oligonucleotide to the human multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene, taken up by the cells in a dose-dependent manner, reduced P-gp immunofluorescence, inhibited IC1,swell and significantly increased the latency of activation of IC1,swell. Increasing the hypotonic stress did not result in an increased activation of ICl,swell. MDR1 antisense 'knock-down' also reduced the ability of the cells to volume regulate following a hypotonic challenge. These cells are known to express at least two volume-activated chloride channels, and the data suggest that P-gp is involved in the activation pathway of a subset of channels that contribute to whole-cell IC1,swell and participate in volume regulation. PMID:9679161

  7. Modulation of P-glycoprotein-mediated resistance by kaempferol derivatives isolated from Zingiber zerumbet.

    PubMed

    Chung, Soo Yeon; Jang, Dae Sik; Han, Ah-Reum; Jang, Jung Ok; Kwon, Youngjoo; Seo, Eun-Kyoung; Lee, Hwa Jeong

    2007-06-01

    This study examined the effects of the kaempferol derivatives extracted from Zingiber zerumbet on the accumulation and efflux of [(3)H]-daunomycin (DNM) in P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpressing multidrug resistant (MDR) human breast cancer cells, MCF-7/ADR. Of six kaempferol derivatives extracted from Z. zerumbet, kaempferol-3-O-methyl ether (1) and kaempferol-3,4'-O-dimethyl ether (2) showed a potent P-gp inhibitory effect as great as verapamil, a well-known P-gp inhibitor. The P-gp inhibitory activity of these two compounds was through a 3-fold increase of the level of [(3)H]-DNM accumulation and a decrease of P-gp-mediated efflux. These results suggest that the kaempferol derivative components of Z. zerumbet can be used as a scaffold for developing agents that reverse P-gp-mediated MDR in human cancer chemotherapy. PMID:17335117

  8. P-glycoprotein substrate transport assessed by comparing cellular and vesicular ATPase activity.

    PubMed

    Nervi, Pierluigi; Li-Blatter, Xiaochun; Anismaa, Pivi; Seelig, Anna

    2010-03-01

    We compared the P-glycoprotein ATPase activity in inside-out plasma membrane vesicles and living NIH-MDR1-G185 cells with the aim to detect substrate transport. To this purpose we used six substrates which differ significantly in their passive influx through the plasma membrane. In cells, the cytosolic membrane leaflet harboring the substrate binding site of P-glycoprotein has to be approached by passive diffusion through the lipid membrane, whereas in inside-out plasma membrane vesicles, it is accessible directly from the aqueous phase. Compounds exhibiting fast passive influx compared to active efflux by P-glycoprotein induced similar ATPase activity profiles in cells and inside-out plasma membrane vesicles, because their concentrations in the cytosolic leaflets were similar. Compounds exhibiting similar influx as efflux induced in contrast different ATPase activity profiles in cells and inside-out vesicles. Their concentration was significantly lower in the cytosolic leaflet of cells than in the cytosolic leaflet of inside-out membrane vesicles, indicating that P-glycoprotein could cope with passive influx. P-glycoprotein thus transported all compounds at a rate proportional to ATP hydrolysis (i.e. all compounds were substrates). However, it prevented substrate entry into the cytosol only if passive influx of substrates across the lipid bilayer was in a similar range as active efflux. PMID:20004641

  9. Three decades of P-gp inhibitors: skimming through several generations and scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Palmeira, A; Sousa, E; Vasconcelos, M H; Pinto, M M

    2012-01-01

    Many tumor cells become resistant to commonly used cytotoxic drugs due to the overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, namely P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The discovery of the reversal of multidrug resistance (MDR) by verapamil occured in 1981, and in 1968 MDR Chinese hamster cell lines were isolated for the first time. Since then, P-gp inhibitors have been intensively studied as potential MDR reversers. Initially, drugs to reverse MDR were not specifically developed for inhibiting P-gp; in fact, they had other pharmacological properties, as well as a relatively low affinity for MDR transporters. An example of this first generation P-gp inhibitors is verapamil. The second generation included more specific with less side-effect inhibitors, such as dexverapamil or dexniguldipine. A third generation of P-gp inhibitors comprised compounds such as tariquidar, with high affinity to P-gp at nanomolar concentrations. These generations of inhibitors of P-gp have been examined in preclinical and clinical studies; however, these trials have largely failed to demonstrate an improvement in therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, new and innovative strategies, such as the fallback to natural products, the design of peptidomimetics and dual activity ligands emerged as a fourth generation of P-gp inhibitors. The chemistry of P-gp inhibitors, as well as their in vitro, in vivo and clinical trials are discussed, and the most recent advances concerning Pgp modulators are reviewed. PMID:22257057

  10. Thyroid Hormone and P-Glycoprotein in Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Paul J.; Lin, Hung-Yun; Sudha, Thangirala; Mousa, Shaker A.

    2015-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp; multidrug resistance pump 1, MDR1; ABCB1) is a plasma membrane efflux pump that when activated in cancer cells exports chemotherapeutic agents. Transcription of the P-gp gene (MDR1) and activity of the P-gp protein are known to be affected by thyroid hormone. A cell surface receptor for thyroid hormone on integrin ?v?3 also binds tetraiodothyroacetic acid (tetrac), a derivative of L-thyroxine (T4) that blocks nongenomic actions of T4 and of 3,5,3?-triiodo-L-thyronine (T3) at ?v?3. Covalently bound to a nanoparticle, tetrac as nanotetrac acts at the integrin to increase intracellular residence time of chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin and etoposide that are substrates of P-gp. This action chemosensitizes cancer cells. In this review, we examine possible molecular mechanisms for the inhibitory effect of nanotetrac on P-gp activity. Mechanisms for consideration include cancer cell acidification via action of tetrac/nanotetrac on the Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE1) and hormone analogue effects on calmodulin-dependent processes and on interactions of P-gp with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and osteopontin (OPN), apparently via ?v?3. Intracellular acidification and decreased H+ efflux induced by tetrac/nanotetrac via NHE1 is the most attractive explanation for the actions on P-gp and consequent increase in cancer cell retention of chemotherapeutic agent-ligands of MDR1 protein. PMID:25866761

  11. P-glycoprotein induction in Caco-2 cells by newly synthetized thioxanthones prevents paraquat cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Silva, Renata; Palmeira, Andreia; Carmo, Helena; Barbosa, Daniel Jos; Gameiro, Mariline; Gomes, Ana; Paiva, Ana Mafalda; Sousa, Emlia; Pinto, Madalena; Bastos, Maria de Lourdes; Remio, Fernando

    2015-10-01

    The induction of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP-dependent efflux pump, has been proposed as a strategy against the toxicity induced by P-gp substrates such as the herbicide paraquat (PQ). The aim of this study was to screen five newly synthetized thioxanthonic derivatives, a group known to interact with P-gp, as potential inducers of the pump's expression and/or activity and to evaluate whether they would afford protection against PQ-induced toxicity in Caco-2 cells. All five thioxanthones (20M) caused a significant increase in both P-gp expression and activity as evaluated by flow cytometry using the UIC2 antibody and rhodamine 123, respectively. Additionally, it was demonstrated that the tested compounds, when present only during the efflux of rhodamine 123, rapidly induced an activation of P-gp. The tested compounds also increased P-gp ATPase activity in MDR1-Sf9 membrane vesicles, indicating that all derivatives acted as P-gp substrates. PQ cytotoxicity was significantly reduced in the presence of four thioxanthone derivatives, and this protective effect was reversed upon incubation with a specific P-gp inhibitor. In silico studies showed that all the tested thioxanthones fitted onto a previously described three-feature P-gp induction pharmacophore. Moreover, in silico interactions between thioxanthones and P-gp in the presence of PQ suggested that a co-transport mechanism may be operating. Based on the in vitro activation results, a pharmacophore model for P-gp activation was built, which will be of further use in the screening for new P-gp activators. In conclusion, the study demonstrated the potential of the tested thioxanthonic compounds in protecting against toxic effects induced by P-gp substrates through P-gp induction and activation. PMID:25234084

  12. Rapid identification of P-glycoprotein substrates and inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Chang, Cheng; Bahadduri, Praveen M; Polli, James E; Swaan, Peter W; Ekins, Sean

    2006-12-01

    Identifying molecules that interact with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is important for drug discovery but is also generally reliant on time-consuming in vitro and in vivo studies. As an alternative approach, the current study applied pharmacophore models and database screening to rapidly retrieve molecules that bind as substrates or inhibitors for P-gp from commercial databases and then confirmed their affinity as inhibitors in vitro. Seven molecules (acitretin, cholecalciferol, misoprostol, nafcillin, repaglinide, salmeterol, and telmisartan) with no published details for P-gp affinity, one positive control inhibitor (miconazole), and two negative control molecules (phenelzine and zonisamide) were selected for testing. The MDCK-MDR1 in vitro cell model was used to confirm their inhibitory effect on [3H]digoxin transport, and the ATPase assay was used as an additional in vitro tool to indicate P-gp activation. All seven test drugs were confirmed to have P-gp affinity. Additionally, our experimental results provided plausible explanations for the published pharmacokinetic profiles of the tested drugs and their classification according to the biopharmaceutics and drug disposition classification system. In this study, we showed the successful application of pharmacophore models to accurately predict P-gp binding, which holds promise to anticipate drug-drug interactions from screening drug databases and a priori prediction of novel P-gp inhibitors or substrates. PMID:16997908

  13. A plausible explanation for enhanced bioavailability of P-gp substrates in presence of piperine: simulation for next generation of P-gp inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Singh, Durg Vijay; Godbole, Madan M; Misra, Krishna

    2013-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) has a major role to play in drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, since it effluxes many cytotoxic hydrophobic anticancer drugs from gastrointestinal tract, brain, liver and kidney. Piperine is known to enhance the bioavailability of curcumin, as a substrate of P-gp by at least 2000%. Besides these at least 50 other substrates and inhibitors of P-gp have been reported so far. All P-gp inhibitors have diverse structures. Although little is known about binding of some flavonoids and steroids at the NBD (nucleotide binding domain) of P-gp in the vicinity of ATP binding site inhibiting its hydrolysis, a valid explanation of how P-gp accommodates such a diverse set of inhibitors is still awaited. In the present study, piperine up to 100 ?M has not shown observable cytotoxic effect on MDCK cell line, and it has been shown to accumulate rhodamine by fluorescence microscopy and fluorescent activated cell sorter in MDCK cells. Computational simulation for piperine and some first and second generation P-gp inhibitors has shown that these dock at the NBD site of P-gp. A comparative simulation study has been carried out regarding their docking and binding energies. Binding conformation of P-gp co-crystallized complexes with ADP, AMP-PNP (Adenylyl-imidodiphosphate), and ATP were compared with piperine. The receptor based E-pharmacophore of docked piperine has been simulated to find common features amongst P-gp inhibitors. Finally it has been concluded that piperine could be utilized as base molecule for design and development of safe non-toxic inhibitor of P-gp in order to enhance the bioavailability of most of its substrates. PMID:22864626

  14. Predicting P-Glycoprotein-Mediated Drug Transport Based On Support Vector Machine and Three-Dimensional Crystal Structure of P-glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Bikadi, Zsolt; Hazai, Istvan; Malik, David; Jemnitz, Katalin; Veres, Zsuzsa; Hari, Peter; Ni, Zhanglin; Loo, Tip W.; Clarke, David M.; Hazai, Eszter; Mao, Qingcheng

    2011-01-01

    Human P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporter that confers resistance to a wide range of chemotherapeutic agents in cancer cells by active efflux of the drugs from cells. P-gp also plays a key role in limiting oral absorption and brain penetration and in facilitating biliary and renal elimination of structurally diverse drugs. Thus, identification of drugs or new molecular entities to be P-gp substrates is of vital importance for predicting the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, or tissue levels of drugs or drug candidates. At present, publicly available, reliable in silico models predicting P-gp substrates are scarce. In this study, a support vector machine (SVM) method was developed to predict P-gp substrates and P-gp-substrate interactions, based on a training data set of 197 known P-gp substrates and non-substrates collected from the literature. We showed that the SVM method had a prediction accuracy of approximately 80% on an independent external validation data set of 32 compounds. A homology model of human P-gp based on the X-ray structure of mouse P-gp as a template has been constructed. We showed that molecular docking to the P-gp structures successfully predicted the geometry of P-gp-ligand complexes. Our SVM prediction and the molecular docking methods have been integrated into a free web server (http://pgp.althotas.com), which allows the users to predict whether a given compound is a P-gp substrate and how it binds to and interacts with P-gp. Utilization of such a web server may prove valuable for both rational drug design and screening. PMID:21991360

  15. Predicting P-glycoprotein-mediated drug transport based on support vector machine and three-dimensional crystal structure of P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Bikadi, Zsolt; Hazai, Istvan; Malik, David; Jemnitz, Katalin; Veres, Zsuzsa; Hari, Peter; Ni, Zhanglin; Loo, Tip W; Clarke, David M; Hazai, Eszter; Mao, Qingcheng

    2011-01-01

    Human P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP-binding cassette multidrug transporter that confers resistance to a wide range of chemotherapeutic agents in cancer cells by active efflux of the drugs from cells. P-gp also plays a key role in limiting oral absorption and brain penetration and in facilitating biliary and renal elimination of structurally diverse drugs. Thus, identification of drugs or new molecular entities to be P-gp substrates is of vital importance for predicting the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, or tissue levels of drugs or drug candidates. At present, publicly available, reliable in silico models predicting P-gp substrates are scarce. In this study, a support vector machine (SVM) method was developed to predict P-gp substrates and P-gp-substrate interactions, based on a training data set of 197 known P-gp substrates and non-substrates collected from the literature. We showed that the SVM method had a prediction accuracy of approximately 80% on an independent external validation data set of 32 compounds. A homology model of human P-gp based on the X-ray structure of mouse P-gp as a template has been constructed. We showed that molecular docking to the P-gp structures successfully predicted the geometry of P-gp-ligand complexes. Our SVM prediction and the molecular docking methods have been integrated into a free web server (http://pgp.althotas.com), which allows the users to predict whether a given compound is a P-gp substrate and how it binds to and interacts with P-gp. Utilization of such a web server may prove valuable for both rational drug design and screening. PMID:21991360

  16. HZ08 Reverse P-Glycoprotein Mediated Multidrug Resistance In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zheyi; Zhou, Zaigang; Hu, Yahui; Wu, Jinhui; Li, Yunman; Huang, Wenlong

    2015-01-01

    Background Multidrug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is highly expressed on membrane of tumor cells and is implicated in resistance to tumor chemotherapy. HZ08 is synthesized and studied in order to find a novel P-gp inhibitor. Methods MDCK-MDR1 monolayer transport, calcein-AM P-gp inhibition and P-gp ATPase assays were used to confirm the P-gp inhibition capability of HZ08. Furthermore, KB-WT and KB-VCR cells were used to evaluate the P-gp inhibitory activity of HZ08 both in vitro and in vivo. Results Results showed that HZ08 was more potent than verapamil in MDCK-MDR1 monolayer transportation model. Meanwhile, P-gp ATPase assay and calcein-AM P-gp inhibition assay confirmed that HZ08 inhibited P-gp ATPase with a calcein-AM IC50 of 2.44±0.31μM. In addition, significantly greater in vitro multidrug resistance reversing effects were observed when vincristine or paclitaxel was used in combination with 10μM HZ08 compared with 10μM verapamil. Moreover, HZ08 could significantly enhance the sensitivity of vincristine with a similar effect like verapamil in both KB-WT and KB-VCR tumor xenograft models. Conclusions The novel structure HZ08 could be a potent P-gp inhibitor. PMID:25689592

  17. Rhodamine Inhibitors of P-glycoprotein: An Amide/Thioamide Switch for ATPase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gannon, Michael K.; Holt, Jason J.; Bennett, Stephanie M.; Wetzel, Bryan R.; Loo, Tip W.; Bartlett, M. Claire; Clarke, David M.; Sawada, Geri A.; Higgins, J. William; Tombline, Gregory; Raub, Thomas J.; Detty, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    We have examined 46 tetramethylrosamine/rhodamine derivatives with structural diversity in the heteroatom of the xanthylium core, the amino substituents of the 3- and 6-positions, and the alkyl, aryl, or heteroaryl group at the 9-substituent. These compounds were examined for affinity and ATPase stimulation in isolated MDR3 CL P-gp and human P-gp-His10, for their ability to promote uptake of calcein AM and vinblastine in multidrug-resistant MDCKII-MDR1 cells, and for transport in monolayers of MDCKII-MDR1 cells. Thioamide 31-S gave KM of 0.087 ?M in human P-gp. Small changes in structure among this set of compounds affected affinity as well as transport rate (or flux) even though all derivatives examined were substrates for P-gp. With isolated protein, tertiary amide groups dictate high affinity and high stimulation while tertiary thioamide groups give high affinity and inhibition of ATPase activity. In MDCKII-MDR1 cells, the tertiary thioamide-containing derivatives promote uptake of calcein AM and have very slow passive, absorptive, and secretory rates of transport relative to transport rates for tertiary amide-containing derivatives. Thioamide 31-S promoted uptake of calcein AM and inhibited efflux of vinblastine with IC50s of ~2 ?M in MDCKII-MDR1 cells. PMID:19402665

  18. Simotinib as a modulator of P-glycoprotein: substrate, inhibitor, or inducer?

    PubMed

    Huang, Lingling; Shen, Cheng; Chen, Yanfen; Yan, Huiwen; Cheng, Zeneng; Zhu, Qubo

    2016-04-01

    As a new antitumor drug, simotinib hydrochloride is prescribed for prolonged periods, often to patients with comorbidities. Therefore, the risk for developing drug resistance and drug-drug interactions between simotinib and other agents has to be taken into consideration. As P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an efflux transporter, which plays a significant role in drug resistance and influences the pharmacological properties and toxicities of the drugs it interacts with, the interactions between simotinib and P-gp were investigated. Cytotoxicity was measured using the 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide assay. Intracellular drug concentrations were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography, fluorescence-activated cell sorting and using a fluorescence reader. P-gp ATPase activity was measured using the Pgp-Glo assay, and intracellular pH was assessed using the fluorescent probe 2',7'-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5(6)-carboxyfluorescein acetoxymethyl. The expression and transcription of P-gp were detected by western blotting and the luciferase assay. Simotinib has no cross-resistance to P-gp substrates, and its efflux rate was independent of either the P-gp expression or the coadministered P-gp substrate. Simotinib reversed chemotherapeutic agent resistance in a short time by increasing the intracellular concentration of the chemotherapeutic agent and blocked rhodamine 123 efflux. Further studies demonstrated that simotinib inhibited P-gp activity by modulating its ATPase activity and the intracellular pH. Although simotinib induced P-gp expression after extended treatment, the induced expression of P-gp had little impact on drug resistance. Simotinib is not a substrate of P-gp. As a modulator, it functions mainly as an inhibitor of P-gp by modulating the intracellular pH and ATPase activity, although it also induces P-gp expression after extended treatment. PMID:26766493

  19. Regulation of multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1)/P-glycoprotein gene expression and activity by heat-shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1).

    PubMed

    Vilaboa, N E; Galn, A; Troyano, A; de Blas, E; Aller, P

    2000-08-11

    Infection of HeLa cells with adenovirus-carrying HSF1(+) cDNA, which encodes a mutated form of HSF1 with constitutive transactivation capacity, increased multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) mRNA level and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) cell surface content and stimulated rhodamine 123 accumulation and vinblastine efflux activity. On the other hand, infection with adenovirus-carrying HSP70 and HSP27 cDNAs did not increase MDR1/P-gp expression. HSF1 regulates MDR1/P-gp expression at the transcriptional level, since HSF1(+) bound the heat-shock consensus elements (HSEs) in the MDR1 gene promoter and also activated the expression of an MDR1 promoter-driven reporter plasmid (pMDR1(-1202)). In addition, heat-shock increased pMDR1(-1202) promoter activity but not the activity of a similar reporter plasmid with point mutations at specific HSEs, and the heat-induced increase was totally inhibited by co-transfection with an expression plasmid carrying HSF1(-), a dominant negative mutant of HSF1. The stress inducers arsenite, butyrate, and etoposide also increased pMDR1(-1202) promoter activity, but the increase was not inhibited (in the case of butyrate) or was only partially inhibited (in the case of arsenite and etoposide) by HSF1(-). These results demonstrate that HSF1 regulates MDR1 expression, and that the HSEs present in the -315 to -285 region mediate the heat-induced activation of the MDR1 promoter. However, other factors may also participate in MDR1 induction by stressing agents. PMID:10816597

  20. Investigation of the Functional Role of P-Glycoprotein in Limiting the Oral Bioavailability of Lumefantrine

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Kanumuri S. R.; Singh, Sheelendra P.; Taneja, Isha

    2014-01-01

    In the quest to explore the reason for the low and variable bioavailability of lumefantrine, we investigated the possible role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in lumefantrine intestinal absorption. An in situ single-pass intestinal perfusion study in rats with the P-gp inhibitor verapamil or quinidine and an ATPase assay with human P-gp membranes indicated that lumefantrine is a substrate of P-gp which limits its intestinal absorption. To confirm these findings, an in vivo pharmacokinetic study was performed in rats. The oral administration of verapamil (10 mg/kg of body weight) along with lumefantrine caused a significant increase in its bioavailability with a concomitant decrease in clearance. The increase in bioavailability of lumefantrine could be due to inhibition of P-gp and/or cytochrome P450 3A in the intestine/liver by verapamil. However, in a rat intestinal microsomal stability study, lumefantrine was found to be resistant to oxidative metabolism. Further, an in situ permeation study clearly showed a significant role of P-gp in limiting the oral absorption of lumefantrine. Thus, the increase in lumefantrine bioavailability with verapamil is attributed in part to the P-gp-inhibitory ability of verapamil. In conclusion, lumefantrine is a substrate of P-gp, and active efflux by P-gp across the intestine partly contributed to the low/variable bioavailability of lumefantrine. PMID:24189249

  1. Temozolomide competes for P-glycoprotein and contributes to chemoresistance in glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Munoz, Jessian L; Walker, Nykia D; Scotto, Kathleen W; Rameshwar, Pranela

    2015-10-10

    Chemotherapeutic resistance can occur by P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a 12-transmembrane ATP-dependent drug efflux pump. Glioblastoma (GBM) has poor survival rate and uniformly acquired chemoresistance to its frontline agent, Temozolomide (TMZ). Despite much effort, overcoming TMZ resistance remains a challenge. We reported on autonomous induction of TMZ resistance by increased transcription MDR1, the gene for P-gp. This study investigated how P-gp and TMZ interact to gain resistance. Using an experimental model of Adriamycin-resistant DC3F cells (DC3F/Adx), we showed that increased P-gp caused TMZ resistance. Increasing concentrations of TMZ competed with Calcein for P-gp, resulting in reduced efflux in the DC3F/Adx cells. Three different inhibitors of P-gp reversed the resistance to TMZ in two different GBM cell lines, by increasing active Caspase 3. Molecular modeling predicted the binding sites to be the intracellular region of P-gp and also identified specific amino acids and kinetics of energy for the efflux of TMZ. Taken together, we confirmed P-gp targeting of TMZ, a crucial regulator of TMZ resistance in GBM. This study provides insights on the effectiveness by which TMZ competes with other P-gp substrates, thereby opening the door for combined targeted therapies. PMID:26208431

  2. Design of Fexofenadine Prodrugs Based on Tissue-Specific Esterase Activity and Their Dissimilar Recognition by P-Glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Ohura, Kayoko; Nakada, Yuichiro; Kotani, Shunsuke; Imai, Teruko

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a suitable prodrug for fexofenadine (FXD), a model parent drug, that is resistant to intestinal esterase but converted to FXD by hepatic esterase. Carboxylesterases (CESs), human carboxylesterase 1 (hCE1) and human carboxylesterase 2 (hCE2), are the major esterases in human liver and intestine, respectively. These two CESs show quite different substrate specificities, and especially, hCE2 poorly hydrolyzes prodrugs with large acyl groups. FXD contains a carboxyl group and is poorly absorbed because of low membrane permeability and efflux by P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Therefore, two potential FXD prodrugs, ethyl-FXD and 2-hydroxyethyl-FXD, were synthesized by substitution of the carboxyl group in FXD. Both derivatives were resistant to intestinal hydrolysis, indicating their absorption as intact prodrugs. Ethyl-FXD was hydrolyzed by hepatic hCE1, but 2-hydroxyethyl-FXD was not. Both derivatives showed high membrane permeability in human P-gp-negative LLC-PK1 cells. In LLC-GA5-COL300 cells overexpressing human P-gp, ethyl-FXD was transported by P-gp, but its efflux was easily saturated. Whereas 2-hydroxyethyl-FXD showed more efficient P-gp-mediated transport than FXD. Although the structure of 2-hydroxyethyl-FXD only differs from ethyl-FXD by substitution of a hydroxyl group, 2-hydroxyethyl-FXD is unsuitable as a prodrug. However, ethyl-FXD is a good candidate prodrug because of good intestinal absorption and hepatic conversion by hCE1. PMID:25953731

  3. In vitro interaction of the HIV protease inhibitor ritonavir with herbal constituents: changes in P-gp and CYP3A4 activity.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jignesh; Buddha, Balasubrahmanyam; Dey, Surajit; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro interactions of commercially obtained pure herbal constituents with p-glycoprotein P-gp and cytochrome P-450 3A4 (CYP3A4) activities, which can further modulate the transcellular transport and metabolism kinetics of orally administered drugs. Caco-2 cells grown in the presence of 0.25 micromol/L 1alpha,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 and multidrug-resistant 1 (MDR1) transfected MDCK cells were used as models to evaluate the effect of purified herbal constituents (quercetin, hypericin, hyperforin from St. John's wort, kaempferol from ginseng, silibinin from milk thistle, and allicin from garlic) on P-gp-mediated efflux of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor ritonavir. In addition, the inhibitory effect of these constituents on CYP3A4-mediated metabolism was determined by using cortisol as a model compound. Silibinin and hyperforin did not significantly alter cellular uptake of H-ritonavir in Caco-2 cells. A similar result was also observed for silibinin when tested in MDR1-MDCK cells. Quercetin, hypericin, and kaempferol exhibited a remarkable inhibition of P-gp-mediated efflux of ritonavir by increasing its cellular uptake in these models. These values were also comparable with the inhibitory effect of quinidine in Caco-2 cells, a well-known inhibitor of P-gp, on ritonavir efflux from Caco-2 cells. Allicin exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibition of ritonavir efflux when tested on MDR1-MDCK cells. There was a significant decrease in the Apical to Basal/Basal to Apical (AP-BL/BL-AP) transport ratio of ritonavir in presence of hypericin, kaempferol, and quercetin. These herbal constituents inhibited the CYP3A4 activity when tested with the Vivid CYP3A4 assay kit, whereas silibinin did not alter cortisol metabolism. Hypericin showed a significant inhibition in reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-dependent metabolism of cortisol with 64.6% of intact drug at the end of a 1-hour study. Similarly, kaempferol and quercetin also caused substantial inhibition of cortisol metabolism with 89.7% and 90.1% of intact cortisol, respectively, compared with 45.9% in the control. Prolonged exposure of quercetin resulted in significant increase of mRNA expression of both MDR1 and CYP3A4 levels in Caco-2 cells. However, hyperforin caused upregulation of CYP3A4 and downregulation of MDR1, whereas the effect of silibinin and kaempferol remained inconclusive on these gene expressions. Hypericin, kaempferol, quercetin, and allicin inhibit the efflux and CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of xenobiotics in vitro. Hence, this study warns against the use of herbal constituents along with prescribed HIV protease inhibitors that are substrates for P-gp and/or CYP3A4. PMID:15266218

  4. Esters of the Marine-Derived Triterpene Sipholenol A Reverse P-GP-Mediated Drug Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yongchao; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Wang, Yi-Jun; Vispute, Saurabh G.; Jain, Sandeep; Chen, Yangmin; Li, Jessalyn; Youssef, Diaa T. A.; El Sayed, Khalid A.; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that several sipholane triterpenes, sipholenol A, sipholenone E, sipholenol L and siphonellinol D, have potent reversal effect for multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells that overexpressed P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1). Through comparison of cytotoxicity towards sensitive and multi-drug resistant cell lines, we identified that the semisynthetic esters sipholenol A-4-O-acetate and sipholenol A-4-O-isonicotinate potently reversed P-gp-mediated MDR but had no effect on MRP1/ABCC1 and BCRP/ABCG2-mediated MDR. The results from [3H]-paclitaxel accumulation and efflux studies suggested that these two triterpenoids were able to increase the intracellular accumulation of paclitaxel by inhibiting its active efflux. In addition, western blot analysis revealed that these two compounds did not alter the expression levels of P-gp when treated up to 72 h. These sipholenol derivatives also stimulated the ATPase activity of P-gp membranes, which suggested that they might be substrates of P-gp. Moreover, in silico molecular docking studies revealed the virtual binding modes of these two compounds into human homology model of P-gp. In conclusion, sipholenol A-4-O-acetate and sipholenol A-4-O-isonicotinate efficiently inhibit the P-gp and may represent potential reversal agents for the treatment of multidrug resistant cancers. PMID:25874923

  5. Resveratrol Increases Anti-Proliferative Activity of Bestatin Through Downregulating P-Glycoprotein Expression Via Inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway in K562/ADR Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Wang, Changyuan; Jia, Yongming; Liu, Zhihao; Shu, Xiaohong; Liu, Kexin

    2016-05-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle in the clinical therapy of hematological malignancies. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpression results in reduction of intracellular drug concentration with a consequence that the cytotoxicity of anti-tumor drugs is decreased, which leads to MDR in K562/ADR cells. In this study, we found that resveratrol enhanced the anti-proliferative activity of bestatin in K562/ADR cells. Co-treatment with resveratrol, IC50 values of bestatin in K562/ADR cells significantly decreased and activation of caspase-3 and caspase-8 increased, which indicated that resveratrol potentiated bestatin-induced apoptosis. Resveratrol increased the intracellular concentration of bestatin through inhibiting P-gp function and downregulating P-gp expression at mRNA and protein levels, which increased anti-proliferative activity of bestatin in K562/ADR cells. Resveratrol decreased the phosphorylation of Akt and mTOR but did not affect the phosphorylations of JNK or ERK1/2. These results demonstrated that resveratrol could increase the anti-proliferative activity of bestatin through downregulating P-gp expression via suppressing the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 1233-1239, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26460589

  6. Osteoblastic differentiation and P-glycoprotein multidrug resistance in a murine osteosarcoma model.

    PubMed

    Takeshita, H; Kusuzaki, K; Murata, H; Suginoshita, T; Hirata, M; Hashiguchi, S; Ashihara, T; Gebhardt, M C; Mankin, H J; Hirasawa, Y

    2000-04-01

    A recent study of multidrug resistance (MDR) 1 gene transfected osteosarcoma cells found a cause-effect relationship between increased expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and a low aggressive phenotype. However, several experimental and clinical studies have observed contradictory findings in that P-gp expression has been associated with tumour progression. In the present study, we characterized P-gp-positive and P-gp-negative single-cell clones of a murine osteosarcoma, to further investigate the relationship between P-gp expression and changes in cell phenotype. Although these clones were all selected by doxorubicin (DOX) exposure, they were heterogeneous with respect to MDR1 gene expression. The P-gp-positive clones revealed MDR phenotype, whereas the P-gp-negative clones showed no resistance to drugs. Morphological and functional analysis showed that both the P-gp-positive and P-gp-negative clones were more differentiated than the parent cells in terms of enhanced activity of cellular alkaline phosphatase, an increase in well-organized actin stress fibres and enhanced osteogenic activity. Moreover, these subclones all displayed a decrease in malignant potential such as oncogenic activity, tumour growth rate and metastatic ability, regardless of their P-gp status. These results indicate that the observed osteoblastic differentiation and less aggressive phenotype in DOX-selected osteosarcoma cells may not only be explained by the direct effect of P-gp, and accordingly, consideration of the effect of DOX, as well as P-gp, appears to be important. PMID:10755409

  7. New insight into p-glycoprotein as a drug target.

    PubMed

    Breier, Albert; Gibalova, Lenka; Seres, Mario; Barancik, Miroslav; Sulova, Zdenka

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) of cancer tissue is a phenomenon in which cancer cells exhibit reduced sensitivity to a large group of unrelated drugs with different mechanisms of pharmacological activity. Mechanisms that reduce cell sensitivity to damage induced by a variety of chemicals were found to be caused by diverse, albeit well-defined, phenotypic alterations. The molecular basis of MDR commonly involves overexpression of the plasma membrane drug efflux pump - P-glycoprotein (P-gp). This glycoprotein is an ABCB1 member of the ABC transporter family. Cells that develop MDR of this type express massive amounts of P-gp that can induce a drug resistance of more than 100 times higher than normal cells to several drugs, which are substrates of P-gp. Expression of P-gp could be inherent to cancer cells with regard to the specialized tissues from which the cells originated. This is often designated as intrinsic Pgp- mediated MDR. However, overexpression of P-gp may be induced by selection and/or adaptation of cells during exposure to anticancer drugs; this particular example is known as acquired P-gp-mediated MDR. Drugs that are potential inducers of P-gp are often substrates of this transporter. However, several substances that have been proven to not be transportable by P-gp (such as cisplatin or alltrans retinoic acid) could induce minor improvements in P-gp overexpression. It is generally accepted that the drug efflux activity of Pgp is a major cause of reduced cell sensitivity to several compounds. However, P-gp may have side effects that are independent of its drug efflux activity. Several authors have described a direct influence of P-gp on the function of proteins involved in regulatory pathways, including apoptotic progression (such as p53, caspase-3 and Pokemon). Moreover, alterations of cell regulatory pathways, including protein expression, glycosylation and phosphorylation, have been demonstrated in cells overexpressing P-gp, which may consequently induce changes in cell sensitivity to substances that are not P-gp substrates or modulators. We recently reported that P-gppositive L1210 cells exhibit reduced sensitivity to cisplatin, concanavalin A, thapsigargin and tunicamycin. Thus, P-gp-mediated MDR represents a more complex process than was expected, and the unintended effects of P-gp overexpression should be considered when describing this phenotype. The present review aims to provide the most current informations about P-gp-mediated MDR while paying particular attention to the possible dual function of this protein as a drug efflux pump and a regulatory protein that influences diverse cell processes. From a clinical standpoint, overexpression of P-gp in cancer cells represents a real obstacle to effective chemotherapy for malignant diseases. Therefore, this protein should be considered as a viable target for pharmaceutical design. PMID:22931413

  8. The influence of passage number for Caco2 cell models when evaluating P-gp mediated drug transport.

    PubMed

    Senarathna, S M D K Ganga; Crowe, A

    2015-12-01

    Caco2 cells are a human adenocarcinoma cell line that forms tight junctions and are widely used to examine bidirectional drug transport as well as P-glycoprotein mediated efflux. Unfortunately Caco2 cell lines can be very heterogeneous in nature. Our aim was to improve the Caco2 cell model for determination of P-glycoprotein mediated drug transport. Young passage Caco2 from ATCC had inadequate expression of P-glycoprotein, therefore three approaches were adopted to upregulate Caco2 P-glycoprotein expression to mimic that in vivo; a) incubation of mature Caco2 monolayer with rifampicin, b) prolonged exposure of Caco2 cells to vinblastine (generating the Caco2 VIN line), and c) splitting cells every 7 to 9 days until late passage numbers (over P80) were available. Upon development of the models, P-gp expression and activity was determined using western blotting and bidirectional transport studies of rhodamine123. All four models exhibited P-gp mediated efflux transport for rhodamine123. Incubation with rifampicin did not alter bidirectional transport compared to passage 44 cells. Increased passage number altered P-glycoprotein expression and the efflux ratio increased to 4.7 for passage 80 from 1.4 of passage 44. The highest basolateral to apical transport was observed for both passage 89 Caco2 and the Caco2 VIN model with an efflux ratio of 13 to 14. Western blot images confirmed the increased P-glycoprotein expression of late passage and Caco2 VIN. Caco2 cells are not ready for P-gp related research when first acquired from ATCC (Passage 18). Late passage Caco2 cell monolayers or Caco2 VIN models are needed to determine P-gp mediated efflux transport. PMID:26817277

  9. Disease control by regulation of P-glycoprotein on lymphocytes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Tsujimura, Shizuyo; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) is to control activation of lymphocytes, although some patients do not respond adequately to such treatment. Among various mechanisms of multidrug resistance, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a member of ATP-binding cassette transporters, causes drug-resistance by efflux of intracellular drugs. Certain stimuli, such as tumor necrosis factor-?, activate lymphocytes and induce P-gp expression on lymphocytes, as evident in active RA. Studies from our laboratories showed spontaneous nuclear accumulation of human Y-box-binding protein-1, a multidrug resistance 1 transcription factor, in unstimulated lymphocytes, and surface overexpression of P-gp on peripheral lymphocytes of RA patients with high disease activity. The significant correlation between P-gp expression level and RA disease activity is associated with active efflux of drugs from the lymphocyte cytoplasm and in drug-resistance. However, the use of biological agents that reduce P-gp expression as well as P-gp antagonists (e.g., cyclosporine) can successfully reduce the efflux of corticosteroids from lymphocytes in vitro, suggesting that both types of drugs can be used to overcome drug-resistance and improve clinical outcome. We conclude that lymphocytes activated by various stimuli in RA patients with highly active disease acquire P-gp-mediated multidrug resistance against corticosteroids and probably some DMARDs, which are substrates of P-gp. Inhibition/reduction of P-gp could overcome such drug resistance. Expression of P-gp on lymphocytes is a promising marker of drug resistance and a suitable therapeutic target to prevent drug resistance in patients with active RA. PMID:26618109

  10. A high-throughput screening microplate test for the interaction of drugs with P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Garrigues, Alexia; Nugier, Jérôme; Orlowski, Stéphane; Ezan, Eric

    2002-06-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a multidrug transporter responsible for resistance to anticancer chemotherapy and physiologically involved in absorption, distribution, and excretion of a large number of hydrophobic xenobiotics. P-gp exhibits both an ATPase activity correlated with its drug transport function and a basal ATPase activity in the absence of any drug. We have developed a high-throughput screening test to detect specific interactions between drugs and P-gp. We took into account the existence of multiple binding sites on P-gp to propose and validate an optimized strategy, based on the modulation of the basal ATPase activity of P-gp and of the ATPase activity stimulated by three reference substrates (verapamil, vinblastine, and progesterone). The ATPase activity measurements were performed on P-gp-containing membrane vesicles from actinomycin-D-selected hamster DC-3F lung fibroblasts by a spectrophotometric method based on continuous monitoring of ADP formation, regenerated in ATP by a coupled enzyme system. This assay may be performed on 96- or 384-well microtiter plates. When applying this ATPase assay to 41 compounds known from the literature for their interaction with P-gp, 95% of them were found to be positive, whereas only 78% were positive when considering solely the modulation of the basal activity. PMID:12018951

  11. Role of P-glycoprotein on the brain penetration and brain pharmacodynamic activity of the MEK inhibitor cobimetinib.

    PubMed

    Choo, Edna F; Ly, Justin; Chan, Jocelyn; Shahidi-Latham, Sheerin K; Messick, Kirsten; Plise, Emile; Quiason, Cristine M; Yang, Lulu

    2014-11-01

    Cobimetinib is a MEK inhibitor currently in clinical trials as an anticancer agent. The objectives of this study were to determine in vitro and in vivo if cobimetinib is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and/or breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1) and to assess the implications of efflux on cobimetinib pharmacokinetics (PK), brain penetration, and target modulation. Cell lines transfected with P-gp or Bcrp1 established that cobimetinib was a substrate of P-gp but not a substrate of Bcrp1. In vivo, after intravenous and oral administration of cobimetinib to FVB (wild-type; WT), Mdr1a/b(-/-), Bcrp1 (-/-), and Mdr1a/b(-/-)/Bcrp(-/-) knockout (KO) mice, clearance was similar in WT (35.5 16.7 mL/min/kg) and KO animals (22.0 3.6 to 27.6 5.2 mL/min/kg); oral exposure was also similar between WT and KO animals. After an oral 10 mg/kg dose of cobimetinib, the mean total brain to plasma ratio (Kp) at 6 h postdose was 0.3 and 0.2 in WT and Bcrp1(-/-) mice, respectively. In Mdr1a/b(-/-) and Mdr1a/1b/Bcrp1(-/-) KO mice and WT mice treated with elacridar (a P-gp and BCRP inhibitor), Kp increased to 11, 6, and 7, respectively. Increased brain exposure in Mdr1a/b(-/-) and Mdr1a/1b/Bcrp1(-/-) KO and elacridar treated mice was accompanied by up to ?65% suppression of the target (pErk) in brain tissue, compared to WT mice. By MALDI imaging, the cobimetinib signal intensity was relatively high and was dispersed throughout the brain of Mdr1a/1b/Bcrp1(-/-) KO mice compared to low/undetectable signal intensity in WT mice. The efflux of cobimetinib by P-gp may have implications for the treatment of patients with brain tumors/metastases. PMID:25243894

  12. Abraxane, the Nanoparticle Formulation of Paclitaxel Can Induce Drug Resistance by Up-Regulation of P-gp

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Xiangli; Ma, Huailei; Gong, He; Liu, Juan; Fang, Xiangdong; Hu, Zhiyuan; Fang, Qiaojun

    2015-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) can actively pump paclitaxel (PTX) out of cells and induces drug resistance. Abraxane, a nanoparticle (NP) formulation of PTX, has multiple clinical advantages over the single molecule form. However, it is still unclear whether Abraxane overcomes the common small molecule drug resistance problem mediated by P-gp. Here we were able to establish an Abraxane-resistant cell line from the lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. We compared the transcriptome of A549/Abr resistant cell line to that of its parental cell line using RNA-Seq technology. Several pathways were found to be up or down regulated. Specifically, the most significantly up-regulated gene was ABCB1, which translates into P-glycoprotein. We verified the overexpression of P-glycoprotein and confirmed its function by reversing the drug resistance with P-gp inhibitor Verapamil. The results suggest that efflux pathway plays an important role in the Abraxane-resistant cell line we established. However, the relevance of this P-gp mediated Abraxane resistance in tumors of lung cancer patients remains unknown. PMID:26182353

  13. Oral and inhaled corticosteroids: Differences in P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) mediated efflux

    SciTech Connect

    Crowe, Andrew Tan, Ai May

    2012-05-01

    There is concern that P-glycoprotein mediated efflux contributes to steroid resistance. Therefore, this study examined bidirectional corticosteroid transport and induction capabilities for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) to understand which of the systemic and inhaled corticosteroids interacted with P-gp to the greatest extent. Hydrocortisone, prednisolone, prednisone, methylprednisolone, and dexamethasone represented systemically active drugs, while fluticasone propionate, beclomethasone dipropionate, ciclesonide and budesonide represented inhaled corticosteroids. Aldosterone and fludrocortisone represented mineralocorticoids. All drugs were detected using individually optimised HPLC protocols. Transport studies were conducted through Caco-2 monolayers. Hydrocortisone and aldosterone had efflux ratios below 1.5, while prednisone showed a P-gp mediated efflux ratio of only 1.8 compared to its active drug, prednisolone, with an efflux ratio of 4.5. Dexamethasone and beclomethasone had efflux ratios of 2.1 and 3.3 respectively, while this increased to 5.1 for methylprednisolone. Fluticasone showed an efflux ratio of 2.3. Protein expression studies suggested that all of the inhaled corticosteroids were able to induce P-gp expression, from 1.6 to 2 times control levels. Most of the systemic corticosteroids had higher passive permeability (> 20 × 10{sup −6} cm/s) compared to the inhaled corticosteroids (> 5 × 10{sup −6} cm/s), except for budesonide, with permeability similar to the systemic corticosteroids. Inhaled corticosteroids are not transported by P-gp to the same extent as systemic corticosteroids. However, they are able to induce P-gp production. Thus, inhaled corticosteroids may have greater interactions with other P-gp substrates, but P-gp itself is less likely to influence resistance to the drugs. -- Highlights: ► Inhaled corticosteroids are only weak substrates for P-gp, including budesonide. ► Inhaled corticosteroid potent P-gp inducers especially fluticasone and beclomethasone. ► Systemic corticosteroids are weak P-gp inducers. ► Mineralocorticoids not affected by P-gp mediated efflux.

  14. Modulation of P-glycoprotein at the Human Blood-Brain Barrier by Quinidine or Rifampin Treatment: A Positron Emission Tomography Imaging Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Collier, Ann C; Link, Jeanne M; Domino, Karen B; Mankoff, David A; Eary, Janet F; Spiekerman, Charles F; Hsiao, Peng; Deo, Anand K; Unadkat, Jashvant D

    2015-11-01

    Permeability-glycoprotein (P-glycoprotein, P-gp), an efflux transporter at the human blood-brain barrier (BBB), is a significant obstacle to central nervous system (CNS) delivery of P-gp substrate drugs. Using positron emission tomography imaging, we investigated P-gp modulation at the human BBB by an approved P-gp inhibitor, quinidine, or the P-gp inducer, rifampin. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and BBB P-gp activity were respectively measured by administration of (15)O-water followed by (11)C-verapamil. In a crossover design, healthy volunteers received quinidine and 11-29 days of rifampin treatment during different study periods. CBF and P-gp activity was measured in the absence (control; prior to quinidine treatment) and presence of P-gp modulation. At clinically relevant quinidine plasma concentrations, P-gp inhibition resulted in a 60% increase in (11)C-radioactivity distribution across the human BBB as measured by the brain extraction ratio (ER) of (11)C-radioactivity. Furthermore, the magnitude of BBB P-gp inhibition by quinidine was successfully predicted by a combination of in vitro and macaque data, but not by rat data. Although our findings demonstrated that quinidine did not completely inhibit P-gp at the human BBB, it has the potential to produce clinically significant CNS drug interactions with P-gp substrate drugs that exhibit a narrow therapeutic window and are significantly excluded from the brain by P-gp. Rifampin treatment induced systemic CYP3A metabolism of (11)C-verapamil; however, it reduced the ER by 6%. Therefore, we conclude that rifampin, at its usual clinical dose, cannot be used to induce P-gp at the human BBB to a clinically meaningful extent and is unlikely to cause inadvertent BBB-inductive drug interactions. PMID:26354948

  15. Hydrogel-assisted functional reconstitution of human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) in giant liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Horger, Kim S.; Liu, Haiyan; Rao, Divya K.; Shukla, Suneet; Sept, David; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Mayer, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the formation of giant proteoliposomes containing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) from a solution of small proteoliposomes that had been deposited and partially dried on a film of agarose. This preparation method generated a significant fraction of giant proteoliposomes that were free of internalized vesicles, making it possible to determine the accessible liposome volume. Measuring the intensity of the fluorescent substrate rhodamine 123 (Rho123) inside and outside these giant proteoliposomes determined the concentration of transported substrates of P-gp. Fitting a kinetic model to the fluorescence data revealed the rate of passive diffusion as well as active transport by reconstituted P-gp in the membrane. This approach determined estimates for the membrane permeability coefficient (Ps) of passive diffusion and rate constants of active transport (kT) by P-gp as a result of different experimental conditions. The Ps value for Rho123 was larger in membranes containing P-gp under all assay conditions than in membranes without P-gp indicating increased leakiness in the presence of reconstituted transmembrane proteins. For P-gp liposomes, the kT value was significantly higher in the presence of ATP than in its absence or in the presence of ATP and the competitive inhibitor verapamil. This difference in kT values verified that P-gp was functionally active after reconstitution and quantified the rate of active transport. Lastly, patch clamp experiments on giant proteoliposomes showed ion channel activity consistent with a chloride ion channel protein that co-purified with P-gp. Together, these results demonstrate several advantages of using giant rather than small proteoliposomes to characterize transport properties of transport proteins and ion channels. PMID:25450342

  16. P-Glycoprotein Induction Ameliorates Colistin Induced Nephrotoxicity in Cultured Human Proximal Tubular Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sun-hyo; Kim, Jin-sun; Ravichandran, Kameswaran; Gil, Hyo-Wook; Song, Ho-yeon; Hong, Sae-yong

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of colistin induced nephrotoxicity is poorly understood. Currently there are no effective therapeutic or prophylactic agents available. This study was aimed to determine the mechanism of colistin induced nephrotoxicity and to determine whether P-glycoprotein (P-gp) induction could prevent colistin induced nephrotoxicity. Colistin induced cell toxicity in cultured human proximal tubular cells in both dose and time dependent manner. Colistin provoked ROS in a dose dependent manner as measured by DCF-DA. To investigate apoptosis, caspase 3/7 activity was determined. Caspase 3/7 activity was increased dose dependently (25, 50, 100 ?g/ml) at 6 h. Autophagosome formation was assessed by measuring LC3- II/LC3-I ratio. The ratio of LC3-II to LC3- I was increased at 2 h (25 ?g/ml). Suppression of autophagosome formation increased colistin induced nephrotoxicity. The expression of P-gp and the cell toxicity was determined in colistin with or without dexamethasone (P-gp inducer) and verapamil (selective P-gp inhibitor). Colistin itself suppressed the expression of P-gp. P-gp expression and activity decreased colistin induced nephrotoxicity with dexamethasone treatment. In addition induced P-gp transporter was shown to improve the efflux effect on colistin treated HK2 cell line, which was demonstrated by calcein-AM fluorescence accumulation assay. The increased activity could be blocked by N-acetylcysteine. In conclusion, colistin induces nephrotoxicity by suppressing P-gp. Induction of P-gp could ameliorate colistin induced nephrotoxicity by decreasing apoptosis. PMID:26287374

  17. Understanding the accumulation of P-glycoprotein substrates within cells: The effect of cholesterol on membrane partitioning.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Nandhitha; Schumann-Gillett, Alexandra; Mark, Alan E; O'Mara, Megan L

    2016-04-01

    The apparent activity of the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is enhanced by the presence of cholesterol. Whether this is due to the direct effect of cholesterol on the activity of P-gp, its effect on the local concentration of substrate in the membrane, or its effect on the rate of entry of the drug into the cell, is unknown. In this study, molecular dynamics simulation techniques coupled with potential of mean force calculations have been used to investigate the role of cholesterol in the movement of four P-gp substrates across a POPC bilayer in the presence or absence of 10% cholesterol. The simulations suggest that the presence of cholesterol lowers the free energy associated with entering the middle of the bilayer in a substrate-specific manner. These findings suggest that P-gp substrates may preferentially accumulate in cholesterol-rich regions of the membrane, which may explain its enhanced transport activity. PMID:26724201

  18. Inhibition of P-Glycoprotein by HIV Protease Inhibitors Increases Intracellular Accumulation of Berberine in Murine and Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zha, Weibin; Wang, Guangji; Xu, Weiren; Liu, Xuyuan; Wang, Yun; Zha, Beth S.; Shi, Jian; Zhao, Qijin; Gerk, Phillip M.; Studer, Elaine; Hylemon, Phillip B.; Pandak, William M.; Zhou, Huiping

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV protease inhibitor (PI)-induced inflammatory response in macrophages is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We have previously reported that berberine (BBR), a traditional herbal medicine, prevents HIV PI-induced inflammatory response through inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in macrophages. We also found that HIV PIs significantly increased the intracellular concentrations of BBR in macrophages. However, the underlying mechanisms of HIV PI-induced BBR accumulation are unknown. This study examined the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in HIV PI-mediated accumulation of BBR in macrophages. Methodology and Principal Findings Cultured mouse RAW264.7 macrophages, human THP-1-derived macrophages, Wild type MDCK (MDCK/WT) and human P-gp transfected (MDCK/P-gp) cells were used in this study. The intracellular concentration of BBR was determined by HPLC. The activity of P-gp was assessed by measuring digoxin and rhodamine 123 (Rh123) efflux. The interaction between P-gp and BBR or HIV PIs was predicated by Glide docking using Schrodinger program. The results indicate that P-gp contributed to the efflux of BBR in macrophages. HIV PIs significantly increased BBR concentrations in macrophages; however, BBR did not alter cellular HIV PI concentrations. Although HIV PIs did not affect P-gp expression, P-gp transport activities were significantly inhibited in HIV PI-treated macrophages. Furthermore, the molecular docking study suggests that both HIV PIs and BBR fit the binding pocket of P-gp, and HIV PIs may compete with BBR to bind P-gp. Conclusion and Significance HIV PIs increase the concentration of BBR by modulating the transport activity of P-gp in macrophages. Understanding the cellular mechanisms of potential drug-drug interactions is critical prior to applying successful combinational therapy in the clinic. PMID:23372711

  19. Prediction of in vivo intestinal absorption enhancement on P-glycoprotein inhibition, from rat in situ permeability.

    PubMed

    Varma, Manthena V S; Panchagnula, Ramesh

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the functional role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in intestinal absorption of drugs and to quantitatively predict the in vivo absorption enhancement on P-gp inhibition. In situ single-pass rat ileum permeability and aqueous solubility were measured for a set of 16 compounds. Permeability studies were also carried out in the presence of P-gp inhibitor to estimate the permeability enhancement on P-gp inhibition. A significant correlation was obtained between rat ileum permeability and the literature human intestinal absorption (HIA), F(a,human) (r = 0.891; p < 0.01). Compounds with permeability >0.2 x 10(-4) cm/s are completely absorbed; however, few practically insoluble compounds were overestimated with this relationship. Inhibition of P-gp increased the permeability (p < 0.05) of three moderately and three highly permeable compounds. Efflux inhibition ratio (EIR), the ratio of permeability due to P-gp-mediated efflux activity and passive permeability only, for these compounds was in the order of digoxin > paclitaxel > fexofenadine > quinidine > verapamil > cyclosporine. Integration of EIR with permeability versus F(a,human) predicted that modulation of P-gp has no significant effect on the absorption of highly permeable compounds (quinidine, verapamil, and cyclosporine A), while for moderately permeable compounds (digoxin, paclitaxel, and fexofenadine), P-gp profoundly influences the intestinal permeability. The in situ permeability in rat ileum may be used to predict the in vivo P-gp function and its quantitative contribution to intestinal drug absorption. Integration of the functional activity of P-gp with the characteristics of BCS may explain drug interactions and explore the possible pharmacokinetic advantage on P-gp inhibition. PMID:15986467

  20. Saint John's wort: An in vitro analysis of P-glycoprotein induction due to extended exposure

    PubMed Central

    Perloff, Michael D; von Moltke, Lisa L; Strmer, Elke; Shader, Richard I; Greenblatt, David J

    2001-01-01

    Chronic use of Saint John's wort (SJW) has been shown to lower the bioavailability for a variety of co-administered drugs including indinavir, cyclosporin, and digoxin. Decreases in intestinal absorption through induction of the multidrug resistance transporter, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), may explain decreased bioavailability. The present study characterized the response of P-gp to chronic and acute exposure of SJW and hypericin (HYP, a presumed active moiety within SJW) in an in vitro system. Experiments were performed with 3 to 300??g?ml?1 of methanol-extracted SJW and 0.03 to 3??M HYP, representing low to high estimates of intestinal concentrations. In induction experiments, LS-180 intestinal carcinoma cells were exposed for 3 days to SJW, HYP, vehicle or a positive control (ritonavir). P-gp was quantified using Western blot analysis. P-gp expression was strongly induced by SJW (400% increase at 300??g?ml?1) and by HYP (700% at 3??M) in a dose-dependent fashion. Cells chronically treated with SJW had decreased accumulation of rhodamine 123, a P-gp substrate, that was reversed with acute verapamil, a P-gp inhibitor. Fluorescence microscopy of intact cells validated these findings. In Caco-2 cell monolayers, SJW and HYP caused moderate inhibition of P-gp-attributed transport at the maximum concentrations tested. SJW and HYP significantly induced P-gp expression at low, clinically relevant concentrations. Similar effects occurring in vivo may explain the decreased bioavailability of P-gp substrate drugs when co-administered with SJW. PMID:11739235

  1. In silico Analysis for Predicting Fatty Acids of Black Cumin Oil as Inhibitors of P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Babar; Jamal, Qazi Mohd. Sajid; Mir, Showkat R.; Shams, Saiba; Al-Wabel, Naser A.; Kamal, Mohammad A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Black cumin oil is obtained from the seeds of Nigella sativa L. which belongs to family Ranunculaceae. The seed oil has been reported to possess antitumor, antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic, central nervous system depressant, antioxidant, and immunostimulatory activities. These bioactivities have been attributed to the fixed oil, volatile oil, or their components. Seed oil consisted of 15 saturated fatty acids (17%) and 17 unsaturated fatty acids (82.9%). Long chain fatty acids and medium chain fatty acids have been reported to increase oral bioavailability of peptides, antibiotics, and other important therapeutic agents. In earlier studies, permeation enhancement and bioenhancement of drugs has been done with black cumin oil. Objective: In order to recognize the mechanism of binding of fatty acids to P-glycoprotein (P-gp), linoleic acid, oleic acid, margaric acid, cis-11, 14-eicosadienoic acid, and stearic acid were selected for in silico studies, which were carried out using AutoDock 4.2, based on the Lamarckian genetic algorithm principle. Materials and Methods: Template search with BLAST and HHblits has been performed against the SWISS-MODEL template library. The target sequence was searched with BLAST against the primary amino acid sequence of P-gp from Rattus norvegicus. Results: The amount of energy needed by linoleic acid, oleic acid, eicosadienoic acid, margaric acid, and stearic acid to bind with P-gp were found to be − 10.60, −10.48, −9.95, −11.92, and − 10.37 kcal/mol, respectively. The obtained data support that all the selected fatty acids have contributed to inhibit P-gp activity thereby enhances the bioavailability of drugs. Conclusion: This study plays a significant role in finding hot spots in P-gp and may offer the further scope of designing potent and specific inhibitors of P-gp. SUMMARY Generation of 3D structure of fatty acid compounds from Black cumin oil and 3D homology modeling of Rat P glycoprotein as a receptor.Rat P-gp structure quality shows 88.5% residues in favored region obtained by Ramchandran plot analysis.Docking analysis revealed that Some amino acids common for all compounds like Ser221, Pro222, Ile224, Gly225, Ser228, Ala229, Lys233, Tyr302, Tyr309, Ile337, Leu338 and Thr341 in the P-gp and ligands binding patterns.Eicosadeinoic acid has highest binding affinity with P-gp as the amount of energy needed to bind with P-gp was lowest (-11.92 kcal/mol). Abbreviations used: P-gp: P-glycoprotein PMID:27013802

  2. Biochemical interaction of anti-HCV telaprevir with the ABC transporters P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/ABCB1 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)/ABCG2 are involved in the intestinal absorption and renal excretion of various substrate drugs. Their activities affect sub-therapeutic drug concentrations and excretion of natural transporter substrates. The new oral anti-HCV drug telaprevir has dramatically improved the efficacy of hepatitis-C virus (HCV) treatment, and recent studies have suggested a possible pharmacological interaction between telaprevir and P-gp. We studied the kinetics of in vitro interactions between telaprevir and P-gp and BCRP to understand the molecular basis of that interaction. Findings The effect of telaprevir on P-gp- and BCRP-mediated transport was evaluated by an in vitro vesicle transporter assay using different transport substrates, and the kinetics of transporter inhibition was determined. The results showed that telaprevir could inhibit P-gp- and BCRP-mediated transport in the in vitro vesicle transport assay, with each IC50 values of ≈ 7 μmol/L and ≈ 30 μmol/L, respectively. Analyses of Lineweaver–Burk plots showed that telaprevir was likely to be a competitive inhibitor against P-gp and BCRP. Photoaffinity labeling experiments were employed to observe competitive inhibition by telaprevir using iodoarylazidoprazosin (IAAP) as a binding substrate for P-gp and BCRP. These experiments revealed that telaprevir inhibited [125I]-IAAP-binding with P-gp and BCRP. Conclusion Telaprevir competitively inhibited P-gp and BCRP, and P-gp-mediated transport was more sensitive to telaprevir compared with BCRP-mediated transport. These data suggest that telaprevir represses the transporter functions of P-gp and BCRP via direct inhibition. PMID:24196382

  3. Trantinterol, a novel ?2-adrenoceptor agonist, noncompetitively inhibits P-glycoprotein function in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tingting; Sun, Yantong; Ma, Wenxiao; Yang, Zhichao; Yang, Junfeng; Liu, Jingrui; Fan, Hongbo; Yang, Yan; Gu, Jingkai; Fawcett, John Paul; Guo, Yingjie

    2015-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated drug-drug interactions are important factors causing adverse effects of drugs in clinical use. The aim of this study was to determine whether trantinterol (also known as SPFF), a novel ?2-adrenoceptor agonist, was a P-gp inhibitor or substrate. The results showed that trantinterol was not a substrate of P-gp but increased rhodamine 123 (Rho 123) uptake by MDCK-MDR1 cells and decreased the efflux transport of both Rho 123 and cyclosporine A (CsA) in bidirectional transport studies across MDCK-MDR1 cell monolayers. This suggested that trantinterol was a P-gp inhibitor but not a P-gp substrate. The mechanism of inhibition was investigated in the P-gp-Glo assay system, where it was found that trantinterol inhibited P-gp ATPase activity in a dose-dependent manner. A subsequent study using the antibody binding assay with the conformation-sensitive P-gp-specific antibody UIC2 confirmed that trantinterol decreased UIC2 binding at 10 ?M in contrast to the competitive inhibitor, verapamil. This suggested that trantinterol was a noncompetitive inhibitor of P-gp. Finally, a pharmacokinetic study in rat showed that trantinterol significantly increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of digoxin and paclitaxel (PAC), and the Cmax of cyclosporine A (CsA). In summary, trantinterol is a potent noncompetitive P-gp inhibitor which may increase the bioavailability of other P-gp substrate drugs coadministered with it. PMID:25389765

  4. The Human P-Glycoprotein Transporter Enhances the Type I Interferon Response to Listeria monocytogenes Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sigal, Nadejda; Kaplan Zeevi, Millie; Weinstein, Shiri; Peer, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Human multidrug efflux transporters are known for their ability to extrude antibiotics and toxic compounds out of cells, yet accumulating data indicate they have additional functions in diverse physiological processes not related to drug efflux. Here, we show that the human multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (also named MDR1 and ABCB1) is transcriptionally induced in the monocytic cell line THP-1 upon infection with the human intracellular bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. Notably, we found that P-gp is important for full activation of the type I interferon response elicited against L. monocytogenes bacteria. Both inhibition of P-gp function by verapamil and inhibition of its transcription using mRNA silencing led to a reduction in the magnitude of the type I response in infected cells. This function of P-gp was specific to type I interferon cytokines elicited against cytosolic replicating bacteria and was not observed in response to cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP), a molecule that was shown to be secreted by L. monocytogenes during infection and to trigger type I interferons. Moreover, P-gp was not involved in activation of other proinflammatory cytokines, such as those triggered by vacuolar-restricted L. monocytogenes or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Taken together, these findings demonstrate a role for P-gp in proper development of an innate immune response against intracellular pathogens, highlighting the complexity in employing therapeutic strategies that involve inhibition of multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux pumps. PMID:25824830

  5. Temozolomide reverses doxorubicin resistance by inhibiting P-glycoprotein in malignant glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong; Saito, Ryuta; Shibahara, Ichiyo; Sugiyama, Shinichiro; Kanamori, Masayuki; Sonoda, Yukihiko; Tominaga, Teiji

    2016-01-01

    Temozolomide is a standard chemotherapy agent for malignant gliomas, but the efficacy is still not satisfactory. Therefore, combination chemotherapy using temozolomide with other anti-tumor compounds is now under investigation. Here we studied the mechanism of the synergistic anti-tumor effect achieved by temozolomide and doxorubicin, and elucidated the inhibitory effect of temozolomide on P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Temozolomide significantly enhanced sensitivity to P-gp substrate in glioma cells, particularly in P-gp-overexpressed cells. Synergetic effects, as determined by isobologram analysis, were observed by combining temozolomide and doxorubicin. Subsequently, flow cytometry was utilized to assess the intracellular retention of doxorubicin in cells treated with doxorubicin with or without temozolomide. Temozolomide significantly increased the accumulation of doxorubicin in these cells. The P-gp adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) assay showed that temozolomide inhibited the ATPase activity of P-gp. In addition, temozolomide combined with doxorubicin significantly prolonged the survival of 9L intracranial allografted glioma-bearing rats compared to single agent treatment. Collectively, our findings suggest that temozolomide can reverse doxorubicin resistance by directly affecting P-gp transport activity. Combination chemotherapy using temozolomide with other agents may be effective against gliomas in clinical applications. PMID:26530267

  6. Selective modulation of P-glycoprotein activity by steroidal saponines from Paris polyphylla.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Van Thi Bao; Darbour, Nicole; Bayet, Christine; Doreau, Agns; Raad, Imad; Phung, Binh Hoa; Dumontet, Charles; Di Pietro, Attilio; Dijoux-Franca, Marie-Genevive; Guilet, David

    2009-01-01

    Bio-guided fractionation of the roots of Paris polyphylla (Trilliaceae), based on inhibition of P-glycoprotein-mediated daunorubicin efflux in K562/R7 cell line, led to isolation and identification of the three saponins 3-O-Rha(1-->2)[Ara(1-->4)]Glc-pennogenine, gracillin and polyphyllin D, and the two ecdysteroids 20-hydroxyecdysone and pinnatasterone. These compounds were tested for multidrug reversion on P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) with both drug-selected and transfected cell lines, and also on Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP/ABCG2). By contrast to a weak efficiency on BCRP, the three saponins displayed significant effects as inhibitors of P-glycoprotein-mediated drug efflux. PMID:18940238

  7. Inhibitory Effects of Daiokanzoto (Da-Huang-Gan-Cao-Tang) on P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yuka; Ikarashi, Nobutomo; Satoh, Toshiyuki; Ito, Kiyomi; Ochiai, Wataru; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    We have studied the effects of various Kampo medicines on P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a drug transporter, in vitro. The present study focused on Daiokanzoto (Da-Huang-Gan-Cao-Tang), which shows the most potent inhibitory effects on P-gp among the 50 Kampo medicines studied, and investigated the P-gp inhibitory effects of Daiokanzoto herbal ingredients (rhubarb and licorice root) and their components by an ATPase assay using human P-gp membrane. Both rhubarb and licorice root significantly inhibited ATPase activity, and the effects of rhubarb were more potent than those of licorice root. The content of rhubarb in Daiokanzoto is double that in licorice root, and the inhibition patterns of Daiokanzoto and rhubarb involve both competitive and noncompetitive inhibition, suggesting that the inhibitory effects of Daiokanzoto are mainly due to rhubarb. Concerning the components of rhubarb, concentration-dependent inhibitory effects were observed for (?)-catechin gallate, (?)-epicatechin gallate, and (?)-epigallocatechin gallate. In conclusion, rhubarb may cause changes in the drug dispositions of P-gp substrates through the inhibition of P-gp. It appears that attention should be given to the interactions between these drugs and Kampo medicines containing rhubarb as an herbal ingredient. PMID:22969825

  8. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein Gene Expression and Function Enhances Triptolide-induced Hepatotoxicity in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Ling-Lei; zhuang, Xiao-Mei; Yang, Hai-Ying; Yuan, Mei; Xu, Liang; Li, Hua

    2015-01-01

    Triptolide (TP) is the major active principle of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f. and very effective in treatment of autoimmune diseases. However, TP induced hepatotoxicity limited its clinical applications. Our previous study found that TP was a substrate of P-glycoprotein and its hepatobiliary clearance was markedly affected by P-gp modulation in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes. In this study, small interfering RNA (siRNA) and specific inhibitor tariquidar were used to investigate the impact of P-gp down regulation on TP-induced hepatotoxicity. The results showed that when the function of P-gp was inhibited by mdr1a-1 siRNA or tariquidar, the systemic and hepatic exposures of TP were significantly increased. The aggravated hepatotoxicity was evidenced with the remarkably lifted levels of serum biomarkers (ALT and AST) and pathological changes in liver. The other toxicological indicators (MDA, SOD and Bcl-2/Bax) were also significantly changed by P-gp inhibition. The data analysis showed that the increase of TP exposure in mice was quantitatively correlated to the enhanced hepatotoxicity, and the hepatic exposure was more relevant to the toxicity. P-gp mediated clearance played a significant role in TP detoxification. The risk of herb-drug interaction likely occurs when TP is concomitant with P-gp inhibitors or substrates in clinic. PMID:26134275

  9. P-glycoprotein Mediates Postoperative Peritoneal Adhesion Formation by Enhancing Phosphorylation of the Chloride Channel-3

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Lulu; Li, Qin; Lin, Guixian; Huang, Dan; Zeng, Xuxin; Wang, Xinwei; Li, Ping; Jin, Xiaobao; Zhang, Haifeng; Li, Chunmei; Chen, Lixin; Wang, Liwei; Huang, Shulin; Shao, Hongwei; Xu, Bin; Mao, Jianwen

    2016-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is encoded by the multidrug resistance (MDR1) gene and is well studied as a multi-drug resistance transporter. Peritoneal adhesion formation following abdominal surgery remains an important clinical problem. Here, we found that P-gp was highly expressed in human adhesion fibroblasts and promoted peritoneal adhesion formation in a rodent model. Knockdown of P-gp expression by intraperitoneal injection of MDR1-targeted siRNA significantly reduced both the peritoneal adhesion development rate and adhesion grades. Additionally, we found that operative injury up-regulated P-gp expression in peritoneal fibroblasts through the TGF-β1/Smad signaling pathway and histone H3 acetylation. The overexpression of P-gp accelerated migration and proliferation of fibroblasts via volume-activated Cl- current and cell volume regulation by enhancing phosphorylation of the chloride channel-3. Therefore, P-gp plays a critical role in postoperative peritoneal adhesion formation and may be a valuable therapeutic target for preventing the formation of peritoneal adhesions. PMID:26877779

  10. P-glycoprotein--implications of metabolism of neoplastic cells and cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Breier, Albert; Barancík, Miroslav; Sulová, Zdenka; Uhrík, Branislav

    2005-09-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) of neoplastic tissues is a major obstacle in cancer chemotherapy. The predominant cause of MDR is the overexpression and drug transport activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp, a product of the MDR gene). P-gp is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters family, with broad substrate specificity for several substances including anticancer drugs, linear and cyclic peptides, inhibitors of HIV protease, and several other substances. The development of P-gp-mediated MDR is often associated with several changes in cell structure and metabolism of resistant cells. In the present review are discussed the relations between glucosylceramide synthase activity, Pregnane X receptor and development of P-gp mediated MDR phenotype. Attention is also focused on the changes in protein kinase systems (mitogen-activated protein kinases, protein kinase C, Akt kinase) that are associated with the development of MDR phenotype and to the possible role of these kinase cascades in modulation of P-gp expression and function. The overexpression of P-gp may be associated with changes in metabolism of sugars as well as energy production. Structural and ultrastructural characteristics of multidrug resistant cells expressing P-gp are typical for cells engaged in a metabolically demanding process of protein synthesis and transport. P-gp mediated MDR phenotype is often also associated with alterations in cytoskeletal elements, microtubule and mitochondria distribution, Golgi apparatus, chromatin texture, vacuoles and caveolae formation. The current review also aims at bringing some state-of-the-art information on interactions of P-glycoprotein with various substances. To capture and transport the numerous unrelated substances, P-gp should contain site(s) able to bind compounds with a molecular weight of several hundreds and comprising hydrophobic and/or base regions that are protonated under physiological conditions. Drug binding sites that are able to recognize substances with different chemical structures may have a complex architecture in which different parts are responsible for binding of different drugs. For P-gp substrates and inhibitors, a pharmacophore-based model has been described. The pharmacophores have to contain parts with hydrophobic and aromatic characteristics and functional groups that can act as hydrogen-bond donors and/or acceptors. Several drugs are known to be P-glycoprotein antagonizing agents. They represent a large group of structurally unrelated substances that can act via direct interaction with P-gp and inhibition of its transport activity, or via possible modulation of processes (such as phosphorylation) regulating P-gp transport activity. Effects of MDR reversal agents on the P-gp expression have also been reported. Function and expression of P-gp can be affected indirectly as well, e.g. through cyclooxygenase-2 or carbonic anhydrase-IX expression and effects. PMID:16178819

  11. Evidence for P-Glycoprotein Involvement in Cell Volume Regulation Using Coulter Sizing in Flow Cytometry

    PubMed Central

    Pasquier, Jennifer; Rioult, Damien; Abu-Kaoud, Nadine; Hoarau-Vchot, Jessica; Marin, Matthieu; Le Foll, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of cell volume is an essential function that is coupled to a variety of physiological processes such as receptor recycling, excitability and contraction, cell proliferation, migration, and programmed cell death. Under stress, cells undergo emergency swelling and respond to such a phenomenon with a regulatory volume decrease (RVD) where they release cellular ions, and other osmolytes as well as a concomitant loss of water. The link between P-glycoprotein, a transmembrane transporter, and cell volume regulation is controversial, and changes in cells volume are measured using microscopy or electrophysiology. For instance, by using the patch-clamp method, our team demonstrated that chloride currents activated in the RVD were more intense and rapid in a breast cancer cell line overexpressing the P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The Cell Lab Quanta SC is a flow cytometry system that simultaneously measures electronic volume, side scatter and three fluorescent colors; altogether this provides unsurpassed population resolution and accurate cell counting. Therefore, here we propose a novel method to follow cellular volume. By using the Coulter-type channel of the cytometer Cell Lab Quanta SC MPL (multi-platform loading), we demonstrated a role for the P-gp during different osmotic treatments, but also a differential activity of the P-gp through the cell cycle. Altogether, our data strongly suggests a role of P-gp in cell volume regulation. PMID:26114386

  12. Evidence for P-Glycoprotein Involvement in Cell Volume Regulation Using Coulter Sizing in Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Pasquier, Jennifer; Rioult, Damien; Abu-Kaoud, Nadine; Hoarau-Vchot, Jessica; Marin, Matthieu; Le Foll, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of cell volume is an essential function that is coupled to a variety of physiological processes such as receptor recycling, excitability and contraction, cell proliferation, migration, and programmed cell death. Under stress, cells undergo emergency swelling and respond to such a phenomenon with a regulatory volume decrease (RVD) where they release cellular ions, and other osmolytes as well as a concomitant loss of water. The link between P-glycoprotein, a transmembrane transporter, and cell volume regulation is controversial, and changes in cells volume are measured using microscopy or electrophysiology. For instance, by using the patch-clamp method, our team demonstrated that chloride currents activated in the RVD were more intense and rapid in a breast cancer cell line overexpressing the P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The Cell Lab Quanta SC is a flow cytometry system that simultaneously measures electronic volume, side scatter and three fluorescent colors; altogether this provides unsurpassed population resolution and accurate cell counting. Therefore, here we propose a novel method to follow cellular volume. By using the Coulter-type channel of the cytometer Cell Lab Quanta SC MPL (multi-platform loading), we demonstrated a role for the P-gp during different osmotic treatments, but also a differential activity of the P-gp through the cell cycle. Altogether, our data strongly suggests a role of P-gp in cell volume regulation. PMID:26114386

  13. Oral Cyclosporin A Inhibits CD4 T cell P-glycoprotein Activity in HIV-Infected Adults Initiating Treatment with Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Hulgan, Todd; Donahue, John P.; Smeaton, Laura; Pu, Minya; Wang, Hongying; Lederman, Michael M.; Smith, Kimberly; Valdez, Hernan; Pilcher, Christopher; Haas, David W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose P-glycoprotein limits tissue penetration of many antiretroviral drugs. We characterized effects of the P-glycoprotein substrate cyclosporin A on T cell P-glycoprotein activity in HIV-infected AIDS Clinical Trials Group study A5138 participants. Methods We studied P-glycoprotein activity on CD4 and CD8 T cells in 16 participants randomized to receive oral cyclosporin A (n=9) or not (n=7) during initiation antiretroviral therapy (ART) that did not include protease or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Results CD4 T cell P-glycoprotein activity decreased by a median of 8 percentage points with cyclosporin A/ART (difference between cyclosporin A/ART versus ART only P=0.001). Plasma trough cyclosporin A concentrations correlated with change in P-glycoprotein activity in several T cell subsets. Conclusions Oral cyclosporin A can inhibit peripheral blood CD4 T cell P-glycoprotein activity. Targeted P-glycoprotein inhibition might enhance delivery of ART to T cells. PMID:19779705

  14. Evidence against a role of P-glycoprotein in the clearance of the Alzheimer's disease Aβ1-42 peptides.

    PubMed

    Bello, Ivan; Salerno, Milena

    2015-05-01

    It has been proposed that the amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) cause the neuronal degeneration in the Alzheimer's disease brain. An imbalance between peptide production at the neuronal level and their elimination across the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) results in peptide accumulation inside the brain. The identification and functional characterization of the transport systems in the BBB with the capacity to transport Aβ is crucial for the understanding of Aβ peptide traffic from the brain to the blood. In this context, it has been suggested that the P-glycoprotein (P-gp), expressed in endothelial cells of the BBB, plays a role in the elimination of Aβ. However, there is little, if any, experimental evidence to support this; therefore, the aim of this investigation was to determine whether P-gp is capable of transporting Aβ peptides. Our results show that ATPase activity measured in plasma membrane vesicles of K562 cells overexpressing P-gp is not increased by the presence of Aβ42, suggesting that Aβ42 is not a P-gp substrate. Similarly, P-gp of pirarubicin was unaffected by Aβ42. Moreover, the overexpression of P-gp does not protect cells against Aβ42 toxicity. Taken together, our results support the conclusion that Aβ42 is not transported by P-gp. PMID:25591827

  15. Overexpression of P-glycoprotein but not its mRNA in multidrug resistant cells selected with hydroxyrubicin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, J Y; Savaraj, N; Song, R; Priebe, W; Kuo, M T

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies have revealed that cultured cells treated with lipophilic natural products containing aromatic rings and basic amino group usually yielded multidrug resistant (MDR) variants. These MDR cells overexpress P-glycoprotein (P-gp), most often due to gene amplification or transcriptional activation of mdr/P-gp genes. Doxorubicin (Dox) is an anthracycline that belongs to this group of compounds. To explore the possible resistance mechanism(s) to anthracyclines that do not involve P-gp, we use a Dox analog, hydroxyrubicin (HyR) or WP159, which contains a C3' hydroxy group in replacement of the amino group in the sugar moiety of Dox thereby reducing basicity and eliminating positive charge in the parental compound to establish HyR-resistant cell lines. These resistant cells displayed the MDR phenotype and overexpressed P-gp as analyzed by Western blot analyses and immunohistochemical staining using two different anti-P-gp antibodies. Strikingly, the levels of P-gp mRNA in the majority of these MDR cells remained comparable to those in the drug-sensitive counterparts by slot blot hybridization. These results implicate that the basic center of the selecting agent is a critical determinant for generating diverse MDR variants, and that HyR may have a posttranscriptional effect on P-gp biosynthesis. This is the first report suggesting that cultured cells exposed to a particular selecting agent may give rise to particular subtype of MDR variants. PMID:7531410

  16. Evaluation of dual P-gp-BCRP inhibitors as nanoparticle formulation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manu Smriti; Juvale, Kapil; Wiese, Michael; Lamprecht, Alf

    2015-09-18

    Overcoming multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer is a major challenge and efforts are on-going to develop inhibitors against the most characterized and ubiquitous MDR transporters: P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Recently reported, two 4-anilinoquinazolines (compounds 1 and 2), demonstrate potential MDR reversal activity against BCRP and to a lesser extent, P-gp. In this work, we formulated the compounds as polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) and assessed their MDR inhibitory activity in relevant BCRP and P-gp over-expressing cell line models. Particles in the size range 300-365nm with a loading efficiency of 69% (compound 1 NP) and 77% (compound 2 NP) respectively were obtained. BCRP inhibition was observed in Hoechst 33342 and pheophorbide A assays while P-gp inhibition was evaluated in calcein AM and rhodamine-123 assays. In cytotoxicity studies, while BCRP expressing cells showed complete reversal of drug resistance in nearly all treatment groups (both compounds and their respective NP); a higher reversal in NP treated group was obtained as compared with inhibitory compound treated group in P-gp expressing cells. These results demonstrate promising inhibitory activity of both formulations, especially against P-gp expressing cells; which is possibly due to a prolonged presence of encapsulated compounds in NPs and consequently a prolonged sensitization of transmembrane drug transporter. These formulations can therefore be considered as dual-transporter inhibitors and it is imperative to investigate both inhibitors in animal models of MDR owing to the presence of multiple efflux transporters in several cancer models. PMID:25976226

  17. Ligand and structure-based classification models for prediction of P-glycoprotein inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Klepsch, Freya; Vasanthanathan, Poongavanam; Ecker, Gerhard F

    2014-01-27

    The ABC transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) actively transports a wide range of drugs and toxins out of cells, and is therefore related to multidrug resistance and the ADME profile of therapeutics. Thus, development of predictive in silico models for the identification of P-gp inhibitors is of great interest in the field of drug discovery and development. So far in silico P-gp inhibitor prediction was dominated by ligand-based approaches because of the lack of high-quality structural information about P-gp. The present study aims at comparing the P-gp inhibitor/noninhibitor classification performance obtained by docking into a homology model of P-gp, to supervised machine learning methods, such as Kappa nearest neighbor, support vector machine (SVM), random fores,t and binary QSAR, by using a large, structurally diverse data set. In addition, the applicability domain of the models was assessed using an algorithm based on Euclidean distance. Results show that random forest and SVM performed best for classification of P-gp inhibitors and noninhibitors, correctly predicting 73/75% of the external test set compounds. Classification based on the docking experiments using the scoring function ChemScore resulted in the correct prediction of 61% of the external test set. This demonstrates that ligand-based models currently remain the methods of choice for accurately predicting P-gp inhibitors. However, structure-based classification offers information about possible drug/protein interactions, which helps in understanding the molecular basis of ligand-transporter interaction and could therefore also support lead optimization. PMID:24050383

  18. P-glycoprotein trafficking as a therapeutic target to optimize CNS drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Thomas P.; Sanchez-Covarubias, Lucy; Tome, Margaret E.

    2014-01-01

    The primary function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) /neurovascular unit is to protect the CNS from potentially harmful xenobiotic substances and maintain CNS homeostasis. Restricted access to the CNS is maintained via a combination of tight junction proteins as well as a variety of efflux and influx transporters that limits the transcellular and paracellular movement of solutes. Of the transporters identified at the BBB, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) has emerged as the transporter that is the greatest obstacle to effective CNS drug delivery. In this chapter we provide data to support intracellular protein trafficking of P-gp within cerebral capillary microvessels as a potential target for improved drug delivery. We show that pain induced changes in P-gp trafficking are associated with changes in P-gps association with caveolin-1, a key scaffolding/trafficking protein that co-localizes with P-gp at the luminal membrane of brain microvessels. Changes in co-localization with the phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated forms of caveolin-1, by pain, are accompanied by dynamic changes in the distribution, relocalization and activation of P-gp pools between microvascular endothelial cell subcellular compartments. Since redox sensitive processes may be involved in signaling disassembly of higher order structures of P-gp, we feel that manipulating redox signaling, via specific protein targeting at the BBB, may protect disulfide bond integrity of P-gp reservoirs and control trafficking to the membrane surface providing improved CNS drug delivery. The advantage of therapeutic drug relocalization of a protein is that the physiological impact can be modified, temporarily or long term, despite pathology-induced changes in gene transcription. PMID:25307213

  19. ABCB1 (MDR1)-type P-glycoproteins at the blood-brain barrier modulate the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system: implications for affective disorder.

    PubMed

    Mller, Marianne B; Keck, Martin E; Binder, Elisabeth B; Kresse, Adelheid E; Hagemeyer, Thomas P; Landgraf, Rainer; Holsboer, Florian; Uhr, Manfred

    2003-11-01

    Multidrug-resistance gene 1-type P-glycoproteins (ABCB1-type P-gps) protect the brain against the accumulation of many toxic xenobiotics and drugs. We recently could show that the access of the endogenous glucocorticoids corticosterone and cortisol to the brain are regulated by ABCB1-type P-gps in vivo. ABCB1-type P-gp function, therefore, is likely to exert a profound influence on the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system. Hyperactivity of the HPA system is frequently observed in human affective disorder, and a considerable amount of evidence has been accumulated suggesting that normalization of the HPA system might be the final step necessary for stable remission of the disease. To examine whether blood-brain barrier (BBB) function influences neuroendocrine regulation, we investigated HPA system activity in abcb1ab (-/-) mice under basal conditions and following stress. Abcb1ab (-/-) mice showed consistently lower plasma ACTH levels and lower evening plasma corticosterone levels. CRH mRNA expression in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus was decreased and pituitary POMC mRNA expressing cells were significantly reduced in number in abcb1ab (-/-) mutants; however, they showed a normal activation of the HPA system following CRH stimulation. Lower doses of dexamethasone were required to suppress plasma corticosterone levels in mutants. Our data thus provide evidence for a sustained suppression of the HPA system at the hypothalamic level in abcb1ab (-/-) mice, suggesting that BBB function significantly regulates HPA system activity. Whether naturally occurring polymorphisms in the human ABCB1 gene might result in persistent changes in the responsiveness and regulation of the HPA system will be the subject of future investigations, correlating both genetic information with individual characteristics of the neuroendocrine phenotype. PMID:12888779

  20. Trametenolic acid B reverses multidrug resistance in breast cancer cells through regulating the expression level of P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiaoyin; Wang, Junzhi; He, Haibo; Liu, Hongbing; Yan, Ximing; Zou, Kun

    2014-07-01

    Trametenolic acid B (TAB) is the main active composition of Trametes lactinea (Berk.) Pat which possesses antitumor activities. There was no report its antitumor effect through regulating P-glycoprotein (P-gp) so far, due toP-gp over expression is one of the most important mechanisms contributing to the multiple drug resistance phenotype. The present aim was to investigate the effects of TAB on P-gp in multidrug-resistant cells;Paclitaxel-resistant cell line MDA-MB-231/Taxol was established by stepwise exposure for 10 months.MDA-MB-231 cells and MDA-MB-231/Taxol cells were treated with TAB, and their growth was evaluated using MTT assays. Paclitaxel accumulation in the cells was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatogram(HPLC). The activity of P-gp was detected by intracellular accumulation of rhodamine 123 (Rho123), and the protein expression of P-gp was evaluated using western blot. Results indicated that the IC50 of MDA-MB-231/Taxol to paclitaxel (Taxol) was 33 times higher than that of nature MDA-MB-231. TAB increased the intracellular concentration of Taxol and inhibited the activity of P-gp and suppressed the expression of P-gp in MDA-MB-231/Taxol cells. Our present results showed that TAB could reverse Taxol resistance in MDA-MB-231/Taxol cells,mainly inhibiting the activity of P-gp and down-regulating the expression level of P-gp, and then enhancing the accumulation of chemotherapy agents. PMID:25289403

  1. Use of cassette dosing approach to examine the effects of P-glycoprotein on the brain and cerebrospinal fluid concentrations in wild-type and P-glycoprotein knockout rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingrong; Cheong, Jonathan; Ding, Xiao; Deshmukh, Gauri

    2014-04-01

    The study objectives were 1) to test the hypothesis that the lack of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and the inhibition of breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) at the blood-brain barrier after cassette dosing of potent P-gp and Bcrp inhibitors were due to low plasma concentrations of those inhibitors and 2) to examine the effects of P-gp on the unbound brain (C(u,brain)) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations (C(u,CSF)) of P-gp substrates in rats. In vitro inhibition of 11 compounds (amprenavir, citalopram, digoxin, elacridar, imatinib, Ko143 [(3S,6S,12aS)-1,2,3,4,6,7,12,12a-octahydro-9-methoxy-6-(2-methylpropyl)-1,4-dioxopyrazino[1',2':1,6]pyrido[3,4-b]indole-3-propanoic acid 1,1-dimethylethyl ester], loperamide, prazosin, quinidine, sulfasalazine, and verapamil) on P-gp and Bcrp was examined in P-gp- and Bcrp-expressing Madin-Darby canine kidney cells, respectively. An in vivo study was conducted in wild-type and Mdr1a(-/-) rats after subcutaneous cassette dosing of the 11 compounds at 1-3 mg/kg, and the brain, CSF, and plasma concentrations of these compounds were determined. At the maximal unbound concentrations observed in rats at 1-3 mg/kg, P-gp and Bcrp were not inhibited by a cassette of the 11 compounds. For non-P-gp/Bcrp substrates, similar C(u,brain), C(u,CSF), and unbound plasma concentrations (C(u,plasma)) were observed in wild-type and P-gp knockout rats. For P-gp/Bcrp substrates, C(u,brain) ? C(u,CSF) ? C(u,plasma) in wild-type rats, but C(u,brain) and C(u,CSF) increased in the P-gp knockout rats and were within 3-fold of C(u,plasma) for six of the seven P-gp substrates. These results indicate that P-gp and Bcrp inhibition at the blood-brain barrier is unlikely in cassette dosing and also suggest that P-gp and Bcrp activity at the blood-CSF barrier is functionally not important in determination of the CSF concentration for their substrates. PMID:24398459

  2. P-Glycoprotein Limits Oral Availability, Brain Penetration, and Toxicity of an Anionic Drug, the Antibiotic Salinomycin?

    PubMed Central

    Lagas, Jurjen S.; Sparidans, Rolf W.; van Waterschoot, Robert A. B.; Wagenaar, Els; Beijnen, Jos H.; Schinkel, Alfred H.

    2008-01-01

    Salinomycin is a polyether organic anion that is extensively used as a coccidiostatic antibiotic in poultry and commonly fed to ruminant animals to improve feed efficiency. However, salinomycin also causes severe toxicity when accidentally fed to animals in high doses. In addition, humans are highly sensitive to salinomycin and severe toxicity has been reported. Multidrug efflux transporters like P-glycoprotein (P-gp), BCRP, and MRP2 are highly expressed in the intestine and can restrict the oral uptake and tissue penetration of xenobiotics. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the anionic drug salinomycin is a substrate for one or more of these efflux pumps. Salinomycin was actively transported by human MDR1 P-gp expressed in polarized MDCK-II monolayers but not by the known organic anion transporters human MRP2 and murine Bcrp1. Using P-gp-deficient mice, we found a marked increase in plasma salinomycin concentrations after oral administration and decreased plasma clearance after intravenous administration. Furthermore, absence of P-gp resulted in significantly increased brain penetration. P-gp-deficient mice also displayed clearly increased susceptibility to salinomycin toxicity. Thus far, P-gp was thought to affect mainly hydrophobic, positively charged or neutral drugs in vivo. Our data show that P-gp can also be a major determinant of the pharmacokinetic behavior and toxicity of an organic anionic drug. Variation in P-gp activity might thus directly affect the effective exposure to salinomycin and possibly to other anionic drugs and toxin substrates. Individuals with reduced or absent P-gp activity could therefore be more susceptible to salinomycin toxicity. PMID:18195061

  3. Borneol Depresses P-Glycoprotein Function by a NF-κB Signaling Mediated Mechanism in a Blood Brain Barrier in Vitro Model

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xiang; Chai, Lijuan; Zhang, Han; Wang, Yuefei; Zhang, Boli; Gao, Xiumei

    2015-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) on brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) that form the blood brain barrier (BBB), influences transportation of substances between blood and brain. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of borneol on P-gp efflux function on BBB and explore the potential mechanisms. We established an in vitro BBB model comprised of rat BMECs and astrocytes to measure the effects of borneol on the known P-gp substrates transport across BBB, and examined the function and expression of P-gp in BMECs and the signaling pathways regulating P-gp expression. Borneol increased intracellular accumulation of Rhodamine 123, enhanced verapamil and digoxin across the BBB in vitro model, and depressed mdr1a mRNA and P-gp expression. Borneol could activate nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and inhibition of NF-κB with MG132 (carbobenzoxy-Leu-Leu-leucinal) and SN50 (an inhibitory peptide) obscuring the P-gp decreases induced by borneol. These data suggested that borneol depresses P-gp function in BMECs by a NF-κB signaling medicated mechanism in a BBB in vitro model. PMID:26593909

  4. Ligand-based modeling of diverse aryalkylamines yields new potent P-glycoprotein inhibitors.

    PubMed

    AlQudah, Dana A; Zihlif, Malek A; Taha, Mutasem O

    2016-03-01

    The P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux pump has an important role as a natural detoxification system in many types of normal and cancer cells. P-gp is implicated in multiple drug resistance (MDR) exhibited by several types of cancer against a multitude of anticancer chemotherapeutic agents, and therefore, it is clinically validated target for cancer therapy. Accordingly, in this study we combined exhaustive pharmacophore modeling and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis to explore the structural requirements for potent P-gp inhibitors employing 130 known P-gp ligands. Genetic function algorithm (GFA) coupled with k nearest neighbor (kNN) or multiple linear regression (MLR) analyses were employed to build self-consistent and predictive QSAR models based on optimal combinations of pharmacophores and physicochemical descriptors. Successful pharmacophores were complemented with exclusion spheres to optimize their receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) profiles. Optimal QSAR models and their associated pharmacophore hypotheses were validated by identification and experimental evaluation of new promising P-gp inhibitory leads retrieved from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) structural database. Several potent hits were captured. The most potent hit decreased the IC50 of doxorubicin from 0.906 to 0.190 μM on doxorubicin resistant MCF7 cell-line. PMID:26840362

  5. Structure of P-Glycoprotein Reveals a Molecular Basis for Poly-Specific Drug Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Aller, Stephen G.; Yu, Jodie; Ward, Andrew; Weng, Yue; Chittaboina, Srinivas; Zhuo, Rupeng; Harrell, Patina M.; Trinh, Yenphuong T.; Zhang, Qinghai; Urbatsch, Ina L.; Chang, Geoffrey

    2009-04-22

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) detoxifies cells by exporting hundreds of chemically unrelated toxins but has been implicated in multidrug resistance (MDR) in the treatment of cancers. Substrate promiscuity is a hallmark of P-gp activity, thus a structural description of poly-specific drug-binding is important for the rational design of anticancer drugs and MDR inhibitors. The x-ray structure of apo P-gp at 3.8 angstroms reveals an internal cavity of -6000 angstroms cubed with a 30 angstrom separation of the two nucleotide-binding domains. Two additional P-gp structures with cyclic peptide inhibitors demonstrate distinct drug-binding sites in the internal cavity capable of stereoselectivity that is based on hydrophobic and aromatic interactions. Apo and drug-bound P-gp structures have portals open to the cytoplasm and the inner leaflet of the lipid bilayer for drug entry. The inward-facing conformation represents an initial stage of the transport cycle that is competent for drug binding.

  6. Structure of P-glycoprotein reveals a molecular basis for poly-specific drug binding.

    PubMed

    Aller, Stephen G; Yu, Jodie; Ward, Andrew; Weng, Yue; Chittaboina, Srinivas; Zhuo, Rupeng; Harrell, Patina M; Trinh, Yenphuong T; Zhang, Qinghai; Urbatsch, Ina L; Chang, Geoffrey

    2009-03-27

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) detoxifies cells by exporting hundreds of chemically unrelated toxins but has been implicated in multidrug resistance (MDR) in the treatment of cancers. Substrate promiscuity is a hallmark of P-gp activity, thus a structural description of poly-specific drug-binding is important for the rational design of anticancer drugs and MDR inhibitors. The x-ray structure of apo P-gp at 3.8 angstroms reveals an internal cavity of approximately 6000 angstroms cubed with a 30 angstrom separation of the two nucleotide-binding domains. Two additional P-gp structures with cyclic peptide inhibitors demonstrate distinct drug-binding sites in the internal cavity capable of stereoselectivity that is based on hydrophobic and aromatic interactions. Apo and drug-bound P-gp structures have portals open to the cytoplasm and the inner leaflet of the lipid bilayer for drug entry. The inward-facing conformation represents an initial stage of the transport cycle that is competent for drug binding. PMID:19325113

  7. Inhibition of the Multidrug Resistance P-Glycoprotein: Time for a Change of Strategy?

    PubMed Central

    Luk, Frederick; Bebawy, Mary

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a key player in the multidrug-resistant phenotype in cancer. The protein confers resistance by mediating the ATP-dependent efflux of an astonishing array of anticancer drugs. Its broad specificity has been the subject of numerous attempts to inhibit the protein and restore the efficacy of anticancer drugs. The general strategy has been to develop compounds that either compete with anticancer drugs for transport or act as direct inhibitors of P-gp. Despite considerable in vitro success, there are no compounds currently available to “block” P-gp–mediated resistance in the clinic. The failure may be attributed to toxicity, adverse drug interaction, and numerous pharmacokinetic issues. This review provides a description of several alternative approaches to overcome the activity of P-gp in drug-resistant cells. These include 1) drugs that specifically target resistant cells, 2) novel nanotechnologies to provide high-dose, targeted delivery of anticancer drugs, 3) compounds that interfere with nongenomic transfer of resistance, and 4) approaches to reduce the expression of P-gp within tumors. Such approaches have been developed through the pursuit of greater understanding of resistance mediators such as P-gp, and they show considerable potential for further application. PMID:24492893

  8. Effects of Sertraline and Fluoxetine on P-Glycoprotein at Barrier Sites: In Vivo and In Vitro Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, Amita; Iqbal, Majid; Petropoulos, Sophie; Ho, Hay Lam; Gibb, William; Matthews, Stephen G.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Retention of substances from systemic circulation in the brain and testes are limited due to high levels of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the luminal membranes of brain and testes capillary endothelial cells. From a clinical perspective, P-gp rapidly extrudes lipophilic therapeutic agents, which then fail to reach efficacious levels. Recent studies have demonstrated that acute administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) can affect P-gp function, in vitro and in vivo. However, little is known concerning the time-course of these effects or the effects of different SSRI in vivo. Experimental Approach The P-gp substrate, tritiated digoxin ([3H] digoxin), was co-administered with fluoxetine or sertraline to determine if either compound increased drug accumulation within the brains and testes of mice due to inhibition of P-gp activity. We undertook parallel studies in endothelial cells derived from brain microvessels to determine the dose-response and time-course of effects. Key Results In vitro, sertraline resulted in rapid and potent inhibition of P-gp function in brain endothelial cells, as determined by cellular calcein accumulation. In vivo, a biphasic effect was demonstrated. Brain accumulation of [3H] digoxin was increased 5 minutes after treatment with sertraline, but by 60 minutes after sertraline treatment, brain accumulation of digoxin was reduced compared to control. By 240 minutes after sertraline treatment brain digoxin accumulation was elevated compared to control. A similar pattern of results was obtained in the testes. There was no significant effect of fluoxetine on P-gp function, in vitro or in vivo. Conclusions and Implications Acute sertraline administration can modulate P-gp activity in the blood-brain barrier and blood-testes barrier. This clearly has implications for the ability of therapeutic agents that are P-gp substrates, to enter the brain when co-administered with SSRI. PMID:23468867

  9. P-glycoprotein Mediates Ceritinib Resistance in Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-rearranged Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Ryohei; Sakashita, Takuya; Yanagitani, Noriko; Ninomiya, Hironori; Horiike, Atsushi; Friboulet, Luc; Gainor, Justin F; Motoi, Noriko; Dobashi, Akito; Sakata, Seiji; Tambo, Yuichi; Kitazono, Satoru; Sato, Shigeo; Koike, Sumie; John Iafrate, A; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Shaw, Alice T; Engelman, Jeffrey A; Takeuchi, Kengo; Nishio, Makoto; Fujita, Naoya

    2016-01-01

    The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion oncogene is observed in 3%-5% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Crizotinib and ceritinib, a next-generation ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) active against crizotinib-refractory patients, are clinically available for the treatment of ALK-rearranged NSCLC patients, and multiple next-generation ALK-TKIs are currently under clinical evaluation. These ALK-TKIs exhibit robust clinical activity in ALK-rearranged NSCLC patients; however, the emergence of ALK-TKI resistance restricts the therapeutic effect. To date, various secondary mutations or bypass pathway activation-mediated resistance have been identified, but large parts of the resistance mechanism are yet to be identified. Here, we report the discovery of p-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) overexpression as a ceritinib resistance mechanism in ALK-rearranged NSCLC patients. P-gp exported ceritinib and its overexpression conferred ceritinib and crizotinib resistance, but not to PF-06463922 or alectinib, which are next-generation ALK inhibitors. Knockdown of ABCB1 or P-gp inhibitors sensitizes the patient-derived cancer cells to ceritinib, in vitro and in vivo. P-gp overexpression was identified in three out of 11 cases with in ALK-rearranged crizotinib or ceritinib resistant NSCLC patients. Our study suggests that alectinib, PF-06463922, or P-gp inhibitor with ceritinib could overcome the ceritinib or crizotinib resistance mediated by P-gp overexpression. PMID:26870817

  10. P-glycoprotein Mediates Ceritinib Resistance in Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-rearranged Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Katayama, Ryohei; Sakashita, Takuya; Yanagitani, Noriko; Ninomiya, Hironori; Horiike, Atsushi; Friboulet, Luc; Gainor, Justin F.; Motoi, Noriko; Dobashi, Akito; Sakata, Seiji; Tambo, Yuichi; Kitazono, Satoru; Sato, Shigeo; Koike, Sumie; John Iafrate, A.; Mino-Kenudson, Mari; Ishikawa, Yuichi; Shaw, Alice T.; Engelman, Jeffrey A.; Takeuchi, Kengo; Nishio, Makoto; Fujita, Naoya

    2015-01-01

    The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion oncogene is observed in 3%–5% of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Crizotinib and ceritinib, a next-generation ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) active against crizotinib-refractory patients, are clinically available for the treatment of ALK-rearranged NSCLC patients, and multiple next-generation ALK-TKIs are currently under clinical evaluation. These ALK-TKIs exhibit robust clinical activity in ALK-rearranged NSCLC patients; however, the emergence of ALK-TKI resistance restricts the therapeutic effect. To date, various secondary mutations or bypass pathway activation-mediated resistance have been identified, but large parts of the resistance mechanism are yet to be identified. Here, we report the discovery of p-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) overexpression as a ceritinib resistance mechanism in ALK-rearranged NSCLC patients. P-gp exported ceritinib and its overexpression conferred ceritinib and crizotinib resistance, but not to PF-06463922 or alectinib, which are next-generation ALK inhibitors. Knockdown of ABCB1 or P-gp inhibitors sensitizes the patient-derived cancer cells to ceritinib, in vitro and in vivo. P-gp overexpression was identified in three out of 11 cases with in ALK-rearranged crizotinib or ceritinib resistant NSCLC patients. Our study suggests that alectinib, PF-06463922, or P-gp inhibitor with ceritinib could overcome the ceritinib or crizotinib resistance mediated by P-gp overexpression. PMID:26870817

  11. Spinosad is a potent inhibitor of canine P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Schrickx, Johannes A

    2014-04-01

    Inhibition of the drug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) by the oral flea preventative spinosad has been suggested as the underlying cause of the drug-drug interaction with ivermectin. In this study, an in vitro model consisting of canine cells was validated to describe the inhibitory effect of drugs on canine P-gp. In this model, ivermectin, cyclosporin, verapamil, loperamide and ketoconazole inhibited P-gp function with IC50 values ranging from 0.1 to 3.7 ?mol/L. Spinosad was a potent inhibitor of canine P-gp with an IC50 value of 0.27 ?mol/L or 0.2 ?g/mL. The risk of spinosad causing P-gp related drug-drug interactions in the dog could be predicted by the IC50 value, the oral dosage and plasma concentrations. PMID:24582422

  12. Dual inhibitors of P-glycoprotein and tumor cell growth: (re)discovering thioxanthones.

    PubMed

    Palmeira, Andreia; Vasconcelos, M Helena; Paiva, Ana; Fernandes, Miguel X; Pinto, Madalena; Sousa, Emlia

    2012-01-01

    For many pathologies, there is a crescent effort to design multiple ligands that interact with a wide variety of targets. 1-Aminated thioxanthone derivatives were synthesized and assayed for their in vitro dual activity as antitumor agents and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors. The approach was based on molecular hybridization of a thioxanthone scaffold, present in known antitumor drugs, and an amine, described as an important pharmacophoric feature for P-gp inhibition. A rational approach using homology modeling and docking was used, to select the molecules to be synthesized by conventional or microwave-assisted Ullmann C-N cross-coupling reaction. The obtained aminated thioxanthones were highly effective at inhibiting P-gp and/or causing growth inhibition in a chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line, K562. Six of the aminated thioxanthones had GI(50) values in the K562 cell line below 10 ?M and 1-{[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]amino}-4-propoxy-9H-thioxanthen-9-one (37) had a GI(50) concentration (1.90 ?M) 6-fold lower than doxorubicin (11.89 ?M) in the K562Dox cell line. The best P-gp inhibitor found was 1-[2-(1H-benzimidazol-2-yl)ethanamine]-4-propoxy-9H-thioxanthen-9-one (45), which caused an accumulation rate of rhodamine-123 similar to that caused by verapamil in the K562Dox resistant cell line, and a decrease in ATP consumption by P-gp. At a concentration of 10 ?M, compound 45 caused a decrease of 12.5-fold in the GI(50) value of doxorubicin in the K562Dox cell line, being 2-fold more potent than verapamil. From the overall results, the aminated thioxanthones represent a new class of P-gp inhibitors with improved efficacy in sensitizing a resistant P-gp overexpressing cell line (K562Dox) to doxorubicin. PMID:22044878

  13. Thiorhodamines Containing Amide and Thioamide Functionality as Inhibitors of the ATP-Binding Cassette Drug Transporter P-glycoprotein (ABCB1)

    PubMed Central

    Orchard, Alexandra; Schamerhorn, Gregory A.; Calitree, Brandon D.; Sawada, Geri A.; Loo, Tip W.; Bartlett, M. Claire; Clarke, David M.; Dettya, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Twelve thiorhodamine derivatives have been examined for their ability to stimulate the ATPase activity of purified human P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-His10, to promote uptake of calcein AM and vinblastine into multidrug-resistant, P-gp-overexpressing MDCKII-MDR1 cells, and for their rates of transport in monolayers of multidrug-resistant, P-gp-overexpressing MDCKII-MDR1 cells. The thiorhodamine derivatives have structural diversity from amide and thioamide functionality (N,N-diethyl and N-piperidyl) at the 5-position of a 2-thienyl substituent on the thiorhodamine core and from diversity at the 3-amino substituent with N,N-dimethylamino, fused azadecalin (julolidyl), and fused N-methylcyclohexylamine (half-julolidyl) substituents. The julolidyl and half-julolidyl derivatives were more effective inhibitors of P-gp than the dimethylamino analogues. Amide-containing derivatives were transported much more rapidly than thioamide-containing derivatives. PMID:22727780

  14. In silico structure-based screening of versatile P-glycoprotein inhibitors using polynomial empirical scoring functions

    PubMed Central

    Shityakov, Sergey; Frster, Carola

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP (adenosine triphosphate)-binding cassette transporter that causes multidrug resistance of various chemotherapeutic substances by active efflux from mammalian cells. P-gp plays a pivotal role in limiting drug absorption and distribution in different organs, including the intestines and brain. Thus, the prediction of P-gpdrug interactions is of vital importance in assessing drug pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. To find the strongest P-gp blockers, we performed an in silico structure-based screening of P-gp inhibitor library (1,300 molecules) by the gradient optimization method, using polynomial empirical scoring (POLSCORE) functions. We report a strong correlation (r2=0.80, F=16.27, n=6, P<0.0157) of inhibition constants (Kiexp or pKiexp; experimental Ki or negative decimal logarithm of Kiexp) converted from experimental IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) values with POLSCORE-predicted constants (KiPOLSCORE or pKiPOLSCORE), using a linear regression fitting technique. The hydrophobic interactions between P-gp and selected drug substances were detected as the main forces responsible for the inhibition effect. The results showed that this scoring technique might be useful in the virtual screening and filtering of databases of drug-like compounds at the early stage of drug development processes. PMID:24711707

  15. CD44 promotes multi-drug resistance by protecting P-glycoprotein from FBXO21-mediated ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Ravindranath, Abhilash K; Kaur, Swayamjot; Wernyj, Roman P; Kumaran, Muthu N; Miletti-Gonzalez, Karl E; Chan, Rigel; Lim, Elaine; Madura, Kiran; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna

    2015-09-22

    Here we demonstrate that a ubiquitin E3-ligase, FBXO21, targets the multidrug resistance transporter, ABCB1, also known as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), for proteasomal degradation. We also show that the Ser291-phosphorylated form of the multifunctional protein and stem cell marker, CD44, inhibits FBXO21-directed degradation of P-gp. Thus, CD44 increases P-gp mediated drug resistance and represents a potential therapeutic target in P-gp-positive cells. PMID:26299618

  16. CD44 promotes multi-drug resistance by protecting P-glycoprotein from FBXO21-mediated ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Ravindranath, Abhilash K.; Kaur, Swayamjot; Wernyj, Roman P.; Kumaran, Muthu N.; Miletti-Gonzalez, Karl E.; Chan, Rigel; Lim, Elaine; Madura, Kiran; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna

    2015-01-01

    Here we demonstrate that a ubiquitin E3-ligase, FBXO21, targets the multidrug resistance transporter, ABCB1, also known as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), for proteasomal degradation. We also show that the Ser291-phosphorylated form of the multifunctional protein and stem cell marker, CD44, inhibits FBXO21-directed degradation of P-gp. Thus, CD44 increases P-gp mediated drug resistance and represents a potential therapeutic target in P-gp-positive cells. PMID:26299618

  17. P-glycoprotein involvement in cuticular penetration of [14C]thiodicarb in resistant tobacco budworms.

    PubMed

    Lanning, C L; Ayad, H M; Abou-Donia, M B

    1996-06-01

    Pesticides have been shown to interact with the multidrug resistance protein associated with cancer chemotherapy, P-glycoprotein (P-gp). P-gp, therefore, has also been implicated in the development of pesticide resistance. The purpose of this study was to characterize the effect P-gp has on the accumulation of the carbamate pesticide, thiodicarb. For these studies, resistant tobacco budworm larvae, expressing four times the P-gp as susceptible larvae, were pretreated with the P-gp inhibitor, quinidine, and challenged topically with thiodicarb. Quinidine enhanced thiodicarb toxicity in a dose-dependent manner, with mortality in the presence of P-gp inhibition increased up to 33%. Quinidine treatment increased [14C]thiodicarb accumulation 2- to 3-fold as compared to thiodicarb treatment alone. This study suggests that P-gp contributes to quinidine synergism of thiodicarb toxicity and suggests that P-gp may be involved in cuticular resistance to pesticides. PMID:8644124

  18. Marine natural products with P-glycoprotein inhibitor properties.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Dioxelis; Martinez-Luis, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a protein belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters superfamily that has clinical relevance due to its role in drug metabolism and multi-drug resistance (MDR) in several human pathogens and diseases. P-gp is a major cause of drug resistance in cancer, parasitic diseases, epilepsy and other disorders. This review article aims to summarize the research findings on the marine natural products with P-glycoprotein inhibitor properties. Natural compounds that modulate P-gp offer great possibilities for semi-synthetic modification to create new drugs and are valuable research tools to understand the function of complex ABC transporters. PMID:24451193

  19. Marine Natural Products with P-Glycoprotein Inhibitor Properties

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Dioxelis; Martinez-Luis, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a protein belonging to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters superfamily that has clinical relevance due to its role in drug metabolism and multi-drug resistance (MDR) in several human pathogens and diseases. P-gp is a major cause of drug resistance in cancer, parasitic diseases, epilepsy and other disorders. This review article aims to summarize the research findings on the marine natural products with P-glycoprotein inhibitor properties. Natural compounds that modulate P-gp offer great possibilities for semi-synthetic modification to create new drugs and are valuable research tools to understand the function of complex ABC transporters. PMID:24451193

  20. Is reduced accumulation of Hoechst 33342 in multidrug resistant cells related to P-glycoprotein activity?

    PubMed

    Lahmy, S; Viallet, P; Salmon, J M

    1995-02-01

    Although bisbenzimidazole-DNA interactions have been studied in solution, little information has been available in living cells. The reduced accumulation of the nuclear dye Hoechst 33342 (H342) in cells with multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotype suggested its possible use in a functional test for detection of these cells. We performed experiments to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the H342-exclusion from resistant cells. As contradictory results have been reported in literature, we compared the entire fluorescence spectra of H342 in solution and in intact living cells under different experimental conditions. The study was performed by fluorescence image cytometry. This technique allow accurate quantification of the amount of H342 bound to DNA in living cells. The dye uptake was followed in sensitive and resistant cells, a lymphoblastoid cell line, CCRF-CEM, and its resistant variant selected with vinblastine CEM/VLB100 under conditions that could modulate H342-cell binding. Competition experiments with sodium azide, verapamil, and vinblastine indicated that resistant cells did not differ in the number of possible binding sites for H342. The obtained results ruled out the possibility of discriminating cells on the basis of a spectral shift. Two modes of binding, differing in their affinity for the dye, seem to co-exist in intact cells. Although it clearly appeared that the P-glycoprotein expressed in MDR cells was mainly responsible for the H342-exclusion, other mechanisms might also be involved. PMID:7743893

  1. P-glycoprotein expression induced by glucose depletion enhanced the chemosensitivity in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell-lines.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Samuel Chak-Sum; Zhou, Jing; Xie, Yong

    2005-04-01

    Chemoresistance in cancer cells is frequently associated with an over-expression of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The expression of P-gp can be regulated as the cells encounter a number of chemical, physical or environmental stimuli. In this study, P-gp was found gradually expressed in a human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) QGY-7703 cells after 48 h of culturing in glucose-free medium. This phenomenon disappeared after the removal of glucose deprivation culture conditions. Mdr1-cDNA isolated from the cell line cultured in glucose-free conditions (namely QGY-7703G), was transiently transformed into the parent QGY-7703 cells, and multi-drug resistance was eventually induced. Results from XTT cytotoxicity assays indicated that the mdr1 gene was functional and the P-gp could restore the QGY-7703 cell's ability to withstand high concentrations of a number of chemotherapeutic agents. A P-gp inhibitor, verapamil, could completely reverse the cellular drug resistance when applied to the QGY-7703G cells. Our results indicated that an alteration of a specific state in cells caused by an external stimulus in vitro may lead to an expression of stress proteins (e.g. P-gp), which may enhance the cells' survival in adverse conditions. The expressed P-gp induced by glucose deprivation has a functional role in affecting the chemosensitivity in HCC QGY-7703G cells. Inhibition of P-gp activity may enhance the effect of the cancer cells towards cancer chemotherapy. PMID:15914037

  2. Integration of in silico and in vitro tools for scaffold optimization during drug discovery: predicting P-glycoprotein efflux.

    PubMed

    Desai, Prashant V; Sawada, Geri A; Watson, Ian A; Raub, Thomas J

    2013-04-01

    In silico tools are regularly utilized for designing and prioritizing compounds to address challenges related to drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics (DMPK) during the process of drug discovery. P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters with broad substrate specificity that plays a significant role in absorption and distribution of drugs that are P-gp substrates. As a result, screening for P-gp transport has now become routine in the drug discovery process. Typically, bidirectional permeability assays are employed to assess in vitro P-gp efflux. In this article, we use P-gp as an example to illustrate a well-validated methodology to effectively integrate in silico and in vitro tools to identify and resolve key barriers during the early stages of drug discovery. A detailed account of development and application of in silico tools such as simple guidelines based on physicochemical properties and more complex quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models is provided. The tools were developed based on structurally diverse data for more than 2000 compounds generated using a robust P-gp substrate assay over the past several years. Analysis of physicochemical properties revealed a significantly lower proportion (<10%) of P-gp substrates among the compounds with topological polar surface area (TPSA) <60 (2) and the most basic cpKa <8. In contrast, this proportion of substrates was greater than 75% for compounds with TPSA >60 (2) and the most basic cpKa >8. Among the various QSAR models evaluated to predict P-gp efflux, the Bagging model provided optimum prediction performance for prospective validation based on chronological test sets. Four sequential versions of the model were built with increasing numbers of compounds to train the models as new data became available. Except for the first version with the smallest training set, the QSAR models exhibited robust prediction profiles with positive prediction values (PPV) and negative prediction values (NPV) exceeding 80%. The QSAR model demonstrated better concordance with the manual P-gp substrate assay than an automated P-gp substrate screen. The in silico and the in vitro tools have been effectively integrated during early stages of drug discovery to resolve P-gp-related challenges exemplified by several case studies. Key learning based on our experience with P-gp can be widely applicable across other DMPK-related challenges. PMID:23363443

  3. Prediction of Promiscuous P-Glycoprotein Inhibition Using a Novel Machine Learning Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Max K.; Chen, Hong-Bin; Shih, Yu-Hsuan

    2012-01-01

    Background P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP-dependent membrane transporter that plays a pivotal role in eliminating xenobiotics by active extrusion of xenobiotics from the cell. Multidrug resistance (MDR) is highly associated with the over-expression of P-gp by cells, resulting in increased efflux of chemotherapeutical agents and reduction of intracellular drug accumulation. It is of clinical importance to develop a P-gp inhibition predictive model in the process of drug discovery and development. Methodology/Principal Findings An in silico model was derived to predict the inhibition of P-gp using the newly invented pharmacophore ensemble/support vector machine (PhE/SVM) scheme based on the data compiled from the literature. The predictions by the PhE/SVM model were found to be in good agreement with the observed values for those structurally diverse molecules in the training set (n?=?31, r2?=?0.89, q2?=?0.86, RMSE?=?0.40, s?=?0.28), the test set (n?=?88, r2?=?0.87, RMSE?=?0.39, s?=?0.25) and the outlier set (n?=?11, r2?=?0.96, RMSE?=?0.10, s?=?0.05). The generated PhE/SVM model also showed high accuracy when subjected to those validation criteria generally adopted to gauge the predictivity of a theoretical model. Conclusions/Significance This accurate, fast and robust PhE/SVM model that can take into account the promiscuous nature of P-gp can be applied to predict the P-gp inhibition of structurally diverse compounds that otherwise cannot be done by any other methods in a high-throughput fashion to facilitate drug discovery and development by designing drug candidates with better metabolism profile. PMID:22439003

  4. Validation of a P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) Humanized Mouse Model by Integrating Selective Absolute Quantification of Human MDR1, Mouse Mdr1a and Mdr1b Protein Expressions with In Vivo Functional Analysis for Blood-Brain Barrier Transport

    PubMed Central

    Sadiq, Muhammad Waqas; Uchida, Yasuo; Hoshi, Yutaro; Tachikawa, Masanori; Terasaki, Tetsuya; Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    It is essential to establish a useful validation method for newly generated humanized mouse models. The novel approach of combining our established species-specific protein quantification method combined with in vivo functional studies is evaluated to validate a humanized mouse model of P-gp/MDR1 efflux transporter. The P-gp substrates digoxin, verapamil and docetaxel were administered to male FVB Mdr1a/1b(+/+) (FVB WT), FVB Mdr1a/1b(-/-) (Mdr1a/1b(-/-)), C57BL/6 Mdr1a/1b(+/+) (C57BL/6 WT) and humanized C57BL (hMDR1) mice. Brain-to-plasma total concentration ratios (Kp) were measured. Quantitative targeted absolute proteomic (QTAP) analysis was used to selectively quantify the protein expression levels of hMDR1, Mdr1a and Mdr1b in the isolated brain capillaries. The protein expressions of other transporters, receptors and claudin-5 were also quantified. The Kp for digoxin, verapamil, and docetaxel were 20, 30 and 4 times higher in the Mdr1a/1b(-/-) mice than in the FVB WT controls, as expected. The Kp for digoxin, verapamil and docetaxel were 2, 16 and 2-times higher in the hMDR1 compared to the C57BL/6 WT mice. The hMDR1 mice had 63- and 9.1-fold lower expressions of the hMDR1 and Mdr1a proteins than the corresponding expression of Mdr1a in C57BL/6 WT mice, respectively. The protein expression levels of other molecules were almost consistent between C57BL/6 WT and hMDR1 mice. The P-gp function at the BBB in the hMDR1 mice was smaller than that in WT mice due to lower protein expression levels of hMDR1 and Mdr1a. The combination of QTAP and in vivo functional analyses was successfully applied to validate the humanized animal model and evaluates its suitability for further studies. PMID:25932627

  5. P-glycoprotein inhibitors of natural origin as potential tumor chemo-sensitizers: A review

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Hossam M.; Al-Abd, Ahmed M.; El-Dine, Riham Salah; El-Halawany, Ali M.

    2014-01-01

    Resistance of solid tumors to treatment is significantly attributed to pharmacokinetic reasons at both cellular and multi-cellular levels. Anticancer agent must be bio-available at the site of action in a cytotoxic concentration to exert its proposed activity. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a member of the ATP-dependent membrane transport proteins; it is known to pump substrates out of cells in ATP-dependent mechanism. The over-expression of P-gp in tumor cells reduces the intracellular drug concentrations, which decreases the cytotoxicity of a broad spectrum of antitumor drugs. Accordingly, P-gp inhibitors/blockers are potential enhancer for the cellular bioavailability of several clinically important anticancer drugs such as, anthracyclines, taxanes, vinca alkaloids, and podophyllotoxins. Besides several chemically synthesized P-gp inhibitors/blockers, some naturally occurring compounds and plant extracts were reported for their modulation of multidrug resistance; however, this review will focus only on major classes of naturally occurring inhibitors viz., flavonoids, coumarins, terpenoids, alkaloids and saponins. PMID:25685543

  6. P-glycoprotein interactions of novel psychoactive substances - stimulation of ATP consumption and transport across Caco-2 monolayers.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Markus R; Wagmann, Lea; Schneider-Daum, Nicole; Loretz, Brigitta; de Souza Carvalho, Cristiane; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Maurer, Hans H

    2015-04-01

    In contrast to drugs for therapeutic use, there are only few data available concerning interactions between P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and drugs of abuse (DOA). In this work, interactions between structurally diverse DOA and P-gp were investigated using different strategies. First, the effect on the P-gp ATPase activity was studied by monitoring of ATP consumption after addition to recombinant, human P-gp. Second, DOA showing an increased ATP consumption were further characterized regarding their transport across filter grown Caco-2- monolayers. Analyses were performed by luminescence and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, respectively. Among the nine DOA initially screened, benzedrone, diclofensine, glaucine, JWH-200, MDBC, WIN-55,212-2 showed an increase of ATP consumption in the ATPase stimulation assay. In Caco-2 transport studies, Glaucine, JWH-200, mitragynine, WIN-55,212-2 could moreover be identified as non-transported substrates, but inhibitors of P-gp activity. Thus, drug-drug or drug-food interactions should be very likely for these compounds. PMID:25637762

  7. MDR3 P-glycoprotein, a phosphatidylcholine translocase, transports several cytotoxic drugs and directly interacts with drugs as judged by interference with nucleotide trapping.

    PubMed

    Smith, A J; van Helvoort, A; van Meer, G; Szabo, K; Welker, E; Szakacs, G; Varadi, A; Sarkadi, B; Borst, P

    2000-08-01

    The human MDR3 gene is a member of the multidrug resistance (MDR) gene family. The MDR3 P-glycoprotein is a transmembrane protein that translocates phosphatidylcholine. The MDR1 P-glycoprotein related transports cytotoxic drugs. Its overexpression can make cells resistant to a variety of drugs. Attempts to show that MDR3 P-glycoprotein can cause MDR have been unsuccessful thus far. Here, we report an increased directional transport of several MDR1 P-glycoprotein substrates, such as digoxin, paclitaxel, and vinblastine, through polarized monolayers of MDR3-transfected cells. Transport of other good MDR1 P-glycoprotein substrates, including cyclosporin A and dexamethasone, was not detectably increased. MDR3 P-glycoprotein-dependent transport of a short-chain phosphatidylcholine analog and drugs was inhibited by several MDR reversal agents and other drugs, indicating an interaction between these compounds and MDR3 P-gp. Insect cell membranes from Sf9 cells overexpressing MDR3 showed specific MgATP binding and a vanadate-dependent, N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive nucleotide trapping activity, visualized by covalent binding with [alpha-(32)P]8-azido-ATP. Nucleotide trapping was (nearly) abolished by paclitaxel, vinblastine, and the MDR reversal agents verapamil, cyclosporin A, and PSC 833. We conclude that MDR3 P-glycoprotein can bind and transport a subset of MDR1 P-glycoprotein substrates. The rate of MDR3 P-glycoprotein-mediated transport is low for most drugs, explaining why this protein is not detectably involved in multidrug resistance. It remains possible, however, that drug binding to MDR3 P-glycoprotein could adversely affect phospholipid or toxin secretion under conditions of stress (e.g. in pregnant heterozygotes with one MDR3 null allele). PMID:10918072

  8. 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh2 noncompetitively inhibits P-glycoprotein in vitro and in vivo: a case for herb-drug interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingwei; Zhou, Fang; Wu, Xiaolan; Gu, Yi; Ai, Hua; Zheng, Yuanting; Li, Yannan; Zhang, Xiaoxuan; Hao, Gang; Sun, Jianguo; Peng, Ying; Wang, Guangji

    2010-12-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP-dependent efflux transporter highly expressed in gastrointestinal tract and multidrug resistance tumor cells. Inhibition or induction of P-gp can cause drug-drug interactions and thus influence the effects of P-gp substrate drugs. Previous studies indicated that 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh2 [20(S)-Rh2] could synergistically enhance the anticancer effects of conventional chemotherapeutic agents at a nontoxic dose. The aim of present study was to investigate in vitro and in vivo whether 20(S)-Rh2 was a P-gp inhibitor and analyze the possible inhibitory mechanisms and potential herb-drug interactions. Results showed that in vitro, 20(S)-Rh2 significantly enhanced rhodamine 123 retention in cells and decreased the efflux ratio of digoxin, fexofenadine, and etoposide, which were comparable to the effects of the established P-gp inhibitor verapamil. However, the transport of 20(S)-Rh2 suggested that 20(S)-Rh2 was not a P-gp substrate. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect persisted for at least 3 h after removal of 20(S)-Rh2. Unlike P-gp substrates, 20(S)-Rh2 inhibited both basal and verapamil-stimulated P-gp ATPase activities. It also significantly decreased UIC2 binding fluorescence, a marker for conformational change of P-gp. In situ and in vivo experiments showed that 20(S)-Rh2 increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve and maximum plasma concentration of digoxin, fexofenadine, and etoposide significantly without affecting terminal elimination half-time. Long-term treatment with 20(S)-Rh2 failed to affect intestinal P-gp expression in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, 20(S)-Rh2 is a potent noncompetitive P-gp inhibitor, which indicates a potential herb-drug interaction when 20(S)-Rh2 is coadministered with P-gp substrate drugs. It could increase the absorption of P-gp substrate drugs without long-term induction of P-gp expression in rats. PMID:20837659

  9. Enhanced autophagy reveals vulnerability of P-gp mediated epirubicin resistance in triple negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Han; Yang, Ai-Jun; Wang, Min; Liu, Wei; Wang, Chen-Yu; Xie, Xiao-Feng; Chen, Xu; Dong, Jing-Fei; Li, Min

    2016-04-01

    Epirubicin (EPI) is widely used for triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), but a substantial number of patients develop EPI resistance that is associated with poor outcome. The underlying mechanism for EPI resistance remains poorly understood. We have developed and characterized an EPI-resistant (EPI-R) cell line from parental MDA-MB-231 cells. These EPI-R cells reached stable growth in the medium containing 8 μg/ml of EPI. They overexpressed P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and contained numerous autophagic vacuoles. The suppression of P-gp overexpression and/or autophagy restored the sensitivity of these EPI-R cells to EPI. We further show that autophagy conferred resistance to EPI on MDA cells by blocking the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)-mediated pro-apoptotic signals. Together, these results reveal a synergistic role of P-gp, autophagy, and NF-κB pathways in the development of EPI resistance in TNBC cells. They also suggest that blocking the P-gp overexpression and autophagy may be an effective means of reducing EPI resistance. PMID:26767845

  10. Anti-inflammatory properties of anthraquinones and their relationship with the regulation of P-glycoprotein function and expression.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ran Joo; Ngoc, Tran Minh; Bae, Kihwan; Cho, Hyun-Jong; Kim, Dae-Duk; Chun, Jaemoo; Khan, Salman; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2013-01-23

    There is a growing interest in natural products that potentially have anti-inflammatory properties and inhibit P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function. In this report, we assessed the effects of anthraquinone derivatives from rhubarb on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages to determine their anti-inflammatory potential. The derivatives were also tested in Caco-2 cell lines to evaluate the inhibition of the drug efflux function of P-gp. The transport abilities were examined and the cellular accumulation of rhodamine-123 (R-123) was also measured. Electorphoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) was performed to check the activator protein-1 (AP-1) DNA binding affinity. Five anthraquinones were tested to determine their inhibitory activities on NO production and the protein and mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Furthermore, the level of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) was determined in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophages. Emodin was found to be the most potent inhibitor, and it also reduced paw swelling in the mouse model of carrageenan-induced paw edema. In Caco-2 cells, emodin elevated the accumulation of R-123 and decreased the efflux ratio of R-123, which indicates the inhibition of P-gp function. The inhibition of COX-2 protein by emodin paralleled the decrease in P-gp expression. In addition, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) expression was decreased through the prevention of AP-1 DNA binding, which leads to downregulation in the expression of P-gp. Our data indicate that the decrease of P-gp expression is caused by the decreased expression of COX-2 through the MAPK/AP-1 pathway. Based on our results, we suggest that anti-inflammatory drugs with COX-2 inhibitory activity might be used to modulate P-gp function and expression. PMID:23174748

  11. Natural Products based P-glycoprotein Activators for Improved β-amyloid Clearance in Alzheimer's Disease: An in silico Approach.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Pravin; Vidyasagar, Nikhil; Dhulap, Sivakami; Dhulap, Abhijeet; Hirwani, Raj

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is an age related disorder and is defined to be progressive, irreversible neurodegenerative disease. The potential targets which are associated with the Alzheimer's disease are cholinesterases, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, Beta secretase 1, Pregnane X receptor (PXR) and P-glycoprotein (Pgp). P-glycoprotein is a member of the ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, which is an important integral of the blood-brain, blood-cerebrospinal fluid and the blood-testis barrier. Reports from the literature provide evidences that the up-regulation of the efflux pump is liable for a decrease in β -amyloid intracellular accumulation and is an important hallmark in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, targeting β-amyloid clearance by stimulating Pgp could be a useful strategy to prevent Alzheimer's advancement. Currently available drugs provide limited effectiveness and do not assure to cure Alzheimer's disease completely. On the other hand, the current research is now directed towards the development of synthetic or natural based therapeutics which can delay the onset or progression of Alzheimer's disease. Since ancient time medicinal plants such as Withania somnifera, Bacopa monieri, Nerium indicum have been used to prevent neurological disorders including Alzheimer's disease. Till today around 125 Indian medicinal plants have been screened on the basis of ethnopharmacology for their activity against neurological disorders. In this paper, we report bioactives from natural sources which show binding affinity towards the Pgp receptor using ligand based pharmacophore development, virtual screening, molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulation studies for the bioactives possessing acceptable ADME properties. These bioactives can thus be useful to treat Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26306632

  12. Overcoming multidrug-resistance invitro and invivo using the novel P-glycoprotein inhibitor 1416.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Zhi, Feng; Xu, Guangming; Tang, Xiaolei; Lu, Sheng; Wu, Jinhui; Hu, Yiqiao

    2012-12-01

    MDR (multidrug-resistance) represents a major obstacle to successful cancer chemotherapy and is usually accomplished by overexpression of P-gp (P-glycoprotein). Much effort has been devoted to developing P-gp inhibitors to modulate MDR. However, none of the inhibitors on the market have been successful. 1416 [1-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenylethylamino)propane hydrochloride (phenoprolamine hydrochloride)] is a new VER (verapamil) analogue with a higher IC50 for blocking calcium channel currents than VER. In the present paper, we examined the inhibition effect of 1416 on P-gp both invitro and invivo. 1416 significantly enhanced cytotoxicity of VBL (vinblastine) in P-gp-overexpressed human multidrug-resistant K562/ADM (adriamycin) and KBV cells, but had no such effect on the parent K562 and KB cells. The MDR-modulating function of 1416 was further confirmed by increasing intracellular Rh123 (rhodanmine123) content in MDR cells. Human K562/ADM xenograft-nude mice model verified that 1416 potentiates the antitumour activity of VBL invivo. RT-PCR (reverse transcriptase-PCR) and FACS analysis demonstrated that the expression of MDR1/P-gp was not affected by 1416 treatment. All these observations suggest that 1416 could be a promising agent for overcoming MDR in cancer chemotherapy. PMID:22757751

  13. Optimization by Molecular Fine Tuning of Dihydro-β-agarofuran Sesquiterpenoids as Reversers of P-Glycoprotein-Mediated Multidrug Resistance.

    PubMed

    Callies, Oliver; Sánchez-Cañete, María P; Gamarro, Francisco; Jiménez, Ignacio A; Castanys, Santiago; Bazzocchi, Isabel L

    2016-03-10

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays a crucial role in the development of multidrug resistance (MDR), a major obstacle for successful chemotherapy in cancer. Herein, we report on the development of a natural-product-based library of 81 dihydro-β-agarofuran sesquiterpenes (2-82) by optimization of the lead compound 1. The compound library was evaluated for its ability to inhibit P-gp-mediated daunomycin efflux in MDR cells. Selected analogues were further analyzed for their P-gp inhibition constant, intrinsic toxicity, and potency to reverse daunomycin and vinblastine resistances. Analogues 6, 24, 28, 59, and 66 were identified as having higher potency than compound 1 and verapamil, a first-generation P-gp modulator. SAR analysis revealed the size of the aliphatic chains and presence of nitrogen atoms are important structural characteristics to modulate reversal activity. The present study highlights the potential of these analogues as modulators of P-gp mediated MDR in cancer cells. PMID:26836364

  14. Increased intestinal P-glycoprotein expression and activity with progression of diabetes and its modulation by epigallocatechin-3-gallate: Evidence from pharmacokinetic studies.

    PubMed

    Dash, Ranjeet Prasad; Ellendula, Bhanuchander; Agarwal, Milee; Nivsarkar, Manish

    2015-11-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the change in the expression and the activity of intestinal P-glycoprotein (efflux transporter) with progression of diabetes in rats. Diabetes was induced in Wistar rats using a combination of low dose streptozotocin along with high fat diet. The expression of intestinal P-glycoprotein significantly increased (P?0.05) with the progression of diabetes which was inferred from the mRNA analysis of mdr1a and mdr1b genes in the ileum segment of rat intestine. Furthermore, a significant increase (P?0.05) in Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity was observed in the ileum segment of rat intestine with the progression of diabetes. As a result of this, a significant decrease in the intestinal uptake and peroral bioavailability of the P-glycoprotein substrates (verapamil and atorvastatin) was observed along with the progression of diabetes as compared to normal animals. To address this problem of impaired drug uptake and bioavailability, a reported P-glycoprotein inhibitor, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, was experimentally evaluated. The treatment with epigallocatechin-3-gallate resulted in significant reduction in the expression and activity of P-glycoprotein and subsequent improvement in the intestinal uptake and peroral bioavailability of both verapamil and atorvastatin in normal as well as in diabetic animals. The findings of this study rationalised the use and established the mechanism of action of epigallocatechin-3-gallate to overcome P-glycoprotein mediated drug efflux and will also be helpful in therapeutic drug monitoring in diabetes. PMID:26460146

  15. Cannabidiol changes P-gp and BCRP expression in trophoblast cell lines.

    PubMed

    Feinshtein, Valeria; Erez, Offer; Ben-Zvi, Zvi; Erez, Noam; Eshkoli, Tamar; Sheizaf, Boaz; Sheiner, Eyal; Huleihel, Mahmud; Holcberg, Gershon

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug during pregnancy. Due to high lipophilicity, cannabinoids can easily penetrate physiological barriers like the human placenta and jeopardize the developing fetus. We evaluated the impact of cannabidiol (CBD), a major non-psychoactive cannabinoid, on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP) expression, and P-gp function in a placental model, BeWo and Jar choriocarcinoma cell lines (using P-gp induced MCF7 cells (MCF7/P-gp) for comparison). Study design. Following the establishment of the basal expression of these transporters in the membrane fraction of all three cell lines, P-gp and BCRP protein and mRNA levels were determined following chronic (24-72 h) exposure to CBD, by Western Blot and qPCR. CBD impact on P-gp efflux function was examined by uptake of specific P-gp fluorescent substrates (calcein-AM, DiOC2(3) and rhodamine123(rh123)). Cyclosporine A (CsA) served as a positive control. Results. Chronic exposure to CBD resulted in significant changes in the protein and mRNA levels of both transporters. While P-gp was down-regulated, BCRP levels were up-regulated in the choriocarcinoma cell lines. CBD had a remarkably different influence on P-gp and BCRP expression in MCF7/P-gp cells, demonstrating that these are cell type specific effects. P-gp dependent efflux (of calcein, DiOC2(3) and rh123) was inhibited upon short-term exposure to CBD. Conclusions. Our study shows that CBD might alter P-gp and BCRP expression in the human placenta, and inhibit P-gp efflux function. We conclude that marijuana use during pregnancy may reduce placental protective functions and change its morphological and physiological characteristics. PMID:24058883

  16. Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of (S)-valine thiazole-derived cyclic and noncyclic peptidomimetic oligomers as modulators of human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1).

    PubMed

    Singh, Satyakam; Prasad, Nagarajan Rajendra; Kapoor, Khyati; Chufan, Eduardo E; Patel, Bhargav A; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Talele, Tanaji T

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance caused by ATP binding cassette transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) through extrusion of anticancer drugs from the cells is a major cause of failure in cancer chemotherapy. Previously, selenazole-containing cyclic peptides were reported as P-gp inhibitors and were also used for co-crystallization with mouse P-gp, which has 87 % homology to human P-gp. It has been reported that human P-gp can simultaneously accommodate two to three moderately sized molecules at the drug binding pocket. Our in silico analysis, based on the homology model of human P-gp, spurred our efforts to investigate the optimal size of (S)-valine-derived thiazole units that can be accommodated at the drug binding pocket. Towards this goal, we synthesized varying lengths of linear and cyclic derivatives of (S)-valine-derived thiazole units to investigate the optimal size, lipophilicity, and structural form (linear or cyclic) of valine-derived thiazole peptides that can be accommodated in the P-gp binding pocket and affects its activity, previously an unexplored concept. Among these oligomers, lipophilic linear (13) and cyclic trimer (17) derivatives of QZ59S-SSS were found to be the most and equally potent inhibitors of human P-gp (IC50 =1.5 μM). As the cyclic trimer and linear trimer compounds are equipotent, future studies should focus on noncyclic counterparts of cyclic peptides maintaining linear trimer length. A binding model of the linear trimer 13 within the drug binding site on the homology model of human P-gp represents an opportunity for future optimization, specifically replacing valine and thiazole groups in the noncyclic form. PMID:24288265

  17. Homology modelling of human P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Domicevica, Laura; Biggin, Philip C

    2015-10-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP-binding cassette transporter that exports a huge range of compounds out of cells and is thus one of the key proteins in conferring multi-drug resistance in cancer. Understanding how it achieves such a broad specificity and the series of conformational changes that allow export to occur form major, on-going, research objectives around the world. Much of our knowledge to date has been derived from mutagenesis and assay data. However, in recent years, there has also been great progress in structural biology and although the structure of human P-gp has not yet been solved, there are now a handful of related structures on which homology models can be built to aid in the interpretation of the vast amount of experimental data that currently exists. Many models for P-gp have been built with this aim, but the situation is complicated by the apparent flexibility of the system and by the fact that although many potential templates exist, there is large variation in the conformational state in which they have been crystallized. In this review, we summarize how homology modelling has been used in the past, how models are typically selected and finally illustrate how MD simulations can be used as a means to give more confidence about models that have been generated via this approach. PMID:26517909

  18. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein enhances transport of imipramine across the bloodbrain barrier: microdialysis studies in conscious freely moving rats

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, FE; Clarke, G; Fitzgerald, P; Dinan, TG; Griffin, BT; Cryan, JF

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Recent studies indicate that efflux of antidepressants by the multidrug resistance transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) at the bloodbrain barrier (BBB) may contribute to treatment-resistant depression (TRD) by limiting intracerebral antidepressant concentrations. In addition, clinical experience shows that adjunctive treatment with the P-gp inhibitor verapamil may improve the clinical outcome in TRD. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the effect of P-gp inhibition on the transport of the tricyclic antidepressant imipramine and its active metabolite desipramine across the BBB. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Intracerebral microdialysis in rats was used to monitor brain levels of imipramine and desipramine following i.v. imipramine administration, with or without pretreatment with one of the P-gp inhibitors verapamil or cyclosporin A (CsA). Plasma drug levels were also determined at regular intervals. KEY RESULTS Pretreatment with either verapamil or CsA resulted in significant increases in imipramine concentrations in the microdialysis samples, without altering imipramine plasma pharmacokinetics. Furthermore, pretreatment with verapamil, but not CsA, led to a significant elevation in plasma and brain levels of desipramine. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The present study demonstrated that P-gp inhibition enhanced the intracerebral concentration of imipramine, thus supporting the hypothesis that P-gp activity restricts brain levels of certain antidepressants, including imipramine. These findings may help to explain reports of a beneficial response to adjunctive therapy with verapamil in TRD. PMID:22250926

  19. Michaelis-Menten kinetic analysis of drugs of abuse to estimate their affinity to human P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Markus R; Orschiedt, Tina; Maurer, Hans H

    2013-02-27

    The pharmacokinetics of various important drugs are known to be significantly influenced by the human ABC transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp), which may lead to clinically relevant drug-drug interactions. In contrast to therapeutic drugs, emerging drugs of abuse (DOA) are sold and consumed without any safety pharmacology testing. Only some studies on their metabolism were published, but none about their affinity to the transporter systems. Therefore, 47 DOAs from various classes were tested for their P-gp affinity using human P-gp (hP-gp) to predict possible drug-drug interactions. DOAs were initially screened for general hP-gp affinity and further characterized by modeling classic Michaelis-Menten kinetics and assessing their K(m) and V(max) values. Among the tested drugs, 12 showed a stimulation of ATPase activity. The most intensive stimulating DOAs were further investigated and compared with the known P-gp model substrates sertraline and verapamil. ATPase stimulation kinetics could be modeled for the entactogen 3,4-methylenedioxy-?-ethylphenethylamine (3,4-BDB), the hallucinogen 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI), the abused alkaloid glaucine, the opioid-like drugs N-iso-propyl-1,2-diphenylethylamine (NPDPA), and N-(1-phenylcyclohexyl)-3-ethoxypropanamine (PCEPA), with K(m) and V(max) values within the same range as for verapamil or sertraline. As a consequence interactions with other drugs being P-gp substrates might be considered to be very likely and further studies should be encouraged. PMID:23273999

  20. Multi-drug resistance in a canine lymphoid cell line due to increased P-glycoprotein expression, a potential model for drug-resistant canine lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Zandvliet, M; Teske, E; Schrickx, J A

    2014-12-01

    Canine lymphoma is routinely treated with a doxorubicin-based multidrug chemotherapy protocol, and although treatment is initially successful, tumor recurrence is common and associated with therapy resistance. Active efflux of chemotherapeutic agents by transporter proteins of the ATP-Binding Cassette superfamily forms an effective cellular defense mechanism and a high expression of these transporters is frequently observed in chemotherapy-resistant tumors in both humans and dogs. In this study we describe the ABC-transporter expression in a canine lymphoid cell line and a sub-cell line with acquired drug resistance following prolonged exposure to doxorubicin. This sub-cell line was more resistant to doxorubicin and vincristine, but not to prednisolone, and had a highly increased P-glycoprotein (P-gp/abcb1) expression and transport capacity for the P-gp model-substrate rhodamine123. Both resistance to doxorubicin and vincristine, and rhodamine123 transport capacity were fully reversed by the P-gp inhibitor PSC833. No changes were observed in the expression and function of the ABC-transporters MRP-1 and BCRP. It is concluded that GL-40 cells represent a useful model for studying P-gp dependent drug resistance in canine lymphoid neoplasia, and that this model can be used for screening substances as potential P-gp substrates and their capacity to modulate P-gp mediated drug resistance. PMID:24975508

  1. Prediction and characterization of P-glycoprotein substrates potentially bound to different sites by emerging chemical pattern and hierarchical cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xianchao; Mei, Hu; Qu, Sujun; Huang, Shuheng; Sun, Jiaying; Yang, Li; Chen, Hua

    2016-04-11

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) multidrug transporter, can actively transport a broad spectrum of chemically diverse substrates out of cells and is heavily involved in multidrug resistance (MDR) in tumors. So far, the multiple specific binding sites remain a major obstacle in developing an efficient prediction method for P-gp substrates. Herein, emerging chemical pattern (ECP) combined by hierarchical cluster analysis was utilized to predict P-gp substrates as well as their potential binding sites. An optimal ECP model using only 3 descriptors was established with prediction accuracies of 0.80, 0.81 and 0.74 for 803 training samples, 120 test samples, and 179 independent validation samples, respectively. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of the ECPs of P-gp substrates derived 2 distinct ECP groups (ECPGs). Interestingly, HCA of the P-gp substrates based on ECP similarities also showed 2 distinct classes, which happened to be dominated by the 2 ECPGs, respectively. In the light of available experimental proofs and molecular docking results, the 2 distinct ECPGs were proved to be closely related to the binding profiles of R- and H-site substrates, respectively. The present study demonstrates, for the first time, a successful ECP model, which can not only accurately predict P-gp substrates, but also identify their potential substrate-binding sites. PMID:26899974

  2. Chronic cyclosporin A nephrotoxicity, P-glycoprotein overexpression, and relationships with intrarenal angiotensin II deposits.

    PubMed Central

    del Moral, R. G.; Andujar, M.; Ramrez, C.; Gmez-Morales, M.; Masseroli, M.; Aguilar, M.; Olmo, A.; Arrebola, F.; Guilln, M.; Garca-Chicano, M. J.; Nogales, F. F.; O'Valle, F.

    1997-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expels hydrophobic substances from the cell, including chemotherapeutic agents and immunosuppressants such as cyclosporin A (CsA) and FK506. Exposure of cultured renal tubular cells to CsA induces P-gp overexpression in cell membranes. Angiotensin II has recently been implicated as the principal factor responsible for progression of interstitial fibrosis induced by CsA. To investigate the in vivo relationships between histological lesions, P-gp overexpression, and intrarenal angiotensin II deposits, we developed a model of chronic CsA toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats treated with 25 mg/kg/day CsA for 28 and 56 days and fed either a standard maintenance diet or a low-salt diet. Immunohistochemical methods were used to study the expression of P-gp in renal tubular cells and the appearance of intrarenal angiotensin II deposits. Rats treated with CsA developed chronic nephrotoxicity lesions that were more evident in the group fed the low-salt diet. Treatment with CsA induced overexpression of P-gp in tubular cells of the kidney that increased with time. We found that immunohistochemical expression of P-gp was slightly more severe in rats fed a low-salt diet. Intrarenal deposits of angiotensin II were more evident in rats treated with CsA; these deposits also increased with time. This finding was also more relevant in rats given the low-salt diet. The up-regulation of P-gp was inversely related to the incidence of hyaline arteriopathy (r = -0.65; P < 0.05), periglomerular (r = -0.58; P < 0.05) and peritubular fibrosis (r = -0.63; P < 0.05), and intrarenal angiotensin H deposits in animals with severe signs of nephrotoxicity (r = -0.65; P < 0.05). These results support the hypothesis that the role of P-gp as a detoxicant in renal cells may be related to mechanisms that control the cytoplasmic removal of both toxic metabolites from CsA and those originating from the catabolism of signal transduction proteins (methylcysteine esters), which are produced as a result of ras activation in presence of angiotensin II. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9403721

  3. P-glycoprotein Inhibition by the Agricultural Pesticide Propiconazole and Its Hydroxylated Metabolites: Implications for Pesticide-Drug Interactions.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The human efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp; MDR1) functions an important cellular defense system against a variety of xenobiotics; however, little information exists on whether environmental chemicals interact with P-gp. Conazoles provide a unique challenge to exposure ass...

  4. P-glycoprotein Inhibition by the Agricultural Pesticide Propiconazole and Its Hydroxylated Metabolites: Implications for Pesticide-Drug Interactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The human efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp, MDR1) functions an important cellular defense system against a variety of xenobiotics; however, little information exists on whether environmental chemicals interact with P-gp. Conazoles provide a unique challenge to exposure ass...

  5. MAPK1 of Leishmania donovani modulates antimony susceptibility by downregulating P-glycoprotein efflux pumps.

    PubMed

    Garg, Mansi; Goyal, Neena

    2015-07-01

    Emergence of resistance to pentavalent antimonials has become a severe obstacle in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian subcontinent. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are well-known mediators of signal transduction of eukaryotes, regulating important processes, like proliferation, differentiation, stress response, and apoptosis. In Leishmania, MAPK1 has been shown to be consistently downregulated in antimony-resistant field isolates, suggesting that it has a role in antimony resistance. The present work investigates the molecular mechanism of MAPK1 in antimony resistance in Leishmania donovani. The L. donovani MAPK1 (LdMAPK1) single-allele replacement mutants exhibited increased resistance to Sb(III) (5.57-fold) compared to wild-type promastigotes, while overexpressing parasites became much more susceptible to antimony. The LdMAPK1-mediated drug sensitivity was directly related to antimony-induced apoptotic death of the parasite, as was evidenced by a 4- to 5-fold decrease in cell death parameters in deletion mutants and a 2- to 3-fold increase in MAPK1-overexpressing cells. LdMAPK1-underexpressing parasites also exhibited increased P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux pump activity, while a significant decrease in pump activity was observed in overexpressing cells. This change in efflux pump activity was directly related to expression levels of P-gp in all cell lines. However, episomal complementation of the gene restored normal growth, drug sensitivity, P-gp expression, and efflux pump activity. The data indicate that LdMAPK1 negatively regulates the expression of P-glycoprotein-type efflux pumps in the parasite. The decrease in efflux pump activity with an increase in LdMAPK1 expression may result in increased antimony accumulation in the parasite, making it more vulnerable to the drug. PMID:25870075

  6. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein functionality by vandetanib may reverse cancer cell resistance to doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Jovelet, C; Bénard, J; Forestier, F; Farinotti, R; Bidart, J M; Gil, S

    2012-08-15

    P-glycoprotein belongs to the ATP binding cassette transporters, responsible for the multidrug resistance of cancer cells. These transporters efflux hydrophobic drugs outside cells and decrease their therapeutic efficacy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of vandetanib, an oral tyrosine kinase inhibitor of EGFR, VEGFR 2 and RET kinases, on the functionality of P-gp after a 24h-treatment at therapeutic concentration (2μM), and its ability to increase the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents in multidrug resistance cancer cells. In this study we found that IGROV1-DXR and IGROV1-CDDP cells were resistant to doxorubicin and cisplatin respectively, compare to parental cell line IGROV1. The parental sensitive and the two resistant cell lines similarly expressed MRP1 and did not express BCRP. Moreover, in contrast to the IGROV1 and IGROV1-CDDP cells, IGROV1-DXR cell line overexpressed P-gp. Functional activity studies demonstrated that MRP1 was not functional and the MDR phenotype in IGROV1-DXR cells was linked to P-gp functionality. Results also showed that vandetanib reversed resistance to doxorubicin in IGROV1-DXR cells, but not to cisplatin in IGROV1-CDDP cells. After 24h of treatment, vandetanib increased the accumulation of rhodamine 123 and calcein AM, demonstrating a functional inhibition of the transporter. In IGROV1-DXR cell line, vandetanib reverse resistance to doxorubicin by inhibiting the functionality of P-gp. In conclusion, vandetanib should be an option for drug combination in patients already developing a P-gp mediated multidrug resistance. PMID:22484209

  7. P-glycoprotein-mediated transport of oxytetracycline in the Caco-2 cell model.

    PubMed

    Schrickx, J; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2007-02-01

    ATP-dependent drug transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multi-drug resistance associated protein (MRP2) and breast cancer resistant protein (BCRP) are expressed at the brush border membrane of enterocytes. These efflux transporters excrete their substrates, among other various classes of antibiotics, into the lumen thus reducing net absorption as indicated by a low bioavailability after oral administration. Oxytetracycline (OTC) has been used for decennia in veterinary medicine for its extensive spectrum of antimicrobial activity. A major limitation has been, and still remains, its low bioavailability following oral administration. The present study aimed to investigate to what extent this low bioavailability is attributable to the fact that OTC is a substrate for one or more efflux transporters. As an experimental model to study the transmembrane transport of OTC, differentiated Caco-2 cells grown as monolayers on permeable supports were used. With this model it was shown that the secretion of OTC is slightly higher than its absorption. PSC833, a potent inhibitor of P-gp, decreased the secretion of OTC without affecting its absorption, while the MRP-inhibitor MK571 did not exert any effect. These data indicate that OTC is a substrate for P-gp. The affinity of OTC to these transporters seems to be rather low, as suggested by the low efflux ratio of 1:1.3. In competition experiments, OTC decreased the effluxes of other P-gp substrates such as Rhodamine123 and ivermectin. These findings are of clinical relevance, as they clearly indicate potential drug-drug interactions at the level of P-gp-mediated drug transport. PMID:17217397

  8. Glutamate up-regulates P-glycoprotein expression in rat brain microvessel endothelial cells by an NMDA receptor-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hao-Jie; Liu, Guo-Qing

    2004-07-30

    The accumulation of glutamate in the extracellular space in the central nervous system (CNS) plays a major part in ischemic and anoxic damage. In this study, we examined the effect of glutamate on the expression and activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in rat brain microvessel endothelial cells (RBMECs) making up the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The level of P-gp expression significantly increased in RBMECs after the treatment of 100 microM glutamate. At this concentration, glutamate also enhanced rat mdr1a and mdr1b mRNA levels determined by RT-PCR analysis. Flow cytometry was used to study P-gp activity by analysis of intracellular rhodamine123 (Rh123) accumulation. Overexpression of P-gp resulted in a decreased intracellular accumulation of Rh123 in RBMECs. Glutamate-induced increase of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed by using the 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (2',7'-DCF) assay. MK-801, a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, and ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine obviously blocked ROS generation and attenuated the changes of both expression and activity of P-gp induced by glutamate in RBMECs. These data suggested that glutamate up-regulated P-gp expression in RBMECs by an NMDA receptor-mediated mechanism and that glutamate-induced generation of ROS was linked to the regulation of P-gp expression. Therefore, transport of P-gp substrates in BBB appears to be affected during ischemic and anoxic injury. PMID:15234189

  9. Advances in PET Imaging of P-Glycoprotein Function at the Blood-Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts substrate compounds from entering the brain and may thus contribute to pharmacoresistance observed in patient groups with refractory epilepsy and HIV. Altered P-gp function has also been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease. Positron emission tomography (PET), a molecular imaging modality, has become a promising method to study the role of P-gp at the BBB. The first PET study of P-gp function was conducted in 1998, and during the past 15 years two main categories of P-gp PET tracers have been investigated: tracers that are substrates of P-gp efflux and tracers that are inhibitors of P-gp function. PET, as a noninvasive imaging technique, allows translational research. Examples of this are preclinical investigations of P-gp function before and after administering P-gp modulating drugs, investigations in various animal and disease models, and clinical investigations regarding disease and aging. The objective of the present review is to give an overview of available PET radiotracers for studies of P-gp and to discuss how such studies can be designed. Further, the review summarizes results from PET studies of P-gp function in different central nervous system disorders. PMID:23421673

  10. Tobacco budworm P-glycoprotein: biochemical characterization and its involvement in pesticide resistance.

    PubMed

    Lanning, C L; Fine, R L; Corcoran, J J; Ayad, H M; Rose, R L; Abou-Donia, M B

    1996-10-24

    Since pesticides have been shown to interact with P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the purpose of this study was to examine the possible role of P-gp in pesticide resistance in the tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens). Using three P-gp antibodies, P-gp expression in various resistant populations of tobacco budworms was found to be 2-6-times that of the susceptible larvae. Tobacco budworm P-gp was glycosylated and localized primarily in the cuticle and fat body with little expression in the mid gut. To determine the role of P-gp in pesticide resistance, resistant tobacco budworm larvae were treated with a P-gp inhibitor, quinidine, and challenged with various doses of thiodicarb. Inhibition of P-gp decreased the LD50 for thiodicarb by a factor of 12.5. Quinidine treatment did not result in a significant inhibition of the P-450 system nor did it alter the feeding of the larvae, suggesting the potential involvement of P-gp in pesticide resistance. An age-dependent increase in P-gp expression was detected in resistant larvae as compared to control, susceptible larvae. This correlates with the reported age-dependent increase in resistance and is further evidence supporting the role of P-gp in the development of pesticide resistance. PMID:8898877

  11. FRET analysis indicates that the two ATPase active sites of the P-glycoprotein multidrug transporter are closely associated.

    PubMed

    Qu, Q; Sharom, F J

    2001-02-01

    Members of the ABC superfamily carry out the transport of various molecules and ions across cellular membranes, powered by ATP hydrolysis. Substantial evidence indicates that the two catalytic sites of the nucleotide binding domains function in a highly cooperative, alternating sites mode, which suggests the possibility that they interact with each other physically. In this study, fluorescence energy transfer experiments were used to estimate the distance between two fluors, each covalently linked to a highly conserved Cys residue (Cys428 and Cys1071) within the Walker A motif of the catalytic site. The vanadate.ADP.Mg(2+) complex was trapped in one catalytic site of membrane-bound or highly purified P-glycoprotein, and the other site was labeled with MIANS [2-(4'-maleimidylanilino)naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid]. Following loss of the trapped vanadate complex, the newly vacant site was then labeled with NBD-Cl (7-chloro-4-nitrobenzo-2-oxa-1,3-diazole). The fluorescence properties of the singly labeled P-glycoproteins showed that no energy transfer occurred between MIANS (the donor) and NBD (the acceptor) when they were simply mixed together. On the other hand, the fluorescence emission of the MIANS group in doubly labeled P-glycoprotein was highly quenched as a result of energy transfer to NBD, leading to an estimate of a donor-acceptor separation distance of approximately 16 A for P-glycoprotein labeled in the native plasma membrane and approximately 22 A for P-glycoprotein labeled in detergent solution. The separation of the two fluorophores is compatible with the recently reported crystal structure of the Rad50cd dimer, but not with that of the HisP dimer. These results suggest that the two catalytic sites of the P-glycoprotein nucleotide binding domains are relatively close together, which would facilitate cooperation between them during the catalytic cycle. PMID:11170469

  12. Image-Based Analysis to Predict the Activity of Tariquidar Analogs as P-Glycoprotein Inhibitors: The Importance of External Validation.

    PubMed

    Shayanfar, Shadi; Shayanfar, Ali; Ghandadi, Morteza

    2016-02-01

    Permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) is involved in the pathology of various diseases including cancer and epilepsy, mainly through the translocation of some medicines across the cell membrane. Here, we employed image-based quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models to predict the P-gp inhibitory activity of some Tariquidar derivatives. The structures of 65 Tariquidar derivatives and their P-gp inhibition activities were collected from the literature. For each compound, the pixels of bidimensional images and their principal components (PCs) were calculated using MATLAB software. Various statistical methods including principal component regression, artificial neural networks, and support vector machines were employed to investigate the correlation between the PCs and the activity of the compounds. The predictability of the models was investigated using external validation and applicability domain analysis. An artificial neural network-based model demonstrated the best prediction results for the test set. Moreover, external validation analysis of the developed models supports the idea that R(2) cannot assure the validity of QSAR models and another criterion, i.e., the concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) parameter, should be involved to evaluate the validity of the QSAR models. The results of this study indicate that image analysis could be as suitable as descriptors calculated by commercial software to predict the activity of drug-like molecules. PMID:26708190

  13. The effects of proteasome inhibitor bortezomib on a P-gp positive leukemia cell line K562/A02.

    PubMed

    Lü, S; Chen, Z; Yang, J; Chen, L; Zhou, H; Xu, X; Li, J; Han, F; Wang, J

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify the efficacy of proteasome inhibitor bortezomib to multidrug resistant (MDR) acute leukemia cells. We observed the effects of bortezomib on a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) positive leukemia line K562/A02. The results showed that bortezomib has significant effects on P-gp positive K562/A02 cells including cytotoxicity (48 h IC(50): 171.36 nM), induction of apoptosis (31.71 +/- 1.07% apoptotic cells after 24 h treatment at 100 nM), and inhibition of proteasome chymotrypsin-like activity (relative activity to untreated controls: 20.07 +/- 0.66% at 24 h with 10 nM bortezomib). These effects were lower than those observed in K562 cells (IC(50), percentage of apoptotic cells, relative chymotrypsin-like activity to untreated controls were 56.28 nM, 77.95 +/- 0.35%, 5.35 +/- 2.05% after the same treatments, respectively). No synergy between daunorubicin and bortezomib was shown in the killing of K562/A02 cells (synergistic ratios were <1). P-gp expression levels did not decrease in K562/A02 cells after bortezomib treatment. Pretreatment with bortezomib does not improve the intracellular anthracycline concentration in K562/A02 cells. Bortezomib shows a promising effect for the treatment of refractory/relapsed leukemia, but it does not improve the effect of anthracycline to MDR leukemia cells. PMID:19254348

  14. Role of P-glycoprotein in the intestinal absorption of glabridin, an active flavonoid from the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jie; Chen, Xiao; Liang, Jun; Yu, Xue-Qing; Xu, An-Long; Chan, Eli; Wei, Duan; Huang, Min; Wen, Jing-Yuan; Yu, Xi-Yong; Li, Xiao-Tian; Sheu, Fwu-Shan; Zhou, Shu-Feng

    2007-04-01

    Glabridin is a major constituent of the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, which is commonly used in the treatment of cardiovascular and central nervous system diseases. This study aimed to investigate the role of P-glycoprotein (PgP/MDR1) in the intestinal absorption of glabridin. The systemic bioavailability of glabridin was approximately 7.5% in rats, but increased when combined with verapamil. In single-pass perfused rat ileum with mesenteric vein cannulation, the permeability coefficient of glabridin based on drug disappearance in luminal perfusates (P(lumen)) was approximately 7-fold higher than that based on drug appearance in the blood (P(blood)). Glabridin was mainly metabolized by glucuronidation, and the metabolic capacity of intestine microsomes was 1/15 to 1/20 of that in liver microsomes. Polarized transport of glabridin was found in Caco-2 and MDCKII monolayers. Addition of verapamil in both apical (AP) and basolateral (BL) sides abolished the polarized transport of glabridin across Caco-2 cells. Incubation of verapamil significantly altered the intracellular accumulation and efflux of glabridin in Caco-2 cells. The transport of glabridin in the BL-AP direction was significantly higher in MDCKII cells overexpressing PgP/MDR1 than in the control cells. Glabridin inhibited PgP-mediated transport of digoxin with an IC(50) value of 2.56 microM, but stimulated PgP/MDR1 ATPase activity with a K(m) of 25.1 microM. The plasma AUC(0-24h) of glabridin in mdr1a(-/-) mice was 3.8-fold higher than that in wild-type mice. These findings indicate that glabridin is a substrate for PgP and that both PgP/MDR1-mediated efflux and first-pass metabolism contribute to the low oral bioavailability of glabridin. PMID:17220245

  15. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein function by XR9576 in a solid tumour model can restore anticancer drug efficacy.

    PubMed

    Walker, J; Martin, C; Callaghan, R

    2004-03-01

    Resistance to cancer chemotherapy involves both altered drug activity at the designated target and modified intra-tumour pharmacokinetic properties (e.g. uptake, metabolism). The membrane transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays a major role in pharmacokinetic resistance by preventing sufficient intracellular accumulation of several anticancer agents. Whilst inhibiting P-gp has great potential to restore chemotherapeutic effectiveness in blood-borne cancers, the situation in solid tumours is less clear. Therefore, the degree of resistance tumours pose to the cytotoxicity of vinblastine and doxorubicin was characterised using the multicellular tumour spheroid model. Tumour spheroids were generated from either drug-sensitive MCF7(WT) breast cancer cells or a resistant P-gp-expressing variant (NCI/ADR(Res)). Drug-induced cytotoxicity in tumour spheroids was measured using an outgrowth assay and compared with that observed in monolayer cultures. As anticipated, the 3-D organisation of MCF7(WT) in tumour spheroids was associated with a reduction in the potency of doxorubicin and vinblastine-i.e. the inherent multicellular resistance phenomenon. In contrast, tumour spheroids from NCI/ADR(Res) cells did not display multicellular resistance. However their constitutive expression of P-gp reduced the potency of both anticancer drugs. Moreover, the highly potent P-gp inhibitor, the anthranilic acid derivative, XR9576, was able to restore the cytotoxic efficacy of both drugs in tumour spheroids comprising NCI/ADR(Res) cells. The results suggest that inhibition of P-gp in solid tumours is achievable and that generation of potent inhibitors will provide a significant benefit towards restoration of chemotherapy in solid tissues. PMID:14962729

  16. Reversal of p-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance by macrocyclic bisbibenzyl derivatives in adriamycin-resistant human myelogenous leukemia (K562/A02) cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Sun, Bin; Zhu, Chang-Jun; Yuan, Hui-Qing; Shi, Yan-Qiu; Gao, Jian; Li, Shuang-Jing; Lou, Hong-Xiang

    2009-02-01

    Macrocyclic bisbibenzyls, a class of characteristic natural molecules derived from liverworts, have diverse biological significances. Dihydroptychantol A (DHA) was identified to be an antifungal active macrocyclic bisbibenzyl from liverwort Asterella angusta. In an attempt to understand other biological activities of this compound, the chemical synthesized DHA and its analogues (compounds 1-3) were employed to test this possibility by using adriamycin-resistant K562/A02 cells. Among the tested compounds (1-4), DHA showed the strongest potency to increase adriamycin cytotoxicity toward K562/A02 cells by MTT assays and its reversal fold is 8.18 (20 microM). Mechanisms of DHA on p-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) were further investigated. Based on the flow cytometry, we detected the significant increase of adriamycin and rhodamine123 accumulation in K562/A02 cells exposed to various concentrations of DHA, meanwhile, notable decrease of rhodamine123 efflux was also observed, which revealed DHA caused a decline of P-gp activity. Furthermore, P-gp expression was analyzed by the flow cytometry and RT-PCR. Dose-dependent reduction of P-gp expression was measured in K562/A02 cells pretreated with DHA for 24h. No such results were found in parental K562 cells. These results demonstrated DHA reversed effectively MDR by blocking the drugs to be pumped out via inhibiting P-gp function and expression pathway. PMID:18938236

  17. Cargoing P-gp inhibitors via nanoparticle sensitizes tumor cells against doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manu Smriti; Lamprecht, Alf

    2015-01-30

    Inhibitors against multidrug resistance (MDR) efflux transporters have failed in most clinical settings due to unfavorable pharmacokinetic interactions with co-administered anti-cancer drug and their inherent toxicities. Nanoparticles (NPs) have shown potential to overcome drug efflux by delivering and localizing therapeutic molecules within tumor mass. In this work, we investigated effect of nanocarrier surface charge and formulation parameters for a hydrophilic and lipophilic MDR inhibitor on their ability to reverse drug resistance. Active inhibition of efflux pumps was achieved by encapsulating first and third generation P-gp inhibitors- verapamil and elacridar respectively in non-ionic, anionic and cationic surfactant-based NPs. The ability of NPs to reverse P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated MDR efflux was evaluated in sensitive (A2780) and resistant (A2780Adr) ovarian cancer cell lines by various in vitro accumulation and cytotoxicity assays. Uptake mechanism for NP appears to be caveolae-dependent with 20%-higher internalization in A2780Adr than A2780 cell lines which can be co-related to the biophysical membrane composition. Cationic- CTAB NPs showed highest reversal efficacy followed by PVA and SDS-NP (P+S NP) and PVA-NPs. As compared to doxorubicin treated drug resistant cells lines, blank-, verapamil- and elacridar-CTAB-NPs showed 2.6-, 20- and 193-fold lower IC50 values. This work highlights the importance of inhibitor-loaded charged particles to overcome cancer drug resistance. PMID:25437111

  18. Downregulation of JNK/SAPK activity is associated with the cross-resistance to P-glycoprotein-unrelated drugs in multidrug-resistant FM3A/M cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Kang, C D; Ahn, B K; Jeong, C S; Kim, K W; Lee, H J; Yoo, S D; Chung, B S; Kim, S H

    2000-04-10

    In the present study, cross-drug resistance in multidrug-resistant (MDR) cells, which overexpress P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a mdr1 gene product, against Pgp-unrelated drugs, and its relevance to c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) activity were examined. The multidrug-resistant FM3A/M cells overexpressing Pgp were resistant to apoptotic cell death induced either by Pgp-related drugs including vincristine and vinblastine, which are pumped out by Pgp, or by the Pgp-unrelated drugs including 5'-fluorouracil (5-FU) and bleomycin, which are not targets for Pgp, compared with the parental FM3A cells. Verapamil reversed the resistance of FM3A/M cells to apoptosis induced by the Pgp-related drugs but not that induced by the Pgp-unrelated drugs. Interestingly, FM3A/M cells have shown significantly lower basal and drug-stimulated JNK/SAPK activities than FM3A cells. After transfection with pEBG-SEK or pEBG-SAPK constructs, FM3A/M cells recovered the basal and Pgp-unrelated drug-stimulated activities of JNK/SAPK and the susceptibility to Pgp-unrelated drug-induced apoptotic cell death comparable to those of FM3A cells. Furthermore, FM3A cells became resistant to apoptotic cell death induced by vincristine and 5-FU after transfection with pEBG-SEK(K --> R), a dominant negative inhibitory mutant of SEK. These results suggest that downregulation of JNK/SAPK activity appears to confer on Pgp-associated FM3A/M cells a cross-resistance to Pgp-unrelated drugs. PMID:10739677

  19. Miltirone Is a Dual Inhibitor of P-Glycoprotein and Cell Growth in Doxorubicin-Resistant HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xuelin; Wang, Yan; Lee, Wayne Y W; Or, Penelope M Y; Wan, David C C; Kwan, Yiu Wa; Yeung, John H K

    2015-09-25

    Miltirone (1), an abietane-type diterpene quinone isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza, possesses anticancer activity in p-glycoprotein (P-gp)-overexpressing human cancer cells. Results of the current study suggest a dual effect of miltirone on P-gp inhibition and apoptotic induction in a human hepatoma HepG2 cell line and its P-gp-overexpressing doxorubicin-resistant counterpart (R-HepG2). Miltirone (1) elicited a concentration-dependent cytotoxicity, with a similar potency (EC50 ≈ 7-12 μM), in HepG2 and R-HepG2 cells. Miltirone (1) (1.56-6.25 μM) produced synergistic effects on doxorubicin (DOX)-induced growth inhibition of R-HepG2 (synergism: 0.3 < combination index < 0.5). Molecular docking studies illustrated that miltirone (1) interacted with the active site of P-gp with a higher binding affinity than DOX, suggesting that it was a P-gp inhibitor. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed miltirone (1) as a competitive inhibitor of P-gp. At non-necrotic concentrations (1.56-25 μM), miltirone (1) activated caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways and triggered the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ROS-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways (e.g., p38 MAPK, stress-activated protein kinase/c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and extracellular regulated kinase 1/2) in both HepG2 and R-HepG2 cells. Thus, we conclude that miltirone (1) is a dual inhibitor of P-gp and cell growth in human drug-resistant hepatoma cells. PMID:26339922

  20. 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3-Liganded Vitamin D Receptor Increases Expression and Transport Activity of P-glycoprotein in Isolated Rat Brain Capillaries and Human and Rat Brain Microvessel Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Durk, Matthew R.; Chan, Gary N.Y.; Campos, Christopher R.; Peart, John C.; Chow, Edwin C.Y.; Lee, Eason; Cannon, Ronald E.; Bendayan, Reina; Miller, David S.; Pang, K. Sandy

    2012-01-01

    MDR1/P-gp induction by the vitamin D receptor (VDR) was investigated in isolated rat brain capillaries and rat (RBE4) and human (hCMEC/D3) brain microvessel endothelial cell lines. Incubation of isolated rat brain capillaries with 10 nM of the VDR ligand, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] for 4 h increased P-gp protein expression (4-fold). Incubation with 1,25(OH)2D3 for 4 or 24 h increased P-gp transport activity (specific luminal accumulation of NBD-CSA, the fluorescent P-gp substrate) by 25 – 30%. In RBE4 cells, Mdr1b mRNA was induced in a concentration-dependent manner by exposure to 1,25(OH)2D3. Concomitantly, P-gp protein expression increased 2.5-fold and was accompanied by a 20 – 35% reduction in cellular accumulation of the P-gp substrates, rhodamine 6G (R6G) and HiLyte Fluor 488-labeled human amyloid beta 1-42 (hAβ42). In hCMEC/D3 cells, a three day exposure to 100 nM 1,25(OH)2D3 increased MDR1 mRNA expression (40%) and P-gp protein (3-fold); cellular accumulation of R6G and hAβ42 was reduced by 30%. Thus, VDR activation up-regulates Mdr1/MDR1 and P-gp protein in isolated rat brain capillaries and rodent and human brain microvascular endothelia, implicating a role for VDR in increasing the brain clearance of P-gp substrates, including hAβ42 a plaque-forming precursor in Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:23035695

  1. [Effect of cryptotanshinone on imatinib sensitivity and P-glycoprotein expression of chronic myeloid leukemia cells].

    PubMed

    Ge, Yu-qing; Cheng, Ru-bin; Yang, Bo; Huang, Zhen; Chen, Zhe

    2015-06-01

    Cryptotanshinone (CPT), a lipid soluble active compound in Salvia miltiorrhiza, has a significant inhibitory effect on multiple malignant tumors, e. g. chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cells and can effectively enhance imatinib's chemotherapeutic effect. However, its functional molecular mechanism remained unclear. In this experiment, the authors conducted a systematic study on the effect of CPT on the imatinib sensitivity and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression in CML cells by using CML cells K562 and imatinib persister K562-R. The MTT assays were performed to determine CPT's impact on the inhibitory effect of imatinib. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining analysis was used to detect the changes in the cell apoptosis rate. The active changes in apoptosis regulatory proteins Caspase-3, Caspase-9 and PARP were determined by Western blot. After the cells were pretreated with the gradient concentration of CPT, the expression of P-gp was analyzed by Western blot and flow cytometry. The changes in intracellular concentrations of imatinib were determined by HPLC analysis. The results indicated that the pretreatment with CPT significantly increased the proliferation inhibiting and apoptosis inducing effects of imatinib on K562 and K562-R cells as well as the degradation product expression of pro-apoptotic proteins Caspase-3, Caspase-9 and PARP, with a significant difference with the control group (P < 0.01). However, CPT showed no impact on the P-gp expression in CML cells and the intracellular concentrations of imatinib. In summary, the findings suggested that CPT enhanced the sensitivity of CML cells to imatinib. Its mechanism is not dependent on the inhibition in P-gp expression and the increase in intracellular drug concentration. PMID:26591531

  2. P-Glycoprotein Acts as an Immunomodulator during Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kooij, Gijs; Reijerkerk, Arie; van Horssen, Jack; van der Pol, Susanne M. A.; Drexhage, Joost; Schinkel, Alfred; Dijkstra, Christine D.; den Haan, Joke M. M.; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.; de Vries, Helga E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system in which autoreactive myelin-specific T cells cause extensive tissue damage, resulting in neurological deficits. In the disease process, T cells are primed in the periphery by antigen presenting dendritic cells (DCs). DCs are considered to be crucial regulators of specific immune responses and molecules or proteins that regulate DC function are therefore under extensive investigation. We here investigated the potential immunomodulatory capacity of the ATP binding cassette transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). P-gp generally drives cellular efflux of a variety of compounds and is thought to be involved in excretion of inflammatory agents from immune cells, like DCs. So far, the immunomodulatory role of these ABC transporters is unknown. Methods and Findings Here we demonstrate that P-gp acts as a key modulator of adaptive immunity during an in vivo model for neuroinflammation. The function of the DC is severely impaired in P-gp knockout mice (Mdr1a/1b?/?), since both DC maturation and T cell stimulatory capacity is significantly decreased. Consequently, Mdr1a/1b ?/? mice develop decreased clinical signs of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis. Reduced clinical signs coincided with impaired T cell responses and T cell-specific brain inflammation. We here describe the underlying molecular mechanism and demonstrate that P-gp is crucial for the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-? and IFN-?. Importantly, the defect in DC function can be restored by exogenous addition of these cytokines. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that P-gp downmodulates DC function through the regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion, resulting in an impaired immune response. Taken together, our work highlights a new physiological role for P-gp as an immunomodulatory molecule and reveals a possible new target for immunotherapy. PMID:19997559

  3. Retention of activity by selected anthracyclines in a multidrug resistant human large cell lung carcinoma line without P-glycoprotein hyperexpression.

    PubMed Central

    Coley, H. M.; Workman, P.; Twentyman, P. R.

    1991-01-01

    A subline (COR-L23/R) of the human large cell lung line [corrected] COR-L23, derived by in vivo exposure to doxorubicin, exhibits an unusual multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotype. This subline shows cross-resistance to daunorubicin, vincristine, colchicine and etoposide but does not express P-glycoprotein. Interestingly, COR-L23/R [corrected] shows little or no resistance to a range of structurally-modified analogues of doxorubicin comprising 9-alkyl and/or sugar modified anthracyclines. We have previously identified these same compounds as effective agents against P-glycoprotein-positive MDR cell lines. In contrast to typical MDR cell lines, COR-L23/R [corrected] shows only minimal chemosensitisation by verapamil and no collateral sensitivity to verapamil. Compared to the parental cell line, COR-L23/R [corrected] displays reduced accumulation of doxorubicin and daunorubicin. Accumulation defects were apparent only after 0.5-1 h of incubation of cells with these agents. The rate of daunorubicin efflux was shown to be enhanced by COR-L23/R [corrected] and this efflux was demonstrated to be energy-dependent. The use of anthracyclines which retain activity in MDR cells thus appears to be a valid approach for the circumvention of MDR, not only in cells which express P-glycoprotein, but also where defective drug accumulation is due to other mechanisms possibly involving an alternative multidrug transporter. PMID:1672252

  4. P-glycoprotein reduces the ability of amitriptyline metabolites to cross the blood brain barrier in mice after a 10-day administration of amitriptyline.

    PubMed

    Grauer, Markus T; Uhr, Manfred

    2004-03-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a 170-kDa membrane protein and the gene product of the multiple drug resistance (MDR1 or ABCB1) gene. It constitutes an important part of the blood-brain barrier and actively exports a number of molecules across the blood-brain barrier back into the vascular space, subsequently reducing central nervous system (CNS) bioavailability of these substances. The aim of the present study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of amitriptyline and its metabolites in P-gp (also called mdr1ab or abcb1ab) knockout mice and controls after a long-term adminstration for 10 days. Knockout mice and controls received s.c. injections of amitriptyline (10 microg/g bodyweight) twice daily for 10 days. After 10 days, the animals were sacrificed and the concentrations of amitriptyline and nortriptyline and both their E-10-OH and Z-10-OH metabolites were measured with high-performance liquid chromatography in the cerebrum, plasma, spleen, kidney, testes, lung, liver, muscle and fat. Except for amitriptyline, the brain concentrations of all other examined substances were significantly higher in the P-gp knockout mice. Compared to controls, concentrations of nortriptyline were 2.6-fold higher, E-10-OH-nortriptyline 10-fold higher, Z-10-OH-nortriptyline seven-fold higher, E-10-OH-amitriptyline two-fold higher and Z-10-OH-amitriptyline five-fold higher. The present study confirms that P-gp plays an important role in the interaction between CNS drugs and the blood-brain barrier. Without P-gp at the blood-brain barrier, the brain concentrations of the substances were up to 10-fold higher, showing that P-gp plays an active role in exporting CNS drugs out of the brain. Recent clinical studies showing different side-effects in patients with P-gp polymorphisms confirm the clinical importance of these findings. PMID:15107187

  5. Pharmacokinetic Interactions of Herbs with Cytochrome P450 and P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    The concurrent use of drugs and herbal products is becoming increasingly prevalent over the last decade. Several herbal products have been known to modulate cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) which are recognized as representative drug metabolizing enzymes and drug transporter, respectively. Thus, a summary of knowledge on the modulation of CYP and P-gp by commonly used herbs can provide robust fundamentals for optimizing CYP and/or P-gp substrate drug-based therapy. Herein, we review ten popular medicinal and/or dietary herbs as perpetrators of CYP- and P-gp-mediated pharmacokinetic herb-drug interactions. The main focus is placed on previous works on the ability of herbal extracts and their phytochemicals to modulate the expression and function of CYP and P-gp in several in vitro and in vivo animal and human systems. PMID:25632290

  6. Discovery of a marine-derived bis-indole alkaloid fascaplysin, as a new class of potent P-glycoprotein inducer and establishment of its structure-activity relationship.

    PubMed

    Manda, Sudhakar; Sharma, Sadhana; Wani, Abubakar; Joshi, Prashant; Kumar, Vikas; Guru, Santosh K; Bharate, Sonali S; Bhushan, Shashi; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Kumar, Ajay; Bharate, Sandip B

    2016-01-01

    The screening of IIIM natural products repository for P-gp modulatory activity in P-gp over-expressing human adenocarcinoma LS-180 cells led to the identification of 7 natural products viz. withaferin, podophyllotoxin, 3-demethylcolchicine, agnuside, reserpine, seseberecine and fascaplysin as P-gp inducers. Fascaplysin (6a), a marine-derived bis-indole alkaloid, was the most potent among all of them, showing induction of P-gp with EC50 value of 25nM. P-gp induction is one of the recently targeted strategy to increase amyloid-? clearance from Alzheimer brains. Thus, we pursued a medicinal chemistry of fascaplysin to establish its structure-activity relationship for P-gp induction activity. Four series of analogs viz. substituted quaternary fascaplysin analogs, D-ring opened quaternary analogs, D-ring opened non-quaternary analogs, and ?-carbolinium analogs were synthesized and screened for P-gp induction activity. Among the total of 48 analogs screened, only quaternary nitrogen containing analogs 6a-g and 10a, 10h-l displayed promising P-gp induction activity; whereas non-planar non-quaternary analogs 9a-m, 13a-n, 15a-h were devoid of this activity. The P-gp induction activity of best compounds was then confirmed by western-blot analysis, which indicated that fascaplysin (6a) along with 4,5-difluoro analog of fascaplysin 6f and D-ring opened analog 10j displayed 4-8 fold increase in P-gp expression in LS-180 cells at 1?M. Additionally, compounds 6a and 6f also showed inhibition of acetylcholinestease (AChE), an enzyme responsible for neuronal loss in Alzheimer's disease. Thus, fascaplysin and its analogs showing promising P-gp induction along with AChE inhibition at 1?M, with good safety window (LS-180: IC50>10?M, hGF: 4?M), clearly indicates their promise for development as an anti-Alzheimer agent. PMID:26560048

  7. Detection of the multidrug resistance marker P-glycoprotein by immunohistochemistry in malignant lung tumours.

    PubMed Central

    Beer, T. W.; Rowlands, D. C.; Crocker, J.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The multidrug resistance marker P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was studied immunohistochemically in 78 primary malignant lung tumours. P-gp is a 170 kD transmembrane ATP dependent drug efflux pump which has been shown to be important in the resistance of some tumours to chemotherapy. Certain normal tissues express P-gp and tumours derived from these tissues are often insensitive to cytotoxic agents, showing raised P-gp levels innately or following chemotherapy or radiotherapy. METHODS: Samples from 78 patients undergoing surgery for primary malignant lung tumours were snap frozen and stained immunohistochemically using the monoclonal antibody C219 which reacts with a P-gp epitope. None of the study group had received chemotherapy or radiotherapy before surgery was performed. RESULTS: Twenty seven of the 78 lung tumours (34.6%) showed immunohistochemically detectable levels of P-gp which varied with tumour type; 17 of 54 squamous cell carcinomas (31.5%), seven of 15 adenocarcinomas (46.7%), and neither of two small cell carcinomas showing positive staining. In six of seven cases normal respiratory epithelium present showed the presence of P-gp. CONCLUSIONS: P-gp is immunohistochemically detectable in frozen tissue from a proportion of malignant lung tumours before exposure to radiotherapy or drugs associated with multidrug resistance. It may have a role in tumour resistance to cytotoxic drugs, but further clinical studies will be required to evaluate any correlation between P-gp levels and response to treatment. Images PMID:8711682

  8. Drug-protein hydrogen bonds govern the inhibition of the ATP hydrolysis of the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Chufan, Eduardo E; Kapoor, Khyati; Ambudkar, Suresh V

    2016-02-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter superfamily. This multidrug transporter utilizes energy from ATP hydrolysis for the efflux of a variety of hydrophobic and amphipathic compounds including anticancer drugs. Most of the substrates and modulators of P-gp stimulate its basal ATPase activity, although some inhibit it. The molecular mechanisms that are in play in either case are unknown. In this report, mutagenesis and molecular modeling studies of P-gp led to the identification of a pair of phenylalanine-tyrosine structural motifs in the transmembrane region that mediate the inhibition of ATP hydrolysis by certain drugs (zosuquidar, elacridar and tariquidar), with high affinity (IC50's ranging from 10 to 30nM). Upon mutation of any of these residues, drugs that inhibit the ATPase activity of P-gp switch to stimulation of the activity. Molecular modeling revealed that the phenylalanine residues F978 and F728 interact with tyrosine residues Y953 and Y310, respectively, in an edge-to-face conformation, which orients the tyrosines in such a way that they establish hydrogen-bond contacts with the inhibitor. Biochemical investigations along with transport studies in intact cells showed that the inhibitors bind at a high affinity site to produce inhibition of ATP hydrolysis and transport function. Upon mutation, they bind at lower affinity sites, stimulating ATP hydrolysis and only poorly inhibiting transport. These results also reveal that screening chemical compounds for their ability to inhibit the basal ATP hydrolysis can be a reliable tool to identify modulators with high affinity for P-gp. PMID:26686578

  9. Tumor endothelial expression of P-glycoprotein upon microvesicular transfer of TrpC5 derived from adriamycin-resistant breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, YePing; Pan, QiongXi; Jiang, Li; Chen, Zhen; Zhang, FangFang; Liu, YanJun; Xing, Hui; Shi, Mei; Li, Jiao; Li, XiYuan; Zhu, YaoDan; Chen, Yun; Bruce, Iain C.; Jin, Jian Ma, Xin

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • TrpC5 was mainly accumulated in microvesicles of drug-resistant MCF-7/ADM cells. • Microvesicles from MCF-7/ADM transferred TrpC5 to endothelial cells. • TrpC5 inhibition reduced P-glycoprotein accumulation on tumor blood vessels in vivo. - Abstract: Treatment of carcinoma commonly fails due to chemoresistance. Studies have shown that endothelial cells acquire resistance via the tumor microenvironment. Microvesicle (MV) shedding from the cell membrane to the microenvironment plays an important role in communication between cells. The aim of the present study was to determine whether MCF-7 adriamycin-resistant cells (MCF-7/ADM) shed MVs that alter the characteristics of human microvessel endothelial cells (HMECs). MVs from tumor cells transferred a Ca{sup 2+}-permeable channel TrpC5 to HMECs, inducing the expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) by activation of the transcription factor NFATc3 (nuclear factor of activated T cells isoform c3). Expression of the mdr1 gene was blocked by the TrpC5-blocking antibody T5E3, and the production of P-gp in HMECs was reduced by blockade of TrpC5. Thus, we postulate that endothelial cells acquire the resistant protein upon exposure to TrpC5-containg MVs in the microenvironment, and express P-gp in the TrpC5–NFATc3 signal pathway.

  10. Expression of P-glycoprotein in HeLa cells confers resistance to ceramide cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Jacqueline V; Gouaz-Andersson, Valrie; Cabot, Myles C

    2010-12-01

    The role of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) in regulating ceramide-induced apoptosis has been widely studied. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in regulating ceramide cytotoxicity by using C6-ceramide. To accomplish this, we employed HeLa cells with conditional expression of the multidrug resistance gene 1/P-gp. HeLa cells expressing P-gp (P-gp/on cells) challenged with [14C]C6-ceramide (6 M), synthesized 4.5-fold the amount of C6-glucosylceramide (GC) compared to HeLa cells with suppressed expression of P-gp (P-gp/off cells), whereas the generated levels of C6-sphingomyelin were almost equal (33 and 29% of intracellular 14C, respectively). Tamoxifen, a P-gp antagonist, decreased the C6-GC levels from 3.5-1.0% in the P-gp/off and from 17-2.8% of the total lipid 14C levels in the P-gp/on cells. Tamoxifen did not inhibit cell-free C6-GC synthesis in the P-gp/off or P-gp/on homogenates. However, a specific GCS inhibitor, ethylenedioxy-1-phenyl-2-hexadecanoylamino-3-pyrrolidino-1-propanol (ethylenedioxy-P4), blocked synthesis by 90%. In the cytotoxicity assays, the P-gp/off cells were sensitive to C6-ceramide and the P-gp/on cells were resistant. Resistance to C6-ceramide in the P-gp/on cells was reversed by tamoxifen but not by ethylenedioxy-P4. Experiments in another cervical cancer model showed that multidrug-resistant P-gp-rich KB-V1 cells synthesized 3-fold more C6-GC from C6-ceramide than the parental, P-gp-poor KB-3-1 cells, and whereas tamoxifen had no effect on the C6-GC synthesis in the KB-3-1 cells, it inhibited synthesis by 70% in the KB-V1 cells. This study demonstrates that P-gp potentiates C6-ceramide glycosylation and if antagonized augments C6-ceramide sensitivity, both features previously ascribed to GCS. We propose that P-gp can be an effective target for enhancing short-chain ceramide cytotoxicity in the treatment of drug-resistant cancer. PMID:21042729

  11. Jatrophane diterpenes as P-glycoprotein inhibitors. First insights of structure-activity relationships and discovery of a new, powerful lead.

    PubMed

    Corea, Gabriella; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Lanzotti, Virginia; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Appendino, Giovanni; Ballero, Mauro; Simon, Pierre-Nol; Dumontet, Charles; Di Pietro, Attilio

    2003-07-17

    The Mediterranean spurge Euphorbia dendroides L. afforded a series of 10 closely related jatrophane polyesters, nine of which are new, which served as a base for the establishment of structure-activity relationships within this class of P-glycoprotein inhibitors. The results, while pointing to the general role of lipophilicity for activity, also highlighted the relevance of the substitution pattern at the positions 2, 3, and 5, suggesting the involvement of this fragment in binding. The most powerful compound of the series, euphodendroidin D (4), outperformed cyclosporin by a factor of 2 to inhibit Pgp-mediated daunomycin transport. PMID:12852769

  12. Influence of the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein on the intracellular pharmacokinetics of vandetanib.

    PubMed

    Jovelet, C; Deroussent, A; Broutin, S; Paci, A; Farinotti, R; Bidart, J M; Gil, S

    2013-09-01

    Efflux transporters play an important role in the resistance of tumor cells against anticancer agents. Interaction between these transporters, including P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and drugs might influence their pharmacological properties and toxicities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether vandetanib (Caprelsa(®)), a small tyrosine kinase inhibitor, could interact with the multidrug transporter P-gp. Interaction of vandetanib with the P-gp was investigated using the parental cell line (IGROV1) and the P-gp doxorubicin-resistant (IGROV1-DXR) cell line, derived from the parental drug-sensitive IGROV1 cells. Cytotoxicity tests were assessed in both cell lines to examine the impact of P-gp on the cell survival after a vandetanib treatment. The effects of P-gp on vandetanib intracellular pharmacokinetics were investigated. To this aim, we developed a quantitative liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to quantify vandetanib in cell medium. Results showed that overexpression of P-gp confers resistance to vandetanib in the IGROV1-DXR cell line. Using a LC-MS/MS assay validated in cell medium, cellular pharmacokinetic studies revealed that in cells overexpressing the P-gp intracellular concentrations of vandetanib were decreased compared to parental cell line. For the first time, vandetanib is described as a substrate of P-gp. In tumor cells, P-gp could be responsible for cellular resistance to vandetanib. It may be relevant to the clinical efficacy of vandetanib. Moreover, interaction of vandetanib with P-gp could modify the pharmacodynamics of other conventional chemotherapeutics, substrates of P-gp. It could impact on the overall response to anticancer therapy. PMID:23446814

  13. Molecular insight into conformational transmission of human P-glycoprotein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Shan-Yan; Liu, Fu-Feng; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Yan

    2013-12-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a kind of ATP-binding cassette transporter, can export candidates through a channel at the two transmembrane domains (TMDs) across the cell membranes using the energy released from ATP hydrolysis at the two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). Considerable evidence has indicated that human P-gp undergoes large-scale conformational changes to export a wide variety of anti-cancer drugs out of the cancer cells. However, molecular mechanism of the conformational transmission of human P-gp from the NBDs to the TMDs is still unclear. Herein, targeted molecular dynamics simulations were performed to explore the atomic detail of the conformational transmission of human P-gp. It is confirmed that the conformational transition from the inward- to outward-facing is initiated by the movement of the NBDs. It is found that the two NBDs move both on the two directions (x and y). The movement on the x direction leads to the closure of the NBDs, while the movement on the y direction adjusts the conformations of the NBDs to form the correct ATP binding pockets. Six key segments (KSs) protruding from the TMDs to interact with the NBDs are identified. The relative movement of the KSs along the y axis driven by the NBDs can be transmitted through ?-helices to the rest of the TMDs, rendering the TMDs to open towards periplasm in the outward-facing conformation. Twenty eight key residue pairs are identified to participate in the interaction network that contributes to the conformational transmission from the NBDs to the TMDs of human P-gp. In addition, 9 key residues in each NBD are also identified. The studies have thus provided clear insight into the conformational transmission from the NBDs to the TMDs in human P-gp.

  14. P-glycoprotein expression in normal and reactive bone marrows.

    PubMed Central

    Hegewisch-Becker, S.; Fliegner, M.; Tsuruo, T.; Zander, A.; Zeller, W.; Hossfeld, D. K.

    1993-01-01

    The expression of mdr1 gene product P-glycoprotein (P-gp) was investigated in 53 normal and reactive bone marrows by means of immunocytochemistry, using the monoclonal antibody (mAb) C219 and the alkaline phosphatase anti-alkaline phosphatase method. In a limited number of patients, data were confirmed by using the mAb MRK16 or a polymerase chain reaction assay for mdr1 gene expression. There was no history of prior chemotherapy or any malignancy in this group. Bone marrow aspirates were obtained as part of a routine diagnostic programme in bone marrow donors or in patients presenting with a variety of diagnoses such as unexplained gammopathy, fever, anaemia, other changes in peripheral blood smear, rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis, or urticaria pigmentosa. Morphologically the bone marrow was normal in 23 patients, a megaloblastic erythropoiesis was seen in two patients and unspecific changes were seen in 28 patients. Twenty-seven of 53 samples were found to be positive for P-gp expression with the percentage of positive cells ranging from 2%-80% (mean = 24%). With a cutoff point of 10%, five of 23 normal (22%) and 13 of 28 reactive bone marrows (46%) were considered positive for P-gp expression. There was no obvious correlation between diagnosis or age and P-gp expression. Additional staining for the early surface marker CD-34 was performed in 12 samples, with none of them revealing more than 1% positivity. Since P-gp expression has so far been described only in CD-34 positive bone marrow cells, data suggest that P-gp expression may be reinduced in CD-34 negative cells under conditions which remain to be determined. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:8094974

  15. Molecular insight into conformational transmission of human P-glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Shan-Yan; Liu, Fu-Feng E-mail: ysun@tju.edu.cn; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Yan E-mail: ysun@tju.edu.cn; Collaborative Innovation Center of Chemical Science and Engineering , Tianjin 300072

    2013-12-14

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), a kind of ATP-binding cassette transporter, can export candidates through a channel at the two transmembrane domains (TMDs) across the cell membranes using the energy released from ATP hydrolysis at the two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). Considerable evidence has indicated that human P-gp undergoes large-scale conformational changes to export a wide variety of anti-cancer drugs out of the cancer cells. However, molecular mechanism of the conformational transmission of human P-gp from the NBDs to the TMDs is still unclear. Herein, targeted molecular dynamics simulations were performed to explore the atomic detail of the conformational transmission of human P-gp. It is confirmed that the conformational transition from the inward- to outward-facing is initiated by the movement of the NBDs. It is found that the two NBDs move both on the two directions (x and y). The movement on the x direction leads to the closure of the NBDs, while the movement on the y direction adjusts the conformations of the NBDs to form the correct ATP binding pockets. Six key segments (KSs) protruding from the TMDs to interact with the NBDs are identified. The relative movement of the KSs along the y axis driven by the NBDs can be transmitted through α-helices to the rest of the TMDs, rendering the TMDs to open towards periplasm in the outward-facing conformation. Twenty eight key residue pairs are identified to participate in the interaction network that contributes to the conformational transmission from the NBDs to the TMDs of human P-gp. In addition, 9 key residues in each NBD are also identified. The studies have thus provided clear insight into the conformational transmission from the NBDs to the TMDs in human P-gp.

  16. Effects of brain IKK? gene silencing by small interfering RNA on P-glycoprotein expression and brain damage in the rat kainic acid-induced seizure model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Nian; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Yan-Fang; Su, Ling-Ying; Liu, Xin-Hong; Li, Le-Chao; Hao, Jin-Bo; Huang, Xian-Jing; Di, Qing

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistance mediated by over-expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in brain is an important mechanism accounting for the drug-therapy failure in epilepsy. Over-expression of P-gp in epilepsy rat brain may be regulated by inflammation and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) activation. Inhibitory ? B kinase subunit ? (IKK?) is an up-stream molecular controlling NF-?B activation. With the small interfering RNA (siRNA) technique and kainic acid (KA)-induced rat epileptic seizure model, the present study was aimed to further evaluate the role of NF-?B inhibition, via blocking IKK? gene transcription, in the epileptic brain P-gp over-expression, seizure susceptibility, and post-seizure brain damage. siRNA targeting IKK? was administered to rats via intracerebroventricular injection before seizure induction by KA microinjection; scrambled siRNA was used as control. Brain mRNA and protein levels of IKK? and P-gp were detected by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. NF-?B activity was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Latency to grade III or V seizure onset was recorded, brain damage was evaluated by neuronal cell counting and epileptiform activity was monitored by electroencephalography. IKK? siRNA pre-treatment inhibited NF-?B activation and abolished P-gp over-expression in KA-induced epileptic rat brain, accompanied by decreased seizure susceptibility. These findings suggested that epileptogenic-induced P-gp over-expression could be regulated by IKK? through the NF-?B pathway. PMID:24040792

  17. Inhibitory Effects of Highly Oxygenated Lanostane Derivatives from the Fungus Ganoderma lucidum on P-Glycoprotein and ?-Glucosidase.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xi-Run; Huo, Xiao-Kui; Dong, Pei-Pei; Wang, Chao; Huang, Shan-Shan; Zhang, Bao-Jing; Zhang, Hou-Li; Deng, Sa; Liu, Ke-Xin; Ma, Xiao-Chi

    2015-08-28

    Twelve new highly oxygenated lanostane triterpenoids and nine known ganoderic acids were isolated from the fruiting body of Ganoderma lucidum. The new compounds were lanostane nortriterpenoids with 27 carbons (1-5 and 8), lanostane nor-triterpenoids with 25 carbons (6 and 7), and lanostane triterpenoids (9-12) based on multiple spectroscopic data analysis, including HRESIMS, 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR, and CD. Compounds 1-5 were identified as rare nor-lanostanoids that contain a 17?-pentatomic lactone ring. Compound 13, possessing a lactone ring, had been isolated previously. The P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitory effects of compounds 1-21 were evaluated at a concentration of 20 ?M using an adriamycin (ADM)-resistant human breast adenocarcinoma cell line (MCF-7/ADR). Compounds 1, 5, 18, and 20 and verapamil increased the accumulation of ADM in MCF-7/ADR cells approximately 3-fold when compared with the negative control. These data support the significant P-glycoprotein inhibitory activities of compounds 1, 5, 18, and 20. In silico docking analysis suggested these compounds had similar P-gp recognition mechanisms compared with those of verapamil (a classical inhibitor). Furthermore, in an in vitro bioassay, compounds 2, 4, 5, 6, and 18 showed moderate inhibitory effects against ?-glucosidase compared with those of the positive control acarbose. PMID:26222905

  18. Intractable epilepsy and the P-glycoprotein hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-Xin; Wang, Da-Wei; Liu, Yong; Ma, Yan-Hui

    2016-05-01

    Epilepsy is a serious neurological disorder that affects more than 60 million people worldwide. Intractable epilepsy (IE) refers to approximately 20%-30% of epileptic patients who fail to achieve seizure control with antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment. Although the mechanisms underlying IE are not well understood, it has been hypothesized that multidrug transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) play a major role in drug efflux at the blood-brain barrier, and may be the underlying factor in the variable responses of patients to AEDs. The main goal of the present review is to show evidence from different areas that support the idea that the overexpression of P-gp is associated with IE. We discuss here evidence from animal studies, pharmacology, clinical cases and genetic studies. PMID:26000919

  19. Therapeutic potential of nanocarrier for overcoming to P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Vimratjeet; Garg, Tarun; Rath, Goutam; Goyal, Amit K

    2014-12-01

    Enhancement of targeted therapeutic effect in the body and achievement of high bioavailability are major concern for the researchers due to the complex physiology of human body. There are so many barriers that hinder the absorption and permeation of drugs from the body, thus influencing the bioavailability of therapeutics. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one of such barrier present on the apical membranes of various organs such as small intestine, brain, kidney and liver. This protein interacts with vast variety of therapeutics and efflux out them preventing their entrance to the desired site, thus modulating their pharmacokinetic properties. To address this, a concerned number of approaches have been used such as the use of chemo sensitizers along with the therapeutics and various novel techniques. In this review, we are going to discuss the basic introduction to this protein and overview of various strategies used earlier to tackle the problem of P-gp efflux as well as the role of nanocarriers in confronting this issue. Nanocarriers have played great role in the enhancement of the bioavailability of many antineoplastic agents as well as other P-gp substrates. Encapsulation of P-gp inhibitors in the nanocarrier system prevents toxicity and gives site-specific action. PMID:25101945

  20. beta-Amyloid efflux mediated by p-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Lam, F C; Liu, R; Lu, P; Shapiro, A B; Renoir, J M; Sharom, F J; Reiner, P B

    2001-02-01

    A large body of evidence suggests that an increase in the brain beta-amyloid (Abeta) burden contributes to the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Much is now known about the intracellular processes regulating the production of Abeta, however, less is known regarding its secretion from cells. We now report that p-glycoprotein (p-gp), an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, is an Abeta efflux pump. Pharmacological blockade of p-gp rapidly decrease extracellular levels of Abeta secretion. In vitro binding studies showed that addition of synthetic human Abeta1-40 and Abeta1-42 peptides to hamster mdr1-enriched vesicles labeled with the fluorophore MIANS resulted in saturable quenching, suggesting that both peptides interact directly with the transporter. Finally, we were able to directly measure transport of Abeta peptides across the plasma membranes of p-gp enriched vesicles, and showed that this phenomenon was both ATP- and p-gp-dependent. Taken together, our study suggests a novel mechanism of Abeta detachment from cellular membranes, and represents an obvious route towards identification of such a mechanism in the brain. PMID:11181832

  1. Dose-response assessment of tariquidar and elacridar and regional quantification of P-glycoprotein inhibition at the rat blood-brain barrier using (R)-[11C]verapamil PET

    PubMed Central

    Kuntner, Claudia; Bankstahl, Jens P.; Bankstahl, Marion; Stanek, Johann; Wanek, Thomas; Stundner, Gloria; Karch, Rudolf; Brauner, Rebecca; Meier, Martin; Ding, Xiaoqi; Mller, Markus; Lscher, Wolfgang; Langer, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Overactivity of the multidrug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is believed to play an important role in resistance to central nervous system drug treatment. (R)-[11C]verapamil (VPM) PET can be used to measure the function of P-gp at the BBB, but low brain uptake of VPM hampers the mapping of regional differences in cerebral P-gp function and expression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-response relationship of two potent P-gp inhibitors and to investigate if increased brain uptake of VPM mediated by P-gp inhibition can be used to assess regional differences in P-gp activity. Methods Two groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12) underwent single VPM PET scans at 120 min after administration of different doses of the P-gp inhibitors tariquidar and elacridar. In an additional 6 rats, paired VPM PET scans were performed before and after administration of 3 mg/kg tariquidar. Results Inhibitor administration resulted in an up to 11-fold increase in VPM brain distribution volumes (DV) with ED50 values of 3.00.2 and 1.20.1 mg/kg for tariquidar and elacridar, respectively. In paired PET scans, 3 mg/kg tariquidar resulted in regionally different enhancement of brain activity distribution, with lowest DV in cerebellum and highest DV in thalamus. Conclusion Our data show that tariquidar and elacridar are able to increase VPM brain distribution in rat brain up to 11-fold over baseline at maximum effective doses, with elacridar being about 3 times more potent than tariquidar. Regional differences in tariquidar-induced modulation of VPM brain uptake point to regional differences in cerebral P-gp function and expression in rat brain. PMID:20016890

  2. P-glycoprotein and its inducible expression in three bivalve species after exposure to Prorocentrum lima.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Liu, Su-Li; Zheng, Jian-Wei; Li, Hong-Ye; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Dong

    2015-12-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp or ABCB1) belongs to the family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters responsible for multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) in aquatic organisms. To provide more information of P-gp in shellfish, in this study, complete cDNA of P-gp in three bivalve species including Ruditapes philippinarum, Scapharca subcrenata and Tegillarca granosa were cloned and its expressions in gill, digestive gland, adductor muscle and mantle of the three bivalves were detected after exposure to Prorocentrum lima, a toxogenic dinoflagellate. The complete sequences of R. philippinarum, S. subcrenata and T. granosa P-gp showed high homology with MDR/P-gp/ABCB proteins from other species, having a typical sequence organization as full transporters from the ABCB family. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the amino acid sequences of P-gp from S. subcrenata and T. granosa had a closest relationship, forming an independent branch, then grouping into the other branch with Mytilus californianus, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Crassostrea gigas. However, P-gp sequences from R. philippinarum were more similar to the homologs from the more distantly related Aplysia californica than to homologs from S. subcrenata and T. granosa, suggesting that bivalves P-gp might have different paralogs. P-glycoprotein expressed in all detected tissues but there were large differences between them. After exposure to P. lima, the expression of P-gp changed in the four tissues in varying degrees within the same species and between different species, but the changes in mRNA and protein level were not always synchronous. PMID:26539802

  3. Modeling Cyclosporine A Inhibition of the Distribution of a P-Glycoprotein PET Ligand, 11C-Verapamil, into the Maternal Brain and Fetal Liver of the Pregnant Nonhuman Primate: Impact of Tissue Blood Flow and Site of Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Alice Ban; Eyal, Sara; Chung, Francisco S.; Link, Jeanne M.; Mankoff, David A.; Muzi, Mark; Unadkat, Jashvant D.

    2016-01-01

    Through PET imaging, our laboratory has studied the dynamic biodistribution of 11C-verapamil, a P-gp substrate, in the non-human primate Macaca nemestrina. To gain detailed insight into the kinetics of verapamil transport across the bloodbrain barrier (BBB) and the bloodplacental barrier (BPB), we analyzed these dynamic biodistribution data by compartmental modeling. Methods Thirteen pregnant macaques (gestational age, 71159 d; term, ~172 d) underwent PET imaging with 11C-verapamil before and during infusion (6, 12, or 24 mg/kg/h) of cyclosporine A (CsA, a P-glycoprotein [P-gp] inhibitor). Dynamic 11C-verapamil brain or fetal liver (reporter of placental P-gp function) activity was assessed by a 1- or 2-tissue-compartment model. Results The 1-tissue-compartment model best explained the observed brain and fetal liver distribution of 11C-radioactivity. When P-gp was completely inhibited, the brain and fetal liver distribution clearance (K1) approximated tissue blood flow (Q); that is, extraction ratio (K1/Q) was approximately 1, indicating that in the absence of P-gp function, the distribution of 11C-verapamil radioactivity into these compartments is limited by blood flow. The potency of CsA to inhibit P-gp was tissue-independent (maternal BBB half-maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50], 5.67 1.07 ?M, vs. BPB IC50, 7.63 3.16 ?M). Conclusion We propose that on deliberate or inadvertent P-gp inhibition, the upper boundary of increase in human brain (or fetal) distribution of lipophilic drugs such as verapamil will be limited by tissue blood flow. This finding provides a means to predict the magnitude of P-gpbased drug interactions at the BBB and BPB when only the baseline distribution of the drug (i.e., in the absence of P-gp inhibition) across these barriers is available through PET. Our data suggest that P-gpbased drug interactions at the human BBB and BPB can be clinically significant, particularly for those P-gp substrate drugs for which P-gp plays a significant role in excluding the drug from these privileged compartments. PMID:23359659

  4. Blockade of P-Glycoprotein Decreased the Disposition of Phenformin and Increased Plasma Lactate Level.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min-Koo; Song, Im-Sook

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the in vivo relevance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the pharmacokinetics and adverse effect of phenformin. To investigate the involvement of P-gp in the transport of phenformin, a bi-directional transport of phenformin was carried out in LLC-PK1 cells overexpressing P-gp, LLC-PK1-Pgp. Basal to apical transport of phenformin was 3.9-fold greater than apical to basal transport and became saturated with increasing phenformin concentration (2-75 ?M) in LLC-PK1-Pgp, suggesting the involvement of P-gp in phenformin transport. Intrinsic clearance mediated by P-gp was 1.9 ?L/min while passive diffusion clearance was 0.31 ?L/min. Thus, P-gp contributed more to phenformin transport than passive diffusion. To investigate the contribution of P-gp on the pharmacokinetics and adverse effect of phenformin, the effects of verapamil, a P-gp inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics of phenformin were also examined in rats. The plasma concentrations of phenformin were increased following oral administration of phenformin and intravenous verapamil infusion compared with those administerd phenformin alone. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as Cmax and AUC of phenformin increased and CL/F and Vss/F decreased as a consequence of verapamil treatment. These results suggested that P-gp blockade by verapamil may decrease the phenformin disposition and increase plasma phenformin concentrations. P-gp inhibition by verapamil treatment also increased plasma lactate concentration, which is a crucial adverse event of phenformin. In conclusion, P-gp may play an important role in phenformin transport process and, therefore, contribute to the modulation of pharmacokinetics of phenformin and onset of plasma lactate level. PMID:26797108

  5. Revealing the fate of cell surface human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1): The lysosomal degradation pathway.

    PubMed

    Katayama, Kazuhiro; Kapoor, Khyati; Ohnuma, Shinobu; Patel, Atish; Swaim, William; Ambudkar, Indu S; Ambudkar, Suresh V

    2015-10-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transports a variety of chemically dissimilar amphipathic compounds including anticancer drugs. Although mechanisms of P-gp drug transport are widely studied, the pathways involving its internalization are poorly understood. The present study is aimed at elucidating the pathways involved in degradation of cell surface P-gp. The fate of P-gp at the cell surface was determined by biotinylating cell surface proteins followed by flow cytometry and Western blotting. Our data shows that the half-life of endogenously expressed P-gp is 26.7±1.1 h in human colorectal cancer HCT-15 cells. Treatment of cells with Bafilomycin A1 (BafA1) a vacuolar H+ ATPase inhibitor increased the half-life of P-gp at the cell surface to 36.1±0.5 h. Interestingly, treatment with the proteasomal inhibitors MG132, MG115 or lactacystin alone did not alter the half-life of the protein. When cells were treated with both lysosomal and proteasomal inhibitors (BafA1 and MG132), the half-life was further prolonged to 39-50 h. Functional assays done with rhodamine 123 or calcein-AM, fluorescent substrates of P-gp, indicated that the transport function of P-gp was not affected by either biotinylation or treatment with BafA1 or proteasomal inhibitors. Immunofluorescence studies done with the antibody against lysosomal marker LAMP1 and the P-gp-specific antibody UIC2 in permeabilized cells indicated that intracellular P-gp is primarily localized in the lysosomal compartment. Our results suggest that the lysosomal degradation system could be targeted to increase the sensitivity of P-gp- expressing cancer cells towards chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:26057472

  6. Blockade of P-Glycoprotein Decreased the Disposition of Phenformin and Increased Plasma Lactate Level

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Min-Koo; Song, Im-Sook

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the in vivo relevance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the pharmacokinetics and adverse effect of phenformin. To investigate the involvement of P-gp in the transport of phenformin, a bi-directional transport of phenformin was carried out in LLC-PK1 cells overexpressing P-gp, LLC-PK1-Pgp. Basal to apical transport of phenformin was 3.9-fold greater than apical to basal transport and became saturated with increasing phenformin concentration (2–75 μM) in LLC-PK1-Pgp, suggesting the involvement of P-gp in phenformin transport. Intrinsic clearance mediated by P-gp was 1.9 μL/min while passive diffusion clearance was 0.31 μL/min. Thus, P-gp contributed more to phenformin transport than passive diffusion. To investigate the contribution of P-gp on the pharmacokinetics and adverse effect of phenformin, the effects of verapamil, a P-gp inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics of phenformin were also examined in rats. The plasma concentrations of phenformin were increased following oral administration of phenformin and intravenous verapamil infusion compared with those administerd phenformin alone. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as Cmax and AUC of phenformin increased and CL/F and Vss/F decreased as a consequence of verapamil treatment. These results suggested that P-gp blockade by verapamil may decrease the phenformin disposition and increase plasma phenformin concentrations. P-gp inhibition by verapamil treatment also increased plasma lactate concentration, which is a crucial adverse event of phenformin. In conclusion, P-gp may play an important role in phenformin transport process and, therefore, contribute to the modulation of pharmacokinetics of phenformin and onset of plasma lactate level. PMID:26797108

  7. c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation contributes to hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha-dependent P-glycoprotein expression in hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Comerford, Katrina M; Cummins, Eoin P; Taylor, Cormac T

    2004-12-15

    We previously have shown that hypoxia increases the expression of P-glycoprotein, which in turn increases tumor cell capacity to actively extrude chemotherapeutic agents and may contribute to tumor drug resistance. This event is mediated through the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF-1). Here, we investigated the role of the stress-activated protein kinase c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) in the signaling mechanisms underlying these events. Hypoxia activates JNK activity in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) kinase kinase (MEKK-1), which preferentially activates JNK, mimics, in a nonadditive way, hypoxia-induced activity of the MDR1 promoter and expression of MDR1 mRNA and P-glycoprotein. Furthermore, the JNK inhibitor SP600125 selectively and specifically inhibits hypoxia- and MEKK-1-induced MDR1 promoter activity in a dose-dependent manner. JNK inhibition also reversed hypoxia- and MEKK-1-induced activity of an HIF-1-dependent reporter gene. MEKK-1-induced MDR1 expression depends on a functional HIF-1 binding site (hypoxia-responsive element). Hypoxia- but not cobalt chloride-dependent HIF-1-DNA binding and transcriptional activation was inhibited by SP600125, indicating that hypoxia-induced signaling to HIF-1 depends on JNK activation. Because it has been reported that reactive oxygen species are increased in hypoxia and related to JNK activation, we investigated their role in signaling this response. Whereas exogenous addition of H(2)O(2) was sufficient to activate JNK, reactive oxygen species scavengers were without effect on hypoxia-induced JNK or HIF-1 activation. Thus, hypoxia-elicited MDR1 expression, which depends on HIF-1 activation, depends at least in part on signaling via activation of JNK. Furthermore, these events are independent of the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates. Thus, JNK may represent a therapeutic target in the prevention of tumor resistance to chemotherapeutic treatment. PMID:15604272

  8. P-glycoprotein inhibition of drug resistant cell lines by nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manu Smriti; Lamprecht, Alf

    2016-02-01

    Several pharmaceutical excipients are known for their ability to interact with cell membrane lipids and reverse the phenomenon of multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer. Interestingly, many excipients act as stabilizers and are key ingredients in a variety of nano-formulations. In this study, representatives of ionic and non-ionic excipients were used as surface active agents in nanoparticle (NP) formulations to utilize their MDR reversing potential. In-vitro assays were performed to elucidate particle-cell interaction and accumulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates-rhodamine-123 and calcein AM, in highly drug resistant glioma cell lines. Chemosensitization achieved using NPs and their equivalent dose of free excipients was assessed with the co-administered anti-cancer drug doxorubicin. Among the excipients used, non-ionic surfactant, Cremophor EL, and cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonuium bromide (CTAB), demonstrated highest P-gp modulatory activity in both free solution form (up to 7-fold lower IC50) and as a formulation (up to 4.7-fold lower IC50) as compared to doxorubicin treatment alone. Solutol HS15 and Tween 80 exhibited considerable chemosensitization as free solution but not when incorporated into a formulation. Sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS)-based nanocarriers resulted in slightly improved cytotoxicity. Overall, the results highlight and envisage the usage of excipient in nano-formulations in a bid to improve chemosensitization of drug resistant cancer cells towards anti-cancer drugs. PMID:26065532

  9. The H2 receptor antagonist nizatidine is a P-glycoprotein substrate: characterization of its intestinal epithelial cell efflux transport.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Arik; Sabit, Hairat; Amidon, Gordon L

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the intestinal epithelial cell efflux transport processes that are involved in the intestinal transport of the H(2) receptor antagonist nizatidine. The intestinal epithelial efflux transport mechanisms of nizatidine were investigated and characterized across Caco-2 cell monolayers, in the concentration range 0.05-10 mM in both apical-basolateral (AP-BL) and BL-AP directions, and the transport constants of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux activity were calculated. The concentration-dependent effects of various P-gp (verapamil, quinidine, erythromycin, ketoconazole, and cyclosporine A), multidrug resistant-associated protein 2 (MRP2; MK-571, probenecid, indomethacin, and p-aminohipuric acid), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; Fumitremorgin C) inhibitors on nizatidine bidirectional transport were examined. Nizatidine exhibited 7.7-fold higher BL-AP than AP-BL Caco-2 permeability, indicative of net mucosal secretion. All P-gp inhibitors investigated displayed concentration-dependent inhibition on nizatidine secretion in both directions. The IC(50) of verapamil on nizatidine P-gp secretion was 1.2 x 10(-2) mM. In the absence of inhibitors, nizatidine displayed concentration-dependent secretion, with one saturable (J(max) = 5.7 x 10(-3) nmol cm(-2) s(-1) and K(m) = 2.2 mM) and one nonsaturable component (K(d) = 7 x 10(-4) microL cm(-2) s(-1)). Under complete P-gp inhibition, nizatidine exhibited linear secretory flux, with a slope similar to the nonsaturable component. V(max) and K(m) estimated for nizatidine P-gp-mediated secretion were 4 x 10(-3) nmol cm(-2) s(-1) and 1.2 mM, respectively. No effect was obtained with the MRP2 or the BCRP inhibitors. Being a drug commonly used in pediatrics, adults, and elderly, nizatidine susceptibility to efflux transport by P-gp revealed in this paper may be of significance in its absorption, distribution, and clearance, as well as possible drug-drug interactions. PMID:19319690

  10. A semisynthetic taxane Yg-3-46a effectively evades P-glycoprotein and ?-III tubulin mediated tumor drug resistance in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cai, Pei; Lu, Peihua; Sharom, Frances J; Fang, Wei-Shuo

    2013-12-01

    Tumor resistance, especially that mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and ?-III tubulin, is a major obstacle to the efficacy of most microtubule-targeting anticancer drugs in clinics. A novel semisynthetic taxane, 2-debenzoyl-2-(3-azidobenzyl)-10-propionyldocetaxel (Yg-3-46a) was shown to be highly cytotoxic to breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MCF/ADR which overexpressed P-gp via long term culture with doxorubicin, and cervical cancer cell lines Hela and Hela/?III which overexpressed ?III-tubulin via stable transfection with TUBB3 gene. siRNA transfection experiments also confirmed that Yg-3-46a can circumvent P-gp and ?-III tubulin mediated drug resistance. In addition, its cytotoxicity was lower than that of paclitaxel in the human mammary cell line HBL-100 and the human telomerase-immortalized retinal pigment epithelium cell line (hTERT-RPE1), suggesting a better safety margin for this compound in vivo. It exhibited more potent microtubule polymerization ability than paclitaxel in vitro, and also induced G2/M phase arrest in MCF-7/ADR cells. Moreover, it was found to induce apoptosis in MCF-7/ADR cells through the caspase-dependent death-receptor pathway by enhancing levels of Fas and FasL, and activating caspase-8 and 3. Yg-3-46a was found to be a poorer substrate of P-gp compared to paclitaxel, in both binding and ATPase experiments, which is likely responsible for its ability to circumvent P-gp mediated multidrug resistance (MDR). All of these results indicate that Yg-3-46a is a novel microtubule-stabilizing agent that has the potential to evade drug resistance mediated by P-gp and ?-III tubulin overexpression. PMID:23941826

  11. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein by psychotherapeutic drugs in a canine cell model.

    PubMed

    Schrickx, J A; Fink-Gremmels, J

    2014-10-01

    Drug-drug interactions related to long-term therapies are of increasing concern. Psychotherapeutic drugs, licensed for the use in dogs for the management of separation anxiety and other behavioural disorders, are examples of drugs used in long-term therapies. In an in vitro system with canine P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expressing cell lines, three psychotherapeutic drugs with a different mode of action were tested for their ability to inhibit the canine multidrug transporter P-gp. At 10?m, the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine and the tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine inhibited P-gp for 41% and 59%, respectively. In contrast, selegeline did not inhibit the function of the canine P-gp. PMID:24602126

  12. Using Rhodamine 123 Accumulation in CD8+ Cells as a Surrogate Indicator to Study the P-Glycoprotein Modulating Effect of Cepharanthine Hydrochloride In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Li, Han; Yan, Zhang; Ning, Wang; Xiao-Juan, Guo; Cai-Hong, Zang; Jin-Hua, Jiang; Fang, Ma; Qing-Duan, Wang

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was the use of rhodamine 123 (Rho123) accumulation in peripheral blood CD8+cells as a surrogate indicator to evaluate the modulating effect of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors in the multidrug resistance (MDR) tumor-bearing mouse model. Rho123 was administered to mice, and the fluorescence level in CD8+ cells was measured. Cepharanthine hydrochloride (CH) and verapamil (VER), two P-gp inhibitors, were administered to mice 1 hour prior to Rho123 administration in vivo or added to peripheral blood 1 hour prior to Rho123 addition ex vivo. The tumor inhibition effect of 5-fluorouracil/adriamycin/cisplatin (FAP) protocol plus CH was also investigated. A concentration- or dose-response relationship was shown between the concentration and dose of CH and Rho123 accumulation or the antitumor activity. In conclusion, the measurement of Rho123 accumulation in CD8+ cells provides a surrogate assay for the screening of candidate P-gp inhibitors in preclinical trials, and CH is effective in modulating P-gp-mediated MDR in vivo. PMID:21765632

  13. Mapping the Binding Site of the Inhibitor Tariquidar That Stabilizes the First Transmembrane Domain of P-glycoprotein*

    PubMed Central

    Loo, Tip W.; Clarke, David M.

    2015-01-01

    ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters are clinically important because drug pumps like P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) confer multidrug resistance and mutant ABC proteins are responsible for many protein-folding diseases such as cystic fibrosis. Identification of the tariquidar-binding site has been the subject of intensive molecular modeling studies because it is the most potent inhibitor and corrector of P-gp. Tariquidar is a unique P-gp inhibitor because it locks the pump in a conformation that blocks drug efflux but activates ATPase activity. In silico docking studies have identified several potential tariquidar-binding sites. Here, we show through cross-linking studies that tariquidar most likely binds to sites within the transmembrane (TM) segments located in one wing or at the interface between the two wings (12 TM segments form 2 divergent wings). We then introduced arginine residues at all positions in the 12 TM segments (223 mutants) of P-gp. The rationale was that a charged residue in the drug-binding pocket would disrupt hydrophobic interaction with tariquidar and inhibit its ability to rescue processing mutants or stimulate ATPase activity. Arginines introduced at 30 positions significantly inhibited tariquidar rescue of a processing mutant and activation of ATPase activity. The results suggest that tariquidar binds to a site within the drug-binding pocket at the interface between the TM segments of both structural wings. Tariquidar differed from other drug substrates, however, as it stabilized the first TM domain. Stabilization of the first TM domain appears to be a key mechanism for high efficiency rescue of ABC processing mutants that cause disease. PMID:26507655

  14. Mapping the Binding Site of the Inhibitor Tariquidar That Stabilizes the First Transmembrane Domain of P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Loo, Tip W; Clarke, David M

    2015-12-01

    ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters are clinically important because drug pumps like P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1) confer multidrug resistance and mutant ABC proteins are responsible for many protein-folding diseases such as cystic fibrosis. Identification of the tariquidar-binding site has been the subject of intensive molecular modeling studies because it is the most potent inhibitor and corrector of P-gp. Tariquidar is a unique P-gp inhibitor because it locks the pump in a conformation that blocks drug efflux but activates ATPase activity. In silico docking studies have identified several potential tariquidar-binding sites. Here, we show through cross-linking studies that tariquidar most likely binds to sites within the transmembrane (TM) segments located in one wing or at the interface between the two wings (12 TM segments form 2 divergent wings). We then introduced arginine residues at all positions in the 12 TM segments (223 mutants) of P-gp. The rationale was that a charged residue in the drug-binding pocket would disrupt hydrophobic interaction with tariquidar and inhibit its ability to rescue processing mutants or stimulate ATPase activity. Arginines introduced at 30 positions significantly inhibited tariquidar rescue of a processing mutant and activation of ATPase activity. The results suggest that tariquidar binds to a site within the drug-binding pocket at the interface between the TM segments of both structural wings. Tariquidar differed from other drug substrates, however, as it stabilized the first TM domain. Stabilization of the first TM domain appears to be a key mechanism for high efficiency rescue of ABC processing mutants that cause disease. PMID:26507655

  15. Differential chemosensitization of P-glycoprotein overexpressing K562/Adr cells by withaferin A and Siamois polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle in cancer treatment and is often the result of overexpression of the drug efflux protein, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), as a consequence of hyperactivation of NF?B, AP1 and Nrf2 transcription factors. In addition to effluxing chemotherapeutic drugs, P-gp also plays a specific role in blocking caspase-dependent apoptotic pathways. One feature that cytotoxic treatments of cancer have in common is activation of the transcription factor NF?B, which regulates inflammation, cell survival and P-gp expression and suppresses the apoptotic potential of chemotherapeutic agents. As such, NF?B inhibitors may promote apoptosis in cancer cells and could be used to overcome resistance to chemotherapeutic agents. Results Although the natural withanolide withaferin A and polyphenol quercetin, show comparable inhibition of NF?B target genes (involved in inflammation, angiogenesis, cell cycle, metastasis, anti-apoptosis and multidrug resistance) in doxorubicin-sensitive K562 and -resistant K562/Adr cells, only withaferin A can overcome attenuated caspase activation and apoptosis in K562/Adr cells, whereas quercetin-dependent caspase activation and apoptosis is delayed only. Interestingly, although withaferin A and quercetin treatments both decrease intracellular protein levels of Bcl2, Bim and P-Bad, only withaferin A decreases protein levels of cytoskeletal tubulin, concomitantly with potent PARP cleavage, caspase 3 activation and apoptosis, at least in part via a direct thiol oxidation mechanism. Conclusions This demonstrates that different classes of natural NF?B inhibitors can show different chemosensitizing effects in P-gp overexpressing cancer cells with impaired caspase activation and attenuated apoptosis. PMID:20438634

  16. CNS uptake of bortezomib is enhanced by P-glycoprotein inhibition: implications for spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Foran, Emily; Kwon, Deborah Y; Nofziger, Jonathan H; Arnold, Eveline S; Hall, Matthew D; Fischbeck, Kenneth H; Burnett, Barrington G

    2016-04-01

    The development of therapeutics for neurological disorders is constrained by limited access to the central nervous system (CNS). ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, particularly P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), are expressed on the luminal surface of capillaries in the CNS and transport drugs out of the endothelium back into the blood against the concentration gradient. Survival motor neuron (SMN) protein, which is deficient in spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), is a target of the ubiquitin proteasome system. Inhibiting the proteasome in a rodent model of SMA with bortezomib increases SMN protein levels in peripheral tissues but not the CNS, because bortezomib has poor CNS penetrance. We sought to determine if we could inhibit SMN degradation in the CNS of SMA mice with a combination of bortezomib and the ABC transporter inhibitor tariquidar. In cultured cells we show that bortezomib is a substrate of P-gp. Mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that intraperitoneal co-administration of tariquidar increased the CNS penetrance of bortezomib, and reduced proteasome activity in the brain and spinal cord. This correlated with increased SMN protein levels and improved survival and motor function of SMA mice. These findings show that CNS penetrance of treatment for this neurological disorder can be improved by inhibiting drug efflux at the blood-brain barrier. PMID:26792401

  17. Providing a molecular mechanism for P-glycoprotein; why would I bother?

    PubMed Central

    Callaghan, Richard

    2015-01-01

    It is almost 40 years since the drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (permeability glycoprotein or P-gp) was shown to confer multi-drug resistance in cancer cells. This protein has been one of the most extensively investigated transport proteins due to its intriguing mechanism and its affect in oncology. P-gp is known to interact with over 300 compounds and the ability to achieve this has not yet been revealed. Following the binding of substrate and nucleotide, a complex series of conformational changes in the membrane and cytosolic domains translocates substrate across the membrane. Despite over 30 years of biochemical investigation, the availability of structural data and a plethora of chemical tools to modulate its function, the molecular mechanism remains a mystery. In addition, overcoming its activity in resistant cancer cells has not been achieved in the clinic, thereby garnering some degree of pessimism in the field. This review highlights the progress that has been achieved in understanding this complex protein and the value of undertaking molecular studies. PMID:26517914

  18. Hyperammonemia enhances the function and expression of P-glycoprotein and Mrp2 at the blood-brain barrier through NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji; Zhang, Mian; Sun, Binbin; Li, Ying; Xu, Ping; Liu, Can; Liu, Li; Liu, Xiaodong

    2014-12-01

    Ammonia is considered to be the main neurotoxin responsible for hepatic encephalopathy resulting from liver failure. Liver failure has been reported to alter expression and activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of this study was to investigate whether ammonia is involved in abnormalities of expression and activity of P-gp and Mrp2 at the BBB. Hyperammonemic rats were developed by an intraperitoneal injection of ammonium acetate (NH4 Ac, 4.5 mmol/kg). Results showed that Mrp2 function markedly increased in cortex and hippocampus of rats at 6 h following NH4 Ac administration. Significant increase in function of P-gp was observed in hippocampus of rats. Meanwhile, such alterations were in line with the increase in mRNA and protein levels of P-gp and Mrp2. Significant increase in levels of nuclear amount of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 was also observed. Primarily cultured rat brain microvessel endothelial cells (rBMECs) were used for in vitro study. Data indicated that 24 h exposure to ammonia significantly increased function and expression of P-gp and Mrp2 in rBMECs, accompanied with activation of NF-κB. Furthermore, such alterations induced by ammonia were reversed by NF-κB inhibitor. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that hyperammonemia increases the function and expression of P-gp and Mrp2 at the BBB via activating NF-κB pathway. Hyperammonemia, a proverbial main factor responsible for neurocognitive disorder and blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction resulting from liver failure, could increase the expression and activity of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) at the BBB both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, the NF-κB activation stimulated by hyperammonemia may be the potential mechanism underlying such abnormalities induced by hyperammonemia. PMID:25200138

  19. Snapshots of ligand entry, malleable binding and induced helical movement in P-glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Szewczyk, Paul; Tao, Houchao; McGrath, Aaron P.; Villaluz, Mark; Rees, Steven D.; Lee, Sung Chang; Doshi, Rupak; Urbatsch, Ina L.; Zhang, Qinghai; Chang, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a transporter of great clinical and pharmacological significance. Several structural studies of P-gp and its homologs have provided insights into its transport cycle, but questions remain regarding how P-gp recognizes diverse substrates and how substrate binding is coupled to ATP hydrolysis. Here, four new P-gp co-crystal structures with a series of rationally designed ligands are presented. It is observed that the binding of certain ligands, including an ATP-hydrolysis stimulator, produces a large conformational change in the fourth transmembrane helix, which is positioned to potentially transmit a signal to the nucleotide-binding domains. A new ligand-binding site on the surface of P-gp facing the inner leaflet of the membrane is also described, providing vital insights regarding the entry mechanism of hydrophobic drugs and lipids into P-gp. These results represent significant advances in the understanding of how P-gp and related transporters bind and export a plethora of metabolites, antibiotics and clinically approved and pipeline drugs. PMID:25760620

  20. In Situ Localization of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) in Human and Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Bendayan, Reina; Ronaldson, Patrick T.; Gingras, Diane; Bendayan, Moise

    2006-01-01

    Transport of several xenobiotics including pharmacological agents into or out of the central nervous system (CNS) involves the expression of ATP-dependent, membrane-bound efflux transport proteins such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp) at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Previous studies have documented gene and protein expression of P-gp in brain microvessel endothelial cells. However, the exact localization of P-gp, particularly at the abluminal side of the BBB, remains controversial. In the present study we examined the cellular/subcellular distribution of P-gp in situ in rat and human brain tissues using immunogold cytochemistry at the electron microscope level. P-gp localizes to both the luminal and abluminal membranes of capillary endothelial cells as well as to adjacent pericytes and astrocytes. Subcellulary, P-gp is distributed along the nuclear envelope, in caveolae, cytoplasmic vesicles, Golgi complex, and rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). These results provide evidence for the expression of P-gp in human and rodent brain capillary along their plasma membranes as well as at sites of protein synthesis, glycosylation, and membrane trafficking. In addition, its presence at the luminal and abluminal poles of the BBB, including pericytes and astrocyte plasma membranes, suggests that this glycoprotein may regulate drug transport processes in the entire CNS BBB at both the cellular and subcellular level. PMID:16801529

  1. Effect of lyophilized grapefruit juice on P-glycoprotein-mediated drug transport in-vitro and in-vivo.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Iman S; Hassan, Mariame A; Kondo, Takashi

    2015-03-01

    The administration of grapefruit juice (GFJ) has been postulated to inhibit the activity of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) transport system and thus can enhance the uptake of substrate drugs. However, for various reasons, the results obtained have been always swaying between confirmation and refutation. This study aims at re-evaluating the effect of lyophilized freshly-prepared grapefruit juice (LGFJ) prepared from the whole peeled fruit on P-gp activity using the model drug doxorubicin (DOX) in-vitro and timolol maleate (TM) in-vivo. Human uterine sarcoma MES-SA/DX5v cells, grown under nanomolar concentration of DOX and highly expressing P-gp, were used as model cells for in-vitro studies whereas white New Zealand male rabbits were used for in-vivo studies. Results showed that the accumulation of DOX in MES-SA/DX5v cells was increased by 18.3 2.0% in presence of LGFJ compared to control experiments. Results from in-vivo absorption studies showed that the relative oral bioavailability of TM ingested with LGFJ was significantly higher by 70% and 43% compared to the oral bioavailability of TM ingested with saline and a commercial GFJ, respectively. This study as such confirms the inhibitory effects of LGFJ on P-gp efflux proteins and highlights the superiority of using lyophilized freshly prepared juices over the commercially available juices in research studies. Also, the results call for further studies to assess the possibility of co-administrating LGFJ with anti-cancer agents to modulate multidrug resistance in their cellular environment or incorporating LGFJ in solid dosage forms to improve oral bioavailability of drugs. PMID:24303901

  2. Nilotinib Counteracts P-Glycoprotein-Mediated Multidrug Resistance and Synergizes the Antitumoral Effect of Doxorubicin in Soft Tissue Sarcomas

    PubMed Central

    Villar, Victor Hugo; Vgler, Oliver; Martnez-Serra, Jordi; Ramos, Rafael; Calabuig-Farias, Silvia; Gutirrez, Antonio; Barcel, Francisca

    2012-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of doxorubicin (DXR) in the treatment of soft tissue sarcomas (STS) is limited by its toxicity and the development of multidrug resistance (MDR), the latter mainly induced by high expression of efflux pumps (e.g., P-glycoprotein [P-gp]). Therefore, the search for alternative therapies, which sensitize these tumors to chemotherapy while maintaining a low toxicity profile, is a rational approach. We assessed efficacy and molecular mechanisms involved in the antiproliferative effects of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors, nilotinib and imatinib, as single agents or in combination with DXR, in human synovial sarcoma SW982 and leiomyosarcoma SK-UT-1 cells. As single compound nilotinib (110 M) was more potent than imatinib inhibiting the growth of SK-UT-1 and SW982 cells by 33.559.6%, respectively. Importantly, only nilotinib synergized the antitumoral effect of DXR (0.050.5 M) by at least 2-fold, which clearly surpassed the mere sum of effects according to isobolographic analysis. Moreover, nilotinib in combination with DXR had a sustained effect on cell number (?70.35.8%) even 12 days after withdrawal of drugs compared to DXR alone. On the molecular level, only nilotinib fully blocked FBS-induced ERK1 and p38 MAPK activation, hence, reducing basal and DXR-induced up-regulation of P-gp levels. Moreover, efflux activity of the MDR-related proteins P-gp and MRP-1 was inhibited, altogether resulting in intracellular DXR retention. In high-risk STS tumors 53.8% and 15.4% were positive for P-gp and MRP-1 expression, respectively, with high incidence of P-gp in synovial sarcoma (72.7%). In summary, nilotinib exhibits antiproliferative effects on cellular models of STS and sensitizes them to DXR by reverting DXR-induced P-gp-mediated MDR and inhibiting MRP-1 activity, leading to a synergistic effect with potential for clinical treatment. PMID:22662203

  3. Optimization of 2,4-diamino-5-fluoropyrimidine derivatives as protein kinase C theta inhibitors with mitigated time-dependent drug-drug interactions and P-gp liability.

    PubMed

    Kunikawa, Shigeki; Tanaka, Akira; Mukoyoshi, Koichiro; Nagashima, Shinya; Tominaga, Hiroaki; Chida, Noboru; Tasaki, Mamoru; Shirai, Fumiyuki

    2015-07-01

    Protein kinase C theta (PKC?) plays a critical role in T cell signaling and has therapeutic potential for T cell-mediated diseases such as transplant rejection and rheumatoid arthritis. Here, a series of 2,4-diamino-5-fluoropyrimidine derivatives were prepared and evaluated for their inhibition of PKC?. Of these compounds, 14f was found to exhibit potent PKC? inhibitory activity and significantly weak CYP3A4 time-dependent inhibition (TDI) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) liability. PMID:25982074

  4. Discovery of 4-acetyl-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(p-tolyl)-5-methylpyrrole as a dual inhibitor of human P-glycoprotein and Staphylococcus aureus Nor A efflux pump.

    PubMed

    Bharate, Jaideep B; Singh, Samsher; Wani, Abubakar; Sharma, Sadhana; Joshi, Prashant; Khan, Inshad A; Kumar, Ajay; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Bharate, Sandip B

    2015-05-21

    Polysubstituted pyrrole natural products, lamellarins, are known to overcome multi-drug resistance in cancer via the inhibition of p-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) efflux pumps. Herein, a series of simplified polysubstituted pyrroles, prepared via a one-pot domino protocol, were screened for P-gp inhibition in P-gp overexpressing human adenocarcinoma LS-180 cells using a rhodamine 123 efflux assay. Several compounds showed the significant inhibition of P-gp at 50 μM, as indicated by increase in the intracellular accumulation of Rh123 in LS-180 cells. Furthermore, pyrrole 5i decreased the efflux of digoxin, a FDA approved P-gp substrate in MDCK-MDR1 cells with an IC50 of 11.2 μM. In in vivo studies, following the oral administration of a P-gp substrate drug, rifampicin, along with compound , the Cmax and AUC0-∞ of rifampicin was enhanced by 31% and 46%, respectively. All the compounds were then screened for their ability to potentiate ciprofloxacin activity via the inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus Nor A efflux pump. Pyrrole showed the significant inhibition of S. aureus Nor A efflux pump with 8- and 4-fold reductions in the MIC of ciprofloxacin at 50 and 6.25 μM, respectively. The molecular docking studies of compound with the human P-gp and S. aureus Nor A efflux pump identified its plausible binding site and key interactions. Thus, the results presented herein strongly indicate the potential of this scaffold for its use as multi-drug resistance reversal agent or bioavailability enhancer. PMID:25865846

  5. Expression of P-glycoprotein in the gills of oysters, Crassostrea virginica: seasonal and pollutant related effects.

    PubMed

    Keppler, C; Ringwood, A H

    2001-10-01

    The expression of p-glycoprotein (p-gp) in aquatic organisms has been proposed as a biomarker of pollution exposure. Previous research has provided evidence that p-gp is inducible by organic xenobiotics and that p-gp is overexpressed in mussels from degraded areas. However, seasonal changes in expression at polluted sites has not been described previously. The purposes of these studies were to evaluate the expression of p-gp in polluted and unpolluted sites in oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and to determine if there were seasonal differences. P-gp expression and total protein concentrations were measured seasonally in the gills of southeastern oysters, Crassostrea virginica, at degraded and undegraded sites in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina, USA. At all sites, p-gp expression was generally higher during the warmer months and lower in the colder months. Polluted sites tended to show a decrease in p-gp expression in June and September, suggesting that p-gp inhibition may have occurred. P-gp expression was not significantly related to specific classes of sediment contaminants or to overall sediment contaminant loading. Total gill protein concentrations at all sites were lower during the warmer months and higher during the colder months. In general, all sites tended to show decreased total gill protein concentrations when compared to the control site. Total protein concentrations were significantly related to water temperature, specific classes of sediment contaminants and overall sediment contaminant loads, but there was no relationship with salinity. PMID:11489306

  6. St. John's wort may ameliorate 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid colitis off rats through the induction of pregnane X receptors and/or P-glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Sehirli, A O; Cetinel, S; Ozkan, N; Selman, S; Tetik, S; Yuksel, M; Dulger, F G A

    2015-04-01

    It is reported that deficiencies of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the latter of which is encoded by the MDR1 gene, are important factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is also known that the activation of PXR is protective of IBD due to the mutual repression between PXR and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) expression and because NF-?B was reported to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. The goal of this study was to investigate whether St. John's wort (SJW) and spironolactone (SPL), both known to have strong inducing effects on cytochrome P 450 (CYP) enzymes as well as PXR and P-gp, have ameliorating effects on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis of rats through induction of PXR and/or P-gp. Wistar albino rats (250 - 300 g) were divided into control and TNBS-colitis groups. Each group was then divided into a) control (saline), b) SJW (300 mg/kg p.o. bid), and c) SPL (80 mg/kg p.o.) groups. Drugs were given for 7 days. Both treatments ameliorated the clinical hallmarks of colitis, as determined by body weight loss and assessment of diarrhea, colon length, and bowel histology. Plasma levels of NF-?B, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as well as the oxidative stress markers that increased during colitis, decreased significantly after both treatments. The PXR and P-gp expression in the intestinal tissues was diminished in the colitis group but increased after drug treatments. Both drugs appeared to have significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and ameliorated the TNBS colitis of the rats, most likely through their PXR- and P-gp-inducing properties. PMID:25903951

  7. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein-mediated transport by extracts of and monoterpenoids contained in Zanthoxyli Fructus

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshida, Naoko; Takagi, Akiyoshi; Kitazawa, Hidenori; Kawakami, Junichi . E-mail: kawakami-tym@umin.ac.jp; Adachi, Isao

    2005-12-01

    Citrus (rutaceous) herbs are often used in traditional medicine and Japanese cuisine and can be taken concomitantly with conventional medicine. In this study, the effect of various citrus-herb extracts on P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated transport was examined in vitro to investigate a possible interaction with P-gp substrates. Component monoterpenoids of the essential oil in Zanthoxyli Fructus was screened to find novel P-gp inhibitors. LLC-GA5-COL150 cells transfected with human MDR1 cDNA encoding P-gp were used. Cellular accumulation of [{sup 3}H]digoxin was measured in the presence or absence of P-gp inhibitors or test samples. Aurantii Fructus, Evodiae Fructus, Aurantii Fructus Immaturus, Aurantii Nobilis Pericarpium, Phellodendri Cortex, and Zanthoxyli Fructus were extracted with hot water (decocted) and then fractionated with ethyl acetate. The cell to medium ratio of [{sup 3}H]digoxin accumulation increased significantly in the presence of the decoction of Evodiae Fructus, Aurantii Nobilis Pericarpium, and Zanthoxyli Fructus, and the ethyl acetate fraction of all citrus herbs used. The ethyl acetate fraction of Zanthoxyli Fructus exhibited the strongest inhibition of P-gp among tested samples with an IC{sub 5} value of 166 {mu}g/mL. Then its component monoterpenoids, geraniol, geranyl acetate (R)-(+)-limonene, (R)-(+)-linalool, citronellal (R)-(+)-citronellal, DL-citronellol (S)-(-)-{beta}-citronellol, and cineole, were screened. (R)-(+)-citronellal and (S)-(-)-{beta}-citronellol inhibited P-gp with IC{sub 5} values of 167 {mu}M and 504 {mu}M, respectively. These findings suggest that Zanthoxyli Fructus may interact with P-gp substrates and that some monoterpenoids with the relatively lower molecular weight of about 150 such as (R)-(+)-citronellal can be potent inhibitors of P-gp.

  8. In Silico Screening for Inhibitors of P-Glycoprotein That Target the Nucleotide Binding Domains

    PubMed Central

    Brewer, Frances K.; Follit, Courtney A.; Vogel, Pia D.

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug resistances and the failure of chemotherapies are often caused by the expression or overexpression of ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins such as the multidrug resistance protein, P-glycoprotein (P-gp). P-gp is expressed in the plasma membrane of many cell types and protects cells from accumulation of toxins. P-gp uses ATP hydrolysis to catalyze the transport of a broad range of mostly hydrophobic compounds across the plasma membrane and out of the cell. During cancer chemotherapy, the administration of therapeutics often selects for cells which overexpress P-gp, thereby creating populations of cancer cells resistant to a variety of chemically unrelated chemotherapeutics. The present study describes extremely high-throughput, massively parallel in silico ligand docking studies aimed at identifying reversible inhibitors of ATP hydrolysis that target the nucleotide-binding domains of P-gp. We used a structural model of human P-gp that we obtained from molecular dynamics experiments as the protein target for ligand docking. We employed a novel approach of subtractive docking experiments that identified ligands that bound predominantly to the nucleotide-binding domains but not the drug-binding domains of P-gp. Four compounds were found that inhibit ATP hydrolysis by P-gp. Using electron spin resonance spectroscopy, we showed that at least three of these compounds affected nucleotide binding to the transporter. These studies represent a successful proof of principle demonstrating the potential of targeted approaches for identifying specific inhibitors of P-gp. PMID:25270578

  9. P-glycoprotein inhibitors: synthesis and in vitro evaluation of a preactivated thiomer.

    PubMed

    Netsomboon, Kesinee; Laffleur, Flavia; Bernkop-Schnrch, A

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize the preactivated thiomer poly(acrylic acid)-cyteine-2-mercaptonicotinic acid (PAA-Cys-2MNA) and to evaluate its P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitory properties. The thiomer (PAA-Cys) was synthesized by covalent immobilization of thiol groups on poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) with a molecular mass of 250?kDa followed by immobilization of 2-mercaptonicotinic acid (2MNA) to thiol groups via disulfide bond formation resulting in PAA-Cys-2MNA. P-gp inhibitory effect of this preactivated thiomer was evaluated on Caco-2 cells. Transports of rhodamine 123 at 37?C with and without verapamil and at 4?C were performed to evaluate P-gp function of cells. In total, 1571.81??156.18?mol thiol groups were immobilized per gram of polymer that were in the next step by 99.88% preactivated. The enhancement ratios of Papp calculated from the ratio between Papp of rhodamine 123 in the presence of P-gp inhibitors and Papp of rhodamine 123 alone were 2.36, 2.09, and 1.84-fold in the presence of PAA-Cys-2MNA, PAA-Cys, and PAA, respectively. Because of its pronounced P-gp inhibitory effect, PAA-Cys-2MNA could be considered as promising macromolecular P-gp inhibitor for various drug delivery systems. PMID:26288998

  10. Heterogeneous transport of digitalis-like compounds by P-glycoprotein in vesicular and cellular assays.

    PubMed

    Gozalpour, Elnaz; Wilmer, Martijn J; Bilos, Albert; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Russel, Frans G M; Koenderink, Jan B

    2016-04-01

    Digitalis-like compounds (DLCs), the ancient medication of heart failure and Na,K-ATPase inhibitors, are characterized by their toxicity. Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) at absorption and excretion levels play a key role in their toxicity, hence, knowledge about the transporters involved might prevent these unwanted interactions. In the present study, the transport of fourteen DLCs with human P-glycoprotein (P-gp; ABCB1) was studied using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) quantification method. DLC transport by P-gp overexpressing Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and immortalized human renal cells (ciPTEC) was compared to vesicular DLC transport. Previously, we identified convallatoxin as a substrate using membrane vesicles overexpressing P-gp; however, we could not measure transport of other DLCs in this assay (Gozalpour et al., 2014a). Here, we showed that lipophilic digitoxin, digoxigenin, strophanthidin and proscillaridin A are P-gp substrates in cellular accumulation assays, whereas the less lipophilic convallatoxin was not. P-gp function in the cellular accumulation assays depends on the entrance of lipophilic compounds by passive diffusion, whereas the vesicular transport assay is more appropriate for hydrophilic substrates. In conclusion, we identified digitoxin, digoxigenin, strophanthidin and proscillaridin A as P-gp substrates using cellular accumulation assays and recognized lipophilicity as an important factor in selecting a suitable transport assay. PMID:26708294

  11. Inhibitory effects of neochamaejasmin B on P-glycoprotein in MDCK-hMDR1 cells and molecular docking of NCB binding in P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lanying; Hu, Haihong; Wang, Xiangjun; Yu, Lushan; Jiang, Huidi; Chen, Jianzhong; Lou, Yan; Zeng, Su

    2015-01-01

    Stellera chamaejasme L. (Thymelaeaceae) is widely distributed in Mongolia, Tibet and the northern parts of China. Its roots are commonly used as "Langdu", which is embodied in the Pharmacopoeia of the P.R. China (2010) as a toxic Traditional Chinese Medicine. It is claimed to have antivirus, antitumor and antibacterial properties in China and other Asian countries. Studies were carried out to characterize the inhibition of neochamaejasmin B (NCB) on P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1, MDR1). Rhodamine-123 (R-123) transport and accumulation studies were performed in MDCK-hMDR1 cells. ABCB1 (MDR1) mRNA gene expression and P-gp protein expression were analyzed. Binding selectivity studies based on molecular docking were explored. R-123 transport and accumulation studies in MDCK-hMDR1 cells indicated that NCB inhibited the P-gp-mediated efflux in a concentration-dependent manner. RT-PCR and Western blot demonstrated that the P-gp expression was suppressed by NCB. To investigate the inhibition type of NCB on P-gp, Ki and Ki' values were determined by double-reciprocal plots in R-123 accumulation studies. Since Ki was greater than Ki', the inhibition of NCB on P-gp was likely a mixed type of competitive and non-competitive inhibition. The results were confirmed by molecular docking in our current work. The docking data indicated that NCB had higher affinity to P-gp than to Lig1 ((S)-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)chroman-4-one). PMID:25679052

  12. Docking Applied to the Prediction of the Affinity of Compounds to P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Palestro, Pablo H.; Gavernet, Luciana; Estiu, Guillermina L.; Bruno Blanch, Luis E.

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is involved in the transport of xenobiotic compounds and responsible for the decrease of the drug accumulation in multi-drug-resistant cells. In this investigation we compare several docking algorithms in order to find the conditions that are able to discriminate between P-gp binders and nonbinders. We built a comprehensive dataset of binders and nonbinders based on a careful analysis of the experimental data available in the literature, trying to overcome the discrepancy noticeable in the experimental results. We found that Autodock Vina flexible docking is the best choice for the tested options. The results will be useful to filter virtual screening results in the rational design of new drugs that are not expected to be expelled by P-gp. PMID:24982867

  13. Bypassing P-Glycoprotein Drug Efflux Mechanisms: Possible Applications in Pharmacoresistant Schizophrenia Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hoosain, Famida G.; Choonara, Yahya E.; Tomar, Lomas K.; Kumar, Pradeep; Tyagi, Charu; du Toit, Lisa C.; Pillay, Viness

    2015-01-01

    The efficient noninvasive treatment of neurodegenerative disorders is often constrained by reduced permeation of therapeutic agents into the central nervous system (CNS). A vast majority of bioactive agents do not readily permeate into the brain tissue due to the existence of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the associated P-glycoprotein efflux transporter. The overexpression of the MDR1 P-glycoprotein has been related to the occurrence of multidrug resistance in CNS diseases. Various research outputs have focused on overcoming the P-glycoprotein drug efflux transporter, which mainly involve its inhibition or bypassing mechanisms. Studies into neurodegenerative disorders have shown that the P-glycoprotein efflux transporter plays a vital role in the progression of schizophrenia, with a noted increase in P-glycoprotein function among schizophrenic patients, thereby reducing therapeutic outcomes. In this review, we address the hypothesis that methods employed in overcoming P-glycoprotein in cancer and other disease states at the level of the BBB and intestine may be applied to schizophrenia drug delivery system design to improve clinical efficiency of drug therapies. In addition, the current review explores polymers and drug delivery systems capable of P-gp inhibition and modulation. PMID:26491671

  14. P-glycoprotein expression in primary breast cancer detected by immunocytochemistry with two monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Wishart, G. C.; Plumb, J. A.; Going, J. J.; McNicol, A. M.; McArdle, C. S.; Tsuruo, T.; Kaye, S. B.

    1990-01-01

    We have investigated P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression in samples of primary breast cancer from 29 patients before therapy. We employed immunohistochemical techniques using two monoclonal antibodies (C219 and MRK16) and an indirect alkaline phosphatase method. Heterogeneous expression in epithelial cells was detected with both C219 (21 of 29) and MRK16 (16 of 29). A surprising finding was P-glycoprotein expression in stromal cells with both C219 (26 of 29) and MRK16 (12 of 29). Our results suggest that significant levels of P-glycoprotein expression may be present in breast cancer before exposure to drugs associated with multidrug resistance. Images Figure 1 PMID:1978783

  15. Influence of P-glycoprotein on embryotoxicity of the antifouling biocides to sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus intermedius).

    PubMed

    Xu, Xue; Fu, Jingxuan; Wang, Heng; Zhang, Baidong; Wang, Xia; Wang, Yonghua

    2011-03-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), as an ATP-binding cassette transporter, transports a wide variety of substrates varying from small molecules like steroids to large polypeptides across the cell membrane in human and animals, even in aquatic animals. Although P-gp protein has attracted much attention of research, its effect on the toxicity of environmental toxicants such as antifouling biocides is still poorly understood. The goal of this study is to evaluate whether copper pyrithione (CuPT), Sea-Nine 211, dichlofluanid and tolylfluanid, four widely used antifouling agents, can be transported by P-gp in embryos of sea urchin Strongylocentrotus intermedius in the presence and absence of the P-gp inhibitor verapamil. Cytotoxcicities of Sea-Nine 211 (EC50 = 99 nM, at 4-arm pluteus) and dichlofluanid (EC50 = 144 nM, at multi-cell) are enhanced by the addition of the P-gp inhibitor, indicating that the two biocides are potential P-gp substrates. Tolylfluanid and CuPT are not transported by P-gp out of the cell, since no obvious changes in the cytotoxicities of the two biocides are observed no matter whether verapamil is added or not. In addition, to understand the mechanisms of ligand binding and its interaction with P-gp, a three-dimensional model of the sea urchin P-gp is generated based on the mouse crystal structure by using homology modeling approach. With this model, a flexible docking is performed and the results indicate that Sea-Nine 211 and dichlofluanid share the same binding site with verapamil, composed of key residues Lys677, Lys753, Thr756, Ala780, Met1033 and Phe1037, whereas tolylfluanid and CuPT display totally different binding modes to P-gp. This further demonstrates that Sea-Nine 211 and dichlofluanid are P-gp substrates, which provides us with new insights into the interactions of P-gp with the antifouling contaminants in aquatic invertebrate embryos. PMID:21229388

  16. Tariquidar Is an Inhibitor and Not a Substrate of Human and Mouse P-glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Weidner, Lora D.; Fung, King Leung; Kannan, Pavitra; Moen, Janna K.; Kumar, Jeyan S.; Mulder, Jan; Innis, Robert B.; Gottesman, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Since its development, tariquidar (TQR; XR9576; N-[2-[[4-[2-(6,7-Dimethoxy-3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinolin-2-yl)ethyl]phenyl]carbamoyl]-4,5-dimethoxyphenyl]quinoline-3-carboxamide) has been widely regarded as one of the more potent inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux transporter of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family. A third-generation inhibitor, TQR exhibits high affinity for P-gp, although it is also a substrate of another ABC transporter, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Recently, several studies have questioned the mechanism by which TQR interfaces with P-gp, suggesting that TQR is a substrate for P-gp instead of a noncompetitive inhibitor. We investigated TQR and its interaction with human and mouse P-gp to determine if TQR is a substrate of P-gp in vitro. To address these questions, we used multiple in vitro transporter assays, including cytotoxicity, flow cytometry, accumulation, ATPase, and transwell assays. A newly generated BCRP cell line was used as a positive control that demonstrates TQR-mediated transport. Based on our results, we conclude that TQR is a potent inhibitor of both human and mouse P-gp and shows no signs of being a substrate at the concentrations tested. These in vitro data further support our position that the in vivo uptake of [11C]TQR into the brain can be explained by its high-affinity binding to P-gp and by it being a substrate of BCRP, followed by amplification of the brain signal by ionic trapping in acidic lysosomes. PMID:26658428

  17. Tariquidar Is an Inhibitor and Not a Substrate of Human and Mouse P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Weidner, Lora D; Fung, King Leung; Kannan, Pavitra; Moen, Janna K; Kumar, Jeyan S; Mulder, Jan; Innis, Robert B; Gottesman, Michael M; Hall, Matthew D

    2016-02-01

    Since its development, tariquidar (TQR; XR9576; N-[2-[[4-[2-(6,7-Dimethoxy-3,4-dihydro-1H-isoquinolin-2-yl)ethyl]phenyl]carbamoyl]-4,5-dimethoxyphenyl]quinoline-3-carboxamide) has been widely regarded as one of the more potent inhibitors of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux transporter of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family. A third-generation inhibitor, TQR exhibits high affinity for P-gp, although it is also a substrate of another ABC transporter, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). Recently, several studies have questioned the mechanism by which TQR interfaces with P-gp, suggesting that TQR is a substrate for P-gp instead of a noncompetitive inhibitor. We investigated TQR and its interaction with human and mouse P-gp to determine if TQR is a substrate of P-gp in vitro. To address these questions, we used multiple in vitro transporter assays, including cytotoxicity, flow cytometry, accumulation, ATPase, and transwell assays. A newly generated BCRP cell line was used as a positive control that demonstrates TQR-mediated transport. Based on our results, we conclude that TQR is a potent inhibitor of both human and mouse P-gp and shows no signs of being a substrate at the concentrations tested. These in vitro data further support our position that the in vivo uptake of [(11)C]TQR into the brain can be explained by its high-affinity binding to P-gp and by it being a substrate of BCRP, followed by amplification of the brain signal by ionic trapping in acidic lysosomes. PMID:26658428

  18. Expression of MDR1/P glycoprotein in human sarcomas.

    PubMed Central

    Vergier, B.; Cany, L.; Bonnet, F.; Robert, J.; de Mascarel, A.; Coindre, J. M.

    1993-01-01

    Conflicting reports of MDR1 gene expression in human tumours are observed according to whether studies are performed at the mRNA or P-glycoprotein level. We have investigated this expression in 22 clinically drug-resistant sarcomas at the mRNA level by Northern blot (NB), Dot blot (DB), in situ hybridisation (ISH), and at the protein level by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using three monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs): C219, JSB1, MRK16. Increased MDR1 mRNA expression was detected by NB, DB, and ISH in 1/22 sarcoma (an Ewing's sarcoma). ISH was perfectly correlated with DB hybridisation and confirmed the expression of tumoral cells alone. Specific staining of 100% of tumoral cells was obtained with the three MoAbs in the same sarcoma. Expression in tumoral cells of 12 other sarcomas was detected with MRK16, and positive staining of stromal cells with both C219 (1/22) and MRK16 (8/22) was observed. This study confirms that MDR1 overexpression occurs in human sarcomas but is not the principal mechanism of drug-resistance. Furthermore, positivity with one antibody does not necessarily imply the presence of P glycoprotein (P-gp) and a disparity may exist between the levels of P-gp and its mRNA in the same sample. So care must be taken in interpreting results and more sensitive techniques such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) could prove useful. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:7903154

  19. Reversion of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance by diallyl trisulfide in a human osteosarcoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiyong; Xia, Qing; Cui, Jia; Diao, Yutao; Li, Jianmin

    2014-06-01

    Diallyl trisulfide (DATS), the main sulfuric compound in garlic, has been shown to have antitumor effects. The present study aimed to ascertain whether DATS reverses the drug resistance of human osteosarcoma cells in vitro and to investigate its potential mechanisms. Human osteosarcoma U2-OS cells were treated with different concentrations of DATS. Cell proliferation was measured by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, while P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression and the proportion of apoptotic cells were measured by flow cytometry. Morphological changes were observed under an optical microscope. ?uclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and inhibitor of NF-?B (I?B) activities were measured by PCR and western blot analysis. Results showed that the proliferation of U2-OS cells treated with different concentrations of DATS was significantly decreased in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. DATS increased the toxic effect of adriamycin on U2-OS cells. Moreover, P-gp expression was decreased and the apoptosis rate was increased in a concentration-dependent manner following treatment of DATS. Additionally, NF-?B activity was inhibited by DATS while expression of I?B was increased. Our data clearly suggest that DATS has significant anticancer effects on human osteosarcoma cells. The potential mechanisms include reducing the multidrug resistance and inducing apoptosis. NF-?B suppression may be involved in DATS-induced inhibition of cell proliferation. PMID:24788927

  20. Population pharmacokinetic modelling of non-linear brain distribution of morphine: influence of active saturable influx and P-glycoprotein mediated efflux

    PubMed Central

    Groenendaal, D; Freijer, J; de Mik, D; Bouw, M R; Danhof, M; de Lange, E C M

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Biophase equilibration must be considered to gain insight into the mechanisms underlying the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) correlations of opioids. The objective was to characterise in a quantitative manner the non-linear distribution kinetics of morphine in brain. Experimental approach: Male rats received a 10-min infusion of 4 mg kg?1 of morphine, combined with a continuous infusion of the P-glycoprotein (Pgp) inhibitor GF120918 or vehicle, or 40 mg kg?1 morphine alone. Unbound extracellular fluid (ECF) concentrations obtained by intracerebral microdialysis and total blood concentrations were analysed using a population modelling approach. Key results: Blood pharmacokinetics of morphine was best described with a three-compartment model and was not influenced by GF120918. Non-linear distribution kinetics in brain ECF was observed with increasing dose. A one compartment distribution model was developed, with separate expressions for passive diffusion, active saturable influx and active efflux by Pgp. The passive diffusion rate constant was 0.0014 min?1. The active efflux rate constant decreased from 0.0195 min?1 to 0.0113 min?1 in the presence of GF120918. The active influx was insensitive to GF120918 and had a maximum transport (Nmax/Vecf) of 0.66 ng min?1 ml?1 and was saturated at low concentrations of morphine (C50=9.9 ng ml?1). Conclusions and implications: Brain distribution of morphine is determined by three factors: limited passive diffusion; active efflux, reduced by 42% by Pgp inhibition; low capacity active uptake. This implies blood concentration-dependency and sensitivity to drug-drug interactions. These factors should be taken into account in further investigations on PK-PD correlations of morphine. PMID:17471182

  1. Detergents as intrinsic P-glycoprotein substrates and inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Li-Blatter, Xiaochun; Nervi, Pierluigi; Seelig, Anna

    2009-10-01

    We assessed the interaction of three electrically neutral detergents (Triton X-100, C(12)EO(8), and Tween 80) with P-glycoprotein (ABCB1, MDR1) and identified the molecular elements responsible for this interaction. To this purpose we titrated P-glycoprotein in inside-out plasma membrane vesicles of MDR1-transfected mouse embryo fibroblasts (NIH-MDR1-G185) with the detergents below their critical micelle concentration, CMC. The P-glycoprotein ATPase measured as a function of the detergent concentration yielded bell-shaped activity curves which were evaluated with a two-site binding model. The lipid-water partition coefficient and the transporter-water binding constant of the detergents were measured independently. Knowledge of these two parameters allowed assessment of the free energy of detergent binding to P-glycoprotein in the lipid membrane, DeltaG(tl)(0), that reflects the direct detergent-transporter affinity. It increased as the number of ethoxyl groups increased, suggesting that these hydrogen bond acceptor groups are the key elements for the detergent-transporter interaction in the lipid membrane. The free energy of binding to P-glycoprotein per ethoxyl group (EO) was determined as approximately DeltaG(EO)(0)=-1.6 kJ/mol. The present findings moreover document that, depending on the concentration applied, detergents are intrinsic substrates for, or inhibitors of P-glycoprotein. PMID:19631191

  2. Hyperglycemia induced down-regulation of renal P-glycoprotein expression.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Szu-Yu; Pan, Huei-Ju; Lin, Chung-Cheng; Kao, Yu-Han; Chen, Yen-Hui; Lin, Chun-Jung

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the regulation of P-glycoprotein expression in the kidney under diabetic condition. Renal P-glycoprotein expression was examined in inbred mice with type 1 or type 2 diabetes by Western blotting. The underlying mechanisms of P-glycoprotein regulation were examined in Madin-Darby canine kidney type II (MDCK-II) cells by Western blotting or qRT-PCR. (3)H-digoxin uptake was measured for P-glycoprotein activity in cells under various treatments. The results showed that P-glycoprotein expression was lower in kidneys of diabetic mice than in controls. In MDCK-II cells, treatments with insulin or IL-6 did not cause any change in P-glycoprotein expression, whereas TNF-? tended to increase P-glycoprotein expression at a concentration of 1 ng/ml. On the other hand, P-glycoprotein expression was reduced under high glucose conditions (450 mg/dl), while superoxide production was increased, and the reduction in P-glycoprotein expression was abolished by N-acetylcysteine (an antioxidant) and staurosporine (a nonselective PKC inhibitor). Treatment with oxidizing agents (H(2)O(2), BSO) or PMA (a PKC activator) reduced P-glycoprotein expression. Antioxidant (N-acetylcysteine or glutathione) co-treatment abolished the H(2)O(2)-induced and BSO-induced reduction in P-glycoprotein expression, whereas it did not prevent the effect of PMA. The PMA-induced P-glycoprotein down-regulation was prevented by co-treatment of LY333531 (a PKC-? inhibitor). (3)H-digoxin levels were higher in MDCK-II cells with high glucose, PMA or H(2)O(2) treatments. In conclusion, P-glycoprotein expression is lower in kidneys of diabetic mice and in MDCK-II cells under high glucose conditions. Hyperglycemia induced reactive oxygen species and activated PKC in MDCK-II cells, leading to the decrease in P-glycoprotein expression. PMID:22721613

  3. Digoxin and ouabain induce P-glycoprotein by activating calmodulin kinase II and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha in human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Riganti, Chiara

    2009-11-01

    Digoxin and ouabain are cardioactive glycosides, which inhibit the Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase pump and in this way they increase the intracellular concentration of cytosolic calcium ([Ca{sup ++}]{sub i}). They are also strong inducers of the P-glycoprotein (Pgp), a transmembrane transporter which extrudes several drugs, including anticancer agents like doxorubicin. An increased amount of Pgp limits the absorption of drugs through epithelial cells, thus inducing resistance to chemotherapy. The mechanism by which cardioactive glycosides increase Pgp is not known and in this work we investigated whether digoxin and ouabain elicited the expression of Pgp with a calcium-driven mechanism. In human colon cancer HT29 cells both glycosides increased the [Ca{sup ++}]{sub i} and this event was dependent on the calcium influx via the Na{sup +}/Ca{sup ++} exchanger. The increased [Ca{sup ++}]{sub i} enhanced the activity of the calmodulin kinase II enzyme, which in turn activated the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha. This one was responsible for the increased expression of Pgp, which actively extruded doxorubicin from the cells and significantly reduced the pro-apoptotic effect of the drug. All the effects of glycosides were prevented by inhibiting the Na{sup +}/Ca{sup ++} exchanger or the calmodulin kinase II. This work clarified the molecular mechanisms by which digoxin and oubain induce Pgp and pointed out that the administration of cardioactive glycosides may widely affect the absorption of drugs in colon epithelia. Moreover, our results suggest that the efficacy of chemotherapeutic agent substrates of Pgp may be strongly reduced in patients taking digoxin.

  4. Optimization of irinotecan chronotherapy with P-glycoprotein inhibition.

    PubMed

    Filipski, Elisabeth; Berland, Elodie; Ozturk, Narin; Guettier, Catherine; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T J; Lévi, Francis; Okyar, Alper

    2014-02-01

    The relevance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) for irinotecan chronopharmacology was investigated in female B6D2F1 mice. A three-fold 24h change in the mRNA expression of Abcb1b was demonstrated in ileum mucosa, with a maximum at Zeitgeber Time (ZT) 15 (p<0.001). No rhythm was found for abcb1a in ileum mucosa, or for Abcb1a/b in Glasgow osteosarcoma (GOS), a mouse tumor cell line moderately sensitive to irinotecan. Non-tumor-bearing mice received irinotecan (50mg/kg/day i.v.×4days) as a single agent or combined with P-gp inhibitor PSC833 (6.25mg/kg/day i.p.×4 days) at ZT3 or ZT15, respectively corresponding to the worst or the best irinotecan tolerability. Endpoints involved survival, body weight change and hematologic toxicity. Antitumor efficacy was studied in GOS-bearing mice receiving irinotecan (25, 30 or 40mg/kg/day×4days) and +/-PSC833 at ZT3 or ZT15, with survival, body weight change, and tumor growth inhibition as endpoints. Non-tumor bearing mice lost an average of 17% or 9% of their body weight according to irinotecan administration at ZT3 or ZT15 respectively (p<0.001). Dosing at ZT15 rather than ZT3 reduced mean leucopenia (9% vs 53%; p<0.001). PSC833 aggravated irinotecan lethal toxicity from 4 to ~60%. In tumor-bearing mice, body weight loss was ~halved in the mice on irinotecan or irinotecan-PSC833 combination at ZT15 as compared to ZT3 (p<0.001). PSC833-irinotecan at ZT15 increased tumor inhibition by ~40% as compared to irinotecan only at ZT15. In conclusion, P-gp was an important determinant of the circadian balance between toxicity and efficacy of irinotecan. PMID:24380837

  5. Modulation of multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein activity by antiemetic compounds in human doxorubicin-resistant sarcoma cells (MES-SA/Dx-5): implications on cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Angelini, A; Conti, P; Ciofani, G; Cuccurullo, F; Di Ilio, C

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells is often caused by the high expression of the plasma membrane drug transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) associated with an elevated intracellular glutathione (GSH) content in various human tumors. Several chemosensitizers reverse MDR but have significant toxicities. Antiemetic medications are often used for controlling chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in cancer patient. In this in vitro study we investigated if the effects of two common antiemetic drugs such as dimenhydrinate (dime) and ondansentron (onda) and a natural compound (6)-gingerol (ginger), the active principle of ginger root, interfere on Pgp activity and intracellular GSH content in order to evaluate their potential use as chemosensitizing agents in anticancer chemotherapy. The human doxorubicin (doxo) resistant uterine sarcoma cells (MES-SA/Dx5) that overexpress Pgp, were treated with each antiemetic alone (1, 10 and 20 microM) or in combination with different doxo concentrations (2, 4, and 8 microM). We measured the intracellular accumulation and cytotoxicity of doxo (MTT assay), the cellular GSH content (GSH assay) and ROS production (DFC-DA assay), in comparison with verapamil (Ver), a specific inhibitor for Pgp, used as reference molecule. We found that exposure at 2, 4 and 8 microM doxo concentrations in the presence of dime, onda and ginger enhanced significantly doxo accumulation and cytotoxicity on resistant MES-SA/Dx5 cells when compared with doxo alone. Moreover, treatment with ginger (20 microM) increased cellular GSH content (greater than 10 percent) in resistant cells, while ROS production remained below the control values for all antiemetic compounds at all concentrations. These findings provide the rationale for innovative clinical trials of antiemetics or their derivatives as a new potential generation of chemosensitizers to improve effectiveness of the anticancer drugs in MDR human tumours. PMID:24382184

  6. Functionalized nanocarrier combined seizure-specific vector with P-glycoprotein modulation property for antiepileptic drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiansheng; He, Yajing; Zhang, Jun; Li, Jiajia; Yu, Xiangrong; Cao, Zhonglian; Meng, Fanmin; Zhao, Yuwu; Wu, Xunyi; Shen, Teng; Hong, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Despite optimal therapeutic regimen with currently available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), approximately a third of epilepsy patients remain drug refractory. Region-specific overexpression of multidrug efflux transporters at the blood-brain barrier, such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), might contribute to multidrug resistance (MDR) by reducing target concentrations of AEDs. Therefore, development of nanomedicine that can modulate P-gp function as well as facilitate targeted AEDs delivery represents a promising strategy for epilepsy intervention. To achieve this, we sought to exploit the possibility of combination of active targeting function of tryptophan by transporter-mediated endocytosis and overcoming MDR by Pluronic block copolymers. Herein, a tryptophan derivate (TD) functionalized Pluronic P123/F127 mixed micelles encapsulating LTG (TD-PF/LTG) was developed to promote AEDs delivery to epileptogenic focus. TD-PF/LTG was about 20 nm in diameter with a spherical shape and high encapsulation efficiency. A rat epilepsy model with pilocarpine was established to evaluate the brain penetration efficiency of the LTG-incorporated polymeric micellar formulation, compared with free LTG formulations. Studies showed that TD-PF/LTG was more efficient than PF/LTG as well as free LTG in delivering the drug to the brain, especially the hippocampus. The enhanced targeted delivery could be ascribed to the increased tryptophan uptake at epileptogenic focus as well as P-gp modulation property of the nanomaterial. Taken together, TD-conjugated Pluronic micelles showed promising potential as a nanoplatform for the delivery of AEDs in refractory epilepsy. PMID:26447556

  7. Optimization of irinotecan chronotherapy with P-glycoprotein inhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Filipski, Elisabeth; Berland, Elodie; Ozturk, Narin; Guettier, Catherine; Horst, Gijsbertus T.J. van der; Lévi, Francis; and others

    2014-02-01

    The relevance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) for irinotecan chronopharmacology was investigated in female B6D2F{sub 1} mice. A three-fold 24 h change in the mRNA expression of Abcb1b was demonstrated in ileum mucosa, with a maximum at Zeitgeber Time (ZT) 15 (p < 0.001). No rhythm was found for abcb1a in ileum mucosa, or for Abcb1a/b in Glasgow osteosarcoma (GOS), a mouse tumor cell line moderately sensitive to irinotecan. Non-tumor-bearing mice received irinotecan (50 mg/kg/day i.v. × 4 days) as a single agent or combined with P-gp inhibitor PSC833 (6.25 mg/kg/day i.p. × 4 days) at ZT3 or ZT15, respectively corresponding to the worst or the best irinotecan tolerability. Endpoints involved survival, body weight change and hematologic toxicity. Antitumor efficacy was studied in GOS-bearing mice receiving irinotecan (25, 30 or 40 mg/kg/day × 4 days) and +/− PSC833 at ZT3 or ZT15, with survival, body weight change, and tumor growth inhibition as endpoints. Non-tumor bearing mice lost an average of 17% or 9% of their body weight according to irinotecan administration at ZT3 or ZT15 respectively (p < 0.001). Dosing at ZT15 rather than ZT3 reduced mean leucopenia (9% vs 53%; p < 0.001). PSC833 aggravated irinotecan lethal toxicity from 4 to ∼ 60%. In tumor-bearing mice, body weight loss was ∼ halved in the mice on irinotecan or irinotecan–PSC833 combination at ZT15 as compared to ZT3 (p < 0.001). PSC833–irinotecan at ZT15 increased tumor inhibition by ∼ 40% as compared to irinotecan only at ZT15. In conclusion, P-gp was an important determinant of the circadian balance between toxicity and efficacy of irinotecan. - Highlights: • Irinotecan chronotolerance and chronoefficacy change as drug was applied with PSC833. • P-glycoprotein is an important player of the toxicity and efficacy of irinotecan. • Timing should be considered if chemotherapy is performed with a MDR1 inhibitor.

  8. New structure-activity relationship studies in a series of N,N-bis(cyclohexanol)amine aryl esters as potent reversers of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR).

    PubMed

    Orlandi, Francesca; Coronnello, Marcella; Bellucci, Cristina; Dei, Silvia; Guandalini, Luca; Manetti, Dina; Martelli, Cecilia; Romanelli, Maria Novella; Scapecchi, Serena; Salerno, Milena; Menif, Hayette; Bello, Ivan; Mini, Enrico; Teodori, Elisabetta

    2013-01-15

    As a continuation of previous research on a new series of potent and efficacious P-gp-dependent multidrug resistant (MDR) reversers with a N,N-bis(cyclohexanol)amine scaffold, we have designed and synthesized several analogs by modulation of the two aromatic moieties linked through ester functions to the N,N-bis(cyclohexanol)amine, aiming to optimize activity and to extend structure-activity relationships (SAR) within the series. This scaffold, when esterified with two different aromatic carboxylic acids, gives origin to four geometric isomers (cis/trans, trans/trans, cis/cis and trans/cis). The new compounds were tested on doxorubicin-resistant erythroleukemia K562 cells (K562/DOX) in the pirarubicin uptake assay. Most of them resulted in being potent modulators of the extrusion pump P-gp, showing potency values ([I](0.5)) in the submicromolar and nanomolar range. Of these, compounds 2b, 2c, 3d, 5a-d and 6d, showed excellent efficacy with a ?(max) close to 1. Selected compounds (2d, 3a, 3b, 5a-d) were further studied to evaluate their doxorubicin cytotoxicity potentiation (RF) on doxorubicin-resistant erythroleukemia K562 cells and were found able to enhance significantly doxorubicin cytotoxicity on K562/DOX cells. The results of both pirarubicin uptake and the cytotoxicity assay, indicate that the new compounds of the series are potent P-gp-mediated MDR reversers. They present a structure with a mix of flexible and rigid moieties, a property that seems critical to allow the molecules to choose the most productive of the several binding modes possible in the transporter recognition site. In particular, compounds 5c and 5d, similar to the already reported analogous isomers 1c and 1d,(29) are potent and efficacious modulators of P-gp-dependent MDR and may be promising leads for the development of MDR-reversal drugs. PMID:23245571

  9. The functional influences of common ABCB1 genetic variants on the inhibition of P-glycoprotein by Antrodia cinnamomea extracts.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Ming-Jyh; Teng, Yu-Ning; Chen, Ying-Yi; Hung, Chin-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Antrodia cinnamomea is a traditional healthy food that has been demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and anticacer effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the ethanolic extract of A. cinnamomea (EEAC) can affect the efflux function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and the effect of ABCB1 genetic variants on the interaction between EEAC and P-gp. To investigate the mechanism of this interaction, Flp-In-293 cells stably transfected with various genotypes of human P-gp were established and the expression of P-gp was confirmed by Western blot. The results of the rhodamine 123 efflux assay demonstrated that EEAC efficiently inhibited wild-type P-gp function at an IC50 concentration of 1.51 0.08 g/mL through non-competitive inhibition. The IC50 concentrations for variant-type 1236T-2677T-3435T P-gp and variant-type 1236T-2677A-3435T P-gp were 5.56 0.49 g/mL and 3.330.67 g/mL, respectively. In addition, the inhibition kinetics of EEAC also changed to uncompetitive inhibition in variant-type 1236T-2677A-3435T P-gp. The ATPase assay revealed that EEAC was an ATPase stimulator and was capable of reducing verapamil-induced ATPase levels. These results indicate that EEAC may be a potent P-gp inhibitor and higher dosages may be required in subjects carrying variant-types P-gp. Further studies are required to translate this basic knowledge into clinical applications. PMID:24586917

  10. The Functional Influences of Common ABCB1 Genetic Variants on the Inhibition of P-glycoprotein by Antrodia cinnamomea Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Yi; Hung, Chin-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Antrodia cinnamomea is a traditional healthy food that has been demonstrated to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and anticacer effects. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the ethanolic extract of A. cinnamomea (EEAC) can affect the efflux function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and the effect of ABCB1 genetic variants on the interaction between EEAC and P-gp. To investigate the mechanism of this interaction, Flp-In-293 cells stably transfected with various genotypes of human P-gp were established and the expression of P-gp was confirmed by Western blot. The results of the rhodamine 123 efflux assay demonstrated that EEAC efficiently inhibited wild-type P-gp function at an IC50 concentration of 1.510.08 g/mL through non-competitive inhibition. The IC50 concentrations for variant-type 1236T-2677T-3435T P-gp and variant-type 1236T-2677A-3435T P-gp were 5.560.49 g/mL and 3.330.67 g/mL, respectively. In addition, the inhibition kinetics of EEAC also changed to uncompetitive inhibition in variant-type 1236T-2677A-3435T P-gp. The ATPase assay revealed that EEAC was an ATPase stimulator and was capable of reducing verapamil-induced ATPase levels. These results indicate that EEAC may be a potent P-gp inhibitor and higher dosages may be required in subjects carrying variant-types P-gp. Further studies are required to translate this basic knowledge into clinical applications. PMID:24586917

  11. Caco-2 cell methodology and inhibition of the P-glycoprotein transport of digoxin by Aloe vera juice.

    PubMed

    Djuv, Ane; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2008-12-01

    The aims of this study were to carry out a thorough quality control setup for essential Caco-2 cell characteristics in P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibition studies and to explore if Aloe vera juice (AVJ) inhibits the bidirectional transport of the P-gp substrate digoxin (30 nm). Seven AVJ concentrations (0.00001-1.0 mg/mL), anticipated to cover a clinically relevant range, were tested and digoxin apparent permeability coefficients (Papp), net Papp values (Papp(Net)) and net flux values (J(Net)) were calculated. Relevant validation parameters for P-gp inhibition studies in Caco-2 cells are suggested to include, as a minimum, an assay linearity test with and without a known P-gp inhibitor, cell cytotoxicity testing (MTT-test) for substrates and inhibitors, and cell integrity testing by TEER and mannitol transport measurements. The question is also raised whether a minimum effect of a reference P-gp inhibitor as verapamil should be demanded. Cell cytotoxicity was seen for digoxin at concentrations >or=3 microM and for AVJ at 10 mg/mL. AVJ did not inhibit the P-gp transport of digoxin in any of the concentrations tested. This indicates that AVJ is no inhibitor of the P-gp mediated transport of digoxin in vitro if AVJ is present in clinically relevant concentrations. PMID:19003953

  12. Three- and four-class classification models for P-glycoprotein inhibitors using counter-propagation neural networks.

    PubMed

    Thai, K-M; Huynh, N-T; Ngo, T-D; Mai, T-T; Nguyen, T-H; Tran, T-D

    2015-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter that helps to protect several certain human organs from xenobiotic exposure. This efflux pump is also responsible for multi-drug resistance (MDR), an issue of the chemotherapy approach in the fight against cancer. Therefore, the discovery of P-gp inhibitors is considered one of the most popular strategies to reverse MDR in tumour cells and to improve therapeutic efficacy of commonly used cytotoxic drugs. Until now, several generations of P-gp inhibitors have been developed but they have largely failed in preclinical and clinical studies due to lack of selectivity, poor solubility and severe pharmacokinetic interactions. In this study, three models (SION, SIO, SIN) to classify specific 'true' P-gp inhibitors as well as three other models (CPBN, CPB1, CPN) to distinguish between P-gp inhibitors, CYP 3A inhibitors and co-inhibitors of these proteins with rather high accuracy values for the test set and the external set were generated based on counter-propagation neural networks (CPG-NN). Such three and four-class classification models helped provide more information about the bioactivities of compounds not only on one target (P-gp), but also on a combination of multiple targets (P-gp, CYP 3A). PMID:25588022

  13. HZ08 inhibits the multi-drug resistance on multiple sites as the substrate of p-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yidong; Hu, Yahui; Cen, Juan; Darshika, Kodithuwakku Nandani; Fang, Weirong; Li, Yunman; Huang, Wenlong

    2013-07-15

    Overexpression of p-glycoprotein (p-gp) leads to the production of multi-drug resistance (MDR) which could discharge various anti-tumor chemicals with structural heterogeneity. HZ08, a novel tetrahydroisoquinoline derivate, was discovered to modulate the MDR. What was confirmed is its definite inhibition of multi-drug resistance caused by p-gp and its promotion for the intracellular cytotoxins accumulation in the previous study. In order to explore whether HZ08 is the substrate of p-gp and on which sites it exerts its function, RNAi to mdr1 was introduced and the interaction between HZ08 and some classic agents (verapamil, rhodamine 123) with clearly binding sites was also investigated. Experimental results revealed that HZ08 is the most probable substrate of p-gp and may share the same modulation sites located at the p-gp with verapamil. Data obtained also indicated that there is a common binding site shared by rhodamine 123 and HZ08, but negative competition showed between HZ08 and adriamycin. In conclusion, HZ08 may be the substrate of p-gp and acts as a multiple target modulator to invert the efflux function of p-gp. PMID:23665114

  14. Cell-free microfluidic determination of P-glycoprotein interactions with substrates and inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Eyer, Klaus; Herger, Michael; Krmer, Stefanie D; Dittrich, Petra S

    2014-12-01

    The membrane protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays key roles in the oral bioavailability of drugs, their blood brain barrier passage as well as in multidrug resistance. For new drug candidates it is mandatory to study their interaction with P-gp, according to FDA and EMA regulations. The vast majority of these tests are performed using confluent cell layers of P-gp overexpressing cell lines that render these tests laborious. In this study, we introduce a cell-free microfluidic assay for the rapid testing of drug- P-gp interactions. Cell-derived vesicles are prepared from MDCKII-MDR1 overexpressing cells and immobilized on the surface of a planar microfluidic device. The drug is delivered continuously to the vesicles and calcein accumulation is monitored by means of a fluorescence assay and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. Only small amounts of compounds (~10?l) are required in concentrations of 5, 25 and 50?M for a test that provides within 5min information on the apparent dissociation constant of the drug and P-gp. We tested 10 drugs on-chip, 9 of which are inhibitors or substrates of P-glycoprotein and one negative control. We benchmarked the measured apparent dissociation constants against an alternative assay on a plate reader and reference data from FDA. These comparisons revealed good correlations between the logarithmic apparent dissociation constants (R(2)?=?0.95 with ATPase assay, R(2)?=?0.93 with FDA data) and show the reliability of the rapid on-chip test. The herein presented assay has an excellent screening window factor (Z'-factor) of 0.8, and is suitable for high-throughput testing. PMID:24928366

  15. Human-Mouse Chimeras with Normal Expression and Function Reveal That Major Domain Swapping Is Tolerated by P-Glycoprotein (ABCB1).

    PubMed

    Pluchino, Kristen M; Hall, Matthew D; Moen, Janna K; Chufan, Eduardo E; Fetsch, Patricia A; Shukla, Suneet; Gill, Deborah R; Hyde, Stephen C; Xia, Di; Ambudkar, Suresh V; Gottesman, Michael M

    2016-02-23

    The efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) plays a vital role in the transport of molecules across cell membranes and has been shown to interact with a panoply of functionally and structurally unrelated compounds. How human P-gp interacts with this large number of drugs has not been well understood, although structural flexibility has been implicated. To gain insight into this transporter's broad substrate specificity and to assess its ability to accommodate a variety of molecular and structural changes, we generated human-mouse P-gp chimeras by the exchange of homologous transmembrane and nucleotide-binding domains. High-level expression of these chimeras by BacMam- and baculovirus-mediated transduction in mammalian (HeLa) and insect cells, respectively, was achieved. There were no detectable differences between wild-type and chimeric P-gp in terms of cell surface expression, ability to efflux the P-gp substrates rhodamine 123, calcein-AM, and JC-1, or to be inhibited by the substrate cyclosporine A and the inhibitors tariquidar and elacridar. Additionally, expression of chimeric P-gp was able to confer a paclitaxel-resistant phenotype to HeLa cells characteristic of P-gp-mediated drug resistance. P-gp ATPase assays and photo-cross-linking with [(125)I]iodoarylazidoprazosin confirmed that transport and biochemical properties of P-gp chimeras were similar to those of wild-type P-gp, although differences in drug binding were detected when human and mouse transmembrane domains were combined. Overall, chimeras with one or two mouse P-gp domains were deemed functionally equivalent to human wild-type P-gp, demonstrating the ability of human P-gp to tolerate major structural changes. PMID:26820614

  16. Nuclear localization of P-glycoprotein is responsible for protection of the nucleus from doxorubicin in the resistant LoVo cell line.

    PubMed

    Szaflarski, Witold; Sujka-Kordowska, Patrycja; Januchowski, Rados?aw; Wojtowicz, Karolina; Andrzejewska, Ma?gorzata; Nowicki, Micha?; Zabel, Maciej

    2013-07-01

    The high expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) belongs to one of the most important factors causing multidrug-resistant (MDR) of cancer cells. P-gp is primarily associated with plasma membrane; however, small fraction of that protein is present in the nuclear envelope. Such phenomenon is observed in cancer cells and may result in the selection of MDR cells as the secondary tumor and/or resistant metastasis that significantly shorten patient survival rate. Here, we confirmed nuclear localization of P-gp in resistant LoVo cells and demonstrated its impact on doxorubicin efflux from the nucleus to cytoplasm. Furthermore, we showed that P-gp located at the nuclear envelope might have a different glycoside chain when compared to the form located in the cytoplasm. It suggests that the glycoside chain plays a role in the intracellular trafficking of P-gp and may decide about the destination place in the cell. PMID:23602050

  17. HMGB1 Contributes to the Expression of P-Glycoprotein in Mouse Epileptic Brain through Toll-Like Receptor 4 and Receptor for Advanced Glycation End Products

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Huang, Xian-Jing; Yu, Nian; Xie, Yuan; Zhang, Kang; Wen, Fang; Liu, Hao; Di, Qing

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the role of high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) in the seizure-induced P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpression and the underlying mechanism. Kainic acid (KA)-induced mouse seizure model was used for in vivo experiments. Male C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: normal saline control (NS) group, KA-induced epileptic seizure (EP) group, and EP group pretreated with HMGB1 (EP+HMGB1 group) or BoxA (HMGB1 antagonist, EP+BoxA group). Compared to the NS group, increased levels of HMGB1 and P-gp in the brain were observed in the EP group. Injection of HMGB1 before the induction of KA further increased the expression of P-gp while pre-treatment with BoxA abolished this up-regulation. Next, the regulatory role of HMGB1 and its potential involved signal pathways were investigated in mouse microvascular endothelial bEnd.3 cells in vitro. Cells were treated with HMGB1, HMGB1 plus lipopolysaccharide from Rhodobacter sphaeroides (LPS-RS) [toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) antagonist], HMGB1 plus FPS-ZM1 [receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) inhibitor], HMGB1 plus SN50 [nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) inhibitor], or vehicle. Treatment with HMGB1 increased the expression levels of P-gp, TLR4, RAGE and the activation of NF-?B in bEnd.3 cells. These effects were inhibited by the pre-treatment with either LPS-RS or FPS-ZM1, and were abolished by the pre-treatment of SN50 or a combination treatment of both LPS-RS and FPS-ZM1. Luciferase reporter assays showed that exogenous expression of NF-?B p65 increased the promoter activity of multidrug resistance 1a (P-gp-encoding gene) in endothelial cells. These data indicate that HMGB1 contributes to the overexpression of P-gp in mouse epileptic brain tissues via activation of TLR4/RAGE receptors and the downstream transcription factor NF-?B in brain microvascular endothelial cells. PMID:26485677

  18. Raman, SERS, and induced circular dichroism techniques as a probe of pharmaceuticals in their interactions with the human serum albumin and p-glycoprotein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Fabrice; Ianoul, Anatoli I.; Baggetto, Loris; Jardillier, Jean-Claude; Alix, Alain J.; Nabiev, Igor R.

    1999-04-01

    Camptothecin (CPT) derivatives are the well known inhibitors of the human DNA topoisomerase (topo) I. Two of them, irinotecan and topotecan, are just in the clinics; 9-amino- CPT is on the stage II of clinical trials, and the active search for new derivatives is now in progress. Stability of the CPT derivatives on their way to the target and resistance of cancer cells to these drugs present the crucial problem of the chemotherapy. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the mediator of transport and metabolism of numerous pharmaceuticals in the blood and P-glycoprotein (P- gp) plays a crucial role of the mediator of the multidrug resistance (MDR) of the cancer cells. This paper present the result of analysis of molecular interactions of some drugs of CPT family with the HSA and P-gp. Induced circular dichroism (CD) and Raman techniques have been applied for monitoring molecular interaction of drugs with HSA as well as to identify the conformational transition of the protein induced by the drug binding. Drug molecular determinants responsible for interaction have been identified and their binding sites within the HSA have been localized. New cancer cells lines exhibiting an extremely high level of MDR resistance have been established and were shown to contain the P-gp overproduced in the quantities of 35 percent from the all membrane proteins. The membrane fractions of these cells with the controls presented by the membranes of the parental membrane proteins. The membrane fractions of these cells with the controls presented by the membranes of the parental sensitive cells may be used as a model system for spectroscopic analysis of the specific pharmaceuticals/P-gp interactions.

  19. Comparative Study of the Effects of Antituberculosis Drugs and Antiretroviral Drugs on Cytochrome P450 3A4 and P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Horita, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Predicting drug-drug interactions (DDIs) related to cytochrome P450 (CYP), such as CYP3A4 and one of the major drug transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), is crucial in the development of future chemotherapeutic regimens to treat tuberculosis (TB) and TB/AIDS coinfection cases. We evaluated the effects of 30 anti-TB drugs, novel candidates, macrolides, and representative antiretroviral drugs on human CYP3A4 activity using a commercially available screening kit for CYP3A4 inhibitors and a human hepatocyte, HepaRG. Moreover, in order to estimate the interactions of these drugs with human P-gp, screening for substrates was performed. For some substrates, P-gp inhibition tests were carried out using P-gp-expressing MDCK cells. As a result, almost all the compounds showed the expected effects on human CYP3A4 both in the in vitro screening and in HepaRG cells. Importantly, the unproven mechanisms of DDIs caused by WHO group 5 drugs, thioamides, and p-aminosalicylic acid were elucidated. Intriguingly, clofazimine (CFZ) exhibited weak inductive effects on CYP3A4 at >0.25 μM in HepaRG cells, while an inhibitory effect was observed at 1.69 μM in the in vitro screening, suggesting that CFZ autoinduces CYP3A4 in the human liver. Our method, based on one of the pharmacokinetics parameters in humans, provides more practical information associated with not only DDIs but also with drug metabolism. PMID:24663015

  20. Differential effects of the organochlorine pesticide DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE on p-glycoprotein activity and expression.

    PubMed

    Shabbir, Arsalan; DiStasio, Susan; Zhao, Jingbo; Cardozo, Christopher P; Wolff, Mary S; Caplan, Avrom J

    2005-03-01

    1,1-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT) is an organochlorine pesticide. Its metabolite, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethene (p,p'-DDE) is a persistent environmental contaminant and both compounds accumulate in animals. Because multidrug resistance transporters, such as p-glycoprotein, function as a defense against xenobiotic exposure, we analyzed the ability of DDT and p,p'-DDE to act as efflux modulators. Using a competitive intact cell assay based on the efflux of the fluorescent dye rhodamine 123, we found that DDT, but not p,p'-DDE, stimulated dye retention. Subsequent studies using verapamil as competitor suggested that DDT is a weak p-glycoprotein inhibitor. Further studies addressed the ability of DDT and p,p'-DDE to induce MDR1, the gene encoding p-glycoprotein. In HepG2 cells, we found that both compounds induced MDR1 by twofold to threefold. Similar results were observed in mouse liver after a single dose of p,p'-DDE, although some gender-specific induction differences were noted. By contrast, p,p'-DDE failed to induce MDR1 in HeLa cells, indicating some cell-specific effects for induction. Further expression studies demonstrated increased levels of the endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperone, Bip, in response to DDT, but not p,p'-DDE. These results suggest that DDT, but not p,p'-DDE, induces an endoplasmic reticulum stress response. PMID:15710169

  1. Differential effects of the organochlorine pesticide DDT and its metabolite p,p'-DDE on p-glycoprotein activity and expression

    SciTech Connect

    Shabbir, Arsalan; DiStasio, Susan; Zhao, Jingbo; Cardozo, Christopher P.; Wolff, Mary S.; Caplan, Avrom J. . E-mail: avrom.caplan@mssm.edu

    2005-03-01

    1,1-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-2,2,2-trichloroethane (DDT) is an organochlorine pesticide. Its metabolite, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-ethene (p,p'-DDE) is a persistent environmental contaminant and both compounds accumulate in animals. Because multidrug resistance transporters, such as p-glycoprotein, function as a defense against xenobiotic exposure, we analyzed the ability of DDT and p,p'-DDE to act as efflux modulators. Using a competitive intact cell assay based on the efflux of the fluorescent dye rhodamine 123, we found that DDT, but not p,p'-DDE, stimulated dye retention. Subsequent studies using verapamil as competitor suggested that DDT is a weak p-glycoprotein inhibitor. Further studies addressed the ability of DDT and p,p'-DDE to induce MDR1, the gene encoding p-glycoprotein. In HepG2 cells, we found that both compounds induced MDR1 by twofold to threefold. Similar results were observed in mouse liver after a single dose of p,p'-DDE, although some gender-specific induction differences were noted. By contrast, p,p'-DDE failed to induce MDR1 in HeLa cells, indicating some cell-specific effects for induction. Further expression studies demonstrated increased levels of the endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperone, Bip, in response to DDT, but not p,p'-DDE. These results suggest that DDT, but not p,p'-DDE, induces an endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

  2. MDR1-P-glycoprotein behaves as an oncofetal protein that promotes cell survival in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Rocco, Alba; Compare, Debora; Liguori, Eleonora; Cianflone, Alessandra; Pirozzi, Giuseppe; Tirino, Virginia; Bertoni, Alessandra; Santoriello, Margherita; Garbi, Corrado; D'Armiento, Maria; Staibano, Stefania; Nardone, Gerardo

    2012-10-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), traditionally linked to cancer poor prognosis and multidrug resistance, is undetectable in normal gastric mucosa and overexpressed in gastric cancer (GC). We propose that P-gp may be involved in Helicobacter pylori (Hp)-related gastric carcinogenesis by inhibiting apoptosis. Aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of P-gp in fetal stomach and in Hp-related gastric carcinogenesis, the epigenetic control of the multi-drug resistance-1 (MDR1) gene, the localization and interaction between P-gp and Bcl-x(L) and the effect of the selective silencing of P-gp on cell survival. P-gp and Bcl-xl expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on 28 spontaneously abortive human fetuses, 66 Hp-negative subjects, 138 Hp-positive chronic gastritis (CG) of whom 28 with intestinal metaplasia (IM) and 45 intestinal type GCs. P-gp/Bcl-x(L) colocalization was investigated by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy and protein-protein interaction by co-immunoprecipitation, in basal conditions and after stress-induced apoptosis, in GC cell lines AGS and MKN-28 and hepatocellular carcinoma cell line Hep-G2. The role of P-gp in controlling apoptosis was evaluated by knocking down its expression with a specific small interfering RNAs in stressed AGS and MKN-28 cell lines. P-gp is expressed in the gastric mucosa of all human fetuses while, it is undetectable in adult normal mucosa and re-expressed in 30/110 Hp-positive non-IM-CG, 28/28 IM-CG and 40/45 GCs. P-gp expression directly correlates with that of Bcl-x(L) and with the promoter hypomethylation of the MDR1 gene. In GC cell lines, P-gp is localized on the plasma membrane and mitochondria where it colocalizes with Bcl-x(L). Co-immunoprecipitation confirms the physical interaction between P-gp and Bcl-x(L) in AGS, MKN-28 and Hep-G2, at both basal level and after stress-induced apoptosis. The selective silencing of P-gp sensitizes GC cells to stress-induced apoptosis. P-gp behaves as an oncofetal protein that, by cross-talking with Bcl-x(L), acts as an anti-apoptotic agent in Hp-related gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:22751348

  3. [11C]phenytoin revisited: synthesis by [11C]CO carbonylation and first evaluation as a P-gp tracer in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background At present, several positron emission tomography (PET) tracers are in use for imaging P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function in man. At baseline, substrate tracers such as R-[11C]verapamil display low brain concentrations with a distribution volume of around 1. [11C]phenytoin is supposed to be a weaker P-gp substrate, which may lead to higher brain concentrations at baseline. This could facilitate assessment of P-gp function when P-gp is upregulated. The purpose of this study was to synthesize [11C]phenytoin and to characterize its properties as a P-gp tracer. Methods [11C]CO was used to synthesize [11C]phenytoin by rhodium-mediated carbonylation. Metabolism and, using PET, brain pharmacokinetics of [11C]phenytoin were studied in rats. Effects of P-gp function on [11C]phenytoin uptake were assessed using predosing with tariquidar. Results [11C]phenytoin was synthesized via [11C]CO in an overall decay-corrected yield of 22??4%. At 45 min after administration, 19% and 83% of radioactivity represented intact [11C]phenytoin in the plasma and brain, respectively. Compared with baseline, tariquidar predosing resulted in a 45% increase in the cerebral distribution volume of [11C]phenytoin. Conclusions Using [11C]CO, the radiosynthesis of [11C]phenytoin could be improved. [11C]phenytoin appeared to be a rather weak P-gp substrate. PMID:22747744

  4. Cbl-b inhibits P-gp transporter function by preventing its translocation into caveolae in multiple drug-resistant gastric and breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ye; Qu, Xiujuan; Teng, Yuee; Li, Zhi; Xu, Ling; Liu, Jing; Ma, Yanju; Fan, Yibo; Li, Ce; Liu, Shizhou; Wang, Zhenning; Hu, Xuejun; Zhang, Jingdong; Liu, Yunpeng

    2015-01-01

    The transport function of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) requires its efficient localization to caveolae, a subset of lipid rafts, and disruption of caveolae suppresses P-gp transport function. However, the regulatory molecules involved in the translocation of P-gp into caveolae remain unknown. In the present study, we showed that c-Src dependent Caveolin-1 phosphorylation promoted the translocation of P-gp into caveolae, resulting in multidrug resistance in adriamycin resistant gastric cancer SGC7901/Adr and breast cancer MCF-7/Adr cells. In a negative feedback loop, the translocation of Cbl-b from the nucleus to the cytoplasm prevented the localization of P-gp to caveolae resulting in the reversal of MDR through the ubiquitination and degradation of c-Src. Clinical data showed a significant positive relationship between Cbl-b expression and survival in P-gp positive breast cancer patients who received anthracycline-based chemotherapy. Our findings identified a new regulatory mechanism of P-gp transport function in multiple drug-resistant gastric and breast cancers. PMID:25788263

  5. Clitocine Reversal of P-Glycoprotein Associated Multi-Drug Resistance through Down-Regulation of Transcription Factor NF-?B in R-HepG2 Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jianguo; Yeung, Chilam Au; Co, Ngai Na; Tsang, Tsun Yee; Yau, Esmond; Luo, Kewang; Wu, Ping; Wa, Judy Chan Yuet; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Kwok, Tim-Tak; Liu, Feiyan

    2012-01-01

    Multidrug resistance(MDR)is one of the major reasons for failure in cancer chemotherapy and its suppression may increase the efficacy of therapy. The human multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene encodes the plasma membrane P-glycoprotein (P-gp) that pumps various anti-cancer agents out of the cancer cell. R-HepG2 and MES-SA/Dx5 cells are doxorubicin induced P-gp over-expressed MDR sublines of human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells and human uterine carcinoma MES-SA cells respectively. Herein, we observed that clitocine, a natural compound extracted from Leucopaxillus giganteus, presented similar cytotoxicity in multidrug resistant cell lines compared with their parental cell lines and significantly suppressed the expression of P-gp in R-HepG2 and MES-SA/Dx5 cells. Further study showed that the clitocine increased the sensitivity and intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin in R-HepG2 cells accompanying down-regulated MDR1 mRNA level and promoter activity, indicating the reversal effect of MDR by clitocine. A 5?-serial truncation analysis of the MDR1 promoter defined a region from position ?450 to ?193 to be critical for clitocine suppression of MDR1. Mutation of a consensus NF-?B binding site in the defined region and overexpression of NF-?B p65 could offset the suppression effect of clitocine on MDR1 promoter. By immunohistochemistry, clitocine was confirmed to suppress the protein levels of both P-gp and NF-?B p65 in R-HepG2 cells and tumors. Clitocine also inhibited the expression of NF-?B p65 in MES-SA/Dx5. More importantly, clitocine could suppress the NF-?B activation even in presence of doxorubicin. Taken together; our results suggested that clitocine could reverse P-gp associated MDR via down-regulation of NF-?B. PMID:22927901

  6. Usefulness of A Model-Based Approach for Estimating InVitro P-Glycoprotein Inhibition Potency in a Transcellular Transport Assay.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Wataru; Ishiguro, Naoki; Ludwig-Schwellinger, Eva; Ebner, Thomas; Maeda, Kazuya; Sugiyama, Yuichi

    2016-02-01

    Invitro half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) is a key parameter for accurately predicting the potential risk for P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated drug-drug interactions. We aimed to compare the IC50 values estimated by different approaches and determine the usefulness of model-based approaches. Transcellular transport of digoxin across Caco-2 monolayer was investigated using various concentrations of P-gp inhibitors, quinidine, verapamil, and zosuquidar. To calculate IC50 values, 3 traditional parameters were used: apical-to-basal (AtoB) and basal-to-apical (BtoA) clearance (CL) with inhibitors (CLAtoB,i and CLBtoA,i) and the difference between the efflux ratios (ERs) with P-gp inhibitors (ERi) and those under complete P-gp inhibition [ER(-P-gp)]. Furthermore, a new model-based approach was applied that uses the difference between the reciprocals of CLAtoB with P-gp inhibitors (1/CLAtoB,i) and those under complete P-gp inhibition [1/CLAtoB(-P-gp)] as parameters. IC50 values obtained from 2 model-based approaches [ERi- ER(-P-gp) and 1/CLAtoB,i- 1/CLAtoB(-P-gp)] were comparable, whereas 2.6- to 6.6-fold larger IC50 values were estimated from empirical approaches (CLAtoB,i and CLBtoA,i). The reason for such difference in IC50 values is that indicators for model-based approaches, but not empirical approaches, directly reflect the P-gp function. Our new approach [1/CLAtoB,i- 1/CLAtoB(-P-gp)] based on only AtoB transcellular transport could substitute for current estimation methods using ER. PMID:26869433

  7. 2D- and 3D-QSAR studies of a series of benzopyranes and benzopyrano[3,4b][1,4]-oxazines as inhibitors of the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Jabeen, Ishrat; Wetwitayaklung, Penpun; Chiba, Peter; Pastor, Manuel; Ecker, Gerhard F

    2013-02-01

    The ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is notorious for contributing to multidrug resistance in antitumor therapy. Due to its expression in many blood-organ barriers, it also influences the pharmacokinetics of drugs and drug candidates and is involved in drug/drug- and drug/nutrient interactions. However, due to lack of structural information the molecular basis of ligand/transporter interaction still needs to be elucidated. Towards this goal, a series of Benzopyranes and Benzopyrano[3,4b][1,4]oxazines have been synthesized and pharmacologically tested for their ability to inhibit P-gp mediated daunomycin efflux. Both quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models using simple physicochemical and novel GRID-independent molecular descriptors (GRIND) were established to shed light on the structural requirements for high P-gp inhibitory activity. The results from 2D-QSAR showed a linear correlation of vdW surface area (Å(2)) of hydrophobic atoms with the pharmacological activity. GRIND (3D-QSAR) studies allowed to identify important mutual distances between pharmacophoric features, which include one H-bond donor, two H-bond acceptors and two hydrophobic groups as well as their distances from different steric hot spots of the molecules. Activity of the compounds particularly increases with increase of the distance of an H-bond donor or a hydrophobic feature from a particular steric hot spot of the benzopyrane analogs. PMID:23400406

  8. Murine P-glycoprotein Deficiency Alters Intestinal Injury Repair and Blunts Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Radioprotection

    PubMed Central

    Staley, Elizabeth M.; Yarbrough, Vanisha R.; Schoeb, Trenton R.; Daft, Joseph G.; Tanner, Scott M.; Steverson, Dennis; Lorenz, Robin G.

    2012-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) has been reported to increase stem cell proliferation and regulate apoptosis. Absence of P-gp results in decreased repair of intestinal epithelial cells after chemical injury. To further explore the mechanisms involved in the effects of P-gp on intestinal injury and repair, we used the well-characterized radiation injury model. In this model, injury repair is mediated by production of prostaglandins (PGE2) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been shown to confer radioprotection. B6.mdr1a?/? mice and wild-type controls were subjected to 12 Gy total body X-ray irradiation and surviving crypts in the proximal jejunum and distal colon were evaluated 3.5 days after irradiation. B6.mdr1a?/?mice exhibited normal baseline stem cell proliferation and COX dependent crypt regeneration after irradiation. However, radiation induced apoptosis was increased and LPS-induced radioprotection was blunted in the C57BL6.mdr1a?/?distal colon, compared to B6 wild-type controls. The LPS treatment induced gene expression of the radioprotective cytokine IL-1?, in B6 wild-type controls but not in B6.mdr1a?/? animals. Lipopolysaccharid-induced radioprotection was absent in IL-1R1?/? animals, indicating a role for IL-1? in radioprotection, and demonstrating that P-gp deficiency interferes with IL-1? gene expression in response to systemic exposure to LPS. PMID:22780103

  9. Echinacea purpurea and P-glycoprotein drug transport in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Torstein Schrder; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2009-01-01

    Echinacea is widely used as a medical herbal product, but its interaction potential with the drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) has not yet been evaluated. The interaction potential of Echinacea purpurea towards P-gp mediated drug transport was studied in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Digoxin (30 nm) was used as a substrate and verapamil as a control inhibitor. Ethanol, 0.8%, needed for herbal extraction and compatibility with the commercial products, inhibited the net digoxin flux by 18%. E. purpurea influenced to a higher degree the B-A transport of digoxin than the A-B transport. A minor increase in net digoxin flux was observed at low concentrations of E. purpurea, an effect anticipated to be allosteric in nature. At higher concentrations, from 0.4 to 6.36 mg dry weight/mL, a statistically significant linear dose-related decrease was observed in the net digoxin flux, indicating a dose dependent E. purpurea inhibition of P-gp. Both Vmax and Km of the net digoxin flux, calculated to 23.7 nmol/cm2/h and 385 microm, respectively, decreased in the presence of E. purpurea in an uncompetitive fashion. Although the effects of Echinacea purpurea on systemic P-gp mediated drug transport are probably limited, an influence on drug bioavailability can not be excluded. PMID:18688789

  10. Drug binding sites on P-glycoprotein are altered by ATP binding prior to nucleotide hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Martin, C; Berridge, G; Mistry, P; Higgins, C; Charlton, P; Callaghan, R

    2000-10-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) confers multiple drug resistance on cancer cells by acting as a plasma membrane localized ATP-dependent drug efflux pump. Currently, there is little information on the nature of the communication between the energy-providing nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) and the drug binding sites of P-gp to generate transport of substrate. Many substrates and modulators cause alterations in ATP hydrolysis, but what effect do the various stages of the catalytic cycle have on drug interaction with P-gp? Vanadate trapping of Mg.ADP caused a reversible decrease in the binding capacity of the transported substrate [(3)H]-vinblastine and the nontransported modulator [(3)H]XR9576 to P-gp in CH(r)B30 cell membranes. The non-hydrolyzable nucleotide analogue ATP-gamma-S also caused a reduction in the binding capacity of [(3)H]-vinblastine but not for the modulator [(3)H]XR9576. This indicates that signaling to the NBDs following binding of a nontransported modulator is different to that transmitted upon interaction of a transported substrate. Second, it appears that the binding of nucleotide, rather than its hydrolysis, causes the initial conformational shift in the drug-binding site during a transport cycle. PMID:11009602

  11. Novel in vitro transport method for screening the reversibility of P-glycoprotein inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Netsomboon, Kesinee; Laffleur, Flavia; Suchaoin, Wongsakorn; Bernkop-Schnrch, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a novel in vitro method for screening reversibility of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors. Caco-2 cells with 21days of cultivation were used as an in vitro model. Transport of rhodamine 123 in the presence of various inhibitors and after removing of inhibitors was determined. Transport of rhodamine 123 at 4C and in the secretory direction assured that Caco-2 cells exhibited P-gp function at all time of experiment. The apparent permeability coefficient (Papp) of rhodamine 123 in the presence of verapamil, cyclosporin A, ritonavir, quinidine, N-ethylmaleimide, Cremophor EL, Tween 80 and poly(acrylic acid)-cysteine-2-mercaptonicotinic acid (PAA-cys-2MNA) was 2.3-, 3.8-, 2.3-, 3.1, 7.5-, 2.1-, 2.9- and 2.5-fold higher than Papp of rhodamine 123 alone. After removing of the inhibitors, Papp decreased to the same range of control except in the case of N-ethylmaleimide which was 2.4-fold higher than the control. These results revealed a reversible inhibition of verapamil, cyclosporin A, ritonavir, quinidine, Cremophor EL, Tween 80 and PAA-cys-2MNA and an irreversible inhibition of N-ethylmaleimide for P-gp. Thus, this novel established that in vitro method might be an effective tool for screening the reversibility of inhibition of P-gp inhibitors. PMID:26692501

  12. P-glycoprotein trafficking at the bloodbrain barrier altered by peripheral inflammatory hyperalgesia

    PubMed Central

    McCaffrey, Gwen; Staatz, William D.; Sanchez-Covarrubias, Lucy; Finch, Jessica D.; DeMarco, Kristen; Laracuente, Mei-Li; Ronaldson, Patrick T.; Davis, Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (ABCB1/MDR1, EC 3.6.3.44), the major efflux transporter at the bloodbrain barrier (BBB), is a formidable obstacle to CNS pharmacotherapy. Understanding the mechanism(s) for increased P-glycoprotein activity at the BBB during peripheral inflammatory pain is critical in the development of novel strategies to overcome the significant decreases in CNS analgesic drug delivery. In this study, we employed the ?-carrageenan pain model (using female SpragueDawley rats), combined with confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation of cerebral microvessels, to determine if increased P-glycoprotein function, following the onset of peripheral inflammatory pain, is associated with a change in P-glycoprotein trafficking which leads to pain-induced effects on analgesic drug delivery. Injection of ?-carrageenan into the rat hind paw induced a localized, inflammatory pain (hyperalgesia) and simultaneously, at the BBB, a rapid change in colocalization of P-glycoprotein with caveolin-1, a key scaffolding/trafficking protein. Subcellular fractionation of isolated cerebral microvessels revealed that the bulk of P-glycoprotein constitutively traffics to membrane domains containing high molecular weight, disulfide-bonded P-glycoprotein-containing structures that cofractionate with membrane domains enriched with monomeric and high molecular weight, disulfide-bonded, caveolin-1-containing structures. Peripheral inflammatory pain promoted a dynamic redistribution between membrane domains of P-glycoprotein and caveolin-1. Disassembly of high molecular weight P-glycoprotein-containing structures within microvascular endothelial luminal membrane domains was accompanied by an increase in ATPase activity, suggesting a potential for functionally active P-glycoprotein. These results are the first observation that peripheral inflammatory pain leads to specific structural changes in P-glycoprotein responsible for controlling analgesic drug delivery to the CNS. PMID:22716933

  13. P-Glycoprotein-ATPase Modulation: The Molecular Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Li-Blatter, Xiaochun; Beck, Andreas; Seelig, Anna

    2012-01-01

    P-glycoprotein-ATPase is an efflux transporter of broad specificity that counteracts passive allocrit influx. Understanding the rate of allocrit transport therefore matters. Generally, the rates of allocrit transport and ATP hydrolysis decrease exponentially with increasing allocrit affinity to the transporter. Here we report unexpectedly strong down-modulation of the P-glycoprotein-ATPase by certain detergents. To elucidate the underlying mechanism, we chose 34 electrically neutral and cationic detergents with different hydrophobic and hydrophilic characteristics. Measurement of the P-glycoprotein-ATPase activity as a function of concentration showed that seven detergents activated the ATPase as expected, whereas 27 closely related detergents reduced it significantly. Assessment of the free energy of detergent partitioning into the lipid membrane and the free energy of detergent binding from the membrane to the transporter revealed that the ratio, q, of the two free energies of binding determined the rate of ATP hydrolysis. Neutral (cationic) detergents with a ratio of q= 2.7 0.2 (q > 3) followed the aforementioned exponential dependence. Small deviations from the optimal ratio strongly reduced the rates of ATP hydrolysis and flopping, respectively, whereas larger deviations led to an absence of interaction with the transporter. P-glycoprotein-ATPase inhibition due to membrane disordering by detergents could be fully excluded using 2H-NMR-spectroscopy. Similar principles apply to modulating drugs. PMID:22455921

  14. Interaction of BDE-47 and its Hydroxylated Metabolite 6-OH-BDE-47 with the Human ABC Efflux Transporters P-gp and BCRP: Considerations for Human Exposure and Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters, including P-glycoprotein (P-gp; also known as MDR1, ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; also known as ABCG2), are membrane-bound proteins that mediate the cellular efflux of xenobiotics as an important defense against chemic...

  15. In silico identified targeted inhibitors of P-glycoprotein overcome multidrug resistance in human cancer cells in culture

    PubMed Central

    Follit, Courtney A; Brewer, Frances K; Wise, John G; Vogel, Pia D

    2015-01-01

    Failure of cancer chemotherapies is often linked to the over expression of ABC efflux transporters like the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (P-gp). P-gp expression in cells leads to the elimination of a variety of chemically unrelated, mostly cytotoxic compounds. Administration of chemotherapeutics during therapy frequently selects for cells that over express P-gp and are therefore capable of robustly exporting diverse compounds, including chemotherapeutics, from the cells. P-gp thus confers multidrug resistance to a majority of drugs currently available for the treatment of cancers and diseases like HIV/AIDS. The search for P-gp inhibitors for use as co-therapeutics to combat multidrug resistances has had little success to date. In a previous study (Brewer etal., Mol Pharmacol 86: 716726, 2014), we described how ultrahigh throughput computational searches led to the identification of four drug-like molecules that specifically interfere with the energy harvesting steps of substrate transport and inhibit P-gp catalyzed ATP hydrolysis invitro. In the present study, we demonstrate that three of these compounds reversed P-gp-mediated multidrug resistance of cultured prostate cancer cells to restore sensitivity comparable to nave prostate cancer cells to the chemotherapeutic drug, paclitaxel. Potentiation concentrations of the inhibitors were <3?mol/L. The inhibitors did not exhibit significant toxicity to noncancerous cells at concentrations where they reversed multidrug resistance in cancerous cells. Our results indicate that these compounds with novel mechanisms of P-gp inhibition are excellent leads for the development of co-therapeutics for the treatment of multidrug resistances. PMID:26516582

  16. Stereoselective Regulations of P-Glycoprotein by Ginsenoside Rh2 Epimers and the Potential Mechanisms From the View of Pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Fang; Lu, Meng; Wu, Xiaolan; Sun, Jianguo; Wang, Guangji

    2012-01-01

    Chirality is an interesting topic and it is meaningful to explore the interactions between chiral small molecules and stereoselective biomacromolecules, with pre-clinical and clinical significances. We have previously demonstrated that 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh2 is an effective P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor in vitro and in vivo. Considering the stereochemistry of ginsenoside Rh2, in our present study, the regulatory effects of 20(R)-Rh2 on P-gp were assayed in vivo, and the differential regulations of P-gp by ginsenoside Rh2 epimers in vivo were compared and studied. Results showed that 20(S)-Rh2 enhanced the oral absorption of digoxin in rats in a dose-dependent manner; 20(R)-Rh2 at low dosage increased the oral absorption of digoxin, but this effect diminished with elevated dosage of 20(R)-Rh2. Further studies indicated stereoselective pharmacokinetic profiles and intestinal biotransformations of Rh2 epimers. In vitro studies showed that Rh2 epimers and their corresponding deglycosylation metabolites protopanaxadiol (Ppd) epimers all exhibited stereoselective regulations of P-gp. In conclusion, in view of the in vitro and in vivo dispositions of Rh2 and the regulations of P-gp by Rh2 and Ppd, it is suggested that the P-gp regulatory effect of Rh2 in vivo actually is a double actions of both Rh2 and Ppd, and the net effect is determined by the relative balance between Rh2 and Ppd with the same configuration. Our study provides new evidence of the chiral characteristics of P-gp, and is helpful to elucidate the stereoselective P-gp regulation mechanisms of ginsenoside Rh2 epimers in vivo from a pharmacokinetic view. PMID:22530069

  17. Relationship between P-glycoprotein expression and cyclosporin A in kidney. An immunohistological and cell culture study.

    PubMed Central

    Garca del Moral, R.; O'Valle, F.; Andjar, M.; Aguilar, M.; Lucena, M. A.; Lpez-Hidalgo, J.; Ramrez, C.; Medina-Cano, M. T.; Aguilar, D.; Gmez-Morales, M.

    1995-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp), encoded in humans by the mdr-1 gene, acts physiologically as an efflux pump to expel hydrophobic substances from cells. This glycoprotein is closely related to multidrug resistance in tumor cells and can be modulated by cyclosporin A (CsA). We investigated the relationship between CsA and P-gp in 52 renal allograft biopsies and in cultures of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) renal tubule cells to determine whether the intrarenal accumulation of CsA or chronic stimulation with the drug modified the expression of P-gp. Expression of P-gp and CsA was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. Immunostaining was evaluated semiquantitatively. Modulation of P-gp in MDCK cells after chronic stimulation with CsA for 7, 30, and 60 days was analyzed by flow cytometry. P-gp and CsA immunostaining in renal post-transplant biopsies showed considerable overlap in all cases (Spearman's test, r = 0.577, P < 0.001). After 7 days in vitro, the number of cells expressing P-gp increased progressively; a further increase in mean fluorescence was found after 60 days (P < 0.001, Student's t-test). Our findings suggest that in non-neoplastic cells, CsA may stimulate P-gp as a mechanism of detoxification. Individual differences in the adaptive responses to glycoprotein may be responsible for the appearance of nephrotoxicity or a CsA-resistant rejection reaction in cases of overexpression on lymphocytes and macrophages. Images Figure 1 PMID:7856751

  18. Inhibitory effects of furanocoumarin derivatives in Kampo extract medicines on P-glycoprotein at the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Kazunori; Yoneda, Shinji; Hamahata, Yukimi; Miyazaki, Makoto; Shibano, Makio; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Baba, Kimiye; Kakemi, Masawo

    2011-01-01

    Furanocoumarin derivatives, known as components of grapefruit juice, showing inhibitory effects against P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the intestine are also contained in the plants of rutaceae and umbelliferae families, which are used as components of Kampo extract medicines. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of byakangelicol and rivulobirin A, known as furanocoumarins showing P-gp inhibitory effect using Caco-2 monolayer, against P-gp at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. First we studied the membrane permeability of furanocoumarins to clarify whether they can be absorbed from the intestine. Both furanocoumarins showed high permeability through the Caco-2 monolayer, suggesting that they can easily reach the systemic circulation after oral administration. Then, we evaluated the effect of these furanocoumarins on the uptake of calcein acetoxymethyl ester (calcein-AM), a P-gp substrate, into bovine brain microvascular endothelial cells (BBMEC). Both furanocoumarins significantly increased the uptake amount of calcein-AM into BBMEC by the inhibition of P-gp at the BBB in vitro. Next we also investigated the P-gp inhibitory effect of these furanocoumarins at the rat BBB in vivo using verapamil as a P-gp substrate. Both furanocoumarins increased the B/P ratio of verapamil compared to the control, even under in vivo conditions; however, the extent of the inhibitory effect was much lower than in vitro condition. In conclusion, byakangelicol and rivulobirin A may inhibit P-gp expressed at the BBB even under in vivo conditions. Further studies using Kampo extract medicines under in vivo condition are necessary for safe drug therapy. PMID:21804213

  19. In silico identified targeted inhibitors of P-glycoprotein overcome multidrug resistance in human cancer cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Follit, Courtney A; Brewer, Frances K; Wise, John G; Vogel, Pia D

    2015-10-01

    Failure of cancer chemotherapies is often linked to the over expression of ABC efflux transporters like the multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (P-gp). P-gp expression in cells leads to the elimination of a variety of chemically unrelated, mostly cytotoxic compounds. Administration of chemotherapeutics during therapy frequently selects for cells that over express P-gp and are therefore capable of robustly exporting diverse compounds, including chemotherapeutics, from the cells. P-gp thus confers multidrug resistance to a majority of drugs currently available for the treatment of cancers and diseases like HIV/AIDS. The search for P-gp inhibitors for use as co-therapeutics to combat multidrug resistances has had little success to date. In a previous study (Brewer etal., Mol Pharmacol 86: 716-726, 2014), we described how ultrahigh throughput computational searches led to the identification of four drug-like molecules that specifically interfere with the energy harvesting steps of substrate transport and inhibit P-gp catalyzed ATP hydrolysis invitro. In the present study, we demonstrate that three of these compounds reversed P-gp-mediated multidrug resistance of cultured prostate cancer cells to restore sensitivity comparable to nave prostate cancer cells to the chemotherapeutic drug, paclitaxel. Potentiation concentrations of the inhibitors were <3?mol/L. The inhibitors did not exhibit significant toxicity to noncancerous cells at concentrations where they reversed multidrug resistance in cancerous cells. Our results indicate that these compounds with novel mechanisms of P-gp inhibition are excellent leads for the development of co-therapeutics for the treatment of multidrug resistances. PMID:26516582

  20. A structural model for the mass action kinetic analysis of P-gp mediated transport through confluent cell monolayers.

    PubMed

    Bentz, Joe; Ellens, Harma

    2014-01-01

    The structural model for P-gp mediated transport across confluent cell monolayers uses the generally accepted mass action reactions for P-gp binding and efflux, together with the known structural parameters for P-gp (large substrate binding site accessible from the membrane) and the apical plasma membrane in which it resides (lipid bilayer partition coefficient of substrate and volume of apical plasma membrane allow estimation of substrate concentration at binding site). The model considers binding of substrate to P-gp from within the inner leaflet of the apical membrane, with an on rate constant, k 1 (M(-1)s(-1)), and off rate constant k r (s(-1)), as well as an efflux rate constant from P-gp into the apical chamber, k 2 (s(-1)). The model also explicitly estimates the active P-gp protein level, known as P-gp efflux active surface density T(0). For each new drug, fitting these parameters requires use of multiple initial drug concentrations and multiple time points at each concentration, until steady state is reached between P-gp-mediated efflux into the apical chamber and passive permeability from apical chamber back into the cytosol. Although this model optimally requires a larger than usual dataset for analysis, it does provide important mechanistic information through estimates of these on, off and efflux rate constants, as well as efflux active P-gp surface density. This more detailed description of efflux from polarized confluent cell monolayers has (1) provided insight into the unexpected relationship between P-gp IC50 and K i in this system, (2) highlighted the kinetic need for GF120918 inhibitable apical and basolateral uptake transporters for digoxin, and (3) provided possible explanations for the extreme lab-to-lab variability in P-gp IC50 values observed for inhibition of digoxin transport. This model can also be used to distinguish between efflux active P-gp and total apical plasma membrane P-gp, which may be important when P-gp is expressed in a microvillous membrane. PMID:24523118

  1. Effects of capsaicin on P-gp function and expression in Caco-2 cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Yi; Tan, Theresa May Chin; Lim, Lee-Yong

    2006-06-14

    Capsaicin is the pungent component of hot chilli, a popular spice in many populations. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the chronicity and reversibility of the modulating effect of capsaicin on both the P-gp expression and activity in the Caco-2 cell monolayers. Capsaicin at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 microM, which were found to be non-cytotoxic towards the Caco-2 cells, were observed to inhibit P-gp mediated efflux transport of [3H]-digoxin in the cells. The acute inhibitory effect was dependent on the capsaicin concentration and duration of exposure, with abolishment of polarity of [3H]-digoxin transport attained at 50 microM of capsaicin. In contrast, longer term (48 and 72 h) co-incubation of the Caco-2 cells with capsaicin (50 and 100 microM) increased P-gp activity through an up-regulation of cellular P-gp protein and MDR1 mRNA levels. The up-regulated protein was functionally active, as demonstrated by higher degree of [3H]-digoxin efflux across the cell monolayers, but the induction was readily reversed by the removal of the spice from the culture medium. The induction of P-gp protein and mRNA levels was also influenced by capsaicin concentration and duration of exposure, with higher expression levels, in particular of the mRNA, seen at higher spice concentrations over prolonged period of incubation. Our data suggest that caution should be exercised when capsaicin is to be consumed with drugs that are P-gp substrates. In particular, the oral bioavailability of these drugs may be influenced by the P-gp status of populations that rely heavily on hot chilli in their diets. PMID:16674925

  2. P-glycoprotein, breast cancer resistance protein, Organic Anion Transporter 3, and Transporting Peptide 1a4 during blood-brain barrier maturation: involvement of Wnt/?-catenin and endothelin-1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Harati, Rania; Benech, Henri; Villgier, Anne Sophie; Mabondzo, Alose

    2013-05-01

    Our current knowledge about drug transporters in the maturational brain is very limited. In this study, we provide a comprehensive overview of the expression and activity profile of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (bcrp), Organic Anion Transporter 3 (oat3), and Transporting Peptide 1a4 (oatp1a4) transporters during blood-brain barrier (BBB) maturation. Gene and protein expressions of the analyzed transporters increase as the brain matures, with no variation in their activity for P-gp and bcrp, while the transport activity of oat3 and oatp1a4 increases during brain maturation from preterm up to adulthood. For the first time, we illustrate a downregulation of nuclear ?-catenin expression in brain capillaries when bcrp, P-gp, oat3, and oatp1a4 transporters are at their highest expression levels. In vivo activation of ?-catenin in rat brains, by intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of a GSK-3 inhibitor, enhances the activity of P-gp, bcrp, oat3, and oatp1a4. Interestingly, in an in vitro BBB model consisting of a coculture of primary endothelial brain cells with astrocytes or in vivo, activation of ?-catenin enhances the mRNA expression of ET-1. Interestingly, blocking the ETA receptor for endothelin-1 in vivo by ICV injection of a ETA antagonist decreases transporter activity mediated by the activation of ?-catenin. These findings shed light on the role of an interaction between ?-catenin and endothelin-1 signaling in the regulation of these transporters at the BBB. PMID:22998451

  3. Downregulation of P-gp, Ras and p-ERK1/2 contributes to the arsenic trioxide-induced reduction in drug resistance towards doxorubicin in gastric cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, YUAN-YUAN; YU, LI; LIU, BAO-LING; HE, XIN-JIA; ZHANG, BI-YUAN

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) to doxorubicin (DOX) limits its effectiveness against tumor cells. Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has been reported to reduce MDR in various types of cancer, but the mechanisms involving Ras and p-glycoprotein (P-gp) remain to be fully elucidated. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate As2O3 in reversing MDR to DOX, and to identify the association in antitumor activities between the effectiveness of DOX and Ras/phosphorylated (p-) extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 signaling in SGC7901/ADM and SGC7901/S human gastric cancer cell lines. Cytotoxicity and sensitivity towards As2O3 were assessed using non-toxic and mildly-toxic concentrations (0.1 and 0.5 M, respectively). The reversing effect of As2O3 on MDR was investigated prior to and following treatment with a cytokine activation of the recombinant human granulocyte colony stimulating factor ERK pathway. The SGC7901/ADM and SGC7901/S cells had the same sensitivity to As2O3. The SGC7901/ADM cells were resistant to DOX and As2O3 treatment reduced the level of resistance to DOX (P<0.01). The expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the SGC7901/ADM cells was higher than in the SGC7901/S cells (P<0.001). As2O3 treatment decreased the levels of P-gp in a time- and dose-dependent manner (P<0.01). The expression of Ras was higher in the SGC7901/ADM cells than in the SGC7901/S cells, while the expression of p-ERK1/2 remained the same. As2O3 decreased the levels of Ras and p-ERK1/2 (P<0.01). Following pretreatment with rhG-CSF, the levels of Ras and p-ERK1/2 were further decreased (P<0.01). Drug-resistant gastric cancer cells had higher expression levels of P-gp and Ras, but not of p-ERK1/2. Non- and mildly-toxic doses of As2O3 reduced MDR to DOX through Ras/p-ERK1/2 signaling. PMID:26459009

  4. Interaction of P-glycoprotein with defined phospholipid bilayers: a differential scanning calorimetric study.

    PubMed

    Romsicki, Y; Sharom, F J

    1997-08-12

    One of the major causes of multidrug resistance in human cancers is expression of the P-glycoprotein multidrug transporter, which acts as a drug efflux pump. P-Glycoprotein is a member of the ABC superfamily of membrane proteins, and is composed of 12 hydrophobic membrane-spanning segments and 2 cytoplasmic nucleotide binding domains. Membrane lipids are known to play an important role in the function of P-glycoprotein. In the present study, purified P-glycoprotein of high specific ATPase activity was reconstituted into defined bilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), and its effects on lipid thermodynamic properties were then investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. P-Glycoprotein had a large perturbing effect on DMPC bilayers, even at relatively high lipid:protein ratios. The gel to liquid-crystalline phase transition temperature, Tm, was lowered on inclusion of P-glycoprotein in the bilayer, and the cooperativity of the transition was markedly reduced. The phase transition enthalpy, DeltaH, declined in a linear fashion with increasing P-glycoprotein content for lipid:protein ratios between 63:1 and 16:1 (w/w). Evaluation of these data using two different analytical methods indicated that P-glycoprotein perturbed either 375 or 485 phospholipids, withdrawing them from the phase transition. The DeltaH value for those lipids undergoing melting was similar to that of pure DMPC, which implies that their thermodynamic properties are essentially unchanged in the presence of P-glycoprotein. At lipid:protein ratios below 16:1 (w/w), transition enthalpy increased with higher P-glycoprotein content, until the DeltaH value reached that of pure DMPC. However, the lipid remained highly perturbed, as indicated by a very broad phase transition peak. This behavior may arise from either aggregation/oligomerization of P-glycoprotein within the bilayer or changes in the interaction of the transporter with the membrane at high density. PMID:9245413

  5. Reversal of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance by CD44 antibody-targeted nanocomplexes for short hairpin RNA-encoding plasmid DNA delivery.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jijin; Fang, Xiaoling; Hao, Junguo; Sha, Xianyi

    2015-03-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains one of the major reasons for the reductions in efficacy of many chemotherapeutic agents in cancer therapy. As a classical MDR phenotype of human malignancies, the adenosine triphosphate binding cassette (ABC)-transporter P-glycoprotein (MDR1/P-gp) is an efflux protein with aberrant activity that has been linked to multidrug resistance in cancer. For the reversal of MDR by RNA interference (RNAi) technology, an U6-RNA gene promoter-driven expression vector encoding anti-MDR1/P-gp short hairpin RNA (shRNA) molecules was constructed (abbreviated pDNA-iMDR1-shRNA). This study explored the feasibility of using Pluronic P123-conjugated polypropylenimine (PPI) dendrimer (P123-PPI) as a carrier for pDNA-iMDR1-shRNA to overcome tumor drug resistance in breast cancer cells. P123-PPI functionalized with anti-CD44 monoclonal antibody (CD44 receptor targeting ligand) (anti-CD44-P123-PPI) can efficiently condense pDNA into nanocomplexes to achieve efficient delivery of pDNA, tumor specificity and long circulation. The in vitro studies methodically evaluated the effect of P123-PPI and anti-CD44-P123-PPI on pDNA-iMDR1-shRNA delivery and P-gp downregulation. Our in vitro results indicated that the P123-PPI/pDNA and anti-CD44-P123-PPI/pDNA nanocomplexes with low cytotoxicity revealed higher transfection efficiency compared with the PPI/pDNA nanocomplexes and Lipofectamine™ 2000 in the presence of serum. The nanocomplexes loaded with pDNA-iMDR1-shRNA against P-gp could reverse MDR accompanied by the suppression of MDR1/P-gp expression at the mRNA and protein levels and improve the internalization and cytotoxicity of Adriamycin (ADR) in the MCF-7/ADR multidrug-resistant cell line. BALB/c nude mice bearing MCF-7/ADR tumor were utilized as a xenograft model to assess antitumor efficacy in vivo. The results demonstrated that the administration of anti-CD44-P123-PPI/pDNA-iMDR1-shRNA nanocomplexes combined with ADR could inhibit tumor growth more efficiently than ADR alone. The enhanced therapeutic efficacy of ADR may be correlated with increased accumulation of ADR in drug-resistant tumor cells. Consequently, these results suggested that the use of pDNA-iMDR1-shRNA-loaded nanocomplexes may be a promising gene delivery strategy to reverse MDR and improve the effectiveness of chemotherapy. PMID:25662500

  6. Is Rhodamine 123 an Appropriate Fluorescent Probe to Assess P-Glycoprotein Mediated Multidrug Resistance in Vinblastine-Resistant CHO Cells?

    PubMed Central

    Ptriz, Jordi; OConnor, Jos Enrique; Carmona, Merc; Garca?Lpez, Joan

    1997-01-01

    Cellular drug resistance, which involves several mechanisms such as P?glycoprotein (P?gp) overexpression, kinetic and metabolic quiescence, or the increase in the intracellular levels of glutathione, limits the effectiveness of cancer treatment. It has been reported that functional assessment of the cationic dye rhodamine 123 (Rho123) efflux reveals accurately the drug?resistant phenotype. To study cellular drug resistance, we have obtained a CHO?K1 derived cell line resistant to vinblastine by means of multistep selection. This cell line (CHOVBR) displays high reactivity with a monoclonal antibody (MAb) (C219) directed against an internal domain of P?gp, and an active Rho123 efflux, as shown by parallel flow cytometric and fluorometric assays. However, under similar experimental conditions, the drug?sensitive parental cell line CHO?K1 (as well as the myeloblastic KG1 and KG1a cell lines), was also able to pump Rho123 out. These parental CHO?K1 cells had a very low reactivity against the C219 Mab, as confirmed by Western blot analysis. Both vinblastine and verapamil inhibited Rho123 efflux in CHO?K1 cells, but had no effect on CHOVBR cultures. Also, deprivation of vinblastine for one month did not affect Rho123 efflux in these cells. Our results suggest that the activity of P?gp appears to be essential, but not sufficient to confer drug resistance, and that Rho123?based functional assays of drug resistance should be evaluated for each cellular experimental model. PMID:9354229

  7. Discovery of the Inhibitory Effect of a Phosphatidylinositol Derivative on P-Glycoprotein by Virtual Screening Followed by In Vitro Cellular Studies

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Xavier; Simon, Silke; Schubert, Rolf; Gnther, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    P-glycoprotein is capable of effluxing a broad range of cytosolic and membrane penetrating xenobiotic substrates, thus leading to multi-drug resistance and posing a threat for the therapeutic treatment of several diseases, including cancer and central nervous disorders. Herein, a virtual screening campaign followed by experimental validation in Caco-2, MDKCII, and MDKCII mdr1 transfected cell lines has been conducted for the identification of novel phospholipids with P-gp transportation inhibitory activity. Phosphatidylinositol-(1,2-dioctanoyl)-sodium salt (8?0 PI) was found to significantly inhibit transmembrane P-gp transportation in vitro in a reproducible-, cell line-, and substrate-independent manner. Further tests are needed to determine whether this and other phosphatidylinositols could be co-administered with oral drugs to successfully increase their bioavailability. Moreover, as phosphatidylinositols and phosphoinositides are present in the human diet and are known to play an important role in signal transduction and cell motility, our finding could be of substantial interest for nutrition science as well. PMID:23593281

  8. Novel flavonoid-based biodegradable nanoparticles for effective oral delivery of etoposide by P-glycoprotein modulation: an in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo investigations.

    PubMed

    Fatma, Sharmeen; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Iqbal, Zeenat; Panda, Amulya Kumar; Negi, Lalit Mohan; Goswami, Dinesh Giri; Tariq, Mohammad

    2016-02-01

    A receptor level interaction of etoposide with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and subsequent intestinal efflux has an adverse effect on its oral absorption. The present work is aimed to enhance the bioavailability of etoposide by co-administering it with quercetin (a P-gp inhibitor) in dual-loaded polymeric nanoparticle formulation. Poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles were optimized for various parameters like o/w phase volume ratio, poly-vinyl alcohol concentration, PLGA concentration and sonication time. The cytotoxicity studies (MTT assay) revealed a 9- and 11-fold decrease in the IC 50 values for etoposide-loaded nanoparticles (ENP) and etoposide + quercetin dual-loaded nanoparticles (EQNP) when compared to that of free etoposide, respectively, and the results were further supported by florescent-activated cell sorter studies. The confocal imaging of the intestinal sections treated with ENP and EQNP containing fluorescent probe (rhodamine) showed the superiority of the EQNP to permeate deeper. Furthermore, pharmacokinetic studies on rats revealed that EQNP exhibited a 2.4-fold increase in bioavailability of etoposide than ENP with no quercetin. The developed loaded nanoparticles have the high potential to enhance the bioavailability of the etoposide and sensitize the resistant cells. PMID:24937381

  9. Modification of Marine Natural Product Ningalin B and SAR Study Lead to Potent P-Glycoprotein Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chao; Wong, Iris L. K.; Jin, Wen Bin; Jiang, Tao; Chow, Larry M. C.; Wan, Sheng Biao

    2014-01-01

    In this study, new marine ningalin B analogues containing a piperazine or a benzoloxy group at ring C have been synthesized and evaluated on their P-gp modulating activity in human breast cancer and leukemia cell lines. Their structure-activity relationship was preliminarily studied. Compounds 19 and 20 are potent P-gp inhibitors. These two synthetic analogues of permethyl ningalin B may be potentially used as effective modulators of P-gp-mediated drug resistance in cancer cells. PMID:25329704

  10. Doxorubicin delivery enhanced by electroporation to gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma cells with P-gp overexpression.

    PubMed

    Kulbacka, Julita; Daczewska, Ma?gorzata; Dubi?ska-Magiera, Magda; Choroma?ska, Anna; Rembia?kowska, Nina; Surowiak, Pawe?; Kulbacki, Marek; Kotulska, Ma?gorzata; Saczko, Jolanta

    2014-12-01

    Electroporation (EP) can effectively support the penetration of macromolecules from the extracellular space into cells. Electropores induced by the influence of electromagnetic field generate additional paths of transport for macromolecules. The aim of this study was evaluation of the electroporation effect on doxorubicin transport efficiency to human colon (LoVo and LoVo/DX) and gastric (EPG85-257/P and EPG85-257/RDB) adenocarcinoma cells with overexpression of P-glycoprotein and murine macrophage cell line (P388/D1). In our EP experiments cells were placed into a cuvette with aluminum electrodes and pulsed with five square electric pulses of 1300 V/cm and duration of 50 ?s each. Cells were also treated with low doxorubicin concentration ([DOX]=1.7 ?M). The ultrastructure (TEM) and changes of P-glycoprotein expression of tumor cells subjected to electric field were monitored. The mitochondrial cell function and trypan blue staining were evaluated after 24h. Our results indicate the most pronounced effect of EP with DOX and disturbed ultrastructure in resistant gastric and colon cells with decrease of P-gp expression. Electroporation may be an attractive delivery method of cytostatic drugs in chemotherapy, enabling reduction of drug dose, exposure time and side effects. PMID:24767854

  11. Computational classification models for predicting the interaction of drugs with P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein.

    PubMed

    Eri?, S; Kalini?, M; Ili?, K; Zloh, M

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) are two members of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) binding cassette (ABC) family of transporters which function as membrane efflux transporters and display considerable substrate promiscuity. Both are known to significantly influence the absorption, distribution and elimination of drugs, mediate drug-drug interactions and contribute to multiple drug resistance (MDR) of cancer cells. Correspondingly, timely characterization of the interaction of novel leads and drug candidates with these two transporters is of great importance. In this study, several computational classification models for prediction of transport and inhibition of P-gp and BCRP, respectively, were developed based on newly compiled and critically evaluated experimental data. Artificial neural network (ANN) and support vector machine (SVM) ensemble based models were explored, as well as knowledge-based approaches to descriptor selection. The average overall classification accuracy of best performing models was 82% for P-gp transport, 88% for BCRP transport, 89% for P-gp inhibition and 87% for BCRP inhibition, determined across an array of different test sets. An analysis of substrate overlap between P-gp and BCRP was also performed. The accuracy, simplicity and interpretability of the proposed models suggest that they could be of significant utility in the drug discovery and development settings. PMID:25435255

  12. Inhibition of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling reduces multidrug transporter activity and anti-epileptic drug resistance in refractory epileptic rats.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yiye; Wang, Cuicui; Hong, Zhen; Chen, Yinghui

    2016-03-01

    It is widely recognized that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediates drug resistance in refractory epilepsy. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the up-regulation of P-gp expression remains unclear. Our previous studies have demonstrated that p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) regulates P-gp expression in cultured K562 cells. However, a lack of invivo research leaves unanswered questions regarding whether p38MAPK regulates P-gp expression or drug resistance in refractory epilepsy. This invivo study examined the effects of p38MAPK on the expression of P-gp and mdr1 in the rat brain and quantified antiepileptic drug (AED) concentrations in the hippocampal extracellular fluid. In addition, the role of p38MAPK in electrical and behavioral activity in a rat epilepsy model was studied. The results indicated that p38MAPK inhibition by SB202190 reduced P-gp expression, while increasing AED concentration in the hippocampal extracellular fluid in refractory epileptic rats. SB202190 also reduced the resistance to AEDs in drug-resistant rats and significantly reduced the severity of seizure activity. These results suggest that p38MAPK could participate in drug resistance in refractory epilepsy through the regulation of P-gp. We show that the specific inhibitor of p38MAPK could down-regulate the expression of multidrug transporter (P-glycoprotein) in blood-brain barrier, increase the concentration of antiepileptic drugs in the hippocampal extracellular fluid and reduce anti-epileptic drug resistance in refractory epileptic rats. We propose that the p38MAPK signaling pathway participates in drug resistance in refractory epilepsy through the regulation of P-glycoprotein expression. PMID:26677173

  13. A multimodal Pepstatin A peptide-based nanoagent for the molecular imaging of P-glycoprotein in the brains of epilepsy rats.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiangrong; Wang, Jianhong; Liu, Jiansheng; Shen, Shun; Cao, Zhonglian; Pan, Jiawei; Zhou, Shuyi; Pang, Zhiqing; Geng, Daoying; Zhang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Regional overexpression of the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in epileptic brain tissues may lower antiepileptic drugs concentrations at the target site and contribute to pharmacoresistance in refractory epilepsy. However, few techniques are available to quantitate the level of P-gp expression noninvasively in vivo. In this study, we developed a nanoagent by conjugating superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles with a near infrared probe and the targeting element Pepstatin A, a peptide with specific affinity for P-gp. In a rat model of epilepsy, the nanoagent was readily and selectively accumulated within epileptogenic cerebral regions, which were detectable by both magnetic resonance imaging and optical imaging modalities. This P-gp-targeted nanoagent could be used not only in the molecular imaging of P-gp expression changes in seizure-induced regional, understanding the mechanisms of P-gp disorders, and the prediction of refractory epilepsy, but also in targeted therapies with P-gp modulators. PMID:26524537

  14. Selenate specifically sensitizes drug-resistant cancer cells by increasing apoptosis via G2 phase cell cycle arrest without P-GP inhibition.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ae-Ran; Jee Jo, Min; Jung, Myung-Ji; Sik Kim, Hyung; Yoon, Sungpil

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify conditions that will increase the sensitivity of drug-resistant cancer cells. Selenium derivatives have been shown to present anti-cancer properties in the clinic. Currently, selenate, selenite, selenomethionine (SeMet), methyl-selenocysteine (MSC), and methaneselenic acid (MSA) are the most common selenium derivatives used as drugs in humans. Herein, we tested whether these selenium derivatives can sensitize KBV20C cancer cells, which are highly resistant to anti-cancer drugs such as vincristine. All five drugs could sensitize KBV20C cells to the same extent as they sensitized the sensitive parent KB cells, suggesting that selenium-derived drugs can be used for drug-resistant cancer cells. We also observed that these drugs did not inhibit the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) pumping-out ability, suggesting that the sensitization by selenium-derived drugs does not depend on P-gp activity in resistant KBV20C cells. Interestingly, using a cell viability assay, microscopic observation, and Hoechst staining, we found that selenate highly sensitized drug-resistant KBV20C cells by activating the apoptotic pathway, when compared to sensitive KB cells. Furthermore, we investigated why selenate sensitizes resistant KBV20C cells. Selenate-induced toxicity was associated with an increase in G2-phase cell cycle arrest in KBV20C cells, suggesting that the selenate-induced increase in apoptosis resulted from cell cycle arrest in resistant KBV20C cells. Our findings may contribute to the development of selenate-based therapies for patients resistant to cancer drugs. PMID:26134503

  15. Dynamics and structural changes induced by ATP and/or substrate binding in the inward-facing conformation state of P-glycoprotein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Yurika; Hsu, Wei-Lin; Chiba, Shuntaro; Hayashi, Tomohiko; Furuta, Tadaomi; Sakurai, Minoru

    2013-02-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a multidrug transporter that catalyzes the transport of a substrate. To elucidate the underlying mechanism of this type of substrate transport, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using the X-ray crystal structure of P-gp, which has an inward-facing conformation. Our simulations indicated that the dimerization of the nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) is driven by the binding of ATP to the NBDs and/or the binding of the substrate to a cavity in the transmembrane domains (TMDs). Based on these results, we discuss a role of ATP in the allosteric communication that occurs between the NBDs and the TMDs.

  16. Mixed Micelles of Doxorubicin Overcome Multidrug Resistance by Inhibiting the Expression of P-Glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yan; Zhang, Zhijie; Zhao, Tie; Liu, Xiaodong; Jian, Lingyan

    2015-08-01

    With the goal of overcoming multidrug resistance, DSPE-PEG (polyethylene glycol 2000 grafted with distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine) and TPGS (d-alpha-tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate) were combined, each with a different inhibiting mechanism for P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression, to create mixed micelles with the purpose of encapsulating the water-soluble drug, doxorubicin (Dox). As the molar ratio of Dox/DSPE-PEG/TPGS was 1:1:0.2, the encapsulation efficiency and particle size of the micelles were 98.2% and 12.8 nm respectively. Compared to Dox/DSPE-PEG micelles, Dox/DSPE-PEG/TPGS mixed micelles demonstrated enhanced in vitro cytotoxicity, drug uptake, and apoptosis for drug resistant H460/TaxR cancer cells. Western blot results showed that the expression level of P-gp significantly decreased as H460/TaxR cells were incubated with Dox/DSPE-PEG/TPGS mixed micelles. The anti-tumor efficacy in vivo was evaluated using H460/TaxR-bearing mice and showed that Dox/DSPE-PEG/TPGS mixed micelles were more effective at inhibiting tumor growth than Dox/DSPE-PEG micelles and free Dox solution. It was also found that the high efficacy of mixed micelles was associated with the ability to induce dramatic apoptosis of the tumor cells. In summary, through combining different P-gp inhibiting mechanisms, mixed micelles could be a promising nanocarrier for anti-cancer drugs in overcoming multidrug resistance. PMID:26295136

  17. Repacking of the transmembrane domains of P-glycoprotein during the transport ATPase cycle.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, M F; Velarde, G; Ford, R C; Martin, C; Berridge, G; Kerr, I D; Callaghan, R; Schmidlin, A; Wooding, C; Linton, K J; Higgins, C F

    2001-10-15

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporter, which hydrolyses ATP and extrudes cytotoxic drugs from mammalian cells. P-gp consists of two transmembrane domains (TMDs) that span the membrane multiple times, and two cytoplasmic nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs). We have determined projection structures of P-gp trapped at different steps of the transport cycle and correlated these structures with function. In the absence of nucleotide, an approximately 10 A resolution structure was determined by electron cryo-microscopy of two-dimensional crystals. The TMDs form a chamber within the membrane that appears to be open to the extracellular milieu, and may also be accessible from the lipid phase at the interfaces between the two TMDs. Nucleotide binding causes a repacking of the TMDs and reduction in drug binding affinity. Thus, ATP binding, not hydrolysis, drives the major conformational change associated with solute translocation. A third distinct conformation of the protein was observed in the post-hydrolytic transition state prior to release of ADP/P(i). Biochemical data suggest that these rearrangements may involve rotation of transmembrane alpha-helices. A mechanism for transport is suggested. PMID:11598005

  18. Co-delivery of Se nanoparticles and pooled SiRNAs for overcoming drug resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein and class III ?-tubulin in drug-resistant breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Wenjing; Yin, Tiantian; Chen, Qingchang; Qin, Xiuying; Huang, Xiaoquan; Zhao, Shuang; Xu, Taoyuan; Chen, Lanmei; Liu, Jie

    2016-02-01

    Drug resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and class III ?-tubulin (?-tubulin III) is a major barrier in microtubule-targeting cancer chemotherapy. In this study, layered double hydroxide nanoparticles (LDHs) were employed to simultaneously deliver selenium (Se) and pooled small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) to achieve therapeutic efficacy. LDH-supported Se nanoparticles (Se@LDH) were compacted with siRNAs (anti-P-gp and anti-?-tubulin III) via electrostatic interactions, which could protect siRNA from degradation. Se@LDH showed excellent abilities to deliver siRNA into cells, including enhancing siRNA internalization, and promoting siRNA escape from endosomes. siRNA transfection experiments further confirmed a higher gene silencing efficiency of Se@LDH than LDH. Interestingly, we found Se@LDH may be a microtubule (MT) stabilizing agent which could inhibit cell proliferation by blocking cell cycle at G2/M phase, disrupting normal mitotic spindle formation and inducing cell apoptosis. When complexed with different specific siRNAs, Se@LDH/siRNA nanoparticles, especially the Se@LDH-pooled siRNAs, exhibit an efficient gene-silencing effect that significantly downregulate the expression of P-gp and ?-tubulin III. Moreover, Se@LDH-pooled siRNAs could induce cell apoptosis, change cell morphology and increase cellular ROS levels through change the expression of Bcl-2/Bax, activation of caspase-3, PI3K/AKT/mTOR and MAPK/ERK pathways. These results suggested that co-delivery of Se and pooled siRNAs may be a promising strategy for overcoming the drug resistance mediated by P-gp and ?-tubulin III in drug-resistant breast cancers. PMID:26612416

  19. Concomitance of P-gp/LRP Expression with EGFR Mutations in Exons 19 and 21 in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hong; Lu, Weipeng; Li, Mei; Zhang, Qiuping

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Traditional chemotherapy is the main adjuvant therapy for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the emergence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) has greatly restricted the curative effect of chemotherapy. Therefore, it is necessary to find a method to treat MDR NSCLC clinically. It is worth investigating whether NSCLCs that are resistant to traditional chemotherapy can be effectively treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Materials and Methods The expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and lung resistance-related protein (LRP) was detected by immunohistochemistry, and mutations in EGFR (exons 19 and 21) and Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) (exon 2) were detected by high-resolution melting analysis (HRMA) of surgical NSCLC specimens from 127 patients who did not undergo traditional chemotherapy or radiotherapy. A Pearson chi-square test was performed to analyze the correlations between the expression of P-gp and LRP and mutations in EGFR and KRAS. Results The expression frequencies of P-gp and LRP were significantly higher in adenocarcinomas from non-smoking patients; the expression frequency of LRP was significantly higher in cancer tissue from female patients. The frequency of EGFR mutations was significantly higher in well to moderately differentiated adenocarcinomas from non-smoking female patients. The frequency of EGFR mutations in the cancers that expressed P-gp, LRP, or both P-gp and LRP was significantly higher than that in cancers that did not express P-gp or LRP. Conclusion NSCLCs expressing P-gp/LRP bear the EGFR mutation in exon 19 or 21 easily. PMID:26632382

  20. Effect of some P-glycoprotein modulators on Rhodamine-123 absorption in guinea-pig ileum.

    PubMed

    Colabufo, Nicola Antonio; Berardi, Francesco; Contino, Marialessandra; Inglese, Carmela; Niso, Mauro; Perrone, Roberto

    2008-07-01

    Several reference compounds such as Cyclosporin A, Tamoxifen, Verapamil, and our compound 1, known as P-gp modulators, have been tested for their P-gp modulating activity in isolated organ bath. Compound 1 showed the best result in organ bath experiment (EC(50)=14.7 microM), Cyclosporin A and Tamoxifen displayed EC(50)=25.2 and 39.4 microM, respectively. PMID:18524592

  1. The effects of protease inhibitors and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors on p-glycoprotein expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chandler, Becky; Almond, Lisa; Ford, Jennifer; Owen, Andrew; Hoggard, Patrick; Khoo, Saye; Back, David

    2003-08-15

    Several antiretroviral compounds have been shown to be substrates for the efflux protein P-glycoprotein (P-gp) although few studies have investigated the effects of drug on expression of this protein. Here, an in vitro system has been adopted to investigate the effects of protease inhibitors (PIs) and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) on P-gp expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). PBMCs isolated from healthy volunteers were incubated with 10 or 100 microM PI (saquinavir, ritonavir, lopinavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, amprenavir) or 10 microM NNRTI (efavirenz, nevirapine) for 72 hours. Surface P-gp expression was measured by flow cytometry and compared with vehicle-incubated controls. Toxicity was assessed by MTT assay and the effects of each compound were compared between individuals with differing genotypes at position 3435 of exon 26 of MDR1, which was assigned by restriction fragment length polymorphism. Significant increases in median P-gp expression were observed following incubation with 10 microM nelfinavir (10.2 versus 6.7% P-gp-positive cells) and efavirenz (10.0 versus 6.7% P-gp-positive cells). No significant differences in induction were observed between genotypes (CC, CT, TT). Following incubation with 100 microM PI, significant upregulation of P-gp occurred except with amprenavir. However, nelfinavir, ritonavir, and lopinavir caused marked toxicity, indicating that at higher concentrations, the increase in P-gp may be at least partially related to a stress response. These results indicate the potential of some PIs and NNRTIs to induce P-gp expression in PBMCs in vitro. PMID:12902797

  2. Fullerene inhibits benzo(a)pyrene Efflux from Cyprinus carpio hepatocytes by affecting cell membrane fluidity and P-glycoprotein expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiqing; Hu, Xialin; Wang, Rui; Yuan, Jin; Yin, Daqiang

    2016-05-01

    P-Glycoprotein (P-gp) can protect cells by pumping out toxic compounds, and has been found widely expressed in fish tissues. Here, we illustrate the P-gp efflux ability for benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) in the hepatocytes of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) after exposing to fullerene aqueous suspension (nC60). The results revealed that nC60 increased the membrane fluidity by decreasing the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids, and increased the cholesterol contents. These findings, combined with 10-38% and 70-75% down-regulation of P-gp mRNA and protein respectively, suggested that nC60 caused inhibition on P-gp efflux transport system. Therefore, we further investigated the cellular efflux ability for BaP. Results showed unequivocally that nC60 is a potent P-gp inhibitor. The retaining BaP amounts after efflux were elevated by 1.7-2.8 fold during the 10 day exposure. Meanwhile, 5mg/L humic acid (one of the important fractions of natural organic matter, which is ubiquitous in aquatic environment) alleviated the nC60 damage to hepatocytes in terms of oxidative damage, cholesterol increment, and P-gp content reduction; and finally attenuated the suppressed P-gp efflux ability. Collectively, this study provides the first evidence of nC60 toxicity to P-gp functionality in fish and illustrates the possible mechanism of the suppressed P-gp efflux ability for BaP. PMID:26918948

  3. Modulation of P-glycoprotein function and multidrug resistance in cancer cells by Thai plant extracts.

    PubMed

    Takano, M; Kakizoe, S; Kawami, M; Nagai, J; Patanasethnont, D; Sripanidkulchai, B; Yumoto, R

    2014-11-01

    The effects of ethanol extracts from Thai plants belonging to the families of Annonaceae, Rutaceae, and Zingiberaceae on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function and multidrug resistance were examined in paclitaxel-resistant HepG2 (PR-HepG2) cells. All the extracts tested, significantly increased the accumulation of [3H]paclitaxel, a P-gp substrate, in the cells. Among nine extracts, Z01 and Z02, extracts from Curcuma comosa and Kaempferia marginata (Zingiberaceae family), respectively, potently increased the accumulation. In addition, Z01 and Z02 increased the accumulation of other P-gp substrates, rhodamine 123 and doxorubicin, in PR-HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Increased accumulation of rhodamine 123 and doxorubicin by Z01 and Z02 was also confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The effect of Z01 and Z02 pretreatment on the expression of MDR1 mRNA was also examined. The expression of MDR1 mRNA was not affected by the treatment of PR-HepG2 cells with these extracts for 48 hours. Cytotoxicity of paclitaxel was examined by XTT and protein assays in the absence and presence of Z02. Z02 potentiated the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel in PR-HepG2 cells. These results suggest that Curcuma comosa and Kaempferia marginata belonging to Zingiberaceae are useful sources to search for new P-gp modulator(s) that can be used to overcome multidrug resistance of cancer cells. PMID:25985578

  4. Herbal modulation of P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shufeng; Lim, Lee Yong; Chowbay, Balram

    2004-02-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is a 170 kDa phosphorylated glycoprotein encoded by human MDR1 gene. It is responsible for the systemic disposition of numerous structurally and pharmacologically unrelated lipophilic and amphipathic drugs, carcinogens, toxins, and other xenobiotics in many organs, such as the intestine, liver, kidney, and brain. Like cytochrome P450s (CYP3A4), Pgp is vulnerable to inhibition, activation, or induction by herbal constituents. This was demonstrated by using an ATPase assay, purified Pgp protein or intact Pgp-expressing cells, and proper probe substrates and inhibitors. Curcumin, ginsenosides, piperine, some catechins from green tea, and silymarin from milk thistle were found to be inhibitors of Pgp, while some catechins from green tea increased Pgp-mediated drug transport by heterotropic allosteric mechanism, and St. John's wort induced the intestinal expression of Pgp in vitro and in vivo. Some components (e.g., bergamottin and quercetin) from grapefruit juice were reported to modulate Pgp activity. Many of these herbal constituents, in particular flavonoids, were reported to modulate Pgp by directly interacting with the vicinal ATP-binding site, the steroid-binding site, or the substrate-binding site. Some herbal constituents (e.g., hyperforin and kava) were shown to activate pregnane X receptor, an orphan nuclear receptor acting as a key regulator of MDR1 and many other genes. The inhibition of Pgp by herbal constituents may provide a novel approach for reversing multidrug resistance in tumor cells, whereas the stimulation of Pgp expression or activity has implication for chemoprotective enhancement by herbal medicines. Certain natural flavonols (e.g., kaempferol, quercetin, and galangin) are potent stimulators of the Pgp-mediated efflux of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)-anthracene (a carcinogen). The modulation of Pgp activity and expression by these herb constituents may result in altered absorption and bioavailability of drugs that are Pgp substrates. This is exemplified by increased oral bioavailability of phenytoin and rifampin by piperine and decreased bioavailability of indinavir, tacrolimus, cyclosporine, digoxin, and fexofenadine by coadministered St. John's wort. However, many of these drugs are also substrates of CYP3A4. Thus, the modulation of intestinal Pgp and CYP3A4 represents an important mechanism for many clinically important herb-drug interactions. Further studies are needed to explore the relative role of Pgp and CYP3A4 modulation by herbs and the mechanism for the interplay of these two important proteins in herb-drug interactions. PMID:15072439

  5. Uptake/Efflux Transport of Tramadol Enantiomers and O-Desmethyl-Tramadol: Focus on P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Kanaan, Mouna; Daali, Youssef; Dayer, Pierre; Desmeules, Jules

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: The analgesic effect of tramadol (TMD) results from the monoaminergic effect of its two enantiomers, (+)-TMD and (−)-TMD as well as its opioid metabolite (+)-O-desmethyl-tramadol (M1). P-glycoprotein (P-gp) might be of importance in the analgesic and tolerability profile variability of TMD. Our study investigated the involvement of P-gp in the transepithelial transport of (+)-TMD, (−)-TMD and M1, using a Caco-2 cell monolayer model. The bidirectional transport of racemic TMD and M1 (1–100 µM) across the monolayers was investigated at two pH conditions (pH 6.8/7.4 and 7.4/7.4) in the presence and absence of P-gp inhibitor cyclosporine A (10 µM) and assessed with the more potent and specific P-gp inhibitor GF120918 (4 µM). Analytical quantification was performed by liquid chromatography coupled to the fluorescence detector. A net secretion of (+)-TMD, (−)-TMD and M1 was observed when a pH gradient was applied (TR: Papp(B − A)/Papp(A − B): 1.8–2.7; P < 0.05). However, the bidirectional transport of all compounds was equal in the non-gradient system. In the presence of P-gp inhibitors, a slight but significant increase of secretory flux was observed (up to 26%; P < 0.05) at both pH conditions. In conclusion, (+)-TMD, (−)-TMD and M1 are not P-gp substrates. However, proton-based efflux pumps may be involved in limiting the gastrointestinal absorption of TMD enantiomers as well as enhancing TMD enantiomers and M1 renal excretion. A possible involvement of uptake carriers in the transepithelial transport of TMD enantiomers and M1 is suggested. PMID:19496778

  6. Enhancement of cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles by conjugation with anti-P-glycoprotein in drug resistance cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Punfa, Wanisa; Yodkeeree, Supachai; Pitchakarn, Pornsiri; Ampasavate, Chadarat; Limtrakul, Pornngarm

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To compare the anti-cancer activity and cellular uptake of curcumin (Cur) delivered by targeted and non-targeted drug delivery systems in multidrug-resistant cervical cancer cells. Methods: Cur was entrapped into poly (DL-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (Cur-NPs) in the presence of modified-pluronic F127 stabilizer using nano-precipitation technique. On the surface of Cur-NPs, the carboxy-terminal of modified pluronic F127 was conjugated to the amino-terminal of anti-P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (Cur-NPs-APgp). The physical properties of the Cur-NPs, including particle size, zeta potential, particle morphology and Cur release kinetics, were investigated. Cellular uptake and specificity of the Cur-NPs and Cur-NPs-APgp were detected in cervical cancer cell lines KB-V1 (higher expression of P-gp) and KB-3-1 (lower expression of P-gp) using fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry, respectively. Cytotoxicity of the Cur-NPs and Cur-NPs-APgp was determined using MTT assay. Results: The particle size of Cur-NPs and Cur-NPs-APgp was 127 and 132 nm, respectively. The entrapment efficiency and actual loading of Cur-NPs-APgp (60% and 5 μg Cur/mg NP) were lower than those of Cur-NPs (99% and 7 μg Cur/mg NP). The specific binding of Cur-NPs-APgp to KB-V1 cells was significantly higher than that to KB-3-1 cells. Cellular uptake of Cur-NPs-APgp into KB-V1 cells was higher, as compared to KB-3-1 cells. However, the cellular uptake of Cur-NPs and Cur-NPs-IgG did not differ between the two types of cells. Besides, the cytotoxicity of Cur-NPs-APgp in KB-V1 cells was higher than those of Cur and Cur-NPs. Conclusion: The results demonstrate that Cur-NPs-APgp targeted to P-gp on the cell surface membrane of KB-V1 cells, thus enhancing the cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of Cur. PMID:22580738

  7. Investigating the binding interactions of the anti-Alzheimer's drug donepezil with CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    McEneny-King, Alanna; Edginton, Andrea N; Rao, Praveen P N

    2015-01-15

    The anti-Alzheimer's agent donepezil is known to bind to the hepatic enzyme CYP3A4, but its relationship with the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is not as well elucidated. We conducted in vitro inhibition studies of donepezil using human recombinant CYP3A4 and P-gp. These studies show that donepezil is a weak inhibitor of CYP3A4 (IC50=54.681.00?M) whereas the reference agent ketoconazole exhibited potent inhibition (CYP3A4 IC50=0.200.01?M). P-gp inhibition studies indicate that donepezil exhibits better inhibition relative to CYP3A4 (P-gp EC50=34.854.63?M) although it was less potent compared to ketoconazole (P-gp EC50=9.741.23?M). At higher concentrations, donepezil exhibited significant inhibition of CYP3A4 (69%, 84% and 87% inhibition at 100, 250 and 500?M, respectively). This indicates its potential to cause drug-drug interactions with other CYP3A4 substrates upon co-administration; however, this scenario is unlikely in vivo due to the low therapeutic concentrations of donepezil. Similarly, donepezil co-administration with P-gp substrates or inhibitors is unlikely to result in beneficial or adverse drug interactions. The molecular docking studies show that the 5,6-dimethoxyindan-1-one moiety of donepezil was oriented closer to the heme center in CYP3A4 whereas in the P-gp binding site, the protonated benzylpiperidine pharmacophore of donepezil played a major role in its binding ability. Energy parameters indicate that donepezil complex with both CYP3A4 and P-gp was less stable (CDOCKER energies=-15.05 and -4.91kcal/mol, respectively) compared to the ketoconazole-CYP3A4 and P-gp complex (CDOCKER energies=-41.89 and -20.03kcal/mol, respectively). PMID:25499431

  8. Identification of a Cryptic Bacterial Promoter in Mouse (mdr1a) P-Glycoprotein cDNA

    PubMed Central

    Pluchino, Kristen M.; Esposito, Dominic; Moen, Janna K.; Hall, Matthew D.; Madigan, James P.; Shukla, Suneet; Procter, Lauren V.; Wall, Vanessa E.; Schneider, Thomas D.; Pringle, Ian; Ambudkar, Suresh V.; Gill, Deborah R.; Hyde, Steven C.; Gottesman, Michael M.

    2015-01-01

    The efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is an important mediator of various pharmacokinetic parameters, being expressed at numerous physiological barriers and also in multidrug-resistant cancer cells. Molecular cloning of homologous cDNAs is an important tool for the characterization of functional differences in P-gp between species. However, plasmids containing mouse mdr1a cDNA display significant genetic instability during cloning in bacteria, indicating that mdr1a cDNA may be somehow toxic to bacteria, allowing only clones containing mutations that abrogate this toxicity to survive transformation. We demonstrate here the presence of a cryptic promoter in mouse mdr1a cDNA that causes mouse P-gp expression in bacteria. This expression may account for the observed toxicity of mdr1a DNA to bacteria. Sigma 70 binding site analysis and GFP reporter plasmids were used to identify sequences in the first 321 bps of mdr1a cDNA capable of initiating bacterial protein expression. An mdr1a M107L cDNA containing a single residue mutation at the proposed translational start site was shown to allow sub-cloning of mdr1a in E. coli while retaining transport properties similar to wild-type P-gp. This mutant mdr1a cDNA may prove useful for efficient cloning of mdr1a in E. coli. PMID:26309032

  9. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the effects of piperine on P-gp function and expression

    SciTech Connect

    Han Yi; Chin Tan, Theresa May; Lim, Lee-Yong

    2008-08-01

    Piperine, a major component of black pepper, is used as spice and nutrient enhancer. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of acute and prolonged piperine exposure on cellular P-gp expression and function in vitro and in vivo. Piperine at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 {mu}M, determined by MTT assay to be non-cytotoxic, was observed to inhibit P-gp mediated efflux transport of [{sup 3}H]-digoxin across L-MDR1 and Caco-2 cell monolayers. The acute inhibitory effect was dependent on piperine concentration, with abolishment of [{sup 3}H]-digoxin polarized transport attained at 50 {mu}M of piperine. In contrast, prolonged (48 and 72 h) co-incubation of Caco-2 cell monolayers with piperine (50 and 100 {mu}M) increased P-gp activity through an up-regulation of cellular P-gp protein and MDR1 mRNA levels. The up-regulated protein was functionally active, as demonstrated by a higher degree of [{sup 3}H]-digoxin efflux across the cell monolayers, but the induction was readily reversed by the removal of the spice from the culture medium. Peroral administration of piperine at the dose of 112 {mu}g/kg body weight/day to male Wistar rats for 14 consecutive days also led to increased intestinal P-gp levels. However, there was a concomitant reduction in the rodent liver P-gp although the kidney P-gp level was unaffected. Our data suggest that caution should be exercised when piperine is to be co-administered with drugs that are P-gp substrates, particularly for patients whose diet relies heavily on pepper.

  10. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the effects of piperine on P-gp function and expression.

    PubMed

    Han, Yi; Chin Tan, Theresa May; Lim, Lee-Yong

    2008-08-01

    Piperine, a major component of black pepper, is used as spice and nutrient enhancer. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of acute and prolonged piperine exposure on cellular P-gp expression and function in vitro and in vivo. Piperine at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 microM, determined by MTT assay to be non-cytotoxic, was observed to inhibit P-gp mediated efflux transport of [(3)H]-digoxin across L-MDR1 and Caco-2 cell monolayers. The acute inhibitory effect was dependent on piperine concentration, with abolishment of [(3)H]-digoxin polarized transport attained at 50 microM of piperine. In contrast, prolonged (48 and 72 h) co-incubation of Caco-2 cell monolayers with piperine (50 and 100 microM) increased P-gp activity through an up-regulation of cellular P-gp protein and MDR1 mRNA levels. The up-regulated protein was functionally active, as demonstrated by a higher degree of [(3)H]-digoxin efflux across the cell monolayers, but the induction was readily reversed by the removal of the spice from the culture medium. Peroral administration of piperine at the dose of 112 microg/kg body weight/day to male Wistar rats for 14 consecutive days also led to increased intestinal P-gp levels. However, there was a concomitant reduction in the rodent liver P-gp although the kidney P-gp level was unaffected. Our data suggest that caution should be exercised when piperine is to be co-administered with drugs that are P-gp substrates, particularly for patients whose diet relies heavily on pepper. PMID:18417181

  11. A functional model for feline P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    van Beusekom, C D; Lange, R; Schrickx, J A

    2016-02-01

    P-gp (ABCB1) belongs to the group of export transporters that is expressed in various species at biological barriers. Inhibition of P-gp can lead to changes in pharmacokinetics of drugs (drug-drug interactions), which can lead to toxicity and adverse side effects. This study aimed to establish a functional assay to measure the inhibitory potential of veterinary drugs on feline P-gp by means of fluorescence-associated flow cytometry of feline lymphoma cells. In this model, PSC833 and ivermectin potently inhibited P-gp function; cyclosporine and verapamil moderately inhibited P-gp function, whereas ketoconazole, itraconazole, diazepam, and its metabolites had no effect on P-gp function. This model can be used for testing the inhibitory potency of (new) drugs on feline P-gp. PMID:26190674

  12. Liposomes Coloaded with Elacridar and Tariquidar To Modulate the P-Glycoprotein at the Blood-Brain Barrier.

    PubMed

    Nieto Montesinos, Rita; Bduneau, Arnaud; Lamprecht, Alf; Pellequer, Yann

    2015-11-01

    This study prepared three liposomal formulations coloaded with elacridar and tariquidar to overcome the P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux at the blood-brain barrier. Their pharmacokinetics, brain distribution, and impact on the model P-glycoprotein substrate, loperamide, were compared to those for the coadministration of free elacridar plus free tariquidar. After intravenous administration in rats, elacridar and tariquidar in conventional liposomes were rapidly cleared from the bloodstream. Their low levels in the brain did not improve the loperamide brain distribution. Although elacridar and tariquidar in PEGylated liposomes exhibited 2.6 and 1.9 longer half-lives than free elacridar and free tariquidar, respectively, neither their Kp for the brain nor the loperamide brain distribution was improved. However, the conjugation of OX26 F(ab')2 fragments to PEGylated liposomes increased the Kps for the brain of elacridar and tariquidar by 1.4- and 2.1-fold, respectively, in comparison to both free P-gp modulators. Consequently, the Kp for the brain of loperamide increased by 2.7-fold. Moreover, the plasma pharmacokinetic parameters and liver distribution of loperamide were not modified by the PEGylated OX26 F(ab')2 immunoliposomes. Thus, this formulation represents a promising tool for modulating the P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux at the blood-brain barrier and could improve the brain uptake of any P-glycoprotein substrate that is intended to treat central nervous system diseases. PMID:26390138

  13. Forced expression of heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27) reverses P-glycoprotein (ABCB1)-mediated drug efflux and MDR1 gene expression in Adriamycin-resistant human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kanagasabai, Ragu; Krishnamurthy, Karthikeyan; Druhan, Lawrence J; Ilangovan, Govindasamy

    2011-09-23

    Mutant p53 accumulation has been shown to induce the multidrug resistance gene (MDR1) and ATP binding cassette (ABC)-based drug efflux in human breast cancer cells. In the present work, we have found that transcriptional activation of the oxidative stress-responsive heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1) and expression of heat shock proteins, including Hsp27, which is normally known to augment proteasomal p53 degradation, are inhibited in Adriamycin (doxorubicin)-resistant MCF-7 cells (MCF-7/adr). Such an endogenous inhibition of HSF-1 and Hsp27 in turn results in p53 mutation with gain of function in its transcriptional activity and accumulation in MCF-7/adr. Also, lack of HSF-1 enhances nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B) DNA binding activity together with mutant p53 and induces MDR1 gene and P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1), resulting in a multidrug-resistant phenotype. Ectopic expression of Hsp27, however, significantly depleted both mutant p53 and NF-?B (p65), reversed the drug resistance by inhibiting MDR1/P-gp expression in MCF-7/adr cells, and induced cell death by increased G(2)/M population and apoptosis. We conclude from these results that HSF-1 inhibition and depletion of Hsp27 is a trigger, at least in part, for the accumulation of transcriptionally active mutant p53, which can either directly or NF-?B-dependently induce an MDR1/P-gp phenotype in MCF-7 cells. Upon Hsp27 overexpression, this pathway is abrogated, and the acquired multidrug resistance is significantly abolished so that MCF-7/adr cells are sensitized to Dox. Thus, clinical alteration in Hsp27 or NF-?B level will be a potential approach to circumvent drug resistance in breast cancer. PMID:21784846

  14. Inhibitory Effects of Green Tea and (-)-Epigallocatechin Gallate on Transport by OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OCT1, OCT2, MATE1, MATE2-K and P-Glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Knop, Jana; Misaka, Shingen; Singer, Katrin; Hoier, Eva; Mller, Fabian; Glaeser, Hartmut; Knig, Jrg; Fromm, Martin F

    2015-01-01

    Green tea catechins inhibit the function of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) that mediate the uptake of a diverse group of drugs and endogenous compounds into cells. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of green tea and its most abundant catechin epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on the transport activity of several drug transporters expressed in enterocytes, hepatocytes and renal proximal tubular cells such as OATPs, organic cation transporters (OCTs), multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs), and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Uptake of the typical substrates metformin for OCTs and MATEs and bromosulphophthalein (BSP) and atorvastatin for OATPs was measured in the absence and presence of a commercially available green tea and EGCG. Transcellular transport of digoxin, a typical substrate of P-gp, was measured over 4 hours in the absence and presence of green tea or EGCG in Caco-2 cell monolayers. OCT1-, OCT2-, MATE1- and MATE2-K-mediated metformin uptake was significantly reduced in the presence of green tea and EGCG (P < 0.05). BSP net uptake by OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 was inhibited by green tea [IC50 2.6% (v/v) and 0.39% (v/v), respectively]. Green tea also inhibited OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated atorvastatin net uptake with IC50 values of 1.9% (v/v) and 1.0% (v/v), respectively. Basolateral to apical transport of digoxin was significantly decreased in the presence of green tea and EGCG. These findings indicate that green tea and EGCG inhibit multiple drug transporters in vitro. Further studies are necessary to investigate the effects of green tea on prototoypical substrates of these transporters in humans, in particular on substrates of hepatic uptake transporters (e.g. statins) as well as on P-glycoprotein substrates. PMID:26426900

  15. Inhibitory Effects of Green Tea and (–)-Epigallocatechin Gallate on Transport by OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OCT1, OCT2, MATE1, MATE2-K and P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Katrin; Hoier, Eva; Müller, Fabian; Glaeser, Hartmut; König, Jörg; Fromm, Martin F.

    2015-01-01

    Green tea catechins inhibit the function of organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) that mediate the uptake of a diverse group of drugs and endogenous compounds into cells. The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of green tea and its most abundant catechin epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) on the transport activity of several drug transporters expressed in enterocytes, hepatocytes and renal proximal tubular cells such as OATPs, organic cation transporters (OCTs), multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs), and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Uptake of the typical substrates metformin for OCTs and MATEs and bromosulphophthalein (BSP) and atorvastatin for OATPs was measured in the absence and presence of a commercially available green tea and EGCG. Transcellular transport of digoxin, a typical substrate of P-gp, was measured over 4 hours in the absence and presence of green tea or EGCG in Caco-2 cell monolayers. OCT1-, OCT2-, MATE1- and MATE2-K-mediated metformin uptake was significantly reduced in the presence of green tea and EGCG (P < 0.05). BSP net uptake by OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 was inhibited by green tea [IC50 2.6% (v/v) and 0.39% (v/v), respectively]. Green tea also inhibited OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-mediated atorvastatin net uptake with IC50 values of 1.9% (v/v) and 1.0% (v/v), respectively. Basolateral to apical transport of digoxin was significantly decreased in the presence of green tea and EGCG. These findings indicate that green tea and EGCG inhibit multiple drug transporters in vitro. Further studies are necessary to investigate the effects of green tea on prototoypical substrates of these transporters in humans, in particular on substrates of hepatic uptake transporters (e.g. statins) as well as on P-glycoprotein substrates. PMID:26426900

  16. Multifunctional PLGA Nanobubbles as Theranostic Agents: Combining Doxorubicin and P-gp siRNA Co-Delivery Into Human Breast Cancer Cells and Ultrasound Cellular Imaging.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Deng, Liwei; Li, Tingting; Shen, Xue; Yan, Jie; Zuo, Liangming; Wu, Chunhui; Liu, Yiyao

    2015-12-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major impediment to the success of cancer chemotherapy. One of the effective approaches to overcome MDR is to use nanoparticle-mediated the gene silence of chemotherapeutic export proteins by RNA interference to increase drug accumulation in drug resistant cancer cells. In this work, a new co-delivery system, DOX-PLGA/PEI/P-gp shRNA nanobubbles (NBs) around 327 nm, to overcome doxorubicin (DOX) resistance in MCF-7 human breast cancer was designed and developed. Positively charged polyethylenimine (PEI) were modified onto the surface of DOX-PLGA NBs through DCC/NHS crosslinking, and could efficiently condense P-gp shRNA into DOX-PLGA/PEI NBs at vector/shRNA weight ratios of 70:1 and above. An in vitro release profile demonstrated an efficient DOX release (more than 80%) from DOX-PLGA/PEI NBs at pH 4.4, suggesting a pH-responsive drug release for the multifunctionalized NBs. Cellular experimental results further showed that DOX-PLGA/PEI/P-gp shRNA NBs could facilitate cellular uptake of DOX into cells and increase the cell proliferation suppression effect of DOX against MCF-7/ADR cells (a DOX-resistant and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) over-expression cancer cell line). The IC50 of DOX-PLGA NBs against MCF-7/ADR cells was 2-fold lower than that of free DOX. The increased cellular uptake and nuclear accumulation of DOX delivered by DOX-PLGA/PEI/P-gp shRNA NBs in MCF-7/ADR cells was confirmed by fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence spectrophotometry, and might be owning to the down-regulation of P-gp and reduced the efflux of DOX. The cellular uptake mechanism of DOX-PLGA/PEI/P-gp shRNA NBs indicated that the macropinocytosis was one of the pathways for the uptake of NBs by MCF-7/ADR cells, which was also an energy-dependent process. Furthermore, the in vitro cellular ultrasound imaging suggested that the employment of the DOX-PLGA/PEI/P-gp shRNA NBs could efficiently enhance ultrasound imaging of cancer cells. These results demonstrated that the developed DOX-PLGA/PEI/P-gp shRNA NBs is a potential, safe and efficient theranotic agent for cancer therapy and diagnostics. PMID:26510307

  17. The flavanolignan silybin and its hemisynthetic derivatives, a novel series of potential modulators of P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Maitrejean, M; Comte, G; Barron, D; El Kirat, K; Conseil, G; Di Pietro, A

    2000-01-17

    A new series of potential flavonoidic modulators of P-glycoprotein activity has been prepared. The flavanolignan silybin was first oxidised to dehydrosilybin and then C-alkylated with either prenyl or geranyl bromide. The resulting isoprenoid dehydrosilybins were shown to display high in vitro affinities for direct binding to P-glycoprotein, which ranged them among the best flavonoids ever tested. PMID:10673101

  18. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein leads to improved oral bioavailability of compound K, an anticancer metabolite of red ginseng extract produced by gut microflora.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhen; Wang, Jing-Rong; Niu, Tao; Gao, Song; Yin, Taijun; You, Ming; Jiang, Zhi-Hong; Hu, Ming

    2012-08-01

    Ginsenosides are hydrolyzed extensively by gut microflora after oral administration, and their metabolites are pharmacologically active against lung cancer cells. In this study, we measured the metabolism of various ginsenosides by gut microflora and determined the mechanisms responsible for the observed pharmacokinetic behaviors of its active metabolite, Compound K (C-K). The results showed that biotransformation into C-K is the major metabolic pathway of ginsenosides after the oral administration of the red ginseng extract containing both protopanaxadiol and protopanaxatriol ginsenosides. Pharmacokinetic studies in normal mice showed that C-K exhibited low oral bioavailability. To define the mechanisms responsible for this low bioavailability, two P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors, verapamil and cyclosporine A, were used, and their presence substantially decreased C-K's efflux ratio in Caco-2 cells (from 26.6 to <3) and significantly increased intracellular concentrations (by as much as 40-fold). Similar results were obtained when transcellular transport of C-K was determined using multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1)-overexpressing Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells. In MDR1a/b(-/-) FVB mice, its plasma C(max) and AUC(0-24h) were increased substantially by 4.0- and 11.7-fold, respectively. These increases appear to be due to slower elimination and faster absorption of C-K in MDR1a/b(-/-) mice. In conclusion, C-K is the major active metabolite of ginsenosides after microflora hydrolysis of primary ginsenosides in the red ginseng extract, and inhibition/deficiency of P-gp can lead to large enhancement of its absorption and bioavailability. PMID:22584255

  19. P-glycoprotein and its inhibition in tumors by phytochemicals derived from Chinese herbs.

    PubMed

    Eichhorn, Tolga; Efferth, Thomas

    2012-06-01

    P-glycoprotein belongs to the family of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters. It functions in cellular detoxification, pumping a wide range of xenobiotic compounds, including anticancer drugs out of the cell. In cancerous cells, P-glycoprotein confers resistance to a broad spectrum of anticancer agents, a phenomenon termed multidrug resistance. An attractive strategy for overcoming multidrug resistance is to block the transport function of P-glycoprotein and thus increase intracellular concentrations of anticancer drugs to lethal levels. Efforts to identify P-glycoprotein inhibitors have led to numerous candidates, none of which have passed clinical trials with cancer patients due to their high toxicity. The search for naturally inhibitory products from traditional Chinese medicine may be more promising because natural products are frequently less toxic than chemically synthesized substances. In this review, we give an overview of molecular and clinical aspects of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance in the context of cancer as well as Chinese herbs and phytochemicals showing inhibitory activity towards P-glycoprotein. PMID:21963565

  20. Chronic inflammation up-regulates P-gp in peripheral mononuclear blood cells via the STAT3/Nf-?b pathway in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis mice

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jiali; Zhou, Fang; Chen, Qianying; Kang, An; Lu, Meng; Liu, Wenyue; Zang, Xiaojie; Wang, Guangji; Zhang, Jingwei

    2015-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, including Crohns disease and ulcerative colitis, often suffer drug intolerance. This resistance can be divided into intrinsic resistance and acquired resistance. Although there is agreement on acquired resistance, studies regarding intrinsic resistance have demonstrated inconsistencies, especially for Crohns disease. For this reason, an animal model of Crohns disease was induced with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid solution (TNBS), and intrinsic resistance was analyzed by measuring the function and expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PMBC), followed by mechanistic studies. The results revealed reduced retention of cyclosporine A in PMBC over-expressing P-gp in a TNBS-treated group and enhanced secretion of the cytokines IL-1?, IL-6, IL-17, and TNF-? as well as LPS in plasma. These cytokines and LPS can induce P-gp expression through the STAT3/Nf-?b pathway, contributing to a decrease of cyclosporine A retention, which can be reversed by the application of a P-gp inhibitor. Our results demonstrated that the sustained chronic inflammation could induce the intrinsic resistance presented as P-gp over-expression in PBMC in Crohns disease through STAT3/Nf-?b pathway and this resistance might be reversed by combinational usage of P-gp inhibitors. PMID:26324318

  1. Hedyotis diffusa Willd overcomes 5-fluorouracil resistance in human colorectal cancer HCT-8/5-FU cells by downregulating the expression of P-glycoprotein and ATP-binding casette subfamily G member 2

    PubMed Central

    LI, QIONGYU; WANG, XIANGFENG; SHEN, ALING; ZHANG, YUCHEN; CHEN, YOUQIN; SFERRA, THOMAS J.; LIN, JIUMAO; PENG, JUN

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Hedyotis diffusa Willd (HDW), a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, exhibits potent anticancer activity in models of colorectal cancer (CRC). Aggressive forms of CRC exhibit resistance to widely used chemotherapeutic drugs, including the antimetabolite, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU); however, less is known with regard to the activity of HDW against 5-FU-resistant cancer. In the present study, the mechanism of action and the potency of ethanol extracts of HDW (EEHDW) were investigated on a multidrug-resistant CRC HCT-8/5-FU cell line. Using an MTT cell proliferation assay, EEHDW treatment was shown to significantly reduce the cell viability of HCT-8/5-FU cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, EEHDW significantly increased the retention of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter substrate, rhodamine-123, as compared with the untreated controls. To further investigate the molecular mechanisms targeted by EEHDW in the resistant cells, the expression levels of the ABC drug transporter protein, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and ABC subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2), were analyzed using reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis. The mRNA and protein expression levels of P-gp and ABCG2 were reduced in the HCT-8/5-FU cells following EEHDW treatment, indicating that EEHDW inhibits ABCG2-mediated drug resistance by downregulating the expression of ABCG2 and P-gp. Therefore, the potential application of EEHDW as a chemotherapeutic adjuvant represents a promising alternative approach to the treatment of drug-resistant CRC. PMID:26640560

  2. Automated extraction of information on chemical-P-glycoprotein interactions from the literature.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shuya; Yamashita, Fumiyoshi; Ose, Atsushi; Maeda, Kazuya; Sugiyama, Yuichi; Hashida, Mitsuru

    2013-10-28

    Knowledge of the interactions between drugs and transporters is important for drug discovery and development as well as for the evaluation of their clinical safety. We recently developed a text-mining system for the automatic extraction of information on chemical-CYP3A4 interactions from the literature. This system is based on natural language processing and can extract chemical names and their interaction patterns according to sentence context. The present study aimed to extend this system to the extraction of information regarding chemical-transporter interactions. For this purpose, the key verb list designed for cytochrome P450 enzymes was replaced with that for known drug transporters. The performance of the system was then tested by examining the accuracy of information on chemical-P-glycoprotein (P-gp) interactions extracted from randomly selected PubMed abstracts. The system achieved 89.8% recall and 84.2% precision for the identification of chemical names and 71.7% recall and 78.6% precision for the extraction of chemical-P-gp interactions. PMID:24010770

  3. Selenorhodamine Photosensitizers for Photodynamic Therapy of P-Glycoprotein-Expressing Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We examined a series of selenorhodamines with amide and thioamide functionality at the 5-position of a 9-(2-thienyl) substituent on the selenorhodamine core for their potential as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT) in P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expressing cells. These compounds were examined for their photophysical properties (absorption, fluorescence, and ability to generate singlet oxygen), for their uptake into Colo-26 cells in the absence or presence of verapamil, for their dark and phototoxicity toward Colo-26 cells, for their rates of transport in monolayers of multidrug-resistant, P-gp-overexpressing MDCKII-MDR1 cells, and for their colocalization with mitochondrial specific agents in Colo-26 cells. Thioamide derivatives 16b and 18b were more effective photosensitizers than amide derivatives 15b and 17b. Selenorhodamine thioamides 16b and 18b were useful in a combination therapy to treat Colo-26 cells in vitro: a synergistic therapeutic effect was observed when Colo-26 cells were exposed to PDT and treatment with the cancer drug doxorubicin. PMID:25250825

  4. Selenorhodamine photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy of P-glycoprotein-expressing cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jacqueline E; Linder, Michelle K; Davies, Kellie S; Sawada, Geri A; Morgan, Janet; Ohulchanskyy, Tymish Y; Detty, Michael R

    2014-10-23

    We examined a series of selenorhodamines with amide and thioamide functionality at the 5-position of a 9-(2-thienyl) substituent on the selenorhodamine core for their potential as photosensitizers for photodynamic therapy (PDT) in P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expressing cells. These compounds were examined for their photophysical properties (absorption, fluorescence, and ability to generate singlet oxygen), for their uptake into Colo-26 cells in the absence or presence of verapamil, for their dark and phototoxicity toward Colo-26 cells, for their rates of transport in monolayers of multidrug-resistant, P-gp-overexpressing MDCKII-MDR1 cells, and for their colocalization with mitochondrial specific agents in Colo-26 cells. Thioamide derivatives 16b and 18b were more effective photosensitizers than amide derivatives 15b and 17b. Selenorhodamine thioamides 16b and 18b were useful in a combination therapy to treat Colo-26 cells in vitro: a synergistic therapeutic effect was observed when Colo-26 cells were exposed to PDT and treatment with the cancer drug doxorubicin. PMID:25250825

  5. Overexpression of P-glycoprotein induces acquired resistance to imatinib in chronic myelogenous leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Xing-Xiang; Tiwari, Amit K.; Wu, Hsiang-Chun; Chen, Zhe-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Imatinib, a breakpoint cluster region (BCR)-Abelson murine leukemia (ABL) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI), has revolutionized the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). However, development of multidrug resistance (MDR) limits the use of imatinib. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms of cellular resistance to imatinib in CML. Therefore, we established an imatinib-resistant human CML cell line (K562-imatinib) through a stepwise selection process. While characterizing the phenotype of these cells, we found that K562-imatinib cells were 124.6-fold more resistant to imatinib than parental K562 cells. In addition, these cells were cross-resistant to second- and third-generation BCR-ABL TKIs. Western blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR) demonstrated that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and MDR1 mRNA levels were increased in K562-imatinib cells. In addition, accumulation of [14C]6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) was decreased, whereas the ATP-dependent efflux of [14C] 6-MP and [3H]methotrexate transport were increased in K562-imatinib cells. These data suggest that the overexpression of P-gp may play a crucial role in acquired resistance to imatinib in CML K562-imatinib cells. PMID:22098951

  6. Increased expression of P-glycoprotein and doxorubicin chemoresistance of metastatic breast cancer is regulated by miR-298.

    PubMed

    Bao, Lili; Hazari, Sidhartha; Mehra, Smriti; Kaushal, Deepak; Moroz, Krzysztof; Dash, Srikanta

    2012-06-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, noncoding RNA molecules that regulate the expression of a number of genes involved in cancer; therefore, they offer great diagnostic and therapeutic targets. We have developed doxorubicin-resistant and -sensitive metastatic human breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231) to study the chemoresistant mechanisms regulated by miRNAs. We found that doxorubicin localized exclusively to the cytoplasm and was unable to reach the nuclei of resistant tumor cells because of the increased nuclear expression of MDR1/P-glycoprotein (P-gp). An miRNA array between doxorubicin-sensitive and -resistant breast cancer cells showed that reduced expression of miR-298 in doxorubicin-resistant human breast cancer cells was associated with increased expression of P-gp. In a transient transfection experiment, miR-298 directly bound to the MDR1 3' untranslated region and regulated the expression of firefly luciferase reporter in a dose-dependent manner. Overexpression of miR-298 down-regulated P-gp expression, increasing nuclear accumulation of doxorubicin and cytotoxicity in doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer cells. Furthermore, down-regulation of miR-298 increased P-gp expression and induced doxorubicin resistance in sensitive breast cancer cells. In summary, these results suggest that miR-298 directly modulates P-gp expression and is associated with the chemoresistant mechanisms of metastatic human breast cancer. Therefore, miR-298 has diagnostic and therapeutic potential for predicting doxorubicin chemoresistance in human breast cancer. PMID:22521303

  7. Increased Expression of P-Glycoprotein and Doxorubicin Chemoresistance of Metastatic Breast Cancer Is Regulated by miR-298

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Lili; Hazari, Sidhartha; Mehra, Smriti; Kaushal, Deepak; Moroz, Krzysztof; Dash, Srikanta

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short, noncoding RNA molecules that regulate the expression of a number of genes involved in cancer; therefore, they offer great diagnostic and therapeutic targets. We have developed doxorubicin-resistant and -sensitive metastatic human breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231) to study the chemoresistant mechanisms regulated by miRNAs. We found that doxorubicin localized exclusively to the cytoplasm and was unable to reach the nuclei of resistant tumor cells because of the increased nuclear expression of MDR1/P-glycoprotein (P-gp). An miRNA array between doxorubicin-sensitive and -resistant breast cancer cells showed that reduced expression of miR-298 in doxorubicin-resistant human breast cancer cells was associated with increased expression of P-gp. In a transient transfection experiment, miR-298 directly bound to the MDR1 3? untranslated region and regulated the expression of firefly luciferase reporter in a dose-dependent manner. Overexpression of miR-298 down-regulated P-gp expression, increasing nuclear accumulation of doxorubicin and cytotoxicity in doxorubicin-resistant breast cancer cells. Furthermore, down-regulation of miR-298 increased P-gp expression and induced doxorubicin resistance in sensitive breast cancer cells. In summary, these results suggest that miR-298 directly modulates P-gp expression and is associated with the chemoresistant mechanisms of metastatic human breast cancer. Therefore, miR-298 has diagnostic and therapeutic potential for predicting doxorubicin chemoresistance in human breast cancer. PMID:22521303

  8. Disruption of P-glycoprotein anticancer drug efflux activity by a small recombinant single-chain Fv antibody fragment targeted to an extracellular epitope.

    PubMed

    Haus-Cohen, Maya; Assaraf, Yehuda G; Binyamin, Liat; Benhar, Itai; Reiter, Yoram

    2004-05-01

    Inherent and acquired MDR is characterized by simultaneous resistance to diverse anticancer drugs and continues to be a major impediment in the curative chemotherapy of cancer. The MDR1 gene product, Pgp, is an ATP-driven efflux pump, which extrudes a variety of dissimilar hydrophobic cytotoxic compounds from MDR cells. Pgp overexpression results in MDR of tumor cell lines in vitro as well as of a variety of human malignancies. Thus, one major goal is to develop strategies aimed at specifically disrupting Pgp drug-efflux activity. To this end, we have developed a small recombinant antibody capable of potent reversal of MDR, by disrupting Pgp drug-efflux activity. Using a phage display approach, we isolated a small scFv recombinant antibody fragment that specifically reacts with the first extracellular loop of human Pgp. This scFv fragment binds specifically to various Pgp-overexpressing human MDR carcinoma cell lines, consequently disrupts Pgp drug-efflux function and thereby reverses the MDR phenotype. We have successfully disrupted anticancer drug-extrusion pump activity in MDR cells using a small recombinant scFv fragment. We propose that these novel small Fv-based recombinant antibody molecules may lead to the development of a new class of antibody fragment-based agents that specifically inhibit Pgp drug extrusion. Hence, these small recombinant antibody fragments may be applied in combination chemotherapy to overcome MDR in various human cancers. PMID:14999785

  9. The B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL2)-inhibitors, ABT-737 and ABT-263, are substrates for P-glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Vogler, Meike; Dickens, David; Dyer, Martin J.S.; Owen, Andrew; Pirmohamed, Munir; Cohen, Gerald M.

    2011-05-06

    Highlights: {yields} The BCL2-inhibitor ABT-263 is a substrate for P-glycoprotein. {yields} Apoptosis is inhibited by P-glycoprotein expression. {yields} Overexpression of P-glycoprotein may contribute to resistance to ABT-263 or ABT-737. -- Abstract: Inhibition of BCL2 proteins is one of the most promising new approaches to targeted cancer therapy resulting in the induction of apoptosis. Amongst the most specific BCL2-inhibitors identified are ABT-737 and ABT-263. However, targeted therapy is often only effective for a limited amount of time because of the occurrence of drug resistance. In this study, the interaction of BCL2-inhibitors with the drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein was investigated. Using {sup 3}H labelled ABT-263, we found that cells with high P-glycoprotein activity accumulated less drug. In addition, cells with increased P-glycoprotein expression were more resistant to apoptosis induced by either ABT-737 or ABT-263. Addition of tariquidar or verapamil sensitized the cells to BCL2-inhibitor treatment, resulting in higher apoptosis. Our data suggest that the BCL2-inhibitors ABT-737 and ABT-263 are substrates for P-glycoprotein. Over-expression of P-glycoprotein may be, at least partly, responsible for resistance to these BCL2-inhibitors.

  10. Transfected MDCK cell line with enhanced expression of CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein as a model to study their role in drug transport and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kwatra, Deep; Budda, Balasubramanyam; Vadlapudi, Aswani Dutt; Vadlapatla, Ramya Krishna; Pal, Dhananjay; Mitra, Ashim K

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize and utilize MDCK cell line expressing CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein as an in vitro model for evaluating drug-herb and drug-drug of abuse interactions. MDCK cell line simultaneously expressing P-gp and CYP3A4 (MMC) was developed and characterized by using expression and activity studies. Cellular transport study of 200 ?M cortisol was performed to determine their combined activity. The study was carried across MDCK-WT, MDCK-MDR1 and MMC cell lines. Similar studies were also carried out in the presence of 50 ?M naringin and 3 ?M morphine. Samples were analyzed by HPLC for drug and its CYP3A4 metabolite. PCR, qPCR and Western blot studies confirmed the enhanced expression of the proteins in the transfected cells. The Vivid CYP3A4 assay and ketoconazole inhibition studies further confirmed the presence of active protein. Apical to basal transport of cortisol was found to be 10- and 3-fold lower in MMC as compared to MDCK-WT and MDCK-MDR1 respectively. Higher amount of metabolite was formed in MMC than in MDCK-WT, indicating enhanced expression of CYP3A4. Highest cortisol metabolite formation was observed in MMC cell line due to the combined activities of CYP3A4 and P-gp. Transport of cortisol increased 5-fold in the presence of naringin in MMC and doubled in MDCK-MDR1. Cortisol transport in MMC was significantly lower than that in MDCK-WT in the presence of naringin. The permeability increased 3-fold in the presence of morphine, which is a weaker inhibitor of CYP3A4. Formation of 6?-hydroxy cortisol was found to decrease in the presence of morphine and naringin. This new model cell line with its enhanced CYP3A4 and P-gp levels in addition to short culture time can serve as an invaluable model to study drug-drug interactions. This cell line can also be used to study the combined contribution of efflux transporter and metabolizing enzymes toward drug-drug interactions. PMID:22676443

  11. Protective mechanisms of coenzyme-Q10 may involve up-regulation of testicular P-glycoprotein in doxorubicin-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, Azza A K; Morsy, Mohamed A; Mahmoud, Marwa M; Rifaai, Rehab A

    2014-03-01

    The anticancer drug; doxorubicin (DOX), causes testicular toxicity as an adverse effect. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a multidrug resistance efflux transporter expressed in blood-testis barrier, which extrudes DOX from the testis. We investigated whether DOX-induced gonadal injury could be prevented by the use of antioxidant; coenzyme-Q10 (CoQ10). The involvement of P-gp expression, as a possible protective mechanism, was also investigated. CoQ10 was administered orally for 8 days, and DOX toxicity was induced via a single i.p. dose of 15 mg/kg at day 4. Concomitant administration of CoQ10 with DOX significantly restored testicular oxidative stress parameters and the distorted histopathological picture, reduced the up-regulation of caspase 3 caused by DOX, and increased P-gp expression. We show for the first time that CoQ10 up-regulates P-gp as a novel mechanism for gonadal protection. In conclusion, CoQ10 protects against DOX-induced testicular toxicity in rats via ameliorating oxidative stress, reducing apoptosis and up-regulating testicular P-gp. PMID:24632013

  12. Reversal of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance in vitro by milbemycin compounds in adriamycin-resistant human breast carcinoma (MCF-7/adr) cells.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Wensheng; Gao, Aili; Liang, Hongsheng; Li, Changyu; Gao, Jiguo; Wang, Qing; Shuang, Bao; Zhang, Ji; Yan, Yijun; Wang, Xiangjing

    2010-09-01

    The effects of milbemycin A(4) (MB A(4)), milbemycin oxime A(4) (MBO A(4)) and milbemycin beta(1) (MB beta(1)) on reversing multidrug resistance (MDR) of tumor cells were firstly conducted according to the following research, including MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide] assay, the accumulation of adriamycin, the accumulation and efflux of rhodamine 123 (Rh123), the regulations of MDR1 gene, and expression of P-gp. The three milbemycins (5muM) showed strong potency to increase adriamycin cytotoxicity toward adriamycin-resistant human breast carcinoma cells MCF-7/adr with reversal fold (RF) of 21.42, 19.06 and 14.89, respectively. In addition, the mechanisms of milbemycins on P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated MDR demonstrated that the milbemycins significantly increased the intracellular accumulations of adriamycin and Rh123 via inhibiting P-gp transport function. Based on the analysis of the P-gp and MDR1 gene expression using flow cytometry and RT-PCR, the results revealed that milbemycin compounds, particularly MB A(4), could regulate down the expression of the P-gp and MDR1 gene. These findings suggest that the milbemycins probably represent promising agents for overcoming MDR in cancer therapy, and especially MB A(4) is better modulator with the lowest toxicity. PMID:20656007

  13. HIF-1 activation induces doxorubicin resistance in MCF7 3-D spheroids via P-glycoprotein expression: a potential model of the chemo-resistance of invasive micropapillary carcinoma of the breast

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Invasive micropapillary carcinoma (IMPC) of the breast is a distinct and aggressive variant of luminal type B breast cancer that does not respond to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. It is characterized by small pseudopapillary clusters of cancer cells with inverted cell polarity. To investigate whether hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) activation may be related to the drug resistance described in this tumor, we used MCF7 cancer cells cultured as 3-D spheroids, which morphologically simulate IMPC cell clusters. Methods HIF-1 activation was measured by EMSA and ELISA in MCF7 3-D spheroids and MCF7 monolayers. Binding of HIF-1? to MDR-1 gene promoter and modulation of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) expression was evaluated by ChIP assay and FACS analysis, respectively. Intracellular doxorubicin retention was measured by spectrofluorimetric assay and drug cytotoxicity by annexin V-FITC measurement and caspase activity assay. Results In MCF7 3-D spheroids HIF-1 was activated and recruited to participate to the transcriptional activity of MDR-1 gene, coding for Pgp. In addition, Pgp expression on the surface of cells obtained from 3-D spheroids was increased. MCF7 3-D spheroids accumulate less doxorubicin and are less sensitive to its cytotoxic effects than MCF7 cells cultured as monolayer. Finally, HIF-1? inhibition either by incubating cells with 3-(5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-furyl)-1-benzylindazole (a widely used HIF-1? inhibitor) or by transfecting cells with specific siRNA for HIF-1? significantly decreased the expression of Pgp on the surface of cells and increased the intracellular doxorubicin accumulation in MCF7 3-D spheroids. Conclusions MCF7 breast cancer cells cultured as 3-D spheroids are resistant to doxorubicin and this resistance is associated with an increased Pgp expression in the plasma membrane via activation of HIF-1. The same mechanism may be suggested for IMPC drug resistance. PMID:22217342

  14. P-glycoprotein differentially affects escitalopram, levomilnacipran, vilazodone and vortioxetine transport at the mouse blood-brain barrier invivo.

    PubMed

    Bundgaard, Christoffer; Eneberg, Elin; Snchez, Connie

    2016-04-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated brain efflux of xenobiotics is a well-known process, which may result in suboptimal target engagement and consequently reduced efficacy of drugs exerting their therapeutic effects in the central nervous system. In the present study the role of P-gp in transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) was investigated with a series of newer antidepressants (levomilnacipran, vilazodone and vortioxetine) and a control substrate (escitalopram) using P-gp knock-out (KO) and P-gp competent wild-type (WT) mice. Brain and plasma exposure time-courses were measured after an acute subcutaneous dose and at steady-state obtained after subcutaneous drug infusion by osmotic minipumps. Following acute dosing, the brain-to-plasma KO/WT exposure enhancement ratios ((AUCbrain ko/AUCplasma ko)/(AUCbrain WT/AUCplasma WT)) were 5.8 (levomilnacipran), 5.4 (vilazodone), 3.1 (escitalopram) and 0.9 (vortioxetine), respectively. At steady-state, assessment of Kp,uu (unbound brain concentrations/unbound plasma concentrations) revealed a restriction in the brain distribution in WT mice for all compounds except vortioxetine. Levomilnacipran exhibited the most pronounced efflux with a Kp,uu-value of 0.038 in WT mice which was increased to 0.37 in KO mice. Based on both the acute and steady-state distribution data, the results suggest that levomilnacipran, vilazodone and escitalopram are susceptible to P-gp mediated efflux at the BBB invivo in mice, whereas vortioxetine was practically devoid of being affected by P-gp invivo. The functional impact of the drug transport-controlling role of P-gp at the BBB was demonstrated by invivo cortical serotonin transporter occupancy of vilazodone, which exhibited a 20-fold higher plasma EC50 in WT mice compared to KOs. PMID:26700248

  15. Application of compartmental modeling to an examination of in vitro intestinal permeability data: assessing the impact of tissue uptake, P-glycoprotein, and CYP3A.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brendan M; Charman, William N; Porter, Christopher J H

    2003-09-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated drug efflux and cytochrome p450 3A (CYP3A) metabolism within the enterocyte have been implicated as potential biochemical barriers to intestinal drug permeability. The current studies examined the in vitro intestinal permeability of verapamil, a common P-gp and CYP3A substrate, using both disappearance and appearance measurements, and investigated the possible impact of P-gp efflux on the intestinal extraction of verapamil. Bidirectional permeability and metabolism studies were conducted across rat jejunal tissue in side-by-side diffusion chambers and data were modeled using compartmental kinetics. Substantial tissue uptake of verapamil was evident in the in vitro model and resulted in a disappearance permeability coefficient that was approximately 10-fold greater than that determined from verapamil appearance in the receptor chamber. Polarization of the bidirectional transport of verapamil was evident due to P-gp efflux (efflux ratio of 2.5), and significant intestinal extraction of verapamil on passage across the tissue was observed (mucosal to serosal extraction ratio of 0.31 +/- 0.04). Surprisingly, the selective P-gp inhibitor, valspodar (PSC833), had an insignificant impact on P-gp-mediated efflux of verapamil; however, selective CYP3A inhibition (afforded by midazolam) increased mucosal to serosal verapamil transport 1.6-fold, presumably through a reduction in intestinal metabolism. Using a four-compartment model, simulations of the impact of P-gp on the intestinal extraction ratio of verapamil demonstrated that for efflux to increase intestinal extraction, a nonlinear relationship must exist between the extent of drug metabolism and the extent of drug transport; the origin of this "nonlinearity" may include saturable drug metabolism, accumulation, and/or distribution. PMID:12920171

  16. Detection of Glycomic Alterations Induced by Overexpression of P-Glycoprotein on the Surfaces of L1210 Cells Using Sialic Acid Binding Lectins

    PubMed Central

    Bubenckova, Tatiana; Cholujov, Dana; Messingerov, Lucia; Mislovicova, Danica; Seres, Mario; Breier, Albert; Sulova, Zdena

    2012-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) overexpression is the most frequently observed cause of multidrug resistance in neoplastic cells. In our experiments, P-gp was expressed in L1210 mice leukemia cells (S cells) by selection with vincristine (R cells) or transfection with the gene encoding human P-gp (T cells). Remodeling of cell surface sugars is associated with P-gp expression in L1210 cells as a secondary cellular response. In this study, we monitored the alteration of cell surface saccharides by Sambucus nigra agglutinin (SNA), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) and Maackia amurensis agglutinin (MAA). Sialic acid is predominantly linked to the surface of S, R and T cells via ?-2,6 branched sugars that tightly bind SNA. The presence of sialic acid linked to the cell surface via ?-2,3 branched sugars was negligible, and the binding of MAA (recognizing this branch) was much less pronounced than SNA. WGA induced greater cell death than SNA, which was bound to the cell surface and agglutinated all three L1210 cell-variants more effectively than WGA. Thus, the ability of lectins to induce cell death did not correlate with their binding efficiency and agglutination potency. Compared to S cells, P-gp positive R and T cells contain a higher amount of N-acetyl-glucosamine on their cell surface, which is associated with improved WGA binding. Both P-gp positive variants of L1210 cells are strongly resistant to vincristine as P-gp prototypical drug. This resistance could not be altered by liberalization of terminal sialyl residues from the cell surface by sialidase. PMID:23203118

  17. Interaction of drugs of abuse and maintenance treatments with human P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (ABCG2).

    PubMed

    Tournier, Nicolas; Chevillard, Lucie; Megarbane, Bruno; Pirnay, Stéphane; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Declèves, Xavier

    2010-08-01

    Drug interaction with P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) may influence its tissue disposition including blood-brain barrier transport and result in potent drug-drug interactions. The limited data obtained using in-vitro models indicate that methadone, buprenorphine, and cannabinoids may interact with human P-gp; but almost nothing is known about drugs of abuse and BCRP. We used in vitro P-gp and BCRP inhibition flow cytometric assays with hMDR1- and hBCRP-transfected HEK293 cells to test 14 compounds or metabolites frequently involved in addiction, including buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, methadone, ibogaine, cocaine, cocaethylene, amphetamine, N-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine, nicotine, ketamine, Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), naloxone, and morphine. Drugs that in vitro inhibited P-gp or BCRP were tested in hMDR1- and hBCRP-MDCKII bidirectional transport studies. Human P-gp was significantly inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by norbuprenorphine>buprenorphine>methadone>ibogaine and THC. Similarly, BCRP was inhibited by buprenorphine>norbuprenorphine>ibogaine and THC. None of the other tested compounds inhibited either transporter, even at high concentration (100 microm). Norbuprenorphine (transport efflux ratio approoximately 11) and methadone (transport efflux ratio approoximately 1.9) transport was P-gp-mediated; however, with no significant stereo-selectivity regarding methadone enantiomers. BCRP did not transport any of the tested compounds. However, the clinical significance of the interaction of norbuprenorphine with P-gp remains to be evaluated. PMID:19887017

  18. Fluorescence studies on the nucleotide binding domains of the P-glycoprotein multidrug transporter.

    PubMed

    Liu, R; Sharom, F J

    1997-03-11

    One of the major causes of multidrug resistance in human cancers is expression of the P-glycoprotein multidrug transporter, which acts as an efflux pump for a diverse range of natural products, chemotherapeutic drugs, and hydrophobic peptides. In the present study, fluorescence techniques were used to probe the nucleotide binding domains (NBD) of P-glycoprotein. The transporter was labeled at two conserved cysteine residues, one within each NBD, using the thiol-reactive fluor 2-(4'-maleimidylanilino)-naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid (MIANS), and collisional quenching was used to assess solvent accessibility of the bound probe. Acrylamide was a poor quencher, which suggests that MIANS is buried in a relatively inaccessible region of the protein. Iodide ion was a highly effective quencher, whereas Cs+ was not, demonstrating the presence of a positive charge in the region close to the ATP binding site. The fluorescent nucleotide derivative 2'(3')-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)-ATP (TNP-ATP) was hydrolysed slowly by P-glycoprotein, with a V(max) approximately 20-fold lower than that for unmodified ATP, and a K(M) of 81 microM. TNP-ATP and TNP-ADP inhibited P-glycoprotein ATPase activity, indicating that they interact with the NBD, whereas TNP-AMP was a very poor inhibitor. When TNP-nucleotides bound to P-glycoprotein, their fluorescence intensity was enhanced in a concentration-dependent manner. Both TNP-ATP and TNP-ADP bound to P-glycoprotein with substantially higher affinity than ATP, with K(d) values of 43 and 36 microM, respectively. Addition of ATP led to only partial displacement of TNP-ATP. Resonance energy transfer was observed between cysteine-bound MIANS and TNP-ATP/ADP, which indicated that the two fluorescent groups are located close to each other within the catalytic site of P-glycoprotein. PMID:9062112

  19. Age-Related P-Glycoprotein Expression in the Intestine and Affecting the Pharmacokinetics of Orally Administered Enrofloxacin in Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yong; Zhang, Yu; Dong, Lingling; Dai, Xiaohua; Wang, Liping

    2013-01-01

    Bioavailability is the most important factor for the efficacy of any drug and it is determined by P- glycoprotein (P-gp) expression. Confirmation of P-gp expression during ontogeny is needed for understanding the differences in therapeutic efficacy of any drug in juvenile and adult animals. In this study, Abcb1 mRNA levels in the liver and intestine of broilers during ontogeny were analysed by RT qPCR. Cellular distribution of P-gp was detected by immunohistochemstry. Age-related differences of enrofloxacin pharmacokinetics were also studied. It was found that broilers aged 4 week-old expressed significantly (P<0.01) higher levels of P-gp mRNA in the liver, jejunum and ileum, than at other ages. However, there was no significant (P>0.05) age-related difference in the duodenum. Furthermore, the highest and lowest levels of Abcb1 mRNA expression were observed in the jejunum, and duodenum, respectively. P-gp immunoreactivity was detected on the apical surface of the enterocytes and in the bile canalicular membranes of the hepatocytes. Pharmacokinetic analysis revealed that the 8 week-old broilers, when orally administrated enrofloxacin, exhibited significantly higher Cmax (1.97 vs. 0.98 ?gml-1, P=0.009), AUC(14.54 vs. 9.35 ?gml-1h, P=0.005) and Ka (1.38 vs. 0.43 h-1, P=0.032), as well as lower Tpeak (1.78 vs. 3.28 h, P=0.048) and T1/2ka (0.6 vs. 1.64 h, P=0.012) than the 4 week-old broilers. The bioavailability of enrofloxacin in 8 week-old broilers was increased by 15.9%, compared with that in 4 week-old birds. Interestingly, combining verapamil, a P-gp modulator, significantly improved pharmacokinetic behaviour of enrofloxacin in all birds. The results indicate juvenile broilers had a higher expression of P-gp in the intestine, affecting the pharmacokinetics and reducing the bioavailability of oral enrofloxacin in broilers. On the basis of our results, it is recommended that alternative dose regimes are necessary for different ages of broilers for effective therapy. PMID:24066110

  20. Interaction between Red Yeast Rice and CYP450 Enzymes/P-Glycoprotein and Its Implication for the Clinical Pharmacokinetics of Lovastatin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chia-Hao; Uang, Yow-Shieng; Wang, Shang-Ta; Yang, Jyh-Chin; Lin, Chun-Jung

    2012-01-01

    Red yeast rice (RYR) can reduce cholesterol through its active component, lovastatin. This study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of lovastatin in RYR products and potential RYR-drug interactions. Extracts of three registered RYR products (LipoCol Forte, Cholestin, and Xuezhikang) were more effective than pure lovastatin in inhibiting the activities of cytochrome P450 enzymes and P-glycoprotein. Among CYP450 enzymes, RYR showed the highest inhibition on CYP1A2 and CYP2C19, with comparable inhibitory potencies to the corresponding typical inhibitors. In healthy volunteers taking the RYR product LipoCol Forte, the pharmacokinetic properties of lovastatin and lovastatin acid were linear in the dose range of 1 to 4 capsules taken as a single dose and no significant accumulation was observed after multiple dosing. Concomitant use of one LipoCol Forte capsule with nifedipine did not change the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine. Yet, concomitant use of gemfibrozil with LipoCol Forte resulted in a significant increase in the plasma concentration of lovastatin acid. These findings suggest that the use of RYR products may not have effects on the pharmacokinetics of concomitant comedications despite their effects to inhibit the activities of CYP450 enzymes and P-gp, whereas gemfibrozil affects the pharmacokinetics of lovastatin acid when used concomitantly with RYR products. PMID:23227093

  1. Enhanced brain disposition and effects of ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol in P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Spiro, Adena S; Wong, Alexander; Boucher, Aurlie A; Arnold, Jonathon C

    2012-01-01

    The ABC transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp, Abcb1) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp, Abcg2) regulate the CNS disposition of many drugs. The main psychoactive constituent of cannabis ?(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has affinity for P-gp and Bcrp, however it is unknown whether these transporters modulate the brain accumulation of THC and its functional effects on the CNS. Here we aim to show that mice devoid of Abcb1 and Abcg2 retain higher brain THC levels and are more sensitive to cannabinoid-induced hypothermia than wild-type (WT) mice. Abcb1a/b (-/-), Abcg2 (-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice were injected with THC before brain and blood were collected and THC concentrations determined. Another cohort of mice was examined for THC-induced hypothermia by measuring rectal body temperature. Brain THC concentrations were higher in both Abcb1a/b (-/-) and Abcg2 (-/-) mice than WT mice. ABC transporter knockout mice exhibited delayed elimination of THC from the brain with the effect being more prominent in Abcg2 (-/-) mice. ABC transporter knockout mice were more sensitive to THC-induced hypothermia compared to WT mice. These results show P-gp and Bcrp prolong the brain disposition and hypothermic effects of THC and offer a novel mechanism for both genetic vulnerability to the psychoactive effects of cannabis and drug interactions between CNS therapies and cannabis. PMID:22536451

  2. Identification of Possible Binding Sites for Morphine and Nicardipine on the Multidrug Transporter P-Glycoprotein Using Umbrella Sampling Techniques.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Nandhitha; Condic-Jurkic, Karmen; Mark, Alan E; O'Mara, Megan L

    2015-06-22

    The multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is central to the development of multidrug resistance in cancer. While residues essential for transport and binding have been identified, the location, composition, and specificity of potential drug binding sites are uncertain. Here molecular dynamics simulations are used to calculate the free energy profile for the binding of morphine and nicardipine to P-gp. We show that morphine and nicardipine primarily interact with key residues implicated in binding and transport from mutational studies, binding at different but overlapping sites within the transmembrane pore. Their permeation pathways were distinct but involved overlapping sets of residues. The results indicate that the binding location and permeation pathways of morphine and nicardipine are not well separated and cannot be considered as unique. This has important implications for our understanding of substrate uptake and transport by P-gp. Our results are independent of the choice of starting structure and consistent with a range of experimental studies. PMID:25938863

  3. Enhanced Brain Disposition and Effects of Δ9-Tetrahydrocannabinol in P-Glycoprotein and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Spiro, Adena S.; Wong, Alexander; Boucher, Aurélie A.; Arnold, Jonathon C.

    2012-01-01

    The ABC transporters P-glycoprotein (P-gp, Abcb1) and breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp, Abcg2) regulate the CNS disposition of many drugs. The main psychoactive constituent of cannabis Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has affinity for P-gp and Bcrp, however it is unknown whether these transporters modulate the brain accumulation of THC and its functional effects on the CNS. Here we aim to show that mice devoid of Abcb1 and Abcg2 retain higher brain THC levels and are more sensitive to cannabinoid-induced hypothermia than wild-type (WT) mice. Abcb1a/b (−/−), Abcg2 (−/−) and wild-type (WT) mice were injected with THC before brain and blood were collected and THC concentrations determined. Another cohort of mice was examined for THC-induced hypothermia by measuring rectal body temperature. Brain THC concentrations were higher in both Abcb1a/b (−/−) and Abcg2 (−/−) mice than WT mice. ABC transporter knockout mice exhibited delayed elimination of THC from the brain with the effect being more prominent in Abcg2 (−/−) mice. ABC transporter knockout mice were more sensitive to THC-induced hypothermia compared to WT mice. These results show P-gp and Bcrp prolong the brain disposition and hypothermic effects of THC and offer a novel mechanism for both genetic vulnerability to the psychoactive effects of cannabis and drug interactions between CNS therapies and cannabis. PMID:22536451

  4. Pro-inflammatory human Th17 cells selectively express P-glycoprotein and are refractory to glucocorticoids

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Radha; Kozhaya, Lina; McKevitt, Kelly; Djuretic, Ivana M.; Carlson, Thaddeus J.; Quintero, Maria A.; McCauley, Jacob L.; Abreu, Maria T.; Unutmaz, Derya

    2014-01-01

    IL-17Aexpressing CD4+ T cells (Th17 cells) are generally regarded as key effectors of autoimmune inflammation. However, not all Th17 cells are pro-inflammatory. Pathogenic Th17 cells that induce autoimmunity in mice are distinguished from nonpathogenic Th17 cells by a unique transcriptional signature, including high Il23r expression, and these cells require Il23r for their inflammatory function. In contrast, defining features of human pro-inflammatory Th17 cells are unknown. We show that pro-inflammatory human Th17 cells are restricted to a subset of CCR6+CXCR3hiCCR4loCCR10?CD161+ cells that transiently express c-Kit and stably express P-glycoprotein (P-gp)/multi-drug resistance type 1 (MDR1). In contrast to MDR1? Th1 or Th17 cells, MDR1+ Th17 cells produce both Th17 (IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-22) and Th1 (IFN-?) cytokines upon TCR stimulation and do not express IL-10 or other anti-inflammatory molecules. These cells also display a transcriptional signature akin to pathogenic mouse Th17 cells and show heightened functional responses to IL-23 stimulation. In vivo, MDR1+ Th17 cells are enriched and activated in the gut of Crohns disease patients. Furthermore, MDR1+ Th17 cells are refractory to several glucocorticoids used to treat clinical autoimmune disease. Thus, MDR1+ Th17 cells may be important mediators of chronic inflammation, particularly in clinical settings of steroid resistant inflammatory disease. PMID:24395888

  5. Identification of ligand-binding regions of P-glycoprotein by activated-pharmacophore photoaffinity labeling and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ecker, Gerhard F; Csaszar, Edina; Kopp, Stephan; Plagens, Brigitte; Holzer, Wolfgang; Ernst, Wolfgang; Chiba, Peter

    2002-03-01

    Energy dependent efflux pumps confer resistance to anticancer, antimicrobial, and antiparasitic drugs. P-glycoprotein (Pgp, ABCB1) mediates resistance to a broad spectrum of antitumor drugs. Compounds that themselves are nontoxic to cells have been shown to act as inhibitors of Pgp. The mechanism of binding and transport of low-molecular-mass ligands by Pgp is still incompletely understood. This study introduces a series of propafenone-related photoaffinity ligands, which combine high specificity and selectivity for Pgp with high labeling efficiency. Molecules are intrinsically photoactivatable in the arylcarbonyl group, which represents a pharmacophoric substructure for this group of ligand molecules. A detailed study of the structure-activity relationship for this type of photoligand is presented. In subsequent experiments, these ligands were used to characterize the drug-binding domain of propafenone-type analogs. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry shows that propafenone-type ligands preferentially label fragments assigned to putative transmembrane segments 3, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, and 12. Labeled fragments are also identified in a highly charged region of 15 amino acids in the second cytoplasmic loop. This region corresponds to the so-called EAA-like motif, which has been proposed to play a role in the interaction between transmembrane domain and nucleotide binding domain of peroxisomal ATP-binding cassette transporters. In addition, a region in cytoplasmic loop 3 and between TM12 and the N terminus of the Walker A sequence of NBD2 are labeled by the ligands. Therefore, a number of confined protein regions contribute to the drug-binding domain of propafenone-type analogs. PMID:11854445

  6. Oligoribonuclease is the primary degradative enzyme for pGpG in Pseudomonas aeruginosa that is required for cyclic-di-GMP turnover

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Mona W.; Donaldson, Gregory P.; Severin, Geoffrey B.; Wang, Jingxin; Sintim, Herman O.; Waters, Christopher M.; Lee, Vincent T.

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) controls biofilm formation and other phenotypes relevant to pathogenesis. Cyclic-di-GMP is synthesized by diguanylate cyclases (DGCs). Phosphodiesterases (PDE-As) end signaling by linearizing c-di-GMP to 5ʹ-phosphoguanylyl-(3ʹ,5ʹ)-guanosine (pGpG), which is then hydrolyzed to two GMP molecules by yet unidentified enzymes termed PDE-Bs. We show that pGpG inhibits a PDE-A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In a dual DGC and PDE-A reaction, excess pGpG extends the half-life of c-di-GMP, indicating that removal of pGpG is critical for c-di-GMP homeostasis. Thus, we sought to identify the PDE-B enzyme(s) responsible for pGpG degradation. A differential radial capillary action of ligand assay-based screen for pGpG binding proteins identified oligoribonuclease (Orn), an exoribonuclease that hydrolyzes two- to five-nucleotide-long RNAs. Purified Orn rapidly converts pGpG into GMP. To determine whether Orn is the primary enzyme responsible for degrading pGpG, we assayed cell lysates of WT and ∆orn strains of P. aeruginosa PA14 for pGpG stability. The lysates from ∆orn showed 25-fold decrease in pGpG hydrolysis. Complementation with WT, but not active site mutants, restored hydrolysis. Accumulation of pGpG in the ∆orn strain could inhibit PDE-As, increasing c-di-GMP concentration. In support, we observed increased transcription from the c-di-GMP–regulated pel promoter. Additionally, the c-di-GMP–governed auto-aggregation and biofilm phenotypes were elevated in the ∆orn strain in a pel-dependent manner. Finally, we directly detect elevated pGpG and c-di-GMP in the ∆orn strain. Thus, we identified that Orn serves as the primary PDE-B enzyme that removes pGpG, which is necessary to complete the final step in the c-di-GMP degradation pathway. PMID:26305945

  7. Oligoribonuclease is the primary degradative enzyme for pGpG in Pseudomonas aeruginosa that is required for cyclic-di-GMP turnover.

    PubMed

    Orr, Mona W; Donaldson, Gregory P; Severin, Geoffrey B; Wang, Jingxin; Sintim, Herman O; Waters, Christopher M; Lee, Vincent T

    2015-09-01

    The bacterial second messenger cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) controls biofilm formation and other phenotypes relevant to pathogenesis. Cyclic-di-GMP is synthesized by diguanylate cyclases (DGCs). Phosphodiesterases (PDE-As) end signaling by linearizing c-di-GMP to 5'-phosphoguanylyl-(3',5')-guanosine (pGpG), which is then hydrolyzed to two GMP molecules by yet unidentified enzymes termed PDE-Bs. We show that pGpG inhibits a PDE-A from Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In a dual DGC and PDE-A reaction, excess pGpG extends the half-life of c-di-GMP, indicating that removal of pGpG is critical for c-di-GMP homeostasis. Thus, we sought to identify the PDE-B enzyme(s) responsible for pGpG degradation. A differential radial capillary action of ligand assay-based screen for pGpG binding proteins identified oligoribonuclease (Orn), an exoribonuclease that hydrolyzes two- to five-nucleotide-long RNAs. Purified Orn rapidly converts pGpG into GMP. To determine whether Orn is the primary enzyme responsible for degrading pGpG, we assayed cell lysates of WT and ?orn strains of P. aeruginosa PA14 for pGpG stability. The lysates from ?orn showed 25-fold decrease in pGpG hydrolysis. Complementation with WT, but not active site mutants, restored hydrolysis. Accumulation of pGpG in the ?orn strain could inhibit PDE-As, increasing c-di-GMP concentration. In support, we observed increased transcription from the c-di-GMP-regulated pel promoter. Additionally, the c-di-GMP-governed auto-aggregation and biofilm phenotypes were elevated in the ?orn strain in a pel-dependent manner. Finally, we directly detect elevated pGpG and c-di-GMP in the ?orn strain. Thus, we identified that Orn serves as the primary PDE-B enzyme that removes pGpG, which is necessary to complete the final step in the c-di-GMP degradation pathway. PMID:26305945

  8. Influence of P-Glycoprotein Inhibition or Deficiency at the Blood-Brain Barrier on (18)F-2-Fluoro-2-Deoxy-D-glucose ( (18)F-FDG) Brain Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Tournier, Nicolas; Saba, Wadad; Goutal, Sbastien; Gervais, Philippe; Valette, Hric; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel; Bottlaender, Michel; Cisternino, Salvatore

    2015-05-01

    The fluorinated D-glucose analog (18)F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose ((18)F-FDG) is the most prevalent radiopharmaceutical for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. P-Glycoprotein's (P-gp, MDR1, and ABCB1) function in various cancer cell lines and tumors was shown to impact (18)F-FDG incorporation, suggesting that P-gp function at the blood-brain barrier may also modulate (18)F-FDG brain kinetics. We tested the influence of P-gp inhibition using the cyclosporine analog valspodar (PSC833; 5?M) on the uptake of (18)F-FDG in standardized human P-gp-overexpressing cells (MDCKII-MDR1). Consequences for (18)F-FDG brain kinetics were then assessed using (i) (18)F-FDG PET imaging and suitable kinetic modelling in baboons without or with P-gp inhibition by intravenous cyclosporine infusion (15mgkg(-1)h(-1)) and (ii) in situ brain perfusion in wild-type and P-gp/Bcrp (breast cancer resistance protein) knockout mice and controlled D-glucose exposure to the brain. In vitro, the time course of (18)F-FDG uptake in MDR1 cells was influenced by the presence of valspodar in the absence of D-glucose but not in the presence of high D-glucose concentration. PET analysis revealed that P-gp inhibition had no significant impact on estimated brain kinetics parameters K 1, k 2, k 3, V T , and CMRGlc. The lack of P-gp effect on in vivo (18)F-FDG brain distribution was confirmed in P-gp/Bcrp-deficient mice. P-gp inhibition indirectly modulates (18)F-FDG uptake into P-gp-overexpressing cells, possibly through differences in the energetic cell level state. (18)F-FDG is not a P-gp substrate at the BBB and (18)F-FDG brain kinetics as well as estimated brain glucose metabolism are influenced by neither P-gp inhibition nor P-gp/Bcrp deficiencies in baboon and mice, respectively. PMID:25716150

  9. Haemonchus contortus P-glycoprotein-2: in situ localisation and characterisation of macrocyclic lactone transport.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Pablo; Lian, Jing; Beech, Robin N; Prichard, Roger K

    2015-01-01

    Haemonchus contortus is a veterinary nematode that infects small ruminants, causing serious decreases in animal production worldwide. Effective control through anthelmintic treatment has been compromised by the development of resistance to these drugs, including the macrocyclic lactones. The mechanisms of resistance in H. contortus have yet to be established but may involve efflux of the macrocyclic lactones by nematode ATP-binding-cassette transporters such as P-glycoproteins. Here we report the expression and functional activity of H. contortus P-glycoprotein 2 expressed in mammalian cells and characterise its interaction with the macrocyclic lactones, ivermectin, abamectin and moxidectin. The ability of H. contortus P-glycoprotein 2 to transport different fluorophore substrates was markedly inhibited by ivermectin and abamectin in a dose-dependent and saturable way. The profile of transport inhibition by moxidectin was markedly different. H. contortus P-glycoprotein 2 was expressed in the pharynx, the first portion of the worm's intestine and perhaps in adjacent nervous tissue, suggesting a role for this gene in regulating the uptake of avermectins and in protecting nematode tissues from the effects of macrocyclic lactone anthelmintic drugs. H. contortus P-glycoprotein 2 may thus contribute to resistance to these drugs in H. contortus. PMID:25486495

  10. P-gp substrate-induced neurotoxicity in an Abcb1a knock-in/Abcb1b knock-out mouse model with a mutated canine ABCB1 targeted insertion.

    PubMed

    Swain, M D; Orzechowski, K L; Swaim, H L; Jones, Y L; Robl, M G; Tinaza, C A; Myers, M J; Jhingory, M V; Buckely, L E; Lancaster, V A; Yancy, H F

    2013-06-01

    Certain dog breeds, especially Collies, are observed to exhibit neurotoxicity to avermectin drugs, which are P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates. This neurotoxicity is due to an ABCB1 gene mutation (ABCB1-1?) that results in non-functional P-gp expression. A developed Abcb1a knock-in/Abcb1b knock-out mouse model expressing the ABCB1-1? canine gene was previously reported and mice exhibited sensitivity upon ivermectin administration. Here, model and wild-type mice were administered P-gp substrates doramectin, moxidectin, and digoxin. While knock-in/knock-out mice exhibited ataxia, lethargy and tremor, wild-type mice remained unaffected. In addition, no neurotoxic clinical signs were observed in either mouse type administered domperidone, a P-gp substrate with no reported neurotoxicity in ABCB1-1? Collies. Overall, neurotoxic signs displayed by model mice closely paralleled those observed in ivermectin-sensitive Collies. This model can be used to identify toxic P-gp substrates with altered safety in dog populations and may reduce dog use in safety studies that are part of the drug approval process. PMID:23186803

  11. Refined structures of mouse P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingzhi; Jaimes, Kimberly F; Aller, Stephen G

    2014-01-01

    The recently determined C. elegans P-glycoprotein (Pgp) structure revealed significant deviations compared to the original mouse Pgp structure, which suggested possible misinterpretations in the latter model. To address this concern, we generated an experimental electron density map from single-wavelength anomalous dispersion phasing of an original mouse Pgp dataset to 3.8 resolution. The map exhibited significantly more detail compared to the original MAD map and revealed several regions of the structure that required de novo model building. The improved drug-free structure was refined to 3.8 resolution with a 9.4 and 8.1% decrease in R(work) and R(free), respectively, (R(work) ?=?21.2%, R(free)?= 26.6%) and a significant improvement in protein geometry. The improved mouse Pgp model contains ?95% of residues in the favorable Ramachandran region compared to only 57% for the original model. The registry of six transmembrane helices was corrected, revealing amino acid residues involved in drug binding that were previously unrecognized. Registry shifts (rotations and translations) for three transmembrane (TM)4 and TM5 and the addition of three N-terminal residues were necessary, and were validated with new mercury labeling and anomalous Fourier density. The corrected position of TM4, which forms the frame of a portal for drug entry, had backbone atoms shifted >6 from their original positions. The drug translocation pathway of mouse Pgp is 96% identical to human Pgp and is enriched in aromatic residues that likely play a collective role in allowing a high degree of polyspecific substrate recognition. PMID:24155053

  12. Identification of members of the P-glycoprotein multigene family

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, W.F.; Sarangi, F.; Zastawny, R.L.; Veinot-Drebot, L.; Ling, V. )

    1989-03-01

    Overproduction of P-glycoprotein is intimately associated with multidrug resistance. This protein appears to be encoded by a multigene family. Thus, differential expression of different members of this family may contribute to the complexity of the multidrug resistance phenotype. Three lambda genomic clones isolated from a hamster genomic library represent different members of the hamster P-glycoprotein gene family. Using a highly conserved exon probe, the authors found that the hamster P-glycoprotein gene family consists of three genes. They also found that the P-glycoprotein gene family consists of three genes in mice but has only two genes in humans and rhesus monkeys. The hamster P-glycoprotein genes have similar exon-intron organizations within the 3' region encoding the cytoplasmic domains. The propose that the hamster P-glycoprotein gene family arose from gene duplication. The hamster pgpl and pgp2 genes appear to be more closely related to each other than either gene is to the pgp3 gene. They speculate that the hamster pgpl and pgp2 genes arose from a recent gene duplication event and that primates did not undergo this duplication and therefore contain only two P-glycoprotein genes.

  13. Up-regulation of multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein via nuclear factor-kappaB activation protects kidney proximal tubule cells from cadmium- and reactive oxygen species-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Thvenod, F; Friedmann, J M; Katsen, A D; Hauser, I A

    2000-01-21

    Cadmium-mediated toxicity of cultured proximal tubule (PT) cells is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis. We found that cadmium-dependent apoptosis (Hoechst 33342 and annexin V assays) decreased with prolonged CdCl(2) (10 microM) application (controls: 2.4 +/- 1.6%; 5 h: +5.1 +/- 2.3%, 20 h: +5.7 +/- 2.5%, 48 h: +3.3 +/- 1.0% and 72 h: +2.1 +/- 0.4% above controls), while cell proliferation was not affected. Reduction of apoptosis correlated with a time-dependent up-regulation of the drug efflux pump multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein (mdr1) in cadmium-treated cells ( approximately 4-fold after 72 h), as determined by immunoblotting with the monoclonal antibody C219 and measurement of intracellular accumulation of the fluorescent probe calcein +/- the mdr1 inhibitor PSC833 (0.5 microM). When mdr1 inhibitors (PSC833, cyclosporine A, verapamil) were transiently added to cells with mdr1 up-regulation by pretreatment for 72 h with cadmium, cadmium-induced apoptosis increased significantly and to a percentage similar to that obtained in cells with no mdr1 up-regulation (72-h cadmium: 5.2 +/- 0.9% versus 72-h cadmium + 1-h PSC833: 7.2 +/- 1.4%; p < or = 0.001). Cadmium-induced apoptosis and mdr1 up-regulation depended on ROS, since co-incubation with the ROS scavengers N-acetylcysteine (15 mM) or pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (0.1 mM) abolished both responses. Moreover, cadmium- and ROS-associated mdr1 up-regulation was linked to activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB; N-acetylcysteine, pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, and the IkappaB-alpha kinase inhibitor Bay 11-7082 (20 microM) prevented both, mdr1 overexpression and degradation of the inhibitory NF-kappaB subunit, IkappaB-alpha, induced by cadmium. The data show that 1) cadmium-mediated apoptosis in PT cells is associated with ROS production, 2) ROS increase mdr1 expression by a process involving NF-kappaB activation, and 3) mdr1 overexpression protects PT cells against cadmium-mediated apoptosis. These data suggest that mdr1 up-regulation, at least in part, provides anti-apoptotic protection for PT cells against cadmium-mediated stress. PMID:10636889

  14. Interactions of human P-glycoprotein transport substrates and inhibitors at the drug binding domain: Functional and molecular docking analyses.

    PubMed

    Kadioglu, Onat; Saeed, Mohamed E M; Valoti, Massimo; Frosini, Maria; Sgaragli, Giampietro; Efferth, Thomas

    2016-03-15

    Rhodamine 123 (R123) transport substrate sensitizes P-glycoprotein (P-gp) to inhibition by compound 2c (cis-cis) N,N-bis(cyclohexanolamine)aryl ester isomer in a concentration-dependent manner in human MDR1-gene transfected mouse T-lymphoma L5178 cells as shown previously. By contrast, epirubicin (EPI) concentration changes left unaltered 2c IC50 values of EPI efflux. To clarify this discrepancy, defined molecular docking (DMD) analyses of 12 N,N-bis(cyclohexanolamine)aryl esters, the highly flexible aryl ester analog 4, and several P-gp substrate/non-substrate inhibitors were performed on human P-gp drug- or nucleotide-binding domains (DBD or NBD). DMD measurements yielded lowest binding energy (LBE, kcal/mol) values (mean±SD) ranging from -11.8±0.54 (valspodar) to -3.98±0.01 (4). Lys234, Ser952 and Tyr953 residues formed H-bonds with most of the compounds. Only 2c docked also at ATP binding site (LBE value of -6.9±0.30kcal/mol). Inhibition of P-gp-mediated R123 efflux by 12 N,N-bis(cyclohexanolamine)aryl esters and 4 significantly correlated with LBE values. DMD analysis of EPI, (3)H-1EPI, (3)H-2EPI, (14)C-1EPI, (14)C-2EPI, R123 and 2c before and after previous docking of each of them indicated that pre-docking of either 2c or EPI significantly reduced LBE of both EPI and R123, and that of both (3)H-2EPI and (14)C-2EPI, respectively. Since the clusters of DBD amino acid residues interacting with EPI were different, if EPI docked alone or after pre-docking of EPI or 2c, the existence of alternative secondary binding site for EPI on P-gp is credible. In conclusion, 2c may allocate the drug-binding pocket and reduce strong binding of EPI and R123 in agreement with P-gp inhibition experiments, where 2c reduced efflux of EPI and R123. PMID:26807479

  15. Lack of difference in pulmonary absorption of digoxin, a P-glycoprotein substrate, in mdr1a-deficient and mdr1a-competent mice.

    PubMed

    Manford, Fergus; Riffo-Vasquez, Yanira; Spina, Domenico; Page, Clive P; Hutt, Andrew J; Moore, Vanessa; Johansson, Fredrik; Forbes, Ben

    2008-10-01

    Although in-vitro experiments have suggested that P-glycoprotein (P-gp) may have an important influence on the disposition of inhaled drugs, the effect of P-gp on absorption from the lung in-vivo has not been reported previously. The aim of this study was to compare the pulmonary absorption of digoxin, a well-characterised substrate for P-gp, in mdr1a (-/-) (P-gp-deficient) and mdr1a (+/+) (P-gp-competent) mice. Digoxin was administered by intratracheal instillation over 3-4 s, a method demonstrated to result in dispersion of the dose to all regions of the lung. Drug distribution was determined in the lungs, plasma, brain, heart, liver and kidney of individual mice after 5, 10, 30, 60 and 90 min. Digoxin was cleared rapidly from the lung after intratracheal administration. No differences were observed in the maximum serum concentrations between mdr1a (+/+) and mdr1a (-/-) mice (37.8 +/- 6.9 and 38.8 +/- 15.8 ng mL(-1), respectively). The serum concentration versus time profiles were similar in both strains; the area under the drug serum concentration versus time curve (AUC) was 2010 and 1812 ng mL(-1) min in mdr1a (-/-) and mdr1a (+/+) mice, respectively. For organs harvested at the end of the experiment (90 min), the only significant difference between the strains was the markedly elevated concentration of digoxin in the brains of mdr1a (-/-) mice. In conclusion, digoxin is rapidly absorbed from the mouse lung following tracheal instillation, with no difference in the rate or extent of absorption between mdr1a-deficient and -competent mice. This suggests that, in contrast to the scenario suggested by in-vitro data, P-gp in the respiratory epithelium may have little influence on the disposition of drugs that are well absorbed from the lung. PMID:18812023

  16. In Vitro and In Vivo Evidence for Amphotericin B as a P-Glycoprotein Substrate on the Blood-Brain Barrier

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ji-Qin; Shao, Kun; Wang, Xuan; Wang, Rui-Ying; Cao, Ya-Hui; Yu, Yun-Qiu; Lou, Jin-Ning; Chen, Yan-Qiong; Zhao, Hua-Zhen; Zhang, Qiang-Qiang; Weng, Xin-Hua

    2014-01-01

    Amphotericin B (AMB) has been a mainstay therapy for fungal infections of the central nervous system, but its use has been limited by its poor penetration into the brain, the mechanism of which remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in AMB crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The uptake of AMB by primary brain capillary endothelial cells in vitro was significantly enhanced after inhibition of P-gp by verapamil. The impact of two model P-gp inhibitors, verapamil and itraconazole, on brain/plasma ratios of AMB was examined in both uninfected CD-1 mice and those intracerebrally infected with Cryptococcus neoformans. In uninfected mice, the brain/plasma ratios of AMB were increased 15 min (3.5 versus 2.0; P < 0.05) and 30 min (5.2 versus 2.8; P < 0.05) after administration of verapamil or 45 min (6.0 versus 3.9; P < 0.05) and 60 min (5.4 versus 3.8; P < 0.05) after itraconazole administration. The increases in brain/plasma ratios were also observed in infected mice treated with AMB and P-gp inhibitors. The brain tissue fungal CFU in infected mice were significantly lower in AMB-plus-itraconazole or verapamil groups than in the untreated group (P < 0.005), but none of the treatments protected the mice from succumbing to the infection. In conclusion, we demonstrated that P-gp inhibitors can enhance the uptake of AMB through the BBB, suggesting that AMB is a P-gp substrate. PMID:24867970

  17. Role of P-glycoprotein in mediating rivastigmine effect on amyloid-β brain load and related pathology in Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Loqman A; Keller, Jeffrey N; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2016-04-01

    Recently, we showed that rivastigmine decreased amyloid-β (Aβ) brain load in aged rats by enhancing its clearance across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) via upregulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1). Here, we extend our previous work to clarify P-gp role in mediating rivastigmine effect on Aβ brain levels and neuroprotection in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) that expresses different levels of P-gp. APPSWE mice were bred with mdr1a/b knockout mice to produce littermates that were divided into three groups; APP(+)/mdr1(+/+), APP(+)/mdr1(+/-) and APP(+)/mdr1(-/-). Animals received rivastigmine treatment (0.3mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 8weeks using Alzet osmotic mini-pumps. ELISA analysis of brain homogenates for Aβ showed rivastigmine treatment to significantly decrease Aβ brain load in APP(+)/mdr1(+/+) by 25% and in APP(+)/mdr1(+/-) mice by 21% compared to their vehicle treated littermates, but not in APP(+)/mdr1(-/-) mice. In addition, rivastigmine reduced GFAP immunostaining of astrocytes by 50% and IL-1β brain level by 43% in APP(+)/mdr1(+/+) mice, however its effect was less pronounced in P-gp knockout mice. Moreover, rivastigmine demonstrated a P-gp expression dependent neuroprotective effect that was highest in APP(+)/mdr1(+/+)>APP(+)/mdr1(+/-)>APP(+)/mdr1(-/-) as determined by expression of synaptic markers PSD-95 and SNAP-25 using Western blot analysis. Collectively, our results suggest that P-gp plays important role in mediating rivastigmine non-cholinergic beneficial effects, including Aβ brain load reduction, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects in the AD mouse models. PMID:26780497

  18. Enhanced intestinal absorption of etoposide by self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems: roles of P-glycoprotein and cytochrome P450 3A inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gang; Huang, Jiangeng; Xue, Kewen; Si, Luqin; Li, Gao

    2013-11-20

    Etoposide is recognized as a dual P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) substrate drug with poor water-solubility. To improve its solubility and bioavailability, three novel self-microemulsifying drug delivery systems (SMEDDS) contained the known P-gp and CYP3A inhibitory surfactants, Cremophor RH40, Cremophor EL, or Polysorbate 80, were prepared. This work aims to evaluate the enhanced intestinal absorption of etoposide SMEDDS as well as to explore the roles of P-gp and CYP3A inhibition in the absorption process. Etoposide SMEDDS were orally administered to rats for in vivo bioavailability investigation. In situ single-pass intestinal perfusion with mesenteric vein cannulation was employed to study the drug permeability and intestinal metabolism. In vitro Caco-2 cell models were applied to study the effects of P-gp and CYP3A inhibition by SMEDDS on the cellular accumulation of etoposide. It was found that the bioavailability and in situ intestinal absorption were significantly enhanced by SMEDDS with the order of Polysorbate 80-based SMEDDS>Cremophor EL-based SMEDDS>Cremophor RH40-based SMEDDS. In addition, there was a dramatically high linear correlation between the AUC0-t values and the apparent permeability coefficient values based on the appearance of the drug in mesenteric vein blood. Cellular uptake studies demonstrated that P-gp inhibition by SMEDDS played an important role in etoposide uptake. Moreover, etoposide metabolism was demonstrated to be dramatically inhibited by the three kinds of SMEDDS. These finding may assist in the improvement of the intestinal absorption of P-gp and/or CYP3A substrate drugs. PMID:23981337

  19. Gauging the clinical significance of P-glycoprotein-mediated herb-drug interactions: Comparative effects of St. John's wort, echinacea, clarithromycin, and rifampin on digoxin pharmacokinetics

    PubMed Central

    Gurley, Bill J.; Swain, Ashley; Williams, D. Keith; Barone, Gary; Battu, Sunil Kumar

    2007-01-01

    Concomitant administration of botanical supplements with drugs that are P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates may produce clinically significant herb-drug interactions. This study evaluated the effects of St. John's wort and Echinacea on the pharmacokinetics of digoxin, a recognized P-gp substrate. Eighteen healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive a standardized St. John's wort (300 mg three times daily) or Echinacea (267 mg three times daily) supplement for 14 days, followed by a 30-day washout period. Subjects were also randomized to receive rifampin (300 mg twice daily, 7 days) and clarithromycin (500 mg twice daily, 7 days) as positive controls for P-gp induction and inhibition, respectively. Digoxin (Lanoxin 0.25 mg) was administered orally before and after each supplementation and control period. Serial digoxin plasma concentrations were obtained over 24 hours and analyzed by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Comparisons of AUC(0-3), AUC(0-24), T1/2, and Cmax, were used to assess the effects of St. John's wort, Echinacea, rifampin, and clarithromycin on digoxin disposition. St. John's wort and rifampin both produced significant reductions (p<0.05) in AUC(0-3), AUC(0-24), and Cmax, while clarithromycin increased these parameters significantly (p<0.05). Echinacea supplementation did not affect digoxin pharmacokinetics. Clinically significant P-gp-mediated herb-drug interactions are more likely to occur with St. John's wort than with Echinacea. PMID:18214850

  20. Gauging the clinical significance of P-glycoprotein-mediated herb-drug interactions: comparative effects of St. John's wort, Echinacea, clarithromycin, and rifampin on digoxin pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Gurley, Bill J; Swain, Ashley; Williams, D Keith; Barone, Gary; Battu, Sunil K

    2008-07-01

    Concomitant administration of botanical supplements with drugs that are P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrates may produce clinically significant herb-drug interactions. This study evaluated the effects of St. John's wort and Echinacea on the pharmacokinetics of digoxin, a recognized P-gp substrate. Eighteen healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive a standardized St. John's wort (300 mg three times daily) or Echinacea (267 mg three times daily) supplement for 14 days, followed by a 30-day washout period. Subjects were also randomized to receive rifampin (300 mg twice daily, 7 days) and clarithromycin (500 mg twice daily, 7 days) as positive controls for P-gp induction and inhibition, respectively. Digoxin (Lanoxin 0.25 mg) was administered orally before and after each supplementation and control period. Serial digoxin plasma concentrations were obtained over 24 h and analyzed by chemiluminescent immunoassay. Comparisons of area under the curve (AUC)((0-3)), AUC((0-24)), elimination half-life, and maximum serum concentration were used to assess the effects of St. John's wort, Echinacea, rifampin, and clarithromycin on digoxin disposition. St. John's wort and rifampin both produced significant reductions (p < 0.05) in AUC((0-3)), AUC((0-24)), and C(max), while clarithromycin increased these parameters significantly (p < 0.05). Echinacea supplementation did not affect digoxin pharmacokinetics. Clinically significant P-gp-mediated herb-drug interactions are more likely to occur with St. John's wort than with Echinacea. PMID:18214850

  1. Effects of benzo(e)pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene on P-glycoprotein-mediated transport in Caco-2 cell monolayer: a comparative approach.

    PubMed

    Sugihara, Narumi; Toyama, Kumiko; Okamoto, Tastuaki; Kadowaki, Masaaki; Terao, Kazumi; Furuno, Koji

    2007-08-01

    The previous studies from our laboratory reported that benzo(a)pyrene (Bap) influenced efflux transport of rhodamine 123 (Rho-123) by induction of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in Caco-2 cells. The present study investigated whether induction of P-gp and the enhanced efflux transport of Rho-123 were caused by benzo(e)pyrene (Bep), which has a structure similar to Bap, but is not a carcinogenic compound. In Caco-2 monolayer exposed to 50 microM Bep for 72 h, the ratio of the apparent permeability coefficient (P(app)) of Rho-123 efflux increased significantly compared to that of the control monolayer. Similarly, a significant increase in expression of MDR1 mRNA and of P-gp at the protein level were detected by RT-PCR and by Western blot analysis, respectively, in Caco-2 cells exposed to Bep, compared to that of the control. Caco-2 cells exposed to Bep showed oxidative stress that was detected by fluorescence microscopy using aminophenyl fluorescein. However, the oxidative stress was weaker compared with that of Bap. The cellular GSH content was decreased to 80% or 59% of control cells, respectively, in Caco-2 cells exposed to either Bep or Bap. Our results further show that Bep or Bap-induced P-gp in Caco-2 cells might have been the result of oxidative stress rather than DNA damage. PMID:17408918

  2. Mini-P-gp and P-gp Co-Expression in Brown Trout Erythrocytes: A Prospective Blood Biomarker of Aquatic Pollution.

    PubMed

    Valton, Emeline; Amblard, Christian; Desmolles, François; Combourieu, Bruno; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Bamdad, Mahchid

    2015-01-01

    In aquatic organisms, such as fish, blood is continually exposed to aquatic contaminants. Multidrug Resistance (MDR) proteins are ubiquitous detoxification membrane pumps, which recognize various xenobiotics. Moreover, their expression is induced by a large class of drugs and pollutants. We have highlighted the co-expression of a mini P-gp of 75 kDa and a P-gp of 140 kDa in the primary culture of brown trout erythrocytes and in the erythrocytes of wild brown trout collected from three rivers in the Auvergne region of France. In vitro experiments showed that benzo[a]pyrene, a highly toxic pollutant model, induced the co-expression of mini-P-gp and P-gp in trout erythrocytes in a dose-dependent manner and relay type response. Similarly, in the erythrocytes of wild brown trout collected from rivers contaminated by a mixture of PAH and other multi-residues of pesticides, mini-P-gp and P-gp were able to modulate their expression, according to the nature of the pollutants. The differential and complementary responses of mini-P-gp and P-gp in trout erythrocytes suggest the existence in blood cells of a real protective network against xenobiotics/drugs. This property could be exploited to develop a blood biomarker of river pollution. PMID:26854141

  3. Mini-P-gp and P-gp Co-Expression in Brown Trout Erythrocytes: A Prospective Blood Biomarker of Aquatic Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Valton, Emeline; Amblard, Christian; Desmolles, François; Combourieu, Bruno; Penault-Llorca, Frédérique; Bamdad, Mahchid

    2015-01-01

    In aquatic organisms, such as fish, blood is continually exposed to aquatic contaminants. Multidrug Resistance (MDR) proteins are ubiquitous detoxification membrane pumps, which recognize various xenobiotics. Moreover, their expression is induced by a large class of drugs and pollutants. We have highlighted the co-expression of a mini P-gp of 75 kDa and a P-gp of 140 kDa in the primary culture of brown trout erythrocytes and in the erythrocytes of wild brown trout collected from three rivers in the Auvergne region of France. In vitro experiments showed that benzo[a]pyrene, a highly toxic pollutant model, induced the co-expression of mini-P-gp and P-gp in trout erythrocytes in a dose-dependent manner and relay type response. Similarly, in the erythrocytes of wild brown trout collected from rivers contaminated by a mixture of PAH and other multi-residues of pesticides, mini-P-gp and P-gp were able to modulate their expression, according to the nature of the pollutants. The differential and complementary responses of mini-P-gp and P-gp in trout erythrocytes suggest the existence in blood cells of a real protective network against xenobiotics/drugs. This property could be exploited to develop a blood biomarker of river pollution. PMID:26854141

  4. Expression of multidrug resistance (p-glycoprotein) mdr1 and mdr2 genes in human hepatocellular carcinomas and liver metastases of colonic tumors.

    PubMed

    Teeter, L; Hsu, H; Curley, S; Tong, M; Kuo, M

    1993-01-01

    Overexpression of P-glycoproteins (P-gp), encoded by multidrug resistance (MDR) genes is responsible for multidrug resistance in animal cells. We analyzed the expression of MDR genes in human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and liver metastases of colon tumors by an RNase protection assay. Our results indicated that both genes were not consistently overexpressed in these tumors, whereas MDR2 is often underexpressed in the metastatic tumors. Invasion of colon tumors to livers decreased MDR1 expression. These data suggest differential regulation mechanisms for the expression of MDR1 and MDR2 genes in these tumors, and a complex drug-resistance mechanism for liver cancers. PMID:21573517

  5. Arsenite regulates Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator and P-glycoprotein: evidence of pathway independence.

    PubMed

    Maitra, Rangan; Hamilton, Joshua W

    2005-01-01

    In the past, people have argued for and against the theory of reciprocal regulation of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) and P-glycoprotein (Pgp). Data have indicated that this may occur in vitro during drug-induced selection of cells, and in vivo during development. Much of this debate has been caused by a severe lack of mechanistic details involved in such regulation. Our past data indicate that certain Pgp modulators can affect CFTR expression and function. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of trivalent arsenic (arsenite), a known transcriptional activator of Pgp, on CFTR expression. In vitro analyses in T-84 cells that express basal levels of Pgp and CFTR were conducted using a variety of molecular techniques. Expressions of both genes were altered following treatment with arsenite in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. CFTR expression was suppressed almost three-fold by arsenite, along with a concomitant increase in P-glycoprotein expression. We also report that a member of the MAPK-family, the ERK-mediated signaling cascade is implicated in suppression of CFTR expression following treatment with arsenite. However, this particular pathway is not involved in regulation of P-glycoprotein expression in T-84 cells following treatment with arsenite. Thus, the regulatory pathways that control functional expression of CFTR and P-glycoprotein following arsenite treatment in T-84 cells are distinct and independent. PMID:16121039

  6. A tamoxifen derivative, N,N-diethyl-2-[4-(phenylmethyl) phenoxy] ethanamine, selectively targets P-glycoprotein-positive multidrug resistant Chinese hamster cells.

    PubMed

    Georges, Elias; Lian, Jing; Laberge, Remi

    2014-07-15

    DPPE, a tamoxifen derivative with antihistamine activity, was previously shown to potentiate the toxicity of chemotherapeutic drugs. Recently, a Phase III clinical study using doxorubicin with DPPE demonstrated significant increase in the overall survival of breast cancer patients. In this study we examined the effects of DPPE alone on the growth of drug sensitive and P-gp positive CHO cell line. Our results demonstrate DPPE is selectively toxic to P-gp positive cells and the sensitivity to DPPE alone correlated with the levels of P-gp expression. Moreover, in MDR cells, DPPE-induced apoptosis was significantly reduced with Bcl2 overexpression and in the presence of P-gp ATPase inhibitor, PSC833. Furthermore, knockdown of P-gp expression in MDR cells with P-gp-siRNA reversed DPPE sensitivity and increased their sensitivity to doxorubicin and taxol but not to cisplatin. The addition of DPPE to membrane fractions led to dose-dependent increase in P-gp ATPase that was inhibited with PSC833. Moreover, incubation of P-gp positive cells with DPPE led to a significant increase in superoxide levels and a drop in cellular ATP and GSH pools that were reversible with inhibitors of P-gp ATPase. The combined presence of DPPE and the mitochondria electron transport complex III inhibitor, antimycin A, synergized in their effects on the growth of MDR cells but had no effect on the growth of parental drug sensitive cells. Collectively, the results of this study provide a possible mechanism that may be relevant to the clinical results of DPPE in breast cancer trial and demonstrates DPPE as P-gp collateral sensitivity drug. PMID:24821111

  7. [Evaluation of P-glycoprotein mediated in vitro loperamide biliary excretion with sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes model].

    PubMed

    Shen, Guo-Lin; Zhuang, Xiao-Mei; Yuan, Mei; Sun, Han-Xiong; Li, Hua

    2012-04-01

    An in vitro P-glycoprotein mediated drug biliary excretion model (B-Clear model) was developed and validated using sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes (SCRH) and a model substrate rhodamine 123 (Rh123). SCRH formed functional bile canalicular networks after 5 days of culture. Rh123 (10 micromol x L(-1)) was then incubated with the SCRH in standard Ca+ Hanks buffer or Ca(2+)-free buffer. The cumulative cell uptake and canalicular efflux of Rh123 under Ca2+ and Ca(2+)-free conditions were measured with a LC-MS/MS method. The biliary excretion index (BEI) and instinct biliary clearance (CL(bile, int)) were calculated. To assess the effect of known P-gp inhibitors on the efflux of Rh123, cyclosporine A (CyA), tariquidar (TQD) or quinidine (QND) (10, 50 and 100 micromol x L(-1)) was pre-incubated separately with SCRH for 30 min, then co-incubated with Rh123. The BEI and CL(bile, int) of Rh123 obtained from the SCRH model were (17.8 +/- 1.3) % and (10.7 +/- 0.9) mL x min(-1) x kg(-1), respectively. All the three P-gp inhibitors showed a dose-dependent inhibition on the bile clearance of Rh123, indicating that the B-Clear model with SCRH was functional properly. The biliary excretion of loperamide (LPAD) and the role of P-gp were further investigated with this validated model. The BEI and CL(bile, int) for LPAD (20 micromol x L(-1)) were obtained after it was incubated with SCRH for 30 min, and found to be (12.9 +/- 1.2)% and (6.1 +/- 0.3) mL x min(-1) x kg(-1) respectively. The dose-dependent inhibition on LPAD biliary excretion by CyA, TQD or QND confirmed the major role of P-gp in LPAD canalicular efflux. The results suggested that the B-Clear model with SCRH would be a useful tool for evaluation of P-gp mediated efflux and drug-drug interaction. PMID:22799027

  8. E. coli Infection Modulates the Pharmacokinetics of Oral Enrofloxacin by Targeting P-Glycoprotein in Small Intestine and CYP450 3A in Liver and Kidney of Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Mengjie; Sun, Yong; Zhang, Yu; Bughio, Shamsuddin; Dai, Xiaohua; Ren, Weilong; Wang, Liping

    2014-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) expression determines the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of many drugs in the body. Also, up-regulation of P-gp acts as a defense mechanism against acute inflammation. This study examined expression levels of abcb1 mRNA and localization of P-gp protein in the liver, kidney, duodenum, jejunum and ileum in healthy and E. coli infected broilers by real time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Meanwhile, pharmacokinetics of orally administered enrofloxacin was also investigated in healthy and infected broilers by HPLC. The results indicated that E. coli infection up-regulated expression of abcb1 mRNA levels significantly in the kidney, jejunum and ileum (P<0.05), but not significantly in the liver and duodenum (P>0.05). However, the expression level of CYP 3A37 mRNA were observed significantly decreased only in liver and kidney of E. coli infected broilers (P<0.05) compared with healthy birds. Furthermore, the infection reduced absorption of orally administered enrofloxacin, significantly decreased Cmax (0.34 vs 0.98 g mL?1, P?=?0.000) and AUC0-12h (4.37 vs 8.88 g mL?1 h, P?=?0.042) of enrofloxacin, but increased Tmax (8.32 vs 3.28 h, P?=?0.040), T1/2a(2.66 vs 1.64 h?1, P?=?0.050) and V/F (26.7 vs 5.2 L, P?=?0.040). Treatment with verapamil, an inhibitor of P-gp, significantly improved the absorption of enrofloxacin in both healthy and infected broilers. The results suggest that the E. coli infection induces intestine P-gp expression, altering the absorption of orally administered enrofloxacin in broilers. PMID:24498193

  9. Effect of repeated low-dose organophosphorothionate pesticide exposure on digoxin pharmacokinetics in rats; a possible interaction involving p-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Cem, Kaplan Yusuf; Kubilay, Oransay; Ozlem, Eminoglu; Hulya, Ellidokuz; Ayse, Gelal

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aside from acute occupational exposure, an important part of the population may be chronically exposed to the trace amounts of organophosphorothionate pesticides (OPTs) via residues in nutrients and drinking water. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is a transmembrane protein responsible for the efflux of numerous drugs. OPTs were shown to inhibit P-gp function in vitro and increase its expression in vivo. Digoxin is a probe drug for the investigation of P-gp. To evaluate the effect of repeated low-dose OPT exposure on P-gp, commercial formulations of diluted OPT or tap water were administered to female Wistar rats for 8 consecutive days. On the ninth day each group was further divided into two groups and digoxin was administered either intraduodenally (ID) or intravenously (IV). Blood sampling and bile and urine collection were taken during 6 h at various intervals. The peak concentration in serum (C(max)) of digoxin was found to be decreased and the mean absorption time (MAT) was significantly increased in the digoxin OPT group. The mean residence time was significantly elevated in the digoxin(ID) OPT group. The biliary excretion% digoxin was significantly increased in the digoxin OPT group, while the renal excretion% digoxin rose only in the digoxin(ID) OPT group. No significant differences in time to reach C(max) (t(max)), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC)(0-360), area under the moment curve (AUMC)(0-360), and bioavailability (F) were detected. In our study, repeated low-dose OPT exposure reduced the absorption and increased the excretion% digoxin, which may be related to enhanced P-gp expression. However, alterations of digoxin pharmacokinetic parameters did not change the systemic availability of digoxin. PMID:20020872

  10. Nonlinear accumulation in the brain of the new taxoid TXD258 following saturation of P-glycoprotein at the bloodbrain barrier in mice and rats

    PubMed Central

    Cisternino, Salvatore; Bourasset, Fanchon; Archimbaud, Yves; Smiond, Dorothe; Sanderink, Grard; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel

    2003-01-01

    TXD258, a new taxoid antitumor agent, is a poor substrate for the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in Caco-2 cells. In this study, we investigated the amount of drug accumulating in the brains of rats and mice under a variety of conditions (dose and infusion time, species and plasma concentration) using conventional in vivo pharmacokinetic techniques and in situ brain perfusion. Mice were infused with radiolabeled TXD258 at 15, 30, 45 and 90 mg m?2 for 45 s or 1 h and rats were infused with 15 and 60 mg m?2 over 2.3 min. The radioactivity in the plasma and brains was measured. The brain concentrations of TXD258 in mice and rats were maximal from 2 min to 1 h postinfusion and radioactivity was still detectable at 168 h. While the plasma concentration of TXD258 increased linearly in mice with the infused dose, the brain content increased more than proportionally with the dose between 15 and 90 mg m?2. This nonlinear uptake of TXD258 also occurred in the plasma and brain of the rat. These findings suggest that the protein-mediated efflux across the bloodbrain barrier (BBB) becomes saturated. In situ brain perfusion studies confirmed that TXD258 is a P-gp substrate at the BBB of mice and rats. The P-gp of both species was saturated at the half-inhibitory concentration (?13 ?M) produced by i.v. infusion. Thus, the observed nonlinear accumulation of TXD258 in the brain seems to occur by saturation of the P-gp at the rodent BBB. This saturation could have several advantages, such as overcoming a P-gp-mediated efflux, but the nonlinear pharmacokinetics could increase the risk of toxicity. PMID:12711638

  11. Application of permeability-limited physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models: part I-digoxin pharmacokinetics incorporating P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux.

    PubMed

    Neuhoff, Sibylle; Yeo, Karen Rowland; Barter, Zoe; Jamei, Masoud; Turner, David B; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin

    2013-09-01

    A prerequisite for the prediction of the magnitude of P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated drug-drug interactions between digoxin and P-gp inhibitors (e.g. verapamil and its metabolite norverapamil) or P-gp inducers (e.g. rifampicin) is a predictive pharmacokinetic model for digoxin itself. Thus, relevant in vitro metabolic, transporter and inhibitory data incorporated into permeability-limited models, such as the "advanced dissolution, absorption and metabolism" (ADAM) module and the permeability-limited liver (PerL) module, integrated with a mechanistic physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model such as that of the Simcyp Simulator (version 12.2) are necessary. Simulated concentration-time profiles of digoxin generated using the developed model were consistent with observed data across 31 independent studies [13 intravenous single dose (SD), 12 per oral SD and six multiple dose studies]. The fact that predicted tmax (time of maximum plasma concentration observed) and Cmax (maximum plasma concentration observed) of oral digoxin were similar to observed values indicated that the relative contributions of permeation and P-gp-mediated efflux in the model were appropriate. There was no indication of departure from dose proportionality over the dose range studied (0.25-1.5 mg). All dose normalised area under the plasma concentration-time curve profiles (AUCs) for the 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1 mg doses resembled each other. Thus, PBPK modelling in conjunction with mechanistic absorption and distribution models and reliable in vitro transporter data can be used to assess the impact of dose on P-gp-mediated efflux (or otherwise). PMID:23703021

  12. Heterogeneity in the rat brain vasculature revealed by quantitative confocal analysis of endothelial barrier antigen and P-glycoprotein expression

    PubMed Central

    Saubama, Bruno; Cochois-Gugan, Vronique; Cisternino, Salvatore; Scherrmann, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    While phenotypic endothelial heterogeneity is well documented in peripheral organs, it is only now being explored in the brain. We used confocal imaging of thick sections of rat brain to qualitatively and quantitatively examine the expression of two key markers of the bloodbrain barrier (BBB) in the rat, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), and endothelial barrier antigen (EBA). We found that these markers were not uniformly distributed throughout the whole vasculature of the cortex and hippocampus. P-glycoprotein displayed a gradient of expression from an almost undetectable level in large penetrating arterioles to a high and uniform level in capillaries and venules. While EBA was lacking in all cerebral arterioles, regardless of their size, its expression varied greatly among endothelial cells in capillaries and venules, yielding a striking mosaic pattern. A detailed quantitative analysis of the distribution of these markers at the single cell level in capillaries is provided. These results challenge the view of a uniform BBB and suggest that regulatory mechanisms might differentially modulate BBB features not only among arterioles/capillaries/venules but also at the single cell level within the capillaries. Hypotheses are made regarding the underlying mechanisms and physiopathological consequences of this heterogeneity. PMID:21792241

  13. Kinetic validation of the models for P-glycoprotein ATP hydrolysis and vanadate-induced trapping. Proposal for additional steps.

    PubMed

    Lugo, Miguel Ramn; Sharom, Frances Jane

    2014-01-01

    P-Glycoprotein, a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily, is a multidrug transporter responsible for cellular efflux of hundreds of structurally unrelated compounds, including natural products, many clinically used drugs and anti-cancer agents. Expression of P-glycoprotein has been linked to multidrug resistance in human cancers. ABC transporters are driven by ATP hydrolysis at their two cytoplasmic nucleotide-binding domains, which interact to form a closed ATP-bound sandwich dimer. Intimate knowledge of the catalytic cycle of these proteins is clearly essential for understanding their mechanism of action. P-Glycoprotein has been proposed to hydrolyse ATP by an alternating mechanism, for which there is substantial experimental evidence, including inhibition of catalytic activity by trapping of ortho-vanadate at one nucleotide-binding domain, and the observation of an asymmetric occluded state. Despite many studies of P-glycoprotein ATPase activity over the past 20 years, no comprehensive kinetic analysis has yet been carried out, and some puzzling features of its behaviour remain unexplained. In this work, we have built several progressively more complex kinetic models, and then carried out simulations and detailed analysis, to test the validity of the proposed reaction pathway employed by P-glycoprotein for ATP hydrolysis. To establish kinetic parameters for the catalytic cycle, we made use of the large amount of published data on ATP hydrolysis by hamster P-glycoprotein, both purified and in membrane vesicles. The proposed kinetic scheme(s) include a high affinity priming reaction for binding of the first ATP molecule, and an independent pathway for ADP binding outside the main catalytic cycle. They can reproduce to varying degrees the observed behavior of the protein's ATPase activity and its inhibition by ortho-vanadate. The results provide new insights into the mode of action of P-glycoprotein, and some hypotheses about the nature of the occluded nucleotide-bound state. PMID:24897122

  14. Kinetic Validation of the Models for P-Glycoprotein ATP Hydrolysis and Vanadate-Induced Trapping. Proposal for Additional Steps

    PubMed Central

    Lugo, Miguel Ramn; Sharom, Frances Jane

    2014-01-01

    P-Glycoprotein, a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily, is a multidrug transporter responsible for cellular efflux of hundreds of structurally unrelated compounds, including natural products, many clinically used drugs and anti-cancer agents. Expression of P-glycoprotein has been linked to multidrug resistance in human cancers. ABC transporters are driven by ATP hydrolysis at their two cytoplasmic nucleotide-binding domains, which interact to form a closed ATP-bound sandwich dimer. Intimate knowledge of the catalytic cycle of these proteins is clearly essential for understanding their mechanism of action. P-Glycoprotein has been proposed to hydrolyse ATP by an alternating mechanism, for which there is substantial experimental evidence, including inhibition of catalytic activity by trapping of ortho-vanadate at one nucleotide-binding domain, and the observation of an asymmetric occluded state. Despite many studies of P-glycoprotein ATPase activity over the past 20 years, no comprehensive kinetic analysis has yet been carried out, and some puzzling features of its behaviour remain unexplained. In this work, we have built several progressively more complex kinetic models, and then carried out simulations and detailed analysis, to test the validity of the proposed reaction pathway employed by P-glycoprotein for ATP hydrolysis. To establish kinetic parameters for the catalytic cycle, we made use of the large amount of published data on ATP hydrolysis by hamster P-glycoprotein, both purified and in membrane vesicles. The proposed kinetic scheme(s) include a high affinity priming reaction for binding of the first ATP molecule, and an independent pathway for ADP binding outside the main catalytic cycle. They can reproduce to varying degrees the observed behavior of the protein's ATPase activity and its inhibition by ortho-vanadate. The results provide new insights into the mode of action of P-glycoprotein, and some hypotheses about the nature of the occluded nucleotide-bound state. PMID:24897122

  15. Natural lignans from Arctium lappa modulate P-glycoprotein efflux function in multidrug resistant cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Su, Shan; Cheng, Xinlai; Wink, Michael

    2015-02-15

    Arctium lappa is a well-known traditional medicinal plant in China (TCM) and Europe that has been used for thousands of years to treat arthritis, baldness or cancer. The plant produces lignans as secondary metabolites which have a wide range of bioactivities. Yet, their ability to reverse multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells has not been explored. In this study, we isolated six lignans from A. lappa seeds, namely arctigenin, matairesinol, arctiin, (iso)lappaol A, lappaol C, and lappaol F. The MDR reversal potential of the isolated lignans and the underlying mechanism of action were studied using two MDR cancer cell lines, CaCo2 and CEM/ADR 5000 which overexpress P-gp and other ABC transporters. In two-drug combinations of lignans with the cytotoxic doxorubicin, all lignans exhibited synergistic effects in CaCo2 cells and matairesinol, arctiin, lappaol C and lappaol F display synergistic activity in CEM/ADR 5000 cells. Additionally, in three-drug combinations of lignans with the saponin digitonin and doxorubicin MDR reversal activity was even stronger enhanced. The lignans can increase the retention of the P-gp substrate rhodamine 123 in CEM/ADR 5000 cells, indicating that lignans can inhibit the activity of P-gp. Our study provides a first insight into the potential chemosensitizing activity of a series of natural lignans, which might be candidates for developing novel adjuvant anticancer agents. PMID:25765837

  16. Reversers of the multidrug resistance transporter P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Stein, Wilfred D

    2002-05-01

    Multidrug resistance can arise from the presence of the membrane-bound pump, P-glycoprotein, in a tumor. Major efforts have been made to develop inhibitors of this pump, and a number of promising blockers have reached late stages of clinical trials. The kinetics of the inhibition of P-glycoprotein is complex, with binding sites that can interact synergistically. Reversers of increased affinity and specificity could, in principle, be developed on the basis of these synergies, and offer some promise in cancer therapeutics. PMID:12090558

  17. The inhibitory and combinative mechanism of HZ08 with P-glycoprotein expressed on the membrane of Caco-2 cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yanyan; Hu, Yahui; Feng, Yidong; Kodithuwakku, Nandani Darshika; Fang, Weirong; Li, Yunman; Huang, Wenlong

    2014-01-15

    Recently, the research and development of agents to reverse the phenomenon of multidrug resistance has been an attractive goal as well as a key approach to elevating the clinical survival of cancer patients. Although three generations of P-glycoprotein modulators have been identified, poor clearance and metabolism render these agents too toxic to be used in clinical application. HZ08, which has been under investigation for several years, shows a dramatic reversal effect with low cytotoxicity. For the first time, we aimed to describe the interaction between HZ08 and P-glycoprotein in Caco-2 cell line in which P-glycoprotein is overexpressed naturally. Cytotoxicity and multidrug resistance reversal assays, together with flow cytometry, fluorescence microscopy and siRNA interference as well as Caco-2 monolayer transport model were employed in this study to evaluate the interaction between HZ08 and P-glycoprotein. This study revealed that HZ08 was capable of reversing adriamycin resistance mediated by P-glycoprotein as a result of intracellular enhancement of adriamycin accumulation, which was found to be superior to verapamil. In addition, we confirmed that HZ08 suppressed the transport of Rhodamine123 in the Caco-2 monolayer model but had little effect on P-glycoprotein expression. The transport of HZ08 was diminished by P-glycoprotein inhibitors (verapamil and LY335979) and its accumulation was increased via siRNA targeting MDR1 in Caco-2 cells. Furthermore, considering the binding site of P-glycoprotein, verapamil performed as a competitive inhibitor with HZ08. In conclusion, as a P-glycoprotein substrate, HZ08 inhibited P-glycoprotein activity and may share the same binding site of verapamil to P-glycoprotein. - Highlights: The cytotoxicity and reversing effect of HZ08 was measured in Caco-2 cell line. HZ08 inhibited the transport of Rhodamine123 across Caco-2 cell monolayer. The efflux ratio of HZ08 was dropped when combined with P-glycoprotein inhibitors. The accumulation of HZ08 increased via gene interference targeting P-glycoprotein. HZ08 competitively bound to P-glycoprotein under the presence of verapamil.

  18. Effects of natural nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitors on anticancer drug efflux transporter human P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Nabekura, Tomohiro; Hiroi, Takashi; Kawasaki, Tatsuya; Uwai, Yuichi

    2015-03-01

    Drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein plays an important role in cancer chemotherapy. The nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) transcription factors play critical roles in development and progression of cancer. In this study, the effects of natural compounds that can inhibit NF-?B activation on the function of P-glycoprotein were investigated using human MDR1 gene-transfected KB/MDR1 cells. The accumulation of daunorubicin or rhodamine 123, fluorescent substrates of P-glycoprotein, in KB/MDR1 cells increased in the presence of caffeic acid phenetyl ester (CAPE), licochalcone A, anacardic acid, celastrol, xanthohumol, magnolol, and honokiol in a concentration-dependent manner. In contrast, lupeol, zerumbone, thymoquinone, emodin, and anethol had no effects. The ATPase activities of P-glycoprotein were stimulated by CAPE, licochalcone A, anacardic acid, celastrol, xanthohumol, magnolol, and honokiol. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? stimulated NF-?B activation was inhibited by CAPE, licochalcone A, anacardic acid, and xanthohumol. KB/MDR1 cells were sensitized to vinblastine cytotoxicity by CAPE, licochalcone A, anacardic acid, xanthohumol, magnolol, and honokiol, showing that these natural NF-?B inhibitors reverse multidrug resistance. These results suggest that natural compounds, such as CAPE, licochalcone A, and anacardic acid, have dual inhibitory effects on the anticancer drug efflux transporter P-glycoprotein and NF-?B activation, and may become useful to enhance the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25776492

  19. The combined use of paclitaxel-loaded nanoparticles with a low-molecular-weight copolymer inhibitor of P-glycoprotein to overcome drug resistance

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Chung Ping Leon; Letchford, Kevin; Jackson, John K; Burt, Helen M

    2013-01-01

    Two types of nanoparticles were prepared using the diblock copolymer methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(caprolactone) (MePEG-b-PCL), with either a short PCL block length, which forms micelles, or with a longer PCL block length, which forms kinetically frozen core structures termed nanospheres. Paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded micelles and nanospheres were evaluated for their cytotoxicity, cellular polymer uptake, and drug accumulation in drug-sensitive (MadinDarby Canine Kidney [MDCK]II) and multidrug-resistant (MDR) P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-overexpressing (MDCKII-MDR1) cell lines. Both types of PTX-loaded nanoparticles were equally effective at inhibiting proliferation of MDCKII cells, but PTX-loaded micelles were more cytotoxic than nanospheres in MDCKII-MDR1 cells. The intracellular accumulation of both PTX and the diblock copolymers were similar for both nanoparticles, suggesting that the difference in cytotoxicity might be due to the different drug-release profiles. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity of these PTX-loaded nanoparticles was enhanced when these systems were subsequently or concurrently combined with a low-molecular-weight MePEG-b-PCL diblock copolymer, which we have previously demonstrated to be an effective P-gp inhibitor. These results suggest that the dual functionality of MePEG-b-PCL might be useful in delivering drug intracellularly and in modulating P-gp in order to optimize the cytotoxicity of PTX in multidrug-resistant cells. PMID:23378760

  20. Interaction of the P-Glycoprotein Multidrug Transporter with Sterols.

    PubMed

    Clay, Adam T; Lu, Peihua; Sharom, Frances J

    2015-11-01

    The ABC transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp, ABCB1) actively exports structurally diverse substrates from within the lipid bilayer, leading to multidrug resistance. Many aspects of Pgp function are altered by the phospholipid environment, but its interactions with sterols remain enigmatic. In this work, the functional interaction between purified Pgp and various sterols was investigated in detergent solution and proteoliposomes. Fluorescence studies showed that dehydroergosterol, cholestatrienol, and NBD-cholesterol interact intimately with Pgp, resulting in both quenching of protein Trp fluorescence and enhancement of sterol fluorescence. Kd values indicated binding affinities in the range of 3-9 ?M. Collisional quenching experiments showed that Pgp-bound NBD-cholesterol was protected from the external milieu, resonance energy transfer was observed between Pgp Trp residues and the sterol, and the fluorescence emission of bound sterol was enhanced. These observations suggested an intimate interaction of bound sterols with the transporter at a protected nonpolar site. Cholesterol hemisuccinate altered the thermal unfolding of Pgp and greatly stabilized its basal ATPase activity in both a detergent solution and reconstituted proteoliposomes of certain phospholipids. Other sterols, including dehydroergosterol, did not stabilize the basal ATPase activity of detergent-solubilized Pgp, which suggests that this is not a generalized sterol effect. The phospholipid composition and cholesterol hemisuccinate content of Pgp proteoliposomes altered the basal ATPase and drug transport cycles differently. Sterols may interact with Pgp and modulate its structure and function by occupying part of the drug-binding pocket or by binding to putative consensus cholesterol-binding (CRAC/CARC) motifs located within the transmembrane domains. PMID:26484739

  1. Reversing of multidrug resistance breast cancer by co-delivery of P-gp siRNA and doxorubicin via folic acid-modified core-shell nanomicelles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yang; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Chunlong; Wu, Jianzhong; Tang, Jinhai

    2016-02-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains one of major limitation for the successful treatment of many cancers including breast cancer. Co-delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs and small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been developed because of its ability to generate synergistic anticancer effects via different mechanisms of action, to reverse MDR and increase the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs in cancer therapy. Herein, we employed a kind of efficient multifunctional tumor targeted nanomicelles (PECL3) for the co-delivery of hydrophobic anti-cancer drugs and siRNA. This kind of nanomicelles were constructed by folic acid (FA)-decorated PEG-b-(PCL-g-PEI)-b-PCL triblock copolymers, which were synthesized through "click chemistry" and "ring opening" polymerization. Driven by the "core-shell" structure and the electrostatic interaction, this triblock copolymer could efficiently encapsulate P-glycoprotein (P-gp) siRNA and doxorubicin (DOX). The obtained nanomicelles can prevent renal clearance, RNase degradation and aggregation in circulation. Compared to the non-specific delivery, these FA functionalized nanomicelles could efficiently deliver P-gp siRNA to reducing both P-gp expression levels and IC50 value of the DOX in DOX-resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7/ADR). Additionally, in vivo results showed that DOX loaded PECL3 (D-PECL3) micelles could reduce toxicity of DOX on nontarget tissues and significantly inhibited MCF-7/ADR tumor growth through encapsulating DOX in the micelles and deliver them to target tumor region. Taken together, these results proof that PECL3 micelles could co-deliver siRNA and drug to inhibit MDR tumor growth. These results suggested that the co-delivery of DOX and siRNA in tumor-targeting nanomicelles could excite synergistic effect of gene therapy and chemotherapy, thus can efficiently reverse MDR cancer and kill the cancer cells. PMID:26655793

  2. Cyclosporin A affects the bioavailability of ginkgolic acids via inhibition of P-gp and BCRP.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Yao, Qing-Qing; Xu, Si-Yun; Hu, Hai-Hong; Shen, Qi; Tian, Ye; Pan, Lan-Ying; Zhou, Hui; Jiang, Hui-di; Lu, Chuang; Yu, Lu-Shan; Zeng, Su

    2014-11-01

    Ginkgolic acids (GAs) in natural product Ginkgobiloba L. are the pharmacological active but also toxic components. Two compounds, GA (C15:1) and GA (C17:1) are the most abundant GAs. In this study, several in vitro and in vivo models were applied to investigate transport mechanism of GAs. A rapid and sensitive LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of GA (C15:1) and GA (C17:1) was applied to analyze the biological specimens. The Papp(AP→BL) values of GA (C15:1) and GA (C17:1) were 1.66-2.13×10(-)(6)cm/s and 1.34-1.85×10(-)(6)cm/s determined using MDCK and MDCK-MDR1 cell monolayers, respectively. The Papp(BL→AP) were remarkably greater in the MDCK-MDR1 cell line, which were 6.77-11.2×10(-)(6)cm/s for GA (C15:1) and 4.73-5.15×10(-)(6)cm/s for GA (C17:1). Similar results were obtained in LLC-PK1 and LLC-PK1-BCRP cell monolayers. The net efflux ratio of GA (C15:1) and GA (C17:1) in both cell models was greater than 2 and markedly reduced by the presence of Cyclosporin A (CsA) or GF120918, inhibitors of P-gp and BCRP, suggesting that GAs are P-gp and BCRP substrates. The results from a rat bioavailability study also showed that co-administrating CsA intravenously (20mg/kg) could significantly increase GA (C15:1) and GA (C17:1) AUC0-t by 1.46-fold and 1.53-fold and brain concentration levels of 1.43-fold and 1.51-fold, respectively, due to the inhibition of P-gp and BCRP efflux transporters by CsA. PMID:24980806

  3. Site-directed fluorescence labeling of P-glycoprotein on cysteine residues in the nucleotide binding domains.

    PubMed

    Liu, R; Sharom, F J

    1996-09-10

    P-Glycoprotein is a member of the ABC superfamily of membrane transporters, and functions as an ATP-driven active efflux pump for natural products and chemotherapeutic drugs. Overexpression of P-glycoprotein is a major cause of multidrug resistance in human cancers. Sulfhydryl modification agents are known to inactivate both P-glycoprotein ATPase activity and transport function. In the present study, P-glycoprotein purified from CHRB30 cells was covalently labeled at two conserved Cys residues, one within each of the nucleotide binding domains, using 2-(4-maleimidoanilino)naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid (MIANS). MIANS modification inactivated P-glycoprotein ATPase function, in a concentration-dependent fashion. Increasing concentrations of ATP blocked MIANS labeling with an IC50 of 0.37 mM (similar to the KM for ATP hydrolysis), which suggests that the label is located close to the site of ATP binding within the nucleotide binding domain. A blue shift in the fluorescence spectrum of MIANS bound to P-glycoprotein indicated that the labeled Cys residues are situated in a nonpolar environment. MIANS-labeled P-glycoprotein was still able to bind ATP, as demonstrated by quenching of the fluorescence, with a Kd of 0.46 mM. Addition of a variety of drugs and chemosensitizers to MIANS-labeled P-glycoprotein led to substantial quenching of the probe fluorescence within the nucleotide binding domains. Dissociation constants for drug binding measured by fluorescence quenching were in the range of 0.77 microM for vinblastine to 158 microM for colchicine. Quenching by ATP and drugs was independent and additive, suggesting that each produces a defined change in the protein. The rate of MIANS labeling of Pgp was reduced in the presence of drugs and chemosensitizers, implying that a long-range conformational change arises from drug binding which alters the accessibility of the nucleotide binding domains to MIANS. These results suggest that there is conformational communication between the drug binding site(s) of P-glycoprotein and the ATPase catalytic sites within the nucleotide binding domains. PMID:8794769

  4. Evaluation of genipin on human cytochrome P450 isoenzymes and P-glycoprotein in vitro.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li-Na; Zhang, Ye; Cui, Yuan-Lu; Yan, Kuo

    2014-10-01

    Genipin is obtained from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis and acts as an herbal medicine or functional food in East Asia. In addition to produce natural colorant, it possesses widely antiinflammatory, antithrombotic, antidepressive and anticarcinogenic activities. However, little research focuses on the potential of genipin for drug-drug interactions. In this study, effects of genipin on mRNA and protein expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19, CYP2D6 and CYP3A4 were detected by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) and Western blot, respectively, in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Enzyme activities of which were detected by luminogenic CYP assay in vitro. Moreover, effect of genipin on P-glycoprotein expression was analyzed by Western blot. Results showed that genipin possessed a significant induction on CYP2D6 and a remarkable inhibition on CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 not only from the expression of mRNA and protein (P<0.05 or P<0.01), but the level of enzyme activity. Moreover, a concentration-dependent induction of genipin on P-glycoprotein expression was observed. In conclusion, caution should be exercised with respect to the induction or inhibition of genipin on CYP isoenzymes and the strong induction on P-glycoprotein. PMID:25073096

  5. Brain penetration of WEB 2086 (Apafant) and dantrolene in Mdr1a (P-glycoprotein) and Bcrp knockout rats.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Holger; Kishimoto, Wataru; Gansser, Dietmar; Tanswell, Paul; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2014-10-01

    Transporter gene knockout rat models are attracting increasing interest for mechanistic studies of new drugs as transporter substrates or inhibitors in vivo. However, limited data are available on the functional validity of such models at the blood-brain barrier. Therefore, the present study evaluated Mdr1a [P-glycoprotein (P-gp)], Bcrp, and combined Mdr1a/Bcrp knockout rat strains for the influence of P-gp and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) transport proteins on brain penetration of the selective test substrates [(14)C]WEB 2086 (3-[4-(2-chlorophenyl)-9-methyl-6H-thieno[3,2-f][1,2,4]triazolo-[4,3-a][1,4]-diazepin-2-yl]-1-(4-morpholinyl)-1-propanon) for P-gp and dantrolene for BCRP. Brain-to-plasma concentration ratios (BPR) were measured after intravenous coinfusions of 5.5 mol/kg per hour [(14)C]WEB 2086 and 2 mol/kg per hour dantrolene for 2 hours in groups of knockout or wild-type rats. Compared with wild-type controls, mean BPR of [(14)C]WEB 2086 increased 8-fold in Mdr1a knockouts, 9.5-fold in double Mdr1a/Bcrp knockouts, and 7.3-fold in zosuquidar-treated wild-type rats, but was unchanged in Bcrp knockout rats. Mean BPR of dantrolene increased 3.3-fold in Bcrp knockouts and 3.9-fold in double Mdr1a/Bcrp knockouts compared with wild type, but was unchanged in the Mdr1a knockouts. The human intestinal CaCo-2 cell bidirectional transport system in vitro confirmed the in vivo finding that [(14)C]WEB 2086 is a substrate of P-gp but not of BCRP. Therefore, Mdr1a, Bcrp, and combined Mdr1a/Bcrp knockout rats provide functional absence of these efflux transporters at the blood-brain barrier and are a suitable model for mechanistic studies on the brain penetration of drug candidates. PMID:25053619

  6. Characterization of an Asymmetric Occluded State of P-glycoprotein with Two Bound Nucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Siarheyeva, Alena; Liu, Ronghua; Sharom, Frances J.

    2010-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), a member of the ABC superfamily, functions as an ATP-driven multidrug efflux pump. The catalytic cycle of ABC proteins is believed to involve formation of a sandwich dimer in which two ATP molecules are bound at the interface of the nucleotide binding domains (NBDs). However, such dimers have only been observed in isolated NBD subunits and catalytically arrested mutants, and it is still not understood how ATP hydrolysis is coordinated between the two NBDs. We report for the first time the characterization of an asymmetric state of catalytically active native P-glycoprotein with two bound molecules of adenosine 5?-(?-thio)triphosphate (ATP?S), one of low affinity (Kd 0.74 mm), and one occluded nucleotide of 120-fold higher affinity (Kd 6 ?m). ATP?S also interacts with P-glycoprotein with high affinity as assessed by inhibition of ATP hydrolysis and protection from covalent labeling of a Walker A Cys residue, whereas other non-hydrolyzable ATP analogues do not. Binding of ATP?S (but not ATP) causes Trp residue heterogeneity, as indicated by collisional quenching, suggesting that it may induce conformational asymmetry. Asymmetric ATP?S-bound P-glycoprotein does not display reduced binding affinity for drugs, implying that transport is not driven by ATP binding and likely takes place at a later stage of the catalytic cycle. We propose that this asymmetric state with two bound nucleotides represents the next intermediate on the path toward ATP hydrolysis after nucleotide binding, and an alternating sites mode of action is achieved by simultaneous switching of the two active sites between high and low affinity states. PMID:20061384

  7. Cetuximab increases concentrations of irinotecan and of its active metabolite SN-38 in plasma and tumour of human colorectal carcinoma-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Chu, Céline; Abbara, Chadi; Tandia, Mahamadou; Polrot, Mélanie; Gonin, Patrick; Farinotti, Robert; Bonhomme-Faivre, Laurence

    2014-12-01

    In a previous study, we showed that cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody directed towards epidermal growth factor receptor, could inhibit P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an efflux protein of ATP-binding cassette family, and lead to an increased P-gp substrate intracellular concentration. Cetuximab is given with irinotecan to patients with metastasis colorectal cancer who did not respond to irinotecan-based therapy. The mechanism of this successful clinical reversion remains unknown. As irinotecan is a P-gp substrate, we tested here whether cetuximab could modify irinotecan concentration in mice. Therefore, concentrations of irinotecan and of its active metabolite SN-38 were measured by HPLC in plasma and tumour of mice bearing a human colorectal carcinoma xenograft when irinotecan is given orally alone or after a pretreatment with cetuximab. Pharmacokinetic analysis showed no significant modification of irinotecan concentrations but a significant increase (1.7-fold) in SN-38 AUCs in plasma and in tumour after a pretreatment with cetuximab. Those results suggest that cetuximab influence irinotecan distribution into tissues probably due to inhibition of P-gp. As SN-38 is 200-fold more potent than irinotecan, cetuximab could reverse irinotecan resistance by an effect on its active metabolite. Inhibiting SN-38 efflux by P-gp drug transporters in biliary system and tumour can lead to pharmacokinetic modification and a higher anticancer efficacy. PMID:24588516

  8. Acquisition of MDR phenotype by leukemic cells is associated with increased caspase-3 activity and a collateral sensitivity to cold stress.

    PubMed

    Cerezo, David; Lencina, Miriam; Ruiz-Alcaraz, Antonio J; Ferragut, Jos Antonio; Saceda, Miguel; Sanchez, Manuel; Cnovas, Manuel; Garca-Pearrubia, Pilar; Martn-Orozco, Elena

    2012-04-01

    The acquisition of a multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotype by tumor cells that renders them unsusceptible to anti-neoplasic agents is one of the main causes of chemotherapy failure in human malignancies. The increased expression of P-glycoprotein (MDR1, P-gp, ABCB1) in tumor cells contributes to drug resistance by extruding chemotherapeutic agents or by regulating programmed cell death. In a study of MDR cell survival under cold stress conditions, it was found that resistant leukemic cells with P-gp over-expression, but not their sensitive counterparts, are hypersensitive to cold-induced cell death when exposed to temperatures below 4 C. The transfection of parental cells with a P-gp-expressing plasmid makes these cells sensitive to cold stress, demonstrating an association between P-gp expression and cell death at low temperatures. Furthermore, we observed increased basal expression and activity of effector caspase-3 at physiological temperature (37 C) in MDR cells compared with their parental cell line. Treatment with a caspase-3 inhibitor partially rescues MDR leukemic cells from cold-induced apoptosis, which suggests that the cell death mechanism may require caspase-3 activity. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that P-gp expression plays a role in MDR cell survival, and is accompanied by a collateral sensitivity to death induced by cold stress. These findings may assist in the design of specific therapeutic strategies to complement current chemotherapy treatment against cancer. PMID:22173742

  9. [Leishmania: role of P glycoprotein in drug resistance and reversion strategies].

    PubMed

    Osorio, Edison J; Robledo, Sara M; Arango, Gabriel J; Muskus, Carlos E

    2005-06-01

    Protozoan parasites are important causative agents of morbidity and mortality throughout the world--a problem further complicated by the emergence of drug resistance in these parasites. Mechanisms of drug resistance include the following: decreased uptake of the drug into the cell, loss of drug activation, alterations in the drug target, and over-expression of a well-known multiple drug transporter proteins. In this review, two critical components of resistance are stressed: (1) the role of ATP binding cassette proteins, such as P-glycoproteins, in mediating drug resistance in Leishmania and other protozoans, followed by development of cross-resistance to many structurally and functionally unrelated drugs, and (2) some concepts concerning the reversal mechanism of multidrug resistance by drugs and natural products. Several modulators or chemosensitizers alter the capacity of P-glycoproteins to maintain subtoxic intracellular drug concentrations. Calcium channel blockers such as verapamil act in this mode; however, high concentrations are required for an efficient and effective inhibition and, in addition, produce undesirable side effects. The discovery of new, natural product modulators of P-glycoproteins is stressed. This category of modulators offer potentially improved efficacy and lowered toxicity for the mammalian host. PMID:16022379

  10. P-glycoprotein is responsible for the poor intestinal absorption and low toxicity of oral aconitine: In vitro, in situ, in vivo and in silico studies

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Cuiping Zhang, Tianhong Li, Zheng Xu, Liang Liu, Fei Ruan, Jinxiu Liu, Keliang Zhang, Zhenqing

    2013-12-15

    Aconitine (AC) is a highly toxic alkaloid from bioactive plants of the genus Aconitum, some of which have been widely used as medicinal herbs for thousands of years. In this study, we systematically evaluated the potential role of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) in the mechanisms underlying the low and variable bioavailability of oral AC. First, the bidirectional transport of AC across Caco-2 and MDCKII-MDR1 cells was investigated. The efflux of AC across monolayers of these two cell lines was greater than its influx. Additionally, the P-gp inhibitors, verapamil and cyclosporin A, significantly decreased the efflux of AC. An in situ intestinal perfusion study in rats showed that verapamil co-perfusion caused a significant increase in the intestinal permeability of AC, from 0.22 × 10{sup −5} to 2.85 × 10{sup −5} cm/s. Then, the pharmacokinetic profile of orally administered AC with or without pre-treatment with verapamil was determined in rats. With pre-treatment of verapamil, the maximum plasma concentration (C{sub max}) of AC increased sharply, from 39.43 to 1490.7 ng/ml. Accordingly, a 6.7-fold increase in the area under the plasma concentration–time curve (AUC{sub 0–12} {sub h}) of AC was observed when co-administered with verapamil. In silico docking analyses suggested that AC and verapamil possess similar P-gp recognition mechanisms. This work demonstrated that P-gp is involved in limiting the intestinal absorption of AC and attenuating its toxicity to humans. Our data indicate that potential P-gp-mediated drug–drug interactions should be considered carefully in the clinical application of aconite and formulations containing AC. - Highlights: • Verapamil and cyclosporin A decreased the efflux of aconitine across Caco-2 cells. • Both inhibitors decreased the efflux of aconitine across MDCKII-MDR1 cells. • Co-perfusion with verapamil increased the intestinal permeability of aconitine. • Co-administration with verapamil sharply increased the C{sub max} and AUC of aconitine. • P-gp interacted with both verapamil and aconitine and recognized them similarly.

  11. In Vitro-In Vivo Extrapolation Scaling Factors for Intestinal P-glycoprotein and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein: Part II. The Impact of Cross-Laboratory Variations of Intestinal Transporter Relative Expression Factors on Predicted Drug Disposition.

    PubMed

    Harwood, Matthew D; Achour, Brahim; Neuhoff, Sibylle; Russell, Matthew R; Carlson, Gordon; Warhurst, Geoffrey; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin

    2016-03-01

    Relative expression factors (REFs) are used to scale in vitro transporter kinetic data via in vitro-in vivo extrapolation linked to physiologically based pharmacokinetic (IVIVE-PBPK) models to clinical observations. Primarily two techniques to quantify transporter protein expression are available, immunoblotting and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Literature-collated REFs ranged from 0.4 to 5.1 and 1.1 to 90 for intestinal P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), respectively. The impact of using human jejunum-Caco-2 REFs for P-gp (REFiP-gp) and BCRP (REFiBCRP), generated from the same samples and using different proteomic methodologies from independent laboratories, on PBPK outcomes was assessed. A 5-fold decrease in REFiP-gp for a single oral dose of digoxin resulted in a 1.19- and 1.31-fold higher plasma area under the curve and Cmax, respectively. All generated REFiP-gp values led to simulated digoxin Cmax values within observed ranges; however, combining kinetic data generated from a different laboratory with the 5-fold lower REFiP-gp could not recover a digoxin-rifampicin drug-drug interaction, emphasizing the necessity to obtain transporter-specific kinetic estimates and REFs from the same in vitro system. For a theoretical BCRP compound, with absorption taking place primarily in the jejunum, a decrease in the REFiBCRP from 2.22 (University of Manchester) to 1.11 (Bertin Pharma) promoted proximal intestinal absorption while delaying tmax 1.44-fold. Laboratory-specific differences in REF may lead to different IVIVE-PBPK outcomes. To understand the mechanisms underlying projected pharmacokinetic liabilities, it is important to assess the potential impact of bias on the generation of REFs on an interindividual basis within a target population. PMID:26842595

  12. Development of in Silico Models for Predicting P-Glycoprotein Inhibitors Based on a Two-Step Approach for Feature Selection and Its Application to Chinese Herbal Medicine Screening.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Chen, Jialei; Shi, Xiufeng; Xu, Liwen; Xi, Zhijun; You, Lisha; An, Rui; Wang, Xinhong

    2015-10-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is regarded as an important factor in determining the ADMET (absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination, and toxicity) characteristics of drugs and drug candidates. Successful prediction of P-gp inhibitors can thus lead to an improved understanding of the underlying mechanisms of both changes in the pharmacokinetics of drugs and drug-drug interactions. Therefore, there has been considerable interest in the development of in silico modeling of P-gp inhibitors in recent years. Considering that a large number of molecular descriptors are used to characterize diverse structural moleculars, efficient feature selection methods are required to extract the most informative predictors. In this work, we constructed an extensive available data set of 2428 molecules that includes 1518 P-gp inhibitors and 910 P-gp noninhibitors from multiple resources. Importantly, a two-step feature selection approach based on a genetic algorithm and a greedy forward-searching algorithm was employed to select the minimum set of the most informative descriptors that contribute to the prediction of P-gp inhibitors. To determine the best machine learning algorithm, 18 classifiers coupled with the feature selection method were compared. The top three best-performing models (flexible discriminant analysis, support vector machine, and random forest) and their ensemble model using respectively only 3, 9, 7, and 14 descriptors achieve an overall accuracy of 83.2%-86.7% for the training set containing 1040 compounds, an overall accuracy of 82.3%-85.5% for the test set containing 1039 compounds, and a prediction accuracy of 77.4%-79.9% for the external validation set containing 349 compounds. The models were further extensively validated by DrugBank database (1890 compounds). The proposed models are competitive with and in some cases better than other published models in terms of prediction accuracy and minimum number of descriptors. Applicability domain then was addressed by developing an ensemble classification model to obtain more reliable predictions. Finally, we employed these models as a virtual screening tool for identifying potential P-gp inhibitors in Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology (TCMSP) database containing a total of 13 051 unique compounds from 498 herbs, resulting in 875 potential P-gp inhibitors and 15 inhibitor-rich herbs. These predictions were partly supported by a literature search and are valuable not only to develop novel P-gp inhibitors from TCM in the early stages of drug development, but also to optimize the use of herbal remedies. PMID:26376206

  13. Transport Inhibition of Digoxin Using Several Common P-gp Expressing Cell Lines Is Not Necessarily Reporting Only on Inhibitor Binding to P-gp

    PubMed Central

    Lumen, Annie Albin; Li, Libin; Li, Jiben; Ahmed, Zeba; Meng, Zhou; Owen, Albert; Ellens, Harma; Hidalgo, Ismael J.; Bentz, Joe

    2013-01-01

    We have reported that the P-gp substrate digoxin required basolateral and apical uptake transport in excess of that allowed by digoxin passive permeability (as measured in the presence of GF120918) to achieve the observed efflux kinetics across MDCK-MDR1-NKI (The Netherlands Cancer Institute) confluent cell monolayers. That is, GF120918 inhibitable uptake transport was kinetically required. Therefore, IC50 measurements using digoxin as a probe substrate in this cell line could be due to inhibition of P-gp, of digoxin uptake transport, or both. This kinetic analysis is now extended to include three additional cell lines: MDCK-MDR1-NIH (National Institute of Health), Caco-2 and CPT-B2 (Caco-2 cells with BCRP knockdown). These cells similarly exhibit GF120918 inhibitable uptake transport of digoxin. We demonstrate that inhibition of digoxin transport across these cell lines by GF120918, cyclosporine, ketoconazole and verapamil is greater than can be explained by inhibition of P-gp alone. We examined three hypotheses for this non-P-gp inhibition. The inhibitors can: (1) bind to a basolateral digoxin uptake transporter, thereby inhibiting digoxin's cellular uptake; (2) partition into the basolateral membrane and directly reduce membrane permeability; (3) aggregate with digoxin in the donor chamber, thereby reducing the free concentration of digoxin, with concomitant reduction in digoxin uptake. Data and simulations show that hypothesis 1 was found to be uniformly acceptable. Hypothesis 2 was found to be uniformly unlikely. Hypothesis 3 was unlikely for GF120918 and cyclosporine, but further studies are needed to completely adjudicate whether hetero-dimerization contributes to the non-P-gp inhibition for ketoconazole and verapamil. We also find that P-gp substrates with relatively low passive permeability such as digoxin, loperamide and vinblastine kinetically require basolateral uptake transport over that allowed by +GF120918 passive permeability, while highly permeable P-gp substrates such as amprenavir, quinidine, ketoconazole and verapamil do not, regardless of whether they actually use the basolateral transporter. PMID:23976943

  14. INVESTIGATION OF THE MICELLAR EFFECT OF PLURONIC P85 ON P-GLYCOPROTEIN INHIBITION: CELL ACCUMULATION AND EQUILIBRIUM DIALYSIS STUDIES

    PubMed Central

    SHAIK, NAVEED; GIRI, NAGDEEP; ELMQUIST, WILLIAM F.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was: (1) to characterize the P-gp inhibitory effect of different concentrations of Pluronic P85 on anti-HIV-1drug cellular accumulation, and (2) to investigate the relationship between cellular accumulation and free fraction of drug. Cellular accumulation studies in MDCKII-WT and MDCKII-MDR1 cell monolayers showed a biphasic dose response characterized by decline in accumulation at Pluronic concentrations greater than the CMC. This phenomenon was independent of the inhibition of P-gp efflux by Pluronic. Cell-free equilibrium dialysis was used to determine the effect of Pluronic P85 on drug free fraction and the affinity of Pluronic micelles for drug was modeled. Nelfinavir and saquinavir associated extensively with micelles and equilibrium free fractions were low at P85 concentrations above the CMC, with association constants being in the order nelfinavir > saquinavir >>> abacavir. Abacavir, a P-gp substrate, showed no association with micelles yet showed a biphasic response in cellular accumulation. These data suggest that, above the CMC, inhibition of P-gp is not affected but rather factors such as micellar trapping could contribute to decreased accumulation. Therefore, the in vitro evaluation of the effect of Pluronic formulations on active transport should take into account both the physicochemical properties of drug and the composition of Pluronic. PMID:19283769

  15. Absorption of fumonisin B1 and aminopentol on an in vitro model of intestinal epithelium; the role of P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, I; Frigg, G; Raimondi, F; Stammati, A; Zucco, F; Caloni, F

    2005-03-01

    The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the absorption of fumonisin B1 and its principal metabolite, aminopentol on a human intestinal model, Caco-2 cells, cultured on semi-permeable inserts, that reproduces the two different intestinal compartments: luminal (apical) and serosal (basolateral) side. Following separate exposure in apical and in basolateral compartments, aminopentol passage through the cell layer (in particular from basolateral to apical direction) was shown, while it was not observed for the parent compound. The different aminopentol distribution between the two compartments of the culture system, and its variation in presence of verapamil or probenecid (P-gp and MRP inhibitors respectively), strongly suggests the involvement of P-glycoprotein in the influx/efflux mechanisms of aminopentol in the intestinal cells, reducing its oral bioavailability. PMID:15683866

  16. Long-lived signal peptide of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus glycoprotein pGP-C.

    PubMed

    Froeschke, Marc; Basler, Michael; Groettrup, Marcus; Dobberstein, Bernhard

    2003-10-24

    Signal peptides (SPs) direct nascent secretory and membrane proteins to the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum. They are usually cleaved from the nascent polypeptide by signal peptidase and then further proteolytically processed. The SP of the pre-glycoprotein (pGP-C) of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus SPGP-C (signal peptide of pGP-C) shows different properties: 1) The SPGP-C is unusually long (58 amino acid residues) and contains two hydrophobic segments interrupted by a lysine residue. 2) The SPGP-C is cleaved only from a subset of pGP-C proteins. A substantial portion of pGP-C accumulates that still contains the SPGP-C.3)The cleaved SPGP-C is rather long-lived (t(1/2) of more than 6 h). 4) The cleaved SPGP-C resides in the membrane and is resistant to digestion with proteinase K even in the presence of detergents, suggesting a very compact structure. 5) SPGP-C accumulates in virus particles. These unusual features of the cleaved SPGP-C suggest that SPGP-C not only targets the nascent pGP-C to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane but also has additional functions in lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus life cycle. PMID:12917426

  17. THE EFFECTS OF HIV INFECTION ON THE EXPRESSION OF THE DRUG EFFLUX PROTEINS P-GLYCOPROTEIN AND BREAST CANCER RESISTANCE PROTEIN IN A HUMAN INTESTINE MODEL

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Kelstan; Marlin, Jerry; Taylor, Tracey AH; Fitting, Sylvia; Hauser, Kurt F.; Rice, Greg

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In HIV infection, decreased penetration of antiretroviral drugs is postulated to contribute to HIV persistence within lymphoid rich regions of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. However, mechanistic explanations for this phenomenon remain unclear. Specifically, investigations of HIV effects on drug efflux proteins within intestinal models are minimal. Methods Using an in vitro co-culture model of the GI tract, effects of HIV infection on drug efflux proteins, P-glycoprotein and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP) were evaluated. The influence of the HIV-1 protein, Tat, and oxidative stress on P-glycoprotein and BCRP also was evaluated. Key Findings P-glycoprotein expression demonstrated an HIV-induced upregulation in Caco-2 cells over time for cells grown in co-culture with resting lymphocytes. BCRP overall expression increased with HIV exposure in activated primary human lymphocytes co-cultured with Caco-2 cells. Tat treatment resulted in no significant alterations in P-glycoprotein (43% increase), BCRP expression, or oxidative stress. Conclusions HIV exposure within an in vitro intestinal model resulted in increases in, P-glycoprotein and BCRP in a cell specific manner. Additionally, observed changes were not mediated by Tat. Collectively, these results suggest that alterations in BCRP and P-glycoprotein may contribute, in part, to decreased antiretroviral concentrations within the gastrointestinal tract in HIV infection. PMID:25557407

  18. Reversal of P-glycoprotein overexpression by Ginkgo biloba extract in the brains of pentylenetetrazole-kindled and phenytoin-treated mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ce; Fan, Qing; Chen, Shu-Liang; Ma, Hui

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the combined effects of Ginkgo biloba extract and phenytoin (PHT) sodium as a dose regimen simulating the clinical treatment of patients with epilepsy, on P-glycoprotein (P-GP) overexpression in a pentylenetetrazole-kindled mouse model of epilepsy. Epilepsy was induced by intraperitoneal administration of pentylenetetrazole (40 mg/kg) for 7 days followed by intragastric administration of PHT (40 mg/kg) for 14 days. Thirty mice that developed seizures were randomly divided into three groups and administered PHT as well as the following treatments: saline (negative control); verapamil (20 mg/kg, positive control); and G. biloba (30 mg/kg). Seizure severity was recorded 30 minutes after treatment on Day 4 of drug administration, after which the mice were euthanized, and their brains isolated. Western blots and immunohistochemistry were performed to analyze the expression of P-GP and caspase-3, respectively, in the brain tissue. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure the concentrations of PHT in the brains of the treated mice. After 4 consecutive days of treatment, the seizure severity in the mice in the G. biloba extract group was more significantly reduced than the seizure severity in the saline control group, and a significant difference was observed between the G. biloba extract and verapamil control groups (p < 0.05). P-GP expression in the brain more significantly decreased in the mice treated with G. biloba extract and verapamil than it did in the saline-treated control group (p < 0.05). Compared with the saline-treated control group, the mice treated with G. biloba extract and verapamil showed significantly increased brain PHT concentrations (p < 0.05). Furthermore, caspase-3 expression in the brain tissue of the G. biloba extract group was significantly lower than that in the vehicle control group (p < 0.05); this finding demonstrated the neuroprotective effects of G. biloba. Therefore, this study showed that treatment with G. biloba extract in combination with PHT prevented the upregulation of P-GP expression in mice. Moreover, G. biloba extract decreased seizure severity in pentylenetetrazole-kindled/PHT-treated mice through a mechanism that might be related to the reduction of P-GP expression in the brain. PMID:26228278

  19. Effect of bisphenol A on P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux and ultrastructure of the sea urchin embryo.

    PubMed

    Bošnjak, Ivana; Borra, Marco; Iamunno, Franco; Benvenuto, Giovanna; Ujević, Ivana; Bušelić, Ivana; Roje-Busatto, Romana; Mladineo, Ivona

    2014-11-01

    Usage of bisphenol A (BPA) in production of polycarbonate plastics has resulted in global distribution of BPA in the environment. These high concentrations cause numerous negative effects to the aquatic biota, among which the most known is the induction of endocrine disruption. The focus of this research was to determine the effects of two experimentally determined concentrations of BPA (100nM and 4μM) on cellular detoxification mechanisms during the embryonic development (2-cell, pluteus) of the rocky sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus), primarily the potential involvement of multidrug efflux transport in the BPA intercellular efflux. The results of transport assay, measurements of the intracellular BPA and gene expression surveys, for the first time indicate the importance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp/ABCB1) in defense against BPA. Cytotoxic effects of BPA, validated by the immunohistochemistry (IHC) and the transmission electron microscopy (TEM), induced the aberrant karyokinesis, and consequently, the impairment of embryo development through the first cell division and retardation. PMID:25127357

  20. Development of Fluorine-18 Labeled Metabolically Activated Tracers for Imaging of Drug Efflux Transporters with Positron Emission Tomography.

    PubMed

    Sander, Kerstin; Galante, Eva; Gendron, Thibault; Yiannaki, Elena; Patel, Niral; Kalber, Tammy L; Badar, Adam; Robson, Mathew; Johnson, Sean P; Bauer, Florian; Mairinger, Severin; Stanek, Johann; Wanek, Thomas; Kuntner, Claudia; Kottke, Tim; Weizel, Lilia; Dickens, David; Erlandsson, Kjell; Hutton, Brian F; Lythgoe, Mark F; Stark, Holger; Langer, Oliver; Koepp, Matthias; rstad, Erik

    2015-08-13

    Increased activity of efflux transporters, e.g., P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), at the blood-brain barrier is a pathological hallmark of many neurological diseases, and the resulting multiple drug resistance represents a major clinical challenge. Noninvasive imaging of transporter activity can help to clarify the underlying mechanisms of drug resistance and facilitate diagnosis, patient stratification, and treatment monitoring. We have developed a metabolically activated radiotracer for functional imaging of P-gp/BCRP activity with positron emission tomography (PET). In preclinical studies, the tracer showed excellent initial brain uptake and clean conversion to the desired metabolite, although at a sluggish rate. Blocking with P-gp/BCRP modulators led to increased levels of brain radioactivity; however, dynamic PET did not show differential clearance rates between treatment and control groups. Our results provide proof-of-concept for development of prodrug tracers for imaging of P-gp/BCRP function in vivo but also highlight some challenges associated with this strategy. PMID:26161456

  1. Effects of lipid vehicle and P-glycoprotein inhibition on the mesenteric lymphatic transport of paclitaxel in unconscious, lymph duct-cannulated rats.

    PubMed

    Cai, Qingqing; Deng, Xinxian; Li, Zhongdong; An, Dianyun; Shen, Teng; Zhong, Mingkang

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of lipid vehicle and intestinally based efflux processes on intestinal lymphatic transport of paclitaxel (PTX) in the mesenteric lymph duct-cannulated anesthetized rat model. PTX solution alone, PTX solution pretreated with the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitor verapamil and/or PTX and a 2:1 (w/w) mixture of linoleic acid:glycerol monooleate were administered intraduodenally to anesthetized rats. Coadministration of a mixture of linoleic acid-monoolein significantly increased the extent of intestinal lymphatic transport of PTX, but it had little impact on the absolute oral bioavailability of PTX. In contrast, pretreatment with verapamil increased both the extent of lymphatic transport (3.5-fold) and absolute oral bioavailability (1.8-fold). Further increase in the lymphatic transport (6.5-fold) and absolute oral bioavailability (1.8-fold) was achieved by the combination of pretreatment with verapamil and coadministration with the linoleic acid-monoolein mixture. These data indicate that the application of lipid vehicle holds promise for selectively targeted lymphatic delivery of PTX. P-gp inhibition can result in both increased intestinal lymphatic levels and absolute oral bioavailability of PTX. PMID:24786483

  2. Randomized use of cyclosporin A (CsA) to modulate P-glycoprotein in children with AML in remission: Pediatric Oncology Group Study 9421

    PubMed Central

    Becton, David; Dahl, Gary V.; Ravindranath, Yaddanapudi; Chang, Myron N.; Behm, Fred G.; Raimondi, Susana C.; Head, David R.; Stine, Kimo C.; Lacayo, Norman J.; Sikic, Branimir Ivan; Arceci, Robert J.; Weinstein, Howard

    2006-01-01

    Relapse is a major obstacle in the cure of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The Pediatric Oncology Group AML Study 9421 tested 2 different strategies to improve event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS). Patients were randomized to receive standard-dose DAT (daunorubicin, cytarabine, and thioguanine) or high-dose DAT during induction. To interfere with P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-dependent drug efflux, the second randomization tested the benefit of cyclosporine (CsA) added to consolidation chemotherapy. Of the 282 children randomly assigned to receive standard DAT induction, 248 (87.9%) achieved remission compared to 253 (91%) of the 278 receiving high-dose DAT (P = ns). Children with HLA-identical sibling donors who achieved a complete remission received an allogeneic bone marrow transplant as consolidation. For the 83 patients receiving a matched related donor bone marrow transplantation (BMT), the 3-year disease-free survival (DFS) is 67%. Of the 418 children who achieved remission and went on to consolidation with and without CsA, the DFS was 40.6% and 33.9%, respectively (P = .24). Overexpression of P-gp was infrequent (14%) in this pediatric population. In this study, intensifying induction with high-dose DAT and the addition of CsA to consolidation chemotherapy did not prolong the durations of remission or improve overall survival for children with AML. PMID:16254147

  3. Isoform I (mdr3) is the major form of P-glycoprotein expressed in mouse brain capillaries. Evidence for cross-reactivity of antibody C219 with an unrelated protein.

    PubMed Central

    Jett, L; Pouliot, J F; Murphy, G F; Bliveau, R

    1995-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is expressed in various non-cancerous tissues such as the endothelial cells of the blood-brain barrier. We used several monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and isoform-specific polyclonal antibodies to establish which P-gp isoforms are expressed in isolated mouse brain capillaries. P-gp class I isoform was detected in capillaries with a Western immunoblotting procedure using a specific antiserum. No immunoreactivity was observed with either class II- or class III-specific antisera. Immunoreactivity was observed with mAb C219. However, this antibody detected two distinct immunoreactive proteins (155 and 190 kDa) in the isolated brain capillaries. These two proteins comigrated as a broad band when the samples were submitted to heat prior to gel electrophoresis. The glycoprotein nature of these two antigens was evaluated by their sensitivity to N-glycanase treatment. Following this treatment, the size of the proteins was reduced from 190 and 155 kDa to 180 and 120 kDa, respectively. Triton X-114 phase-partitioning studies showed that the 190 kDa immunoreactive protein was poorly solubilized by Triton X-114, while the 155 kDa protein was partitioned in the detergent-rich phase. In labelling experiments, only the 155 kDa protein was photolabelled with [125I]iodoarylazidoprazosin. These results show that a 190 kDa protein detected by antibody C219 is an antigen unrelated to the three P-gp isoforms presently known. Cross-reactivity of C219 with an unrelated protein emphasizes the fact that more than one antibody should be used in the assessment of P-gp expression in cell lines and tissues. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7848274

  4. In vitro evaluation of human cytochrome P450 and P-glycoprotein-mediated metabolism of some phytochemicals in extracts and formulations of African potato.

    PubMed

    Nair, Vipin D P; Foster, Brian C; Thor Arnason, J; Mills, Edward J; Kanfer, Isadore

    2007-08-01

    African potato (Hypoxis hemerocallidea, AP) is a traditional herbal medicine widely used as an immune booster and also for the treatment of various ailments such as urinary diseases, prostrate hypertrophy and cancer. Amongst the chemical components contained in AP, the norlignan glycoside, hypoxoside (HYP) is purported to be the most important phytochemical in terms of AP's medicinal value. Additional constituents in AP include the sterols, beta-sitosterol (BSS), stigmasterol (STG), and the stanol, stigmastanol (STN). The potential of extracts of AP, AP formulations as well as HYP, its aglycone rooperol (ROP) and the sterols to inhibit in vitro metabolism of drug marker substrates by human cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes such as CYP3A4, 3A5 and CYP19 were investigated. Samples were also assessed for their effect on drug transport proteins such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp). The effects on CYP-mediated metabolism were studied by fluorometric microtitre plate assay. The potential interaction with P-gp was investigated by measuring the efflux of the fluorescent dye rhodamine 123 (Rh 123) in the CaCo-2 (colon carcinoma) cell line. Various extracts of AP, AP formulations, only STG and the norlignans, in particular the aglycone ROP, exhibited inhibitory effects on CYP3A4-, 3A5- and 19-mediated metabolism. The extracts and the formulations that contained a significant amount of HYP showed high induction of P-gp compared to the positive control, ritonavir. Whilst extrapolation of the current in vitro findings to clinical effects may well be considered speculative, these in vitro data should be heeded as a signal of possible in vivo interactions. Appropriate measures are therefore necessary to explore the possibility of such in vitro-in vivo correlations. PMID:17336049

  5. Expression and Localization of P-Glycoprotein, Multidrug Resistance Protein 4, and Breast Cancer Resistance Protein in the Female Lower Genital Tract of Human and Pigtailed Macaque

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tian; Hu, Minlu; Pearlman, Andrew; Patton, Dorothy

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Antiretroviral drug absorption and disposition in cervicovaginal tissue is important for the effectiveness of vaginally or orally administered drug products in preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) of HIV-1 sexual transmission to women. Therefore, it is imperative to understand critical determinants of cervicovaginal tissue pharmacokinetics. This study aimed to examine the mRNA expression and protein localization of three efflux transporters, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance-associated protein 4 (MRP4), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), in the lower genital tract of premenopausal women and pigtailed macaques. Along the human lower genital tract, the three transporters were moderately to highly expressed compared to colorectal tissue and liver, as revealed by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). In a given genital tract segment, the transporter with the highest expression level was either BCRP or P-gp, while MRP4 was always expressed at the lowest level among the three transporters tested. The immunohistochemical staining showed that P-gp and MRP4 were localized in multiple cell types including epithelial cells and vascular endothelial cells. BCRP was predominantly localized in the vascular endothelial cells. Differences in transporter mRNA level and localization were observed among endocervix, ectocervix, and vagina. Compared to human tissues, the macaque cervicovaginal tissues displayed comparable expression and localization patterns of the three transporters, although subtle differences were observed between the two species. The role of these cervicovaginal transporters in drug absorption and disposition warrants further studies. The resemblance between human and pigtailed macaque in transporter expression and localization suggests the utility of the macaque model in the studies of human cervicovaginal transporters. PMID:24803409

  6. Phase I Trial of Lenalidomide and CCI-779 in Patients With Relapsed Multiple Myeloma: Evidence for LenalidomideCCI-779 Interaction via P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Hofmeister, Craig C.; Yang, Xiaoxia; Pichiorri, Flavia; Chen, Ping; Rozewski, Darlene M.; Johnson, Amy J.; Lee, Seungsoo; Liu, Zhongfa; Garr, Celia L.; Hade, Erinn M.; Ji, Jia; Schaaf, Larry J.; Benson, Don M.; Kraut, Eric H.; Hicks, William J.; Chan, Kenneth K.; Chen, Ching-Shih; Farag, Sherif S.; Grever, Michael R.; Byrd, John C.; Phelps, Mitch A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Multiple myeloma (MM) is an incurable plasma-cell neoplasm for which most treatments involve a therapeutic agent combined with dexamethasone. The preclinical combination of lenalidomide with the mTOR inhibitor CCI-779 has displayed synergy in vitro and represents a novel combination in MM. Patients and Methods A phase I clinical trial was initiated for patients with relapsed myeloma with administration of oral lenalidomide on days 1 to 21 and CCI-779 intravenously once per week during a 28-day cycle. Pharmacokinetic data for both agents were obtained, and in vitro transport and uptake studies were conducted to evaluate potential drug-drug interactions. Results Twenty-one patients were treated with 15 to 25 mg lenalidomide and 15 to 20 mg CCI-779. The maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) was determined to be 25 mg lenalidomide with 15 mg CCI-779. Pharmacokinetic analysis indicated increased doses of CCI-779 resulted in statistically significant changes in clearance, maximum concentrations, and areas under the concentration-time curves, with constant doses of lenalidomide. Similar and significant changes for CCI-779 pharmacokinetics were also observed with increased lenalidomide doses. Detailed mechanistic interrogation of this pharmacokinetic interaction demonstrated that lenalidomide was an ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein [P-gp]) substrate. Conclusion The MTD of this combination regimen was 25 mg lenalidomide with 15 mg CCI-779, with toxicities of fatigue, neutropenia, and electrolyte wasting. Pharmacokinetic and clinical interactions between lenalidomide and CCI-779 seemed to occur, with in vitro data indicating lenalidomide was an ABCB1 (P-gp) substrate. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a clinically significant P-gpbased drug-drug interaction with lenalidomide. PMID:21825263

  7. Crystal Structure of an EAL Domain in Complex with Reaction Product 5′-pGpG

    PubMed Central

    Robert-Paganin, Julien; Nonin-Lecomte, Sylvie; Réty, Stéphane

    2012-01-01

    FimX is a large multidomain protein containing an EAL domain and involved in twitching motility in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We present here two crystallographic structures of the EAL domain of FimX (residues 438–686): one of the apo form and the other of a complex with 5′-pGpG, the reaction product of the hydrolysis of c-di-GMP. In both crystal forms, the EAL domains form a dimer delimiting a large cavity encompassing the catalytic pockets. The ligand is trapped in this cavity by its sugar phosphate moiety. We confirmed by NMR that the guanine bases are not involved in the interaction in solution. We solved here the first structure of an EAL domain bound to the reaction product 5′-pGpG. Though isolated FimX EAL domain has a very low catalytic activity, which would not be significant compared to other catalytic EAL domains, the structure with the product of the reaction can provides some hints in the mechanism of hydrolysis of the c-di-GMP by EAL domains. PMID:23285035

  8. Drug-selected coexpression of human glucocerebrosidase and P-glycoprotein using a bicistronic vector.

    PubMed Central

    Aran, J M; Gottesman, M M; Pastan, I

    1994-01-01

    Bicistronic cassettes under control of a single promoter have recently been suggested as useful tools for coordinate expression of two different foreign proteins in mammalian cells. Using the long 5' untranslated region of encephalomyocarditis virus as translational enhancer of the second gene, a bicistronic unit composed of cDNA for human P-glycoprotein [the product of the multidrug resistance gene, MDR1 (also called PGY1)] as selectable marker and cDNA for human glucocerebrosidase (GC; EC 3.2.1.45) (a membrane-associated lysosomal hydrolase) was constructed. NIH 3T3 cells transfected with a Harvey murine sarcoma virus retroviral vector carrying this bicistronic cassette (pHaMCG) express active P-glycoprotein and GC and expression of both proteins augments coordinately with selection for increased colchicine resistance. Percoll gradient analysis of homogenates showed that GC was targeted to the lysosomal fraction. The ability to select for expression of GC with natural product drugs after introduction of the pHaMCG retroviral vector may be useful in gene therapy strategies for Gaucher disease. Images PMID:7909160

  9. The influence of a caveolin-1 mutant on the function of P-glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chih-Yuan; Lai, Ting-Yu; Tsai, Meng-Kun; Ou-Yang, Pu; Tsai, Ching-Yi; Wu, Shu-Wei; Hsu, Li-Chung; Chen, Jin-Shing

    2016-01-01

    The genetic heterogeneity in cancer cells has an increased chance in the acquisition of new mutant such as drug-resistant phenotype in cancer cells. The phenotype of drug resistance in cancer cells could be evaluated by the number or function of drug transporters on cell membranes, which would lead to decreased intracellular anti-cancer drugs concentration. Caveolae are flask-shaped invaginations on cell membrane that function in membrane trafficking, endocytosis, and as a compartment where receptors and signaling proteins are concentrated. Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is the principal structural protein of caveolae and closely correlates with multidrug resistance in cancer cells. In a systematic study of the ubiquitin-modified proteome, lysine 176 of CAV1 was identified as a potential post-translational modification site for ubiquitination. In this article, we identified a mutation at lysine 176 to arginine (K176R) on CAV1 would interfere with the biogenesis of caveolae and broke the interaction of CAV1 with P-glycoprotein. Functional assays further revealed that K176R mutant of CAV1 in cancer cells increased the transport activity of P-glycoprotein and decreased the killing ability of anti-cancer drugs in non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines. PMID:26843476

  10. The influence of a caveolin-1 mutant on the function of P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih-Yuan; Lai, Ting-Yu; Tsai, Meng-Kun; Ou-Yang, Pu; Tsai, Ching-Yi; Wu, Shu-Wei; Hsu, Li-Chung; Chen, Jin-Shing

    2016-01-01

    The genetic heterogeneity in cancer cells has an increased chance in the acquisition of new mutant such as drug-resistant phenotype in cancer cells. The phenotype of drug resistance in cancer cells could be evaluated by the number or function of drug transporters on cell membranes, which would lead to decreased intracellular anti-cancer drugs concentration. Caveolae are flask-shaped invaginations on cell membrane that function in membrane trafficking, endocytosis, and as a compartment where receptors and signaling proteins are concentrated. Caveolin-1 (CAV1) is the principal structural protein of caveolae and closely correlates with multidrug resistance in cancer cells. In a systematic study of the ubiquitin-modified proteome, lysine 176 of CAV1 was identified as a potential post-translational modification site for ubiquitination. In this article, we identified a mutation at lysine 176 to arginine (K176R) on CAV1 would interfere with the biogenesis of caveolae and broke the interaction of CAV1 with P-glycoprotein. Functional assays further revealed that K176R mutant of CAV1 in cancer cells increased the transport activity of P-glycoprotein and decreased the killing ability of anti-cancer drugs in non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines. PMID:26843476

  11. Behavioral effects and central nervous system levels of the broadly available κ-agonist hallucinogen salvinorin A are affected by P-glycoprotein modulation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Butelman, Eduardo R; Caspers, Michael; Lovell, Kimberly M; Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Prisinzano, Thomas E

    2012-06-01

    Active blood-brain barrier mechanisms, such as the major efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (mdr1), modulate the in vivo/central nervous system (CNS) effects of many pharmacological agents, whether they are used for nonmedical reasons or in pharmacotherapy. The powerful, widely available hallucinogen salvinorin A (from the plant Salvia divinorum) is a high-efficacy, selective κ-opioid agonist and displays fast-onset behavioral effects (e.g., within 1 min of administration) and relatively short duration of action. In vitro studies suggest that salvinorin A may be a P-glycoprotein substrate; thus, the functional status of P-glycoprotein may influence the behavioral effects of salvinorin A or its residence in CNS after parenteral administration. We therefore studied whether a competing P-glycoprotein substrate (the clinically available agent loperamide; 0.032-0.32 mg/kg) or a selective P-glycoprotein blocker, tariquidar (0.32-3.2 mg/kg) could enhance unconditioned behavioral effects (ptosis and facial relaxation, known to be caused by κ-agonists in nonhuman primates) of salvinorin A, as well as its entry and residence in the CNS, as measured by cerebrospinal fluid sampling. Pretreatment with either loperamide or tariquidar dose-dependently enhanced salvinorin A-induced ptosis, but not facial relaxation. In a control study, loperamide and tariquidar were inactive when given as a pretreatment to ((+)-(5α,7α,8β)-N-methyl-N-[7-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-oxaspiro[4.5]dec-8-yl]-benzeneacetamide (U69,593), a κ-agonist known to be a very poor P-glycoprotein substrate. Furthermore, pretreatment with tariquidar (3.2 mg/kg) also enhanced peak levels of salvinorin A in cerebrospinal fluid after intravenous administration. These are the first studies in vivo showing the sensitivity of salvinorin A effects to modulation by the P-glycoprotein transporter, a major functional component of the blood-brain barrier. PMID:22434677

  12. ECHINACEA SANGUINEA AND ECHINACEA PALLIDA EXTRACTS STIMULATE GLUCURONIDATION AND BASOLATERAL TRANSFER OF BAUER ALKAMIDES 8 AND 10 AND KETONE 24 AND INHIBIT P-GLYCOPROTEIN TRANSPORTER IN CACO-2 CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Qiang, Zhiyi; Hauck, Cathy; McCoy, Joe-Ann; Widrlechner, Mark P.; Reddy, Manju B.; Murphy, Patricia A.; Hendrich, Suzanne

    2013-01-01

    The use of Echinacea as a medicinal herb is prominent in the United States, and many studies have assessed the effectiveness of Echinacea as an immunomodulator. We hypothesized that Bauer alkamides 8, 10 and 11 and ketone 24 were absorbed similarly either as pure compounds or from Echinacea sanguinea and Echinacea pallida ethanol extracts, and that these Echinacea extracts could inhibit P-glycoprotein transporter (P-gp) in Caco-2 human intestinal epithelial cells. Using HPLC analysis, the permeation rate of Bauer alkamides by passive diffusion across Caco-2 cells corresponded with compound hydrophilicity (alkamide 8 > 10 > 11), independent of the plant extract matrix. Both Echinacea ethanol extracts stimulated apparent glucuronidation and basolateral efflux of glucuronides of alkamides 8 and 10 but not alkamide 11. Bauer ketone 24 was totally metabolized to more hydrophilic metabolites when administered as a single compound, but was also glucuronidated when present in Echinacea extracts. Bauer alkamides 8, 10 and 11 (175–230 μM) and ethanol extracts of E. sanguinea (1 mg/mL, containing ~90 μM total alkamides) and E. pallida (5 mg/mL, containing 285 μM total alkamides) decreased the efflux of the P-gp probe calcein-AM from Caco-2 cells. These results suggest that other constituents in these Echinacea extracts facilitated the metabolism and efflux of alkamides and ketones, which might improve therapeutic benefits. Alkamides and Echinacea extracts might be useful in potentiating some chemotherapeutics which are substrates for P-gp. PMID:23408271

  13. An electrically tight in vitro blood-brain barrier model displays net brain-to-blood efflux of substrates for the ABC transporters, P-gp, Bcrp and Mrp-1.

    PubMed

    Helms, Hans Christian; Hersom, Maria; Kuhlmann, Louise Borella; Badolo, Lasina; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger

    2014-09-01

    Efflux transporters of the ATP-binding cassette superfamily including breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp/Abcg2), P-glycoprotein (P-gp/Abcb1) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrp's/Abcc's) are expressed in the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of this study was to investigate if a bovine endothelial/rat astrocyte in vitro BBB co-culture model displayed polarized transport of known efflux transporter substrates. The co-culture model displayed low mannitol permeabilities of 0.95 ± 0.1 · 10(-6) cm·s(-1) and high transendothelial electrical resistances of 1,177 ± 101 Ω·cm(2). Bidirectional transport studies with (3)H-digoxin, (3)H-estrone-3-sulphate and (3)H-etoposide revealed polarized transport favouring the brain-to-blood direction for all substrates. Steady state efflux ratios of 2.5 ± 0.2 for digoxin, 4.4 ± 0.5 for estrone-3-sulphate and 2.4 ± 0.1 for etoposide were observed. These were reduced to 1.1 ± 0.08, 1.4 ± 0.2 and 1.5 ± 0.1, by addition of verapamil (digoxin), Ko143 (estrone-3-sulphate) or zosuquidar + reversan (etoposide), respectively. Brain-to-blood permeability of all substrates was investigated in the presence of the efflux transporter inhibitors verapamil, Ko143, zosuquidar, reversan and MK 571 alone or in combinations. Digoxin was mainly transported via P-gp, estrone-3-sulphate via Bcrp and Mrp's and etoposide via P-gp and Mrp's. The expression of P-gp, Bcrp and Mrp-1 was confirmed using immunocytochemistry. The findings indicate that P-gp, Bcrp and at least one isoform of Mrp are functionally expressed in our bovine/rat co-culture model and that the model is suitable for investigations of small molecule transport. PMID:24934296

  14. Characterization of an asymmetric occluded state of P-glycoprotein with two bound nucleotides: implications for catalysis.

    PubMed

    Siarheyeva, Alena; Liu, Ronghua; Sharom, Frances J

    2010-03-01

    P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), a member of the ABC superfamily, functions as an ATP-driven multidrug efflux pump. The catalytic cycle of ABC proteins is believed to involve formation of a sandwich dimer in which two ATP molecules are bound at the interface of the nucleotide binding domains (NBDs). However, such dimers have only been observed in isolated NBD subunits and catalytically arrested mutants, and it is still not understood how ATP hydrolysis is coordinated between the two NBDs. We report for the first time the characterization of an asymmetric state of catalytically active native P-glycoprotein with two bound molecules of adenosine 5'-(gamma-thio)triphosphate (ATPgammaS), one of low affinity (K(d) 0.74 mm), and one "occluded" nucleotide of 120-fold higher affinity (K(d) 6 microm). ATPgammaS also interacts with P-glycoprotein with high affinity as assessed by inhibition of ATP hydrolysis and protection from covalent labeling of a Walker A Cys residue, whereas other non-hydrolyzable ATP analogues do not. Binding of ATPgammaS (but not ATP) causes Trp residue heterogeneity, as indicated by collisional quenching, suggesting that it may induce conformational asymmetry. Asymmetric ATPgammaS-bound P-glycoprotein does not display reduced binding affinity for drugs, implying that transport is not driven by ATP binding and likely takes place at a later stage of the catalytic cycle. We propose that this asymmetric state with two bound nucleotides represents the next intermediate on the path toward ATP hydrolysis after nucleotide binding, and an alternating sites mode of action is achieved by simultaneous switching of the two active sites between high and low affinity states. PMID:20061384

  15. Liquid Chromatographic Method for Irinotecan Estimation: Screening of P-gp Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, M.; Negi, L. M.; Talegaonkar, Sushama; Ahmad, F. J.; Iqbal, Zeenat; Khan, A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The present work is aimed to develop a simple, sensitive, robust and reliable HPLC method for the estimation of irinotecan in the physiological media in order to assess the permeability profile of irinotecan, using the everted gut sac, in the presence of various P-gp modulators. Separation was achieved using, C18 column with mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.045 M sodium dihydrogen phosphate dihydrate buffer containing ion pair agent heptane sulphonic acid sodium salt (0.0054 M), pH 3. The flow rate was maintained at 1 ml/min and analysis was performed at 254.9 nm using PDA detector. Calibration data showed an excellent linear relationship between peak-area verses drug concentration (r2, 0.9999). Linearity was found to be in the range of 0.060-10.0 g/ml. Limits of detection and quantification were found to ~0.020 g/ml and ~0.060 g/ml, respectively. The developed method was found to be precise (RSD < 1.5%, for repeatability and <2.55% for intermediate precision, acceptable ranges of precision), accurate (The recovered content of irinotecan in the presence of various P-gp modulators varied from 96.11-101.51%, within acceptable range, 80-120%), specific and robust (% RSD < 2). Developed method has been applied successfully for the evaluation of eleven P-gp modulators from diverse chemical class. PMID:25767314

  16. Role of the highly structured 5'-end region of MDR1 mRNA in P-glycoprotein expression.

    PubMed

    Randle, Rebecca A; Raguz, Selina; Higgins, Christopher F; Yage, Ernesto

    2007-09-15

    Overexpression of P-glycoprotein, encoded by the MDR1 (multidrug resistance 1) gene, is often responsible for multidrug resistance in acute myeloid leukaemia. We have shown previously that MDR1 (P-glycoprotein) mRNA levels in K562 leukaemic cells exposed to cytotoxic drugs are up-regulated but P-glycoprotein expression is translationally blocked. In the present study we show that cytotoxic drugs down-regulate the Akt signalling pathway, leading to hypophosphorylation of the translational repressor 4E-BP [eIF (eukaryotic initiation factor) 4E-binding protein] and decreased eIF4E availability. The 5'-end of MDR1 mRNA adopts a highly-structured fold. Fusion of this structured 5'-region upstream of a reporter gene impeded its efficient translation, specifically under cytotoxic stress, by reducing its competitive ability for the translational machinery. The effect of cytotoxic stress could be mimicked in vivo by blocking the phosphorylation of 4E-BP by mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) using rapamycin or eIF4E siRNA (small interfering RNA), and relieved by overexpression of either eIF4E or constitutively-active Akt. Upon drug exposure MDR1 mRNA was up-regulated, apparently stochastically, in a small proportion of cells. Only in these cells could MDR1 mRNA compete successfully for the reduced amounts of eIF4E and translate P-glycoprotein. Consequent drug efflux and restoration of eIF4E availability results in a feed-forward relief from stress-induced translational repression and to the acquisition of drug resistance. PMID:17573715

  17. Imaging of P-glycoprotein function and expression to elucidate mechanisms of pharmacoresistance in epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Lscher, Wolfgang; Langer, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The issue of pharmacoresistance in epilepsy has received considerable attention in recent years, and a number of plausible hypotheses have been proposed. Of these, the so-called transporter hypothesis is the most extensively researched and documented. This hypothesis assumes that refractory epilepsy is associated with a localised over-expression of drug transporter proteins such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp) in the region of the epileptic focus, which actively extrudes antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) from their intended site of action. However, although this hypothesis has biological plausibility, there is no clinical evidence to support the assertion that AEDs are sufficiently strong substrates for transporter-mediated extrusion from the brain. The use of modern brain imaging techniques to determine Pgp function in patients with refractory epilepsy has started only recently, and may ultimately determine whether increased expression and function of Pgp or other efflux transporters are involved in AED resistance. PMID:20645916

  18. Imaging of P-glycoprotein function and expression to elucidate mechanisms of pharmacoresistance in epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Lscher, Wolfgang; Langer, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The issue of pharmacoresistance in epilepsy has received considerable attention in recent years, and a number of plausible hypotheses have been proposed. Of these, the so-called transporter hypothesis is the most extensively researched and documented. This hypothesis assumes that refractory epilepsy is associated with a localised over-expression of drug transporter proteins such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp) in the region of the epileptic focus, which actively extrudes antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) from their intended site of action. However, although this hypothesis has biological plausibility, there is no clinical evidence to support the assertion that AEDs are sufficiently strong substrates for transporter-mediated extrusion from the brain. The use of modern brain imaging techniques to determine Pgp function in patients with refractory epilepsy has started only recently, and may ultimately determine whether increased expression and function of Pgp or other efflux transporters are involved in AED resistance. PMID:20645916

  19. Lack of P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux and the potential involvement of an influx transport process contributing to the intestinal uptake of deltamethrin, cis-permethrin, and trans-permethrin.

    PubMed

    Zastre, Jason; Dowd, Chris; Bruckner, James; Popovici, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    The effectiveness and widespread use of pyrethroid insecticides has lead to concerns regarding their safety. Human ingestion of these potentially neurotoxic compounds is typically through hand-to-mouth contact or consumption of contaminated foods. A substantial proportion of ingested pyrethroids are eliminated in feces, suggesting that absorption is limited, possibly by the action of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). We utilized caco-2 cells as a model system for intestinal enterocytes and qualitatively and quantitatively assessed the transport of deltamethrin (DLM), cis-permethrin (CPM), and trans-permethrin (TPM). Caco-2 cell uptake of the P-gp substrate R6G was increased by the P-gp inhibitors cyclosporine A (CSA) and ritonavir but not by DLM, CPM, and TPM. Unexpectedly, CSA and ritonavir significantly reduced the uptake of DLM, CPM, and TPM. Permeability coefficients (P app) and directional flux of DLM, CPM, or TPM were greater in the absorptive than the secretory (efflux) direction when measured across caco-2 monolayers grown on Transwell inserts. When CSA was applied to the monolayers' apical (AP) side, the AP to basolateral (BL) P app was significantly reduced, with no change in the BL to AP P app. Kinetic analysis demonstrated saturable transport kinetics for all 3 pyrethroids. These findings indicate that the cellular uptake of DLM, CPM, and TPM is not limited by P-gp efflux but undergo absorptive influx transport as a contributing mechanism for cellular uptake. However, the overall P app values for DLM, CPM, and TPM are consistent with the low permeability/low absorption compound mannitol, suggesting limited gastrointestinal absorption potential. PMID:24014652

  20. Determining P-glycoprotein-drug interactions: evaluation of reconstituted P-glycoprotein in a liposomal system and LLC-MDR1 polarized cell monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Melchior, Donald L.; Sharom, Frances J.; Evers, Raymond; Wright, George E.; Chu, Joseph W.K.; Wright, Stephen E.; Chu, Xiaoyan; Yabut, Jocelyn

    2012-01-01

    Introduction P-Glycoprotein (ABCB1, MDR1) is a multidrug efflux pump that is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. Many drugs in common clinical use are either substrates or inhibitors of this transporter. Quantitative details of P-glycoprotein inhibition by pharmaceutical agents are essential for assessment of their pharmacokinetic behavior and prevention of negative patient reactions. Cell-based systems have been widely used for determination of drug interactions with P-glycoprotein, but they suffer from several disadvantages, and results are often widely variable between laboratories. We aimed to demonstrate that a novel liposomal system employing contemporary biochemical methodologies could measure the ability of clinically used drugs to inhibit the P-glycoprotein pump. To accomplish this we compared results with those of cell-based approaches. Methods Purified transport-competent hamster Abcb1a P-glycoprotein was reconstituted into a unilamellar liposomal system, Fluorosome-trans-pgp, whose aqueous interior contains fluorescent drug sensors. This provides a well-defined system for measuring P-glycoprotein transport inhibition by test drugs in real time using rapid fluorescence-based technology. Results Inhibition of ATP-driven transport by Fluorosome-trans-pgp employed a panel of 46 representative drugs. Resulting IC50 values correlated well (r2 = 0.80) with Kd values for drug binding to purified P-glycoprotein. They also showed a similar trend to transport inhibition data obtained using LLC-MDR1 cell monolayers. Fluorosome-trans-pgp IC50 values were in agreement with published results of digoxin drug-drug interaction studies in humans. Discussion This novel approach using a liposomal system and fluorescence-based technology is shown to be suitable to study whether marketed drugs and drug candidates are P-glycoprotein inhibitors. The assay is rapid, allowing a 7-point IC50 determination in <6 minutes, and requires minimal quantities of test drug. The method is amenable to robotics and offers a cost advantage relative to conventional cell-based assays. The well-defined nature of this assay also obviates many of the inherent complications and ambiguities of cell-based systems. PMID:22394995

  1. Localization of P-glycoprotein at the nuclear envelope of rat brain cells

    SciTech Connect

    Babakhanian, Karlo; Bendayan, Moise; Bendayan, Reina . E-mail: r.bendayan@utoronto.ca

    2007-09-21

    P-Glycoprotein is a plasma membrane drug efflux protein implicated in extrusion of cytotoxic compounds out of a cell. There is now evidence that suggests expression of this transporter at several subcellular sites, including the nucleus, mitochondria, and Golgi apparatus. This study investigated the localization and expression of P-glycoprotein at the nuclear membrane of rat brain microvessel endothelial (RBE4) and microglial (MLS-9) cell lines. Immunocytochemistry at the light and electron microscope levels using P-glycoprotein monoclonals antibodies demonstrated the localization of the protein at the nuclear envelope of RBE4 and MLS-9 cells. Western blot analysis revealed a single band of 170-kDa in purified nuclear membranes prepared from isolated nuclei of RBE4 and MLS-9 cells. These findings indicate that P-glycoprotein is expressed at the nuclear envelope of rat brain cells and suggest a role in multidrug resistance at this subcellular site.

  2. Increased paracellular absorption by bile salts and P-glycoprotein stimulated efflux of otilonium bromide in Caco-2 cells monolayers as a model of intestinal barrier.

    PubMed

    Catalioto, Rose-Marie; Triolo, Antonio; Giuliani, Sandro; Altamura, Maria; Evangelista, Stefano; Maggi, Carlo Alberto

    2008-09-01

    The present study investigates the intestinal permeability of otilonium bromide, a spasmolytic drug used to treat irritable bowel syndrome, across Caco-2 cell monolayers. The amount of otilonium bromide transported was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Epithelial barrier integrity was estimated by measuring transepithelial electrical resistance and the transport of reference compounds, P-glycoprotein activity by measuring rhodamine 123 efflux. Results showed that the apparent permeability of otilonium bromide was comparable to that of our zero permeability marker, inulin, in the apical-to-basal direction and similar to that of rhodamine 123 in the basal-to-apical direction. The P-glycoprotein substrate, verapamil, prevented otilonium bromide efflux and, conversely, otilonium bromide inhibited P-glycoprotein activity. Bile salts induced a transient opening of tight junctions, as measured by selective increase of paracellular transport, and significantly enhanced the absorption of otilonium bromide. In turn otilonium bromide potentiates the effect of bile salts on tight junctions without modifying their critical micellar concentration or altering cell viability. In conclusion, otilonium bromide is a paracellularly transported drug whose absorption, in amounts sufficient to exert a spasmolytic effect, is favoured by bile salts. P-glycoprotein, by stimulating efflux, contributes to remove excess compound, restraining its distribution and site of action to the intestinal wall. PMID:18200532

  3. Investigation of the intestinal permeability of ciclosporin using the in situ technique in rats and the relevance of P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Zakeri-Milani, Parvin; Valizadeh, Hadi; Islambulchilar, Ziba; Damani, Sanaz; Mehtari, Maryam

    2008-01-01

    The primary endpoint of this study was to determine the intestinal permeability of ciclosporin (cyclosporine A, CsA, CAS 59865-13-3) using the single-pass intestinal perfusion technique (SPIP) and a range of concentrations in rats. The second objective was to assess the quantitative contribution of P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux in limiting the oral bioavailability of CsA using erythromycin (Ery, CAS 114-07-8) as an inhibitor of P-gp efflux transporter. A solution containing CsA and phenol red either in the presence or in the absence of Ery as a P-gp inhibitor was perfused through a cannulated jejunal segment in rats. Outlet samples were collected every 10 min in micro tubes up to 90 min. Samples were analyzed using a modified reverse phase HPLC method. The mean effective permeability coefficients (Peff) of CsA in concentrations of 5, 10, 15 and 20 micromol/L in the perfusion solution were found to be 2.21 (+/- 0.26) x 10(-4) cm/s, 3.34 (+/- 1.29) x 10(-4) cm/s, 3.12 (+/- 0.23) x 10(-4) cm/s and 2.73 (+/- 0.28) x 10(-4) cm/s, respectively. The corresponding values in the presence of Ery were found to be 3.96 (+/- 1.04) x 10(-4) cm/s, 5.34 (+/- 1.29) x 10(-4) cm/s, 3.72 (+/- 0.21) x 10(-4) cm/s and 4.41 (+/- 0.89) x 10(-4) cm/s, respectively. The two-tailed Student's t-test showed that the intestinal permeability of CsA was significantly increased by Ery in all four CsA concentrations used (P < 0.05). However, there was no significant difference between the Peff values of CsA in different concentrations, indicating that the CsA permeation was independent of the concentration. Therefore it is concluded that at least some part of the observed clinical interaction between Ery and CsA is due to the interaction in absorption level. PMID:18540481

  4. Differential effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists on doxorubicin-resistant human myelogenous leukemia (K562/DOX) cells.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, B; Samadi, N; Baradaran, B; Rameshknia, V; Shafiei-Irannejad, V; Majidinia, M; Targhaze, N; Zarghami, N

    2015-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated multidrug resistance (MDR) in tumor cells is still a main obstacle for the chemotherapeutic treatment of cancers. Therefore, identification of safe and effective MDR reversing compounds with minimal adverse side effects is an important approach in the cancer treatment. Studies show that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARs) ligands can inhibit cell growth in many cancers. Here, we investigated the effect of different PPAR agonists include fenofibrate, troglitazone and aleglitazar on doxorubicin-resistant human myelogenous leukemia (K562/DOX) cells. The effects of doxorubicin (DOX) following treatment with PPAR agonists on cell viability were evaluated using MTT assay and the reversal fold (RF) values. Rhodamine123 (Rh123) assays were used to determine P-gp functioning. P-gp mRNA/protein expression was measured by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blot analysis after incubation with troglitazone and aleglitazar. Our results showed that troglitazone and aleglitazar significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of DOX and decreased the RF values in K562/DOX cells, however, no such results were found for fenofibrate. Troglitazone and aleglitazar significantly down regulated P-gp expression in K562/DOX cells; in addition, the present study revealed that aleglitazar elevated intracellular accumulation of Rh123in K562/DOX cells as short-term effects, which also contribute to the reversal of MDR. These findings show that troglitazone and especially aleglitazar exhibited potent effects in the reversal of P-gp-mediated MDR, suggesting that these compounds may be effective for combination therapy strategies and circumventing MDR in K562/DOX cells to other conventional chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:26718439

  5. Brain accumulation of the EML4-ALK inhibitor ceritinib is restricted by P-glycoprotein (P-GP/ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2).

    PubMed

    Kort, Anita; Sparidans, Rolf W; Wagenaar, Els; Beijnen, Jos H; Schinkel, Alfred H

    2015-12-01

    We aimed to clarify the roles of the multidrug transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 in oral availability and brain accumulation of ceritinib, an oral anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor used to treat metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after progression on crizotinib. Importantly, NSCLC is prone to form brain metastases. Transport of ceritinib by human (h) ABCB1 or hABCG2 or mouse (m) Abcg2 was assessed in vitro. To study the single and combined roles of Abcb1a/1b and Abcg2 in ceritinib disposition in vivo, we used appropriate knockout mouse strains. Ceritinib was very efficiently transported by hABCB1, and efficiently by hABCG2 and mAbcg2 in vitro, and transport was specifically inhibited by the ABCB1 inhibitor zosuquidar and ABCG2 inhibitor Ko143, respectively. Absorption and 24-h oral availability were not significantly affected by the absence of Abcb1 and/or Abcg2, but the brain concentrations were greatly increased (>38-fold) in Abcb1a/1b(-/-) mice at 3 and 24h after oral administration of 20mg/kg ceritinib. The brain concentrations increased another ?3-fold (to >90-fold) in Abcb1a/1b;Abcg2(-/-) mice, indicating that there was a significant additional effect of Abcg2-mediated transport of ceritinib as well in vivo. Overall, brain accumulation, but not the 24-h oral availability of ceritinib were profoundly restricted by Abcb1a/1b and Abcg2, with Abcb1a/1b being the dominant efflux protein. Our data suggest that coadministration of ceritinib with a dual ABCB1 and ABCG2 inhibitor may improve treatment of brain (micro) metastases positioned behind a functionally intact blood-brain barrier, and possibly also of tumors resistant to ceritinib due to ABCB1 or ABCG2 overexpression. PMID:26361725

  6. Dual regulation of P-glycoprotein expression by Trichostatin A in cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background It has been reported that the histone deacetylase inhibitor (iHDAc) trichostatin A (TSA) induces an increase in MDR1 gene transcription (ABCB1). This result would compromise the use of iHDACs in combination with other cytotoxic agents that are substrates of P-glycoprotein (Pgp). It has also been reported the use of alternative promoters by the ABCB1 gene and the existence of a translational control of Pgp protein. Finally, the ABCB1 gene is located in a genetic locus with the nested gene RUNDC3B in the complementary DNA strand, raising the possibility that RUNDC3B expression could interfere with ABCB1 alternative promoter regulation. Methods A combination of RT-PCR, real time RT-PCR, Western blot and drug accumulation assays by flow cytometry has been used in this study. Results The iHDACs-induced increase in MDR1 mRNA levels is not followed by a subsequent increase in Pgp protein levels or activity in several pancreatic and colon carcinoma cell lines, suggesting a translational control of Pgp in these cell lines. In addition, the MDR1 mRNA produced in these cell lines is shorter in its 5? end that the Pgp mRNA produced in cell lines expressing Pgp protein. The different size of the Pgp mRNA is due to the use of alternative promoters. We also demonstrate that these promoters are differentially regulated by TSA. The translational blockade of Pgp mRNA in the pancreatic carcinoma cell lines could be related to alterations in the 5? end of the MDR1 mRNA in the Pgp protein expressing cell lines. In addition, we demonstrate that the ABCB1 nested gene RUNDC3B expression although upregulated by TSA is independent of the ABCB1 alternative promoter used. Conclusions The results show that the increase in MDR1 mRNA expression after iHDACs treatment is clinically irrelevant since this mRNA does not render an active Pgp protein, at least in colon and pancreatic cancer cell lines. Furthermore, we demonstrate that TSA in fact, regulates differentially both ABCB1 promoters, downregulating the upstream promoter that is responsible for active P-glycoprotein expression. These results suggest that iHDACs such as TSA may in fact potentiate the effects of antitumour drugs that are substrates of Pgp. Finally, we also demonstrate that TSA upregulates RUNDC3B mRNA independently of the ABCB1 promoter in use. PMID:22846052

  7. Stoichiometry and affinity of nucleotide binding to P-glycoprotein during the catalytic cycle.

    PubMed

    Qu, Qin; Russell, Paula L; Sharom, Frances J

    2003-02-01

    Drug transport mediated by P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is driven by hydrolysis of ATP at the two cytosolic nucleotide binding domains. However, little is currently known concerning the stoichiometry of nucleotide binding and how both stoichiometry and binding affinity change during the catalytic cycle of the transporter. To address this issue, we used fluorescence techniques to measure both the number of nucleotides bound to P-glycoprotein during various stages of the catalytic cycle and the affinity of nucleotide binding. Results showed that resting state P-glycoprotein bound two molecules of the fluorescent nucleotide derivative, 2'(3')-O-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)adenosine 5'-triphosphate (TNP-ATP), whereas the vanadate-trapped transition state bound only one nucleotide molecule. Both resting and transition state P-glycoprotein showed similar affinity for TNP-ATP/TNP-ADP and unlabeled ATP/ADP. Following binding of various drugs, resting state P-glycoprotein displayed a higher affinity for nucleotides, up to 4-fold depending on the compound used. In contrast, the transition state showed substantially lower (up to 3-fold) nucleotide binding affinity when the drug binding site(s) is/are occupied. These results indicate that both nucleotide binding domains of P-glycoprotein are likely to be occupied with either ATP (or ADP) in the resting state and the transition state in the absence of transport substrates. Drugs alter the binding affinity to favor association of ATP with P-glycoprotein at the start of the catalytic cycle and release of ADP from the transition state following nucleotide hydrolysis. PMID:12549939

  8. The membrane lipid environment modulates drug interactions with the P-glycoprotein multidrug transporter.

    PubMed

    Romsicki, Y; Sharom, F J

    1999-05-25

    The P-glycoprotein multidrug transporter functions as an ATP-driven efflux pump for a large number of structurally unrelated hydrophobic compounds. Substrates are believed to gain access to the transporter after partitioning into the membrane, rather than from the extracellular aqueous phase. The binding of drug substrates to P-glycoprotein may thus be modulated by the properties of the lipid bilayer. The interactions with P-glycoprotein of two drugs (vinblastine and daunorubicin) and a chemosensitizer (verapamil) were characterized by quenching of purified fluorescently labeled protein in the presence of various phospholipids. Biphasic quench curves were observed for vinblastine and verapamil, suggesting that more than one molecule of these compounds may bind to the transporter simultaneously. All three drugs bound to P-glycoprotein with substantially higher affinity in egg phosphatidylcholine (PC), compared to brain phosphatidylserine (PS) and egg phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The nature of the lipid acyl chains also modulated binding, with affinity decreasing in the order egg PC > dimyristoyl-PC (DMPC) > dipalmitoyl-PC (DPPC). Following reconstitution of the transporter into DMPC, all three compounds bound to P-glycoprotein with 2-4-fold higher affinity in gel phase lipid relative to liquid-crystalline phase lipid. The P-glycoprotein ATPase stimulation/inhibition profiles for the drugs were also altered in different lipids, in a manner consistent with the observed changes in binding affinity. The ability of the drugs to partition into bilayers of phosphatidylcholines was determined. All of the drugs partitioned much better into egg PC relative to DMPC and DPPC. The binding affinity increased (i.e., the value of Kd decreased) as the drug-lipid partition coefficient increased, supporting the proposal that the effective concentration of the drug substrate in the membrane is important for interaction with the transporter. These results provide support for the vacuum cleaner model of P-glycoprotein action. PMID:10346910

  9. P-glycoprotein substrates and antagonists cluster into two distinct groups.

    PubMed

    Scala, S; Akhmed, N; Rao, U S; Paull, K; Lan, L B; Dickstein, B; Lee, J S; Elgemeie, G H; Stein, W D; Bates, S E

    1997-06-01

    To gather further insight into the interaction between P-glycoprotein (Pgp) and its substrates, 167 compounds were analyzed in multidrug resistant human colon carcinoma cells. These compounds were selected from the National Cancer Institute Drug Screen repository using computer-generated correlations with known Pgp substrates and antagonists. The compounds were prospectively defined as Pgp substrates if cytotoxicity was increased > or =4-fold by the addition of cyclosporin A (CsA) and as Pgp antagonists if inhibition of efflux increased rhodamine accumulation by 4-fold. Among the 84 agents that met either criterion, 35 met only the criterion for substrates, 42 met only the criterion for antagonists, and only seven met both criteria. Thus, compounds interacting with Pgp form two distinct groups: one comprising cytotoxic compounds that are transported and have poor or no antagonistic activity and a second comprising compounds with antagonistic activity and no evidence of significant transport. Vinblastine accumulation and kinetic studies performed on a subset of 18 compounds similarly differentiated substrates and antagonists, but inhibition of 3H-azidopine labeling and induction of ATPase activity did not. These data support an emerging concept of Pgp in which multiple regions instead of specific sites are involved in drug transport. PMID:9187269

  10. Compartmental models for apical efflux by P-glycoprotein. Part 1. Evaluation of model complexity

    PubMed Central

    Nagar, Swati; Tucker, Jalia; Weiskircher, Erica A.; Bhoopathy, Siddhartha; Hidalgo, Ismael J.; Korzekwa, Ken

    2013-01-01

    Purpose With the goal of quantifying P-gp transport kinetics, Part 1 of these manuscripts evaluates different compartmental models and Part 2 applies these models to kinetic data. Methods Models were developed to simulate the effect of apical efflux transporters on intracellular concentrations of six drugs. The effect of experimental variability on model predictions was evaluated. Several models were evaluated, and characteristics including membrane configuration, lipid content, and apical surface area (asa) were varied. Results Passive permeabilities from MDCK-MDR1 cells in the presence of cyclosporine gave lower model errors than from MDCK control cells. Consistent with the results in Part 2, model configuration had little impact on calculated model errors. The 5-compartment model was the simplest model that reproduced experimental lag times. Lipid content and asa had minimal effect on model errors, predicted lag times, and intracellular concentrations. Including endogenous basolateral uptake activity can decrease model errors. Models with and without explicit membrane barriers differed markedly in their predicted intracellular concentrations for basolateral drug exposure. Single point data resulted in clearances similar to time course data. Conclusions Compartmental models are useful to evaluate the impact of efflux transporters on intracellular concentrations. Whereas a 3-compartment model may be sufficient to predict the impact of transporters that efflux drugs from the cell, a 5-compartment model with explicit membranes may be required to predict intracellular concentrations when efflux occurs from the membrane. More complex models including additional compartments may be unnecessary. PMID:24019023

  11. Characterization of multidrug resistance P-glycoprotein transport function with an organotechnetium cation

    SciTech Connect

    Piwnica-Worms, D.; Vallabhaneni, V.R.; Kronauge, J.F.

    1995-09-26

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) in mammalian cells and tumors is associated with overexpression of an {approximately}170 integral membrane efflux transporter, the MDR1 P-glycoprotein. Hexakis(2-methoxyisobutyl isonitrile) technetium(I) (Tc-SESTAMIBI), a {gamma}-emitting lipophilic cationic metallopharmaceutical, has recently been shown to be a P-glycoprotein transport substrate. Exploiting the negligible lipid membrane adsorption properties of this organometallic substrate, we studied the transport kinetics, pharmacology, drug binding, and modulation of P-glycoprotein in cell preparations derived from a variety of species and selection strategies, including SW-1573, V79, Alex, and CHO drug-sensitive cells and in 77A, LZ-8, and Alex/A.5 MDR cells. Rapid cell accumulation (T{sub 1/2} {approx} 6 min) of the agent to a steady state was observed which was inversely proportional to immunodetectable levels of P-glycoprotein. Many MDR cytotoxic agents inhibited P-glycoprotein-mediated Tc-SESTAMIBI efflux, thereby enhancing organometallic cation accumulation. 70 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. In vitro and in vivo multidrug resistance reversal activity by a Betti-base derivative of tylosin

    PubMed Central

    Gymnt, N; Engi, H; Schelz, Z; Szatmri, I; Tth, D; Flp, F; Molnr, J; de Witte, P A M

    2010-01-01

    Background: The multidrug resistance (MDR) proteins are present in a majority of human tumours. Their activity is important to understand the chemotherapeutic failure. A search for MDR-reversing compounds was conducted among various Betti-base derivatives of tylosin. Methods: Here, we evaluate the in vitro and in vivo P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-modulating activity of the most promising compound N-tylosil-1-?-amino-(3-bromophenyl)-methyl-2-naphthol (TBN) using human MDR1 gene-transfected and parental L5178 mouse lymphoma cell lines. Results: In vitro experiments showed that TBN dramatically increased the P-gp-mediated cellular uptake of the fluorescent substrate rhodamine 123. Similarly, TBN was found to act as a very potent enhancer of the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin on the resistant cell line. We also provide in vivo evidence using DBA/2 mice in support for an increased tumoural accumulation of doxorubicin, without affecting its tissue distribution, resulting in an enhanced antitumoural effect. Conclusion: Our results suggest that TBN is a potent modulator of the P-gp membrane pump and that the compound could be of clinical relevance to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy in MDR cancers. PMID:20551959

  13. Oral intake of curcumin markedly activated CYP 3A4: in vivo and ex-vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yow-Wen; Huang, Ching-Ya; Yang, Shih-Ying; Peng, Yu-Hsuan; Yu, Chung-Ping; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee; Hou, Yu-Chi

    2014-01-01

    Curcumin, a specific secondary metabolite of Curcuma species, has potentials for a variety of beneficial health effects. It is nowadays used as a dietary supplement. Everolimus (EVL) is an immunosuppressant indicated for allograft rejection and cancer therapy, but with narrow therapeutic window. EVL is a substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). This study investigated the effect of coadministration of curcumin on the pharmacokinetics of EVL in rats and the underlying mechanisms. EVL (0.5?mg/kg) was orally administered without and with 50 and 100?mg/kg of curcumin, respectively, in rats. Blood samples were collected at specific time points and EVL concentrations in blood were determined by QMS immunoassay. The underlying mechanisms were evaluated using cell model and recombinant CYP 3A4 isozyme. The results indicated that 50 and 100?mg/kg of curcumin significantly decreased the AUC0-540 of EVL by 70.6% and 71.5%, respectively, and both dosages reduced the Cmax of EVL by 76.7%. Mechanism studies revealed that CYP3A4 was markedly activated by curcumin metabolites, which apparently overrode the inhibition effects of curcumin on P-gp. In conclusion, oral intake of curcumin significantly decreased the bioavailability of EVL, a probe substrate of P-gp/CYP 3A4, mainly through marked activation on CYP 3A4. PMID:25300360

  14. Evaluation of TPGS-modified thermo-sensitive Pluronic PF127 hydrogel as a potential carrier to reverse the resistance of P-gp-overexpressing SMMC-7721 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lei; Wang, Xiaoqing; Ma, Jianli; Hao, Daifeng; Wei, Pei; Zhou, Liang; Liu, Guiyang

    2016-04-01

    In the present studies locally injectable docetaxel nanocrystals loaded d-alpha tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate-modified Pluronic F127 (DOC-NCs-TPGS-PF127) thermo-sensitive hydrogels were prepared to reverse drug resistance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-overexpressing human liver cancer SMMC-7721 tumors. Firstly, DOC nanosuspensions with mean particle size of 196nm were prepared and dispersed into series of mixed solutions containing PF127 and TPGS of different ratios to obtain DOC-NCs-TPGS-PF127 hydrogels. DOC NCs, exhibiting a uniform distribution and very good physical stability during three sol-gel cycles in the hydrogel network, did not influence the gelation temperature. Swelling-dependent release pattern was found for DOC NCs from hydrogels and release profiles could be well fitted by the Peppas equation. MTT test showed that hydrogels containing 0% or 0.1% TPGS had no cytotoxicity against L929 fibroblasts. Both DOC solution and DOC-NCs-TPGS-PF127 hydrogels exhibited obvious cytotoxicity against sensitive SMMC-7721 cells. When resistant SMMC7721 cells were treated, DOC-NCs-TPGS-PF127 hydrogels showed significantly higher cytotoxicity compared with DOC solution and hydrogels containing no TPGS (DOC-NCs-PF127), with markedly lower IC50 and resistant index (RI). After intratumoral injection in SMMC-7721/RT tumor xenograft Balb/c mice model, DOC-NCs-TPGS-PF127 hydrogels exhibited about 5-fold increase and 1.8-fold increase in the inhibition rate of tumor growth compared with intravenous and intratumoral injection of DOC solution, respectively. It could be concluded that TPGS-modified PF127 thermo-sensitive hydrogel was an excellent locally injectable carrier to reverse P-gp overexpression associated multi-drug resistance. PMID:26764117

  15. Hypoxia-induced drug resistance: comparison to P-glycoprotein-associated drug resistance.

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, K.; Kwok, T. T.; Murphy, B. J.; Laderoute, K. R.; Gordon, G. R.; Sutherland, R. M.

    1991-01-01

    In this report, we investigate several examples of hypoxia-induced drug resistance and compare them with P-glycoprotein associated multidrug resistance (MDR). EMT6/Ro cells exposed to drugs in air immediately after hypoxic treatment developed resistance to adriamycin, 5-fluorouracil, and actinomycin D. However, these cells did not develop resistance to colchicine, vincristine or cisplatin. When the cells were returned to a normal oxygen environment, they lost resistance. There was no correlation between the content of adriamycin and the development of adriamycin resistance induced by hypoxia. There was no difference between the efflux of adriamycin from aerobic cells and that from hypoxia-treated cells. The mRNA for P-glycoprotein was not detected in the hypoxia-treated cells. These results suggest that hypoxia-induced drug resistance is different from P-glycoprotein associated multidrug resistance. PMID:1681885

  16. Structure of P-glycoprotein Reveals a Molecular Basis for Poly-Specific Drug Binding

    PubMed Central

    Aller, Stephen G.; Yu, Jodie; Ward, Andrew; Weng, Yue; Chittaboina, Srinivas; Zhuo, Rupeng; Harrell, Patina M.; Trinh, Yenphuong T.; Zhang, Qinghai; Urbatsch, Ina L.; Chang, Geoffrey

    2009-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) detoxifies cells by exporting hundreds of chemically unrelated toxins but has been implicated in multidrug resistance in the treatment of cancers. Substrate promiscuity is a hallmark of Pgp activity, thus a structural description of polyspecific drug-binding is important for the rational design of anticancer drugs and MDR inhibitors. The x-ray structure of apo-Pgp at 3.8 reveals an internal cavity of ?6,000 3 with a 30 separation of the two nucleotide binding domains (NBD). Two additional Pgp structures with cyclic peptide inhibitors demonstrate distinct drug binding sites in the internal cavity capable of stereo-selectivity that is based on hydrophobic and aromatic interactions. Apo- and drug-bound Pgp structures have portals open to the cytoplasm and the inner leaflet of the lipid bilayer for drug entry. The inward-facing conformation represents an initial stage of the transport cycle that is competent for drug binding. PMID:19325113

  17. Exploring the P-Glycoprotein Binding Cavity with Polyoxyethylene Alkyl Ethers

    PubMed Central

    Li-Blatter, Xiaochun; Seelig, Anna

    2010-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (ABCB1) moves allocrits from the cytosolic to the extracellular membrane leaflet, preventing their intrusion into the cytosol. It is generally accepted that allocrit binding from water to the cavity lined by the transmembrane domains occurs in two steps, a lipid-water partitioning step, and a cavity-binding step in the lipid membrane, whereby hydrogen-bond (i.e., weak electrostatic) interactions play a crucial role. The remaining key question was whether hydrophobic interactions also play a role for allocrit binding to the cavity. To answer this question, we chose polyoxyethylene alkyl ethers, CmEOn, varying in the number of methylene and ethoxyl residues as model allocrits. Using isothermal titration calorimetry, we showed that the lipid-water partitioning step was purely hydrophobic, increasing linearly with the number of methylene, and decreasing with the number of ethoxyl residues, respectively. Using, in addition, ATPase activity measurements, we demonstrated that allocrit binding to the cavity required minimally two ethoxyl residues and increased linearly with the number of ethoxyl residues. The analysis provides the first direct evidence, to our knowledge, that allocrit binding to the cavity is purely electrostatic, apparently without any hydrophobic contribution. While the polar part of allocrits forms weak electrostatic interactions with the cavity, the hydrophobic part seems to remain associated with the lipid membrane. The interplay between the two types of interactions is most likely essential for allocrit flipping. PMID:21112283

  18. In vivo induction of liver P-glycoprotein expression by xenobiotics in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Gant, T W; O'Connor, C K; Corbitt, R; Thorgeirsson, U; Thorgeirsson, S S

    1995-08-01

    P-glycoprotein (pgp), the protein product of the multidrug resistance (mdr) gene family, can confer a multidrug resistance (mdr) phenotype to cells in which it is expressed. One member of the pgp family, pgp2, is located on the hepatocyte biliary pole where it may have a role in biliary excretion. Using primates we sought to determine if mdr gene expression and pgp levels were affected by xenobiotics excreted via the bile in man. Five drugs were studied in male and female rhesus monkeys: erythromycin, rifampicin, tamoxifen, diethylstilbesterol (DES), and probenecid. For each xenobiotic, with the exception of DES, an increase in mdr2 mRNA was observed. The results suggest that expression of mdr2 is responsive to xenobiotics, or their metabolites, that require biliary excretion. We speculate that the mdr2 gene may be a member of a class of xenobiotic responsive genes coding for proteins that actively excrete xenobiotics and/or their metabolites into the bile. PMID:7645023

  19. A mathematical model of the P-glycoprotein pump as a mediator of multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Michelson, S; Slate, D

    1992-11-01

    Cells displaying the classic multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotype possess a transmembrane protein (p170 or P-glycoprotein) which can actively extrude cytotoxic agents from the cytoplasm. A mathematical model of this drug efflux pump has been developed. Outward transport is modeled as a facilitated diffusion process. Since energy-dependent efflux of cytotoxic agents requires that ATP also bind to p170, the model includes a dynamic calculation for efflux rate which considers Michaelis-Menten kinetics for both the substrate agent and ATP. The final system consists of one partial differential equation (PDE) for the facilitated diffusion of substrate agents out of the cell, a 2 x 2 ordinary differential equation (ODE) system for the dynamic calculation of the ATP-ADP pool, and a dynamic algebraic calculation of the efflux rate given substrate levels at the interior cell membrane interface and ATP levels in the cell. A stability analysis of the ATP-ADP pool distribution and a simplistic closed form solution of the linearized PDE are included. Numerical simulations are also provided. PMID:1355383

  20. Classification of P-glycoprotein-interacting compounds using machine learning methods

    PubMed Central

    Prachayasittikul, Veda; Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Shoombuatong, Watshara; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Nantasenamat, Chanin

    2015-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp) is a drug transporter that plays important roles in multidrug resistance and drug pharmacokinetics. The inhibition of Pgp has become a notable strategy for combating multidrug-resistant cancers and improving therapeutic outcomes. However, the polyspecific nature of Pgp, together with inconsistent results in experimental assays, renders the determination of endpoints for Pgp-interacting compounds a great challenge. In this study, the classification of a large set of 2,477 Pgp-interacting compounds (i.e., 1341 inhibitors, 913 non-inhibitors, 197 substrates and 26 non-substrates) was performed using several machine learning methods (i.e., decision tree induction, artificial neural network modelling and support vector machine) as a function of their physicochemical properties. The models provided good predictive performance, producing MCC values in the range of 0.739-1 for internal cross-validation and 0.665-1 for external validation. The study provided simple and interpretable models for important properties that influence the activity of Pgp-interacting compounds, which are potentially beneficial for screening and rational design of Pgp inhibitors that are of clinical importance. PMID:26862321

  1. Restoration of Chemosensitivity in P-Glycoprotein-Dependent Multidrug-Resistant Cells by Dihydro-?-agarofuran Sesquiterpenes from Celastrus vulcanicola.

    PubMed

    Callies, Oliver; Snchez-Caete, Mara P; Gamarro, Francisco; Jimnez, Ignacio A; Castanys, Santiago; Bazzocchi, Isabel L

    2015-04-24

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) caused by the overexpression of ABC drug transporters is a major obstacle in clinical cancer chemotherapy and underlines the urgent need for the development of new, potent, and safe reversal agents. Toward this goal, reported herein are the structure elucidation and biological activity of nine new (1-9) and four known (10-13) dihydro-?-agarofuran sesquiterpenes, isolated from the leaves of Celastrus vulcanicola, as reversers of MDR mediated by human P-glycoprotein expression. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analysis, and their absolute configurations were determined by circular dichroism studies, chemical correlations (1a, 8a, and 8b), and biogenetic means. Four compounds from this series were discovered as potent chemosensitizers for MDR1-G185 NIH-3T3 murine cells (3, 4, 6, and 7), showing higher efficacies than the classical P-glycoprotein inhibitor verapamil, a first-generation chemosensitizer, when reversing resistance to daunomycin and vinblastine at the lowest concentration tested of 1 ?M. PMID:25695368

  2. A novel application of t-statistics to objectively assess the quality of IC50 fits for P-glycoprotein and other transporters

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Michael; Lee, Caroline; Ellens, Harma; Bentz, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Current USFDA and EMA guidance for drug transporter interactions is dependent on IC50 measurements as these are utilized in determining whether a clinical interaction study is warranted. It is therefore important not only to standardize transport inhibition assay systems but also to develop uniform statistical criteria with associated probability statements for generation of robust IC50 values, which can be easily adopted across the industry. The current work provides a quantitative examination of critical factors affecting the quality of IC50 fits for P-gp inhibition through simulations of perfect data with randomly added error as commonly observed in the large data set collected by the P-gp IC50 initiative. The types of errors simulated were (1) variability in replicate measures of transport activity; (2) transformations of error-contaminated transport activity data prior to IC50 fitting (such as performed when determining an IC50 for inhibition of P-gp based on efflux ratio); and (3) the lack of well defined no inhibition and complete inhibition plateaus. The effect of the algorithm used in fitting the inhibition curve (e.g., two or three parameter fits) was also investigated. These simulations provide strong quantitative support for the recommendations provided in Bentz etal. (2013) for the determination of IC50 values for P-gp and demonstrate the adverse effect of data transformation prior to fitting. Furthermore, the simulations validate uniform statistical criteria for robust IC50 fits in general, which can be easily implemented across the industry. A calibration of the t-statistic is provided through calculation of confidence intervals associated with the t-statistic. PMID:25692007

  3. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL DETECTION OF P-GLYCOPROTEIN IN TELEOST TISSUES USING MAMMALIAN POLYCLONAL AND MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammalian P-glycoprotein is a highly conserved 170 kD integral plasma membrane protein functioning as an energy dependent efflux pump of exogenous and endogenous lipophilic aromatic compounds entering the cell by diffusion. n this study, the tissue specificity of one polyclonal (...

  4. ATP-binding cassette proteins BCRP, MRP1 and P-gp expression and localization in the human umbilical cord.

    PubMed

    Riches, Zoe; Walia, Gurinder; Berman, Jacob M; Wright, Tricia E; Collier, Abby C

    2016-06-01

    1. The umbilical cord is a direct conduit to the fetus hence transporters could have roles in partitioning substances between the maternal-placental-fetal units. Here we determined the expression and localization of the ATP-Binding Cassette (ABC) transporters BCRP (ABCG2), P-gp (ABCB1) and MRP1 (ABCC1) in human umbilical cords. 2. The mRNA for BCRP and MRP1 was detected in 25/25 samples, but P-gp was detected in only 5/25. ABC transporter mRNA expression relative to 18S was 25.6 ± 0.3, 26.5 ± 0.6 and 22.2 ± 0.2 cycles for BCRP, MRP1 and P-gp respectively. 3. Using a subset of 10 umbilical cords, BCRP protein was present in all samples (immunoblot) with positive correlation between mRNA and proteins (p = 0.07, r = 0.62) and between immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry (IHC) (p = 0.03, r = 0.67). P-gp protein was observed in 4/10 samples by both immunoblot and IHC, with no correlation between mRNA and protein (p = 0.45, r = 0.55) or immunoblotting and IHC (p = 0.2, r = 0.72), likely due to small sample size. MRP1 protein was not observed. 4. Localization of BCRP and P-gp proteins was to Wharton's jelly with no specific staining in arterial or venous endothelia. 5. Understanding ABC transporter expression in the umbilical cord may be useful for determining fetal exposures to xenobiotics if functional properties can be defined. PMID:26407213

  5. P-Glycoprotein/MDR1 regulates pokemon gene transcription through p53 expression in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    He, Shengnan; Liu, Feng; Xie, Zhenhua; Zu, Xuyu; Xu, Wei; Jiang, Yuyang

    2010-01-01

    P-glycoprotein (Pgp), encoded by the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene, is an efflux transporter and plays an important role in pharmacokinetics. In this study, we demonstrated that the pokemon promoter activity, the pokemon mRNA and protein expression can be significantly inhibited by Pgp. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay showed that Pgp can bind the pokemon prompter to repress pokemon transcription activity. Furthermore, Pgp regulated pokemon transcription activity through expression of p53 as seen by use of p53 siRNA transfected MCF-7 cells or p53 mutated MDA-MB-231 cells. Moreover, p53 was detected to bind with Pgp in vivo using immunoprecipitation assay. Taken together, we conclude that Pgp can regulate the expression of pokemon through the presence of p53, suggesting that Pgp is a potent regulator and may offer an effective novel target for cancer therapy. PMID:20957096

  6. Comparative tissue pharmacokinetics and efficacy of moxidectin, abamectin and ivermectin in lambs infected with resistant nematodes: Impact of drug treatments on parasite P-glycoprotein expression☆

    PubMed Central

    Lloberas, Mercedes; Alvarez, Luis; Entrocasso, Carlos; Virkel, Guillermo; Ballent, Mariana; Mate, Laura; Lanusse, Carlos; Lifschitz, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    The high level of resistance to the macrocyclic lactones has encouraged the search for strategies to optimize their potential as antiparasitic agents. There is a need for pharmaco-parasitological studies addressing the kinetic-dynamic differences between various macrocyclic lactones under standardized in vivo conditions. The current work evaluated the relationship among systemic drug exposure, target tissue availabilities and the pattern of drug accumulation within resistant Haemonchus contortus for moxidectin, abamectin and ivermectin. Drug concentrations in plasma, target tissues and parasites were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, the efficacy of the three molecules was evaluated in lambs infected with resistant nematodes by classical parasitological methods. Furthermore, the comparative determination of the level of expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp2) in H. contortus recovered from lambs treated with each drug was performed by real time PCR. A longer persistence of moxidectin (P < 0.05) concentrations in plasma was observed. The concentrations of the three compounds in the mucosal tissue and digestive contents were significant higher than those measured in plasma. Drug concentrations were in a range between 452 ng/g (0.5 day post-treatment) and 32 ng/g (2 days post-treatment) in the gastrointestinal (GI) contents (abomasal and intestinal). Concentrations of the three compounds in H. contortus were in a similar range to those observed in the abomasal contents (positive correlation P = 0.0002). Lower moxidectin concentrations were recovered within adult H. contortus compared to abamectin and ivermectin at day 2 post-treatment. However, the efficacy against H. contortus was 20.1% (ivermectin), 39.7% (abamectin) and 89.6% (moxidectin). Only the ivermectin treatment induced an enhancement on the expression of P-gp2 in the recovered adult H. contortus, reaching higher values at 12 and 24 h post-administration compared to control (untreated) worms. This comparative pharmacological evaluation of three of the most used macrocyclic lactones compounds provides new insights into the action of these drugs. PMID:24533290

  7. Several major antiepileptic drugs are substrates for human P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Luna-Torts, Carlos; Fedrowitz, Maren; Lscher, Wolfgang

    2008-12-01

    One of the current hypotheses of pharmacoresistant epilepsy proposes that transport of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) by drug efflux transporters such as P-glycoprotein (Pgp) at the blood-brain barrier may play a significant role in pharmacoresistance in epilepsy by extruding AEDs from their intended site of action. However, several recent in vitro studies using cell lines that overexpress efflux transporters indicate that human Pgp may not transport AEDs to any relevant extent. In this respect it has to be considered that most AEDs are highly permeable, so that conventional bi-directional transport assays as used in these previous studies may fail to identify AEDs as Pgp substrates, particularly if these drugs are not high-affinity substrates for Pgp. In the present study, we used a modified transport assay that allows evaluating active transport independently of the passive permeability component. In this concentration equilibrium transport assay (CETA), the drug is initially added at identical concentration to both sides of a polarized, Pgp-overexpressing cell monolayer instead of applying the drug to either the apical or basolateral side for studying bi-directional transport. Direct comparison of the conventional bi-directional (concentration gradient) assay with the CETA, using MDR1-transfected LLC cells, demonstrated that CETA, but not the conventional assay, identified phenytoin and phenobarbital as substrates of human Pgp. Furthermore, directional transport was determined for lamotrigine and levetiracetam, but not carbamazepine. Transport of AEDs could be completely or partially (>50%) inhibited by the selective Pgp inhibitor, tariquidar. However, transport of phenobarbital and levetiracetam was also inhibited by MK571, which preferentially blocks transport by multidrug resistance transporters (MRPs), indicating that, in addition to Pgp, these AEDs are substrates of MRPs. The present study provides the first direct evidence that several AEDS are substrates of human Pgp, thus further substantiating the transporter hypothesis of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. PMID:18824002

  8. The role of P-glycoprotein in limiting intestinal regional absorption of digoxin in rats.

    PubMed

    Sababi, M; Borg, O; Hultkvist-Bengtsson, U

    2001-08-01

    The objective of this work was to study the role of regional intestinal efflux activity of P-glycoprotein (Pgp) in situ in anesthetized rats in limiting the absorption of digoxin. A 10-cm portion of duodenum or jejunum, or 5-cm of colon was perfused single-pass with saline containing [(3)H]digoxin while the appearance of radioactivity in the blood was measured. Verapamil in the perfusate was used as a modulator of Pgp in the intestinal mucosa. Net water absorption, mucosal integrity, and intestinal motility of the isolated segment were monitored, as well as heart rate and blood pressure. Excretion of i.v. administered unlabelled digoxin, 1 mg/kg, into the intestine while perfusing the duodenum-proximal jejunum region, was studied for comparison. At a perfusate concentration of 1 mM, verapamil caused a dramatic increase in [(3)H]digoxin absorption rate from duodenum and jejunum, while the effect in colon was insignificant. At concentrations of 0.1, 1, and 2.5 mM in the duodenal perfusate, verapamil increased the absorption rate of [(3)H]digoxin in a dose-dependent manner. The lowest concentration almost doubled the rate without having any significant effects on the cardiovascular system, intestinal motility, or net absorption of water. The excretion rate of unlabelled digoxin from the blood into the gut lumen was found to be halved in the presence of 0.5 mM verapamil in the perfusate. Absorption rate of [(3)H]digoxin in the rat is likely limited by Pgp-mediated efflux. The data indicate that Pgp plays an important role for digoxin efflux in the small intestine only. PMID:11457646

  9. A Gene Optimization Strategy that Enhances Production of Fully Functional P-Glycoprotein in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Protasevich, Irina I.; Brouillette, Christie G.; Harrell, Patina M.; Hildebrandt, Ellen; Gasser, Brigitte; Mattanovich, Diethard; Ward, Andrew; Chang, Geoffrey; Urbatsch, Ina L.

    2011-01-01

    Background Structural and biochemical studies of mammalian membrane proteins remain hampered by inefficient production of pure protein. We explored codon optimization based on highly expressed Pichia pastoris genes to enhance co-translational folding and production of P-glycoprotein (Pgp), an ATP-dependent drug efflux pump involved in multidrug resistance of cancers. Methodology/Principal Findings Codon-optimized Opti-Pgp and wild-type Pgp, identical in primary protein sequence, were rigorously analyzed for differences in function or solution structure. Yeast expression levels and yield of purified protein from P. pastoris (?130 mg per kg cells) were about three-fold higher for Opti-Pgp than for wild-type protein. Opti-Pgp conveyed full in vivo drug resistance against multiple anticancer and fungicidal drugs. ATP hydrolysis by purified Opti-Pgp was strongly stimulated ?15-fold by verapamil and inhibited by cyclosporine A with binding constants of 4.22.2 M and 1.10.26 M, indistinguishable from wild-type Pgp. Maximum turnover number was 2.10.28 mol/min/mg and was enhanced by 1.2-fold over wild-type Pgp, likely due to higher purity of Opti-Pgp preparations. Analysis of purified wild-type and Opti-Pgp by CD, DSC and limited proteolysis suggested similar secondary and ternary structure. Addition of lipid increased the thermal stability from Tm ?40C to 49C, and the total unfolding enthalpy. The increase in folded state may account for the increase in drug-stimulated ATPase activity seen in presence of lipids. Conclusion The significantly higher yields of protein in the native folded state, higher purity and improved function establish the value of our gene optimization approach, and provide a basis to improve production of other membrane proteins. PMID:21826197

  10. P-glycoprotein-dependent resistance of cancer cells toward the extrinsic TRAIL apoptosis signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Galski, Hanan; Oved-Gelber, Tamar; Simanovsky, Masha; Lazarovici, Philip; Gottesman, Michael M; Nagler, Arnon

    2013-09-01

    The TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL or Apo2L) preferentially cause apoptosis of malignant cells in vitro and in vivo without severe toxicity. Therefore, TRAIL or agonist antibodies to the TRAIL DR4 and DR5 receptors are used in cancer therapy. However, many malignant cells are intrinsically resistant or acquire resistance to TRAIL. It has been previously proposed that the multidrug transporter P-glycoprotein (Pgp) might play a role in resistance of cells to intrinsic apoptotic pathways by interfering with components of ceramide metabolism or by modulating the electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane. In this study we investigated whether Pgp also confers resistance toward extrinsic death ligands of the TNF family. To this end we focused our study on HeLa cells carrying a tetracycline-repressible plasmid system which shuts down Pgp expression in the presence of tetracycline. Our findings demonstrate that expression of Pgp is a significant factor conferring resistance to TRAIL administration, but not to other death ligands such as TNF-α and Fas ligand. Moreover, blocking Pgp transport activity sensitizes the malignant cells toward TRAIL. Therefore, Pgp transport function is required to confer resistance to TRAIL. Although the resistance to TRAIL-induced apoptosis is Pgp specific, TRAIL itself is not a direct substrate of Pgp. Pgp expression has no effect on the level of the TRAIL receptors DR4 and DR5. These findings might have clinical implications since the combination of TRAIL therapy with administration of Pgp modulators might sensitize TRAIL resistant tumors. PMID:23774624

  11. Interaction of the P-glycoprotein multidrug transporter (MDR1) with high affinity peptide chemosensitizers in isolated membranes, reconstituted systems, and intact cells.

    PubMed

    Sharom, F J; Yu, X; Lu, P; Liu, R; Chu, J W; Szabó, K; Müller, M; Hose, C D; Monks, A; Váradi, A; Seprôdi, J; Sarkadi, B

    1999-08-15

    P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance can be reversed by the action of a group of compounds known as chemosensitizers. The interactions with P-glycoprotein of two novel hydrophobic peptide chemosensitizers (reversins 121 and 205) have been studied in model systems in vitro, and in a variety of MDR1-expressing intact tumor cells. The reversins bound to purified P-glycoprotein with high affinity (77-154 nM), as assessed by a quenching assay using fluorescently labeled purified protein. The peptides modulated P-glycoprotein ATPase activity in Sf9 insect cell membranes expressing human MDR1, plasma membrane vesicles from multidrug-resistant cells, and reconstituted proteoliposomes. Both peptides induced a large stimulation of ATPase activity; however, higher concentrations, especially of reversin 205, led to inhibition. This pattern was different from that of simple linear peptides, and resembled that of chemosensitizers such as verapamil. In both membrane vesicles and reconstituted proteoliposomes, 1-2 microM reversins were more effective than cyclosporin A at blocking colchicine transport. Reversin 121 and reversin 205 restored the uptake of [3H]daunorubicin and rhodamine 123 in MDR1-expressing cells to the level observed in the drug-sensitive parent cell lines, and also effectively inhibited the extrusion of calcein acetoxymethyl ester from intact cells. In cytotoxicity assays, reversin 121 and reversin 205 eliminated the resistance of MDR1-expressing tumor cells against MDR1-substrate anticancer drugs, and they had no toxic effects in MDR1-negative control cells. We suggest that peptides of the reversin type interact with the MDR1 protein with high affinity and specificity, and thus they may be good candidates for the development of MDR1-modulating agents to sensitize drug resistance in cancer. PMID:10413294

  12. Novel dihydro-beta-agarofuran sesquiterpenes as potent modulators of human P-glycoprotein dependent multidrug resistance.

    PubMed

    Torres-Romero, David; Muoz-Martnez, Francisco; Jimnez, Ignacio A; Castanys, Santiago; Gamarro, Francisco; Bazzocchi, Isabel L

    2009-12-21

    P-Glycoprotein (Pgp) overexpression is one factor contributing to multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells and represents one drawback in the treatment of cancer. In an attempt to find more specific and less toxic anticancer MDR-reversal agents, we report herein the isolation, structure elucidation and biological activity of nine new (, and ) and seven known (, and ) dihydro-beta-agarofuran sesquiterpenes from the leaves of Celastrus vulcanicola. Their stereostructures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques, CD studies and biogenetic means. All the compounds were assayed on human MDR1-transfected NIH-3T3 cells, in order to determine their ability to reverse the MDR phenotype due to Pgp overexpression. Six compounds from these series (, , , , and ) showed an effectiveness that was similar to (or higher than) the classical Pgp reversal agent verapamil for the reversal of resistance to daunomycin and vinblastine. The structure-activity relationships are discussed. PMID:20024113

  13. Temozolomide Resistance in Glioblastoma Cell Lines: Implication of MGMT, MMR, P-Glycoprotein and CD133 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Prados, Jose; Caba, Octavio; Cabeza, Laura; Berdasco, Maria; Gnzalez, Beatriz; Melguizo, Consolacin

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of temozolomide (TMZ) has improved the prognosis for glioblastoma multiforme patients. However, TMZ resistance may be one of the main reasons why treatment fails. Although this resistance has frequently been linked to the expression of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) it seems that this enzyme is not the only molecular mechanism that may account for the appearance of drug resistance in glioblastoma multiforme patients as the mismatch repair (MMR) complex, P-glycoprotein, and/or the presence of cancer stem cells may also be implicated. Methods Four nervous system tumor cell lines were used to analyze the modulation of MGMT expression and MGMT promoter methylation by TMZ treatment. Furthermore, 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine was used to demethylate the MGMT promoter and O(6)-benzylguanine to block GMT activity. In addition, MMR complex and P-glycoprotein expression were studied before and after TMZ exposure and correlated with MGMT expression. Finally, the effect of TMZ exposure on CD133 expression was analyzed. Results Our results showed two clearly differentiated groups of tumor cells characterized by low (A172 and LN229) and high (SF268 and SK-N-SH) basal MGMT expression. Interestingly, cell lines with no MGMT expression and low TMZ IC50 showed a high MMR complex expression, whereas cell lines with high MGMT expression and high TMZ IC50 did not express the MMR complex. In addition, modulation of MGMT expression in A172 and LN229 cell lines was accompanied by a significant increase in the TMZ IC50, whereas no differences were observed in SF268 and SK-N-SH cell lines. In contrast, P-glycoprotein and CD133 was found to be unrelated to TMZ resistance in these cell lines. Conclusions These results may be relevant in understanding the phenomenon of TMZ resistance, especially in glioblastoma multiforme patients laking MGMT expression, and may also aid in the design of new therapeutic strategies to improve the efficacy of TMZ in glioblastoma multiforme patients. PMID:26447477

  14. Natural and synthetic benzophenones: interaction with the cytosolic binding domain of P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Rancon, S; Chaboud, A; Darbour, N; Comte, G; Bayet, C; Simon, P N; Raynaud, J; Di Pietro, A; Cabalion, P; Barron, D

    2001-06-01

    A benzophenone glycoside has been isolated from Davallia solida. Its structure was elucidated by chemical and spectral means as 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-2,6,4'-trihydroxybenzophenone. It bound with moderate affinity to the purified C-terminal cytosolic domain of P-glycoprotein, but the binding affinity was 6- to 10-fold increased for its aglycone derivative and other related benzophenones. PMID:11394856

  15. Serum concentrations of anthraquinones after intake of Folium Sennae and potential modulation on P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yu-Hsuan; Lin, Shiuan-Pey; Yu, Chung-Ping; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Chen, Min-Yu; Hou, Yu-Chi; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee

    2014-10-01

    Folium Sennae (leaves of Cassia angustifolia or senna) is a laxative and a component in diets for weight control. It contains a variety of anthranoids such as sennosides, aloe-emodin, and rhein. In order to measure the serum concentrations of senna anthranoids, Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered with single dose and multiple doses of Folium Sennae. The concentrations of anthranoids in serum were determined by HPLC method before and after hydrolysis with sulfatase and ?-glucuronidase. The results showed that in the serum, aloe-emodin glucuronides and rhein glucuronides were the major metabolites. Traces of rhein free form were present transiently during the early phase, whereas the free form of aloe-emodin was not detected. We also evaluated the modulation effect of Folium Sennae on P-glycoprotein by using the LS 180 cell model which showed that it significantly inhibited P-glycoprotein by 16-46?%. In conclusion, senna anthranoids were rapidly and extensively metabolized to rhein glucuronides and aloe-emodin glucuronides in rats. Folium Sennae ingestion inhibited the efflux function of P-glycoprotein in the intestine. PMID:25177847

  16. P-glycoprotein expression in treated and untreated human breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, J.; Bak, M.; Efferth, T.; Kaufmann, M.; Mattern, J.; Volm, M.

    1989-01-01

    The expression of P-glycoprotein in primary and recurrent human breast cancer was investigated by means of immunohistochemistry, using a monoclonal antibody (C219) and the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method. Twelve patients received no chemotherapeutic treatment. The other 11 patients were treated with chemotherapy, and all developed clinical resistance to it. No or only minimal reactivity was found in specimens coming from the untreated patients (12 cases) or from patients treated with substances not involved in the multidrug resistance phenomenon (four cases). In contrast, three out of seven tumours from patients treated with multidrug resistance related substances showed clear reactivity (positive staining in more than 20% of the tumour cells). In one of these cases, where specimens of the tumour could be studied before and after treatment, an association between the latter and expression of P-glycoprotein was suggested. Finally, this marked expression of P-glycoprotein only took place in tumours treated over a longer space of time (five courses or more of multidrug resistance related chemotherapy). Images Figure 1 PMID:2574987

  17. Mechanism of the cis-[Pt(1R,2R-DACH)(H2O)2]2+ intrastrand binding to the double-stranded (pGpG)(CpC) dinucleotide in aqueous solution: a computational DFT study.

    PubMed

    Chval, Zden?k; Kabel?, Martin; Burda, Jaroslav V

    2013-05-20

    A mechanism of the intrastrand 1,2-cross-link formation between the double-stranded pGpGCpC dinucleotide (ds(pGpG)) and fully aquated oxaliplatin cis-[Pt(DACH)(H2O)2](2+) (DACH = cyclohexane-1R,2R-diamine) is presented. All structures of the reaction pathways including the transition states (TSs) were fully optimized in water solvent using DFT methodology with dispersion corrections. Both 5' ? 3' and 3' ? 5' binding directions were considered. In the first step there is a slight kinetic preference for 5'-guanine (5'G) monoadduct formation with an activation Gibbs free energy of 18.7 kcal/mol since the N7 center of the 5'G base is fully exposed to the solvent. On the other hand, the N7 atom of 3'-guanine (3'G) is sterically shielded by 5'G. The lowest energy path for formation of the 3'G monoadduct with an activation barrier of 19.3 kcal/mol is connected with a disruption of the 'DNA-like' structure of ds(pGpG). Monoadduct formation is the rate-determining process. The second step, chelate formation, is kinetically preferred in the 3' ? 5' direction. The whole process of the platination is exergonic by up to -18.8 kcal/mol. Structural changes of ds(pGpG), charge transfer effects, and the influence of platination on the GC base pair interaction strengths are also discussed in detail. PMID:23656523

  18. Characterisation of (R/S)-propafenone and its metabolites as substrates and inhibitors of P-glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Bachmakov, Iouri; Rekersbrink, Sabine; Hofmann, Ute; Eichelbaum, Michel; Fromm, Martin F

    2005-03-01

    Digoxin is a drug with a narrow therapeutic index, which is a substrate of the ATP-dependent efflux pump P-glycoprotein. Increased or decreased digoxin plasma concentrations occur in humans due to the inhibition or induction of this drug transporter in organs with excretory function such as small intestine, liver and kidney. It is well known that serum concentrations of digoxin increase considerably in humans if propafenone is given simultaneously. However, it has not been investigated in detail whether propafenone and its metabolites are substrates and/or inhibitors of human P-glycoprotein. The aim of this study, therefore, was to investigate the P-glycoprotein-mediated transport and inhibition properties of propafenone and its major metabolites 5-hydroxypropafenone and N-desalkylpropafenone in Caco-2 cell monolayers. Inhibition of P-glycoprotein-mediated transport by propafenone and its metabolites was determined using digoxin as a P-glycoprotein substrate. No polarised transport was observed for propafenone and N-desalkylpropafenone in Caco-2 cell monolayers. However, 5-hydroxypropafenone translocation was significantly greater from basal-to-apical compared with apical-to-basal (P(app) basal-apical vs. P(app) apical-basal, 10.21+/-2.63 x 10(-6) vs. 4.34+/-1.84 x 10(-6) cm/s; P<0.01). Moreover, propafenone, 5-hydroxypropafenone and N-desalkylpropafenone inhibited P-glycoprotein-mediated digoxin transport with IC(50) values of 6.8, 19.9, and 21.3 microM, respectively. In summary, whereas propafenone and N-desalkylpropafenone are not substrates of P-glycoprotein, 5-hydroxypropafenone is translocated by human P-glycoprotein across cell monolayers. In addition, propafenone and its two major metabolites 5-hydroxypropafenone and N-desalkylpropafenone are inhibitors of human P-glycoprotein and therefore contribute to the digoxin-propafenone interaction observed in humans. PMID:15900513

  19. Progesterone-adenine hybrids as bivalent inhibitors of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug efflux: design, synthesis, characterization and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zeinyeh, Wal; Mahiout, Zahia; Radix, Sylvie; Lomberget, Thierry; Dumoulin, Axel; Barret, Roland; Grenot, Catherine; Rocheblave, Luc; Matera, Eva-Laure; Dumontet, Charles; Walchshofer, Nadia

    2012-10-01

    Bivalent ligands were designed on the basis of the described close proximity of the ATP-site and the putative steroid-binding site of P-glycoprotein (ABCB1). The syntheses of 19 progesterone-adenine hybrids are described. Their abilities to inhibit P-glycoprotein-mediated daunorubicin efflux in K562/R7 human leukemic cells overexpressing P-glycoprotein were evaluated versus progesterone. The hybrid with a hexamethylene linker chain showed the best inhibitory potency. The efficiency of these progesterone-adenine hybrids depends on two main factors: (i) the nature of the linker and (ii) its attachment point on the steroid skeleton. PMID:22868178

  20. Expression of hamster P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance in DNA-mediated transformants of mouse LTA cells.

    PubMed Central

    Deuchars, K L; Du, R P; Naik, M; Evernden-Porelle, D; Kartner, N; van der Bliek, A M; Ling, V

    1987-01-01

    The overexpression of a plasma membrane glycoprotein, P-glycoprotein, is strongly correlated with the expression of multidrug resistance. This phenotype (frequently observed in cell lines selected for resistance to a single drug) is characterized by cross resistance to many drugs, some of which are used in cancer chemotherapy. In the present study we showed that DNA-mediated transformants of mouse LTA cells with DNA from multidrug-resistant hamster cells acquired the multidrug resistance phenotype, that the transformants contained hamster P-glycoprotein DNA sequences, that these sequences were amplified whereas the recipient mouse P-glycoprotein sequences remained at wild-type levels, and that the overexpressed P-glycoprotein in these cells was of hamster origin. Furthermore, we showed that the hamster P-glycoprotein sequences were transfected independently of a group of genes that were originally coamplified and linked within a 1-megabase-pair region in the donor hamster genome. These data indicate that the high expression of P-glycoprotein is the only alteration required to mediate multidrug resistance. Images PMID:2881196

  1. Regulation of hepatic drug transporter activity and expression by organochlorine pesticides.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Simon; Le Vee, Marc; Jouan, Elodie; Fardel, Olivier

    2014-03-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticides constitute a major class of persistent and toxic organic pollutants, known to modulate drug-detoxifying enzymes. In the present study, OCs were demonstrated to also alter the activity and expression of human hepatic drug transporters. Activity of the sinusoidal influx transporter OCT1 (organic cation transporter 1) was thus inhibited by endosulfan, chlordane, heptachlor, lindane, and dieldrine, but not by dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane isomers, whereas those of the canalicular efflux pumps MRP2 (multidrug resistance-associated protein 2) and BCRP (breast cancer resistance protein) were blocked by endosulfan, chlordane, heptachlor, and chlordecone; this latter OC additionally inhibited the multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1)/P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity. OCs, except endosulfan, were next found to induce MDR1/P-gp and MRP2 mRNA expressions in hepatoma HepaRG cells; some of them also upregulated BCRP. By contrast, expression of sinusoidal transporters was not impaired (organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1 and OATP2B1) or was downregulated (sodium taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) and OCT1). Such regulations of drug transporter activity and expression, depending on the respective nature of OCs and transporters, may contribute to the toxicity of OC pesticides. PMID:24464585

  2. Coniferyl Ferulate, a Strong Inhibitor of Glutathione S-Transferase Isolated from Radix Angelicae sinensis, Reverses Multidrug Resistance and Downregulates P-Glycoprotein

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang; Wu, Chuanhong; Lu, Xinhua; Yan, Zhiyong; Gao, Jian; Zhao, Hui; Li, Shaojing

    2013-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferase (GST) is the key enzyme in multidrug resistance (MDR) of tumour. Inhibition of the expression or activity of GST has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy for the reversal of MDR. Coniferyl ferulate (CF), isolated from the root of Angelica sinensis (Oliv.) Diels (Radix Angelicae sinensis, RAS), showed strong inhibition of human placental GST. Its 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) was 0.3 μM, which was greater than a known GSTP1-1 inhibitor, ethacrynic acid (EA), using the established high-throughput screening model. Kinetic analysis and computational docking were used to examine the mechanism of GST inhibition by CF. Computational docking found that CF could be fully docked into the gorge of GSTP1-1. The further exploration of the mechanisms showed that CF was a reversible noncompetitive inhibitor with respect to GSH and CDNB, and it has much less cytotoxicity. Apoptosis and the expression of P-gp mRNA were evaluated in the MDR positive B-MD-C1 (ADR+/+) cell line to investigate the MDR reversal effect of CF. Moreover, CF showed strong apoptogenic activity and could markedly decrease the overexpressed P-gp. The results demonstrated that CF could inhibit GST activity in a concentration-dependent manner and showed a potential MDR reversal effect for antitumour adjuvant therapy. PMID:24058374

  3. Identification of P-glycoprotein co-fractionating proteins and specific binding partners in rat brain microvessels.

    PubMed

    Tome, Margaret E; Schaefer, Charles P; Jacobs, Leigh M; Zhang, Yifeng; Herndon, Joseph M; Matty, Fabian O; Davis, Thomas P

    2015-07-01

    Drug delivery to the brain for the treatment of pathologies with a CNS component is a significant clinical challenge. P-glycoprotein (PgP), a drug efflux pump in the endothelial cell membrane, is a major factor in preventing therapeutics from crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Identifying PgP regulatory mechanisms is key to developing agents to modulate PgP activity. Previously, we found that PgP trafficking was altered concomitant with increased PgP activity and disassembly of high molecular weight PgP-containing complexes during acute peripheral inflammatory pain. These data suggest that PgP activity is post-translationally regulated at the BBB. The goal of the current study was to identify proteins that co-localize with PgP in rat brain microvessel endothelial cell membrane microdomains and use the data to suggest potential regulatory mechanisms. Using new density gradients of microvessel homogenates, we identified two unique pools (1,2) of PgP in membrane fractions. Caveolar constituents, ca